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Sample records for aerobic exercise resistance

  1. Effect of resistance and aerobic exercises on bone mineral density ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: Based on obtained data, it can be concluded that, resistance and aerobic exercise training program is effective in increasing BMD, muscle strength and functional ability in children with hemophilia. Keywords: Hemophilia; Resistance; Aerobic exercise; Bone mineral density; Strength; Functional ability ...

  2. Effects of 16 weeks of aerobic, resistance and combination exercise ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of 16 weeks of aerobic, resistance and combination exercise programmes on smoking. ... African Journal for Physical Activity and Health Sciences ... Abstract. Previous research on the cessation of smoking and the prevention of smoking recidivism using exercise training has mainly focused on aerobic training (AER).

  3. Change in energy expenditure and physical activity in response to aerobic and resistance exercise programs

    OpenAIRE

    Drenowatz, Clemens; Grieve, George L.; DeMello, Madison M.

    2015-01-01

    Exercise is considered an important component of a healthy lifestyle but there remains controversy on effects of exercise on non-exercise physical activity (PA). The present study examined the prospective association of aerobic and resistance exercise with total daily energy expenditure and PA in previously sedentary, young men. Nine men (27.0???3.3?years) completed two 16-week exercise programs (3 exercise sessions per week) of aerobic and resistance exercise separated by a minimum of 6?week...

  4. [Cardiovascular resistance to orthostatic stress in athletes after aerobic exercise].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mel'nikov, A A; Popov, S G; Vikulov, A D

    2014-01-01

    In the paper cardiovascular resistance to orthostatic stress in the athletes in the two-hour recovery period after prolonged aerobic exercise was investigated. The reaction of the cardiac (stroke volume and cardiac output) and peripheral blood volumes in the lower and upper limbs, abdominal and neck regions in response to the tilt-test before and during two hours after exercise (30 min, heart rate = 156 +/- 8 beats/min) was determined by impedance method: It is found that: (1) at baseline distribution of blood flow in favor of the neck-region in response to the tilt-test, in spite of the decrease in cardiac output, was more efficient in athletes, that was due to a large decrease in blood flow to the lower extremities, and increased blood flow in the neck region; (2) after exercise it was established symptoms of potential orthostatic intolerance: postural hypotension and tachycardia, reduced peripheral pulse blood volume, expressed in a standing position, and reduced effectiveness of the distribution of blood flow in the direction of the neck region; (3) the abilityto effectively distribute blood flow in favor of the neck region in athletes after exercise remained elevated, which was due to a large decrease in blood flow in the abdominal region at the beginning, and in the lower limbs at the end of the recovery period.

  5. Resistance exercise versus aerobic exercise for type 2 diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zuyao; Scott, Catherine A; Mao, Chen; Tang, Jinling; Farmer, Andrew J

    2014-04-01

    Resistance and aerobic exercises are both recommended as effective treatments for people with type 2 diabetes. However, the optimum type of exercise for the disease remains to be determined to inform clinical decision-making and facilitate personalized exercise prescription. Our objective was to investigate whether resistance exercise is comparable to aerobic exercise in terms of effectiveness and safety in people with type 2 diabetes. PubMed, EMBASE, CENTRAL, CINAHL, and SPORTdiscus were systematically searched up to March 2013. The reference lists of eligible studies and relevant reviews were also checked. We used the following criteria to select studies for inclusion in the review: (i) the study was a randomized controlled trial; (ii) the participants were people with type 2 diabetes aged 18 years or more; (iii) the trial compared resistance exercise with aerobic exercise for a duration of at least 8 weeks, with pre-determined frequency, intensity, and duration; and (iv) the trial provided relevant data on at least one of the following: glycaemic control, blood lipids, anthropometric measures, blood pressure, fitness, health status, and adverse events. The assessment of study quality was based on the Cochrane Risk of Bias tool. For effectiveness measures, differences (resistance group minus aerobic group) in the changes from baseline with the two exercises were combined, using a random-effects model wherever possible. For adverse events, the relative risks (resistance group vs. aerobic group) were combined. Twelve trials (n = 626) were included. Following the exercise interventions, there was a greater reduction of glycosylated hemoglobin with aerobic exercise than with resistance exercise (difference 0.18% (1.97 mmol/mol), 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.01, 0.36). This difference became non-significant with sensitivity analysis (p = 0.14). The differences in changes from baseline were also statistically significant for body mass index (difference 0.22, 95% CI 0

  6. Change in energy expenditure and physical activity in response to aerobic and resistance exercise programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drenowatz, Clemens; Grieve, George L; DeMello, Madison M

    2015-01-01

    Exercise is considered an important component of a healthy lifestyle but there remains controversy on effects of exercise on non-exercise physical activity (PA). The present study examined the prospective association of aerobic and resistance exercise with total daily energy expenditure and PA in previously sedentary, young men. Nine men (27.0 ± 3.3 years) completed two 16-week exercise programs (3 exercise sessions per week) of aerobic and resistance exercise separated by a minimum of 6 weeks in random order. Energy expenditure and PA were measured with the SenseWear Mini Armband prior to each intervention as well as during week 1, week 8 and week 16 of the aerobic and resistance exercise program. Body composition was measured via dual x-ray absorptiometry. Body composition did not change in response to either exercise intervention. Total daily energy expenditure on exercise days increased by 443 ± 126 kcal/d and 239 ± 152 kcal/d for aerobic and resistance exercise, respectively (p change in total daily energy expenditure and PA on non-exercise days with aerobic exercise while resistance exercise was associated with an increase in moderate-to-vigorous PA during non-exercise days (216 ± 178 kcal/d, p = 0.01). Results of the present study suggest a compensatory reduction in PA in response to aerobic exercise. Resistance exercise, on the other hand, appears to facilitate non-exercise PA, particularly on non-exercise days, which may lead to more sustainable adaptations in response to an exercise program.

  7. The effect of acute aerobic and resistance exercise on working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontifex, Matthew B; Hillman, Charles H; Fernhall, Bo; Thompson, Kelli M; Valentini, Teresa A

    2009-04-01

    The goal of this investigation was to assess the influence of acute bouts of aerobic versus resistance exercise on the executive control of working memory. Twenty-one young adult participants completed a cardiorespiratory fitness test and maximal strength tests. On subsequent days, task performance measures of reaction time (RT) and accuracy were collected while participants completed a modified Sternberg working memory task before the start of, immediately after, and 30 min after an intervention consisting of 30 min of either resistance or aerobic exercise and a seated rest control. Findings indicated shorter RT immediately and 30 min after acute aerobic exercise relative to the preexercise baseline with no such effects observed after resistance exercise or seated rest. Further, in the aerobic condition, a larger reduction in RT from the baseline occurred during task conditions requiring increased working memory capacity. Again, no effect was observed in the resistance exercise or the seated rest conditions. These data extend the current knowledge base by indicating that acute exercise-induced changes in cognition are disproportionately related to executive control and may be specific to the aerobic exercise domain.

  8. Association of Resistance Exercise, Independent of and Combined With Aerobic Exercise, With the Incidence of Metabolic Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakker, Esmée A; Lee, Duck-Chul; Sui, Xuemei; Artero, Enrique G; Ruiz, Jonatan R; Eijsvogels, Thijs M H; Lavie, Carl J; Blair, Steven N

    2017-08-01

    To determine the association of resistance exercise, independent of and combined with aerobic exercise, with the risk of development of metabolic syndrome (MetS). The study cohort included adults (mean ± SD age, 46±9.5 years) who received comprehensive medical examinations at the Cooper Clinic in Dallas, Texas, between January 1, 1987, and December, 31, 2006. Exercise was assessed by self-reported frequency and minutes per week of resistance and aerobic exercise and meeting the US Physical Activity Guidelines (resistance exercise ≥2 d/wk; aerobic exercise ≥500 metabolic equivalent min/wk) at baseline. The incidence of MetS was based on the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III criteria. We used Cox regression to generate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs. Among 7418 participants, 1147 (15%) had development of MetS during a median follow-up of 4 years (maximum, 19 years; minimum, 0.1 year). Meeting the resistance exercise guidelines was associated with a 17% lower risk of MetS (HR, 0.83; 95% CI, 0.73-0.96; P=.009) after adjusting for potential confounders and aerobic exercise. Further, less than 1 hour of weekly resistance exercise was associated with 29% lower risk of development of MetS (HR, 0.71; 95% CI, 0.56-0.89; P=.003) compared with no resistance exercise. However, larger amounts of resistance exercise did not provide further benefits. Individuals meeting both recommended resistance and aerobic exercise guidelines had a 25% lower risk of development of MetS (HR, 0.75; 95% CI, 0.63-0.89; Pexercise, even less than 1 hour per week, was associated with a lower risk of development of MetS, independent of aerobic exercise. Health professionals should recommend that patients perform resistance exercise along with aerobic exercise to reduce MetS. Copyright © 2017 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Association of Resistance Exercise, Independent of and Combined With Aerobic Exercise, With the Incidence of Metabolic Syndrome.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, E.A.; Lee, D.C.; Sui, X.; Artero, E.G.; Ruiz, J.R.; Eijsvogels, T.M.H.; Lavie, C.J.; Blair, S.N.

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the association of resistance exercise, independent of and combined with aerobic exercise, with the risk of development of metabolic syndrome (MetS). PATIENTS AND METHODS: The study cohort included adults (mean +/- SD age, 46+/-9.5 years) who received comprehensive medical

  10. Concurrent aerobic plus resistance exercise versus aerobic exercise alone to improve health outcomes in paediatric obesity: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Hermoso, Antonio; Ramírez-Vélez, Robinson; Ramírez-Campillo, Rodrigo; Peterson, Mark D; Martínez-Vizcaíno, Vicente

    2018-02-01

    To determine if the combination of aerobic and resistance exercise is superior to aerobic exercise alone for the health of obese children and adolescents. Systematic review with meta-analysis. Computerised search of 3 databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane Controlled Trials Registry). Studies that compared the effect of supervised concurrent exercise versus aerobic exercise interventions, with anthropometric and metabolic outcomes in paediatric obesity (6-18 years old). The mean differences (MD) of the parameters from preintervention to postintervention between groups were pooled using a random-effects model. 12 trials with 555 youths were included in the meta-analysis. Compared with aerobic exercise alone, concurrent exercise resulted in greater reductions in body mass (MD=-2.28 kg), fat mass (MD=-3.49%; and MD=-4.34 kg) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (MD=-10.20 mg/dL); as well as greater increases in lean body mass (MD=2.20 kg) and adiponectin level (MD=2.59 μg/mL). Differences were larger for longer term programmes (>24 weeks). Concurrent aerobic plus resistance exercise improves body composition, metabolic profiles, and inflammatory state in the obese paediatric population. CRD42016039807. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  11. Excess postexercise oxygen consumption is unaffected by the resistance and aerobic exercise order in an exercise session.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Norton L; Oliveira, Jose

    2011-10-01

    The main purpose of this study was to compare the magnitude and duration of excess postexercise oxygen consumption (EPOC) after 2 exercise sessions with different exercise mode orders, resistance followed by aerobic exercise (R-A); aerobic by resistance exercise (A-R). Seven young men (19.6 ± 1.4 years) randomly underwent the 2 sessions. Aerobic exercise was performed on a treadmill for 30 minutes (80-85% of reserve heart rate). Resistance exercise consisted of 3 sets of 10 repetition maximum on 5 exercises. Previous to the exercise sessions, V(O2), heart rate, V(CO2), and respiratory exchange rate (RER) were measured for 15 minutes and again during recovery from exercise for 60 minutes. The EPOC magnitude was not significantly different between R-A (5.17 ± 2.26 L) and A-R (5.23 ± 2.48 L). Throughout the recovery period (60 minutes), V(O2) and HR values were significantly higher than those observed in the pre-exercise period (p better to start a training session.

  12. Acute effect of resistance, aerobic and combined exercise circuits on blood pressure of hypertensive women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Carpio Rivera

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Carpio-Rivera, E. y Solera-Herrera, A. (2012. Acute effect of resistance, aerobic and combined exercise circuits on blood pressure of hypertensive women. Pensar en Movimiento: Revista de Ciencias del Ejercicio y la Salud, 10 (2, 1-12. The purpose of this study was to observe the acute effect of different exercises executed in circuit on the resting blood pressure of hypertensive women. Nine trained persons (aged 53.22 ± 4.67 years, hypertensive but medicated with enalapril, participated in four training treatments, each carried out on different days under a randomized repeated measures design: (1 A: aerobic training condition (steps training; (2 R: resistance training condition (machine training (3 AR: aerobic and resistance training condition (alternating aerobic and resistance training every 30 seconds (4 C: control condition (30 minutes resting. Exercise conditions were performed during 30 minutes at 70% of maximum heart rate and resting blood pressure was measured 5 minutes before and immediately after each condition. A two-way analysis of variance detected a significant interaction between conditions and measurements (p<0.05 on systolic blood pressure (sBP. Tukey Post-hoc analyses showed a significant increase of sBP following the three exercise conditions (A: +19 mmHg; R: +28 mmHg; AR: +22 mmHg, while the sBP remained unchanged during the control condition. In contrast, there was no significant effect of any type of exercise on diastolic blood pressure (dBP. In conclusion, the acute elevation in sBP following this type of resistance exercise was similar to the increase produced by aerobic exercise.

  13. [Effect of aerobic exercise and resistance exercise in improving non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: a randomized controlled trial].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, G Y; Han, T; Gao, L; Wang, L; Wang, S C; Yang, L; Zhang, J; Guan, Y Y; Yan, N N; Yu, H Y; Xiao, H J; Di, F S

    2018-01-20

    Objective: To investigate the effect of dietary control combined with different exercise modes on plasma vaspin, irisin, and metabolic parameters in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) through a randomized open parallel-controlled study. Methods: The patients aged 30-65 years who visited Tianjin Third Central Hospital from January 2013 to December 2014 and were diagnosed with NAFLD by liver ultrasound and fat content determination were screening, and 474 patients were enrolled in this randomized controlled trial and divided into aerobic exercise group, resistance exercise group, and control group. All patients received dietary intervention. The three groups were compared in terms of biochemical parameters, fat content, NFS score, energy metabolic parameters, body composition index, and levels of vaspin and irisin at baseline and after 6 months of intervention. SPSS 19.0 was used for statistical analysis. The t -test, the Mann-Whitney U test, the chi-square test, and an analysis of variance were used for comparison between groups. The multiple imputation method was used for missing data, and the results were included in the intention-to-treat analysis. Results: There were no significant differences in age, sex, anthropometrical parameters, and biochemical parameters between the three groups at baseline. Compared with dietary control alone, aerobic exercise and resistance exercise helped to achieve significant reductions in waist circumference, diastolic pressure, percentage of body fat, volatile fatty acid, fasting blood glucose, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, free fatty acid, uric acid, alanine aminotransferase, and liver fat content after 6 months of intervention ( P aerobic exercise group had a significant increase in non-protein respiratory quotient and significant reductions in body mass index and aspartate aminotransferase after intervention, as well as a significant

  14. Aerobic exercise (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aerobic exercise gets the heart working to pump blood through the heart more quickly and with more ... must be oxygenated more quickly, which quickens respiration. Aerobic exercise strengthens the heart and boosts healthy cholesterol ...

  15. Impact of Aerobic and Resistance Exercise on the Health of HIV-Infected Persons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hand, Gregory A.; Lyerly, G. William; Jaggers, Jason R.; Dudgeon, Wesley D.

    2010-01-01

    Individuals infected with HIV experience numerous comorbidities caused by the disease progression and medications, lack of (or inability to perform) physical activity, malnutrition, or a combination of these causes. Common symptoms include loss of muscle mass, fatigue, lypodystrophy, lypoatrophy, and decreases in strength, functional capacity, and overall quality of life. Studies have shown that exercise is a potential treatment of many of these symptoms. Research suggests that exercise may produce beneficial physiological changes in the HIV-infected population such as improved body composition and increases in both strength and endurance. In addition, psychological conditions such as depression and anxiety have been shown to be positively affected by exercise. The purpose of this review is to examine the literature regarding effects of aerobic, resistance, and combined aerobic and resistance exercise training on HIV-infected individuals. PMID:20508736

  16. Aerobic exercise training promotes additional cardiac benefits better than resistance exercise training in postmenopausal rats with diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinteiro, Hugo; Buzin, Morgana; Conti, Filipe Fernandes; Dias, Danielle da Silva; Figueroa, Diego; Llesuy, Susana; Irigoyen, Maria-Cláudia; Sanches, Iris Callado; De Angelis, Kátia

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of aerobic exercise training or resistance exercise training on cardiac morphometric, functional, and oxidative stress parameters in rats with ovarian hormone deprivation and diabetes. Female Wistar rats (200-220 g) were divided into a sham-operated group (euglycemic sham-operated sedentary [ES]; n = 8) and three ovariectomized (bilateral removal of ovaries) and diabetic (streptozotocin 50 mg/kg IV) groups as follows: diabetic ovariectomized sedentary (DOS; n = 8), diabetic ovariectomized undergoing aerobic exercise training (DOTA; n = 8), and diabetic ovariectomized undergoing resistance exercise training (DOTR; n = 8). After 8 weeks of resistance (ladder) or aerobic (treadmill) exercise training, left ventricle function and morphometry were evaluated by echocardiography, whereas oxidative stress was evaluated at the left ventricle. The DOS group presented with increased left ventricle cavity in diastole and relative wall thickness (RWT), and these changes were attenuated in both DOTA and DOTR groups. Systolic and diastolic function was impaired in the DOS group compared with the ES group, and only the DOTA group was able to reverse this dysfunction. Lipoperoxidation and glutathione redox balance were improved in both trained groups compared with the DOS group. Glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase were higher in the DOTA group than in the other studied groups. Correlations were observed between lipoperoxidation and left ventricle cavity in diastole (r = 0.55), between redox balance and RWT (r = 0.62), and between lipoperoxidation and RWT (r = -0.60). Aerobic exercise training and resistance exercise training promote attenuation of cardiac morphometric dysfunction associated with a reduction in oxidative stress in an experimental model of diabetes and menopause. However, only dynamic aerobic exercise training is able to attenuate systolic and diastolic dysfunction under this condition.

  17. Proteomic analysis of skeletal muscle in insulin-resistant mice: response to 6-week aerobic exercise.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hairui Yuan

    Full Text Available Aerobic exercise has beneficial effects on both weight control and skeletal muscle insulin sensitivity through a number of specific signaling proteins. To investigate the targets by which exercise exerts its effects on insulin resistance, an approach of proteomic screen was applied to detect the potential different protein expressions from skeletal muscle of insulin-resistant mice after prolonged aerobic exercise training and their sedentary controls. Eighteen C57BL/6 mice were divided into two groups: 6 mice were fed normal chow (NC and 12 mice were fed high-fat diet (HFD for 10 weeks to produce an IR model. The model group was then subdivided into HFD sedentary control (HC, n = 6 and HFD exercise groups (HE, n = 6. Mice in HE group underwent 6 weeks of treadmill running. After 6 weeks, mice were sacrificed and skeletal muscle was dissected. Total protein (n = 6, each group was extracted and followed by citrate synthase, 2D proteome profile analysis and immunoblot. Fifteen protein spots were altered between the NC and HC groups and 23 protein spots were changed between the HC and HE groups significantly. The results provided an array of changes in protein abundance in exercise-trained skeletal muscle and also provided the basis for a new hypothesis regarding the mechanism of exercise ameliorating insulin resistance.

  18. Aerobic or Resistance Exercise, or Both, in Dieting Obese Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villareal, Dennis T; Aguirre, Lina; Gurney, A Burke; Waters, Debra L; Sinacore, David R; Colombo, Elizabeth; Armamento-Villareal, Reina; Qualls, Clifford

    2017-05-18

    Obesity causes frailty in older adults; however, weight loss might accelerate age-related loss of muscle and bone mass and resultant sarcopenia and osteopenia. In this clinical trial involving 160 obese older adults, we evaluated the effectiveness of several exercise modes in reversing frailty and preventing reduction in muscle and bone mass induced by weight loss. Participants were randomly assigned to a weight-management program plus one of three exercise programs - aerobic training, resistance training, or combined aerobic and resistance training - or to a control group (no weight-management or exercise program). The primary outcome was the change in Physical Performance Test score from baseline to 6 months (scores range from 0 to 36 points; higher scores indicate better performance). Secondary outcomes included changes in other frailty measures, body composition, bone mineral density, and physical functions. A total of 141 participants completed the study. The Physical Performance Test score increased more in the combination group than in the aerobic and resistance groups (27.9 to 33.4 points [21% increase] vs. 29.3 to 33.2 points [14% increase] and 28.8 to 32.7 points [14% increase], respectively; P=0.01 and P=0.02 after Bonferroni correction); the scores increased more in all exercise groups than in the control group (Pexercise groups but did not change significantly in the control group. Lean mass decreased less in the combination and resistance groups than in the aerobic group (56.5 to 54.8 kg [3% decrease] and 58.1 to 57.1 kg [2% decrease], respectively, vs. 55.0 to 52.3 kg [5% decrease]), as did bone mineral density at the total hip (grams per square centimeter; 1.010 to 0.996 [1% decrease] and 1.047 to 1.041 [0.5% decrease], respectively, vs. 1.018 to 0.991 [3% decrease]) (PExercise-related adverse events included musculoskeletal injuries. Of the methods tested, weight loss plus combined aerobic and resistance exercise was the most effective in improving

  19. Creatine Kinase and Lactate Dehydrogenase Responses After Different Resistance and Aerobic Exercise Protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Callegari Gustavo A.

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the responses of creatine kinase (CK and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH after performing different resistance and aerobic exercise protocols. Twelve recreationally trained men (age, 23.2 ± 5.6 years; body mass, 84.3 ± 9.3 kg; body height, 178.9 ± 4.5 cm; and BMI, 26.3 ± 2.3 kg·m2 volunteered to participate in this study. All subjects were randomly assigned to four experimental protocols (crossover: (a aerobic training at 60% of VO2max, (b aerobic training at 80% of VO2max, (c a resistance exercise (RE session with a bi-set protocol, and (d an RE session with a multiple sets protocol. Blood samples were collected before, immediately after and 24 hours following the experimental protocols. After 24 hours, there was a significant increase in CK for the 80% of VO2max protocol vs. the bi-set RE session (p = 0.016. Immediately after the protocols, we observed a significant increase in LDH among certain groups compared to others, as follows: multiple sets RE session vs. 60% of VO2max, bi-set RE session vs. 60% of VO2max, multiple sets RE session vs. 80% of VO2max, and bi-set RE session vs. 80% of VO2max (p = 0.008, p = 0.013; p = 0.002, p = 0.004, respectively. In conclusion, aerobic exercise performed at 80% of VO2max appears to elevate plasma CK levels more than bi-set RE sessions. However, the bi-set and multiple sets RE sessions appeared to trigger greater levels of blood LDH compared to aerobic protocols performed at 60% and 80% of VO2max.

  20. Effects of aerobic and resistance exercise in breast cancer patients receiving adjuvant chemotherapy: a multicenter randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courneya, Kerry S; Segal, Roanne J; Mackey, John R; Gelmon, Karen; Reid, Robert D; Friedenreich, Christine M; Ladha, Aliya B; Proulx, Caroline; Vallance, Jeffrey K H; Lane, Kirstin; Yasui, Yutaka; McKenzie, Donald C

    2007-10-01

    Breast cancer chemotherapy may cause unfavorable changes in physical functioning, body composition, psychosocial functioning, and quality of life (QOL). We evaluated the relative merits of aerobic and resistance exercise in blunting these effects. We conducted a multicenter randomized controlled trial in Canada between 2003 and 2005 that randomly assigned 242 breast cancer patients initiating adjuvant chemotherapy to usual care (n = 82), supervised resistance exercise (n = 82), or supervised aerobic exercise (n = 78) for the duration of their chemotherapy (median, 17 weeks; 95% CI, 9 to 24 weeks). Our primary end point was cancer-specific QOL assessed by the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Anemia scale. Secondary end points were fatigue, psychosocial functioning, physical fitness, body composition, chemotherapy completion rate, and lymphedema. The follow-up assessment rate for our primary end point was 92.1%, and adherence to the supervised exercise was 70.2%. Unadjusted and adjusted mixed-model analyses indicated that aerobic exercise was superior to usual care for improving self-esteem (P = .015), aerobic fitness (P = .006), and percent body fat (adjusted P = .076). Resistance exercise was superior to usual care for improving self-esteem (P = .018), muscular strength (P exercise groups but did not reach statistical significance. Exercise did not cause lymphedema or adverse events. Neither aerobic nor resistance exercise significantly improved cancer-specific QOL in breast cancer patients receiving chemotherapy, but they did improve self-esteem, physical fitness, body composition, and chemotherapy completion rate without causing lymphedema or significant adverse events.

  1. Does a Rehabilitation Program of Aerobic and Progressive Resisted Exercises Influence HIV-Induced Distal Neuropathic Pain?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maharaj, Sonill S; Yakasai, Abdulsalam M

    2018-05-01

    Distal symmetrical polyneuropathy is a common neurological sequela after HIV, which leads to neuropathic pain and functional limitations. Rehabilitation programs with exercises are used to augment pharmacological therapy to relieve pain but appropriate and effective exercises are unknown. This study explored the safety and effect of moderate-intensity aerobic exercises and progressive resisted exercises for HIV-induced distal symmetrical polyneuropathy neuropathic pain. A randomized pretest, posttest of 12 wks of aerobic exercise or progressive resisted exercise compared with a control. Outcome measures were assessed using the subjective periphery neuropathy, brief peripheral neuropathy screening, and numeric pain rating scale. Pain was assessed at baseline, 6 and 12 wks. Data between groups were compared using Kruskal-Wallis, Mann-Whitney U test, and within-groups Friedman and Wilcoxon signed rank tests. There were 136 participants (mean [SD] age = 36.79 [8.23] yrs) and the exercise groups completed the protocols without any adverse effects. Pain scores within and between aerobic exercise and progressive resisted exercise groups showed significant improvement (P 0.05). This study supports a rehabilitation program of moderate-intensity aerobic exercise and progressive resisted exercise being safe and effective for reducing neuropathic pain and is beneficial with analgesics for HIV-induced distal symmetrical polyneuropathy.

  2. Acylated Ghrelin and Circulatory Oxidative Stress Markers Responses to Acute Resistance and Aerobic Exercise in Postmenopausal Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carteri, Randhall B; Lopes, André Luis; Schöler, Cinthia M; Correa, Cleiton Silva; Macedo, Rodrigo C; Gross, Júlia Silveira; Kruger, Renata Lopes; Homem de Bittencourt, Paulo I; Reischak-Oliveira, Álvaro

    2016-06-01

    Since exercise increases the production of reactive oxygen species in different tissues, the objective of this study is to evaluate, compare and correlate the acute effects of aerobic and resistance exercise in circulatory markers of oxidative stress and acylated ghrelin (AG) in postmenopausal women. Ten postmenopausal women completed different protocols: a control session (CON), an aerobic exercise session (AERO); and a single-set (SSR) or 3-set (MSR) resistance exercise protocol. After exercise, both MSR (P = .06) and AERO (P = .02) sessions showed significant increased lipid peroxidation compared with baseline levels. CON and SSR sessions showed no differences after exercise. No differences were found between sessions at any time for total glutathione, glutathione dissulfide or AG concentrations. Exercise significantly increased lipid peroxidation compared with baseline values. As pro oxidant stimuli is necessary to promote chronic adaptations to the antioxidant defenses induced by exercise, our findings are important to consider when evaluating exercise programs prescription variables aiming quality of life in this population.

  3. Effects of combined aerobic and resistance exercise on central arterial stiffness and gait velocity in patients with chronic poststroke hemiparesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yong Hee; Park, Soo Hyun; Yoon, Eun Sun; Lee, Chong-Do; Wee, Sang Ouk; Fernhall, Bo; Jae, Sae Young

    2015-09-01

    The effects of combined aerobic and resistance exercise training on central arterial stiffness and gait velocity in patients with chronic poststroke hemiparesis were investigated. Twenty-six patients with chronic poststroke hemiparesis were randomly assigned to either the combined aerobic and resistance exercise group (n = 14) or the control group (n = 12). The exercise intervention group received a combined aerobic and resistance exercise training (1 hr/day, three times/week for 16 wks), whereas the control group received usual care. Central arterial stiffness was determined by pulse wave velocity and augmentation index. Gait velocity was assessed using the 6-min walk test, 10-m walk test, and the Timed Up-and-Go test. Patients in the exercise intervention group had greater improvement of mean pulse wave velocity (P hemiparesis.

  4. Haemodynamics of aerobic and resistance blood flow restriction exercise in young and older adults.

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    Staunton, Craig A; May, Anthony K; Brandner, Christopher R; Warmington, Stuart A

    2015-11-01

    Light-load blood flow restriction exercise (BFRE) may provide a novel training method to limit the effects of age-related muscle atrophy in older adults. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to compare the haemodynamic response to resistance and aerobic BFRE between young adults (YA; n = 11; 22 ± 1 years) and older adults (OA; n = 13; 69 ± 1 years). On two occasions, participants completed BFRE or control exercise (CON). One occasion was leg press (LP; 20 % 1-RM) and the other was treadmill walking (TM; 4 km h(-1)). Haemodynamic responses (HR, Q, SV and BP) were recorded during baseline and exercise. At baseline, YA and OA were different for some haemodynamic parameters (e.g. BP, SV). The relative responses to BFRE were similar between YA and OA. Blood pressures increased more with BFRE, and also for LP over TM. Q increased similarly for BFRE and CON (in both LP and TM), but with elevated HR and reduced SV (TM only). While BFR conferred slightly greater haemodynamic stress than CON, this was lower for walking than leg-press exercise. Given similar response magnitudes between YA and OA, these data support aerobic exercise being a more appropriate BFRE for prescription in older adults that may contribute to limiting the effects of age-related muscle atrophy.

  5. Muscle Adaptations Following Short-Duration Bed Rest with Integrated Resistance, Interval, and Aerobic Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackney, Kyle J.; Scott, Jessica M.; Buxton, Roxanne; Redd-Goetchius, Elizabeth; Crowell, J. Brent; Everett, Meghan E.; Wickwire, Jason; Ryder, Jeffrey W.; Bloomberg, Jacob J.; Ploutz-Snyder, Lori L.

    2011-01-01

    Unloading of the musculoskeletal system during space flight results in deconditioning that may impair mission-related task performance in astronauts. Exercise countermeasures have been frequently tested during bed rest (BR) and limb suspension; however, high-intensity, short-duration exercise prescriptions have not been fully explored. PURPOSE: To determine if a high intensity resistance, interval, and aerobic exercise program could protect against muscle atrophy and dysfunction when performed during short duration BR. METHODS: Nine subjects (1 female, 8 male) performed a combination of supine exercises during 2 weeks of horizontal BR. Resistance exercise (3 d / wk) consisted of squat, leg press, hamstring curl, and heel raise exercises (3 sets, 12 repetitions). Aerobic (6 d / wk) sessions alternated continuous (75% VO2 peak) and interval exercise (30 s, 2 min, and 4 min) and were completed on a supine cycle ergometer and vertical treadmill, respectively. Muscle volumes of the upper leg were calculated pre, mid, and post-BR using magnetic resonance imaging. Maximal isometric force (MIF), rate of force development (RFD), and peak power of the lower body extensors were measured twice before BR (averaged to represent pre) and once post BR. ANOVA with repeated measures and a priori planned contrasts were used to test for differences. RESULTS: There were no changes to quadriceps, hamstring, and adductor muscle volumes at mid and post BR time points compared to pre BR (Table 1). Peak power increased significantly from 1614 +/- 372 W to 1739 +/- 359 W post BR (+7.7%, p = 0.035). Neither MIF (pre: 1676 +/- 320 N vs. post: 1711 +/- 250 N, +2.1%, p = 0.333) nor RFD (pre: 7534 +/- 1265 N/ms vs. post: 6951 +/- 1241 N/ms, -7.7%, p = 0.136) were significantly impaired post BR.

  6. The reinforcing value and liking of resistance training and aerobic exercise as predictors of adult's physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flack, Kyle D; Johnson, LuAnn; Roemmich, James N

    2017-10-01

    Reinforcing value (motivating value) is a stronger predictor than hedonic value (liking) for engaging in drug use, gambling, and eating. The associations of reinforcing value and liking with physical activity of adults have not yet been studied and may depend on the modes of exercise (e.g., aerobic/cardiovascular exercise, resistance training) under consideration. The purpose of this study was to test associations of the reinforcing value and liking of aerobic exercise training (AT) and resistance exercise training (RT) modes of exercise with usual participation in aerobic and resistance exercise in adults. Men (n=38) and women (n=50) were measured for their liking and relative reinforcing value (RRV) of AT and RT, for their usual vigorous physical activity (VPA) participation, and for usual resistance exercise behavior (Yale physical activity questionnaire). The RRV of AT (RRVAT) and liking of AT were correlated, (r=0.22, pvalue for, but not the liking of, a mode of exercise predicted how much an individual engaged in that mode of exercise. RRVAT (p˂0.01) was positively associated with usual VPA. RRVRT (p˂0.01) was positively associated with RT behavior. The hedonic value of AT and of RT were not associated (p>0.30) with VPA or RT behavior. Reinforcing value of a mode of exercise is a stronger predictor than the liking of that mode of exercise for usual amount of participation in the exercise. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Aerobic and Anaerobic Energy During Resistance Exercise at 80% 1RM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vianna, Jefferson M; Lima, Jorge P; Saavedra, Francisco J; Reis, Victor M

    2011-09-01

    The present study investigated the accumulated oxygen deficit (AOD) method to assess the energy cost in resistance exercises (RE). The aim of the study was to evaluate the aerobic and anaerobic energy release during resistance exercises performed at 80% 1-RM in four exercises (half squat, bench press, triceps extension and lat pull down), as well as the accuracy of its estimation. The sample comprised 14 men (age = 26.6 ± 4.9 years; height = 177.7 ± 0.1 cm; body mass = 79.0 ± 11.1 kg; and estimated fat mass = 10.5 ± 4.6%). Test and re-test of 1-RM were applied to every exercise. Low-intensity bouts at 12, 16, 20, and 24% of 1-RM were conducted. Energy cost was then extrapolated to 80% 1-RM exhaustive bout and relative energy contribution were assessed. By utilizing the AOD method, the results of the present study suggest a great proportion of anaerobic metabolism during exercise at 80% 1-RM in the four RE that were analyzed: Bench press = 77,66±6,95%; Half squat = 87,44±6,45%; Triceps extension = 63,91±9,22%; Lat pull down = 71,99±13,73 %. The results of the present study suggest that AOD during resistance exercises presents a pattern that does not match the reports in the literature for other types of exercise. The accuracy of the total energy demand estimation at 80% 1-RM was acceptable in the Bench press, in the Triceps extension and in the Lat pull down, but no in the Half squat. More studies are warranted to investigate the validity of this method in resistance exercise.

  8. Aerobic interval training reduces vascular resistances during submaximal exercise in obese metabolic syndrome individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora-Rodriguez, Ricardo; Fernandez-Elias, V E; Morales-Palomo, F; Pallares, J G; Ramirez-Jimenez, M; Ortega, J F

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of high-intensity aerobic interval training (AIT) on exercise hemodynamics in metabolic syndrome (MetS) volunteers. Thirty-eight, MetS participants were randomly assigned to a training (TRAIN) or to a non-training control (CONT) group. TRAIN consisted of stationary interval cycling alternating bouts at 70-90% of maximal heart rate during 45 min day -1 for 6 months. CONT maintained baseline physical activity and no changes in cardiovascular function or MetS factors were detected. In contrast, TRAIN increased cardiorespiratory fitness (14% in VO 2PEAK ; 95% CI 9-18%) and improved metabolic syndrome (-42% in Z score; 95% CI 83-1%). After TRAIN, the workload that elicited a VO 2 of 1500 ml min -1 increased 15% (95% CI 5-25%; P exercise heart rate (109 ± 15-106 ± 13 beats min -1 ; P exercise in MetS patients. Specifically, it reduces diastolic blood pressure, systemic vascular resistances, and the double product. The reduction in double product, suggests decreased myocardial oxygen demands which could prevent the occurrence of adverse cardiovascular events during exercise in this population. CLINICALTRIALS. NCT03019796.

  9. Aerobic exercise increases resistance to oxidative stress in sedentary older middle-aged adults. A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Done, Aaron J; Traustadóttir, Tinna

    2016-12-01

    Older individuals who exercise regularly exhibit greater resistance to oxidative stress than their sedentary peers, suggesting that exercise can modify age-associated loss of resistance to oxidative stress. However, we recently demonstrated that a single bout of exercise confers protection against a subsequent oxidative challenge in young, but not older adults. We therefore hypothesized that repeated bouts of exercise would be needed to increase resistance to an oxidative challenge in sedentary older middle-aged adults. Sedentary older middle-aged men and women (50-63 years, n = 11) participated in an 8-week exercise intervention. Maximal oxygen consumption was measured before and after the intervention. The exercise intervention consisted of three sessions per week, for 45 min at an intensity corresponding to 70-85 % maximal heart rate (HR max ). Resistance to oxidative stress was measured by F 2 -isoprostane response to a forearm ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) trial. Each participant underwent the I/R trial before and after the exercise intervention. The intervention elicited a significant increase in maximal oxygen consumption (VO 2max ) (P exercise intervention (time-by-trial interaction, P = 0.043). Individual improvements in aerobic fitness were associated with greater improvements in the F 2 -isoprostane response (r = -0.761, P = 0.011), further supporting the role of aerobic fitness in resistance to oxidative stress. These data demonstrate that regular exercise with improved fitness leads to increased resistance to oxidative stress in older middle-aged adults and that this measure is modifiable in previously sedentary individuals.

  10. Aerobic, resistance or combined training: A systematic review and meta-analysis of exercise to reduce cardiovascular risk in adults with metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wewege, Michael A; Thom, Jeanette M; Rye, Kerry-Anne; Parmenter, Belinda J

    2018-05-03

    Exercise is beneficial to individuals with metabolic syndrome (MetS). An understudied group, who represent the majority of the MetS population, are individuals who have not developed diabetes. This review examined aerobic, resistance and combined (aerobic + resistance) exercise for cardiovascular risk factors in MetS without diabetes. Eight electronic databases were searched up to September 2017 for randomised controlled trials >4 weeks in duration that compared an exercise intervention to the non-exercise control in MetS without diabetes. MetS criteria, cardiorespiratory fitness and cardiovascular risk factors were meta-analysed in a random effects model. Eleven studies with 16 interventions were included (12 aerobic, 4 resistance). Aerobic exercise significantly improved waist circumference -3.4 cm (p exercise possibly due to limited data. Sub-analyses suggested that aerobic exercise progressed to vigorous intensity, and conducted 3 days/week for ≥12 weeks offered larger and more widespread improvements. Aerobic exercise following current guidelines offers widespread benefits to individuals with MetS without diabetes. More studies on resistance/combined exercise programs in MetS are required to improve the quality of evidence. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Effectiveness of resistance exercise compared to aerobic exercise without insulin therapy in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nery, Cybelle; Moraes, Silvia Regina Arruda De; Novaes, Karyne Albino; Bezerra, Márcio Almeida; Silveira, Patrícia Verçoza De Castro; Lemos, Andrea

    Physical exercise has been used to mitigate the metabolic effects of diabetes mellitus. To evaluate the effect of resistance exercise when compared to aerobic exercise without insulin therapy on metabolic and clinical outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Papers were searched on the databases MEDLINE/PubMed, CINAHL, SPORTDiscus, LILACS, and SCIELO, without language or date of publication limits. Clinical trials that compared resistance exercise to aerobic exercise in adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus who did not use insulin therapy were included. The quality of evidence and risk of bias were assessed using the GRADE system and the Cochrane Risk of Bias tool, respectively. Meta-analysis was also used, whenever possible. Two reviewers extracted the data independently. Eight eligible articles were included in this study, with a total of 336 individuals, with a mean age of 48-58 years. The protocols of aerobic and resistance exercise varied in duration from eight to 22 weeks, 30-60min/day, three to five times/week. Overall the available evidence came from a very low quality of evidence and there was an increase in Maximal oxygen consumption (mean difference: -2.86; 95% CI: -3.90 to -1.81; random effect) for the resistance exercise and no difference was found in Glycated hemoglobin, Body mass index, High-density lipoprotein cholesterol, Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, and total cholesterol. Resistance exercise appears to be more effective in promoting an increase in Maximal oxygen consumption in protocols longer than 12 weeks and there is no difference in the control of glycemic and lipid levels between the two types of exercise. Copyright © 2017 Associação Brasileira de Pesquisa e Pós-Graduação em Fisioterapia. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  12. Acute and chronic effects of aerobic exercise on blood pressure in resistant hypertension: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, L S; Santos, A C; Lucena, Jms; Silva, Lgo; Almeida, Aem; Brasileiro-Santos, M S

    2017-06-02

    Resistant hypertension is a specific condition that affects approximately 10% of subjects with hypertension, and is characterized by persistently high blood pressure levels even using therapy of three or more antihypertensive agents or with blood pressure control using therapy with four or more antihypertensive agents. Changes in lifestyle, such as physical exercise, are indicated for controlling blood pressure. However, investigating studies about this therapy in individuals with resistant hypertension are few. This is a randomized controlled clinical trial. Forty-eight patients with resistant hypertension will be submitted to perform four short-term interventions: aerobic exercise sessions (mild-, moderate- and high-intensity) and control session, in random order and on separate days. After the short-term sessions, the patients will be randomly allocated into four groups for 8 weeks of follow-up: mild-, moderate- and high-intensity aerobic exercise, and a control group. The primary outcome is the occurrence of blood pressure reduction (office and ambulatory analysis, and acute and chronic effects). Secondary outcomes are autonomic and hemodynamic mechanisms: cardiac and vasomotor autonomic modulation, spontaneous baroreflex sensitivity, forearm blood flow and vascular resistance. The importance of exercise for hypertension has been known for decades, but little is known about the effects on patients with resistant hypertension. This study will help to understand whether different aerobic exercise intensities can induce different responses, as well as by what mechanisms adjustments in blood pressure levels may occur. ClinicalTrials.gov, ID: NCT02670681 . Registered on 28 January 2016 (first version); Brazilian Registry Platform Clinical Trials: protocol RBR-5q24zh . Registered on 24 June 2015.

  13. Comparing the effect of resistance, aerobic, and concurrent exercise program on the level of resistin and high reactive protein C of overweight and obese women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeynab Shafiee

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available History and Objective: Obesity is one of the health risks factors, and aerobic exercise is one of the means to prevent and control obesity. The research was designed to compare methods of resistance, aerobic, and concurrent exercises on resistin and C-reactive protein (CRP serum level of overweight and obese women. Research Methodology: In this semi-experimental research, 36 voluntary overweight or obese women were randomly assigned into three groups (n = 12 of aerobic, resistance, and concurrent exercise programs. The training included 8 weeks of exercise performed with 55%–75% of 1-repetition maximum weight lifting. The aerobic exercise was performed at 55%–75% of maximum oxygen consumption and concurrent training included both programs for 3 days/week. The resistin and CRP serum level of the participant was measured 48 h before the start and again 48 h after the termination of the exercise protocol. The statistical analysis was performed on data using SPSS 22.0 (Chicago, USA. One-way analysis of variance and paired t-test was employed to test the hypothesis at significance level set to 0.05. Results: The result indicated that exercise program significantly decreased CRP level of blood serum (P 0.05. Discussion: Aerobic exercise regardless of types has a beneficiary effect on CPR, but resistin level needs different types of exercise to change in overweight and obese women. Conclusion: Some aerobic exercises are beneficiary for overweight and obese women health.

  14. Effects of aerobic versus resistance exercise without caloric restriction on abdominal fat, intrahepatic lipid, and insulin sensitivity in obese adolescent boys: a randomized, controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    The optimal exercise modality for reductions of abdominal obesity and risk factors for type 2 diabetes in youth is unknown. We examined the effects of aerobic exercise (AE) versus resistance exercise (RE) without caloric restriction on abdominal adiposity, ectopic fat, and insulin sensitivity and se...

  15. The efficacy of aerobic exercise and resistance training as transdiagnostic interventions for anxiety-related disorders and constructs: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBouthillier, Daniel M; Asmundson, Gordon J G

    2017-12-01

    Evidence supports exercise as an intervention for many mental health concerns; however, randomized controlled investigations of the efficacy of different exercise modalities and predictors of change are lacking. The purposes of the current trial were to: (1) quantify the effects of aerobic exercise and resistance training on anxiety-related disorder (including anxiety disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and posttraumatic stress disorder) status, symptoms, and constructs, (2) evaluate whether both modalities of exercise were equivalent, and (3) to determine whether exercise enjoyment and physical fitness are associated with symptom reduction. A total of 48 individuals with anxiety-related disorders were randomized to aerobic exercise, resistance training, or a waitlist. Symptoms of anxiety-related disorders, related constructs, and exercise enjoyment were assessed at pre-intervention and weekly during the 4-week intervention. Participants were further assessed 1-week and 1-month post-intervention. Both exercise modalities were efficacious in improving disorder status. As well, aerobic exercise improved general psychological distress and anxiety, while resistance training improved disorder-specific symptoms, anxiety sensitivity, distress tolerance, and intolerance of uncertainty. Physical fitness predicted reductions in general psychological distress for both types of exercise and reductions in stress for aerobic exercise. Results highlight the efficacy of different exercise modalities in uniquely addressing anxiety-related disorder symptoms and constructs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Effects of resistance or aerobic exercise training on total and regional body composition in sedentary overweight middle-aged adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donges, Cheyne E; Duffield, Rob

    2012-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of 10 weeks of aerobic endurance training (AET), resistance exercise training (RET), or a control (CON) condition on absolute and relative fat mass (FM) or fat-free mass (FFM) in the total body (TB) and regions of interest (ROIs) of sedentary overweight middle-aged males and females. Following prescreening, 102 subjects underwent anthropometric measurements, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and strength and aerobic exercise testing. Randomized subjects (male RET, n = 16; female RET, n = 19; male AET, n = 16; and female AET, n = 25) completed supervised and periodized exercise programs (AET, 30-50 min cycling at 70%-75% maximal heart rate; RET, 2-4 sets × 8-10 repetitions of 5-7 exercises at 70%-75% 1 repetition maximum) or a nonexercising control condition (male CON, n = 13 and female CON, n = 13). Changes in absolute and relative TB-FM and TB-FFM and ROI-FM and ROI-FFM were determined. At baseline, and although matched for age and body mass index, males had greater strength, aerobic fitness, body mass, absolute and relative TB-FFM and ROI-FFM, but reduced absolute and relative TB-FM and ROI-FM, compared with females (p FFM and reduced TB-FM more than did the female exercise groups (p FFM, thus resulting in a greater enhancement of relative FFM. Despite equivalent or greater responses to RET or AET by female subjects, the corresponding respective increases in FFM or reductions in FM were lower than those in males, indicating that a biased dose-response relationship exists between sexes following 10 weeks of exercise training.

  17. Acute effects of resistance exercise and intermittent intense aerobic exercise on blood cell count and oxidative stress in trained middle-aged women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, A M; Bagatini, M D; Roth, M A; Martins, C C; Rezer, J F P; Mello, F F; Lopes, L F D; Morsch, V M; Schetinger, M R C

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effect of an intermittent intense aerobic exercise session and a resistance exercise session on blood cell counts and oxidative stress parameters in middle-aged women. Thirty-four women were selected and divided into three groups: RE group (performing 60 min of resistance exercises, N = 12), spinning group (performing 60 min of spinning, N = 12), and control group (not exercising regularly, N = 10). In both exercise groups, lymphocytes and monocytes decreased after 1-h recuperation (post-exercise) compared to immediately after exercise (P exercise, in both exercised groups, a significant increase in TBARS (from 16.5 ± 2 to 25 ± 2 for the spinning group and from 18.6 ± 1 to 28.2 ± 3 nmol MDA/mL serum for the RE group) and protein carbonyl (from 1.0 ± 0.3 to 1.6 ± 0.2 for the spinning group and from 0.9 ± 0.2 to 1.5 ± 0.2 nmol/mg protein for the RE group) was observed (P exercise induces immune suppression and increases the production of reactive oxygen species, causing oxidative stress in middle-aged and trained women. Furthermore, we demonstrated that trained women show improved antioxidant capacity and lower oxidative damage than sedentary ones, demonstrating the benefits of chronic regular physical activity.

  18. Regulation of oxidative stress in response to acute aerobic and resistance exercise in HIV-infected subjects: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deresz, L F; Sprinz, E; Kramer, A S; Cunha, G; de Oliveira, A R; Sporleder, H; de Freitas, D R J; Lazzarotto, A R; Dall'Ago, P

    2010-11-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected subjects have increased levels of oxidative stress which could impair immunological function and therefore contribute to the progression of AIDS. These characteristics are usually evaluated at rest and responses to exercise have yet to be evaluated. The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of a bout of aerobic exercise followed by resistance exercises on antioxidant system in HIV-infected and non-HIV subjects. There were included 14 cases (HIV-positive) and 14 controls (HIV-negative). The exercise protocol consisted of a single session of 20 minutes on a cycloergometer followed by a set of six resistance exercises. The activity of glutathione S-transferase (GST) and catalase were measured in plasma samples, total glutathione (TGSH) and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) were measured in erythrocytes. T CD4+ cells, T CD8+, viral load, complete blood count, and white blood count were also assessed. All measurements were performed at three times: baseline, after aerobic exercise, and after resistance exercises. At baseline, the HIV group had lower GST activity than controls, but after the exercise session GST values were similar in both groups. Compared to the control group TGSH was significantly lower in the HIV group at baseline, after aerobic and resistance exercises. The control group presented higher TBARS values after aerobic exercise compared to the HIV group. The neutrophil count was lower in the HIV group after aerobic and resistance exercises. These data indicate that HIV-infected subjects had lower antioxidant activity at rest. Physical exercise stimulated the enzymatic activity similarly in both groups.

  19. Comparison the effects of one session aerobic exercise and resistance training on some of the coagulation markers of healthy young women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoumeh Habibian

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Physical training is a useful method to reduce disease of cardiovascular, but the effect of exercise on the coagulation system is under investigation. The aim of this study was to determine the response of one bout exhaustive aerobic exercise and resistance training on some of coagulation markers in healthy young women.Materials and Method: This quasi-experimental research was performed in 2009. Twenty trained volunteer female students of physical education Sari Azad university were selected objectively and availability. The subjects were randomly divided into two groups of aerobic (n=10 and resistance training (n=10. Aerobic group performed an exhaustive workout program on treadmill intensity 65 to75% Vo2max on treadmill. The resistance group completed three sets of 5-7 repetitions of six exercises at an intensity corresponding to 80% of 1RM. Following 12 to 14 hours of nightly fasting, venous blood samples (5 cc were collected pre, immediately after exercise and after 60 min of recovery and analyzed for PT, aPTT and fibrinogen. Participants were matched according to anthropometric measurements, age and Vo2max. Hypothesizes were tested by using independent t, repeated measures and post-hoc test (p 0.05. Results: Both the aerobic and resistance training groups, PT time (p<0.001 and aPTT time significantly decreased (p=0.006, p<0.001 respectively times between the two groups and the effect of resistant training on fibrinogen level immediately after exercise. Also aPTT time higher increased after recovery in comparison with baseline levels in aerobic (p=0.006 and resistance training groups (p<0.001. There were no significant differences in PT and aPTT was higher than aerobic training (p=0.0035.Conclusion: The results show that both of acute aerobic and or anaerobic exercise lead to small and transit coagulation system and increase in coagulation times

  20. Exercise in myasthenia gravis: A feasibility study of aerobic and resistance training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahbek, Martin Amadeus; Mikkelsen, Erik Elgaard; Overgaard, Kristian

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: It has not been established whether progressive resistance training (PRT) and aerobic training (AT) are feasible and efficient in myasthenia gravis (MG). Methods: Fifteen subjects with generalized MG (Myasthenia Gravis Foundation of America (MGFA) clinical classification II-IV) were...... randomly assigned to 20 training sessions during 8 weeks of either PRT or AT. Feasibility was evaluated based on adherence, drop-out rate, adverse events, and Quantitative Myasthenia Gravis (QMG) score. Results: Twelve subjects (MGFA II, n = 11; MGFA III, n=1) completed the intervention with a mean...

  1. Similar hypotensive effects of combined aerobic and resistance exercise with 1 set versus 3 sets in women with metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tibana, Ramires A; Nascimento, Dahan da C; de Sousa, Nuno M F; de Almeida, Jeeser A; Moraes, Milton R; Durigan, João Luiz Quagliotti; Collier, Scott R; Prestes, Jonato

    2015-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare the response of systolic blood pressure (SBP), mean blood pressure (MBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) following combined training with 1 set or with 3 sets of resistance exercise (RE). Sixteen women with metabolic syndrome (MetS) were randomly assigned to perform two combined exercise protocols and a control session (CON): 1-set, 30 min of aerobic exercise (AE) at 65-70% of reserve heart rate and 1 set of 8-12 repetitions at 80% of 10-RM in six resistance exercises; 3-sets, same protocol but with 3 sets; and CON, 30 min of seated rest. The SBP, MBP and DBP were measured before and every 15 min during 90 min following the experimental sessions. The SBP displayed a decrease (P ≤ 0.05) during the 90 min following the RE session with 1-set and 3-set, while MBP was decreased (P ≤ 0.05) up to 75 min after 1-set and up to 30 min after the 3-set exercise session compared with pre-intervention values. There was a decrease in DBP only for the greatest individual decrease following 1-set (-6.1 mmHg) and 3-set (-4.9 mmHg) combined exercise sessions, without differences between them. The rate-pressure product and heart rate remained significantly higher (P ≤ 0.05) 75 min and 90 min after the combined exercise session with 1- and 3-sets compared with the CON, respectively. In conclusion, a low-volume RE combined with AE resulted in similar decrease of SBP when compared with RE with 3-sets in women with MetS, which could be beneficial in situations of limited time. © 2014 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Acute effects of resistance exercise and intermittent intense aerobic exercise on blood cell count and oxidative stress in trained middle-aged women

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardoso, A.M. [Departamento de Química, Centro de Ciências Naturais e Exatas, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Santa Maria, RS (Brazil); Bagatini, M.D. [Curso de Enfermagem, Campus Chapecó, Universidade Federal da Fronteira Sul, Chapecó, SC (Brazil); Roth, M.A. [Departamento de Desportos Individuais, Centro de Educação Física e Desportos, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Santa Maria, RS (Brazil); Martins, C.C.; Rezer, J.F.P. [Departamento de Química, Centro de Ciências Naturais e Exatas, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Santa Maria, RS (Brazil); Mello, F.F. [Departamento de Desportos Individuais, Centro de Educação Física e Desportos, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Santa Maria, RS (Brazil); Lopes, L.F.D. [Departamento de Administração, Centro de Ciências Sociais e Humanas, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Santa Maria, RS (Brazil); Morsch, V.M.; Schetinger, M.R.C. [Departamento de Química, Centro de Ciências Naturais e Exatas, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Santa Maria, RS (Brazil)

    2012-10-26

    The aim of this study was to compare the effect of an intermittent intense aerobic exercise session and a resistance exercise session on blood cell counts and oxidative stress parameters in middle-aged women. Thirty-four women were selected and divided into three groups: RE group (performing 60 min of resistance exercises, N = 12), spinning group (performing 60 min of spinning, N = 12), and control group (not exercising regularly, N = 10). In both exercise groups, lymphocytes and monocytes decreased after 1-h recuperation (post-exercise) compared to immediately after exercise (P < 0.05). Immediately after exercise, in both exercised groups, a significant increase in TBARS (from 16.5 ± 2 to 25 ± 2 for the spinning group and from 18.6 ± 1 to 28.2 ± 3 nmol MDA/mL serum for the RE group) and protein carbonyl (from 1.0 ± 0.3 to 1.6 ± 0.2 for the spinning group and from 0.9 ± 0.2 to 1.5 ± 0.2 nmol/mg protein for the RE group) was observed (P < 0.05). A decrease in antioxidant activities (non-protein sulfhydryl, superoxide dismutase, catalase) was also demonstrated with a negative correlation between damage markers and antioxidant body defenses (P < 0.05). These results indicate that an acute bout of intermittent or anaerobic exercise induces immune suppression and increases the production of reactive oxygen species, causing oxidative stress in middle-aged and trained women. Furthermore, we demonstrated that trained women show improved antioxidant capacity and lower oxidative damage than sedentary ones, demonstrating the benefits of chronic regular physical activity.

  3. Acute effects of resistance exercise and intermittent intense aerobic exercise on blood cell count and oxidative stress in trained middle-aged women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. Cardoso

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare the effect of an intermittent intense aerobic exercise session and a resistance exercise session on blood cell counts and oxidative stress parameters in middle-aged women. Thirty-four women were selected and divided into three groups: RE group (performing 60 min of resistance exercises, N = 12, spinning group (performing 60 min of spinning, N = 12, and control group (not exercising regularly, N = 10. In both exercise groups, lymphocytes and monocytes decreased after 1-h recuperation (post-exercise compared to immediately after exercise (P < 0.05. Immediately after exercise, in both exercised groups, a significant increase in TBARS (from 16.5 ± 2 to 25 ± 2 for the spinning group and from 18.6 ± 1 to 28.2 ± 3 nmol MDA/mL serum for the RE group and protein carbonyl (from 1.0 ± 0.3 to 1.6 ± 0.2 for the spinning group and from 0.9 ± 0.2 to 1.5 ± 0.2 nmol/mg protein for the RE group was observed (P < 0.05. A decrease in antioxidant activities (non-protein sulfhydryl, superoxide dismutase, catalase was also demonstrated with a negative correlation between damage markers and antioxidant body defenses (P < 0.05. These results indicate that an acute bout of intermittent or anaerobic exercise induces immune suppression and increases the production of reactive oxygen species, causing oxidative stress in middle-aged and trained women. Furthermore, we demonstrated that trained women show improved antioxidant capacity and lower oxidative damage than sedentary ones, demonstrating the benefits of chronic regular physical activity.

  4. Acute effects of resistance exercise and intermittent intense aerobic exercise on blood cell count and oxidative stress in trained middle-aged women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardoso, A.M.; Bagatini, M.D.; Roth, M.A.; Martins, C.C.; Rezer, J.F.P.; Mello, F.F.; Lopes, L.F.D.; Morsch, V.M.; Schetinger, M.R.C.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effect of an intermittent intense aerobic exercise session and a resistance exercise session on blood cell counts and oxidative stress parameters in middle-aged women. Thirty-four women were selected and divided into three groups: RE group (performing 60 min of resistance exercises, N = 12), spinning group (performing 60 min of spinning, N = 12), and control group (not exercising regularly, N = 10). In both exercise groups, lymphocytes and monocytes decreased after 1-h recuperation (post-exercise) compared to immediately after exercise (P < 0.05). Immediately after exercise, in both exercised groups, a significant increase in TBARS (from 16.5 ± 2 to 25 ± 2 for the spinning group and from 18.6 ± 1 to 28.2 ± 3 nmol MDA/mL serum for the RE group) and protein carbonyl (from 1.0 ± 0.3 to 1.6 ± 0.2 for the spinning group and from 0.9 ± 0.2 to 1.5 ± 0.2 nmol/mg protein for the RE group) was observed (P < 0.05). A decrease in antioxidant activities (non-protein sulfhydryl, superoxide dismutase, catalase) was also demonstrated with a negative correlation between damage markers and antioxidant body defenses (P < 0.05). These results indicate that an acute bout of intermittent or anaerobic exercise induces immune suppression and increases the production of reactive oxygen species, causing oxidative stress in middle-aged and trained women. Furthermore, we demonstrated that trained women show improved antioxidant capacity and lower oxidative damage than sedentary ones, demonstrating the benefits of chronic regular physical activity

  5. Comparing exercise responses to aerobic plus resistance training between postmenopausal breast cancer survivors undergoing aromatase inhibitor therapy and healthy women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulo, Thais R S de; Winters-Stone, Kerri M; Viezel, Juliana; Rossi, Fabricio E; Aro, Bruna L; Trindade, Ana Carolina A C; Codogno, Jamile S; Freitas Junior, Ismael F

    2018-04-12

    The aim of this study was to explore whether postmenopausal breast cancer survivors undergoing aromatase inhibitor therapy differ from healthy postmenopausal women in their response to the same aerobic + resistance training. The participants were separated into two groups: postmenopausal breast cancer survivors undergoing aromatase inhibitor therapy for an average of 20 months (18 women) and healthy postmenopausal women (24 women). We assessed aerobic capacity (predicted maximum oxygen uptake (VO 2 max) and maximum running velocity test (Vmax)) through a walking test, upper and lower body muscle strength using an estimated one-repetition maximum test, and body composition by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry at baseline and at three, six, and nine months, respectively. The exercise program was performed three times/week over nine months and consisted of 40 min of machine-based strength training (seated cable row, bench press, leg extension, leg press, and leg curl, as well as bridge, abdominal, and standard plank exercises) followed by 30 min of treadmill walking. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) with repeated measures was used to compare the groups over time. Postmenopausal breast cancer survivors undergoing aromatase inhibitor therapy and healthy postmenopausal women presented similar improvements in estimated lower body strength, predicted VO 2max and V max , and body fat mass. For maximal upper body strength, there was a significant group x time interaction after six months of training (p = 0.01). The healthy postmenopausal women presented a significant increase in upper body strength after six months, while postmenopausal breast cancer survivors undergoing aromatase inhibitor therapy demonstrated an improvement only at nine months of training. The breast cancer survivors undergoing aromatase inhibitor therapy presented increased lean mass while healthy postmenopausal women maintained values over time (Breast cancer: 33.7 ± 3.9(Pre) vs. 34.1

  6. Aerobic exercise in pulmonary rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Brasileiro de Vasconcelos

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to conduct a literature review on the usefulness of aerobic exercise in pulmonary rehabilitation. This is an exploratory study of literature through the electronic databases Medline, Lilacs, Scielo, Pubmed and Google Scholar, published between 1996 and 2012, conducted during the period February to May 2012 with the following keywords: COPD, pulmonary rehabilitation, aerobic exercises, physical training, quality of life. The change in pulmonary function and dysfunction of skeletal muscles that result in exercise intolerance and reduced fitness and may cause social isolation, depression, anxiety and addiction. The training exercise is the most important component of the program of pulmonary rehabilitation where the aerobic training provides consistent results in clinical improvement in levels of exercise tolerance and decreased dyspnea generating more benefits to the body, reducing the chance of cardiovascular disease and improves quality and expectation of life. We demonstrated that the use of aerobic exercise in pulmonary rehabilitation program, allows an improvement of motor skills, decreased muscle fatigue and deconditioning, reducing sedentary lifestyle; however, has little or no effect on the reduction of strength and atrophy muscle.

  7. AEROBIC EXERCISE IN PULMONARY REHABILITATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Brasileiro de Vasconcelos

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to conduct a literature review on the usefulness of aerobic exercise in pulmonary rehabilitation. This is an exploratory study of literature through the electronic databases Medline, Lilacs, Scielo, Pubmed and Google Scholar, published between 1996 and 2012, conducted during the period February to May 2012 with the following keywords: COPD, pulmonary rehabilitation, aerobic exercises, physical training, quality of life. The change in pulmonary function and dysfunction of skeletal muscles that result in exercise intolerance and reduced fitness and may cause social isolation, depression, anxiety and addiction. The training exercise is the most important component of the program of pulmonary rehabilitation where the aerobic training provides consistent results in clinical improvement in levels of exercise tolerance and decreased dyspnea generating more benefits to the body, reducing the chance of cardiovascular disease and improves quality and expectation of life. We demonstrated that the use of aerobic exercise in pulmonary rehabilitation program, allows an improvement of motor skills, decreased muscle fatigue and deconditioning, reducing sedentary lifestyle; however, has little or no effect on the reduction of strength and atrophy muscle.

  8. EFFECT OF AEROBIC EXERCISE, RESISTANCE TRAINING OR COMBINED TRAINING ON GLYCAEMIC CONTROL AND CARDIOVASCULAR RISK FACTORS IN PATIENTS WITH TYPE 2 DIABETES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Mobasseri

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Physical activity has been proven as a useful intervention for prevention and treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. The purpose of this article was to compare the effects of aerobic exercise alone and resistance training alone as well as the combination of aerobic plus resistance training on glycaemic control, cardiovascular risk factors, and body composition in patients with T2DM. Eighty T2DM participants (37 men, 43 women, aged 33-69 years, were randomly divided in equal numbers (n=20 into one of four groups (aerobic, resistance, combined training, and control. Exercise training was performed three times per week for 52 weeks. After one year, 60 subjects (15 subjects in each group were entered into the statistical analysis. Seventeen parameters were evaluated. Mean HbA1c showed statistically significant reductions in the three training groups. All subjects of training groups experienced improvement in postprandial glucose, blood pressure, VO2max, and muscular percentage. Furthermore, the reduced concentration of plasma triglycerides was significant in both aerobic exercise and combined training groups. Also, a significant reduction was observed in body fat percentage in resistance and combined groups. Combination of two forms of exercise training led to an additional improvement in some of the parameters such as A1c and triglycerides compared with aerobic alone or resistance training alone. In general, the reported results in previous studies were not obtained for whole lipid profile and BMI. Both aerobic and resistance training are effective interventions for the management of T2DM complications, but combined training is associated with greater positive changes.

  9. Change in Bone Mineral Density During Weight Loss with Resistance Versus Aerobic Exercise Training in Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beavers, Kristen M; Beavers, Daniel P; Martin, Sarah B; Marsh, Anthony P; Lyles, Mary F; Lenchik, Leon; Shapses, Sue A; Nicklas, Barbara J

    2017-10-12

    To examine the effect of exercise modality during weight loss on hip and spine bone mineral density (BMD) in overweight and obese, older adults. This analysis compared data from two 5-month, randomized controlled trials of caloric restriction (CR; inducing 5-10% weight loss) with either resistance training (RT) or aerobic training (AT) in overweight and obese, older adults. Participants in the RT + CR study underwent 3 days/week of 8 upper/lower body exercises (3 sets, 10 repetitions at 70% 1 RM) and participants in the AT+CR study underwent 4 days/week of treadmill walking (30 min at 65-70% heart rate reserve). BMD at the total hip, femoral neck, and lumbar spine was assessed via dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry at baseline and 5 months. A total of 123 adults (69.4 ± 3.5 years, 67% female, 81% Caucasian) participated in the RT+CR (n = 60) and AT+CR (n = 63) interventions. Average weight loss was 5.7% (95% CI: 4.6-6.7%) and 8.2% (95% CI: 7.2-9.3%) in RT+CR and AT+CR groups, respectively. After adjustment for age, gender, race, baseline BMI and BMD, and weight change, differential treatment effects were observed for total hip and femoral neck (both p resistance, rather than aerobic, training during CR may attenuate loss of hip and femoral neck BMD in overweight and obese older adults. Findings warrant replication from a long-term, adequately powered, RCT. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Aerobic exercise deconditioning and countermeasures during bed rest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Stuart M C; Moore, Alan D; Everett, Meghan E; Stenger, Michael B; Platts, Steven H

    2010-01-01

    Bed rest is a well-accepted model for spaceflight in which the physiologic adaptations, particularly in the cardiovascular system, are studied and potential countermeasures can be tested. Bed rest without countermeasures results in reduced aerobic capacity and altered submaximal exercise responses. Aerobic endurance and factors which may impact prolonged exercise, however, have not been well studied. The initial loss of aerobic capacity is rapid, occurring in parallel with the loss of plasma volume. Thereafter, the reduction in maximal aerobic capacity proceeds more slowly and is influenced by central and peripheral adaptation. Exercise capacity can be maintained during bed rest and may be improved during recovery with appropriate countermeasures. Plasma volume restoration, resistive exercise, orthostatic stress, aerobic exercise, and aerobic exercise plus orthostatic stress all have been tested with varying levels of success. However, the optimal combination of elements-exercise modality, intensity, duration, muscle groups exercised and frequency of aerobic exercise, orthostatic stress, and supplementary resistive or anaerobic exercise training-has not been systematically evaluated. Currently, frequent (at least 3 days per week) bouts of intense exercise (interval-style and near maximal) with orthostatic stress appears to be the most efficacious method to protect aerobic capacity during bed rest. Further refinement of protocols and countermeasure hardware may be necessary to insure the success of countermeasures in the unique environment of space.

  11. Exercise in myasthenia gravis: A feasibility study of aerobic and resistance training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahbek, Martin Amadeus; Mikkelsen, Erik Elgaard; Overgaard, Kristian; Vinge, Lotte; Andersen, Henning; Dalgas, Ulrik

    2017-10-01

    It has not been established whether progressive resistance training (PRT) and aerobic training (AT) are feasible and efficient in myasthenia gravis (MG). Fifteen subjects with generalized MG (Myasthenia Gravis Foundation of America (MGFA) clinical classification II-IV) were randomly assigned to 20 training sessions during 8 weeks of either PRT or AT. Feasibility was evaluated based on adherence, drop-out rate, adverse events, and Quantitative Myasthenia Gravis (QMG) score. Twelve subjects (MGFA II, n = 11; MGFA III, n=1) completed the intervention with a mean adherence of 95 % ± 8. One dropout (PRT) could potentially be related to PRT. Both groups reported adverse events, including bulbar symptoms (n = 2) and increased fatigue (n = 3), but no change in QMG score was observed in either group. The PRT group showed increases in maximal strength and functional capacity. Eight weeks of moderate to high intensity AT and PRT were feasible for most patients with mild MG. Maximal strength and functional capacity increased in the PRT group. Muscle Nerve 56: 700-709, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Aerobic exercise training for adults with fibromyalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidonde, Julia; Busch, Angela J; Schachter, Candice L; Overend, Tom J; Kim, Soo Y; Góes, Suelen M; Boden, Catherine; Foulds, Heather Ja

    2017-06-21

    Exercise training is commonly recommended for individuals with fibromyalgia. This review is one of a series of reviews about exercise training for people with fibromyalgia that will replace the "Exercise for treating fibromyalgia syndrome" review first published in 2002. • To evaluate the benefits and harms of aerobic exercise training for adults with fibromyalgia• To assess the following specific comparisons ० Aerobic versus control conditions (eg, treatment as usual, wait list control, physical activity as usual) ० Aerobic versus aerobic interventions (eg, running vs brisk walking) ० Aerobic versus non-exercise interventions (eg, medications, education) We did not assess specific comparisons involving aerobic exercise versus other exercise interventions (eg, resistance exercise, aquatic exercise, flexibility exercise, mixed exercise). Other systematic reviews have examined or will examine these comparisons (Bidonde 2014; Busch 2013). We searched the Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, Embase, the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), the Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro), Thesis and Dissertation Abstracts, the Allied and Complementary Medicine Database (AMED), the World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (WHO ICTRP), and the ClinicalTrials.gov registry up to June 2016, unrestricted by language, and we reviewed the reference lists of retrieved trials to identify potentially relevant trials. We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in adults with a diagnosis of fibromyalgia that compared aerobic training interventions (dynamic physical activity that increases breathing and heart rate to submaximal levels for a prolonged period) versus no exercise or another intervention. Major outcomes were health-related quality of life (HRQL), pain intensity, stiffness, fatigue, physical function, withdrawals, and adverse events. Two review authors independently selected trials for inclusion, extracted

  13. The effect of 12 weeks of aerobic, resistance or combination exercise training on cardiovascular risk factors in the overweight and obese in a randomized trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho Suleen S

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evidence suggests that exercise training improves CVD risk factors. However, it is unclear whether health benefits are limited to aerobic training or if other exercise modalities such as resistance training or a combination are as effective or more effective in the overweight and obese. The aim of this study is to investigate whether 12 weeks of moderate-intensity aerobic, resistance, or combined exercise training would induce and sustain improvements in cardiovascular risk profile, weight and fat loss in overweight and obese adults compared to no exercise. Methods Twelve-week randomized parallel design examining the effects of different exercise regimes on fasting measures of lipids, glucose and insulin and changes in body weight, fat mass and dietary intake. Participants were randomized to either: Group 1 (Control, n = 16; Group 2 (Aerobic, n = 15; Group 3 (Resistance, n = 16; Group 4 (Combination, n = 17. Data was analysed using General Linear Model to assess the effects of the groups after adjusting for baseline values. Within-group data was analyzed with the paired t-test and between-group effects using post hoc comparisons. Results Significant improvements in body weight (−1.6%, p = 0.044 for the Combination group compared to Control and Resistance groups and total body fat compared to Control (−4.4%, p = 0.003 and Resistance (−3%, p = 0.041. Significant improvements in body fat percentage (−2.6%, p = 0.008, abdominal fat percentage (−2.8%, p = 0.034 and cardio-respiratory fitness (13.3%, p = 0.006 were seen in the Combination group compared to Control. Levels of ApoB48 were 32% lower in the Resistance group compared to Control (p = 0.04. Conclusion A 12-week training program comprising of resistance or combination exercise, at moderate-intensity for 30 min, five days/week resulted in improvements in the cardiovascular risk profile in overweight and obese

  14. Effects of Aerobic and Resistance Exercise on Metabolic Syndrome, Sarcopenic Obesity, and Circulating Biomarkers in Overweight or Obese Survivors of Breast Cancer: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieli-Conwright, Christina M; Courneya, Kerry S; Demark-Wahnefried, Wendy; Sami, Nathalie; Lee, Kyuwan; Buchanan, Thomas A; Spicer, Darcy V; Tripathy, Debu; Bernstein, Leslie; Mortimer, Joanne E

    2018-03-20

    Purpose Metabolic syndrome is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, and breast cancer recurrence in survivors of breast cancer. This randomized controlled trial assessed the effects of a 16-week combined aerobic and resistance exercise intervention on metabolic syndrome, sarcopenic obesity, and serum biomarkers among ethnically diverse, sedentary, overweight, or obese survivors of breast cancer. Methods Eligible survivors of breast cancer (N = 100) were randomly assigned to exercise (n = 50) or usual care (n = 50). The exercise group participated in supervised moderate-to-vigorous-65% to 85% of heart rate maximum-aerobic and resistance exercise three times per week for 16 weeks. Metabolic syndrome z-score (primary outcome), sarcopenic obesity, and serum biomarkers were measured at baseline, postintervention (4 months), and 3-month follow-up (exercise only). Results Participants were age 53 ± 10.4 years, 46% were obese, and 74% were ethnic minorities. Adherence to the intervention was 95%, and postintervention assessments were available in 91% of participants. Postintervention metabolic syndrome z-score was significantly improved in exercise versus usual care (between-group difference, -4.4; 95% CI, -5.9 to -2.7; P metabolic syndrome variables remained significantly improved compared with baseline in the exercise group ( P exercise effectively attenuated metabolic syndrome, sarcopenic obesity, and relevant biomarkers in an ethnically diverse sample of sedentary, overweight, or obese survivors of breast cancer. Our findings suggest a targeted exercise prescription for improving metabolic syndrome in survivors of breast cancer and support the incorporation of supervised clinical exercise programs into breast cancer treatment and survivorship care plans.

  15. The lung cancer exercise training study: a randomized trial of aerobic training, resistance training, or both in postsurgical lung cancer patients: rationale and design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crawford Jeffrey

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Lung Cancer Exercise Training Study (LUNGEVITY is a randomized trial to investigate the efficacy of different types of exercise training on cardiorespiratory fitness (VO2peak, patient-reported outcomes, and the organ components that govern VO2peak in post-operative non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC patients. Methods/Design Using a single-center, randomized design, 160 subjects (40 patients/study arm with histologically confirmed stage I-IIIA NSCLC following curative-intent complete surgical resection at Duke University Medical Center (DUMC will be potentially eligible for this trial. Following baseline assessments, eligible participants will be randomly assigned to one of four conditions: (1 aerobic training alone, (2 resistance training alone, (3 the combination of aerobic and resistance training, or (4 attention-control (progressive stretching. The ultimate goal for all exercise training groups will be 3 supervised exercise sessions per week an intensity above 70% of the individually determined VO2peak for aerobic training and an intensity between 60 and 80% of one-repetition maximum for resistance training, for 30-45 minutes/session. Progressive stretching will be matched to the exercise groups in terms of program length (i.e., 16 weeks, social interaction (participants will receive one-on-one instruction, and duration (30-45 mins/session. The primary study endpoint is VO2peak. Secondary endpoints include: patient-reported outcomes (PROs (e.g., quality of life, fatigue, depression, etc. and organ components of the oxygen cascade (i.e., pulmonary function, cardiac function, skeletal muscle function. All endpoints will be assessed at baseline and postintervention (16 weeks. Substudies will include genetic studies regarding individual responses to an exercise stimulus, theoretical determinants of exercise adherence, examination of the psychological mediators of the exercise - PRO relationship, and exercise-induced changes

  16. A Paleolithic Diet with and without Combined Aerobic and Resistance Exercise Increases Functional Brain Responses and Hippocampal Volume in Subjects with Type 2 Diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stomby, Andreas; Otten, Julia; Ryberg, Mats

    2017-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes is associated with impaired episodic memory functions and increased risk of different dementing disorders. Diet and exercise may potentially reverse these impairments. In this study, sedentary individuals with type 2 diabetes treated by lifestyle ± metformin were randomized...... to a Paleolithic diet (PD, n = 12) with and without high intensity exercise (PDEX, n = 12) for 12 weeks. Episodic memory function, associated functional brain responses and hippocampal gray matter volume was measured by magnetic resonance imaging. A matched, but not randomized, non-interventional group...... was included as a reference (n = 6). The PD included a high intake of unsaturated fatty acids and protein, and excluded the intake of dairy products, grains, refined sugar and salt. The exercise intervention consisted of 180 min of supervised aerobic and resistance exercise per week. Both interventions induced...

  17. Aerobic exercise regulates blood lipid and insulin resistance via the toll‑like receptor 4‑mediated extracellular signal‑regulated kinases/AMP‑activated protein kinases signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mei; Li, Sen; Wang, Fubaihui; Zou, Jinhui; Zhang, Yanfeng

    2018-06-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a complicated metabolic disease with symptoms of hyperglycemia, insulin resistance, chronic damage and dysfunction of tissues, and metabolic syndrome for insufficient insulin production. Evidence has indicated that exercise treatments are essential in the progression of type‑ІІ diabetes mellitus, and affect insulin resistance and activity of islet β‑cells. In the present study, the efficacy and signaling mechanism of aerobic exercise on blood lipids and insulin resistance were investigated in the progression of type‑ІІ diabetes mellitus. Body weight, glucose metabolism and insulin serum levels were investigated in mouse models of type‑ІІ diabetes mellitus following experienced aerobic exercise. Expression levels of inflammatory factors, interleukin (IL)‑6, high‑sensitivity C‑reactive protein, tumor necrosis factor‑α and leucocyte differentiation antigens, soluble CD40 ligand in the serum were analyzed in the experimental mice. In addition, expression levels of toll‑like receptor 4 (TLR‑4) were analyzed in the liver cells of experimental mice. Changes of oxidative stress indicators, including reactive oxygen species, superoxide dismutase, glutathione and catalase were examined in the liver cells of experimental mice treated by aerobic exercise. Expression levels and activity of extracellular signal‑regulated kinases (ERK) and AMP‑activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling pathways were investigated in the liver cells of mouse models of type‑ІІ diabetes mellitus after undergoing aerobic exercise. Aerobic exercise decreased the expression levels of inflammatory factors in the serum of mouse models of type‑ІІ diabetes mellitus. The results indicated that aerobic exercise downregulated oxidative stress indicators in liver cells from mouse models of type‑ІІ diabetes mellitus. In addition, the ERK and AMPK signaling pathways were inactivated by aerobic exercise in liver cells in mouse models of type

  18. Resistance exercise and aerobic exercise when paired with dietary energy restriction both reduce the clinical components of metabolic syndrome in previously physically inactive males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potteiger, Jeffrey A; Claytor, Randal P; Hulver, Mathew W; Hughes, Michael R; Carper, Michael J; Richmond, Scott; Thyfault, John P

    2012-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare resistance exercise training (RT) to aerobic exercise training (AE) on the clinical risk factors for metabolic syndrome (MetSyn) in physically inactive overweight males (age 27-48 years). Subjects with at least one risk factor for MetSyn performed RT (n = 13, age 35.1 ± 4.7 years, BMI 31.2 ± 2.7 kg/m(2)) or AE (n = 9, age 37.6 ± 4.9 years, BMI, 31.2 ± 3.2 kg/m(2)) for 6 months. Training frequency and exercise session duration were equal and by 3 months the subjects exercised 4 day/week for 45 min/session. Blood lipids and glucose, waist circumference, and mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) were measured at 0, 3, and 6 months. A MetSyn z score was calculated for each subject from triglycerides, HDL cholesterol, fasting glucose, waist circumference, and MAP. Statistical significance was set at p ≤ 0.05. No significant differences existed between RT and AE groups at 0 month. AE showed a significant reduction in MetSyn z score from 0 (0.91 ± 3.57) to 6 months (-1.35 ± 2.95), while RT approached significance (p = 0.07) from 0 (0.09 ± 2.62) to 6 months (-1.30 ± 2.22). Triglycerides (mmol/L) significantly decreased in AE from 0 (1.93 ± 0.90) to 6 months (1.41 ± 0.70). Waist circumference (cm) significantly decreased in AE from 0 (106.8 ± 7.3) to 6 months (101.2 ± 6.5), and in RT from 0 (108.4 ± 9.0) to 6 months (105.7 ± 7.0). MAP (mmHg) decreased in RT from 0 (93.8 ± 5.8) to 6 months (87.5 ± 6.1) and in AE from 0 (97.6 ± 7.0) to 6 months (91.3 ± 6.8). With equal training frequency and exercise session duration, both RT and AE training, when paired with energy restriction improve the clinical risk factor profile for MetSyn.

  19. The effect, moderators, and mediators of resistance and aerobic exercise on health-related quality of life in older long-term survivors of prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buffart, Laurien M; Newton, Robert U; Chinapaw, Mai J; Taaffe, Dennis R; Spry, Nigel A; Denham, James W; Joseph, David J; Lamb, David S; Brug, Johannes; Galvão, Daniel A

    2015-08-15

    The current study examined effects, moderators (for whom), and mediators (working mechanisms) of 12 months of exercise on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in older long-term survivors of prostate cancer. In total, 100 men aged 71.7 years (standard deviation, 6.4 years) were randomly assigned to 6 months of supervised aerobic and resistance exercise followed by 6 months of a home-based exercise maintenance program (EX group) or printed education material regarding physical activity for 12 months (PA group). Assessments took place at baseline and after 6 and 12 months. Generalized estimating equations were used to study the effects of EX versus PA on HRQoL at 6 and 12 months, adjusting for baseline HRQoL. The authors examined potential sociodemographic and clinical moderators by adding interaction terms, and potential physical and psychological mediators using the product-of-coefficients test. At 6 months, significant beneficial effects were found for global QoL, physical function, and social function in the EX group compared with the PA group. For physical function, beneficial effects were sustained at 12 months. Moderation analyses demonstrated larger effects of EX versus PA for patients who were married, started exercising sooner after their diagnosis, and previously used bisphosphonates. Changes in lower body functional performance significantly mediated the effect of EX on global QoL, physical function, and social function. No mediating effects on HRQoL were found for aerobic fitness, physical activity, fatigue, distress, or falls self-efficacy. Aerobic and resistance exercise appears to have beneficial effects on HRQoL among older, long-term survivors of prostate cancer. Effects were moderated by marital status, time since diagnosis, and use of bisphosphonates, and were mediated by lower body functional performance. © 2015 American Cancer Society.

  20. Resistance training and aerobic training improve muscle strength and aerobic capacity in chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markvardsen, Lars H; Overgaard, Kristian; Heje, Karen; Sindrup, Søren H; Christiansen, Ingelise; Vissing, John; Andersen, Henning

    2018-01-01

    We investigated the effects of aerobic and resistance exercise in patients with chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP). Eighteen CIDP patients treated with subcutaneous immunoglobulin performed 12 weeks of aerobic exercise and 12 weeks of resistance exercise after a run-in period of 12 weeks without exercise. Three times weekly the participants performed aerobic exercise on an ergometer bike or resistance exercise with unilateral training of knee and elbow flexion/extension. Primary outcomes were maximal oxygen consumption velocity (VO 2 -max) and maximal combined isokinetic muscle strength (cIKS) of knee and elbow flexion/extension. VO 2 -max and muscle strength were unchanged during run-in (-4.9% ± 10.3%, P = 0.80 and -3.7% ± 10.1%, P = 0.17, respectively). Aerobic exercise increased VO 2 -max by 11.0% ± 14.7% (P = 0.02). Resistance exercise resulted in an increase of 13.8% ± 16.0% (P = 0.0004) in cIKS. Aerobic exercise training and resistance exercise training improve fitness and strength in CIDP patients. Muscle Nerve 57: 70-76, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. A randomized controlled trial on the effects of combined aerobic-resistance exercise on muscle strength and fatigue, glycemic control and health-related quality of life of type 2 diabetes patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomas-Carus, Pablo; Ortega-Alonso, Alfredo; Pietilainen, Kirsi H; Santos, Vitoria; Goncalves, Helena; Ramos, Jorge; Raimundo, Armando

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this paper was to evaluate the effects of a 12-weeks combined aerobic-resistance exercise therapy on fatigue and isokinetic muscle strength, glycemic control and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in moderately affected type 2 diabetes (T2DM) patients. A randomized controlled trial design was employed. Forty-three T2DM patients were assigned to an exercise group (N.=22), performing 3 weekly sessions of 60 minutes of combined aerobic-resistance exercise for 12-weeks; or a no exercise control group (N.=21). Both groups were evaluated at a baseline and after 12-weeks of exercise therapy for: 1) muscle strength and fatigue by isokinetic dynamometry; 2) plasma glycated hemoglobin A1C (HbA1C); and 3) HRQoL utilizing the SF-36 questionnaire. The exercise therapy led to improvements in muscle fatigue in knee extensors (-55%) and increased muscle strength in knee flexors and extensors (+15 to +30%), while HbA1C decreased (-18%). In addition, the exercising patients showed sizeable improvements in HRQoL: physical function (+53%), vitality (+21%) and mental health (+40%). Twelve-weeks of combined aerobic-resistance exercise was highly effective to improve muscle strength and fatigue, glycemic control and several aspects of HRQoL in T2DM patients. These data encourage the use of aerobic and resistance exercise in the good clinical care of T2DM.

  2. Resistance training and aerobic training improve muscle strength and aerobic capacity in chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markvardsen, Lars H; Overgaard, Kristian; Heje, Karen

    2018-01-01

    after a run-in period of 12 weeks without exercise. Three times weekly the participants performed aerobic exercise on an ergometer bike or resistance exercise with unilateral training of knee and elbow flexion/extension. Primary outcomes were maximal oxygen consumption velocity (VO2 -max) and maximal...

  3. Examining physiotherapist use of structured aerobic exercise testing to decrease barriers to aerobic exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster B Sc, Evan; Fraser, Julia E; Inness PhD, Elizabeth L; Munce, Sarah; Biasin, Louis; Poon, Vivien; Bayley, Mark

    2018-04-03

    To determine the frequency of physiotherapist-administered aerobic exercise testing/training, the proportion of physiotherapists who administer this testing/training, and the barriers that currently exist across different practice environments. A secondary objective is to identify the learning needs of physiotherapists for the development of an education curriculum in aerobic exercise testing and training with electrocardiograph (ECG) administration and interpretation. National, cross-sectional survey. Registered physiotherapists practicing in Canada. Out of 137 participants, most (75%) physiotherapists prescribed aerobic exercise on a regular basis (weekly); however, 65% had never conducted an aerobic exercise test. There were no significant differences in frequency of aerobic exercise testing across different practice environments or across years of physiotherapy experience. Physiotherapists perceived the main barriers to aerobic exercise testing as being a lack of equipment/space (78%), time (65%), and knowledge (56%). Although most (82%) were uncomfortable administering 12-lead ECG-monitored aerobic exercise tests, 60% stated they would be interested in learning more about ECG interpretation. This study found that physiotherapists are regularly implementing aerobic exercise. This exercise was infrequently guided by formal aerobic exercise testing, which could increase access to safe and effective exercise within the optimal aerobic training zone. As well, this could facilitate training in patients with cardiovascular diagnoses that require additional testing for medical clearance. Increased ECG training and access to equipment for physiotherapists may augment pre-screening aerobic exercise testing. This training should include learning the key arrhythmias for aerobic exercise test termination as defined by the American College of Sports Medicine.

  4. A 12-Week Aerobic Exercise Program Reduces Hepatic Fat Accumulation and Insulin Resistance in Obese, Hispanic Adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Heijden, Gert-Jan; Wang, Zhiyue J.; Chu, Zili D.; Sauer, Pieter J. J.; Haymond, Morey W.; Rodriguez, Luisa M.; Sunehag, Agneta L.

    2010-01-01

    The rise in obesity-related morbidity in children and adolescents requires urgent prevention and treatment strategies. Currently, only limited data are available on the effects of exercise programs on insulin resistance, and visceral, hepatic, and intramyocellular fat accumulation. We hypothesized

  5. Effects of 6 months of aerobic and resistance exercise training on carotid artery intima media thickness in overweight and obese older women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jinkee; Park, Hyuntea

    2017-12-01

    We studied the effects of exercise on carotid intima-media thickness, luminal diameter, and flow velocity in overweight and obese older women, and the associations between carotid parameters changes and other variables. A total of 41 overweight and obese older women (aged 65-77 years, fat mass percent ≥ 32%), who were divided into a control group (n = 20) and a supervised combined exercise group (n = 21). The 24-week combined exercise program (aerobic and resistance exercise) consisted of sessions 40-80 min in length 5 days per week under the supervision of an exercise specialist. Body composition, blood pressure, physical function and carotid variables were assessed. The differences in all variables, and the relative changes between baseline and 24 weeks' follow up were evaluated. Carotid intima-media thickness, systolic carotid luminal diameter, peak systolic flow velocity and end diastolic flow velocity showed a significant group × time interaction. No interaction was observed for diastolic luminal diameter. In the exercise group, the change of carotid intima-media thickness was significantly associated with systolic blood pressure, maximal walking speed, 1-mile walking time and maximal oxygen uptake. Also, the change of peak systolic flow velocity was significantly associated with skeletal muscle mass, diastolic blood pressure and maximum walking speed. Combined exercise can effectively improve carotid intima-media thickness in overweight and obese older women. In addition, exercise training increases the systolic carotid luminal diameter and flow velocity in older women. Therefore, regular combined exercise might help prevent atherosclerotic disease by improving the carotid artery. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2017; 17: 2304-2310. © 2017 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  6. Benefits of aerobic exercise after stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potempa, K; Braun, L T; Tinknell, T; Popovich, J

    1996-05-01

    The debilitating loss of function after a stroke has both primary and secondary effects on sensorimotor function. Primary effects include paresis, paralysis, spasticity, and sensory-perceptual dysfunction due to upper motor neuron damage. Secondary effects, contractures and disuse muscle atrophy, are also debilitating. This paper presents theoretical and empirical benefits of aerobic exercise after stroke, issues relevant to measuring peak capacity, exercise training protocols, and the clinical use of aerobic exercise in this patient population. A stroke, and resulting hemiparesis, produces physiological changes in muscle fibres and muscle metabolism during exercise. These changes, along with comorbid cardiovascular disease, must be considered when exercising stroke patients. While few studies have measured peak exercise capacity in hemiparetic populations, it has been consistently observed in these studies that stroke patients have a lower functional capacity than healthy populations. Hemiparetic patients have low peak exercise responses probably due to a reduced number of motor units available for recruitment during dynamic exercise, the reduced oxidative capacity of paretic muscle, and decreased overall endurance. Consequently, traditional methods to predict aerobic capacity are not appropriate for use with stroke patients. Endurance exercise training is increasingly recognised as an important component in rehabilitation. An average improvement in maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max) of 13.3% in stroke patients who participated in a 10-week aerobic exercise training programme has been reported compared with controls. This study underscored the potential benefits of aerobic exercise training in stroke patients. In this paper, advantages and disadvantages of exercise modalities are discussed in relation to stroke patients. Recommendations are presented to maximise physical performance and minimise potential cardiac risks during exercise.

  7. Differences in the acute effects of aerobic and resistance exercise in subjects with type 2 diabetes: results from the RAED2 Randomized Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabetta Bacchi

    Full Text Available Both aerobic (AER and resistance (RES training, if maintained over a period of several months, reduce HbA1c levels in type 2 diabetes subjects. However, it is still unknown whether the short-term effects of these types of exercise on blood glucose are similar. Our objective was to assess whether there may be a difference in acute blood glucose changes after a single bout of AER or RES exercise.Twenty-five patients participating in the RAED2 Study, a RCT comparing AER and RES training in diabetic subjects, were submitted to continuous glucose monitoring during a 60-min exercise session and over the following 47 h. These measurements were performed after 10.9+0.4 weeks of training. Glucose concentration areas under the curve (AUC during exercise, the subsequent night, and the 24-h period following exercise, as well as the corresponding periods of the non-exercise day, were assessed. Moreover, the low (LBGI and high (HBGI blood glucose indices, which summarize the duration and extent of hypoglycaemia or hyperglycaemia, respectively, were measured.AER and RES training similarly reduced HbA1c. Forty-eight hour glucose AUC was similar in both groups. However, a comparison of glucose AUC during the 60-min exercise period and the corresponding period of the non-exercise day showed that glucose levels were lower during exercise in the AER but not in the RES group (time-by-group interaction p = 0.04. Similar differences were observed in the nocturnal periods (time-by-group interaction p = 0.02. Accordingly, nocturnal LBGI was higher in the exercise day than in the non-exercise day in the AER (p = 0.012 but not in the RES group (p = 0.62.Although AER and RES training have similar long-term metabolic effects in diabetic subjects, the acute effects of single bouts of these exercise types differ, with a potential increase in late-onset hypoglycaemia risk after AER exercise.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01182948.

  8. A Paleolithic Diet with and without Combined Aerobic and Resistance Exercise Increases Functional Brain Responses and Hippocampal Volume in Subjects with Type 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Stomby

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Type 2 diabetes is associated with impaired episodic memory functions and increased risk of different dementing disorders. Diet and exercise may potentially reverse these impairments. In this study, sedentary individuals with type 2 diabetes treated by lifestyle ± metformin were randomized to a Paleolithic diet (PD, n = 12 with and without high intensity exercise (PDEX, n = 12 for 12 weeks. Episodic memory function, associated functional brain responses and hippocampal gray matter volume was measured by magnetic resonance imaging. A matched, but not randomized, non-interventional group was included as a reference (n = 6. The PD included a high intake of unsaturated fatty acids and protein, and excluded the intake of dairy products, grains, refined sugar and salt. The exercise intervention consisted of 180 min of supervised aerobic and resistance exercise per week. Both interventions induced a significant weight loss, improved insulin sensitivity and increased peak oxygen uptake without any significant group differences. Furthermore, both interventions were associated with increased functional brain responses within the right anterior hippocampus, right inferior occipital gyrus and increased volume of the right posterior hippocampus. There were no changes in memory performance. We conclude that life-style modification may improve neuronal plasticity in brain areas linked to cognitive function in type 2 diabetes. Putative long-term effects on cognitive functions including decreased risk of dementing disorders await further studies. Clinical trials registration number: Clinicaltrials. gov NCT01513798.

  9. Does Aerobic Exercise Influence Intrinsic Brain Activity?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flodin, Pär; Jonasson, Lars S; Riklund, Katrin

    2017-01-01

    exercise group or an active control group. Both groups recieved supervised training, 3 days a week for 6 months. Multimodal brain imaging data was acquired before and after the intervention, including 10 min of resting state brain functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) and arterial spin labeling......Previous studies have indicated that aerobic exercise could reduce age related decline in cognition and brain functioning. Here we investigated the effects of aerobic exercise on intrinsic brain activity. Sixty sedentary healthy males and females (64-78 years) were randomized into either an aerobic...... group improved more. Contrary to our hypothesis, we did not observe any significant group by time interactions with regard to any measure of intrinsic activity. To further probe putative relationships between fitness and brain activity, we performed post hoc analyses disregarding group belongings...

  10. High intensity aerobic exercise training improves chronic intermittent hypoxia-induced insulin resistance without basal autophagy modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauly, Marion; Assense, Allan; Rondon, Aurélie; Thomas, Amandine; Dubouchaud, Hervé; Freyssenet, Damien; Benoit, Henri; Castells, Josiane; Flore, Patrice

    2017-03-03

    Chronic intermittent hypoxia (IH) associated with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a major risk factor for cardiovascular and metabolic diseases (insulin resistance: IR). Autophagy is involved in the pathophysiology of IR and high intensity training (HIT) has recently emerged as a potential therapy. We aimed to confirm IH-induced IR in a tissue-dependent way and to explore the preventive effect of HIT on IR-induced by IH. Thirty Swiss 129 male mice were randomly assigned to Normoxia (N), Intermittent Hypoxia (IH: 21-5% FiO 2 , 30 s cycle, 8 h/day) or IH associated with high intensity training (IH HIT). After 8 days of HIT (2*24 min, 50 to 90% of Maximal Aerobic Speed or MAS on a treadmill) mice underwent 14 days IH or N. We found that IH induced IR, characterized by a greater glycemia, an impaired insulin sensitivity and lower AKT phosphorylation in adipose tissue and liver. Nevertheless, MAS and AKT phosphorylation were greater in muscle after IH. IH associated with HIT induced better systemic insulin sensitivity and AKT phosphorylation in liver. Autophagy markers were not altered in both conditions. These findings suggest that HIT could represent a preventive strategy to limit IH-induced IR without change of basal autophagy.

  11. Sex differences in resting hemodynamics and arterial stiffness following 4 weeks of resistance versus aerobic exercise training in individuals with pre-hypertension to stage 1 hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Collier Scott R

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hypertension (HTN exhibits sexual dimorphism; the incidence for women surpasses men during the sixth decade of life, while the pharmacological treatments are less effective and produce more side-effects in women than in men. Aerobic exercise (AE has been shown to prevent and treat HTN; however, resistance exercise (RE is not recommended as a strategy to treat HTN. In this study, we investigated the potential sex differences of AE versus RE in a cohort of unmedicated patients with hypertension. Methods In total, 40 moderately active, pre-hypertensive or stage 1 essential hypertensive male (M and female (F participants aged 40 to 60 years were randomly divided into four groups: M AE, M RE, F AE, and F. Each group exercised at moderate intensity, 3 days/week for 4 weeks. Hemodynamic, vascular and blood-flow data were collected before and after exercise training. Results Men showed a significant increase in central pulse wave velocity following RE while females showed no significant changes (12 ± to 13.9 ± vs. 9.2 ± to 9.6 ± m/s, respectively. RE showed significantly greater increases in peak blood flow when compared to AE (F RE 15 ± to 20 ± vs. F AE 17.5 ± to19.5 ±, M RE 19 ± to 24 ± vs M AE 21 ± to 25 ± ml* 100 ml*min, respectively. In addition, systolic and diastolic BP decreased greater for women following RE when compared to AE whereas men showed comparable decreases in BP following either exercise mode. Conclusion Moderate-intensity RE training may be a more favorable for women as a treatment option for hypertension because of greater decreases in diastolic BP and significant increases in flow-mediated dilation without concomitant increases in arterial stiffness, compared with their male counterparts.

  12. Combination of a structured aerobic and resistance exercise improves glycaemic control in pregnant women diagnosed with gestational diabetes mellitus. A randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sklempe Kokic, Iva; Ivanisevic, Marina; Biolo, Gianni; Simunic, Bostjan; Kokic, Tomislav; Pisot, Rado

    2017-10-18

    Gestational diabetes mellitus, defined as any carbohydrate intolerance first diagnosed during pregnancy, is associated with a variety of adverse outcomes, both for the mother and her child. To investigate the impact of a structured exercise programme which consisted of aerobic and resistance exercises on the parameters of glycaemic control and other health-related outcomes in pregnant women diagnosed with gestational diabetes mellitus. Thirty-eight pregnant women diagnosed with gestational diabetes mellitus were randomised to two groups. Experimental group was treated with standard antenatal care for gestational diabetes mellitus, and regular supervised exercise programme plus daily brisk walks of at least 30min. Control group received only standard antenatal care for gestational diabetes mellitus. The exercise programme was started from the time of diagnosis of diabetes until birth. It was performed two times per week and sessions lasted 50-55min. The experimental group had lower postprandial glucose levels at the end of pregnancy (P<0.001). There was no significant difference between groups in the level of fasting glucose at the end of pregnancy. Also, there were no significant differences in the rate of complications during pregnancy and birth, need for pharmacological therapy, maternal body mass and body fat percentage gains during pregnancy, and neonatal Apgar scores, body mass and ponderal index. Neonatal body mass index was higher in the experimental group (P=0.035). The structured exercise programme had a beneficial effect on postprandial glucose levels at the end of pregnancy. Copyright © 2017 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Effect of aerobic exercise training on cardiovascular parameters and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of aerobic exercise training on cardiovascular parameters and CD4 cell ... its associated cardiovascular risk still pose some consequences for health and ... Moderate intensity aerobic exercise is an effective complementary therapy in ...

  14. Strength training and aerobic exercise training for muscle disease.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voet, N.B.M.; Kooi, E.L. van der; Riphagen, I.I.; Lindeman, E.; Engelen, B.G.M. van; Geurts, A.C.H.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Strength training or aerobic exercise programmes might optimise muscle and cardiorespiratory function and prevent additional disuse atrophy and deconditioning in people with a muscle disease. OBJECTIVES: To examine the safety and efficacy of strength training and aerobic exercise

  15. Benefits of combined aerobic/resistance/inspiratory training in patients with chronic heart failure. A complete exercise model? A prospective randomised study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laoutaris, Ioannis D; Adamopoulos, Stamatis; Manginas, Athanassios; Panagiotakos, Demosthenes B; Kallistratos, Manolis S; Doulaptsis, Costas; Kouloubinis, Alexandros; Voudris, Vasilis; Pavlides, Gregory; Cokkinos, Dennis V; Dritsas, Athanasios

    2013-09-01

    We hypothesised that combined aerobic training (AT) with resistance training (RT) and inspiratory muscle training (IMT) could result in additional benefits over AT alone in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF). Twenty-seven patients, age 58 ± 9 years, NYHA II/III and LVEF 29 ± 7% were randomly assigned to a 12-week AT (n=14) or a combined AT/RT/IMT (ARIS) (n=13) exercise program. AT consisted of bike exercise at 70-80% of max heart rate. ARIS training consisted of AT with RT of the quadriceps at 50% of 1 repetition maximum (1RM) and upper limb exercises using dumbbells of 1-2 kg as well as IMT at 60% of sustained maximal inspiratory pressure (SPI(max)). At baseline and after intervention patients underwent cardiopulmonary exercise testing, echocardiography, evaluation of dyspnea, muscle function and quality of life (QoL) scores. The ARIS program as compared to AT alone, resulted in additional improvement in quadriceps muscle strength (1RM, p=0.005) and endurance (50%1 RM × number of max repetitions, p=0.01), SPI(max) (pexercise time (p=0.01), circulatory power (peak oxygen consumption × peak systolic blood pressure, p=0.05), dyspnea (p=0.03) and QoL (p=0.03). ARIS training was safe and resulted in incremental benefits in both peripheral and respiratory muscle weakness, cardiopulmonary function and QoL compared to that of AT. The present findings may add a new prospective to cardiac rehabilitation programs of heart failure patients whilst the clinical significance of these outcomes need to be addressed in larger randomised studies. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The Correlation of Plasma Levels of Apelin-13 with Insulin Resistance Index and Plasma Leptin of Diabetic Male Rats after 8-Week Aerobic Exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahimeh Kazemi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: The physiological role of apelin, an adipokine secreted by adipose tissue, in insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes has been identified. The aim of this study was to determine the correlation of plasma levels of apelin-13 with insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR and plasma leptin of diabetic male rats after 8-week aerobic exercise. Materials and Methods: Peresent study was an experimental study with animal model. Twenty eight diabetic male Wistar rats were divided into 3 groups: Non-diabetic (n=9, control diabetic (n=9 and trained diabetic (n=10. Type 2 diabetes was induced by intraperitoneal injection of nicotinamide and streptozotocin. The trained diabetic rat ran 8-week on treadmill progressively. After the training period, plasma levels of glucose, insulin, leptin and apelin-13 were measured and HOMA-IR was calculated. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA and Pearson’s correlation were used for analyzing data. p<0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. Results: A significant decrease in plasma levels of glucose, insulin and leptin and HOMA-IR in trained diabetic vs control diabetic rats, a significant increase in plasma levels of apelin in trained diabetic vs non-diabetic and control diabetic rats and a significant negative correlation of plasma levels of apelin with HOMA-IR and plasma leptin in trained diabetic rats was observed. Conclusion: In present study, 8-week aerobic training by improvement of insulin sensitivity (decrease of HOMA-IR and plasma leptin increased plasma levels of apelin-13 in diabetic male rats.

  17. Effects of concurrent and aerobic exercises on postexercise hypotension in elderly hypertensive men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Rodrigo; Umpierre, Daniel; Vogel, Guilherme; Vieira, Paulo J C; Santos, Lucas P; de Mello, Renato Bandeira; Tanaka, Hirofumi; Fuchs, Sandra C

    2017-11-01

    Despite the fact that simultaneous performance of resistance and aerobic exercises (i.e., concurrent exercise) has become a standard exercise prescription for the elderly, no information is available on its effects on post-exercise hypotension (PEH) in elderly men with hypertension. To compare the effects of different types of exercise on PEH in elderly men with hypertension. Twenty elderly men with essential hypertension participated in three crossover interventions, in random order, and on separate days: a non-exercise control session at seated rest, aerobic exercise performed for 45min, and 45min of concurrent resistance and aerobic exercise consisted of 4 sets of 8 repetitions at 70% 1RM of resistance exercise followed by aerobic exercise on treadmill. After each session, blood pressure (BP) was measured continuously for 1h in the laboratory and for 24h under ambulatory conditions. During the first hour in laboratory, diastolic BP was lower after aerobic (-5mmHg) and concurrent exercise (-6mmHg) in comparison with Control. Day-time diastolic BP was significantly lower after aerobic exercise (-7mmHg) when compared to the control. No significant differences were found among the three experimental sessions for night-time and 24-hour diastolic BP, as well as day-time, night-time and 24-hour systolic BP. Concurrent exercise produced acute PEH similar to aerobic exercise but such effect did not last as long as aerobic exercise in elderly patients with essential hypertension. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Aerobic exercises: their cardiovascular and other benefits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fatima, R.

    2004-01-01

    Aerobic exercise can help prevent ischemic heart disease and other diseases. Physical inactivity is a major factor for developing Coronary Artery Disease (CAD) which is characterized by deposit of cholesterol, calcium and other substances in the inner lining of the arteries, that supply to cardiac muscle. It also contributes to other risk factors including obesity, hypertension, increased triglycerides, low level of HDL cholesterol and diabetes. The essential components of a systematic individualized exercise prescription include the appropriate mode, intensity, duration, frequency and progression of physical activity. There are four components of exercise program; a warm up, an endurance phase, optional recreational activity and a cool down. For sedentary individuals, exercise should start at 60% of maximum heart rare. Benefits of physical activity depend on the total amount of exercise. Vigorous leisure time activity should be promoted in order to give way to healthy living. (author)

  19. Combined aerobic and resistance exercise training decreases peripheral but not central artery wall thickness in subjects with type 2 diabetes.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreuder, T.H.A.; Munckhof, I.C.L. van den; Poelkens, F.; Hopman, M.T.; Thijssen, D.H.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Little is known about the impact of exercise training on conduit artery wall thickness in type 2 diabetes. We examined the local and systemic impact of exercise training on superficial femoral (SFA), brachial (BA), and carotid artery (CA) wall thickness in type 2 diabetes patients and

  20. Effects of Aerobic Exercise and Resistance Training on Stage I and II Breast Cancer Survivors: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garner, Dena; Erck, Elizabeth G.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Lack of physical activity has been noted in breast cancer survivors and been attributed to decreased physical function. Purpose: This study assessed the effects of a moderate-to-vigorous physical exercise program on body fat percentage, maximal oxygen consumption (VO[subscript 2] max), body mass index, and bone mineral density (BMD) of…

  1. Combined aerobic and resistance exercise is effective for achieving weight loss and reducing cardiovascular risk factors without deteriorating bone health in obese young adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung Sub Lim

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available PurposeWeight loss reduces cardiovascular risk factors in the obese. However, weight reduction through diet negatively affects long-term bone health. The aim of study was to determine the ability of combined aerobic and resistance exercise (CE to reduce weight and cardiovascular risk without diminishing bone health.MethodsTwenty-five young adults participated in an 8-week weight loss CE program. Subjects were allocated to an obese group or a control group by body mass index (BMI. Body weight, BMI, body composition, and bone mineral density (BMD of the lumbar spine and total hip were measured before and after the CE trial. Serum levels of metabolic markers, including adipokines and bone markers, were also evaluated.ResultsWeight loss was evident in the obese group after the 8 weeks CE trial. Fat mass was significantly reduced in both groups. Fasting insulin, homeostatic model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR, leptin and aminotransferases level were significantly reduced from baseline only in the obese group. High density lipoprotein cholesterol increased in both groups. Hip BMD increased in the obese group. In all study subjects, BMI changes were correlated with HOMA-IR, leptin, and HDL changes. BMI decreases were correlated with lumbar spine BMD increases, lumbar spine BMD increases were positively correlated with osteocalcin changes, and lumbar spine bone mineral content increases were correlated negatively with C-terminal telopeptide of type 1 collagen changes.ConclusionThese findings suggest that CE provides effective weight loss and improves cardiovascular risk factors without diminishing BMD. Furthermore, they indicate that lumbar spine BMD might be maintained by increasing bone formation and decreasing bone resorption.

  2. Does Aerobic Exercise Influence Intrinsic Brain Activity? An Aerobic Exercise Intervention among Healthy Old Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pär Flodin

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have indicated that aerobic exercise could reduce age related decline in cognition and brain functioning. Here we investigated the effects of aerobic exercise on intrinsic brain activity. Sixty sedentary healthy males and females (64–78 years were randomized into either an aerobic exercise group or an active control group. Both groups recieved supervised training, 3 days a week for 6 months. Multimodal brain imaging data was acquired before and after the intervention, including 10 min of resting state brain functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI and arterial spin labeling (ASL. Additionally, a comprehensive battery of cognitive tasks assessing, e.g., executive function and episodic memory was administered. Both the aerobic and the control group improved in aerobic capacity (VO2-peak over 6 months, but a significant group by time interaction confirmed that the aerobic group improved more. Contrary to our hypothesis, we did not observe any significant group by time interactions with regard to any measure of intrinsic activity. To further probe putative relationships between fitness and brain activity, we performed post hoc analyses disregarding group belongings. At baseline, VO2-peak was negativly related to BOLD-signal fluctuations (BOLDSTD in mid temporal areas. Over 6 months, improvements in aerobic capacity were associated with decreased connectivity between left hippocampus and contralateral precentral gyrus, and positively to connectivity between right mid-temporal areas and frontal and parietal regions. Independent component analysis identified a VO2-related increase in coupling between the default mode network and left orbitofrontal cortex, as well as a decreased connectivity between the sensorimotor network and thalamus. Extensive exploratory data analyses of global efficiency, connectome wide multivariate pattern analysis (connectome-MVPA, as well as ASL, did not reveal any relationships between aerobic fitness

  3. The effect of exercise on insulin resistance in obese women with polycystic ovary syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heba S Kareem

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion Regular aerobic exercises improve insulin resistance, abdominal fat distribution, and body weight in obese diabetic and nondiabetic women with polycystic ovary, and they are advised to perform regular aerobic exercises.

  4. Benefits of a 12-week lifestyle modification program including diet and combined aerobic and resistance exercise on albuminuria in diabetic and non-diabetic Japanese populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto-Kabasawa, Keiko; Hosojima, Michihiro; Yata, Yusuke; Saito, Mariko; Tanaka, Noriko; Tanaka, Junta; Tanabe, Naohito; Narita, Ichiei; Arakawa, Masaaki; Saito, Akihiko

    2015-12-01

    Albuminuria is a biomarker for chronic kidney disease and an independent predictor of cardiovascular and all-cause mortality. A recent meta-analysis concluded that these risks increase with urinary albumin concentration, even when below the microalbuminuria threshold. Thus, minimizing urinary albumin may be a valuable therapeutic goal regardless of disease status. We investigated the benefits and safety of a 12-week lifestyle modification program including diet and combined aerobic and resistance exercise for reducing albuminuria in 295 normoalbuminuric or microalbuminuric Japanese adults, including 30 with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), 104 with metabolic syndrome (MS), and 145 with hypertension (HT). In the study population, the urinary albumin:creatinine ratio (UACR) was reduced significantly (ΔUACR -3.8 ± 16.8 mg/g, P < 0.001) with no change in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) (ΔeGFR -0.4 ± 7.4 mL/min/1.73 m(2), P = 0.343). The reduction in UACR was associated with decreased fasting plasma glucose (P < 0.05). The UACR was also reduced in the T2DM, MS, and HT groups with no change in eGFR. Reduced UACR was associated with decreased fasting plasma glucose in the MS group and decreased systolic blood pressure in the HT group. The UACR was also reduced in 46 subjects using renin-angiotensin system inhibitors with no change in eGFR. Our 12-week lifestyle modification program reduced UACR, maintained eGFR, and improved multiple fitness findings in Japanese subjects including T2DM, MS, and HT patients.

  5. Impact of moderate versus mild aerobic exercise training on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EB

    Key words: Aerobic exercise, inflammatory cytokines, obesity, non-insulin ... exercise, include reduced percentage of body fat and ... Skeletal muscle is another source of cytokines, called .... concomitant weight loss diet, is associated with.

  6. Impact of Mild versus Moderate Intensity Aerobic Walking Exercise ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-03-01

    Mar 1, 2014 ... Objective: To compare the effects of mild and moderate intensity treadmill walking exercises on markers of bone ... second group (B) received mild intensity aerobic exercise training. ..... Using functional loading to influence.

  7. Impact of resistance and aerobic exercise on sarcopenia and dynapenia in breast cancer patients receiving adjuvant chemotherapy: a multicenter randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Scott C; Segal, Roanne J; McKenzie, Donald C; Vallerand, James R; Morielli, Andria R; Mackey, John R; Gelmon, Karen; Friedenreich, Christine M; Reid, Robert D; Courneya, Kerry S

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to conduct an exploratory analysis of the START examining the effects of resistance exercise training (RET) and aerobic exercise training (AET) on sarcopenia, dynapenia, and associated quality of life (QoL) changes in breast cancer (BC) patients receiving adjuvant chemotherapy. Participants were randomized to usual care (UC) (n = 70), AET (n = 64), or RET (n = 66) for the duration of chemotherapy. Measures of sarcopenia [skeletal muscle index (SMI)] and dynapenia [upper extremity (UE) and lower extremity (LE) muscle dysfunction (MD)] were normalized relative to age-/sex-based clinical cut-points. QoL was assessed by the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Anemia (FACT-An) scales. At baseline, 25.5 % of BC patients were sarcopenic and 54.5 % were dynapenic with both conditions associated with poorer QoL. ANCOVAs showed significant differences favoring RET over UC for SMI (0.32 kg/m(2); p = 0.017), UE-MD (0.12 kg/kg; p < 0.001), and LE-MD (0.27 kg/kg; p < 0.001). Chi-square analyses revealed significant effects of RET, compared to UC/AET combined, on reversing sarcopenia (p = 0.039) and dynapenia (p = 0.019). The reversal of sarcopenia was associated with clinically relevant improvements in the FACT-An (11.7 points [95 % confidence interval (CI) -4.2 to 27.6]), the Trial Outcome Index-Anemia (10.0 points [95 % CI -4.0 to 24.1]), and fatigue (5.3 points [95 % CI -1.5 to 12.1]). Early-stage BC patients initiating adjuvant chemotherapy have higher than expected rates of sarcopenia and dynapenia which are associated with poorer QoL. RET during adjuvant chemotherapy resulted in the reversal of both sarcopenia and dynapenia; however, only the reversal of sarcopenia was associated with clinically meaningful improvements in QoL.

  8. Aerobic exercises alleviate symptoms of fatigue related to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Non-insulin dependent diabetic patients frequently suffer from fatigue symptoms that result from chronic systemic inflammation. Aerobic exercise was proved to modulate ... in obese patients with type 2 diabetes. Keywords: Aerobic exercise, inflammatory cytokines, obesity, Type 2 diabetes, fatigue syndrome.

  9. Effects of supervised structured aerobic exercise training program on fasting blood glucose level, plasma insulin level, glycemic control, and insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakil-Ur-Rehman, Syed; Karimi, Hossein; Gillani, Syed Amir

    2017-01-01

    To determine the effects of supervised structured aerobic exercise training (SSAET) program on fasting blood glucose level (FBGL), plasma insulin level (PIL), glycemic control (GC), and insulin resistance (IR) in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Riphah Rehabilitation and Research Centre (RRRC) was the clinical setting for this randomized controlled trial, located at Pakistan Railways General Hospital (PRGH), Rawalpindi, Pakistan. Study duration was 18 months from January 1, 2015 to June 30, 2016. Patients of both genders ranging 40-70 years of age with at least one year of history of T2DM were considered eligible according to WHO criteria, while patients with other chronic diseases, history of smoking, regular exercise and diet plan were excluded. Cohorts of 195 patients were screened out of whom 120 fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Amongst them 102 agreed to participate and were assigned to experimental (n=51) and control (n=51) groups. Experimental group underwent SSAET program, routine medication and dietary plan, whereas the control group received routine medication and dietary plan, while both group received treatment for 25 weeks. The blood samples were taken at baseline and on the completion of 25 weeks. The investigation of fasting blood glucose level, plasma insulin level, and glycemic control was conducted to calculate IR. Patients with T2DM in experimental group (n=51) treated with SSAET program, routine medication and dietary plan significantly improved FBGL (pre-mean= 276.41±25.31, post-mean=250.07±28.23), PIL (pre-mean=13.66±5.31, post-mean=8.91±3.83), GC (pre-mean=8.31±1.79, post-mean 7.28±1.43), and IR (pre-mean=64.95±27.26, post-mean 37.97±15.58), as compared with patients in control group treated with routine medication and dietary plan in whom deteriorations were noted in FBGL (pre-mean=268.19±22.48, post-mean=281.41±31.30), PIL(pre-mean=14.14±5.48, post-mean=14.85±5.27) GC (pre-mean=8.15±1.74, post-mean=8.20±1.44, and IR (pre

  10. Combined short-arm centrifuge and aerobic exercise training improves cardiovascular function and physical working capacity in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chang-Bin; Zhang, Shu; Zhang, Yu; Wang, Bing; Yao, Yong-Jie; Wang, Yong-Chun; Wu, Yan-Hong; Liang, Wen-Bin; Sun, Xi-Qing

    2010-12-01

    Musculoskeletal and cardiovascular deconditioning occurring in long-term spaceflight gives rise to the needs to develop new strategies to counteract these adverse effects. Short-arm centrifuge combined with ergometer has been proposed as a strategy to counteract adverse effects of microgravity. This study sought to investigate whether the combination of short-arm centrifuge and aerobic exercise training have advantages over short-arm centrifuge or aerobic exercise training alone. One week training was conducted by 24 healthy men. They were randomly divided into 3 groups: (1) short-arm centrifuge training, (2) aerobic exercise training, 40 W, and (3) combined short-arm centrifuge and aerobic exercise training. Before and after training, the cardiac pump function represented by stroke volume, cardiac output, left ventricular ejection time, and total peripheral resistance was evaluated. Variability of heart rate and systolic blood pressure were determined by spectral analysis. Physical working capacity was surveyed by near maximal physical working capacity test. The 1-week combined short-arm centrifuge and aerobic exercise training remarkably ameliorated the cardiac pump function and enhanced vasomotor sympathetic nerve modulation and improved physical working capacity by 10.9% (Pcentrifuge nor the aerobic exercise group showed improvements in these functions. These results demonstrate that combined short-arm centrifuge and aerobic exercise training has advantages over short-arm centrifuge or aerobic exercise training alone in influencing several physiologically important cardiovascular functions in humans. The combination of short-arm centrifuge and aerobic exercise offers a promising countermeasure to microgravity.

  11. Acute effect on ambulatory blood pressure from aerobic exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund Rasmussen, Charlotte; Nielsen, Line; Linander Henriksen, Marie

    2018-01-01

    session among female cleaners. METHODS: Twenty-two female cleaners were randomised to a cross-over study with a reference and an aerobic exercise session. Differences in 24-h, work hours, leisure time, and sleep ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) were evaluated using repeated measure 2 × 2 mixed...... of 1.5 mmHg (p = 0.03) were found after the aerobic exercise session. During leisure time, the systolic ABP was lowered by 1.7 mmHg (p = 0.04) and the diastolic ABP was unaltered. During sleep, the systolic and diastolic ABP was unaltered. CONCLUSION: A single aerobic exercise session lowered 24-h...

  12. Insulin resistance: vascular function and exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moon-Hyon Hwang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Insulin resistance associated with metabolic syndrome and Type 2 diabetes mellitus is an epidemic metabolic disorder, which increases the risk of cardiovascular complications. Impaired vascular endothelial function is an early marker for atherosclerosis, which causes cardiovascular complications. Both experimental and clinical studies indicate that endothelial dysfunction in vasculatures occurs with insulin resistance. The associated physiological mechanisms are not fully appreciated yet, however, it seems that augmented oxidative stress, a physiological imbalance between oxidants and antioxidants, in vascular cells is a possible mechanism involved in various vascular beds with insulin resistance and hyperglycemia. Regardless of the inclusion of resistance exercise, aerobic exercise seems to be beneficial for vascular endothelial function in both large conduit and small resistance vessels in both clinical and experimental studies with insulin resistance. In clinical cases, aerobic exercise over 8 weeks with higher intensity seems more beneficial than the cases with shorter duration and lower intensity. However, more studies are needed in the future to elucidate the physiological mechanisms by which vascular endothelial function is impaired in insulin resistance and improved with aerobic exercise.

  13. Monitorização ambulatorial da pressão arterial em indivíduos normotensos submetidos a duas sessões únicas de exercícios: resistido e aeróbio Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring in normotensive individuals undergoing two single exercise sessions: resistive exercise training and aerobic exercise training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ambrosina Maria Lignani de Miranda Bermudes

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Investigar a influência de duas sessões únicas de exercício resistido (circuito com pesos e aeróbio sobre as alterações pressóricas, em indivíduos sedentários e normotensos. MÉTODOS: Foram avaliados pela monitorização numa situação controle, sem realização de exercícios (MAPA 1 25 indivíduos, após exercício resistido (MAPA 2 e após exercício aeróbio (MAPA 3. Os exercícios resistidos foram realizados sob forma de circuito com pesos, com intensidade de 40% da força máxima individual e os exercícios aeróbicos em cicloergômetro, com intensidade entre 60% e 70% da freqüência cardíaca (FC máxima alcançada no teste ergométrico. RESULTADOS: A pressão arterial sistólica (PAS de 24h e sub-períodos vigília e sono não apresentaram variações estatisticamente significantes quando comparada à MAPA2 e MAPA3 e MAPA2 e MAPA3 entre si. A pressão arterial diastólica (PAD de 24h e diurna apresentaram reduções significantes (POBJECTIVE: To assess the influence of 2 single exercise sessions on blood pressure in sedentary normotensive individuals: one of resistive exercise training (circuit weight training and the other of aerobic exercise training. METHODS: Using ambulatory blood pressure monitoring, this study assessed 25 individuals as follows: in a controlled situation at rest (ABPM 1; after resistive exercise training (ABPM 2; and after aerobic exercise training (ABPM 3. Resistive exercise training was performed as circuit weight training with an intensity of 40% of each individual's maximum strength. The aerobic exercise training was performed on a cycloergometer with intensity between 60% and 70% of the maximum heart rate (HR reached during previous exercise testing. RESULTS: Systolic blood pressure (SBP values during 24 hours and during subperiods of wakefulness and sleep showed no statistically significant variations when the results obtained at rest were compared with those of ABPM2 and ABPM3, and when

  14. The Acute Effect of Aerobic Exercise on Measures of Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fort, Inza L.; And Others

    The immediate response of stress to aerobic exercise was measured by utilizing the Palmar Sweat Index (PSI) and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI). Forty subjects (20 male and 20 female) from the ages of 18-30 sustained a single bout of aerobic activity for 30 minutes at 60 percent of their maximum heart rate. Pre-treatment procedures…

  15. Aerobic Exercise: Top 10 Reasons to Get Physical

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can help you live longer and healthier. Need motivation? See how aerobic exercise affects your heart, lungs ... found that regular physical activity may help protect memory, reasoning, judgment and thinking skills (cognitive function) in ...

  16. Impact of aerobic exercises on selected inflammatory markers and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    aerobic exercise training on the immunologic parameters and inflammatory cytokines of patients with sickle cell anemia (SCA) .... nificant differences in weight, height, body mass index ..... phosphatase 5a in obese Chinese male adolescents.

  17. Aerobic vs anaerobic exercise training effects on the cardiovascular system

    OpenAIRE

    Patel, Harsh; Alkhawam, Hassan; Madanieh, Raef; Shah, Niel; Kosmas, Constantine E; Vittorio, Timothy J

    2017-01-01

    Physical exercise is one of the most effective methods to help prevent cardiovascular (CV) disease and to promote CV health. Aerobic and anaerobic exercises are two types of exercise that differ based on the intensity, interval and types of muscle fibers incorporated. In this article, we aim to further elaborate on these two categories of physical exercise and to help decipher which provides the most effective means of promoting CV health.

  18. Resistance exercise training for fibromyalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busch, Angela J; Webber, Sandra C; Richards, Rachel S; Bidonde, Julia; Schachter, Candice L; Schafer, Laurel A; Danyliw, Adrienne; Sawant, Anuradha; Dal Bello-Haas, Vanina; Rader, Tamara; Overend, Tom J

    2013-12-20

    standardized mean differences (SMD) or mean differences (MD) or risk ratios or Peto odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Where two or more studies provided data for an outcome, we carried out a meta-analysis. The literature search yielded 1865 citations with five studies meeting the selection criteria. One of the studies that had three arms contributed data for two comparisons. In the included studies, there were 219 women participants with fibromyalgia, 95 of whom were assigned to resistance training programs. Three randomized trials compared 16 to 21 weeks of moderate- to high-intensity resistance training versus a control group. Two studies compared eight weeks of progressive resistance training (intensity as tolerated) using free weights or body weight resistance exercise versus aerobic training (ie, progressive treadmill walking, indoor and outdoor walking), and one study compared 12 weeks of low-intensity resistance training using hand weights (1 to 3 lbs (0.45 to 1.36 kg)) and elastic tubing versus flexibility exercise (static stretches to major muscle groups).Statistically significant differences (MD; 95% CI) favoring the resistance training interventions over control group(s) were found in multidimensional function (Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ) total decreased 16.75 units on a 100-point scale; 95% CI -23.31 to -10.19), self reported physical function (-6.29 units on a 100-point scale; 95% CI -10.45 to -2.13), pain (-3.3 cm on a 10-cm scale; 95% CI -6.35 to -0.26), tenderness (-1.84 out of 18 tender points; 95% CI -2.6 to -1.08), and muscle strength (27.32 kg force on bilateral concentric leg extension; 95% CI 18.28 to 36.36).Differences between the resistance training group(s) and the aerobic training groups were not statistically significant for multidimensional function (5.48 on a 100-point scale; 95% CI -0.92 to 11.88), self reported physical function (-1.48 units on a 100-point scale; 95% CI -6.69 to 3.74) or tenderness (SMD -0.13; 95% CI -0

  19. The Impact of 10 weeks of Aerobic Exercise and Supplementation of Green Tea on Lipid Profile, Insulin Resistance and Liver Enzymes (GGT, ALT, AST in Obese Diabetic Women (type 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Izadi Ghahfarokhi

    2015-05-01

    Conclusions: Green tea supplements with aerobic training were effective in controlling obesity and type 2 diabetes. By increasing the duration of the exercise and supplementation, it may find desirable results on serum cholesterol and triglycerides.

  20. Higher Total Protein Intake and Change in Total Protein Intake Affect Body Composition but Not Metabolic Syndrome Indexes in Middle-Aged Overweight and Obese Adults Who Perform Resistance and Aerobic Exercise for 36 Weeks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Wayne W; Kim, Jung Eun; Amankwaah, Akua F; Gordon, Susannah L; Weinheimer-Haus, Eileen M

    2015-09-01

    Studies assessing the effects of protein supplementation on changes in body composition (BC) and health rarely consider the impact of total protein intake (TPro) or the change in TPro (CTPro) from participants' usual diets. This secondary data analysis assessed the impact of TPro and CTPro on changes in BC and metabolic syndrome (MetS) indexes in overweight and obese middle-aged adults who participated in an exercise training program. Men and women [n = 117; age: 50 ± 0.7 y, body mass index (BMI; in kg/m(2)): 30.1 ± 0.3; means ± SEs] performed resistance exercise 2 d/wk and aerobic exercise 1 d/wk and consumed an unrestricted diet along with 200-kcal supplements (0, 10, 20, or 30 g whey protein) twice daily for 36 wk. Protein intake was assessed via 4-d food records. Multiple linear regression model and stratified analysis were applied for data analyses. Among all subjects, TPro and CTPro were inversely associated (P exercise training, higher TPro promoted positive changes in BC but not in MetS indexes in overweight and obese middle-aged adults. Changes in TPro from before to during the intervention also influenced BC responses and should be considered in future research when different TPro is achieved via diet or supplements. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00812409. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  1. Inflammatory cytokines and immune system modulation by aerobic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: Immune function, inflammatory cytokines, aerobic exercise, resistance exercise, aging. ... Physical exercise is effective in reducing (or ameliorate) the ..... moderate resistance training program increases muscle .... Nutrition Metabo-.

  2. Test-retest reliabilty of exercise-induced hypoalgesia after aerobic exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaegter, Henrik Bjarke; Dørge, Daniel Bandholtz; Schmidt, Kristian Sonne

    2018-01-01

    Objective: Exercise increases pressure pain thresholds (PPTs) in exercising and nonexercising muscles, known as exercise-induced hypoalgesia (EIH). No studies have investigated the test-retest reliability of change in PPTs after aerobic exercise. Primary objectives were to compare the effect...

  3. Beneficial mechanisms of aerobic exercise on hepatic lipid metabolism in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Rui; Liong, Emily C; So, Kwok Fai; Fung, Man-Lung; Tipoe, George L

    2015-04-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) refers to any fatty liver disease that is not due to excessive use of alcohol. NAFLD probably results from abnormal hepatic lipid metabolism and insulin resistance. Aerobic exercise is shown to improve NAFLD. This review aimed to evaluate the molecular mechanisms involved in the beneficial effects of aerobic exercise on NAFLD. We searched articles in English on the role of aerobic exercise in NAFLD therapy in PubMed. The mechanisms of chronic aerobic exercise in regulating the outcome of NAFLD include: (i) reducing intrahepatic fat content by down-regulating sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c and up-regulating peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma expression levels; (ii) decreasing hepatic oxidative stress through modulating the reactive oxygen species, and enhancing antioxidant enzymes such as catalase and glutathione peroxidase; (iii) ameliorating hepatic inflammation via the inhibition of pro-inflammatory mediators such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-1 beta; (iv) attenuating mitochondrial dependent apoptosis by reducing cytochrome C released from the mitochondria to the cytosol; and (v) inducing hepato-protective autophagy. Aerobic exercise, via different mechanisms, significantly decreases the fat content of the liver and improves the outcomes of patients with NAFLD.

  4. Tumor vessel normalization after aerobic exercise enhances chemotherapeutic efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schadler, Keri L; Thomas, Nicholas J; Galie, Peter A; Bhang, Dong Ha; Roby, Kerry C; Addai, Prince; Till, Jacob E; Sturgeon, Kathleen; Zaslavsky, Alexander; Chen, Christopher S; Ryeom, Sandra

    2016-10-04

    Targeted therapies aimed at tumor vasculature are utilized in combination with chemotherapy to improve drug delivery and efficacy after tumor vascular normalization. Tumor vessels are highly disorganized with disrupted blood flow impeding drug delivery to cancer cells. Although pharmacologic anti-angiogenic therapy can remodel and normalize tumor vessels, there is a limited window of efficacy and these drugs are associated with severe side effects necessitating alternatives for vascular normalization. Recently, moderate aerobic exercise has been shown to induce vascular normalization in mouse models. Here, we provide a mechanistic explanation for the tumor vascular normalization induced by exercise. Shear stress, the mechanical stimuli exerted on endothelial cells by blood flow, modulates vascular integrity. Increasing vascular shear stress through aerobic exercise can alter and remodel blood vessels in normal tissues. Our data in mouse models indicate that activation of calcineurin-NFAT-TSP1 signaling in endothelial cells plays a critical role in exercise-induced shear stress mediated tumor vessel remodeling. We show that moderate aerobic exercise with chemotherapy caused a significantly greater decrease in tumor growth than chemotherapy alone through improved chemotherapy delivery after tumor vascular normalization. Our work suggests that the vascular normalizing effects of aerobic exercise can be an effective chemotherapy adjuvant.

  5. Effects of eight weeks of aerobic interval training and of isoinertial resistance training on risk factors of cardiometabolic diseases and exercise capacity in healthy elderly subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruseghini, Paolo; Calabria, Elisa; Tam, Enrico; Milanese, Chiara; Oliboni, Eugenio; Pezzato, Andrea; Pogliaghi, Silvia; Salvagno, Gian Luca; Schena, Federico; Mucelli, Roberto Pozzi; Capelli, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the effect of 8 weeks of high intensity interval training (HIT) and isoinertial resistance training (IRT) on cardiovascular fitness, muscle mass-strength and risk factors of metabolic syndrome in 12 healthy older adults (68 yy ± 4). HIT consisted in 7 two-minute repetitions at 80%–90% of V˙O2max, 3 times/w. After 4 months of recovery, subjects were treated with IRT, which included 4 sets of 7 maximal, bilateral knee extensions/flexions 3 times/w on a leg-press flywheel ergometer. HIT elicited significant: i) modifications of selected anthropometrical features; ii) improvements of cardiovascular fitness and; iii) decrease of systolic pressure. HIT and IRT induced hypertrophy of the quadriceps muscle, which, however, was paralleled by significant increases in strength only after IRT. Neither HIT nor IRT induced relevant changes in blood lipid profile, with the exception of a decrease of LDL and CHO after IRT. Physiological parameters related with aerobic fitness and selected body composition values predicting cardiovascular risk remained stable during detraining and, after IRT, they were complemented by substantial increase of muscle strength, leading to further improvements of quality of life of the subjects. PMID:26046575

  6. Aerobic Exercise During Encoding Impairs Hippocampus-Dependent Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soga, Keishi; Kamijo, Keita; Masaki, Hiroaki

    2017-08-01

    We investigated how aerobic exercise during encoding affects hippocampus-dependent memory through a source memory task that assessed hippocampus-independent familiarity and hippocampus-dependent recollection processes. Using a within-participants design, young adult participants performed a memory-encoding task while performing a cycling exercise or being seated. The subsequent retrieval phase was conducted while sitting on a chair. We assessed behavioral and event-related brain potential measures of familiarity and recollection processes during the retrieval phase. Results indicated that source accuracy was lower for encoding with exercise than for encoding in the resting condition. Event-related brain potential measures indicated that the parietal old/new effect, which has been linked to recollection processing, was observed in the exercise condition, whereas it was absent in the rest condition, which is indicative of exercise-induced hippocampal activation. These findings suggest that aerobic exercise during encoding impairs hippocampus-dependent memory, which may be attributed to inefficient source encoding during aerobic exercise.

  7. Feasibility and effect of aerobic exercise for lowering depressive symptoms among individuals with traumatic brain injury: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwandt, Marika; Harris, Jocelyn E; Thomas, Scott; Keightley, Michelle; Snaiderman, Abe; Colantonio, Angela

    2012-01-01

    : To establish the feasibility and effect of an aerobic exercise intervention on symptoms of depression among individuals with traumatic brain injury. : A pre-post single group. : our community dwelling participants (>11 months postinjury) with residual physical impairment recruited from an outpatient clinic. : 12-week aerobic exercise program. : The Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression; aerobic capacity (cycle ergometer, heart rate at reference resistance, perceived exertion); Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale and program perception (survey). : Descriptive statistics to depict change in outcome measure scores. Answers from the survey were collated and presented as summary statements. : All participants had fewer symptoms of depression, improved aerobic capacity and higher self esteem after the intervention. High satisfaction with the program was reported with no adverse effects. : The aerobic exercise program was feasible and effective for individuals with traumatic brain injury, leading to improved mood, cardiovascular fitness, and self-esteem. Future research is needed to determine the intensity, frequency, and duration required to reach and maintain improvement.

  8. Aerobic Exercise Increases Peripheral and Hepatic Insulin Sensitivity in Sedentary Adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Heijden, Gert-Jan; Toffolo, Gianna; Manesso, Erica; Sauer, Pieter J. J.; Sunehag, Agneta L.

    2009-01-01

    Context: Data are limited on the effects of controlled aerobic exercise programs (without weight loss) on insulin sensitivity and glucose metabolism in children and adolescents. Objective: To determine whether a controlled aerobic exercise program (without weight loss) improves peripheral and

  9. Aerobic exercise improves gastrointestinal motility in psychiatric inpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yeon Soo; Song, Bong Kil; Oh, Ji Sun; Woo, Seung Seok

    2014-08-14

    To evaluate the benefit of aerobic exercise on colonic transit time (CTT) for psychiatric inpatients in a closed ward. Sixty consecutive adult inpatients of the Somang Hospital Psychiatry Unit (Eumsung-gun, South Korea), without CTT-related diseases or drug therapies, were recruited for study from March to June of 2012. Upon enrollment, the patients were randomly assigned to partake in a 12-wk instructor-led group aerobic exercise program (exercise group; n = 30) or to maintain their ordinary daily activities (control group; n = 30). The exercise program was structured as 10 min warm-up (stretching), 40 min exercise, and 10 min cool-down (stretching) for three days each week. The exercise sessions consisted of walking only in week one and aerobics from weeks two to 12, with increasing intensity (50% heart rate reserve (HRR) for weeks one to four, 60% HRR for weeks five to eight, and 70% HRR for weeks nine to 12). CTT was measured before (baseline) and after (week 12) the exercise program, in duplicate (on days four and seven), using abdominal radiography and the multiple radio-opaque marker technique. Changes in the exercising patients' CTT and weight-, cardiovascular- and fitness-related parameters were statistically assessed. The study dropout rate was 30.0%, with 23 patients in the exercise group and 19 patients in the control group completing the study. At week 12, the exercise group showed decreases in body weight (mean ± SE) baseline: 69.4 ± 2.8 vs study-end: 67.6 ± 2.7; P exercise group showed significant improvements in leg muscle strength (baseline: 41.7 ± 4.3 vs study-end: 64.1 ± 5.0; P exercise group showed an exercise-induced reduction in total CTT (baseline: 54.2 ± 8.0 vs 30.3 ± 6.1), which was significantly different from that experienced by the control group over the 12-wk period (48.6 ± 9.3 vs 48.3 ± 12.3; P = 0.027); however, the exercise-induced decreases in CTT involving the three colonic segments examined (right, left and recto

  10. Impact of moderate versus mild aerobic exercise training on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Recently some plasma biomarkers of inflammation have been recognized as important cardiovascular risk factors. There is little information about the effects of aerobic exercise training on these biomarkers and the risk of metabolic complications in obese type 2 diabetes patients. Objective: To compare the ...

  11. effects of aerobic exercise in the management of erectile dysfunction

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abrham

    2011-11-03

    Nov 3, 2011 ... database. The citation lists of randomized controlled trials on the effect of aerobic training and Erectile ... It has been recognized that the major cause of ED is .... Ethiop J Health Sci. Vol. 21, No. 3. November 2011. Table 2: Effect of exercise on erectile dysfunction (mean± SD changed score values), N= 385.

  12. Aerobic Exercise Intervention, Cognitive Performance, and Brain Structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonasson, Lars S; Nyberg, Lars; Kramer, Arthur F

    2017-01-01

    . Freesurfer was used to estimate cortical thickness in frontal regions and hippocampus volume. Results showed that aerobic exercisers, compared to controls, exhibited a broad, rather than specific, improvement in cognition as indexed by a higher "Cognitive score," a composite including episodic memory...

  13. Strength training and aerobic exercise training for muscle disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voet, N.B.M.; Kooi, E.L. van der; Riphagen, I.I.; Lindeman, E.; Engelen, B.G.M. van; Geurts, A.C.H.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Strength training or aerobic exercise programmes might optimise muscle and cardiorespiratory function and prevent additional disuse atrophy and deconditioning in people with a muscle disease. This is an update of a review first published in 2004. OBJECTIVES: To examine the safety and

  14. Effects of regular aerobic exercise on visual perceptual learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connell, Charlotte J W; Thompson, Benjamin; Green, Hayden; Sullivan, Rachel K; Gant, Nicholas

    2017-12-02

    This study investigated the influence of five days of moderate intensity aerobic exercise on the acquisition and consolidation of visual perceptual learning using a motion direction discrimination (MDD) task. The timing of exercise relative to learning was manipulated by administering exercise either before or after perceptual training. Within a matched-subjects design, twenty-seven healthy participants (n = 9 per group) completed five consecutive days of perceptual training on a MDD task under one of three interventions: no exercise, exercise before the MDD task, or exercise after the MDD task. MDD task accuracy improved in all groups over the five-day period, but there was a trend for impaired learning when exercise was performed before visual perceptual training. MDD task accuracy (mean ± SD) increased in exercise before by 4.5 ± 6.5%; exercise after by 11.8 ± 6.4%; and no exercise by 11.3 ± 7.2%. All intervention groups displayed similar MDD threshold reductions for the trained and untrained motion axes after training. These findings suggest that moderate daily exercise does not enhance the rate of visual perceptual learning for an MDD task or the transfer of learning to an untrained motion axis. Furthermore, exercise performed immediately prior to a visual perceptual learning task may impair learning. Further research with larger groups is required in order to better understand these effects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. A Comparative Study of the Effects of Aerobic and Resisted ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AWEPTO H

    disturbed sleep patterns and impaired daytime attention, .... gymnasium at normal speed. Therapeutic exercise duration: The subjects exercised for ..... asthma in adolescents for 6 weeks and reported that there were no .... with aerobic exercise performance when they studied the ... Anaerobic fitness in children with asthma;.

  16. Electric motor assisted bicycle as an aerobic exercise machine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagata, T; Okada, S; Makikawa, M

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this study is to maintain a continuous level of exercise intensity around the aerobic threshold (AT) during riding on an electric motor assisted bicycle using a new control system of electrical motor assistance which uses the efficient pedaling rate of popular bicycles. Five male subjects participated in the experiment, and the oxygen uptake was measured during cycling exercise using this new pedaling rate control system of electrical motor assistance, which could maintain the pedaling rate within a specific range, similar to that in previous type of electrically assisted bicycles. Results showed that this new pedaling rate control system at 65 rpm ensured continuous aerobic exercise intensity around the AT in two subjects, and this intensity level was higher than that observed in previous type. However, certain subjects were unable to maintain the expected exercise intensity because of their particular cycling preferences such as the pedaling rate. It is necessary to adjust the specific pedaling rate range of the electrical motor assist control according to the preferred pedaling rate, so that this system becomes applicable to anyone who want continuous aerobic exercise.

  17. Aerobic exercise and other healthy lifestyle factors that influence vascular aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos-Parker, Jessica R; LaRocca, Thomas J; Seals, Douglas R

    2014-12-01

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) remain the leading cause of death in the United States and other modern societies. Advancing age is the major risk factor for CVD, primarily due to stiffening of the large elastic arteries and the development of vascular endothelial dysfunction. In contrast, regular aerobic exercise protects against the development of large elastic artery stiffness and vascular endothelial dysfunction with advancing age. Moreover, aerobic exercise interventions reduce arterial stiffness and restore vascular endothelial function in previously sedentary middle-aged/older adults. Aerobic exercise exerts its beneficial effects on arterial function by modulating structural proteins, reducing oxidative stress and inflammation, and restoring nitric oxide bioavailability. Aerobic exercise may also promote "resistance" against factors that reduce vascular function and increase CVD risk with age. Preventing excessive increases in abdominal adiposity, following healthy dietary practices, maintaining a low CVD risk factor profile, and, possibly, selective use of pharmaceuticals and nutraceuticals also play a major role in preserving vascular function with aging. Copyright © 2014 The American Physiological Society.

  18. The Effect of Interdialytic Combined Resistance and Aerobic Exercise Training on Health Related Outcomes in Chronic Hemodialysis Patients: The Tunisian Randomized Controlled Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bechir Frih

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tunisia has the highest prevalence of hemodialysis patients compared to the other countries in North Africa. Dialysis centers rarely offer an exercise program to prevent physiological and psychological dialysis therapy-related alterations in chronic hemodialysis patients.Aim: To examine the effect of combined endurance-resistance training program on physiological and psychological outcomes in patients undergoing hemodialysis.Methods: We designed a single blinded, randomized, controlled study for a period of 4 months. Patients were randomized to intervention group or control group. Intervention group patients received 4 training sessions per week, held on non-hemodialysis days for a period of 4 months, whereas control group patients continued their regular lifestyle practice without direct intervention from the personnel of this investigation. Patients were evaluated at baseline (initial assessment and after the four-month study period (final assessment by the same investigator blinded to treatment group assignment using physical, physiological, and psychological measurements.Results: Compared with control group, intervention group showed significant improvement in physical performance during the sit-to-stand-to-sit tests (STS-10: −16.2%, ES = −1.65; STS-60: +23.43%, ES = 1.18, handgrip force task (+23.54%, ES = 1.16, timed up and go test (−13.86%, ES = −1.13, and 6-min walk test (+15.94%, ES = 2.09. Likewise, mini nutritional assessment long form scores after intervention period were significantly higher in the intervention group compared to the control group (ES = 1.43. Physical and mental component scores of SF-36 questionnaire increased significantly in the intervention group (ES = 1.10 and ES = 2.06, respectively, whereas hospital anxiety and depression scale scores decreased significantly (ES = −1.65 and ES = −2.72, respectively. Regarding biological parameters, intervention group displayed improvement in systolic

  19. Survey the effect of aerobic exercise on aerobic capacity in patients with coronary artery disease (cad)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalyani, M. N.; Ebadi, A.

    2007-01-01

    Increased aerobic exercise capacity appears to reduce both all-cause mortality and cardiovascular disease mortality. Physical exercise to improve maximal oxygen consumption (VO/sub 2max/) is thus strongly recommended, however evidence regarding the most efficient training intensity for patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) is still lacking. The purpose of this randomized study was to assess the effects of aerobic exercise for increasing VO/sub 2max/ in stable CAD-patients. Thirty stable CAD-patients were randomized to supervised walking 30 min three times a week for 10 weeks. Before and after training VO/sub 2max/ was predicted from Bruce treadmill test. Before training VO/sub 2max/ was 35.2+-4.32 ml/kg/min and after training the mean VO/sub 2max/ was 43.1+-3.4 ml/kg/min. This difference was significant (p<0.05). Aerobic exercise is effective for increasing VO/sub 2max/ in stable CAD-patients. As VO/sub 2max/ seems to reflect a continuum between health and cardiovascular disease and death, the present data may be useful in designing effective training programmes for improved health in the future. (author)

  20. Quality of life after quitting smoking and initiating aerobic exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloom, Erika Litvin; Minami, Haruka; Brown, Richard A; Strong, David R; Riebe, Deborah; Abrantes, Ana M

    2017-10-01

    Quitting smoking and aerobic exercise each improve health. Although smokers may be concerned that quitting smoking will reduce their quality of life (QOL), recent research has shown that cessation is associated with QOL benefits. Elements of smoking cessation interventions, such as exercise, may contribute to changes in QOL. However, it is unknown whether initiating exercise in the context of smoking cessation is associated with greater or different effects on QOL than smoking cessation alone. The current study is a secondary analysis of data from a randomized trial (n = 61) of an exercise intervention for smoking cessation. We hypothesized that smoking abstinence and engagement in exercise would have positive, additive effects on QOL at end-of-treatment, 6- and, 12-month follow-ups. Sedentary adult smokers were randomized to the exercise intervention or a health education control (HEC) group. Additionally, all participants received smoking cessation counseling and nicotine patches. Data were analyzed using actual engagement in exercise, rather than group assignment as a proxy for exercise engagement, because some HEC participants also began exercising. Abstinence was positively associated with higher total and physical health QOL at follow-up. Exercise was not associated with total QOL and only marginally associated with physical health QOL, but was positively related to overall sense of well-being. Emphasizing that smoking cessation is associated with higher QOL may help motivate smokers to initiate quit attempts.

  1. Evaluation of oxidative stress in mice subjected to aerobic exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Mônica Cruvinel de; Marks, Guido; Silva, Iandara Schettert; Silva, Baldomero Antonio Kato da; Cônsolo, Lourdes Zélia Zanoni; Nogueira, Gabriel Bogalho

    2012-08-01

    To evaluate the influence of aerobic exercise on oxidative stress in mice. The study included twenty female mice Mus musculus-Swiss divided into two groups: sedentary control (GA) and exercise (GB), each containing ten animals. All animals underwent an adaptation period of seven days isolated in individual boxes. After this period, the animals in the exercise group (GB) were trained in angled running wheel with circumference of 25 cm assembled on an articulated axle during five minutes for three consecutive days. On the fourth day, they underwent an exercise program of one session lasting 45 minutes. The evaluation of oxidative stress was performed by determining the levels of malondialhyde derived of lipid peroxidation by the TBA method. The samples were read in a spectrophotometer at 535 nm. No significant difference was observed in the intergroup comparison of MDA levels in the tissues evaluated. A significant difference was observed in the intragroup comparison of MDA levels in the control group (p = 0.0201).The Tukeys' post hoc test indicated significantly lower values of MDA in the smooth muscle in relation to plasma. In the analysis of variance in the exercise group, a significant difference between tissues (p = 0.0009), with significantly lower values in the smooth muscle in relation to plasma (pstress in mice which were undergone a single session of aerobic exercise.

  2. A PILOT STUDY ON THE EFFECTS OF MAGNESIUM SUPPLEMENTATION WITH HIGH AND LOW HABITUAL DIETARY MAGNESIUM INTAKE ON RESTING AND RECOVERY FROM AEROBIC AND RESISTANCE EXERCISE AND SYSTOLIC BLOOD PRESSURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsy S. Kass

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The effects of magnesium supplementation on blood pressure (BP have been studied for over 25 years and results have been inconsistent. Blood pressure reductions in randomized studies have varied from 12 mmHg reductions to no reduction. The objective of this pilot intervention was to investigate the effect of magnesium supplementation on systolic blood pressure whilst resting and during recovery from aerobic and resistance exercise and on performance. A further objective was to see whether the effect of a high vs low habitual dietary magnesium intake affected these results. Sixteen male volunteers were randomly assigned to either a 300 mg·d-1 magnesium oxide supplementation (MO or a control group (CG for 14 days. Resting blood pressure (BP and heart rate (HR were measured before subjects performed a maximal 30 minute cycle, immediately followed by three x 5 second isometric bench press, both at baseline and after the intervention. Blood pressure and heart rate were recorded immediately post exercise and after five minutes recovery. A 3 day food diary was recorded for all subjects to measure dietary magnesium intake. At the end of the intervention, the supplemented group, had a reduction in mean resting systolic BP by 8.9 mmHg (115.125 ± 9.46 mmHg, p = 0.01 and post exercise by 13 mmHg (122.625 ± 9. 88 mmHg, p = 0.01. Recovery BP was 11.9 mmHg lower in the intervention group compared to control (p = 0.006 and HR decreased by 7 beats per minute in the experimental group (69.0 ± 11.6 bpm, p = 0. 02. Performance indicators did not change within and between the groups. Habitual dietary magnesium intake affected both resting and post exercise systolic BP and the subsequent effect of the magnesium supplementation. These results have an implication in a health setting and for health and exercise but not performance.

  3. Blood pressure changes following aerobic exercise in Caucasian and Chinese descendants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, P; Yan, H; Ranadive, S M; Lane, A D; Kappus, R M; Bunsawat, K; Baynard, T; Li, S; Fernhall, B

    2015-03-01

    Acute aerobic exercise produces post-exercise hypotension (PEH). Chinese populations have lower prevalence of cardiovascular disease compared to Caucasians. PEH may be associated cardiovascular disease through its influence on hypertension. The purpose of this study was to compare PEH between Caucasian and Chinese subjects following acute aerobic exercise. 62 (30 Caucasian and 32 Chinese, 50% male) subjects underwent measurement of peripheral and central hemodynamics as well as arterial and cardiac evaluations, 30 min and 60 min after 45 min of treadmill exercise. Caucasians exhibited significantly higher baseline BP than the Chinese. While the reduction in brachial artery systolic BP was greater in Caucasian than in the Chinese, there was no difference in changes in carotid systolic BP between the groups. The increase in cardiac output and heart rate was greater in the Chinese than Caucasians, but total peripheral resistance and leg pulse wave velocity decreased by a similar magnitude in the Chinese and Caucasian subjects. We conclude that acute aerobic exercise produces a greater magnitude of PEH in peripheral systolic BP in Caucasian compared to Chinese subjects. The different magnitude in PEH was caused by the greater increase in cardiac output mediated by heart rate, with no change in stroke volume. It is possible that initial BP differences between races influenced the findings. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  4. Aerobic Exercise Training Improves Orthostatic Tolerance in Aging Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Diqun; Wang, Hong; Chen, Shande; Ross, Sarah; Liu, Howe; Olivencia-Yurvati, Albert; Raven, Peter B; Shi, Xiangrong

    2017-04-01

    This study was designed to test the hypothesis that aerobic exercise training of the elderly will increase aerobic fitness without compromising orthostatic tolerance (OT). Eight healthy sedentary volunteers (67.0 ± 1.7 yr old, four women) participated in 1 yr of endurance exercise training (stationary bicycle and/or treadmill) program at the individuals' 65%-75% of HRpeak. Peak O2 uptake (V˙O2peak) and HRpeak were determined by a maximal exercise stress test using a bicycle ergometer. Carotid baroreceptor reflex (CBR) control of HR and mean arterial pressure (MAP) were assessed by a neck pressure-neck suction protocol. Each subject's maximal gain (Gmax), or sensitivity, of the CBR function curves were derived from fitting their reflex HR and MAP responses to the corresponding neck pressure-neck suction stimuli using a logistic function curve. The subjects' OT was assessed using lower-body negative pressure (LBNP) graded to -50 mm Hg; the sum of the product of LBNP intensity and time (mm Hg·min) was calculated as the cumulative stress index. Training increased V˙O2peak (before vs after: 22.8 ± 0.92 vs 27.9 ± 1.33 mL·min·kg, P stress index was increased from 767 ± 68 mm Hg·min pretraining to 946 ± 44 mm Hg·min posttraining (P Aerobic exercise training improved the aerobic fitness and OT in elderly subjects. An improved OT is likely associated with an enhanced CBR function that has been reset to better maintain cerebral perfusion and cerebral tissue oxygenation during LBNP.

  5. Short-term regular aerobic exercise reduces oxidative stress produced by acute in the adipose microvasculature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Austin T; Fancher, Ibra S; Sudhahar, Varadarajan; Bian, Jing Tan; Cook, Marc D; Mahmoud, Abeer M; Ali, Mohamed M; Ushio-Fukai, Masuko; Brown, Michael D; Fukai, Tohru; Phillips, Shane A

    2017-05-01

    High blood pressure has been shown to elicit impaired dilation in the vasculature. The purpose of this investigation was to elucidate the mechanisms through which high pressure may elicit vascular dysfunction and determine the mechanisms through which regular aerobic exercise protects arteries against high pressure. Male C57BL/6J mice were subjected to 2 wk of voluntary running (~6 km/day) for comparison with sedentary controls. Hindlimb adipose resistance arteries were dissected from mice for measurements of flow-induced dilation (FID; with or without high intraluminal pressure exposure) or protein expression of NADPH oxidase II (NOX II) and superoxide dismutase (SOD). Microvascular endothelial cells were subjected to high physiological laminar shear stress (20 dyn/cm 2 ) or static condition and treated with ANG II + pharmacological inhibitors. Cells were analyzed for the detection of ROS or collected for Western blot determination of NOX II and SOD. Resistance arteries from exercised mice demonstrated preserved FID after high pressure exposure, whereas FID was impaired in control mouse arteries. Inhibition of ANG II or NOX II restored impaired FID in control mouse arteries. High pressure increased superoxide levels in control mouse arteries but not in exercise mouse arteries, which exhibited greater ability to convert superoxide to H 2 O 2 Arteries from exercised mice exhibited less NOX II protein expression, more SOD isoform expression, and less sensitivity to ANG II. Endothelial cells subjected to laminar shear stress exhibited less NOX II subunit expression. In conclusion, aerobic exercise prevents high pressure-induced vascular dysfunction through an improved redox environment in the adipose microvasculature. NEW & NOTEWORTHY We describe potential mechanisms contributing to aerobic exercise-conferred protection against high intravascular pressure. Subcutaneous adipose microvessels from exercise mice express less NADPH oxidase (NOX) II and more superoxide

  6. A preliminary, randomized trial of aerobic exercise for alcohol dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Richard A; Abrantes, Ana M; Minami, Haruka; Read, Jennifer P; Marcus, Bess H; Jakicic, John M; Strong, David R; Dubreuil, Mary Ella; Gordon, Alan A; Ramsey, Susan E; Kahler, Christopher W; Stuart, Gregory L

    2014-07-01

    Interventions targeting physical activity may be valuable as an adjunct to alcohol treatment, but have been relatively untested. In the current study, alcohol dependent, physically sedentary patients were randomized to: a 12-week moderate-intensity, group aerobic exercise intervention (AE; n=25) or a brief advice to exercise intervention (BA-E; n=23). Results showed that individuals in AE reported significantly fewer drinking and heavy drinking days, relative to BA-E during treatment. Furthermore adherence to AE strengthened the beneficial effect of intervention on alcohol use outcomes. While high levels of moderate-intensity exercise appeared to facilitate alcohol recovery regardless of intervention arm, attending the group-based AE intervention seemed to further enhance the positive effects of exercise on alcohol use. Study findings indicate that a moderate intensity, group aerobic exercise intervention is an efficacious adjunct to alcohol treatment. Improving adherence to the intervention may enhance its beneficial effects on alcohol use. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The Effect of Different Intensities of Acute Aerobic Exercise on Plasma Resistin Concentration and Insulin Resistance Index in Type 2 Diabetic Males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziba Davoudi

    2016-04-01

    Conclusion: It can be stated that acute exercise with different intensities does not affect resistin action in individuals with diabetes. These results may be due to the constant energy cost which is equivalent to 300 kcal per session, having no influence on the study variables.

  8. Aerobic exercise decreases the positive-reinforcing effects of cocaine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Mark A; Schmidt, Karl T; Iordanou, Jordan C; Mustroph, Martina L

    2008-11-01

    Aerobic exercise can serve as an alternative, non-drug reinforcer in laboratory animals and has been recommended as a potential intervention for substance abusing populations. Unfortunately, relatively little empirical data have been collected that specifically address the possible protective effects of voluntary, long-term exercise on measures of drug self-administration. The purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of chronic exercise on sensitivity to the positive-reinforcing effects of cocaine in the drug self-administration procedure. Female rats were obtained at weaning and immediately divided into two groups. Sedentary rats were housed individually in standard laboratory cages that permitted no exercise beyond normal cage ambulation; exercising rats were housed individually in modified cages equipped with a running wheel. After 6 weeks under these conditions, rats were surgically implanted with venous catheters and trained to self-administer cocaine on a fixed-ratio schedule of reinforcement. Once self-administration was acquired, cocaine was made available on a progressive ratio schedule and breakpoints were obtained for various doses of cocaine. Sedentary and exercising rats did not differ in the time to acquire cocaine self-administration or responding on the fixed-ratio schedule of reinforcement. However, on the progressive ratio schedule, breakpoints were significantly lower in exercising rats than sedentary rats when responding was maintained by both low (0.3mg/kg/infusion) and high (1.0mg/kg/infusion) doses of cocaine. In exercising rats, greater exercise output prior to catheter implantation was associated with lower breakpoints at the high dose of cocaine. These data indicate that chronic exercise decreases the positive-reinforcing effects of cocaine and support the possibility that exercise may be an effective intervention in drug abuse prevention and treatment programs.

  9. Aerobic exercise training reduces arterial stiffness in metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donley, David A; Fournier, Sara B; Reger, Brian L; DeVallance, Evan; Bonner, Daniel E; Olfert, I Mark; Frisbee, Jefferson C; Chantler, Paul D

    2014-06-01

    The metabolic syndrome (MetS) is associated with a threefold increase risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality partly due to increased arterial stiffening. We compared the effects of aerobic exercise training on arterial stiffening/mechanics in MetS subjects without overt CVD or type 2 diabetes. MetS and healthy control (Con) subjects underwent 8 wk of exercise training (ExT; 11 MetS and 11 Con) or remained inactive (11 MetS and 10 Con). The following measures were performed pre- and postintervention: radial pulse wave analysis (applanation tonometry) was used to measure augmentation pressure and index, central pressures, and an estimate of myocardial efficiency; arterial stiffness was assessed from carotid-femoral pulse-wave velocity (cfPWV, applanation tonometry); carotid thickness was assessed from B-mode ultrasound; and peak aerobic capacity (gas exchange) was performed in the seated position. Plasma matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) and CVD risk (Framingham risk score) were also assessed. cfPWV was reduced (P Exercise training reduced (P exercise training, thereby lowering their cardiovascular risk. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  10. Exercise intensity modulates the change in cerebral blood flow following aerobic exercise in chronic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Andrew D; Crane, David E; Rajab, A Saeed; Swardfager, Walter; Marzolini, Susan; Shirzadi, Zahra; Middleton, Laura E; MacIntosh, Bradley J

    2015-08-01

    The mechanisms supporting functional improvement by aerobic exercise following stroke remain incompletely understood. This study investigated how cycling intensity and aerobic fitness influence cerebral blood flow (CBF) following a single exercise session. Thirteen community-living stroke survivors performed 20 min of semi-recumbent cycling at low and moderate intensities (40-50 and 60-70 % of heart rate reserve, respectively) as determined from an exercise stress test. CBF was quantified by arterial spin labeling MRI at baseline, as well as 30 and 50 min post-exercise. An intensity-dependent effect was observed in the right post-central and supramarginal gyri up to 50 min after exercise (uncorrected p Aerobic fitness was directly related to posterior cingulate and thalamic CBF, and inversely related to precuneal CBF at rest (R (2) ≥ 0.75); however, no relationship between fitness and the post-exercise change in CBF was observed. Divergent changes in regional CBF were observed in the right parietal cortex following low- and moderate-intensity exercise, which suggests that intensity of prescribed exercise may be useful in optimizing rehabilitation.

  11. Comparison between Nintendo Wii Fit aerobics and traditional aerobic exercise in sedentary young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douris, Peter C; McDonald, Brittany; Vespi, Frank; Kelley, Nancy C; Herman, Lawrence

    2012-04-01

    Exergaming is becoming a popular recreational activity for young adults. The purpose was to compare the physiologic and psychological responses of college students playing Nintendo Wii Fit, an active video game console, vs. an equal duration of moderate-intensity brisk walking. Twenty-one healthy sedentary college-age students (mean age 23.2 ± 1.8 years) participated in a randomized, double cross-over study, which compared physiologic and psychological responses to 30 minutes of brisk walking exercise on a treadmill vs. 30 minutes playing Nintendo Wii Fit "Free Run" program. Physiologic parameters measured included heart rate, rate pressure product, respiratory rate, and rating of perceived exertion. Participants' positive well-being, psychological distress, and level of fatigue associated with each exercise modality were quantified using the Subjective Exercise Experience Scale. The mean maximum heart rate (HRmax) achieved when exercising with Wii Fit (142.4 ± 20.5 b·min(-1)) was significantly greater (p = 0.001) compared with exercising on the treadmill (123.2 ± 13.7 b·min(-1)). Rate pressure product was also significantly greater (p = 0.001) during exercise on the Wii Fit. Participants' rating of perceived exertion when playing Wii Fit (12.7 ± 3.0) was significantly greater (p = 0.014) when compared with brisk walking on the treadmill (10.1 ± 3.3). However, psychologically when playing Wii Fit, participants' positive well-being decreased significantly (p = 0.018) from preexercise to postexercise when compared with exercising on the treadmill. College students have the potential to surpass exercise intensities achieved when performing a conventional standard for moderate-intensity exercise when playing Nintendo Wii Fit "Free Run" with a self-selected intensity. We concluded that Nintendo Wii Fit "Free Run" may act as an alternative to traditional moderate-intensity aerobic exercise in fulfilling the American College of Sports Medicine requirements for

  12. Effects of aerobic exercise on lipids and lipoproteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yating; Xu, Danyan

    2017-07-05

    Dyslipidemia is the risk of cardiovascular disease, and their relationship is clear. Lowering serum cholesterol can reduce the risk of coronary heart disease. At present, the main treatment is taking medicine, however, drug treatment has its limitations. Exercise not only has a positive effect on individuals with dyslipidemia, but can also help improve lipids profile. This review is intending to provide information on the effects of exercise training on both tranditional lipids, for example, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides and new lipids and lipoproteins such as non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and postprandial lipoprotein. The mechanisms of aerobic exercise on lipids and lipoproteins are also briefly described.

  13. Effect of aerobic exercise on cancer-related fatigue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaivika Govindbhai Patel

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fatigue is the most common side effect of cancer treatment with chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy, selected biologic response modifiers. The main purpose of this study is to evaluate the effects of aerobic exercise on cancer-related fatigue in patients of the solid tumor after chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Methods: After screening for cancer-related fatigue, 34 patients fulfilled the inclusive criteria and were assigned into two groups (n = 17 recruited in the intervention group and n = 17 in control group. The intervention group received aerobic exercise program which included treadmill walking with low to moderate intensity (50%–70% of maximum heart rate, for 20–40 min/day for 5 days/week. Control group were taught stretching exercises of hamstrings, gastrocnemius, and soleus (to be done at home and were encouraged to remain active. Outcome measures such as brief fatigue inventory (BFI, 6-min walk test, and functional assessment of cancer therapy-general (FACT-G were taken at baseline and after 6-weeks. Results: The data were analyzed using the Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed rank test for within group and Mann–Whitney U-test for between group comparisons. The results of this study showed that there was a significant reduction in cancer-related fatigue BFI score (P < 0.0001,, also there was significant improvement in the physical performance as in 6-min walk distance (P < 0.0001 and quality of life, FACT-G score (P = 0.0001. Conclusion: Aerobic exercise for 6 weeks has beneficial effects on cancer-related fatigue in patients with solid tumor after chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy.

  14. Effectiveness of aerobic exercise for adults living with HIV: systematic review and meta-analysis using the Cochrane Collaboration protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Kelly K; Tynan, Anne-Marie; Nixon, Stephanie A; Glazier, Richard H

    2016-04-26

    People with HIV are living longer with the health-related consequences of HIV, multi-morbidity, and aging. Exercise is a key strategy that may improve or sustain health for people living with HIV. Our aim was to examine the safety and effectiveness of aerobic exercise interventions on immunological, virological, cardiorespiratory, strength, weight, body composition, and psychological outcomes in adults living with HIV. We conducted a systematic review using the Cochrane Collaboration protocol. We searched databases up to April 2013. We included randomized controlled trials comparing aerobic exercise with no exercise or another intervention performed at least three times per week for at least four weeks among adults living with HIV. Two reviewers independently determined study eligibility. Data were extracted from studies that met inclusion criteria using standardized forms. We assessed risk of bias using the Cochrane Collaboration's tool for assessing risk of bias. Outcomes were analyzed as continuous and meta-analyses conducted using random effects models with Review Manager (RevMan) computer software. Twenty-four studies met inclusion criteria (n = 936 participants at study completion); the majority of participants were men (73 %) and the majority were taking antiretroviral therapy (19/24 included studies). The exercise intervention included aerobic exercise alone (11 studies) or a combination of aerobic and resistive exercise (13 studies) ranging from 5 to 52 weeks. Fifty-eight meta-analyses were performed. Main results indicated statistically significant improvements in selected outcomes of cardiorespiratory status (maximum oxygen consumption, exercise time), strength (chest press, knee flexion), body composition (lean body mass, percent body fat, leg muscle area), depression symptoms, and quality of life (SF-36 questionnaire) among exercisers compared with non-exercisers. No significant differences in change in CD4 count and viral load were found

  15. Influence of aerobic exercise training on post-exercise responses of aortic pulse pressure and augmentation pressure in postmenopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuhiko eAkazawa

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Central arterial blood pressure (BP is more predictive of future cardiovascular events than is brachial BP because it reflects the BP load imposed on the left ventricle with greater accuracy. However, little is known about the effects of exercise training on central hemodynamic response to acute exercise. The purpose of the present study was to determine the influence of an aerobic exercise regimen on the response of aortic BP after a single aerobic exercise in postmenopausal women. Nine healthy postmenopausal women (age: 61 ± 2 years participated in a 12-week aerobic exercise training regimen. Before and after the training, each subjects performed a single bout of cycling at ventilatory thresholds for 30 min. We evaluated the post-exercise aortic BP response, which was estimated via the general transfer function from applanation tonometry. After the initial pre-training aerobic exercise session, aortic BP did not change significantly: however, aortic pulse pressure and augmentation pressure were significantly attenuated after the single aerobic exercise session following the 12-week training regimen. The present study demonstrated that a regular aerobic exercise training regimen induced the post-exercise reduction of aortic pulse pressure and augmentation pressure. Regular aerobic exercise training may enhance post-exercise reduction in aortic BP.

  16. Effects of muscular and aqua aerobic combined exercise on metabolic indices in elderly women with metabolic syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Yoo, Yong-Kwon; Kim, Soo-Keun; Song, Min-Sun

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of muscle strengthening exercise using elastic thera-band and aquatic aerobic combined exercise on metabolic syndrome index in elderly with metabolic syndrome. Fifty-four were assigned to muscle strengthening exercise group (n = 19), aquatic aerobic exercise group (n = 19), and combined exercise group (n = 16). The muscle strength exercise, aquatic aerobic exercise and combined exercise were provided three times a week for 12 weeks. Met...

  17. Effect of aerobic exercise intervention on DDT degradation and oxidative stress in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Kefeng; Zhu, Xiaohua; Wang, Yuzhan; Zheng, Shuqian; Dong, Guijun

    2017-01-01

    Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) reportedly causes extensively acute or chronic effects to human health. Exercise can generate positive stress. We evaluated the effect of aerobic exercise on DDT degradation and oxidative stress. Main methods: Male Wistar rats were randomly assigned into control (C), DDT without exercise training (D), and DDT plus exercise training (DE) groups. The rats were treated as follows: DDT exposure to D and DE groups at the first 2 weeks; aerobic exercise trea...

  18. Individual Variability in Aerobic Fitness Adaptations to 70-d of Bed Rest and Exercise Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downs, Meghan; Buxton, Roxanne; Goetchius, Elizabeth; DeWitt, John; Ploutz-Snyder, Lori

    2016-01-01

    Change in maximal aerobic capacity (VO2pk) in response to exercise training and disuse is highly variable among individuals. Factors that could contribute to the observed variability (lean mass, daily activity, diet, sleep, stress) are not routinely controlled in studies. The NASA bed rest (BR) studies use a highly controlled hospital based model as an analog of spaceflight. In this study, diet, hydration, physical activity and light/dark cycles were precisely controlled and provided the opportunity to investigate individual variability. PURPOSE. Evaluate the contribution of exercise intensity and lean mass on change in VO2pk during 70-d of BR or BR + exercise. METHODS. Subjects completed 70-d of BR alone (CON, N=9) or BR + exercise (EX, N=17). The exercise prescription included 6 d/wk of aerobic exercise at 70 - 100% of max and 3 d/wk of lower body resistance exercise. Subjects were monitored 24 hr/d. VO2pk and lean mass (iDXA) were measured pre and post BR. ANOVA was used to evaluate changes in VO2pk pre to post BR. Subjects were retrospectively divided into high and low responders based on change in VO2pk (CON > 20% loss, n=5; EX >10% loss, n=4, or 5% gain, n=4) to further understand individual variability. RESULTS. VO2pk decreased from pre to post BR in CON (Pexercise intensity. CONCLUSION. Change in VO2pk in response to disuse and exercise was highly variable among individuals, even in this tightly controlled study. Loss in lean mass accounts for a significant degree of variability in the CON; however, training induced gains in VO2pk appear unrelated to lean mass or exercise intensity.

  19. Effects of Exercise Modality During Additional "High-Intensity Interval Training" on Aerobic Fitness and Strength in Powerlifting and Strongman Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Androulakis-Korakakis, Patroklos; Langdown, Louis; Lewis, Adam; Fisher, James P; Gentil, Paulo; Paoli, Antonio; Steele, James

    2018-02-01

    Androulakis-Korakakis, P, Langdown, L, Lewis, A, Fisher, JP, Gentil, P, Paoli, A, and Steele, J. Effects of exercise modality during additional "high-intensity interval training" on aerobic fitness and strength in powerlifting and strongman athletes. J Strength Cond Res 32(2): 450-457, 2018-Powerlifters and strongman athletes have a necessity for optimal levels of muscular strength while maintaining sufficient aerobic capacity to perform and recover between events. High-intensity interval training (HIIT) has been popularized for its efficacy in improving both aerobic fitness and strength but never assessed within the aforementioned population group. This study looked to compare the effect of exercise modality, e.g., a traditional aerobic mode (AM) and strength mode (SM), during HIIT on aerobic fitness and strength. Sixteen well resistance-trained male participants, currently competing in powerlifting and strongman events, completed 8 weeks of approximately effort- and volume-matched HIIT in 2 groups: AM (cycling, n = 8) and SM (resistance training, n = 8). Aerobic fitness was measured as predicted V[Combining Dot Above]O2max using the YMCA 3 minutes step test and strength as predicted 1 repetition maximum from a 4-6RM test using a leg extension. Both groups showed significant improvements in both strength and aerobic fitness. There was a significant between-group difference for aerobic fitness improvements favoring the AM group (p ≤ 0.05). There was no between-group difference for change in strength. Magnitude of change using within-group effect size for aerobic fitness and strength was considered large for each group (aerobic fitness, AM = 2.6, SM = 2.0; strength, AM = 1.9, SM = 1.9). In conclusion, our results support enhanced strength and aerobic fitness irrespective of exercise modality (e.g., traditional aerobic and resistance training). However, powerlifters and strongman athletes wishing to enhance their aerobic fitness should consider HIIT using an

  20. Aerobic exercise reduces biomarkers related to cardiovascular risk among cleaners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korshøj, Mette; Ravn, Marie Højbjerg; Holtermann, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: Blue-collar workers have an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Accordingly, elevated levels of biomarkers related to risk of cardiovascular disease, such as high-sensitive C-reactive protein, have been observed among blue-collar workers. The objective was to examine whether...... an aerobic exercise worksite intervention changes the level of inflammation biomarkers among cleaners. METHODS: The design was a cluster-randomized controlled trial with 4-month worksite intervention. Before the 116 cleaners aged 18-65 years were randomized, they signed an informed consent form...

  1. Aerobic physical exercise for adult patients with haematological malignancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergenthal, Nils; Will, Andrea; Streckmann, Fiona; Wolkewitz, Klaus-Dieter; Monsef, Ina; Engert, Andreas; Elter, Thomas; Skoetz, Nicole

    2014-11-11

    Although people with haematological malignancies have to endure long phases of therapy and immobility which is known to diminish their physical performance level, the advice to rest and avoid intensive exercises is still common practice. This recommendation is partly due to the severe anaemia and thrombocytopenia from which many patients suffer. The inability to perform activities of daily living restricts them, diminishes their quality of life and can influence medical therapy. To evaluate the efficacy, safety and feasibility of aerobic physical exercise for adults suffering from haematological malignancies. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library, 2014, Issue 1) and MEDLINE (1950 to January 2014) as well as conference proceedings for randomised controlled trials (RCTs). We included RCTs comparing an aerobic physical exercise intervention, intending to improve the oxygen system, in addition to standard care with standard care only for adults suffering from haematological malignancies. We also included studies that evaluated aerobic exercise in addition to strength training. We excluded studies that investigated the effect of training programmes that were composed of yoga, tai chi chuan, qigong or similar types of exercise. We also excluded studies exploring the influence of strength training without additive aerobic exercise. Additionally, we excluded studies assessing outcomes without any clinical impact. Two review authors independently screened search results, extracted data and assessed the quality of trials. We used risk ratios (RRs) for adverse events and 100-day survival, standardised mean differences for quality of life (QoL), fatigue, and physical performance, and mean differences for anthropometric measurements. Our search strategies identified 1518 potentially relevant references. Of these, we included nine RCTs involving 818 participants. The potential risk of bias in these trials is unclear, due

  2. The effect of resistance exercise on sleep: A systematic review of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovacevic, Ana; Mavros, Yorgi; Heisz, Jennifer J; Fiatarone Singh, Maria A

    2018-06-01

    Impaired sleep quality and quantity are associated with future morbidity and mortality. Exercise may be an effective non-pharmacological intervention to improve sleep, however, little is known on the effect of resistance exercise. Thus, we performed a systematic review of the literature to determine the acute and chronic effects of resistance exercise on sleep quantity and quality. Thirteen studies were included. Chronic resistance exercise improves all aspects of sleep, with the greatest benefit for sleep quality. These benefits of isolated resistance exercise are attenuated when resistance exercise is combined with aerobic exercise and compared to aerobic exercise alone. However, the acute effects of resistance exercise on sleep remain poorly studied and inconsistent. In addition to the sleep benefits, resistance exercise training improves anxiety and depression. These results suggest that resistance exercise may be an effective intervention to improve sleep quality. Further research is needed to better understand the effects of acute resistance exercise on sleep, the physiological mechanisms underlying changes in sleep, the changes in sleep architecture with chronic resistance exercise, as well its efficacy in clinical cohorts who commonly experience sleep disturbance. Future studies should also examine time-of-day and dose-response effects to determine the optimal exercise prescription for sleep benefits. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Decrease in musculoskeletal pain after 4 and 12 months of an aerobic exercise intervention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korshøj, Mette; Birk Jørgensen, Marie; Lidegaard, Mark

    2018-01-01

    affects level of musculoskeletal pain from baseline to 4- and 12-months follow-up. METHODS: One-hundred-and-sixteen cleaners aged 18-65 years were cluster-randomized. The aerobic exercise group ( n = 57) received worksite aerobic exercise (30 min twice a week) and the reference group ( n = 59) lectures....... Aerobic exercise interventions among workers standing or walking in the majority of the working hours should tailor exercise to only maintain the positive effect on musculoskeletal pain.......BACKGROUND: Prevalence of musculoskeletal pain is high in jobs with high physical work demands. An aerobic exercise intervention targeting cardiovascular health was evaluated for its long term side effects on musculoskeletal pain. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to investigate if aerobic exercise...

  4. Meta-analysis: aerobic exercise for the treatment of anxiety disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartley, Christine A; Hay, Madeleine; Bloch, Michael H

    2013-08-01

    This meta-analysis investigates the efficacy of exercise as a treatment for DSM-IV diagnosed anxiety disorders. We searched PubMED and PsycINFO for randomized, controlled trials comparing the anxiolytic effects of aerobic exercise to other treatment conditions for DSM-IV defined anxiety disorders. Seven trials were included in the final analysis, totaling 407 subjects. The control conditions included non-aerobic exercise, waitlist/placebo, cognitive-behavioral therapy, psychoeducation and meditation. A fixed-effects model was used to calculate the standardized mean difference of change in anxiety rating scale scores of aerobic exercise compared to control conditions. Subgroup analyses were performed to examine the effects of (1) comparison condition; (2) whether comparison condition controlled for time spent exercising and (3) diagnostic indication. Aerobic exercise demonstrated no significant effect for the treatment of anxiety disorders (SMD=0.02 (95%CI: -0.20-0.24), z = 0.2, p = 0.85). There was significant heterogeneity between trials (χ(2) test for heterogeneity = 22.7, df = 6, p = 0.001). The reported effect size of aerobic exercise was highly influenced by the type of control condition. Trials utilizing waitlist/placebo controls and trials that did not control for exercise time reported large effects of aerobic exercise while other trials report no effect of aerobic exercise. Current evidence does not support the use of aerobic exercise as an effective treatment for anxiety disorders as compared to the control conditions. This remains true when controlling for length of exercise sessions and type of anxiety disorder. Future studies evaluating the efficacy of aerobic exercise should employ larger sample sizes and utilize comparison interventions that control for exercise time. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Effectivenes of Aerobic and Yoga Exercise to Increase Cardiorespiration Stamina in Carier Women

    OpenAIRE

    Yunitasari, Esti; Qur'aniati, Nuzul; Arunia, Ida

    2009-01-01

    Introduction : Cardiorespiratory endurance is one of the components of fitness. Cardiorespiratory endurance is considered to have relation with health because the low grade of fitness connected to high risk of immature death especially cardiovascular disease. Sport such as aerobic exercise and yoga exercise is one of efforts to increase cardiorespiratory endurance. This study was aimed to analyze the effectiveness aerobic exercise and yoga exercise to increase of cardiorespiratory endurance i...

  6. Aerobic Exercise Combined with Techniques Programe Can Be Increased Groundstroke Skill of Tennis Athlet

    OpenAIRE

    Nasrulloh, Ahmad

    2012-01-01

    Professional tennis athletes should be able to master all the basic techniques of playing tennis and having physical fitness. Therefore, it is necessary to get an exercise that can give meaning to the skills and physical fitness. One of the proper exercises is with aerobic exercise combined with the technique.Aerobic exercise program combined with techniques is: (1) a number of players consisting of six to seven people with backward sequential formation techniques performing forehand and back...

  7. EFFECTIVENES OF AEROBIC AND YOGA EXERCISE TO INCREASE CARDIORESPIRATION STAMINA IN CARIER WOMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esti Yunitasari

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : Cardiorespiratory endurance is one of the components of fitness. Cardiorespiratory endurance is considered to have relation with health because the low grade of fitness connected to high risk of immature death especially cardiovascular disease. Sport such as aerobic exercise and yoga exercise is one of efforts to increase cardiorespiratory endurance. This study was aimed to analyze the effectiveness aerobic exercise and yoga exercise to increase of cardiorespiratory endurance in female employee. Method : The design of the study was Quasy Experimental by using non-probability sampling (purposive sampling. Total sample of this study were 21 respondents. Seven respondents as treatment aerobic exerciser, 7 respondents as treatment yoga exerciser and 7 respondents as control group. The independent variables were aerobic exercise and yoga exercise. The dependent variables were the increase cardiorespiratory endurance. The data were collected and analyzed by using paired t test and anova with significance level a < 0,05. Result : The result showed that there were no differences effectiveness aerobic exercise and yoga exercise to increase cardiorespiratory endurance for female employee which were indicated by pulse (p=0,388, blood pressure systole (p= 0,520, blood pressure diastole (p=0,131 and respiration (p=0,432. Analysis :  It can be concluded that both of gymnastic aerobic and yoga effective on increasing immunity of cardiovascular for the female. Discussion : Female employee can consider aerobic and yoga as an effort to increase cardiorespiratory endurance.

  8. Does aerobic exercise improve or impair cardiorespiratory fitness and health among cleaners?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korshøj Larsen, Mette; Lidegaard, Mark; Skotte, Jørgen H

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: It is unknown if aerobic exercise overloads or improves the cardiovascular system among workers with high occupational physical activity. This was investigated in a worksite randomized controlled trial (RCT) of aerobic exercise among cleaners. METHODS: We randomized 116 cleaners betwee...

  9. The Effect of Low and Moderate Intensity Aerobic Exercises on Sleep Quality in Older Adults

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    Ahmad Ali Akbari Kamrani

    2015-04-01

    Conclusion Generally, aerobic exercises with moderate intensity (60-70% max HR had a positive and significant effect on sleep quality and its components. We recommend the aerobic exercises with moderate intensity as a useful medical treatment for improving sleep quality and its components among community older adults

  10. The Effect of Low and Moderate Intensity Aerobic Exercises on Self-Concept in Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Ali Akbari Kamrani

    2015-07-01

    Conclusion Aerobic exercises with moderate intensity (60-70% max HR have a positive and significant effect on self-concept. Based on these findings, aerobic exercises with moderate intensity is recommended as a useful method for improving this personality trait among older adults.

  11. Effect of Combined Exercise Versus Aerobic-Only Training on Skeletal Muscle Lipid Metabolism in a Rodent Model of Type1 Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dotzert, Michelle S; McDonald, Matthew W; Murray, Michael R; Nickels, J Zachary; Noble, Earl G; Melling, C W James

    2017-12-04

    Abnormal skeletal muscle lipid metabolism is associated with insulin resistance in people with type 1 diabetes. Although lipid metabolism is restored with aerobic exercise training, the risk for postexercise hypoglycemia is increased with this modality. Integrating resistance and aerobic exercise is associated with reduced hypoglycemic risk; however, the effects of this exercise modality on lipid metabolism and insulin resistance remain unknown. We compared the effects of combined (aerobic + resistance) versus aerobic exercise training on oxidative capacity and muscle lipid metabolism in a rat model of type 1 diabetes. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 4 groups: sedentary control (C), sedentary control + diabetes (CD), diabetes + high-intensity aerobic exercise (DAE) and diabetes + combined aerobic and resistance exercise (DARE). Following diabetes induction (20 mg/kg streptozotocin over five days), DAE rats ran for 12 weeks (5 days/week for 1 hour) on a motorized treadmill (27 m/min at a 6-degree grade), and DARE rats alternated daily between running and incremental weighted ladder climbing. After training, DAE showed reduced muscle CD36 protein content and lipid content compared to CD (p≤0.05). DAE rats also had significantly increased citrate synthase (CS) activity compared to CD (p≤0.05). DARE rats showed reduced CD36 protein content compared to CD and increased CS activity compared to CD and DAE rats (p≤0.05). DARE rats demonstrated increased skeletal muscle lipid staining, elevated lipin-1 protein content and insulin sensitivity (p≤0.05). Integration of aerobic and resistance exercise may exert a synergistic effect, producing adaptations characteristic of the "athlete's paradox," including increased capacity to store and oxidize lipids. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The Paroxetine Effect on Exercise Performance Depends on the Aerobic Capacity of Exercising Individuals

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    Francisco Teixeira-Coelho, João Paulo Uendeles-Pinto, Ana Cláudia Alves Serafim, Samuel Penna Wanner, Márcio de Matos Coelho, Danusa Dias Soares

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the influence of aerobic capacity on the activation of the central serotonergic system and exercise fatigue in young men that ingested a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor and were then subjected to moderate-intensity physical exercise. The maximal oxygen consumption of sixteen volunteers was measured during an incremental test. The volunteers were divided into two groups: subjects with higher (HAC and lower (LAC aerobic capacities. The volunteers were subjected to four experimental trials in which they ingested either placebo or paroxetine (10, 20 or 40 mg and, 4.5 h later, cycled at 60% of their maximal power output until reaching fatigue. None of the three paroxetine doses influenced the total exercise time in the LAC group. However, for the HAC group, the time to fatigue in the 20 mg paroxetine condition was 15% less than that in the placebo condition (76.3 ± 5.1 min vs. 90.0 ± 7.9 min; p < 0.05. The time to fatigue was higher in the HAC group than in the LAC group for all treatments. Our results provide additional evidence that aerobic capacity modulates the activity of the serotonergic system. However, contrary to what would be expected considering previous reports, the activation of the serotonergic system in exercising subjects in the HAC group was not less than that in the LAC group.

  13. Antimicrobial resistance in aerobic bacteria isolated from oral ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... varied antimicrobial susceptibility patterns. The oral cavities of hunting dogs are laden with multi-drug resistant bacteria of significant public health importance that could be transferred to humans through contaminated hunted games and bite wound. Keywords: Aerobic bacteria, Antimicrobial resistance, Dogs, Oral cavity, ...

  14. Aerobic exercise effects upon cognition in Mild Cognitive Impairment: A systematic review of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cammisuli, D M; Innocenti, A; Franzoni, F; Pruneti, C

    2017-07-01

    Several studies have shown that physical activity has positive effects on cognition in healthy older adults without cognitive complains but lesser is known about the effectiveness of aerobic exercise in patients suffering from Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI). The aim of the present study was to systematically review the evidence from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) about the effects of aerobic exercise upon cognition in MCI patients. To this end, PubMed, Cochrane and Web of Science databases were analytically searched for RCTs including aerobic exercise interventions for MCI patients. There is evidence that aerobic exercise improves cognition in MCI patients. Overall research reported moderate effects for global cognition, logical memory, inhibitory control and divided attention. Due to methodological limitations of the investigated studies, findings should be interpreted with caution. Standardized training protocols, larger scale interventions and follow-ups may also provide better insight into the preventive effects of aerobic exercise on cognitive deterioration in MCI and its conversion into dementia.

  15. Variable Accuracy of Wearable Heart Rate Monitors during Aerobic Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillinov, Stephen; Etiwy, Muhammad; Wang, Robert; Blackburn, Gordon; Phelan, Dermot; Gillinov, A Marc; Houghtaling, Penny; Javadikasgari, Hoda; Desai, Milind Y

    2017-08-01

    Athletes and members of the public increasingly rely on wearable HR monitors to guide physical activity and training. The accuracy of newer, optically based monitors is unconfirmed. We sought to assess the accuracy of five optically based HR monitors during various types of aerobic exercise. Fifty healthy adult volunteers (mean ± SD age = 38 ± 12 yr, 54% female) completed exercise protocols on a treadmill, a stationary bicycle, and an elliptical trainer (±arm movement). Each participant underwent HR monitoring with an electrocardiogaphic chest strap monitor (Polar H7), forearm monitor (Scosche Rhythm+), and two randomly assigned wrist-worn HR monitors (Apple Watch, Fitbit Blaze, Garmin Forerunner 235, and TomTom Spark Cardio), one on each wrist. For each exercise type, HR was recorded at rest, light, moderate, and vigorous intensity. Agreement between HR measurements was assessed using Lin's concordance correlation coefficient (rc). Across all exercise conditions, the chest strap monitor (Polar H7) had the best agreement with ECG (rc = 0.996) followed by the Apple Watch (rc = 0.92), the TomTom Spark (rc = 0.83), and the Garmin Forerunner (rc = 0.81). Scosche Rhythm+ and Fitbit Blaze were less accurate (rc = 0.75 and rc = 0.67, respectively). On treadmill, all devices performed well (rc = 0.88-0.93) except the Fitbit Blaze (rc = 0.76). While bicycling, only the Garmin, Apple Watch, and Scosche Rhythm+ had acceptable agreement (rc > 0.80). On the elliptical trainer without arm levers, only the Apple Watch was accurate (rc = 0.94). None of the devices was accurate during elliptical trainer use with arm levers (all rc < 0.80). The accuracy of wearable, optically based HR monitors varies with exercise type and is greatest on the treadmill and lowest on elliptical trainer. Electrode-containing chest monitors should be used when accurate HR measurement is imperative.

  16. The Effects of Aerobic Exercise and Gaming on Cognitive Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douris Peter C.

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of our study was to investigate the effects of video gaming, aerobic exercise (biking, and the combination of these two activities on the domains of cognitive performance: selective attention, processing speed, and executive functioning. The study was a randomized clinical trial with 40 subjects (mean age 23.7 ± 1.8 years randomized to one of four thirty-minute conditions: video gaming, biking, simultaneous gaming and biking, and a control condition. Cognitive performance was measured pre and post condition using the Stroop test and Trails B test. A mixed design was utilized. While video gaming, biking, simultaneous gaming and biking conditions improved selective attention and processing speed (p < 0.05, only the bike condition improved the highest order of cognitive performance, executive function (p < 0.01. There were no changes in cognitive performance for the control condition. Previous studies have shown that if tasks approach the limits of attentional capacity there is an increase in the overall chance for errors, known as the dual-task deficit. Simultaneous biking and gaming may have surpassed attentional capacity limits, ultimately increasing errors during the executive function tests of our cognitive performance battery. The results suggest that the fatiguing effects of a combined physically and mentally challenging task that extends after the exercise cessation may overcome the eventual beneficial cognitive effects derived from the physical exercise.

  17. The Effects of Aerobic Exercise and Gaming on Cognitive Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douris, Peter C; Handrakis, John P; Apergis, Demitra; Mangus, Robert B; Patel, Rima; Limtao, Jessica; Platonova, Svetlana; Gregorio, Aladino; Luty, Elliot

    2018-03-01

    The purpose of our study was to investigate the effects of video gaming, aerobic exercise (biking), and the combination of these two activities on the domains of cognitive performance: selective attention, processing speed, and executive functioning. The study was a randomized clinical trial with 40 subjects (mean age 23.7 ± 1.8 years) randomized to one of four thirty-minute conditions: video gaming, biking, simultaneous gaming and biking, and a control condition. Cognitive performance was measured pre and post condition using the Stroop test and Trails B test. A mixed design was utilized. While video gaming, biking, simultaneous gaming and biking conditions improved selective attention and processing speed (p bike condition improved the highest order of cognitive performance, executive function (p biking and gaming may have surpassed attentional capacity limits, ultimately increasing errors during the executive function tests of our cognitive performance battery. The results suggest that the fatiguing effects of a combined physically and mentally challenging task that extends after the exercise cessation may overcome the eventual beneficial cognitive effects derived from the physical exercise.

  18. Efeito do exercício aeróbico e resistido no controle autonômico e nas variáveis hemodinâmicas de jovens saudáveis Effect of resistance and aerobic exercise on the autonomic control and hemodynamic variables in health young individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Cavinato Cal Abad

    2010-12-01

    ço simpatovagal aumentado.The practice of aerobic and resistance exercises provokes distinct acute and chronic adjustments. Hemodynamic and muscular differences between both exercises have been already documented; nevertheless, regarding the autonomic adjustments, there are few and controversial studies. Therefore, the aim of this study was to analyze the hemodynamic and autonomic adaptations after one bout of aerobic exercise (30 minutes, ergometric bicycle and resistance exercise (three series of 12 repetitions to the main muscle groups, in young and healthy individuals. For this purpose, blood pressure (BP and heart rate (HR were measured, as well as the calculation of the double product and analysis of heart rate variability in time and frequency domains and by Poincaré's Plot. In this protocol, HR during the aerobic exercise was higher than in the resistance exercise (153.32 ± 2.76 vs. 143.10 ± 3.38 bpm, respectively. Aerobic exercise caused an increase in systolic BP during the exercise (7.25 ± 1.52 mmHg whereas resistance exercise provoked an increase in both, systolic and diastolic BP during its execution (14.83 ± 1.53; 11.92 ± 1.69 mmHg, respectively. Post-exercise hypotension was not observed after none of the exercise sessions. When comparing aerobic exercise with resistance exercise in the recovery phase, it was verified a decrease in HR variability in the resistance session for the following variables: RMMSD (37.74 ± 5.30 vs. 19.50 ± 2.32, NN50 (94.13 ± 23.65 vs. 27.63 ± 6.68, PNN50 (16.10 ± 4.72 vs. 3.53±0.89, SD1 (26.65 ± 3.85 vs. 13.73 ± 1.66, SD2 (88.98 ± 10.71 vs. 61.88 ± 5.49 e HF (257.25 ± 45.08 vs. 102.75 ± 18.75 ms². In conclusion, in the investigated protocol, the cardiovascular work during the exercise sessions was similar, due to HR increase in the aerobic exercise and of systolic BP increase in the resistance exercise. In the recovery phase, resistance exercise promoted enhanced autonomic alteration, compatible with the maintenance if

  19. Aerobic-synergized exercises may improve fall-related physical fitness in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yu-Chen; Wang, Jung-Der; Chen, Ho-Cheng; Hu, Susan C

    2017-05-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine whether a synergistic exercise model based on aerobics with additional fall-preventive components could provide extra benefits compared with the same duration of aerobic-synergistic exercise alone. A total of 102 adults aged 65 years and over from three geographically separated communities were assigned to three groups: the general aerobic exercise (GAE) group (N.=44), the GAE plus ball game group (BG group; N.=30) and the GAE plus square-stepping exercise group (SSE group; N.=28). Each group participated in one hour of exercise intervention and two hours of leisure activities twice weekly for 12 weeks. Each exercise session consisted of one hour of combined exercises performed in the following order: 10 minutes of warm-up activities, 20 minutes of aerobics, 20 minutes of the respective exercise model, and 10 minutes of cool-down activities. Functional fitness tests, including aerobic endurance, leg strength, flexibility, reaction time, static balance and mobility, were measured before and after the intervention. Paired t-tests and mixed model analyses were conducted to compare the differences in each measurement within and among the groups. All of the groups exhibited significantly positive effects (Pfall-prevention exercises performed over a consistent period may improve mobility without compromising the fundamental benefits of aerobics. Future studies using randomized control trials with recorded fall events and a longer period of follow-up are indicated to validate the effects of fall prevention exercises.

  20. Effect of aerobic exercise intervention on DDT degradation and oxidative stress in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kefeng; Zhu, Xiaohua; Wang, Yuzhan; Zheng, Shuqian; Dong, Guijun

    2017-03-01

    Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) reportedly causes extensively acute or chronic effects to human health. Exercise can generate positive stress. We evaluated the effect of aerobic exercise on DDT degradation and oxidative stress. Male Wistar rats were randomly assigned into control (C), DDT without exercise training (D), and DDT plus exercise training (DE) groups. The rats were treated as follows: DDT exposure to D and DE groups at the first 2 weeks; aerobic exercise treatment only to the DE group from the 1st day until the rats are killed. DDT levels in excrements, muscle, liver, serum, and hearts were analyzed. Superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were determined. Aerobic exercise accelerated the degradation of DDT primarily to DDE due to better oxygen availability and aerobic condition and promoted the degradation of DDT. Cumulative oxidative damage of DDT and exercise led to significant decrease of SOD level. Exercise resulted in consistent increase in SOD activity. Aerobic exercise enhanced activities of CAT and GSH-Px and promoted MDA scavenging. Results suggested that exercise can accelerate adaptive responses to oxidative stress and activate antioxidant enzymes activities. Exercise can also facilitate the reduction of DDT-induced oxidative damage and promoted DDT degradation. This study strongly implicated the positive effect of exercise training on DDT-induced liver oxidative stress.

  1. Eight-week aerobic training effects on Apelin-13 and insulin resistance in overweight men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahman Soori

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background & aims: Obesity as a pandemic disease is the high accumulation of adipose tissue which secrets different hormones such as apelin. Apelin as an adipocytokine increases in obesity. Aerobic training induced apelin responses are not clarify well. So, we aimed to determine the effect of eight weeks aerobic training on Apelin-13 and insulin resistance in overweight men. Methods: Current study was quasi-experiment design. Twenty-six overweight men with BMI between 27-30 kg/m2 were randomly enrolled in the present study following public call announcement and match to inclusion criteria. They accidently divided into submaximal-aerobic and control groups. The submaximal-aerobic group carried out exercise training for 24 continuous sessions (with 50-70% of maximum heart rate and 3 sessions/per-week for eight weeks. The anthropometrical, VO2max and blood sampling assessments performed and later assessments were completed 24 hours after last training period. Then, whole of data were analyzed by Stata software at P0.05. In addition, there were direct and significant relationship between anthropometrical indices and HbA1c with Apelin-13 (p<0.05. Conclusions: Obesity increases the possibility of metabolic diseases and insulin resistance. In the current study we represented that the internal factors of exercise, such as intensity, had meaningful effects on anthropometric features of overweight individuals but it was not enough for exercise induced-apelin-13 and insulin resistance changes.  According to this record, longer and higher intense exercise compare with the current study's protocol were recommended to beneficially decrease and control the incidence and catch the type II diabetes and cardiovascular diseases.

  2. Different types of exercise in Multiple Sclerosis: Aerobic exercise or Pilates, a single-blind clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kara, Bilge; Küçük, Fadime; Poyraz, Esra Coşkuner; Tomruk, Melda Soysal; İdıman, Egemen

    2017-01-01

    The aim of our study is to examine effects of aerobic and Pilates exercises on disability, cognition, physical performance, balance, depression and fatigue in relapsing-remitting Multiple Sclerosis (MS) patients as compared to healthy controls. The subjects were divided as aerobic exercise (n = 26), Pilates (n = 9), and the healthy control group (n = 21). We used MSFC, physical performance, Berg balance scale, Beck depression scale, fatigue impact scale. All evaluations were performed before and after exercise training. There are statistically meaningful differences between Nine hole testing, PASAT 3, physical performance and fatique impact scale before and after aerobic exercise. Also we found significant difference for physical performance in the Pilates group. There are no significant differences in measures of fatique impact scale and depression between aerobic exercise group and the healthy controls after exercise. We found significant differences between Pilates and control group's after measurements except depression. There were significant differences between the Pilates and aerobic group for cognitive tests in favor of the Pilates group. Aerobic exercise and clinical Pilates exercises revealed moderate changes in levels of cognitive, physical performance, balance, depression, fatigue in MS patients.

  3. Dynamic Aerobic Exercise Induces Baroreflex Improvement in Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Jorge

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of an acute aerobic exercise on arterial pressure (AP, heart rate (HR, and baroreflex sensitivity (BRS in STZ-induced diabetic rats. Male Wistar rats were divided into control (n=8 and diabetic (n=8 groups. AP, HR, and BRS, which were measured by tachycardic and bradycardic (BR responses to AP changes, were evaluated at rest (R and postexercise session (PE on a treadmill. At rest, STZ diabetes induced AP and HR reductions, associated with BR impairment. Attenuation in resting diabetes-induced AP (R: 103±2 versus PE: 111±3 mmHg and HR (R: 290±7 versus PE: 328±10 bpm reductions and BR dysfunction (R: -0.70±0.06 versus PE: -1.21±0.09 bpm/mmHg was observed in the postexercise period. In conclusion, the hemodynamic and arterial baro-mediated control of circulation improvement in the postexercise period reinforces the role of exercise in the management of cardiovascular risk in diabetes.

  4. Dynamic Aerobic Exercise Induces Baroreflex Improvement in Diabetic Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorge, Luciana; da Pureza, Demilto Y.; Dias, Danielle da Silva; Conti, Filipe Fernandes; Irigoyen, Maria-Cláudia; De Angelis, Kátia

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of an acute aerobic exercise on arterial pressure (AP), heart rate (HR), and baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) in STZ-induced diabetic rats. Male Wistar rats were divided into control (n = 8) and diabetic (n = 8) groups. AP, HR, and BRS, which were measured by tachycardic and bradycardic (BR) responses to AP changes, were evaluated at rest (R) and postexercise session (PE) on a treadmill. At rest, STZ diabetes induced AP and HR reductions, associated with BR impairment. Attenuation in resting diabetes-induced AP (R: 103 ± 2 versus PE: 111 ± 3 mmHg) and HR (R: 290 ± 7 versus PE: 328 ± 10 bpm) reductions and BR dysfunction (R: −0.70 ± 0.06 versus PE: −1.21 ± 0.09 bpm/mmHg) was observed in the postexercise period. In conclusion, the hemodynamic and arterial baro-mediated control of circulation improvement in the postexercise period reinforces the role of exercise in the management of cardiovascular risk in diabetes. PMID:22203833

  5. Stress responses during aerobic exercise in relation to motivational dominance and state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thatcher, Joanne; Kuroda, Yusuke; Legrand, Fabien D; Thatcher, Rhys

    2011-02-01

    We examined the hypothesis that congruence between motivational dominance and state results in optimal psychological responses and performance during exercise. Twenty participants (10 telic dominant and 10 paratelic dominant) rated their stress at 5 min intervals as they cycled on an ergometer at gas exchange threshold for 30 min in both telic and paratelic state manipulated conditions. Participants then performed a test to exhaustion at a resistance equivalent to 110% of VO(2max). The hypothesized interaction between condition and dominance was significant for internal tension stress, as paratelic dominants were more stressed than telic dominants when exercising in the telic state and telic dominants were more stressed than paratelic dominants when exercising in the paratelic state. Similarly, the condition × dominance interaction for internal stress discrepancy was significant, as paratelic dominants reported greater internal stress discrepancy exercising in the telic compared with the paratelic state. Findings are discussed in relation to the application of reversal theory for understanding stress responses during aerobic exercise.

  6. Aerobic Games and Playful exercises in 9-YearOld Boys: Intensity and Fitness Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunnar E Mathisen

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Previous research on exercise for pre-adolescents with the purpose of improving aerobic fitness levels has yielded contradictory results. Sufficient training intensity, frequency and duration are the crucial factors in achieving this goal; the question, however, is whether it is possible to reach sufficient intensity levels using aerobic games and playful exercises. Variety and fun are the important factors in motivating children to participate in physical exercises and sports. Therefore, the aim of the study was to investigate the effect of high intensity exercises in pre-adolescent boys, using programs consisting of fun activities and aerobic games. The findings show that the participants achieved intensity levels above 80 % of HRpeak on average in about 60 % of the total exercise time, resulting in significantly improved aerobic fitness.

  7. The Effects of Chronic Aerobic Exercise on Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Persons with Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miele, Emily M; Headley, Samuel A E

    2017-09-12

    Aerobic exercise training is a component of diabetes mellitus (DM) care guidelines due to its favorable effects on glycemic control and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors. The purpose of this review is to outline the recent evidence regarding the clinical effects of chronic aerobic exercise on CVD risk factors in persons with DM and to compare the effects of varying intensities and types of exercise. Among individuals with DM, all types of aerobic exercise training can impact positively on some traditional and non-traditional risk factors for CVD. Training programs with a higher volume or intensity induce greater improvements in vascular function, cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), and lipid profiles. The beneficial outcomes of aerobic training include improvements in glycemic control, endothelial function, oxidative stress, dyslipidemia, myocardial function, adiposity, and CRF. Findings regarding markers of inflammation are discrepant and further research should focus on the role of exercise to impact upon the chronic inflammation associated with DM.

  8. Lifelong Aerobic Exercise Reduces the Stress Response in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietrelli, A; Di Nardo, M; Masucci, A; Brusco, A; Basso, N; Matkovic, L

    2018-04-15

    The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of lifelong aerobic exercise (AE) on the adaptive response of the stress system in rats. It is well known that hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA) activity differs when triggered by voluntary or forced exercise models. Male Wistar rats belonging to exercise (E) or control (C) groups were subjected to chronic AE, and two cutoff points were established at 8 (middle age) and 18 months (old age). Behavioral, biochemical and histopathological studies were performed on the main components/targets of the stress system. AE increased adrenal sensitivity (AS), brain corticosterone (CORT) and corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF), but had no effect on the thymus, adrenal glands (AGs) weight or plasma CORT. In addition, AE exerted no effect on the sympathetic tone, but significantly reduced anxiety-related behavior and emotionality. Aging decreased AS and deregulated neuroendocrine feedback, leading to an anxiogenic state which was mitigated by AE. Histopathological and morphometric analysis of AGs showed no alterations in middle-aged rats but adrenal vacuolization in approximately 20% old rats. In conclusion, lifelong AE did not produce adverse effects related to a chronic stress state. On the contrary, while AE upregulated some components of the HPA axis, it generated an adaptive response to cumulative changes, possibly through different compensatory and/or super compensatory mechanisms, modulated by age. The long-term practice of AE had a strong positive impact on stress resilience so that it could be recommended as a complementary therapy in stress and depression disease. Copyright © 2018 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Effect of Aerobic Exercise Training on Chinese Population with Mild to Moderate Depression in Hong Kong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassandra W. H. Ho

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Exercise has been suggested to be a viable treatment for depression. This study investigates the effect of supervised aerobic exercise training on depressive symptoms and physical performance among Chinese patients with mild to moderate depression in early in-patient phase. Methods. A randomized repeated measure and assessor-blinded study design was used. Subjects in aerobic exercise group received 30 minutes of aerobic training, five days a week for 3 weeks. Depressive symptoms (MADRS and C-BDI and domains in physical performance were assessed at baseline and program end. Results. Subjects in aerobic exercise group showed a more significant reduction in depressive scores (MADRS as compared to control (between-group mean difference = 10.08 ± 9.41; P=0.026 after 3 weeks training. The exercise group also demonstrated a significant improvement in flexibility (between-group mean difference = 4.4 ± 6.13; P=0.02. Limitations. There was lack of longitudinal followup to examine the long-term effect of aerobic exercise on patients with depression. Conclusions. Aerobic exercise in addition to pharmacological intervention can have a synergistic effect in reducing depressive symptoms and increasing flexibility among Chinese population with mild to moderate depression. Early introduction of exercise training in in-patient phase can help to bridge the gap of therapeutic latency of antidepressants during its nonresponse period.

  10. Frequency and antimicrobial resistance of aerobic bacteria isolated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was carried out to evaluate the frequency of occurrence and antimicrobial resistance of aerobic bacteria isolated from surgical sites in human and animal patients in Nsukka, southeast Nigeria. Wound swabs from 132 patients (96 humans and 36 animals) were cultured for bacterial isolation. Antimicrobial ...

  11. Aerobic and resistance training improves mood state among adults living with HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaggers, J R; Hand, G A; Dudgeon, W D; Burgess, S; Phillips, K D; Durstine, J L; Blair, S N

    2015-02-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to examine the effects of combined aerobic and resistance exercise training among self-reported mood disturbances, perceived stress, frequency of self-reported symptoms, and symptom distress in a sample of HIV+ adults. For this purpose, 49 participants were randomly assigned into an exercise (EX) or control (CON) group. Those in the EX group completed 50 min of supervised aerobic and resistance training at a moderate intensity twice a week for 6 weeks. The CON group reported to the university and engaged in sedentary activities. Data were collected at baseline before randomization and 6 weeks post intervention. Measures included the symptom distress scale (SDS), perceived stress scale (PSS), profile of mood states (POMS) total score, and the POMS sub-scale for depression and fatigue. A 2 way ANOVA was used to compare between and within group interactions. The EX group showed a significant decrease in reported depression scores (p=0.03) and total POMS (p=0.003). The CON group reported no change in POMS or SDS, but showed a significant increase in PSS. These findings indicate that combination aerobic and resistance training completed at a moderate intensity at least twice a week provides additional psychological benefits independent of disease status and related symptoms. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  12. Effects of Aerobic Exercise on Overweight Children's Cognitive Functioning: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Catherine L.; Tomporowski, Phillip D.; Boyle, Colleen A.; Waller, Jennifer L.; Miller, Patricia H.; Naglieri, Jack A.; Gregoski, Mathew

    2007-01-01

    The study tested the effect of aerobic exercise training on executive function in overweight children. Ninety-four sedentary, overweight but otherwise healthy children (mean age = 9.2 years, body mass index [greater than or equal to] 85th percentile) were randomized to a low-dose (20 min/day exercise), high-dose (40 min/day exercise), or control…

  13. Recent Research on Eating Disorders and Body Image Distortion among Aerobic Instructors and Exercise Participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriarty, Dick; And Others

    This document reviews the research linking excessive exercise with eating disorders. Seven steps are listed that an individual follows in going from someone who starts out using exercise and aerobic dance as a stress management technique or a hobby to becoming an exercise dependent individual with addictive behavior. Studies are reviewed, the…

  14. Adherence to an Aerobic Exercise Intervention after an Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillator (ICD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougherty, Cynthia M; Luttrell, Matilda N; Burr, Robert L; Kim, Misun; Haskell, William L

    2016-02-01

    Exercise adherence is an important element in achieving important exercise outcomes. The purpose of this study was to describe adherence in a home-based aerobic exercise program following an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD), determine effects of adherence on peakVO2 , and outline reasons for nonadherence. A single-blind randomized control trial of home walking compared to usual care in 160 patients with an ICD for primary or secondary prevention was conducted. This report is on adherence in the exercise arm (N = 84). Home walking exercise consisted of 8 weeks of aerobic conditioning (60 minutes/day, 5 days/week) followed by 16 weeks of aerobic maintenance (150 minutes/week, 30 minutes/session) at 60-80% of heart rate reserve. Adherence was tracked using Polar heart rate (HR) monitors, pedometers, home exercise logs, and telephone follow-up. Adherence was defined as performing at least 80% of prescribed exercise. For aerobic conditioning, there was a mean frequency of 3.81 walks/week, duration of 1,873 minutes walked, and 17.5% of exercise was in the target HR (THR) zone. For aerobic maintenance, there was a mean frequency of 2.4 walks/week, duration of 1,872 minutes/walked, and 8.7% of exercise was in the THR zone. Those who were 80% adherent achieved a 3.4 mL/kg/min (P = 0.03) improvement in peakVO2 over those who were exercise ranged from scheduling issues to viral illness and fatigue. Adherence to aerobic exercise frequency and duration was high with few dropouts, resulting in higher peakVO2 . Exercise monitoring equipment encouraged adherence and conferred a sense of safety to exercise. ©2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Sub-Symptomatic Aerobic Exercise for Patients with Post-Concussion Syndrome: A Critically Appraised Topic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, Katrina G; Hussey, Matthew J; Valovich McLeod, Tamara C

    2017-09-27

    Clinical Scenario: Patients who experience prolonged concussion symptoms can be diagnosed with Post-Concussion Syndrome (PCS) when those symptoms persist past 4 weeks. Aerobic exercise protocols have been shown to be effective in improving physical and mental aspects of health. Emerging research suggests that aerobic exercise maybe useful as a treatment for PCS, where exercise allows patients to feel less isolated and more active during the recovery process. Is aerobic exercise more beneficial in reducing symptoms than current standard care in patients with prolonged symptoms or PCS lasting longer than 4 weeks? Summary of Key Findings: After a thorough literature search, 4 studies were selected relevant to the clinical question. Of the 4 studies, 1 was a randomized control trial and 3 were case series. All 4 studies investigate aerobic exercise protocol as treatment for PCS. 1-4 Three articles demonstrated a greater rate of symptom improvement from baseline assessment to follow-up after a controlled sub-symptomatic aerobic exercise program. 2-4 One study showed a decrease in symptoms in the aerobic exercise group compared to the full body stretching group. 1 Clinical Bottom Line: There is moderate evidence to support sub-symptomatic aerobic exercise as a treatment of PCS, therefore it should be considered as a clinical option for reducing PCS and prolonged concussion symptoms. A previously validated protocol, such as the Buffalo Concussion Treadmill Test, Balke Protocol, or Rating of Perceived Exertion (RPE) as mentioned in this critically appraised topic should be used to measure baseline values and treatment progression. Strength of Recommendation: Level C evidence exists that aerobic exercise protocol is more effective than the current standard of care in treating PCS.

  16. Age Moderates the Association of Aerobic Exercise with Initial Learning of an Online Task Requiring Cognitive Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Patrick J; Tomporowski, Phillip D; Dishman, Rodney K

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to examine whether people differed in change in performance across the first five blocks of an online flanker task and whether those trajectories of change were associated with self-reported aerobic or resistance exercise frequency according to age. A total of 8752 men and women aged 13-89 completed a lifestyle survey and five 45-s games (each game was a block of ~46 trials) of an online flanker task. Accuracy of the congruent and incongruent flanker stimuli was analyzed using latent class and growth curve modeling adjusting for time between blocks, whether the blocks occurred on the same or different days, education, smoking, sleep, caffeinated coffee and tea use, and Lumosity training status ("free play" or part of a "daily brain workout"). Aerobic and resistance exercise were unrelated to first block accuracies. For the more cognitively demanding incongruent flanker stimuli, aerobic activity was positively related to the linear increase in accuracy [B=0.577%, 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.112 to 1.25 per day above the weekly mean of 2.8 days] and inversely related to the quadratic deceleration of accuracy gains (B=-0.619% CI, -1.117 to -0.121 per day). An interaction of aerobic activity with age indicated that active participants younger than age 45 had a larger linear increase and a smaller quadratic deceleration compared to other participants. Age moderates the association between self-reported aerobic, but not self-reported resistance, exercise and changes in cognitive control that occur with practice during incongruent presentations across five blocks of a 45-s online, flanker task.

  17. Effect of aerobic exercise on Pancreas Beta-cells function in adult obese males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojtaba Eizadi

    2014-08-01

    Conclusion: Aerobic exercise training increases beta cells function and decreases FBS in obese men. These findings support the hypothesis that regular physical activity postpones the occurrence of type 2 diabetes in adult obese subjects.

  18. Effects of aerobic exercise and drug therapy on blood pressure and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EB

    Key words: Aerobic exercise, drug therapy, blood pressure, randomised controlled trial. African Health Sciences 2013; (1): .... body fat and displayed it on the screen of the meter. ... inelastible tape measure (Butterfly, China). Blood pressure ...

  19. Aerobic exercise training performed by parents reduces mice offspring adiposity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Paulo Vitor da Silva; Guariglia, Débora Alves; Da Rocha, Francielli Ferreira; Picoli, Caroline de Carvalho; Gilio, Gustavo Renan; Fabricio, Gabriel Sergio; Mathias, Paulo Cesar de Freitas; Moraes, Solange Marta Franzói de; Peres, Sidney Barnabé

    2018-07-01

    The present study aimed to determine the effects of physical training performed by parents on mice offspring adiposity. Male and female parents underwent an aerobic training protocol for 7 weeks. The trained and sedentary parents were allowed to mate and the resultant offspring divided in: S (Offspring from Sedentary Parents), T (Offspring from Trained Parents), ST (Offspring from Sedentary Father and Trained Mother) and TS (Offspring from Trained Father and Sedentary Mother). After weaning, offspring was euthanized, blood collected and samples of mesenteric and inguinal fat pads used to isolate adipocytes for morphologic and histological analyses. Lee index, mesenteric fat pad, sum of visceral fat and total fat weight of female T was reduced in comparison to the other groups (p < 0.05). Periepididymal and sum of visceral fat in male T group was also reduced when compared to the other groups (p < 0.05). The diameter of mesenteric and inguinal adipocytes of T group was smaller compared to all groups comparisons for both sexes (p < 0.05). In summary, exercise training performed by parents reduced visceral offspring adiposity, the diameter of subcutaneous adipocytes and improved metabolic parameters associated to metabolic syndrome.

  20. Aquatic-Aerobic Exercise as a Means of Stress Reduction during Pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Parker, Kara Mallory; Smith, Sheila A.

    2003-01-01

    The goals of this research were to explore the current literature regarding associations between psychological stress and adverse fetal outcome, associations between aerobic exercise and psychological stress reduction, and associations between aerobic exercise and fetal outcome. The published studies that were located provide evidence of the following: 1) Stress reactivity increases physiologically during pregnancy, 2) pregnant women may experience additional stressors that are usually not ex...

  1. Low intensity aerobic exercise and oxidative stress markers in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouzid, Mohamed A; Hammouda, Omar; Matran, Régis; Robin, Sophie; Fabre, Claudine

    2014-10-01

    This comparative study examined the effects of regular low intensity aerobic exercise on oxidative stress markers in older adults. The study was carried out on 15 sedentary subjects (age: 65.1 ± 3.5 years) versus 18 subjects performing fitness exercises (age: 65.8 ± 3.3 years). Before and after an incremental exercise test, oxidative stress markers were assessed. Superoxide dismutase was higher at rest and at the recovery for the physically active subjects compared with sedentary subjects (p aerobic exercise may be useful to prevent the decline of antioxidants linked with aging.

  2. EFFECT OF HIGH & LOW INTENSITIES OF AEROBIC EXERCISE ON PHYSICAL FITNESS INDEX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhusudhan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Aerobic exercise reduces body fat and improves weight control, increases HDL&Vo2 max. Also improves PFI (physical fitness index which is defined as ability to carry out daily tasks with vigour and alertness without undue fatigue. Though aerobic exercise is found to improve physical fitness, the relative merits of different intensities of aerobi c exercise in improving physical fitness is still uncertain. AIM: The present study was conducted to know the Effect of High & low intensity aerobic training on physical fitness index. MATERIALS & METHODS : 80 sedentary men (18 - 40 years were randomized in to 2 equal groups (High Intensity & low intensity group . The High [80% HR max] & Low intensity [50 % HR max] groups underwent aerobic exercise training using Bicycle ergo meter (COSCO at 900kpm & 540kpm, for 15mins/day & 30mins/day respectively, 5days a week, for a period of 14weeks. Physical fitness index of each subject was recorded by Modified Harvard step test before & after intervention. RESULTS : After 14 weeks of aerobic training both the exercise groups had improvement in PFI, but high intensity gr oup had a significant (p<0.05 improvement in PFI (97.18 - 101.14 than low intensity group (98.12 - 100.6. CONCLUSION : High intensity aerobic exercise is effective in improving physical fitness.

  3. Aerobic Exercise for Reducing Migraine Burden: Mechanisms, Markers, and Models of Change Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irby, Megan B; Bond, Dale S; Lipton, Richard B; Nicklas, Barbara; Houle, Timothy T; Penzien, Donald B

    2016-02-01

    Engagement in regular exercise routinely is recommended as an intervention for managing and preventing migraine, and yet empirical support is far from definitive. We possess at best a weak understanding of how aerobic exercise and resulting change in aerobic capacity influence migraine, let alone the optimal parameters for exercise regimens as migraine therapy (eg, who will benefit, when to prescribe, optimal types, and doses/intensities of exercise, level of anticipated benefit). These fundamental knowledge gaps critically limit our capacity to deploy exercise as an intervention for migraine. Clear articulation of the markers and mechanisms through which aerobic exercise confers benefits for migraine would prove invaluable and could yield insights on migraine pathophysiology. Neurovascular and neuroinflammatory pathways, including an effect on obesity or adiposity, are obvious candidates for study given their role both in migraine as well as the changes known to accrue with regular exercise. In addition to these biological pathways, improvements in aerobic fitness and migraine alike also are mediated by changes in psychological and sociocognitive factors. Indeed a number of specific mechanisms and pathways likely are operational in the relationship between exercise and migraine improvement, and it remains to be established whether these pathways operate in parallel or synergistically. As heuristics that might conceptually benefit our research programs here forward, we: (1) provide an extensive listing of potential mechanisms and markers that could account for the effects of aerobic exercise on migraine and are worthy of empirical exploration and (2) present two exemplar conceptual models depicting pathways through which exercise may serve to reduce the burden of migraine. Should the promise of aerobic exercise as a feasible and effective migraine therapy be realized, this line of endeavor stands to benefit migraineurs (including the many who presently remain

  4. Strength and Aerobic Exercises Improve Spatial Memory in Aging Rats Through Stimulating Distinct Neuroplasticity Mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilela, Thais Ceresér; Muller, Alexandre Pastoris; Damiani, Adriani Paganini; Macan, Tamires Pavei; da Silva, Sabrina; Canteiro, Paula Bortoluzzi; de Sena Casagrande, Alisson; Pedroso, Giulia Dos Santos; Nesi, Renata Tiscoski; de Andrade, Vanessa Moraes; de Pinho, Ricardo Aurino

    2017-12-01

    Aging is associated with impaired cognition and memory and increased susceptibility to neurodegenerative disorders. Physical exercise is neuroprotective; however, the major evidence of this effect involves studies of only aerobic training in young animals. The benefits of other exercise protocols such as strength training in aged animals remains unknown. Here, we investigated the effect of aerobic and strength training on spatial memory and hippocampal plasticity in aging rats. Aging Wistar rats performed aerobic or strength training for 50 min 3 to 4 days/week for 8 weeks. Spatial memory and neurotrophic and glutamatergic signaling in the hippocampus of aged rats were evaluated after aerobic or strength training. Both aerobic and strength training improved cognition during the performance of a spatial memory task. Remarkably, the improvement in spatial memory was accompanied by an increase in synaptic plasticity proteins within the hippocampus after exercise training, with some differences in the intracellular functions of those proteins between the two exercise protocols. Moreover, neurotrophic signaling (CREB, BDNF, and the P75 NTR receptor) increased after training for both exercise protocols, and aerobic exercise specifically increased glutamatergic proteins (NMDA receptor and PSD-95). We also observed a decrease in DNA damage after aerobic training. In contrast, strength training increased levels of PKCα and the proinflammatory factors TNF-α and IL-1β. Overall, our results show that both aerobic and strength training improved spatial memory in aging rats through inducing distinct molecular mechanisms of neuroplasticity. Our findings extend the idea that exercise protocols can be used to improve cognition during aging.

  5. Genetic Influences on Physiological and Subjective Responses to an Aerobic Exercise Session among Sedentary Adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karoly, H. C.; Stevens, C.; Harlaar, N.; Hutchison, K. E.; Bryan, A. D.; Magnan, R. E.

    2012-01-01

    To determine whether genetic variants suggested by the literature to be associated with physiology and fitness phenotypes predicted differential physiological and subjective responses to a bout of aerobic exercise among inactive but otherwise healthy adults. Method. Participants completed a 30-minute submaximal aerobic exercise session. Measures of physiological and subjective responding were taken before, during, and after exercise. 14 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that have been previously associated with various exercise phenotypes were tested for associations with physiological and subjective response to exercise phenotypes. Results. We found that two SNPs in the FTO gene (rs8044769 and rs3751812) were related to positive affect change during exercise. Two SNPs in the CREB1 gene (rs2253206 and 2360969) were related to change in temperature during exercise and with maximal oxygen capacity (VO 2 max). The SLIT2 SNP rs1379659 and the FAM5C SNP rs1935881 were associated with norepinephrine change during exercise. Finally, the OPRM1 SNP rs1799971 was related to changes in norepinephrine, lactate, and rate of perceived exertion (RPE) during exercise. Conclusion. Genetic factors influence both physiological and subjective responses to exercise. A better understanding of genetic factors underlying physiological and subjective responses to aerobic exercise has implications for development and potential tailoring of exercise interventions.

  6. Metabolic consequences of resistive-type exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudley, G. A.

    1988-01-01

    This brief review concerns acute and chronic metabolic responses to resistive-type exercise (RTE) (i.e., Olympic/power weight lifting and bodybuilding). Performance of RTE presents power output substantially greater (10-15-fold) than that evident with endurance-type exercise. Accordingly, RTE relies heavily on the anaerobic enzyme machinery of skeletal muscle for energy supply, with alterations in the rate of aerobic metabolism being modest. Hydrolysis of high energy phosphate compounds (PC, ATP), glycogenolysis, and glycolysis are evident during an acute bout of RTE as indicated by metabolic markers in mixed fiber type skeletal muscle samples. The type of RTE probably influences the magnitude of these responses since the increase in blood lactate is much greater during a typical "bodybuilding" than "power lifting" session. The influence of RTE training on acute metabolic responses to RTE has received little attention. An individual's inherent metabolic characteristics are apparently sufficient to meet the energy demands of RTE as training of this type does not increase VO2max or substantially alter the content of marker enzymes in mixed fiber type skeletal muscle. Analyses of pools of fast- vs slow-twitch fibers, however, indicate that RTE-induced changes may be fiber type specific. Future studies should better delineate the metabolic responses to RTE and determine whether these are related to the enhanced performance associated with such training.

  7. Aerobic exercise combined with huwentoxin-I mitigates chronic cerebral ischemia injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai-feng Mao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Ca2+ channel blockers have been shown to protect neurons from ischemia, and aerobic exercise has significant protective effects on a variety of chronic diseases. The present study injected huwentoxin-I (HWTX-I, a spider peptide toxin that blocks Ca2+ channels, into the caudal vein of a chronic cerebral ischemia mouse model, once every 2 days, for a total of 15 injections. During this time, a subgroup of mice was subjected to treadmill exercise for 5 weeks. Results showed amelioration of cortical injury and improved neurological function in mice with chronic cerebral ischemia in the HWTX-I + aerobic exercise group. The combined effects of HWTX-I and exercise were superior to HWTX-I or aerobic exercise alone. HWTX-I effectively activated the Notch signal transduction pathway in brain tissue. Aerobic exercise up-regulated synaptophysin mRNA expression. These results demonstrated that aerobic exercise, in combination with HWTX-I, effectively relieved neuronal injury induced by chronic cerebral ischemia via the Notch signaling pathway and promoting synaptic regeneration.

  8. The effects of aerobic exercise on psychosocial functioning of adolescents who are overweight or obese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldfield, Gary S; Adamo, Kristi B; Rutherford, Jane; Murray, Marisa

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate effects of stationary cycling to music versus interactive video game cycling on psychosocial functioning in obese adolescents. 30 obese adolescents aged 12-17 years were randomized to twice weekly laboratory-based sessions of stationary cycling to music or interactive video game cycling for a 10-week trial. Participant's self-reported measures of scholastic competence, social competence, athletic competence, body image, and self-esteem were obtained. Aerobic fitness and body composition were directly measured. Although no differences emerged between exercise groups over time, when collapsed across exercise modality, significant pre-post improvements were found for body image, perceived scholastic competence and social competence. Changes in aerobic fitness, but not body composition, were positively associated with psychosocial functioning. Aerobic exercise was associated with improvements in body image, perceived academic performance, and social competence in obese adolescents, and these psychological benefits were related to improved aerobic fitness but not changes in body composition.

  9. Aerobic Exercise Improves Mood, Cognition, and Language Function in Parkinson's Disease: Results of a Controlled Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altmann, Lori J P; Stegemöller, Elizabeth; Hazamy, Audrey A; Wilson, Jonathan P; Bowers, Dawn; Okun, Michael S; Hass, Chris J

    2016-10-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) results in a range of non-motor deficits that can affect mood, cognition, and language, and many of these issues are unresponsive to pharmacological intervention. Aerobic exercise can improve mood and cognition in healthy older adults, although only a few studies have examined exercise effects on these domains in PD. The current study assesses the effects of aerobic exercise on aspects of cognition, mood, and language production in people with PD. This study compares the effects of aerobic exercise to stretch-balance training and a no-contact control group in participants with idiopathic PD. The aerobic and stretch-balance groups trained three times a week for 16 weeks, while controls continued normal activities. Outcome measures included disease severity, mood, cognition (speed of processing, memory, and executive function), and language production (picture descriptions). Cognition and language were assessed in single and dual task conditions. Depressive symptoms increased only in the control group (pimproved in the aerobic exercise group only in the single task (p=.007) and declined in controls in the dual task. Completeness of picture descriptions improved significantly more in the aerobic group than in the stretch-balance group (pexercise is a viable intervention for PD that can be protective against increased depressive symptoms, and can improve several non-motor domains, including executive dysfunction and related aspects of language production. (JINS, 2016, 22, 878-889).

  10. Four birds with one stone? Reparative, neuroplastic, cardiorespiratory, and metabolic benefits of aerobic exercise poststroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ploughman, Michelle; Kelly, Liam P

    2016-12-01

    Converging evidence from animal models of stroke and clinical trials suggests that aerobic exercise has effects across multiple targets. The subacute phase is characterized by a period of heightened neuroplasticity when aerobic exercise has the potential to optimize recovery. In animals, low intensity aerobic exercise shrinks lesion size and reduces cell death and inflammation, beginning 24 h poststroke. Also in animals, aerobic exercise upregulates brain-derived neurotrophic factor near the lesion and improves learning. In terms of neuroplastic effects, clinical trial results are less convincing and have only examined effects in chronic stroke. Stroke patients demonstrate cardiorespiratory fitness levels below the threshold required to carry out daily activities. This may contribute to a 'neurorehabilitation ceiling' that limits capacity to practice at a high enough frequency and intensity to promote recovery. Aerobic exercise when delivered 2-5 days per week at moderate to high intensity beginning as early as 5 days poststroke improves cardiorespiratory fitness, dyslipidemia, and glucose tolerance. Based on the evidence discussed and applying principles of periodization commonly used to prepare athletes for competition, we have created a model of aerobic training in subacute stroke in which training is delivered in density blocks (duration × intensity) matched to recovery phases.

  11. Aerobic exercise increases hippocampal volume and improves memory in multiple sclerosis: preliminary findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leavitt, V M; Cirnigliaro, C; Cohen, A; Farag, A; Brooks, M; Wecht, J M; Wylie, G R; Chiaravalloti, N D; DeLuca, J; Sumowski, J F

    2014-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis leads to prominent hippocampal atrophy, which is linked to memory deficits. Indeed, 50% of multiple sclerosis patients suffer memory impairment, with negative consequences for quality of life. There are currently no effective memory treatments for multiple sclerosis either pharmacological or behavioral. Aerobic exercise improves memory and promotes hippocampal neurogenesis in nonhuman animals. Here, we investigate the benefits of aerobic exercise in memory-impaired multiple sclerosis patients. Pilot data were collected from two ambulatory, memory-impaired multiple sclerosis participants randomized to non-aerobic (stretching) and aerobic (stationary cycling) conditions. The following baseline/follow-up measurements were taken: high-resolution MRI (neuroanatomical volumes), fMRI (functional connectivity), and memory assessment. Intervention was 30-minute sessions 3 times per week for 3 months. Aerobic exercise resulted in 16.5% increase in hippocampal volume and 53.7% increase in memory, as well as increased hippocampal resting-state functional connectivity. Improvements were specific, with no comparable changes in overall cerebral gray matter (+2.4%), non-hippocampal deep gray matter structures (thalamus, caudate: -4.0%), or in non-memory cognitive functioning (executive functions, processing speed, working memory: changes ranged from -11% to +4%). Non-aerobic exercise resulted in relatively no change in hippocampal volume (2.8%) or memory (0.0%), and no changes in hippocampal functional connectivity. This is the first evidence for aerobic exercise to increase hippocampal volume and connectivity and improve memory in multiple sclerosis. Aerobic exercise represents a cost-effective, widely available, natural, and self-administered treatment with no adverse side effects that may be the first effective memory treatment for multiple sclerosis patients.

  12. Numerical simulation of aerobic exercise as a countermeasure in human spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Poch, Antoni

    The objective of this work is to analyse the efficacy of long-term regular exercise on relevant cardiovascular parameters when the human body is also exposed to microgravity. Computer simulations are an important tool which may be used to predict and analyse these possible effects, and compare them with in-flight experiments. We based our study on a electrical-like computer model (NELME: Numerical Evaluation of Long-term Microgravity Effects) which was developed in our laboratory and validated with the available data, focusing on the cardiovascu-lar parameters affected by changes in gravity exposure. NELME is based on an electrical-like control system model of the physiological changes, that are known to take place when grav-ity changes are applied. The computer implementation has a modular architecture. Hence, different output parameters, potential effects, organs and countermeasures can be easily imple-mented and evaluated. We added to the previous cardiovascular system module a perturbation module to evaluate the effect of regular exercise on the output parameters previously studied. Therefore, we simulated a well-known countermeasure with different protocols of exercising, as a pattern of input electric-like perturbations on the basic module. Different scenarios have been numerically simulated for both men and women, in different patterns of microgravity, reduced gravity and time exposure. Also EVAs were simulated as perturbations to the system. Results show slight differences in gender, with more risk reduction for women than for men after following an aerobic exercise pattern during a simulated mission. Also, risk reduction of a cardiovascular malfunction is evaluated, with a ceiling effect found in all scenarios. A turning point in vascular resistance for a long-term exposure of microgravity below 0.4g has been found of particular interest. In conclusion, we show that computer simulations are a valuable tool to analyse different effects of long

  13. The effect of sesamine and aerobic exercise on plasma levels of total antioxidant capacity and glutathione peroxidase in athlete men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yousef Saberi

    2017-10-01

    Conclusion: Aerobic exercise and supplementation of sesamin is an effective method to improve the health of mens athlete's immune system. In addition, combining supplementation with aerobic exercise can increase some of the beneficial effects of exercise during a 10-week period.

  14. Aerobic Interval Exercise Training Induces Greater Reduction in Cardiac Workload in the Recovery Period in Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borges, Juliana Pereira; Masson, Gustavo Santos; Tibiriçá, Eduardo; Lessa, Marcos Adriano

    2014-01-01

    Aerobic interval exercise training has greater benefits on cardiovascular function as compared with aerobic continuous exercise training. The present study aimed at analyzing the effects of both exercise modalities on acute and subacute hemodynamic responses of healthy rats. Thirty male rats were randomly assigned into three groups as follows: continuous exercise (CE, n = 10); interval exercise (IE, n = 10); and control (C, n = 10). Both IE and CE groups performed a 30-minute exercise session. The IE group session consisted of three successive 4-minute periods at 60% of maximal velocity (Max Vel), with 4-minute recovery intervals at 40% of Max Vel. The CE group ran continuously at 50% of Max Vel. Heart rate (HR), blood pressure(BP), and rate pressure product (RPP) were measured before, during and after the exercise session. The CE and IE groups showed an increase in systolic BP and RPP during exercise as compared with the baseline values. After the end of exercise, the CE group showed a lower response of systolic BP and RPP as compared with the baseline values, while the IE group showed lower systolic BP and mean BP values. However, only the IE group had a lower response of HR and RPP during recovery. In healthy rats, one interval exercise session, as compared with continuous exercise, induced similar hemodynamic responses during exercise. However, during recovery, the interval exercise caused greater reductions in cardiac workload than the continuous exercise

  15. Aerobic Interval Exercise Training Induces Greater Reduction in Cardiac Workload in the Recovery Period in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Juliana Pereira; Masson, Gustavo Santos; Tibiriçá, Eduardo; Lessa, Marcos Adriano

    2014-01-01

    Background Aerobic interval exercise training has greater benefits on cardiovascular function as compared with aerobic continuous exercise training. Objective The present study aimed at analyzing the effects of both exercise modalities on acute and subacute hemodynamic responses of healthy rats. Methods Thirty male rats were randomly assigned into three groups as follows: continuous exercise (CE, n = 10); interval exercise (IE, n = 10); and control (C, n = 10). Both IE and CE groups performed a 30-minute exercise session. The IE group session consisted of three successive 4-minute periods at 60% of maximal velocity (Max Vel), with 4-minute recovery intervals at 40% of Max Vel. The CE group ran continuously at 50% of Max Vel. Heart rate (HR), blood pressure(BP), and rate pressure product (RPP) were measured before, during and after the exercise session. Results The CE and IE groups showed an increase in systolic BP and RPP during exercise as compared with the baseline values. After the end of exercise, the CE group showed a lower response of systolic BP and RPP as compared with the baseline values, while the IE group showed lower systolic BP and mean BP values. However, only the IE group had a lower response of HR and RPP during recovery. Conclusion In healthy rats, one interval exercise session, as compared with continuous exercise, induced similar hemodynamic responses during exercise. However, during recovery, the interval exercise caused greater reductions in cardiac workload than the continuous exercise. PMID:24270864

  16. Aerobic Interval Exercise Training Induces Greater Reduction in Cardiac Workload in the Recovery Period in Rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borges, Juliana Pereira, E-mail: julipborges@gmail.com; Masson, Gustavo Santos; Tibiriçá, Eduardo; Lessa, Marcos Adriano [Instituto Oswaldo Cruz - FIOCRUZ, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2014-01-15

    Aerobic interval exercise training has greater benefits on cardiovascular function as compared with aerobic continuous exercise training. The present study aimed at analyzing the effects of both exercise modalities on acute and subacute hemodynamic responses of healthy rats. Thirty male rats were randomly assigned into three groups as follows: continuous exercise (CE, n = 10); interval exercise (IE, n = 10); and control (C, n = 10). Both IE and CE groups performed a 30-minute exercise session. The IE group session consisted of three successive 4-minute periods at 60% of maximal velocity (Max Vel), with 4-minute recovery intervals at 40% of Max Vel. The CE group ran continuously at 50% of Max Vel. Heart rate (HR), blood pressure(BP), and rate pressure product (RPP) were measured before, during and after the exercise session. The CE and IE groups showed an increase in systolic BP and RPP during exercise as compared with the baseline values. After the end of exercise, the CE group showed a lower response of systolic BP and RPP as compared with the baseline values, while the IE group showed lower systolic BP and mean BP values. However, only the IE group had a lower response of HR and RPP during recovery. In healthy rats, one interval exercise session, as compared with continuous exercise, induced similar hemodynamic responses during exercise. However, during recovery, the interval exercise caused greater reductions in cardiac workload than the continuous exercise.

  17. Acute Aerobic Exercise Impacts Selective Attention: An Exceptional Boost in Lower-Income Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tine, Michele T.; Butler, Allison G.

    2012-01-01

    Educational research suggests that lower-income children exhibit poor general executive functioning relative to their higher-income peers. Meanwhile, sports psychology research suggests that an acute bout of aerobic exercise improves executive functioning in children. Yet, it has never been determined if such exercise (1) specifically improves the…

  18. Effect of aerobic and anaerobic exercise on anxiety and, blood cortisol secretion rate of young wrestlers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    bahram Delfan

    2013-09-01

    Conclusion: Regarding the results of the research it can be said that one session of aerobic exercise was effective in decreasing anxiety of wrestlers and also a long-term continuation of these exercises reduces anxiety and the cortisol hormone level which leads to mental and emotional balance of athletes.

  19. Effect of aerobic exercise on physical performance in patients with Alzheimer's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sobol, N A; Hoffmann, K; Frederiksen, K S

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Knowledge about the feasibility and effects of exercise programs to persons with Alzheimer's disease is lacking. This study investigated the effect of aerobic exercise on physical performance in community-dwelling persons with mild Alzheimer's disease. METHODS: The single blinded...

  20. Effects of an Aerobic Exercise Program on Community-Based Adults with Mental Retardation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pommering, Thomas L.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Evaluation of a 10-week aerobic exercise program on 14 community-based adults with mental retardation found a 91.3% attendance rate and significant increases in maximal oxygen consumption, oxygen pulse, maximum ventilation, exercise stress test duration, and flexibility. However, no significant changes were observed in weight or body composition.…

  1. Aerobic Exercise Modulates the Free Fatty Acids and Inflammatory Response During Obesity and Cancer Cachexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Alexandre Abilio de Souza; Lira, Fábio Santos; Pimentel, Gustavo D; Oliveira de Souza, Camila; Batatinha, Helena; Biondo, Luana A; Yamashita, Alex S; Junior, Edson A Lima; Neto, José Cesar Rosa

    2016-01-01

    White adipose tissue (WAT) is no longer considered a tissue whose main function is the storage of TAG. Since the discovery of leptin in 1994, several studies have elucidated the important role of WAT as an endocrine organ, the source of the adipokines. The low-grade inflammation observed in obese and cancer cachexia patients is explained, at least partially, by the exacerbated release of proinflammatory adipokines. Despite of the recent progress in the characterization of the various adipokines and lipokines produced by WAT, little is known about the mechanisms regulating the secretion of these molecules in different physiological and pathological circumstances. Chronic exercise is a nonpharmacological therapy employed in several chronic diseases and shows an anti-inflammatory effect through the regulation of the cytokine network. In this review, we address the potential mechanisms by which the aerobic physical exercise modulate the production and release of inflammatory adipokines, as well as the inflammation-lipolysis axis in WAT, with special focus in the therapeutic role of exercise in obesity-associated insulin resistance and cancer cachexia.

  2. Earlier time to aerobic exercise is associated with faster recovery following acute sport concussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, David Wyndham; Richards, Doug; Comper, Paul; Hutchison, Michael G

    2018-01-01

    To determine whether earlier time to initiation of aerobic exercise following acute concussion is associated with time to full return to (1) sport and (2) school or work. A retrospective stratified propensity score survival analysis of acute (≤14 days) concussion was used to determine whether time (days) to initiation of aerobic exercise post-concussion was associated with, both, time (days) to full return to (1) sport and (2) school or work. A total of 253 acute concussions [median (IQR) age, 17.0 (15.0-20.0) years; 148 (58.5%) males] were included in this study. Multivariate Cox regression models identified that earlier time to aerobic exercise was associated with faster return to sport and school/work adjusting for other covariates, including quintile propensity strata. For each successive day in delay to initiation of aerobic exercise, individuals had a less favourable recovery trajectory. Initiating aerobic exercise at 3 and 7 days following injury was associated with a respective 36.5% (HR, 0.63; 95% CI, 0.53-0.76) and 73.2% (HR, 0.27; 95% CI, 0.16-0.45) reduced probability of faster full return to sport compared to within 1 day; and a respective 45.9% (HR, 0.54; 95% CI, 0.44-0.66) and 83.1% (HR, 0.17; 95% CI, 0.10-0.30) reduced probability of faster full return to school/work. Additionally, concussion history, symptom severity, LOC deleteriously influenced concussion recovery. Earlier initiation of aerobic exercise was associated with faster full return to sport and school or work. This study provides greater insight into the benefits and safety of aerobic exercise within the first week of the injury.

  3. Effect of intermittent aerobic exercise on sleep quality and sleep disturbances in patients with rheumatoid arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løppenthin, Katrine; Esbensen, Bente Appel; Jennum, Poul

    2014-01-01

    of an intermittent aerobic exercise intervention on sleep, assessed both objectively and subjectively in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. METHODS/DESIGN: A randomized controlled trial including 44 patients with rheumatoid arthritis randomly assigned to an exercise training intervention or to a control group....... The intervention consists of 18 session intermittent aerobic exercise training on a bicycle ergometer three times a week. Patients are evaluated according to objective changes in sleep as measured by polysomnography (primary outcome). Secondary outcomes include changes in subjective sleep quality and sleep...... disturbances, fatigue, pain, depressive symptoms, physical function, health-related quality of life and cardiorespiratory fitness. DISCUSSION: This trial will provide evidence of the effect of intermittent aerobic exercise on the improvement of sleep in patients with rheumatoid arthritis, which is considered...

  4. Resistance exercises in lipemic regulation: a narrative review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Rebolledo Cobos

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the review study was to describe the metabolic effects of resistance exercises with a potential association with lipid metabolism and thus, its possible role in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases. It was based on the literature with greater scientific relevance. The main results argue that, despite having less published studies aerobics, exercises based on the maturity of external resistors for strength training or resistance exercises, they have a positive influence on lipid metabolism, primarily hours after Have been executed. Some of the findings in healthy populations conclude that this type of exercise, in addition to an increase in muscle functional and neurophysiological properties, leads to an increase in plasma concentrations of HDL cholesterol, in addition to promoting the reduction of total cholesterol and LDL, mainly in periods postprandial. The physiological implications of resistance exercises on the activity of enzymes with a role in lipid metabolism are not conclusive. Due to the high variability in prescribing this form of exercise, more studies may elucidate the effect of different volumes, intensities and doses of lipemic variables in healthy populations or special conditions are needed.

  5. Effects of Moderate Aerobic Exercise Combined With Calorie Restriction on Circulating Estrogens and IGF-I in Premenopausal Women

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Williams, Nancy I

    2004-01-01

    This proposal entitled "effects of moderate aerobic exercise combined with caloric restriction on circulating estrogens and IGF-1 in premenopausal women" will provide important contributions regarding...

  6. Effects of Moderate Aerobic Exercise Combined With Caloric Restriction on Circulating Estrogens and IGF-I in Premenopausal Women

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Williams, Nancy I

    2004-01-01

    This proposal entitled "Effects of moderate aerobic exercise combined with caloric restriction on circulating estrogens and IGF-1 in premenopausal women" will provide important contributions regarding...

  7. Effects of Moderate Aerobic Exercise Combined with Caloric Restriction on Circulating Estrogens and IGF-I in Premenopausal Women

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Williams, Nancy

    2003-01-01

    The proposal entitled "Effects of moderate aerobic exercise combined with caloric restriction on circulating estrogens and IGF-I in premenopausal women will provide important scientific contributions...

  8. Combined effect of surya namaskar and aerobic exercises to reduce anger among substance dependence subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Priyanka Malhotra; Karobi Das; Sunita Sharma; Debasish Basu

    2016-01-01

    Background: There is a strong association between certain exercises and anger management. Persons with a high tendency towards anger often abuse substances. Alcohol and drug abuse is one of the most common behavioural problems that occur due to uncontrolled anger. Substance dependence subjects when frustrated would show anger. Aim: To assess the anger among substance dependence subjects and the effect of physical exercises (surya namaskar and aerobic exercises) on anger management. Mate...

  9. A randomized 9-month study of blood pressure and body fat responses to aerobic training versus combined aerobic and resistance training in older men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Nelson; Mendes, Romeu; Abrantes, Catarina; Sampaio, Jaime; Oliveira, José

    2013-08-01

    This randomized study evaluated the impact of different exercise training modalities on blood pressure and body fat responses in apparently healthy older men. Forty-eight elderly men (aged 65-75 years) were randomly assigned to an aerobic training group (ATG, n=15), a combined aerobic and resistance training group (CTG, n=16), or a control group (n=17). Both exercise training programs were moderate-to-vigorous intensity, three days/week for 9-months. Strength, aerobic endurance, body fat and blood pressure were measured on five different occasions. The data were analyzed using a mixed-model ANOVA, and the independence between systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and group was tested. A significant main effect of group (pendurance, with higher performance observed in the CTG. A significant main effect of group (ptraining programs reduce resting blood pressure. However, only the combined exercise training was effective at reducing body fat percentage; consequently, there were larger changes in blood pressure, which result in a significant reduction in hypertensive subjects. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The effects of aerobic exercise training on psychosocial aspects of men with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sardar, Mohammad Ali; Boghrabadi, Vahdat; Sohrabi, Mehdi; Aminzadeh, Reza; Jalalian, Mehrdad

    2014-01-20

    This study was conducted to examine the effects of aerobic exercise training on psychosocial aspects (mental health, the aspects of physical symptoms, anxiety and insomnia, social functioning, and depression) in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. 53 men who had type 2 diabetes mellitus for a mean duration of the disease for 3±5 years were selected purposely and classified randomly into experimental (27 patients) and a control group (26 patients). Patients in the experimental group did aerobic exercise training three times a week for eight weeks. The exercise included an aerobic activity for 45 to 60 minutes during which the patients' heart rates were maintained at 60-70 percent of heart rate reserve on ergo meter bikes. The eight-week aerobic exercise training had significant effects on mental health (p = 0.002), subscales of physical symptoms (p = 0.006), and anxiety and insomnia (p = 0.001). It had no significant effects on subscales related to disorder of social functioning (p = 0.117) and depression (p = 0.657). Aerobic exercise training can be considered as an appropriate program for improving the health of the patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, and it also can improve their mental health.

  11. Regular Aerobic Training Combined with Range of Motion Exercises in Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mine Doğru Apti

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To assess the effects of regular aerobic training combined with range of motion (ROM exercises on aerobic capacity, quality of life, and function in children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA. Methods. Thirty patients with JIA and 20 healthy age-matched controls (mean age ± SD, 11.3 ± 2.4 versus 11.0 ± 2.3, resp.; P>0.05 were included. All patients performed aerobic walking (4 days a week for 8 weeks and active and passive ROM exercises of involved joints. All patients completed the childhood health assessment questionnaire (CHAQ and the child health questionnaire. ROM measurements of joints were performed by using universal goniometer. Aerobic capacity was determined by measuring peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak during an incremental treadmill test. Results. Peak oxygen uptake and exercise duration were significantly lower in JIA group than in controls (32.5 ± 6.6 versus 35.9 ± 5.8 and 13.9 ± 1.9 versus 15.0 ± 2.0, resp.; P<0.05 for both. Eight-week combined exercise program significantly improved exercise parameters of JIA patients (baseline versus postexercise VO2peak and exercise duration, 32.5 ± 6.6 to 35.3 ± 7.9 and 13.9 ± 1.9 to 16.3 ± 2.2, resp.; P<0.001 for both. Exercise intervention significantly improved CHAQ scores in JIA patients (0.77 ± 0.61 to 0.20 ± 0.28, P<0.001. Conclusion. We suggest that regular aerobic exercise combined with ROM exercises may be an important part of treatment in patients with JIA.

  12. Does Aerobic Exercise Increase 24-Hour Ambulatory Blood Pressure Among Workers With High Occupational Physical Activity? - A RCT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korshøj, Mette; Krause, Niklas; Clays, Els

    2017-01-01

    .9–3.8). Cleaners with high aerobic workload exhibited particularly high 24-hour ABP increases: systolic 6.0 mm Hg (95% CI 2.4–9.6), and diastolic 3.8 mm Hg (95% CI 1.3–6.4). CONCLUSION Aerobic exercise increased 24-hour ABP among cleaners. This adverse effect raises questions about the safety and intended benefits......OBJECTIVE High occupational physical activity (OPA) increases cardiovascular risk and aerobic exercise has been recommended for reducing this risk. This paper investigates the effects of an aerobic exercise intervention on 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) among cleaners with high OPA....... METHODS Hundred and sixteen cleaners between 18 and 65 years were randomized. During the 4-month intervention period, the aerobic exercise group (AE) (n = 57) performed worksite aerobic exercise (2 × 30 minutes/week), while the reference group (REF) (n = 59) attended lectures. Between-group differences...

  13. Does aerobic exercise increase 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure among workers with high occupational physical activity? - A RCT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korshøj, Mette; Krause, Niklas; Clays, Els

    2017-01-01

    .9–3.8). Cleaners with high aerobic workload exhibited particularly high 24-hour ABP increases: systolic 6.0 mm Hg (95% CI 2.4–9.6), and diastolic 3.8 mm Hg (95% CI 1.3–6.4). CONCLUSION Aerobic exercise increased 24-hour ABP among cleaners. This adverse effect raises questions about the safety and intended benefits......OBJECTIVE High occupational physical activity (OPA) increases cardiovascular risk and aerobic exercise has been recommended for reducing this risk. This paper investigates the effects of an aerobic exercise intervention on 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) among cleaners with high OPA....... METHODS Hundred and sixteen cleaners between 18 and 65 years were randomized. During the 4-month intervention period, the aerobic exercise group (AE) (n = 57) performed worksite aerobic exercise (2 × 30 minutes/week), while the reference group (REF) (n = 59) attended lectures. Between-group differences...

  14. Moderate-intensity aerobic exercise improves sleep quality in men older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shams Amir

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of present research was to investigate the effect of low and moderate intensity aerobic exercises on sleep quality in older adults. The statistical sample included 45 volunteer elderly men with age range of 60-70 years old that divided randomly in two experimental groups (aerobic exercise with low and moderate intensity and one control group. The maximum heart rate (MaxHR of subjects was obtained by subtracting one's age from 220. Furthermore, based on aerobic exercise type (40-50% MaxHR for low intensity group and 60-70% MaxHR for moderate intensity group the target MaxHR was calculated for each subject. The exercise protocol consisted of 8 weeks aerobic exercises (2 sessions in per-week based on Rockport one-mile walking/running test and the control group continued their daily activities. All subjects in per-test and post-test stages were completed the Petersburg Sleep Quality Index (PSQI. Results in post-test stage showed that there were significant differences between control and experimental groups in sleep quality and its components (P<0.05. Also, the Tukey Post Hoc showed that the moderate intensity group scores in sleep quality and its components were better than other groups (P<0.05. Finally, the low intensity group scores were better than control group (P<0.05. Generally, the present research showed that the aerobic exercises with moderate intensity have a positive and significant effect on sleep quality and its components. Thus, based on these findings, the moderate intensity aerobic exercises as a useful and medical method for improve the sleep quality among community older adults was recommended.

  15. Effect of aerobic exercise and fish oil supplements on plasma levels of inflammatory indexes in mice

    OpenAIRE

    Alizadeh, Hamid; Bazgir, Behzad; Daryanoosh, Farhad; Koushki, Maryam; Sobhani, Vahid

    2014-01-01

    Background: Exercise has positive and negative effects on immune system. Herein, we would like to investigate the effects of incremental aerobic training and fish oil supplementation on the plasma levels of CRP, CPK and IL-17 in trained mice. One of the major roles of immune system is to produce soluble or cellular components that provide the immunity against inflammatory agent. The purpose of this study is to investigate distinct and combine effects of incremental aerobic training and fish o...

  16. Effect of anthracycline combined with aerobic exercise on the treatment of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Zhijun

    2018-05-01

    Anthracycline is a standard drug for the treatment of breast cancer. However, anthracycline has great cardiotoxicity. Some patients stop chemotherapy during severe chemotherapy and even undergo serious heart failure. At the same time, there is lack of clinical study on whether aerobic exercise can reduce the cardiotoxicity of chemotherapy drugs. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of aerobic exercise on the cardiac function of patients with breast cancer after anthracycline therapy. The results showed that the control group LVEF decreased significantly. In addition, the E/A value decreased and the DT interval prolonged in the control group, show that anthracycline on myocardial damage, and the observation group LVEF increased significantly (P<0.05), the results show that aerobic exercise can improve heart function, and to a certain extent, it could reverse the damage of chemotherapy drugs on the heart.

  17. The Ottawa panel clinical practice guidelines for the management of knee osteoarthritis. Part three: aerobic exercise programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brosseau, Lucie; Taki, Jade; Desjardins, Brigit; Thevenot, Odette; Fransen, Marlene; Wells, George A; Mizusaki Imoto, Aline; Toupin-April, Karine; Westby, Marie; Álvarez Gallardo, Inmaculada C; Gifford, Wendy; Laferrière, Lucie; Rahman, Prinon; Loew, Laurianne; De Angelis, Gino; Cavallo, Sabrina; Shallwani, Shirin Mehdi; Aburub, Ala'; Bennell, Kim L; Van der Esch, Martin; Simic, Milena; McConnell, Sara; Harmer, Alison; Kenny, Glen P; Paterson, Gail; Regnaux, Jean-Philippe; Lefevre-Colau, Marie-Martine; McLean, Linda

    2017-05-01

    To identify effective aerobic exercise programs and provide clinicians and patients with updated, high-quality recommendations concerning traditional land-based exercises for knee osteoarthritis. A systematic search and adapted selection criteria included comparative controlled trials with strengthening exercise programs for patients with knee osteoarthritis. A panel of experts reached consensus on the recommendations using a Delphi survey. A hierarchical alphabetical grading system (A, B, C+, C, D, D+, or D-) was used, based on statistical significance ( P osteoarthritis within a 12-week period. An aerobic exercise program demonstrated significant improvement for pain relief (Grade B), physical function (Grade B) and quality of life (Grade C+). Aerobic exercise in combination with strengthening exercises showed significant improvement for pain relief (3 Grade A) and physical function (2 Grade A, 2 Grade B). A short-term aerobic exercise program with/without muscle strengthening exercises is promising for reducing pain, improving physical function and quality of life for individuals with knee osteoarthritis.

  18. Cardioprotective effects of early and late aerobic exercise training in experimental pulmonary arterial hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira-Gonçalves, Daniel; Ferreira, Rita; Fonseca, Hélder; Padrão, Ana Isabel; Moreno, Nuno; Silva, Ana Filipa; Vasques-Nóvoa, Francisco; Gonçalves, Nádia; Vieira, Sara; Santos, Mário; Amado, Francisco; Duarte, José Alberto; Leite-Moreira, Adelino F; Henriques-Coelho, Tiago

    2015-11-01

    Clinical studies suggest that aerobic exercise can exert beneficial effects in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), but the underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. We compared the impact of early or late aerobic exercise training on right ventricular function, remodeling and survival in experimental PAH. Male Wistar rats were submitted to normal cage activity (SED), exercise training in early (EarlyEX) and in late stage (LateEX) of PAH induced by monocrotaline (MCT, 60 mg/kg). Both exercise interventions resulted in improved cardiac function despite persistent right pressure-overload, increased exercise tolerance and survival, with greater benefits in EarlyEX+MCT. This was accompanied by improvements in the markers of cardiac remodeling (SERCA2a), neurohumoral activation (lower endothelin-1, brain natriuretic peptide and preserved vascular endothelial growth factor mRNA), metabolism and mitochondrial oxidative stress in both exercise interventions. EarlyEX+MCT provided additional improvements in fibrosis, tumor necrosis factor-alpha/interleukin-10 and brain natriuretic peptide mRNA, and beta/alpha myosin heavy chain protein expression. The present study demonstrates important cardioprotective effects of aerobic exercise in experimental PAH, with greater benefits obtained when exercise training is initiated at an early stage of the disease.

  19. Aerobic Exercise Reduces Symptoms of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetzner, Mathew G; Asmundson, Gordon J G

    2015-01-01

    Evidence suggests aerobic exercise has anxiolytic effects; yet, the treatment potential for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and responsible anxiolytic mechanisms have received little attention. Emerging evidence indicates that attentional focus during exercise may dictate the extent of therapeutic benefit. Whether benefits are a function of attentional focus toward or away from somatic arousal during exercise remains untested. Thirty-three PTSD-affected participants completed two weeks of stationary biking aerobic exercise (six sessions). To assess the effect of attentional focus, participants were randomized into three exercise groups: group 1 (attention to somatic arousal) received prompts directing their attention to the interoceptive effects of exercise, group 2 (distraction from somatic arousal) watched a nature documentary, and group 3 exercised with no distractions or interoceptive prompts. Hierarchal linear modeling showed all groups reported reduced PTSD and anxiety sensitivity (AS; i.e., fear of arousal-related somatic sensations) during treatment. Interaction effects between group and time were found for PTSD hyperarousal and AS physical and social scores, wherein group 1, receiving interoceptive prompts, experienced significantly less symptom reduction than other groups. Most participants (89%) reported clinically significant reductions in PTSD severity after the two-week intervention. Findings suggest, regardless of attentional focus, aerobic exercise reduces PTSD symptoms.

  20. Aerobic exercise in obese diabetic patients with chronic kidney disease: a randomized and controlled pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cooper Cheryl

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients with obesity, diabetes, and chronic kidney disease (CKD are generally physically inactive, have a high mortality rate, and may benefit from an exercise program. Methods We performed a 24-week randomized controlled feasibility study comparing aerobic exercise plus optimal medical management to medical management alone in patients with type 2 diabetes, obesity (body mass index [BMI] > 30 kg/m2, and stage 2-4 CKD (estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR] 15-90 mL/min/1.73 m2 with persistent proteinuria. Subjects randomized to exercise underwent thrice weekly aerobic training for 6 followed by 18 weeks of supervised home exercise. The primary outcome variable was change in proteinuria. Results Seven subjects randomized to exercise and 4 control subjects completed the study. Exercise training resulted in an increase in exercise duration during treadmill testing, which was accompanied by slight but insignificant decreases in resting systolic blood pressure and 24-hour proteinuria. Exercise did not alter GFR, hemoglobin, glycated hemoglobin, serum lipids, or C-reactive protein (CRP. Caloric intake and body weight and composition also did not change with exercise training. Conclusion Exercise training in obese diabetic patients with CKD is feasible and may have clinical benefits. A large-scale randomized controlled trial to determine the effects of exercise on renal functions, cardiovascular fitness, inflammation, and oxidative stress in diabetic patients with CKD is planned.

  1. Combination of aerobic exercise and Hibiscus sabdariffa Linn. increased nitric oxide in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donna Adriani Kusumadewi Muhammad

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background Hypertension and myocardial infarction account for the high rate of mortality globally. Hibiscus sabdariffa (HS Linn. is rich in antioxidants and previous studies have demonstrated its anti-hypertensive effects. Several studies show that regular physical activity is an important component to reduce cardiovascular mortality. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of a combination of aerobic exercise and HS extract on nitric oxide (NO and endothelin-1 (ET-1 in rats.   Methods An experimental study was conducted on 36 male Wistar rats, aged 4 weeks and 60-70 g in weight. The interventions were aerobic exercises and HS at 400 mg/kg BW/day administered for 4, 8 and 12 weeks. The rats were randomized into 12 groups: 3 control groups (C4, C8, C12, 3 aerobic exercise groups (A4, A8, A12, 3 HS groups (H4, H8, H12, and 3 combination groups [aerobic exercise and HS] (HA4, HA8, HA12. After 4, 8, and 12 weeks, the rats were sacrificed and their abdominal aorta was collected for determination of nitric oxide and ET-1 concentrations. One way ANOVA was used to analyze the data.   Results There was a significant difference in NO levels between all groups, with the 4-week aerobic exercise group (A4 showing the highest NO levels compared to the other eleven groups (p<0.05. In contrast, the ET-1 levels were not significantly different between all groups.   Conclusions This study demonstrated that the combination of HS supplementation and aerobic exercise increases NO in rats, and provided further evidence to the traditional use of the plant as an antioxidants agent.

  2. Acute effects of repeated bouts of aerobic exercise on arterial stiffness after glucose ingestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Ryota; Hashimoto, Yuto; Hatakeyama, Hiroyuki; Okamoto, Takanobu

    2018-03-22

    The aim of this study was to investigate the acute repeated bouts of aerobic exercise decrease leg arterial stiffness. However, the influence of repeated bouts of aerobic exercise on arterial stiffness after glucose ingestion is unknown. The present study investigates the acute effects of repeated bouts of aerobic exercise on arterial stiffness after the 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Ten healthy young men (age, 23.2 ± 0.9 years) performed repeated bouts of aerobic exercise trial (RE, 65% peak oxygen uptake; two 15 min bouts of cycling performed 20 min apart) and control trial (CON, seated and resting in a quiet room) at 80 min before the 75-g OGTT on separate days in a randomized, controlled crossover fashion. Carotid-femoral (aortic) and femoral-ankle (leg) pulse wave velocity, carotid augmentation index, brachial and ankle blood pressure, heart rate and blood glucose and insulin levels were measured before (baseline) and 30, 60 and 120 min after the 75-g OGTT. Leg pulse wave velocity, ankle systolic blood pressure and blood glucose levels increased from baseline after the 75-g OGTT in the CON trial, but not in the RE trial. The present findings indicate that acute repeated bouts of aerobic exercise before glucose ingestion suppress increases in leg arterial stiffness following glucose ingestion. RE trial repeated bouts of aerobic exercise trial; CON trial control trial; BG blood glucose; VO 2peak peak oxygen uptake; PWV Pulse wave velocity; AIx carotid augmentation index; BP blood pressure; HR heart rate; CVs coefficients of variation; RPE Ratings of perceived exertion; SE standard error.

  3. High- and moderate-intensity aerobic exercise and excess post-exercise oxygen consumption in men with metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, I; Welde, B; Martins, C; Tjønna, A E

    2014-06-01

    Physical activity is central in prevention and treatment of metabolic syndrome. High-intensity aerobic exercise can induce larger energy expenditure per unit of time compared with moderate-intensity exercise. Furthermore, it may induce larger energy expenditure at post-exercise recovery. The aim of this study is to compare the excess post-exercise oxygen consumption (EPOC) in three different aerobic exercise sessions in men with metabolic syndrome. Seven men (age: 56.7 ± 10.8) with metabolic syndrome participated in this crossover study. The sessions consisted of one aerobic interval (1-AIT), four aerobic intervals (4-AIT), and 47-min continuous moderate exercise (CME) on separate days, with at least 48 h between each test day. Resting metabolic rate (RMR) was measured pre-exercise and used as baseline value. EPOC was measured until baseline metabolic rate was re-established. An increase in O2 uptake lasting for 70.4 ± 24.8 min (4-AIT), 35.9 ± 17.3 min (1-AIT), and 45.6 ± 17.3 min (CME) was observed. EPOC were 2.9 ± 1.7 L O2 (4-AIT), 1.3 ±  .1 L O2 (1-AIT), and 1.4 ± 1.1 L O2 (CME). There were significant differences (P exercise intensity has a significant positive effect on EPOC in men with metabolic syndrome. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Impact of aerobic exercise intensity on craving and reactivity to smoking cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janse Van Rensburg, Kate; Elibero, Andrea; Kilpatrick, Marcus; Drobes, David J

    2013-06-01

    Aerobic exercise can acutely reduce cigarette cravings during periods of nicotine deprivation. The primary aim of this study was to assess the differential effects of light and vigorous intensity aerobic exercise on cigarette cravings, subjective and physiological reactivity to smoking cues, and affect after overnight nicotine deprivation. A secondary aim was to examine cortisol change as a mediator of the effects of exercise on smoking motivation. 162 (55 female, 107 male) overnight nicotine-deprived smokers were randomized to one of three exercise conditions: light intensity, vigorous intensity, or a passive control condition. After each condition, participants engaged in a standardized cue reactivity assessment. Self-reported urges to smoke, affect, and salivary cortisol were assessed at baseline (i.e., before each condition), immediately after each condition, and after the cue reactivity assessment. Light and vigorous exercise significantly decreased urges to smoke and increased positive affect, relative to the control condition. In addition, those in the vigorous exercise condition demonstrated suppressed appetitive reactivity to smoking cues, as indexed by the startle eyeblink reflex. Although exercise intensity was associated with expected changes in cortisol concentration, these effects were not related to changes in craving or cue reactivity. Both light and vigorous exercise can reduce general cravings to smoke, whereas vigorous exercise appears especially well-suited for reducing appetitive reactions to cues that may precede smoking. Results did not support exercise-induced cortisol release as a mechanism for these effects. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  5. The Effect of Aerobic Exercise on Neuroplasticity within the Motor Cortex following Stroke.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate Murdoch

    Full Text Available Aerobic exercise is associated with enhanced plasticity in the motor cortex of healthy individuals, but the effect of aerobic exercise on neuroplasticity following a stroke is unknown.The aim of this study was to compare corticomotoneuronal excitability and neuroplasticity in the upper limb cortical representation following a single session of low intensity lower limb cycling, or a rest control condition.We recruited chronic stroke survivors to take part in three experimental conditions in a randomised, cross-over design. Corticomotoneuronal excitability was examined using transcranial magnetic stimulation to elicit motor evoked potentials in the affected first dorsal interosseus muscle. Following baseline measures, participants either cycled on a stationary bike at a low exercise intensity for 30 minutes, or remained resting in a seated position for 30 minutes. Neuroplasticity within the motor cortex was then examined using an intermittent theta burst stimulation (iTBS paradigm. During the third experimental condition, participants cycled for the 30 minutes but did not receive any iTBS.Twelve participants completed the study. We found no significant effect of aerobic exercise on corticomotoneuronal excitability when compared to the no exercise condition (P > 0.05 for all group and time comparisons. The use of iTBS did not induce a neuroplastic-like response in the motor cortex with or without the addition of aerobic exercise.Our results suggest that following a stroke, the brain may be less responsive to non-invasive brain stimulation paradigms that aim to induce short-term reorganisation, and aerobic exercise was unable to induce or improve this response.

  6. The Effect of Aerobic Exercise on Neuroplasticity within the Motor Cortex following Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdoch, Kate; Buckley, Jonathan D.; McDonnell, Michelle N.

    2016-01-01

    Background Aerobic exercise is associated with enhanced plasticity in the motor cortex of healthy individuals, but the effect of aerobic exercise on neuroplasticity following a stroke is unknown. Objective The aim of this study was to compare corticomotoneuronal excitability and neuroplasticity in the upper limb cortical representation following a single session of low intensity lower limb cycling, or a rest control condition. Methods We recruited chronic stroke survivors to take part in three experimental conditions in a randomised, cross-over design. Corticomotoneuronal excitability was examined using transcranial magnetic stimulation to elicit motor evoked potentials in the affected first dorsal interosseus muscle. Following baseline measures, participants either cycled on a stationary bike at a low exercise intensity for 30 minutes, or remained resting in a seated position for 30 minutes. Neuroplasticity within the motor cortex was then examined using an intermittent theta burst stimulation (iTBS) paradigm. During the third experimental condition, participants cycled for the 30 minutes but did not receive any iTBS. Results Twelve participants completed the study. We found no significant effect of aerobic exercise on corticomotoneuronal excitability when compared to the no exercise condition (P > 0.05 for all group and time comparisons). The use of iTBS did not induce a neuroplastic-like response in the motor cortex with or without the addition of aerobic exercise. Conclusions Our results suggest that following a stroke, the brain may be less responsive to non-invasive brain stimulation paradigms that aim to induce short-term reorganisation, and aerobic exercise was unable to induce or improve this response. PMID:27018862

  7. Psychobiological Responses to Aerobic Exercise in Individuals With Posttraumatic Stress Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crombie, Kevin M; Brellenthin, Angelique G; Hillard, Cecilia J; Koltyn, Kelli F

    2018-02-01

    Previous reports have shown improvements in mood and increases in endocannabinoids in healthy adults following a session of aerobic exercise, but it is unclear whether adults with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) experience similar responses. The purpose of this study was to examine psychobiological responses (plasma endocannabinoids [eCBs], mood, and pain) to aerobic exercise in a sample of adults with a diagnosis of PTSD (n = 12) and healthy controls (n = 12). Participants engaged in an aerobic exercise session in which they ran on a treadmill for 30 min at a moderate intensity (70 to 75% maximum heart rate [MHR]). Results indicated improvements in mood states and reductions in pain for both groups following exercise, ds = 0.19 to 1.53. Circulating concentrations of N-arachidonylethanolamine (AEA), 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG), and oleoylethanolamide (OEA) significantly increased (ps = .000 to .050) following the aerobic exercise session for both groups. There were no significant time, group, or interaction effects (ps = .062 to .846) for palmitoylethanolamide (PEA) and 2-oleoylglycerol (2-OG). Although eCBs increased significantly for both groups, within-group effect size calculations indicated the healthy controls experienced a greater magnitude of change for AEA when compared with adults with PTSD, d = 1.21 and d = 0.45, respectively; as well as for 2-AG, d = 0.43 and d = 0.21, respectively. The findings from this study indicated that adults with and without PTSD reported significant mood improvements following 30 min of moderate-intensity aerobic exercise. In addition, the endocannabinoid system was activated in adults with and without PTSD, although effect sizes suggest that adults with PTSD may have a blunted endocannabinoid response to exercise. Copyright © 2018 International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies.

  8. Long-term aerobic exercise increases redox-active iron through nitric oxide in rat hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qian; Xiao, De-Sheng

    2014-01-30

    Adult hippocampus is highly vulnerable to iron-induced oxidative stress. Aerobic exercise has been proposed to reduce oxidative stress but the findings in the hippocampus are conflicting. This study aimed to observe the changes of redox-active iron and concomitant regulation of cellular iron homeostasis in the hippocampus by aerobic exercise, and possible regulatory effect of nitric oxide (NO). A randomized controlled study was designed in the rats with swimming exercise treatment (for 3 months) and/or an unselective inhibitor of NO synthase (NOS) (L-NAME) treatment. The results from the bleomycin-detectable iron assay showed additional redox-active iron in the hippocampus by exercise treatment. The results from nonheme iron content assay, combined with the redox-active iron content, showed increased storage iron content by exercise treatment. NOx (nitrate plus nitrite) assay showed increased NOx content by exercise treatment. The results from the Western blot assay showed decreased ferroportin expression, no changes of TfR1 and DMT1 expressions, increased IRP1 and IRP2 expression, increased expressions of eNOS and nNOS rather than iNOS. In these effects of exercise treatment, the increased redox-active iron content, storage iron content, IRP1 and IRP2 expressions were completely reversed by L-NAME treatment, and decreased ferroportin expression was in part reversed by L-NAME. L-NAME treatment completely inhibited increased NOx and both eNOS and nNOS expression in the hippocampus. Our findings suggest that aerobic exercise could increase the redox-active iron in the hippocampus, indicating an increase in the capacity to generate hydroxyl radicals through the Fenton reactions, and aerobic exercise-induced iron accumulation in the hippocampus might mainly result from the role of the endogenous NO. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Effect of aerobic exercise training on maternal weight gain in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BACKGROUND: Weight gains in pregnancy within the recommended guidelines are associated with healthy fetal and maternal outcomes; higher weight gains are associated with fetal macrosomia. This study was a systemic review of randomized controlled trials on the effect of aerobic training on maternal weight in ...

  10. Aerobic exercise capacity in post-polio syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voorn, E.L.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to expand the body of knowledge on the diminished aerobic capacity of individuals with post-polio syndrome (PPS). The studies described in this thesis were based on the assumption that, besides a reduced muscle mass, deconditioning contributes to the severely diminished

  11. The interplay between aerobic metabolism and antipredator performance: vigilance is related to recovery rate after exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaun Steven Killen

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available When attacked by a predator, fish respond with a sudden fast-start motion away from the threat. Although this anaerobically-powered swimming necessitates a recovery phase which is fuelled aerobically, little is known about links between escape performance and aerobic traits such as aerobic scope or recovery time after exhaustive exercise. Slower recovery ability or a reduced aerobic scope could make some individuals less likely to engage in a fast-start response or display reduced performance. Conversely, increased vigilance in some individuals could permit faster responses to an attack but also increase energy demand and prolong recovery after anaerobic exercise. We examined how aerobic scope and the ability to recover from anaerobic exercise relates to differences in fast-start escape performance in juvenile golden grey mullet at different acclimation temperatures. Individuals were acclimated to either 18, 22, or 26oC, then measured for standard and maximal metabolic rates and aerobic scope using intermittent flow respirometry. Anaerobic capacity and the time taken to recover after exercise were also assessed. Each fish was also filmed during a simulated attack to determine response latency, maximum speed and acceleration, and turning rate displayed during the escape response. Across temperatures, individuals with shorter response latencies during a simulated attack are those with the longest recovery time after exhaustive anaerobic exercise. Because a short response latency implies high preparedness to escape, these results highlight the trade-off between the increased vigilance and metabolic demand, which leads to longer recovery times in fast reactors. These results improve our understanding of the intrinsic physiological traits that generate inter-individual variability in escape ability, and emphasise that a full appreciation of trade-offs associated with predator avoidance and energy balance must include energetic costs associated with

  12. Preliminary Effectiveness and Sustainability of Group Aerobic Exercise Program in Patients with Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Sol; Ryu, Je-Kwang; Kim, Chan-Hyung; Chang, Jhin-Goo; Lee, Hwa-Bock; Kim, Do-Hoon; Roh, Daeyoung

    2016-09-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the feasibility and sustained effect of a group aerobic exercise program in patients with schizophrenia. Twenty-four schizophrenic patients participated in a group-based individually tailored 90-minute outdoor cycling session per week for 3 months with intervention to enhance motivation. Physical health was evaluated by anthropometric measures, cardiorespiratory (CR) fitness, and blood tests. Mental health was assessed on self-esteem, interpersonal relationship, quality of life, and global function. Attrition rate for the exercise program was 8.3%. Exercise program significantly increased participant's self-esteem, positive relationship, global function, and quality of life. CR fitness significantly improved after 3 months. At the 9-month follow-up, 6 months after program completion, only in interpersonal relationship change the improved effects were maintained. These findings support the feasibility of group aerobic exercise program with high level of adherence and its long-term benefits in positive relationship change.

  13. Effects of Aerobic Exercise Training on Psychosocial Status and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Chronic psychosocial stress and serum uric acid (SUA) level have been implicated in the etiology and cardiovascular events risk factors in hypertension. Studies have reported significant benefit of exercise in the overall management of hypertension. However, studies on the effect of exercise on psychosocial ...

  14. Aerobic and strength exercises for youngsters aged 12 to 15: what do parents think?

    OpenAIRE

    ten Hoor, Gill A.; Sleddens, Ester F. C.; Kremers, Stef P. J.; Schols, Annemie M. W. J.; Kok, Gerjo; Plasqui, Guy

    2015-01-01

    Background Although strength exercises evidently have both physiological and psychological health benefits across all ages, they are erroneously considered to adversely affect health status in youngsters. The aim of this study was to examine parental attitudes towards their child’s physical activity in general, as well as aerobic and strength exercises in particular. Methods In total, 314 parents from an online panel representative of the Dutch population completed an online survey about thei...

  15. Effects of Aerobic Exercise Training on Stress Reactivity in Every-Day Life

    OpenAIRE

    Haaren, Birte von

    2015-01-01

    The current thesis investigated the effects of a 20-week aerobic exercise training on physiological and emotional responses to real-life stress using a randomized, controlled trial and an inactive sample. To assess participants' physiological and psychological responses during everyday life, ambulatory assessment was used. In summary, the present thesis provides empirical support that regular exercise can lead to improved emotional and physiological responses during real-life stress.

  16. Effect of aerobic exercise training on fatigue and physical activity in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, Ali A; Chin, Lisa M K; Keyser, Randall E; Kennedy, Michelle; Nathan, Steven D; Woolstenhulme, Joshua G; Connors, Gerilynn; Chan, Leighton

    2013-05-01

    To investigate the effectiveness of an exercise intervention for decreasing fatigue severity and increasing physical activity in individuals with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). A small, phase 2 randomized clinical trial of the effect of aerobic exercise training on fatigue severity and physical activity in patients with idiopathic or PAH associated with other conditions was conducted. Twenty-four patients with PAH (24 female; age: 54.4 ± 10.4 years; BMI: 30.8 ± 7.2 kg/m(2)) participated in the study. A convenience sample was recruited in which 9% (28 of 303) of screened patients were enrolled. The project was carried out in a clinical pulmonary rehabilitation clinic during existing pulmonary rehabilitation program sessions. Patients with PH were randomized into a 10-week program that consisted of patient education only or patient education plus an aerobic exercise-training regimen. Both groups received 20 lectures, two per week over the 10-weeks, on topics related to PAH and its management. The aerobic exercise training consisted of 24-30 sessions of treadmill walking for 30-45 min per session at an intensity of 70-80% of heart rate reserve, three days per week over the 10 weeks. After 10-weeks of intervention, patients receiving aerobic exercise training plus education reported routinely engaging in higher levels of physical activity (p decrease in fatigue severity (p = 0.03). Patients in the education only group did not report changes in fatigue severity or participation in physical activity. The 10-week aerobic exercise training intervention resulted in increased physical activity and decreased fatigue in individuals with PAH. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00678821. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Recruitment of the prefrontal cortex and cerebellum in Parkinsonian rats following skilled aerobic exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhuo; Guo, Yumei; Myers, Kalisa G; Heintz, Ryan; Holschneider, Daniel P

    2015-05-01

    Exercise modality and complexity play a key role in determining neurorehabilitative outcome in Parkinson's disease (PD). Exercise training (ET) that incorporates both motor skill training and aerobic exercise has been proposed to synergistically improve cognitive and automatic components of motor control in PD patients. Here we introduced such a skilled aerobic ET paradigm in a rat model of dopaminergic deafferentation. Rats with bilateral, intra-striatal 6-hydroxydopamine lesions were exposed to forced ET for 4weeks, either on a simple running wheel (non-skilled aerobic exercise, NSAE) or on a complex wheel with irregularly spaced rungs (skilled aerobic exercise, SAE). Cerebral perfusion was mapped during horizontal treadmill walking or at rest using [(14)C]-iodoantipyrine 1week after the completion of ET. Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was quantified by autoradiography and analyzed in 3-dimensionally reconstructed brains by statistical parametric mapping. SAE compared to NSAE resulted in equal or greater recovery in motor deficits, as well as greater increases in rCBF during walking in the prelimbic area of the prefrontal cortex, broad areas of the somatosensory cortex, and the cerebellum. NSAE compared to SAE animals showed greater activation in the dorsal caudate-putamen and dorsal hippocampus. Seed correlation analysis revealed enhanced functional connectivity in SAE compared to NSAE animals between the prelimbic cortex and motor areas, as well as altered functional connectivity between midline cerebellum and sensorimotor regions. Our study provides the first evidence for functional brain reorganization following skilled aerobic exercise in Parkinsonian rats, and suggests that SAE compared to NSAE results in enhancement of prefrontal cortex- and cerebellum-mediated control of motor function. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Efeito do exercício aeróbio e resistido no perfil antropométrico e respostas cardiovasculares de idosos portadores de hipertensão = Aerobic exercise and resistance effect on the anthropometric profile and cardiovascular responses in elderly people with high blood pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kleverton Krinski

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo teve por objetivo analisar os efeitos do exercício aeróbio e resistido no perfil antropométrico e respostas cardiovasculares de idosos portadores de hipertensão arterial (HA. A amostra foi composta de 53 voluntários de ambos os sexos, todos sedentários, com idade de 64,28±4,7 anos, cor branca, portadores de HA. Foram analisados os níveis de pressão arterial (PA, freqüência cardíaca (FC peso corporal (Kg, IMC e percentual de gordura corporal (%GC, antes, durante e após seis meses de exercícios. O protocolo de treinamento foi composto por uma sessão de exercícios, dividida em 20 minutos de atividade aeróbia e 40 minutos de exercícios resistidos dinâmicos, com freqüência semanal de três vezes e duração de seis meses. Como principais resultados apresentaram-se diferenças significativas em relação ao %GC, acompanhado de umaredução linear na pressão arterial média (PAM e FC, indicando uma melhora em importantes parâmetros morfofuncionais.The present study aimed to analyze the aerobic and resistance exercise effects on the anthropometric profile and cardiovascular responses in elderly people with High Blood Pressure (HBP. The sample consisted of 53 volunteers of both genders who were allsedentary, at the age of 64.28±4.7 years old, fair skin, with HBP. The blood pressure levels, cardiac frequency (CF, body weight (Kg, BMI and body fat percentage (BF% were analyzed before, during and after the period of exercises. The training protocol consisted ofexercise sessions divided into 20 minutes of aerobic activity and 40 minutes of dynamic resistance exercises, three times a week, during a period of six months. Results showed a significant difference in relation to the BF%, followed by a linear reduction in the AverageBlood Pressure (ABP and CF, as well as an improvement in important morphofunctional parameters.

  19. Frontal alpha asymmetry and aerobic exercise: are changes due to cardiovascular demand or bilateral rhythmic movement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Robert A; Hall, Peter A; Staines, William R; McIlroy, William E

    2018-02-01

    The left and right prefrontal cortices are linked to networks that control approach and withdrawal motivation, respectively. The relationship between activity in the left and right prefrontal activity is used to assess brain states and specifically their link to motivational behaviours and tendencies. The most common measure used in this context is called the frontal alpha asymmetry (FAA), which compares alpha (8-13Hz) power at each region. Interestingly, research shows that FAA is influenced by aerobic exercise by increasing relative left prefrontal cortex activity. In turn this effect may be beneficial for individuals with mood disorders that are associated with abnormal motivational tendencies. However, it is unknown whether changes in FAA after exercise are due to cardiovascular demands of activity or simply the movement required for the exercise. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the influence of aerobic exercise and 'no intensity' bilateral movement cycling on FAA in young healthy adults. Results showed aerobic exercise caused a significant increase in FAA scores 22-38min after exercise. However, movement did not lead to a significant change in FAA. This suggests there is an intensity required for physical activity to evoke a change in FAA. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. The impact of obesity on pentraxin 3 and inflammatory milieu to acute aerobic exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slusher, Aaron L; Mock, J Thomas; Whitehurst, Michael; Maharaj, Arun; Huang, Chun-Jung

    2015-02-01

    Pentraxin 3 (PTX3) has recently been linked to obesity-associated inflammation, serving as a cardioprotective modulator against cardiovascular disease (CVD). Aerobic exercise has been shown to enhance plasma PTX3 levels; however, the impact of obesity on PTX3 response to exercise remains unknown. Therefore, this study sought to examine whether obese subjects would have an attenuated plasma PTX3 response compared to normal-weight subjects following acute aerobic exercise. The relationship of plasma PTX3 with pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-6 and TNF-α) was also examined. Twenty healthy subjects (10 obese [4 males and 6 females] and 10 normal-weight [4 males, 6 females]) performed 30min of continuous submaximal aerobic exercise. At baseline, obese subjects exhibited approximately 40% lower plasma PTX3 and a 7-fold greater IL-6 concentration compared to normal-weight subjects. In response to exercise, no difference was observed in PTX3 or IL-6 as indicated by area-under-the-curve "with respect to increase" (AUCi) analyses. Furthermore, PTX3 AUCi was positively correlated with cardiorespiratory fitness levels (VO(2max)) (r=0.594, p=0.006), even after controlling for body mass index. These findings suggest that in addition to obesity-associated complications, low cardiorespiratory fitness levels could impact exercise-induced PTX3 elevations, thereby potentially diminishing PTX3's effects of anti-inflammation and/or cardioprotection. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Physical health of young and middle age women under influence of step-aerobics exercises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.P. Masliak

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to determine the degree of step-aerobics exercises’ influence on 20-35 years age women’s health. Material: in the research 28 women of 20-35 years old age participated. Anthropometric indicators, heart beats rate in rest and after load (20 squats for 30 sec., blood pressure, vital capacity of lungs, hand dynamometry were registered. Results: level of physical health has been determined; influence of step-aerobics on women’s health has been found; age differences in the tested indicators have been analyzed. It was found out that step-aerobic trainings influence greatly on the following indicators: body mass, circumferential sizes and cardio vascular system; on functioning of respiratory system, strength of hand’s flexors and regulation of 31-35 years age women’s cardio-vascular system. Conclusions: application of step-aerobic exercises positively influenced on health of 20-35 years old women.

  2. Comprehensive Assessment of Step Aerobics Exercises Effect on Women’s Physical Performance and Physical Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    І. П. Масляк

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To identify the dynamics of physical performance and physical health indicators in young and middle-aged women under the effect of step aerobics exercises. Material and methods. The grounds for the study were Kharkiv fitness club “Zorianyi”. The participants were 28 women aged 20-35. The study used the following methods: theoretical analysis of scientific and methodical literature, pedagogical experiment, methods of mathematical statistics, methods of determining physical performance (Harvard step test and physical health (anthropometry, pulsometry, tonometry, spirometry, dynamometry. Results: The study assessed the level of physical performance and physical health; analyzed age-related performance differences; determined the level of the effect of step aerobics on women’s physical performance and physical health. Conclusions: Step-aerobics exercises proved to have a positive effect on the level of physical performance and physical health of the young and middle-aged women.

  3. Acute exercise and aerobic fitness influence selective attention during visual search.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullock, Tom; Giesbrecht, Barry

    2014-01-01

    Successful goal directed behavior relies on a human attention system that is flexible and able to adapt to different conditions of physiological stress. However, the effects of physical activity on multiple aspects of selective attention and whether these effects are mediated by aerobic capacity, remains unclear. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of a prolonged bout of physical activity on visual search performance and perceptual distraction. Two groups of participants completed a hybrid visual search flanker/response competition task in an initial baseline session and then at 17-min intervals over a 2 h 16 min test period. Participants assigned to the exercise group engaged in steady-state aerobic exercise between completing blocks of the visual task, whereas participants assigned to the control group rested in between blocks. The key result was a correlation between individual differences in aerobic capacity and visual search performance, such that those individuals that were more fit performed the search task more quickly. Critically, this relationship only emerged in the exercise group after the physical activity had begun. The relationship was not present in either group at baseline and never emerged in the control group during the test period, suggesting that under these task demands, aerobic capacity may be an important determinant of visual search performance under physical stress. The results enhance current understanding about the relationship between exercise and cognition, and also inform current models of selective attention.

  4. Acute exercise and aerobic fitness influence selective attention during visual search

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullock, Tom; Giesbrecht, Barry

    2014-01-01

    Successful goal directed behavior relies on a human attention system that is flexible and able to adapt to different conditions of physiological stress. However, the effects of physical activity on multiple aspects of selective attention and whether these effects are mediated by aerobic capacity, remains unclear. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of a prolonged bout of physical activity on visual search performance and perceptual distraction. Two groups of participants completed a hybrid visual search flanker/response competition task in an initial baseline session and then at 17-min intervals over a 2 h 16 min test period. Participants assigned to the exercise group engaged in steady-state aerobic exercise between completing blocks of the visual task, whereas participants assigned to the control group rested in between blocks. The key result was a correlation between individual differences in aerobic capacity and visual search performance, such that those individuals that were more fit performed the search task more quickly. Critically, this relationship only emerged in the exercise group after the physical activity had begun. The relationship was not present in either group at baseline and never emerged in the control group during the test period, suggesting that under these task demands, aerobic capacity may be an important determinant of visual search performance under physical stress. The results enhance current understanding about the relationship between exercise and cognition, and also inform current models of selective attention. PMID:25426094

  5. Protective effects of regular aerobic exercise on renal tissue injury following creatine monohydrate supplementation in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davoud Rahimi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Creatine is one of the most common supplements for improvement of athletic performance which is used by athletes. The most important debate about creatine consumption is its adverse effect on kidneys due to increased protein load. This study was performed to evaluate the protective effects of aerobic exercise on renal tissue injury following consumption of creatine monohydrate in the rat. For this purpose, 30 male Wistar rats were randomly divided into 3 groups of 10 animals each. Group 1, as control, received only standard food. Group 2 received 5 g/kg b.w. creatine monohydrate supplement daily for 8 weeks through gavage and group 3 received creatine monohydrate supplementation in the same manner30 minutes before aerobic exercise. Aerobic exercise was performed 5 times per week on treadmill at speed of 10-25m/min for 10-30 minutes with the slope of 5 degrees. At the end of 8 weeks, water intake and urinary excretion of rats were measured and blood samples were collected for measurement of serum renal function biomarkers including urea, uric acid and creatinine. Finally, the rats were euthanized for renal histopathology. In group 3, by doing regular aerobic exercise, water intake and urinary excretion rates were significantly (p

  6. The effect of body awareness therapy and aerobic exercises on pain ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of body awareness therapy and aerobic exercises on pain and quality of life in the patients with tension type headache. ... Pain severity of the individuals was evaluated by Visual Analog Scale (VAS) and pain diary, disability with ache; by Pain Disability Index (PDI) and Headache Impact Tests (HIT) and quality of ...

  7. Aerobic Exercise and Other Healthy Lifestyle Factors That Influence Vascular Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos-Parker, Jessica R.; LaRocca, Thomas J.; Seals, Douglas R

    2014-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) remain the leading cause of death in the United States and other modern societies. Advancing age is the major risk factor for CVD, primarily due to stiffening of the large elastic arteries and the development of vascular endothelial dysfunction. In contrast, regular aerobic exercise protects against the development…

  8. [Cognitive training combined with aerobic exercises in multiple sclerosis patients: a pilot study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez-Morales, R M; Herrera-Jimenez, L F; Macias-Delgado, Y; Perez-Medinilla, Y T; Diaz-Diaz, S M; Forn, C

    2017-06-01

    The scientific evidences associated to the effectiveness of different techniques of cognitive rehabilitation are still contradictory. To compare a program of combined training (physical and cognitive) in front of a program of physical training and to observe their effectiveness about the optimization of the cognitive functions in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). It was carried out an experimental study in 32 patients with MS. The patients were distributed in two groups: 16 to the experimental group (combined cognitive training with aerobic exercises) and 16 patients to the control group (aerobic exercises). The intervention was planned for six weeks combining cognitive tasks by means of a game of dynamic board of cubes and signs (TaDiCS ®) and a program of aerobic exercises. The Brief Repeatable Battery of Neuropsychological Test and the Stroop Test were applied to evaluate the cognitive yield. Also, the Beck Depression Inventory was administered. There were found significant differences in the intergrupal analysis after the intervention in the variable learning and visuoespacial long term memory (p = 0.000), attention (p = 0.026) and inhibitory control (p = 0.007). Also, in the intragroup analysis there were found significant differences in these variables and information processing speed in the group that received the combined training. These patients also showed a significant improvement in the emotional state (p = 0.043). The cognitive training combined with the aerobic exercises is effective to improve the cognitive performance.

  9. Aerobic Exercise Training in Post-Polio Syndrome: Process Evaluation of a Randomized Controlled Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voorn, Eric L.; Koopman, Fieke S.; Brehm, Merel A.; Beelen, Anita; de Haan, Arnold; Gerrits, Karin H. L.; Nollet, Frans

    2016-01-01

    To explore reasons for the lack of efficacy of a high intensity aerobic exercise program in post-polio syndrome (PPS) on cardiorespiratory fitness by evaluating adherence to the training program and effects on muscle function. A process evaluation using data from an RCT. Forty-four severely fatigued

  10. Aerobic exercise and other healthy lifestyle factors that influence vascular aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos-Parker, Jessica R.; LaRocca, Thomas J.

    2014-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) remain the leading cause of death in the United States and other modern societies. Advancing age is the major risk factor for CVD, primarily due to stiffening of the large elastic arteries and the development of vascular endothelial dysfunction. In contrast, regular aerobic exercise protects against the development of large elastic artery stiffness and vascular endothelial dysfunction with advancing age. Moreover, aerobic exercise interventions reduce arterial stiffness and restore vascular endothelial function in previously sedentary middle-aged/older adults. Aerobic exercise exerts its beneficial effects on arterial function by modulating structural proteins, reducing oxidative stress and inflammation, and restoring nitric oxide bioavailability. Aerobic exercise may also promote “resistance” against factors that reduce vascular function and increase CVD risk with age. Preventing excessive increases in abdominal adiposity, following healthy dietary practices, maintaining a low CVD risk factor profile, and, possibly, selective use of pharmaceuticals and nutraceuticals also play a major role in preserving vascular function with aging. PMID:25434012

  11. Impact of aerobic exercise on cognitive impairment and oxidative stress markers in methamphetamine-dependent patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kai; Zhang, Qiaoyang; Jiang, Haifeng; Du, Jiang; Zhou, Chenglin; Yu, Shunying; Hashimoto, Kenji; Zhao, Min

    2018-03-17

    This study aimed to investigate whether 12-week moderate-intensity aerobic exercise has beneficial effects on oxidative stress markers in blood and on cognitive functions in patients who have methamphetamine dependence. Serum levels of oxidative stress markers, including total anti-oxidation capability, super oxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and methane dicarboxylic aldehyde (MDA), were measured at baseline (all participants) and the 12-week follow-up (methamphetamine-dependent patients). Serum levels of CAT and MDA in methamphetamine-dependent patients (n = 68) were higher than those in healthy controls (n = 35) at baseline. Furthermore, the international shopping list (ISL) task scores of methamphetamine-dependent patients were significantly lower than those of the controls, indicating verbal memory deficits in methamphetamine-dependent patients. Although there were no significant interactions for all cognitive function scores, aerobic exercise improved the processing speed in methamphetamine-dependent patients. Of interest, aerobic exercise significantly attenuated a spontaneous increase in serum MDA levels in methamphetamine-dependent patients after 12-weeks of abstinence. In conclusion, this study showed that methamphetamine-dependent patients with verbal learning and memory deficits have higher serum levels of MDA, and that a 12-week aerobic exercise program may have beneficial effects on the processing speed as well as blood lipid peroxidation in methamphetamine-dependent patients. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Acute exercise and aerobic fitness influence selective attention during visual search

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom eBullock

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Successful goal directed behavior relies on a human attention system that is flexible and able to adapt to different conditions of physiological stress. However, the effects of physical activity on multiple aspects of selective attention and whether these effects are mediated by aerobic capacity, remains unclear. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of a prolonged bout of physical activity on visual search performance and perceptual distraction. Two groups of participants completed a hybrid visual search flanker/response competition task in an initial baseline session and then at 17-minute intervals over a 2 hour 16 minute test period. Participants assigned to the exercise group engaged in steady-state aerobic exercise between completing blocks of the visual task, whereas participants assigned to the control group rested in between blocks. The key result was a correlation between individual differences in aerobic capacity and visual search performance, such that those individuals that were more fit performed the search task more quickly. Critically, this relationship only emerged in the exercise group after the physical activity had begun. The relationship was not present in either group at baseline and never emerged in the control group during the test period, suggesting that under these task demands, aerobic capacity may be an important determinant of visual search performance under physical stress. The results enhance current understanding about the relationship between exercise and cognition, and also inform current models of selective attention.

  13. EFFECTS OF AQUA-AEROBIC EXERCISE ON THE CARDIOVASCULAR FITNESS AND WEIGHT LOSS AMONG OBESE STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fariba Hossein Abadi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Evidence revealed that aquatic exercises are safer than land-based exercises and it allows increased movement amplitude and energy expenditure for obese, middle-aged, or elderly people, it is important to ascertain the physiological effects of aqua aerobic exercise on health among the obese students. This study aimed to determine the effects of aqua aerobics exercise on cardiovascular fitness (VO2max and resting HR and weight loss (weight, BMI, and WHR among obese students. Methods: Fifty healthy obese college students (22.28±1.83 years with minimum BMI value of 28 kg.m-², voluntarily took part in this study. They have been divided randomly into an exercising group (n=25 and BMI=33.11±5.32kg.m-2 and control group (n=25 and BMI=33.64±3.12kg.m-2. The exercising group participated in an aqua aerobic exercise at 60-75% of maximum HR for 60 minutes, three times per week for 12 weeks. The changes (by pre and post-test in weight, WHR, resting HR and VO2max were measured for both groups via In Body Scan 370, Polar heart rate monitor and Bleep test, respectively. Results: There was a significant (p≤0.001 improved in weight loss (-8.78±3.61kg, and the changes of BMI (-3.24±1.1kg.m-2, WHR (-0.056±0.035, resting HR (-1.48±1.004 bmp, and VO2max (4.43±2.51 ml.kg-1. min-1 in the exercising group, compared to the control group. The results indicate that the aqua aerobic exercise is an effective way to enhance cardiovascular fitness and weight loss among obese students. Conclusion: Aqua aerobic exercise as a favorable exercise environment for the obese can be advised such a significant intervention strategy for weight loss and improvement in cardiovascular fitness.

  14. Effects of exercise on functional aerobic capacity in adults with fibromyalgia syndrome: A systematic review of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Hermoso, Antonio; Saavedra, Jose M; Escalante, Yolanda

    2015-01-01

    Patients with fibromyalgia present a reduced capacity of upper and lower limb physical performance and affect their independence in performing everyday activities. The purpose of the present systematic review was to summarize evidence for the effectiveness and structure of exercise programs on functional aerobic capacity in patients with fibromyalgia syndrome. Keyword searches were made of seven databases. The systematic review was limited to English language studies of people with FM that evaluated the effects of exercise programs on functional aerobic capacity (6-minute walk test). The criteria for inclusion were satisfied by 12 randomized controlled trial (RCT) studies. The main cumulative evidence indicates that the programs based on aerobic exercise alone and on aquatic exercises have large (effect size = 0.85) and moderate (effect size = 0.44) effects. Aerobic and aquatic exercises at the proper intensity favour the increased functional aerobic capacity of fibromyalgia patients; however, most works do not adequately detail the intensity of the exercises. Moderate intensity exercise (aerobic and aquatic exercise) performed at least two times per week and 30-60 minutes a day is effective for increasing functional aerobic capacity, favouring the daily activities of daily living in this population.

  15. Effects of Aerobic Exercise Training on Psychosocial Status and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    responsible for this benefit are not fully understood, exercise is known to have ... smokers, alcoholic, diabetic, other cardiac, renal, respiratory disease patients were ..... rehabilitation should feel confident in the use of this mode of training in the ...

  16. Estimation of aerobic fitness among young men without exercise test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanskanen Minna M.

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Study aim: to develop and estimate the validity of non-exercise methods to predict VO2max among young male conscripts entering military service in order to divide them into the different physical training groups.

  17. The Effect of Three Months Regular Aerobic Exercise on Premenstrual Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zinat Ghanbari

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the effects of three-month regular aerobic exercise on the PMS symptoms. Also correlations with age, education, marital status and severity of PMS symptoms were studied.Materials and Methods: A Quasi- Experimental study was conducted on 91 volunteer women with regular menstrual cycle and no history of gynecological, endocrinological and psychological disorders. The study was done during March 2005- March 2007, in Tehran University of Medical Sciences. A Modified Menstrual Distress Questionnaire (MMDQ was used in this study. Participants were divided into two groups: Non-exercised, they also didn't have any past experience of regular exercise (n= 48 and Exercised (n= 43. The exercise time duration was one hour and was carried out three times per week for three months.  Emotional, behavioral, electrolyte, autonomic, neurovegatative and skin symptoms of PMS were compared between two groups. P value was considered significant at < 0.05.Results: A significant difference was observed for electrolytic, neurovegetative and cognitive symptoms before and after the exercise. Also the severity of skin and neurovegetative symptoms were different in experimental groups with and without past history of doing regular exercise. There was no correlation between age, education, marital status and severity of PMS symptoms.Conclusion: Three months of regular aerobic exercise effectively reduces the severity of PMS symptoms.

  18. Effects of smoking and aerobic exercise on male college students' metabolic syndrome risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jee-Youn; Yang, Yuhao; Sim, Young-Je

    2018-04-01

    [Purpose] The aim was to investigate the effects of university students' smoking and aerobic exercise on metabolic syndrome risk factors. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-three male students were randomly assigned to the following groups: exercise smoker (n=6), non-exercise smoker (n=6), exercise non-smoker (n=6), and non-exercise non-smoker (n=5). A basketball exercise program was conducted three times per week (70 minutes per session) for 8 weeks with exercise intensity set at 50-80% of heart rate reserve. After 8 weeks, the variables of risk factors for metabolic syndrome were obtained. [Results] Systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure were significantly decreased in the exercise non-smoker group and significantly increased in the non-exercise smoker group. Waist circumference was significantly reduced in both exercise groups regardless of smoking and significantly increased in the non-exercise smoker group. Triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, and fasting plasma glucose showed no differences between the groups. [Conclusion] Obesity and smoking management should be conducted together for students as well as for those with metabolic syndrome risk factors. It is recommended that more students participate in such programs, and exercise programs should be further developed and diversified to prevent metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular diseases.

  19. Chronic aerobic exercise training alleviates myocardial fibrosis in aged rats through restoring bioavailability of hydrogen sulfide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ning; Liu, Hong-Mei; Xia, Ting; Liu, Jian-Dong; Wang, Xiao-Ze

    2018-06-02

    Age-related fibrosis is attenuated by aerobic exercise; however, little is known concerning the underlying molecular mechanism. To address this question, aged rats were given moderate-intensity exercise for 12 weeks. After exercise in aged rats, hydrogen sulfide (H2S) levels in plasma and heart increased 39.8% and 90.9%, respectively. Exercise upregulated expression of cystathionine γ-lyase (CSE) and 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase (3-MST) in heart of aged rats. Furthermore, aged rats were given moderate-intensity exercise for 12 weeks or treated with NaHS (intraperitoneal injection of 0.1 ml/kg/day of 0.28 mol/l NaHS). After exercise in aged rats, Masson-trichrome staining area decreased 34.8% and myocardial hydroxyproline levels decreased 29.6%. Exercise downregulated expression of collagen-I and α-SMA in heart of aged rats. Exercise in aged rats reduced malondialdehyde levels in plasma and heart and 3-nitrotyrosine in heart. Exercise in aged rats reduced mRNA and protein expression of CHOP, GRP78, and XBP1. Exercise also reduced mRNA and protein expression of IL-6 and MCP-1 and suppressed activation of JNK in aging heart. Similar effects were demonstrated in aged rats treated with NaHS. Collectively, exercise restored bioavailability of hydrogen sulfide in the heart of aged rats, which partly explained the benefits of exercise against myocardial fibrosis of aged population.

  20. Autophagy Is a Promoter for Aerobic Exercise Performance during High Altitude Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Zhang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available High altitude training is one of the effective strategies for improving aerobic exercise performance at sea level via altitude acclimatization, thereby improving oxygen transport and/or utilization. But its underlying molecular mechanisms on physiological functions and exercise performance of athletes are still vague. More recent evidence suggests that the recycling of cellular components by autophagy is an important process of the body involved in the adaptive responses to exercise. Whether high altitude training can activate autophagy or whether high altitude training can improve exercise performance through exercise-induced autophagy is still unclear. In this narrative review article, we will summarize current research advances in the improvement of exercise performance through high altitude training and its reasonable molecular mechanisms associated with autophagy, which will provide a new field to explore the molecular mechanisms of adaptive response to high altitude training.

  1. Moderate aerobic exercise training for improving reproductive function in infertile patients: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajizadeh Maleki, Behzad; Tartibian, Bakhtyar

    2017-04-01

    This study investigated for the first time the changes in seminal markers of inflammation, oxidative stress status, semen parameters, sperm DNA integrity as well as pregnancy rate following 24weeks of moderate aerobic exercise in infertile patients. A total of 1026 sedentary men (aged 25-40years) attending the infertility clinic with history of more than one year of infertility, were screened and 419 were randomized to either exercise (EX, n=210) or non-exercise (NON-EX, n=209) groups. Exercise training favorably attenuated seminal markers of both inflammation (IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-α) and oxidative stress (ROS, MDA, 8-Isoprostane) as well as enhanced antioxidant defense system (SOD, catalase and TAC) (Paerobic exercise training as a treatment option for male factor infertility. The 4-week detraining period was not enough to reverse all benefits promoted by exercise intervention. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Regular aerobic exercise reduces endothelin-1-mediated vasoconstrictor tone in overweight and obese adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dow, Caitlin A; Stauffer, Brian L; Brunjes, Danielle L; Greiner, Jared J; DeSouza, Christopher A

    2017-09-01

    What is the central question of this study? Does aerobic exercise training reduce endothelin-1 (ET-1)-mediated vasoconstrictor tone in overweight/obese adults? And, if so, does lower ET-1 vasoconstriction underlie the exercise-related enhancement in endothelium-dependent vasodilatation in overweight/obese adults? What is the main finding and its importance? Regular aerobic exercise reduces ET-1-mediated vasoconstrictor tone in previously sedentary overweight/obese adults, independent of weight loss. Decreased ET-1 vasoconstriction is an important mechanism underlying the aerobic exercise-induced improvement in endothelium-dependent vasodilator function in overweight/obese adults. Endothelin-1 (ET-1)-mediated vasoconstrictor tone is elevated in overweight and obese adults, contributing to vasomotor dysfunction and increased cardiovascular disease risk. Although the effects of habitual aerobic exercise on endothelium-dependent vasodilatation in overweight/obese adults have been studied, little is known regarding ET-1-mediated vasoconstriction. Accordingly, the aims of the present study were to determine the following: (i) whether regular aerobic exercise training reduces ET-1-mediated vasoconstrictor tone in overweight and obese adults; and, if so, (ii) whether the reduction in ET-1-mediated vasoconstriction contributes to exercise-induced improvement in endothelium-dependent vasodilatation in this population. Forearm blood flow (FBF) in response to intra-arterial infusion of selective ET A receptor blockade (BQ-123, 100 nmol min -1 for 60 min), acetylcholine [4.0, 8.0 and 16.0 μg (100 ml tissue) -1  min -1 ] in the absence and presence of ET A receptor blockade and sodium nitroprusside [1.0, 2.0 and 4.0 μg (100 ml tissue) -1  min -1 ] were determined before and after a 3 month aerobic exercise training intervention in 25 (16 men and nine women) overweight/obese (body mass index 30.1 ± 0.5 kg m -2 ) adults. The vasodilator response to BQ-123 was

  3. Interval and continuous exercise enhances aerobic capacity and hemodynamic function in CHF rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramiro B. Nunes

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to compare the effects of continuous versus interval aerobic exercise training on hemodynamic parameters, cardiac remodeling, and maximal exercise capacity (MEC in chronic heart failure (CHF rats.METHOD: Twenty-four male Wistar rats were subjected to myocardial infarction (MI surgery. Five weeks post MI, the animals were assigned to one of three groups: sedentary group (CHF-Sed, n=8, aerobic continuous training group (CHF-ACT, n=8, and aerobic interval training group (CHF-AIT, n=8. Treadmill training was performed five times a week for 8 weeks (ACT: 50 min/day at 15 m/min and AIT: 40 min/day with 8 min of warm-up at 10 m/min and exercise at 15 m/min 4×4 min interspersed with 4×4 min at 23 m/min. MEC was evaluated pre and post exercise program.RESULTS: Left ventricular end-diastolic pressure (LVEDP, left ventricular mass/body mass ratio (LVM:BM, and total collagen volume fraction were lower in the trained groups compared with the sedentary group, but no difference was found between the trained groups. Systolic ventricular pressure (SVP and maximum positive derivative of LV pressure (+dP/dtmax were higher in the trained groups, but CHF-ACT showed higher +dP/dtmax compared to CHF-AIT. Both training regimens were able to increase MEC. However, the aerobic interval training was superior for improving MEC.CONCLUSION: Aerobic training is an important intervention to improve cardiac function and remodeling and physical capacity in CHF rats. Interval training is a potential strategy to maximize the results, but exercise type and intensity are still topics to be explored.

  4. Low-intensity aerobic exercise training: inhibition of skeletal muscle atrophy in high-fat-diet-induced ovariectomized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hye Jin; Lee, Won Jun

    2017-09-30

    Postmenopausal women are highly susceptible to diseases, such as obesity, type 2 diabetes, osteoporosis, or skeletal muscle atrophy and many people recognize the need for regular physical activity. Aerobic exercise training is known to improve the oxidative capacity and insulin sensitivity of skeletal muscles. This study aimed to investigate the role of low-intensity aerobic exercise training on skeletal muscle protein degradation or synthesis in the plantaris muscles of high-fat-fed ovariectomized rats. Ovariectomized female rats were divided into two groups: a high-fat diet-sedentary group (HFD), and a high-fat diet-aerobic exercise group (HFD+EX). The exercise group exercised aerobically on a treadmill 5 days/week for 8 weeks. The rats progressively ran 30 min/day at 15 m/min, up to 40 min/day at 18 m/min, 0% slope, in the last 4 weeks. Although aerobic exercise led to significantly increased AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) phosphorylation at Thr172, phosphorylation of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) substrate Thr389 S6K1 level did not decrease. Additionally, even though Akt activity did not increase at Ser473, the atrogin-1 level significantly decreased in the exercise group compared to the non-exercise group. Immunohistochemical staining revealed that high-fat-induced TSC2 protein expression was eliminated in response to aerobic exercise. These results suggest that aerobic exercise can inhibit skeletal muscle protein degradation, but it cannot increase protein synthesis in the plantaris muscle of high-fat-fed ovariectomized rats. Our findings have implications in understanding skeletal muscle mass maintenance with low intensity aerobic exercise in post-menopausal women. ©2017 The Korean Society for Exercise Nutrition

  5. Resistance Exercise Attenuates High-Fructose, High-Fat-Induced Postprandial Lipemia

    OpenAIRE

    Jessie R. Wilburn; Jeffrey Bourquin; Andrea Wysong; Christopher L. Melby

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Meals rich in both fructose and fat are commonly consumed by many Americans, especially young men, which can produce a significant postprandial lipemic response. Increasing evidence suggests that aerobic exercise can attenuate the postprandial increase in plasma triacylglycerols (TAGs) in response to a high-fat or a high-fructose meal. However, it is unknown if resistance exercise can dampen the postprandial lipemic response to a meal rich in both fructose and fat. Methods Eight ...

  6. A review of obesity, insulin resistance, and the role of exercise in breast cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghose, Abhimanyu; Kundu, Ria; Toumeh, Anis; Hornbeck, Catherine; Mohamed, Iman

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer, the most common female malignancy in the world, has a strong association with obesity and insulin resistance. The importance of these risk factors goes up significantly in patients already affected by this cancer as they negatively affect the prognosis, recurrence rate, and survival by various mechanisms. The literature on the role of physical activity and aerobic exercise on modifying the above risks is debatable with data both for and against it. In this article, we have reviewed the risks of obesity and insulin resistance in breast cancer patients and the controversy associated with the impact of exercise. Ultimately, we have concluded that a randomized control trial is necessary with an individualized aerobic exercise program for a minimum duration of 20 wk on breast cancer patients, who are undergoing or recently completed chemotherapy, to study its effects on insulin resistance, weight, and clinical outcome.

  7. The effects of single bouts of aerobic exercise, exergaming, and videogame play on cognitive control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Leary, Kevin C; Pontifex, Matthew B; Scudder, Mark R; Brown, Michael L; Hillman, Charles H

    2011-08-01

    The effects of single bouts of aerobic exercise, exergaming, and action videogame play on event-related brain potentials (ERPs) and task performance indices of cognitive control were investigated using a modified flanker task that manipulated demands of attentional inhibition. Participants completed four counterbalanced sessions of 20 min of activity intervention (i.e., seated rest, seated videogame play, and treadmill-based and exergame-based aerobic exercise at 60% HR(max)) followed by cognitive testing once heart rate (HR) returned to within 10% of pre-activity levels. Results indicated decreased RT interference following treadmill exercise relative to seated rest and videogame play. P3 amplitude was increased following treadmill exercise relative to rest, suggesting an increased allocation of attentional resources during stimulus engagement. The seated videogame and exergame conditions did not differ from any other condition. The findings indicate that single bouts of treadmill exercise may improve cognitive control through an increase in the allocation of attentional resources and greater interference control during cognitively demanding tasks. However, similar benefits may not be derived following short bouts of aerobic exergaming or seated videogame participation. Although exergames may increase physical activity participation, they may not exert the same benefits to brain and cognition as more traditional physical activity behaviors. Copyright © 2011 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. OpenSim Model Improvements to Support High Joint Angle Resistive Exercising

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, Christopher; Thompson, William; Lewandowski, Beth; Humphreys, Brad

    2016-01-01

    Long duration space travel to Mars or to an asteroid will expose astronauts to extended periods of reduced gravity. Since gravity is not present to aid loading, astronauts will use resistive and aerobic exercise regimes for the duration of the space flight to minimize the loss of bone density, muscle mass and aerobic capacity that occurs during exposure to a reduced gravity environment. Unlike the International Space Station (ISS), the area available for an exercise device in the next generation of spacecraft is limited. Therefore, compact resistance exercise device prototypes are being developed. The Advanced Resistive Exercise Device (ARED) currently on the ISS is being used as a benchmark for the functional performance of these new devices. Rigorous testing of these proposed devices in space flight is difficult so computational modeling provides an estimation of the muscle forces and joint loads during exercise to gain insight on the efficacy to protect the musculoskeletal health of astronauts. The NASA Digital Astronaut Project (DAP) is supporting the Advanced Exercise Concepts (AEC) Project, Exercise Physiology and Countermeasures (ExPC) project and the National Space Biomedical Research Institute (NSBRI) funded researchers by developing computational models of exercising with these new advanced exercise device concepts

  9. Moderate-to-high intensity aerobic exercise in patients with mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Kristian S; Sobol, Nanna; Beyer, Nina

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Physical exercise may modulate neuropathology and symptoms of Alzheimer's disease (AD). This pilot study assessed the feasibility of conducting a study of moderate-to-high intensity aerobic exercise in home-dwelling patients with mild AD. METHODS: An uncontrolled preintervention......-postintervention test design with a single group receiving the same intervention. A total of eight patients with mild to moderate AD from the Copenhagen Memory clinic were included in the study. The intervention lasted for 14 weeks and consisted of supervised, 1-h sessions of aerobic exercise three times per week (50......-60% of heart rate reserve for a two-week adaptation period and 70-80 % of heart rate reserve for the remaining 12 weeks) Feasibility was assessed based on acceptability, including attendance and drop-out, safety, and patients' and caregivers' attitudes towards the intervention as well as other relevant...

  10. Effects of ambient particulate matter on aerobic exercise performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dale R. Wagner

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background/Objective: Wintertime thermal inversions in narrow mountain valleys create a ceiling effect, increasing concentration of small particulate matter (PM2.5. Despite potential health risks, many people continue to exercise outdoors in thermal inversions. This study measured the effects of ambient PM2.5 exposure associated with a typical thermal inversion on exercise performance, pulmonary function, and biological markers of inflammation. Methods: Healthy, active adults (5 males, 11 females performed two cycle ergometer time trials outdoors in a counterbalanced design: 1 low ambient PM2.5 concentrations ( .05 for PM2.5 concentration and the measured variables. Conclusion: An acute bout of vigorous exercise during an AQI of “yellow” did not diminish exercise performance in healthy adults, nor did it have a negative effect on pulmonary function or biological health markers. These variables might not be sensitive to small changes from acute, mild PM2.5 exposure. Keywords: Air pollution, Cycle ergometry, Pulmonary function, Time trial, Vigorous exercise

  11. Effect of Aerobic Exercise Training on Blood Pressure in Indians: Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonu Punia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. High blood pressure (BP is one of the most important modifiable risk factors for cardiovascular diseases, which accounts for one in every eight deaths worldwide. It has been predicted that, by 2020, there would be 111% increase in cardiovascular deaths in India. Aerobic exercise in the form of brisk walking, jogging, running, and cycling would result in reduction in BP. Many meta-analytical studies from western world confirm this. However, there is no such review from Indian subcontinent. Objective. Our objective is to systematically review and report the articles from India in aerobic exercise on blood pressure. Methodology. Study was done in March 2016 in Google Scholar using search terms “Aerobic exercise” AND “Training” AND “Blood pressure” AND “India.” This search produced 3210 titles. Results. 24 articles were identified for this review based on inclusion and exclusion criteria. Total of 1107 subjects participated with median of 25 subjects. Studies vary in duration from +3 weeks to 12 months with each session lasting 15–60 minutes and frequency varies from 3 to 8 times/week. The results suggest that there was mean reduction of −05.00 mmHg in SBP and −03.09 mmHg in DBP after aerobic training. Conclusion. Aerobic training reduces the blood pressure in Indians.

  12. Aerobic physical activity and resistance training: an application of the theory of planned behavior among adults with type 2 diabetes in a random, national sample of Canadians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karunamuni Nandini

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aerobic physical activity (PA and resistance training are paramount in the treatment and management of type 2 diabetes (T2D, but few studies have examined the determinants of both types of exercise in the same sample. Objective The primary purpose was to investigate the utility of the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB in explaining aerobic PA and resistance training in a population sample of T2D adults. Methods A total of 244 individuals were recruited through a random national sample which was created by generating a random list of household phone numbers. The list was proportionate to the actual number of household telephone numbers for each Canadian province (with the exception of Quebec. These individuals completed self-report TPB constructs of attitude, subjective norm, perceived behavioral control and intention, and a 3-month follow-up that assessed aerobic PA and resistance training. Results TPB explained 10% and 8% of the variance respectively for aerobic PA and resistance training; and accounted for 39% and 45% of the variance respectively for aerobic PA and resistance training intentions. Conclusion These results may guide the development of appropriate PA interventions for aerobic PA and resistance training based on the TPB.

  13. Estimated Aerobic Capacity Changes in Adolescents with Obesity Following High Intensity Interval Exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brooke E. Starkoff

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Vigorous aerobic exercise may improve aerobic capacity (VO2max and cardiometabolic profiles in adolescents with obesity, independent of changes to weight. Our aim was to assess changes in estimated VO2max in obese adolescents following a 6-week exercise program of varying intensities. Adolescents with obesity were recruited from an American mid-west children’s hospital and randomized into moderate exercise (MOD or high intensity interval exercise (HIIE groups for a 6-week exercise intervention, consisting of cycle ergometry for 40 minutes, 3 days per week. Heart rate was measured every two minutes during each exercise session.  Estimated VO2max measured via Åstrand cycle test, body composition, and physical activity (PA enjoyment evaluated via questionnaire were assessed pre/post-intervention. Twenty-seven adolescents (age 14.7±1.5; 17 female, 10 male completed the intervention. Estimated VO2max increased only in the HIIE group (20.0±5.7 to 22.7±6.5 ml/kg/min, p=0.015. The HIIE group also demonstrated increased PA enjoyment, which was correlated with average heart rate achieved during the intervention (r=0.55; p=0.043. Six weeks of HIIE elicited improvements to estimated VO2max in adolescents with obesity. Furthermore, those exercising at higher heart rates demonstrated greater PA enjoyment, implicating enjoyment as an important determinant of VO2max, specifically following higher intensity activities.

  14. Impact of aerobic and anaerobic exercise training on oxidative stress and antioxidant defense in athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Song-Young; Kwak, Yi-Sub

    2016-04-01

    Exercise mediates an excessive free radical production leading to oxidative stress (OS). The body has natural antioxidant systems that help decrease OS, and these systems may be enhanced with exercise training. However, only a few studies have investigated the differences in resting OS and antioxidant capacity (AOC) between aerobically trained athletes (ET), anaerobically trained athletes (RT), and untrained individuals (UT). Therefore, this study sought to investigate the resting and postexercise OS and AOC in ET, RT, and UT. Sixty healthy young males (26.6±0.8 yr) participated in this study. Subjects were divided into three groups, ET, RT, and UT by distinct training background. Resting plasma malondialdehyde (MDA) and protein carbonyls (PC) were not significantly different in ET, RT, and UT. However, MDA and PC were significantly increased following a graded exercise test (GXT) in UT but not in ET and RT. Resting total antioxidant capacity (TAC) levels and TAC were not different in ET, RT, and UT. Interestingly, TAC levels significantly decreased after the GXT in all groups. Additionally, UT showed lower post-exercise TAC levels compared to ET and RT. These results showed that ET, RT, and UT have similar OS and AOC at rest. However, both ET and RT have greater AOC against exercise mediated OS compared to UT. These findings may explain, at least in part, why both aerobic and anaerobic types of exercise training improve redox balance. However, it appears there is no specific exercise type effect in terms of redox balance.

  15. Effects of Cognitive Training with and without Aerobic Exercise on Cognitively-Demanding Everyday Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDaniel, Mark A.; Binder, Ellen F.; Bugg, Julie M.; Waldum, Emily R.; Dufault, Carolyn; Meyer, Amanda; Johanning, Jennifer; Zheng, Jie; Schechtman, Kenneth B.; Kudelka, Chris

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the potential benefits of a novel cognitive training protocol and an aerobic exercise intervention, both individually and in concert, on older adults’ performances in laboratory simulations of select real-world tasks. The cognitive training focused on a range of cognitive processes, including attentional coordination, prospective memory, and retrospective-memory retrieval, processes that are likely involved in many everyday tasks, and that decline with age. Primary outcome measures were three laboratory tasks that simulated everyday activities: Cooking Breakfast, Virtual Week, and Memory for Health Information. Two months of cognitive training improved older adults’ performance on prospective memory tasks embedded in Virtual Week. Cognitive training, either alone or in combination with six months of aerobic exercise, did not significantly improve Cooking Breakfast or Memory for Health Information. Although gains in aerobic power were comparable to previous reports, aerobic exercise did not produce improvements for the primary outcome measures. Discussion focuses on the possibility that cognitive training programs that include explicit strategy instruction and varied practice contexts may confer gains to older adults for performance on cognitively challenging everyday tasks. PMID:25244489

  16. The effects of three different type of exercises on aerobic and anaerobic power

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorucu Alpaslan

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The study was conducted with the aim of investigating the effects of three different types of exercise: bicycling, plyometric and weight on aerobic and anaerobic power. Material: Sample size 30 students recreational athletes aged 23,19 years. The athletes were divided into 3 groups of 10 subjects (bicycle, plyometric, weight. The program for 6 weeks included: 3 different exercises planned for 30 minute/3 days/week. Body weight, vertical jump and 20-meter shuttle running tests were measured for each group. Statistical analysis was performed by SPSS21.0: arithmetic averages and standard deviations; the Kruskal-Wallis H test was used to determine the differences between the groups; the Mann-Whitney U test was used to determine the group which result in the difference among the groups; Wilcoxon 's t test was used to determine pretest posttest differences within the groups. Results: As a result of the research, it was determined that the increase in the aerobic power levels of the bicycle and plyometric groups was significant (p0.05. Conclusions: The different exercises practiced by all three groups significantly increased anaerobic power levels. When the aerobic and anaerobic power values of the three groups in each study were examined, it was found that only the increase of weight and plyometric groups was high level in favor of the weight group in terms of posttest aerobic power.

  17. Effects of aerobic training on exercise-related oxidative stress in mitochondrial myopathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siciliano, Gabriele; Simoncini, Costanza; Lo Gerfo, Annalisa; Orsucci, Daniele; Ricci, Giulia; Mancuso, Michelangelo

    2012-12-01

    In mitochondrial myopathies with respiratory chain deficiency impairment of energy cell production may lead to in excess reactive oxygen species generation with consequent oxidative stress and cell damage. Aerobic training has been showed to increase muscle performance in patients with mitochondrial myopathies. Aim of this study has been to evaluate, in 7 patients (6 F e 1M, mean age 44.9 ± 12.1 years) affected by mitochondrial disease, concomitantly to lactate exercise curve, the occurrence of oxidative stress, as indicated by circulating levels of lipoperoxides, in rest condition and as effect of exercise, and also, to verify if an aerobic training program is able to modify, in these patients, ox-redox balance efficiency. At rest and before training blood level of lipoperoxides was 382.4 ± 37.8 AU, compared to controls (318.7 ± 63.8; Pstress degree according to the adopted scale. During incremental exercise blood level of lipoperoxides did not increase, but maintained significantly higher compared to controls. After an aerobic training of 10 weeks the blood level of lipoperoxides decreased by 13.7% at rest (Pexercise test (P=0.06). These data indicate that, in mitochondrial patients, oxidative stress occurs and that an aerobic training is useful in partially reverting this condition. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Aerobic exercise and respiratory muscle strength in patients with cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dassios, Theodore; Katelari, Anna; Doudounakis, Stavros; Dimitriou, Gabriel

    2013-05-01

    The beneficial role of exercise in maintaining health in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) is well described. Few data exist on the effect of exercise on respiratory muscle function in patients with CF. Our objective was to compare respiratory muscle function indices in CF patients that regularly exercise with those CF patients that do not. This cross-sectional study assessed nutrition, pulmonary function and respiratory muscle function in 37 CF patients that undertook regular aerobic exercise and in a control group matched for age and gender which consisted of 44 CF patients that did not undertake regular exercise. Respiratory muscle function in CF was assessed by maximal inspiratory pressure (Pimax), maximal expiratory pressure (Pemax) and pressure-time index of the respiratory muscles (PTImus). Median Pimax and Pemax were significantly higher in the exercise group compared to the control group (92 vs. 63 cm H2O and 94 vs. 64 cm H2O respectively). PTImus was significantly lower in the exercise group compared to the control group (0.089 vs. 0.121). Upper arm muscle area (UAMA) and mid-arm muscle circumference were significantly increased in the exercise group compared to the control group (2608 vs. 2178 mm2 and 23 vs. 21 cm respectively). UAMA was significantly related to Pimax in the exercising group. These results suggest that CF patients that undertake regular aerobic exercise maintain higher indices of respiratory muscle strength and lower PTImus values, while increased UAMA values in exercising patients highlight the importance of muscular competence in respiratory muscle function in this population. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. REDD1 induction regulates the skeletal muscle gene expression signature following acute aerobic exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Bradley S; Steiner, Jennifer L; Rossetti, Michael L; Qiao, Shuxi; Ellisen, Leif W; Govindarajan, Subramaniam S; Eroshkin, Alexey M; Williamson, David L; Coen, Paul M

    2017-12-01

    The metabolic stress placed on skeletal muscle by aerobic exercise promotes acute and long-term health benefits in part through changes in gene expression. However, the transducers that mediate altered gene expression signatures have not been completely elucidated. Regulated in development and DNA damage 1 (REDD1) is a stress-induced protein whose expression is transiently increased in skeletal muscle following acute aerobic exercise. However, the role of this induction remains unclear. Because REDD1 altered gene expression in other model systems, we sought to determine whether REDD1 induction following acute exercise altered the gene expression signature in muscle. To do this, wild-type and REDD1-null mice were randomized to remain sedentary or undergo a bout of acute treadmill exercise. Exercised mice recovered for 1, 3, or 6 h before euthanization. Acute exercise induced a transient increase in REDD1 protein expression within the plantaris only at 1 h postexercise, and the induction occurred in both cytosolic and nuclear fractions. At this time point, global changes in gene expression were surveyed using microarray. REDD1 induction was required for the exercise-induced change in expression of 24 genes. Validation by RT-PCR confirmed that the exercise-mediated changes in genes related to exercise capacity, muscle protein metabolism, neuromuscular junction remodeling, and Metformin action were negated in REDD1-null mice. Finally, the exercise-mediated induction of REDD1 was partially dependent upon glucocorticoid receptor activation. In all, these data show that REDD1 induction regulates the exercise-mediated change in a distinct set of genes within skeletal muscle. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  20. Impact of Mild versus Moderate Intensity Aerobic Walking Exercise ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Patients with hemophilia A have low bone density than healthy controls. It is now widely recognized that physical activity and sports are beneficial for patients with hemophilia. Objective: The aim of this study was to compare the effects of mild and moderate intensity treadmill walking exercises on markers of ...

  1. Aerobic exercise improves quality of life, psychological well-being ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The physical and mental benefits of exercise are widely known but seldom available ... Profile of Mood States(POMS) and SF-36 health quality of life (SF-36 HRQL) ... health SF-36 subscale, Vitality SF-36 subscale and Social functioning SF-36 ...

  2. Perceptual and cerebro-spinal responses to graded innocuous and noxious stimuli following aerobic exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micalos, P S; Harris, J; Drinkwater, E J; Cannon, J; Marino, F E

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of aerobic exercise on perceptual and cerebro-spinal responses to graded electrocutaneous stimuli. The design comprised 2 x 30 min of cycling exercise at 30% and 70% of peak oxygen consumption (VO2 peak) on separate occasions in a counter-balanced order in 10 healthy participants. Assessment of nociceptive withdrawal reflex threshold (NWR-T), pain threshold (PT), and somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs) to graded electrocutaneous stimuli were performed before and after exercise. Perceptual magnitude ratings and SEPs were compared at 30%PT, 60%PT, 100%PT before (Pre), 5 min after (Post1), and 15 min after (Post2) aerobic exercise. There was no difference in the NWR-T and the PT following exercise at 30% and 70% of VO2 peak. ANOVA for the perceptual response within pooled electrocutaneous stimuli show a significant main effect for time (F2,18=5.41, P=0.01) but no difference for exercise intensity (F1,9=0.02, P=0.88). Within-subject contrasts reveal trend differences between 30%PT and 100%PT for Pre-Post1 (P=0.09) and Pre-Post2 (P=0.02). ANOVA for the SEPs peak-to-peak signal amplitude (N1-P1) show significant main effect for time (F2,18=4.04, P=0.04) but no difference for exercise intensity (F1,9=1.83, P=0.21). Pairwise comparisons for time reveal differences between Pre-Post1 (P=0.06) and Pre-Post2 (P=0.01). There was a significant interaction for SEPs N1-P1 between exercise intensity and stimulus intensity (F2,18=3.56, P=0.05). These results indicate that aerobic exercise did not increase the electrocutaneous threshold for pain and the NWR-T. Aerobic exercise attenuated perceptual responses to innocuous stimuli and SEPs N1-P1 response to noxious stimuli.

  3. Cerebral hemodynamics of the aging brain: risk of Alzheimer disease and benefit of aerobic exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi eTarumi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Alzheimer disease (AD and cerebrovascular disease often coexist with advanced age. Mounting evidence indicates that the presence of vascular disease and its risk factors increase the risk of AD, suggesting a potential overlap of the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms. In particular, atherosclerosis, endothelial dysfunction, and stiffening of central elastic arteries have been shown to associate with AD. Currently, there are no effective treatments for the cure and prevention of AD. Vascular risk factors are modifiable via either pharmacological or lifestyle intervention. In this regard, habitual aerobic exercise is increasingly recognized for its benefits on brain structure and cognitive function. Considering the well-established benefits of regular aerobic exercise on vascular health, exercise-related improvements in brain structure and cognitive function may be mediated by vascular adaptations. In this review, we will present the current evidence for the physiological mechanisms by which vascular health alters the structural and functional integrity of the aging brain and how improvements in vascular health, via regular aerobic exercise, potentially benefits cognitive function.

  4. Aerobic Exercise Attenuates the Loss of Skeletal Muscle during Energy Restriction in Adults with Visceral Adiposity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eiichi Yoshimura

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the effects of energy restriction with or without aerobic exercise on thigh muscle mass and quality in adults with visceral adiposity. Methods: 75 males and females were randomly assigned to the groups ‘diet only' (DO; n = 42 or ‘diet plus aerobic exercise' (D/Ex; n = 33 for 12 weeks. The target energy intake in both groups was 25 kcal/kg of ideal body weight. Subjects in the D/Ex group were instructed to exercise for ≥300 min/week at lactate threshold. Computed tomography was used to measure thigh muscle cross-sectional area (CSA, normal-density muscle area (NDMA, and visceral fat area. Results: Total body weight (DO: -6.6 ± 3.6%; D/Ex: -7.3 ± 4.6% and visceral fat (DO: -16.0 ± 13.8%; D/Ex: -23.1 ± 14.7% decreased significantly in both groups; however, the changes were not significantly different between the two groups. The decrease in muscle CSA was significantly greater in the DO group (-5.1 ± 4.5% compared with the D/Ex group (-2.5 ± 5.0%. NDMA decreased significantly in the DO (-4.9 ± 4.9% but not in the D/Ex group (-1.4 ± 5.0%. Conclusion: Aerobic exercise attenuated the loss of skeletal muscle during energy restriction in adults with visceral adiposity.

  5. Combined effects of aerobic exercise and omega-3 fatty acids in hyperlipidemic persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, J G; Ullrich, I H; Albrink, M J; Yeater, R A

    1989-10-01

    Because both aerobic exercise and fish oil ingestion have been shown to decrease plasma lipids, we examined the effects of combining these modalities in hyperlipidemic subjects. Thirty-four subjects were randomly assigned to one of four groups as follows: fish oil and exercise (FE), N = 7, 50 ml of oil daily and 3 d.wk-1 of aerobic exercise; fish oil (F), N = 7, 50 ml of oil daily; corn oil (CN), N = 10, 50 ml of oil daily; and control (C), N = 10. Blood samples were drawn at baseline and at the end of 4, 8, and 12 wk. The FE and F groups showed significantly lower triglycerides with respect to treatment as compared to the CN and C groups. The FE, F, and CN groups exhibited lower total cholesterol values than the control group but were not different from each other. HDL cholesterol was significantly increased after treatment in the FE and F groups as compared to the CN and C groups. Serum apo-B, LDL cholesterol, and LDL protein decreased significantly in the FE group but not the F group from baseline to 12 wk. VO2max increased and percent fat decreased only in the FE group. In conclusion, aerobic exercise improved the effects of fish oil on LDL cholesterol and apo-B and improved fitness and body composition in hyperlipidemic subjects.

  6. EXERCISE PERFORMANCE AND MUSCLE CONTRACTILE PROPERTIES AFTER CREATINE MONOHYDRATE SUPPLEMENTATION IN AEROBIC-ANAEROBIC TRAINING RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nickolay Boyadjiev

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of creatine monohydrate supplementation on exercise performance and contractile variables in aerobic-anaerobic training rats. Twenty 90-day-old male Sprague Dawley rats were divided into two groups - creatine (Cr and controls (K. The creatine group received creatine monohydrate as a nutritional supplement, whereas the control group was given placebo. Both groups were trained 5 days a week on a treadmill for 20 days in a mixed (aerobic-anaerobic metabolic working regimen (27 m·min-1, 15% elevation for 40 min. The exercise performance (sprint-test, contractile properties (m. tibialis anterior, oxidative enzyme activity (SDH, LDH, NADH2 in m. soleus and blood hematological and chemical variables were assessed in the groups at the end of the experiment. It was found out that creatine supplementation improved the exercise performance after 20 days of administration in a dose of 60 mg per day on the background of a mixed (aerobic-anaerobic exercise training. At the end of the trial the Cr-group demonstrated better values for the variables which characterize the contractile properties of m. tibialis anterior containing predominantly types IIA and IIB muscle fibers. On the other hand, a higher oxidative capacity was found out in m. soleus (type I muscle fibers as a result of 20-day creatine supplementation. No side effects of creatine monohydrate supplementation were assessed by the hematological and blood biochemical indices measured in this study

  7. Glucose metabolic alterations in hippocampus of diabetes mellitus rats and the regulation of aerobic exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jingjing; Liu, Beibei; Cai, Ming; Lin, Xiaojing; Lou, Shujie

    2017-11-04

    Diabetes could negatively affect the structures and functions of the brain, especially could cause the hippocampal dysfunction, however, the potential metabolic mechanism is unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the changes of glucose metabolism in hippocampus of diabetes mellitus rats and the regulation of aerobic exercise, and to analyze the possible mechanisms. A rat model of type 2 diabetes mellitus was established by high-fat diet feeding in combination with STZ intraperitoneal injection, then 4 weeks of aerobic exercise was conducted. The glucose metabolites and key enzymes involved in glucose metabolism in hippocampus were respectively detected by GC/MS based metabolomics and western blot. Metabolomics results showed that compared with control rats, the level of citric acid was significantly decreased, while the levels of lactic acid, ribose 5-phosphate, xylulose 5-phosphate and glucitol were significantly increased in the diabetic rat. Compared with diabetic rats, the level of citric acid was significantly increased, while the lactic acid, ribose 5-phosphate and xylulose 5-phosphate were significantly decreased in the diabetic exercise rats. Western blot results showed that lower level of citrate synthase and oxoglutarate dehydrogenase, higher level of aldose reductase and glucose 6-phosphatedehydrogenase were found in the diabetic rats when compared to control rats. After 4 weeks of aerobic exercise, citrate synthase was upregulated and glucose 6-phosphatedehydrogenase was downregulated in the diabetic rats. These results suggest that diabetes could cause abnormal glucose metabolism, and aerobic exercise plays an important role in regulating diabetes-induced disorder of glucose metabolism in the hippocampus. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Aerobic physical exercise as a possible treatment for neurocognitive dysfunction in bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucyi, Aaron; Alsuwaidan, Mohammad T; Liauw, Samantha S; McIntyre, Roger S

    2010-11-01

    Neurocognitive dysfunction associated with bipolar disorder (BD) is pervasive, persistent across illness phases, and is demonstrated to predispose and portend psychosocial impairment. Moreover, no approved therapies for various phases of BD have been shown to reliably improve any dimension of neurocognitive performance. In this article, we emphasize that aerobic physical exercise is a viable neurocognitive-enhancing adjunctive treatment for patients with BD. The overarching aim of this review is to emphasize that aerobic physical exercise is a viable neurocognitive-enhancing adjunctive treatment for patients with BD. We conducted PubMed and Google Scholar searches of all English-language articles published between January 1966 and February 2010 using the search terms bipolar disorder, major depressive disorder, depression, exercise, and physical activity cross-referenced with each other and the following terms: cognition, executive function, learning, memory, attention, emotion, and behavior. Articles selected for review were based on adequacy of sample size, use of standardized experimental procedures, validated assessment measures, and overall quality. Available studies have documented an array of persisting neurocognitive deficits across disparate bipolar populations. Abnormalities in verbal working memory are highly replicated; deficits in executive function, learning, attention, and processing speed are also a consistent abnormality. The effect sizes of neurocognitive deficits in BD are intermediate between those reported in schizophrenia and major depressive disorder. Several original reports and reviews have documented the neurocognitive-enhancing effects of aerobic exercise in the general population as well as across diverse medical populations and ages. Proposed mechanisms involve nonexclusive effects on neurogenesis, neurotrophism, immunoinflammatory systems, insulin sensitivity, and neurotransmitter systems. Each of these effector systems are implicated

  9. Phase I/II randomized trial of aerobic exercise in Parkinson disease in a community setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uc, Ergun Y; Doerschug, Kevin C; Magnotta, Vincent; Dawson, Jeffrey D; Thomsen, Teri R; Kline, Joel N; Rizzo, Matthew; Newman, Sara R; Mehta, Sonya; Grabowski, Thomas J; Bruss, Joel; Blanchette, Derek R; Anderson, Steven W; Voss, Michelle W; Kramer, Arthur F; Darling, Warren G

    2014-07-29

    To (1) investigate effects of aerobic walking on motor function, cognition, and quality of life in Parkinson disease (PD), and (2) compare safety, tolerability, and fitness benefits of different forms of exercise intervention: continuous/moderate intensity vs interval/alternating between low and vigorous intensity, and individual/neighborhood vs group/facility setting. Initial design was a 6-month, 2 × 2 randomized trial of different exercise regimens in independently ambulatory patients with PD. All arms were required to exercise 3 times per week, 45 minutes per session. Randomization to group/facility setting was not feasible because of logistical factors. Over the first 2 years, we randomized 43 participants to continuous or interval training. Because preliminary analyses suggested higher musculoskeletal adverse events in the interval group and lack of difference between training methods in improving fitness, the next 17 participants were allocated only to continuous training. Eighty-one percent of 60 participants completed the study with a mean attendance of 83.3% (95% confidence interval: 77.5%-89.0%), exercising at 46.8% (44.0%-49.7%) of their heart rate reserve. There were no serious adverse events. Across all completers, we observed improvements in maximum oxygen consumption, gait speed, Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale sections I and III scores (particularly axial functions and rigidity), fatigue, depression, quality of life (e.g., psychological outlook), and flanker task scores (p improvements on the flanker task and quality of life (p improves aerobic fitness, motor function, fatigue, mood, executive control, and quality of life in mild to moderate PD. This study provides Class IV evidence that in patients with PD, an aerobic exercise program improves aerobic fitness, motor function, fatigue, mood, and cognition. © 2014 American Academy of Neurology.

  10. Acute blood pressure response in hypertensive elderly women immediately after water aerobics exercise: A crossover study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, Raphael Martins; Vilaça-Alves, José; Noleto, Marcelo Vasconcelos; Silva, Juliana Sá; Costa, Andressa Moura; Silva, Christoffer Novais Farias; Póvoa, Thaís Inácio Rolim; Lehnen, Alexandre Machado

    2017-01-01

    Water aerobics exercise is widely recommended for elderly people. However, little is known about the acute effects on hemodynamic variables. Thus, we assessed the effects of a water aerobic session on blood pressure in hypertensive elderly women. Fifty hypertensive elderly women aged 67.8 ± 4.1 years, 1.5 ± 0.6 m high and BMI 28.6 ± 3.9 kg/m 2 , participated in a crossover clinical trial. The experiment consisted of a 45-minute water aerobics session (70%-75% HRmax adjusted for the aquatic environment) (ES) and a control session (no exercise for 45 minutes) (CS). Heart rate was monitored using a heart rate monitor and systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) measurements were taken using a semi-automatic monitor before and immediately after the sessions, and at 10, 20 and 30 minutes thereafter. It was using a generalized estimating equation (GEE) with Bonferroni's post-hoc test (p exercise, BP declined in ES by a greater magnitude than in CS (SBP 7.5 mmHg, 6.2%, p = 0.005 and DBP 3.8 mmHg, 5.5%, p = 0.013). At 20 minutes after exercise and thereafter, SBP and DBP were similar in both ES and CS. In conclusion, BP returned to control levels within 10-20 minutes remaining unchanged until 30 minutes after exercise, and post-exercise hypotension was not observed. Besides, BP changed after exercise was a safe rise of small magnitude for hypertensive people.

  11. Aerobic Exercise Training and Arterial Changes in African-Americans versus Caucasians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranadive, Sushant M.; Yan, Huimin; Lane, Abbi D.; Kappus, Rebecca M.; Cook, Marc D.; Sun, Peng; Harvey, Idethia; Ploutz-Synder, Robert; Woods, Jeffrey A.; Wilund, Kenneth R.; Fernhall, Bo

    2015-01-01

    African-Americans (AA) have increased carotid artery intima-media thickness and decreased vascular function compared to their Caucasian (CA) peers. Aerobic exercise prevents and potentially reverses arterial dysfunction. Purpose The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of 8 weeks of moderate-high intensity aerobic training in young healthy sedentary AA and CA men and women. Methods Sixty-four healthy volunteers (men = 28, women = 36) with mean age = 24 underwent measures of arterial structure, function and blood pressure variables at baseline, post-4 week control period and 8 weeks post-training. Results There was a significant increase in VO2peak amongst both groups post exercise training. Brachial systolic blood pressure decreased significantly following control period in both groups but not following exercise training. Carotid pulse pressure decreased significantly in both groups post exercise training as compared to baseline. There was no change in any of the other blood pressure variables. AAs had a higher intima-media thickness at baseline and post-control period, but significantly decreased following exercise training compared to CAs. AAs had significantly lower baseline forearm blood flow and RH compared to CAs, but exercise training had no effect on these variables. There was no significant difference in arterial stiffness (cPWV) and wave-reflection (AIx) between the two groups at any time point. Conclusions This is the first study to show that, 8 weeks of aerobic exercise training causes significant improvement in the arterial structure in young, healthy AAs, making it comparable to the CAs and with minimal effects on blood pressure variables. PMID:26225767

  12. Aerobic Exercise Training and Arterial Changes in African Americans versus Caucasians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranadive, Sushant M; Yan, Huimin; Lane, Abbi D; Kappus, Rebecca M; Cook, Marc D; Sun, Peng; Harvey, Idethia; Ploutz-Synder, Robert; Woods, Jeffrey A; Wilund, Kenneth R; Fernhall, B O

    2016-01-01

    African Americans (AA) have increased carotid artery intima-media thickness and decreased vascular function compared with their Caucasian (CA) peers. Aerobic exercise prevents and potentially reverses arterial dysfunction. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of 8 wk of moderate- to high-intensity aerobic training in young healthy sedentary AA and CA men and women. Sixty-four healthy volunteers (men, 28; women, 36) with mean age 24 yr underwent measures of arterial structure, function, and blood pressure (BP) variables at baseline, after the 4-wk control period, and 8 wk after training. There was a significant increase in VO2peak among both groups after exercise training. Brachial systolic BP decreased significantly after the control period in both groups but not after exercise training. Carotid pulse pressure decreased significantly in both groups after exercise training as compared with that in baseline. There was no change in any of the other BP variables. AA had higher intima-media thickness at baseline and after the control period but it significantly decreased after exercise training compared with that of CA. AA had significantly lower baseline forearm blood flow and reactive hyperemia compared with those of CA, but exercise training had no effect on these variables. There was no significant difference in arterial stiffness (central pulse wave velocity) and wave-reflection (augmentation index) between the two groups at any time point. This is the first study to show that 8 wk of aerobic exercise training causes significant improvement in the arterial structure in young, healthy AA, making it comparable with the CA and with minimal effects on BP variables.

  13. Supplementation with vitamin A enhances oxidative stress in the lungs of rats submitted to aerobic exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasparotto, Juciano; Petiz, Lyvia Lintzmaier; Girardi, Carolina Saibro; Bortolin, Rafael Calixto; de Vargas, Amanda Rodrigues; Henkin, Bernardo Saldanha; Chaves, Paloma Rodrigues; Roncato, Sabrina; Matté, Cristiane; Zanotto-Filho, Alfeu; Moreira, José Cláudio Fonseca; Gelain, Daniel Pens

    2015-12-01

    Exercise training induces reactive oxygen species production and low levels of oxidative damage, which are required for induction of antioxidant defenses and tissue adaptation. This process is physiological and essential to improve physical conditioning and performance. During exercise, endogenous antioxidants are recruited to prevent excessive oxidative stress, demanding appropriate intake of antioxidants from diet or supplements; in this context, the search for vitamin supplements that enhance the antioxidant defenses and improve exercise performance has been continuously increasing. On the other hand, excess of antioxidants may hinder the pro-oxidant signals necessary for this process of adaptation. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of vitamin A supplementation (2000 IU/kg, oral) upon oxidative stress and parameters of pro-inflammatory signaling in lungs of rats submitted to aerobic exercise (swimming protocol). When combined with exercise, vitamin A inhibited biochemical parameters of adaptation/conditioning by attenuating exercise-induced antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase) and decreasing the content of the receptor for advanced glycation end-products. Increased oxidative damage to proteins (carbonylation) and lipids (lipoperoxidation) was also observed in these animals. In sedentary animals, vitamin A decreased superoxide dismutase and increased lipoperoxidation. Vitamin A also enhanced the levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha and decreased interleukin-10, effects partially reversed by aerobic training. Taken together, the results presented herein point to negative effects associated with vitamin A supplementation at the specific dose here used upon oxidative stress and pro-inflammatory cytokines in lung tissues of rats submitted to aerobic exercise.

  14. Diet and exercise effects on aerobic fitness and body composition in seriously mentally ill adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannopoulou, Ifigenia; Botonis, Petros; Kostara, Christina; Skouroliakou, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Low exercise capacity and high obesity levels are the main characteristics of people with serious mental illness (SMI). We conducted a pilot study on the effects of a 3-month exercise and dietary intervention on the aerobic capacity and body composition of obese adults with SMI taking Olanzapine, a second generation antipsychotic medication known to induce weight increments. Fifty adults with SMI (15 males and 35 females) followed a 3-month weight loss intervention programme based on exercise and diet. Pre- and post-intervention, a submaximal [Formula: see text]O2 exercise test was performed in order to assess [Formula: see text]O2max anthropometric and body composition measurements were also performed. All participants were obese (body mass index (BMI): 33.61 ± 0.91 kg/m(2)). Pre- and post-intervention, a submaximal [Formula: see text]O2 exercise test on the treadmill was performed in order to assess [Formula: see text]O2max anthropometric and body composition measurements were also performed. Significant reductions in body weight, BMI, body fat and waist circumference were found from pre to post (p exercise and diet improves the aerobic capacity and body composition of obese adults with SMI, despite the use of Olanzapine.

  15. Combined effect of surya namaskar and aerobic exercises to reduce anger among substance dependence subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyanka Malhotra

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is a strong association between certain exercises and anger management. Persons with a high tendency towards anger often abuse substances. Alcohol and drug abuse is one of the most common behavioural problems that occur due to uncontrolled anger. Substance dependence subjects when frustrated would show anger. Aim: To assess the anger among substance dependence subjects and the effect of physical exercises (surya namaskar and aerobic exercises on anger management. Materials and methods: The study was conducted at Drug De-addiction and Treatment Centre, Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh. Specific exercise was planned for anger management based on a thorough literature review, which consisted of surya namaskar and aerobic exercises (brisk walking and jogging to be taught in a two-week period. Results: Anger was assessed by using standardised tool and after intervention for fifteen days, significant reduction in anger score was found in experimental group. Conclusion: Physical exercises were found to be effective for managing the anger among substance dependence subjects.

  16. Benefits of regular aerobic exercise for executive functioning in healthy populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guiney, Hayley; Machado, Liana

    2013-02-01

    Research suggests that regular aerobic exercise has the potential to improve executive functioning, even in healthy populations. The purpose of this review is to elucidate which components of executive functioning benefit from such exercise in healthy populations. In light of the developmental time course of executive functions, we consider separately children, young adults, and older adults. Data to date from studies of aging provide strong evidence of exercise-linked benefits related to task switching, selective attention, inhibition of prepotent responses, and working memory capacity; furthermore, cross-sectional fitness data suggest that working memory updating could potentially benefit as well. In young adults, working memory updating is the main executive function shown to benefit from regular exercise, but cross-sectional data further suggest that task-switching and post error performance may also benefit. In children, working memory capacity has been shown to benefit, and cross-sectional data suggest potential benefits for selective attention and inhibitory control. Although more research investigating exercise-related benefits for specific components of executive functioning is clearly needed in young adults and children, when considered across the age groups, ample evidence indicates that regular engagement in aerobic exercise can provide a simple means for healthy people to optimize a range of executive functions.

  17. Aerobic exercise training induces skeletal muscle hypertrophy and age-dependent adaptations in myofiber function in young and older men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konopka, Adam R.; Undem, Miranda K.; Hinkley, James M.; Minchev, Kiril; Kaminsky, Leonard A.; Trappe, Todd A.; Trappe, Scott

    2012-01-01

    To examine potential age-specific adaptations in skeletal muscle size and myofiber contractile physiology in response to aerobic exercise, seven young (YM; 20 ± 1 yr) and six older men (OM; 74 ± 3 yr) performed 12 wk of cycle ergometer training. Muscle biopsies were obtained from the vastus lateralis to determine size and contractile properties of isolated slow [myosin heavy chain (MHC) I] and fast (MHC IIa) myofibers, MHC composition, and muscle protein concentration. Aerobic capacity was higher (P 0.05) with training. Training reduced (P aerobic capacity are similar between YM and OM, while adaptations in myofiber contractile function showed a general improvement in OM. Training-related increases in MHC I and MHC IIa peak power reveal that skeletal muscle of OM is responsive to aerobic exercise training and further support the use of aerobic exercise for improving cardiovascular and skeletal muscle health in older individuals. PMID:22984247

  18. A Comparison of the Effects of Aerobic and Intense Exercise on the Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Risk Marker Adipokines, Adiponectin and Retinol Binding Protein-4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy Phillips

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available With a more sedentary population comes growing rates of obesity and increased type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM risk. Exercise generally induces positive changes in traditional T2DM risk markers such as lipids, glucose tolerance, and insulin sensitivity; however alterations in concentrations of many circulating cytokines and their respective receptors are also becoming apparent. These cytokines may be early-response health risk factors otherwise overlooked in traditional T2DM risk marker analysis. Plasma levels of two adipocyte-originating cytokines, adiponectin and retinol binding protein 4 (RBP-4, alter following exercise. Adiponectin has anti-inflammatory, anti-atherosclerotic, and anti-insulin resistance roles and its secretion increases with physical activity, whilst elevated RBP-4 leads to increased insulin resistance, and secretion decreases with increasing physical activity; thus these plasma adipokine levels alter favourably following exercise. Although current data are limited, they do suggest that the more intense the exercise, the greater the positive effect on plasma RBP-4 levels, whilst lower intensity aerobic exercise may positively improve adiponectin concentrations. Therefore short-duration, high intensity training may provide a time-efficient alternative to the recommended 150 min moderate aerobic exercise per week in providing positive changes in RBP-4 and other traditional T2DM risk markers and due to increased compliance give greater health benefits over the longer term.

  19. Sarcopenic obesity and dyslipidemia response to selective exercise ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: Aerobic and resisted exercise has a positive effect in treatment of sarcopenic obesity and dyslipidemia (reducing fat mass, cholesterol and triglycerides levels while increasing muscle mass) post liver transplantation. KEYWORDS: Liver transplantation; Sarcopenic obesity; Dyslipidemia; Aerobic exercise; ...

  20. Effect of an aerobic exercise intervention on cardiac autonomic regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallman, David M; Holtermann, Andreas; Søgaard, Karen

    2017-01-01

    obtained at baseline and at 4-month follow-up. Time and frequency domain indices of HRV were derived during work, leisure time and sleep to evaluate cardiac autonomic regulation. Linear mixed models were used to determine the effect of the intervention on HRV indices, with adjustment for age, gender...... and daily use of antihypertensive and/or heart medication. RESULTS: Compared with the reference group, the exercise group increased all HRV indices apart from a reduction in LF/HF ratio from baseline to follow-up both during work (psleep, the HRV indices......, but not during sleep. The health effect of this contrasting change in autonomic regulation needs further investigation....

  1. The effects of an aerobic exercise program on the mood states of premenopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almudena Ramírez Balas

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between physical activity and psychological health has been stated in recent investigations. Nevertheless, most studies report the physical health benefits, but not the benefits on mood states. Therefore, this research tries to observe the changes on parameters of mood in premenopausal women after an aerobic training. The study included 20 premenopausal women, separated into two groups: younger than 35 years (n = 10 and over 35 years (n = 10. The experimental subjects underwent an assessment of mood before and after an aerobic training. A physical activity program was performed during 5 months, 3 days a week. Exercise sessions lasted 60 minutes and with an intensity between 60 to 70 % of reserve maximum heart rate. Results indicate improves the vigor and reduces the anxiety levels in over 35 years premenopausal women; in contrast, younger than 35 years caused no significant change. The conclusion of this study is that an aerobic exercise program based in aerobics, step and toning classes, improves the mood states in over 35 years premenopausal women.

  2. The effects of a pilates-aerobic program on maximum exercise capacity of adult women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Mikalački

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction: Physical exercise such as the Pilates method offers clinical benefits on the aging process. Likewise, physiologic parameters may be improved through aerobic exercise. Methods: In order to compare the differences of a Pilates-Aerobic intervention program on physiologic parameters such as the maximum heart rate (HRmax, relative maximal oxygen consumption (relative VO2max and absolute (absolute VOmax, maximum heart rate during maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max-HRmax, maximum minute volume (VE and forced vital capacity (FVC, a total of 64 adult women (active group = 48.1 ± 6.7 years; control group = 47.2 ± 7.4 years participated in the study. The physiological parameters, the maximal speed and total duration of test were measured by maximum exercise capacity testing through Bruce protocol. The HRmax was calculated by a cardio-ergometric software. Pulmonary function tests, maximal speed and total time during the physical test were performed in a treadmill (Medisoft, model 870c. Likewise, the spirometry analyzed the impact on oxygen uptake parameters, including FVC and VE. Results: The VO2max (relative and absolute, VE (all, P<0.001, VO2max-HRmax (P<0.05 and maximal speed of treadmill test (P<0.001 showed significant difference in the active group after a physical exercise interventional program. Conclusion: The present study indicates that the Pilates exercises through a continuous training program might significantly improve the cardiovascular system. Hence, mixing strength and aerobic exercises into a training program is considered the optimal mechanism for healthy aging.

  3. Effects of Moderate Aerobic Exercise Combined with Caloric Restriction on Circulating Estrogens and IGF-I in Premenopausal Women

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Williams, Nancy

    2002-01-01

    ...) to support her development as a breast cancer researcher, and to conduct a study to test whether a program of moderate aerobic exercise that is combined with a moderate level of dietary restriction...

  4. Effects of Eight-Weeks of Aerobic Training on Resistin Levels and Insulin Resistance in Sedentary Middle-Aged Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahram Abedi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Resistin is an adipocyte-specific hormone secreted from adipose tissue which plays a significant role in the energy homeostasis and regulation of energy metabolism. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of eight weeks of aerobic training on the resistin levels and insulin resistance in sedentary middle-aged women. Methods: In this quasi-experimental research, 20 sedentary women were randomly selected and assigned to two groups: experimental group, n=10, aged 47.70±5.35; and control, n=10, age 41.30±3.02, respectively. The participants in the training group performed an exercise protocol three times per week with the goal of 55 to 65 per cent of maximum heart rate. Before and after the completion, the resistin, insulin, glucose and insulin resistance levels were measured after 12 h of overnight fasting. Data were analyzed before and after the intervention by t-test. The significant level was defined as P≤0.05. Results: Aerobic training in compared with the control group showed significant effect in decreasing resistin levels (P=0.012, BMI (P=0.01, insulin resistance (P=0.01, and increasing VO2 max (P=0.004. Conclusion: It appears that eight weeks of aerobic training significantly changes the level of resistin and the insulin resistance index in sedentary middle-aged women. Plasma resistin may be associated with insulin resistance in sedentary women. In general, according to the results, we may say that an eight-week aerobic training with a significant reduction in plasma resistin has a preventive effect as a new and effective training method on insulin resistance in middle-aged sedentary women.

  5. Exercise therapy improves aerobic capacity of inpatients with major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerling, Arno; von Bohlen, Anne; Kück, Momme; Tegtbur, Uwe; Grams, Lena; Haufe, Sven; Gützlaff, Elke; Kahl, Kai G

    2016-06-01

    Unipolar depression is one of the most common diseases worldwide and is associated with a higher cardiovascular risk partly due to reduced aerobic capacity. Therefore, the aim of our study was to examine whether a structured aerobic training program can improve aerobic capacity in inpatients with MDD (major depressive disorder). Overall, 25 patients (13 women, 12 men) diagnosed with MDD were included in the study. Parameters of aerobic capacity, such as maximum performance, maximum oxygen consumption, and VAT (ventilatory anaerobic threshold), were assessed on a bicycle ergometer before and 6 weeks after a training period (three times per week for 45 min on two endurance machines). In addition, a constant load test was carried out at 50% of the maximum performance prior to and after the training period. The performance data were compared with 25 healthy controls matched for sex, age, and body mass index before and after the training period. Compared to controls, patients with MDD had significantly lower aerobic capacity. After training, there was a significant improvement in their performance data. A significant difference remained only for VAT between patients with MDD and healthy controls. With regard to the coincidence of MDD with cardiovascular and cardiometabolic disorders, a structured supervised exercise program carried out during hospitalization is a useful supplement for patients with MDD.

  6. Effects of Aerobic Exercise on Anxiety Symptoms and Cortical Activity in Patients with Panic Disorder: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lattari, Eduardo; Budde, Henning; Paes, Flávia; Neto, Geraldo Albuquerque Maranhão; Appolinario, José Carlos; Nardi, Antônio Egídio; Murillo-Rodriguez, Eric; Machado, Sérgio

    2018-01-01

    The effects of the aerobic exercise on anxiety symptoms in patients with Panic Disorder (PD) remain unclear. Thus, the investigation of possible changes in EEG frontal asymmetry could contribute to understand the relationship among exercise, brain and anxiety. To investigate the acute effects of aerobic exercise on the symptoms of anxiety and the chronic effects of aerobic exercise on severity and symptoms related to PD, besides the changes in EEG frontal asymmetry. Ten PD patients were divided into two groups, Exercise Group (EG; n=5) and Control Group (CG; n=5), in a randomized allocation. At baseline and post-intervention, they submitted the psychological evaluation through Panic Disorder Severity Scale (PDSS), Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II), EEG frontal asymmetry, and maximal oxygen consumption (VO 2 max). On the second visit, the patients of EG being submitted to the aerobic exercise (treadmill, 25 minutes, and 50-55% of heart rate reserve) and the CG remained seated for the same period of time. Both groups submitted a psychological evaluation with Subjective Units of Distress Scale (SUDS) at baseline, immediately after (Post-0), and after 10 minutes of the rest pause (Post-10). The patients performed 12 sessions of aerobic exercise with 48-72 hours of interval between sessions. In EG, SUDS increased immediately after exercise practice and showed chronic decrease in BAI and BDI-II as well as increased in VO 2 max (Post-intervention). Aerobic exercise can promote increase in anxiety acutely and regular aerobic exercise promotes reduction in anxiety levels.

  7. Effect of Aerobic Exercise Training on Blood Pressure in Indians: Systematic Review

    OpenAIRE

    Punia, Sonu; Kulandaivelan, Sivachidambaram; Singh, Varun; Punia, Vandana

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. High blood pressure (BP) is one of the most important modifiable risk factors for cardiovascular diseases, which accounts for one in every eight deaths worldwide. It has been predicted that, by 2020, there would be 111% increase in cardiovascular deaths in India. Aerobic exercise in the form of brisk walking, jogging, running, and cycling would result in reduction in BP. Many meta-analytical studies from western world confirm this. However, there is no such review from Indian su...

  8. The effect of continuous aerobic exercise on premenstrual syndrome: a randomized clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mosallanejad Z

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Premenstrual syndrome is one of the most incidencial problems in women's during reproductive age. That effect personal performance in family and society status. Varied therapeutic treatment has been studied for its promotion. The main attention was to find a method without complications. This study performed with aim of assessing effect of one period of continuous aerobic exercise on premenstrual syndrome in 18-25 years female students in jahrom medical school."nMethods: This study was a kind of semi experimental study with two group plane. Forty students were assessed for premenstrual syndrome with regular mense, without previous history of Diabetes mellitus and Thyroid, Gynecologic and psychological disease. Twenty subjects (with similar VO2 MAX were selected and randomly divided to two experimental and control groups. Data gathering was from ILPDD questionnaire concluded 11 question about signs and symptoms of mental and physical complain related to premenstrual syndrome that filled by samples. All samples have positive five complain that four of them depend on mental symptoms of premenstrual syndrome. Intensity of quantity of premenstrual syndrome and levels of estrogen and progesterone were measured. Then, exercise regime including continuous aerobic exercise, were performed for eight weeks, with frequency of three sessions every week. At the end of 8th week, posttests were repeated in the situation similar to pretest. Analytic statistic as a Nonparametric Mann-whitney test, and nonparametric Wilcoxon signed ranks test was used for comparing variables."nResults: This study showed that after two method of aerobic exercise, somatic and effective complain was decrease in case group (p>0.05. Hormonal change in two groups was not significant."nConclusion: Releaving aerobic experiences is effective for somatic and affective complains secondary to premenstrual syndrome and this plan can be replace by other methods of medical

  9. EFFECT OF AEROBIC EXERCISES ON CARDIOPULMONARY FITNESS IN COMPUTER USING SEDENTARY INDIVIDUALS

    OpenAIRE

    P. Chinna Reddemma; Dr. K. Madhavi

    2015-01-01

    Background: A sedentary life style is a type of life style with no or irregular physical activity. It is a leading cause for reduced cardio - respiratory fitness and physical activity. The most of the employees working as computer personnel’s for more than five hours in a day is leading to altered physical activity and fitness. To study the effect of aerobic exercise programme on the cardio - respiratory fitness in computer using sedentary individuals. Methods: As per the inclusion criteri...

  10. Effect of six-week aerobic exercise on Chemerin and Resistin concentration in hypertensive postmenopausal women

    OpenAIRE

    Aghapour, Atieh; Farzanegi, Parvin

    2013-01-01

    Background: Physical activity reduces symptoms of cardiovascular diseases. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of six-week aerobic exercise upon Chemerin and Resistin concentration in women with menopause who had hypertension. Methods: The population of this quasi-experimental study included postmenopausal women diagnosed with hypertension. They were 50 to 55 years old and lived in Amol, a city in north part of Iran. Twenty volunteers were filled the personal consent and Health Qu...

  11. The Effects of Aerobic Exercise on Body Image Attitudes in Women

    OpenAIRE

    Sareh Zar-Shenas; Ashraf Karbalaaei-Nouri; Seyyed-Ali Hosseini; Mahdi Rahgozar; Reza Seyed-Nour; Nahaleh Moshtagh

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Sociocultural emphasis and increased interest in physical attractiveness and current attitudes body structure have increased body image dissatisfaction among women. The prevalence of body image dissatisfaction is linked with various psychological disorders and disturbances such as low self-esteem, depression and other disorders. The present study investigated the short program aerobic exercise effects on body image among women. Materials & Methods: In this interventional and qu...

  12. Aerobic exercise capacity at long-term follow-up after paediatric allogeneic haematopoietic SCT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, S; Uhlving, H H; Buchvald, F

    2014-01-01

    Peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak), a measure of aerobic exercise capacity, predicts mortality and morbidity in healthy and diseased individuals. Our aim was to determine VO2peak years after paediatric allogeneic haematopoietic SCT (HSCT) and to identify associations with baseline patient and donor...... type or GvHD were found. Although causes for reduced VO2peak may be multiple, our findings stress the need to focus on physical activity post HSCT to prevent lifestyle diseases and improve quality of life....

  13. Clinical and neurobiological effects of aerobic exercise in dental phobia: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindenberger, Brigitt L; Plag, Jens; Schumacher, Sarah; Gaudlitz, Katharina; Bischoff, Sophie; Bobbert, Thomas; Dimeo, Fernando; Petzold, Moritz B; Kirschbaum, Clemens; Dudás, Zsuzsa; Ströhle, Andreas

    2017-11-01

    Physical activity has shown to be effective in anxiety disorders. For specific phobia, no studies are available that systematically examined the effects of an aerobic exercise intervention on phobic fear within a randomized-controlled design. Therefore, we investigated the acute effect of a standardized aerobic training on clinical symptoms of dental phobia as well as on stress-related neurobiological markers. Within a crossover design, 30 patients with dental phobia (mean age: 34.1 years; mean score of the Dental Anxiety Scale: 18.8) underwent two minor dental interventions separated by 7 days. Dental treatment was performed after 30 min of physical activity at either 20% VO 2 max (control) or 70% VO 2 max (intervention), respectively. To control for habituation, patients were randomly assigned to one of the two conditions prior to the first intervention. Moreover, saliva samples were collected at five times in order to determine changes in salivary cortisol (sC) and alpha-amylase (sAA) due to treatment. In comparison to baseline, aerobic exercise within 70% VO 2 max significantly reduced clinical anxiety and sC concentrations before, during, and after the dental treatment. In contrast, the control condition led to decreased sAA levels at different time points of measurement. Habituation occurred at the second study day, independent of the order. Our study provides evidence for an effect of moderate-intense exercise on clinical symptoms and sC in patients with dental phobia. Therefore, acute aerobic exercise might be a simple and low-cost intervention to reduce disorder-specific phobic fear. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Aerobic training suppresses exercise-induced lipid peroxidation and inflammation in overweight/obese adolescent girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youssef, Hala; Groussard, Carole; Lemoine-Morel, Sophie; Pincemail, Joel; Jacob, Christophe; Moussa, Elie; Fazah, Abdallah; Cillard, Josiane; Pineau, Jean-Claude; Delamarche, Arlette

    2015-02-01

    This study aimed to determine whether aerobic training could reduce lipid peroxidation and inflammation at rest and after maximal exhaustive exercise in overweight/obese adolescent girls. Thirty-nine adolescent girls (14-19 years old) were classified as nonobese or overweight/obese and then randomly assigned to either the nontrained or trained group (12-week multivariate aerobic training program). Measurements at the beginning of the experiment and at 3 months consisted of body composition, aerobic fitness (VO2peak) and the following blood assays: pre- and postexercise lipid peroxidation (15F2a-isoprostanes [F2-Isop], lipid hydroperoxide [ROOH], oxidized LDL [ox-LDL]) and inflammation (myeloperoxidase [MPO]) markers. In the overweight/ obese group, the training program significantly increased their fat-free mass (FFM) and decreased their percentage of fat mass (%FM) and hip circumference but did not modify their VO2peak. Conversely, in the nontrained overweight/obese group, weight and %FM increased, and VO2peak decreased, during the same period. Training also prevented exercise-induced lipid peroxidation and/or inflammation in overweight/obese girls (F2-Isop, ROOH, ox-LDL, MPO). In addition, in the trained overweight/obese group, exercise-induced changes in ROOH, ox-LDL and F2-Isop were correlated with improvements in anthropometric parameters (waist-to-hip ratio, %FM and FFM). In conclusion aerobic training increased tolerance to exercise-induced oxidative stress in overweight/obese adolescent girls partly as a result of improved body composition.

  15. Beneficial impact of aerobic exercises on bone mineral density in obese premenopausal women under caloric restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosny, Iman Abbas; Elghawabi, Hamed Samir; Younan, Wael Bahat Fahmy; Sabbour, Adly Aly; Gobrial, Mona Abdel Messih

    2012-04-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the impact of caloric restriction diet versus caloric restriction diet combined with aerobic exercises on bone mineral density (BMD) in obese premenopausal women. Forty premenopausal obese women were classified randomly into two groups equal in number. The first group (group A) received caloric restriction diet, while the second (group B) received caloric restriction diet combined with a program of aerobic exercises, over 3 months. The variables measured in this study included age, weight, height, body mass index, fat weight, lean mass, fat percent, basal metabolic rate, and BMD. The comparison between group A and group B showed significantly higher post-treatment lean mass, basal metabolic rate, and BMD in weight-bearing bones (L2-L4 lumbar spine and total hip) in group B compared to group A. In contrast to the BMD of the weight-bearing bones, the BMD of the radius showed significant decrease between the pre- and post-treatment results in groups A and B with no significant differences between the two groups. A greater improvement in the BMD of weight-bearing bones was observed in obese premenopausal women undergoing caloric restriction combined with exercise than in those not undergoing exercise. Anaerobic exercises incorporated into weight loss programs help offset the adverse effects of dietary restriction on bone.

  16. Absolute and relative reliability of acute effects of aerobic exercise on executive function in seniors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donath, Lars; Ludyga, Sebastian; Hammes, Daniel; Rossmeissl, Anja; Andergassen, Nadin; Zahner, Lukas; Faude, Oliver

    2017-10-25

    Aging is accompanied by a decline of executive function. Aerobic exercise training induces moderate improvements of cognitive domains (i.e., attention, processing, executive function, memory) in seniors. Most conclusive data are obtained from studies with dementia or cognitive impairment. Confident detection of exercise training effects requires adequate between-day reliability and low day-to-day variability obtained from acute studies, respectively. These absolute and relative reliability measures have not yet been examined for a single aerobic training session in seniors. Twenty-two healthy and physically active seniors (age: 69 ± 3 y, BMI: 24.8 ± 2.2, VO 2peak : 32 ± 6 mL/kg/bodyweight) were enrolled in this randomized controlled cross-over study. A repeated between-day comparison [i.e., day 1 (habituation) vs. day 2 & day 2 vs. day 3] of executive function testing (Eriksen-Flanker-Test, Stroop-Color-Test, Digit-Span, Five-Point-Test) before and after aerobic cycling exercise at 70% of the heart rate reserve [0.7 × (HR max - HR rest )] was conducted. Reliability measures were calculated for pre, post and change scores. Large between-day differences between day 1 and 2 were found for reaction times (Flanker- and Stroop Color testing) and completed figures (Five-Point test) at pre and post testing (0.002 seniors can be presumed.

  17. Resistance exercise improves hippocampus-dependent memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.C. Cassilhas

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available It has been demonstrated that resistance exercise improves cognitive functions in humans. Thus, an animal model that mimics this phenomenon can be an important tool for studying the underlying neurophysiological mechanisms. Here, we tested if an animal model for resistance exercise was able to improve the performance in a hippocampus-dependent memory task. In addition, we also evaluated the level of insulin-like growth factor 1/insulin growth factor receptor (IGF-1/IGF-1R, which plays pleiotropic roles in the nervous system. Adult male Wistar rats were divided into three groups (N = 10 for each group: control, SHAM, and resistance exercise (RES. The RES group was submitted to 8 weeks of progressive resistance exercise in a vertical ladder apparatus, while the SHAM group was left in the same apparatus without exercising. Analysis of a cross-sectional area of the flexor digitorum longus muscle indicated that this training period was sufficient to cause muscle fiber hypertrophy. In a step-through passive avoidance task (PA, the RES group presented a longer latency than the other groups on the test day. We also observed an increase of 43 and 94% for systemic and hippocampal IGF-1 concentration, respectively, in the RES group compared to the others. A positive correlation was established between PA performance and systemic IGF-1 (r = 0.46, P < 0.05. Taken together, our data indicate that resistance exercise improves the hippocampus-dependent memory task with a concomitant increase of IGF-1 level in the rat model. This model can be further explored to better understand the effects of resistance exercise on brain functions.

  18. Oxidative stress and inflammation response following aerobic exercise: role of ethnicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, M J; Goldfarb, A; Garten, R S; Vervaecke, L

    2014-09-01

    African-Americans are at a significantly greater risk for developing several diseases and conditions. These conditions often have underlying oxidative stress mechanisms. Therefore the purpose of this investigation was to ascertain the post-exercise oxidative response to a single bout of aerobic exercise in African-American and Caucasian college-age females. A total of 10 African-American and 10 Caucasian females completed the study. Each subject had her VO2 max measured while exercising on a treadmill. A week later, each subject returned to the laboratory and performed a 30-min run at 70% of her VO2max. Blood samples were taken immediately prior to and following exercise for analysis. Lipid hydroperoxides, protein carbonyls, malondialdehyde, xanthine oxidase, glutathione in the reduced (GSH) and oxidized (GSSG) forms, TNFα and interleukin 6 were measured from blood taken before and after exercise. Significance was set at p≤0.05 a priori. Xanthine oxidase was the only measure that did not significantly increase following exercise. All other markers showed a significant elevation in response to the exercise bout with no difference between groups except that the Caucasian group had significantly higher malondialdehyde post-exercise compared to the African-American group. This cohort of college-age African-American and Caucasian females showed little difference in their response to a single 30-min run at 70% of their max in the markers of oxidative stress within the blood. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  19. Comparisons of low-intensity versus moderate-intensity combined aerobic and resistance training on body composition, muscle strength, and functional performance in older women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiotsu, Yoko; Yanagita, Masahiko

    2018-06-01

    This study aimed to examine the effects of exercise order of combined aerobic and low- or moderate-intensity resistance training into the same session on body composition, functional performance, and muscle strength in healthy older women. Furthermore, this study compared the effects of different (low- vs moderate-) intensity combined training. A total of 60 healthy older women (age 61-81 y) were randomly assigned to five groups that performed aerobic exercise before low-intensity resistance training (AR-L, n = 12) or after resistance training (RA-L, n = 12), performed aerobic exercise before moderate-intensity resistance training (AR-M, n = 12) or after resistance training (RA-M, n = 12), or nonintervention control conditions (CON, n = 12). Body composition, functional performance, and muscle strength were evaluated before and after the 10-week training. No effects of exercise order of combined aerobic and low- or moderate-intensity resistance training (AR-L vs RA-L, AR-M vs RA-M) were observed in body composition, functional performance, or muscle strength, whereas the effects of training intensity of combined training (AR-L vs AR-M, RA-L vs RA-M) were observed on functional performance. All combined trainings significantly increased muscle strength and gait ability (P Functional reach test significantly increased in the AR-M and RA-M groups (P training increases muscle strength and improves gait ability, regardless of the exercise order. Also, greater improvement in dynamic balance capacity, a risk factor associated with falling, is observed in moderate-intensity combined training.

  20. Aerobic Exercise Intervention, Cognitive Performance, and Brain Structure: Results from the Physical Influences on Brain in Aging (PHIBRA) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonasson, Lars S; Nyberg, Lars; Kramer, Arthur F; Lundquist, Anders; Riklund, Katrine; Boraxbekk, Carl-Johan

    2016-01-01

    Studies have shown that aerobic exercise has the potential to improve cognition and reduce brain atrophy in older adults. However, the literature is equivocal with regards to the specificity or generality of these effects. To this end, we report results on cognitive function and brain structure from a 6-month training intervention with 60 sedentary adults (64-78 years) randomized to either aerobic training or stretching and toning control training. Cognitive functions were assessed with a neuropsychological test battery in which cognitive constructs were measured using several different tests. Freesurfer was used to estimate cortical thickness in frontal regions and hippocampus volume. Results showed that aerobic exercisers, compared to controls, exhibited a broad, rather than specific, improvement in cognition as indexed by a higher "Cognitive score," a composite including episodic memory, processing speed, updating, and executive function tasks ( p = 0.01). There were no group differences in cortical thickness, but additional analyses revealed that aerobic fitness at baseline was specifically related to larger thickness in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC), and hippocampus volume was positively associated with increased aerobic fitness over time. Moreover, "Cognitive score" was related to dlPFC thickness at baseline, but changes in "Cognitive score" and dlPFC thickness were associated over time in the aerobic group only. However, aerobic fitness did not predict dlPFC change, despite the improvement in "Cognitive score" in aerobic exercisers. Our interpretation of these observations is that potential exercise-induced changes in thickness are slow, and may be undetectable within 6-months, in contrast to change in hippocampus volume which in fact was predicted by the change in aerobic fitness. To conclude, our results add to a growing literature suggesting that aerobic exercise has a broad influence on cognitive functioning, which may aid in explaining why

  1. Acute Response of Some Iron Indices of Young Elite Wrestlers to Three Types of Aerobic, Anaerobic, and Wrestling Exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Morteza Tayebi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to investigate the acute responses of some iron indices of young elite wrestlers to three types of aerobic, anaerobic, and wrestling exercises. A total of 24 elite volunteer wrestlers were randomly categorized into three groups (n=8 aerobic, anaerobic, and routine wrestling exercises. The exercises were conducted during three non-consecutive sessions within one week. The aerobic exercises included 35 min of continuous running with 130 beats per minute (BPM on a treadmill; the anaerobic exercises included 15 min circuit movements and 15 min rest with 160 BPM, and the wrestling training included routine wrestling exercises. Blood sampling was done in the first and third sessions in order to study the acute responses which included four stages of 1 h before, immediately, 3 h, and finally 24 h after exercises. The study of the acute response to the first session showed that the type of exercise had no effect on serum iron (p=0.57. Furthermore, the serum ferritin (p=0.012 and TIBC (p=0.006 affected was affected by type of exercise. The study of the acute response to the second session showed that the type of exercise had no effect on serum ferritin (p=0.731 and TIBC (p=0.231, rather the serum iron was affected by the type of exercise (p=0.01. Conclusively, the study of acute response showed that wrestling exercises led to a decline in iron stores during exercise and reduced total iron binding capacity during a 24-h recovery period. The study of acute exercise after a short adaptation period showed that despite the fact that serum iron had no change in anaerobic and wrestling exercises over the passage of time, it changed during aerobic exercise and 24-h recovery periods. Furthermore, the progress of iron deficiency was only observed in the first stage which prevented its progress to the next stage.

  2. Sense of Well-Being in Patients with Fibromyalgia: Aerobic Exercise Program in a Mature Forest A Pilot Study

    OpenAIRE

    López-Pousa, Secundino; Bassets Pagès, Glòria; Monserrat-Vila, Sílvia; Gracia Blanco, Manuel de; Hidalgo Colomé, Jaume; Garre-Olmo, Josep

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objective. Most patients with fibromyalgia benefit from different forms of physical exercise. Studies show that exercise can help restore the body's neurochemical balance and that it triggers a positive emotional state. So, regular exercise can help reduce anxiety, stress, and depression. The aim of this study was to analyze the benefits of moderate aerobic exercise when walking in two types of forests, young and mature, and to assess anxiety, sleep, pain, and well-being in pat...

  3. The Effects of Aerobic Exercise on Body Image Attitudes in Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sareh Zar-Shenas

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Sociocultural emphasis and increased interest in physical attractiveness and current attitudes body structure have increased body image dissatisfaction among women. The prevalence of body image dissatisfaction is linked with various psychological disorders and disturbances such as low self-esteem, depression and other disorders. The present study investigated the short program aerobic exercise effects on body image among women. Materials & Methods: In this interventional and quasi experimental study, 82 females among 150 women (18-45 years old referred to Enghelab and Gol sports clubs in Tehran were selected by convenient and simple sampling based on inclusive and exclusive criteria and randomly divided into two intervention and control groups. They did not participate in any exercise in last 3 months and also they did not have any physical disease and meet criteria for deficit of body image attitudes. Data collection was done by using demographic and Multidimensional Body Self-Relation Questionnaire. The intervention group participated in aerobic exercise program. These sessions lasted 3 hours per week for 4 weeks. Data were analyzed by Chi–Square, Paired T and Independent T tests. Results: There were significant differences between two groups after intervention in sub items of body image including: self-appearance evaluation (P<0.001, self-appearance orientation (P<0.001, health orientation (P=0.003, illness orientation (P=0.002, but their fitness evaluation (P=0.141, self-fitness orientation (P=0.888, health evaluation (P=0.072, self-body satisfaction (P=0.082, overweight preoccupations (P=0.167 and self-assesed weight (P=0.156 did not change clearly. Conclusion: Short periods of aerobic exercise can effectively promote body image attitudes among women, and exercise can be used as a method of treatment in occupational therapy of the disorder.

  4. Effects of Twice-Weekly Intense Aerobic Exercise in Early Subacute Stroke: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandberg, Klas; Kleist, Marie; Falk, Lars; Enthoven, Paul

    2016-08-01

    To examine the effects of 12 weeks of twice-weekly intensive aerobic exercise on physical function and quality of life after subacute stroke. Randomized controlled trial. Ambulatory care. Patients (N=56; 28 women) aged ≥50 years who had a mild stroke (98% ischemic) and were discharged to independent living and enrolled 20 days (median) after stroke onset. Sixty minutes of group aerobic exercise, including 2 sets of 8 minutes of exercise with intensity up to exertion level 14 or 15 of 20 on the Borg rating of perceived exertion scale, twice weekly for 12 weeks (n=29). The nonintervention group (n=27) received no organized rehabilitation or scheduled physical exercise. Primary outcome measures included aerobic capacity on the standard ergometer exercise stress test (peak work rate) and walking distance on the 6-minute walk test (6MWT). Secondary outcome measures included maximum walking speed for 10m, balance on the timed Up and Go (TUG) test and single leg stance (SLS), health-related quality of life on the European Quality of Life Scale (EQ-5D), and participation and recovery after stroke on the Stroke Impact Scale (SIS) version 2.0 domains 8 and 9. Participants were evaluated pre- and postintervention. Patient-reported measures were also evaluated at 6-month follow-up. The following improved significantly more in the intervention group (pre- to postintervention): peak work rate (group × time interaction, P=.006), 6MWT (P=.011), maximum walking speed for 10m (Pbalance, health-related quality of life, and patient-reported recovery. Copyright © 2016 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Antimicrobial Resistance and Resistance Genes in Aerobic Bacteria Isolated from Pork at Slaughter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Lili; Olsen, Rikke Heidemann; Ye, Lei

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the phenotypic and genotypic antimicrobial resistance, integrons, and transferability of resistance markers in 243 aerobic bacteria recovered from pork at slaughter in the People's Republic of China. The organisms belonged to 22 genera of gram-negative bac......The aim of this study was to investigate the phenotypic and genotypic antimicrobial resistance, integrons, and transferability of resistance markers in 243 aerobic bacteria recovered from pork at slaughter in the People's Republic of China. The organisms belonged to 22 genera of gram......-negative bacteria (92.2%) and gram-positive bacteria (7.8%). High levels of resistance were detected to tetracycline, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, and ampicillin (36.2 to 54.3%), and lower levels were detected to nitrofurantoin, cefotaxime, gentamicin, ciprofloxacin, and chloramphenicol (7.8 to 29.2%). Across.......6% of isolates contained class 1 integrons, and one isolate harbored class 2 integrons. Plasmid associated intI1 and androgen receptor– encoding genes were transferred into Escherichia coli J53 and E. coli DH5α by conjugation and transformation experiments, respectively. Our study highlights the importance...

  6. Effect of tai chi versus aerobic exercise for fibromyalgia: comparative effectiveness randomized controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Christopher H; Fielding, Roger A; Harvey, William F; Reid, Kieran F; Price, Lori Lyn; Driban, Jeffrey B; Kalish, Robert; Rones, Ramel; McAlindon, Timothy

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Objectives To determine the effectiveness of tai chi interventions compared with aerobic exercise, a current core standard treatment in patients with fibromyalgia, and to test whether the effectiveness of tai chi depends on its dosage or duration. Design Prospective, randomized, 52 week, single blind comparative effectiveness trial. Setting Urban tertiary care academic hospital in the United States between March 2012 and September 2016. Participants 226 adults with fibromyalgia (as defined by the American College of Rheumatology 1990 and 2010 criteria) were included in the intention to treat analyses: 151 were assigned to one of four tai chi groups and 75 to an aerobic exercise group. Interventions Participants were randomly assigned to either supervised aerobic exercise (24 weeks, twice weekly) or one of four classic Yang style supervised tai chi interventions (12 or 24 weeks, once or twice weekly). Participants were followed for 52 weeks. Adherence was rigorously encouraged in person and by telephone. Main outcome measures The primary outcome was change in the revised fibromyalgia impact questionnaire (FIQR) scores at 24 weeks compared with baseline. Secondary outcomes included changes of scores in patient’s global assessment, anxiety, depression, self efficacy, coping strategies, physical functional performance, functional limitation, sleep, and health related quality of life. Results FIQR scores improved in all five treatment groups, but the combined tai chi groups improved statistically significantly more than the aerobic exercise group in FIQR scores at 24 weeks (difference between groups=5.5 points, 95% confidence interval 0.6 to 10.4, P=0.03) and several secondary outcomes (patient’s global assessment=0.9 points, 0.3 to 1.4, P=0.005; anxiety=1.2 points, 0.3 to 2.1, P=0.006; self efficacy=1.0 points, 0.5 to 1.6, P=0.0004; and coping strategies, 2.6 points, 0.8 to 4.3, P=0.005). Tai chi treatment compared with aerobic exercise administered with

  7. Absolute and relative reliability of acute effects of aerobic exercise on executive function in seniors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Donath

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aging is accompanied by a decline of executive function. Aerobic exercise training induces moderate improvements of cognitive domains (i.e., attention, processing, executive function, memory in seniors. Most conclusive data are obtained from studies with dementia or cognitive impairment. Confident detection of exercise training effects requires adequate between-day reliability and low day-to-day variability obtained from acute studies, respectively. These absolute and relative reliability measures have not yet been examined for a single aerobic training session in seniors. Methods Twenty-two healthy and physically active seniors (age: 69 ± 3 y, BMI: 24.8 ± 2.2, VO2peak: 32 ± 6 mL/kg/bodyweight were enrolled in this randomized controlled cross-over study. A repeated between-day comparison [i.e., day 1 (habituation vs. day 2 & day 2 vs. day 3] of executive function testing (Eriksen-Flanker-Test, Stroop-Color-Test, Digit-Span, Five-Point-Test before and after aerobic cycling exercise at 70% of the heart rate reserve [0.7 × (HRmax – HRrest] was conducted. Reliability measures were calculated for pre, post and change scores. Results Large between-day differences between day 1 and 2 were found for reaction times (Flanker- and Stroop Color testing and completed figures (Five-Point test at pre and post testing (0.002 < p < 0.05, 0.16 < ɳp 2 < 0.38. These differences notably declined when comparing day 2 and 3. Absolute between days variability (CoV dropped from 10 to 5% when comparing day 2 vs. day 3 instead of day 1 vs. day 2. Also ICC ranges increased from day 1 vs. day 2 (0.65 < ICC < 0.87 to day 2 vs. day 3 (0.40 < ICC < 0.93. Interestingly, reliability measures for pre-post change scores were low (0.02 < ICC < 0.71. These data did not improve when comparing day 2 with day 3. During inhibition tests, reaction times showed excellent reliability values compared to the poor to fair reliability of

  8. Resistance Exercises for Health and Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Let’s get started… First & Foremost…. “Tie-it-up”! This stabilizes your core and provides a solid foundation for resistance exercises. This is a two step process: 1st – close the pelvic floor. For men… as though you are stopping the flow of urine, it is the same for ladies but more commonly referred to as Kegel exercises. 2nd – While doing the above, tighten the lower abs (like you are preparing to be punched in the stomach). Be sure to “Tie-it-up” before doing all exercises.

  9. Mood after various brief exercise and sport modes: aerobics, hip-hop dancing, ice skating, and body conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sungwoon; Kim, Jingu

    2007-06-01

    To investigate the potential psychological benefits of brief exercise and sport activities on positive mood alterations, 45 Korean high school and 232 undergraduate students enrolled in physical education and stress management classes voluntarily participated and were randomly assigned to one of four activities: aerobic exercise, body conditioning, hip-hop dancing, and ice skating. Mood changes from before to after exercise (2 pm to 3 pm) were measured based on a Korean translation of the Subjective Exercise Experiences Scale. The findings suggested that the aerobics and hip-hop dancing groups rated positive well-being higher than the body conditioning and ice skating groups. Immediately after exercise, psychological distress was rated lower in the aerobics and hip-hop dancing groups, as was fatigue.

  10. Effects of muscular and aqua aerobic combined exercise on metabolic indices in elderly women with metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Yong-Kwon; Kim, Soo-Keun; Song, Min-Sun

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of muscle strengthening exercise using elastic thera-band and aquatic aerobic combined exercise on metabolic syndrome index in elderly with metabolic syndrome. Fifty-four were assigned to muscle strengthening exercise group (n = 19), aquatic aerobic exercise group (n = 19), and combined exercise group (n = 16). The muscle strength exercise, aquatic aerobic exercise and combined exercise were provided three times a week for 12 weeks. Metabolic syndrome indices[Fasting blood glucose, triglyceride, high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure and waist circumference] were measured before and after the program. One-way ANOVA, paired t-test and two-way repeated ANOVA were used with the SPSS program for data analysis. There was a significant difference in triglyceride (p exercise group and aquatic exercise group. HDL-C was significantly increased in combined group than muscle strength exercise group. The results indicate that combined exercise was more effective in the improvement of dyslipidemia and abdominal obesity.

  11. EFFECT OF AEROBIC EXERCISES ON CARDIOPULMONARY FITNESS IN COMPUTER USING SEDENTARY INDIVIDUALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Chinna Reddemma

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: A sedentary life style is a type of life style with no or irregular physical activity. It is a leading cause for reduced cardio - respiratory fitness and physical activity. The most of the employees working as computer personnel’s for more than five hours in a day is leading to altered physical activity and fitness. To study the effect of aerobic exercise programme on the cardio - respiratory fitness in computer using sedentary individuals. Methods: As per the inclusion criteria the thirty subjects were selected for the study, all the selected subjects were given aerobic protocol for 12 weeks. Pre and post therapeutic outcome measures were assessed for Body Mass Index was calculated using weight (kg/ height (m2. Waist- hip ratio was measured using inch tape in centimeters, pre and post therapeutic values of Body Mass Index, Waist Hip Ratio, VO2 peak were assessed. Results: According to the data analysis, a significant difference was found between the pre and post test values of Body Mass Index, Waist- hip ratio and Vo2peak in both experimental and control groups (p<0.05, but comparatively more significant changes were found in the experimental rather than the control group(p<0.05. Conclusion: Aerobic exercise had significant influence in computer using sedentary individuals. There was a significant change in physical factors like body mass index, waist-hip ratio, and functional factors like vo2peak. Hence, it is concluded that 12weeks of aerobic exercises is effective in improving cardio vascular factors computer using sedentary individuals.

  12. Bone metabolism and hand grip strength response to aerobic versus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    porosis is incomplete and has prompted our interest to identify the type of effective osteogenic exercise. ... between aerobic and resistance exercise training in non-insulin dependent ... paired glucose metabolism on bone health as well as to.

  13. Effectiveness of photobiomodulation therapy and aerobic exercise training on articular cartilage in an experimental model of osteoarthritis in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assis, Lívia; Tim, Carla; Martignago, Cintia; Gonçalves, Silma Rodrigues; Renno, Ana Claudia Muniz

    2018-02-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common disease of the knee joints in adults throughout the world. Photobiomodulation (PBM) and physical exercise have been studied for clinical treatment of OA, even though the effects and action mechanisms have not yet been clarified. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of PBM and aerobic exercise (associated or not) on degenerative modifications and inflammatory mediators in articular cartilage using an experimental model of knee OA. Forty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into 4 groups: OA animals without treatment (OAC); OA plus aerobic exercise training (OAT); OA animals plus PBM treatment (OAP); OA plus aerobic exercise training and PBM treatment (OATP). The exercise training (treadmill; 16m/min; 50 min/day) and the PBM treatment started 4 weeks after the surgery, 3 days/week for 8 weeks. The results showed that all treated groups showed a lower degenerative process measured by OARSI system and higher thickness values. Moreover, aerobic exercise and PBM (associated or not) decreased iNOS expression and increased IL-10 expression in OAT and OATL compared to OAC. Furthermore, a lower TGF-β expression was observed in associated therapies. These results suggest that PBM and aerobic exercise training were effective in modulating inflammatory process and preventing cartilage degeneration in knees in OA rats.

  14. Effectiveness of aerobic gymnastic exercise on stress, fatigue, and sleep quality during postpartum: A pilot randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chiu-Ling; Chen, Chung-Hey

    2018-01-01

    Gymnastics is a preferable safe exercise for postnatal women performing regularly. The aim of this pilot randomized controlled trial was to determine whether the aerobic gymnastic exercise improves stress, fatigue, sleep quality and depression in postpartum women. Single-blinded, randomized controlled trial held from December 2014 until September 2015. Postnatal clinic of a medical center in southern Taiwan. 140 eligible postnatal women were systematically assigned, with a random start to experimental (n=70) or a control (n=70) group. Engage in aerobic gymnastic exercise at least three times (15min per section) a week for three months using compact disc in the home. Perceived Stress Scale, Postpartum Fatigue Scale, Postpartum Sleep Quality Scale, and Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale. In a two-way ANOVA with repeated measures, the aerobic gymnastic exercise group showed significant decrease in fatigue after practicing exercise 4 weeks and the positive effects extended to the 12-week posttests. Paired t-tests revealed that aerobic gymnastic exercise participants had improved significantly in perceived stress and fatigue after 4 weeks gymnastic exercise; these positive effects extended to the 12-week posttests. In addition, the changes in physical symptoms-related sleep inefficiency after 12 weeks gymnastic exercise were significantly decreased in the experimental group compared with the control group. The findings can be used to encourage postnatal women to perform moderate-intensity gymnastic exercise in their daily life to reduce their stress, fatigue and improve sleep quality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Effect of aerobic exercise on hunger feelings and satiety regulating hormones in obese teenage girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prado, Wagner L; Balagopal, P Babu; Lofrano-Prado, Mara C; Oyama, Lila M; Tenório, Thiago Ricardo; Botero, João Paulo; Hill, James O

    2014-11-01

    Exercise is implicated in modifying subsequent energy intake (EI) through alterations in hunger and/or satiety hormones. Our aim was to examine the effects of aerobic exercise on hunger, satiety regulatory peptides, and EI in obese adolescents. Nine obese girls (age: 13-18 years old, BMI: 33.74 ± 4.04 kg/m2) participated in this randomized controlled crossover study. Each participant randomly underwent 2 experimental protocols: control (seated for 150 min) and exercise (exercised for 30 min on a treadmill performed at ventilatory threshold [VT] intensity and then remained seated for 120 min). Leptin, peptide YY(3-36) (PYY(3-36)), and subjective hunger were measured at baseline as well as 30 min and 150 min, followed by 24-hr EI measurement. Exercise session resulted in an acute increase in PYY(3-36) (p hunger scores. The control session increased hunger scores (p < .01) and decreased circulating leptin levels (p = .03). There was a strong effect size for carbohydrate intake (d = 2.14) and a modest effect size for protein intake (d = 0.61) after the exercise compared with the control session. Exercise performed at VT intensity in this study appears to provoke a state of transient anorexia in obese girls. These changes may be linked to an increase in circulating PYY3-36 and maintenance of leptin levels.

  16. The effect of 8-week low impact aerobic exercise on plasma fibrinogen concentration in old women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahla Dehghan

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Applied Exercise Physiology focuses on the physiological effects of exercise training on physiological processes, health, and physical well-being. The aim of this study was investigation of effects of 8-week low impact aerobic exercise on plasma fibrinogen concentration in old women. Fibrinogen is one of the most important inflammation factors and a prediction index in cardio vascular diseases. Iranian women especially older ones are generally sedentary because of their traditional and religious believes. Samples were 23 healthy and enable to do physical activity old women of Shahrekord (Chaharmahal va bakhtiary province, Iran retirement home. Subjects were randomly divided to two groups including experimental (n=14 individuals and control (n=11 individuals. First, for assessment of fibrinogen level, 5cc blood samples were obtained after 8 hours nightly fasting from anterior vein in resting condition. Experimental group was participated in 8 week (three times a week LIA training program (15 min in first day with 40% of maximum heart rate until 40 min in last day with 65% of maximum heart rate. All of mentioned measurements repeated at the end of 8 week training. The obtained results showed that 8 week LIA program has significant effect on reduction of old women plasma fibrinogen level (P=0.02. It seems that use of 8 week LIA training has positive effects on improvement of cardiovascular health and prevention of inflammation disease related to plasma fibrinogen level in Iranian old women. Key words: aerobic exercises, old women, fibrinogen.

  17. Effect of aerobic exercise and fish oil supplements on plasma levels of inflammatory indexes in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alizadeh, Hamid; Bazgir, Behzad; Daryanoosh, Farhad; Koushki, Maryam; Sobhani, Vahid

    2014-01-01

    Exercise has positive and negative effects on immune system. Herein, we would like to investigate the effects of incremental aerobic training and fish oil supplementation on the plasma levels of CRP, CPK and IL-17 in trained mice. One of the major roles of immune system is to produce soluble or cellular components that provide the immunity against inflammatory agent. The purpose of this study is to investigate distinct and combine effects of incremental aerobic training and fish oil supplement on plasma levels of IL-17, CPK and CRP in trained male mice. Totally, 54 healthy male mice (2 months old, weight= 34±1 grams) were selected. At first 10 mice were killed to determine base line values, the rest of them were randomly divided into four groups, control group (C, n=11), supplement group (S, n=11), training group (T, n=11) and supplement-training group (ST, n=11).The supplement and supplement-training groups were fed with 0.2cc/day fish oil for 8 weeks. Training and supplement-training groups underwent exercise for 5 sessions per week for a period of 8 weeks on animal treadmill. SPSS 16.0 software and multivariate analysis of variance were used for statistical analysis of data Exercise and fish oil supplement lead to a decrease in CRP levels and subsequently causing a reduction in plasma levels of IL-17 and CK in mice (poil can reduce regulate inflammatory response caused by incremental exercise.

  18. Aerobic exercise training without weight loss reduces dyspnea on exertion in obese women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernhardt, Vipa; Stickford, Jonathon L.; Bhammar, Dharini M.; Babb, Tony G.

    2015-01-01

    Dyspnea on exertion (DOE) is a common symptom in obesity. We investigated whether aerobic exercise training without weight loss could reduce DOE. Twenty-two otherwise healthy obese women participated in a 12-week supervised aerobic exercise training program, exercising 30 min/day at 70–80% heart rate reserve, 4 days/week. Subjects were grouped based on their Ratings of Perceived Breathlessness (RPB) during constant load 60W cycling: +DOE (n = 12, RPB ≥ 4, 37 ± 7 years, 34 ± 4kg/m2) and −DOE (n = 10, RPB ≤ 2, 32 ± 6 years, 33 ± 3kg/m2). No significant differences between the groups in body composition, pulmonary function, or cardiorespiratory fitness were observed pre-training. Post-training, peak was improved significantly in both groups (+DOE: 12 ± 7, −DOE: 14 ± 8%). RPB was significantly decreased in the + DOE (4.7 ± 1.0–2.5 ± 1.0) and remained low in the −DOE group (1.2 ± 0.6–1.3 ± 1.0) (interaction p exercise training improved cardiorespiratory fitness and DOE and thus appears to be an effective treatment for DOE in obese women. PMID:26593640

  19. The effects of a 16-week aerobic exercise programme on cognitive function in people living with HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermott, Adam; Zaporojan, Lilia; McNamara, Patricia; Doherty, Colin P; Redmond, Janice; Forde, Cuisle; Gormley, John; Egaña, Mikel; Bergin, Colm

    2017-06-01

    High levels of cardiovascular fitness and physical activity are associated with higher levels of cognitive function in people with HIV, thus, they may reduce the risk of developing HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND). This study aimed to investigate the effects of a 16-week aerobic exercise intervention on cognitive function in people with HIV. Eleven participants living with HIV were recruited into the study. Participants were randomised into either an exercise group (n = 5), that completed a 16-week aerobic exercise programme training, 3 times per week (2 supervised sessions and one unsupervised session) or a control group (n = 6) that received no intervention. Outcomes measured included cognitive function (Montreal cognitive assessment (MOCA) and the Trail making tests A and B), aerobic fitness (modified Bruce protocol), sleep quality (Pittsburgh sleep quality index; PSQI) and physical activity levels (seven-day accelerometry). At baseline, higher levels of moderate physical activity were positively correlated with higher MOCA scores and levels of aerobic fitness were negatively associated with Trail A scores (P = 0.04 and P = 0.001 respectively). However, exercise training did not induce any significant improvements in cognitive function or aerobic fitness. The overall mean adherence rate to the exercise programme was 60%. In conclusion, in the present study a 16-week aerobic exercise intervention did not affect the cognitive function of participants with HIV. It is likely that longer intervention periods and/or higher adherence rates to exercise might be needed for an aerobic exercise programme to be effective in improving cognitive function in a cohort with no baseline cognitive impairments.

  20. Decrease in musculoskeletal pain after 4 and 12 months of an aerobic exercise intervention: a worksite RCT among cleaners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korshøj, Mette; Birk Jørgensen, Marie; Lidegaard, Mark; Mortensen, Ole Steen; Krustrup, Peter; Holtermann, Andreas; Søgaard, Karen

    2017-07-01

    Prevalence of musculoskeletal pain is high in jobs with high physical work demands. An aerobic exercise intervention targeting cardiovascular health was evaluated for its long term side effects on musculoskeletal pain. The objective was to investigate if aerobic exercise affects level of musculoskeletal pain from baseline to 4- and 12-months follow-up. One-hundred-and-sixteen cleaners aged 18-65 years were cluster-randomized. The aerobic exercise group ( n = 57) received worksite aerobic exercise (30 min twice a week) and the reference group ( n = 59) lectures in health promotion. Strata were formed according to closest manager (total 11 strata); clusters were set within strata (total 40 clusters, 20 in each group). Musculoskeletal pain data from eight body regions was collected at baseline and after 4- and 12-months follow-up. The participants stated highest pain in the last month on a scale from 0, stating no pain, up to 10, stating worst possible pain. A repeated-measure 2 × 2 multi-adjusted mixed-models design was applied to compare the between-groups differences in an intention to treat analysis. Participants were entered as a random effect nested in clusters to account for the cluster-based randomization. Clinically significant reductions (>30%, f  2 > 0.25) in the aerobic exercise group, compared to the reference group, in pain intensity in neck, shoulders, arms/wrists were found at 12-months follow-up, and a tendency ( p = 0.07, f  2 = 0.18) to an increase for the knees. At 4-months follow-up the only significant between-group change was an increase in hip pain. This study indicates that aerobic exercise reduces musculoskeletal pain in the upper extremities, but as an unintended side effect may increase pain in the lower extremities. Aerobic exercise interventions among workers standing or walking in the majority of the working hours should tailor exercise to only maintain the positive effect on musculoskeletal pain.

  1. Acute effect on ambulatory blood pressure from aerobic exercise: a randomised cross-over study among female cleaners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund Rasmussen, Charlotte; Nielsen, Line; Linander Henriksen, Marie; Søgaard, Karen; Krustrup, Peter; Holtermann, Andreas; Korshøj, Mette

    2018-02-01

    High occupational physical activity (OPA) is shown to increase the risk for elevated blood pressure, cardiovascular diseases and mortality. Conversely, aerobic exercise acutely lowers the blood pressure up to 25 h post exercise. However, it is unknown if this beneficial effect also apply for workers exposed to high levels of OPA. Cleaners constitute a relevant occupational group for this investigation because of a high prevalence of OPA and cardiovascular disease. Accordingly, the objective was to investigate the acute effects on ambulatory blood pressure from a single aerobic exercise session among female cleaners. Twenty-two female cleaners were randomised to a cross-over study with a reference and an aerobic exercise session. Differences in 24-h, work hours, leisure time, and sleep ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) were evaluated using repeated measure 2 × 2 mixed-models. After the aerobic exercise session, the 24-h systolic ambulatory blood pressure was significantly lowered by 2.4 mmHg (p ABP was unaltered. During work hours, a lowered systolic ABP of 2.2 mmHg (p = 0.02) and a higher diastolic ABP of 1.5 mmHg (p = 0.03) were found after the aerobic exercise session. During leisure time, the systolic ABP was lowered by 1.7 mmHg (p = 0.04) and the diastolic ABP was unaltered. During sleep, the systolic and diastolic ABP was unaltered. A single aerobic exercise session lowered 24-h systolic ABP of 2.4 mmHg. Thus, an aerobic exercise session seems to be beneficial for lowering the risk of hypertension among cleaners.

  2. Heart rate variability in stroke patients submitted to an acute bout of aerobic exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raimundo, Rodrigo Daminello; de Abreu, Luiz Carlos; Adami, Fernando; Vanderlei, Franciele Marques; de Carvalho, Tatiana Dias; Moreno, Isadora Lessa; Pereira, Valdelias Xavier; Valenti, Vitor Engracia; Sato, Monica Akemi

    2013-10-01

    Stroke has been associated with cardiac autonomic impairment due to damage in central nervous system. Dysfunction in heart rate variability (HRV) may reflect dysfunction of the autonomic nervous system. Aerobic training has been used in the rehabilitation procedure of patients, due to improvement of aerobic function and other beneficial effects as increased recruitment of motor units, favoring the development of muscle fibers. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the cardiac autonomic modulation in patients with stroke before, during, and after an acute bout of aerobic exercise. The heart rate of 38 stroke patients was recorded using a heart rate (HR) monitor and the data were used to assess cardiac autonomic modulation through HRV analysis. The patients were in supine position and remained at resting condition (R) for 10 min before starting the experiment. Afterwards, they were submitted to walking exercise (E) on a treadmill until achieve 50-70% of maximum heart rate. After 30 min of aerobic exercise, the subjects were advised to remain in supine position for additional 30 min in order to record the HR during the recovery (RC) period. The recordings were divided in three periods: RC1, immediately after the end of exercise bout, RC2, between 12 and 17 min of recovery, and RC3, at the final 5 min of recovery. A significant decrease was observed during exercise in the MeanRR index (577.3±92 vs. 861.1+109), RRtri (5.1±2 vs. 9.1±3), high frequency component (11.2±4 vs. 167±135 ms) and SD1 (5.7±2 vs. 16.9±7 ms) compared to resting values. The SDNN index reduced during E (27.6±19) and RC1 (29.9±11), RC2 (27.9±9) and RC3 (32.4±13) compared to resting values (42.4±19). The low frequency component increased during E (545±82), but decreased during RC1 (166.3±129), RC2 (206.9±152), and RC3 (249.5±236) compared to R levels (394.6±315). These findings suggest that stroke patients showed a reduced HRV during and at least 30 min after exercise, due to an

  3. Modulation of mitochondrial biomarkers by intermittent hypobaric hypoxia and aerobic exercise after eccentric exercise in trained rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizo-Roca, David; Ríos-Kristjánsson, Juan Gabriel; Núñez-Espinosa, Cristian; Santos-Alves, Estela; Magalhães, José; Ascensão, António; Pagès, Teresa; Viscor, Ginés; Torrella, Joan Ramon

    2017-07-01

    Unaccustomed eccentric contractions induce muscle damage, calcium homeostasis disruption, and mitochondrial alterations. Since exercise and hypoxia are known to modulate mitochondrial function, we aimed to analyze the effects on eccentric exercise-induced muscle damage (EEIMD) in trained rats using 2 recovery protocols based on: (i) intermittent hypobaric hypoxia (IHH) and (ii) IHH followed by exercise. The expression of biomarkers related to mitochondrial biogenesis, dynamics, oxidative stress, and bioenergetics was evaluated. Soleus muscles were excised before (CTRL) and 1, 3, 7, and 14 days after an EEIMD protocol. The following treatments were applied 1 day after the EEIMD: passive normobaric recovery (PNR), 4 h daily exposure to passive IHH at 4000 m (PHR) or IHH exposure followed by aerobic exercise (AHR). Citrate synthase activity was reduced at 7 and 14 days after application of the EEIMD protocol. However, this reduction was attenuated in AHR rats at day 14. PGC-1α and Sirt3 and TOM20 levels had decreased after 1 and 3 days, but the AHR group exhibited increased expression of these proteins, as well as of Tfam, by the end of the protocol. Mfn2 greatly reduced during the first 72 h, but returned to basal levels passively. At day 14, AHR rats had higher levels of Mfn2, OPA1, and Drp1 than PNR animals. Both groups exposed to IHH showed a lower p66shc(ser 36 )/p66shc ratio than PNR animals, as well as higher complex IV subunit I and ANT levels. These results suggest that IHH positively modulates key mitochondrial aspects after EEIMD, especially when combined with aerobic exercise.

  4. Plasma cell-free mitochondrial DNA declines in response to prolonged moderate aerobic exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shockett, Penny E; Khanal, Januka; Sitaula, Alina; Oglesby, Christopher; Meachum, William A; Castracane, V Daniel; Kraemer, Robert R

    2016-01-01

    Increased plasma cell-free mitochondrial DNA (cf-mDNA), a damage-associated molecular pattern (DAMP) produced by cellular injury, contributes to neutrophil activation/inflammation in trauma patients and arises in cancer and autoimmunity. To further understand relationships between cf-mDNA released by tissue injury, inflammation, and health benefits of exercise, we examined cf-mDNA response to prolonged moderate aerobic exercise. Seven healthy moderately trained young men (age = 22.4 ± 1.2) completed a treadmill exercise trial for 90 min at 60% VO2 max and a resting control trial. Blood was sampled immediately prior to exercise (0 min = baseline), during (+18, +54 min), immediately after (+90 min), and after recovery (R40). Plasma was analyzed for cf-mDNA, IL-6, and lactate. A significant difference in cf-mDNA response was observed between exercise and control trials, with cf-mDNA levels reduced during exercise at +54 and +90 (with or without plasma volume shift correction). Declines in cf-mDNA were accompanied by increased lactate and followed by an increase in IL-6, suggesting a temporal association with muscle stress and inflammatory processes. Our novel finding of cf-mDNA decline with prolonged moderate treadmill exercise provides evidence for increased clearance from or reduced release of cf-mDNA into the blood with prolonged exercise. These studies contrast with previous investigations involving exhaustive short-term treadmill exercise, in which no change in cf-mDNA levels were reported, and contribute to our understanding of differences between exercise- and trauma-induced inflammation. We propose that transient declines in cf-mDNA may induce health benefits, by reducing systemic inflammation. © 2016 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American Physiological Society and The Physiological Society.

  5. Aerobic exercise and cold pressor test induce hypoalgesia in active and inactive men and women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vægter, Henrik Bjarke; Handberg, Gitte; Jørgensen, Maria N.

    2015-01-01

    ). Conditioned pain modulation (CPM) was assessed by cold pressor testing. Exercise-induced hypoalgesia (EIH) was assessed after 15 minutes bicycling at a heart rate corresponding to 75% VO2max. A control session of 15 minutes quiet rest was also included. Pressure pain thresholds (PPTs) were recorded...... and after exercise, PPTs increased to the same degree in active and inactive subjects, and the CPM and EIH responses were correlated (P CPM response immediately after cold pressor test was maintained in women but not in men. CONCLUSIONS: Cold pressor stimulation and aerobic exercise caused...... comparable multisegmental increases in PPT in active and inactive men and women. The CPM and EIH responses were correlated, but they have different temporal manifestation of hypoalgesia....

  6. Effect of Aerobics Exercise on Self-Esteem in Iranian Female Adolescents Covered by Welfare Organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabatabaei, Mansooreh; Alavi, Mousa; Zolaktaf, Vahid

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Deprivation of parents might decrease self-esteem (SE) and result in affective and social incompatibility. In this randomized control trial, we examined the effect of aerobics exercise on SE among female adolescents living with no natural family. Materials and Methods. The sample consisted of all female adolescents aged 13 to 19 years (n: 72) who were covered by Isfahan Welfare organization. Participants were assigned into intervention and control groups by matched random sampling. Intervention included 8 weeks of aerobics exercise. Coppersmith SE inventory was administered before and after intervention as well as after one month follow-up. Results. No significant difference was seen between pre-SE scores of intervention (32.7 ± 8.4) and control (33.0 ± 6.7) groups (t = .16, P = .87). A significant difference was obtained in post-SE scores (40.2 ± 5.7 versus 34.7 ± 6.8, t = 3.58, P = .001) and in one month follow-up scores (36.4 ± 5.2 versus 33.0 ± 5.2, t = 2.25, P = .03). Discussion. The results demonstrated a low level of pre-SE in both groups. However, a significant improvement was seen in posttest of intervention group which persisted even one month after intervention. It supports the use of aerobics for female adolescents deprived from family life. PMID:25610905

  7. Effect of Aerobics Exercise on Self-Esteem in Iranian Female Adolescents Covered by Welfare Organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzieh Hasanpour

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Deprivation of parents might decrease self-esteem (SE and result in affective and social incompatibility. In this randomized control trial, we examined the effect of aerobics exercise on SE among female adolescents living with no natural family. Materials and Methods. The sample consisted of all female adolescents aged 13 to 19 years (n: 72 who were covered by Isfahan Welfare organization. Participants were assigned into intervention and control groups by matched random sampling. Intervention included 8 weeks of aerobics exercise. Coppersmith SE inventory was administered before and after intervention as well as after one month follow-up. Results. No significant difference was seen between pre-SE scores of intervention (32.7±8.4 and control (33.0±6.7 groups (t=.16, P=.87. A significant difference was obtained in post-SE scores (40.2±5.7 versus 34.7±6.8, t=3.58, P=.001 and in one month follow-up scores (36.4±5.2 versus 33.0±5.2, t=2.25, P=.03. Discussion. The results demonstrated a low level of pre-SE in both groups. However, a significant improvement was seen in posttest of intervention group which persisted even one month after intervention. It supports the use of aerobics for female adolescents deprived from family life.

  8. Effect of aerobics exercise on self-esteem in Iranian female adolescents covered by welfare organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasanpour, Marzieh; Tabatabaei, Mansooreh; Alavi, Mousa; Zolaktaf, Vahid

    2014-01-01

    Deprivation of parents might decrease self-esteem (SE) and result in affective and social incompatibility. In this randomized control trial, we examined the effect of aerobics exercise on SE among female adolescents living with no natural family. The sample consisted of all female adolescents aged 13 to 19 years (n: 72) who were covered by Isfahan Welfare organization. Participants were assigned into intervention and control groups by matched random sampling. Intervention included 8 weeks of aerobics exercise. Coppersmith SE inventory was administered before and after intervention as well as after one month follow-up. No significant difference was seen between pre-SE scores of intervention (32.7 ± 8.4) and control (33.0 ± 6.7) groups (t = .16, P = .87). A significant difference was obtained in post-SE scores (40.2 ± 5.7 versus 34.7 ± 6.8, t = 3.58, P = .001) and in one month follow-up scores (36.4 ± 5.2 versus 33.0 ± 5.2, t = 2.25, P = .03). The results demonstrated a low level of pre-SE in both groups. However, a significant improvement was seen in posttest of intervention group which persisted even one month after intervention. It supports the use of aerobics for female adolescents deprived from family life.

  9. The marine mammal dive response is exercise modulated to maximize aerobic dive duration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Randall W; Williams, Terrie M

    2012-08-01

    When aquatically adapted mammals and birds swim submerged, they exhibit a dive response in which breathing ceases, heart rate slows, and blood flow to peripheral tissues and organs is reduced. The most intense dive response occurs during forced submersion which conserves blood oxygen for the brain and heart, thereby preventing asphyxiation. In free-diving animals, the dive response is less profound, and energy metabolism remains aerobic. However, even this relatively moderate bradycardia seems diametrically opposed to the normal cardiovascular response (i.e., tachycardia and peripheral vasodilation) during physical exertion. As a result, there has been a long-standing paradox regarding how aquatic mammals and birds exercise while submerged. We hypothesized based on cardiovascular modeling that heart rate must increase to ensure adequate oxygen delivery to active muscles. Here, we show that heart rate (HR) does indeed increase with flipper or fluke stroke frequency (SF) during voluntary, aerobic dives in Weddell seals (HR = 1.48SF - 8.87) and bottlenose dolphins (HR = 0.99SF + 2.46), respectively, two marine mammal species with different evolutionary lineages. These results support our hypothesis that marine mammals maintain aerobic muscle metabolism while swimming submerged by combining elements of both dive and exercise responses, with one or the other predominating depending on the level of exertion.

  10. Effect of aerobic training and resistance training on circulating irisin level and their association with change of body composition in overweight/obese adults: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, H-J; Lee, H-J; So, B; Son, J S; Yoon, D; Song, W

    2016-06-20

    The novel myokine irisin has been reported as a therapeutic target for metabolic disease. The objective of this study is to reveal the effects of aerobic training (AT) and resistance training (RT) on circulating irisin levels and their associations with change of body composition in overweight/obese adults. Twenty eight overweight/obese adults (BMI>23 kg/m(2)) were included in this study and compared before and after 8 weeks of exercise program (60 min/day, 5 times in a week). The subjects, in both aerobic and resistance training, showed significant improvement in anthropometric parameters and exercise capacities including maximal oxygen uptake and muscle strength. Interestingly, the circulating irisin was significantly increased in resistance training group (p=0.002) but not in aerobic training (p=0.426) compared to control group. In addition, we found the positive correlation between change of the circulating irisin and muscle mass (r=0.432, p=0.022) and the negative correlation between change of the circulating irisin and fat mass (r=-0.407, p=0.031). In the present pilot study, we found that circulating irisin level was increased by 8 weeks of resistance training in overweight/obese adults, suggesting that resistance training could be the efficient exercise type in overweight/obese considering positive change of body composition concomitant with increase of irisin levels.

  11. The effects of aerobic exercise for persons with migraine and co-existing tension-type headache and neck pain. A randomized, controlled, clinical trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krøll, Lotte Skytte; Hammarlund, Catharina Sjödahl; Linde, Mattias

    2018-01-01

    Aim To evaluate aerobic exercise in migraine and co-existing tension-type headache and neck pain. Methods Consecutively recruited persons with migraine and co-existing tension-type headache and neck pain were randomized into an exercise group or control group. Aerobic exercise consisted of bike...

  12. Effect of acute aerobic exercise on vaccine efficacy in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranadive, Sushant Mohan; Cook, Marc; Kappus, Rebecca Marie; Yan, Huimin; Lane, Abbi Danielle; Woods, Jeffery A; Wilund, Kenneth R; Iwamoto, Gary; Vanar, Vishwas; Tandon, Rudhir; Fernhall, Bo

    2014-03-01

    The most effective way of avoiding influenza is through influenza vaccination. However, the vaccine is ineffective in about 25% of the older population. Immunosenescence with advancing age results in inadequate protection from disease because of ineffective responses to vaccination. Recently, a number of strategies have been tested to improve the efficacy of a vaccine in older adults. An acute bout of moderate aerobic exercise may increase the efficacy of the vaccine in young individuals, but there are limited efficacy data in older adults who would benefit most. This study sought to evaluate whether acute moderate-intensity endurance exercise immediately before influenza vaccination would increase the efficacy of the vaccine. Fifty-nine healthy volunteers between 55 and 75 yr of age were randomly allocated to an exercise or control group. Antibody titers were measured at baseline before exercise and 4 wk after vaccination. C-reactive protein (CRP) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) were measured at 24 and 48 h after vaccination. Delta CRP and IL-6 at 24 and 48 h were significantly higher after vaccination as compared to the sham injection. There were no differences in the levels of antibody titers against the H3N2 influenza strain between groups. However, women in the exercise group had a significantly higher antibody response against the H1N1 influenza strain as compared to the men, probably because of lower prevaccine titers. There were no significant differences in seroprotection between groups. Acute moderate aerobic exercise was not immunostimulatory in healthy older men but may serve as a vaccine adjuvant in older women.

  13. The effect of aerobic exercise on quality of life among breast cancer survivors: A randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ardiana Murtezani

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: We conclude that 10 week of moderate-intensity aerobic exercise program significantly improves QOL and physical functioning in breast cancer survivors. Future studies are needed to evaluate the effectiveness of similar exercise programs over longer periods of time and involving a greater number of breast cancer survivors.

  14. Effect of Aerobic Exercise Training on Ventilatory Efficiency and Respiratory Drive in Obese Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chlif, Mehdi; Chaouachi, Anis; Ahmaidi, Said

    2017-07-01

    Obese patients show a decline in exercise capacity and diverse degrees of dyspnea in association with mechanical abnormalities, increased ventilatory requirements secondary to the increased metabolic load, and a greater work of breathing. Consequently, obese patients may be particularly predisposed to the development of respiratory muscle fatigue during exercise. The aim of this study was to assess inspiratory muscle performance during incremental exercise in 19 obese male subjects (body mass index 41 ± 6 kg/m 2 ) after aerobic exercise training using the noninvasive, inspiratory muscle tension-time index (T T0.1 ). Measurements performed included anthropometric parameters, lung function assessed by spirometry, rate of perceived breathlessness with the modified Borg dyspnea scale (0-10), breathing pattern, maximal exercise capacity, and inspiratory muscle performance with a breath-by-breath automated exercise metabolic system during an incremental exercise test. T T0.1 was calculated using the equation, T T0.1 = P 0.1 /P Imax × T I /T tot (where P 0.1 represents mouth occlusion pressure, P Imax is maximal inspiratory pressure, and T I /T tot is the duty cycle). At rest, there was no statistically significant difference for spirometric parameters and cardiorespiratory parameters between pre- and post-training. At maximal exercise, the minute ventilation, the rate of exchange ratio, the rate of perceived breathlessness, and the respiratory muscle performance parameters were not significantly different pre- and post-training; in contrast, tidal volume ( P = .037, effect size = 1.51), breathing frequency ( P = .049, effect size = 0.97), power output ( P = .048, effect size = 0.79), peak oxygen uptake ( P = .02, effect size = 0.92) were significantly higher after training. At comparable work load, training induces lower minute ventilation, mouth occlusion pressure, ratio of occlusion pressure to maximal inspiratory pressure, T T0.1 , and rate of perceived

  15. Appetite, food intake and gut hormone responses to intense aerobic exercise of different duration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holliday, Adrian; Blannin, Andrew

    2017-12-01

    The purpose of the study is to investigate the effect of acute bouts of high-intensity aerobic exercise of differing durations on subjective appetite, food intake and appetite-associated hormones in endurance-trained males. Twelve endurance-trained males (age = 21 ± 2 years; BMI = 21.0 ± 1.6 kg/m 2 ; VO 2max  = 61.6 ± 6.0 mL/kg/min) completed four trials, within a maximum 28 day period, in a counterbalanced order: resting (REST); 15 min exercise bout (15-min); 30 min exercise bout (30-min) and 45 min exercise bout (45-min). All exercise was completed on a cycle ergometer at an intensity of ~76% VO 2max Sixty minutes post exercise, participants consumed an ad libitum meal. Measures of subjective appetite and blood samples were obtained throughout the morning, with plasma analyzed for acylated ghrelin, total polypeptide tyrosine-tyrosine (PYY) and total glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) concentrations. The following results were obtained: Neither subjective appetite nor absolute food intake differed between trials. Relative energy intake (intake - expenditure) was significantly greater after REST (2641 ± 1616 kJ) compared with both 30-min (1039 ± 1520 kJ) and 45-min (260 ± 1731 kJ), and significantly greater after 15-min (2699 ± 1239 kJ) compared with 45-min (condition main effect, P  exercise in 30-min and 45-min, respectively (condition × time interaction, P  exercise trials (condition × time interaction, P  = 0.011); the greatest, most enduring suppression, was observed in 45-min. PYY concentration was unchanged with exercise. In conclusion, high-intensity aerobic cycling lasting up to 45 min did not suppress subjective appetite or affect absolute food intake, but did reduce relative energy intake, in well-trained endurance athletes. Findings question the role of appetite hormones in regulating subjective appetite in the acute post-exercise period. © 2017 Society for Endocrinology.

  16. Comparative efficacy of progressive resistance exercise and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Progressive Resistance Exercise (PRE) and Biomechanical Ankle Platform System (BAPS) are two of the protocols available in managing children with Cerebral Palsy (CP). The comparative effects of these modalities on selected functional indices of ambulatory type CP were the focus of this study. Methods: ...

  17. Aerobic exercise did not have compensatory effects on physical activity levels in type 2 diabetes patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Moura, Bruno Pereira; Marins, João Carlos Bouzas; Franceschini, Sylvia Do Carmo Castro; Reis, Janice Sepúlveda; Amorim, Paulo Roberto Dos Santos

    2015-01-01

    Although exercise promotes beneficial effects in diabetic patients, some studies have questioned the degree of their importance in terms of the increase in total energy expenditure. In these studies, the decrease of physical activity levels (PAL) was referred as "compensatory effect of exercise". However, our aim was to investigate whether aerobic exercise has compensatory effects on PAL in type 2 diabetes patients. Eight volunteers (51.1 ± 8.2 years) were enrolled in a supervised exercise programme for 8 weeks (3 d · wk(-1), 50-60% of VO2 peak for 30-60 min). PAL was measured using tri-axial accelerometers in the 1st, 8th and 12th weeks. Biochemical tests, cardiorespiratory fitness, anthropometric assessment and body composition were measured in the 2nd and 11th weeks. Statistical analysis was performed using non-parametric tests (Friedman and Wilcoxon, P exercise programme generated a significant 14.8% increase in VO2 peak and a 15% reduction in fructosamine. The exercise programme had no compensatory effects on PAL in type 2 diabetes patients, but improved their cardiorespiratory fitness and glycaemic control.

  18. Blood flow patterns during incremental and steady-state aerobic exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coovert, Daniel; Evans, LeVisa D; Jarrett, Steven; Lima, Carla; Lima, Natalia; Gurovich, Alvaro N

    2017-05-30

    Endothelial shear stress (ESS) is a physiological stimulus for vascular homeostasis, highly dependent on blood flow patterns. Exercise-induced ESS might be beneficial on vascular health. However, it is unclear what type of ESS aerobic exercise (AX) produces. The aims of this study are to characterize exercise-induced blood flow patterns during incremental and steady-state AX. We expect blood flow pattern during exercise will be intensity-dependent and bidirectional. Six college-aged students (2 males and 4 females) were recruited to perform 2 exercise tests on cycleergometer. First, an 8-12-min incremental test (Test 1) where oxygen uptake (VO2), heart rate (HR), blood pressure (BP), and blood lactate (La) were measured at rest and after each 2-min step. Then, at least 48-hr. after the first test, a 3-step steady state exercise test (Test 2) was performed measuring VO2, HR, BP, and La. The three steps were performed at the following exercise intensities according to La: 0-2 mmol/L, 2-4 mmol/L, and 4-6 mmol/L. During both tests, blood flow patterns were determined by high-definition ultrasound and Doppler on the brachial artery. These measurements allowed to determine blood flow velocities and directions during exercise. On Test 1 VO2, HR, BP, La, and antegrade blood flow velocity significantly increased in an intensity-dependent manner (repeated measures ANOVA, pflow velocity did not significantly change during Test 1. On Test 2 all the previous variables significantly increased in an intensity-dependent manner (repeated measures ANOVA, pflow patterns during incremental and steady-state exercises include both antegrade and retrograde blood flows.

  19. THE EFFECTS OF AEROBIC EXERCISE ON SKELETAL MUSCLE METABOLISM, MORPHOLOGY AND IN SITU ENDURANCE IN DIABETIC RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilay Ergen

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The effects of aerobic exercise training on skeletal muscle endurance capacity were examined in diabetic rats in situ. Moderate diabetes was induced by iv injection of streptozotocin and an exercise training program on a treadmill was carried out for 8 weeks. The animals randomly assigned to one of the four experimental groups: control-sedentary (CS, control-exercise (CE, diabetic-sedentary (DS or diabetic-exercise (DE. The changes in the muscle endurance capacity were evaluated through the square wave impulses (supramaximal of 0.2-ms duration at 1 Hz in the in situ gastrocnemius-soleus muscle complex. Muscle was stimulated continuously until tension development reduced to the half of this maximal value. Time interval between the beginning and the end of stimulation period is defined as contraction duration. Following the training period, blood glucose level reduced significantly in the DE group compared to DS group (p < 0.05. The soles muscle citrate synthase activity was increased significantly in both of the trained groups compared to sedentary animals (p < 0.05. Fatigued muscle lactate values were not significantly different from each other. Ultrastractural abnormality of the skeletal muscle in DS group disappeared with training. Presence of increased lipid droplets, mitochondria clusters and glycogen accumulation was observed in the skeletal muscle of DE group. The contraction duration was longer in the DE group than others (p < 0.001. Fatigue resistance of exercised diabetic animals may be explained by increased intramyocellular lipid droplets, high blood glucose level and muscle citrate synthase activity

  20. Aerobic Exercise as an Adjunct Therapy for Improving Cognitive Function in Heart Failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca A. Gary

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Persons with heart failure (HF are typically older and are at a much higher risk for developing cognitive impairment (CI than persons without HF. Increasingly, CI is recognized as a significant, independent predictor of worse clinical outcomes, more frequent hospital readmissions, and higher mortality rates in persons with HF. CI can have devastating effects on ability to carry out HF effective self-care behaviors. If CI occurs, however, there are currently no evidence based guidelines on how to manage or improve cognitive function in this population. Improvement in cognition has been reported following some therapies in HF and is thought to be the consequence of enhanced cerebral perfusion and oxygenation, suggesting that CI may be amenable to intervention. Because there is substantial neuronal loss with dementia and no effective restorative therapies, interventions that slow, reverse, or prevent cognitive decline are essential. Aerobic exercise is documented to increase cerebral perfusion and oxygenation by promoting neuroplasticity and neurogenesis and, in turn, cognitive functioning. Few studies have examined exercise as a potential adjunct therapy for attenuating or alleviating cognitive decline in HF. In this review, the potential benefit of aerobic exercise on cognitive functioning in HF is presented along with future research directions.

  1. Effects of Moderate Aerobic Exercise on Cognitive Abilities and Redox State Biomarkers in Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad H. Alghadir

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We used a moderate aerobic exercise program for 24 weeks to measure the positive impact of physical activity on oxidative stress and inflammatory markers and its association with cognitive performance in healthy older adults. A total of 100 healthy subjects (65–95 Yrs were randomly classified into two groups: control group (n=50 and exercise group (n=50. Cognitive functioning, physical activity score, MDA, 8-OHdG, TAC, and hs-CRP were assessed using LOTCA battery, prevalidated PA questionnaire, and immunoassay techniques. LOTCA 7-set scores of cognitive performance showed a significant correlation with physical activity status and the regulation of both oxidative stress free radicals and inflammatory markers in all older subjects following 24 weeks of moderate exercise. Physically active persons showed a higher cognitive performance along with reduction in the levels of MDA, 8-OHdG, and hs-CRP and increase in TAC activity compared with sedentary participants. Cognitive performance correlated positively with the increase in TAC activity and physical fitness scores and negatively with MDA, 8-OHdG, and hs-CRP, respectively. There was a significant improvement in motor praxis, vasomotor organization, thinking operations, and attention and concentration among older adults. In conclusion, moderate aerobic training for 24 weeks has a positive significant effect in improving cognitive functions via modulating redox and inflammatory status of older adults.

  2. Aerobic Exercise Training Adaptations Are Increased by Postexercise Carbohydrate-Protein Supplementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Ferguson-Stegall

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbohydrate-protein supplementation has been found to increase the rate of training adaptation when provided postresistance exercise. The present study compared the effects of a carbohydrate and protein supplement in the form of chocolate milk (CM, isocaloric carbohydrate (CHO, and placebo on training adaptations occurring over 4.5 weeks of aerobic exercise training. Thirty-two untrained subjects cycled 60 min/d, 5 d/wk for 4.5 wks at 75–80% of maximal oxygen consumption (VO2 max. Supplements were ingested immediately and 1 h after each exercise session. VO2 max and body composition were assessed before the start and end of training. VO2 max improvements were significantly greater in CM than CHO and placebo. Greater improvements in body composition, represented by a calculated lean and fat mass differential for whole body and trunk, were found in the CM group compared to CHO. We conclude supplementing with CM postexercise improves aerobic power and body composition more effectively than CHO alone.

  3. Effect of tai chi versus aerobic exercise for fibromyalgia: comparative effectiveness randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chenchen; Schmid, Christopher H; Fielding, Roger A; Harvey, William F; Reid, Kieran F; Price, Lori Lyn; Driban, Jeffrey B; Kalish, Robert; Rones, Ramel; McAlindon, Timothy

    2018-03-21

    To determine the effectiveness of tai chi interventions compared with aerobic exercise, a current core standard treatment in patients with fibromyalgia, and to test whether the effectiveness of tai chi depends on its dosage or duration. Prospective, randomized, 52 week, single blind comparative effectiveness trial. Urban tertiary care academic hospital in the United States between March 2012 and September 2016. 226 adults with fibromyalgia (as defined by the American College of Rheumatology 1990 and 2010 criteria) were included in the intention to treat analyses: 151 were assigned to one of four tai chi groups and 75 to an aerobic exercise group. Participants were randomly assigned to either supervised aerobic exercise (24 weeks, twice weekly) or one of four classic Yang style supervised tai chi interventions (12 or 24 weeks, once or twice weekly). Participants were followed for 52 weeks. Adherence was rigorously encouraged in person and by telephone. The primary outcome was change in the revised fibromyalgia impact questionnaire (FIQR) scores at 24 weeks compared with baseline. Secondary outcomes included changes of scores in patient's global assessment, anxiety, depression, self efficacy, coping strategies, physical functional performance, functional limitation, sleep, and health related quality of life. FIQR scores improved in all five treatment groups, but the combined tai chi groups improved statistically significantly more than the aerobic exercise group in FIQR scores at 24 weeks (difference between groups=5.5 points, 95% confidence interval 0.6 to 10.4, P=0.03) and several secondary outcomes (patient's global assessment=0.9 points, 0.3 to 1.4, P=0.005; anxiety=1.2 points, 0.3 to 2.1, P=0.006; self efficacy=1.0 points, 0.5 to 1.6, P=0.0004; and coping strategies, 2.6 points, 0.8 to 4.3, P=0.005). Tai chi treatment compared with aerobic exercise administered with the same intensity and duration (24 weeks, twice weekly) had greater benefit (between group

  4. The Potential Role of Aerobic Exercise-Induced Pentraxin 3 on Obesity-Related Inflammation and Metabolic Dysregulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron L. Slusher

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is defined as the excess accumulation of intra-abdominal body fat, resulting in a state of chronic, low-grade proinflammation that can directly contribute to the development of insulin resistance. Pentraxin 3 (PTX3 is an acute-phase protein that is expressed by a variety of tissue and cell sources and provides an anti-inflammatory property to downregulate the production of proinflammatory cytokines, in particular interleukin-1 beta and tumor necrosis factor alpha. Although PTX3 may therapeutically aid in altering the proinflammatory milieu in obese individuals, and despite elevated expression of PTX3 mRNA observed in adipose tissue, the circulating level of PTX3 is reduced with obesity. Interestingly, aerobic activity has been demonstrated to elevate PTX3 levels. Therefore, the purpose of this review is to discuss the therapeutic potential of PTX3 to positively regulate obesity-related inflammation and discuss the proposition for utilizing aerobic exercise as a nonpharmacological anti-inflammatory treatment strategy to enhance circulating PTX3 concentrations in obese individuals.

  5. The Potential Role of Aerobic Exercise-Induced Pentraxin 3 on Obesity-Related Inflammation and Metabolic Dysregulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slusher, Aaron L; Huang, Chun-Jung; Acevedo, Edmund O

    2017-01-01

    Obesity is defined as the excess accumulation of intra-abdominal body fat, resulting in a state of chronic, low-grade proinflammation that can directly contribute to the development of insulin resistance. Pentraxin 3 (PTX3) is an acute-phase protein that is expressed by a variety of tissue and cell sources and provides an anti-inflammatory property to downregulate the production of proinflammatory cytokines, in particular interleukin-1 beta and tumor necrosis factor alpha. Although PTX3 may therapeutically aid in altering the proinflammatory milieu in obese individuals, and despite elevated expression of PTX3 mRNA observed in adipose tissue, the circulating level of PTX3 is reduced with obesity. Interestingly, aerobic activity has been demonstrated to elevate PTX3 levels. Therefore, the purpose of this review is to discuss the therapeutic potential of PTX3 to positively regulate obesity-related inflammation and discuss the proposition for utilizing aerobic exercise as a nonpharmacological anti-inflammatory treatment strategy to enhance circulating PTX3 concentrations in obese individuals.

  6. Effects of intense aerobic exercise and/or antihypertensive medication in individuals with metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez-Jimenez, M; Morales-Palomo, F; Ortega, J F; Mora-Rodriguez, R

    2018-05-17

    We studied the blood pressure lowering effects of a bout of exercise and/or antihypertensive medicine with the goal of studying if exercise could substitute or enhance pharmacologic hypertension treatment. Twenty-three hypertensive metabolic syndrome patients chronically medicated with angiotensin II receptor 1 blockade antihypertensive medicine underwent 24-hr monitoring in four separated days in a randomized order; a) after taking their habitual dose of antihypertensive medicine (AHM trial), b) substituting their medicine by placebo medicine (PLAC trial), c) placebo medicine with a morning bout of intense aerobic exercise (PLAC+EXER trial) and d) combining the exercise and antihypertensive medicine (AHM+EXER trial). We found that in trials with AHM subjects had lower plasma aldosterone/renin activity ratio evidencing treatment compliance. Before exercise, the trials with AHM displayed lower systolic (130±16 vs 133±15 mmHg; P=0.018) and mean blood pressures (94±11 vs 96±10 mmHg; P=0.036) than trials with placebo medication. Acutely (i.e., 30 min after treatments) combining AHM+EXER lowered systolic blood pressure (SBP) below the effects of PLAC+EXER (-8.1±1.6 vs -4.9±1.5 mmHg; P=0.015). Twenty-four hour monitoring revealed no differences among trials in body motion. However, PLAC+EXER and AHM lowered SBP below PLAC during the first 10 hours, time at which PLAC+EXER effects faded out (i.e., at 19 PM). Adding exercise to medication (i.e., AHM+EXER) resulted in longer reductions in SBP than with exercise alone (PLAC+EXER). In summary, one bout of intense aerobic exercise in the morning cannot substitute the long-lasting effects of antihypertensive medicine in lowering blood pressure, but their combination is superior to exercise alone. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  7. Running for extinction? Aerobic exercise as an augmentation of exposure therapy in panic disorder with agoraphobia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bischoff, Sophie; Wieder, Gesine; Einsle, Franziska; Petzold, Moritz B; Janßen, Christiane; Mumm, Jennifer L M; Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich; Fydrich, Thomas; Plag, Jens; Ströhle, Andreas

    2018-06-01

    Exposure-based Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (eb-CBT) represents the most evidence-based psychotherapeutic approach in anxiety disorders. However, its efficacy may be limited by a delay in onset of action and a substantial number of patients does not respond sufficiently to treatment. In this context, aerobic exercise was found to be effective in reducing clinical anxiety as well as to improve (elements of) disorder-specific CBT in some mental disorders. We therefore investigated the effect of aerobic exercise supplementary to an eb-CBT in panic disorder and agoraphobia (PD/AG). 77 patients with PD/AG performed a 30 min treadmill task with moderate or low intensity (70% or 30% of the maximal oxygen uptake [VO 2max ]) prior to five exposure sessions within a standardized seven-week CBT. At baseline, after completing the treatment period (post) and six month after post (follow-up), several measures of (un)specific psychopathology (Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale [Ham-A], Mobility Inventory [MI], Panic and Agoraphobia Scale [PAS], Agoraphobic Cognitions Questionnaire [ACQ], Body Sensations Questionnaire [BSQ]) were established to assess for clinical changes. All patients experienced a significant improvement of symptoms from baseline to post (for all measures p < .001) but repeated-measures analyses of variance found a trend towards a significant time × group interaction in the Ham-A in favor for the moderate intense exercise group (f[1, 74] = 4.15, p = .045, α=.025). This trend, however, disappeared at follow-up since the low-intense exercise group further improved significantly in Ham-A after post. Our findings therefore might point to an accelerating effect of moderate-intense exercise within an exposure-based CBT for AG/PD. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Rapid upregulation and clearance of distinct circulating microRNAs after prolonged aerobic exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baggish, Aaron L; Park, Joseph; Min, Pil-Ki; Isaacs, Stephanie; Parker, Beth A; Thompson, Paul D; Troyanos, Chris; D'Hemecourt, Pierre; Dyer, Sophia; Thiel, Marissa; Hale, Andrew; Chan, Stephen Y

    2014-03-01

    Short nonprotein coding RNA molecules, known as microRNAs (miRNAs), are intracellular mediators of adaptive processes, including muscle hypertrophy, contractile force generation, and inflammation. During basal conditions and tissue injury, miRNAs are released into the bloodstream as "circulating" miRNAs (c-miRNAs). To date, the impact of extended-duration, submaximal aerobic exercise on plasma concentrations of c-miRNAs remains incompletely characterized. We hypothesized that specific c-miRNAs are differentially upregulated following prolonged aerobic exercise. To test this hypothesis, we measured concentrations of c-miRNAs enriched in muscle (miR-1, miR-133a, miR-499-5p), cardiac tissue (miR-208a), and the vascular endothelium (miR-126), as well as those important in inflammation (miR-146a) in healthy male marathon runners (N = 21) at rest, immediately after a marathon (42-km foot race), and 24 h after the race. In addition, we compared c-miRNA profiles to those of conventional protein biomarkers reflective of skeletal muscle damage, cardiac stress and necrosis, and systemic inflammation. Candidate c-miRNAs increased immediately after the marathon and declined to prerace levels or lower after 24 h of race completion. However, the magnitude of change for each c-miRNA differed, even when originating from the same tissue type. In contrast, traditional biomarkers increased after exercise but remained elevated 24 h postexercise. Thus c-miRNAs respond differentially to prolonged exercise, suggesting the existence of specific mechanisms of c-miRNA release and clearance not fully explained by generalized cellular injury. Furthermore, c-miRNA expression patterns differ in a temporal fashion from corollary conventional tissue-specific biomarkers, emphasizing the potential of c-miRNAs as unique, real-time markers of exercise-induced tissue adaptation.

  9. Voluntary aerobic exercise increases arterial resilience and mitochondrial health with aging in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gioscia-Ryan, Rachel A.; Battson, Micah L.; Cuevas, Lauren M.; Zigler, Melanie C.; Sindler, Amy L.; Seals, Douglas R.

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondrial dysregulation and associated excessive reactive oxygen species (mtROS) production is a key source of oxidative stress in aging arteries that reduces baseline function and may influence resilience (ability to withstand stress). We hypothesized that voluntary aerobic exercise would increase arterial resilience in old mice. An acute mitochondrial stressor (rotenone) caused greater (further) impairment in peak carotid EDD in old (~27 mo., OC, n=12;−32.5±-10.5%) versus young (~7 mo., YC n=11;−5.4±- 3.7%) control male mice, whereas arteries from young and old exercising (YVR n=10 and OVR n=11, 10-wk voluntary running;−0.8±-2.1% and −8.0±4.9%, respectively) mice were protected. Ex-vivo simulated Western diet (WD, high glucose and palmitate) caused greater impairment in EDD in OC (-28.5±8.6%) versus YC (-16.9±5.2%) and YVR (-15.3±2.3%), whereas OVR (-8.9±3.9%) were more resilient (not different versus YC). Simultaneous ex-vivo treatment with mitochondria-specific antioxidant MitoQ attenuated WD-induced impairments in YC and OC, but not YVR or OVR, suggesting that exercise improved resilience to mtROS-mediated stress. Exercise normalized age-related alterations in aortic mitochondrial protein markers PGC-1α, SIRT-3 and Fis1 and augmented cellular antioxidant and stress response proteins. Our results indicate that arterial aging is accompanied by reduced resilience and mitochondrial health, which are restored by voluntary aerobic exercise. PMID:27875805

  10. Voluntary aerobic exercise increases arterial resilience and mitochondrial health with aging in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gioscia-Ryan, Rachel A; Battson, Micah L; Cuevas, Lauren M; Zigler, Melanie C; Sindler, Amy L; Seals, Douglas R

    2016-11-22

    Mitochondrial dysregulation and associated excessive reactive oxygen species (mtROS) production is a key source of oxidative stress in aging arteries that reduces baseline function and may influence resilience (ability to withstand stress). We hypothesized that voluntary aerobic exercise would increase arterial resilience in old mice. An acute mitochondrial stressor (rotenone) caused greater (further) impairment in peak carotid EDD in old (~27 mo., OC, n=12; -32.5±-10.5%) versus young (~7 mo., YC n=11; -5.4±- 3.7%) control male mice, whereas arteries from young and old exercising (YVR n=10 and OVR n=11, 10-wk voluntary running; -0.8±-2.1% and -8.0±4.9%, respectively) mice were protected. Ex-vivo simulated Western diet (WD, high glucose and palmitate) caused greater impairment in EDD in OC (-28.5±8.6%) versus YC (-16.9±5.2%) and YVR (-15.3±2.3%), whereas OVR (-8.9±3.9%) were more resilient (not different versus YC). Simultaneous ex-vivo treatment with mitochondria-specific antioxidant MitoQ attenuated WD-induced impairments in YC and OC, but not YVR or OVR, suggesting that exercise improved resilience to mtROS-mediated stress. Exercise normalized age-related alterations in aortic mitochondrial protein markers PGC-1α, SIRT-3 and Fis1 and augmented cellular antioxidant and stress response proteins. Our results indicate that arterial aging is accompanied by reduced resilience and mitochondrial health, which are restored by voluntary aerobic exercise.

  11. A pilot randomized controlled trial of aerobic exercise as an adjunct to OCD treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrantes, Ana M; Brown, Richard A; Strong, David R; McLaughlin, Nicole; Garnaat, Sarah L; Mancebo, Maria; Riebe, Deborah; Desaulniers, Julie; Yip, Agustin G; Rasmussen, Steven; Greenberg, Benjamin D

    2017-11-01

    The purpose of the current study was to conduct a randomized controlled trial testing the efficacy of aerobic exercise for decreasing OCD symptom severity, other mental health outcomes, and increasing exercise behaviors and cardiorespiratory fitness among individuals with OCD. Fifty-six patients (64% female; mean age=38.8years) with OCD and a Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS) score of 16 or greater despite engaging in OCD treatment were randomized to 12-weeks of supervised plus home-based moderate-intensity aerobic exercise (AE; n=28) or to 12-weeks of health education sessions (HE; n=28). Random intercepts mixed models examined differences between conditions at post-treatment. Though no difference between conditions on outcomes was observed, both AE and HE showed significant reduction in OCD symptom severity, depression and anxiety at post-treatment. Relative to HE, significant increases were noted in amount of exercise and cardiorespiratory fitness for those in the AE condition. At post-treatment, 30.4% of the AE condition (7 of 23) were treatment-responders (using the commonly accepted measure of 35% symptom reduction from baseline). In the HE condition, 7.7% of the sample (2 of 26) met this criterion at post-treatment. The results of this preliminary study suggest that exercise and health-focused interventions may be beneficial adjuncts to existing OCD treatment. Future studies with larger samples are needed to more definitively answer questions the efficacy of AE for reducing OCD symptoms and improving related clinical outcomes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Aerobic Exercise Attenuates the Loss of Skeletal Muscle during Energy Restriction in Adults with Visceral Adiposity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimura, Eiichi; Kumahara, Hideaki; Tobina, Takuro; Matsuda, Takuro; Watabe, Kiwa; Matono, Sakiko; Ayabe, Makoto; Kiyonaga, Akira; Anzai, Keizo; Higaki, Yasuki; Tanaka, Hiroaki

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effects of energy restriction with or without aerobic exercise on thigh muscle mass and quality in adults with visceral adiposity. Methods 75 males and females were randomly assigned to the groups ‘diet only’ (DO; n = 42) or ‘diet plus aerobic exercise’ (D/Ex; n = 33) for 12 weeks. The target energy intake in both groups was 25 kcal/kg of ideal body weight. Subjects in the D/Ex group were instructed to exercise for ≥300 min/week at lactate threshold. Computed tomography was used to measure thigh muscle cross-sectional area (CSA), normal-density muscle area (NDMA), and visceral fat area. Results Total body weight (DO: −6.6 ± 3.6%; D/Ex: −7.3 ± 4.6%) and visceral fat (DO: −16.0 ± 13.8%; D/Ex: −23.1 ± 14.7%) decreased significantly in both groups; however, the changes were not significantly different between the two groups. The decrease in muscle CSA was significantly greater in the DO group (-5.1 ± 4.5%) compared with the D/Ex group (-2.5 ± 5.0%). NDMA decreased significantly in the DO (-4.9 ± 4.9%) but not in the D/Ex group (-1.4 ± 5.0%). Conclusion Aerobic exercise attenuated the loss of skeletal muscle during energy restriction in adults with visceral adiposity. PMID:24457527

  13. The role of aerobic fitness and exercise intensity on endurance performance in uncompensable heat stress conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Périard, Julien D; Caillaud, Corinne; Thompson, Martin W

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the influence of aerobic fitness and exercise intensity on the development of thermal and cardiovascular strain in uncompensable heat stress conditions. In three separate trials, eight aerobically trained and eight untrained subjects cycled to exhaustion at 60% (H60%) and 75% (H75%) of maximal oxygen uptake [Formula: see text] in 40°C conditions, and for 60 min at 60% [Formula: see text] in 18°C conditions (CON). Training status had no influence on time to exhaustion between trained (61 ± 10 and 31 ± 9 min) and untrained (58 ± 12 and 26 ± 10 min) subjects (H60% and H75%, respectively). Rectal temperature at exhaustion was also not significantly different between trained (39.8 ± 0.3, 39.3 ± 0.6 and 38.2 ± 0.3°C) and untrained (39.4 ± 0.5, 38.8 ± 0.5 and 38.2 ± 0.4°C) subjects, but was different between trials (H60%, H75% and CON, respectively; P exercise was terminated on reaching the ethics approved rectal temperature limit in four trained subjects in the H60% trial and two in the H75% trial, it is speculated that increased rectal temperature may have further occurred in this cohort. Nonetheless, exhaustion occurred >96% of maximum heart rate in both cohorts and was accompanied by significant declines in stroke volume (15-26%), cardiac output (5-10%) and mean arterial pressure (9-13%) (P aerobic exercise in the heat in both trained and untrained subjects.

  14. Oxidative stress in response to aerobic and anaerobic power testing: influence of exercise training and carnitine supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomer, Richard J; Smith, Webb A

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare the oxidative stress response to aerobic and anaerobic power testing, and to determine the impact of exercise training with or without glycine propionyl-L-carnitine (GPLC) in attenuating the oxidative stress response. Thirty-two subjects were assigned (double blind) to placebo, GPLC-1 (1g PLC/d), GPLC-3 (3g PLC/d) for 8 weeks, plus aerobic exercise. Aerobic (graded exercise test: GXT) and anaerobic (Wingate cycle) power tests were performed before and following the intervention. Blood was taken before and immediately following exercise tests and analyzed for malondialdehyde (MDA), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and xanthine oxidase activity (XO). No interaction effects were noted. MDA was minimally effected by exercise but lower at rest for both GPLC groups following the intervention (p = 0.044). A time main effect was noted for H2O2 (p = 0.05) and XO (p = 0.003), with values increasing from pre- to postexercise. Both aerobic and anaerobic power testing increase oxidative stress to a similar extent. Exercise training plus GPLC can decrease resting MDA, but it has little impact on exercise-induced oxidative stress biomarkers.

  15. The effect of aerobic exercise on self-esteem and depressive and anxiety symptoms among breast cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segar, M L; Katch, V L; Roth, R S; Garcia, A W; Portner, T I; Glickman, S G; Haslanger, S; Wilkins, E G

    1998-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of 10 weeks of aerobic exercise on depressive and anxiety symptoms and self-esteem of breast cancer survivors. Experimental, crossover. Midwestern university town. Twenty-four breast cancer survivors (mean time following surgery 41.8 months; ranging from 1 to 99 months) recruited via mail and cancer support groups. The mean age of the sample was 48.9 years. Subjects were assigned randomly into exercise (EX), exercise-plus-behavior modification (EX + BM), and control groups. EX and EX + BM groups exercised aerobically four days/week at > or = 60% of age-predicted maximum heart rate for 10 weeks. Data were collected pretest, post-test, and crossover (12 weeks following post-test). Because pretest or post-test scores showed no statistical differences between EX and EX + BM groups, data were combined to form one group. Aerobic exercise (four days/ week; 30-40 minutes/session), depression, (Beck Depression inventory), anxiety (Speilberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory), and self-esteem (Rosenberg Self-Esteem Inventory). Pre- to post-test analyses revealed that women who exercised had significantly less depression and state and trait anxiety over time compared to controls. After the crossover, the control group demonstrated comparable improvements in both depressive and state anxiety scores. Self-esteem did not change significantly. Subjects who received exercise recommendations from their physicians exercised significantly more than subjects who received no recommendation. Mild to moderate aerobic exercise may be of therapeutic value to breast cancer survivors with respect to depressive and anxiety symptoms but not to self-esteem. A physician's recommendation to exercise appears to be an important factor in a patient's exercise adherence. To Improve depressive and anxiety symptoms following breast cancer surgery, healthcare professionals should consider recommending mild to moderate exercise.

  16. Effects of aerobic exercise training on serum sex hormone binding globulin, body fat index, and metabolic syndrome factors in obese postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jong-Won; Kim, Do-Yeon

    2012-12-01

    The percentage of obese postmenopausal women with metabolic syndrome is rising, and physical factors associated with the metabolic syndrome prevalence or incidence are also rising, including high body mass index (BMI), visceral fat area (VFA), low plasma sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) levels, and low cardiorespiratory fitness. Therefore, we investigated the influence of aerobic exercise on SHBG, body fat index (BFI), and metabolic syndrome factors in obese postmenopausal Korean women. Thirty healthy postmenopausal, women aged 53.46 ± 2.4 years and with over 32% body fat, were randomly assigned to an aerobic exercise group (EX; n=15) or to a "nonexercise" control (Con; n=15) group. The primary outcome measurements were serum SHBG, lipid profiles, insulin levels, and metabolic syndrome factors. Secondary outcome measurements were body composition, VFA, blood pressure (BP), and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). Posttraining body weight and BFI (Pmetabolic syndrome factors (Pexercise group but not in the control group. SHBG levels also showed a significant positive correlation with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and significant negative correlations withglucose, diastolic blood pressure, fat mass, BMI, and percent body fat (Pexercise improves body composition, SHBG, insulin levels, and metabolic syndrome factors. These findings suggest that in obesepostmenopausal Korean women, 16 weeks of aerobic exercise is effective for preventing the metabolic syndrome caused by obesity.

  17. Aerobic Exercise Decreases Lung Inflammation by IgE Decrement in an OVA Mice Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camargo Hizume-Kunzler, Deborah; Greiffo, Flavia R; Fortkamp, Bárbara; Ribeiro Freitas, Gabriel; Keller Nascimento, Juliana; Regina Bruggemann, Thayse; Melo Avila, Leonardo; Perini, Adenir; Bobinski, Franciane; Duarte Silva, Morgana; Rocha Lapa, Fernanda; Paula Vieira, Rodolfo; Vargas Horewicz, Verônica; Soares Dos Santos, Adair Roberto; Cattelan Bonorino, Kelly

    2017-06-01

    Aerobic exercise (AE) reduces lung function decline and risk of exacerbations in asthmatic patients. However, the inflammatory lung response involved in exercise during the sensitization remains unclear. Therefore, we evaluated the effects of exercise for 2 weeks in an experimental model of sensitization and single ovalbumin-challenge. Mice were divided into 4 groups: mice non-sensitized and not submitted to exercise (Sedentary, n=10); mice non-sensitized and submitted to exercise (Exercise, n=10); mice sensitized and exposed to ovalbumin (OVA, n=10); and mice sensitized, submitted to exercise and exposed to OVA (OVA+Exercise, n=10). 24 h after the OVA/saline exposure, we counted inflammatory cells from bronchoalveolar fluid (BALF), lung levels of total IgE, IL-4, IL-5, IL-10 and IL-1ra, measurements of OVA-specific IgG1 and IgE, and VEGF and NOS-2 expression via western blotting. AE reduced cell counts from BALF in the OVA group (p<0.05), total IgE, IL-4 and IL-5 lung levels and OVA-specific IgE and IgG1 titers (p<0.05). There was an increase of NOS-2 expression, IL-10 and IL-1ra lung levels in the OVA groups (p<0.05). Our results showed that AE attenuated the acute lung inflammation, suggesting immunomodulatory properties on the sensitization process in the early phases of antigen presentation in asthma. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  18. Comparing the effects of aerobic exercise and Foeniculum vulgare on pre-menstrual syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Pazoki

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Premenstrual syndrome (PMS has been identified by a number of psychological and physical symptoms which occur cyclically in the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle. The present study has been carried out to compare the effects of regular exercise and Foeniculum vulgare extract (fennel together and separately on PMS in high school girls. Materials and methods: In this randomized clinical trial 48 students aged 16–18 years were selected by filling the daily record of severity of problem questionnaire (DRSP-Q. The participants were divided into four equal groups: the first group received fennel, the second group had aerobic exercise, the third group received fennel along with exercise and the last group was control group without fennel and exercise. Participants filled DRSP-Q three times: the first menstrual cycle before the intervention, the first menstrual cycle after four weeks and finally the first menstrual cycle after eight weeks of intervention. Results: After 8 weeks of intervention the severity of PMS symptoms reduced significantly in experimental groups (fennel, exercise and fennel + exercise compared to control group (P < 0.05. Meanwhile, there were not any significant differences in age, body mass index, age at menarche, age at dysmenorrhea onset and duration of menstruation among the four groups. Discussions: The result of this study indicated that fennels and exercise could reduce the severity of premenstrual syndrome. In addition, fennel extract and exercise together seem to be more effective on symptoms of anxiety and depression compared with using them alone.

  19. Aerobic exercise training does not alter vascular structure and function in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelinas, Jinelle C; Lewis, Nia C; Harper, Megan I; Melzer, Bernie; Agar, Gloria; Rolf, J Douglass; Eves, Neil D

    2017-11-01

    What is the central question of this study? Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is associated with endothelial dysfunction, arterial stiffness and systemic inflammation, which are linked to increased cardiovascular disease risk. We asked whether periodized aerobic exercise training could improve vascular structure and function in patients with COPD. What is the main finding and its importance? Eight weeks of periodized aerobic training did not improve endothelial function, arterial stiffness or systemic inflammation in COPD, despite improvements in aerobic capacity, blood pressure and dyspnoea. Short-term training programmes may not be long enough to improve vascular-related cardiovascular risk in COPD. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) has been associated with endothelial dysfunction and arterial stiffening, which are predictive of future cardiovascular events. Although aerobic exercise improves vascular function in healthy individuals and those with chronic disease, it is unknown whether aerobic exercise can positively modify the vasculature in COPD. We examined the effects of 8 weeks of periodized aerobic training on vascular structure and function and inflammation in 24 patients with COPD (age, 69 ± 7 years; forced expiratory volume in 1 second as a percentage of predicted (FEV 1 %pred), 68 ± 19%) and 20 matched control subjects (age, 64 ± 5 years; FEV 1 %pred, 113 ± 16%) for comparison. Endothelial function was measured using brachial artery flow-mediated dilatation, whereas central and peripheral pulse wave velocity, carotid artery intima-media thickness, carotid compliance, distensibility and β-stiffness index were measured using applanation tonometry and ultrasound. Peak aerobic power (V̇O2 peak ) was measured using an incremental cycling test. Upper and lower body cycling training was performed three times per week for 8 weeks, and designed to optimize vascular adaptation by increasing and sustaining vascular

  20. High and Low Impact Aerobic Exercise as a Method of Early Prevention of Hypercholesterolaemia Development among Young Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nowak Robert

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Hypercholesterolaemia is a highly prevalent condition that has major health- and cost-related implications for the society. Aerobic-type exercise improves lipoprotein-lipid profiles, cardiorespiratory fitness and body composition in healthy young women. Thus, the aim of the study was to assess the impact of 9 weeks of low-high aerobic-type exercise on the lipid profile among young women. Methods. On the basis of the lipid profile, 64 women (median age, 21.8 years; range, 19.0-24.7 years were divided into two groups: with low (LRH and intermediate (IRH risk of developing hypercholesterolaemia. The participants completed a 9-week-long low-high aerobic exercise programme. Before and after the training programme, we determined the lipid profile: triglycerides (TG, total cholesterol (TC, lipoprotein cholesterol: HDL-C and LDL-C, and glucose levels. Selected cardiorespiratory fitness variables and body composition were also determined. Results. It was found that aerobic-type fitness exercise in the IRH group caused statistically significant decreases in TC and TG levels in comparison with baseline values. Significant increase in maximum oxygen uptake and decrease in HDL-C in the LRH group were also observed. Conclusions. Aerobic fitness exercises, a combination of two alternating styles, could influence the blood lipid profile by decreasing plasma TC and TG levels. In non-athlete women, physical activity may be a good tool to prevent cardiovascular diseases.

  1. Effects of 12 months aerobic exercise intervention on work ability, need for recovery, productivity and rating of exertion among cleaners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lidegaard, Mark; Søgaard, Karen; Krustrup, Peter

    2018-01-01

    PURPOSE: This study assessed the effects of a worksite aerobic exercise intervention among cleaners on: work ability, need for recovery, productivity, and rating of exertion. METHODS: In a monocentric randomised controlled trial in Denmark, 116, of 250 invited, cleaners were cluster-randomised (w......PURPOSE: This study assessed the effects of a worksite aerobic exercise intervention among cleaners on: work ability, need for recovery, productivity, and rating of exertion. METHODS: In a monocentric randomised controlled trial in Denmark, 116, of 250 invited, cleaners were cluster......-randomised (work location; sex; age; length of service) to aerobic exercise [N = 57, 44.9 years, 75.4% female, body mass index (BMI) 26.2], receiving 2 weekly aerobic exercise sessions during 12 months, or a reference group (N = 59, 45.7 years, 76.3% female, BMI 27.1), receiving health-promoting lectures. Self.......2) in the aerobic exercise group compared to the reference group. Productivity and rating of exertion were unaltered. Analysis stratified on age showed significant effects only among the participants aged ≤ 45 years. CONCLUSIONS: After 12 months work ability improved and need for recovery decreased. A period of 4...

  2. [Impact of exercise on the body composition and aerobic capacity of elderly with obesity through three models of intervention].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto, Jose Antonio; Del Valle, Miguel; Nistal, Paloma; Méndez, David; Abelairas-Gómez, Cristian; Barcala-Furelos, Roberto

    2014-12-17

    The objective of this study was to analyze the influence of aerobic exercise on body composition and aerobic capacity of a sample of older, sedentary adults with obesity rates by three different models of intervention (recommendation, prescription at home and monitoring). A total of 76 older adults with a mean age 67.1+/-1.2 years, sedentary, with a BMI> 30 kg/ m2 were randomized in to four groups: Control (CON) recommendation (REC), prescription home (PRES) and monitoring in a sports center (MON). The same program of aerobic exercise for groups of home and sports center for 24 weeks, 3 days a week was developed. It was determined before and after the intervention BMI, Waist- Hip-index (ICC), the% fat ( Σ folds) and aerobic capacity (T6M) throughout the sample. MON and PRES groups showed significant improvements in the ICC, Σ folds and T 6M variables, not the case in BMI. However the MON group presented significant differences from group PRES between-group analysis (p exercise programs in adults with obesity methodology. However the exercise prescription at home since early intervention is an important approach for people with physical and/ or psychological reasons such as obesity cannot access the sports centers to participate in activities led by a monitor. Unknowns of aerobic exercise are cleared in the home that are of great impact for social policies regarding the health of the elderly population. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  3. Aerobic exercise training and burnout: a pilot study with male participants suffering from burnout

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Occupational burnout is associated with severe negative health effects. While stress management programs proved to have a positive influence on the well-being of patients suffering from burnout, it remains unclear whether aerobic exercise alleviates burnout severity and other parameters related to occupational burnout. Therefore, the main purpose of this study was to pilot-test the potential outcomes of a 12-week exercise training to generate hypotheses for future larger scale studies. Methods The sample consisted of 12 male participants scoring high on the MBI emotional exhaustion and depersonalization subscales. The training program took place in a private fitness center with a 17.5 kcal/kg minimum requirement of weekly energy expenditure. Results The key findings are that increased exercise reduced overall perceived stress as well as symptoms of burnout and depression. The magnitude of the effects was large, revealing changes of substantial practical relevance. Additionally, profiles of mood states improved considerably after single exercise sessions with a marked shift towards an iceberg profile. Conclusion Among burnout patients, the findings provide preliminary evidence that exercise has the potential to reduce stress and prevent the development of a deeper depression. This has important health implications given that burnout is considered an antecedent of depressive disorders. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: ISRNCT01575743 PMID:23497731

  4. A randomized dose-response trial of aerobic exercise and health-related quality of life in colon cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Justin C; Damjanov, Nevena; Courneya, Kerry S; Troxel, Andrea B; Zemel, Babette S; Rickels, Michael R; Ky, Bonnie; Rhim, Andrew D; Rustgi, Anil K; Schmitz, Kathryn H

    2018-04-01

    To examine the dose-response effects of aerobic exercise on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) among colon cancer survivors. Thirty-nine stage I to III colon cancer survivors were randomized to 1 of 3 groups: usual-care control, 150 min·wk -1 of aerobic exercise (low-dose) and 300 min·wk -1 of aerobic exercise (high-dose) for 6 months. HRQoL outcomes included the Short Form (SF)-36 physical and mental component summary, Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Colorectal, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, Fear of Cancer Recurrence Inventory, Fatigue Symptom Inventory, and North Central Cancer Treatment Group bowel function questionnaire, assessed at baseline and post intervention. The primary hypothesis was that exercise would improve HRQoL outcomes in a dose-response fashion, such that high-dose aerobic exercise would yield the largest improvements in HRQoL outcomes. Over 6 months, the low-dose group completed 141 ± 10 min·wk -1 of aerobic exercise, and the high-dose group completed 247 ± 11 min·wk -1 of aerobic exercise. Over 6 months, exercise improved the physical component summary score of the SF-36 (P trend  = 0.002), the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Colorectal (P trend  = 0.025), the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (P trend  = 0.049), and the Fatigue Symptom Inventory (P trend  = 0.045) in a dose-response fashion. Between-group standardized mean difference effects sizes for the above-described findings were small to moderate in magnitude (0.35-0.75). No dose-response effects were observed for the mental component summary score of the SF-36, the Fear of Cancer Recurrence Inventory, or bowel function. Higher doses of aerobic exercise, up to 300 min·wk -1 , improve multiple HRQoL outcomes among stage I to III colon cancer survivors. These findings provide evidence that aerobic exercise may provide multiple health benefits for colon cancer survivors. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Chronic aerobic exercise training attenuates aortic stiffening and endothelial dysfunction through preserving aortic mitochondrial function in aged rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Qi; Wang, Bing; Zhang, Xiao-Feng; Ma, Yan-Ping; Liu, Jian-Dong; Wang, Xiao-Ze

    2014-08-01

    Aging leads to large vessel arterial stiffening and endothelial dysfunction, which are important determinants of cardiovascular risk. The aim of present work was to assess the effects of chronic aerobic exercise training on aortic stiffening and endothelial dysfunction in aged rats and investigate the underlying mechanism about mitochondrial function. Chronic aerobic exercise training attenuated aortic stiffening with age marked by reduced collagen concentration, increased elastin concentration and reduced pulse wave velocity (PWV), and prevented aging-related endothelial dysfunction marked by improved endothelium-mediated vascular relaxation of aortas in response to acetylcholine. Chronic aerobic exercise training abated oxidative stress and nitrosative stress in aortas of aged rats. More importantly, we found that chronic aerobic exercise training in old rats preserved aortic mitochondrial function marked by reduced reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation and mitochondrial swelling, increased ATP formation and mitochondrial DNA content, and restored activities of complexes I and III and electron-coupling capacity between complexes I and III and between complexes II and III. In addition, it was found that chronic aerobic exercise training in old rats enhanced protein expression of uncoupling protein 2 (UCP-2), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ co-activator 1α (PGC-1α), manganese superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD), aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH-2), prohibitin (PHB) and AMP-activated kinase (AMPK) phosphorylation in aortas. In conclusion, chronic aerobic exercise training preserved mitochondrial function in aortas, which, at least in part, explained the aorta-protecting effects of exercise training in aging. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. The Effect of Two Kinds of Aerobic Exercise on the Static and Dynamic Balance of Old Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojtaba Kashefi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of present study is to determine the effect of two methods of aerobic training on static and dynamic balance in old men.  Methods & Materials: 37 aged people over 60 years old who were physically healthy divided into three groups after randomly carrying out pretest: 1 walking or running aerobic exercise group (n=12, 2 cycling aerobic exercise group (n=13 and 3 control group (n=12. Then groups 1 and 2, participated in running or walking exercise and cycling aerobic exercise as well with 60 percent of maximum heartbeat intensity. These two groups who were considered experimental groups of research appeared on exam site for 8 weeks, each week 3 sessions and each session 45 minutes. They rested one day between every two sessions of exercise. During the project group 3 (control continued its daily activities and had no especial exercise. After the training period, all subjects participated in the posttest session. In order to measure the static and dynamic balance Sharpend Romberg test and balancing timber test were used. The covariance analysis test (ANCOVA was also applied to examine the effect of exercise on the dependent variables and to study differences between group.  Results: The findings showed that exercise training programs in both experimental groups in research compared with control group significantly improved static and dynamic balance of subjects. It was also showed that the development of the first group (walking or running exercise group in both static and dynamic balance test was significantly higher than Group 2 (bike exercise group.  Conclusion: According to the results, it is recommended that trainers, organizations and institutions that deal with the elderly, use the cycling and walking exercises, especially walking and jogging to reduce the risk of further problem in these people.

  7. Dose-Response Effects of Aerobic Exercise on Quality of Life in Postmenopausal Women: Results from the Breast Cancer and Exercise Trial in Alberta (BETA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courneya, Kerry S; McNeil, Jessica; O'Reilly, Rachel; Morielli, Andria R; Friedenreich, Christine M

    2017-06-01

    Exercise generally improves quality of life (QoL) and psychosocial functioning in adult populations but few randomized trials have examined dose-response effects. The purpose of the present study was to report the QoL and psychosocial outcomes from the Breast Cancer and Exercise Trial in Alberta (BETA). Healthy but inactive postmenopausal women at risk for breast cancer were randomized to a year-long aerobic exercise intervention consisting of either 150 min/week (moderate volume group, n = 200) or 300 min/week (high volume group, n = 200). QoL was assessed at baseline and 1 year using the short form-36 health survey. Sleep quality, depression, anxiety, stress, self-esteem, and happiness were also assessed. Participant preference for group assignment (i.e., exercise volume) was assessed at baseline and tested as a moderator. There were no statistically significant dose-response effects of aerobic exercise on any QoL, sleep quality, or psychosocial outcome. Participant preference for group assignment did not moderate any QoL, sleep quality, or psychosocial responses. Marital status was a significant moderator (p for interaction = 0.01) and obesity showed a trend towards being a moderator (p for interaction = 0.08) of the dose-response effects of aerobic exercise on global sleep quality such that unmarried and obese women improved sleep quality with the higher volume of aerobic exercise. A higher volume of aerobic exercise, approximately double the minimum public health guideline, did not provide additional QoL or psychosocial benefits compared to the minimum public health guideline in inactive postmenopausal women, even for women who preferred the higher volume of exercise at baseline. Trial Registration clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT1435005.

  8. Aerobic Exercise and Whole-Body Vibration in Offsetting Bone Loss in Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-Yang Liu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Osteoporosis and its associated fractures are common complications of aging and most strategies to prevent and/or treat bone loss focused on antiresorptive medications. However, aerobic exercise (AEX and/or whole-body vibration (WBV might have beneficial effect on bone mass and provide an alternative approach to increase or maintain bone mineral density (BMD and reduce the risk of fractures. The purpose of this paper was to investigate the potential benefits of AEX and WBV on BMD in older population and discuss the possible mechanisms of action. Several online databases were utilized and based on the available literature the consensus is that both AEX and WBV may increase spine and femoral BMD in older adults. Therefore, AEX and WBV could serve as nonpharmacological and complementary approaches to increasing/maintaining BMD. However, it is uncertain if noted effects could be permanent and further studies are needed to investigate sustainability of either type of the exercise.

  9. aerobic bacteriological profile and antibiotic resistance of surgical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-07-06

    Jul 6, 2015 ... Methods: This prospective study was conducted in. Microbiology department associated with tertiary care hospital S.V.S Medical ... infections are usually caused by the exogenous or endogenous microorganisms that enter the operative wound during the course of surgery. AEROBIC BACTERIOLOGICAL ...

  10. A model of poorly controlled type 1 Diabetes Mellitus and its treatment with aerobic exercise training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melling, C W J; Grisé, K N; Hasilo, C P; Fier, B; Milne, K J; Karmazyn, M; Noble, E G

    2013-05-01

    Modern exogenous insulin therapy can improve the quality of life of Type 1 Diabetic Mellitus (T1DM) patients, although maintenance of normal glycaemic levels is often a challenge given the variety of factors that alter it. A number of studies have examined the effect of exercise in T1DM; however, the majority of experimental studies have utilized diabetic rodents with severe hyperglycaemia. Given that T1DM patients are likely to refrain from hyperglycaemia, studies examining the effects of regular exercise in which blood glucose is poorly controlled would better represent the T1DM population. The current study examined the ability of a ten-week aerobic exercise training program to modify markers of cardiovascular function and bone health in STZ-induced diabetic rodents maintained in the 9-15 mM glycaemic range through insulin therapy. Moderate hyperglycaemia, when prolonged, leads to significant changes in cardiac structure, bone health, and glucose handling capacity. Ten weeks of exercise was able to alleviate many of these deleterious events as no significant cardiovascular functional alterations were evident except a reduction in resting heart rate and an increase in stroke volume index. Further, despite changes in cardiac dimensions, exercise was able to elevate cardiac output index and increase the E/A ratio of exercising diabetic animals which would be indicative of improvements of cardiac function. Together, this study demonstrates that despite moderate hyperglycaemia, the combined role of a ten-week exercise training program coupled with insulin therapy is able to alleviate many of the well-known complications associated with diabetes progression. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Effect of aerobic exercise on blood lipid levels in postmenopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martiem Mawi

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available High blood total cholesterol (TC, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C and triglycerides (TG, and low concentrations of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C are related to risk for coronary heart disease (CHD development. Growing evidence indicates that physical exercise can prevent at least some of the negative effects on health associated with post. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of regular aerobic exercise for 12 weeks on the levels of total cholesterol (TC, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, and triglycerides. An experimental study was conducted comprising 62 postmenopausal women, aged 50-70 years, not on hormonal therapy, consuming a regular diet, living in East and South Jakarta, and willing to perform aerobic exercises regularly. The results of this study showed that all four lipid levels differed significantly between the control group and the intervention group, the respective mean levels ± SD for TC being 228.0 ± 39.7 mg/dL vs. 171.6 ± 18.4 mg/dL, (p = 0.000; for LDL-C 149.0 ± 36.9 mg/dL vs. 97.7 ± 17.8 mg/dL, (p = 0.000; for HDL-C 50.9 ± 3.9 mg/dL vs. 71.5 ± 6.7 mg/dL, (p = 0.000; and for triglycerides 150.5 ± 67.5 mg/dL vs. 95.0 ± 37.8 mg/dL (p = 0.000. Thus practitioners recommending exercise for coronary artery disease risk reduction in postmenopausal women.

  12. Impact of Age and Aerobic Exercise Training on Conduit Artery Wall Thickness: Role of the Shear Pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanahashi, Koichiro; Kosaki, Keisei; Sawano, Yuriko; Yoshikawa, Toru; Tagawa, Kaname; Kumagai, Hiroshi; Akazawa, Nobuhiko; Maeda, Seiji

    2017-01-01

    Hemodynamic shear stress is the frictional force of blood on the arterial wall. The shear pattern in the conduit artery affects the endothelium and may participate in the development and progression of atherosclerosis. We investigated the role of the shear pattern in age- and aerobic exercise-induced changes in conduit artery wall thickness via cross-sectional and interventional studies. In a cross-sectional study, we found that brachial shear rate patterns and brachial artery intima-media thickness (IMT) correlated with age. Additionally, brachial artery shear rate patterns were associated with brachial artery IMT in 102 middle-aged and older individuals. In an interventional study, 39 middle-aged and older subjects were divided into 2 groups: control and exercise. The exercise group completed 12 weeks of aerobic exercise training. Aerobic exercise training significantly increased the antegrade shear rate and decreased the retrograde shear rate and brachial artery IMT. Moreover, changes in the brachial artery antegrade shear rate and the retrograde shear rate correlated with the change in brachial artery IMT. The results of the present study indicate that changes in brachial artery shear rate patterns may contribute to age- and aerobic exercise training-induced changes in brachial artery wall thickness. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. The Benefits of Exercise Training on Aerobic Capacity in Patients with Heart Failure and Preserved Ejection Fraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    do Prado, Danilo Marcelo Leite; Rocco, Enéas Antônio

    2017-01-01

    Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) is defined as an inability of the ventricles to optimally accept blood from atria with blunted end- diastolic volume response by limiting the stroke volume and cardiac output. The HEpEF prevalence is higher in elderly and women and may be associated to hypertension, diabetes mellitus and atrial fibrillation. Severe exercise intolerance, manifested by dyspnea and fatigue during physical effort is the important chronic symptom in HFpEF patients, in which is the major determinant of their reduced quality of life. In this sense, several studies demonstrated reduced aerobic capacity in terms of lower peak oxygen consumption (peak VO 2 ) in patients with HFpEF. In addition, the lower aerobic capacity observed in HFpEF may be due to impaired both convective and diffusive O 2 transport (i.e. reduced cardiac output and arteriovenous oxygen difference, respectively).Exercise training program can help restore physiological function in order to increase aerobic capacity and improve the quality of life in HFpEF patients. Therefore, the primary purpose of this chapter was to clarify the physiological mechanisms associated with reduced aerobic capacity in HFpEF patients. Secondly, special focus was devoted to show how aerobic exercise training can improve aerobic capacity and quality of life in HFpEF patients.

  14. Production of reactive oxygen species during the aerobic and anaerobic exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edilson Serpeloni Cyrino

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The protective effect of physical exercise against diseases is well established in literature, although it is known that exercising generates free radicals. Despite the mitochondria being the main source of free radicals, the processes of ischemia, inflammation, and reperfusion can also form free radicals. The purpose of this literature review was to investigate the impact of both aerobic and anaerobic physical exercise on the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS. We verified that cellular and tissue damage by free radicals, caused by lipid peroxidation and inflammation, occurs in both types of physical exercises, especially in high intensity efforts. There are indications that ROS generation during physical exercise cannot be modulated by regular training, however, the cellular environment can increase antioxidant endogenous concentration to compensate for that stress. Moreover, ROS regulation can differently occur in aerobic and anaerobic exercises. Therefore, the control of oxidative stress may be very important, particularly, in anaerobic exercises. RESUMOO efeito protetor do exercício físico contra doenças está bem estabelecido na literatura, embora haja conhecimento de que sua prática gera radicais livres. Apesar de a mitocôndria ser a principal fonte de radicais livres, os processos de isquemia, inflamação e reperfusão também podem causar formação de radicais livres. Apartir de uma ampla revisão da literatura, o objetivo deste estudo foi investigar o impacto do exercício físico sob condições de aerobiose e anaerobiose sobre a geração de espécies reativas de oxigênio (ERO. Verificou-se que o dano celular e tecidual por radicais livres, causado por peroxidação lipídica e inflamação, ocorre em ambos os tipos de exercícios físicos, sobretudo em esforços de alta intensidade. Existem indicações de que a geração de ERO durante o exercício físico não pode ser modulada pelo treinamento regular, contudo, o

  15. The Effect of 8-week Aerobic Exercise with Purslane Supplementation Consumption on Peroxidant and Antioxidants Indicators in Women with Type 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Fakoori Jouibari

    2014-04-01

    Conclusion: The results showed that regular aerobic exercise with Purslane consumption can improve peroxidant and antioxidant balance in women with type 2 diabetes and prevent exercise-induced oxidative stress and also diabetes.

  16. Effects of aerobic exercise on the resting heart rate, physical fitness, and arterial stiffness of female patients with metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Seol-Jung; Kim, Eon-Ho; Ko, Kwang-Jun

    2016-06-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of aerobic exercise on the resting heart rate, physical fitness, and arterial stiffness or female patients with metabolic syndrome. [Subjects and Methods] Subjects were randomly assigned to an exercise group (n=12) or a control group (n=11). Subjects in the exercise group performed aerobic exercise at 60-80% of maximum heart rate for 40 min 5 times a week for 12 weeks. The changes in metabolic syndrome risk factors, resting heart rate, physical fitness, and arterial stiffness were measured and analyzed before and after initiation of the exercise program to determine the effect of exercise. Arterial stiffness was assessed based on brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (ba-PWV). [Results] Compared to the control group; The metabolic syndrome risk factors (weight, % body fat, waist circumference, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and HDL-Cholesterol) were significantly improved in the exercise: resting heart rate was significantly decreased; VO2max, muscle strength and muscle endurance were significantly increased; and ba-PWV was significantly decreased. [Conclusion] Aerobic exercise had beneficial effects on the resting heart rate, physical fitness, and arterial stiffness of patients with metabolic syndrome.

  17. Intradialytic aerobic cycling exercise alleviates inflammation and improves endothelial progenitor cell count and bone density in hemodialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Min-Tser; Liu, Wen-Chih; Lin, Fu-Huang; Huang, Ching-Feng; Chen, Shao-Yuan; Liu, Chuan-Chieh; Lin, Shih-Hua; Lu, Kuo-Cheng; Wu, Chia-Chao

    2016-07-01

    Inflammation, endothelial dysfunction, and mineral bone disease are critical factors contributing to morbidity and mortality in hemodialysis (HD) patients. Physical exercise alleviates inflammation and increases bone density. Here, we investigated the effects of intradialytic aerobic cycling exercise on HD patients. Forty end-stage renal disease patients undergoing HD were randomly assigned to either an exercise or control group. The patients in the exercise group performed a cycling program consisting of a 5-minute warm-up, 20 minutes of cycling at the desired workload, and a 5-minute cool down during 3 HD sessions per week for 3 months. Biochemical markers, inflammatory cytokines, nutritional status, the serum endothelial progenitor cell (EPC) count, bone mineral density, and functional capacity were analyzed. After 3 months of exercise, the patients in the exercise group showed significant improvements in serum albumin levels, the body mass index, inflammatory cytokine levels, and the number of cells positive for CD133, CD34, and kinase insert domain-conjugating receptor. Compared with the exercise group, the patients in the control group showed a loss of bone density at the femoral neck and no increases in EPCs. The patients in the exercise group also had a significantly greater 6-minute walk distance after completing the exercise program. Furthermore, the number of EPCs significantly correlated with the 6-minute walk distance both before and after the 3-month program. Intradialytic aerobic cycling exercise programs can effectively alleviate inflammation and improve nutrition, bone mineral density, and exercise tolerance in HD patients.

  18. The diurnal patterns of cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone in relation to intense aerobic exercise in recreationally trained soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labsy, Z; Prieur, F; Le Panse, B; Do, M C; Gagey, O; Lasne, F; Collomp, K

    2013-03-01

    Diurnal patterns of cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) secretion, the two main peripheral secretory products of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal neuroendocrine stress axis, have been well characterized in rest conditions but not in relation to physical exercise. The purpose of this investigation was therefore to determine the effects of an intense 90-min aerobic exercise on the waking diurnal cortisol and DHEA cycles on three separate days [without exercise, with morning exercise (10:00-11:30 h), and with afternoon exercise (14:00-15:30 h)] in nine recreationally trained soccer players. Saliva samples were collected at awakening, 30 min after awakening, and then every 2 h from 08:00 to 22:00 h. A burst of secretory activity was found for cortisol (p exercise days under all conditions. However, there was a significant increase in salivary cortisol concentrations on the morning-exercise and afternoon-exercise days at, respectively, 12:00 h (p exercise was not evident for DHEA. The results of this investigation indicate that 90 min of intense aerobic exercise does not affect the circadian pattern of salivary adrenal steroids in recreationally trained athletes over a 16-h waking period, despite a transitory increase in post-exercise cortisol concentration. Further studies are necessary to determine whether these results are applicable to elite athletes or patients with cortisol or DHEA deficiency.

  19. Effects of 24-Week Aerobic and Resistance Training on Carotid Artery Intima-Media Thickness and Flow Velocity in Elderly Women with Sarcopenic Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jinkee; Kwon, Yoochan; Park, Hyuntea

    2017-11-01

    Sarcopenic obesity (SO) is closely associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) in elderly women. Increases in body fat and decreases in muscle mass are closely associated with increased carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT). The aim of this study was to examine the influence of a 24-week aerobic and resistance training program on carotid parameters in SO. Fifty elderly women (74.1±6.1 years) with SO were randomly divided into an exercise group and a control group. The exercise group performed combined exercise over 24 weeks, consisting of resistance and aerobic training for 50-80 min, 5 times a week. Carotid variables were measured using B-mode ultrasound. The differences in the carotid variables and the relative changes between baseline and after 24 weeks were evaluated. In the analysis of variance (ANOVA) results, CIMT (p=0.013), systolic flow velocity (p=0.007), diastolic flow velocity (p=0.006), and wall shear rate (p=0.010) showed significant interactions. In paired t-test results of the exercise group, CIMT significantly decreased (p<0.01) and systolic flow velocity (p<0.01), diastolic flow velocity (p<0.001), and wall shear rate (p<0.05) significantly increased after 24 weeks. The 24-week combined exercise effectively decreased CIMT and increased carotid flow velocity and wall shear ratio. Therefore, combined exercise is thought to contribute to the improvement of the risk of CVD in elderly women with SO.

  20. Efeito do exercício aeróbio e resistido no perfil antropométrico e respostas cardiovasculares de idosos portadores de hipertensão - DOI: 10.4025/actascihealthsci.v28i1.1093 Aerobic exercise and resistance effect on the anthropometric profile and cardiovascular responses in elderly people with high blood pressure - DOI: 10.4025/actascihealthsci.v28i1.1093

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Mohamed Elsangedy

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo teve por objetivo analisar os efeitos do exercício aeróbio e resistido no perfil antropométrico e respostas cardiovasculares de idosos portadores de hipertensão arterial (HA. A amostra foi composta de 53 voluntários de ambos os sexos, todos sedentários, com idade de 64,28±4,7 anos, cor branca, portadores de HA. Foram analisados os níveis de pressão arterial (PA, freqüência cardíaca (FC peso corporal (Kg, IMC e percentual de gordura corporal (%GC, antes, durante e após seis meses de exercícios. O protocolo de treinamento foi composto por uma sessão de exercícios, dividida em 20 minutos de atividade aeróbia e 40 minutos de exercícios resistidos dinâmicos, com freqüência semanal de três vezes e duração de seis meses. Como principais resultados apresentaram-se diferenças significativas em relação ao %GC, acompanhado de uma redução linear na pressão arterial média (PAM e FC, indicando uma melhora em importantes parâmetros morfofuncionaisThe present study aimed to analyze the aerobic and resistance exercise effects on the anthropometric profile and cardiovascular responses in elderly people with High Blood Pressure (HBP. The sample consisted of 53 volunteers of both genders who were all sedentary, at the age of 64.28±4.7 years old, fair skin, with HBP. The blood pressure levels, cardiac frequency (CF, body weight (Kg, BMI and body fat percentage (BF% were analyzed before, during and after the period of exercises. The training protocol consisted of exercise sessions divided into 20 minutes of aerobic activity and 40 minutes of dynamic resistance exercises, three times a week, during a period of six months. Results showed a significant difference in relation to the BF%, followed by a linear reduction in the Average Blood Pressure (ABP and CF, as well as an improvement in important morphofunctional parameters

  1. Effectiveness of Aerobic Exercise as an Augmentation Therapy for Inpatients with Major Depressive Disorder: A Preliminary Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shachar-Malach, Tal; Cooper Kazaz, Rena; Constantini, Naama; Lifschytz, Tzuri; Lerer, Bernard

    2015-01-01

    Physical exercise has been shown to reduce depressive symptoms when used in combination with antidepressant medication. We report a randomized controlled trial of aerobic exercise compared to stretching as an augmentation strategy for hospitalized patients with major depression. Male or female patients, 18-80 years, diagnosed with a Major Depressive Episode, were randomly assigned to three weeks of augmentation therapy with aerobic (n=6) or stretching exercise (n=6). Depression was rated, at several time points using the 21-item Hamilton Depression Scale (HAM-D), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and other scales. According to the HAM-D, there were four (out of six) responders in the aerobic group, two of whom achieved remission, and none in the stretching group. According to the BDI, there were two responders in the aerobic group who were also remitters and none in the stretching group. The results of this small study suggest that aerobic exercise significantly improves treatment outcome when added to antidepressant medication. However, due to the small sample size the results must be regarded as preliminary and further studies are needed to confirm the findings.

  2. Edward F. Adolph Distinguished Lecture: The remarkable anti-aging effects of aerobic exercise on systemic arteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) remain the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in modern societies, and advancing age is the major risk factor for CVD. Arterial dysfunction, characterized by large elastic artery stiffening and endothelial dysfunction, is the key event leading to age-associated CVD. Our work shows that regular aerobic exercise inhibits large elastic artery stiffening with aging (optimizes arterial compliance) and preserves endothelial function. Importantly, among previously sedentary late middle-aged and older adults, aerobic exercise improves arterial stiffness and enhances endothelial function in most groups and, therefore, also can be considered a treatment for age-associated arterial dysfunction. The mechanisms by which regular aerobic exercise destiffens large elastic arteries are incompletely understood, but existing evidence suggests that reductions in oxidative stress associated with decreases in both adventitial collagen (fibrosis) and advanced glycation end-products (structural protein cross-linking molecules), play a key role. Aerobic exercise preserves endothelial function with aging by maintaining nitric oxide bioavailability via suppression of excessive superoxide-associated oxidative stress, and by inhibiting the development of chronic low-grade vascular inflammation. Recent work from our laboratory supports the novel hypothesis that aerobic exercise may exert these beneficial effects by directly inducing protection to aging arteries against multiple adverse factors to which they are chronically exposed. Regular aerobic exercise should be viewed as a “first line” strategy for prevention and treatment of arterial aging and a vital component of a contemporary public health approach for reducing the projected increase in population CVD burden. PMID:24855137

  3. Edward F. Adolph Distinguished Lecture: The remarkable anti-aging effects of aerobic exercise on systemic arteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seals, Douglas R

    2014-09-01

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) remain the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in modern societies, and advancing age is the major risk factor for CVD. Arterial dysfunction, characterized by large elastic artery stiffening and endothelial dysfunction, is the key event leading to age-associated CVD. Our work shows that regular aerobic exercise inhibits large elastic artery stiffening with aging (optimizes arterial compliance) and preserves endothelial function. Importantly, among previously sedentary late middle-aged and older adults, aerobic exercise improves arterial stiffness and enhances endothelial function in most groups and, therefore, also can be considered a treatment for age-associated arterial dysfunction. The mechanisms by which regular aerobic exercise destiffens large elastic arteries are incompletely understood, but existing evidence suggests that reductions in oxidative stress associated with decreases in both adventitial collagen (fibrosis) and advanced glycation end-products (structural protein cross-linking molecules), play a key role. Aerobic exercise preserves endothelial function with aging by maintaining nitric oxide bioavailability via suppression of excessive superoxide-associated oxidative stress, and by inhibiting the development of chronic low-grade vascular inflammation. Recent work from our laboratory supports the novel hypothesis that aerobic exercise may exert these beneficial effects by directly inducing protection to aging arteries against multiple adverse factors to which they are chronically exposed. Regular aerobic exercise should be viewed as a "first line" strategy for prevention and treatment of arterial aging and a vital component of a contemporary public health approach for reducing the projected increase in population CVD burden. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  4. Can low-level laser therapy (LLLT) associated with an aerobic plus resistance training change the cardiometabolic risk in obese women? A placebo-controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Fernanda Oliveira; Sene-Fiorese, Marcela; de Aquino Junior, Antonio Eduardo; da Silveira Campos, Raquel Munhoz; Masquio, Deborah Cristina Landi; Tock, Lian; Garcia de Oliveira Duarte, Ana Claudia; Dâmaso, Ana Raimunda; Bagnato, Vanderlei Salvador; Parizotto, Nivaldo Antonio

    2015-12-01

    Obesity is one of the most important link factors to coronary artery disease development mainly due to the pro-inflammatory and pro-thrombotic states favoring atherosclerosis progression. The LLLT acts in the cellular metabolism and it is highly effective to improve inflammation. The same occur in response to different kinds of exercise. However, we have not known the associate effects using LLLT therapies with aerobic plus resistance training as strategy specifically with target at human obesity control and its comorbidities. Investigate the effects of the LLLT associated with aerobic plus resistance training on cardiometabolic risk factors in obese women. Women aged 20-40 years (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m(2)), were divided into 2 groups: Phototherapy (PHOTO) and Placebo. They were trained aerobic plus resistance exercises (in a concurrent mode), 1h, 3 times/week during 16 weeks. Phototherapy was applied after each exercise session for 16 min, with infrared laser, wavelength 808 nm, continuous output, power 100 mW, and energy delivery 50 J. The body composition was measured with bioimpedance. Inflammatory mark concentrations were measured using a commercially available multiplex. LLLT associated with aerobic plus resistance training was effective in decrease neck (P=0.0003) and waist circumferences (P=0.02); percentual of fat (P=0.04); visceral fat area (P=0.02); HOMA-IR (P=0.0009); Leptin (P=0.03) and ICAM (P=0.03). Also, the reduction in leptin (P=0.008) and ICAM-1 (0, 05) was much more expressive in the phototherapy group in comparison to placebo group when analyzed by delta values. LLLT associated with concurrent exercise (aerobic plus resistance training) potentiates the exercise effects of decreasing the cardiometabolic risk factors in obese woman. These results suggest the LLLT associated with exercises as a new therapeutic tool in the control of obesity and its comorbidities for obese people, targeting to optimize the strategies to control the cardiometabolic risk

  5. Correlation of hypoxia inducible factor-1α and vascular endothelium growth factor in rat myocardium during aerobic and anaerobic exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rostika Flora

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Exercise increases the need for oxygen to generate ATP through oxidative phosphorylation. If the high energy demand during exercise is not balanced by sufficient oxygen supply, hypoxia occurs in skeletal muscle tissue leading to upregulation of hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α. The activity of HIF-1α increases the expression of various genes in order to reduce the metabolic dependence on oxygen and to increase oxygen supply to the tissue, e.g., VEGF which plays a role in angiogenesis. In myocardium, it is unclear whether exercise leads to hypoxia and whether HIF-1α and VEGF play a role in the mechanism of hypoxic adaptation. This study aimed to investigate the correlation of HIF-1α and VEGF in heart muscle tissue of rats during aerobic and anaerobic exercise.Methods: A rat treadmill was used with a specific exercise program for 1, 3, 7 and 10 days. The concentrations of HIF-1α and VEGF were measured the myocardium.Results: Both, HIF-1α protein and VEGF were increased (p < 0.05 in the groups with aerobic and anaerobic exercise. Concentrations of HIF-1α were highest on the first day of activity, being higher in the anaerobic than in the aerobic group (156.8 ± 33.1 vs. 116.03 ± 5.66. Likewise, the highest concentration of VEGF in the group with anaerobic exercise occurred on the first day (36.37 ± 2:35, while in the aerobic group, VEGF concentration was highest on day 3 (40.66 ± 1.73. The correlation between the myocardial tissue consentrations of HIF-1α and VEGF is moderate (r = 0.59 in the aerobic group and strong in the anaerobic group (r = 0.69.Conclusion: Aerobic and anaerobic exercise increase HIF-1α and VEGF concentrations in rat myocardium in specific patterns. The anaerobic condition triggers vascularization stronger and obviously earlier than aerobic exercise. (Med J Indones. 2012;21:133-40Keywords: Exercise, HIF-1α, myocardium, VEGF

  6. Amelioration of Abnormalities Associated with the Metabolic Syndrome by Spinacia oleracea (Spinach) Consumption and Aerobic Exercise in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panda, Vandana; Mistry, Kinjal; Sudhamani, S; Nandave, Mukesh; Ojha, Shreesh Kumar

    2017-01-01

    The present study evaluates the protective effects of an antioxidant-rich extract of Spinacea oleracea (NAOE) in abnormalities associated with the metabolic syndrome (MetS) in rats. HPTLC of NAOE revealed the presence of 13 total antioxidants, 14 flavonoids, and 10 phenolic acids. Rats administered with fructose (20%  w / v ) in drinking water for 45 days to induce abnormalities of MetS received NAOE (200 and 400 mg/kg, po), the standard drug gemfibrozil (60 mg/kg, po), aerobic exercise (AE), and a combination of NAOE 400 mg/kg and AE (NAOEAE) daily for 45 days. All treatments significantly altered the lipid profile and attenuated the fructose-elevated levels of uric acid, C-reactive protein, homocysteine, and marker enzymes (AST, LDH, and CK-MB) in serum and malondialdehyde in the heart and restored the fructose-depleted levels of glutathione and antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase). A significant decrease in blood glucose and insulin levels decreased insulin resistance, and improved glucose tolerance was observed in the treatment animals when compared with the fructose-fed animals. The best mitigation of MetS was shown by the NAOEAE treatment indicating that regular exercise along with adequate consumption of antioxidant-rich foods such as spinach in diet can help control MetS.

  7. Defining Optimal Aerobic Exercise Parameters to Affect Complex Motor and Cognitive Outcomes after Stroke: A Systematic Review and Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Mahmudul Hasan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Although poststroke aerobic exercise (AE increases markers of neuroplasticity and protects perilesional tissue, the degree to which it enhances complex motor or cognitive outcomes is unknown. Previous research suggests that timing and dosage of exercise may be important. We synthesized data from clinical and animal studies in order to determine optimal AE training parameters and recovery outcomes for future research. Using predefined criteria, we included clinical trials of stroke of any type or duration and animal studies employing any established models of stroke. Of the 5,259 titles returned, 52 articles met our criteria, measuring the effects of AE on balance, lower extremity coordination, upper limb motor skills, learning, processing speed, memory, and executive function. We found that early-initiated low-to-moderate intensity AE improved locomotor coordination in rodents. In clinical trials, AE improved balance and lower limb coordination irrespective of intervention modality or parameter. In contrast, fine upper limb recovery was relatively resistant to AE. In terms of cognitive outcomes, poststroke AE in animals improved memory and learning, except when training was too intense. However, in clinical trials, combined training protocols more consistently improved cognition. We noted a paucity of studies examining the benefits of AE on recovery beyond cessation of the intervention.

  8. Amelioration of Abnormalities Associated with the Metabolic Syndrome by Spinacia oleracea (Spinach Consumption and Aerobic Exercise in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vandana Panda

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study evaluates the protective effects of an antioxidant-rich extract of Spinacea oleracea (NAOE in abnormalities associated with the metabolic syndrome (MetS in rats. HPTLC of NAOE revealed the presence of 13 total antioxidants, 14 flavonoids, and 10 phenolic acids. Rats administered with fructose (20% w/v in drinking water for 45 days to induce abnormalities of MetS received NAOE (200 and 400 mg/kg, po, the standard drug gemfibrozil (60 mg/kg, po, aerobic exercise (AE, and a combination of NAOE 400 mg/kg and AE (NAOEAE daily for 45 days. All treatments significantly altered the lipid profile and attenuated the fructose-elevated levels of uric acid, C-reactive protein, homocysteine, and marker enzymes (AST, LDH, and CK-MB in serum and malondialdehyde in the heart and restored the fructose-depleted levels of glutathione and antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase. A significant decrease in blood glucose and insulin levels decreased insulin resistance, and improved glucose tolerance was observed in the treatment animals when compared with the fructose-fed animals. The best mitigation of MetS was shown by the NAOEAE treatment indicating that regular exercise along with adequate consumption of antioxidant-rich foods such as spinach in diet can help control MetS.

  9. Aerobic exercise during pregnancy and presence of fetal-maternal heart rate synchronization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Van Leeuwen

    Full Text Available It has been shown that short-term direct interaction between maternal and fetal heart rates may take place and that this interaction is affected by the rate of maternal respiration. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of maternal aerobic exercise during pregnancy on the occurrence of fetal-maternal heart rate synchronization.In 40 pregnant women at the 36th week of gestation, 21 of whom exercised regularly, we acquired 18 min. RR interval time series obtained simultaneously in the mothers and their fetuses from magnetocardiographic recordings. The time series of the two groups were examined with respect to their heart rate variability, the maternal respiratory rate and the presence of synchronization epochs as determined on the basis of synchrograms. Surrogate data were used to assess whether the occurrence of synchronization was due to chance.In the original data, we found synchronization occurred less often in pregnancies in which the mothers had exercised regularly. These subjects also displayed higher combined fetal-maternal heart rate variability and lower maternal respiratory rates. Analysis of the surrogate data showed shorter epochs of synchronization and a lack of the phase coordination found between maternal and fetal beat timing in the original data.The results suggest that fetal-maternal heart rate coupling is present but generally weak. Maternal exercise has a damping effect on its occurrence, most likely due to an increase in beat-to-beat differences, higher vagal tone and slower breathing rates.

  10. Aerobic exercise during pregnancy and presence of fetal-maternal heart rate synchronization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Leeuwen, Peter; Gustafson, Kathleen M; Cysarz, Dirk; Geue, Daniel; May, Linda E; Grönemeyer, Dietrich

    2014-01-01

    It has been shown that short-term direct interaction between maternal and fetal heart rates may take place and that this interaction is affected by the rate of maternal respiration. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of maternal aerobic exercise during pregnancy on the occurrence of fetal-maternal heart rate synchronization. In 40 pregnant women at the 36th week of gestation, 21 of whom exercised regularly, we acquired 18 min. RR interval time series obtained simultaneously in the mothers and their fetuses from magnetocardiographic recordings. The time series of the two groups were examined with respect to their heart rate variability, the maternal respiratory rate and the presence of synchronization epochs as determined on the basis of synchrograms. Surrogate data were used to assess whether the occurrence of synchronization was due to chance. In the original data, we found synchronization occurred less often in pregnancies in which the mothers had exercised regularly. These subjects also displayed higher combined fetal-maternal heart rate variability and lower maternal respiratory rates. Analysis of the surrogate data showed shorter epochs of synchronization and a lack of the phase coordination found between maternal and fetal beat timing in the original data. The results suggest that fetal-maternal heart rate coupling is present but generally weak. Maternal exercise has a damping effect on its occurrence, most likely due to an increase in beat-to-beat differences, higher vagal tone and slower breathing rates.

  11. Aerobic Exercise during Pregnancy and Presence of Fetal-Maternal Heart Rate Synchronization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Leeuwen, Peter; Gustafson, Kathleen M.; Cysarz, Dirk; Geue, Daniel; May, Linda E.; Grönemeyer, Dietrich

    2014-01-01

    It has been shown that short-term direct interaction between maternal and fetal heart rates may take place and that this interaction is affected by the rate of maternal respiration. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of maternal aerobic exercise during pregnancy on the occurrence of fetal-maternal heart rate synchronization. Methods In 40 pregnant women at the 36th week of gestation, 21 of whom exercised regularly, we acquired 18 min. RR interval time series obtained simultaneously in the mothers and their fetuses from magnetocardiographic recordings. The time series of the two groups were examined with respect to their heart rate variability, the maternal respiratory rate and the presence of synchronization epochs as determined on the basis of synchrograms. Surrogate data were used to assess whether the occurrence of synchronization was due to chance. Results In the original data, we found synchronization occurred less often in pregnancies in which the mothers had exercised regularly. These subjects also displayed higher combined fetal-maternal heart rate variability and lower maternal respiratory rates. Analysis of the surrogate data showed shorter epochs of synchronization and a lack of the phase coordination found between maternal and fetal beat timing in the original data. Conclusion The results suggest that fetal-maternal heart rate coupling is present but generally weak. Maternal exercise has a damping effect on its occurrence, most likely due to an increase in beat-to-beat differences, higher vagal tone and slower breathing rates. PMID:25162592

  12. Combining remote ischemic preconditioning and aerobic exercise: a novel adaptation of blood flow restriction exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprick, Justin D; Rickards, Caroline A

    2017-11-01

    Remote ischemic preconditioning (RIPC) can attenuate tissue damage sustained by ischemia-reperfusion injury. Blood flow restriction exercise (BFRE) restricts blood flow to exercising muscles. We implemented a novel approach to BFRE with cyclical bouts of blood flow restriction-reperfusion, reflecting the RIPC model. A concern about BFRE, however, is potential amplification of the exercise pressor reflex, which could be unsafe in at-risk populations. We hypothesized that cyclical BFRE would elicit greater increases in sympathetic outflow and arterial pressure than conventional exercise (CE) when performed at the same relative intensity. We also assessed the cerebrovascular responses due to potential implementation of BFRE in stroke rehabilitation. Fourteen subjects performed treadmill exercise at 65-70% maximal heart rate with and without intermittent BFR (4 × 5-min intervals of bilateral thigh-cuff pressure followed by 5-min reperfusion periods). Mean arterial pressure (MAP), plasma norepinephrine (NE), and middle and posterior cerebral artery velocities (MCAv and PCAv) were compared between trials. As expected, BFRE elicited higher concentration NE compared with CE (1249 ± 170 vs. 962 ± 114 pg/ml; P = 0.06). Unexpectedly, however, there were no differences in MAP between conditions (overall P = 0.33), and MAP was 4-5 mmHg lower with BFRE versus CE during the reperfusion periods ( P ≤ 0.05 for reperfusion periods 3 and 4 ). There were no differences in MCAv or PCAv between trials ( P ≥ 0.22), suggesting equivalent cerebrometabolic demand. The exaggerated sympathoexcitatory response with BFRE was not accompanied by higher MAP, likely because of the cyclical reperfusions. This cyclical BFRE paradigm could be adapted to cardiac or stroke rehabilitation, where exercising patients could benefit from the cardio and cerebro protection associated with RIPC. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  13. Aerobic anti-gravity exercise in patients with Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease types 1A and X

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knak, Kirsten L; Andersen, Linda K; Vissing, John

    2017-01-01

    Background: Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) disease is a hereditary neuropathy associated with impaired walking capacity. Some patients are too weak in the lower extremity muscles to walk at gravity with sufficient intensity or duration to gain benefit. Aim: The aim was to investigate the effect...... of aerobic anti-gravity exercise in weak patients with CMT 1A and X. Methods: Five adult patients performed moderate-intensity aerobic anti-gravity exercise 3/week for 10 weeks. Results: There was a significant positive difference in Berg balance scale and postural stability test between test occasions...

  14. Effects of a long-term aerobic exercise intervention on institutionalized patients with dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancela, José M; Ayán, Carlos; Varela, Silvia; Seijo, Manuel

    2016-04-01

    Long-term interventions aimed at analyzing the impact of physical exercise on important health markers in institutionalized individuals with dementia are relatively scarce. This longitudinal study intends to identify the effects of a physical exercise program on cognitive decline, memory, depression, functional dependence and neuropsychiatric disturbances in institutionalized individuals with dementia. Randomized controlled trial. Homecare residents with dementia were assigned to an exercise (EG) or to a control group (CG). Participants in the EG cycled for at least 15min daily during 15 months, while those in the CG performed alternative sedentary recreational activities. The Mini-Mental State Examination (MEC), the Timed "Up & Go" Test, the Neuropsychiatric Inventory, the Katz Index, the Cornell Scale for Depression in Dementia and the Fuld Object Memory Evaluation were administered before and after the intervention. Sixty-three individuals in the CG and 51 individuals in the EG completed the intervention. A statistically significant decline in cognitive function was observed in individuals included in the CG (p=0.015), while a slight improvement was observed in those included in the EG. Significant improvement was observed in the neuropsychiatric symptoms (p=0.020), memory function (p=0.028) and functional mobility (p=0.043) among those who exercised. Exercise seemed to have a greater effect in those suffering from severe cognitive impairment. This study provides evidence that aerobic physical exercise has a significant impact on improving cognitive functioning, behavior, and functional mobility in institutionalized individuals with dementia. Copyright © 2015 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. A single bout of resistance exercise can enhance episodic memory performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberg, Lisa; Hasni, Anita; Shinohara, Minoru; Duarte, Audrey

    2014-11-01

    Acute aerobic exercise can be beneficial to episodic memory. This benefit may occur because exercise produces a similar physiological response as physical stressors. When administered during consolidation, acute stress, both physical and psychological, consistently enhances episodic memory, particularly memory for emotional materials. Here we investigated whether a single bout of resistance exercise performed during consolidation can produce episodic memory benefits 48 h later. We used a one-leg knee extension/flexion task for the resistance exercise. To assess the physiological response to the exercise, we measured salivary alpha amylase (a biomarker of central norepinephrine), heart rate, and blood pressure. To test emotional episodic memory, we used a remember-know recognition memory paradigm with equal numbers of positive, negative, and neutral IAPS images as stimuli. The group that performed the exercise, the active group, had higher overall recognition accuracy than the group that did not exercise, the passive group. We found a robust effect of valence across groups, with better performance on emotional items as compared to neutral items and no difference between positive and negative items. This effect changed based on the physiological response to the exercise. Within the active group, participants with a high physiological response to the exercise were impaired for neutral items as compared to participants with a low physiological response to the exercise. Our results demonstrate that a single bout of resistance exercise performed during consolidation can enhance episodic memory and that the effect of valence on memory depends on the physiological response to the exercise. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Antimicrobial Resistance and Resistance Genes in Aerobic Bacteria Isolated from Pork at Slaughter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lili; Heidemann Olsen, Rikke; Ye, Lei; Yan, He; Nie, Qing; Meng, Hecheng; Shi, Lei

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the phenotypic and genotypic antimicrobial resistance, integrons, and transferability of resistance markers in 243 aerobic bacteria recovered from pork at slaughter in the People's Republic of China. The organisms belonged to 22 genera of gram-negative bacteria (92.2%) and gram-positive bacteria (7.8%). High levels of resistance were detected to tetracycline, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, and ampicillin (36.2 to 54.3%), and lower levels were detected to nitrofurantoin, cefotaxime, gentamicin, ciprofloxacin, and chloramphenicol (7.8 to 29.2%). Across species, genes conferring antimicrobial resistance were observed with the following frequencies: blaTEM, 40.7%; blaCMY-2, 15.2%; blaCTX-M, 11.5%; sul2, 27.2%; sul1, 14.4%; tet(A), 5.4%; tet(L), 5.4%; tet(M), 5.0%; tet(E), 3.7%; tet(C), 3.3%; tet(S), 2.5%; and tet(K), 0.8%. Various antimicrobial resistance genes were found in new carriers: blaTEM in Lactococcus garvieae, Myroides odoratimimus, Aeromonas hydrophila, Staphylococcus sciuri, Raoultella terrigena, Macrococcus caseolyticus, Acinetobacter ursingii, Sphingobacterium sp., and Oceanobacillus sp.; blaCMY-2 in Lactococcus lactis, Klebsiella oxytoca, Serratia marcescens, Acinetobacter baumannii, and Myroides phaeus; tet(L) in M. caseolyticus; sul1 in Vibrio cincinnatiensis; sul2 in Acinetobacter bereziniae, Acinetobacter johnsonii, and V. cincinnatiensis; and the class 1 integron and gene cassette aadA2 in V. cincinnatiensis. Approximately 6.6% of isolates contained class 1 integrons, and one isolate harbored class 2 integrons. Plasmid associated intI1 and androgen receptor- encoding genes were transferred into Escherichia coli J53 and E. coli DH5α by conjugation and transformation experiments, respectively. Our study highlights the importance of aerobic bacteria from pork as reservoirs for antimicrobial resistance genes and mobile genetic elements that can readily be transferred intra- and interspecies.

  17. Review: Endurance and Resistance Exercises Effects on Patients with Cardiovascular Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Nikou

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this review article is to provide scientific evidence how resistance training and aerobic exercise are key constituents of health, fitness and longevity, and bring to realization that including both of them in our physical activity programs allows patients with cardiovascular disease (CVD to increase their exercise capacity. To date cardiovascular disease (CVD remains one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Although genetic factors and age are important in determining the risk, other factors, including hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, insulin resistance, diabetes, and lifestyle factors such as smoking and diet are also major risk factors associated with the disease. Researches show that cardiac rehabilitation (CR is effective in reducing mortality risk after myocardial infarction (MI, and variety of exercise prescriptions can improve O2 peak, and possibly improve the quality of life of patients with CVD. Peak aerobic power (O2 peak, muscle strength, quality of life (QOL and physical activity have been reduced in patient with coronary artery disease (CAD that lead to a high prevalence CVD risk factors. These abnormalities increase with age too. Exercise interventions that can improve O2peak, muscle strength, and may also result in an improvement in QOL. In conclusion, it is now widely acknowledged that exercise training is an important component of the management of CVD that can improve functional capacity, quality of life, and prognosis.

  18. Response of Arterial Stiffness Four Weeks After Terminating Short-term Aerobic Exercise Training in a Sedentary Lifestyle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baykara, Murat; Demirel, Adnan; Yavuzatmaca, İhsan; Bilgen, Mehmet

    2017-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the response of arterial stiffness in individuals with a sedentary lifestyle at 4 weeks after terminating a 2-week aerobic exercise session. Arterial stiffness was evaluated in 38 participants before starting and after completing a prescribed aerobic exercise program and also at 4 weeks after returning back to their sedentary lifestyle. Parameters regarding arterial compliance, distensibility, wall stress, and the elastic modulus were estimated from the information gained from sonography on the dimensions of carotid and femoral arteries and a sphygmomanometer on the pulse pressure. Primary outcomes included whether short-term aerobic exercise reduced the heart rate, arterial pressure, and intima-media thickness and improved vascular biomechanics in physically inactive but otherwise healthy individuals. The benefits gained in arterial compliance and distensibility deteriorated with termination of exercise, but diastolic wall stress and the elastic modulus improved further. In individuals with sedentary lifestyles, short-term aerobic exercise has strong four-week residual benefits on diastolic wall stress and the elastic modulus, but the effects appear to be negligible on arterial stiffness and distensibility. © 2016 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  19. Dose-response effects of aerobic exercise on body composition among colon cancer survivors: a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Justin C; Zemel, Babette S; Troxel, Andrea B; Rickels, Michael R; Damjanov, Nevena; Ky, Bonnie; Rhim, Andrew D; Rustgi, Anil K; Courneya, Kerry S; Schmitz, Kathryn H

    2017-11-21

    Physical activity is associated with a lower risk of disease recurrence among colon cancer survivors. Excess visceral adipose tissue is associated with a higher risk of disease recurrence among colon cancer survivors. The pathways through which physical activity may alter disease outcomes are unknown, but may be mediated by changes in visceral adipose tissue. Thirty-nine stage I-III colon cancer survivors were randomised to one of three groups: usual-care control, 150 min wk -1 of aerobic exercise (low dose) and 300 min wk -1 of aerobic exercise (high dose) for 6 months. The prespecified key body composition outcome was visceral adipose tissue quantified using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Exercise reduced visceral adipose tissue in dose-response fashion (P trend =0.008). Compared with the control group, the low- and high-dose exercise groups lost 9.5 cm 2 (95% CI: -22.4, 3.5) and 13.6 cm 2 (95% CI: -27.0, -0.1) in visceral adipose tissue, respectively. Each 60 min wk -1 increase in exercise predicted a 2.7 cm 2 (95% CI: -5.4, -0.1) reduction in visceral adipose tissue. Aerobic exercise reduces visceral adipose tissue in dose-response fashion among patients with stage I-III colon cancer. Visceral adipose tissue may be a mechanism through which exercise reduces the risk of disease recurrence among colon cancer survivors.

  20. Response of Leptin and C-reactive Protein Serum Levels to 12 Weeks Moderate Intensity Aerobic Exercise in Obese Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Ghiasi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of 12 weeks moderate intensity aerobic exercise on leptin and C-reactive protein serum levels in obese men. The study was conducted in Urmia- Iran in 2015. Twenty-four obese men with an aged range 40-50 yrs. were enrolled into the study. Subjects were randomized to one of 2 groups exercise (n=12 and control groups (n=12. The exercise group performed aerobic exercise training up to 50-70 % heart rate reserve, three times a week for 12 weeks. Leptin and CRP serum level was measured by ELISA method before and after the 12 weeks. After 12 weeks exercise training, leptin and CRP serum level in the exercise group compared to the control group, were decreased significantly (P<0.05. To sum up, 12 weeks moderate intensity aerobic exercise in the reduction of CRP and leptin concentration had a prominent role that might be effective in reducing weight and improving cardiovascular risk factors.

  1. Acute effects of intradialytic aerobic exercise on solute removal, blood gases and oxidative stress in patients with chronic kidney disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseane Böhm

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Hemodialysis contributes to increased oxidative stress and induces transitory hypoxemia. Compartmentalization decreases the supply of solutes to the dialyzer during treatment. The aim of this study was to investigate the acute effects of intradialytic aerobic exercise on solute removal, blood gases and oxidative stress in patients with chronic kidney disease during a single hemodialysis session. Methods: Thirty patients were randomized to perform aerobic exercise with cycle ergometer for lower limbs during 30 minutes with intensity between 60-70% of maximal heart rate, or control group (CG. Blood samples were collected prior to and immediately after exercise or the equivalent time in CG. Analysis of blood and dialysate biochemistry as well as blood gases were performed. Mass removal and solute clearance were calculated. Oxidative stress was determined by lipid peroxidation and by the total antioxidant capacity. Results: Serum concentrations of solutes increased with exercise, but only phosphorus showed a significant elevation (p = 0.035. There were no significant changes in solute removal and in the acid-base balance. Both oxygen partial pressure and saturation increased with exercise (p = 0.035 and p = 0.024, respectivelly, which did not occur in the CG. The total antioxidant capacity decreased significantly (p = 0.027. Conclusion: The acute intradialytic aerobic exercise increased phosphorus serum concentration and decreased total antioxidant capacity, reversing hypoxemia resulting from hemodialysis. The intradialytic exercise did not change the blood acid-base balance and the removal of solutes.

  2. Acute effects of intradialytic aerobic exercise on solute removal, blood gases and oxidative stress in patients with chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böhm, Joseane; Monteiro, Mariane Borba; Andrade, Francini Porcher; Veronese, Francisco Veríssimo; Thomé, Fernando Saldanha

    2017-01-01

    Hemodialysis contributes to increased oxidative stress and induces transitory hypoxemia. Compartmentalization decreases the supply of solutes to the dialyzer during treatment. The aim of this study was to investigate the acute effects of intradialytic aerobic exercise on solute removal, blood gases and oxidative stress in patients with chronic kidney disease during a single hemodialysis session. Thirty patients were randomized to perform aerobic exercise with cycle ergometer for lower limbs during 30 minutes with intensity between 60-70% of maximal heart rate, or control group (CG). Blood samples were collected prior to and immediately after exercise or the equivalent time in CG. Analysis of blood and dialysate biochemistry as well as blood gases were performed. Mass removal and solute clearance were calculated. Oxidative stress was determined by lipid peroxidation and by the total antioxidant capacity. Serum concentrations of solutes increased with exercise, but only phosphorus showed a significant elevation (p = 0.035). There were no significant changes in solute removal and in the acid-base balance. Both oxygen partial pressure and saturation increased with exercise (p = 0.035 and p = 0.024, respectivelly), which did not occur in the CG. The total antioxidant capacity decreased significantly (p = 0.027). The acute intradialytic aerobic exercise increased phosphorus serum concentration and decreased total antioxidant capacity, reversing hypoxemia resulting from hemodialysis. The intradialytic exercise did not change the blood acid-base balance and the removal of solutes.

  3. Efficacy of aerobic exercise and a prudent diet for improving selected lipids and lipoproteins in adults: A meta-analysis of andomized controlled trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studies addressing the effects of aerobic exercise and a prudent diet on lipid and lipoprotein concentrations in adults have reached conflicting conclusions. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of aerobic exercise combined with a prudent diet on lipid and lipoprotein concentration...

  4. Efficacy of aerobic exercise and a prudent diet for improving selected lipids and lipoproteins in adults: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studies addressing the effects of aerobic exercise and a prudent diet on lipid and lipoprotein concentrations in adults have reached conflicting conclusions. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of aerobic exercise combined with a prudent diet on lipid and lipoprotein concentration...

  5. The effect of resistance exercise on the thermic effect of food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denzer, Charlene M; Young, John C

    2003-09-01

    The thermic effect of food (TEF) is the increment in energy expenditure above resting metabolic rate associated with the cost of absorption and processing of food for storage. Previous studies have shown that TEF is enhanced by aerobic endurance exercise of sufficient duration and intensity. The purpose of this study was to determine if a similar effect occurs with a single bout of resistance exercise (weightlifting). VO2 was measured in 9 healthy volunteers (3 males and 6 females) for 2 hours after ingestion of a 2760 kJ (660 kcal) carbohydrate meal with and without prior completion of a resistance training regimen (2 sets of 10 repetitions of 10 different exercises). The meal caused an immediate and persistent thermic effect in both the control and the exercise trial. Mean oxygen consumption over baseline increased 20% in the control trial and 34% in the exercise trial. TEF calculated from VO2 and RER (total area under the response curve above baseline) was 73% greater in the exercise trial compared with the control trial (159 +/- 18 vs. 92 +/- 14 KJ/2 hrs, p carbohydrate meal is enhanced following a single bout of resistance exercise.

  6. Burrowing as a novel voluntary strength training method for mice: A comparison of various voluntary strength or resistance exercise methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roemers, P; Mazzola, P N; De Deyn, P P; Bossers, W J; van Heuvelen, M J G; van der Zee, E A

    2018-04-15

    Voluntary strength training methods for rodents are necessary to investigate the effects of strength training on cognition and the brain. However, few voluntary methods are available. The current study tested functional and muscular effects of two novel voluntary strength training methods, burrowing (digging a substrate out of a tube) and unloaded tower climbing, in male C57Bl6 mice. To compare these two novel methods with existing exercise methods, resistance running and (non-resistance) running were included. Motor coordination, grip strength and muscle fatigue were measured at baseline, halfway through and near the end of a fourteen week exercise intervention. Endurance was measured by an incremental treadmill test after twelve weeks. Both burrowing and resistance running improved forelimb grip strength as compared to controls. Running and resistance running increased endurance in the treadmill test and improved motor skills as measured by the balance beam test. Post-mortem tissue analyses revealed that running and resistance running induced Soleus muscle hypertrophy and reduced epididymal fat mass. Tower climbing elicited no functional or muscular changes. As a voluntary strength exercise method, burrowing avoids the confounding effects of stress and positive reinforcers elicited in forced strength exercise methods. Compared to voluntary resistance running, burrowing likely reduces the contribution of aerobic exercise components. Burrowing qualifies as a suitable voluntary strength training method in mice. Furthermore, resistance running shares features of strength training and endurance (aerobic) exercise and should be considered a multi-modal aerobic-strength exercise method in mice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Effects of aerobic or resistance training or both on health-related quality of life in youth with obesity: the HEARTY Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldfield, Gary S; Kenny, Glen P; Alberga, Angela S; Tulloch, Heather E; Doucette, Steve; Cameron, Jameason D; Sigal, Ronald J

    2017-04-01

    This study examined the effects of aerobic and resistance training, and their combination on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in adolescents with overweight or obesity. After a 4-week run-in period, 304 (91 males, 213 females) post-pubertal adolescents aged 14-18 years, were randomized to 4 groups for 22 weeks of: aerobic training (n = 75), resistance training (n = 78), combined aerobic and resistance training (n = 75), or nonexercising control (n = 76). All participants received dietary counseling with a daily energy deficit of 250 kcal. Indicators of HRQoL such as overall HRQoL, and physical and psychosocial (an aggregate of emotional, social, and school functioning) HRQoL at baseline and 6 months postintervention were measured by the Pediatric Quality of Life questionnaire. The trial began in March 2005 and was completed in June 2011. In the intention-to-treat analyses, all groups showed significant improvements at 6 months on all HRQoL indicators. The aerobic group showed greater improvements than controls on physical HRQoL (mean differences of 5.5; 95% CI; 1.4-9.6, p = 0.009). In participants with ≥70% adherence, combined training produced greater improvements than control on overall HRQoL (mean differences of 4.8, 95% CI; 0.7-9.0, p = 0.02), physical HRQoL (mean differences of 5.8; 95% CI: 0.6-10.7; p = 0.03), social HRQoL (mean differences of 7.6; 95% CI: 1.0-14.2; p = 0.02), and school-based HRQoL (mean differences of 7.6; 95% CI: 1.0-14.2; p = 0.02). These findings highlight the potential importance of including resistance exercise into traditional aerobic exercise programs to maximize HRQoL in adolescents with obesity.

  8. Effect of resistance and aerobic exercises on bone mineral density ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mohamed A. Eid

    2014-01-07

    : There was no significant difference between both groups in the ... ensure better quality of life in patients with hemophilia [5]. It .... placed under the affected knee joint and the child ..... New Delhi: Jaypee Brothers Medical Pub-.

  9. Global Metabolic Stress of Isoeffort Continuous and High Intensity Interval Aerobic Exercise: A Comparative 1H NMR Metabonomic Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zafeiridis, Andreas; Chatziioannou, Anastasia Chrysovalantou; Sarivasiliou, Haralambos; Kyparos, Antonios; Nikolaidis, Michalis G; Vrabas, Ioannis S; Pechlivanis, Alexandros; Zoumpoulakis, Panagiotis; Baskakis, Constantinos; Dipla, Konstantina; Theodoridis, Georgios A

    2016-12-02

    The overall metabolic/energetic stress that occurs during an acute bout of exercise is proposed to be the main driving force for long-term training adaptations. Continuous and high-intensity interval exercise protocols (HIIE) are currently prescribed to acquire the muscular and metabolic benefits of aerobic training. We applied 1 H NMR-based metabonomics to compare the overall metabolic perturbation and activation of individual bioenergetic pathways of three popular aerobic exercises matched for effort/strain. Nine men performed continuous, long-interval (3 min), and short-interval (30 s) bouts of exercise under isoeffort conditions. Blood was collected before and after exercise. The multivariate PCA and OPLS-DA models showed a distinct separation of pre- and postexercise samples in three protocols. The two models did not discriminate the postexercise overall metabolic profiles of the three exercise types. Analysis focused on muscle bioenergetic pathways revealed an extensive upregulation of carbohydrate-lipid metabolism and the TCA cycle in all three protocols; there were only a few differences among protocols in the postexercise abundance of molecules when long-interval bouts were performed. In conclusion, continuous and HIIE exercise protocols, when performed with similar effort/strain, induce comparable global metabolic response/stress despite their marked differences in work-bout intensities. This study highlights the importance of NMR metabonomics in comprehensive monitoring of metabolic consequences of exercise training in the blood of athletes and exercising individuals.

  10. Acute Effects of Aerobic Exercise on Affect and Smoking Craving in the Weeks Before and After a Cessation Attempt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrantes, Ana M; Farris, Samantha G; Minami, Haruka; Strong, David R; Riebe, Deborah; Brown, Richard A

    2018-04-02

    Aerobic exercise may improve smoking abstinence via reductions in craving and negative affect and increases in positive moods. Acute changes in craving and affect before and after structured exercise sessions have not been examined during the weeks prior to and following quit attempts nor has smoking status been examined in relation to these effects. Given that regular cigarette smoking can be perceived as affect enhancing and craving reducing, it is not known whether exercise could contribute additional affective benefit beyond these effects. Participants (N = 57; 68.4% women) were low-active daily smokers randomized to cessation treatments plus either group-based aerobic exercise (AE) or a health-education control (HEC). Mood, anxiety, and craving were assessed before and after each intervention session for each of the 12 weeks. Carbon monoxide (CO) breath samples ≤ 5ppm indicated smoking abstinence. During the prequit sessions, significantly greater decreases in anxiety following AE sessions relative to HEC sessions were observed. Changes in mood and craving were similar after AE and HEC sessions prior to quitting. Postquit attempt, significant reductions in craving and anxiety were observed after AE sessions but not following HEC. During the postquit period, positive mood increased following AE sessions relative to HEC only among individuals who were abstinence on that day. AE may be effective in acutely reducing anxiety prior to a quit attempt and both anxiety and craving following the quit attempt regardless of abstinence status. The mood-enhancing effects of AE may occur only in the context of smoking abstinence. The current findings underscore the importance of examining the acute effects of aerobic exercise prior to and after a cessation attempt and as a function of smoking status. Given the equivocal results from previous studies on the efficacy of exercise for smoking cessation, increasing our understanding of how aerobic exercise produces its

  11. Short term aerobic exercise training increases postprandial pancreatic polypeptide but not peptide YY concentrations in obese individuals

    OpenAIRE

    Kanaley, Jill A.; Heden, Timothy D.; Liu, Ying; Whaley-Connell, Adam T.; Chockalingam, Anand; Dellsperger, Kevin C.; Fairchild, Timothy J.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Short-term exercise training improves glycemic control, but the effect of short-term training on postprandial satiety peptide responses or perceived satiety remains unknown. We tested the hypothesis that short-term aerobic exercise training (15 days) would alter postprandial pancreatic and gut peptide [pancreatic polypeptide (PP) and peptide YY (PYY)] responses and perceived appetite and satiety in obese individuals. Subjects Thirteen healthy obese men and women (age: 42±2 y; BMI: 3...

  12. Effects of Increased Respiratory Resistance on Maximal O2 Uptake and Anaerobic Threshold during Incremental Exercise Tests

    OpenAIRE

    ÖZÇELİK, Oğuz

    2014-01-01

    This study was undertaken to assess whether maximal O2 uptake (VO2max) can be used as an index of measuring aerobic capacity under the condition of increased respiratory resistance. Seven male subjects performed two incremental exercise tests on a cycle ergometer on different days: one control (C) and one breathing through an 8 mm bore diameter respiratory resistance (R). Ventilatory and gas exchange responses were measured with a turbine volume transducer and mass spectrometry, and processed...

  13. EFFECTS OF A 12-WEEK AEROBIC EXERCISE PROGRAM COMBINED WITH MUSIC THERAPY AND MEMORY EXERCISES ON COGNITIVE AND FUNCTIONAL ABILITY IN PEOPLE WITH MIDDLE TYPE OF ALZHEIMER'S DISEASE

    OpenAIRE

    Christina Kampragkou; Paris Iakovidis; Eftychia Kampragkou; Eleftherios Kellis

    2017-01-01

    Background: The Alzheimer's disease is the most common form of dementia and represents 60% of its cases. The disease is characterized by cognitive, non-cognitive and functional deficits and it’s incurable. The main of this study was to examine the effects of the aerobic exercise in combination with the music therapy and memory exercises in functional and cognitive ability on a patient with that have been affected by middle type (Second stage) of Alzheimer's disease. Methods: Thirty patient...

  14. Effect of 8-Week of Selected Aerobic Exercise on Static and Dynamic Balance in Healthy Elderly Inactive Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Mirmoezzi

    2016-04-01

    Conclusion: Our results showed that regular aerobic exercise improves dynamic balance in elderly men. We also found that jogging and walking improved dynamic balance. The improvement in balance may be due to the increase in nervous compatibility (due to exercise; increase in fitness, strength, and motion domain; improvement in aerobic status, response time and mental status; improvement in neuromuscular control, including a decrease in changing movement units; and improvement in simultaneous movement units. Furthermore, there is a positive relationship between body composition and movement with balance. Therefore, regular aerobic activities are recommended as a suitable training method for improving balance.

  15. Aerobic Exercise as a Warm-up for Singing: Acoustic Impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHenry, Monica A; Evans, Joseph

    2017-07-01

    In a previous work, it was found that a 30-minute aerobic workout significantly increased singers' sound pressure level and airflow during voicing, suggesting a shift to flow phonation. This companion study was designed to assess the impact of the same workout on pitch accuracy, vibrato rate, extent and regularity, and the singing power ratio. This study is a cohort experimental study. Twenty-two students in an academic vocal performance program participated. They performed an aerobic workout for 30 minutes. Before and after the workout, they sang the first seven notes of the "Star-Spangled Banner" on /pa/, producing seven /pa/s on the last note. The students then sang an ascending and descending scale to the ninth on "ah." The following measures were obtained from the "Star-Spangled Banner": pitch accuracy calculated on the seventh note ("by"); and vibrato rate, regularity, and extent, calculated on the most sustained sixth note ("see"). For the scale, the following measures were calculated from each note: pitch accuracy; vibrato rate, regularity, and extent; and the singing power ratio. There were no significant differences from pre- to postworkout across any measures. It appears that an aerobic workout positively impacts the respiratory driving force for voice production but does little for phonation. Critical for performance is the fine tuning and balancing across the respiratory, laryngeal, and resonance systems. It appears that this can only be achieved with vocalization exercises, facilitating coordination within and across the physiological systems involved in the complex art of bel canto. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Exer-Genie(Registered Trademark) Exercise Device Hardware Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffner, Grant; Sharp,Carwyn; Stroud, Leah

    2008-01-01

    An engineering evaluation was performed on the ExerGenie(r) exercise device to quantify its capabilities and limitations to address questions from the Constellation Program. Three subjects performed rowing and circuit training sessions to assess the suitability of the device for aerobic exercise. Three subjects performed a resistive exercise session to assess the suitability of the device for resistive exercise. Since 1 subject performed both aerobic and resistive exercise sessions, a total of 5 subjects participated.

  17. Effect of low-impact aerobic exercise combined with music therapy on patients with fibromyalgia. A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espí-López, Gemma V; Inglés, Marta; Ruescas-Nicolau, María-Arántzazu; Moreno-Segura, Noemí

    2016-10-01

    Fibromyalgia is a pathological entity characterized by chronic widespread musculoskeletal pain and the presence of "tender points". It constitutes a significant health problem because of its prevalence and economic impact. The aim of the present study was to determine the therapeutic benefits of low impact aerobic exercise alone or in combination with music therapy in patients with fibromyalgia. A single-blind randomized controlled pilot trial was performed. Thirty-five individuals with fibromyalgia were divided into three groups: (G1) therapeutic aerobic exercise with music therapy (n=13); (G2) therapeutic aerobic exercise at any rhythm (n=13) and (CG) control (n=9). The intervention period lasted eight weeks. Depression, quality of life, general discomfort and balance were assessed before and after intervention. At post-intervention, group G1 improved in all variables (depression (p=0.002), quality of life (p=0.017), general discomfort (p=0.001), and balance (p=0.000)), while group G2 improved in general discomfort (p=0.002). The change observed in balance was statistically different between groups (p=0.01). Therapeutic aerobic exercise is effective in improving depression and general discomfort in individuals with fibromyalgia. However, effectiveness is higher when combined with music therapy, which brings about further improvements in quality of life and balance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Pre-treatment Social Anxiety Severity Moderates the Impact of Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction and Aerobic Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jazaieri, Hooria; Lee, Ihno A.; Goldin, Philippe R.; Gross, James J.

    2015-01-01

    We examined whether social anxiety severity at pre-treatment would moderate the impact of Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) or Aerobic Exercise (AE) for generalized social anxiety disorder. MBSR and AE produced equivalent reductions in weekly social anxiety symptoms. Improvements were moderated by pre-treatment social anxiety severity. PMID:25684277

  19. Aerobic exercise as a tool to improve hippocampal plasticity and function in humans: practical implications for mental health treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kandola, A.; Hendrikse, J.; Lucassen, P.J.; Yücel, M.

    Aerobic exercise (AE) has been widely praised for its potential benefits to cognition and overall brain and mental health. In particular, AE has a potent impact on promoting the function of the hippocampus and stimulating neuroplasticity. As the evidence-base rapidly builds, and given most of the

  20. Can aerobic exercise alleviate flu-like symptoms following interferon beta-1a injections in patients with multiple sclerosis?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langeskov-Christensen, Martin; Kjølhede, Tue; Stenager, Egon

    2016-01-01

    IFNß-1a injections in persons with multiple sclerosis (PwMS). OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that aerobic exercise can alleviate FLS following IFNß-1a injections in PwMS, and secondarily to examine whether or not fluctuations in circulating cytokines provide a mechanism that can explain a potential...

  1. Effects of aerobic exercise, diet, or both on lipids and lipoproteins in adults: a meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    BACKGROUND: Studies addressing the effects of aerobic exercise (E), diet (D), or both (ED) on lipids and lipoproteins have led to conflicting results. OBJECTIVE: Determine the effects of E, D, and ED on lipids and lipoproteins. METHODS: Using the aggregate data meta-analytic approach, studies were ...

  2. Combined effects of aerobic exercise and diet on lipids and lipoproteins in overweight and obese adults: a meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study used the aggregate data meta-analytic approach to determine the combined effects of aerobic exercise and diet on lipids and lipoproteins in overweight and obese adults. Twelve studies representing 859 men and women (443 intervention, 416 control) were included. Using random-effects models...

  3. Effects of aerobic interval training versus continuous moderate exercise programme on aerobic and anaerobic capacity, somatic features and blood lipid profile in collegate females

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzystof Mazurek

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available introduction. Regular physical activity has many positive health benefits, including reducing the risk of cardiovascular diseases, metabolic diseases and some cancers, as well as improving the quality of life. objectives. The aim of the study was to examine the effects of 8-week aerobic interval cycle exercise training (AIT compared to continuous cycle exercises of moderate intensity (CME on the aerobic and anaerobic capacity, somatic features and lipid profile. material and methods. The research was conducted in 88 volunteers aged 19.5±0.6 years, who were randomized to three groups of organized physical activity (OPA, who exercised 3 times per week in 47 min sessions: (I AIT (n=24 comprising 2 series of 6x10 s sprinting with maximal pedalling cadence and active rest pedalling with intensity 65%–75% HRmax, (II CME (n=22 corresponding to 65%-75% HRmax, (III regular collegiate physical education classes of programmed exercises (CON; n=42. Before and after OPA anthropometrics, aero- and anaerobic capacity and lipid profile indices were measured. results. In AIT, a significantly greater decrease of waist circumference and WHR was noted when compared to CON, and a significantly greater reduction of sum of skinfolds than in CON and CME. Improvement in relative and absolute VO2max (L/min and ml/kg/min was significantly higher in AIT than CON. Work output and peak power output in the anaerobic test improved significantly in AIT, CME and CON, but independently of training type. OPA was effective only in reducing triglyceride concentrations in CME and CON groups, without interaction effects in relation to training type. conclusion. It was found that 8 weeks of OPA was beneficial in improving somatic and aerobic capacity indices, but AIT resulted in the greatest improvement in somatic indices (waist circumference, WHR, sum of skinfolds and in VO[sub]2[/sub]max, compared to CME and CON programmes.

  4. NMSBA - Twist Resist - Rotational Exercise Module

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, Aaron [Twist Resist, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Reece, Blake D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Berger, Jason E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Guido, Steven Frank [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Linker, Taylor [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-08-01

    This report contains a summary of the work completed to develop a modular, rotational exercise device. In the report are images, diagrams, and explanations of the efforts contributed to the project since its inception. The purpose of this document is to provide a walk-through of the progress on this project, from the initial design concepts to the final design and work done, so that the customer (Twist Resist), or individuals/firms who work on this project in the future will have a springboard of ideas/concepts to work from.

  5. Aerobic exercise training induces metabolic benefits in rats with metabolic syndrome independent of dietary changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Wesendonck Caponi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: We evaluated the effects of aerobic exercise training without dietary changes on cardiovascular and metabolic variables and on the expression of glucose transporter Type 4 in rats with metabolic syndrome. METHODS: Twenty male spontaneously hypertensive rats received monosodium glutamate during the neonatal period. The animals were allocated to the following groups: MS (sedentary metabolic syndrome, MS-T (trained on a treadmill for 1 hour/day, 5 days/week for 10 weeks, H (sedentary spontaneously hypertensive rats and H-T (trained spontaneously hypertensive rats. The Lee index, blood pressure (tail-cuff system, insulin sensitivity (insulin tolerance test and functional capacity were evaluated before and after 10 weeks of training. Glucose transporter Type 4 expression was analyzed using Western blotting. The data were compared using analysis of variance (ANOVA (p<0.05. RESULTS: At baseline, the MS rats exhibited lower insulin sensitivity and increased Lee index compared with the H rats. Training decreased the body weight and Lee index of the MS rats (MS-T vs. MS, but not of the H rats (H-T vs. H. There were no differences in food intake between the groups. At the end of the experiments, the systolic blood pressure was lower in the two trained groups than in their sedentary controls. Whole-body insulin sensitivity increased in the trained groups. Glucose transporter Type 4 content increased in the heart, white adipose tissue and gastrocnemius muscle of the trained groups relative to their respective untrained groups. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, the present study shows that an isolated aerobic exercise training intervention is an efficient means of improving several components of metabolic syndrome, that is, training reduces obesity and hypertension and increases insulin sensitivity.

  6. Adult hippocampal neurogenesis reduces memory interference in humans: opposing effects of aerobic exercise and depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas eDéry

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Since the remarkable discovery of adult neurogenesis in the mammalian hippocampus, considerable effort has been devoted to unraveling the functional significance of these new neurons. Our group has proposed that a continual turnover of neurons in the DG could contribute to the development of event-unique memory traces that act to reduce interference between highly similar inputs. To test this theory, we implemented a continuous recognition task containing some objects that were repeated across trials as well as some objects that were highly similar, but not identical, to ones previously observed. The similar objects, termed lures, overlap substantially with previously viewed stimuli, and thus, may require hippocampal neurogenesis in order to avoid catastrophic interference. Lifestyle factors such as aerobic exercise and stress have been shown to impact the local neurogenic microenvironment, leading to enhanced and reduced levels of DG neurogenesis, respectively. Accordingly, we hypothesized that healthy young adults who take part in a long-term aerobic exercise regime would demonstrate enhanced performance on the visual pattern separation task, specifically at correctly categorizing lures as similar. Indeed, those who experienced a proportionally large change in fitness demonstrated a significantly greater improvement in their ability to correctly identify lure stimuli as similar. Conversely, we expected that those who score high on depression scales, an indicator of chronic stress, would exhibit selective deficits at appropriately categorizing lures. As expected, those who scored high on the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI were significantly worse than those with relatively lower BDI scores at correctly identifying lures as similar, while performance on novel and repeated stimuli was identical. Taken together, our results support the hypothesis that adult-born neurons in the DG contribute to the orthogonalization of incoming information.

  7. Enhanced erythrocyte antioxidant status following an 8-week aerobic exercise training program in heavy drinkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgakouli, Kalliopi; Manthou, Eirini; Fatouros, Ioannis G; Georgoulias, Panagiotis; Deli, Chariklia K; Koutedakis, Yiannis; Theodorakis, Yannis; Jamurtas, Athanasios Z

    2018-06-01

    Alcohol-induced oxidative stress is involved in the development and progression of various pathological conditions and diseases. On the other hand, exercise training has been shown to improve redox status, thus attenuating oxidative stress-associated disease processes. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effect of an exercise training program that has been previously reported to decrease alcohol consumption on blood redox status in heavy drinkers. In a non-randomized within-subject design, 11 sedentary, heavily drinking men (age: 30.3 ± 3.5 years; BMI: 28.4 ± 0.86 kg/m 2 ) participated first in a control condition for 4 weeks, and then in an intervention where they completed an 8-week supervised aerobic training program of moderate intensity (50-60% of the heart rate reserve). Blood samples were collected in the control condition (pre-, post-control) as well as before, during (week 4 of the training program), and after intervention (week 8 of the training program). Samples were analyzed for total antioxidant capacity (TAC), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), protein carbonyls (PC), uric acid (UA), bilirubin, reduced glutathione (GSH), and catalase activity. No significant change in indices of redox status in the pre- and post-control was observed. Catalase activity increased (p program enhanced erythrocyte antioxidant status in heavy drinkers, indicating that aerobic training may attenuate pathological processes caused by alcohol-induced oxidative stress. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Aerobic capacity, orthostatic tolerance, and exercise perceptions at discharge from inpatient spinal cord injury rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelletier, Chelsea A; Jones, Graham; Latimer-Cheung, Amy E; Warburton, Darren E; Hicks, Audrey L

    2013-10-01

    To describe physical capacity, autonomic function, and perceptions of exercise among adults with subacute spinal cord injury (SCI). Cross-sectional. Two inpatient SCI rehabilitation programs in Canada. Participants (N=41; mean age ± SD, 38.9 ± 13.7y) with tetraplegia (TP; n=19), high paraplegia (HP; n=8), or low paraplegia (LP; n=14) completing inpatient SCI rehabilitation (mean ± SD, 112.9 ± 52.5d postinjury). Not applicable. Peak exercise capacity was