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Sample records for aerobic deterioration influences

  1. Dry matter and nutritional losses during aerobic deterioration of corn and sorghum silages as influenced by different lactic acid bacteria inocula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabacco, E; Righi, F; Quarantelli, A; Borreani, G

    2011-03-01

    The economic damage that results from aerobic deterioration of silage is a significant problem for farm profitability and feed quality. This paper quantifies the dry matter (DM) and nutritional losses that occur during the exposure of corn and sorghum silages to air over 14 d and assesses the possibility of enhancing the aerobic stability of silages through inoculation with lactic acid bacteria (LAB). The trial was carried out in Northern Italy on corn (50% milk line) and grain sorghum (early dough stage) silages. The crops were ensiled in 30-L jars, without a LAB inoculant (C), with a Lactobacillus plantarum inoculum (LP), and with a Lactobacillus buchneri inoculum (LB; theoretical rate of 1 × 10(6) cfu/g of fresh forage). The pre-ensiled material, the silage at silo opening, and the aerobically exposed silage were analyzed for DM content, fermentative profiles, yeast and mold count, starch, crude protein, ash, fiber components, 24-h and 48-h DM digestibility and neutral detergent fiber (NDF) degradability. The yield and nutrient analysis data of the corn and sorghum silages were used as input for Milk2006 to estimate the total digestible nutrients, net energy of lactation, and milk production per Mg of DM. The DM fermentation and respiration losses were also calculated. The inocula influenced the in vitro NDF digestibility at 24h, the net energy for lactation (NE(L)), and the predicted milk yield per megagram of DM, whereas the length of time of air exposure influenced DM digestibility at 24 and 48 h, the NE(L), and the predicted milk yield per megagram of DM in the corn silages. The inocula only influenced the milk yield per megagram of DM and the air exposure affected the DM digestibility at 24h, the NE(L), and the milk yield per megagram of DM in the sorghum silages. The milk yield, after 14 d of air exposure, decreased to 1,442, 1,418, and 1,277 kg/Mg of DM for C, LB, and LP corn silages, respectively, compared with an average value of 1,568 kg of silage at

  2. Aerobic deterioration influences the fermentative, microbiological and nutritional quality of maize and sorghum silages on farm in high quality milk and cheese production chains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgio Borreani

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Maize and sorghum silages are good sources of energy for lactating dairy cows that produce milk destined for fresh and matured cheeses. Silages are usually stored in horizontal silos with or without side walls on commercial farms throughout the world. The main microbiological and nutritional quality problems are related to harvesting time, ensiling technology, and management practices during filling and feed-out. Aerobic deterioration is a key point that must avoided on farms in order to improve the hygienic, chemical and sensorial quality of milk and cheeses. Aerobic deterioration causes large losses of dry matter (DM and quality, and it can cause health problems for animals and humans through the transfer of pathogens and mycotoxins from feed and livestock to food products. The objectives of the present work were to overview management practices connected to the storage of maize and sorghum in horizontal silos on farms producing milk for make Protected Designation of Origin (PDO hard ripened cheese, to define good management practices that should be applied as the basis for safe silage production and to reduce the extent of aerobic deterioration.As silagens de milho e de sorgo são importantes fontes de energia em rações utilizadas na bovinocultura leiteira, sendo que a estocagem desses volumosos é realizada em silos horizontais com ou sem a presença de paredes laterais (trincheira ou superfície, respectivamente, os quais são atrativos em razão do baixo custo de armazenamento, porém suas conformações determinam grande superfície de exposição, o que torna as silagens mais susceptíveis a deterioração aeróbia. Os maiores problemas envolvendo a qualidade microbiológica e nutricional em silagens, estão relacionados às práticas de manejo na colheita, no abastecimento e compactação da massa, na vedação e, principalmente, durante o desabastecimento do silo. O controle da deterioração aeróbia em silagens pode ser o principal

  3. Dynamics Associated with Prolonged Ensiling and Aerobic Deterioration of Total Mixed Ration Silage Containing Whole Crop Corn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huili; Ning, Tingting; Hao, Wei; Zheng, Mingli; Xu, Chuncheng

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the dynamics associated with prolonged ensiling and aerobic deterioration of whole crop corn (WCC) silages and total mixed ration (TMR) silages containing WCC (C-TMR silages) to clarify the differences that account for the enhanced aerobic stability of TMR silages. Laboratory-scale barrel silos were randomly opened after 7, 14, 28, and 56 d of ensiling and were subjected to analyses of fermentation quality, microbial and temperature dynamics during aerobic exposure. WCC and C-TMR silages were both well preserved and microorganisms were inhibited with prolonged ensiling, including lactic acid bacteria. Yeast were inhibited to below the detection limit of 500 cfu/g fresh matter within 28 d of ensiling. Aerobic stability of both silages was enhanced with prolonged ensiling, whereas C-TMR silages were more aerobically stable than WCC silages for the same ensiling period. Besides the high moisture content, the weak aerobic stability of WCC silage is likely attributable to the higher lactic acid content and yeast count, which result from the high water-soluble carbohydrates content in WCC. After silo opening, yeast were the first to propagate and the increase in yeast levels is greater than that of other microorganisms in silages before deterioration. Besides, increased levels of aerobic bacteria were also detected before heating of WCC silages. The temperature dynamics also indicated that yeast are closely associated with the onset of the aerobic deterioration of C-TMR silage, whereas for WCC silages, besides yeast, aerobic bacteria also function in the aerobic deterioration. Therefore, the inclusion of WCC might contribute to the survival of yeast during ensiling but not influence the role of yeast in deterioration of C-TMR silages. PMID:26732329

  4. Dynamics Associated with Prolonged Ensiling and Aerobic Deterioration of Total Mixed Ration Silage Containing Whole Crop Corn

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Huili; Ning, Tingting; Hao, Wei; Zheng, Mingli; Xu, Chuncheng

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the dynamics associated with prolonged ensiling and aerobic deterioration of whole crop corn (WCC) silages and total mixed ration (TMR) silages containing WCC (C-TMR silages) to clarify the differences that account for the enhanced aerobic stability of TMR silages. Laboratory-scale barrel silos were randomly opened after 7, 14, 28, and 56 d of ensiling and were subjected to analyses of fermentation quality, microbial and temperature dynamics during aerobic exposure. WC...

  5. Aerobic deterioration stimulates outgrowth of spore-forming Paenibacillus in corn silage stored under oxygen-barrier or polyethylene films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borreani, Giorgio; Dolci, Paola; Tabacco, Ernesto; Cocolin, Luca

    2013-08-01

    The occurrence of Bacillus and Paenibacillus spores in silage is of great concern to dairy producers because their spores can survive pasteurization and some strains are capable of subsequently germinating and growing under refrigerated conditions in pasteurized milk. The objectives of this study were to verify the role of aerobic deterioration of corn silage on the proliferation of Paenibacillus spores and to evaluate the efficacy of oxygen-barrier films used to cover silage during fermentation and storage to mitigate these undesirable bacterial outbreaks. The trial was carried out on whole-crop maize (Zea mays L.) inoculated with a mixture of Lactobacillus buchneri, Lactobacillus plantarum, and Enterococcus faecium. A standard polyethylene film and a polyethylene-polyamide film with an enhanced oxygen barrier were used to produce the silage bags for this experiment. The silos were stored indoors at ambient temperature (18 to 22°C) and opened after 110 d. The silage was sampled after 0, 2, 5, 7, 9, and 14 d of aerobic exposure to quantify the growth of endospore-forming bacteria during the exposure of silages to air. Paenibacillus macerans (gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic bacteria) was able to develop during the aerobic exposure of corn silage. This species was present in the herbage at harvesting, together with clostridial spores, and survived ensiling fermentation; it constituted more than 60% of the anaerobic spore formers at silage opening. During silage spoilage, the spore concentration of P. macerans increased to values greater than 7.0 log10 cfu/g of silage. The use of different plastic films to seal silages affected the growth of P. macerans and the number of spores during aerobic exposure of silages. These results indicate that the number of Paenibacillus spores could greatly increase in silage after exposure to air, and that oxygen-barrier films could help to reduce the potential for silage contamination of this important group of milk spoilage

  6. Lactic Acid Bacteria in Total Mixed Ration Silage Containing Soybean Curd Residue: Their Isolation, Identification and Ability to Inhibit Aerobic Deterioration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y.; Wang, F.; Nishino, N.

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the effects of the predominant lactic acid bacteria (LAB) on the fermentation characteristics and aerobic stability of total mixed ration (TMR) silage containing soybean curd residue (SC-TMR silage). The SC-TMR materials were ensiled in laboratory silos for 14 or 56 days. LAB predominant in SC-TMR silage were identified (Exp. 1). Lactobacillus fermentum (L. fermentum) and Streptococcus bovis (S. bovis) were found in the untreated materials, Leuconostoc pseudomesenteroides (L. pseudomesenteroides) in 14-day silage and Lactobacillus plantarum (L. plantarum) in all silages. Pediococcus acidilactici (P. acidilactici), Lactobacillus paracasei (L. paracasei), and Lactobacillus brevis (L. brevis) formed more than 90% of the isolates in 56-day silage. Italian ryegrass and whole crop maize were inoculated with P. acidilactici and L. brevis isolates and the fermentation and aerobic stability determined (Exp. 2). Inoculation with P. acidilactici and L. brevis alone or combined improved the fermentation products in ryegrass silage and markedly enhanced its aerobic stability. In maize silage, P. acidilactici and L. brevis inoculation caused no changes and suppressed deterioration when combined with increases in acetic acid content. The results indicate that P. acidilactici and L. brevis may produce a synergistic effect to inhibit SC-TMR silage deterioration. Further studies are needed to identify the inhibitory substances, which may be useful for developing potential antifungal agents. PMID:26949952

  7. Lactic Acid Bacteria in Total Mixed Ration Silage Containing Soybean Curd Residue: Their Isolation, Identification and Ability to Inhibit Aerobic Deterioration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y; Wang, F; Nishino, N

    2016-04-01

    We investigated the effects of the predominant lactic acid bacteria (LAB) on the fermentation characteristics and aerobic stability of total mixed ration (TMR) silage containing soybean curd residue (SC-TMR silage). The SC-TMR materials were ensiled in laboratory silos for 14 or 56 days. LAB predominant in SC-TMR silage were identified (Exp. 1). Lactobacillus fermentum (L. fermentum) and Streptococcus bovis (S. bovis) were found in the untreated materials, Leuconostoc pseudomesenteroides (L. pseudomesenteroides) in 14-day silage and Lactobacillus plantarum (L. plantarum) in all silages. Pediococcus acidilactici (P. acidilactici), Lactobacillus paracasei (L. paracasei), and Lactobacillus brevis (L. brevis) formed more than 90% of the isolates in 56-day silage. Italian ryegrass and whole crop maize were inoculated with P. acidilactici and L. brevis isolates and the fermentation and aerobic stability determined (Exp. 2). Inoculation with P. acidilactici and L. brevis alone or combined improved the fermentation products in ryegrass silage and markedly enhanced its aerobic stability. In maize silage, P. acidilactici and L. brevis inoculation caused no changes and suppressed deterioration when combined with increases in acetic acid content. The results indicate that P. acidilactici and L. brevis may produce a synergistic effect to inhibit SC-TMR silage deterioration. Further studies are needed to identify the inhibitory substances, which may be useful for developing potential antifungal agents.

  8. The influence of age and aerobic fitness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hey-Mogensen, M; Rabøl, R; Stride, N;

    2012-01-01

    Mitochondrial function has previously been studied in ageing, but never in humans matched for maximal oxygen uptake ((V)·O2max). Furthermore, the influence of ageing on mitochondrial substrate sensitivity is not known.......Mitochondrial function has previously been studied in ageing, but never in humans matched for maximal oxygen uptake ((V)·O2max). Furthermore, the influence of ageing on mitochondrial substrate sensitivity is not known....

  9. Effects of Ensiling Fermentation and Aerobic Deterioration on the Bacterial Community in Italian Ryegrass, Guinea Grass, and Whole-crop Maize Silages Stored at High Moisture Content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yanbing; Nishino, Naoki

    2013-09-01

    The effects of storage period and aerobic deterioration on the bacterial community were examined in Italian ryegrass (IR), guinea grass (GG), and whole-crop maize (WM) silages. Direct-cut forages were stored in a laboratory silo for 3, 7, 14, 28, 56, and 120 d without any additives; live counts, content of fermentation products, and characteristics of the bacterial community were determined. 2,3-Butanediol, acetic acid, and lactic acid were the dominant fermentation products in the IR, GG, and WM silages, respectively. The acetic acid content increased as a result of prolonged ensiling, regardless of the type of silage crop, and the changes were distinctively visible from the beginning of GG ensiling. Pantoea agglomerans, Rahnella aquatilis, and Enterobacter sp. were the major bacteria in the IR silage, indicating that alcoholic fermentation may be due to the activity of enterobacteria. Staphylococcus sciuri and Bacillus pumilus were detected when IR silage was spoiled, whereas between aerobically stable and unstable silages, no differences were seen in the bacterial community at silo opening. Lactococcus lactis was a representative bacterium, although acetic acid was the major fermentation product in the GG silage. Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus brevis, and Morganella morganii were suggested to be associated with the increase in acetic acid due to prolonged storage. Enterobacter cloacae appeared when the GG silage was spoiled. In the WM silage, no distinctive changes due to prolonged ensiling were seen in the bacterial community. Throughout the ensiling, Weissella paramesenteroides, Weissella confusa, and Klebsiella pneumoniae were present in addition to L. plantarum, L. brevis, and L. lactis. Upon deterioration, Acetobacter pasteurianus, Klebsiella variicola, Enterobacter hormaechei, and Bacillus gibsonii were detected. These results demonstrate the diverse bacterial community that evolves during ensiling and aerobic spoilage of IR, GG, and WM silages.

  10. Influence of inorganic salt on aerobic biodegradability of dyestuffs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    this paper, the influence of inorganic salt on aerobic biodegradability of dyestuffs was studied by means of semicontinuous activated sludge method. It was found that: biodegradability of dyestuffs would decrease with the increase of the concentration of NaCl; however, biodegradability in the condition of NaCl = 30 g/L was better than that in the condition of NaCl =15 g/L; in the three NaCl conditions, biodegradability of tasted dyestuffs followed the following order: NaCl= 0 g/L > NaCl= 30g/L>NaCl= 15 g/L.

  11. Research on aerobics classes influence on physical prepareduess of students.

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    Krasulia M. А.

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Physical skills of female students doing aerobics have been studied. 165 female students aged 17-18 divided into three groups of 55 each have taken part in the experiment. Groups have been trained according to different methods conventionally called 'power aerobics', 'dance aerobics' and 'jump aerobics'. Level of female students' physical skills has been determined by the results of seven tests in the beginning of an academic year and after six-months term. Mathematical treatment of the results has been carried out. The most preferable as to improving physical skills level method has been discovered to be the one aimed on power abilities development method.

  12. Resistance of biofilm-covered mortars to microbiologically influenced deterioration simulated by sulfuric acid exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soleimani, Sahar, E-mail: ssoleima@connect.carleton.ca; Isgor, O. Burkan, E-mail: burkan_isgor@carleton.ca; Ormeci, Banu, E-mail: banu_ormeci@carleton.ca

    2013-11-15

    Following the reported success of biofilm applications on metal surfaces to inhibit microbiologically influenced corrosion, effectiveness and sustainability of E. coli DH5α biofilm on mortar surface to prevent microbiologically influenced concrete deterioration (MICD) are investigated. Experiments simulating microbial attack were carried out by exposing incrementally biofilm-covered mortar specimens to sulfuric acid solutions with pH ranging from 3 to 6. Results showed that calcium concentration in control reactors without biofilm was 23–47% higher than the reactors with biofilm-covered mortar. Formation of amorphous silica gel as an indication of early stages of acid attack was observed only on the control mortar specimens without biofilm. During acidification, the biofilm continued to grow and its thickness almost doubled from ∼ 30 μm before acidification to ∼ 60 μm after acidification. These results demonstrated that E. coli DH5α biofilm was able to provide a protective and sustainable barrier on mortar surfaces against medium to strong sulfuric acid attack. -- Highlights: •Effectiveness of E.coli DH5α biofilm to prevent MICD was studied. •Conditions that lead to MICD were simulated by chemical acidification. •Biofilm-covered mortar specimens were exposed to sulfuric acid solutions. •The presence of biofilm helped reduce the chemically-induced mortar deterioration. •Biofilm remained alive and continued to grow during the acidification process.

  13. Physical health of young and middle age women under influence of step-aerobics exercises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masliak I.P.

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to determine the degree of step-aerobics exercises’ influence on 20-35 years age women’s health. Material: in the research 28 women of 20-35 years old age participated. Anthropometric indicators, heart beats rate in rest and after load (20 squats for 30 sec., blood pressure, vital capacity of lungs, hand dynamometry were registered. Results: level of physical health has been determined; influence of step-aerobics on women’s health has been found; age differences in the tested indicators have been analyzed. It was found out that step-aerobic trainings influence greatly on the following indicators: body mass, circumferential sizes and cardio vascular system; on functioning of respiratory system, strength of hand’s flexors and regulation of 31-35 years age women’s cardio-vascular system. Conclusions: application of step-aerobic exercises positively influenced on health of 20-35 years old women.

  14. Influence of nuclear glasses composition on their liability to deterioration; Influence de la composition des verres nucleaires sur leur alterabilite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tovena, I.

    1995-09-29

    This contributes to the study of the nuclear glasses composition influence on their liability to deterioration. The methodology of the experimental research used has lead to define between the thirty oxides which form the reference glass light water, six oxides of interest. For each of these oxides, a composition variation area has been defined. A matrix of twenty glass compositions has then been defined. The preparation of materials of these compositions has sometimes lead to materials weakly heterogeneous which have been characterized before deterioration. This study has been completed by those of three glasses in a composition variation area narrower of the light water nuclear glass : the R7T7 and two glasses at limits having respectively an initial dissolution velocity at 100 degrees Celsius theoretically maximum and minimum. Some deterioration parameters in pure water have been experimentally measured on the twenty three glasses : 1) an initial dissolution velocity at 100 degrees (Vo{sub 1}00) Celsius and another one at 90 degrees Celsius (Vo{sub 9}0) 2) a dissolution velocity in conditions near the saturation at 90 degrees Celsius 3) an apparent solubility of glass based on the ortho silicic acid activity 4) the evolution of the dissolution kinetics at 90 degrees Celsius in sub-saturated medium towards saturated medium 5) the alteration films nature developed at the glasses surface during these last alteration tests. Some thermodynamic and structural models have been studied in order to predict Vo{sub 9}0 and Vo{sub 1}00. The dissolution kinetic law developed from reference glass dissolution results has been studied with the calculation code LIXIVER. It has not been able to be used for most of the glasses compositions studied. As a consequence, the glasses dissolution control by a surface reaction which are itself controlled by the only dissolved silica is an hypothesis which is not verified for the greater part of the glasses. (O.L.). refs., figs., tabs.

  15. Freeze-thaw cycles and their influence on marble deterioration: a long-term experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ondrasina, J.; Kirchner, D.; Siegesmund, S.

    2003-04-01

    The deterioration of three marbles (Palissandro, Sterzing and Carrara) differing in composition and rock fabric has been studied using measurements of the thermal dilatation in the temperature range from -40°C up to 60°C. A long-term freeze-thaw experiment was performed to characterize the frost weathering via Youngs's modulus.The results shown that the combined effect of heating and cooling under dry and water-saturated conditions significantly influences the material properties. The thermal dilatation and its anisotropy can be explained by the crystallographic preferred orientation of calcite and dolomite as well as with the thermal expansion behaviour of these minerals. The residual strain, i.e. the permanent length change, after thermal treatment is different for the investigated samples and less pronounced for the dolomitic Palissandro marble. A hygric expansion is of only minor importance for marble. However, a weak hygric expansion was observed in the phlogopite-bearing Palissandro sample at a direction parallel to the foliation. Fresh and artificially weathered marbles were exposed to 204 freeze-thaw cycles. The Young's modulus for the Carrara marble decreases from 55GPa to 28GPa while the porosity increases from 0.25% to 0.62%. The effect on the Palissandro and the calcitic Sterzing marbles is less pronounced. However, artificially weathered marbles clearly exhibit a drastic reduction in Young's modulus. The progressive loss in strength is caused by progressive microfracturing or the loss of cohesion along grain boundaries due to the crystallization pressure of ice growth. The experimental data along with existing theoretical models lead to the conclusion that the physical weathering of marble is influenced by cooling and heating under mid-European climatic conditions.

  16. The influence of childhood aerobic fitness on learning and memory.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren B Raine

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: There is a growing trend of inactivity among children, which may not only result in poorer physical health, but also poorer cognitive health. Previous research has shown that lower fitness has been related to decreased cognitive function for tasks requiring perception, memory, and cognitive control as well as lower academic achievement. PURPOSE: To investigate the relationship between aerobic fitness, learning, and memory on a task that involved remembering names and locations on a fictitious map. Different learning strategies and recall procedures were employed to better understand fitness effects on learning novel material. METHODS: Forty-eight 9-10 year old children (n = 24 high fit; HF and n = 24 low fit; LF performed a task requiring them to learn the names of specific regions on a map, under two learning conditions in which they only studied (SO versus a condition in which they were tested during study (TS. The retention day occurred one day after initial learning and involved two different recall conditions: free recall and cued recall. RESULTS: There were no differences in performance at initial learning between higher fit and lower fit participants. However, during the retention session higher fit children outperformed lower fit children, particularly when the initial learning strategy involved relatively poor recall performance (i.e., study only versus test-study strategy. CONCLUSIONS: We interpret these novel data to suggest that fitness can boost learning and memory of children and that these fitness-associated performance benefits are largest in conditions in which initial learning is the most challenging. Such data have important implications for both educational practice and policy.

  17. Estimation of Concrete Carbonation Depth Considering Multiple Influencing Factors on the Deterioration of Durability for Reinforced Concrete Structures

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    Hae-Chang Cho

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available While the durability of concrete structures is greatly influenced by many factors, previous studies typically considered only a single durability deterioration factor. In addition, these studies mostly conducted their experiments inside the laboratory, and it is extremely hard to find any case in which data were obtained from field inspection. Accordingly, this study proposed an Adaptive Neurofuzzy Inference System (ANFIS algorithm that can estimate the carbonation depth of a reinforced concrete member, in which combined deterioration has been reflected based on the data obtained from field inspections of 9 buildings. The proposed ANFIS algorithm closely estimated the carbonation depths, and it is considered that, with further inspection data, a higher accuracy would be achieved. Thus, it is expected to be used very effectively for durability estimation of a building of which the inspection is performed periodically.

  18. [Application of cowl in semi-aerobic landfill and its influence in initial stage].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Dan; Zhao, You-cai; Xue, Bin-jie; Gao, Pin

    2009-10-15

    Enhancement of semi-aerobic landfill performance through a cowl installed on the gas ventilation pipeline using a simulated landfill box with 2 m x 1 m x 2 m in size was investigated, aiming at the maximum methane emission reduction. Influence of cowl on semi-aerobic environment formation was explored, and variety of methane and carbon dioxide concentrations at different wind speeds and mechanism of cowl operation were identified to provide information on design and improvement of semi-aerobic landfill. The results show that the cowl speeds up the semi-aerobic environment to shape, from over 50 days down to approximately 40 days, and reduces methane emission by promoting methane transformation to carbon dioxide. When the cowl is taken off suddenly during the normal operation, carbon dioxide concentration falls to 15.88% from the initial 16.67% immediately, and methane concentration increases to 16.12% from 6.14%. However, the carbon dioxide and methane concentration becomes 19.18% and 10.05%, respectively, as the cowl is taken on again. Additionally, methane emissions in the exhaust gas were monitored at different wind speeds of 2.0, 3.5, 5.0, 6.5, 8.0 m/s, and finds that the methane concentration reduces from the initial 15% to below 5% when the wind speed increases from 2 m/s to 8 m/s.

  19. Aerobic capacity influences the spatial position of individuals within fish schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killen, Shaun S; Marras, Stefano; Steffensen, John F; McKenzie, David J

    2012-01-22

    The schooling behaviour of fish is of great biological importance, playing a crucial role in the foraging and predator avoidance of numerous species. The extent to which physiological performance traits affect the spatial positioning of individual fish within schools is completely unknown. Schools of juvenile mullet Liza aurata were filmed at three swim speeds in a swim tunnel, with one focal fish from each school then also measured for standard metabolic rate (SMR), maximal metabolic rate (MMR), aerobic scope (AS) and maximum aerobic swim speed. At faster speeds, fish with lower MMR and AS swam near the rear of schools. These trailing fish required fewer tail beats to swim at the same speed as individuals at the front of schools, indicating that posterior positions provide hydrodynamic benefits that reduce swimming costs. Conversely, fish with high aerobic capacity can withstand increased drag at the leading edge of schools, where they could maximize food intake while possibly retaining sufficient AS for other physiological functions. SMR was never related to position, suggesting that high maintenance costs do not necessarily motivate individuals to occupy frontal positions. In the wild, shifting of individuals to optimal spatial positions during changing conditions could influence structure or movement of entire schools.

  20. Genetic Influences on Physiological and Subjective Responses to an Aerobic Exercise Session among Sedentary Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hollis C. Karoly

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To determine whether genetic variants suggested by the literature to be associated with physiology and fitness phenotypes predicted differential physiological and subjective responses to a bout of aerobic exercise among inactive but otherwise healthy adults. Method. Participants completed a 30-minute submaximal aerobic exercise session. Measures of physiological and subjective responding were taken before, during, and after exercise. 14 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs that have been previously associated with various exercise phenotypes were tested for associations with physiological and subjective response to exercise phenotypes. Results. We found that two SNPs in the FTO gene (rs8044769 and rs3751812 were related to positive affect change during exercise. Two SNPs in the CREB1 gene (rs2253206 and 2360969 were related to change in temperature during exercise and with maximal oxygen capacity (VO2 max. The SLIT2 SNP rs1379659 and the FAM5C SNP rs1935881 were associated with norepinephrine change during exercise. Finally, the OPRM1 SNP rs1799971 was related to changes in norepinephrine, lactate, and rate of perceived exertion (RPE during exercise. Conclusion. Genetic factors influence both physiological and subjective responses to exercise. A better understanding of genetic factors underlying physiological and subjective responses to aerobic exercise has implications for development and potential tailoring of exercise interventions.

  1. Aerobic capacity influences the spatial position of individuals within fish schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killen, Shaun S.; Marras, Stefano; Steffensen, John F.; McKenzie, David J.

    2012-01-01

    The schooling behaviour of fish is of great biological importance, playing a crucial role in the foraging and predator avoidance of numerous species. The extent to which physiological performance traits affect the spatial positioning of individual fish within schools is completely unknown. Schools of juvenile mullet Liza aurata were filmed at three swim speeds in a swim tunnel, with one focal fish from each school then also measured for standard metabolic rate (SMR), maximal metabolic rate (MMR), aerobic scope (AS) and maximum aerobic swim speed. At faster speeds, fish with lower MMR and AS swam near the rear of schools. These trailing fish required fewer tail beats to swim at the same speed as individuals at the front of schools, indicating that posterior positions provide hydrodynamic benefits that reduce swimming costs. Conversely, fish with high aerobic capacity can withstand increased drag at the leading edge of schools, where they could maximize food intake while possibly retaining sufficient AS for other physiological functions. SMR was never related to position, suggesting that high maintenance costs do not necessarily motivate individuals to occupy frontal positions. In the wild, shifting of individuals to optimal spatial positions during changing conditions could influence structure or movement of entire schools. PMID:21653593

  2. Aerobic Exercise Intervention, Cognitive Performance, and Brain Structure: Results from the Physical Influences on Brain in Aging (PHIBRA) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonasson, Lars S; Nyberg, Lars; Kramer, Arthur F; Lundquist, Anders; Riklund, Katrine; Boraxbekk, Carl-Johan

    2016-01-01

    Studies have shown that aerobic exercise has the potential to improve cognition and reduce brain atrophy in older adults. However, the literature is equivocal with regards to the specificity or generality of these effects. To this end, we report results on cognitive function and brain structure from a 6-month training intervention with 60 sedentary adults (64-78 years) randomized to either aerobic training or stretching and toning control training. Cognitive functions were assessed with a neuropsychological test battery in which cognitive constructs were measured using several different tests. Freesurfer was used to estimate cortical thickness in frontal regions and hippocampus volume. Results showed that aerobic exercisers, compared to controls, exhibited a broad, rather than specific, improvement in cognition as indexed by a higher "Cognitive score," a composite including episodic memory, processing speed, updating, and executive function tasks (p = 0.01). There were no group differences in cortical thickness, but additional analyses revealed that aerobic fitness at baseline was specifically related to larger thickness in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC), and hippocampus volume was positively associated with increased aerobic fitness over time. Moreover, "Cognitive score" was related to dlPFC thickness at baseline, but changes in "Cognitive score" and dlPFC thickness were associated over time in the aerobic group only. However, aerobic fitness did not predict dlPFC change, despite the improvement in "Cognitive score" in aerobic exercisers. Our interpretation of these observations is that potential exercise-induced changes in thickness are slow, and may be undetectable within 6-months, in contrast to change in hippocampus volume which in fact was predicted by the change in aerobic fitness. To conclude, our results add to a growing literature suggesting that aerobic exercise has a broad influence on cognitive functioning, which may aid in explaining why

  3. Influence of aerobic exercise training on post-exercise responses of aortic pulse pressure and augmentation pressure in postmenopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuhiko eAkazawa

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Central arterial blood pressure (BP is more predictive of future cardiovascular events than is brachial BP because it reflects the BP load imposed on the left ventricle with greater accuracy. However, little is known about the effects of exercise training on central hemodynamic response to acute exercise. The purpose of the present study was to determine the influence of an aerobic exercise regimen on the response of aortic BP after a single aerobic exercise in postmenopausal women. Nine healthy postmenopausal women (age: 61 ± 2 years participated in a 12-week aerobic exercise training regimen. Before and after the training, each subjects performed a single bout of cycling at ventilatory thresholds for 30 min. We evaluated the post-exercise aortic BP response, which was estimated via the general transfer function from applanation tonometry. After the initial pre-training aerobic exercise session, aortic BP did not change significantly: however, aortic pulse pressure and augmentation pressure were significantly attenuated after the single aerobic exercise session following the 12-week training regimen. The present study demonstrated that a regular aerobic exercise training regimen induced the post-exercise reduction of aortic pulse pressure and augmentation pressure. Regular aerobic exercise training may enhance post-exercise reduction in aortic BP.

  4. Evaluation of E. coli biofilm as a protective barrier against microbiologically influenced deterioration of concrete (MICD) under mesophilic temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soleimani, S; Ormeci, B; Isgor, O B

    2013-01-01

    In this study, Escherichia coli DH5α biofilm was evaluated for its potential to control and minimize microbiologically influenced concrete deterioration (MICD) under mesophilic temperatures (37 °C). Escherichia coli DH5α biofilm was first grown on Portland cement mortar disks for 8 days. Mortar disks were then exposed to two different types of sulfur oxidizing bacteria (SOB) (Thiobacillus neapolitanus and Thiobacillus thiooxidans), which use sulfur compounds as substrate and oxidize them to sulfate and sulfuric acid. The effectiveness of the biofilm against MICD was evaluated by measuring pH, sulfate, calcium concentrations in the reactors and surface analysis of the mortar samples using X-ray diffraction and visual inspection. Overall, the results indicate that the E. coli DH5α biofilm showed good protection against MICD induced by SOB at 37 °C.

  5. Influence of repeated bouts of eccentric exercise on high-intensity aerobic performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higino, Wonder Passoni; Aparecido de Souza, Renato; Cavalcanti, Fabio de Sousa; Cardoso, Anderlei Dos Santos; Vasconcelos, Murilo Victor; Fernandes da Silva, Fabiano; Leme, José Alexandre C A

    2016-08-01

    [Purpose] It is believed that eccentric high-intensity exercise can decrease performance in subsequent exercise. However, with repetition, the deleterious effects can be minimized. Thus, this study evaluated the influence of repeated bouts of eccentric exercise on subsequent high-intensity aerobic performance. [Subjects and Methods] Seven healthy and sedentary male volunteers were recruited. a) Visit 1: determination of maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max) and speed associated with maximum oxygen uptake (vVO2max) in incremental treadmill testing; b) Visit 2: run to exhaustion at vVO2max (Tlim control); c) Visit 3: 10 sets of 10 depth jumps, followed by a run to exhaustion at vVO2max (Tlim 1); d) Visit 4: after 6 weeks without any physical training, the volunteers carried out the same procedures as on the third visit (Tlim 2). Data were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) with the post-hoc Tukey test. [Results] Significant differences were found between Tlim control and Tlim 1 (283.4 ± 47.7 s vs. 125.2 ± 64.1 s, respectively), these were not different from Tlim 2. [Conclusion] Eccentric exercise showed deleterious effects on subsequent high-intensity aerobic performance. These effects were minimized after the exercise protocol was repeated 6 weeks after the first event.

  6. Aerobic fitness influences cerebral oxygenation response to maximal exercise in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oussaidene, Kahina; Prieur, Fabrice; Tagougui, Semah; Abaidia, Abdelbasset; Matran, Regis; Mucci, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    The study examined whether the aerobic fitness level modifies the cerebral oxygenation response to incremental ramp exercise, and more specifically the decline in cerebral oxygenation from heavy exercise up to maximal intensities. 11 untrained (VO2max 47.3±4.0 mL min(-1) kg(-1)) and 13 endurance-trained (VO2max 61.2±8.0 mL min(-1) kg(-1)) healthy men performed a maximal ramp cycle exercise. Left prefrontal cortex oxygenation (ΔHbO2) was monitored by near-infrared spectroscopy. A cerebral oxygenation threshold decline (ThCOx) during exercise was determined. ThCox occurred in all subjects but for higher VO2 (mL min(-1) kg(-1)) in endurance-trained than in untrained subjects (Pexercise intensity corresponding to ThCOx, ΔHbO2 was higher in endurance-trained than in untrained subjects (Pexercise intensities in endurance-trained in relation with their higher VO2max than untrained men. These results demonstrated that aerobic fitness influences cerebral oxygenation during exercise.

  7. Aerobic capacity influences the spatial position of individuals within fish schools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Killen, Shaun S.; Marras, Stefano; Steffensen, John Fleng;

    2012-01-01

    of juvenile mullet Liza aurata were filmed at three swim speeds in a swim tunnel, with one focal fish from each school then also measured for standard metabolic rate (SMR), maximal metabolic rate (MMR), aerobic scope (AS) and maximum aerobic swim speed. At faster speeds, fish with lower MMR and AS swam near...

  8. Understanding the removal mechanisms of PPCPs and the influence of main technological parameters in anaerobic UASB and aerobic CAS reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarino, T., E-mail: teresa.alvarino@usc.es; Suarez, S., E-mail: Sonia.suarez@usc.es; Lema, J.M., E-mail: juan.lema@usc.es; Omil, F., E-mail: francisco.omil@usc.es

    2014-08-15

    Highlights: • Removals of 16 PPCPs under aerobic and anaerobic conditions were quantified. • Operation conditions (HRT, v{sub up}, biomass activity and conformation) influenced removal. • Highest removals associated to aerobic biodegradation. • Sorption was only relevant for lipophilic compounds in the UASB reactor. - Abstract: The removal of 16 Pharmaceutical and Personal Care Products (PPCPs) were studied in a conventional activated sludge (CAS) unit and an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor. Special attention was paid to each biomass conformation and activity as well as to operational conditions. Biodegradation was the main PPCP removal mechanism, being higher removals achieved under aerobic conditions, except in the case of sulfamethoxazole and trimetrophim. Under anaerobic conditions, PPCP biodegradation was correlated with the methanogenic rate, while in the aerobic reactor a relationship with nitrification was found. Sorption onto sludge was influenced by biomass conformation, being only significant for musk fragrances in the UASB reactor, in which an increase of the upward velocity and hydraulic retention time improved this removal. Additionally, PPCP sorption increased with time in the UASB reactor, due to the granular biomass structure which suggests the existence of intra-molecular diffusion.

  9. Heart rate recovery after aerobic and anaerobic tests: is there an influence of anaerobic speed reserve?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Rosso, Sebastián; Nakamura, Fabio Y; Boullosa, Daniel A

    2017-05-01

    The present study assessed if differences in the metabolic profile, inferred from the anaerobic speed reserve (ASR), would influence the dynamics of heart rate recovery (HRR) after two modes of exercise. Thirty-nine physical education students (14 females and 25 males) volunteered for this study. Participants carried out three separate testing sessions to assess maximal sprinting speed (MSS, 1st session), repeated sprint ability (RSA, 2nd session) and maximal aerobic speed (MAS) using the Université of Montreal Track Test (UMTT, 3rd session). ASR was defined as the difference between MSS and MAS. Heart rate was continuously registered throughout the tests and during the 5-min post-test recovery. To evaluate the influence of ASR on post-exercise, HRR comparisons between ASR-based groups [high ASR vs. low ASR] and sex groups (males vs. females) were performed. Significant differences (P < 0.05) were found between high ASR and low ASR groups of the same sex for indices of relative HRR after the RSA and UMTT. In addition, after the RSA test, males from the high ASR group had a significantly slower HRR kinetics compared with the males of the low ASR (P < 0.05) and the females of high ASR (P < 0.05); whereas females of the high ASR groups had a faster HRR kinetics compared with the females of low ASR group (P < 0.05). Our results showed that in males, post-exercise HRR could be related to the ASR, whereas in females, the influence of ASR is less clear.

  10. The influence of aerobic fitness status on ventilatory efficiency in patients with coronary artery disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo M.L. Prado

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To test the hypotheses that 1 coronary artery disease patients with lower aerobic fitness exhibit a lower ventilatory efficiency and 2 coronary artery disease patients with lower initial aerobic fitness exhibit greater improvements in ventilatory efficiency with aerobic exercise training. METHOD: A total of 123 patients (61.0±0.7 years with coronary artery disease were divided according to aerobic fitness status into 3 groups: group 1 (n = 34, peak VO217.5 and 24.5 ml/kg/min. All patients performed a cardiorespiratory exercise test on a treadmill. Ventilatory efficiency was determined by the lowest VE/VCO2 ratio observed. The exercise training program comprised moderate-intensity aerobic exercise performed 3 times per week for 3 months. Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT02106533 RESULTS: Before intervention, group 1 exhibited both lower peak VO2 and lower ventilatory efficiency compared with the other 2 groups (p<0.05. After the exercise training program, group 1 exhibited greater improvements in aerobic fitness and ventilatory efficiency compared with the 2 other groups (group 1: ▵ = -2.5±0.5 units; group 2: ▵ = -0.8±0.3 units; and group 3: ▵ = -1.4±0.6 units, respectively; p<0.05. CONCLUSIONS: Coronary artery disease patients with lower aerobic fitness status exhibited lower ventilatory efficiency during a graded exercise test. In addition, after 3 months of aerobic exercise training, only the patients with initially lower levels of aerobic fitness exhibited greater improvements in ventilatory efficiency.

  11. The Influence of Time Spent in Outdoor Play on Daily and Aerobic Step Count in Costa Rican Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morera Castro, Maria del Rocio

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the influence of time spent in outdoor play (i.e., on weekday and weekend days) on daily (i.e., average step count) and aerobic step count (i.e., average moderate to vigorous physical activity [MVPA] during the weekdays and weekend days) in fifth grade Costa Rican children. It was hypothesized that: (a)…

  12. The influence of preliminary aerobic treatment on the efficacy of waste stabilisation under leachate recirculation conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Suchowska-Kisielewicz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the changes in the chemical composition of leachate and the concentrations and quantity of methane production in each individual decomposition phases, determined for untreated and after aerobic treatment of waste stabilised in anaerobic reactors with and without leachate recirculation. The research results demonstrate that leachate recirculation intensifies the decomposition of both aerobically treated and untreated waste. The methane production in the reactor with untreated, stabilised waste with recirculation was 28% higher; and in the reactor with aerobically treated waste, the methane production was 24% higher than in the reactors without recirculation. An important finding of the study is that aerobic treatment of waste prior to landfilling effectively reduces the quantity of pollutant emissions in leachate and biogas from waste and increases the availability for methane micro-organisms of organic substrates from difficult-to-decompose organic substances.

  13. Influence of leachate recirculation on aerobic and anaerobic decomposition of solid wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bilgili, M. Sinan [Yildiz Technical University, Environmental Engineering Department, 34349 Besiktas, Istanbul (Turkey)]. E-mail: mbilgili@yildiz.edu.tr; Demir, Ahmet [Yildiz Technical University, Environmental Engineering Department, 34349 Besiktas, Istanbul (Turkey)]. E-mail: ahmetd@yildiz.edu.tr; Ozkaya, Bestamin [Yildiz Technical University, Environmental Engineering Department, 34349 Besiktas, Istanbul (Turkey)]. E-mail: bozkaya@yildiz.edu.tr

    2007-05-08

    In this study, the effect of leachate recirculation on aerobic and anaerobic degradation of municipal solid wastes is determined by four laboratory-scale landfill reactors. The options studied and compared with the traditional anaerobic landfill are: leachate recirculation, landfill aeration, and aeration with leachate recirculation. Leachate quality is regularly monitored by the means of pH, alkalinity, total dissolved solids, conductivity, oxidation-reduction potential, chloride, chemical oxygen demand, ammonia, and total Kjeldahl nitrogen, in addition to generated leachate quantity. Aerobic leachate recirculated landfill appears to be the most effective option in the removal of organic matter and ammonia. The main difference between aerobic recirculated and non-recirculated landfill options is determined at leachate quantity. Recirculation is more effective on anaerobic degradation of solid waste than aerobic degradation. Further studies are going on to determine the optimum operational conditions for aeration and leachate recirculation rates, also with the operational costs of aeration and recirculation.

  14. Influence of aeration intensity on mature aerobic granules in sequencing batch reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Da-Wen; Liu, Lin; Liang, Hong

    2013-05-01

    Aeration intensity is well known as an important factor in the formation of aerobic granules. In this research, two identical lab-scale sequencing batch reactors with aeration intensity of 0.8 (R1) and 0.2 m(3)/h (R2) were operated to investigate the characteristics and kinetics of matured aerobic granules. Results showed that both aeration intensity conditions induced granulation, but they showed different effects on the characteristics of aerobic granules. Compared with the low aeration intensity (R2), the aerobic granules under the higher aeration intensity (R1) had better physical characteristics and settling ability. However, the observed biomass yield (Y obs) in R1 [0.673 kg mixed liquor volatile suspended solids (MLVSS)/kg chemical oxygen demand (COD)] was lower than R2 (0.749 kg MLVSS/kg COD). In addition, the maximum specific COD removal rates (q max) and apparent half rate constant (K) of mature aerobic granular sludge under the two aeration intensities were at a similar level. Therefore, the matured aerobic granule system does not require to be operated in a higher aeration intensity, which will reduce the energy consumption.

  15. The influence of an acute bout of aerobic exercise on cortical contributions to motor preparation and execution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thacker, Jonathan S; Middleton, Laura E; McIlroy, William E; Staines, W Richard

    2014-10-01

    Increasing evidence supports the use of physical activity for modifying brain activity and overall neurological health. Specifically, aerobic exercise appears to have a positive effect on cognitive function, which some have suggested to be a result of increasing levels of arousal. However, the role of aerobic exercise on movement-related cortical activity is less clear. We tested the hypothesis that (1) an acute bout of exercise modulates excitability within motor areas and (2) transient effects would be sustained as long as sympathetic drive remained elevated (indicated by heart rate). In experiment 1, participants performed unimanual self-paced wrist extension movements before and after a 20-min, moderate intensity aerobic exercise intervention on a recumbent cycle ergometer. After the cessation of exercise, Bereitschaftspotentials (BP), representative cortical markers for motor preparation, were recorded immediately postexercise (Post) and following a return to baseline heart rate (Post[Rest]). Electroencephalography (EEG) was used to measure the BP time-locked to onset of muscle activity and separated into three main components: early, late and reafferent potentials. In experiment 2, two additional time points postexercise were added to the original protocol following the Post[Rest] condition. Early BP but not late BP was influenced by aerobic exercise, evidenced by an earlier onset, indicative of a regionally selective effect across BP generators. Moreover, this effect was sustained for up to an hour following exercise cessation and this effect was following a return to baseline heart rate. These data demonstrate that acute aerobic exercise may alter and possibly enhance the cortical substrates required for the preparation of movement.

  16. Influence of Age and Aerobic Fitness on the Multifractal Characteristics of Electrocardiographic RR Time-Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael James Lewis

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Multifractal properties of electrocardiographic inter-beat (RR time-series offer insight into its long-term correlation structure, independently of RR variability. Here we quantify multifractal characteristics of RR data during 24-hour diurnal-nocturnal activity in healthy participants. We tested the hypotheses that (1 age, gender and aerobic fitness influence RR multifractal properties, and that (2 these are influenced by circadian variation.Seventy adults (39 males aged 19-58 years and of various fitness levels were monitored using 24-hour ECG. Participants were dichotomised by median age and fitness for sub-group analysis. Gender and fitness were independent of age (p=0.1, p>0.5. Younger/older group ages were substantially different (p<0.0005 and were independent of gender and fitness. Multifractality was quantified using the probability spectrum of Hölder exponents (h, from which modal h (h* and the full-width and half-widths at half-maximum measures (FWHM, HWHM+ and HWHM- were derived. FWHM decreased (p=0.004 and h* increased (p=0.011 in older people, indicating diminished long-range RR correlations and weaker anti-persistent behavior. Anti-persistent correlation (h* was strongest in the youngest/fittest individuals and weakest in the oldest/least fit individuals (p=0.015. Long-range correlation (HWHM+/FWHM was strongest in the fittest males and weakest in the least fit females (p=0.007-0.033.Multifractal RR characteristics in our healthy participants showed strong age-dependence with diminished long-range anti-persistent correlation in older people. Circadian variation of these characteristics was influenced by fitness and gender: fitter males and females of all ages had the greatest degree of multifractality or long-range order. Multifractal characterisation appears to be a useful method for exploring the physiological basis of long-term correlation structure in RR time-series as well as the benefits thereon of physical fitness training.

  17. Influence of Aerobic Training and Combinations of Interventions on Cognition and Neuroplasticity after Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constans, Annabelle; Pin-Barre, Caroline; Temprado, Jean-Jacques; Decherchi, Patrick; Laurin, Jérôme

    2016-01-01

    Stroke often aggravated age-related cognitive impairments that strongly affect several aspects of quality of life. However, few studies are, to date, focused on rehabilitation strategies that could improve cognition. Among possible interventions, aerobic training is well known to enhance cardiovascular and motor functions but may also induce beneficial effects on cognitive functions. To assess the effectiveness of aerobic training on cognition, it seems necessary to know whether training promotes the neuroplasticity in brain areas involved in cognitive functions. In the present review, we first explore in both human and animal how aerobic training could improve cognition after stroke by highlighting the neuroplasticity mechanisms. Then, we address the potential effect of combinations between aerobic training with other interventions, including resistance exercises and pharmacological treatments. In addition, we postulate that classic recommendations for aerobic training need to be reconsidered to target both cognition and motor recovery because the current guidelines are only focused on cardiovascular and motor recovery. Finally, methodological limitations of training programs and cognitive function assessment are also developed in this review to clarify their effectiveness in stroke patients.

  18. Aerobic Exercise and Other Healthy Lifestyle Factors That Influence Vascular Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos-Parker, Jessica R.; LaRocca, Thomas J.; Seals, Douglas R

    2014-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) remain the leading cause of death in the United States and other modern societies. Advancing age is the major risk factor for CVD, primarily due to stiffening of the large elastic arteries and the development of vascular endothelial dysfunction. In contrast, regular aerobic exercise protects against the development…

  19. Acute exercise and aerobic fitness influence selective attention during visual search

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom eBullock

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Successful goal directed behavior relies on a human attention system that is flexible and able to adapt to different conditions of physiological stress. However, the effects of physical activity on multiple aspects of selective attention and whether these effects are mediated by aerobic capacity, remains unclear. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of a prolonged bout of physical activity on visual search performance and perceptual distraction. Two groups of participants completed a hybrid visual search flanker/response competition task in an initial baseline session and then at 17-minute intervals over a 2 hour 16 minute test period. Participants assigned to the exercise group engaged in steady-state aerobic exercise between completing blocks of the visual task, whereas participants assigned to the control group rested in between blocks. The key result was a correlation between individual differences in aerobic capacity and visual search performance, such that those individuals that were more fit performed the search task more quickly. Critically, this relationship only emerged in the exercise group after the physical activity had begun. The relationship was not present in either group at baseline and never emerged in the control group during the test period, suggesting that under these task demands, aerobic capacity may be an important determinant of visual search performance under physical stress. The results enhance current understanding about the relationship between exercise and cognition, and also inform current models of selective attention.

  20. Modeling the influence of varying hydraulic conditions on aerobic respiration and denitrification in the hyporheic zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trauth, N.; Schmidt, C.; Fleckenstein, J. H.

    2013-12-01

    Exchange of water and solutes across the stream-sediment interface is an important control for biogeochemical transformations in the hyporheic zone (HZ) with measurable impacts on nutrient cycling and solute attenuation in fluvial systems. Here we investigate the interplay between turbulent stream flow and HZ flow under various hydraulic conditions applied to two cases: a) three-dimensional generic pool-riffle sequences with different morphological properties, and b) a real mid-stream gravel-bar. Stream flow is simulated by the open source computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software OpenFOAM which provides the hydraulic head distribution at the streambed. It is sequentially coupled to the top of the groundwater model code MIN3P, simulating flow, solute transport, aerobic respiration (AR) and denitrification (DN) in the HZ. Flow in the HZ is directly influenced by the hydraulic head distribution at the streambed surface and the ambient groundwater flow. Three reactive transport scenarios are considered: 1) stream water as the primary source of dissolved oxygen (DO), nitrate (NO3) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC), 2) upwelling groundwater as an additionally source of NO3, and 3) upwelling groundwater as an additional source of DO in various concentrations. Results show an increase in hyporheic exchange flow for increasing stream discharge with a concurrent decrease in residence time. The fraction of circulating stream water through the HZ is in the range of 1x10-5 to 1x10-6 per unit stream length, decreasing with increasing discharge. Ambient groundwater flow in both the up- and downwelling direction diminishes significantly the hyporheic exchange flow and extent. Biogeochemical processes in the HZ are strongly controlled by ambient groundwater flow, even more so than by changes in stream discharge. AR and DN efficiencies of the HZ are significantly reduced by up- and downwelling groundwater and are positively correlated with median residence times. AR occurs in

  1. Performing resistance exercise before versus after aerobic exercise influences growth hormone secretion in type 1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yardley, Jane E; Sigal, Ronald J; Riddell, Michael C; Perkins, Bruce A; Kenny, Glen P

    2014-02-01

    We compared growth hormone (GH) and plasma glucose (PG) levels in type 1 diabetic individuals performing aerobic before resistance exercise (AR) to when resistance exercise was performed first (RA). In AR, GH secretion declined in late exercise while it rose throughout exercise in RA, resulting in higher GH in RA versus AR at exercise completion. Higher GH during RA may support PG by increasing hepatic glucose production and lipid mobilization.

  2. Influence of operational conditions on the stability of aerobic granules from the perspective of quorum sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chen; Sun, Supu; Liu, Xiang; Wan, Chunli; Lee, Duu-Jong

    2017-01-25

    Integrated aerobic granules were first cultivated in two sequencing batch reactors (SBRs) (A1 and A2). Then, A1's influent organic loading rate (OLR) was changed from alternating to constant (cycling time was still 6 h), while A2's cycling time varied from 6 to 4 h (influent OLR strategy remained alternating). After 30-day operation since the manipulative alternations, granule breakage happened in two reactors at different operational stages, along with the decrease of granule intensity. Granule diameter in A1 declined from the original 0.84 to 0.32 cm during the whole operation, while granules in A2 dwindled to 0.31 cm on day 22 with similar size to A1. Both the amount of total extracellular polymeric substances (EPSs) and the protein were declining throughout the operation, and the large molecular weight of protein was considered closely related to the stability of aerobic granules. The relative AI-2 level decreased at the same time, and influent OLR strategy might had more evident impact on quorum sensing (QS) ability of sludge compared with starvation period. Combined with microbial results, the decline of total EPS amount in two reactors could be concluded as follows: During the reactor operation, some functional bacteria gradually lost their dominance and were eliminated from the reactors, which finally caused granule disintegration. In summary, the results further confirmed that alternating OLR and proper starvation period were two major factors in effective cultivation and stability of aerobic granules from the perspective of QS.

  3. Influence of storage temperature on growth of Penicillium polonicum and Penicillium glabrum and potential for deterioration of frozen chicken nuggets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saccomori, Fernanda; Wigmann, Évelin Francine; Bernardi, Angélica Olivier; Alcano-González, María de Jesús; Copetti, Marina Venturini

    2015-05-04

    The practice of freezing food is one of the main processes used by the industry to prolong the shelf life of foods. Its use has expanded in recent years due to the increased consumption of convenience products, many of which are sold in frozen form. The temperature at which these foods are maintained during marketing in supermarkets or stored in the consumer's home is critical to ensure microbiological stability of products. Temperature abuse can allow microbial growth, especially growth of filamentous psychrophilic fungi. Besides economic losses in the industrial sector due to the return of products and loss of confidence by consumers, the development of fungi in foods is a public health problem due to the possibility of mycotoxin production. The aim of this study was to assess the growth at temperatures of 5, 0, -5 and -18°C for two species of fungi involved in the deterioration of frozen chicken nuggets, Penicillium polonicum (33/12 NGT) and Penicillium glabrum (29/12 NGT), inoculated both in culture medium and in the food. The results demonstrated that P. polonicum was able to form microcolonies on potato dextrose agar plates at 0°C and form visible colonies on the surface of the frozen chicken nuggets kept at -5°C for 120 days, regardless of brand. For P. glabrum the limiting growth temperature was 5°C in the culture medium and 0°C on frozen chicken nuggets, regardless of the brand analyzed. Thus, it is essential to adhere to the storage temperatures recommended to ensure the stability and safety of this food product.

  4. Presence of aerobic micro-organisms and their influence on basic semen parameters in infertile men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filipiak, E; Marchlewska, K; Oszukowska, E; Walczak-Jedrzejowska, R; Swierczynska-Cieplucha, A; Kula, K; Slowikowska-Hilczer, J

    2015-09-01

    Urogenital tract infections in males are one of the significant etiological factors in infertility. In this prospective study, 72 patients with abnormal semen parameters or any other symptoms of urogenital tract infection were examined. Semen analysis according to the WHO 2010 manual was performed together with microbial assessment: aerobic bacteria culture, Chlamydia antigen test, Candida culture, Ureaplasma and Mycoplasma-specific culture. In total, 69.4% of semen samples were positive for at least one micro-organism. Ureaplasma sp. was the most common micro-organism found in 33% of semen samples of infertile patients with suspected male genital tract infection. The 2nd most common micro-organisms were Enterococcus faecalis (12.5%) and Escherichia coli (12.5%), followed by Staphylococcus aureus (7%), Chlamydia trachomatis (7%) and Candida sp. (5.6%). Generally, bacteria were sensitive to at least one of the antibiotics tested. No statistically significant relationship was observed between the presence of aerobic micro-organisms in semen and basic semen parameters: volume, pH, concentration, total count, motility, vitality and morphology.

  5. The influence of aerobic exercise training on the double product break point in low-to-moderate risk adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargens, Trent A; Griffin, Diane C; Kaminsky, Leonard A; Whaley, Mitchell H

    2011-02-01

    The double product is the product of the heart rate and systolic blood pressure. The double product break point (DPBP) is a physiologic threshold that occurs at similar exercise intensities to that of the ventilatory threshold (VT). The influence of aerobic exercise training on the DPBP has not yet been examined. The purpose of this study was to examine whether aerobic exercise training (ET) increases the exercise intensity at which the DPBP occurs, and whether it increases in a similar fashion to the VT. Seven males and 11 females, all sedentary (mean ± SD: age = 29.9 ± 10.5 years) underwent supervised cardiopulmonary exercise testing using a cycle ergometer ramp protocol at baseline and after 8 weeks of vigorous ET on a cycle ergometer. The VT was determined by gas analysis and the V-slope method. Experienced observers using standardized instructions visually determined the DPBP. Following ET, VO(2 peak), maximal workload, and body composition variables all showed significant positive changes. The VO(2) at which the DPBP and VT occurred increased significantly from baseline to follow-up (P Results suggest that the DPBP responds to ET in a similar fashion to that of the VT, and may be an easier and more useful marker of the VT for exercise training purposes.

  6. Feed restriction and a diet's caloric value: The influence on the aerobic and anaerobic capacity of rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Moura Leandro

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The influence of feed restriction and different diet's caloric value on the aerobic and anaerobic capacity is unclear in the literature. Thus, the objectives of this study were to determine the possible influences of two diets with different caloric values and the influence of feed restriction on the aerobic (anaerobic threshold: AT and anaerobic (time to exhaustion: Tlim variables measured by a lactate minimum test (LM in rats. Methods We used 40 adult Wistar rats. The animals were divided into four groups: ad libitum commercial Purina® diet (3028.0 Kcal/kg (ALP, restricted commercial Purina® diet (RAP, ad libitum semi-purified AIN-93 diet (3802.7 Kcal/kg (ALD and restricted semi-purified AIN-93 diet (RAD. The animals performed LM at the end of the experiment, 48 h before euthanasia. Comparisons between groups were performed by analysis of variance (p Results At the end of the experiment, the weights of the rats in the groups with the restricted diets were significantly lower than those in the groups with ad libitum diet intakes. In addition, the ALD group had higher amounts of adipose tissue. With respect to energetic substrates, the groups subjected to diet restriction had significantly higher levels of liver and muscle glycogen. There were no differences between the groups with respect to AT; however, the ALD group had lower lactatemia at the AT intensity and higher Tlim than the other groups. Conclusions We conclude that dietary restriction induces changes in energetic substrates and that ad libitum intake of a semi-purified AIN-93 diet results in an increase in adipose tissue, likely reducing the density of the animals in water and favouring their performance during the swimming exercises.

  7. The influence of bacterial inoculants on the microbial ecology of aerobic spoilage of barley silage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inglis, G D; Yanke, L J; Kawchuk, L M; McAllister, T A

    1999-01-01

    The aerobic decomposition of barley silage treated with two inoculants (LacA and LacB) containing mixtures of Lactobacillus plantarum and Enterococcus faecium was investigated over a 28-day period. Initially, yeast and bacterial populations were larger in silage inoculated with LacA than in silage treated with LacB or water alone (control). Differences in the succession of yeasts in silage treated with LacA were observed relative to the other two treatments. From silage treatment with LacA, Issatchenkia orientalis was the most prevalent yeast taxon over all of the sample times, and the filamentous fungus Microascus brevicaulis was also frequently isolated at later sample dates (> or = 14 days). In contrast, Saccharomyces exiguus was the most prominent yeast recovered from silage treated with LacB and water alone on days 2 and 4, although it was supplanted by I. orientalis at later sample times. Successional trends of bacteria were similar for all three treatments. Lactobacillus spp. were initially the most prevalent bacteria isolated, followed by Bacillus spp. (primarily Bacillus pumilus). However, the onset of Bacillus spp. prominence was faster in LacA silage, and Klebsiella planticola was frequently recovered at later sample times (> or = 14 days). More filamentous fungi were recovered from LacA silage on media containing carboxylmethylcellulose, pectin, or xylan. The most commonly isolated taxa were Absidia sp., Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus fumigatus, Byssochlamys nivea, Monascus ruber, Penicillium brevicompactum, Pseudoallescheria boydii, and M. brevicaulis. The results of this study indicated that the two bacterial inoculants incorporated into barley at the time of ensilage affected the microbial ecology of silage decomposition following exposure to air. However, neither of the microbial inoculants effectively delayed aerobic spoilage of barley silage, and the rate of decomposition of silage treated with one of the inoculants (LacA) was actually enhanced.

  8. The influence of the training of resistance and the aerobic training on the hormonal concentrations of testosterone and cortisol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.R. Araújo

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this paper is to review the influence of aerobic training and resistance in the acute and chronic concentrations of hormones testosterone and cortisol. In addition, it looks at other important factors, such as age, feeding and circadian rhythm which can modify the concentration of testosterone and cortisol acutely thus making it difficult the understanding of the hormonal answers unchained by the training. Although the diverse controversies found in the present study, the periodical and high intensity activitiesseem to stimulate bigger releases of testosterone and little release of cortisol, contributing , consequently, to the levels of force and muscular hypertrophy. However, new studies need to be carried out with adjusted delineations respecting the diverse interactions (feeding, age, sex, level of experience with the physical training, etc. that involve the physical training.

  9. The influence of hydrolysis induced biopolymers from recycled aerobic sludge on specific methanogenic activity and sludge filterability in an anaerobic membrane bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buntner, D; Spanjers, H; van Lier, J B

    2014-03-15

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the impact of excess aerobic sludge on the specific methanogenic activity (SMA), in order to establish the maximum allowable aerobic sludge loading. In batch tests, different ratios of aerobic sludge to anaerobic inoculum were used, i.e. 0.03, 0.05, 0.10 and 0.15, showing that low ratios led to an increased SMA. However, the ratio 0.15 caused more than 20% SMA decrease. In addition to the SMA tests, the potential influence of biopolymers and extracellular substances, that are generated as a result of excess aerobic sludge hydrolysis, on membrane performance was determined by assessing the fouling potential of the liquid broth, taking into account parameters such as specific resistance to filtration (SRF) and supernatant filterability (SF). Addition of aerobic sludge to the anaerobic biomass resulted in a high membrane fouling potential. The increase in biopolymers could be ascribed to aerobic sludge hydrolysis. A clear positive correlation between the concentration of the colloidal fraction of biopolymer clusters (cBPC) and the SRF was observed and a negative correlation between the cBPC and the SF measured at the end of the above described SMA tests. The latter implies that sludge filtration resistance increases when more aerobic sludge is hydrolyzed, and thus more cBPC is released. During AnMBR operation, proteins significantly contributed to sludge filterability decrease expressed as SRF and SF, whereas the carbohydrate fraction of SMP was of less importance due to low concentrations. On the contrary, carbohydrates seemed to improve filterability and diminish SRF of the sludge. Albeit, cBPC increase caused an increase in mean TMP during the AnMBR operation, confirming that cBPC is positively correlated to membrane fouling.

  10. In situ measurements of soil solution to assess the influence of aerobic/anaerobic conditions on metal mobility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cary, L.; Trolard, F.; Bourrie, G.

    2003-04-01

    Submerged soils are submitted to fast variations of aeration and aerobic-anaerobic conditions. Especially, paddy soils show hydromorphic phenomena on surface - induced by flooding - and in shallow depth in the soil. In Camargue (France), there occurs natural and intensively rice cultivated soils with an aquifer at less than 2 m deep. The aim is to observe and modelize the effects of aerobic-anaerobic variations on the mobility of metals in soils (Pb, Cu, Zn, Fe, Mn and Al). These are linked to oxygen inputs in the soil, due to aeration or oxygenation (Mediterranean storms), O_2 consumption and oxido-reduction processes. While Al, Fe and Mn are mainly inherited, Cu, Zn and Pb are mostly brought by anthropogenic inputs and/or atmospheric deposits. In order to monitor fast variations, we have installed instruments to acquire continuous and in situ measures since summer 2002. We used a multiparametric probe designed for oceanic measurements in seawater. The probe was adapted to monitor in situ pH, oxido-reduction potential, dissolved oxygen, electric conductivity, temperature and pressure in soil solution at 1.1 m depth every hour. It does not require maintenance for months. We added tubing to sample the soil solution in the measuring cell, free from atmosphere and light. Fe(II), nitrogen and sulphides are immediately analysed with a portable spectrophotometer. The results show that low frequency events, such as storms, influence strongly the chemical composition of soil solution at depth, through sharp variations of pH, Eh, Al, Fe(II) and Mn concentrations. The variations of heavy metals are best explained by considering the dynamics of these latter metals, which suggests that soil Al, Fe and Mn oxides act both as sources and as sinks for the former metals.

  11. Influence of bleaching technologies on the aerobic biodegradability of effluents from Eucalyptus kraft pulps factories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gladys Vidal

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Aerobic biodegradability of effluents from different Eucalyptus kraft pulp bleaching processes was studied. Bleaching effluents were obtained from: i Chlorine Bleaching (CB processes, with partial substitution of chlorine by chlorine dioxide and ii Total Chlorine Free (TCF processes. The overall biodegradability, in terms of Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD was higher for TCF effluents (96-98% than for CB ones (82-93%. Taking into account the higher organic load of CB effluents, this fact implied a much higher residual COD for them (100-180 mg/L than for TCF effluents (10-30 mg/L. Furthermore, a refractory fraction of molecular weight higher than 43,000 Da was found in CB effluent, which implied the necessity of a further specific treatment. The toxicity was completely removed after the biological treatmentA biodegradabilidade aerobica das águas residuais provenientes de diferentes procesos de branqueos de pulpa kraft foi estudada. Os efluentes são gerados no branqueo com cloro ou parcialmente sustituido com dioxido de cloro (CB ou bem em processos livres do cloro (TCF. A biodegradabilidade, quantificada como DQO foi maior para as águas do processo CB. Tendo em conta o elevado conteúdo orgânico do efluente CB obteinse uma maior concentraç&ão do DQO final neste efluente comparado com o efluente TCF. Uma fracçao recalcitrante maior a 43,000 Da no effluente BC foi encontrada, isto significa um tratamento adicional específico para sua eliminaçã o. A toxicidade foi totalmente eliminada despois do tratamento aeração.

  12. Influence of aeration modes on leachate characteristic of landfills that adopt the aerobic-anaerobic landfill method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chuanfu; Shimaoka, Takayuki; Nakayama, Hirofumi; Komiya, Teppei; Chai, Xiaoli; Hao, Yongxia

    2014-01-01

    As far as the optimal design, operation, and field application of the Aerobic-Anaerobic Landfill Method (AALM) are concerned, it is very important to understand how aeration modes (different combinations of aeration depth and air injection rate) affect the biodegradation of organic carbon and the transformation of nitrogen in landfill solid waste. Pilot-scale lysimeter experiments were carried out under different aeration modes to obtain detailed information regarding the influence of aeration modes on leachate characteristics. Results from these lysimeter experiments revealed that aeration at the bottom layer was the most effective for decomposition of organic carbon when compared with aeration at the surface or middle layers. Moreover, the air injection rate led to different nitrogen transformation patterns, unlike the lesser influence it has on organic carbon decomposition. Effective simultaneous nitrification and denitrification were observed for the aeration mode with a higher air injection rate (=1.0 L/min). On the other hand, the phenomenon of sequenced nitrification and denitrification could be observed when a low air injection rate (=0.5L/min.) was employed. Finally, it is concluded that, for AALM, air injection with a higher air injection rate at the deepest layer near the leachate collection pipe tends to accelerate the stabilization of landfill waste as defined in terms of the enhancement of denitrification as well as organic carbon decomposition.

  13. Particulate pollution and stone deterioration

    OpenAIRE

    Kendall, Michaela

    1998-01-01

    The soiling and damage of building surfaces may be enhanced by particulate air pollution, reducing the aesthetic value and lifetimes of historic buildings and monuments. This thesis focuses on the deposition of atmospheric particulate material to building surfaces and identifies potential sources of this material. It also identifies environmental factors influencing two deterioration effects: surface soiling and black crust growth. Two soiling models have been compared to assess their effecti...

  14. Influence of aeration on volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) and NH3 emissions during aerobic composting of kitchen waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongyu; Li, Guoxue; Gu, Jun; Wang, Guiqin; Li, Yangyang; Zhang, Difang

    2016-12-01

    This study investigates the influence of aeration on volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) and ammonia (NH3) emissions during kitchen waste composting. Aerobic composting of kitchen waste and cornstalks was conducted at a ratio of 85:15 (wet weight basis) in 60L reactors for 30days. The gas emissions were analyzed with force aeration at rates of 0.1 (A1), 0.2 (A2) and 0.3 (A3) L (kgDMmin)(-1), respectively. Results showed that VSCs emission at the low aeration rate (A1) was more significant than that at other two rates (i.e., A2 and A3 treatment), where no considerable emission difference was observed. On the other hand, NH3 emission reduced as the aeration rate decreased. It is noteworthy that the aeration rate did not significantly affect the compost quality. These results suggest that the aeration rate of 0.2L (kgDMmin)(-1) may be applied to control VSCs and NH3 emissions during kitchen waste composting.

  15. Does Intrasession Concurrent Strength and Aerobic Training Order Influence Training-Induced Explosive Strength and V[Combining Dot Above]O2max in Prepubescent Children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Ana R; Marta, Carlos C; Neiva, Henrique P; Izquierdo, Mikel; Marques, Mário C

    2016-12-01

    Alves, AR, Marta, C, Neiva, HP, Izquierdo, M, and Marques, MC. Does intrasession concurrent strength and aerobic training order influence training-induced explosive strength and V[Combining Dot Above]O2max in prepubescent children?. J Strength Cond Res 30(12): 3267-3277, 2016-The aim of this study was to analyze the interference of strength and aerobic training order over an 8-week period on explosive skills and maximal oxygen uptake (V[Combining Dot Above]O2max) in prepubescent children. One hundred twenty-eight prepubescent children aged 10-11 years (10.9 ± 0.5 years) were randomly selected and assigned to 1 of the 3 groups: intrasession concurrent aerobic before (GAS: n = 39) or after strength training (GSA: n = 45) or control group (GC: n = 44; no training program). The GC maintained their baseline level performance, and training-induced differences were found in the experimental groups. Increases were found in the 1-kg and 3-kg medicine ball throws: GAS: +3%, +5.5%, p ≤ 0.05, p strength variables, and GAS produced better results than GSA for aerobic capacity variables. The present study explored an unknown issue and added useful information to the literature in this area. These training methods should be taken into consideration to optimize explosive strength and cardiorespiratory fitness training in school-based programs and sports club programs.

  16. 健美操训练对女性有氧适能、身体形态与心理健康的影响研究%Research on the Influence of Aerobics Training to Female Aerobic Fitness, Physical Shape and Psychological Health

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李银银; 魏纯

    2015-01-01

    In order to find how aerobics training affects female aerobic fitness, body shape and mental health, with the method of experiments, mathematical statistic and reading existing documents, this paper based on a research of a 12 weeks aerobics training of 30 non – PE major females and the testing results unveiled the positive influence of Aerobics training on female aerobic fitness , physical shape and psychological health.%采用实验测试法、文献资料法和数理统计法,对湖南理工学院非体育专业30名女大学生12周健美操训练后进行有氧适能、身体形态等指标的测试,说明健美操对女性改善有氧适能、身体形态与心理健康中的作用。

  17. Aerobic Exercise Intervention, CognitivePerformance, and Brain Structure : results from the Physical Influences on Brain in Aging (PHIBRA) Study

    OpenAIRE

    Jonasson, Lars; Nyberg, Lars; Kramer, Arthur; Lundquist, Anders; Riklund, Katrine; Boraxbekk, Carl-Johan

    2017-01-01

    Studies have shown that aerobic exercise has the potential to improve cognition and reduce brain atrophy in older adults. However, the literature is equivocal with regards to the specificity or generality of these effects. To this end, we report results on cognitive function and brain structure from a 6-month training intervention with 60 sedentary adults (64–78 years) randomized to either aerobic training or stretching and toning control training. Cognitive functions were assessed with a neu...

  18. Visualising Deteriorating Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Andrews, RN, B.Sc. (Hons, M.Sc., Ph.D.

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available The research aims were to investigate the difficulties ward staff experienced in detecting deterioration and how these were resolved. The emphasis within the literature tends to be on identifying premonitory signs that may be useful in predicting deterioration. Changes in respiratory rate is the most consistent of these (Fieselmann et al. 1993; Sax and Charlson 1987; Schein et al. 1990; Smith and Wood 1998 but in common with other signs, it lacks sensitivity and specificity. The sample consisted of 44 nurses, doctors (Interns and health care support workers from a general medical and surgical ward. Data were collected by means of nonparticipant observations and interviews, using grounded theory as originated by (Glaser and Strauss 1967 and (Glaser 1978. As data were collected, the constant comparative method and theoretical sensitivity were used as outlined in grounded theory. A core category of “visualising deteriorating conditions” emerged, together with its sub-core categories of “intuitive knowing”, “baselining” and “grabbing attention”.The main concern in visualising deteriorating conditions is to ensure that patients suspected of deterioration are successfully referred to medical staff. The aim is to convince those who can treat or prevent further deterioration to intervene. Through intuitive knowing they pick up that patients have changed in a way that requires a medical assessment. To make the referral more credible, nurses attempt to contextualise any changes in patients by baselining (establishing baselines. Finally with the backup of colleagues, nurses refer patients by providing as much persuasive information as possible in a way that grabs attention. The whole process is facilitated by knowledge and experience, together with mutual trust and respect.

  19. Deterioration of Concrete Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thoft-Christensen, Palle

    Chloride ingress is a common cause of deterioration of reinforced concrete bridges. Concrete may be exposed to chloride by seawater or de-icing salts. The chloride initiates corrosion of the reinforcement, which through expansion disrupts the concrete. In addition, the corrosion reduces the cross...

  20. Influence of aerobic exercise intensity on myofibrillar and mitochondrial protein synthesis in young men during early and late postexercise recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Donato, Danielle M; West, Daniel W D; Churchward-Venne, Tyler A; Breen, Leigh; Baker, Steven K; Phillips, Stuart M

    2014-05-01

    Aerobic exercise is typically associated with expansion of the mitochondrial protein pool and improvements in muscle oxidative capacity. The impact of aerobic exercise intensity on the synthesis of specific skeletal muscle protein subfractions is not known. We aimed to study the effect of aerobic exercise intensity on rates of myofibrillar (MyoPS) and mitochondrial (MitoPS) protein synthesis over an early (0.5-4.5 h) and late (24-28 h) period during postexercise recovery. Using a within-subject crossover design, eight males (21 ± 1 yr, Vo2peak 46.7 ± 2.0 ml·kg(-1)·min(-1)) performed two work-matched cycle ergometry exercise trials (LOW: 60 min at 30% Wmax; HIGH: 30 min at 60% Wmax) in the fasted state while undergoing a primed constant infusion of l-[ring-(13)C6]phenylalanine. Muscle biopsies were obtained at rest and 0.5, 4.5, 24, and 28 h postexercise to determine both the "early" and "late" response of MyoPS and MitoPS and the phosphorylation status of selected proteins within both the Akt/mTOR and MAPK pathways. Over 24-28 h postexercise, MitoPS was significantly greater after the HIGH vs. LOW exercise trial (P aerobic exercise in the fasted state resulted in a sustained elevation of both MitoPS and MyoPS at 24-28 h postexercise recovery.

  1. Influence of sludge retention time and temperature on the sludge removal in a submerged membrane bioreactor: comparative study between pure oxygen and air to supply aerobic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, F A; Leyva-Díaz, J C; Reboleiro-Rivas, P; González-López, J; Hontoria, E; Poyatos, J M

    2014-01-01

    Performance of a bench-scale wastewater treatment plant, which consisted of a membrane bioreactor, was monitored daily using pure oxygen and air to supply aerobic conditions with the aim of studying the increases of the aeration and sludge removal efficiencies and the effect of the temperature. The results showed the capacity of membrane bioreactor systems for removing organic matter. The alpha-factors of the aeration were determined for six different MLSS concentrations in order to understand the system working when pure oxygen and air were used to supply aerobic conditions in the system. Aeration efficiency was increased between 30.7 and 45.9% when pure oxygen was used in the operation conditions (a hydraulic retention time of 12 h and MLSS concentrations between 4,018 and 11,192 mg/L). Sludge removal efficiency increased incrementally, from 0.2 to 1.5% when pure oxygen was used at low sludge retention time and from 1.5% to 15.4% at medium sludge retention time when temperature conditions were lower than 20°C. Moreover, the difference between calculated and experimental sludge retention time was lesser when pure oxygen was used to provide aerobic conditions, so the influence of the temperature decreased when the pure oxygen was used. These results showed the convenience of using pure oxygen due to the improvement in the performance of the system.

  2. Concrete Pavement Joint Deterioration

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Concrete pavements are an important part of our national infrastructure. In recent years the relatively small number of reported joints deteriorating prematurely in concrete pavements around Indiana has increased. Changes over the past 45 years in INDOT specification, pavement materials, designs and construction practices, and current de-icing materials were examined and related to the durability of concrete at the joints of existing pavements. A survey of concrete pavements across the state ...

  3. The influence of a pre-exercise sports drink (PRX on factors related to maximal aerobic performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mooneyhan Andy

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pre-exercise sports drinks (PRX are commonly used as ergogenic aids in athletic competitions requiring aerobic power. However, in most cases, claims regarding their effectiveness have not been substantiated. In addition, the ingredients in PRX products must be deemed acceptable by the athletic governing bodies that regulate their use in training and competition. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a modified PRX formulation (known as EM·PACT™ from earlier investigations on factors related to maximal aerobic performance during a graded exercise test. The modification consisted of removing creatine to meet the compliance standards set forth by various athletic organizations that regulate the use of nutritional supplements. Methods Twenty-nine male and female college students varying in levels of aerobic fitness participated in a randomized crossover administration of PRX (containing 14 g/serving of fructose, medium-chain triglycerides, and amino acids mixed with 8 oz. of water and placebo (PL 30 minutes prior to performing a treadmill test with approximately one week separation between the trials. VO2max, maximal heart rate (HR, time to exhaustion (Time, and percentage estimated non-protein fat substrate utilization (FA during two a priori submaximal stages of a graded exercise testing were evaluated. Results The VO2max mean value of the PRX trial was significantly greater than the PL trial (P Conclusions The modified PRX formulation utilized in this investigation supports the findings of the previous investigation and its efficacy for enhancing indices of aerobic performance (specifically VO2max, Time, & FA during graded exercise testing.

  4. Perspectives on Aerobic and Strength Influences on Military Physical Readiness: Report of an International Military Physiology Roundtable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedl, Karl E; Knapik, Joseph J; Häkkinen, Keijo; Baumgartner, Neal; Groeller, Herbert; Taylor, Nigel A S; Duarte, Antonio F A; Kyröläinen, Heikki; Jones, Bruce H; Kraemer, William J; Nindl, Bradley C

    2015-11-01

    Physical fitness training of military recruits is an enduring focus of armies. This is important for safe and effective performance of general tasks that anyone may have to perform in a military setting as well as preparation for more specialized training in specific job specialties. Decades of studies on occupationally specific physical requirements have characterized the dual aerobic and strength demands of typical military tasks; however, scientifically founded strategies to prepare recruits with a good mix of these 2 physiologically opposing capabilities have not been well established. High levels of aerobic training can compromise resistance training gains and increase injury rates. Resistance training requires a greater commitment of time and resources as well as a greater understanding of the science to produce true strength gains that may be beneficial to military performance. These are critical issues for modern armies with increased demands for well-prepared soldiers and fewer injury losses. The actual physical requirements tied to metrics of success in military jobs are also under renewed examination as women are increasingly integrated into military jobs previously performed only by men. At the third International Congress on Soldiers' Physical Performance, a roundtable of 10 physiologists with military expertise presented comparative perspectives on aerobic and strength training. These topics included the physiological basis of training benefits, how to train effectively, how to measure training effectiveness, considerations for the integration of women, and the big perspective. Key discussion points centered on (a) the significance of findings from research on integrated training, (b) strategies for effective strength development, and

  5. Influência dos grãos deteriorados ("tipo" sobre a qualidade da "bebida" de café Influence of deteriorated coffee beans on the taste of the beverage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Lazzarini

    1958-01-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho foi estudada a hipótese de que os grãos de café deteriorados - parcial ou totalmente - existentes normalmente no café beneficiado, pudessem ocasionar desvalorização na qualidade da BEBIDA além do natural rebaixamento do TIPO. Em amostras de café de diversas procedências foi constatado que há acentuada influência dos grãos deteriorados na qualidade da bebida. Cafés isentos de grãos deteriorados foram classificados como de bebida estritamente mole ou mole tornando-se de bebida dura quando nesse mesmo café se encontrou elevada quantidade daqueles grãos. Com menores proporções de grãos deteriorados eram obtidas bebidas de classificação intermediária. Para os cafés de bebida Rio não houve variação na classificação: as amostras com ou sem grãos deteriorados se apresentavam sempre com a mesma bebida.Partly or fully deteriorated beans are present in varying amounts in commercial coffee. They seem to have been affected by external agents prior to drying and vary in color from almost normal to black. The experiments reported in this paper were designed to study the influence of the deteriorated beans on the coffee flavor. Samples were secured from the various coffee growing areas of São Paulo: Campinas, Ribeirão Prêto, Mococa, Pindorama, and Vale do Paraíba. Each was hand--graded, the partly or fully deteriorated beans being separated from the normal ones. The normal beans were then mixed with varying amounts of partly or fully deteriorated beans from the same samples. The following blends were prepared for each of the coffee sources: 1 . normal beans only 2. partly deteriorated beans exclusively 3. mixture of normal beans plus 10% in weight of partly deteriorated ones 4. ditto with 20% 5. ditto with 40% 6. ditto with 2.5% of fully deteriorated beans 7. ditto with 5% 8. ditto with 10% The 8 treatments for each source were replicated 4 times, giving thus a total of 256 variables. They were then submitted to

  6. AKT1 G205T Genotype Influences Obesity-Related Metabolic Phenotypes and Their Responses to Aerobic Exercise Training in Older Caucasians

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, Jennifer A.; Witkowski, Sarah; Ludlow, Andrew T.; Roth, Stephen M.; Hagberg, James M.

    2010-01-01

    As part of the insulin signaling pathway, AKT influences growth and metabolism. The AKT1 gene G205T (rs1130214) polymorphism has potential functional effects. Thus, we determined whether the G205T polymorphism influences metabolic variables and their responses to aerobic exercise training. Following dietary stabilization, healthy, sedentary, 50-75 yr old Caucasian men (n = 51) and women (n = 58) underwent 6 months of aerobic exercise training. Before and after completing the intervention, dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry measured percent body fat, computed tomography measured visceral and subcutaneous fat, and oral glucose tolerance testing measured glucose total area under the curve (AUC), insulin AUC, and insulin sensitivity. Taqman assay determined AKT1 G205T genotypes. At baseline, men with the GG genotype (n = 29) had lower VO2max values (p = 0.026), and higher percent body fat (p = 0.046), subcutaneous fat (p = 0.021), and insulin AUC (p = 0.003) values than T allele carriers (n = 22). Despite their rather disadvantageous starting values, men with the GG genotype seemed to respond to exercise training more robustly than men with the T allele, highlighted by significantly greater fold change improvements in insulin AUC (p = 0.012) and glucose AUC (p = 0.035). Although the GG group also significantly improved VO2max with training, the change in VO2max was not as great as that of the T allele carriers (p = 0.037). In contrast, after accounting for hormone replacement therapy use, none of the variables differed in the women at baseline. As a result of exercise training, women with the T allele (n = 20) had greater fold change improvements in fasting glucose (p = 0.011), glucose AUC (p = 0.017), and insulin sensitivity (p = 0.044) than GG genotype women (n = 38). Our results suggest that the AKT1 G205T polymorphism influences metabolic variables and their responses to aerobic exercise training in older previously sedentary individuals. PMID:21097644

  7. AKT1 G205T genotype influences obesity-related metabolic phenotypes and their responses to aerobic exercise training in older Caucasians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, Jennifer A; Witkowski, Sarah; Ludlow, Andrew T; Roth, Stephen M; Hagberg, James M

    2011-03-01

    As part of the insulin signalling pathway, Akt influences growth and metabolism. The AKT1 gene G205T (rs1130214) polymorphism has potential functional effects. Thus, we determined whether the G205T polymorphism influences metabolic variables and their responses to aerobic exercise training. Following dietary stabilization, healthy, sedentary, 50- to 75-year-old Caucasian men (n = 51) and women (n = 58) underwent 6 months of aerobic exercise training. Before and after completing the intervention, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry was used to measure percentage body fat, computed tomography to measure visceral and subcutaneous fat, and oral glucose tolerance testing to measure glucose total area under the curve (AUC), insulin AUC and insulin sensitivity. Taqman assay was used to determine AKT1 G205T genotypes. At baseline, men with the GG genotype (n = 29) had lower maximal oxygen consumption (VO2 max) values (P = 0.026) and higher percentage body fat (P = 0.046), subcutaneous fat (P = 0.021) and insulin AUC (P = 0.003) values than T allele carriers (n = 22). Despite their rather disadvantageous starting values, men with the GG genotype seemed to respond to exercise training more robustly than men with the T allele, highlighted by significantly greater fold change improvements in insulin AUC (P = 0.012) and glucose AUC (P = 0.035). Although the GG group also significantly improved VO2 max with training, the change in VO2 max was not as great as that of the T allele carriers (P = 0.037). In contrast, after accounting for hormone replacement therapy use, none of the variables differed in the women at baseline. As a result of exercise training, women with the T allele (n = 20) had greater fold change improvements in fasting glucose (P = 0.011), glucose AUC (P = 0.017) and insulin sensitivity (P = 0.044) than GG genotype women (n = 38). Our results suggest that the AKT1 G205T polymorphism influences metabolic variables and their responses to aerobic exercise training in

  8. Castle-palace of “La Calahorra”, Granada: influence of climatic and architectural factors in differential deterioration of their stone masonries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guardia, J. J.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The castle-palace of La Calahorra is a historical building (6th century with a dual-function. The exterior is a castle-fortress of late-medieval style, built with rubbles and rough ashlars of a crystalline limestone of great hardness and strength. The interior is a Renaissance palace, made of micritic limestone and dolomitic sandstone ashlars, both stone materials are porous, soft and low strength. The entire building has an orangey colored due to an iron patina that stains its stone masonries as a result of wind action. There is a differential deterioration among its external and internal, depending on the type of stone used factories, the rainwater and wind action and the building defects detected. While the exterior stone is in good state of conservation, the interior stones shows some important deterioration processes , mainly the micritic limestone present in the ornamental and decorative areas of the central courtyard.El castillo-palacio de La Calahorra es un edificio histórico (s. XVI con una doble funcionalidad. El exterior es un castillo-fortaleza de estilo tardo-medieval, construido con mampuestos y sillarejos de una caliza cristalina de gran dureza y resistencia. El interior es un palacio renacentista, hecho con sillares de caliza micrítica y arenisca dolomítica, ambos materiales pétreos son porosos, blandos y poco resistentes. Todo el edificio tiene una tonalidad anaranjada debido a la pátina de hierro que tiñe sus fábricas y que es consecuencia de la acción del viento. Existe un deterioro diferencial entre sus fábricas externas e internas, según el tipo de piedra empleado, la acción del agua de lluvia y el viento, y los defectos constructivos detectados. Mientras que la piedra exterior está en buen estado de conservación, las interiores sufren importantes procesos de deterioro, principalmente la caliza micrítica presente en las zonas ornamentales y decorativas del patio central.

  9. Calcium carbonate precipitation by heterotrophic bacteria isolated from biofilms formed on deteriorated ignimbrite stones: influence of calcium on EPS production and biofilm formation by these isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Moreno, Angélica; Sepúlveda-Sánchez, José David; Mercedes Alonso Guzmán, Elia Mercedes; Le Borgne, Sylvie

    2014-01-01

    Heterotrophic CaCO3-precipitating bacteria were isolated from biofilms on deteriorated ignimbrites, siliceous acidic rocks, from Morelia Cathedral (Mexico) and identified as Enterobacter cancerogenus (22e), Bacillus sp. (32a) and Bacillus subtilis (52g). In solid medium, 22e and 32a precipitated calcite and vaterite while 52g produced calcite. Urease activity was detected in these isolates and CaCO3 precipitation increased in the presence of urea in the liquid medium. In the presence of calcium, EPS production decreased in 22e and 32a and increased in 52g. Under laboratory conditions, ignimbrite colonization by these isolates only occurred in the presence of calcium and no CaCO3 was precipitated. Calcium may therefore be important for biofilm formation on stones. The importance of the type of stone, here a siliceous stone, on biological colonization is emphasized. This calcium effect has not been reported on calcareous materials. The importance of the effect of calcium on EPS production and biofilm formation is discussed in relation to other applications of CaCO3 precipitation by bacteria.

  10. What Is Aerobic Dancing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... than 24 million people participate in aerobics. Aerobic dance has blossomed into a sport for all to have fun while losing weight and keeping in shape. There are varied forms of aerobics including low-impact, swim and other water aerobics is popular. Dance is still the predominant form and may be ...

  11. Influence of aerobic and anaerobic conditions on survival of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium in Luria-Bertani broth, farm-yard manure and slurry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Semenov, A.V.; Overbeek, van L.S.; Termorshuizen, A.J.; Bruggen, van A.H.C.

    2011-01-01

    The influence of aerobic and anaerobic conditions on the survival of the enteropathogens Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella serovar Typhimurium was investigated in microcosms with broth, cattle manure or slurry. These substrates were inoculated with a green fluorescent protein transformed strai

  12. Influence of aerobic and anaerobic conditions on survival of Escherichia coli O157 : H7 and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium in Luria-Bertani broth, farm-yard manure and slurry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Semenov, Alexander V.; van Overbeek, Leo; Termorshuizen, Aad J.; van Bruggen, Ariena H. C.

    2011-01-01

    The influence of aerobic and anaerobic conditions on the survival of the enteropathogens Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella serovar Typhimurium was investigated in microcosms with broth, cattle manure or slurry. These substrates were inoculated with a green fluorescent protein transformed strai

  13. The connection of hydronephrosis and microcirculation deterioration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vorobets Dmytro

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we have analyzed the influence of hydronephrosis upon the microcirculation system, in situations of pyeloureteral junction obstruction. Herein, bulbar conjunctiva has been chosen as the object of this biomicroscopic study because of its simplicity and the method availability in clinic practice. In fulfilling this work, we ascertained the connections between extravascular, intravascular, vascular and general conjunctival indices of the patients before radical and paliatic correction of the pyeloureteral junction obstruction (i.e. by open and laparoscopic pyeloplasty, endopyelotomy, laser resection and balloon dilatation. We concluded that, apart from the proved deterioration of kidney function, systemic deteriorations of microcirculation may be observed in situations of clinically marked hydronephrosis, according to the results of radioisotope renography and excretory urography.

  14. Influence of Aerobic Exercise on the Body-Esteem of BMI-Abnormal College Students%有氧健身运动对BMI异常大学生身体自尊的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王爱晶; 马英利; 郑祥

    2012-01-01

    采用问卷调查和实验研究等方法,研究了有氧健身运动对BMI异常大学生身体自尊的影响.结果表明:有氧健身锻炼对超体质量和肥胖大学生身体自尊改善作用较为显著,对低体质量学生的影响不明显;15周的有氧健身锻炼对肥胖大学生“身体吸引力”维度的改善不显著.%In this study, questionnaire survey and psychology measurement experiment were made to explore the influence of aerobic exercise on the body-esteem of BMI-abnormal college students. The results indicated that aerobic exercise training made distinct improvement of the body-esteem of both obese and o-verweight students, but it had no obvious influence on underweight students. Aerobic exercise training lasting for 15 weeks had no significant improving effect on the dimension of "physical attractiveness" of o-verweight students.

  15. The influence of aerobic fitness on cerebral white matter integrity and cognitive function in older adults: results of a one-year exercise intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voss, Michelle W; Heo, Susie; Prakash, Ruchika S; Erickson, Kirk I; Alves, Heloisa; Chaddock, Laura; Szabo, Amanda N; Mailey, Emily L; Wójcicki, Thomas R; White, Siobhan M; Gothe, Neha; McAuley, Edward; Sutton, Bradley P; Kramer, Arthur F

    2013-11-01

    Cerebral white matter (WM) degeneration occurs with increasing age and is associated with declining cognitive function. Research has shown that cardiorespiratory fitness and exercise are effective as protective, even restorative, agents against cognitive and neurobiological impairments in older adults. In this study, we investigated whether the beneficial impact of aerobic fitness would extend to WM integrity in the context of a one-year exercise intervention. Further, we examined the pattern of diffusivity changes to better understand the underlying biological mechanisms. Finally, we assessed whether training-induced changes in WM integrity would be associated with improvements in cognitive performance independent of aerobic fitness gains. Results showed that aerobic fitness training did not affect group-level change in WM integrity, executive function, or short-term memory, but that greater aerobic fitness derived from the walking program was associated with greater change in WM integrity in the frontal and temporal lobes, and greater improvement in short-term memory. Increases in WM integrity, however, were not associated with short-term memory improvement, independent of fitness improvements. Therefore, while not all findings are consistent with previous research, we provide novel evidence for correlated change in training-induced aerobic fitness, WM integrity, and cognition among healthy older adults.

  16. The influence of training characteristics on the effect of aerobic exercise training in patients with chronic heart failure : A meta-regression analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vromen, T.; Kraal, J. J.; Kuiper, J.; Spee, R. F.; Peek, N.; Kemps, H. M.

    2016-01-01

    Although aerobic exercise training has shown to be an effective treatment for chronic heart failure patients, there has been a debate about the design of training programs and which training characteristics are the strongest determinants of improvement in exercise capacity. Therefore, we performed a

  17. Discontinuous aerobic biodegradation of dairy wastewater: influence of operation conditions; Depuracion aerobia de vertidos lacteos en regimen discontinuo: influencia de las condiciones de operacion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez Mateos, P.; Romero guzman, F.; Pereda Marin, J. [Departamento Ingenieria Quimica, Facultad de Quimica, Universidad de Sevilla, Sevilla (Spain)

    1995-11-01

    In this work, the effect of different parameters on the aerobic biodegradation of the dairy wastewater has been studied. The variables have been: temperature, initial pH value, light, temperature of the incubation and conditions of adaptability of the inoculum and initial organic load. a kinetic equation that fit of the best to this biodegradation process is studied. 8 refs.

  18. 健美操教学对女大学生终身体育习惯形成的影响%Influence of Aerobics Teaching on Female College Students' Life- long Physical Exercise Habit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    文兰颖

    2011-01-01

    College physical education is the last stage of entering society and the efficient one of cultivating students' life - long physical exercise. This paper relies on the status quo of the aerobics teaching in the five uni- versities of Zhengzhou, and analyzes the influence of aerobics on female students' life - long physical exercise habit by the traits and value of aerobics.%大学体育是学生步入社会的最后阶段,也是培养学生终身健身的最有效阶段。本文以郑州市5所省属本科院校健美操的教学现状为落脚点,从健美操的特点切入,结合健美操的价值,分析了健美操有助于女大学生终身健身习惯的形成。

  19. Optimal pricing and marketing planning for deteriorating items

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moosavi Tabatabaei, Seyed Reza; Sadjadi, Seyed Jafar; Makui, Ahmad

    2017-01-01

    Optimal pricing and marketing planning plays an essential role in production decisions on deteriorating items. This paper presents a mathematical model for a three-level supply chain, which includes one producer, one distributor and one retailer. The proposed study considers the production of a deteriorating item where demand is influenced by price, marketing expenditure, quality of product and after-sales service expenditures. The proposed model is formulated as a geometric programming with 5 degrees of difficulty and the problem is solved using the recent advances in optimization techniques. The study is supported by several numerical examples and sensitivity analysis is performed to analyze the effects of the changes in different parameters on the optimal solution. The preliminary results indicate that with the change in parameters influencing on demand, inventory holding, inventory deteriorating and set-up costs change and also significantly affect total revenue. PMID:28306750

  20. 盐水环境下水泥土桩劣化效应及其对道路复合地基沉降的影响%Deterioration Effect of Soil-cement Pile Under Saltwater Environment and Its Influence on Composite Foundation Settlement of Road

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔新壮; 龚晓南; 李术才; 汤潍泽; 张炯

    2015-01-01

    In order to reveal deterioration effect of soil-cement pile in saltwater environment and its influence on road composite foundation settlement,the deterioration effect of soil-cement in Yellow River Delta in saltwater environment was investigated by model test.The deterioration depth of soil-cement and evolution laws of compressive strength in non-deteriorated regions were analyzed.Based on the conclusion of previous researches on soil-cement deterioration,a practical prediction method for entire life-cycle bearing capacity of soil-cement piles in saltwater environment was proposed based on soil-cement early strength test.At the same time,influence of deterioration of soil-cement pile on composite foundation settlement was investigated by model test and numerical simulation.The results show that during reinforcing the soft subsoil with high salinity groundwater,soil-cement piles are deteriorated from outside to inside.Deterioration of soil-cement has a great influence on bearing capacity of mixed pile,which increases settlement of composite foundation.Furthermore,the pile defects will aggravate deterioration effect of soilcement pile.In order to ensure sustainable stability of subgrade and control its long-term settlement,deterioration of soil-cement should be considered during the design of composite foundation in saltwater region.%为了揭示盐水环境下水泥土桩的劣化效应及其对道路复合地基沉降的影响,通过室内模型试验研究了黄河三角洲盐水环境下水泥土的劣化效应,分析了水泥土劣化深度和未劣化部分抗压强度的演化规律.通过对已有水泥土劣化研究成果进行总结分析,提出了基于水泥土早期强度试验的盐水环境下水泥土桩全寿命周期承载力实用预测方法;同时,通过模型试验和数值模拟研究了水泥土桩劣化对复合地基沉降的影响.研究结果表明:在加固地下水矿化度高的软弱地基时,水泥土桩会从外向内逐渐劣化;

  1. The influence of training characteristics on the effect of aerobic exercise training in patients with chronic heart failure: A meta-regression analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vromen, T; Kraal, J J; Kuiper, J; Spee, R F; Peek, N; Kemps, H M

    2016-04-01

    Although aerobic exercise training has shown to be an effective treatment for chronic heart failure patients, there has been a debate about the design of training programs and which training characteristics are the strongest determinants of improvement in exercise capacity. Therefore, we performed a meta-regression analysis to determine a ranking of the individual effect of the training characteristics on the improvement in exercise capacity of an aerobic exercise training program in chronic heart failure patients. We focused on four training characteristics; session frequency, session duration, training intensity and program length, and their product; total energy expenditure. A systematic literature search was performed for randomized controlled trials comparing continuous aerobic exercise training with usual care. Seventeen unique articles were included in our analysis. Total energy expenditure appeared the only training characteristic with a significant effect on improvement in exercise capacity. However, the results were strongly dominated by one trial (HF-action trial), accounting for 90% of the total patient population and showing controversial results compared to other studies. A repeated analysis excluding the HF-action trial confirmed that the increase in exercise capacity is primarily determined by total energy expenditure, followed by session frequency, session duration and session intensity. These results suggest that the design of a training program requires high total energy expenditure as a main goal. Increases in training frequency and session duration appear to yield the largest improvement in exercise capacity.

  2. The Campylobacter jejuni MarR-like transcriptional regulators RrpA and RrpB both influence bacterial responses to oxidative and aerobic stresses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozan eGundogdu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The ability of the human intestinal pathogen Campylobacter jejuni to respond to oxidative stress is central to bacterial survival both in vivo during infection and in the environment. Re-annotation of the C. jejuni NCTC11168 genome revealed the presence of two MarR-type transcriptional regulators Cj1546 and Cj1556, originally annotated as hypothetical proteins, which we have designated RrpA and RrpB (regulator of response to peroxide respectively. Previously we demonstrated a role for RrpB in both oxidative and aerobic (O2 stress and that RrpB was a DNA binding protein with auto-regulatory activity, typical of MarR-type transcriptional regulators. In this study, we show that RrpA is also a DNA binding protein and that a rrpA mutant in strain 11168H exhibits increased sensitivity to hydrogen peroxide oxidative stress. Mutation of either rrpA or rrpB reduces catalase (KatA expression. However a rrpAB double mutant exhibits higher levels of resistance to hydrogen peroxide oxidative stress, with levels of KatA expression similar to the wild-type strain. Neither the rrpA nor rrpB mutant exhibits any significant difference in sensitivity to either cumene hydroperoxide or menadione oxidative stresses, but both mutants exhibit a reduced ability to survive aerobic (O2 stress, enhanced biofilm formation and reduced virulence in the Galleria mellonella infection model. The rrpAB double mutant exhibits wild-type levels of biofilm formation and wild-type levels of virulence in the Galleria mellonella infection model. Together these data indicate a role for both RrpA and RrpB in the C. jejuni peroxide oxidative and aerobic (O2 stress responses, enhancing bacterial survival in vivo and in the environment.

  3. Therapeutic aspects of aerobic dance participation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estivill, M

    1995-01-01

    An ethnographic analysis of aerobic dance exercise culture was conducted to determine the impact of the culture on the mind-body connection. After a review of the predominant theories on the relationship between vigorous exercise and elevated mood, aerobic dance participants' experiences are reported to illustrate how cognitive experience and self-esteem may be influenced. Interviews revealed that some participants achieved a pleasantly altered state of consciousness and respite from depression and stress. The relationship of the work ethic to achievement of participant satisfaction is underscored.

  4. Evaluation of Seismic Behaviors of Partially Deteriorated Reinforced Concrete Circular Columns Retrofitted with CFRP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongxu Hou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Deficiency of the concrete strength in some regions of reinforced concrete (RC columns in practice may weaken the seismic behaviors of columns. Its effects on RC columns should be well understood. This paper aims to investigate the influences of deteriorated segment on the seismic behaviors of partially deteriorated RC columns and attempts to recover the seismic behaviors of partially deteriorated columns with Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer (CFRP composites. A finite element analysis was carried out to simulate the seismic behaviors of CFRP-confined partially deteriorated RC columns. The numerical results were verified by the laboratory tests of six specimens. Based on the finite element results, the failure location of partially deteriorated columns in an earthquake was predicted, and the effectiveness of CFRP retrofitted on partially deteriorated columns was evaluated.

  5. 健美操对女学生形体塑身的影响研究%The Influence of Aerobic Exercise on Female College Students Body Shape

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李慧林

    2011-01-01

    Aerobic exercise can not only enhance physical fitnne and improve mental health, and can effectively shape the body, make people close to the ideal body standards. The paper systematically counts and analyzes height, weight, chest, hip, waist, thigh, leg, pelvis and shoulder of 20 girls of Jincheng Institute of Technology, and find that aerobic exercise has a positive impact for the different parts of the circumference of female college students'body and contributes to shape the beautiful body.%健美操锻炼不仅能增强体质,提高心理健康水平,而且能有效地塑造形体,使人形体接近理想的标准。文章运用文献资料法、实验法、数理统计法对晋城职业技术学院20名女学生的身高、体重、胸围、臀围、腰围、大腿、小腿、骨盆、肩宽进行系统的、详细的统计与分析,认为健美操对女学生身体各部位的围度都会产生积极的影响,达到形体塑身的效果。

  6. Does job insecurity deteriorate health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caroli, Eve; Godard, Mathilde

    2016-02-01

    This paper estimates the causal effect of perceived job insecurity - that is, the fear of involuntary job loss - on health in a sample of men from 22 European countries. We rely on an original instrumental variable approach on the basis of the idea that workers perceive greater job security in countries where employment is strongly protected by the law and more so if employed in industries where employment protection legislation is more binding; that is, in induastries with a higher natural rate of dismissals. Using cross-country data from the 2010 European Working Conditions Survey, we show that, when the potential endogeneity of job insecurity is not accounted for, the latter appears to deteriorate almost all health outcomes. When tackling the endogeneity issue by estimating an instrumental variable model and dealing with potential weak-instrument issues, the health-damaging effect of job insecurity is confirmed for a limited subgroup of health outcomes; namely, suffering from headaches or eyestrain and skin problems. As for other health variables, the impact of job insecurity appears to be insignificant at conventional levels.

  7. Biodegradation Process and Influencing Factors of Azo Using Anaerobic-aerobic Technology%偶氮染料的厌氧-好氧生物降解过程和影响因素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    温贝贝; 刘志刚; 马鲁铭

    2013-01-01

    The total amount and kinds of azo dyes are the biggest of synthetic dyes. Usually the anaerobic-aerobic process is adopted to degrade the azo dyes, for the azo dyes can be reduced to aromatic amines in anaerobic condition, and then degraded completely in the following aerobic condition. Anaerobic reduction process of azo dyes is influenced by the structure and concentration of azo dye, the kind and concentration of substrates, other electron acceptors, redox mediator, environmental parameters such as temperature and dissolved oxygen, and hydraulic retention time. The degradation of aromatic amines under aerobic conditions is affected by its own structure, concentration, additional carbon, degradation system etc. and disturbed by the auto-oxidation of aromatic amines. Good conditions should be provided to improve the azo dyes degradation efficiency of anaerobic-aerobic technology in practical wastewater treatment.%偶氮染料是总量最大、种类最多的合成染料,其降解处理通常采用厌氧-好氧技术.厌氧过程可实现偶氮染料的还原,好氧过程则完成还原产物芳香胺的去除.厌氧过程受偶氮染料结构和浓度、底物的种类和浓度、其他电子受体、氧化还原介体、温度和DO等环境因素以及水力停留时间的影响.好氧条件下芳香胺的降解过程受其自身的结构、浓度、外加碳源以及降解体系等影响,且自氧化过程影响了芳香胺的生物降解.在实际废水处理中应创造良好的条件提高偶氮染料的厌氧-好氧生物降解效率.

  8. 40 CFR 1042.245 - Deterioration factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... deterioration factors for an engine family with established technology based on engineering analysis instead of... Certifying Engine Families § 1042.245 Deterioration factors. This section describes how to determine... considered to rely on established technology for control of gaseous emissions, except that this does...

  9. 影响健美操裁判员智能构成因素分析%Analysis on Factors Influencing Aerobics Referees Intelligent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶李军

    2012-01-01

    通过文献资料法和专家访谈法等方法对健美操智能构成因素注意力、记忆力、观察力、反应力等进行分析和探讨,为今后加强裁判能力的教学、评价及培养提供理论依据。%Through using the method of literature review and expert interview, this paper made analysis and dis- cussion on attention, memory, observation and reaction of aerobic intelligent. The main purpose is to provide the theoretical basis for strengthening the ability of teaching, evaluation and training.

  10. INFLUENCE OF GRADED AEROBIC EXERCISE ON QUALITY OF LIFE IN POST SURGICAL MITRAL VALVE DISEASE INDIVIDUAL A PROSPECTIVE RANDOMIZED OPEN LABEL STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanthi C

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Post surgical mitral valve disease individual focus their cardiac rehabilitation training on two major goal that is to improve cardiac output response exercises and place an important role in determining exercise tolerance and to improve quality of life. Cardiac rehabilitation programs involve prescribed exercise and education however various other method are being used to improve quality of life. But our study to find out the effectiveness of graded aerobic exercise protocol on ejection fraction and quality of life in post surgical mitral valve disease individuals. Methods: The study design was open label studies total of 100 post surgical mitral valve disease individuals patients from the age group of 20-60 years were recruited from SVIMS hospital. They were randomly divided into two groups. Group I underwent a twelve week structured graded individually tailored exercises. The group II received only none graded (not individualized exercise training. The ejection fraction and quality of life was measured before and after 12 weeks of exercise training for two groups. Results: Repeated measures ANOVA was used to compare mean values of continuous variables between baseline and at the time of discharge and three months after surgery for each parameter. Comparison of means between groups was done by the unpaired student t test. Mean age of the subjects was 40.18±10.29. There was a significant increase in the ejection fraction in the group I(61.34±2.49 to 64.4±3.31 compared to with the group II (61.06±2.51. to 61.62 ±2.37. QOL had improved in group I than group II at p<0.05. Conclusion: A 12 week structured graded aerobic exercise training significantly improved ejection fraction and quality of life in post surgical mitral valve disease individuals.

  11. Microbiologically induced deterioration of concrete: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiping Wei

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Microbiologically induced deterioration (MID causes corrosion of concrete by producing acids (including organic and inorganic acids that degrade concrete components and thus compromise the integrity of sewer pipelines and other structures, creating significant problems worldwide. Understanding of the fundamental corrosion process and the causal agents will help us develop an appropriate strategy to minimize the costs in repairs. This review presents how microorganisms induce the deterioration of concrete, including the organisms involved and their colonization and succession on concrete, the microbial deterioration mechanism, the approaches of studying MID and safeguards against concrete biodeterioration. In addition, the uninvestigated research area of MID is also proposed.

  12. Microbiologically induced deterioration of concrete - A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Shiping; Jiang, Zhenglong; Liu, Hao; Zhou, Dongsheng; Sanchez-Silva, Mauricio

    2013-01-01

    Microbiologically induced deterioration (MID) causes corrosion of concrete by producing acids (including organic and inorganic acids) that degrade concrete components and thus compromise the integrity of sewer pipelines and other structures, creating significant problems worldwide. Understanding of the fundamental corrosion process and the causal agents will help us develop an appropriate strategy to minimize the costs in repairs. This review presents how microorganisms induce the deterioration of concrete, including the organisms involved and their colonization and succession on concrete, the microbial deterioration mechanism, the approaches of studying MID and safeguards against concrete biodeterioration. In addition, the uninvestigated research area of MID is also proposed. PMID:24688488

  13. Postural Balance Following Aerobic Fatigue Tests: A Longitudinal Study Among Young Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Nili; Eliakim, Alon; Zaav, Aviva; Pantanowitz, Michal; Halumi, Monder; Eisenstein, Tamir; Meckel, Yoav; Nemet, Dan

    2016-01-01

    General fatigue can cause aggravation of postural balance, with increased risk for injuries. The present longitudinal study aimed to evaluate the postural balance of young athletes following field aerobic tests throughout 1 year of training. Thirty children from a sports center in Nazareth, participating in a 3 times/week training program (specific to basketball, soccer, or athletic training), were assessed. Postural balance parameters were taken before, immediately after, and 10 min after a 20 m shuttle-run aerobic test, at 3 time points during 1 training year (Start/Y, Mid/Y, and End/Y). Fitness improved at the Mid/Y and End/Y compared to Start/Y. Postural balance significantly deteriorated immediately after the aerobic test and improved significantly in the 10-min testing in all 3 time points, with significant deterioration in the End/Y compared with the Start/Y. In conclusions, postural balance deteriorates immediately after aerobic exercises, and at the end of the year. To better practice drills related to postural balance and possibly to prevent injuries, it is best for young athletes to properly rest immediately following aerobic exercises and to practice postural balance mainly at the beginning and at the middle of the training year.

  14. The Study on Influences of Competitive Aerobics Training to College Students' Sports Fitness%竞技健美操训练对大学生运动体适能影响的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马英; 张琳

    2011-01-01

    Being a kind of competitive sport,competitive aerobics wins the good graces of the college students,and becomes popular in colleges.The paper studied on the influences of competitive aerobics training on college students' sports fitness.The results showed those: the training promoted the abdominal muscles force and endurance.After three mouths training,the sensitivity and balance abilities of subjects were enhanced significantly,the abdomen muscular force and endurance of subjects were also enhanced.The percentage of body fat contain had a few decline.The explosive strength of muscle was no significantly improved.%竞技健美操作为一项集表现艺术美和体育竞技于一身的运动项目,正逐渐在高校中推广普及,并在大学生中蓬勃开展。大连继豪学生体质测试系统相应仪器和Inbody 3.0人体成分分析仪,研究了竞技健美操专项训练对大学生运动员运动体适能的影响,在该实验条件下的研究结果显示:训练后男女生灵敏性和平衡性均提高,腹肌力和腹肌耐力均增强;无论男女,训练后体脂百分比均降低,爆发力提高不显著。

  15. The Deterioration of the English Language

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹轶群

    2013-01-01

    The English language has been deteriorating because of the modern e-mail and chat room language abbreviations, in-corporation of different dialects depending on culture, and the inappropriate use of words as well as incorrect spelling. If we want to keep English language from deterioration, we should take advantage of the advances in technology and to learn about other cultures dialects, but we should keep the proper written and spoken English in mind.

  16. Heritability of aerobic power of individuals in northeast Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, L; Souza, Ec; Oliveira, Mv; do Nascimento, Lfe; Dantas, Pms

    2014-12-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the genetic and environmental contribution to variation in aerobic power in monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins. The sample consisted of 20 MZ individuals (12 females and 8 males) and 16 DZ individuals (12 females and 4 males), aged from 8 to 26 years, residents in Natal, Rio Grande do Norte. The twins were assessed by a multistage fitness test. The rate of heritability found for aerobic power was 77%. Based on the results, the estimated heritability was largely responsible for the differences in aerobic power. This implies that such measures are under strong genetic influence.

  17. 40 CFR 52.1929 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1929 Section 52.1929 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) Regulation for preventing significant deterioration of air... preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  18. Concentrations of butyric acid bacteria spores in silage and relationships with aerobic deterioration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vissers, M.M.M.; Driehuis, F.; Giffel, M.C.T.; Jong, de P.; Lankveld, J.M.G.

    2007-01-01

    Germination and growth of spores of butyric acid bacteria ( BAB) may cause severe defects in semihard cheeses. Silage is the main source of BAB spores in cheese milk. The objectives of the study were to determine the significance of grass silages and corn silages as sources of BAB spores and to inve

  19. Increased Blood Lactate Level Deteriorates Running Economy in World Class Endurance Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoff, Jan; Støren, Øyvind; Finstad, Arnstein; Wang, Eivind; Helgerud, Jan

    2016-05-01

    Blood lactate accumulation is associated with development of muscle fatigue and negatively correlated to endurance performance. No research has quantified the effects of lactate presence at moderate levels of lactate accumulation. The purpose of this study was to test whether 2 moderate blood lactate concentration levels affect running economy (RE) when running at the individual lactate threshold (LT). Seven male world class endurance athletes with an average V[Combining Dot Above]O2max of 80.7 ± 2.7 ml·kg·min or 5.8 ± 0.5 L·min participated in this study. After the V[Combining Dot Above]O2max test, the subjects were resting or walking and in a random order tested for RE at their LT velocity when the blood lactate level reached either 3 mmol·L or 5 mmol·L. After a new 5-minute exercising period at maximal aerobic velocity, the crossover lactate value RE testing was performed. Running economy was significantly (p ≤ 0.05) deteriorated from 0.668 ± 0.044 to 0.705 ± 0.056 ml·kg·m or 5.5% (p ≤ 0.05) for blood lactate level of 3 mmol·L compared with 5 mmol·L, respectively. Increased lactate level from 3 to 5 mmol·L is thus accompanied by deteriorated RE at LT running velocity. The deteriorated RE at moderate levels of lactate concentration emphasizes the importance of avoiding intensities above LT in the early parts of a dominantly aerobic endurance competition. It also emphasizes the importance of a high V[Combining Dot Above]O2max for aerobic endurance athletes and may partly explain the V[Combining Dot Above]O2 slow component as impaired RE.

  20. A single aerobic exercise session accelerates movement execution but not central processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, Kit B; Sage, Michael D; Staines, W Richard; Middleton, Laura E; McIlroy, William E

    2017-03-27

    Previous research has demonstrated that aerobic exercise has disparate effects on speed of processing and movement execution. In simple and choice reaction tasks, aerobic exercise appears to increase speed of movement execution while speed of processing is unaffected. In the flanker task, aerobic exercise has been shown to reduce response time on incongruent trials more than congruent trials, purportedly reflecting a selective influence on speed of processing related to cognitive control. However, it is unclear how changes in speed of processing and movement execution contribute to these exercise-induced changes in response time during the flanker task. This study examined how a single session of aerobic exercise influences speed of processing and movement execution during a flanker task using electromyography to partition response time into reaction time and movement time, respectively. Movement time decreased during aerobic exercise regardless of flanker congruence but returned to pre-exercise levels immediately after exercise. Reaction time during incongruent flanker trials decreased over time in both an aerobic exercise and non-exercise control condition indicating it was not specifically influenced by exercise. This disparate influence of aerobic exercise on movement time and reaction time indicates the importance of partitioning response time when examining the influence of aerobic exercise on speed of processing. The decrease in reaction time over time independent of aerobic exercise indicates that interpreting pre-to-post exercise changes in behavior requires caution.

  1. Assessment of a maintenance model for a multi-deteriorating mode system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ponchet, Amelie, E-mail: amelie.ponchet@utt.f [Institut Charles Delaunay, Universite de technologie de Troyes, UMR CNRS 6279 STMR, 12 rue Marie Curie, 10010 Troyes (France); Fouladirad, Mitra [Institut Charles Delaunay, Universite de technologie de Troyes, UMR CNRS 6279 STMR, 12 rue Marie Curie, 10010 Troyes (France); Grall, Antoine, E-mail: antoine.grall@utt.f [Institut Charles Delaunay, Universite de technologie de Troyes, UMR CNRS 6279 STMR, 12 rue Marie Curie, 10010 Troyes (France)

    2010-11-15

    This paper deals with maintenance policies for stochastically deteriorating systems which are subject to sudden changes in their degradation processes. The main aim is to assess the interest of using change mode monitoring information from a maintenance decision making point of view. Two condition-based maintenance policies are considered and compared, each of them adapted to a specific level of available information, with or without change mode monitoring. Numerical examples show that the time distribution of the change of deterioration rate and the difference between the two possible deterioration rates strongly influence the choice of the best decision rule structure.

  2. Response of flood discharging capacity to the deterioration of the lower Yellow River

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI; Wenxue; LI; Yong; YAO; Wenyi; SU; Yunqi; ZHANG; Xiaohua

    2004-01-01

    Based on the clarifications of the deterioration characteristics of the lower Yellow River (LYR), the influence of river deterioration on flood discharging capacity is studied through theoretical derivation and analysis of field data. This study indicates that response of flood discharging capacity to river deterioration is nonlinear. Sediment depositions in the main channel cause the reductions of dominant discharge and thus the increase of initial flood stage. Reductions in the channel width result in the increases of the rising rate of flood stage and the decrease of flood discharging capacity.

  3. Aerobic landfill bioreactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudgins, Mark P; Bessette, Bernard J; March, John; McComb, Scott T.

    2000-01-01

    The present invention includes a method of decomposing municipal solid waste (MSW) within a landfill by converting the landfill to aerobic degradation in the following manner: (1) injecting air via the landfill leachate collection system (2) injecting air via vertical air injection wells installed within the waste mass; (3) applying leachate to the waste mass using a pressurized drip irrigation system; (4) allowing landfill gases to vent; and (5) adjusting air injection and recirculated leachate to achieve a 40% to 60% moisture level and a temperature between 120.degree. F. and 140.degree. F. in steady state.

  4. 柔韧素质对健美操平衡与柔韧类难度动作影响分析%Influence of Flexibility Quality on Aerobics Balance and Difficulty Movement of Flexibilit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐健

    2014-01-01

    竞技健美操中影响运动员平衡与柔韧类难度动作的主要因素有柔韧素质、成套动作的编排、体能、心理因素。在训练过程中,应采取科学、紧密的训练方法进行柔韧素质训练,重视柔韧素质训练,把柔韧素质训练始终贯穿教学的始终。要系统化地、针对柔韧素质训练不同阶段的特点,采取多种训练方法,并合理安排各种训练方法在训练中所占的比例%The pliable and tought quality, complete set movement arrangement, physical, psychological factors are the main factors which influence athlete’s balance and difficulty movement in competitive aerobics. The scientific and tight training methods should be applied in flexibility quality training, and the training teach-ing should run through modern. According to the characteristics of various periods of flexibility quality training, it should adopt various training methods and reasonable arrangement of their proportion in training.

  5. Similarities and differences in bare concrete deck deterioration curves from multi NDE technology surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jinyoung; Gucunski, Nenad; Dinh, Kien

    2016-04-01

    Reinforced concrete decks are in most cases the fastest deteriorating components of a bridge due to the multitude of influencing factors: direct traffic loading and environmental effects, maintenance activities (salting), etc. Among many deterioration types, corrosion-induced deterioration is the most common problem in reinforced concrete decks. The study concentrates on the condition assessment of bridge decks using complementary NDE techniques. The assessment has three main components: assessment of corrosive environment and corrosion processes, and assessment with respect to the deck delamination. The study concentrates on a complementary use of five NDE techniques: impact echo (IE) to detect and characterize delamination, ground penetrating radar (GPR) to describe the corrosive environment and detect delamination, and electrical resistivity (ER) to estimate the corrosion rate by measuring concrete resistivity. The ability of the NDE methods to objectively characterize deterioration progression is illustrated by the results from NDE surveys of 10 bridges of different ages in New Jersey during a period of one year. The deterioration progression is illustrated by condition maps and condition indices. As demonstrated in the paper, multiple deterioration models are developed utilizing the proposed methodology, which shows high potential for development of more realistic deterioration and life cycle cost models for bridge decks.

  6. Modelling of Deterioration Effects on Concrete Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Teplý

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to predict the service life of concrete structures models for deterioration effects are needed. This paper has the form of a survey, listing and describing such analytical models, namely carbonation of concrete, ingress of chlorides, corrosion of reinforcing steel and prestressing tendons. The probabilistic approach is applied.

  7. Mechanisms of aerobic performance impairment with heat stress and dehydration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheuvront, Samuel N; Kenefick, Robert W; Montain, Scott J; Sawka, Michael N

    2010-12-01

    Environmental heat stress can challenge the limits of human cardiovascular and temperature regulation, body fluid balance, and thus aerobic performance. This minireview proposes that the cardiovascular adjustments accompanying high skin temperatures (T(sk)), alone or in combination with high core body temperatures (T(c)), provide a primary explanation for impaired aerobic exercise performance in warm-hot environments. The independent (T(sk)) and combined (T(sk) + T(c)) effects of hyperthermia reduce maximal oxygen uptake (Vo(2max)), which leads to higher relative exercise intensity and an exponential decline in aerobic performance at any given exercise workload. Greater relative exercise intensity increases cardiovascular strain, which is a prominent mediator of rated perceived exertion. As a consequence, incremental or constant-rate exercise is more difficult to sustain (earlier fatigue) or requires a slowing of self-paced exercise to achieve a similar sensation of effort. It is proposed that high T(sk) and T(c) impair aerobic performance in tandem primarily through elevated cardiovascular strain, rather than a deterioration in central nervous system (CNS) function or skeletal muscle metabolism. Evaporative sweating is the principal means of heat loss in warm-hot environments where sweat losses frequently exceed fluid intakes. When dehydration exceeds 3% of total body water (2% of body mass) then aerobic performance is consistently impaired independent and additive to heat stress. Dehydration augments hyperthermia and plasma volume reductions, which combine to accentuate cardiovascular strain and reduce Vo(2max). Importantly, the negative performance consequences of dehydration worsen as T(sk) increases.

  8. Research on the Influence of Aerobic Exercise in Fitness Clubs on Female Member's Physical and Mental Health Self-evaluation%健身会所女性会员有氧锻炼对于提高身心健康自评水平的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许锁迪

    2012-01-01

    This paper adopts the method of questionnaire survey,establishes the multivariable stepwise regression model,and carries out a survey into the aerobic exercise of young female members at the age of 20~40 in Ningbo fitness clubs.It is of great significance to enhancing the effect of aerobic exercises and the physical and mental health of young females.This study's result reveals that the duration of each aerobic exercise and the frequency of aerobic exercises for each week have an outstanding positive influence on reducing young females' physical and mental pressure and enhancing their physical and mental health,while the intensity of aerobic exercise has little to do with health self-evaluation.%采用问卷调查法,建立逐步多元性回归分析模型,对宁波市健身会所中20~40岁中青年会员的有氧锻炼情况进行调查。这对提高中青年女性的有氧锻炼的效果及身心健康有很大的价值。研究结果显示:每次有氧锻炼时间和每周锻炼次数的多少对减轻中青年女性的身心压力、提高身心健康自评水平有非常显著的积极影响,而有氧锻炼的强度对健康自评则无显著作用。

  9. Deterioration of gait and balance over time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreisel, Stefan H; Blahak, Christian; Bäzner, Hansjörg

    2013-01-01

    Cross-sectional studies have shown an association between the severity of age-related white matter change (ARWMC) and lower body motor function. However, the association between prevalent ARWMC and incident deterioration of balance and gait remains insufficiently investigated. This study...... relevance: given the increasing use of neuroimaging, incidental white matter pathology is common; being able to delineate natural trajectories of balance and gait function given ARWMC may improve patient advice and help optimize allocation of care....... investigates if the degree of prevalent ARWMC has a differential effect on lower body motor function as it changes over time, hypothesizing that individuals with more severe baseline white matter pathology experience greater clinical deterioration independent of potential confounders. This is of clinical...

  10. Influencia del ejercicio físico aeróbico durante el embarazo en los niveles de hemoglobina y de hierro maternos. (Influence of the physical aerobic exercise during pregnancy in the maternal haemoglobin and iron levels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Stirling

    2008-04-01

    coexist without maternal-foetal conflicts and without the pregnancy outcome are altered. Especially when day by day, they are more the women that want to continue training in some way, during their pregnancy. The aim of this investigation is to know the influence of the moderate aerobic exercise developed during the second and third pregnancy trimesters on haemoglobin and iron maternal levels. Materials and methods: An experimental design was used. It included a total of 142 pregnant. Cases Group: integrated by 72 women. Control Group: integrated by 70 women. The studied maternal parameters were: iron levels, haemoglobin level, gestational age, type of delivery. Foetal: birth weight, size, cranial perimeter, Apgar test (1´y 5´. Results: Results show not significant differences between both groups at statistical level (p menor que 0.05, cases group (exercise present similar results related to haemoglobin levels: 12.1 ± 0.8 and iron: 65.90 ± 7.1 that the control group: haemoglobin: 12.3 ± 0.8 and iron: 66.42 ± 8.4. The birth weight was inferior in the case group inside nor- mal values (-142.1grs.. Conclusion: The moderate and aerobic exercise developed during the second and third pregnancy trimester seems not to influence in maternal haemoglobin and iron levels.

  11. Aerobic fitness is associated with greater hippocampal cerebral blood flow in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Chaddock-Heyman

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study is the first to investigate whether cerebral blood flow in the hippocampus relates to aerobic fitness in children. In particular, we used arterial spin labeling (ASL perfusion MRI to provide a quantitative measure of blood flow in the hippocampus in 73 7- to 9-year-old preadolescent children. Indeed, aerobic fitness was found to relate to greater perfusion in the hippocampus, independent of age, sex, and hippocampal volume. Such results suggest improved microcirculation and cerebral vasculature in preadolescent children with higher levels of aerobic fitness. Further, aerobic fitness may influence how the brain regulates its metabolic demands via blood flow in a region of the brain important for learning and memory. To add specificity to the relationship of fitness to the hippocampus, we demonstrate no significant association between aerobic fitness and cerebral blood flow in the brainstem. Our results reinforce the importance of aerobic fitness during a critical period of child development.

  12. Brain plasticity and aerobic fitness

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Regular aerobic exercise has a wide range of positive effects on health and cognition. Exercise has been demonstrated to provide a particularly powerful and replicable method of triggering a wide range of structural changes within both human and animal brains. However, the details and mechanisms of these changes remain poorly understood. This thesis undertakes a comprehensive examination of the relationship between brain plasticity and aerobic exercise. A large, longitudinal experiment ...

  13. 肥胖对心肌梗死后患者峰值有氧工作能力的影响%The influence of adiposity on peak aerobic capacity in post myocardial infarction patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘洵; Brodie DA; 周凤; 冯晟; 陈彦平; 刘静; 梁晓琳; 李承蒙; Bundred PE

    2011-01-01

    检测肥胖对心肌梗死后(PMI)患者心脏康复早期有氧工作能力的影响.方法:116例男性PMI患者根据其身体质量指数(BMI)高于或低于25和服用或未服用β-阻断剂被分为4组,然后进行递增负荷运动实验,其间记录每级负荷时的摄氧量(VO2)、心率(HR)、血压和自我用力感觉(RPE),并持续监测12导联心电图(ECG).结果:BMI< 25的两组患者都能坚持较长时间的运动(P< 0.05),有较高的峰值摄氧量(P<0.05)和较低的有氧能力的损伤(P< 0.01).当RPE到达13时,其他组别的V02分别是BMI< 25且服用β-阻断剂组的90%(未服用β-阻断剂,BMI< 25),75%(服用β-阻断剂,BMI> 25)和70%(未服用β-阻断剂,BMI> 25).结论:肥胖会影响患者运动中的功能和代谢能力,但服用β-阻断剂对此可有所补偿.BMI< 25对于减轻氧能力损伤将会有明显的益处.%Objective: To examine the influence of adiposity on the aerobic capacity of post myocardial infarction (PMI) patients during early stage of cardiac rehabilitation.Method: One hundred and sixteen male recent PMI patients were divided into four groups according to their body mass index (BMI) above or below 25, and with or without taking β -blocker. Then, a graded exercise test was performed; oxygen uptake (VO2), heart rate (HR), blood pressure and ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) were recorded, and 12 lead electrocardiogram (ECG) was monitored continuously.Result: Both groups with BMI25) and 70% (no β -blocker, BMI>25) respectively.Conclusion: Adiposity can compromise patients' function and metabolic capacity during exercise, but in patients taking β -blocker there may be some compensation. One with BMI <25 will have particular benefits for alleviating functional aerobic impairment.Author's address Department of Human Movement Science, Tianjin University of Sport, Tianjin, 300381

  14. Bacterial Selection during the Formation of Early-Stage Aerobic Granules in Wastewater Treatment Systems Operated Under Wash-Out Dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Aerobic granular sludge is attractive for high-rate biological wastewater treatment. Biomass wash-out conditions stimulate the formation of aerobic granules. Deteriorated performances in biomass settling and nutrient removal during start-up have however often been reported. The effect of wash-out dynamics was investigated on bacterial selection, biomass settling behavior, and metabolic activities during the formation of early-stage granules from activated sludge of two wastewater treatment pl...

  15. Bacterial selection during the formation of early-stage aerobic granules in wastewater treatment systems operated under wash-out dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Aerobic granular sludge is attractive for high-rate biological wastewater treatment. Biomass wash-out conditions stimulate the formation of aerobic granules. Deteriorated performances in biomass settling and nutrient removal during start-up have however often been reported. The effect of wash-out dynamics was investigated on bacterial selection, biomass settling behavior, and metabolic activities during the formation of early-stage granules from activated sludge of two wastewater treatment pl...

  16. Reliability analysis and updating of deteriorating systems with subset simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneider, Ronald; Thöns, Sebastian; Straub, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Bayesian updating of the system deterioration model. The updated system reliability is then obtained through coupling the updated deterioration model with a probabilistic structural model. The underlying high-dimensional structural reliability problems are solved using subset simulation, which...

  17. 40 CFR 52.1180 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1180 Section 52.1180 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  18. 40 CFR 52.2827 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2827 Section 52.2827 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  19. 40 CFR 52.2676 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2676 Section 52.2676 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  20. 40 CFR 52.2729 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2729 Section 52.2729 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  1. 40 CFR 52.1689 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1689 Section 52.1689 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  2. 40 CFR 52.2528 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2528 Section 52.2528 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of Sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... Quality Deterioration. (b) Regulations for Preventing Significant Deterioration of Air Quality,...

  3. 40 CFR 52.1884 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1884 Section 52.1884 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  4. 40 CFR 52.1603 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1603 Section 52.1603 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  5. 40 CFR 52.499 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.499 Section 52.499 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  6. 40 CFR 52.2497 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2497 Section 52.2497 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  7. 40 CFR 52.1234 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1234 Section 52.1234 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  8. 40 CFR 52.1165 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1165 Section 52.1165 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulation for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  9. 40 CFR 52.2779 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2779 Section 52.2779 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  10. 40 CFR 52.2451 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2451 Section 52.2451 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... Quality Deterioration. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  11. 40 CFR 52.530 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.530 Section 52.530 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) EPA approves the Florida Prevention of Significant Deterioration program,...

  12. 有氧运动对肥胖青少年心率变异性的影响%Influence of aerobic exercise in heart rate variability in obese adolescents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李光欣; 王占一; 吕薇; 赵立君

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore the influence of 8-week aerobic exercise in heart rate variability (HRV)in obese adolescents and to provide the evidence for formulating special exercise prescription.Methods Forty male obese adolescents (BMI≥25 kg·m-2 )were randomly divided into exercise group (n=20)and control group (n=20). The subjects in exercise group conducted a 8-week (five times/week,50-60 min)aerobic exercise while those in control group maintained their routine lifestyle. The body composition, hemodynamic parameters including heart rate(HR)and blood pressure and HRV parameters including total power (TP),normalized low frequency (LFn), normalized high frequency (HFn)and LFn/HFn ratio were measured before and after experiment.Results There were no significant differences of the indicators of the subjects between two groups before experiment (P>0.05). At the end of experiment,compared before experiment,the fat mass(FM),the percentage of body fat(BF%), the rest HR,SBP and DBP were decreased (P0.05).Compared control group,the FM,the BF%, the rest HR,SBP,DBP,LFn and LFn/HFn ratio were decreased while the TP and HFn were increased (P<0.01)in exercise group after experiment.Conclusion Aerobic exercise may effectively reduce the sympathetic activity and increase the vagal tone in the obese adolescents.%目的:探讨有氧运动对肥胖青少年心率变异性(HRV)的影响,为制定特异性的运动处方提供依据。方法:40名男性肥胖青少年[体质量指数(BMI)≥25 kg·m-2)]随机分为运动组(n=20)和对照组(n=20)。运动组受试者进行有氧运动干预,每周5次,每次持续50~60 min,共8周;对照组受试者保持日常生活习惯不变。实验前后分别测定受试者的身体成分、血液动力学参数[(心率(HR)和血压)]和心率变异性(HRV)参数[总功率(TP)、标准化低频功率(LFn)、标准化高频功率(HFn)以及 LFn/HFn比值]。结果:实验前2组受试

  13. Evaluation of Biodegradability of Waste Before and After Aerobic Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suchowska-Kisielewicz Monika

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available An important advantage of use of an aerobic biostabilization of waste prior to its disposal is that it intensifies the decomposition of the organic fraction of waste into the form which is easily assimilable for methanogenic microorganisms involved in anaerobic decomposition of waste in the landfill. In this article it is presented the influence of aerobic pre-treatment of waste as well as leachate recirculation on susceptibility to biodegradation of waste in anaerobic laboratory reactors. The research has shown that in the reactor with aerobically treated waste stabilized with recilculation conversion of the organic carbon into the methane is about 45% higher than in the reactor with untreated waste stabilized without recirculation.

  14. The Influence of Combustion-derived pollutants on limestone deterioration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnson, J.B.; Montgomery, Melanie; Thompson, G.E.

    1996-01-01

    -ionized water at pH 5.5, for clean-rain base-line data, the relative effects of the Cl-, SO42- and NO3- components (5.2, 8.6 and 3.0 mg 1(-1) respectively) of an artificial acid-rain solution were studied. Using spray run-off solution rates of 0.2 mi cm(-2), day(-1) and pH values of 5.5 and 3.8, the work...... limestones, respectively. Thus the water and hydrogen ion loading effects are significant, as well as the limestone type, but the nature of the anion is not, under the given wetting and drying regime. Further work showed that the increased resistance of marble over that of limestone, to calcium loss......, is probably due to its much lower porosity. The results of smoke-coated samples suggested that any surface masking action depends upon particle size distribution....

  15. The influence of combustion derived pollutants on limestone deterioration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnson, JB; Montgomery, Melanie; Thompson, GE;

    1996-01-01

    10(-4) mu g cm(-2) s(-1), the pollutants were assessed individually and in various combinations, along with ozone as oxidant, at 84% RH with dry or water-wetted surfaces. The degradation was followed by analysis of exposed stone, for Cl-, SO42- and NO3-, and of run-off solution for Ca2+, in addition...... to the anions. From these data, the total calcium released from limestone to reaction ions and products and the percentages of each pollutant reacted (and so the deposition velocity (V-D)) in each exposure regime were calculated. HCl acted independently of the presence of other pollutants, showed 40 and 100...... rose from 3 to 40% at 84% RH in the presence of SO2 and O-3, with a V-D at 3 mm s(-1), but decreased in the presence of run-off solution. A limited study was performed on smoke-coated and naturally exposed, reaction-product-coated, samples. In addition to obvious factors such as deposited mass...

  16. China's FDI Net Inflow and Deterioration of Terms of Trade: Paradox and Explanation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huizhong Li; Ping Huang; Jialun Li

    2007-01-01

    Starting from the contradiction between China's sustained growth in foreign direct investment(FDI) net inflow and deterioration of the terms of trade, this paper analyzes the characteristics of FDI sectoral structure since the 1990. Moreover, considering the international market competitive environment, this paper gives a concrete analysis of the influence mechanism and concludes that the flowing of FDI into labor-intensive export sectors caused the deterioration of China's terms of trade. To improve its terms of trade, China needs to direct FDI inflow into capital- and technology-intensive sectors and service sectors.

  17. Mechanisms of deterioration of nutrients. [freeze drying methods for space flight food

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karel, M.; Flink, J. M.

    1974-01-01

    Methods are reported by which freeze dried foods of improved quality will be produced. The applicability of theories of flavor retention has been demonstrated for a number of food polymers, both proteins and polysacchardies. Studies on the formation of structures during freeze drying have been continued for emulsified systems. Deterioration of organoleptic quality of freeze dried foods due to high temperature heating has been evaluated and improved procedures developed. The influence of water activity and high temperature on retention of model flavor materials and browning deterioration has been evaluated for model systems and food materials.

  18. Tree mineral nutrition is deteriorating in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonard, Mathieu; Fürst, Alfred; Verstraeten, Arne

    2015-01-01

    The response of forest ecosystems to increased atmospheric CO2 is constrained by nutrient availability. It is thus crucial to account for nutrient limitation when studying the forest response to climate change. The objectives of this study were to describe the nutritional status of the main...... European tree species, to identify growth-limiting nutrients and to assess changes in tree nutrition during the past two decades. We analysed the foliar nutrition data collected during 1992–2009 on the intensive forest monitoring plots of the ICP Forests programme. Of the 22 significant temporal trends...... to higher nutrient demand by trees. As the soil nutrient supply was not always sufficient to meet the demands of faster growing trees, this could partly explain the deterioration of tree mineral nutrition. The results suggest that when evaluating forest carbon storage capacity and when planning to reduce CO...

  19. Evaluating Deterioration of Concrete by Sulfate Attack

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Effects of factors such as water to cement ratio, fly ash and silica fume on the resistance of concrete to sulfate attack were investigated by dry-wet cycles and immersion method. The index of the resistance to sulfate attack was used to evaluate the deterioration degree of concrete damaged by sulfate. The relationship between the resistance of concrete to sulfate attack and its permeability/porosity were analyzed as well as its responding mechanism. Results show that the depth of sulfate crystal attack from surface to inner of concrete can be reduced by decreasing w/c and addition of combining fly ash with silica fume. The variation of relative elastic modulus ratio and relative flexural strength ratio of various specimens before and after being subjected to sulfate attack was compared.

  20. Endogenous longevity, biological deterioration and economic growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanso, Marcos; Aísa, Rosa M

    2006-05-01

    The identification of the types of bidirectional interactions that take place between longevity and economic growth in the long-run is carried out by means of the integration of human capital accumulation, innovation in medical technology, a health goods sector, and individual decisions on health and longevity in a dynamic general equilibrium set-up. In this context, in which individual agents decide not only on their "quality" of life but also on its "quantity", the mere process of biological deterioration, that is to say, the continuous loss of health goods effectiveness in maintaining a given level of health as individuals age, provides the reason for an additional, and new, engine of growth.

  1. An inventory model of instantaneous deteriorating items with controllable deterioration rate for time dependent demand and holding cost

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinod Kumar Mishra

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this paper to develop an inventory model for instantaneous deteriorating items with the consideration of the facts that the deterioration rate can be controlled by using the preservation technology (PT and the holding cost & demand rate both are linear function of time which was treated as constant in most of the deteriorating inventory model. Design/methodology/approach: Developed the mathematical equation of deterministic deteriorating inventory model in which demand rate and holding cost both is linear function of time, deterioration rate is constant, backlogging rate is variable and depend on the length of the next replenishment, shortages are allowed and partially backlogged and obtain an analytical solution which optimizes the total cost of the proposed inventory model. Findings: The model can be applied for optimizing the total inventory cost of deteriorating items inventory for such business enterprises where they use the preservation technology to control the deterioration rate under other assumptions of the model. Originality/value: The inventory system for deteriorating items has been an object of study for a long time, but little is known about the effect of investing in reducing the rate of product deterioration and their significant impact in the business. The proposed model is effective as well as efficient for the business organization that uses the preservation technology to reduce the deterioration rate of the instantaneous deteriorating items of the inventory.

  2. Condition-based inspection/replacement policies for non-monotone deteriorating systems with environmental covariates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao Xuejing [Universite de Technologie de Troyes, Institut Charles Delaunay and STMR UMR CNRS 6279, 12 rue Marie Curie, 10010 Troyes (France); School of mathematics and statistics, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Fouladirad, Mitra, E-mail: mitra.fouladirad@utt.f [Universite de Technologie de Troyes, Institut Charles Delaunay and STMR UMR CNRS 6279, 12 rue Marie Curie, 10010 Troyes (France); Berenguer, Christophe [Universite de Technologie de Troyes, Institut Charles Delaunay and STMR UMR CNRS 6279, 12 rue Marie Curie, 10010 Troyes (France); Bordes, Laurent [Universite de Pau et des Pays de l' Adour, LMA UMR CNRS 5142, 64013 PAU Cedex (France)

    2010-08-15

    The aim of this paper is to discuss the problem of modelling and optimising condition-based maintenance policies for a deteriorating system in presence of covariates. The deterioration is modelled by a non-monotone stochastic process. The covariates process is assumed to be a time-homogenous Markov chain with finite state space. A model similar to the proportional hazards model is used to show the influence of covariates on the deterioration. In the framework of the system under consideration, an appropriate inspection/replacement policy which minimises the expected average maintenance cost is derived. The average cost under different conditions of covariates and different maintenance policies is analysed through simulation experiments to compare the policies performances.

  3. Aerobic and anaerobic organism productivity as factors that determine the level of physical health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serorez T.B.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : to identify and assess the level of physical health of men of the first coming of age 21-23 years. Material : the study involved 413 students and 17 teachers and sports doctors. Results : the influence of cross-country training aerobic and anaerobic focus on physical performance, aerobic and anaerobic performance of the student body. The efficiency impact exercises using running loads of aerobic and anaerobic focus on the physical health of students. It is proved that the level of aerobic performance drops to safe limits and requires correction. To correct the body's aerobic performance is recommended to use for running load. Conclusions: found that the correction would be the most efficient and effective through the development and implementation of health technologies based on the use of extracurricular classes jogging exercises. It should take into account the frequency and methods of learning, physical work mode power supply and energy value of each class.

  4. Effects of 12 weeks of aerobic training on autonomic modulation, mucociliary clearance, and aerobic parameters in patients with COPD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, Marceli Rocha; Ramos, Ercy Mara Cipulo; Kalva-Filho, Carlos Augusto; Freire, Ana Paula Coelho Figueira; de Alencar Silva, Bruna Spolador; Nicolino, Juliana; de Toledo-Arruda, Alessandra Choqueta; Papoti, Marcelo; Vanderlei, Luiz Carlos Marques; Ramos, Dionei

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) exhibit aerobic function, autonomic nervous system, and mucociliary clearance alterations. These parameters can be attenuated by aerobic training, which can be applied with continuous or interval efforts. However, the possible effects of aerobic training, using progressively both continuous and interval sessions (ie, linear periodization), require further investigation. Aim To analyze the effects of 12-week aerobic training using continuous and interval sessions on autonomic modulation, mucociliary clearance, and aerobic function in patients with COPD. Methods Sixteen patients with COPD were divided into an aerobic (continuous and interval) training group (AT) (n=10) and a control group (CG) (n=6). An incremental test (initial speed of 2.0 km·h−1, constant slope of 3%, and increments of 0.5 km·h−1 every 2 minutes) was performed. The training group underwent training for 4 weeks at 60% of the peak velocity reached in the incremental test (vVO2peak) (50 minutes of continuous effort), followed by 4 weeks of sessions at 75% of vVO2peak (30 minutes of continuous effort), and 4 weeks of interval training (5×3-minute effort at vVO2peak, separated by 1 minute of passive recovery). Intensities were adjusted through an incremental test performed at the end of each period. Results The AT presented an increase in the high frequency index (ms2) (P=0.04), peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak) (P=0.01), vVO2peak (P=0.04), and anaerobic threshold (P=0.02). No significant changes were observed in the CG (P>0.21) group. Neither of the groups presented changes in mucociliary clearance after 12 weeks (AT: P=0.94 and CG: P=0.69). Conclusion Twelve weeks of aerobic training (continuous and interval sessions) positively influenced the autonomic modulation and aerobic parameters in patients with COPD. However, mucociliary clearance was not affected by aerobic training. PMID:26648712

  5. 高校教学中健美操对学生身体自我概念影响探析%Exploration of Influence of Aerobics on College Students'Body Self Concept in College Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白路霞

    2015-01-01

    In common sense,self -concept is an individual 's knowledge and understanding of certain thing, namely it is a unique knowledge about the external world and the ego formed after a series of activities.This knowledge is a complicated multidimensional concept on aspects of self -identity,social environment,natural environment and interpersonal relationship.Shavelson put forward the multidimensional theoretical model of self concept.At the top of this model lies self concept,which includes self concept of body,feeling,society and academic performance.Among them,physical appearance and performance make up body self concept. At present,physical and mental development of college students are not satisfactory.So it is important to help carry out the work of improving college students'physical and mental development.Only related researches can help college students check themselves with objective and right attitudes and constantly improve their psychological state in practice to finally become healthy.Based on literature and 8 -week following -up investigation with methods of psychological measurement and teaching experiments,this paper explores the influence of aerobics on college students'body self concept.The paper aims to promote college students'knowledge of body self concept and ensure efficient interference of students and teachers on college students'physical and mental health by taking aerobics as a platform.%通常说来,自我概念是个体对某一事物的认识、理解,即个体通过一系列的活动之后,对外界、自身形成了一种独有的认识,该认识有自我属性、社会环境、自然环境、人际关系等方面的感知,是复杂的多维性概念。也就说是,自我概念是有层次性的、多维度的认知。赛佛森提出“自我概念的多维度层次理论模型”。在该模型,最顶层为自我概念,包含:身体自我概念、情绪自我概念、社会自我概念以及学业自我概念,其中

  6. Influence of aerobic training on the reduced vasoconstriction to angiotensin II in rats exposed to intrauterine growth restriction: possible role of oxidative stress and AT2 receptor of angiotensin II.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Oliveira

    Full Text Available Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR is associated with impaired vascular function, which contributes to the increased incidence of chronic disease. The aim of this study was to investigate whether aerobic training improves AngII-induced vasoconstriction in IUGR rats. Moreover, we assess the role of superoxide dismutase (SOD isoforms and NADPH oxidase-derived superoxide anions in this improvement. Female Wistar rats were randomly divided into two groups on day 1 of pregnancy. A control group was fed standard chow ad libitum, and a restricted group was fed 50% of the ad libitum intake throughout gestation. At 8 weeks of age, male offspring from both groups were randomly assigned to 4 experimental groups: sedentary control (SC, trained control (TC, sedentary restricted (SRT, and trained restricted (TRT. The training protocol was performed on a treadmill and consisted of a continuous 60-min session 5 days/week for 10 weeks. Following aerobic training, concentration-response curves to AngII were obtained in endothelium-intact aortic rings. Protein expression of SOD isoforms, AngII receptors and the NADPH oxidase component p47phox was assessed by Western blot analysis. The dihydroethidium was used to evaluate the in situ superoxide levels under basal conditions or in the presence of apocynin, losartan or PD 123,319. Our results indicate that aerobic training can prevent IUGR-associated increases in AngII-dependent vasoconstriction and can restore basal superoxide levels in the aortic rings of TRT rats. Moreover, we observed that aerobic training normalized the increased p47phox protein expression and increased MnSOD and AT2 receptor protein expression in thoracic aortas of SRT rats. In summary, aerobic training can result in an upregulation of antioxidant defense by improved of MnSOD expression and attenuation of NADPH oxidase component p47phox. These effects are accompanied by increased expression of AT2 receptor, which provide positive effects

  7. 持续非卧床腹膜透析腹膜功能减退影响因素和干预策略%Influencing factors and interventions for the deterioration of peritoneal function in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁小强; 吉俊

    2013-01-01

    In patients on peritoneal dialysis,the peritoneal function deteriorated with the prolonged dialysis time,characterized by the acceleration in solute transportation,decrease in fluid ultra-filtration and progeression into ultra-filtration failure in the end stage.The ultra-filtration failure is the direct cause of the failure of peritoneal dialysis.The influencing factors include peritonitis,bio-incompatible peritoneal dialysis solutions,residual renal function and long time of dialysis.Peritoneal equilibration test is commonly used in evaluation of the peritoneal function,of which the results should be interpreted with the clinical conditions.Standardized prevention and treatment of peritonitis,proper dialysis prescriptions,reservation of residual renal function,application of novel dialysate may be effective strategies in protecting peritoneal function.%随着腹膜透析龄的不断延长,患者腹膜功能将逐渐减退,表现为对溶质转运加快,水分超滤逐渐减少,直至发生超滤衰竭;一旦发生超滤衰竭,将直接导致腹膜透析失败.腹膜炎、生物不相容透析液、残余肾功能、长透析龄是腹膜功能减退的影响因素.腹膜平衡试验是目前评价腹膜功能最常用的方法,但应结合临床动态分析.规范防治腹膜炎、制定合理的透析处方、保护残余肾功能、应用新型透析液等是保护腹膜功能切实有效的干预策略.

  8. 29 CFR 1926.432 - Environmental deterioration of equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Electrical Safety-Related Maintenance and Environmental Considerations § 1926.432 Environmental deterioration of equipment....

  9. Blade Deterioration in a Gas Turbine Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Tabakoff

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available A study has been conducted to predict blade erosion of gas turbine engines. The blade material erosion model is based on three dimensional particle trajectory simulation in the three-dimensional turbine flow field. The trajectories provide the special distribution of the particle impact parameters over the blade surface. A semi-empirical erosion model, derived from erosion tests of material samples at different particulate flow conditions, is used in the prediction of blade surface erosion based on the trajectory impact data. To improve the blade erosion resistance and to decrease the blade deterioration, the blades must be coated. For this purpose, an experimental study was conducted to investigate the behavior of rhodium platinum aluminide coating exposed to erosion by fly ash particles. New protective coatings are developed for erosion and thermal barrier. Chemical vapor deposition technique (CVD was used to apply the ceramic TiC coatings on INCO 718 and stainless steel 410. The erosive wear of the coated samples was investigated experimentally by exposing them to particle laden flow at velocities from 180 to 305m/s and temperatures from ambient to 538°C in a specially designed erosion wind tunnel. Both materials (INCO 718 and stainless steel 410 coated with CVD TiC showed one order of magnitude less erosion rate compared to some commercial coatings on the same substrates.

  10. Scheduling Simple Linear Deteriorating Jobs with Rejection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Zou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider the problems of scheduling deteriorating jobs with release dates on a single machine (parallel machines and jobs can be rejected by paying penalties. The processing time of a job is a simple linear increasing function of its starting time. For a single machine model, the objective is to minimize the maximum lateness of the accepted jobs plus the total penalty of the rejected jobs. We show that the problem is NP-hard in the strong sense and presents a fully polynomial time approximation scheme to solve it when all jobs have agreeable release dates and due dates. For parallel-machine model, the objective is to minimize the maximum delivery completion time of the accepted jobs plus the total penalty of the rejected jobs. When the jobs have identical release dates, we first propose a fully polynomial time approximation scheme to solve it. Then, we present a heuristic algorithm for the case where all jobs have to be accepted and evaluate its efficiency by computational experiments.

  11. Early deterioration of coarse woody debris.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tainter, Frank, H.; McMinn, James, W.

    1999-02-16

    Tainter, F.H., and J.W. McMinn. 1999. Early deterioration of coarse woody debris. In: Proc. Tenth Bien. South. Silv. Res. Conf. Shreveport, LA, February 16-18, 1999. Pp. 232-237 Abstract - Coarse woody debris (CWD) is an important structural component of southern forest ecosystems. CWD loading may be affected by different decomposition rates on sites of varying quality. Bolts of red oak and loblolly pine were placed on plots at each of three (hydric, mesic. and xerlc) sites at the Savannah River Site and sampled over a I6-week period. Major changes were in moisture content and nonstructural carbohydrate content (total carbohydrates, reducing sugars, and starch) of sapwood. Early changes in nonstructural carbohydrate levels following placement of the bolts were likely due to reallocation of these materials by sapwood parenchyma cells. These carbohydrates later formed pools increasingly metabolized by bacteria and invading fungi. Most prevalent fungi in sapwood were Ceratocysfis spp. in pine and Hypoxy/on spp. in oak. Although pine sapwood became blue stained and oak sapwood exhibited yellow soft decay with black zone lines, estimators of decay (specific gravity, sodium hydroxide solubility, and holocellulose content) were unchanged during the 16-week study period. A small effect of site was detected for starch content of sapwood of both species. Fungal biomass in sapwood of both species, as measured by ergosterol content, was detectable at week zero, increased somewhat by week three and increased significantly by week 16.

  12. Aerobic microbial enhanced oil recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torsvik, T. [Univ. of Bergen (Norway); Gilje, E.; Sunde, E.

    1995-12-31

    In aerobic MEOR, the ability of oil-degrading bacteria to mobilize oil is used to increase oil recovery. In this process, oxygen and mineral nutrients are injected into the oil reservoir in order to stimulate growth of aerobic oil-degrading bacteria in the reservoir. Experiments carried out in a model sandstone with stock tank oil and bacteria isolated from offshore wells showed that residual oil saturation was lowered from 27% to 3%. The process was time dependent, not pore volume dependent. During MEOR flooding, the relative permeability of water was lowered. Oxygen and active bacteria were needed for the process to take place. Maximum efficiency was reached at low oxygen concentrations, approximately 1 mg O{sub 2}/liter.

  13. Health-improving possibilities of usage of aerobics in the senior classes of comprehensive school.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kravchuk T.N.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In the article is opened health-improving possibilities of use of aerobics at physical training lessons in the senior classes. The technique of carrying out of lessons of physical training in the senior classes with use of different kinds of aerobics is proved and developed, and also their influence on indicators of health of senior pupils is investigated. It is shown that employment by aerobics promotes considerable improvement of health of senior pupils, increase of mood, state of health and activity.

  14. Aerobic conditioning for team sport athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Nicholas M; Kilding, Andrew E

    2009-01-01

    Team sport athletes require a high level of aerobic fitness in order to generate and maintain power output during repeated high-intensity efforts and to recover. Research to date suggests that these components can be increased by regularly performing aerobic conditioning. Traditional aerobic conditioning, with minimal changes of direction and no skill component, has been demonstrated to effectively increase aerobic function within a 4- to 10-week period in team sport players. More importantly, traditional aerobic conditioning methods have been shown to increase team sport performance substantially. Many team sports require the upkeep of both aerobic fitness and sport-specific skills during a lengthy competitive season. Classic team sport trainings have been shown to evoke marginal increases/decreases in aerobic fitness. In recent years, aerobic conditioning methods have been designed to allow adequate intensities to be achieved to induce improvements in aerobic fitness whilst incorporating movement-specific and skill-specific tasks, e.g. small-sided games and dribbling circuits. Such 'sport-specific' conditioning methods have been demonstrated to promote increases in aerobic fitness, though careful consideration of player skill levels, current fitness, player numbers, field dimensions, game rules and availability of player encouragement is required. Whilst different conditioning methods appear equivalent in their ability to improve fitness, whether sport-specific conditioning is superior to other methods at improving actual game performance statistics requires further research.

  15. Review of inventory systems with deterioration since 2001

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, M.; Riezebos, J.; Teunter, R.H.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an up-to-date review of the advances made in the field of inventory control of perishable items (deteriorating inventory). The last extensive review on this topic dates back to 2001 (Goyal S.K. and Giri B.C., Recent trends in modeling of deteriorating inventory, European Journal

  16. Concern With Environmental Deterioration and Attitudes Toward Population Limitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Larry D.

    1970-01-01

    Analysis of Gallup Poll data of Junuary 1969 reveals weak association between concern about environmental deterioration and the recognition of need for eventual limitation of human population. Suggests that to increase favorable attitudes to population control, role of overpopulation in causing environmental deterioration needs to be presented to…

  17. 40 CFR 52.382 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.382 Section 52.382 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act are not...

  18. 40 CFR 52.793 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.793 Section 52.793 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act are not met... air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The...

  19. 40 CFR 52.833 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.833 Section 52.833 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act are met... for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The provisions of § 52.21 except paragraph...

  20. 40 CFR 52.181 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.181 Section 52.181 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The plan submitted by the Governor of Arkansas as follows: (1) April 23,...

  1. 40 CFR 52.931 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.931 Section 52.931 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The..., the Kentucky Division for Air Quality has determined that the application complies with the...

  2. 40 CFR 52.1116 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1116 Section 52.1116 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) The following provisions of 40 CFR 52.21 are hereby incorporated and made...

  3. 40 CFR 52.2131 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.2131 Section 52.2131 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a)-(b) (c) All applications and other information required...

  4. 40 CFR 52.632 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.632 Section 52.632 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act are not met... air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The...

  5. 40 CFR 52.2303 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2303 Section 52.2303 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The plan submitted by Texas is approved as meeting the requirements of part C, Clean Air Act for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The...

  6. 40 CFR 52.2346 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2346 Section 52.2346 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The Utah plan, as submitted, is approved as meeting the... construct on Indian Reservations. (b) Regulation for prevention of significant deterioration of air...

  7. 40 CFR 52.432 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.432 Section 52.432 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act are not met... air quality. (b) Regulation for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The provisions...

  8. 40 CFR 52.96 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.96 Section 52.96 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The State of Alaska Department of Environmental Conservation Air Quality... deterioration of air quality. (b) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act are not...

  9. 40 CFR 52.270 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.270 Section 52.270 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) With the exception of the areas listed in paragraph (b) of this section: (1... plan does not include approvable procedures for preventing the significant deterioration of air...

  10. 40 CFR 52.1280 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.1280 Section 52.1280 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) All applications and other information required pursuant to §...

  11. 40 CFR 52.343 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.343 Section 52.343 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act are not met for the following categories of sources for preventing the significant deterioration of air...

  12. 40 CFR 52.986 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.986 Section 52.986 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The plan submitted by the Governor of Louisiana on August 14, 1984 (as adopted... preventing significant deterioration of air quality. (b) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of...

  13. 40 CFR 52.1485 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1485 Section 52.1485 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... include approvable procedures for preventing the significant deterioration of air quality. (b)...

  14. 40 CFR 52.2178 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2178 Section 52.2178 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The South Dakota plan, as submitted, is approved as meeting the... on Indian reservations; (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  15. 40 CFR 52.683 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.683 Section 52.683 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The State of Idaho Rules for Control of Air Pollution in Idaho, specifically... the Clean Air Act for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. (b) The requirements...

  16. 40 CFR 52.1987 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1987 Section 52.1987 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The Oregon Department of Environmental Quality rules for the prevention of significant deterioration of air quality (provisions of OAR chapter 340, Divisions 200,...

  17. 40 CFR 52.144 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.144 Section 52.144 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Act are not met... lands does not include approvable procedures for preventing the significant deterioration of air...

  18. 40 CFR 52.884 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.884 Section 52.884 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of section 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act, as...

  19. 40 CFR 52.738 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.738 Section 52.738 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act are not met... air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The...

  20. 40 CFR 52.2083 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.2083 Section 52.2083 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The Rhode Island plan, as submitted, is approved as meeting...

  1. 40 CFR 52.2581 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2581 Section 52.2581 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a)-(c) (d) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the... of Wisconsin. (e) Regulations for the prevention of the significant deterioration of air quality....

  2. 40 CFR 52.1529 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.1529 Section 52.1529 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. New Hampshire's Part Env-A 623, “Requirements for Prevention...

  3. 40 CFR 52.1436 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.1436 Section 52.1436 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air...

  4. 40 CFR 52.1029 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.1029 Section 52.1029 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. The program to review operation and construction of new and...

  5. 40 CFR 52.2380 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.2380 Section 52.2380 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. The program to review the construction and operation of new...

  6. 40 CFR 52.581 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.581 Section 52.581 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) All applications and other information required pursuant to § 52.21 of...

  7. Cognitive deterioration and electrical status epilepticus during slow sleep.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholtes, F.B.J.; Hendriks, M.P.; Renier, W.O.

    2005-01-01

    The results of long-term follow-up of 10 children with global or specific cognitive deterioration and, on the electroencephalogram, electrical status epilepticus during sleep (ESES) are described. They were referred because of cognitive deterioration and underwent repeated neurological and neuropsyc

  8. Early neurological deterioration after thrombolysis: Clinical and imaging predictors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Claus Z; Schmitz, Marie Louise; Hjørringgaard Madsen, Mette;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale is the most common scale used in stroke patients. An increase of four points or more within 24 h signifies early neurological deterioration. We aimed to establish how often early neurological deterioration occurs in a cohort selected...... by magnetic resonance imaging and which factors predicted early neurological deterioration. METHODS: In this single-center study, we collected epidemiological, imaging and outcome data on 569 consecutive patients undergoing reperfusion therapy after magnetic resonance imaging selection. RESULTS: Of these, 33...... (5.8%) experienced early neurological deterioration. Seven were due to a symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage, 23 were caused by extension of ischemia on follow-up imaging and three were due to progression on the basis of small vessel disease. Early neurological deterioration was predicted...

  9. Acute functional deterioration in a child with cerebral palsy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Smyth, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    We describe a case of acute functional deterioration in a 13-year-old girl with severe spastic diplegia (GMFCS III) and a new diagnosis of diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG). She presented with acute deterioration in mobility and motor function over 1 month, which was associated with dysarthria, dysphagia and behavioural change. Her mother had noticed subtle functional deterioration over the 2 months prior to this. Her physiotherapist who was concerned about her acute functional deterioration referred her for emergency review. Neurological imaging revealed a diffuse pontine lesion consistent with DIPG. She was subsequently referred to oncology. She deteriorated further, clinically, over the next few days and following discussion with the team; her family opted for palliative treatment, given the poor prognosis associated with DIPG.

  10. Effects of gamma irradiation on deteriorated paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bicchieri, Marina; Monti, Michela; Piantanida, Giovanna; Sodo, Armida

    2016-08-01

    Even though gamma radiation application, also at the minimum dosage required for disinfection, causes depolymerization and degradation of the paper substrate, recently published papers seemed, instead, to suggest that γ-rays application could be envisaged in some conditions for Cultural Heritage original documents and books. In some of the published papers, the possible application of γ-rays was evaluated mainly by using mechanical tests that scarcely reflect the chemical modifications induced in the cellulosic support. In the present article the effect of low dosage γ-irradiation on cellulosic substrates was studied and monitored applying different techniques: colorimetry, spectroscopic measurements, carbonyl content and average viscometric degree of polymerization. Two different papers were investigated, a non-sized, non-filled cotton paper, and a commercial permanent paper. To simulate a real deteriorated document, which could need γ-rays irradiation, some samples were submitted to a hydrolysis treatment. We developed a treatment based on the exposition of paper to hydrochloric acid vapors, avoiding any contact of the samples with water. This method induces a degradation similar to that observed on original documents. The samples were then irradiated with 3 kGy γ-rays at a 5258 Gy/h rate. The aforementioned analyses were performed on the samples just irradiated and after artificial ageing. All tests showed negative effects of gamma irradiation on paper. Non-irradiated paper preserves better its appearance and chemical properties both in the short term and after ageing, while the irradiated samples show appreciable color change and higher oxidation extent. Since the Istituto centrale restauro e conservazione patrimonio archivistico e librario is responsible for the choice of all restoration treatments that could be applied on library and archival materials under the protection of the Italian State (http://www.icpal.beniculturali.it/allegati/DM-7

  11. The Effect of Units Lost Due to Deterioration in Fuzzy Economic Order Quantity (FEOQ Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Pattnaik

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available For several decades, the Economic Order Quantity (EOQ model and its variations have received much attention from researchers. Recently, there has been an investigation into an EOQ model incorporating effect of units lost due to deterioration in infinite planning horizon with crisp decision environment. Accounting for holding and ordering cost, as has traditionally been the case of modeling inventory systems in fuzzy environment are investigated which are not precisely known and defined on a bounded interval of real numbers. The question is how reliable are the EOQ models when items stocked deteriorate one time. This paper introduces Fuzzy Economic Order Quantity (FEOQ model in which it assumes that units lost due to deterioration is included in the objective function to properly model the problem in finite planning horizon. The numerical analysis shows that an appropriate fuzzy policy can benefit the retailer and that is significant, especially for deteriorating items is shown to be superior to that of crisp decision making. A computational algorithm using LINGO 13.0 and MATLAB (R2009a software are developed to find the optimal solution. Sensitivity analysis of the optimal solution is also studied and managerial insights are drawn which shows the influence of key model parameters.

  12. Monitoring the Deterioration of Stone at Mindener MUSEUM'S Lapidarium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomaska, G.

    2013-07-01

    Mindener Museum's Lapidarium incorporates a collection of stone work like reliefs, sculptures and inscriptions from different time epochs as advices of the city's history. These gems must be protected against environmental influences and deterioration. In advance of the measures a 3D reconstruction and detailed documentation has to be taken. The framework to establish hard- and software must match the museum's infrastructure. Two major question will be answered. Are low-cost scanning devices like depth cameras and digital of the shelf cameras suitable for the data acquisition? Does the functionality of open source and freeware covers the demand on investigation and analysis in this application? The working chain described in this contribution covers the structure from motion method and the reconstruction with RGB-D cameras. Mesh processing such as cleaning, smoothing, poisson surface reconstruction and texturing will be accomplished with MeshLab. Data acquisition and modelling continues in structure analysis. Therefore the focus lies as well on latest software developments related to 3D printing technologies. Repairing and finishing of meshes is a task for MeshMixer. Netfabb as a tool for positioning, dimensioning and slicing enables virtual handling of the items. On the Sketchfab web site one can publish and share 3D objects with integration into web pages supported by WebGL. Finally if a prototype is needed, the mesh can be uploaded to a 3D printing device provided by an online service.

  13. Lower limb loading in step aerobic dance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, H-W; Hsieh, H-M; Chang, Y-W; Wang, L-H

    2012-11-01

    Participation in aerobic dance is associated with a number of lower extremity injuries, and abnormal joint loading seems to be a factor in these. However, information on joint loading is limited. The purpose of this study was to investigate the kinetics of the lower extremity in step aerobic dance and to compare the differences of high-impact and low-impact step aerobic dance in 4 aerobic movements (mambo, kick, L step and leg curl). 18 subjects were recruited for this study. High-impact aerobic dance requires a significantly greater range of motion, joint force and joint moment than low-impact step aerobic dance. The peak joint forces and moments in high-impact step aerobic dance were found to be 1.4 times higher than in low-impact step aerobic dance. Understanding the nature of joint loading may help choreographers develop dance combinations that are less injury-prone. Furthermore, increased knowledge about joint loading may be helpful in lowering the risk of injuries in aerobic dance instructors and students.

  14. Prediction of electrical behavior in deteriorating induction motors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trutt, F.C. (Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States). College of Engineering); Santa Cruz, C. (Minera Yanacocha S.A., Lima (Peru)); Kohler, J.L. (Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States). Mine Electrical Lab.); Sottile, J. (Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States). Dept. of Mining Engineering)

    Methods for the prediction of electrical behavior in deteriorating induction machines are surveyed. Generally, these procedures require the assumption of a specific motor speed. The electrical operating parameters are then calculated using a model developed for this purpose. These models normally allow an arbitrary number of winding deterioration processes to be simulated on the stator and/or rotor. Forms of deterioration might include high- or low-impedance leakage between phases, between coils in a single phase, or between a phase and ground. In this paper, experimental data for a three-phase, wound rotor induction motor with stator deterioration is compared with the predictions of a specific model of that motor. Procedures are then developed for the prediction of deterioration trends in classes of motors. One application of such an analysis would be in the generation of data bases required to design and develop performance monitoring, deterioration detection, or deterioration classification systems for critical motor installations without the need to develop a predictive model for each motor type.

  15. Aerobic capacity and disease activity in children, adolescents and young adults with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Pelt Philomien A

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA progress into adulthood, long-term outcome is determined by disease activity, physical and psychosocial development. Decreased aerobic capacity may play a critical role in health-related outcomes in JIA, since it has been linked with cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in late adulthood. The objectives of the current study are to examine the aerobic capacity and its relation to parameters of disease activity in children, adolescents and young adults with JIA. Methods Sixty-three patients with JIA (aged 10–27 years were cross sectional studied regarding their aerobic capacity and correlations were made to demographic, disease-related variables, and medication utilization. in a cross-sectional study group of 63 patients of all subtypes. Patients were divided in three age groups, 10–13 years; 14–17 years and 18–27 years. Results Reduced aerobic capacity is found in clinical remission as well as active disease in all subtypes and all age groups. Aerobic capacity is more impaired in active disease shown by DAS 28, JADAS 27, ESR and serum thrombocyte counts. Lower haemoglobin has a negative impact. Long-term used medication including methotrexate and corticosteroids didn’t influence outcome. There is no association with current sports participation. Conclusion Reduced aerobic capacity is present in children and adolescents with JIA, both in active disease and in patients with remission. Measures of aerobic capacity may serve as important outcome measure in JIA.

  16. Aerobic Development of Elite Youth Ice Hockey Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiter, Jeff R; Cordingley, Dean M; MacDonald, Peter B

    2015-11-01

    Ice hockey is a physiologically complex sport requiring aerobic and anaerobic energy metabolism. College and professional teams often test aerobic fitness; however, there is a paucity of information regarding aerobic fitness of elite youth players. Without this knowledge, training of youth athletes to meet the standards of older age groups and higher levels of hockey may be random, inefficient, and or effective. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the aerobic fitness of elite youth hockey players. A retrospective database review was performed for 200 male AAA hockey players between the ages of 13 and 17 (age, 14.4 ± 1.2 years; height, 174.3 ± 8.5 cm; body mass, 67.2 ± 11.5 kg; body fat, 9.8 ± 3.5%) before the 2012-13 season. All subjects performed a graded exercise test on a cycle ergometer, whereas expired air was collected by either a Parvo Medics TrueOne 2400 or a CareFusion Oxycon Mobile metabolic cart to determine maximal oxygen consumption (V[Combining Dot Above]O2max). Body mass, absolute V[Combining Dot Above]O2max, and the power output achieved during the last completed stage increased in successive age groups from age 13 to 15 years (p ≤ 0.05). Ventilatory threshold (VT) expressed as a percentage of V[Combining Dot Above]O2max and the heart rate (HR) at which VT occurred decreased between the ages of 13 and 14 years (p ≤ 0.05), whereas the V[Combining Dot Above]O2 at which VT occurred increased from the age of 14-15 years. There were no changes in relative V[Combining Dot Above]O2max or HRmax between any successive age groups. The aerobic fitness levels of elite youth ice hockey players increased as players age and mature physically and physiologically. However, aerobic fitness increased to a lesser extent at older ages. This information has the potential to influence off-season training and maximize the aerobic fitness of elite amateur hockey players, so that these players can meet standards set by advanced elite age groups.

  17. Energetic and metabolic consequences of aerobic and an-aerobic ATP-production.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreurs, V.V.A.M.; Aarts, M.J.; IJssennagger, N.; Hermans, J.; Hendriks, W.H.

    2007-01-01

    ATP, the currency of cellular energy metabolism, can be produced during aerobic and an-aerobic oxidation of metabolic substrates. The aerobic oxidation yields CO2 + H2O as metabolic end products while ATP is produced by oxidative phosphorylation in the mitochondria. Carbohydrate, protein and fat pro

  18. Influence of predominant aerobic bacteria isolated from different healthy animals on daidzein biotransforming capacity by co-culture with different daidzein biotransforming bacteria%不同动物肠道优势需氧菌对黄豆苷原转化菌株转化能力的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗景龙; 王秀伶; 樊进茹; 王世英; 李佳

    2011-01-01

    [目的]探讨不同动物肠道优势需氧菌对黄豆苷原转化菌株转化能力的影响.[方法]有氧条件下,采用稀释涂布法分别从ICR小鼠、芦花鸡、长白猪和獭兔等4种健康动物肠道中分离优势需氧菌,将不同动物的优势需氧菌分别与不同类型黄豆苷原转化菌株进行厌氧混合培养,高效液相色谱检测培养液中黄豆苷原的转化情况.[结果]16S rRNA基因序列分析,结合形态学及相关理化特性分析表明,分离的22株优势需氧菌分属埃希氏菌属(10株)、变形菌属(5株)、肠球菌属(4株)、芽胞杆菌属(2株)和假单胞菌属(1株)五个属.混菌培养结果显示,兔源蜡样芽胞杆菌(R1)和铜绿假单胞菌(R5)与转化菌株混合并连续转接2-3次后,转化菌株的转化活性完全丧失,而其它用于混合培养的肠道优势需氧菌对转化菌株转化能力均无明显影响.菌株R1和R5分别与30只ICR小鼠肠道菌群在人工模拟肠道营养液中混合并连续5次转接培养后,约90%的ICR小鼠肠道菌群完全丧失将黄豆苷原转化为雌马酚的能力.[结论]不同动物肠道优势需氧菌对黄豆苷原转化菌株转化能力有不同影响,兔源蜡样芽胞杆菌R1和铜绿假单胞菌R5对转化菌株的转化能力有明显抑制作用.%[ Objective ] To investigate the influence of isolated predominant aerobic bacteria on daidzein biotransformation capacity by co-culture with daidzein biotransforming bacteria. [ Methods ] Predominant aerobic bacteria were isolated from diluted feces solutions of different healthy animals, including ICR mice, Luhua chicken, Landrace pigs and Rex rabbits. Daidzein biotransforming bacteria were anaerobically co-cultured with the isolated predominant aerobic bacteria and the cultural broth was extracted and detected by high performance liquid chromatography ( HPLC). [ Results ] Twenty two predominant aerobic bacteria were isolated from the four different healthy animals mentioned

  19. Microbiologically induced deterioration of concrete--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Shiping; Jiang, Zhenglong; Liu, Hao; Zhou, Dongsheng; Sanchez-Silva, Mauricio

    2013-12-01

    Microbiologically induced deterioration (MID) causes corrosion of concrete by producing acids (including organic and inorganic acids) that degrade concrete components and thus compromise the integrity of sewer pipelines and other structures, creating significant problems worldwide. Understanding of the fundamental corrosion process and the causal agents will help us develop an appropriate strategy to minimize the costs in repairs. This review presents how microorganisms induce the deterioration of concrete, including the organisms involved and their colonization and succession on concrete, the microbial deterioration mechanism, the approaches of studying MID and safeguards against concrete biodeterioration. In addition, the uninvestigated research area of MID is also proposed.

  20. Influence of tobacco smoke on the aerobic exercise ability and function of mice%烟草烟雾对小鼠有氧运动能力和机能恢复的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑丽君

    2013-01-01

    目的 研究烟草烟雾对小鼠有氧运动能力和机能恢复的影响.方法 将30只小鼠随机分为实验Ⅰ组、实验Ⅱ组和对照组,于实验后分别测定3组小鼠的力竭游泳时间、血清SOD活性和MDA含量.结果 实验Ⅰ组、Ⅱ组的游泳时间和血清SOD活性较对照组显著降低、MDA含量明显升高,且实验Ⅱ组的各项指标均较实验Ⅰ组变化显著,差异有统计学意义.结论 香烟烟雾可使小鼠的有氧运动能力和抗疲劳能力明显减弱,这与被动吸烟引起SOD活性降低,MDA含量升高有关,且吸烟时间越长不良影响越严重.%OBJECTIVE To study tobacco smoke on mouse aerobic exercise capacity and functional recovery effect. METHODS 30 mice were randomly divided into experimental group Ⅰ, experiment group Ⅱ and control group, and exhaustive swimming time, serum SOD activity and MDA content were measured in the 3 groups of mice after experiment. RESULTS The experimental group Ⅰ, group Ⅱ swimming time and serum SOD activity were significantly decreased, MDA levels increased significantly and the experimental group of indicators compared with the experimental group changed significantly, the difference was significant. CONCLUSION Cigarette smoke can weaken the aerobic exercise capacity and anti fatigue ability apparently, which is related with passive smoking making SOD activity decrease and the content of MDA increase, and the longer smoking, more serious adverse effects.

  1. CSTR反应器好氧颗粒污泥脱氮影响因素研究%STUDY ON INFLUENCING FACTORS OF DENITRIFICATION OF AEROBIC GRANULAR SLUDGE IN CSTR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张雯; 邓风; 何超群

    2011-01-01

    Vaccinated anaerobic granular sludge in the reactor of continuous flow, and cultivated the aerobic granular sludge successfully, which had a good removal capacity for COD and NH4+-N.Experimental studied by pulsed reactor flow pattern, and studied how to affect the nitrogen removal of aerobic granular sludge by those elements synchronously, such as temperature, C/N, HRT, dissolved oxygen concentration, pH, intermittent aeration cycle, and so on.after further study, it made the optimal parameters as: temperature at 25 ℃, C/N between 6~8, HRT about 8 hours, dissolved oxygen concentration 2 mg·L-1, pH between 7.5 ~8.0, aeration 3 h and hypoxia mixing 3 h, aeration 4 h and hypoxia mixing 3 h.%在连续流反应器中接种厌氧颗粒污泥,成功培养出好氧颖粒污泥,具有良好的COD及氨氮去除能力.通过脉冲试验考察反应器水流流态,同时考察温度、C/N、水力停留时间、溶解氧质量浓度、pH、间歇曝气周期等对好氧颗粒污泥脱氮的影响,并确定最佳工艺参数为:温度为25℃、 C/N在6~8.HRT为8h左右、溶解氧质量浓度为2 mg·L~-1、pH为7.5~8.0.曝气3h及缺氧搅拌3h和曝气4h及缺氧搅拌3 h.

  2. Aerobic respiration in the Archaean?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Towe, K M

    1990-11-01

    The Earth's atmosphere during the Archaean era (3,800-2,500 Myr ago) is generally thought to have been anoxic, with the partial pressure of atmospheric oxygen about 10(-12) times the present value. In the absence of aerobic consumption of oxygen produced by photosynthesis in the ocean, the major sink for this oxygen would have been oxidation of dissolved Fe(II). Atmospheric oxygen would also be removed by the oxidation of biogenic methane. But even very low estimates of global primary productivity, obtained from the amounts of organic carbon preserved in Archaean rocks, seem to require the sedimentation of an unrealistically large amount of iron and the oxidation of too much methane if global anoxia was to be maintained. I therefore suggest that aerobic respiration must have developed early in the Archaean to prevent a build-up of atmospheric oxygen before the Proterozoic. An atmosphere that contained a low (0.2-0.4%) but stable proportion of oxygen is required.

  3. Interaction of Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers and Aerobic Granular Sludge: Biosorption and Microbial Degradation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shou-Qing Ni

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available As a new category of persistent organic pollutants, polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs have become ubiquitous global environmental contaminants. No literature is available on the aerobic biotransformation of decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-209. Herein, we investigated the interaction of PBDEs with aerobic granular sludge. The results show that the removal of BDE-209 from wastewater is mainly via biosorption onto aerobic granular sludge. The uptake capacity increased when temperature, contact time, and sludge dosage increased or solution pH dropped. Ionic strength had a negative influence on BDE-209 adsorption. The modified pseudo first-order kinetic model was appropriate to describe the adsorption kinetics. Microbial debromination of BDE-209 did not occur during the first 30 days of operation. Further study found that aerobic microbial degradation of 4,4′-dibromodiphenyl ether happened with the production of lower BDE congeners.

  4. Aerobic rice mechanization: techniques for crop establishment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khusairy, K. M.; Ayob, H.; Chan, C. S.; Fauzi, M. I. Mohamed; Mohamad Fakhrul, Z. O.; Shahril Shah, G. S. M.; Azlan, O.; Rasad, M. A.; Hashim, A. M.; Arshad, Z.; E, E. Ibrahim; Saifulizan, M. N.

    2015-12-01

    Rice being the staple food crops, hundreds of land races in it makes the diversity of rice crops. Aerobic rice production was introduced which requires much less water input to safeguard and sustain the rice production and conserve water due to decreasing water resources, climatic changes and competition from urban and industrial users. Mechanization system plays an important role for the success of aerobic rice cultivation. All farming activities for aerobic rice production are run on aerobic soil conditions. Row seeder mechanization system is developed to replace conventional seeding technique on the aerobic rice field. It is targeted for small and the large scale aerobic rice farmers. The aero - seeder machine is used for the small scale aerobic rice field, while the accord - seeder is used for the large scale aerobic rice field. The use of this mechanization machine can eliminate the tedious and inaccurate seeding operations reduce labour costs and increases work rate. The machine is easy to operate and it can increase crop establishment rate. It reduce missing hill, increasing planting and crop with high yield can be produce. This machine is designed for low costs maintenance and it is easy to dismantle and assemble during maintenance and it is safe to be used.

  5. Quinones in aerobic and anaerobic mitochondria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Klei, S.A.

    2009-01-01

    Ubiquinone (UQ), also known as coenzyme Q, is a ubiquitous quinone and is known to have several functions. One of these functions is electron carrier in the mitochondrial electron transport chain of aerobically functioning bacteria and eukaryotes. In contrast to this aerobically functioning quinone,

  6. Deterioration of Parkinson's disease during hospitalization: survey of 684 patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerlach Oliver HH

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A substantial fraction of Parkinson's disease patients deteriorate during hospitalisation, but the precise proportion and the reasons why have not been studied systematically and the focus has been on surgical wards and on Accident & Emergency departments. We assessed the prevalence and risk factors of deterioration of Parkinson's disease symptoms during hospitalization, including all wards. Methods We invited Parkinson's disease patients from three neurology departments in The Netherlands to answer a standardised questionnaire on general, disease and hospital related issues. Patients who had been hospitalized in the previous year were included and analysed. Possible risk factors for Parkinson's disease deterioration were identified. Proportions were analysed using the Chi-Square test and a logistic regression analysis was performed. Results Eighteen percent of 684 Parkinson's disease patients had been hospitalized at least once in the last year. Twenty-one percent experienced deterioration of motor symptoms, 33% did have one or more complications and 26% had received incorrect anti-Parkinson's medication. There were no statistically significant differences for these variables between admissions on neurologic or non-neurologic wards and between having surgery or not. Incorrect medication during hospitalization was significantly associated with higher risk (OR 5.8, CI 2.5-13.7 of deterioration, as were having infections (OR 6.7 CI 1.8-24.7. A higher levodopa equivalent dose per day was a significant risk factor for deterioration. When adjusting for different variables, wrong medication distribution was the most important risk factor for deterioration. Conclusions Incorrect medication and infections are the important risk factors for deterioration of Parkinson's disease patients both for admissions with and without surgery and both for admissions on neurologic and non-neurologic wards. Measures should be taken to improve care

  7. Effect of Applying Molasses and Propionic Acid on Fermentation Quality and Aerobic Stability of Total Mixed Ration Silage Prepared with Whole-plant Corn in Tibet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lei; Guo, Gang; Yuan, Xianjun; Shimojo, Masataka; Yu, Chengqun; Shao, Tao

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of molasses and propionic acid on the fermentation quality and aerobic stability of total mixed ration (TMR) silages prepared with whole-plant corn in Tibet. TMR (354 g/kg DM) was ensiled with four different treatments: no additive (control), molasses (M), propionic acid (P), and molasses+propionic acid (PM), in laboratory silos (250 mL) and fermented for 45 d. Silos were opened and silages were subjected to an aerobic stability test for 12 days, in which chemical and microbiological parameters of TMR silages were measured to determined the aerobic deterioration. After 45 d of ensiling, the four TMR silages were of good quality with low pH value and ammonia/total N (AN), and high lactic acid (LA) content and V-scores. M silage showed the highest (p105 cfu/g FM), however, it appeared to be more stable as indicated by a delayed pH value increase. P and PM silages showed fewer yeasts (<105 cfu/g FM) (p<0.05) and were more stable than the control and M silages during aerobic exposure. It was concluded that M application increased LA content and improved aerobic stability of TMR silage prepared with whole-plant corn in Tibet. P application inhibited lactic acid production during ensiling, and apparently preserved available sugars which stimulated large increases in lactic acid during aerobic exposure stage, which resulted in greater aerobic stability of TMR silage. PMID:25049961

  8. Assessing and updating the reliability of concrete bridges subjected to spatial deterioration - principles and software implementation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneider, Ronald; Fischer, Johannes; Bügler, Maximilian

    2015-01-01

    . The overall system reliability is computed by means of a probabilistic structural model coupled with the deterioration model. Inspection data are included in the system reliability calculation through Bayesian updating on the basis of the DBN model. As proof of concept, a software prototype is developed...... to implement the method presented here. The software prototype is applied to a typical highway bridge and the influence of inspection information on the system deterioration state and the structural reliability is quantified taking into account the spatial correlation of the corrosion process. This work...... is a step towards developing a software tool that can be used by engineering practitioners to perform reliability assessments of ageing concrete bridges and update their reliability with inspection and monitoring data....

  9. The Andersen aerobic fitness test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aadland, Eivind; Terum, Torkil; Mamen, Asgeir

    2014-01-01

    of agreement) were 26.7±125.2 m for test 2 vs. test 1 (ptest 3 vs. test 2 (p = .514 for mean difference). The equation to estimate VO2peak suggested by Andersen et al. (2008) showed a poor fit in the present sample; thus, we suggest a new equation: VO2peak = 23......BACKGROUND: High aerobic fitness is consistently associated with a favorable metabolic risk profile in children. Direct measurement of peak oxygen consumption (VO2peak) is often not feasible, thus indirect tests such as the Andersen test are required in many settings. The present study seeks...... to determine the reliability and validity of the Andersen test in 10-year-old children. METHODS: A total of 118 10-year-old children (67 boys and 51 girls) were recruited from one school and performed four VO2peak tests over three weeks: three Andersen tests (indirect) and one continuous progressive treadmill...

  10. Microbiologically influenced corrosion evaluation on brass (UNS C68700, UNS C443) and AISI 316 stainless steel; Estudio de la influencia microbiologica en la corrosion de latones (UNS C68700, UNS C443) y acero inoxidable AISI 316

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohanian, M.; Diaz, V.; Corengia, M.; Russi, P.; Pianzzola, M. J.; Menes, R. J.

    2014-10-01

    Microorganisms may play an important role in the corrosion process and generate conditions which affect the rate and/or the mechanism of deterioration. They become visible by the formation of bio films: clusters of microorganisms and extracellular polymers. These bio films affect not only the durability of the material, but also reduce the heat transfer. The present work studied the growth of aerobic and anaerobic heterotrophic microorganisms and sulfate reducing bacteria on aluminum brass (Uns C.a.), admiralty brass (Uns C.a.) and stainless steel Asi 316 in exposure experiments held in the Bay of Montevideo (Uruguay). The influence of the biofilm growth on the corrosion behavior was studied by electrochemical techniques: polarization curves and Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (Ei). The selection of the most suitable material for the exposure conditions is discussed and hypotheses of the corrosion mechanism are presented. Although stainless steel Asi 316 presented the lowest corrosion rate it showed localized deterioration. (Author)

  11. Assessment of bacterial and structural dynamics in aerobic granular biofilms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David G. Weissbrodt

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Aerobic granular sludge is based on self-granulated flocs forming mobile biofilms with a gel-like consistence. Bacterial and structural dynamics from flocs to granules were followed in anaerobic-aerobic sequencing batch reactors fed with synthetic wastewater, namely a bubble column (BC-SBR operated under wash-out conditions for fast granulation, and two stirred-tank enrichments of Accumulibacter (PAO-SBR and Competibacter (GAO-SBR operated at steady-state. In the BC-SBR, granules formed within two weeks by swelling of Zoogloea colonies around flocs, developing subsequently smooth zoogloeal biofilms. However, Zoogloea predominance (37-79% led to deteriorated nutrient removal during the first months of reactor operation. Upon maturation, improved nitrification (80-100%, nitrogen removal (43-83%, and high but unstable dephosphatation (75-100% were obtained. Proliferation of dense clusters of nitrifiers, Accumulibacter, and Competibacter from granule cores outwards resulted in heterogeneous bioaggregates, inside which only low abundance Zoogloea (<5% were detected in biofilm interstices. The presence of different extracellular glycoconjugates detected by fluorescence lectin-binding analysis showed the complex nature of the intracellular matrix of these granules. In the PAO-SBR, granulation occurred within two months with abundant and active Accumulibacter populations (56±10% that were selected under full anaerobic uptake of volatile fatty acids and that aggregated as dense clusters within heterogeneous granules. Flocs self-granulated in the GAO-SBR after 480 days during a period of over-aeration caused by biofilm growth on the oxygen sensor. Granules were dominated by heterogeneous clusters of Competibacter (37±11%. Zoogloea were never abundant in biomass of both PAO- and GAO-SBRs. This study showed that Zoogloea, Accumulibacter, and Competibacter affiliates can form granules, and that the granulation mechanisms rely on the dominant population

  12. Assessment of bacterial and structural dynamics in aerobic granular biofilms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissbrodt, David G.; Neu, Thomas R.; Kuhlicke, Ute; Rappaz, Yoan; Holliger, Christof

    2013-01-01

    Aerobic granular sludge (AGS) is based on self-granulated flocs forming mobile biofilms with a gel-like consistence. Bacterial and structural dynamics from flocs to granules were followed in anaerobic-aerobic sequencing batch reactors (SBR) fed with synthetic wastewater, namely a bubble column (BC-SBR) operated under wash-out conditions for fast granulation, and two stirred-tank enrichments of Accumulibacter (PAO-SBR) and Competibacter (GAO-SBR) operated at steady-state. In the BC-SBR, granules formed within 2 weeks by swelling of Zoogloea colonies around flocs, developing subsequently smooth zoogloeal biofilms. However, Zoogloea predominance (37–79%) led to deteriorated nutrient removal during the first months of reactor operation. Upon maturation, improved nitrification (80–100%), nitrogen removal (43–83%), and high but unstable dephosphatation (75–100%) were obtained. Proliferation of dense clusters of nitrifiers, Accumulibacter, and Competibacter from granule cores outwards resulted in heterogeneous bioaggregates, inside which only low abundance Zoogloea (<5%) were detected in biofilm interstices. The presence of different extracellular glycoconjugates detected by fluorescence lectin-binding analysis showed the complex nature of the intracellular matrix of these granules. In the PAO-SBR, granulation occurred within two months with abundant and active Accumulibacter populations (56 ± 10%) that were selected under full anaerobic uptake of volatile fatty acids and that aggregated as dense clusters within heterogeneous granules. Flocs self-granulated in the GAO-SBR after 480 days during a period of over-aeration caused by biofilm growth on the oxygen sensor. Granules were dominated by heterogeneous clusters of Competibacter (37 ± 11%). Zoogloea were never abundant in biomass of both PAO- and GAO-SBRs. This study showed that Zoogloea, Accumulibacter, and Competibacter affiliates can form granules, and that the granulation mechanisms rely on the dominant

  13. Fit women are not able to use the whole aerobic capacity during aerobic dance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edvardsen, Elisabeth; Ingjer, Frank; Bø, Kari

    2011-12-01

    Edvardsen, E, Ingjer, F, and Bø, K. Fit women are not able to use the whole aerobic capacity during aerobic dance. J Strength Cond Res 25(12): 3479-3485, 2011-This study compared the aerobic capacity during maximal aerobic dance and treadmill running in fit women. Thirteen well-trained female aerobic dance instructors aged 30 ± 8.17 years (mean ± SD) exercised to exhaustion by running on a treadmill for measurement of maximal oxygen uptake (VO(2)max) and peak heart rate (HRpeak). Additionally, all subjects performed aerobic dancing until exhaustion after a choreographed videotaped routine trying to reach the same HRpeak as during maximal running. The p value for statistical significance between running and aerobic dance was set to ≤0.05. The results (mean ± SD) showed a lower VO(2)max in aerobic dance (52.2 ± 4.02 ml·kg·min) compared with treadmill running (55.9 ± 5.03 ml·kg·min) (p = 0.0003). Further, the mean ± SD HRpeak was 182 ± 9.15 b·min in aerobic dance and 192 ± 9.62 b·min in treadmill running, giving no difference in oxygen pulse between the 2 exercise forms (p = 0.32). There was no difference in peak ventilation (aerobic dance: 108 ± 10.81 L·min vs. running: 113 ± 11.49 L·min). In conclusion, aerobic dance does not seem to be able to use the whole aerobic capacity as in running. For well endurance-trained women, this may result in a lower total workload at maximal intensities. Aerobic dance may therefore not be as suitable as running during maximal intensities in well-trained females.

  14. Low aerobic fitness in Brazilian adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Augusto Santos Silva

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: aerobic fitness is considered one of the most important components of health-related physical fitness, with low levels related to increased risk of premature death from all causes, especially cardiovascular diseases. OBJECTIVE: to identify the characteristics of adolescents at higher risk of low levels of aerobic fitness. METHODS: the study included 696 adolescents 15-17 years of age enrolled in public high schools of Florianópolis, southern Brazil. This cross-sectional epidemiological study was conducted in Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brazil. Aerobic fitness was measured using the modified Canadian Aerobic Fitness Test mCAFT. Sociodemographic gender, age, school grade, paternal and maternal schooling, socioeconomic status, and anthropometric variables body weight, height, triceps and subscapular skinfold thickness, sexual maturation, physical activity, sedentary behavior, and eating habits were collected. RESULTS: it was found that 31.5% of adolescents had low aerobic fitness levels, being higher in boys 49.2% compared to girls 20.6%. Moreover, girls with sedentary behavior, overweight and high body fat percentage were the groups most likely to have inadequate aerobic fitness. In males, the groups most likely to have inadequate aerobic fitness were those whose parents studied more than eight years, those with low levels of physical activity, and those with inadequate nutrition and excessive body fat. CONCLUSION: low aerobic fitness levels were present in one third of adolescents and was more prevalent in boys. Lifestyle changes, including replacement of sedentary behaviors by physical and sport activities , may assist in improving the aerobic fitness of Brazilian adolescents.

  15. Echinacea Supplementation: Does it Really Improve Aerobic Fitness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, Cory W.; Kwak, Dongmin

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] Echinacea is an herbal supplement used by endurance athletes for its performance boosting properties. It is thought that Echinacea improves the blood’s oxygen carrying capacity by increasing production of erythropoietin (EPO), a glycoprotein that regulates red blood cell formation. Subsequently, these changes would lead to an overall improvement in maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) and running economy (RE), two markers of aerobic fitness. The purpose of this review is to briefly discuss the physiological variables associated with distance running performance and how these variables are influenced by Echinacea supplementation. [Methods] To determine Echinacea’s ergogenic potential, human studies that used Echinacea in conjunction to analyzing the blood’s oxygen carrying capacity and/or aerobic fitness were assessed. [Results] Taken together, the majority of the published literature does not support the claim that Echinacea is a beneficial ergogenic aid. With the exception of one study, several independent groups have reported Echinacea supplementation does not increase EPO production, blood markers of oxygen transport, VO2max or RE in healthy untrained or trained subjects. [Conclusion] To date, the published literature does not support the use of Echinacea as an ergogenic aid to improve aerobic fitness in healthy untrained or trained subjects.

  16. Stochastic modeling of deterioration in nuclear power plant components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Xianxun

    2007-12-01

    The risk-based life-cycle management of engineering systems in a nuclear power plant is intended to ensure safe and economically efficient operation of energy generation infrastructure over its entire service life. An important element of life-cycle management is to understand, model and forecast the effect of various degradation mechanisms affecting the performance of engineering systems, structures and components. The modeling of degradation in nuclear plant components is confounded by large sampling and temporal uncertainties. The reason is that nuclear systems are not readily accessible for inspections due to high level of radiation and large costs associated with remote data collection methods. The models of degradation used by industry are largely derived from ordinary linear regression methods. The main objective of this thesis is to develop more advanced techniques based on stochastic process theory to model deterioration in engineering components with the purpose of providing more scientific basis to life-cycle management of aging nuclear power plants. This thesis proposes a stochastic gamma process (GP) model for deterioration and develops a suite of statistical techniques for calibrating the model parameters. The gamma process is a versatile and mathematically tractable stochastic model for a wide variety of degradation phenomena, and another desirable property is its nonnegative, monotonically increasing sample paths. In the thesis, the GP model is extended by including additional covariates and also modeling for random effects. The optimization of age-based replacement and condition-based maintenance strategies is also presented. The thesis also investigates improved regression techniques for modeling deterioration. A linear mixed-effects (LME) regression model is presented to resolve an inconsistency of the traditional regression models. The proposed LME model assumes that the randomness in deterioration is decomposed into two parts: the unobserved

  17. The effects of Propionibacterium acidipropionici and Lactobacillus plantarum, applied at ensiling, on the fermentation and aerobic stability of low dry matter corn and sorghum silages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filya, I; Sucu, E; Karabulut, A

    2006-05-01

    The aim of this work was to study the effects of applying a strain of Propionibacterium acidipropionici, with or without Lactobacillus plantarum, on the fermentation and aerobic stability characteristics of low dry matter (DM) corn (Zea mays L.) and sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.) silages. Corn at the dent stage and sorghum at the flowering stage were harvested. Treatments comprised control (no additives), P. acidipropionici, L. plantarum and a combination of P. acidipropionici and L. plantarum. Fresh forages were sampled prior to ensiling. Bacterial inoculants were applied to the fresh forage at 1.0 x 10(6) colony-forming units per gram. After treatment, the chopped fresh materials were ensiled in 1.5-l anaerobic glass jars equipped with a lid that enabled gas release only. Three jars per treatment were sampled on days 2, 4, 8, 16 and 60 after ensiling, for chemical and microbiological analysis. At the end of the ensiling period, 60 days, the silages were subjected to an aerobic stability test. The L. plantarum inoculated silages had significantly higher levels of lactic acid than the controls, P. acidipropionici and combination of P. acidipropionici and L. plantarum inoculated silages (Psilages. After the aerobic exposure test, the L. plantarum and combination of P. acidipropionici and L. plantarum had produced more CO2 than the controls and the silages inoculated with P. acidipropionici (Psilages had high levels of CO2 and high numbers of yeasts and molds in the experiment. Therefore, all silages were deteriorated under aerobic conditions. The P. acidipropionici and combination of P. acidipropionici and L. plantarum were not able to improve the aerobic stability of fast-fermenting silages, because they could not work well in this acidic environment. The results showed that P. acidipropionici and combination of P. acidipropionici and L. plantarum did not improve the aerobic stability of low DM corn and sorghum silages, which are prone to aerobic deterioration.

  18. Optimal dynamic pricing and replenishment policies for deteriorating items

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Rabbani

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Marketing strategies and proper inventory replenishment policies are often incorporated by enterprises to stimulate demand and maximize profit. The aim of this paper is to represent an integrated model for dynamic pricing and inventory control of deteriorating items. To reflect the dynamic characteristic of the problem, the selling price is defined as a time-dependent function of the initial selling price and the discount rate. In this regard, the price is exponentially discounted to compensate negative impact of the deterioration. The planning horizon is assumed to be infinite and the deterioration rate is time-dependent. In addition to price, the demand rate is dependent on advertisement as a powerful marketing tool. Several theoretical results and an iterative solution algorithm are developed to provide the optimal solution. Finally, to show validity of the model and illustrate the solution procedure, numerical results are presented.

  19. Application of Artificial Intelligence for Bridge Deterioration Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhang; Wu, Yangyang; Li, Li; Sun, Lijun

    2015-01-01

    The deterministic bridge deterioration model updating problem is well established in bridge management, while the traditional methods and approaches for this problem require manual intervention. An artificial-intelligence-based approach was presented to self-updated parameters of the bridge deterioration model in this paper. When new information and data are collected, a posterior distribution was constructed to describe the integrated result of historical information and the new gained information according to Bayesian theorem, which was used to update model parameters. This AI-based approach is applied to the case of updating parameters of bridge deterioration model, which is the data collected from bridges of 12 districts in Shanghai from 2004 to 2013, and the results showed that it is an accurate, effective, and satisfactory approach to deal with the problem of the parameter updating without manual intervention.

  20. Deterioration Types of Stones Used in Suleymaniye Mosque (Istanbul, Turkey)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alptekin Bilen, Candan; Erisis, Sinem; Er, Selman; Yilmaz, Murat; Angi, Serkan; Tugrul, Atiye

    2016-10-01

    Suleymaniye Mosque located in the historic peninsula of Istanbul, is one of the most important monument of classical Ottoman Architecture. Different types of natural stones having varied lithological characteristics were used in the mosque. Chemical composition, mineralogical, petrographic characteristics and external conditions such as atmospheric effects, earthquake and human impacts have deteriorated these stones over time. The aim of this study is to investigate different natural stones and their deterioration types used in Suleymaniye Mosque. According to the results obtained, generally different types of granites, marbles, limestones, pudding stones, porphyry, serpentinite were used in Suleymaniye Mosque. Detachment, material loss, biological colonization, discoloration and deposits have been determined as a deterioration types on these stones.

  1. Application of Artificial Intelligence for Bridge Deterioration Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The deterministic bridge deterioration model updating problem is well established in bridge management, while the traditional methods and approaches for this problem require manual intervention. An artificial-intelligence-based approach was presented to self-updated parameters of the bridge deterioration model in this paper. When new information and data are collected, a posterior distribution was constructed to describe the integrated result of historical information and the new gained information according to Bayesian theorem, which was used to update model parameters. This AI-based approach is applied to the case of updating parameters of bridge deterioration model, which is the data collected from bridges of 12 districts in Shanghai from 2004 to 2013, and the results showed that it is an accurate, effective, and satisfactory approach to deal with the problem of the parameter updating without manual intervention.

  2. EOQ Model for Time-Deteriorating Items Using Penalty cost

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meenakshi Srivastava

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In inventory, the utility of the deteriorating items decreases with time. The degree ofdeterioration of product utility can be treated as penalty cost in the inventory replenishmentsystem. In this paper, we present EOQ model for those perishable products, which do notdeteriorate for some period of time and after that time they continuously deteriorate with time andloose their importance. This loss can be incurred as penalty cost to the wholesaler / retailer. Theprime focus of our paper is to develop the EOQ model for time-deteriorating items using penaltycost with finite and infinite production rate. For simplicity, linear and exponential penalty costfunctions have been considered as a measurement of the utility of the product. The theoreticalexpressions are obtained for optimum inventory level and cycle time. All the theoreticaldevelopments are numerically justified.

  3. Neuromodulation of Aerobic Exercise—A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saskia eHeijnen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Running, and aerobic exercise in general, is a physical activity that increasingly many people engage in but that also has become popular as a topic for scientific research. Here we review the available studies investigating whether and to which degree aerobic exercise modulates hormones, amino acids, and neurotransmitters levels. In general, it seems that factors such as genes, gender, training status, and hormonal status need to be taken into account to gain a better understanding of the neuromodular underpinnings of aerobic exercise. More research using longitudinal studies and considering individual differences is necessary to determine actual benefits. We suggest that, in order to succeed, aerobic exercise programs should include optimal periodization, prevent overtraining and be tailored to interindividual differences, including neuro-developmental and genetically-based factors.

  4. A production inventory model with deteriorating items and shortages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samanta G.P.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A continuous production control inventory model for deteriorating items with shortages is developed. A number of structural properties of the inventory system are studied analytically. The formulae for the optimal average system cost, stock level, backlog level and production cycle time are derived when the deterioration rate is very small. Numerical examples are taken to illustrate the procedure of finding the optimal total inventory cost, stock level, backlog level and production cycle time. Sensitivity analysis is carried out to demonstrate the effects of changing parameter values on the optimal solution of the system.

  5. Paediatric early warning systems for detecting and responding to clinical deterioration in children: a systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Veronica; Matthews, Anne; MacDonell, Rachel; Fitzsimons, John

    2017-01-01

    Objective To systematically review the available evidence on paediatric early warning systems (PEWS) for use in acute paediatric healthcare settings for the detection of, and timely response to, clinical deterioration in children. Method The electronic databases PubMed, MEDLINE, CINAHL, EMBASE and Cochrane were searched systematically from inception up to August 2016. Eligible studies had to refer to PEWS, inclusive of rapid response systems and teams. Outcomes had to be specific to the identification of and/or response to clinical deterioration in children (including neonates) in paediatric hospital settings (including emergency departments). 2 review authors independently completed the screening and selection process, the quality appraisal of the retrieved evidence and data extraction; with a third reviewer resolving any discrepancies, as required. Results were narratively synthesised. Results From a total screening of 2742 papers, 90 papers, of varied designs, were identified as eligible for inclusion in the review. Findings revealed that PEWS are extensively used internationally in paediatric inpatient hospital settings. However, robust empirical evidence on which PEWS is most effective was limited. The studies examined did however highlight some evidence of positive directional trends in improving clinical and process-based outcomes for clinically deteriorating children. Favourable outcomes were also identified for enhanced multidisciplinary team work, communication and confidence in recognising, reporting and making decisions about child clinical deterioration. Conclusions Despite many studies reporting on the complexity and multifaceted nature of PEWS, no evidence was sourced which examined PEWS as a complex healthcare intervention. Future research needs to investigate PEWS as a complex multifaceted sociotechnical system that is embedded in a wider safety culture influenced by many organisational and human factors. PEWS should be embraced as a part of a

  6. Stimulating kinetic of aerobic reactions skilled athlete in sport dance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Bo

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Changes speed of development of reaction of frequency of heart-throbs are appraised under act of the program of trainings facilities. Directions stimulation of the cardiorespiratory system of sportsmen are rotined. In research took part 2 homogeneous groups of sportsmen for 12 sportsmen (6 pair. It is set that the high-rate of development of reactions of aerobic power providing reflects reactive properties of the cardiorespiratory system and influences on efficiency of functional preparation on the whole. Possibilities of estimation of reactive properties of the cardiorespiratory system are rotined in the natural terms of training process.

  7. Temperature effect on aerobic denitrification and nitrification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Shu-guang; ZHANG Xiao-jian; WANG Zhan-sheng

    2003-01-01

    Nitrogen loss without organic removal in biofilter was observed and its possible reason was explained. A lower hydraulic loading could improve aerobic denitrification rate. Aerobic denitrification was seriously affected by low temperature(below 10oC). However, nitrification rate remained high when the temperature dropped from 15oC to5oC. It seemed the autotrophic biofilm in BAF could alleviate the adverse effect of low temperature.

  8. Application of particle swarm optimisation for solving deteriorating inventory model with fluctuating demand and controllable deterioration rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Ren; Dye, Chung-Yuan

    2013-06-01

    In most of the inventory models in the literature, the deterioration rate of goods is viewed as an exogenous variable, which is not subject to control. In the real market, the retailer can reduce the deterioration rate of product by making effective capital investment in storehouse equipments. In this study, we formulate a deteriorating inventory model with time-varying demand by allowing preservation technology cost as a decision variable in conjunction with replacement policy. The objective is to find the optimal replenishment and preservation technology investment strategies while minimising the total cost over the planning horizon. For any given feasible replenishment scheme, we first prove that the optimal preservation technology investment strategy not only exists but is also unique. Then, a particle swarm optimisation is coded and used to solve the nonlinear programming problem by employing the properties derived from this article. Some numerical examples are used to illustrate the features of the proposed model.

  9. A new model for deteriorating items with inflation under permissible delay in payments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.P. Tripathi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Inflation is an important factor influencing traditional economic order quality models. Marketing strategy depends on inflation due to public demand and availability of the materials. This paper presents an optimal inventory policy for deteriorating items using exponential demand rate under permissible delay in payments. Mathematical model has been derived under two cases: case I: cycle time is greater than or equal to permissible delay period, case II: cycle time is less than permissible delay period by considering holding cost as a function of time. Numerical examples and sensitivity analysis are given to reflect the numerical results. Mathematica software is used for finding optimal solutions.

  10. Sulfate deterioration of cement-based materials examined by x-ray microtomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naik, Nikhila N.; Kurtis, Kimberly E.; Wilkinson, Angus P.; Jupe, Andrew C.; Stock, Stuart R.

    2004-10-01

    Sulfate ions present in soil, groundwater, seawater, decaying organic matter, acid rain, and industrial effluent adversely affect the long-term durability of portland cement concrete, but lack of complete understanding of the nature and consequences of sulfate attack hamper our ability to accurately predict performance of concrete in sulfate-rich environments. One impediment to improved understanding of sulfate deterioration of cement-based materials has been the lack of appropriate non-destructive characterization techniques. Laboratory x-ray microtomography affords an opportunity to study in situ the evolution of physical manifestations of damage due to sulfate exposure. The influence of materials selection and mixture parameters - including water-to-cement ratio, cement type, and presence or absence of aggregate, as well as the influence of sulfate exposure conditions, including sulfate and cation type (i.e., Na2SO4 and MgSO4) and concentration - have been examined by microtomography to determine their influence on the rate and character of the sulfate-induced deterioration.

  11. Deterioration of ancient metallic elements taken from Toledo cathedral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castaño González, Juan Guillermo

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available The construction of Toledo Cathedral spanned a period of more than 200 years and was influenced by many different trends and criteria, reflected in the wide range of styles it accommodates (basically Mudéjar and Gothic, with Flemish, baroque and renaissance elements. Over the centuries it has undergone numerous restorations, also according to different criteria. The cathedral is situated in an environment of low aggressivity, in terms of atmospheric contamination, but the passage of time has taken its toll on many structural, architectural and artistic elements. During recent restoration work several metallic elements, which have been exposed for many years or even centuries to the inclemencies of the Toledo climate, were taken in order to analyse their composition and deterioration. The techniques used have been Scanning Electron Microscopy with X-Ray Microprobe (SEM/EDAX, X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD. The elements considered are a piece of roofing lead, a lead slate clamp, a piece of stained glass window leading, and an iron nail.

    La Catedral de Toledo se edificó en un período de más de 200 años, bajo numerosos criterios de construcción que se reflejan en la multiplicidad de estilos que alberga (entre mudéjar y gótico, con aportaciones flamencas, barrocas y renacentistas. A través de los siglos, ha sido objeto de numerosas restauraciones, también bajo distintos criterios. La catedral está ubicada en un ambiente poco agresivo, en cuanto a corrosión atmosférica se refiere. Sin embargo, el discurrir de tantos años no deja de hacer mella en los diversos elementos estructurales, arquitectónicos y artísticos que la componen. En recientes restauraciones se obtuvieron algunos elementos metálicos que han estado expuestos, por muchos años, siglos inclusive, a las inclemencias del clima toledano, con el propósito de analizar su composición y deterioro, empleando las técnicas de Microscopio

  12. 40 CFR 52.1634 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The plan submitted by the Governor of New Mexico on February 21... adopted by the NMEID on March 9, 1990), Air Quality Control Regulation 707—Permits, Prevention of... February 10, 1993, by the Albuquerque/Bernalillo County Air Quality Control Board, containing Regulation...

  13. Maintenance Models for Systems subject to Measurable Deterioration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.P. Nicolai (Robin)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractComplex engineering systems such as bridges, roads, flood defence structures, and power pylons play an important role in our society. Unfortunately such systems are subject to deterioration, meaning that in course of time their condition falls from higher to lower, and possibly even to u

  14. 40 CFR 52.1778 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1778 Section 52.1778 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a)-(b) (c) All applications and other information required pursuant... Air Quality, 1641 Mail Service Center, Raleigh, North Carolina 27699-1641 or local agencies,...

  15. 40 CFR 52.2233 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2233 Section 52.2233 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a)(1) Paragraph 1200-3-9-.01(4)-(0)-2. of Tennessee's regulations... requesting innovative technology waivers which would significantly impact air quality in adjacent states....

  16. 40 CFR 52.60 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.60 Section 52.60 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) All applications and other information required pursuant to § 52.21 from... “Guideline on Air Quality Models (Revised)” or other models approved by EPA....

  17. Treatment of Childhood Idiopathic Language Deterioration with Valproate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Gregory L.; Riviello, James J.

    2001-06-01

    Childhood idiopathic language deterioration is a rare condition in which children lose previously gained language skills. In some children this language deterioration occurs in association with behavioral seizures or EEG epileptiform activity. The effectiveness of antiepileptic drugs in this patient population is not known. Here we retrospectively reviewed records of 57 children with childhood idiopathic language deterioration associated with seizures or epileptiform activity on their EEG who received valproate for the purpose of treating their language impairment. In 22 of the children improvement in language skills was observed. In two children language returned to normal while in the other 20 the improvement was modest. Children who responded to valproate had an earlier age of onset of the aphasia than children who were nonresponders. Seizure type, EEG findings, developmental status, and presence or absence of a frequency-modulated auditory evoked potential were not related to response. This study demonstrates that valproate can be helpful in improving language function in some children with idiopathic language deterioration associated with seizures or epileptiform activity on the EEG.

  18. Risk-Based Decision Making for Deterioration Processes Using POMDP

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jannie Sønderkær; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes a method for risk-based decision making for maintenance of deteriorating components, based on the partially observable Markov decision process (POMDP). Unlike most methods, the decision polices do not need to be stationary and can vary according to seasons and near the end of ...

  19. Effectiveness of respiratory rates in determining clinical deterioration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mølgaard, Rikke Rishøj; Larsen, Palle; Håkonsen, Sasa Jul

    2016-01-01

    Review question/objective: The objective of this systematic review is to identify, appraise and synthesize the best available evidence on the effectiveness of manually measuring respiratory rates for 60 s or less in detecting clinical deterioration of inpatients. More specifically, the review...

  20. Water aerobics in pregnancy: cardiovascular response, labor and neonatal outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Braga Angelica F

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To evaluate the association between water aerobics, maternal cardiovascular capacity during pregnancy, labor and neonatal outcomes. Methods A randomized, controlled clinical trial was carried out in which 34 pregnant women were allocated to a water aerobics group and 37 to a control group. All women were submitted to submaximal ergometric tests on a treadmill at 19, 25 and 35 weeks of pregnancy and were followed up until delivery. Oxygen consumption (VO2 max, cardiac output (CO, physical fitness, skin temperature, data on labor and delivery, and neonate outcomes were evaluated. Frequency distributions of the baseline variables of both groups were initially performed and then analysis of the outcomes was carried out. Categorical data were compared using the chi-square test, and numerical using Student's t or Mann-Whitney tests. Wilk's Lambda or Friedman's analysis of repeat measurements were applied for comparison of physical capacity, cardiovascular outcomes and maternal temperature. Results VO2 max and physical fitness were higher in both groups in the second trimester, returning to basal levels in the third trimester. In both groups, CO increased as pregnancy progressed and peak exercise temperature was higher than resting temperature, increasing further after five minutes of recovery and remaining at this level until 15 minutes after exercise completion. There was no difference between the two groups regarding duration (457.9 ± SD 249.6 vs 428.9 ± SD 203.2 minutes or type of delivery. Labor analgesia was requested by significantly fewer women in the water aerobics group (27% vs 65%; RR = 0.42 95%CI 0.23–0.77. Neonatal results were similar in both groups. Conclusion The regular practice of moderate water aerobics by sedentary and low risk pregnant women was not detrimental to the health of the mother or the child. There was no influence on maternal cardiovascular capacity, duration of labor or type of delivery; however

  1. Influence of Exercise Modalities on Relative Aerobic Energy Contribution in 4 min Running and Cycling Time Trial%4 min跑步和自行车全力运动中运动方式对有氧供能比例的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黎涌明; 陈小平; 乌里·哈特曼

    2016-01-01

    Aim The relative aerobic energy contribution is a fundamental characteristic of maxi‐mal exercises .Previous investigations have reported some values of relative aerobic energy con‐tribution ,or some correlation equation ,for different duration of maximal exercises ,without ver‐ifying the influence of exercise modalities .The aim of this study is to investigate the influence of exercise modalities on relative aerobic energy contribution in 4min running and cycling time trial .Methods This study recruited 16 amateur athletes from triathlon ,cycling ,and long‐dis‐tance running (33 .5 ± 10 .6 yrs ,180 ± 9cm ,75 .8 ± 8 .4 kg ,training experience 14 ± 10 yrs ) to participate in two 4min time trails ,with the exercise modalities of field‐running ,and ergom‐eter‐cycling .The energy contributions and oxygen uptake kinetics were compared for these two exercise modalities .We utilized a portable gas analyzer and a blood lactate analyzer to measure and assess the relative parameters .The energy contributions were calculated with the method based on the accumulated oxygen uptake ,and blood lactate during the maximal exercise ,as well as the fast component of the oxygen debt during the recovery .Results The results demonstra‐ted similar aerobic energy contributions (77 .0 ± 3 .8% vs .75 .9 ± 2 .6% ,P> 0 .05 ) ,similar phosphate energy contributions (11 .4 ± 2 .6% vs .10 .0 ± 2 .0% ,P>0 .05 ) ,but significantly different glycolysis energy contributions (11 .6 ± 3 .4% vs .14 .1 ± 3 .3% ,P 0 .05) ,but significant different in the slow component (0 .26 ± 0 .09 L/min vs .0 .54 ± 0 .32 L/min ,P< 0 .05) .Conclusion The results from the 4min time trials of running and cycling indicate seemly that the exercise modalities don ’ t influence the relative aerobic energy contribution in maximal exercises .This conclusion warrants future in‐vestigations which emphasize on more exercise modalities ,and more duration .%拟探究4 min全力跑步和自行车运

  2. Aerobic Digestion. Sludge Treatment and Disposal Course #166. Instructor's Guide [and] Student Workbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klopping, Paul H.

    This lesson is a basic description of aerobic digestion. Topics presented include a general process overview discussion of a typical digester's components, factors influencing performance, operational controls, and biological considerations for successful operation. The lesson includes an instructor's guide and student workbook. The instructor's…

  3. Aerobic capacity and disease activity in children, adolescents and young adults with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Pelt Philomine A

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA progress into adulthood, long-term outcome is determined by disease activity, physical and psychosocial development. Decreased aerobic capacity may play a critical role in health-related outcomes in JIA, since it has been linked with cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in late adulthood. The objectives of the current study are to examine the aerobic capacity and its relation to parameters of disease activity in children, adolescents and young adults with JIA. Methods Sixty-three patients with JIA (aged 10–27 years were cross sectional studied regarding their aerobic capacity and correlations were made to demographic, disease-related variables, and medication utilization. in a cross-sectional study group of 63 patients of all subtypes. Patients were divided in three age groups, 10–13 years; 14–17 years and 18–27 years. Results Reduced aerobic capacity is found in clinical remission as well as active disease in all subtypes and all age groups. Aerobic capacity is more impaired in active disease shown by DAS 28, JADAS 27, ESR and serum thrombocyte counts. Lower haemoglobin has a negative impact. Long-term used medication including methotrexate and corticosteroids didn’t influence outcome. There is no association with current sports participation. Conclusion Reduced aerobic capacity is present in adolescents and young adults with JIA, both in active disease and in patients with remission. Measures of aerobic capacity may serve as important outcome measure in JIA.

  4. Mechanism of Kenaf Retting Using Aerobes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢士森; 陈季华; 黄秀宝

    2001-01-01

    The experimental results showed that the duration of microbial retting processing of kenaf fibers by using aerobic microbe was four times shorter than that by using anaerobic microbe. The residual gum percentage,breaking strength, breaking elongation and linear density of aerobic retted kenaf bundle fibers did not show significantly difference with that of anaerobic retted kenaf bundle fibers by ANOVA-Tukey's studentized test at a = 5% except for the softness. The bioenergetic principle and the calculation of the amount of ATP produced during the decomposition processing of kenaf gums were used to explain why the retting duration in the case of using aerobic microbes was much shorter than that of using anaerobic microbes.

  5. Nebulised sodium cromoglycate in infancy: airway protection after deterioration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Callaghan, C; Milner, A D; Swarbrick, A

    1990-01-01

    Over a two year period 100 infants with histories of wheeze were challenged with nebulised water. They were sedated and lung function measured by total body plethysmography. Thirteen of the 53 infants who developed bronchoconstriction after challenge with nebulised water were given nebulised sodium cromoglycate and rechallenged with nebulised water. All infants were initially challenged with normal saline, after which there was no significant change in lung function. After challenge with nebulised water and sodium cromoglycate there were significant decreases in specific conductance compared with those found after challenge with normal saline. After rechallenge with nebulised water there was no deterioration in lung function. Although sodium cromoglycate caused a deterioration in lung function in these infants, it protected their airways from challenge with nebulised water. PMID:2111980

  6. Natatorium Building Enclosure Deterioration Due to Moisture Migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleka Pappas

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The natatorium enclosure at the Avon Recreation Center in Avon, Colorado experienced significant deterioration of the CMU façade due to moisture carried by humid air from the interior of the space into the wall assembly. This situation was caused by a combination of an insufficient interior air and vapor barrier along with an HVAC system that failed to provide negative pressurization to the space. This case study describes the investigation carried out to determine the causes of wall and roof deterioration at the building, and details the repair efforts undertaken. Lessons learned are presented to help designers, building owners, and maintenance personnel prevent similar problems from occurring in their buildings.

  7. Corrosion and Deterioration Testing in the Humid Tropic Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-21

    Visual comparison of deterioration of metal coupons on exposure racks at Marine Breakwater Exposure Site, Sherman, Republic of Panama...temperature increases. Many microorganisms exhibit maximum growth when temperatures are between 24 and 36 °C (75 and 97 °F). Consideration should... microorganisms . b. A transport medium for chemicals. c. A medium for chemical reaction. d. A hydration agent for dry materials causing them to

  8. Optimal inspection and maintenance for stochastically deteriorating systems

    OpenAIRE

    Dagg, R.A.

    1999-01-01

    This thesis concerns the optimisation of maintenance and inspection for stochastically deteriorating systems. The motivation for this thesis is the problem of determining condition based maintenance policies, for systems whose degradation may be modelled by a continuous time stochastic process. Our emphasis is mainly on using the information gained from inspecting the degradation to determine efficient maintenance and inspection policies. The system we shall consider is one in which the degra...

  9. Influence of Aerobic Exercise on Stress Response and Circulatory Function in Patients with High Risk of Cardiovas-cular Diseases after Intensive Military Trainings%有氧运动对心血管病高危因素新兵高强度军事训练后机体循环功能与应激反应的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张鹏; 韩国华; 蒋希; 马兴杰; 董岸莺; 乔昆

    2015-01-01

    目的:观察有氧运动对存在心血管病高危因素新兵高强度军事训练后机体循环功能与应激反应的影响。方法选取某部存在心血管病高危因素的新入伍战士40名,在常规体能锻炼基础上增加有氧运动,为期2个月,于有氧锻炼开始前和结束后行10 km 跑步运动应激测试,记录受试者运动应激前30 min 及后10 min 心率、收缩压、心率血压乘积的变化,以及血超敏 C 反应蛋白(hs-CRP)、心肌型肌酸激酶同工酶(CK-MB)和氨基末端脑钠肽前体(NT-proBNP)浓度的变化。结果受试者两次运动应激后心率、收缩压、心率血压乘积及血 hs-CRP、NT-proBNP 浓度均升高(P <0.01);第2次运动应激后心率、心率血压乘积及血 hs-CRP、NT-proBNP 浓度升高幅度低于首次运动应激后(P <0.05或 P <0.01)。结论高强度军事训练可增加心血管病高危人群的应激反应并影响其循环功能,合理的体能锻炼联合有氧运动有助于减少急性心血管病事件甚至心源性猝死的发生。%Objective To observe the influences of aerobic exercise on stress response and circulatory function in the patients with high risk of cardiovascular diseases after intensive military training. Methods A comprehensive method was used including questionnaire survey, physical examination and 12-lead electrocardiogram. The population with cardiovascular high-risk (n = 40) was intervened by aerobic exercise for 2 months. The changes of HR, blood pressure, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), creatinekinase-MB ( CK-MB) and amino-terminal pro-B-type brain natriuretic peptide ( NT-proBNP) were compared between the two groups before and after a 10 km run. Results There was no significant difference in rate-pressure product and biological indexes among two groups before the exercise. After the exercise,rate-pressure product, hs-CRR, and NT-proBNP increased and there was statistical difference between the two

  10. 有氧运动对2型糖尿病大鼠血浆晚期糖基化终产物的影响%The influence of aerobic exercise on the level of advanced glyclation end products in plasma in type 2 diabetic rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈志祥; 刘翠鲜; 郑洁皎; 孙圣婴; 刘宇春; 孟萌; 赵剑

    2011-01-01

    Objective To determine the influence of aerobic exercise on advanced glycation end products (AGEs)in plasma using a rat model of type 2 diabetes,and to provide an experimental basis for explaining the rehabilitative mechanism of aerobic exercise in type 2 diabetes.Methods Fifty-two healthy 8-week-old male SpragueDawley rats were allocated at random into a normal control group(n=10)and a type 2 diabetes model group(n=42).The latter were overfed with a high-sugar,high-fat and high-energy diet for 4 weeks,then 30ms/kg of streptozotocin was injected intraperitoneally to create a model of type 2 diabetes.Thirty diabetic rats were then allocated at random into a diabetes control group,a low intensity exercise group and a moderate intensity exercise group with 10 in each group.The treadmill exercise was administered to the animals in the low and moderate exercise groups accordingly.Results Compared with the normal control group,plasma AGEs increased significantly in the diabetes control and moderate intensity exercise groups.Compared with the diabetes control group,AGEs in the lower intensity exercise group were significantly lower.Compared with the moderate intensity exercise group,plasma AGEs in the low intensity exercise group were somewhat lower,but not significantly.Conclusion Aerobic exercise can reduce plasma AGE levels in rats with a model of type 2 diabetes.The effect is probably related to decreasing excessive blood glncose and the exercise intensity.%目的 探讨有氧运动对2型糖尿病大鼠血浆晚期糖基化终产物(AGEs)的影响.方法 将52只8周龄健康雄性SD大鼠分为正常对照组10只和2型糖尿病造模组42只.造模组大鼠用高糖、高脂和高能量饲料喂养4周后,予以一次性腹腔注射链脲佐菌素(30 ms/kg体重),以建立2型糖尿病大鼠模型.取30只成功造模的2型糖尿病大鼠,分为糖尿病对照组、小强度运动组和中强度运动组,每组10只.小、中强度运

  11. Cardiac autonomic responses at onset of exercise: effects of aerobic fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Agosto, T; Peçanha, T; Bartels, R; Moreira, D N; Silva, L P; Nóbrega, A C L; Lima, J R P

    2014-09-01

    Analyzes of cardiac autonomic responses at the initial transient of exercise have been used for the investigation of the cardiovascular health. We evaluated the influence of aerobic fitness on HR and HRV responses at the onset of exercise. 25 male subjects (22.3±2.4 years) were divided into 2 groups: 'low aerobic fitness' (36.2±2.6ml.kg(-1).min(-1); n=10) and 'high aerobic fitness' (46.4±5.0ml.kg(-1).min(-1); n=15). The experimental session consisted of assessing the beat-to-beat HR at rest and during submaximal exercise. The autonomic responses at the onset of exercise were calculated by fitting the HR and HRV (rMSSD-index) curves during the initial 300s of exercise into a first-order exponential equation. The time constant of HR and of the rMSSD index (τonHR and τonrMSSD) were calculated for analysis. We observed lower values of τonrMSSD in the high aerobic fitness group compared to the low aerobic fitness group (26.8±5s vs. 38.0±18s, respectively; p=0.02). The τonHR (42.0±15 vs. 49.3±26s, p=0.38) for the groups showed no difference. Aerobic fitness partially influenced the autonomic responses during exercise, since individuals with higher fitness showed faster decreases in beat-to-beat HRV at the onset of exercise.

  12. The effect of regular aerobic exercise on urinary brain-derived neurotrophic factor in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunita Fediani

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background Nervous system development in early life influences the quality of cognitive ability during adulthood. Neuronal development and neurogenesis are highly influenced by neurotrophins. The most active neurotrophin is brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF. Physical activity has a positive effect on cognitive function. However, few experimental studies have been done on children to assess the effect of aerobic regular exercise on BDNF levels. Objective To assess the effect of regular aerobic exercise on urinary BDNF levels in children. Methods This clinical study was performed in 67 children aged 6-8 years in Palembang. The intervention group (n=34 engaged in aerobic gymnastics three times per week for 8 weeks, while the control group (n=33 engaged in gymnastic only once per week. Measurements of urinary BDNF were performed on both groups before and after intervention. Mann-Whitney and Wilcoxon rank tests were used to analyze the differences between groups. Results There was no difference in urinary BDNF levels between the two groups prior to the intervention. After intervention, the mean urinary BDNF levels were significantly higher in the intervention group than in the control group, 230.2 (SD 264.4 pg/mL vs. 88.0 (SD 35.4 pg/mL, respectively (P=0.027. We also found that engaging in aerobic gymnastics significantly increased urinary BDNF levels from baseline in both groups (P=0.001. Conclusion Regular aerobic exercise can increase urinary BDNF levels and potentially improve cognitive function. Aerobic exercise should be a routine activity in school curriculums in combination with the learning process to improve children’s cognitive ability.[Paediatr Indones. 2014;54:351-7.].

  13. Geoenvironmental weathering/deterioration of landfilled MSWI-BA glass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yunmei; Saffarzadeh, Amirhomayoun; Shimaoka, Takayuki; Zhao, Chun; Peng, Xuya; Gao, Junmin

    2014-08-15

    Municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash (MSWI-BA) glass serves as a matrix of assorted bottom ash (BA) compounds. Deterioration of the BA glass phases is quite important as they regulate the distribution of a series of toxic elements. This paper studied landfilled MSWI-BA samples from the mineralogical and geochemical viewpoint to understand the deterioration behavior of the BA glass phases as well as mechanisms involved. Bulk analysis by PXRD as well as micro-scale analysis by optical microscopy and SEM/EDX was conducted for such purposes. The results revealed that dissolution of the BA glass phases has resulted in a deterioration layer of 10(0)-10(2)μm thickness after years of disposal. This rapid weathering process is highly relevant to the specific glass characteristics and solution pH. The BA glass phases with more embedded compounds and cracks/fissures tend to be more vulnerable. Moreover, the generally alkaline pH in ash deposit favors a rapid disruption of the glass phase. The weathering products are mainly gel phases (including Al-Si gel, Ca-Al-Si gel, Fe-Al-Si gel etc.) with iron oxide/hydroxide as accessory products. Breakdown of the BA glass phases triggers chemical evolution of the embedded compounds. Based on all the findings above, a model is proposed to illustrate a general evolution trend for the landfilled MSWI-BA glass phases.

  14. Parallel deterioration to language processing in a bilingual speaker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Druks, Judit; Weekes, Brendan Stuart

    2013-01-01

    The convergence hypothesis [Green, D. W. (2003). The neural basis of the lexicon and the grammar in L2 acquisition: The convergence hypothesis. In R. van Hout, A. Hulk, F. Kuiken, & R. Towell (Eds.), The interface between syntax and the lexicon in second language acquisition (pp. 197-218). Amsterdam: John Benjamins] assumes that the neural substrates of language representations are shared between the languages of a bilingual speaker. One prediction of this hypothesis is that neurodegenerative disease should produce parallel deterioration to lexical and grammatical processing in bilingual aphasia. We tested this prediction with a late bilingual Hungarian (first language, L1)-English (second language, L2) speaker J.B. who had nonfluent progressive aphasia (NFPA). J.B. had acquired L2 in adolescence but was premorbidly proficient and used English as his dominant language throughout adult life. Our investigations showed comparable deterioration to lexical and grammatical knowledge in both languages during a one-year period. Parallel deterioration to language processing in a bilingual speaker with NFPA challenges the assumption that L1 and L2 rely on different brain mechanisms as assumed in some theories of bilingual language processing [Ullman, M. T. (2001). The neural basis of lexicon and grammar in first and second language: The declarative/procedural model. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 4(1), 105-122].

  15. Film with anthocyanins as an indicator of chilled pork deterioration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luana Baptista Golasz

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available An indicator can be defined as a substance which indicates the presence or absence of another substance or the degree of a certain reaction through characteristic changes, especially color. Therefore, the aim of this work is to evaluate the performance of a bio-based film with anthocyanin as an indicator of chilled pork deterioration. A film made of cassava starch, glycerol, and grape anthocyanins was prepared using the casting technique. Pork loin samples were put in Petri dishes containing an anthocyanin film on the bottom and stored at 4 ºC. Psychrotrophic microorganism count and the pH of the pork loin samples were analyzed for a 14 day- period. At the same time, the films were subjected to colorimetric analysis using D65 illuminant and the CIELAB system. Chroma and hue angle data for these films were evaluated by Anova and Dunnett's test. An increase in the microbial population and in the pH was observed over the storage period as result of pork deterioration. Color changes were also identified in the film. However, only at the beginning of the storage period was it possible to establish a correlation between film color and pork deterioration. The shelf life end-point could not be clearly detected by the film.

  16. Polarization Induced Deterioration of Reinforced Concrete with CFRP Anode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Hua Zhu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the deterioration of reinforced concrete with carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP anode after polarization. The steel in the concrete was first subjected to accelerated corrosion to various extents. Then, a polarization test was performed with the external attached CFRP as the anode and the steel reinforcement as the cathode. Carbon fiber reinforced mortar and conductive carbon paste as contact materials were used to adhere the CFRP anode to the concrete. Two current densities of 1244 and 2488 mA/m2, corresponding to the steel reinforcements were applied for 25 days. Electrochemical parameters were monitored during the test period. The deterioration mechanism that occurred at the CFRP/contact material interface was investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM and X-ray diffraction (XRD techniques. The increase of feeding voltage and the failure of bonding was observed during polarization process, which might have resulted from the deterioration of the interface between the contact material and CFRP. The formation and accumulation of NaCl crystals at the contact material/CFRP interface were inferred to be the main causes of the failure at the interface.

  17. Aerobic exercise training in modulation of aerobic physical fitness and balance of burned patients

    OpenAIRE

    Ali, Zizi M. Ibrahim; El-Refay, Basant H.; Ali, Rania Reffat

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to determine the impact of aerobic exercise on aerobic capacity, balance, and treadmill time in patients with thermal burn injury. [Subjects and Methods] Burned adult patients, aged 20–40 years (n=30), from both sexes, with second degree thermal burn injuries covering 20–40% of the total body surface area (TBSA), were enrolled in this trial for 3 months. Patients were randomly divided into; group A (n=15), which performed an aerobic exercise program 3 days/week for ...

  18. Strength training and aerobic exercise training for muscle disease (Review)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voet, N.B.M.; Kooi, E.L. van der; Riphagen, I.I.; Lindeman, E.; Engelen, B.G.M. van; Geurts, A.C.H.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Strength training or aerobic exercise programmes might optimise muscle and cardiorespiratory function and prevent additional disuse atrophy and deconditioning in people with a muscle disease. OBJECTIVES: To examine the safety and efficacy of strength training and aerobic exercise trainin

  19. Aerobic exercise in fibromyalgia: a practical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Eric N; Blotman, Francis

    2010-07-01

    The objective of the study was to determine the current evidence to support guidelines for aerobic exercise (AE) and fibromyalgia (FM) in practice, and to outline specific research needs in these areas. Data sources consisted of a PubMed search, 2007 Cochrane Data Base Systematic review, 2008 Ottawa panel evidence-based clinical practice guidelines, as well as additional references found from the initial search. Study selection included randomized clinical trials that compared an aerobic-only exercise intervention (land or pool based) with an untreated control, a non-exercise intervention or other exercise programs in patients responding to the 1990 American College of Rheumatology criteria for FM. The following outcome data were obtained: pain, tender points, perceived improvement in FM symptoms such as the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire total score (FIQ), physical function, depression (e.g., Beck Depression Inventory, FIQ subscale for depression), fatigue and sleep were extracted from 19 clinical trials that considered the effects of aerobic-only exercise in FM patients. Data synthesis shows that there is moderate evidence of important benefit of aerobic-only exercise in FM on physical function and possibly on tender points and pain. It appears to be sufficient evidence to support the practice of AE as a part of the multidisciplinary management of FM. However, future studies must be more adequately sized, homogeneously assessed, and monitored for adherence, to draw definitive conclusions.

  20. Integrated anaerobic and aerobic treatment of sewage.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaijun Wang,

    1994-01-01

    This thesis describes results of investigations dealing with sequential concept of anaerobic-aerobic treatment of municipal wastewater. The main purposes of the study were 1) to develop a proper anaerobic hydrolytic pretreatment unit, consisting of a Hydrolysis Upflow Sludge Bed (HUSB-) reactor and

  1. Intraspecific variation in aerobic and anaerobic locomotion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Jon Christian; Tirsgård, Bjørn; Cordero, Gerardo A.;

    2015-01-01

    Intraspecific variation and trade-off in aerobic and anaerobic traits remain poorly understood in aquatic locomotion. Using gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) and Trinidadian guppy (Poecilia reticulata), both axial swimmers, this study tested four hypotheses: (1) gait transition from steady...

  2. Ventilation and Speech Characteristics during Submaximal Aerobic Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Susan E.; Hipp, Jenny; Alessio, Helaine

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined alterations in ventilation and speech characteristics as well as perceived dyspnea during submaximal aerobic exercise tasks. Method: Twelve healthy participants completed aerobic exercise-only and simultaneous speaking and aerobic exercise tasks at 50% and 75% of their maximum oxygen consumption (VO[subscript 2] max).…

  3. Design Of A Laboratory Set-up For Evaluating Structural Strength Of Deteriorated Concrete Sewer Pipes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stanic, N.; Salet, T.; Langeveld, J.G.; Clemens, F.H.L.R.

    2014-01-01

    The principle of structural behaviour of buried concrete pipes is fairly understood, except for how material deterioration affects structural behaviour and performance. Consequently, information on the structural behaviour of deteriorated sewer pipes will contribute to better understanding of the ch

  4. Aerobic exercise training in modulation of aerobic physical fitness and balance of burned patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Zizi M Ibrahim; El-Refay, Basant H; Ali, Rania Reffat

    2015-03-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to determine the impact of aerobic exercise on aerobic capacity, balance, and treadmill time in patients with thermal burn injury. [Subjects and Methods] Burned adult patients, aged 20-40 years (n=30), from both sexes, with second degree thermal burn injuries covering 20-40% of the total body surface area (TBSA), were enrolled in this trial for 3 months. Patients were randomly divided into; group A (n=15), which performed an aerobic exercise program 3 days/week for 60 min and participated in a traditional physical therapy program, and group B (n=15), which only participated in a traditional exercise program 3 days/week. Maximal aerobic capacity, treadmill time, and Berg balance scale were measured before and after the study. [Results] In both groups, the results revealed significant improvements after treatment in all measurements; however, the improvement in group A was superior to that in group B. [Conclusion] The results provide evidence that aerobic exercises for adults with healed burn injuries improve aerobic physical fitness and balance.

  5. Predicting Future Deterioration of Hydraulic Steel Structures with Markov Chain and Multivariate Samples of Statistical Distributions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo A. Riveros

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Combined effects of several complex phenomena cause the deterioration of elements of steel hydraulic structures on the nation’s lock systems: loss of protective systems, corrosion, cracking and fatigue, impacts, and overloads. This paper presents examples of deterioration of steel hydraulic structures. A method for predicting future deterioration based on current conditions is also presented. This paper also includes a procedure for developing deterioration curves when condition state data is available.

  6. Seniors’ self-preservation by maintaining established self and defying deterioration – A grounded theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeanette Källstrand Eriksson

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this classic grounded theory study was to understand how seniors who are living independently resolve issues influenced by visual impairment and high fall risk. We interviewed and observed 13 seniors with visual impairment in their homes. We also interviewed six visual instructors with experience from many hundreds of relevant incidents from the same group of seniors. We found that the seniors are resolving their main concern of “remaining themselves as who they used to be” by self-preservation. Within this category, the strategies maintaining the established self and defying deterioration emerged as the most prominent in our data. The theme maintaining the established self is mostly guided by change inertia and includes living the past (retaining past activities, reminiscing, and keeping the home intact and facading (hiding impairment, leading to avoidance of becoming a burden and to risk juggling. Defying deterioration is a proactive scheme and involves moving (by exercising, adapting activities, using walking aids, driving, adapting (by finding new ways, and networking by sustaining old support networks or finding new networks. Self-preservation is generic human behavior and modifying this theory to other fields may therefore be worthwhile. In addition, health care providers may have use for the theory in fall preventive planning.

  7. Performance deterioration modeling and optimal preventive maintenance strategy under scheduled servicing subject to mission time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Dawei

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Servicing is applied periodically in practice with the aim of restoring the system state and prolonging the lifetime. It is generally seen as an imperfect maintenance action which has a chief influence on the maintenance strategy. In order to model the maintenance effect of servicing, this study analyzes the deterioration characteristics of system under scheduled servicing. And then the deterioration model is established from the failure mechanism by compound Poisson process. On the basis of the system damage value and failure mechanism, the failure rate refresh factor is proposed to describe the maintenance effect of servicing. A maintenance strategy is developed which combines the benefits of scheduled servicing and preventive maintenance. Then the optimization model is given to determine the optimal servicing period and preventive maintenance time, with an objective to minimize the system expected life-cycle cost per unit time and a constraint on system survival probability for the duration of mission time. Subject to mission time, it can control the ability of accomplishing the mission at any time so as to ensure the high dependability. An example of water pump rotor relating to scheduled servicing is introduced to illustrate the failure rate refresh factor and the proposed maintenance strategy. Compared with traditional methods, the numerical results show that the failure rate refresh factor can describe the maintenance effect of servicing more intuitively and objectively. It also demonstrates that this maintenance strategy can prolong the lifetime, reduce the total lifetime maintenance cost and guarantee the dependability of system.

  8. Seniors' self-preservation by maintaining established self and defying deterioration - A grounded theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, Jeanette Källstrand; Hildingh, Cathrine; Buer, Nina; Thulesius, Hans

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this classic grounded theory study was to understand how seniors who are living independently resolve issues influenced by visual impairment and high fall risk. We interviewed and observed 13 seniors with visual impairment in their homes. We also interviewed six visual instructors with experience from many hundreds of relevant incidents from the same group of seniors. We found that the seniors are resolving their main concern of "remaining themselves as who they used to be" by self-preservation. Within this category, the strategies maintaining the established self and defying deterioration emerged as the most prominent in our data. The theme maintaining the established self is mostly guided by change inertia and includes living the past (retaining past activities, reminiscing, and keeping the home intact) and facading (hiding impairment, leading to avoidance of becoming a burden and to risk juggling). Defying deterioration is a proactive scheme and involves moving (by exercising, adapting activities, using walking aids, driving), adapting (by finding new ways), and networking by sustaining old support networks or finding new networks. Self-preservation is generic human behavior and modifying this theory to other fields may therefore be worthwhile. In addition, health care providers may have use for the theory in fall preventive planning.

  9. Entrepreneurial Behaviour in Periods of Deterioration of Small Firms' Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarosław Ropęga

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of the paper is to indicate types of entrepreneurial behaviour which should be triggered during periods of deterioration of small firms' condition. Research Design & Methods: The study concerned the causes and symptoms of economic failure identified along the trajectories of this phenomenon. The paper uses selected parts of the study related to the non-occurrence of entrepreneurial behaviour or errors in this behaviour identified in the surveyedfirms. The entire study was conducted based on the analysis of 32 case studies carried out among the former entrepreneurs  of  micro  and  small  firms  liquidated  in  the  period  from  01.01.2006  to 31.12.2011. Findings: The  study  helped  to  identify  shortcomings  in  the  entrepreneurial  process along individual trajectories of economic failure of the surveyed companies. Implications & Recommendations: As  a  result  of  the  conscious  entrepreneurial  process, small firms have the opportunity to leave the trajectory of economic failure, indicated by the deteriorating condition of the company.  It is therefore necessary to develop knowledge concerning the entrepreneurial processand entrepreneurship among managers of small firms. Contribution & Value Added: According to the author, one of the key factors affecting the survival of small businesses in the period of deterioration of their condition is the initiation of the entrepreneurial process and/or its deliberate continuation. It seems quite natural to base components of this process on the existing support tools for entrepreneurs that are at risk of economic failure.

  10. Breaking object correspondence across saccadic eye movements deteriorates object recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian H. Poth

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Visual perception is based on information processing during periods of eye fixations that are interrupted by fast saccadic eye movements. The ability to sample and relate information on task-relevant objects across fixations implies that correspondence between presaccadic and postsaccadic objects is established. Postsaccadic object information usually updates and overwrites information on the corresponding presaccadic object. The presaccadic object representation is then lost. In contrast, the presaccadic object is conserved when object correspondence is broken. This helps transsaccadic memory but it may impose attentional costs on object recognition. Therefore, we investigated how breaking object correspondence across the saccade affects postsaccadic object recognition. In Experiment 1, object correspondence was broken by a brief postsaccadic blank screen. Observers made a saccade to a peripheral object which was displaced during the saccade. This object reappeared either immediately after the saccade or after the blank screen. Within the postsaccadic object, a letter was briefly presented (terminated by a mask. Observers reported displacement direction and letter identity in different blocks. Breaking object correspondence by blanking improved displacement identification but deteriorated postsaccadic letter recognition. In Experiment 2, object correspondence was broken by changing the object’s contrast-polarity. There were no object displacements and observers only reported letter identity. Again, breaking object correspondence deteriorated postsaccadic letter recognition. These findings identify transsaccadic object correspondence as a key determinant of object recognition across the saccade. This is in line with the recent hypothesis that breaking object correspondence results in separate representations of presaccadic and postsaccadic objects which then compete for limited attentional processing resources (Schneider, 2013. Postsaccadic

  11. Influência do índice glicêmico na glicemia em exercício físico aeróbico The glycemic index influence on glucose in aerobic exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria Cristina de Faria

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a influência do índice glicêmico (IG na resposta glicêmica antes e durante o exercício físico decorrente a diferentes sessões experimentais pré-exercício. MÉTODOS: Doze homens adultos realizaram três sessões experimentais pré-exercício: de alto índice glicêmico (AIG; de baixo índice glicêmico (BIG; e em estado de jejum, sendo nesta última oferecida duas formas diferenciadas de hidratação durante o exercício: água e bebida carboidratada. RESULTADOS: Durante o período de repouso, o tipo de refeição, de AIG ou de BIG, interferiu no comportamento da glicemia, ambas tendendo ao "efeito rebote". Durante o exercício, não foi observada diferença na resposta glicêmica entre as quatro ações testadas; contudo, a intervenção com bebida carboidratada manteve constante a glicemia ao longo dos 60 min do exercício. CONCLUSÃO: O IG é determinante na resposta glicêmica ao longo de uma hora antes do exercício, porém não interfere na resposta glicêmica durante a atividade.OBJECTIVE: Evaluate the influence of glycemic index (GI on the glycemic response before and during the physical exercise after to different experimental sessions pre-exercise. METHODS: Twelve adult males performed three experimental sessions pre-exercise: of high glycemic index (HGI; of low glycemic index (LGI; In condition of fast, although this one take two different ways of hydration while the exercise: water and carbohydrate drink. RESULTS: During the repose period, the type of meal, even the HGI and also the LGI, interfered on glycemic's behavior, both tendency to the "Rebound Effect". During the exercise, it was not observed differences in glycemic answers between the four tested actions, although the intervention with CHO drink maintained constant blood along all 60 min of exercise. CONCLUSION: The GI is determinant in the glycemic response over an hour before exercise, but does not interfere in the glycemic response during the

  12. Deterioration of polymethyl methacrylate dentures in the oral cavity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuo, Hiroshi; Suenaga, Hanako; Takahashi, Masatoshi; Suzuki, Osamu; Sasaki, Keiichi; Takahashi, Nobuhiro

    2015-01-01

    Polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA)-made prostheses used in the oral cavity were evaluated by multimodal assessment in order to elucidate the biodeterioration of PMMA. In used dentures (UD), the micro-Vickers hardness of the polished denture surface and denture basal surface was lower than that of the torn surface (pPMMA deteriorated during long-term use in the oral cavity in terms of hardness and volatile content with component alteration, and suggests the involvement of biodeterioration, possibly due to saliva and oral microbiota.

  13. Logarithmic inventory model with shortage for deteriorating items

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khedlekar Uttam Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we have modeled a business which starts with shortage of deteriorating items. After a duration, managers have freedom to order the stock of assurance of committed customers. There are many products that follow logarithmic demand pattern, so in this paper we incorporate it with the shortage of items at the beginning. A new model is developed to obtain the optimal solution for such type of market situation and have obtained some valuable results. Numerical examples and simulation study is appended along with managerial insights.

  14. Development of Improved Mechanistic Deterioration Models for Flexible Pavements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ullidtz, Per; Ertman, Hans Larsen

    1998-01-01

    The paper describes a pilot study in Denmark with the main objective of developing improved mechanistic deterioration models for flexible pavements based on an accelerated full scale test on an instrumented pavement in the Danish Road Tessting Machine. The study was the first in "International...... Pavement Subgrade Performance Study" sponsored by the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), USA. The paper describes in detail the data analysis and the resulting models for rutting, roughness, and a model for the plastic strain in the subgrade.The reader will get an understanding of the work needed...

  15. Temperature dependent growth, feeding, nutritional condition and aerobic metabolism of juvenile spiny lobster, Sagmariasus verreauxi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgibbon, Quinn P; Simon, Cedric J; Smith, Gregory G; Carter, Chris G; Battaglene, Stephen C

    2017-02-05

    We examined the effects of temperature on the growth, feeding, nutritional condition and aerobic metabolism of juvenile spiny lobster, Sagmariasus verreauxi, in order to determine if temperature acclimated aerobic scope correlates with optimum for growth and to establish the thermal tolerance window for this emerging aquaculture species. Juvenile lobsters (initial weight=10.95±0.47g) were reared (n=7) at temperatures from 11.0 to 28.5°C for 145days. All lobsters survived from 14.5 to 25.0°C while survival was reduced at 11.0°C (86%) and all lobsters died at 28.5°C. Lobster specific growth rate and specific feed consumption displayed a unimodal response with temperature, peaking at 21.5°C. Lobster standard, routine and maximum metabolic rates, and aerobic scope all increased exponentially up to maximum non-lethal temperature. Optimum temperature for growth did not correspond to that for maximum aerobic scope suggesting that aerobic scope is not an effective predictor of the thermal optimum of spiny lobsters. Plateauing of specific feed consumption beyond 21.5°C suggests that temperature dependent growth of lobsters is limited by capacity to ingest or digest sufficient food to meet increasing maintenance metabolic demands at high temperatures. The nutritional condition of lobsters was not influenced by temperature and feed conversion ratio was improved at lower temperatures. These findings add to a growing body of evidence questioning the generality of aerobic scope to describe the physiological thermal boundaries of aquatic ectotherms and suggest that feed intake plays a crucial role in regulating performance at thermal extremes.

  16. An EOQ Model with Two-Parameter Weibull Distribution Deterioration and Price-Dependent Demand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhopadhyay, Sushanta; Mukherjee, R. N.; Chaudhuri, K. S.

    2005-01-01

    An inventory replenishment policy is developed for a deteriorating item and price-dependent demand. The rate of deterioration is taken to be time-proportional and the time to deterioration is assumed to follow a two-parameter Weibull distribution. A power law form of the price dependence of demand is considered. The model is solved analytically…

  17. Anaerobic Metabolism: Linkages to Trace Gases and Aerobic Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megonigal, J. P.; Hines, M. E.; Visscher, P. T.

    2003-12-01

    Life evolved and flourished in the absence of molecular oxygen (O2). As the O2 content of the atmosphere rose to the present level of 21% beginning about two billion years ago, anaerobic metabolism was gradually supplanted by aerobic metabolism. Anaerobic environments have persisted on Earth despite the transformation to an oxidized state because of the combined influence of water and organic matter. Molecular oxygen diffuses about 104 times more slowly through water than air, and organic matter supports a large biotic O2 demand that consumes the supply faster than it is replaced by diffusion. Such conditions exist in wetlands, rivers, estuaries, coastal marine sediments, aquifers, anoxic water columns, sewage digesters, landfills, the intestinal tracts of animals, and the rumen of herbivores. Anaerobic microsites are also embedded in oxic environments such as upland soils and marine water columns. Appreciable rates of aerobic respiration are restricted to areas that are in direct contact with air or those inhabited by organisms that produce O2.Rising atmospheric O2 reduced the global area of anaerobic habitat, but enhanced the overall rate of anaerobic metabolism (at least on an area basis) by increasing the supply of electron donors and acceptors. Organic carbon production increased dramatically, as did oxidized forms of nitrogen, manganese, iron, sulfur, and many other elements. In contemporary anaerobic ecosystems, nearly all of the reducing power is derived from photosynthesis, and most of it eventually returns to O2, the most electronegative electron acceptor that is abundant. This photosynthetically driven redox gradient has been thoroughly exploited by aerobic and anaerobic microorganisms for metabolism. The same is true of hydrothermal vents (Tunnicliffe, 1992) and some deep subsurface environments ( Chapelle et al., 2002), where thermal energy is the ultimate source of the reducing power.Although anaerobic habitats are currently a small fraction of Earth

  18. Credit financing for deteriorating imperfect quality items with allowable shortages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aditi Khanna

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The outset of new technologies, systems and applications in manufacturing sector has no doubt lighten up our workload, yet the chance causes of variation in production system cannot be eliminated completely. Every produced/ordered lot may have some fraction of defectives which may vary from process to process. In addition the situation is more susceptible when the items are deteriorating in nature. However, the defective items can be secluded from the good quality lot through a careful inspection process. Thus, a screening process is obligatory in today’s technology driven industry which has the customer satisfaction as its only motto. Moreover, in order to survive in the current global markets, credit financing has been proven a very influential promotional tool to attract new customers and a good inducement policy for the retailers. Keeping this scenario in mind, the present paper investigates an inventory model for a retailer dealing with imperfect quality deteriorating items under permissible delay in payments. Shortages are allowed and fully backlogged. This model jointly optimizes the order quantity and shortages by maximizing the expected total profit. A mathematical model is developed to depict this scenario. Results have been validated with the help of numerical example. Comprehensive sensitivity analysis has also been presented.

  19. Melatonin attenuates postharvest physiological deterioration of cassava storage roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Qiuxiang; Zhang, Ting; Zhang, Peng; Wang, Zhen-Yu

    2016-05-01

    Melatonin reportedly increases abiotic and biotic stress tolerance in plants, but information on its in vivo effects during postharvest physiological deterioration (PPD) in cassava is limited. In this study, we investigated the effect of melatonin in regulating cassava PPD. Treatment with 500 mg/L melatonin significantly delayed cassava PPD and reduced the accumulation of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) while increasing the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione reductase (GR), but not ascorbate peroxidase (APX). Transcript analysis further showed that expression of copper/zinc SOD (MeCu/ZnSOD), MeCAT1, glutathione peroxidase (MeGPX), peroxidase 3 (MePX3), and glutathione S-transferases (MeGST) was higher in cassava roots sliced treated with 500 mg/L melatonin than in those not exposed to exogenous melatonin. These data demonstrate that melatonin delays cassava PPD by directly or indirectly maintaining homoeostasis of cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS). We also found that accumulation of endogenous melatonin and the transcript levels of melatonin biosynthesis genes changed dynamically during the PPD process. This finding suggested that endogenous melatonin acts as a signal modulator for maintaining cassava PPD progression and that manipulation of melatonin biosynthesis genes through genetic engineering might prevent cassava root deterioration.

  20. ICU PATIENT DETERIORATION PREDICTION: A DATA-MINING APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noura AlNuaimi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available A huge amount of medical data is generated every day, which presents a challenge in analysing these data. The obvious solution to this challenge is to reduce the amount of data without information loss. Dimension reduction is considered the most popular approach for reducing data size and also to reduce noise and redundancies in data. In this paper, we investigate the effect of feature selection in improving the prediction of patient deterioration in ICUs. We consider lab tests as features. Thus, choosing a subset of features would mean choosing the most important lab tests to perform. If the number of tests can be reduced by identifying the most important tests, then we could also identify the redundant tests. By omitting the redundant tests, observation time could be reduced and early treatment could be provided to avoid the risk. Additionally, unnecessary monetary cost would be avoided. Our approach uses state-of-the-art feature selection for predicting ICU patient deterioration using the medical lab results. We apply our technique on the publicly available MIMIC-II database and show the effectiveness of the feature selection. We also provide a detailed analysis of the best features identified by our approach.

  1. Cognitive deterioration in adult epilepsy: Does accelerated cognitive ageing exist?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breuer, L E M; Boon, P; Bergmans, J W M; Mess, W H; Besseling, R M H; de Louw, A; Tijhuis, A G; Zinger, S; Bernas, A; Klooster, D C W; Aldenkamp, A P

    2016-05-01

    A long-standing concern has been whether epilepsy contributes to cognitive decline or so-called 'epileptic dementia'. Although global cognitive decline is generally reported in the context of chronic refractory epilepsy, it is largely unknown what percentage of patients is at risk for decline. This review is focused on the identification of risk factors and characterization of aberrant cognitive trajectories in epilepsy. Evidence is found that the cognitive trajectory of patients with epilepsy over time differs from processes of cognitive ageing in healthy people, especially in adulthood-onset epilepsy. Cognitive deterioration in these patients seems to develop in a 'second hit model' and occurs when epilepsy hits on a brain that is already vulnerable or vice versa when comorbid problems develop in a person with epilepsy. Processes of ageing may be accelerated due to loss of brain plasticity and cognitive reserve capacity for which we coin the term 'accelerated cognitive ageing'. We believe that the concept of accelerated cognitive ageing can be helpful in providing a framework understanding global cognitive deterioration in epilepsy.

  2. Simulating the Gradually Deteriorating Performance of an RTG

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Eric G.; Ewell, Richard C.; Patel, Jagdish; Hanks, David R.; Lozano, Juan A.; Snyder, G. Jeffrey; Noon, Larry

    2008-01-01

    Degra (now in version 3) is a computer program that simulates the performance of a radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG) over its lifetime. Degra is provided with a graphical user interface that is used to edit input parameters that describe the initial state of the RTG and the time-varying loads and environment to which it will be exposed. Performance is computed by modeling the flows of heat from the radioactive source and through the thermocouples, also allowing for losses, to determine the temperature drop across the thermocouples. This temperature drop is used to determine the open-circuit voltage, electrical resistance, and thermal conductance of the thermocouples. Output power can then be computed by relating the open-circuit voltage and the electrical resistance of the thermocouples to a specified time-varying load voltage. Degra accounts for the gradual deterioration of performance attributable primarily to decay of the radioactive source and secondarily to gradual deterioration of the thermoelectric material. To provide guidance to an RTG designer, given a minimum of input, Degra computes the dimensions, masses, and thermal conductances of important internal structures as well as the overall external dimensions and total mass.

  3. Corrosion inhibition of mild steel by aerobic biofilm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chongdar, Shobhana [Naval Materials Research Laboratory, Addl. Ambarnath 421506 (India); Gunasekaran, G. [Naval Materials Research Laboratory, Addl. Ambarnath 421506 (India)]. E-mail: gunanmrl@rediffmail.com; Kumar, Pradeep [Naval Materials Research Laboratory, Addl. Ambarnath 421506 (India)

    2005-08-30

    Mild steel electrodes were incubated in phosphate-buffered basal salt solution (BSS) having two different aerobic bacteria, viz. Pseudomonas alcaligenes and Pseudomonas cichorii. In the medium containing P. cichorii, significant reduction in the corrosion rate was observed due to the surface reaction leading to the formation of corrosion inhibiting bacterial biofilm. With a view to understand the mechanism of microbially influenced corrosion/corrosion inhibition, electrochemical and biological experiments such as electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurements and biochemical analysis were made. The exposed surfaces were examined using scanning electron micrographs (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis (ESCA). The scraped surface film was also examined using FT-IR spectroscopy. The results suggested that mild steel surface contained iron oxide-phosphate layer covered with bacteria and exo polymeric substance (EPS)/iron-EPS complex for P. cichorii and iron oxides and iron phosphate for P. alcaligenes.

  4. Theoretical and Numerical Study of Heat Transfer Deterioration in High Performance Light Water Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Palko

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A numerical investigation of the heat transfer deterioration (HTD phenomena is performed using the low-Re k-ω turbulence model. Steady-state Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations are solved together with equations for the transport of enthalpy and turbulence. Equations are solved for the supercritical water flow at different pressures, using water properties from the standard IAPWS (International Association for the Properties of Water and Steam tables. All cases are extensively validated against experimental data. The influence of buoyancy on the HTD is demonstrated for different mass flow rates in the heated pipes. Numerical results prove that the RANS low-Re turbulence modeling approach is fully capable of simulating the heat transfer in pipes with the water flow at supercritical pressures. A study of buoyancy influence shows that for the low-mass flow rates of coolant, the influence of buoyancy forces on the heat transfer in heated pipes is significant. For the high flow rates, buoyancy influence could be neglected and there are clearly other mechanisms causing the decrease in heat transfer at high coolant flow rates.

  5. Effect Of Single And Short-Term Aerobics On Selected Mental State Parametres In Adult Females

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyselovičová Oľga

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine the degree of the influence of aerobic program on mental state of the trainees after a single and short-term application. We tried to find out the positive effects of an aerobics on the selected parameters of mental state of women that performed aerobics recreationally. Twenty-two healthy women (age 35 ± 5 years were involved in the specific aerobic program with mini trampolines (jumping over the period of 5 weeks. To measure the psychological parameters a modified questionnaire of type X-STAI was distributed before and after the single work out at the beginning of the study and after the 5 weeks period. Chi-quadrat analysis was used to evaluate the data. The greatest and statistically the most significant differences were recorded in the parameters ´enthusiastic´, ´boosted by energy´ and ´relaxed´, in comparison with the emotions at the beginning and at the end of the lesson in initial measuring. Comparison of changes after the 5 weeks period at the beginning and at the end of the lesson shows statistical significance in all parameters, except ´tired´. No statistical changes occurred at either the beginning or the end of the lesson comparing initial and final phases. Based on the results, we can conclude that specialized aerobic training provokes immediate changes in psychological state of the trainees via increase of their positive and decrease of negative emotions right after the lesson and when compared to its beginning. This leads to a better mental stability and a greater resistance to the influences of outer environment on mental state.

  6. Acute effects of aerobic exercise promote learning

    OpenAIRE

    Renza Perini; Marta Bortoletto; Michela Capogrosso; Anna Fertonani; Carlo Miniussi

    2016-01-01

    The benefits that physical exercise confers on cardiovascular health are well known, whereas the notion that physical exercise can also improve cognitive performance has only recently begun to be explored and has thus far yielded only controversial results. In the present study, we used a sample of young male subjects to test the effects that a single bout of aerobic exercise has on learning. Two tasks were run: the first was an orientation discrimination task involving the primary visual cor...

  7. Experimental evidence for aerobic bio-denitrification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Nitrate pollution of groundwater is paid more and more attention for its hazardous to environments and human health. A strain of DN11 was isolated from soil and used in the laboratory columns filled with various media for nitrate removal. The experimental results showed that DN11could reduce nitrate at different rates in different media under the aerobic condition. The mechanism for nitrate removal with DN11 is explained meanwhile.

  8. Aerobic Exercise, Estrogens, and Breast Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    include early age at menarche, late age at menopause and first childbirth, nulliparity, family history of breast cancer, benign breast disease, and non...et al. (24), a four-cycle intervention consisting of moderate-intensity aerobic exercise in combination with a caloric restrictive diet resulted in...vigorous exercise intervention independent of diet restriction and weight loss. We specifically sought to determine if the exercise intervention would

  9. A deterministic inventory model for deteriorating items with selling price dependent demand and three-parameter Weibull distributed deterioration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asoke Kumar Bhunia

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an attempt is made to develop two inventory models for deteriorating items with variable demand dependent on the selling price and frequency of advertisement of items. In the first model, shortages are not allowed whereas in the second, these are allowed and partially backlogged with a variable rate dependent on the duration of waiting time up to the arrival of next lot. In both models, the deterioration rate follows three-parameter Weibull distribution and the transportation cost is considered explicitly for replenishing the order quantity. This cost is dependent on the lot-size as well as the distance from the source to the destination. The corresponding models have been formulated and solved. Two numerical examples have been considered to illustrate the results and the significant features of the results are discussed. Finally, based on these examples, the effects of different parameters on the initial stock level, shortage level (in case of second model only, cycle length along with the optimal profit have been studied by sensitivity analyses taking one parameter at a time keeping the other parameters as same.

  10. CFD Study of Deteriorated Turbulent Heat Transfer in Upward Flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nietiadi, Yohanes Setiawan; Lee, Jeong Ik [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Addad, Yacine [Khalifa University of Science and Technology and Research, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates)

    2014-10-15

    DTHT regime can be induced by two effects: buoyancy and acceleration. Apart from these two deteriorating effects, another unique behavior of fluid in the DTHT regime is that the convective heat transfer rate will continue to deteriorate until it reaches certain point. The downstream of this point, is known as the recovery region, where the convective heat transfer rate returns back to the high values by recovering turbulence. We called this phenomena as re-turbulization.. The map of the DTHT regime can be seen from fig. 2, where the x-axis is the buoyancy parameter and y-axis is the acceleration parameter which is the agreed governing non-dimensional numbers among the researchers to illustrate the phenomena. The Buoyancy parameter is defind in Eq. (1) and the acceleration parameter is defined in Eq. (2), respectively. The threshold value for both effects to move from the forced turbulent heat transfer to the DTHT regime are found to be Bo* ≥ 2x10{sup -6}and Kv ≥ 2.5x10{sup -6} in the previous works. Bo{sup *}=Gr{sub q}/Re{sup 3}'.{sup 425} Pr{sup 0}'.{sup 8} (1). K{sub v}=4q{sup +}/Re (2). Many experiments and simulation have been done to investigate this phenomenon and the boundary of the regime. However, very limited number of experiment was conducted in the regime where buoyancy effect and acceleration effect are in the same order of magnitude and high enough to cause DTHT (mixed DTHT). Some important experimental researches that have been done in the gas DTHT regime is Lee et al. who investigated the heat transfer of gas flow in the range of buoyancy parameter from 3x10{sup -9} to 10{sup -5} and acceleration parameter span from 6x10{sup -8} to 5x10{sup -6} and presented the behavior of Nusselt number ratio from the experiment as fig. 3 and fig. 4. This paper will discuss a Computational Fluid Dynamics analysis on DTHT by assuming hypothetical boundary conditions especially on the mixed DTHT regime. It has been found that a gas cooled fast reactor

  11. Aerobic Catalytic Oxidation of Cyclohexene over TiZrCo Catalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tong Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aerobic oxidation of hydrocarbon is of great significance from the viewpoints of both fundamental and industry studies as it can transfer the petrochemical feedstock into valuable chemicals. In this work, we investigated the aerobic oxidation of cyclohexene over TiZrCo catalysts, in which 2-cyclohexen-1-one was produced with a high selectivity of 57.6% at a conversion of 92.2%, which are comparable to the best results reported for the aerobic oxidation of cyclohexene over heterogeneous catalysts. The influences of kinds of solvent, substrate concentration and reaction temperature were evaluated. Moreover, the catalytic performance of the TiZrCo catalyst and the main catalytic active species were also discussed. The results of SEM, XRD and XPS suggested that the surface CoO and Co3O4 species are the catalytic active species and contribute to the high activity and selectivity in the present cyclohexene oxidation. The present catalytic system should have wide applications in the aerobic oxidation of hydrocarbons.

  12. Effects of permafrost thaw on carbon emissions under aerobic and anaerobic environments in the Great Hing'an Mountains, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Changchun; Wang, Xianwei; Miao, Yuqing; Wang, Jiaoyue; Mao, Rong; Song, Yanyu

    2014-07-15

    The carbon (C) pool of permafrost peatland is very important for the global C cycle. Little is known about how permafrost thaw could influence C emissions in the Great Hing'an Mountains of China. Through aerobic and anaerobic incubation experiments, we studied the effects of permafrost thaw on CH4 and CO2 emissions. The rates of CH4 and CO2 emissions were measured at -10, 0 and 10°C. Although there were still C emissions below 0°C, rates of CH4 and CO2 emissions significantly increased with permafrost thaw under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. The C release under aerobic conditions was greater than under anaerobic conditions, suggesting that permafrost thaw and resulting soil environment change should be important influences on C emissions. However, CH4 stored in permafrost soils could affect accurate estimation of CH4 emissions from microbial degradation. Calculated Q10 values in the permafrost soils were significantly higher than values in active-layer soils under aerobic conditions. Our results highlight that permafrost soils have greater potential decomposability than soils of the active layer, and such carbon decomposition would be more responsive to the aerobic environment.

  13. Deterioration of sweet cherry fruit during storage period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halina Borecka

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Sweet cherry fruit cv. 'Emperor Francis' and 'Grosse Schwarze Knorpelkirsche' could be stored in cold storage conditions with normal air without big loss. Fruits stored under CA conditions were less affected by fungi during storage period, but later when were kept for 3 days at 20°C were more deteriorated than those stored at the same temperature in normal air. Botrytis cinerea and Monilinia spp. were the main fungi causing rot of sweet cherry fruit. Low temperature decreased the development of Monilinia spp. The most important factor for good fruit storage was the size of baskets. Sweet cherries stored in small baskets containing 0.5 kg of fruits were of good quality after one month of storage; in 2-kg boxes they were more damaged.

  14. Neurologic deterioration in a child undergoing treatment for tuberculosis meningitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birnbaum, Gilad D; Marquez, Lucila; Hwang, Kevin M; Cruz, Andrea T

    2014-08-01

    Clinical deterioration while receiving antituberculosis (anti-TB) therapy can be due to a number of etiologies, including drug resistance, disease progression despite effective therapy, or alternative diagnoses. We present the case of a 22-month-old girl diagnosed with TB meningitis 4 months prior to presentation. At time of her initial diagnosis, computed tomography showed hydrocephalus and basilar meningitis with some evidence of ischemic damage. She required placement of a ventriculoperitoneal shunt and was discharged on multidrug anti-TB therapy and corticosteroids. At the time of her second emergency department presentation, she had developed new-onset seizures and hemiparesis. Her steroids had been tapered and discontinued. Differential diagnosis included shunt malfunction and/or shunt infection. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain showed interval development of tuberculomas. Symptomatic and radiographic improvement was seen after initiation of corticosteroids for immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome, which can be seen in immunocompetent children, with onset weeks to months after starting antituberculous therapy.

  15. Managing dual warehouses with an incentive policy for deteriorating items

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jonas C. P.; Wang, Kung-Jeng; Lin, Yu-Siang

    2016-02-01

    Distributors in a supply chain usually limit their own warehouse in finite capacity for cost reduction and excess stock is held in a rent warehouse. In this study, we examine inventory control for deteriorating items in a two-warehouse setting. Assuming that there is an incentive offered by a rent warehouse that allows the rental fee to decrease over time, the objective of this study is to maximise the joint profit of the manufacturer and the distributor. An optimisation procedure is developed to derive the optimal joint economic lot size policy. Several criteria are identified to select the most appropriate warehouse configuration and inventory policy on the basis of storage duration of materials in a rent warehouse. Sensitivity analysis is done to examine the results of model robustness. The proposed model enables a manufacturer with a channel distributor to coordinate the use of alternative warehouses, and to maximise the joint profit of the manufacturer and the distributor.

  16. Oxidative flavour deterioration of fish oil enriched milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruni Let, Mette; Jacobsen, Charlotte; Frankel, E.N.;

    2003-01-01

    The oxidative deterioration of milk emulsions supplemented with 1.5 wt-% fish oil was investigated by sensory evaluation and by determining the peroxide value and volatile oxidation products after cold storage. Two types of milk emulsions were produced, one with a highly unsaturated tuna oil (38 wt...... emulsions, indicating that metal chelation with EDTA could inhibit the decomposition of lipid hydroperoxides in these emulsions. This study showed that an oxidatively stable milk emulsion containing highly polyunsaturated tuna fish oil could be prepared without significant fishy off-flavour development upon......-% of n-3 fatty acids) and one with cod liver oil (26 wt-% of n-3 fatty acids). The effect of added calcium disodium ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA) on oxidation was also investigated. Emulsions based on cod liver oil with a slightly elevated peroxide value (1.5 meq/kg) oxidised significantly faster...

  17. Influência do treinamento aeróbio e anaeróbio na massa de gordura corporal de adolescentes obesos Influencia del entrenamiento aeróbico y anaeróbico en la masa grasa corporal de adolescentes obesos Influence of the aerobic and anaerobic training on the body fat mass in obese adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cláudia Fernandez

    2004-06-01

    porcentaje de grasa; y el ejercicio aeróbico fue más eficaz en el sentido de preservar y/o aumentar la masa magra y la masa libre de grasa.The aim of this study was to verify the influences of anaerobic and aerobic exercise in the body composition of obese male adolescents. The sample was constituted of 28 adolescents with ages ranging from 15 and 19 years, and severe obesity. The volunteers were divided into three groups and for all groups was provided nutritional orientation. The intervention period was 12 weeks. Group I accomplished interval training in a cycle ergometer that consisted of 12 shots of 30 sec. with maximum power and speed, pedaling with high load (0.8% of the body weight x 25 watts and 3 min recover. Group II accomplished aerobic training in a cycle ergometer pedaling with relative load to the ventilatory threshold for 50 min. Group III served as control, and was not submitted to physical activity. All volunteers underwent bone densitometry with analysis of the body composition (DEXA and medical and fitness evaluations. For the variables weight and BMI exercise groups presented reductions when initial and final interventions periods were compared. Regarding to the body composition, there was a decrease in total body and lower limbs fat mass (in grams and in the fat percentage of the lower limbs in the exercise groups when initial and final periods were compared. There was a significant difference between groups I and II for the percentile deltas of total body fat mass and of lower limbs and in the percentage of fat of lower limbs. The data suggest that anaerobic and aerobic exercise with nutritional orientation promoted a larger weight reduction, when compared with nutritional orientation only. The anaerobic exercise proposed in this study was more efficient to produce reduction of body fat and fat percentage. The aerobic exercise seemed to have been more effective preserving and/or increasing free fat mass.

  18. Change in body composition following a 15-week, heart rate monitored aerobic exercise program: The TIGER study

    Science.gov (United States)

    The joint goals of the Training Interventions and Genetics of Exercise Response (TIGER) study are to introduce sedentary college-age individuals to regular exercise and identify genetic factors that influence physiologic response to aerobic exercise training. The purpose of the study was to examine ...

  19. Degradation of organic contaminants with biological aerobic fermentation in activated sludge dewatering and its influencing factors%加工番茄污水污泥生物好氧发酵对有机污染物的降解及其影响因素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙世阳

    2015-01-01

    通过研究加工番茄污水污泥的有机污染物降解变化和好氧发酵条件(含水量、pH、C/N、含氧量和CO2)来确定番茄污水中有机污染物降解情况,从而优化加工番茄废水处理。结果表明:最佳生物好氧发酵条件为含水量60%~80%,C/N 范围为5~10,氧气浓度10%,pH=6�5,污泥发酵15 h后,有机物降解速率达到平衡。%We studied the degradation of the organic pollutants in sludge of the waste water from tomato paste processing under aerobic fermentation conditions. The aerobic fermentation parameters were pH, ratio between carbon and nitrogen, oxygen, CO2 , and moisture. The best aerobic fermentation conditions were moisture content between 60% and 80%, ratio between carbon and nitrogen from 5∶1 to 10∶1, oxygen concentration 10% and pH at 6�5. After aerobic fermentation for 15 h, organic contaminants in the sludge decreased obviously.

  20. [Cardiovascular protection and mechanisms of actions of aerobic exercise].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Zuo-Xu; Zhang, Yuan; Gao, Feng

    2014-08-01

    It is well established that aerobic exercise exerts beneficial effect on cardiovascular system, but the underlying mechanisms are yet to be elucidated. Recent studies have shown that aerobic exercise ameliorates insulin resistance, inflammation and mitochondrial dysfunction which play important roles in the development of cardiovascular disease. In this review, we discussed the underlying mechanisms of the cardioprotective role of aerobic exercise, especially the latest progress in this field.

  1. Intensity Thresholds for Aerobic Exercise–Induced Hypoalgesia

    OpenAIRE

    Naugle, Kelly M.; Naugle, Keith E.; Fillingim, Roger B; Samuels, Brian; Riley, Joseph L.

    2014-01-01

    Despite many studies investigating exercise-induced hypoalgesia, there is limited understanding of the optimal intensity of aerobic exercise in producing hypoalgesic effects across different types of pain stimuli. Given that not all individuals are willing or capable of engaging in high intensity aerobic exercise, whether moderate intensity aerobic exercise is associated with a hypoalgesic response and whether this response generalizes to multiple pain induction techniques needs to be substan...

  2. Perfection aerobic possibilities of athletes in sport dance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Bo

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The organized analysis to functions of the aerobic metabolism of the sport dancers. They are determined reduced components of the aerobic metabolism of partners (male and female. The motivated directivity of the training means and program for development component of the aerobic functions skilled athlete in sport dance. It is proved that loading that is used in training process by sport dances must have a character of cardiorespiratory system.

  3. Aerobic power and peak power of elite America's Cup sailors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neville, Vernon; Pain, Matthew T G; Folland, Jonathan P

    2009-05-01

    Big-boat yacht racing is one of the only able bodied sporting activities where standing arm-cranking ('grinding') is the primary physical activity. However, the physiological capabilities of elite sailors for standing arm-cranking have been largely unreported. The purpose of the study was to assess aerobic parameters, VO(2peak) and onset of blood lactate (OBLA), and anaerobic performance, torque-crank velocity and power-crank velocity relationships and therefore peak power (P (max)) and optimum crank-velocity (omega(opt)), of America's Cup sailors during standing arm-cranking. Thirty-three elite professional sailors performed a step test to exhaustion, and a subset of ten grinders performed maximal 7 s isokinetic sprints at different crank velocities, using a standing arm-crank ergometer. VO(2peak) was 4.7 +/- 0.5 L/min (range 3.6-5.5 L/min) at a power output of 332 +/- 44 W (range 235-425 W). OBLA occurred at a power output of 202 +/- 31 W (61% of W(max)) and VO(2) of 3.3 +/- 0.4 L/min (71% of VO(2peak)). The torque-crank velocity relationship was linear for all participants (r = 0.9 +/- 0.1). P (max) was 1,420 +/- 37 W (range 1,192-1,617 W), and omega(opt) was 125 +/- 6 rpm. These data are among the highest upper-body anaerobic and aerobic power values reported. The unique nature of these athletes, with their high fat-free mass and specific selection and training for standing arm cranking, likely accounts for the high values. The influence of crank velocity on peak power implies that power production during on-board 'grinding' may be optimised through the use of appropriate gear-ratios and the development of efficient gear change mechanisms.

  4. Aerobic capacity related to cardiac size in young children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dencker, M; Wollmer, P; Karlsson, M

    2013-01-01

    Aerobic capacity, defined as peak oxygen uptake (VO2PEAK), is generally considered to be the best single marker for aerobic fitness. We assessed if VO2PEAK is related to different cardiac dimensions in healthy young children on a population base.......Aerobic capacity, defined as peak oxygen uptake (VO2PEAK), is generally considered to be the best single marker for aerobic fitness. We assessed if VO2PEAK is related to different cardiac dimensions in healthy young children on a population base....

  5. The effects of a single bout of aerobic or resistance exercise on food reward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeil, Jessica; Cadieux, Sébastien; Finlayson, Graham; Blundell, John E; Doucet, Éric

    2015-01-01

    It is unknown whether an acute bout of calorie-matched aerobic and resistance exercise alters food reward in a similar manner. Thus, we examined the effects of isocaloric resistance and aerobic exercise sessions on acute food reward. Sixteen men and women (age: 21.9 ± 2.6 years; BMI: 22.8 ± 1.8 kg/m(2)) participated in three randomized crossover sessions: aerobic exercise, resistance exercise, and sedentary control. The target exercise energy expenditure was matched at 4 kcal/kg of body weight, and performed at 70% of VO2peak or 12 repetition-maximum (equivalent to 70% of 1 repetition-maximum). A validated computer task assessed the wanting and liking for visual food cues following exercise, and following an ad libitum lunch. Decreases in the relative preference for high vs. low fat foods were noted following exercise compared to the control session, and this was independent of modality (aerobic: P = 0.04; resistance: P = 0.03). Furthermore, the explicit liking for high vs. low fat foods was lower following resistance exercise compared to the control session (P = 0.04). However, these changes in food reward were not correlated with changes in energy intake (EI) between sessions. Exercise, independent of modality, led to decreases in the relative preference for high fat relative to low fat foods. Additionally, decreases in the hedonic "liking" of high fat foods following resistance, but not aerobic, exercise may imply that modality does influence acute food hedonic responses. However, these decreases in food hedonics were not related to lower EI, thus suggesting that a dissociation may exist between food hedonics and actual EI.

  6. Performance deterioration modeling and optimal preventive maintenance strategy under scheduled servicing subject to mission time

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Dawei; Zhang Zhihua; Zhong Qianghui; Zhai Yali

    2014-01-01

    Servicing is applied periodically in practice with the aim of restoring the system state and prolonging the lifetime. It is generally seen as an imperfect maintenance action which has a chief influ-ence on the maintenance strategy. In order to model the maintenance effect of servicing, this study analyzes the deterioration characteristics of system under scheduled servicing. And then the deterio-ration model is established from the failure mechanism by compound Poisson process. On the basis of the system damage value and failure mechanism, the failure rate refresh factor is proposed to describe the maintenance effect of servicing. A maintenance strategy is developed which combines the benefits of scheduled servicing and preventive maintenance. Then the optimization model is given to determine the optimal servicing period and preventive maintenance time, with an objective to minimize the sys-tem expected life-cycle cost per unit time and a constraint on system survival probability for the dura-tion of mission time. Subject to mission time, it can control the ability of accomplishing the mission at any time so as to ensure the high dependability. An example of water pump rotor relating to scheduled servicing is introduced to illustrate the failure rate refresh factor and the proposed maintenance strat-egy. Compared with traditional methods, the numerical results show that the failure rate refresh factor can describe the maintenance effect of servicing more intuitively and objectively. It also demonstrates that this maintenance strategy can prolong the lifetime, reduce the total lifetime maintenance cost and guarantee the dependability of system.

  7. Groundwater level deterioration issues and suggested solution for the water curtain cultivation area in South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yongcheol; Lee, Bongju; Ha, Kucheol; Yoon, Yunyeol; Moon, Sangho; Cho, Suyoung; Kim, Seongyun

    2013-04-01

    Protected water curtain cultivation system is an energy saving technique for winter season by splashing groundwater on the inner roof of the green house. But the issue is that the method results in groundwater level deterioration because it disposes the used groundwater to nearby stream. Reuse of the groundwater for water curtain cultivation is important Groundwater level, steam level, and groundwater usage rate are investigated at the five green house concentrated areas such as Cheongwon, Namyangju, Choongju, Namwon, Jinju. Groundwater usage rate is estimated using a ultrasonic flowmeter for a specific well and using the combination of pressure sensor and propeller type velocity counting equipment at a water disposal channel from November to April which is water curtain cultivating season. Groundwater usage rate ranges from 46.9m3/d to 108.0m3/d for a 10a greenhouse. Groundwater level change is strongly influenced by seasonal variation of rainfall and concentrated pumping activities in winter but the level is lower than stream level all year long resulting in all year around losing stream at Cheongwon, Namyangju, Jinju. At Nanwon, the stream is converted from losing one in winter to gaining one in summer. Groundwater level deterioration at concentrated water curtain cultivation area is found to be severe for some area where circulating water curtain cultivation system is need to be applied for groundwater restoration and sustainable cultivation in winter. Circulating water curtain cultivation system can restore the groundwater level by recharging the used groundwater through injection well and then pumping out from pumping well.

  8. The effect of aerobic exercise on cortical architecture in patients with chronic schizophrenia: a randomized controlled MRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falkai, Peter; Malchow, Berend; Wobrock, Thomas; Gruber, Oliver; Schmitt, Andrea; Honer, William G; Pajonk, Frank-Gerald; Sun, Frank; Cannon, Tyrone D

    2013-09-01

    Via influencing brain plasticity, aerobic exercise could contribute to the treatment of schizophrenia patients. As previously shown, physical exercise increases hippocampus volume and improves short-term memory. We now investigated gray matter density and brain surface expansion in this sample using MRI-based cortical pattern matching methods. Comparing schizophrenia patients to healthy controls before and after 3 months of aerobic exercise training (cycling) plus patients playing table football yielded gray matter density increases in the right frontal and occipital cortex merely in healthy controls. However, respective exercise effects might be attenuated in chronic schizophrenia, which should be verified in a larger sample.

  9. Screening and identification of aerobic denitrifiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, K.; Deng, H. M.; Chen, Y. T.; Zhou, H. J.; Yan, G. X.

    2016-08-01

    With the standards of the effluent quality more stringent, it becomes a quite serious problem for municipalities and industries to remove nitrogen from wastewater. Bioremediation is a potential method for the removal of nitrogen and other pollutants because of its high efficiency and low cost. Seven predominant aerobic denitrifiers were screened and characterized from the activated sludge in the CAST unit. Some of these strains removed 87% nitrate nitrogen at least. Based on their phenotypic and phylogenetic characteristics, the isolates were identified as the genera of Ralstonia, Achromobacter, Aeromonas and Enterobacter.

  10. Intraspecific variation in aerobic and anaerobic locomotion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Jon Christian; Tirsgård, Bjørn; Cordero, Gerardo A.;

    2015-01-01

    Intraspecific variation and trade-off in aerobic and anaerobic traits remain poorly understood in aquatic locomotion. Using gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) and Trinidadian guppy (Poecilia reticulata), both axial swimmers, this study tested four hypotheses: (1) gait transition from steady...... to unsteady (i.e., burst-assisted) swimming is associated with anaerobic metabolism evidenced as excess post exercise oxygen consumption (EPOC); (2) variation in swimming performance (critical swimming speed; U crit) correlates with metabolic scope (MS) or anaerobic capacity (i.e., maximum EPOC); (3...

  11. Analysing deterioration of marble stones exposed to underwater conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cámara, Beatriz; Álvarez de Buergo, Mónica; Bethencourt, Manuel; Freire-Lista, David; Fort, Rafael

    2016-04-01

    The peculiar conditions of the marine environment make the conservation of underwater archaeological sites an extremely complex procedure. This is due to the fact that the prevailing conditions in this environment promote the development of deterioration phenomena in submerged artefacts through the synergistic action of physical, chemical and biological factors. The objective of the present investigation was to determine how petrophysical properties of cultural heritage materials can be affected by being exposed to the specific underwater conditions of the sea bottom, and so, to evaluate how this can affect, in a long term, in their durability and evolution when they part of an archaeological site. For this purpose, two types of marble (the Italian Carrara and the Spanish Macael) were subjected to an experiment consisting of exposing stone materials for one and a half year to underwater conditions. The experimental test was located in an archaeological site in the Bay of Cadiz (southern Spain), Bajo del Chapitel (recognized as Cultural Interest), which includes remains of shipwrecks from different periods. In this site, samples were submerged to 12 m depth and placed in the sea bottom simulating the different positions in which underwater archaeological objects can be found (fully exposed, half buried and covered). Petrophysical characterisation involved determination of the apparent and bulk densities, water saturation (maximum water content a material may contain), open porosity (porosity accessible to water), chromatic parameters and ultrasonic velocity. Before measuring, samples were subjected to mechanical cleaning (in those samples with biological colonization) and to removal of salt deposits. Results showed significant differences in these petrophysical properties after underwater submersion, which were directly related to the type of underwater exposure condition. Comparative analysis of petrophysical properties, like the one conducted in this study

  12. Health condition and residual life of deteriorating technical systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reinertsen, Rune

    1997-12-31

    Many offshore installations in the Norwegian Sector of the North Sea approach the end of their useful life. The same is true of many power plants and technical systems in general. This thesis describes the theory and improves the methods for the determination of the health condition and residual life of technical systems. Rather than developing new methods it discusses new ways of using existing statistical methods. The main contributions are: (1) A survey of the literature of diagnosis, prediction and life extension for deteriorating technical systems, (2) A discussion of some consequences of selecting the wrong life model, (3) A description of problems related to the determination of mean residual life of non-repairable technical systems, (4) Presentation of the concept of `technical health` to describe the soundness of a system exposed to failure mechanisms, (5) A model for predicting the technical health and residual life of a corroding system, (6) Recommends requirements and methods for using expert knowledge in safety and reliability analysis, (7) A general inspection strategy for system fault diagnosis by using Shannon entropy, (8) Points out weaknesses and strengths of risk measures used in the offshore industry today. 237 refs., 23 figs., 6 tabs.

  13. Flight into sanity. Jones's allegation of Ferenczi's mental deterioration reconsidered.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonomi, C

    1999-06-01

    In 'The Life and Work of Sigmund Freud', Volume III, Ernest Jones explained Ferenczi's final contributions as the product of a mental deterioration based on a progressive psychosis. Erich Fromm collected various testimonies by witnesses of Ferenczi's last years, all contrasting with Jones's assertions, and challenged Jones's manner of writing history. However, since Fromm was himself a dissident, and his witnesses were pupils, relatives or friends of Ferenczi's, they were discarded as 'partisans'. The present study aims at reconsidering the question of Ferenczi's insanity on the basis of many unpublished documents. The consulted documents do not support Jones's allegation of Ferenczi's insanity. At the same time, they show that Jones's allegation was not a one-man fabrication, but reflected a shared belief, eliciting many questions about the nature of this belief, the lack of scrutiny that characterised its spreading, and its possible function within the psychoanalytic community. It is suggested that Ferenczi's personality and teaching, especially his emphasis on the need to accept the patient's criticism, contrasted with the dominant conception of psychoanalysis, based on the analyst's infallibility.

  14. AIR QUALITY DETERIORATION IN TEHRAN DUE TO MOTORCYCLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Shafiepour and H. Kamalan

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Since there is a rise of motorcycles population as well as other motor vehicles, it seems that air Pollution deterioration should be studied as one of its environmental impacts. The main objective of this study was to develop a number of scenarios in order to determine the amount of Tehran's air pollution attributable to motorcycles and select the best and the most probable case to be recommended for implementation. The first step was to collect data such as the number of active motorcycles, daily traffic volume, average traveling speed and actual emission factors. For this purpose, a detailed questionnaire was designed to be completed by field surveys and measurements. The collected data were compared with traffic volume data, manufacturing statistics and the latest production capacity forecast in this field. Finally, with this data and emission factors for each type of motorcycle, an emissions inventory model was chosen to provide annual emissions from motorcycles in Tehran in different scenarios. The results showed that in 2002, there has been about 450'000 active motorcycles (4-stroke 58%, 2-stroke 28%, and moped 14% with average speed of 40 km/h and average mileage of 110 km/d. Five scenarios were developed. The best scenario was "Changing all motorcycles to 4-strokes under EU-97 standard" which would result in reduction of NMVOC by 75%, CO by 35% and PM10 by 88%.

  15. A damage mechanics based approach to structural deterioration and reliability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattcharya, B.; Ellingwood, B. [Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering

    1998-02-01

    Structural deterioration often occurs without perceptible manifestation. Continuum damage mechanics defines structural damage in terms of the material microstructure, and relates the damage variable to the macroscopic strength or stiffness of the structure. This enables one to predict the state of damage prior to the initiation of a macroscopic flaw, and allows one to estimate residual strength/service life of an existing structure. The accumulation of damage is a dissipative process that is governed by the laws of thermodynamics. Partial differential equations for damage growth in terms of the Helmholtz free energy are derived from fundamental thermodynamical conditions. Closed-form solutions to the equations are obtained under uniaxial loading for ductile deformation damage as a function of plastic strain, for creep damage as a function of time, and for fatigue damage as function of number of cycles. The proposed damage growth model is extended into the stochastic domain by considering fluctuations in the free energy, and closed-form solutions of the resulting stochastic differential equation are obtained in each of the three cases mentioned above. A reliability analysis of a ring-stiffened cylindrical steel shell subjected to corrosion, accidental pressure, and temperature is performed.

  16. High and Low Impact Aerobic Exercise as a Method of Early Prevention of Hypercholesterolaemia Development among Young Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nowak Robert

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Hypercholesterolaemia is a highly prevalent condition that has major health- and cost-related implications for the society. Aerobic-type exercise improves lipoprotein-lipid profiles, cardiorespiratory fitness and body composition in healthy young women. Thus, the aim of the study was to assess the impact of 9 weeks of low-high aerobic-type exercise on the lipid profile among young women. Methods. On the basis of the lipid profile, 64 women (median age, 21.8 years; range, 19.0-24.7 years were divided into two groups: with low (LRH and intermediate (IRH risk of developing hypercholesterolaemia. The participants completed a 9-week-long low-high aerobic exercise programme. Before and after the training programme, we determined the lipid profile: triglycerides (TG, total cholesterol (TC, lipoprotein cholesterol: HDL-C and LDL-C, and glucose levels. Selected cardiorespiratory fitness variables and body composition were also determined. Results. It was found that aerobic-type fitness exercise in the IRH group caused statistically significant decreases in TC and TG levels in comparison with baseline values. Significant increase in maximum oxygen uptake and decrease in HDL-C in the LRH group were also observed. Conclusions. Aerobic fitness exercises, a combination of two alternating styles, could influence the blood lipid profile by decreasing plasma TC and TG levels. In non-athlete women, physical activity may be a good tool to prevent cardiovascular diseases.

  17. Bacterial Selection during the Formation of Early-Stage Aerobic Granules in Wastewater Treatment Systems Operated Under Wash-Out Dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissbrodt, David G; Lochmatter, Samuel; Ebrahimi, Sirous; Rossi, Pierre; Maillard, Julien; Holliger, Christof

    2012-01-01

    Aerobic granular sludge is attractive for high-rate biological wastewater treatment. Biomass wash-out conditions stimulate the formation of aerobic granules. Deteriorated performances in biomass settling and nutrient removal during start-up have however often been reported. The effect of wash-out dynamics was investigated on bacterial selection, biomass settling behavior, and metabolic activities during the formation of early-stage granules from activated sludge of two wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) over start-up periods of maximum 60 days. Five bubble-column sequencing batch reactors were operated with feast-famine regimes consisting of rapid pulse or slow anaerobic feeding followed by aerobic starvation. Slow-settling fluffy granules were formed when an insufficient superficial air velocity (SAV; 1.8 cm s(-1)) was applied, when the inoculation sludge was taken from a WWTP removing organic matter only, or when reactors were operated at 30°C. Fast-settling dense granules were obtained with 4.0 cm s(-1) SAV, or when the inoculation sludge was taken from a WWTP removing all nutrients biologically. However, only carbon was aerobically removed during start-up. Fluffy granules and dense granules were displaying distinct predominant phylotypes, namely filamentous Burkholderiales affiliates and Zoogloea relatives, respectively. The latter were predominant in dense granules independently from the feeding regime. A combination of insufficient solid retention time and of leakage of acetate into the aeration phase during intensive biomass wash-out was the cause for the proliferation of Zoogloea spp. in dense granules, and for the deterioration of BNR performances. It is however not certain that Zoogloea-like organisms are essential in granule formation. Optimal operation conditions should be elucidated for maintaining a balance between organisms with granulation propensity and nutrient removing organisms in order to form granules with BNR activities in short

  18. Bacterial selection during the formation of early-stage aerobic granules in wastewater treatment systems operated under wash-out dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Gregory Weissbrodt

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Aerobic granular sludge is attractive for high-rate biological wastewater treatment. Biomass wash-out conditions stimulate the formation of aerobic granules. Deteriorated performances in biomass settling and nutrient removal during start-up have however often been reported. The effect of wash-out dynamics was investigated on bacterial selection, biomass settling behavior, and metabolic activities during the formation of early-stage granules from activated sludge of two wastewater treatment plants (WWTP over start-up periods of maximum 60 days. Five bubble-column sequencing batch reactors were operated with feast-famine regimes consisting of rapid pulse or slow anaerobic feeding followed by aerobic starvation. Slow-settling fluffy granules were formed when an insufficient superficial air velocity (SAV; 1.8 cm s-1 was applied, when the inoculation sludge was taken from a WWTP removing organic matter only, or when reactors were operated at 30°C. Fast-settling dense granules were obtained with 4.0 cm s-1 SAV, or when the inoculation sludge was taken from a WWTP removing all nutrients biologically. However, only carbon was aerobically removed during start-up. Fluffy granules and dense granules were displaying distinct predominant phylotypes, namely filamentous Burkholderiales affiliates and Zoogloea relatives, respectively. The latter were predominant in dense granules independently from the feeding regime. A combination of insufficient solid retention time and of leakage of acetate into the aeration phase during intensive biomass wash-out was the cause for the proliferation of Zoogloea spp. in dense granules, and for the deterioration of BNR performances. It is however not certain that Zoogloea-like organisms are essential in granule formation. Optimal operation conditions should be elucidated for maintaining a balance between organisms with granulation propensity and nutrient removing organisms in order to form granules with BNR activities in

  19. Characterization and aerobic biodegradation of selected monoterpenes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Misra, G.; Pavlostathis, S.G.; Li, J.; Purdue, E.M. [Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Monoterpenes are biogenic chemicals and occur in abundance in nature. Large-scale industrial use of these chemicals has recently been initiated in an attempt to replace halogenated solvents and chlorofluorocarbons which have been implicated in the stratospheric depletion of ozone. This study examined four hydrocarbon monoterpenes (d-limonene, {alpha}-pinene, {gamma}-terpinene, and terpinolene) and four alcohols (arbanol, linalool, plinol, and {alpha}-terpineol). Water solubility, vapor pressure, and octanol/water partition coefficients were estimated. Aerobic biodegradability tests were conducted in batch reactors by utilizing forest soil extract and enriched cultures as inoculum. The hydrophobic nature and high volatility of the hydrocarbons restricted the investigation to relatively low aqueous concentrations. Each monoterpene was analyzed with a gas chromatograph equipped with a flame ionization detector after extraction from the aqueous phase with isooctane. Terpene mineralization was tested by monitoring liquid-phase carbon, CO{sub 2} production and biomass growth. All four hydrocarbons and two alcohols readily degraded under aerobic conditions. Plinol resisted degradation in assays using inocula from diverse sources, while arbanol degraded very slowly. The intrinsic biokinetics coefficients for the degradation of d-limonene and {alpha}-terpineol were estimated by using cultures enriched with the respective monoterpenes. Monoterpene biodegradation followed Monod kinetics.

  20. Acute effects of aerobic exercise promote learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perini, Renza; Bortoletto, Marta; Capogrosso, Michela; Fertonani, Anna; Miniussi, Carlo

    2016-05-05

    The benefits that physical exercise confers on cardiovascular health are well known, whereas the notion that physical exercise can also improve cognitive performance has only recently begun to be explored and has thus far yielded only controversial results. In the present study, we used a sample of young male subjects to test the effects that a single bout of aerobic exercise has on learning. Two tasks were run: the first was an orientation discrimination task involving the primary visual cortex, and the second was a simple thumb abduction motor task that relies on the primary motor cortex. Forty-four and forty volunteers participated in the first and second experiments, respectively. We found that a single bout of aerobic exercise can significantly facilitate learning mechanisms within visual and motor domains and that these positive effects can persist for at least 30 minutes following exercise. This finding suggests that physical activity, at least of moderate intensity, might promote brain plasticity. By combining physical activity-induced plasticity with specific cognitive training-induced plasticity, we favour a gradual up-regulation of a functional network due to a steady increase in synaptic strength, promoting associative Hebbian-like plasticity.

  1. The Paroxetine Effect on Exercise Performance Depends on the Aerobic Capacity of Exercising Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Teixeira-Coelho, João Paulo Uendeles-Pinto, Ana Cláudia Alves Serafim, Samuel Penna Wanner, Márcio de Matos Coelho, Danusa Dias Soares

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the influence of aerobic capacity on the activation of the central serotonergic system and exercise fatigue in young men that ingested a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor and were then subjected to moderate-intensity physical exercise. The maximal oxygen consumption of sixteen volunteers was measured during an incremental test. The volunteers were divided into two groups: subjects with higher (HAC and lower (LAC aerobic capacities. The volunteers were subjected to four experimental trials in which they ingested either placebo or paroxetine (10, 20 or 40 mg and, 4.5 h later, cycled at 60% of their maximal power output until reaching fatigue. None of the three paroxetine doses influenced the total exercise time in the LAC group. However, for the HAC group, the time to fatigue in the 20 mg paroxetine condition was 15% less than that in the placebo condition (76.3 ± 5.1 min vs. 90.0 ± 7.9 min; p < 0.05. The time to fatigue was higher in the HAC group than in the LAC group for all treatments. Our results provide additional evidence that aerobic capacity modulates the activity of the serotonergic system. However, contrary to what would be expected considering previous reports, the activation of the serotonergic system in exercising subjects in the HAC group was not less than that in the LAC group.

  2. Constant growth rate can be supported by decreasing energy flux and increasing aerobic glycolysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slavov, Nikolai; Budnik, Bogdan A; Schwab, David; Airoldi, Edoardo M; van Oudenaarden, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Fermenting glucose in the presence of enough oxygen to support respiration, known as aerobic glycolysis, is believed to maximize growth rate. We observed increasing aerobic glycolysis during exponential growth, suggesting additional physiological roles for aerobic glycolysis. We investigated such ro

  3. Results of experimental testing of hee girl students’ motor skills at aerobic trainings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martinova N. P.

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to analyze dynamic of motor skills’ formation in girl students, who practice aerobic by experimental program. Material: in the research 40 girl students participated. Motor skills level was tested with the help of state and additional tests. Results: it was found that for training quickness it is necessary to use rope skipping in mode, corresponding to development of this quality. For training maximal strength it is purposeful to use more complex power exercises in ground part of the complex. Conclusions: implementation of rope skipping means in dance aerobic trainings increases training influence on practically all motor skills. Rope skipping permits to doze and regulate training load. The same under musical accompaniment develop sense of rhythm. In some modes such jumps facilitate training of speed power qualities and power endurance.

  4. Aerobic Digestion. Student Manual. Biological Treatment Process Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klopping, Paul H.

    This manual contains the textual material for a single-lesson unit on aerobic sludge digestion. Topic areas addressed include: (1) theory of aerobic digestion; (2) system components; (3) performance factors; (4) indicators of stable operation; and (5) operational problems and their solutions. A list of objectives, glossary of key terms, and…

  5. Longitudinal Predictors of Aerobic Performance in Adolescent Soccer Players

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valente-dos-Santos, Joao; Coelho-e-Silva, Manuel J.; Duarte, Joao; Figueiredo, Antonio J.; Liparotti, Joao R.; Sherar, Lauren B.; Elferink-Gemser, Marije T.; Malina, Robert M.

    2012-01-01

    Background. The importance of aerobic performance in youth soccer is well established. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the contributions of chronological age (CA), skeletal age (SA), body size, and training to the longitudinal development of aerobic performance in youth male soccer play

  6. Aerobic training in persons who have recovered from juvenile dermatomyositis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riisager, M; Mathiesen, P R; Vissing, J

    2013-01-01

    A recent study has shown that 36 persons who had recovered from juvenile dermatomyositis (JDM) have on average an 18% decrease in maximal oxygen uptake. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of a 12-week aerobic training program in this group, and assess whether aerobic training...

  7. Study of glazed building ceramics from central Europe (Budapest, Hungary) in aspect of deterioration by environmental factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baricza, Ágnes; Bajnóczi, Bernadett; Tóth, Mária; Szabó, Csaba

    2014-05-01

    The Zsolnay products are one of the most famous Hungarian ceramics. The glazed building ceramics, which were produced by this factory, were often applied in Hungary and the surrounding countries. Since their outplacements the ceramics have suffered from numerous environmental and human influences. There is no profound knowledge about deterioration of these building materials. Beside the characterization of the Zsolnay ceramics, our purpose is to attempt to explain the deterioration caused by environmental factors considering that these ceramics have never been studied in this aspect before. Other goal is to reveal if there is any influence on the deterioration depending on the location of building covered by Zsolnay ceramics. The studied objects were used on buildings of the Museum of Applied Arts (in the center with high traffic) and the Hungarian Geological and Geophysical Institute in Budapest (in a quarter with moderate traffic). We examined the physical and chemical features of the glaze and the ceramic body (e.g., phase composition, texture, microstructure, alteration) and the depositions on the glazed and the unglazed sides of some selected ceramics. Based on the results, three different types of ceramics were used as building materials. We observed several kinds of damage (e.g. cracks, pitting corrosions), black deposition layer and alterations in different extent. Natural and artificial particles (e.g. iron-oxide, mica, calcite and glauberithe) and spherules were deposited on the surface. Traces of biological activity were also found and connected to these organic residues calcium-oxalate was detected. On some objects of the Museum the glaze has started to weather and its lead was leached glaze by rainfall. Weathering also occurs along cracks in the glaze interior together with precipitation of lead-rich phases. Gypsum layer frequently covers the ceramics. In conclusions, the ceramics from the Museum are in worse condition than the ceramics from the

  8. 12 w低、中强度有氧运动对60~75岁老年人心率变异性的影响%Influence of low or moderate intensity aerobic exercise of 12 weeks on heart rate variability in 60~75 gerontism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李海; 屈树新

    2015-01-01

    Objective To study the effects on heart rate variability cause by low or moderate intensity aerobic exercise for elder . Methods 60 elders were divided into two groups .Two groups were given low or moderate intensity aerobic exercise for12 w.Results After aerobic exercise of 12 w, SDNN, rMSSD, pNN50%and HF were increased relative to the previous exercise (P<0.05).LF, LF/HF had no significant changes .Conclusions Low or moderate intensity aerobic exercise has positive clinical significance to reduce the incidence rate and mortality rate of cardiovascular disease in gerontism .%目的:研究低、中强度有氧运动对老年人心率变异性( HRV)的影响。方法将60位受试老年均分为两组,分别进行12 w低、中强度有氧运动,检测并比较运动前后的HRV指标。结果12 w有氧运动后,低、中强度有氧运动组 SDNN、rMSSD、pNN50%、HF相对于运动前均升高( P<0.05);LF、LF/HF无显著性改变;但两种不同强度有氧运动对受试者HRV的影响无显著差异。结论低、中强度有氧运动对降低老年人心血管疾病的发病率与死亡率具有积极意义。

  9. Sclerostin antibody inhibits skeletal deterioration due to reduced mechanical loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spatz, Jordan M; Ellman, Rachel; Cloutier, Alison M; Louis, Leeann; van Vliet, Miranda; Suva, Larry J; Dwyer, Denise; Stolina, Marina; Ke, Hua Zhu; Bouxsein, Mary L

    2013-04-01

    Sclerostin, a product of the SOST gene produced mainly by osteocytes, is a potent negative regulator of bone formation that appears to be responsive to mechanical loading, with SOST expression increasing following mechanical unloading. We tested the ability of a murine sclerostin antibody (SclAbII) to prevent bone loss in adult mice subjected to hindlimb unloading (HLU) via tail suspension for 21 days. Mice (n = 11-17/group) were assigned to control (CON, normal weight bearing) or HLU and injected with either SclAbII (subcutaneously, 25 mg/kg) or vehicle (VEH) twice weekly. SclAbII completely inhibited the bone deterioration due to disuse, and induced bone formation such that bone properties in HLU-SclAbII were at or above values of CON-VEH mice. For example, hindlimb bone mineral density (BMD) decreased -9.2% ± 1.0% in HLU-VEH, whereas it increased 4.2% ± 0.7%, 13.1% ± 1.0%, and 30.6% ± 3.0% in CON-VEH, HLU-SclAbII, and CON-SclAbII, respectively (p bone volume, assessed by micro-computed tomography (µCT) imaging of the distal femur, was lower in HLU-VEH versus CON-VEH (p bone outcomes appeared to be enhanced by normal mechanical loading. Altogether, these results confirm the ability of SclAbII to abrogate disuse-induced bone loss and demonstrate that sclerostin antibody treatment increases bone mass by increasing bone formation in both normally loaded and underloaded environments.

  10. Mechanisms of cementitious material deterioration in biogas digester.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voegel, C; Bertron, A; Erable, B

    2016-11-15

    Digesters produce biogas from organic wastes through anaerobic digestion processes. These digesters, often made of concrete, suffer severe premature deterioration caused mainly by the presence of fermentative microorganisms producing metabolites that are aggressive towards cementitious materials. To clarify the degradation mechanisms in an anaerobic digestion medium, ordinary Portland cement paste specimens were immersed in the liquid fraction of a running, lab-scale digester for 4weeks. The anaerobic digestion medium was a mixture of a biowaste substrate and sludge from municipal wastewater treatment plant used as a source of anaerobic bacteria. The chemical characteristics of the anaerobic digestion liquid phase were monitored over time using a pH metre, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and ion chromatography (HPIC). An initial critical period of low pH in the bioreactors was observed before the pH stabilized around 8. Acetic, propionic and butyric acids were produced during the digestion with a maximum total organic acid concentration of 50mmolL(-1). The maximum ammonium content of the liquid phase was 40mmolL(-1), which was about seven times the upper limit of the highly aggressive chemical environment class (XA3) as defined by the European standard for the specification of concrete design in chemically aggressive environments (EN 206). The changes in the mineralogical, microstructural and chemical characteristics of the cement pastes exposed to the solid and liquid phase of the digesters were analysed at the end of the immersion period by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) coupled with energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDS) and electron-probe micro-analysis (EPMA). A 700-μm thick altered layer was identified in the cement paste specimens. The main biodeterioration patterns in the bioreactors' solid/liquid phase were calcium leaching and carbonation of the cement matrix.

  11. Clinical deterioration after sildenafil cessation in patients with pulmonary hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne M Keogh

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Anne M Keogh, Andrew Jabbour, Christopher S Hayward, Peter S MacdonaldHeart Lung Transplant Unit, St Vincent’s Hospital, Sydney, New South Wales, AustraliaAbstract: Sildenafil is a selective inhibitor of phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE-5. Its chronic administration has been shown to improve exercise capacity, World Health Organization functional class, and haemodynamics in patients with symptomatic pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH. There is however, no data describing the clinical consequences of sudden cessation of sildenafil treatment. In this series, 9 patients with NYHA Class II–IV PAH who were stable on 2 months of sildenafil monotherapy, had their sildenafil ceased to accommodate a 2-week washout period, required for enrollment in research involving an endothelin receptor antagonist. Six minute walk distance (SMWD and clinical assessments were performed before cessation of sildenafil, and again 2 weeks later. Over the course of this 2-week washout period, 6 of the 9 patients reported increased breathlessness and fatigue, 1 of these was hospitalized with worsening right heart failure. The SMWD fell in 6 patients, with falls of greater than 100 m recorded in 4 patients. This was accompanied by a worsening of NYHA Class from 2.5 ± 0.2 to 3.1 ± 0.1 (mean ± SEM, p = 0.01. These data indicate that sudden cessation of sildenafil monotherapy, in patients with PAH, carries with it a significant and unpredictable risk of rapid clinical deterioration. We recommend that if sildenafil needs to be ceased, it would be more prudent to consider concurrent vasodilator therapy before the gradual cessation of sildenafil.Keywords: sildenafil, pulmonary hypertension, phosphodiesterase inhibitor

  12. Aerobic rice: crop performance and water use efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Grassi

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Rice (Oryza sativa production largely depends on traditional flooded rice systems whose sustainability is threatened by a progressive decrease in water availability and a constant increase in rice demand due to strong demographic boom in world population. A newly developed water-saving rice system is aerobic rice in which rice grows in nonflooded and unsaturated soil. From 2001, at the International Rice Research Institute in the Philippines, this system has been monitored to identify potentially promising varieties of rice able to grow as an irrigated upland crop and quantify yield potential and water use efficiency. This study reports on the results of cultivating the upland rice variety Apo under different water conditions in 2004-2005 at the IRRI farm in both the dry and wet seasons. The water treatments considered were: aerobic and flooded conditions, alternated flooded and aerobic conditions and aerobic after fallow. Yield and water productivity were compared between aerobic and flooded treatment in both seasons, with the objective of analysing the differences between water treatments. In the experiment the effect of different nitrogen (N application is also considered. The results indicate that the aerobic rice yield was lower than rice production under flood treatment, confirming that observed over past years. Nevertheless, when the aerobic condition is alternated with the anaerobic condition, or a fallow period, the production under aerobic treatment provides good yields (respectively 4.2 and 4.4 ha-1. The fallow period was introduced to observe the response of rice grown under this management. Water productivity was higher in aerobic fields, especially after fallow (0.88 g kg-1. The nitrogen application induced an increase in yield and water productivity, partially compensating for the lack of water in aerobic fields.

  13. Laboratory Test on Long-Term Deterioration of Cement Soil in Seawater Environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨俊杰; 闫楠; 刘强; 张玥宸

    2016-01-01

    Laboratory tests were conducted to study the effects of curing time, cement ratio and seawater pressure on cement soil deterioration formed at simulative marine soft clay sites. Deterioration depth was determined on the basis of characteristics of penetration resistance and penetration depth curves, and the deterioration depth of cement soil with the cement ratio of 7%, reached 31.8 mm after 720 d. Results of research indicated that deterioration ex-tended quickly under seawater environment and the deterioration depth increased with the prolonging curing time. In addition, the water pressure could speed up deterioration. With the increase of cement content, the strength of cement soil increased obviously. At the same time, the deterioration depth decreased significantly. The concentra-tion of calcium ion in the cement stabilized soil increased with the increase of depth, while that of magnesium ion gradually decreased. The variations were consistent with energy dispersive spectrometer(EDS)analysis results, and the calcium concentration with depth was in a good consistency with strength distribution at long term. The results showed that the deterioration became more serious with the curing time, and it was related to calcium leaching.

  14. 40 CFR 52.1382 - Prevention of significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Prevention of significant deterioration of air quality. 52.1382 Section 52.1382 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... § 52.1382 Prevention of significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The Montana plan, as...

  15. 40 CFR 52.1829 - Prevention of significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Prevention of significant deterioration of air quality. 52.1829 Section 52.1829 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Dakota § 52.1829 Prevention of significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The North Dakota plan,...

  16. 40 CFR 52.2630 - Prevention of significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Prevention of significant deterioration of air quality. 52.2630 Section 52.2630 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... § 52.2630 Prevention of significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The Wyoming plan, as...

  17. 40 CFR 52.2058 - Prevention of significant air quality deterioration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Prevention of significant air quality deterioration. 52.2058 Section 52.2058 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Prevention of significant air quality deterioration. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of...

  18. Skill Deterioration and Retraining Needs of Navy Individual Ready Reservists. Technical Report 86-007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Eugene R.; And Others

    Skill deterioration and retraining needed to support mobilization were determined for Individual Ready Reservists (IRRs) in 16 critical Navy ratings. Mailed questionnaire were used to obtain job performance information (tasks performed and proficiency associated with their performance) from IRRs and active duty personnel. Skill deterioration was…

  19. Optimum condition-based maintenance policies for deteriorating systems with partial information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hontelez, J.A.M.; Burger, H.H.; Wijnmalen, D.J.D.

    1996-01-01

    Systems are considered which deteriorate as time goes on and whose conditions can be observed. The optimum maintenance policy with respect to cost is determined, based on a continuous deterioration process, by formulating the decision process as a discrete Markov decision problem. Examples from the

  20. 40 CFR 1039.245 - How do I determine deterioration factors from exhaust durability testing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... factors for an engine family with established technology based on engineering analysis instead of testing... technology. (b) You may ask us to approve deterioration factors for an engine family based on emission... COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES Certifying Engine Families § 1039.245 How do I determine deterioration...

  1. Molecular analysis of differentially expressed genes during postharvest deterioration in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) tuberous roots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huang, J.; Bachem, C.W.B.; Jacobsen, E.; Visser, R.

    2001-01-01

    One of the major problems for cassava is the rapid deterioration after harvesting cassava tuberous roots, which limits the possibilities for production and distribution of cassava in the world. Postharvest deterioration is an inherent problem for cassava since wounding and mechanical damage of the t

  2. Controllable deterioration rate for time-dependent demand and time-varying holding cost

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mishra Vinod Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we develop an inventory model for non-instantaneous deteriorating items under the consideration of the facts: deterioration rate can be controlled by using the preservation technology (PT during deteriorating period, and holding cost and demand rate both are linear function of time, which was treated as constant in most of the deteriorating inventory models. So in this paper, we developed a deterministic inventory model for non-instantaneous deteriorating items in which both demand rate and holding cost are a linear function of time, deterioration rate is constant, backlogging rate is variable and depend on the length of the next replenishment, shortages are allowed and partially backlogged. The model is solved analytically by minimizing the total cost of the inventory system. The model can be applied to optimizing the total inventory cost of non-instantaneous deteriorating items inventory for the business enterprises, where the preservation technology is used to control the deterioration rate, and demand & holding cost both are a linear function of time.

  3. AN OPTIMAL REPLENISHMENT POLICY FOR DETERIORATING ITEMS WITH RAMP TYPE DEMAND UNDER PERMISSIBLE DELAY IN PAYMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Sanjay Jain

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to develop an optimal replenishment policy for inventory models of deteriorating items with ramp type demand under permissible delay in payments. Deterioration of items begins on their arrival in stock.  An example is also presented to illustrate the application of developed model.

  4. Deterioration of the Floor of Interior Courtyard of Sultan Hassan Mosque in Cairo, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazel, Tarek

    The college- mosque of Sultan Hassan is considered one of the finest examples of Islamic architecture not only in Egypt but also in the East. Its open interior courtyard is paved with three different types of marble slabs. These marble slabs suffer from severe deterioration. Causes of this deterioration were determined accurately through the ocular examination of the courtyard and confirmed by the laboratory tests which were carried out on samples representing the three common types of marble used in the floor namely the white, the red and the black marble. Sun light and heat are the main deterioration factors and the consequent thermal expansion is the main property which led to the detected deterioration phenomena. Types and mechanisms of deterioration affected the floor were described and explained.

  5. A Realistic Digital Deteriorating Patient to Foster Emergency Decision-Making Skills in Medical Students

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blanchard, Emmanuel G.; Wiseman, Jeffrey; Naismith, Laura

    2012-01-01

    The Deteriorating Patient Activity (DPA) is a real-life educational simulation that prepares medical students to effectively approach emergency situations through a role play where their instructor plays the role of a patient whose state is rapidly deteriorating. Although proven engaging and effe......The Deteriorating Patient Activity (DPA) is a real-life educational simulation that prepares medical students to effectively approach emergency situations through a role play where their instructor plays the role of a patient whose state is rapidly deteriorating. Although proven engaging...... and effective in improving student decision making, DPA is difficult to carry out since it requires students and medical instructors, all busy people, to be available at the same time and location. The present paper describes the “Digital” Deteriorating Patient Activity (DDPA), an agent-based tutoring system...

  6. Aerobic biodegradation of precoagulated cheese whey wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivas, Javier; Prazeres, Ana R; Carvalho, Fatima

    2011-03-23

    Prior to the application of an aerobic biological process, cheese whey wastewater has been pretreated by means of a precipitation stage by adding either NaOH or CaOH2. Both precipitating agents reduce roughly 50% of the raw wastewater chemical oxygen demand (COD). The sludge generated in the prestage shows acceptable settling properties, although solids from the CaOH2-treated effluent are better separated from the liquid bulk than those formed in NaOH-processed wastewater. In both situations, the presedimentation stage renders a supernatant more prone to biodegradation than the untreated effluent. The previous statement is corroborated by the determination of some biological kinetic parameters. Under the operating conditions used in this work, sludge generation after the biological process is reduced to a minimum. The sludge generated shows good settling properties, especially for those experiments in which CaOH2 has previously been added.

  7. Aerobic growth at nanomolar oxygen concentrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stolper, Daniel; Revsbech, Niels Peter; Canfield, Donald Eugene

    2010-01-01

    known. These capabilities also provide a framework for reconstructing a critical period in the history of life, because low, but not negligible, atmospheric oxygen levels could have persisted before the "Great Oxidation" of the Earth's surface about 2.3 to 2.4 billion years ago. Here, we show......Molecular oxygen (O2) is the second most abundant gas in the Earth's atmosphere, but in many natural environments, its concentration is reduced to low or even undetectable levels. Although low-oxygen-adapted organisms define the ecology of low-oxygen environments, their capabilities are not fully...... that Escherichia coli K-12, chosen for its well-understood biochemistry, rapid growth rate, and low-oxygen-affinity terminal oxidase, grows at oxygen levels of ≤ 3 nM, two to three orders of magnitude lower than previously observed for aerobes. Our study expands both the environmental range and temporal history...

  8. Aerobic growth at nanomolar oxygen concentrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stolper, Daniel Aaron; Revsbech, Niels Peter; Canfield, Donald Eugene

    2010-01-01

    known. These capabilities also provide a framework for reconstructing a critical period in the history of life, because low, but not negligible, atmospheric oxygen levels could have persisted before the “Great Oxidation” of the Earth’s surface about 2.3 to 2.4 billion years ago. Here, we show......Molecular oxygen (O2) is the second most abundant gas in the Earth’s atmosphere, but in many natural environments, its concentration is reduced to low or even undetectable levels. Although low-oxygen-adapted organisms define the ecology of low-oxygen environments, their capabilities are not fully...... that Escherichia coli K-12, chosen for its well-understood biochemistry, rapid growth rate, and low-oxygen-affinity terminal oxidase, grows at oxygen levels of ≤ 3 nM, two to three orders of magnitude lower than previously observed for aerobes. Our study expands both the environmental range and temporal history...

  9. Dose-dependent deterioration of swallowing function after induction chemotherapy and definitive chemoradiotherapy for laryngopharyngeal cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haderlein, M.; Semrau, S.; Ott, O.; Speer, S.; Fietkau, R. [University Hospital Erlangen, Department of Radiation Oncology, Erlangen (Germany); Bohr, C. [University Hospital Erlangen, Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Erlangen (Germany)

    2014-02-15

    To evaluate the influence of clinical, treatment- and dose-dependent factors on posttreatment swallowing function after induction chemotherapy and definitive chemoradiotherapy in a group of homogeneously treated laryngopharyngeal cancer patients. From 28 May 2008 to 15 February 2013, 45 patients with borderline inoperable laryngopharyngeal cancer that had responded well to induction chemotherapy were treated with definitive chemoradiotherapy. Median follow-up was 22 months. Swallowing function and clinical data were prospectively analyzed using the EORTC QLQ-C30 questionnaire. Swallowing structures were retrospectively delineated on the original treatment planning CT. Dose-volume histograms were calculated for swallowing structures and D{sub mean}, D{sub max} and V50-V64 values (in 2 Gy increments) were determined for each patient. Tumor volume and infiltration of the swallowing apparatus was defined by CT before induction chemotherapy. Of the 45 patients, 26 (57.8 %) fully regained swallowing function after chemoradiotherapy. A further 12 patients (26.7 %) were able to manage soft, pureed and/or liquid foods; the remaining 7 (15.6 %) were completely dependent on percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG). Posttreatment swallowing function was significantly influenced by D{sub mean} to the superior pharyngeal constrictor muscle (PCM, p = 0.041). Correlations between late dysphagia and dose-volume relationships in the superior PCM and soft palate were also observed, which were significant from V60 (p = 0.043) and V58 for the soft palate and superior PCM, respectively. Of the evaluated clinical and tumor-related factors, only alcohol abuse (p = 0.024) had an influence on posttreatment swallowing function. Almost 50 % of patients had deterioration of swallowing function after definitive chemoradiotherapy for laryngopharyngeal cancer. The dose to anatomical structures responsible for swallowing function appears to play a role. Therefore, in selected patients, target

  10. Transcriptomic and metabolomic profiling of Zymomonas mobilis during aerobic and anaerobic fermentations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Shihui [ORNL; Tschaplinski, Timothy J [ORNL; Engle, Nancy L [ORNL; Carroll, Sue L [ORNL; Martin, S L. [North Carolina State University; Davison, Brian H [ORNL; Palumbo, Anthony Vito [ORNL; Brown, Steven D [ORNL

    2009-01-01

    abundant under anaerobic conditions in the stationary phase based on quantitative-PCR results. We also identified differentially expressed ZM4 genes predicted by The Institute for Genomic Research (TIGR) that were not predicted in the primary annotation. High oxygen concentrations present during Z. mobilis fermentations negatively influence fermentation performance. The maximum specific growth rates were not dramatically different between aerobic and anaerobic conditions, yet oxygen did affect the physiology of the cells leading to the buildup of metabolic byproducts that ultimately led to greater differences in transcriptomic profiles in stationary phase.

  11. Transcriptomic and metabolomic profiling of Zymomonas mobilis during aerobic and anaerobic fermentations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palumbo Anthony V

    2009-01-01

    production, were at least 30-fold more abundant under anaerobic conditions in the stationary phase based on quantitative-PCR results. We also identified differentially expressed ZM4 genes predicted by The Institute for Genomic Research (TIGR that were not predicted in the primary annotation. Conclusion High oxygen concentrations present during Z. mobilis fermentations negatively influence fermentation performance. The maximum specific growth rates were not dramatically different between aerobic and anaerobic conditions, yet oxygen did affect the physiology of the cells leading to the buildup of metabolic byproducts that ultimately led to greater differences in transcriptomic profiles in stationary phase.

  12. Effects of long-term aerobic exercise on EPOC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeCheminant, J D; Jacobsen, D J; Bailey, B W; Mayo, M S; Hill, J O; Smith, B K; Donnelly, J E

    2008-01-01

    This study sought to determine the influence of 16 months of progressive aerobic exercise on excess postexercise oxygen consumption (EPOC) and the extent EPOC contributed to weight management. Twenty-five overweight/obese women and 16 overweight/obese men participated in a 16-month exercise program (moderate-intensity treadmill walking) that progressed across the first 26 weeks to 5 days.wk(-1), 45 min.session(-1), and 75% HRR. Three-hour EPOC was measured at baseline, 9 months, and 16 months by indirect calorimetry in response to an exercise session (treadmill walking), in which energy expenditure (EE) was estimated from the participant's previous 10 exercise sessions. For women, EPOC was 7.5 +/- 4.9, 9.6 +/- 7.6, and 6.5 +/- 6.5 L at baseline, 9 months, and 16 months, respectively (p > 0.05). For men, EPOC increased from baseline (11.8 +/- 6.8 L) to 9 months (13.5 +/- 8.6 L) (p EPOC was correlated with change in EE at 9 months (r = 0.65; p EPOC in overweight/obese men but not women. Change in volume of exercise likely explained the increase in energy expenditure during EPOC in men. EPOC contributed modestly to EE compared to the exercise itself.

  13. Development of Aerobic Fitness in Young Team Sport Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Craig B; Gill, Nicholas D; Kinugasa, Taisuke; Kilding, Andrew E

    2015-07-01

    The importance of a high level of aerobic fitness for team sport players is well known. Previous research suggests that aerobic fitness can be effectively increased in adults using traditional aerobic conditioning methods, including high-intensity interval and moderate-intensity continuous training, or more recent game-based conditioning that involves movement and skill-specific tasks, e.g. small-sided games. However, aerobic fitness training for youth team sport players has received limited attention and is likely to differ from that for adults due to changes in maturation. Given young athletes experience different rates of maturation and technical skill development, the most appropriate aerobic fitness training modes and loading parameters are likely to be specific to the developmental stage of a player. Therefore, we analysed studies that investigated exercise protocols to enhance aerobic fitness in young athletes, relative to growth and maturation, to determine current best practice and limitations. Findings were subsequently used to guide an evidence-based model for aerobic fitness development. During the sampling stage (exploration of multiple sports), regular participation in moderate-intensity aerobic fitness training, integrated into sport-specific drills, activities and skill-based games, is recommended. During the specialisation stage (increased commitment to a chosen sport), high-intensity small-sided games should be prioritised to provide the simultaneous development of aerobic fitness and technical skills. Once players enter the investment stage (pursuit of proficiency in a chosen sport), a combination of small-sided games and high-intensity interval training is recommended.

  14. Aerobic exercise attenuates inhibitory avoidance memory deficit induced by paradoxical sleep deprivation in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Jansen; Baliego, Luiz Guilherme Zaccaro; Peixinho-Pena, Luiz Fernando; de Almeida, Alexandre Aparecido; Venancio, Daniel Paulino; Scorza, Fulvio Alexandre; de Mello, Marco Tulio; Arida, Ricardo Mario

    2013-09-05

    The deleterious effects of paradoxical sleep deprivation (SD) on memory processes are well documented. Physical exercise improves many aspects of brain functions and induces neuroprotection. In the present study, we investigated the influence of 4 weeks of treadmill aerobic exercise on both long-term memory and the expression of synaptic proteins (GAP-43, synapsin I, synaptophysin, and PSD-95) in normal and sleep-deprived rats. Adult Wistar rats were subjected to 4 weeks of treadmill exercise training for 35 min, five times per week. Twenty-four hours after the last exercise session, the rats were sleep-deprived for 96 h using the modified multiple platform method. To assess memory after SD, all animals underwent training for the inhibitory avoidance task and were tested 24h later. The aerobic exercise attenuated the long-term memory deficit induced by 96 h of paradoxical SD. Western blot analysis of the hippocampus revealed increased levels of GAP-43 in exercised rats. However, the expression of synapsin I, synaptophysin, and PSD-95 was not modified by either exercise or SD. Our results suggest that an aerobic exercise program can attenuate the deleterious effects of SD on long-term memory and that this effect is not directly related to changes in the expression of the pre- and post-synaptic proteins analyzed in the study.

  15. Exercise intensity modulates the change in cerebral blood flow following aerobic exercise in chronic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Andrew D; Crane, David E; Rajab, A Saeed; Swardfager, Walter; Marzolini, Susan; Shirzadi, Zahra; Middleton, Laura E; MacIntosh, Bradley J

    2015-08-01

    The mechanisms supporting functional improvement by aerobic exercise following stroke remain incompletely understood. This study investigated how cycling intensity and aerobic fitness influence cerebral blood flow (CBF) following a single exercise session. Thirteen community-living stroke survivors performed 20 min of semi-recumbent cycling at low and moderate intensities (40-50 and 60-70 % of heart rate reserve, respectively) as determined from an exercise stress test. CBF was quantified by arterial spin labeling MRI at baseline, as well as 30 and 50 min post-exercise. An intensity-dependent effect was observed in the right post-central and supramarginal gyri up to 50 min after exercise (uncorrected p Aerobic fitness was directly related to posterior cingulate and thalamic CBF, and inversely related to precuneal CBF at rest (R (2) ≥ 0.75); however, no relationship between fitness and the post-exercise change in CBF was observed. Divergent changes in regional CBF were observed in the right parietal cortex following low- and moderate-intensity exercise, which suggests that intensity of prescribed exercise may be useful in optimizing rehabilitation.

  16. [Treatment of landfill leachate using sequential anaerobic/aerobic moving-bed biofilm reactor].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Sheng; Sun, De-zhi; Chen, Gui-xia; Jong, Shik Chung

    2006-10-01

    A sequential anaerobic-aerobic moving-bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) was employed to treat landfill leachate produced from disposal of municipal solid waste. The affecting operation conditions were investigated, and the affecting mechanism was also analyzed. The results showed that the HRT and organic loading rate (OLR) could greatly influence the treat efficiency. When the influent OLR was in the range of 4.01 - 7.87 kg/(m3 x d), the average total COD removal efficiency was 94.2%, and the contribution of anaerobic stage to total COD removal efficiency was 87.95% - 92.76%; while the influent OLR was in the range of 10.23-16.14 kg/(m3 x d), the average total COD removal efficiency was still 92.64%, and the contribution of anaerobic stage to total COD removal efficiency was 79.05% - 86.56%. As long as HRT of aerobic MBBR was longer than 1.25 d, the total HN4+ -N removal efficiency was persistently more than 97%; while the HRT was 0.75 d, the total HN4+ -N removal efficiency was only about 20%. The sequential anaerobic-aerobic MBBR can endure strong loading impact, even though the OLR was sharply increased 4 times and lasted for 24 h; the system could recover the normal treat efficiency in 3 d.

  17. TRAINABILITY OF BODY COMPOSITION, AEROBIC POWER AND MUSCULAR ENDURANCE OF CADET WRESTLERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahman Mirzaei

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of the present study was to investigate the trainability of body composition, aerobic power and muscular endurance of cadet wrestlers. Material: Fifteen cadet wrestlers (age: 15.20±0.94 years participated in this study. Methods: The testing was conducted twice, before and after four-week training period. The physiological parameters included aerobic power, muscular endurance and body composition. Results: A significant decrease in the body fat was observed following the training (p0.05. In general, although a lot of factors including skill, mental, genetic and other fitness factors render some influences on a wrestler's success, improvement of physical fitness plays an important role in championship. Based on results of the present study more time is needed to improve muscular and cardiovascular endurance, therefore wrestling coaches and trainers are recommended to pay special attention to these factors. Conclusion: Our results indicated that wrestlers experienced significant changes in their body fat percentage during four-week training period. Cadet wrestlers’ aerobic power, muscular endurance and body composition are trainable, although these improvements may be less than what has been observed in junior and senior wrestlers.

  18. Anaerobic lactic acid degradation during ensilage of whole crop maize inoculated with lactobacillus buchneri inhibits yeast growth and improves aerobic stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driehuis; Elferink; Spoelstra

    1999-10-01

    Aerobic deterioration of silages is initiated by (facultative) aerobic micro-organisms, usually yeasts, that oxidize the preserving organic acids. In this study, a Lactobacillus buchneri strain isolated from maize silage was evaluated for its potential as a bacterial inoculant that enhances aerobic stability of silages. In four experiments, chopped whole crop maize (30-43% dry matter (DM)) was inoculated with Lact. buchneri and ensiled in laboratory silos. Uninoculated silages served as controls. Analysis of silages treated with Lact. buchneri at levels of 103-106 cfu g-1 after about 3 months of anaerobic storage showedthat acetic acid and 1-propanol contents increased with inoculum levels above 104 cfu g-1,whereas lactic acid decreased. Propionic acid, silage pH and DM loss increased withinoculum levels above 105 cfu g-1. Time course experiments with maize inoculated with Lact. buchneri at 4 x 104-2 x 105 cfu g-1 showed that up to 7-14 d after ensiling, Lact. buchneri had no effect on silage characteristics. Thereafter, the lactic acid content of the inoculated silages declined and, simultaneously, acetic acid and, to a lesser extent, propionic acid and 1-propanol, accumulated. Inoculation reduced survival of yeasts during the anaerobic storage phase and inhibited yeast growth when the silage was exposed to O2, resulting in a substantial improvement in aerobic stability. The results indicate that the use of Lact. buchneri as a silage inoculant can enhance aerobic stability by inhibition of yeasts. The ability of the organism to ferment lactic acid to acetic acid appears to be an important underlying principle of this effect.

  19. The effect of Lactobacillus buchneri and Lactobacillus plantarum on the fermentation, aerobic stability, and ruminal degradability of low dry matter corn and sorghum silages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filya, I

    2003-11-01

    The effect of Lactobacillus buchneri, alone or in combination with Lactobacillus plantarum, on the fermentation, aerobic stability, and ruminal degradability of low dry matter corn and sorghum silages was studied under laboratory conditions. The inoculants were applied at 1 x 10(6) cfu/g. Silages with no additives served as control. After treatment, the chopped forages were ensiled in 1.5-L anaerobic jars. Three jars per treatment were sampled on d 2, 4, 8, 15, and 90. After 90 d of storage, the silages were subjected to an aerobic stability test lasting 5 d, in which CO2 production, as well as chemical and microbiological parameters, was measured to determine the extent of aerobic deterioration. At the end of the ensiling period (d 90), the L. buchneri- and L. buchneri + L. plantarum-inoculated silages had significantly higher levels of acetic acid than the control and L. plantarum-inoculated silages. Therefore, yeast activity was impaired in the L. buchneri- and L. buchneri + L. plantarum-inoculated silages. As a result, L. buchneri, alone or in combination with L. plantarum, improved aerobic stability of the low dry matter corn and sorghum silages. The combination of L. buchneri and L. plantarum reduced ammonia N concentrations and fermentation losses in the silages compared with L. buchneri alone. However, L. buchneri, L. plantarum, and a combination of L. buchneri + L. plantarum did not effect in situ rumen dry matter, organic matters, or neutral detergent fiber degradability of the silages. The L. buchneri was very effective in protecting the low dry matter corn and sorghum silages exposed to air under laboratory conditions. The use of L. buchneri, alone or in combination with L. plantarum, as a silage inoculant can improve the aerobic stability of low dry matter corn and sorghum silages by inhibition of yeast activity.

  20. Risk factors for deterioration of long-term liver function after radiofrequency ablation therapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Koichi; Honda; Masataka; Seike; Junya; Oribe; Mizuki; Endo; Mie; Arakawa; Hiroki; Syo; Masao; Iwao; Masanori; Tokoro; Junko; Nishimura; Tetsu; Mori; Tsutomu; Yamashita; Satoshi; Fukuchi; Toyokichi; Muro; Kazunari; Murakami

    2016-01-01

    AIM:To identify factors that influence long-term liver function following radiofrequency ablation(RFA)in patients with viral hepatitis-related hepatocellular carcinoma.METHODS:A total of 123 patients with hepatitis B virus-or hepatitis C virus-related hepatocellular carcinoma(HCC)(n=12 and n=111,respectively)were enrolled.Cumulative rates of worsening Child-Pugh(CP)scores(defined as a 2-point increase)were examined.RESULTS:CP score worsening was confirmed in 22patients over a mean follow-up period of 43.8±26.3mo.Multivariate analysis identified CP class,platelet count,and aspartate aminotransferase levels as significant predictors of a worsening CP score(P=0.000,P=0.011 and P=0.024,respectively).In contrast,repeated RFA was not identified as a risk factor for liver function deterioration.CONCLUSION:Long-term liver function following RFA was dependent on liver functional reserve,the degreeof fibrosis present,and the activity of the hepatitis condition for this cohort.Therefore,in order to maintain liver function for an extended period following RFA,suppression of viral hepatitis activity is important even after the treatment of HCC.

  1. Drought-induced xylem cavitation and hydraulic deterioration: risk factors for urban trees under climate change?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savi, Tadeja; Bertuzzi, Stefano; Branca, Salvatore; Tretiach, Mauro; Nardini, Andrea

    2015-02-01

    Urban trees help towns to cope with climate warming by cooling both air and surfaces. The challenges imposed by the urban environment, with special reference to low water availability due to the presence of extensive pavements, result in high rates of mortality of street trees, that can be increased by climatic extremes. We investigated the water relations and xylem hydraulic safety/efficiency of Quercus ilex trees growing at urban sites with different percentages of surrounding impervious pavements. Seasonal changes of plant water potential and gas exchange, vulnerability to cavitation and embolism level, and morpho-anatomical traits were measured. We found patterns of increasing water stress and vulnerability to drought at increasing percentages of impervious pavement cover, with a consequent reduction in gas exchange rates, decreased safety margins toward embolism development, and increased vulnerability to cavitation, suggesting the occurrence of stress-induced hydraulic deterioration. The amount of impermeable surface and chronic exposure to water stress influence the site-specific risk of drought-induced dieback of urban trees under extreme drought. Besides providing directions for management of green spaces in towns, our data suggest that xylem hydraulics is key to a full understanding of the responses of urban trees to global change.

  2. INFLUENCE OF ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS ON THE GROWTH OF BUILDING DETERIORATING FUNGI: ASPERGILLUS FLAVUS AND PENICILLIUM CHRYSOGENUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Padma Singh* and Mamta Chauhan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The performance of whole building depends on many factors: structure, coating, environment, climate, type of use, service etc. Fungi are essential for the survival of our global ecology but they may pose a significant threat to the health of occupants when they grow in our buildings. The most important factor that affect microbial growth on buildings materials are temperature, moisture and nutrients. The moisture conditions connected with temperature and exposure time are the most important factor for the development of biological problems and damage in buildings. In vitro studies were conducted on the effect of temperature, pH levels and moisture on the growth of Aspergillus flavus and Penicillium chrysogenum. Maximum growth was observed on pH level 6 and 7 against A. flavus and P. chrysogenum respectively after 12 days. The most suitable temperature for the growth of A. flavus and P. chrysogenum was observed on 25°C and 30°C respectively. The fungus showed maximum growth at 90% relative humidity.

  3. Environmental control on aerobic methane oxidation in coastal waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinle, Lea; Maltby, Johanna; Engbersen, Nadine; Zopfi, Jakob; Bange, Hermann; Elvert, Marcus; Hinrichs, Kai-Uwe; Kock, Annette; Lehmann, Moritz; Treude, Tina; Niemann, Helge

    2016-04-01

    Large quantities of methane are produced in anoxic sediments of continental margins and may be liberated to the overlying water column, where some of it is consumed by aerobic methane oxidizing bacteria (MOB). Aerobic methane oxidation (MOx) in the water column is consequently the final sink for methane before its release to the atmosphere, where it acts as a potent greenhouse gas. In the context of the ocean's contribution to atmospheric methane, coastal seas are particularly important accounting >75% of global methane emission from marine systems. Coastal oceans are highly dynamic, in particular with regard to the variability of methane and oxygen concentrations as well as temperature and salinity, all of which are potential key environmental factors controlling MOx. To determine important environmental controls on the activity of MOBs in coastal seas, we conducted a two-year time-series study with measurements of physicochemical water column parameters, MOx activity and the composition of the MOB community in a coastal inlet in the Baltic Sea (Boknis Eck Time Series Station, Eckernförde Bay - E-Bay). In addition, we investigated the influence of temperature and oxygen on MOx during controlled laboratory experiments. In E-Bay, hypoxia developed in bottom waters towards the end of the stratification period. Constant methane liberation from sediments resulted in bottom water methane accumulations and supersaturation (with respect to the atmospheric equilibrium) in surface waters. Here, we will discuss the factors impacting MOx the most, which were (i) perturbations of the water column (ii) temperature and (iii) oxygen concentration. (i) Perturbations of the water column caused by storm events or seasonal mixing led to a decrease in MOx, probably caused by replacement of stagnant water with a high standing stock of MOB by 'new' waters with a lower abundance of methanotrophs. b) An increase in temperature generally led to higher MOx rates. c) Even though methane was

  4. Performance deterioration based on in-service engine data: JT9D jet engine diagnostics program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sallee, G. P.

    1979-01-01

    Results of analyses of engine performance deterioration trends and levels with respect to service usage are presented. Thirty-two JT9D-7A engines were selected for this purpose. The selection of this engine fleet provided the opportunity of obtaining engine performance data starting before the first flight through initial service such that the trend and levels of engine deterioration related to both short and long term deterioration could be more carefully defined. The performance data collected and analyzed included in-flight, on wing (ground), and test stand prerepair and postrepair performance calibrations with expanded instrumentation where feasible. The results of the analyses of these data were used to: (1) close gaps in previously obtained historical data as well as augment the historical data with more carefully obtained data; (2) refine preliminary models of performance deterioration with respect to usage; (3) establish an understanding of the relationships between ground and altitude performance deterioration trends; (4) refine preliminary recommendations concerning means to reduce and control deterioration; and (5) identify areas where additional effort is required to develop an understanding of complex deterioration issues.

  5. Individual variation and repeatability in aerobic and anaerobic swimming performance of European sea bass, Dicentrarchus labrax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marras, S; Claireaux, G; McKenzie, D J; Nelson, J A

    2010-01-01

    Studies of inter-individual variation in fish swimming performance may provide insight into how selection has influenced diversity in phenotypic traits. We investigated individual variation and short-term repeatability of individual swimming performance by wild European sea bass in a constant acceleration test (CAT). Fish were challenged with four consecutive CATs with 5 min rest between trials. We measured maximum anaerobic speed at exhaustion (U(CAT)), gait transition speed from steady aerobic to unsteady anaerobic swimming (U(gt)), routine metabolic rate (RMR), post-CAT maximum metabolic rate (MMR), aerobic scope and recovery time from the CATs. Fish achieved significantly higher speeds during the first CAT (U(CAT)=170 cm s(-1)), and had much more inter-individual variation in performance (coefficient of variation, CV=18.43%) than in the subsequent three tests (U(CAT)=134 cm s(-1); CV=7.3%), which were very repeatable among individuals. The individual variation in U(CAT) in the first trial could be accounted for almost exclusively by variation in anaerobic burst-and-coast performance beyond U(gt). The U(gt) itself varied substantially between individuals (CV=11.4%), but was significantly repeatable across all four trials. Individual RMR and MMR varied considerably, but the rank order of post-CAT MMR was highly repeatable. Recovery rate from the four CATs was highly variable and correlated positively with the first U(CAT) (longer recovery for higher speeds) but negatively with RMR and aerobic scope (shorter recovery for higher RMR and aerobic scope). This large variation in individual performance coupled with the strong correlations between some of the studied variables may reflect divergent selection favouring alternative strategies for foraging and avoiding predation.

  6. Short term aerobic exercise alters the reinforcing value of food in inactive adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panek, Leah M; Jones, Kelly R; Temple, Jennifer L

    2014-10-01

    Motivation to eat, or the reinforcing value of food, may be influenced by a number of factors, including physical activity. The purpose of these studies was to test the hypothesis that short-term moderate-vigorous intensity aerobic exercise would alter the reinforcing value of high (HED) and low (LED) energy density foods in inactive adults. The reinforcing value of LED and HED food was measured at baseline and again after two weeks of aerobic exercise. In Experiment 1, 41 participants were randomized to a no exercise condition or aerobic exercise for 3 days per week for two weeks. In Experiment 2, 76 participants were randomized to one of four aerobic exercise frequencies, 0, 1, 3, or 5 days per week for two weeks. In both experiments, exercise reduced the reinforcing value of HED food compared to baseline and to non-exercise controls. In Experiment 2, the 5 day group also showed a significant increase in the reinforcing value of LED food compared to baseline and other exercise frequencies. Liking of HED and LED foods and consumption of HED food were not affected by exercise treatment. Finally, in Experiment 2, the 5 day group reported consuming more energy outside of the laboratory than the other groups. Taken together, these data suggest, in inactive individuals, motivation to obtain HED and LED foods can be altered with a short-term moderate-vigorous intensity exercise intervention. Further research is needed to understand the cognitive and physiological processes involved in food choices paired with exercise.

  7. Aerobic granules formation and nutrients removal characteristics in sequencing batch airlift reactor (SBAR) at low temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Ruiling; Yu, Shuili; Shi, Wenxin; Zhang, Xuedong; Wang, Yulan

    2009-09-15

    To understand the effect of low temperature on the formation of aerobic granules and their nutrient removal characteristics, an aerobic granular sequencing batch airlift reactor (SBAR) has been operated at 10 degrees C using a mixed carbon source of glucose and sodium acetate. The results showed that aerobic granules were obtained and that the reactor performed in stable manner under the applied conditions. The granules had a compact structure and a clear out-surface. The average parameters of the granules were: diameter 3.4mm, wet density 1.036 g mL(-1), sludge volume index 37 mL g(-1), and settling velocity 18.6-65.1 cm min(-1). Nitrite accumulation was observed, with a nitrite accumulation rate (NO(2)(-)-N/NO(x)(-)-N) between 35% and 43% at the beginning of the start-up stage. During the stable stage, NO(x) was present at a level below the detection limit. However, when the influent COD concentration was halved (resulting in COD/N a reduction of the COD/N from 20:1 to 10:1) nitrite accumulation was observed once more with an effluent nitrite accumulation rate of 94.8%. Phosphorus release was observed in the static feeding phase and also during the initial 20-30 min of the aerobic phase. Neither the low temperature nor adjustment of the COD/P ratio from 100:1 to 25:1 had any influence on the phosphorus removal efficiency under the operating conditions. In the granular reactor with the influent load rates for COD, NH(4)(+)-N, and PO(4)(3-)-P of 1.2-2.4, 0.112 and 0.012-0.024 kg m(-3)d(-1), the respective removal efficiencies at low temperature were 90.6-95.4%, 72.8-82.1% and 95.8-97.9%.

  8. Specific Training Effects of Concurrent Aerobic and Strength Exercises Depend on Recovery Duration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robineau, Julien; Babault, Nicolas; Piscione, Julien; Lacome, Mathieu; Bigard, André X

    2016-03-01

    This study aimed to determine whether the duration (0, 6, or 24 hours) of recovery between strength and aerobic sequences influences the responses to a concurrent training program. Fifty-eight amateur rugby players were randomly assigned to control (CONT), concurrent training (C-0h, C-6h, or C-24h), or strength training (STR) groups during a 7-week training period. Two sessions of each quality were proposed each week with strength always performed before aerobic training. Neuromuscular and aerobic measurements were performed before and immediately after the overall training period. Data were assessed for practical significance using magnitude-based inference. Gains in maximal strength for bench press and half squat were lower in C-0h compared with that in C-6h, C-24h, and STR. The maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) during isokinetic knee extension at 60°·s(-1) was likely higher for C-24h compared with C-0h. Changes in MVC at 180°·s(-1) was likely higher in C-24h and STR than in C-0h and C-6h. Training-induced gains in isometric MVC for C-0h, C-6h, C-24h, and STR were unclear. V[Combining Dot Above]O2peak increased in C-0h, C-6h, and C-24h. Training-induced changes in V[Combining Dot Above]O2peak were higher in C-24h than in C-0h and C-6h. Our study emphasized that the interference on strength development depends on the recovery delay between the 2 sequences. Daily training without a recovery period between sessions (C-0h) and, to a lesser extent, training twice a day (C-6h), is not optimal for neuromuscular and aerobic improvements. Fitness coaches should avoid scheduling 2 contradictory qualities, with less than 6-hour recovery between them to obtain full adaptive responses to concurrent training.

  9. Quantification of the Value of Structural Health Monitoring Information for Fatigue Deteriorating Structural Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thöns, Sebastian; Schneider, Ronald; Faber, Michael Havbro

    2015-01-01

    This paper addresses the quantification of the value of structural health monitoring (SHM) before its implementation for structural systems on the basis of its Value of Information (VoI). The value of SHM is calculated utilizing the Bayesian pre-posterior decision analysis modelling the structural...... and is quantified with this framework. The approach is focused on fatigue deteriorating structural steel systems for which a continuous resistance deterioration formulation is introduced. In a case study, the value of SHM for load monitoring is calculated for a Daniels system subjected to fatigue deterioration...

  10. Multi-Physics and Multi-Scale Deterioration Modelling of Reinforced Concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michel, Alexander; Stang, Henrik; Lepech, M.;

    2016-01-01

    , methods and tools for modelling decades-long deterioration and maintenance are much less developed. In this paper, a multi-physics and multi-scale modelling approach for structural deterioration of reinforced concrete components due to reinforcement corrosion is presented. The multi-disciplinary modelling......Deterioration of reinforced concrete infrastructure such as bridges, tunnels, and buildings represents one of the major challenges currently facing developed countries. While engineering tools and methods for structural modelling and design of new reinforced concrete infrastructure are mature...

  11. Influence of Aerobics Exercise on Physical and Mental Health for the Elderly ---Taking Elderly in Zhengzhou City as an Example%浅析健身操对老年人身心健康的影响--以郑州市老年人为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王慧

    2014-01-01

    本文通过文献资料法、问卷调查法、数理统计法和逻辑分析法对郑州市老年人练习健身操的现状进行了调查。结果表明,健身操可以有效缓解老年人的身体症状,可以降低体内脂肪、提高身体各种机能水平,并且对肺活量和心脏等具有重要的作用。另外,对身体的各种常见病症还具有缓解作用,对老年人腿脚疼痛有良好的治疗效果。因此,政府相关部门应该积极引导老年人参加健身操运动,大力开展社区文化,让各种文体活动走进社区,更好的发挥健身操对老年人身心健康的促进作用,促使全民健身计划的进一步落实。%Through using the method of literature review, questionnaire survey, mathematical statistics and logic analysis, this paper makes investigation on the present conditions of the old people practicing aerobics exercise in Zhengzhou city.The results show that the aerobics exercise can effectively alleviate the physical symptoms of the elderly, reduce body fat and improve body function of various levels, and plays an important role in lung capacity and heart, etc.In addition, all kinds of common diseases of the body is relieved, leg pain has a good therapeutic effect for the elderly.Accordingly, relevant government departments should actively guide the elderly to participate in aerobics exercise, to develop community culture, make sports activities into the community, better play to the aerobics exercise physical and mental health to the elderly, to further implement the national fitness program.

  12. Effects of aerobic exercise on cognitive performance and individual psychopathology in depressive and schizophrenia patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oertel-Knöchel, Viola; Mehler, Pia; Thiel, Christian; Steinbrecher, Kristina; Malchow, Berend; Tesky, Valentina; Ademmer, Karin; Prvulovic, David; Banzer, Winfried; Zopf, Yurdagül; Schmitt, Andrea; Hänsel, Frank

    2014-10-01

    Cognitive deficits are core symptoms in patients with schizophrenia (SZ) and major depressive disorder (MDD), but specific and approved treatments for cognitive deterioration are scarce. Experimental and clinical evidence suggests that aerobic exercise may help to reduce psychopathological symptoms and support cognitive performance, but this has not yet been systematically investigated. In the current study, we examined the effects of aerobic training on cognitive performance and symptom severity in psychiatric inpatients. To our knowledge, to date, no studies have been published that directly compare the effects of exercise across disease groups in order to acquire a better understanding of disease-specific versus general or overlapping effects of physical training intervention. Two disease groups (n=22 MDD patients, n=29 SZ patients) that were matched for age, gender, duration of disease and years of education received cognitive training combined either with aerobic physical exercise or with mental relaxation training. The interventions included 12 sessions (3 times a week) over a time period of 4 weeks, lasting each for 75 min (30 min of cognitive training+45 min of cardio training/mental relaxation training). Cognitive parameters and psychopathology scores of all participants were tested in pre- and post-testing sessions and were then compared with a waiting control group. In the total group of patients, the results indicate an increase in cognitive performance in the domains visual learning, working memory and speed of processing, a decrease in state anxiety and an increase in subjective quality of life between pre- and post-testing. The effects in SZ patients compared with MDD patients were stronger for cognitive performance, whereas there were stronger effects in MDD patients compared with SZ patients in individual psychopathology values. MDD patients showed a significant reduction in depressive symptoms and state anxiety values after the intervention period

  13. Effect of algae growth on aerobic granulation and nutrients removal from synthetic wastewater by using sequencing batch reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wenli; Li, Bing; Zhang, Chao; Zhang, Zhenya; Lei, Zhongfang; Lu, Baowang; Zhou, Beibei

    2015-03-01

    The effect of algae growth on aerobic granulation and nutrients removal was studied in two identical sequencing batch reactors (SBRs). Sunlight exposure promoted the growth of algae in the SBR (Rs), forming an algal-bacterial symbiosis in aerobic granules. Compared to the control SBR (Rc), Rs had a slower granulation process with granules of loose structure and smaller particle size. Moreover, the specific oxygen uptake rate was significantly decreased for the granules from Rs with secretion of 25.7% and 22.5% less proteins and polysaccharides respectively in the extracellular polymeric substances. Although little impact was observed on chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal, algal-bacterial symbiosis deteriorated N and P removals, about 40.7-45.4% of total N and 44% of total P in Rs in contrast to 52.9-58.3% of TN and 90% of TP in Rc, respectively. In addition, the growth of algae altered the microbial community in Rs, especially unfavorable for Nitrospiraceae and Nitrosomonadaceae.

  14. Bacteriocin formation by dominant aerobic sporeformers isolated from traditional maari

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaboré, Donatien; Thorsen, Line; Nielsen, Dennis Sandris

    2012-01-01

    The antimicrobial activity of 8 Bacillus spp. and 2 Lysinibacillus spp. representing the predominant aerobic sporeformers during traditional maari fermentations, a traditional fermented baobab seeds product from Burkina Faso, was investigated. The antimicrobial activity was assessed against a total...

  15. Is aerobic workload positively related to ambulatory blood pressure?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korshøj, Mette; Clays, Els; Lidegaard, Mark;

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: Cardiovascular disease is prevalent among workers with high levels of occupational physical activity. The increased risk may be due to a high relative aerobic workload, possibly leading to increased blood pressure. However, studies investigating the relation between relative aerobic...... workload and ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) are lacking. The aim was to explore the relationship between objectively measured relative aerobic workload and ABP. METHODS: A total of 116 cleaners aged 18-65 years were included after informed consent was obtained. A portable device (Spacelabs 90217......) was mounted for 24-h measurements of ABP, and an Actiheart was mounted for 24-h heart rate measurements to calculate relative aerobic workload as percentage of relative heart rate reserve. A repeated-measure multi-adjusted mixed model was applied for analysis. RESULTS: A fully adjusted mixed model...

  16. Effect of an aerobic exercise intervention on cardiac autonomic regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallman, David M; Holtermann, Andreas; Søgaard, Karen;

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this randomized controlled trial (RCT) was to determine whether aerobic exercise during work hours affects cardiac autonomic regulation in cleaners characterized by high levels of occupational physical activity and poor cardiorespiratory fitness. METHOD: Eligible cleaners (n......=116) were randomized to an aerobic exercise group (n=59) or a reference group (n=57) with lectures. The intervention group received two 30-min sessions per week of supervised aerobic exercise over 4months. Diurnal measurements of heart rate variability (HRV) and physical activity (accelerometry) were...... tended to decrease in the exercise group compared with the reference group from baseline to follow-up, being significant for the HF spectral component (p=0.03). CONCLUSION: Among cleaners, a worksite aerobic exercise intervention improved cardiac autonomic regulation during work and leisure...

  17. Enhanced aerobic nitrifying granulation by static magnetic field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin-Hua; Diao, Mu-He; Yang, Ying; Shi, Yi-Jing; Gao, Ming-Ming; Wang, Shu-Guang

    2012-04-01

    One of the main challenging issues for aerobic nitrifying granules in treating high strength ammonia wastewater is the long granulation time required for activated sludge to transform into aerobic granules. The present study provides a novel strategy for enhancing aerobic nitrifying granulation by applying an intensity of 48.0mT static magnetic field. The element analysis showed that the applied magnetic field could promote the accumulation of iron compounds in the sludge. And then the aggregation of iron decreased the full granulation time from 41 to 25days by enhancing the setting properties of granules and stimulating the secretion of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS). Long-term, cycle experiments and fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH) analysis proved that an intensity of 48.0mT magnetic field could enhance the activities and growth of nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB). These findings suggest that magnetic field is helpful and reliable for accelerating the aerobic nitrifying granulation.

  18. Isolation of aerobic bacteria from ticks infested sheep in Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waleed Ibrahem Jalil

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: The high isolation rate of aerobic pathogens from ticks might reflect the active contribution of this arthropod in environmental contamination and increase the probability of transmitting bacterial pathogens to their hosts.

  19. THE RELATIONSHIP OF CHOREOGRAPHY PREPARATION AND ARTISTRY IN AEROBIC GYMNASTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Sokolova

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Examines the impact choreography training in sports aerobics on artistic skills.Objective to investigate whether the use of funds choreo-graphy in training athletes involved in sports aerobics, to find the relationship between choreographic training and asses-sment for artistry.Method or methodology of work methods of studying the theoretical ski works of scientific content, analysis and processing of scientific texts.The results revealed the relationship between estimates for artistry and means-you dance training in sports aerobics. The scope of the results, the materials may be used by coaches in sports aerobics, for further research on the problem of constructing workout.

  20. Sequential anaerobic-aerobic treatment for domestic wastewater - A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kassab, G.; Halalsheh, M.; Klapwijk, A.; Fayyad, M.; Lier, van J.B.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction, consolidation and even standardization of expensive conventional aerobic systems for domestic wastewater treatment imposed significant financial constraints on the expansion of sanitary services including treatment in developing countries. A viable alternative is the sequential anaerob

  1. Aerobic Exercise: Top 10 Reasons to Get Physical

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... plaques in your arteries. Boost your mood Aerobic exercise may ease the gloominess of depression, reduce the tension associated with anxiety and promote relaxation. Stay active and independent as ...

  2. Nitrifying and denitrifying bacteria in aerobic granules formed in sequencing batch airlift reactors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Fang; YANG Fenglin; QI Aijiu

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate nitrifying bacteria and denitrifying bacteria isolated from aerobic granules.Aerobic granules were formed in an internal-circulate sequencing batch airlift reactor(SBAR)and biodegradation of NH3 -N was analyzed in the reactor.Bacteria were isolated and determined from aerobic granules using selected media.The growth properties and morphology of bacteria colonies were observed by controlling aerobic or anaerobic conditions in the culture medium.It was found that bacteria in aerobic granules were diverse and some of them were facultative aerobes.The diversity of bacteria in aerobic granules was a premise of simultaneous nitrification and denitrification.

  3. A probability evaluation method of early deterioration condition for the critical components of wind turbine generator systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yaogang; Li, Hui; Liao, Xinglin; Song, Erbing; Liu, Haitao; Chen, Z.

    2016-08-01

    This study determines the early deterioration condition of critical components for a wind turbine generator system (WTGS). Due to the uncertainty nature of the fluctuation and intermittence of wind, early deterioration condition evaluation poses a challenge to the traditional vibration-based condition monitoring methods. Considering the its thermal inertia and strong anti-interference capacity, temperature characteristic parameters as a deterioration indication cannot be adequately disturbed by the uncontrollable noise and uncertainty nature of wind. This paper provides a probability evaluation method of early deterioration condition for critical components based only on temperature characteristic parameters. First, the dynamic threshold of deterioration degree function was proposed by analyzing the operational data between temperature and rotor speed. Second, a probability evaluation method of early deterioration condition was presented. Finally, two cases showed the validity of the proposed probability evaluation method in detecting early deterioration condition and in tracking their further deterioration for the critical components.

  4. Locus coeruleus galanin expression is enhanced after exercise in rats selectively bred for high capacity for aerobic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Patrick S; Groves, Jessica L; Pettett, Brett J; Britton, Steven L; Koch, Lauren G; Dishman, Rod K; Holmes, Philip V

    2010-12-01

    The neuropeptide galanin extensively coexists with norepinephrine in locus coeruleus (LC) neurons. Previous research in this laboratory has demonstrated that unlimited access to activity wheels in the home cage increases mRNA for galanin (GAL) in the LC, and that GAL mediates some of the beneficial effects of exercise on brain function. To assess whether capacity for aerobic exercise modulates this upregulation in galanin mRNA, three heterogeneous rat models were tested: rats selectively bred for (1) high intrinsic (untrained) aerobic capacity (High Capacity Runners, HCR) and (2) low intrinsic aerobic capacity (Low Capacity Runners, LCR) and (3) unselected Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats with and without free access to running wheels for 3 weeks. Following this exercise protocol, mRNA for tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and GAL was measured in the LC. The wheel running distances between the three models were significantly different, and age contributed as a significant covariate. Both selection and wheel access condition significantly affected GAL mRNA expression, but not TH mRNA expression. GAL was elevated in exercising HCR and SD rats compared to sedentary rats while LCR rats did not differ between conditions. Overall running distance significantly correlated with GAL mRNA expression, but not with TH mRNA expression. No strain differences in GAL or TH gene expression were observed in sedentary rats. Thus, intrinsic aerobic running capacity influences GAL gene expression in the LC only insofar as actual running behavior is concerned; aerobic capacity does not influence GAL expression in addition to changes associated with running.

  5. Aerobic training and postexercise protein in facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Grete; Prahm, Kira P; Dahlqvist, Julia R;

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of regular aerobic training and postexercise protein-carbohydrate supplementation in patients with facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD). METHODS: In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled parallel study, we randomized untrained men (n = 21...... not add any further improvement to training effects alone. CLASSIFICATION OF EVIDENCE: This study provides Class II evidence that regular aerobic training with or without postexercise protein-carbohydrate supplementation improves fitness and workload in patients with FSHD....

  6. Water Aerobics as a Form of Health Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna S. Batrak

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The offered literature review considers water aerobics as a form of health activities. Water aerobics is wide spread and popular, especially among women, because it is also the form of adaptive and health activities. It enlarges general physiological effect of physical exercises on the human body. Regular exercises improve physical fitness and physical development, health, mood, sleep, intensify activities and working efficiency.

  7. Membrane-bound respiratory chain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa grown aerobically.

    OpenAIRE

    Matsushita, K.; Yamada, M.; Shinagawa, E; Adachi, O; Ameyama, M

    1980-01-01

    The electron transport chain of the gram-negative bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa, grown aerobically, contained a number of primary dehydrogenases and respiratory components (soluble flavin, bound flavin, coenzyme Q9, heme b, heme c, and cytochrome o) in membrane particles of the organism. Cytochrome o, about 50% of the b-type cytochrome, seemed to function as a terminal oxidase in the respiratory chain. The electron transport chain of P. aeruginosa grown aerobically was suggested to be line...

  8. Aerobic training in children with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nsenga, A L; Shephard, R J; Ahmaidi, S; Ahmadi, S

    2013-06-01

    Rehabilitation is a major goal for children with cerebral palsy, although the potential to enhance cardio-respiratory fitness in such individuals remains unclear. This study thus compared current cardio-respiratory status between children with cerebral palsy and able-bodied children, and examined the ability to enhance the cardio-respiratory fitness of children with cerebral palsy by cycle ergometer training. 10 children with cerebral palsy (Gross Motor Function Classification System levels I and II) participated in thrice-weekly 30 min cycle ergometer training sessions for 8 weeks (mean age: 14.2±1.9 yrs). 10 additional subjects with cerebral palsy (mean age: 14.2±1.8 yrs) and 10 able-bodied subjects (mean age: 14.1±2.1 yrs) served as controls, undertaking no training. All subjects undertook a progressive cycle ergometer test of cardio-respiratory fitness at the beginning and end of the 8-week period. Cardio-respiratory parameters [oxygen intake V˙O2), ventilation V ˙ E) and heart rate (HR)] during testing were measured by Cosmed K4 b gas analyzer. The children with cerebral palsy who engaged in aerobic training improved their peak oxygen consumption, heart rate and ventilation significantly (pchildren with cerebral palsy can benefit significantly from cardio-respiratory training, and such training should be included in rehabilitation programs.

  9. Personality, metabolic rate and aerobic capacity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Terracciano

    Full Text Available Personality traits and cardiorespiratory fitness in older adults are reliable predictors of health and longevity. We examined the association between personality traits and energy expenditure at rest (basal metabolic rate and during normal and maximal sustained walking. Personality traits and oxygen (VO(2 consumption were assessed in 642 participants from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging. Results indicate that personality traits were mostly unrelated to resting metabolic rate and energy expenditure at normal walking pace. However, those who scored lower on neuroticism (r = -0.12 and higher on extraversion (r = 0.11, openness (r = 0.13, and conscientiousness (r = 0.09 had significantly higher energy expenditure at peak walking pace. In addition to greater aerobic capacity, individuals with a more resilient personality profile walked faster and were more efficient in that they required less energy per meter walked. The associations between personality and energy expenditure were not moderated by age or sex, but were in part explained by the proportion of fat mass. In conclusion, differences in personality may matter the most during more challenging activities that require cardiorespiratory fitness. These findings suggest potential pathways that link personality to health outcomes, such as obesity and longevity.

  10. Aerobic nitroreduction of dehydrochloramphenicol by bone marrow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isildar, M; Abou-Khalil, W H; Jimenez, J J; Abou-Khalil, S; Yunis, A A

    1988-06-30

    It has been previously demonstrated that dehydrochloramphenicol (DH-CAP), a bacterial metabolite of chloramphenicol, induces DNA single strand breaks in intact cells and is profoundly more cytotoxic than chloramphenicol (CAP). In view of previous observations relating genotoxicity of nitrocompounds to their nitroreduction by the target tissue, we studied the nitroreduction of DH-CAP by human and rabbit bone marrow. Nitroreduction by tissue homogenates was determined by the Bratton Marshall colorimetric assay and by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Nitroreduction of DH-CAP by bone marrow cell homogenates was observed under aerobic conditions and the reduction was both cell concentration- and time-dependent. The formation of the amino product aminodehydrochloramphenicol was confirmed by HPLC. Reduction by other tissues including human liver, Raji cells, and HL-60 tumors was also observed. These results suggest that genotoxicity of DH-CAP may be related to its nitroreduction by the target tissue with in situ production of toxic intermediates. Together with previous studies, these observations lend support to the thesis that the p-NO2 group may be the structural feature underlying aplastic anemia from CAP.

  11. Dancing the aerobics ''hearing loss'' choreography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Beatriz M.; Carvalho, Antonio P. O.; Gallagher, Sergio

    2002-11-01

    This paper presents an overview of gymnasiums' acoustic problems when used for aerobics exercises classes (and similar) with loud noise levels of amplified music. This type of gymnasium is usually a highly reverberant space, which is a consequence of a large volume surrounded by hard surfaces. A sample of five schools in Portugal was chosen for this survey. Noise levels in each room were measured using a precision sound level meter, and analyzed to calculate the standardized daily personal noise exposure levels (LEP,d). LEP,d values from 79 to 91 dB(A) were found to be typical values in this type of room, inducing a health risk for its occupants. The reverberation time (RT) values were also measured and compared with some European legal requirements (Portugal, France, and Belgium) for nearly similar situations. RT values (1 kHz) from 0.9 s to 2.8 s were found. These reverberation time values clearly differentiate between good and acoustically inadequate rooms. Some noise level and RT limits for this type of environment are given and suggestions for the improvement of the acoustical environment are shown. Significant reductions in reverberation time values and noise levels can be obtained by simple measures.

  12. 24-weeks Pilates-aerobic and educative training to improve body fat mass in elderly Serbian women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruiz-Montero PJ

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pedro Jesús Ruiz-Montero,1 Alfonso Castillo-Rodriguez,2 Milena Mikalacki,3 Čokorilo Nebojsa,3 Darinka Korovljev31Department of Physical Education and Sport, Faculty of Physical Activity and Sport, University of Granada, Granada, Spain; 2Faculty of Sport, University of Pablo de Olavide, Seville, Spain; 3Faculty of Sport and Physical Education, University of Novi Sad, Novi Sad, SerbiaBackground: The purpose of this study was to examine the differences in anthropometric measurements using an aerobic and Pilates exercise program which lasted 24 weeks.Method: This was a clinical intervention study of 303 women over the age of 60 living in Novi Sad, Serbia. Changes in body mass index and skinfold thickness were estimated through height, weight, and anthropometric measurements. The program comprised Pilates exercises for upper- and lower-body strength, agility, and aerobic capacity.Results: Fat mass (FM improved significantly (pre-test, 32.89%, 8.65; post-test, 28.25%, 6.58; P<0.01. Bone diameters and muscle perimeters showed no significant changes pre- and post-test (P>0.05, but there was a higher correlation between FM (% and waist–hip ratio (rho, 0.80; P<0.01.Conclusion: A mixed program of aerobics and Pilates, controls and improves baseline muscle mass and decreases FM values, without causing deterioration during practice and follow-up exercises.Keywords: lean body mass, anthropometric measures, educative programA Letter to the Editor has been received and published for this article.

  13. Aerobic exercise training prevents heart failure-induced skeletal muscle atrophy by anti-catabolic, but not anabolic actions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo W A Souza

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Heart failure (HF is associated with cachexia and consequent exercise intolerance. Given the beneficial effects of aerobic exercise training (ET in HF, the aim of this study was to determine if the ET performed during the transition from cardiac dysfunction to HF would alter the expression of anabolic and catabolic factors, thus preventing skeletal muscle wasting. METHODS AND RESULTS: We employed ascending aortic stenosis (AS inducing HF in Wistar male rats. Controls were sham-operated animals. At 18 weeks after surgery, rats with cardiac dysfunction were randomized to 10 weeks of aerobic ET (AS-ET or to an untrained group (AS-UN. At 28 weeks, the AS-UN group presented HF signs in conjunction with high TNF-α serum levels; soleus and plantaris muscle atrophy; and an increase in the expression of TNF-α, NFκB (p65, MAFbx, MuRF1, FoxO1, and myostatin catabolic factors. However, in the AS-ET group, the deterioration of cardiac function was prevented, as well as muscle wasting, and the atrophy promoters were decreased. Interestingly, changes in anabolic factor expression (IGF-I, AKT, and mTOR were not observed. Nevertheless, in the plantaris muscle, ET maintained high PGC1α levels. CONCLUSIONS: Thus, the ET capability to attenuate cardiac function during the transition from cardiac dysfunction to HF was accompanied by a prevention of skeletal muscle atrophy that did not occur via an increase in anabolic factors, but through anti-catabolic activity, presumably caused by PGC1α action. These findings indicate the therapeutic potential of aerobic ET to block HF-induced muscle atrophy by counteracting the increased catabolic state.

  14. Energy efficient aerobic treatment of forest industry wastewaters; Energieffektiv aerob rening av skogsindustriella avloppsvatten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandberg, Maria; From-Aldaron, Mattias

    2011-01-15

    There is great potential to reduce energy requirements in aerobic biological purification if the oxygen demand can be reduced and oxygen delivery, when process water is aerated, is made more efficient. A model was developed to estimate the possible reduction in oxygen demand. Model variables were COD reduction, sludge withdrawal, oxygen, and alpha-value. Attempts made in an aerator in the lab-scale process shows that water content strongly affects oxygen transport and alpha-value. Surface active extract substances such as fatty acids and resin acids have greatest significance. The effect increases with the concentration of extract substances and decreases with added sodium chloride content

  15. Comparative study of deterioration forms on nearby granitic bridges from an urban setting in the NW Iberian Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozo-Antonio, J. S.; Pereira, M. F. C.; Rocha, C. S. A.; Puente, I.; Figueiredo, C.

    2016-12-01

    Stone coatings, biological colonization, efflorescence and detachments are frequent on granitic surfaces of our cultural heritage infrastructure. In order to find the different origins for each deterioration form, this paper studies and compares several coatings, efflorescence and flakes found on granitic surfaces of bridges from different ages built in the same area (Ourense in NW Iberian Peninsula at 90 km from the sea) under the same environmental and traffic conditions. The most recent bridge was the New Bridge built in the beginning of 20th century and the oldest one was the Roman Bridge with the 1st century AD foundations but its current structure was built in 17th century. The New Bridge has exhibited a greater variety of deterioration forms such as black crusts, carbonate crusts, efflorescence and biological colonization. On the Roman Bridge, black crusts, efflorescence to a greater extent, and flakes associated with salt crystallization processes have been identified. Scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy studies were carried out in order to establish their composition, and optical and electronic microscopies and X-ray microtomography were used to study their morphologies. As a result, anthropogenic factors (industrial activities, traffic pollution and fertilizers) are considered to be the main contributors to crusts, efflorescence and flake formation on both studied substrates (granite ashlars and mortars). To a lesser extent, natural factors (marine influence and bird droppings) should be taken into account.

  16. Analysis on Influence of Aerobic Exercise on Serum Contents of Thyroid Hormone (TH)and Dopamine (DA)in Anxious Rats%有氧运动对焦虑大鼠血清甲状腺激素(TH)、多巴胺(DA)的水平影响研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩继明; 杨玲

    2013-01-01

    目的:观察焦虑大鼠和有氧运动焦虑大鼠血清甲状腺激素(TH)、多巴胺(DA)的含量的变化.方法:清洁级SD雄性大鼠60只随机分成3组,即:A组自然对照组(national control group)(n=20),B组基础对照组(Foundation control group)(n=20),C组有氧运动组(aerobic exercise group)(n=20).用昼夜颠倒的方法制焦虑大鼠模型.将B组、C组40只大鼠白天置于黑暗密闭空间,晚上用灯管照明,共持续14 d.自然对照组和基础对照组:40只大鼠每天自由饮食.有氧运动组:让焦虑模型大鼠20只每周1、3、5进行持续1h的动物跑台跑步训练,共持续6周.结果:有氧运动组大鼠与基础对照组相比,大鼠血清甲状腺激素(TH)、多巴胺(DA)的含量明显低于基础对照组(P<0.01);有氧运动组大鼠与自然对照组相比,大鼠血清甲状腺激素(TH)、多巴胺(DA)的含量低于自然对照组(P<0.05);自然对照组与基础对照组比较:大鼠血清甲状腺激素(TH)、多巴胺(DA)的含量明显低于基础对照组(P<0.01).结论:适宜的有氧运动可以缓解大鼠的焦虑程度,降低焦虑大鼠血清甲状腺激素(TH)、多巴胺(DA)的水平,是一种有效地缓解焦虑的方法,值得广泛推广.%Objective : To observe the content changes in serum of thyroid hormone ( TH ) and dopamine ( DA ) of anxious rats and aerobic exercise anxious rats. Method: 60 clean level SD male rats were randomly divided into 3 groups: group A natural control group ( n=20 ), group B foundation control group ( n=20 ), group C aerobic exercise group ( n=20 ). 40 rats in group B and C were in the darkness during the day and at night given light tube lighting, lasting for 14 days. In the nature and foundation control groups: 40 rats fed freely every day. Aerobic exercise group: rats were forced to do a training run for 1 hour on Monday, Wednesday and Friday in every week, lasting for six weeks. Results: Compared with controls, thyroid hormone ( TH ) and dopamine

  17. Early warning scores: a sign of deterioration in patients and systems

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Fox, A

    2015-02-01

    The early warning score is a decision-making tool that has a simple design, yet its implementation in healthcare organisations is proving complex. This article reports the results of a survey that evaluated the nurses’ experiences of using the NEWS (National Early Warning Score) in an acute hospital in Ireland. Staff reported that the NEWS was easy to use, did not increase workload and enhanced their ability to identify deteriorating patients. However, they also identified problems related to doctors’ delayed response times, doctors lack of training in the use of the tool, and a failure by doctors to modify parameters for patients with chronic conditions. NEWS enhances nurses’ role in early detection of patient deterioration but delays in response times by doctors, exposes systematic flaws in healthcare. This suggests that it is not only an indicator of patient deterioration but also of deteriorating healthcare systems.

  18. A comprehensive oral and dental management of an epileptic and intellectually deteriorated adolescent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sourabh Ramesh Joshi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Epilepsy along with intellectual deterioration and other neurological disorders can have social, physical, and psychological consequences, especially, when they begin in childhood. Moreover, the seizure episode along with mental deterioration may compromise the oral and dental care resulting in numerous decayed teeth. This report presents the case history of an adolescent with poor oral hygiene and numerous decayed teeth. This report also presents the comprehensive endodontic, surgical, and prosthodontic management of epileptic mentally challenged patient in the dental office. Epilepsy along with intellectual deterioration and other neurological disorders can have social, physical, and psychological consequences, especially, when they begin in childhood. Moreover, the seizure episode along with mental deterioration may compromise the oral and dental care resulting in numerous decayed teeth. This report presents the case history of an adolescent with poor oral hygiene and numerous decayed teeth. This report also presents the comprehensive endodontic, surgical, and prosthodontic management of epileptic mentally challenged patient in the dental office.

  19. A comprehensive oral and dental management of an epileptic and intellectually deteriorated adolescent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Sourabh Ramesh; Pendyala, Gowri Swaminatham; Saraf, Veena; Choudhari, Shantanu; Mopagar, Viddyasagar

    2013-07-01

    Epilepsy along with intellectual deterioration and other neurological disorders can have social, physical, and psychological consequences, especially, when they begin in childhood. Moreover, the seizure episode along with mental deterioration may compromise the oral and dental care resulting in numerous decayed teeth. This report presents the case history of an adolescent with poor oral hygiene and numerous decayed teeth. This report also presents the comprehensive endodontic, surgical, and prosthodontic management of epileptic mentally challenged patient in the dental office. Epilepsy along with intellectual deterioration and other neurological disorders can have social, physical, and psychological consequences, especially, when they begin in childhood. Moreover, the seizure episode along with mental deterioration may compromise the oral and dental care resulting in numerous decayed teeth. This report presents the case history of an adolescent with poor oral hygiene and numerous decayed teeth. This report also presents the comprehensive endodontic, surgical, and prosthodontic management of epileptic mentally challenged patient in the dental office.

  20. Online maintenance policy for a deteriorating system with random change of mode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saassouh, B. [Laboratoire de Modelisation et Surete des Systemes, Institut Charles Delaunay-FRE CNRS 2848, Universite de Technologie de Troyes, 12, rue Marie Curie-BP 2060, 10010 Troyes Cedex (France); Dieulle, L. [Laboratoire de Modelisation et Surete des Systemes, Institut Charles Delaunay-FRE CNRS 2848, Universite de Technologie de Troyes, 12, rue Marie Curie-BP 2060, 10010 Troyes Cedex (France); Grall, A. [Laboratoire de Modelisation et Surete des Systemes, Institut Charles Delaunay-FRE CNRS 2848, Universite de Technologie de Troyes, 12, rue Marie Curie-BP 2060, 10010 Troyes Cedex (France)]. E-mail: antoine.grall@utt.fr

    2007-12-15

    Most of maintenance policies proposed in the literature for gradually deteriorating systems, consider a stationary deterioration process. This paper is an attempt to take into account stochastically deteriorating systems which are subject to a sudden change in their degradation process. A technical device subject to gradual degradation is considered. It is assumed that the level of degradation can be resumed by a single scalar variable. An online maintenance decision rule is proposed, which makes it possible to take into account in real time the online information available on the operating mode of the system as well as its actual deterioration level. We show the efficiency of considering online decision rules for maintenance with respect to traditional maintenance policies based on a static alarm threshold. Numerical simulations are given, to assess and optimize the performance of the maintained system from its asymptotic unavailability point of view. It is compared to the results obtained with classical control-limit maintenance policies.

  1. Single-machine group scheduling problems with deteriorating and learning effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xingong, Zhang; Yong, Wang; Shikun, Bai

    2016-07-01

    The concepts of deteriorating jobs and learning effects have been individually studied in many scheduling problems. However, most studies considering the deteriorating and learning effects ignore the fact that production efficiency can be increased by grouping various parts and products with similar designs and/or production processes. This phenomenon is known as 'group technology' in the literature. In this paper, a new group scheduling model with deteriorating and learning effects is proposed, where learning effect depends not only on job position, but also on the position of the corresponding job group; deteriorating effect depends on its starting time of the job. This paper shows that the makespan and the total completion time problems remain polynomial optimal solvable under the proposed model. In addition, a polynomial optimal solution is also presented to minimise the maximum lateness problem under certain agreeable restriction.

  2. Forced Aerobic Exercise Preceding Task Practice Improves Motor Recovery Poststroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenfeldt, Anson B.; Dey, Tanujit; Alberts, Jay L.

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. To understand how two types of aerobic exercise affect upper-extremity motor recovery post-stroke. Our aims were to (1) evaluate the feasibility of having people who had a stroke complete an aerobic exercise intervention and (2) determine whether forced or voluntary exercise differentially facilitates upper-extremity recovery when paired with task practice. METHOD. Seventeen participants with chronic stroke completed twenty-four 90-min sessions over 8 wk. Aerobic exercise was immediately followed by task practice. Participants were randomized to forced or voluntary aerobic exercise groups or to task practice only. RESULTS. Improvement on the Fugl-Meyer Assessment exceeded the minimal clinically important difference: 12.3, 4.8, and 4.4 for the forced exercise, voluntary exercise, and repetitive task practice–only groups, respectively. Only the forced exercise group exhibited a statistically significant improvement. CONCLUSION. People with chronic stroke can safely complete intensive aerobic exercise. Forced aerobic exercise may be optimal in facilitating motor recovery associated with task practice. PMID:28218596

  3. Formation, characterization and mathematical modeling of the aerobic granular sludge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ni, Bing-Jie [Queensland Univ., Brisbane, QLD (Australia). Advanced Water Management Centre

    2013-07-01

    Reports on successful aerobic granulation of sludge in pilot-scale reactor for treatment of low-strength municipal wastewater and identifies the key factors responsible for this process. Develops comprehensive models for sludge granulation, microbial interactions and microbial products formation to provide insights into the dynamics of all the soluble and solid components in aerobic granular sludge system. Demonstrates accelerated start-up and optimization of the anaerobic ammonia oxidation process by seeding the reactor with aerobic granules. Aerobic granular sludge technology will play an important role as an innovative technology alternative to the present activated sludge process in industrial and municipal wastewater treatment in the near future. Intended to fill the gaps in the studies of aerobic granular sludge, this thesis comprehensively investigates the formation, characterization and mathematical modeling of aerobic granular sludge, through integrating the process engineering tools and advanced molecular microbiology. The research results of this thesis contributed significantly to the advance of understanding and optimization of the bacterial granulation processes, the next generation of technology for cost-effective biological wastewater treatment.

  4. Vyučovací jednotky tance a tanečního aerobiku: Jak role žáka ovlivňuje pohybovou aktivitu dívek ve vyučovacím procesu Dance and aerobic dance in physical education lessons: The influence of the student's role on physical activity in girls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gareth Stratton

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Hlavním cílem školní tělesné výchovy je podporovat celoživotní pohybovou aktivitu (PA a zvyšovat pohybovou gramotnost dětí. Edukační proces je v tělesné výchově (TV naplňován pohybově aktivním zapojením žáků, a proto by měla být převážná část jednotek TV trávena aktivní pohybovou činností s odpovídajícím tělesným zatížením. Cílem této studie je zjistit, zda tělesné zatížení v jednotkách tance a aerobiku splňuje doporučení strávit alespoň 50 % času pohybovou aktivitou střední a vysoké intenzity (USDHHS, 2000 a zda role žáka v edukačním procesu ovlivňuje pohybovou aktivitu dívek. 241 děvčat absolvovalo program tvořený tradičními a progresivními vyučovacími jednotkami tance a aerobiku. Srdeční frekvence děvčat byla v průběhu vyučovacích jednotek monitorována systémem Team Polar. Děvčata trávila více než 50 % času pohybovou aktivitou střední a vysoké intenzity v tradičních i progresivních vyučovacích jednotkách tance i aerobiku. Výsledky této studie potvrzují, že zvýšená role žáka napomáhá plnit cíle TV, jako například odpovědnost za vlastní rozhodování a tvořivost, aniž by docházelo ke snižování pohybové aktivity ve vyučovacích jednotkách. The primary aim of physical education (PE is to promote lifelong physical activity (PA and to promote physical literacy in children. During classes children should learn through participation in physical activities and thus physical education lessons should be as active as possible. The aims of this study were firstly to compare physical load in dance and aerobic dance lessons to the recommendation of the minimum of 50% of class time being physically active (USDHHS, 2000 and secondly to identify how the students’ role in the educational process affects their engagement in PA. Two hundred and forty one girls completed the full program of dance and aerobic dance lessons. Heart rate

  5. A joint fatigue - creep deterioration model for masonry with acoustic emission based damage assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Tomor, Adrienn K.; Verstrynge, Els

    2013-01-01

    The paper investigates the long-term fatigue and creep deterioration processes in historical brick masonry. Based on two independent laboratory test series, the relationship between stress level and life expectancy was considered for fatigue and creep loading in the form of SN type models. The process of deterioration was investigated with the help of acoustic emission technique to identify stages and characteristics of the damage accumulation process. Based on the test data and acoustic emis...

  6. A comprehensive oral and dental management of an epileptic and intellectually deteriorated adolescent

    OpenAIRE

    Sourabh Ramesh Joshi; Gowri Swaminatham Pendyala; Veena Saraf; Shantanu Choudhari; Viddyasagar Mopagar

    2013-01-01

    Epilepsy along with intellectual deterioration and other neurological disorders can have social, physical, and psychological consequences, especially, when they begin in childhood. Moreover, the seizure episode along with mental deterioration may compromise the oral and dental care resulting in numerous decayed teeth. This report presents the case history of an adolescent with poor oral hygiene and numerous decayed teeth. This report also presents the comprehensive endodontic, surgical, and p...

  7. Single-Machine Group Scheduling Problems with Deterioration to Minimize the Sum of Completion Times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong He

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider two single-machine group scheduling problems with deteriorating group setup and job processing times. That is, the job processing times and group setup times are linearly increasing (or decreasing functions of their starting times. Jobs in each group have the same deteriorating rate. The objective of scheduling problems is to minimize the sum of completion times. We show that the sum of completion times minimization problems remains polynomially solvable under the agreeable conditions.

  8. Transcriptional profiling of trait deterioration in the insect pathogenic nematode Heterorhabditis bacteriophora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shapiro-Ilan David I

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The success of a biological control agent depends on key traits, particularly reproductive potential, environmental tolerance, and ability to be cultured. These traits can deteriorate rapidly when the biological control agent is reared in culture. Trait deterioration under laboratory conditions has been widely documented in the entomopathogenic nematode (EPN Heterorhabditis bacteriophora (Hb but the specific mechanisms behind these genetic processes remain unclear. This research investigates the molecular mechanisms of trait deterioration of two experimental lines of Hb, an inbred line (L5M and its original parental line (OHB. We generated transcriptional profiles of two experimental lines of Hb, identified the differentially expressed genes (DEGs and validated their differential expression in the deteriorated line. Results An expression profiling study was performed between experimental lines L5M and OHB of Hb with probes for 15,220 ESTs from the Hb transcriptome. Microarray analysis showed 1,185 DEGs comprising of 469 down- and 716 up-regulated genes in trait deteriorated nematodes. Analysis of the DEGs showed that trait deterioration involves massive changes of the transcripts encoding enzymes involved in metabolism, signal transduction, virulence and longevity. We observed a pattern of reduced expression of enzymes related to primary metabolic processes and induced secondary metabolism. Expression of sixteen DEGs in trait deteriorated nematodes was validated by quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR which revealed similar expression kinetics for all the genes tested as shown by microarray. Conclusion As the most closely related major entomopathogen to C. elegans, Hb provides an attractive near-term application for using a model organism to better understand interspecies interactions and to enhance our understanding of the mechanisms underlying trait deterioration in biological control agents. This information

  9. Engineering aspects and time effects of rapid deterioration of sandstone in the tropical environment of Sabah, Malaysia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tating, Frederick; Hack, Robert; Jetten, Victor

    2013-01-01

    Cut slopes in rock masses start to deteriorate directly after excavation due to stress relief and weathering. The deterioration is a time dependent process that depends on the local climate and the rock mass including its history, and the environment. The amount of deterioration per time unit (‘the

  10. The Influence of Redundant Structural System Characteristics on the Value of SHM Information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thöns, Sebastian

    2015-01-01

    This paper addresses the influence of deteriorating structural system characteristics on the value of structural health monitoring (SHM) before its implementation. The value of SHM is quantified as the difference between the life cycle benefits with and without SHM for a structural system subjected...... to fatigue deterioration. The results indicate that the value of SHM is strongly influenced by the component reliability, comparably moderately by the resistance correlation and conditional moderately by the deterioration correlation between the structural components....

  11. Aerobic stability of sugar cane silages with a novel strain of Lactobacillus sp. isolated from sugar cane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Luiza da Silva Ávila

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to evaluate the effect of the addition of two Lactobacillus strains on the aerobic stability of the sugar cane (Saccharum spp. silages. The experiment was carried out in a completely randomized design with three replicates in split-plot in time scheme, so that the treatments (silages without inoculant and with novel strain or commercial inoculants were randomized on plot and in times of aerobic evaluation of the silages (zero, two, four, and six days after the opening of the silos as subplots. The loss of stability of silages was continuous during the time of aerobic exposure. Inoculants influenced the changes in populations of lactic acid bacteria and yeasts and in the ammoniacal nitrogen, acetic acid and ethanol concentrations. The dry matter, crude protein, soluble carbohydrates contents and pH values showed similar changes in all three silages studied. A linear increase in crude protein content and pH values and decrease in the soluble carbohydrates content were observed. The dry matter contents increased to a maximum of 335 g/kg on fresh matter at four days, followed by reduction after six days. The results showed that the use of inoculants is recommended because it promoted higher production of acetic and propionic acids, reducing the population of yeast and, therefore, improving the aerobic stability of silages.

  12. Hypertrophy-Promoting Effects of Leucine Supplementation and Moderate Intensity Aerobic Exercise in Pre-Senescent Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi Xia

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have indicated a positive influence of leucine supplementation and aerobic training on the aging skeletal muscle signaling pathways that control muscle protein balance and muscle remodeling. However, the effect of a combined intervention requires further clarification. Thirteen month old CD-1® mice were subjected to moderate aerobic exercise (45 min swimming per day with 3% body weight workload and fed a chow diet with 5% leucine or 3.4% alanine for 8 weeks. Serum and plasma were prepared for glucose, urea nitrogen, insulin and amino acid profile analysis. The white gastrocnemius muscles were used for determination of muscle size and signaling proteins involved in protein synthesis and degradation. The results show that both 8 weeks of leucine supplementation and aerobic training elevated the activity of mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin and its downstream target p70S6K and 4E-BP1, inhibited the ubiquitin-proteasome system, and increased fiber cross-sectional area (CSA in white gastrocnemius muscle. Moreover, leucine supplementation in combination with exercise demonstrated more significant effects, such as greater CSA, protein content and altered phosphorylation (suggestive of increased activity of protein synthesis signaling proteins, in addition to lower expression of proteins involved in protein degradation compared to leucine or exercise alone. The current study shows moderate aerobic training combined with 5% leucine supplementation has the potential to increase muscle size in fast-twitch skeletal muscle during aging, potentially through increased protein synthesis and decreased protein breakdown.

  13. Mineralization of 14C-ring Labelled 2,4-D in Egyptian Soils Under Aerobic and Anaerobic Conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Obiectives To study the mineralization of 2,4-D in clay and clay loam Egyptian soils under subtropical conditions over a period of 90 d. Methods Using 14C-ring labelled pesticide, laboratory studies under aerobic and anaerobic conditions were conducted. 14C-activity in solutions was directly determined by liquid scintillation counting. Unextractable soil residues were determined by combustion.The nature of methanolic 14C-residues was determined by thin layer and high performance liquid chromatographic analysis. Results Under aerobic conditions 10%-14% of applied dose was mineralized during 90 d irrespective of soil type. The soil extractable pesticide residues decreased with time and the bound residues gradually increased. The highest binding capacity of about 26%-29% was observed in clay soil under aerobic conditions after 90 d. A good balance sheet was obtained and the percentage recovery was generally between 91% and 100%. Conclusion The mineralization of 2,4-D in clay soil was higher than that in clay loam soil under anaerobic conditions.Under aerobic conditions, the soil type had no influence on mineralizaion capacity of 2,4-D during 90 d. The soil binding increased with time whereby the extractable 14C-residues simultaneously decreased.Chromatographic analysis of the methanol extractable 14C-residues of soils revealed the presence of 2,4-D as a main product together with 2,4-dichlorophenol.

  14. Comparison of Combined Aerobic and High-Force Eccentric Resistance Exercise With Aerobic Exercise Only for People With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    Marcus, Robin L.; Smith, Sheldon; Morrell, Glen; Addison, Odessa; Dibble, Leland E.; Wahoff-Stice, Donna; LaStayo, Paul C.

    2008-01-01

    Background and Purpose: The purpose of this study was to compare the outcomes between a diabetes exercise training program using combined aerobic and high-force eccentric resistance exercise and a program of aerobic exercise only.

  15. Comparison on aerobic stability between silage and usual TMRs%普通与发酵全混合日粮的好气安定性比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王福金; 西野直树; 王靖宇

    2011-01-01

    This experiment was designed to investigate advantages of aerobic stability between usual TMR and TMR silages. Four TMR were prepared with 3, 4, 5 and 6 ingredients in experiment 1 , and two TMR were prepared with 50% brewers grains or soybean curd residue in experiment 2 and four ensiling materials were prepared with brewers grains and soybean curd residue alone or in comhination with other feeds as TMR in experiment 3. The aerobic stabilities were compared between usual TMR ( stored for 0 day) and TMR silage ( stored for 14 or 56 days). The results indicated that the aerobic stability of TMR silage was higher than that of usual TMR, and the aerobic stabilities of TMR silages with ensiled for long ( stored for 56 days) were higher than that for short ( stored for 14 days) . The finding of our experiment suggested that the aerobic stability of TMR silages were better than usual TMR. In particular, the TMR silages were not easy to deteriorate above ensiled 56 days after exposure to air. This expcnment provided a basis for solving TMR deterioration prohlems in the production.%本试验旨在比较普通与发酵全混合日粮(TMR)的好气安定性的优劣.选用3~6种不同材料与啤酒糟调制成的4种TMR、含50%的啤酒糟和豆腐渣与其他材料调制的2种TMR、啤酒糟和豆腐渣的单独贮存及与其他材料调制的TMR等进行了3个试验,对普通TMR(贮存0 d)与发酵TMR(贮存14和56 d)的好气安定性进行了比较.结果显示:发酵TMR的好气安定性高于普通TMR,而且贮存时间长(56 d)的发酵TMR的好气安定性高于贮存时间短(14 d)的发酵TMR.提示发酵TMR的好气安定性较好,尤其发酵56 d以上的发酵TMR,开封后不易变坏,为实际生产中解决TMR变败问题提供了依据.

  16. An EOQ Model for Time Dependent Weibull Deterioration with Linear Demand and Shortages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umakanta Mishra

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background. The study of control and maintenance of production inventories of deteriorating items with and without shortages  has grown in its importance recently. The effect of deterioration is very important in many inventory systems. Deterioration is defined as decay or damage such that the item cannot be used for its original purpose. Methods: In this article order level inventory models have been developed for deteriorating items with linear demand and Weibull deterioration.  In developing the model we have assumed that the production rate and the demand rate are time dependent. The unit production cost is inversely proportional to demand. Inventory-production system has two parameters Weibull deterioration.  Results and conclusions:  Two models have been developed considering without shortage cases and with shortage case where the shortages are completely backlogged. The objective of the model is to develop an optimal policy that minimizes the total average cost. Sensitivity analysis has been carried out to show the effect of changes in the parameter on the optimum total average cost.  

  17. DIFFERENTIAL PATTERNS OF PREMORBID SOCIAL AND ACADEMIC DETERIORATION IN DEFICIT AND NONDEFICIT SCHIZOPHRENIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, Gregory P.; Allen, Daniel N.; Miski, Pinar; Buchanan, Robert W.; Kirkpatrick, Brian; Carpenter, William T.

    2011-01-01

    Numerous studies indicate that social dysfunction is associated with negative symptoms of schizophrenia during the chronic phase of illness. However, it is unclear whether social abnormalities exist during the premorbid phase in people who later develop schizophrenia with prominent negative symptoms, or whether social functioning becomes progressively worse in these individuals from childhood to late adolescence. The current study examined differences in academic and social premorbid functioning in people with schizophrenia meeting criteria for deficit (i.e., primary and enduring negative symptoms) (DS: n=74) and non-deficit forms of schizophrenia (ND: n=271). Premorbid social and academic functioning was assessed for childhood, early adolescence, and late adolescence developmental periods on the Premorbid Adjustment Scale (PAS). Results indicated that both DS and ND participants showed deterioration in social and academic functioning from childhood to late adolescence. However, while ND schizophrenia demonstrated greater deterioration of academic compared to social premorbid functioning from childhood to late adolescence, the DS group exhibited comparable deterioration across both premorbid domains, with more severe social deterioration than the ND group. Findings suggest that people with DS show poorer social premorbid adjustment than those with ND as early as childhood, and are particularly susceptible to accelerated deterioration as the onset of schizophrenia becomes imminent. Thus, poor premorbid social adjustment and significant social deterioration from childhood to adolescence may be a hallmark feature of people who later go on to develop prominent negative symptoms and a unique marker for the DS subtype of schizophrenia. PMID:22130110

  18. Differential patterns of premorbid social and academic deterioration in deficit and nondeficit schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, Gregory P; Allen, Daniel N; Miski, Pinar; Buchanan, Robert W; Kirkpatrick, Brian; Carpenter, William T

    2012-03-01

    Numerous studies indicate that social dysfunction is associated with negative symptoms of schizophrenia during the chronic phase of illness. However, it is unclear whether social abnormalities exist during the premorbid phase in people who later develop schizophrenia with prominent negative symptoms, or whether social functioning becomes progressively worse in these individuals from childhood to late adolescence. The current study examined differences in academic and social premorbid functioning in people with schizophrenia meeting criteria for deficit (i.e., primary and enduring negative symptoms) (DS: n = 74) and non-deficit forms of schizophrenia (ND: n = 271). Premorbid social and academic functioning was assessed for childhood, early adolescence, and late adolescence developmental periods on the Premorbid Adjustment Scale (PAS). Results indicated that both DS and ND participants showed deterioration in social and academic functioning from childhood to late adolescence. However, while ND schizophrenia demonstrated greater deterioration of academic compared to social premorbid functioning from childhood to late adolescence, the DS group exhibited comparable deterioration across both premorbid domains, with more severe social deterioration than the ND group. Findings suggest that people with DS show poorer social premorbid adjustment than those with ND as early as childhood, and are particularly susceptible to accelerated deterioration as the onset of schizophrenia becomes imminent. Thus, poor premorbid social adjustment and significant social deterioration from childhood to adolescence may be a hallmark feature of people who later go on to develop prominent negative symptoms and a unique marker for the DS subtype of schizophrenia.

  19. A simulation study of turbofan engine deterioration estimation using Kalman filtering techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Heather H.

    1991-01-01

    Deterioration of engine components may cause off-normal engine operation. The result is an unecessary loss of performance, because the fixed schedules are designed to accommodate a wide range of engine health. These fixed control schedules may not be optimal for a deteriorated engine. This problem may be solved by including a measure of deterioration in determining the control variables. These engine deterioration parameters usually cannot be measured directly but can be estimated. A Kalman filter design is presented for estimating two performance parameters that account for engine deterioration: high and low pressure turbine delta efficiencies. The delta efficiency parameters model variations of the high and low pressure turbine efficiencies from nominal values. The filter has a design condition of Mach 0.90, 30,000 ft altitude, and 47 deg power level angle (PLA). It was evaluated using a nonlinear simulation of the F100 engine model derivative (EMD) engine, at the design Mach number and altitude over a PLA range of 43 to 55 deg. It was found that known high pressure turbine delta efficiencies of -2.5 percent and low pressure turbine delta efficiencies of -1.0 percent can be estimated with an accuracy of + or - 0.25 percent efficiency with a Kalman filter. If both the high and low pressure turbine are deteriorated, the delta efficiencies of -2.5 percent to both turbines can be estimated with the same accuracy.

  20. Formation and functions of aerobic microbial granula; Entstehung und Funktionen aerober mikrobieller Granula

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Etterer, T.; Wilderer, P.A. [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Garching (Germany). Lehrstuhl und Pruefamt fuer Wasserguete- und Abfallwirtschaft

    1999-07-01

    The present project investigates the phenomenon of the formation of aerobic microbial granula and their properties. To generate granula, sequencing batch reactors fed in batches were used. As shown by microbiological assays, fungi played an above-average role in granula formation and build-up. In first degradation experiments, furthermore, chemical oxygen demand (COD) could be reduced by over 90 %. The determination yielded comparable values to activated sludge, standing on average at 1.044g/ml. (orig.) [German] Im Rahmen des hier vorgestellten Projekts wurde das Phaenomen der Bildung aerober mikrobieller Granula sowie deren Eigenschaften untersucht. Zur Erzeugung von Granula wurden schubweise beschickte Reaktoren, sogenannte Sequencing-Batch-Reaktoren (SBR) verwendet. Wie mikrobiologische Untersuchungen zeigten spielen Pilze bei der Entstehung und beim Aufbau eine ueberdurchschnittliche Rolle. Des weiteren konnte in ersten Abbauversuchen der chemische Sauerstoff-Bedarf (CSB) um ueber 90% gesenkt werden. Die Dichtebestimmung ergab vergleichbare Werte zu Belebtschlamm und zwar im Durchschnitt 1,044 g/ml. (orig.)

  1. Enhanced selection of micro-aerobic pentachlorophenol degrading granular sludge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lv, Yuancai, E-mail: donkey1204@hotmail.com [State Key Laboratory of Pulp and Paper Engineering, College of Light Industry and Food Science, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Chen, Yuancai, E-mail: chenyc@scut.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Pulp and Paper Engineering, College of Light Industry and Food Science, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Ecological Remediation for Industrial Agglomeration Area, College of Environment and Energy, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Song, Wenzhe, E-mail: songwenzhe007@126.com [Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Ecological Remediation for Industrial Agglomeration Area, College of Environment and Energy, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Hu, Yongyou, E-mail: ppyyhu@scut.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Pulp and Paper Engineering, College of Light Industry and Food Science, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Ecological Remediation for Industrial Agglomeration Area, College of Environment and Energy, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006 (China)

    2014-09-15

    Graphical abstract: In this work, an aerobic column reactor was placed before the USB to maintain micro-oxygen condition in the reactor and the micro-aerobic pentachlorophenol (PCP) degrading granular sludge under oxygen-limited conditions (0.1–0.2 mg L{sup −1}) was successfully obtained. PCP degradation by the micro-aerobic system was studied and the variance of microbial community was also discussed by using PCR-DGGE analysis. - Highlights: • Micro-aerobic granular sludge was cultivated in column-type combined reactors. • PCP biodegradation, VFA accumulation and biogas production were studied. • The function of Methanogenic archaeon in the system was investigated. • Fluctuation and diversity of microbial community were discussed by DGGE analysis. • The dominated microorganisms were identified by 16S rDNA sequences. - Abstract: Column-type combined reactors were designed to cultivate micro-aerobic pentachlorophenol (PCP) degrading granular sludge under oxygen-limited conditions (0.1–0.2 mg L{sup −1}) over 39-day experimental period. Micro-aerobic granular had both anaerobic activity (SMA: 2.34 mMCH{sub 4}/h g VSS) and aerobic activity (SOUR: 2.21 mMO{sub 2}/h g VSS). Metabolite analysis results revealed that PCP was sequentially dechlorinated to TCP, DCP, and eventually to MCP. Methanogens were not directly involved in the dechlorination of PCP, but might played a vital role in stabilizing the overall structure of the granule sludge. For Eubacteria, the Shannon Index (2.09 in inoculated granular sludge) increased both in micro-aerobic granular sludge (2.61) and PCP-degradation granular sludge (2.55). However, for Archaea, it decreased from 2.53 to 1.85 and 1.84, respectively. Although the Shannon Index demonstrated slight difference between micro-aerobic granular sludge and PCP-degradation granular sludge, the Principal Component Analysis (PCA) indicated obvious variance of the microbial composition, revealing significant effect of micro-aerobic

  2. Percentile values for aerobic performance running/walking field tests in children aged 6 to 17 years: influence of weight status Valores de percentiles de los tests de campo de capacidad aeróbica en niños de 6 a 17 años: influencia del peso corporal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Castro-Piñero

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to provide percentiles values for four different aerobic performance tests in 2752 (1,261 girls Spanish children aged 6 to 17.9 years. Aerobic performance was assessed by the shuttle run test (20mSRT, 1-mile, 1/2-mile and 1/4-mile run/walk tests. Height and weight were measured, and body mass index was calculated. Boys had significantly better score than girls in the studied tests in all age groups, except in 1/4-mile test in 6-7 year old children. Underweight children had similar performance than their normalweight counterparts, and underweight boys had better performance than their obese counterparts. Overweight and obese children had lower performance than their normalweight counterparts. Having percentile values of the most used field tests to measure aerobic performance in youth may help to identify children and adolescents at risk for the major chronic diseases, as well as to evaluate the effects of alternative interventions.El propósito de este estudio fue proporcionar los valores de percentiles para cuatro pruebas de rendimiento aeróbico en 2752 (1261 chicas niños españoles con edades de 6 a 17,9 años. El rendimiento aeróbico se evalúo mediante la carrera durante 20 minutos (20mSRT, y las pruebas de correr / caminar 1 milla, ½ milla y ¼ de milla. Se midieron el peso y la talla y se calculó el índice de masa corporal. Los chicos tuvieron puntuaciones significativamente mejores que las chicas en las pruebas evaluadas y para todos los grupos de edad, excepto en la prueba de ¼ de milla en el grupo de 6-7 años. Los niños con peso bajo mostraron un rendimiento similar a sus homólogos con peso normal y los primeros tuvieron un rendimiento mejor que sus homólogos obesos. Los niños obesos y con sobrepeso tuvieron un menor rendimiento que sus homólogos con peso normal. El disponer de valores de percentiles para las pruebas empleadas más habitualmente para evaluar el rendimiento aeróbico en los j

  3. Prognosis and risk factors for deterioration in patients admitted to a medical emergency department.

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    Daniel Pilsgaard Henriksen

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Patients that initially appear stable on arrival to the hospital often have less intensive monitoring of their vital signs, possibly leading to excess mortality. The aim was to describe risk factors for deterioration in vital signs and the related prognosis among patients with normal vital signs at arrival to a medical emergency department (MED. DESIGN AND SETTING: Single-centre, retrospective cohort study of all patients admitted to the MED from September 2010-August 2011. SUBJECTS: Patients were included when their vital signs (systolic blood pressure, pulse rate, respiratory rate, Glasgow Coma Scale, oxygen saturation and temperature were within the normal range at arrival. Deterioration was defined as a deviation from the defined normal range 2-24 hours after arrival. RESULTS: 4292 of the 6257 (68.6% admitted to the MED had a full set of vital signs at first presentation, 1440/4292 (33.6% had all normal vital signs and were included in study, 44.0% were male, median age 64 years (5th/95th percentile: 21-90 years and 446/1440 (31.0% deteriorated within 24 hours. Independent risk factors for deterioration included age 65-84 years odds ratio (OR: 1.79 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.27-2.52, 85+ years OR 1.67 (95% CI: 1.10-2.55, Do-not-attempt-to-resuscitate order OR 3.76 (95% CI: 1.37-10.31 and admission from the open general ED OR 1.35 (95% CI: 1.07-1.71. Thirty-day mortality was 7.9% (95% CI: 5.5-10.7% among deteriorating patients and 1.9% (95% CI: 1.2-3.0% among the non-deteriorating, hazard ratio 4.11 (95% CI: 2.38-7.10. CONCLUSIONS: Among acutely admitted medical patients who arrive with normal vital signs, 31.0% showed signs of deterioration within 24 hours. Risk factors included old age, Do-not-attempt-to-resuscitate order, admission from the open general ED. Thirty-day mortality among patients with deterioration was four times higher than among non-deteriorating patients. Further research is needed to determine whether

  4. An Inventory Model for Two Warehouses with Constant Deterioration and Quadratic Demand Rate under Inflation and Permissible Delay in Payments

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    U. B. Gothi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we have analysed a two-warehouse inventory model for deteriorating items with quadratic demand with time varying holding cost. The effect of permissible delay in payments is also considered, which is usual practice in most of the businesses i.e. purchasers are allowed a period to pay back for the goods brought without paying any interest. To make it more suitable to the present environment the effect of inflation is also considered. Our objective is to minimize the average total cost per time unit under the influence of inflation. Numerical examples are provided to illustrate the model and sensitivity analysis is also carried out for the parameters

  5. Evaluating the impact of different exogenous factors on silk textiles deterioration with use of size exclusion chromatography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawcenis, Dominika; Smoleń, Mariusz; Aksamit-Koperska, Monika A.; Łojewski, Tomasz; Łojewska, Joanna

    2016-06-01

    Size exclusion chromatography (SEC), especially coupled with multiple angle laser light scattering detector (MALLS) is a powerful tool in diagnostics of deterioration of historic and art objects to evaluate their condition. In this paper, SEC-UV-MALLS-DRI technique was applied to study degradation of silk fibroin samples ( Bombyx mori) artificially aged under various conditions: in the presence of oxygen, in different amount of water vapour and in volatile organic products (VOCs), all at temperature of 90 °C. Conditions were chosen in such a way that it mimicked real conditions of textiles' storing during exhibitions and in show cases. The influence of temperature, moisture and VOCs content on the state of silk textiles was examined with the use of size exclusion chromatography. Pseudo-zero-order Ekenstam equation was applied to study degradation rates of fibroin with use of the approximated values of DP of fibroin.

  6. Aerobic degradation and photolysis of tylosin in water and soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Dingfei; Coats, Joel R

    2007-05-01

    Veterinary antibiotics enter the environment through the application of organic fertilizers to cropland. In this study, the aerobic degradation of tylosin, a widely used antibiotic in the production of livestock and poultry, was conducted in water and in soil in an effort to further investigate its environmental fate. Tylosin is a macrolide antibiotic, which consists of four factors (A, B, C, D). Water and soil were sampled at selected times and analyzed for tylosin and its degradation products by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), with product identification confirmed by HPLC-mass spectrometry. Tylosin A is degraded with a half-life of 200 d in the light in water, and the total loss of tylosin A in the dark is 6% of the initial spiked amount during the experimental period. Tylosin C and D are relatively stable except in ultrapure water in the light. Slight increases of tylosin B after two months and formation of two photoreaction isomers of tylosin A were observed under exposure to light. However, tylosin probably would degrade faster if the experimental containers did not prevent ultraviolet transmission. In soil, tylosin A has a dissipation half-life of 7 d, and tylosin D is slightly more stable, with a dissipation half-life of 8 d in unsterilized and sterilized soil. Sorption and abiotic degradation are the major factors influencing the loss of tylosin in the environment, and no biotic degradation was observed at the test concentration either in pond water or in an agronomic soil, as determined by comparing dissipation profiles in sterilized and unsterilized conditions.

  7. Marble Deterioration and Climate: Examples from the Schlossbrücke Berlin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirskawetz, S.; Siegesmund, S.; Weise, F.; Rieffel, Y.; Plagge, R.

    2012-04-01

    Protective structures for works of art or antique artefacts have a long architectural tradition and have been known in Germany since the 19th century. The effect of such covers on the microclimate around artworks of natural stone, and hence, their protective capability are insufficiently documented and understood. In 2007, an inter-disciplinary model project and part of a pilot study coordinated by the Berlin State Office for the Protection of Monuments was planned with the aim of developing an innovative winter covering system for marble statuaries located on the Schlossbrücke in Berlin. Such a system would need to fulfil the various requirements for structural stability, aesthetics, climate and practical use. This applied research represents the first complex scientific study of the sustainability of a winter covering system. A climate monitoring system was designed to create a dense database for the numerical prediction of the effect of protective systems, and to compare the given climate conditions to the known factors influencing the marble deterioration. Based on these findings a prototype of an innovative shelter was designed and tested. The project shows, that beside a temporary covering regular inspection and maintenance combined with regular cleaning ensures an effective and sustainable protection of marble sculptures. Such a maintenance program is the precondition for preserving the sculptures of the Schlossbrücke as a historical ensemble. Important scientific results of the project are transferable to similar objects of Carrara marble. The results throw a new light on the conventional protection of such objects and leads to a discussion on the necessity of an all-season protection.

  8. Microwave microstrip resonators tuning without quality factor deterioration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Y. Serhienko

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Stub and ring resonators with resonance frequency micromechanical tuning are presented. Benefits and main differences of micromechanical resonance frequency tuning method from other methods are shown. Normalized dependences of effective permittivity on normalized air gap values for various microstrip line electrode width to substrate height ratios are obtained. Effective permittivity analytical formulas for the case of infinitely wide electrodes are derived. Calculated and experimental dependences of resonance frequency on air gap value and stub experimental unloaded quality factor dependences are given. Air gap influence on resonance frequency value depending on substrate permittivity is shown in terms of the resonance frequency sensitivity. Error estimation for measured experimental data is presented. Adding tunable heterogeneity between the microstrip resonator signal electrode and the substrate provides not only the resonance frequency tuning but preserves unloaded quality factor. The preservation of the unloaded quality factor during the resonance frequency tuning achieved due to the metal and dielectric loss reduction. Air gap doesn’t have dissipative losses and has permittivity of one, which makes it the best solution for unloaded quality factor preservation. Another important conclusion is that insertion of the air heterogeneity reduces values of dielectric and metal losses arising when substrates with high permittivity are used. For dielectric loss reduction, it is important to maintain low ratio of microstrip line width to substrate height. In contrast to dielectric losses for metal loss reduction the ratio of microstrip line width to substrate height should be high. However, that ratio is limited by impedance permissible range.

  9. A review of patients who suddenly deteriorate in the presence of paramedics

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    Archer Frank

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The report of the Ministerial Review of Trauma and Emergency Services in Victoria, Australia, recommended that paramedics be permitted to divert to the closest hospital in incidences of life threatening situations prior to and during transport. An audit of patients that suddenly deteriorated in paramedic care was recommended by the Ministerial Review. The objective of the study was to identify the number and outcome of patients who suddenly deteriorated in the presence of paramedics. Methods A retrospective cohort study of trauma patients who suddenly deteriorated in the presence of paramedics during 2002. As there was no standard definition, sudden deterioration was defined using a predetermined set of physiological criteria. Patient care record data of patients who suddenly deteriorated were compared with the State Trauma Registry to determine those who sustained hospital defined major trauma. Patient care records where hospital bypass was undertaken were identified and analysed. Ethics committee approval was obtained. Results There were 2,893 patients that suddenly deteriorated according to predefined criteria. 2,687 (5.1% of the total trauma patients for 2002 were suitable for further analysis. The majority of patients had a sudden decrease in BP (n = 2,463 with 4.3% having hospital defined major trauma. For patients with a sudden decrease in conscious state or a total GCS score of less than 13 (n = 77, 37.7% had hospital defined major trauma; and a sudden increase/decrease in pulse rate and sudden decrease in BP (n = 65, 26.2% had hospital defined major trauma. Only 28 documented incidents of hospital bypass were identified. Conclusion This study suggests that the incidents of patients suddenly deteriorating in the presence of paramedics are low and the incidence of hospital bypass is not well documented.

  10. The Effect of an Acute Bout of Moderate-Intensity Aerobic Exercise on Motor Learning of a Continuous Tracking Task.

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    Nicholas J Snow

    Full Text Available There is evidence for beneficial effects of acute and long-term exercise interventions on several forms of memory, including procedural motor learning. In the present study we examined how performing a single bout of continuous moderate intensity aerobic exercise would impact motor skill acquisition and retention in young healthy adults, compared to a period of rest. We hypothesized that exercise would improve motor skill acquisition and retention, compared to motor practice alone.Sixteen healthy adults completed sessions of aerobic exercise or seated rest that were immediately followed by practice of a novel motor task (practice. Exercise consisted of 30 minutes of continuous cycling at 60% peak O2 uptake. Twenty-four hours after practice, we assessed motor learning with a no-exercise retention test (retention. We also quantified changes in offline motor memory consolidation, which occurred between practice and retention (offline. Tracking error was separated into indices of temporal precision and spatial accuracy.There were no differences between conditions in the timing of movements during practice (p = 0.066, at retention (p = 0.761, or offline (p = 0.966. However, the exercise condition enabled participants to maintain spatial accuracy during practice (p = 0.477; whereas, following rest performance diminished (p = 0.050. There were no significant differences between conditions at retention (p = 0.532 or offline (p = 0.246.An acute bout of moderate-intensity aerobic exercise facilitated the maintenance of motor performance during skill acquisition, but did not influence motor learning. Given past work showing that pairing high intensity exercise with skilled motor practice benefits learning, it seems plausible that intensity is a key modulator of the effects of acute aerobic exercise on changes in complex motor behavior. Further work is necessary to establish a dose-response relationship between aerobic exercise and motor learning.

  11. Microbiology and potential applications of aerobic methane oxidation coupled to denitrification (AME-D) process: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jing; Wang, Qian; Yuan, Mengdong; Tan, Giin-Yu Amy; Sun, Faqian; Wang, Cheng; Wu, Weixiang; Lee, Po-Heng

    2016-03-01

    Aerobic methane oxidation coupled to denitrification (AME-D) is an important link between the global methane and nitrogen cycles. This mini-review updates discoveries regarding aerobic methanotrophs and denitrifiers, as a prelude to spotlight the microbial mechanism and the potential applications of AME-D. Until recently, AME-D was thought to be accomplished by a microbial consortium where denitrifying bacteria utilize carbon intermediates, which are excreted by aerobic methanotrophs, as energy and carbon sources. Potential carbon intermediates include methanol, citrate and acetate. This mini-review presents microbial thermodynamic estimations and postulates that methanol is the ideal electron donor for denitrification, and may serve as a trophic link between methanotrophic bacteria and denitrifiers. More excitingly, new discoveries have revealed that AME-D is not only confined to the conventional synergism between methanotrophic bacteria and denitrifiers. Specifically, an obligate aerobic methanotrophic bacterium, Methylomonas denitrificans FJG1, has been demonstrated to couple partial denitrification with methane oxidation, under hypoxia conditions, releasing nitrous oxide as a terminal product. This finding not only substantially advances the understanding of AME-D mechanism, but also implies an important but unknown role of aerobic methanotrophs in global climate change through their influence on both the methane and nitrogen cycles in ecosystems. Hence, further investigation on AME-D microbiology and mechanism is essential to better understand global climate issues and to develop niche biotechnological solutions. This mini-review also presents traditional microbial techniques, such as pure cultivation and stable isotope probing, and powerful microbial techniques, such as (meta-) genomics and (meta-) transcriptomics, for deciphering linked methane oxidation and denitrification. Although AME-D has immense potential for nitrogen removal from wastewater, drinking

  12. Effects of body fat and dominant somatotype on explosive strength and aerobic capacity trainability in prepubescent children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marta, Carlos C; Marinho, Daniel A; Barbosa, Tiago M; Carneiro, André L; Izquierdo, Mikel; Marques, Mário C

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the influence of body fat and somatotype on explosive strength and aerobic capacity trainability in the prepubertal growth spurt, marked by rapid changes in body size, shape, and composition, all of which are sexually dimorphic. One hundred twenty-five healthy children (58 boys, 67 girls), aged 10-11 years (10.8 ± 0.4 years), who were self-assessed in Tanner stages 1-2, were randomly assigned into 2 experimental groups to train twice a week for 8 weeks: strength training group (19 boys, 22 girls), endurance training group (21 boys, 24 girls), and a control group (18 boys, 21 girls). Evaluation of body fat was carried out using the method described by Slaughter. Somatotype was computed according to the Heath-Carter method. Increased endomorphy reduced the likelihood of vertical jump height improvement (odds ratio [OR], 0.10; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.01-0.85), increased mesomorphy (OR, 6.15; 95% CI, 1.52-24.88) and ectomorphy (OR, 6.52; 95% CI, 1.71-24.91) increased the likelihood of sprint performance, and increased ectomorphy (OR, 3.84; 95% CI, 1.20-12.27) increased the likelihood of aerobic fitness gains. Sex did not affect the training-induced changes in strength or aerobic fitness. These data suggest that somatotype has an effect on explosive strength and aerobic capacity trainability, which should not be disregarded. The effect of adiposity on explosive strength, musculoskeletal magnitude on running speed, and relative linearity on running speed and aerobic capacity seem to be crucial factors related to training-induced gains in prepubescent boys and girls.

  13. Relation between aerobic fitness and brain structures in amnestic mild cognitive impairment elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Camila Vieira Ligo; Rezende, Thiago J R; Weiler, Marina; Nogueira, Mateus H; Campos, Brunno M; Pegoraro, Luiz F L; Vicentini, Jessica E; Scriptore, Gabriela; Cendes, Fernando; Balthazar, Marcio L F

    2016-06-01

    Mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) is a clinical condition, with high risk to develop Alzheimer's disease. Physical exercise may have positive effect on cognition and brain structure in older adults. However, it is still under research whether these influences are true on aMCI subjects with low Ab_42 and high total tau in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), which is considered a biomarker for AD. Therefore, we aimed to investigate a possible relation between aerobic fitness (AF) and gray matter (GM) volume and AF and white matter (WM) integrity in aMCI with a CSF biomarker. Twenty-two participants with aMCI acquired the images on a 3.0-T MRI. AF was assessed by a graded exercise test on a treadmill. Voxel-based morphometry and tract-based spatial statistic methods were used to analyze the GM volume and WM microstructural integrity, respectively. We correlated AF and GM volume and WM integrity in aMCI (p aerobic fitness may have a positive influence on protection of brain even in aMCI CSF biomarker, a high-risk population to convert to AD.

  14. Effects of environmental conditions on aerobic degradation of a commercial naphthenic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinley, Ciera M; Gaspari, Daniel P; McQueen, Andrew D; Rodgers, John H; Castle, James W; Friesen, Vanessa; Haakensen, Monique

    2016-10-01

    Naphthenic acids (NAs) are problematic constituents in energy-derived waters, and aerobic degradation may provide a strategy for mitigating risks to aquatic organisms. The overall objective of this study was to determine the influence of concentrations of N (as ammonia) and P (as phosphate), and DO, as well as pH and temperatures on degradation of a commercial NA in bench-scale reactors. Commercial NAs provided replicable compounds necessary to compare influences of environmental conditions on degradation. NAs were quantified using high performance liquid chromatography. Microbial diversity and relative abundance were measured in treatments as explanatory parameters for potential effects of environmental conditions on microbial populations to support analytically measured NA degradation. Environmental conditions that positively influenced degradation rates of Fluka NAs included nutrients (C:N 10:1-500:1, C:P 100:1-5000:1), DO (4.76-8.43 mg L(-1)), pH (6-8), and temperature (5-25 °C). Approximately 50% removal of 61 ± 8 mg L(-1) was achieved in less than 2 d after NA introduction, achieving the method detection limit (5 mg L(-1)) by day 6 of the experiment in treatments with a C:N:P ratio of 100:10:1, DO > 8 mg L(-1), pH ∼8-9, and temperatures >23 °C. Microbial diversity was lowest in lower temperature treatments (6-16 °C), which may have resulted in observed slower NA degradation. Based on results from this study, when macro- and micronutrients were available, DO, pH, and temperature (within environmentally relevant ranges) influenced rates of aerobic degradation of Fluka NAs. This study could serve as a model for systematically evaluating environmental factors that influence NA degradation in field scenarios.

  15. Denitrification characteristics of a marine origin psychrophilic aerobic denitrifying bacterium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Haiyan Zheng; Ying Liu; Guangdong Sun; Xiyan Gao; Qingling Zhang; Zhipei Liu

    2011-01-01

    A psychrophilic aerobic denitrifying bacterium,strain S1-1,was isolated from a biological aerated filter conducted for treatment of recirculating water in a marine aquaculture system.Strain S1-1 was preliminarily identified as Psychrobacter sp.based on the analysis of its 16S rRNA gene sequence,which showed 100% sequence similarity to that of Psychrobacter sp.TSBY-70.Strain S 1-1 grew well either in high nitrate or high nitrite conditions with a removal of 100% nitrate or 63.50% nitrite,and the total nitrogen removal rates could reach to 46.48% and 31.89%,respectively.The results indicated that nitrate was mainly reduced in its logarithmic growth phase with a very low leve 1 accumulation of nitrite,suggesting that the aerobic denitrification process of strain S l-1 occurred mainly in this phase.The GC-MS results showed that N2O was formed as the major intermediate during the aerobic denitrifying process of strain S1-1.Finally,factors affecting the growth of strain Sl-1 and its aerobic denitrifying ability were also investigated.Results showed that the optimum aerobic denitrification conditions for strain S1-1 were sodium succinate as carbon source,C/N ratio15,salinity 10 g/L NaCl,incubation temperature 20℃ and initial pH 6.5.

  16. Improving the level of physical development and functional preparedness athletes in sports dancing on the stage of specialized basic training means step aerobics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galyna Artemyeva

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: make analyze the impact of the step aerobics on the indicators of physical development and functional preparedness of athletes in Dance Sport on the stage of specialized basic training. Material & Methods: 20 athletes (10 sport duets aged 14–15 years were divided into two groups: control (CG and experimental (EG. To achieve the objectives we used methods: theoretical - analysis and synthesis data of scientific and methodological literature; pedagogical methods: pedagogical observation; pedagogical testing; medical and biological methods: anthropometry, functional methods of research; methods of mathematical statistics. Results: after the implementation of a training process means step aerobics significantly improved indicators of cardio-respiratory system of athletes in Dance Sport. Conclusions: materials research to assess allow us to estimate the extent of influence of step aerobics on indicators of physical development and functional preparedness athletes in Dance Sport on the stage of specialized basic training.

  17. Aerobic exercise reduces biomarkers related to cardiovascular risk among cleaners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korshøj, Mette; Ravn, Marie Højbjerg; Holtermann, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: Blue-collar workers have an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Accordingly, elevated levels of biomarkers related to risk of cardiovascular disease, such as high-sensitive C-reactive protein, have been observed among blue-collar workers. The objective was to examine whether...... an aerobic exercise worksite intervention changes the level of inflammation biomarkers among cleaners. METHODS: The design was a cluster-randomized controlled trial with 4-month worksite intervention. Before the 116 cleaners aged 18-65 years were randomized, they signed an informed consent form....... The reference group (n = 59) received lectures, and the aerobic exercise group (n = 57) performed worksite aerobic exercise (30 min twice a week). Levels of biomarkers (high-sensitive C-reactive protein, fibrinogen, cholesterol, low- and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglyceride) were collected...

  18. Virulence factors enhance Citrobacter rodentium expansion through aerobic respiration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Christopher A; Miller, Brittany M; Rivera-Chávez, Fabian; Velazquez, Eric M; Byndloss, Mariana X; Chávez-Arroyo, Alfredo; Lokken, Kristen L; Tsolis, Renée M; Winter, Sebastian E; Bäumler, Andreas J

    2016-09-16

    Citrobacter rodentium uses a type III secretion system (T3SS) to induce colonic crypt hyperplasia in mice, thereby gaining an edge during its competition with the gut microbiota through an unknown mechanism. Here, we show that by triggering colonic crypt hyperplasia, the C. rodentium T3SS induced an excessive expansion of undifferentiated Ki67-positive epithelial cells, which increased oxygenation of the mucosal surface and drove an aerobic C. rodentium expansion in the colon. Treatment of mice with the γ-secretase inhibitor dibenzazepine to diminish Notch-driven colonic crypt hyperplasia curtailed the fitness advantage conferred by aerobic respiration during C. rodentium infection. We conclude that C. rodentium uses its T3SS to induce histopathological lesions that generate an intestinal microenvironment in which growth of the pathogen is fueled by aerobic respiration.

  19. Isolation and denitrification characteristic of an aerobic denitrifier

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Dan-dan; MA Fang; WANG Hong-yu; DONG Shuang-shi; WANG Ai-jie

    2006-01-01

    Aerobic denitrifiers were enriched by activated sludge cultivation method. By this way, 105 strains were isolated from the activated sludge and 25 strains were confirmed to be capable of obtaining energy by deoxidization of nitrate to nitrogen gas under aerobic condition. The characteristic of one denitrifier, Pseudomonas chloritidismutans strain, was particularly studied due to its higher nitrogen removal rate. It was found that Pseudomonas chloritidismutans can use nitrite, nitrate and oxygen for aerobic respiration in liquid medium, and the pH increased and ORP decreased by activated denitrifier. When they used nitrite or nitrate for respiration, nitrogen removal effect was high and nitrite could be reduced more efficiently than nitrate. Denitrification process was accomplished faster when both nitrite and nitrate existed in the medium compared to each of which existed alone. Particularly, at denitrifying activity, the nitrogen removal rate of strain was not affected by the DO concentration in the culture media.

  20. [Effect of aerobic fermentation on the survival of Salmonella typhimurium (DT 104) and Escherichia coli in swine liquid manure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herold, T; Kliche, R; Hensel, A

    1999-12-01

    In this study aerobic-thermophilic fermentation of untreated liquid pig manure was examined for the potential of inactivating pathogenic microorganisms. As microbial tracer organisms, Salmonella typhimurium DT 104 and Escherichia coli were used. An effective reduction of survival of these microorganisms could be demonstrated by aerobic fermentation at temperatures of 50 degrees C for at least 3 h. However, these optimal process conditions without the need of additional heating, can only be achieved by microbial substrate reduction. In contrast to the impact of temperature on hygienization processes, alteration of the pH value which occurs during fermentation had no or little influence on the tenacity of the tracer bacteria. Even under mesophilic reaction conditions the influence of the pH value was not measurable. A technical realisation of such an aerobic-thermophilic fermentation process for prophylactic disinfection is questionable since a large technical expenditure is necessary to control ammonia emission. Effective partial reduction of nitrogen, phosphate, and free carbon in liquid manure requires retention times of at least 48 h. However, thermophilic reaction conditions may ensure an effective hygienization of the final fermentation products.

  1. Assessment of Aerobic Exercise Adverse Effects during COPD Exacerbation Hospitalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Knaut

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Aerobic exercise performed after hospital discharge for exacerbated COPD patients is already recommended to improve respiratory and skeletal muscle strength, increase tolerance to activity, and reduce the sensation of dyspnea. Previous studies have shown that anaerobic activity can clinically benefit patients hospitalized with exacerbated COPD. However, there is little information on the feasibility and safety of aerobic physical activity performed by patients with exacerbated COPD during hospitalization. Objective. To evaluate the effects of aerobic exercise on vital signs in hospitalized patients with exacerbated COPD. Patients and Methods. Eleven COPD patients (63% female, FEV1: 34.2 ± 13.9% and age: 65 ± 11 years agreed to participate. Aerobic exercise was initiated 72 hours after admission on a treadmill; speed was obtained from the distance covered in a 6-minute walk test (6MWT. Vital signs were assessed before and after exercise. Results. During the activity systolic blood pressure increased from 125.2 ± 13.6 to 135.8 ± 15.0 mmHg (p=0.004 and respiratory rate from 20.9 ± 4.4 to 24.2 ± 4.5 rpm (p=0.008 and pulse oximetry (SpO2 decreased from 93.8 ± 2.3 to 88.5 ± 5.7% (p<0.001. Aerobic activity was considered intense, heart rate ranged from 99.2 ± 11.5 to 119.1 ± 11.1 bpm at the end of exercise (p=0.092, and patients reached on average 76% of maximum heart rate. Conclusion. Aerobic exercise conducted after 72 hours of hospitalization in patients with exacerbated COPD appears to be safe.

  2. EOQ Model for Delayed Deteriorating Items with Shortages and Trade Credit Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Sundararajan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with a deterministic inventory model for deteriorating items under the condition of permissible delay in payments with constant demand rate is a function of time which differs from before and after deterioration for a single item. Shortages are allowed and completely backlogged which is a function of time. Under these assumptions, this paper develops a retailer's model for obtaining an optimal cycle length and ordering quantity in deteriorating items of an inventory model. Thus, our objective is retailer's cost minimization problem to nd an optimal replenishment policy under various parameters. The convexity of the objective function is derived and the numerical examples are provided to support the proposed model. Sensitivity analysis of the optimal solution with respect to major parameters of the model is included and the implications are discussed.

  3. Deterioration of organic packing materials commonly used in air biofiltration: effect of VOC-packing interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebrero, Raquel; Estrada, José M; Muñoz, Raúl; Quijano, Guillermo

    2014-05-01

    The abiotic deterioration of three conventional organic packing materials used in biofiltration (compost, wood bark and Macadamia nutshells) caused by their interaction with toluene (used as a model volatile organic compound) was here studied. The deterioration of the materials was evaluated in terms of structural damage, release of co-substrates and increase of the packing biodegradability. After 21 days of exposure to toluene, all packing materials released co-substrates able to support microbial growth, which were not released by the control materials not exposed to toluene. Likewise, the exposure to toluene increased the packing material biodegradability by 26% in wood bark, 20% in compost and 17% in Macadamia nutshells. Finally, scanning electron microscopy analysis confirmed the deterioration in the structure of the packing materials evaluated due to the exposure to toluene, Macadamia nutshells being the material with the highest resistance to volatile organic compound attack.

  4. Predictive maintenance policy for a gradually deteriorating system subject to stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deloux, E. [IRCCyN/Ecole des Mines de Nantes, Nantes (France); Castanier, B. [IRCCyN/Ecole des Mines de Nantes, Nantes (France)], E-mail: bruno.castanier@emn.fr; Berenguer, C. [Universite de Technologie de Troyes/CNRS, Troyes (France)

    2009-02-15

    This paper deals with a predictive maintenance policy for a continuously deteriorating system subject to stress. We consider a system with two failure mechanisms which are, respectively, due to an excessive deterioration level and a shock. To optimize the maintenance policy of the system, an approach combining statistical process control (SPC) and condition-based maintenance (CBM) is proposed. CBM policy is used to inspect and replace the system according to the observed deterioration level. SPC is used to monitor the stress covariate. In order to assess the performance of the proposed maintenance policy and to minimize the long-run expected maintenance cost per unit of time, a mathematical model for the maintained system cost is derived. Analysis based on numerical results are conducted to highlight the properties of the proposed maintenance policy in respect to the different maintenance parameters.

  5. Intelligent, Robust Control of Deteriorated Turbofan Engines via Linear Parameter Varying Quadratic Lyapunov Function Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turso, James A.; Litt, Jonathan S.

    2004-01-01

    A method for accommodating engine deterioration via a scheduled Linear Parameter Varying Quadratic Lyapunov Function (LPVQLF)-Based controller is presented. The LPVQLF design methodology provides a means for developing unconditionally stable, robust control of Linear Parameter Varying (LPV) systems. The controller is scheduled on the Engine Deterioration Index, a function of estimated parameters that relate to engine health, and is computed using a multilayer feedforward neural network. Acceptable thrust response and tight control of exhaust gas temperature (EGT) is accomplished by adjusting the performance weights on these parameters for different levels of engine degradation. Nonlinear simulations demonstrate that the controller achieves specified performance objectives while being robust to engine deterioration as well as engine-to-engine variations.

  6. Exercise intensity during Zumba fitness and Tae-bo aerobics

    OpenAIRE

    Hižnayová, Kristína

    2013-01-01

    This study analyzed and compared the exercise intensity in Zumba fitness and Tae-bo aerobics. Object of the research was monitoring of the heart rate and energy consumption in kcal during exercise unit, by using Heart Rate Monitor Suunto Memory Belt. All measurements were attended by randomly selected 11 women. The data we collected during the six units of the Zumba fitness and six units of the Tae-bo aerobics . Obtained data of the heart rate were evaluated in three main parts of workout: af...

  7. Copper intoxication inhibits aerobic nucleotide synthesis in Streptococcus pneumoniae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Michael D. L.; Kehl-Fie, Thomas E.; Rosch, Jason W.

    2015-01-01

    Copper is universally toxic in excess, a feature exploited by the human immune system to facilitate bacterial clearance. The mechanism of copper intoxication remains unknown for many bacterial species. Here, we demonstrate that copper toxicity in Streptococcus pneumoniae is independent from oxidative stress but, rather, is the result of copper inhibiting the aerobic dNTP biosynthetic pathway. Furthermore, we show that copper-intoxicated S. pneumoniae is rescued by manganese, which is an essential metal in the aerobic nucleotide synthesis pathway. These data provide insight into new targets to enhance copper-mediated toxicity during bacterial clearance. PMID:25730343

  8. Improving the Quality of the Deteriorated Regions of Multicrystalline Silicon Ingots during General Solar Cell Processes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Shan-Shan; WANG Lei; YANG De-Ren

    2011-01-01

    @@ The behavior of wafers and solar cells from the border of a multicrystalline silicon(mc-Si)ingot, which contain deteriorated regions, is investigated.It is found that the diffusion length distribution of minority carriers in the cells is uniform, and high efficiency of the solar cells(about 16%)is achieved.It is considered that the quality of the deteriorated regions could be improved to be similar to that of adjacent regions.Moreover, it is indicated that during general solar cell fabrication, phosphorus gettering and hydrogen passivation could significantly improve the quality of deteriorated regions, while aluminum gettering by RTP could not.Therefore, it is suggested that the border of a me-Si ingot could be used to fabricate high efficiency solar cells, which will increase me-Si utilization effectively.%The behavior of wafers and solar cells from the border of a multicrystalline silicon (mc-Si) ingot, which contain deteriorated regions, is investigated. It is found that the diffusion length distribution of minority carriers in the cells is uniform, and high efficiency of the solar cells (about 16%) is achieved. It is considered that the quality of the deteriorated regions could be improved to be similar to that of adjacent regions. Moreover, it is indicated that during general solar cell fabrication, phosphorus gettering and hydrogen passivation could significantly improve the quality of deteriorated regions, while aluminum gettering by RTP could not. Therefore, it is suggested that the border of a mc-Si ingot could be used to fabricate high efficiency solar cells, which will increase mc-Si utilization effectively.

  9. The Effect of Microbial Inoculants Applied at Ensiling on Sorghum Silage Characteristics and Aerobic Stability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUAN Wu-tai; Ashbell G; Hen Y; Weinberg Z G

    2002-01-01

    Whole crop forage sorghum (Saccharatum) cultivar FS5 was harvested at the soft dough stage of maturity. The sorghum was chopped to approximately 2 cm pieces and ensiled under laboratory conditions in 1.5 L Weck glass jars. At ensiling, it was treated with two commercial microbial inoculants: inoculant A and inoculant B. The inoculants were applied at 2 × 105 colony forming units g- 1 DM. Silage with no additives served as a control. Three jars per treatment were opened on days 2, 4, 8, 15 and 60 post-ensiling to study fermentation dynamics. After 60 days of ensiling, the silages were analyzed and subjected to an aerobic stability test lasting 5 days. Results showed that both inoculants caused a more rapid rate of pH decline and a higher amount of lactic acid production. Silages treated with each inoculant produced a little more CO2 and resulted in more glucose loss as compared with the control. Addition of inoculants did not influence ( P > 0.05) the ash and crude protein contents, but tended to decrease the concentration of acetic acid (P < 0.05), butyric acid (P < 0.01) and propionic acid ( P < 0.01 ), and increase the lactic acid concentration ( P < 0.01 ). Silages treated with inoculant A possess the more DM loss, and the higher yeast counts upon aerobic exposure. Silage treated with inoculant B had the most DM (P < 0.05), lactic acid contents (P < 0.01 ), the least acetic acid content (P < 0.05). Inoculant B reduced the ADF (P < 0.01), ADL and NDF ( P < 0.05) contents. It was concluded that lactic bacteria inoculants may improve the fermentation but might impair the aerobic stability for sorghum ensilage.

  10. An EOQ model for deteriorating items under supplier credits when demand is stock dependent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shah Nita H.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In many circumstances retailer is not able to settle the account as soon as items are received. In that scenario supplier can offer two promotional schemes namely cash discount and /or a permissible delay to the customer. In this study, an EOQ model is developed when units in inventory deteriorate at a constant rate and demand is stock dependent. The salvage value is associated to deteriorated units. An algorithm is given to find the optimal solution. The sensitivity analysis is carried out to analyze the effect of critical parameters on optimal solution.

  11. Plasma Disinfection and the Deterioration of Surgical Tools at Atmospheric Pressure Plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaaba, Siti Khadijah; Akitsu, Tetsuya; Ohkawa, Hiroshi; Katayama-Hirayama, Keiko; Tsuji, Masao; Shimizu, Naohiro; Imanishi, Yuichirou

    The purpose of this paper is to present and compare disinfection effect of plasma by means of Atmospheric Pressure Glow plasma and streamer discharge. Geobacillus stearothermophilus was used as biological indicator for disinfection process. The effect of blades after irradiated in plasma was also studied by SEM analysis. It was found that the disinfection process was effective when the cylindrical configuration was applied. Carbon steel blade was also found to be deteriorated after immersed in plasma irradiation. Results indicate that disinfection can be achieved and at the same time deteriorations of the tools were observed.

  12. Visual data mining of rechargeable lithium-ion battery deterioration characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    水口, 晋; 小木, 哲朗

    2012-01-01

    With the wide spread of Electric Vehicles(EV) and its potential for reusability, the secondary use of in-car Lithium Ion Batteries has become significantly important. In order to realize the secondary use of in-car Li+B batteries, it is required to understand how the deterioration of battery can be analyzed through a set of running data. The deterioration of batteries will occur from time to time, thus, it is necessary to measure by multiple points for accurate speculation.The data sets of EV...

  13. Two warehouse inventory model for deteriorating item with exponential demand rate and permissible delay in payment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaliraman Naresh Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A two warehouse inventory model for deteriorating items is considered with exponential demand rate and permissible delay in payment. Shortage is not allowed and deterioration rate is constant. In the model, one warehouse is rented and the other is owned. The rented warehouse is provided with better facility for the stock than the owned warehouse, but is charged more. The objective of this model is to find the best replenishment policies for minimizing the total appropriate inventory cost. A numerical illustration and sensitivity analysis is provided.

  14. Prognosis and risk factors for deterioration in patients admitted to a medical emergency department

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Daniel Pilsgaard; Brabrand, Mikkel; Lassen, Annmarie Touborg

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Patients that initially appear stable on arrival to the hospital often have less intensive monitoring of their vital signs, possibly leading to excess mortality. The aim was to describe risk factors for deterioration in vital signs and the related prognosis among patients with normal...... rate, Glasgow Coma Scale, oxygen saturation and temperature) were within the normal range at arrival. Deterioration was defined as a deviation from the defined normal range 2-24 hours after arrival. RESULTS: 4292 of the 6257 (68.6%) admitted to the MED had a full set of vital signs at first...

  15. Cardiorespiratory fitness of asthmatic children and validation of predicted aerobic capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lochte, Lene; Angermann, Marie; Larsson, Benny

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Predicted aerobic capacity (PAC) was estimated by submaximal exercise test and compared with monitored aerobic capacity (MAC) measured by laboratory conditions [maximal oxygen uptake (VO(2peak))] in 18 children and adolescents, 10 asthmatics and 8 matched controls. Objectives...

  16. Lung volumes related to physical activity, physical fitness, aerobic capacity and body mass index in students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihailova A.

    2016-01-01

    Reduced lung volumes were associated with lower aerobic fitness, lower physical fitness and lower amount of weekly physical activity. Healthier body mass index was associated with higher aerobic fitness (relative VO2max in both female and male.

  17. Treatment of anthraquinone dye wastewater by hydrolytic acidification-aerobic process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Jian; WU Min; Li Dan

    2004-01-01

    Experiment on microbial degradation with two kinds of biological process, hydrolytic acidification-aerobic process and aerobic process was conducted to treat the anthraquinone dye wastewater with CODCr concentration of 400 mg/L and chroma 800. The experimental result demonstrated that the hydrolytic-aerobic process could raise the biodegradability of anthraquinone dye wastewater effectively. The effluent CODCr can reach 120-170 mg/L and chroma 150 which is superior to that from simple aerobic process.

  18. Short-Term Heart Rate Recovery is Related to Aerobic Fitness in Elite Intermittent Sport Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Andrew M; Brickson, Stacey L; Prawda, Evan R; Sanfilippo, Jenifer L

    2017-04-01

    Watson, AM, Brickson, SL, Prawda, ER, and Sanfilippo, JL. Short-term heart rate recovery is related to aerobic fitness in elite intermittent sport athletes. J Strength Cond Res 31(4): 1055-1061, 2017-Although heart rate recovery (HRR) has been suggested as a measure of fitness, minimal data exist among athletes. The purpose of this study was to determine if HRR is related to aerobic fitness in elite athletes and whether this relationship is influenced by sex or body composition. Eighty-four collegiate athletes (45 male athletes) underwent body fat percentage (BF%) determination by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry and maximal treadmill testing followed by 5 minutes of recovery. V[Combining Dot Above]O2max and heart rate (HRmax) were determined, and HRR was calculated as a percentage of HRmax at 10 seconds, 30 seconds, and 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 minutes after test completion. After stratifying by sex, participants were grouped as high fit or low fit based on V[Combining Dot Above]O2max median split. Heart rate recovery was compared between sexes and fitness level at each time point. Multivariable regression analysis was used to identify independent predictors of HRR using V[Combining Dot Above]O2max, BF%, and sex as covariates. Heart rate recovery did not differ significantly between sexes and was faster among high-fit participants at 10 and 30 seconds, but at no other time. V[Combining Dot Above]O2max was significantly correlated with HRR at 10 and 30 seconds (r = -0.34, p < 0.001 and r = -0.28, p = 0.008) only. After controlling for BF% and sex, V[Combining Dot Above]O2max remained significantly associated with HRR at 10 seconds (p = 0.007) but not at 30 seconds (p = 0.067) or any time thereafter. Aerobic capacity is related to faster HRR during the first 30 seconds only, suggesting that only very short term HRR should be used as a measure of aerobic fitness in intermittent sport athletes.

  19. Anaerobes unleashed: Aerobic fuel cells of Geobacter sulfurreducens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevin, Kelly P.; Zhang, Pei; Franks, Ashley E.; Woodard, Trevor L.; Lovley, Derek R.

    One of the limitations of power generation with microbial fuel cells is that the anode must typically be maintained under anaerobic conditions. When oxygen is present in the anode chamber microorganisms oxidize the fuel with the reduction of oxygen rather than electron transfer to the anode. A system in which fuel is provided from within a graphite anode and diffuses out to the outer surface of the anode was designed to overcome these limitations. A biofilm of Geobacter sulfurreducens strain KN400, pregrown on the surface of a graphite electrode in a traditional two-chambered system with an anaerobic anode chamber and acetate as an external fuel source, produced current just as well under aerobic conditions when acetate was provided via diffusion from an internal concentrated acetate solution. No acetate was detectable in the external medium. In contrast, aerobic systems in which acetate was provided in the external medium completely failed within 48 h. Internally fed anodes colonized by a strain of KN400 adapted to grow at marine salinities produced current in aerobic seawater as well as an anaerobic anode system. The ability to generate current with an anode under aerobic conditions increases the potential applications and design options for microbial fuel cells.

  20. Tumor vessel normalization after aerobic exercise enhances chemotherapeutic efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schadler, Keri L; Thomas, Nicholas J; Galie, Peter A; Bhang, Dong Ha; Roby, Kerry C; Addai, Prince; Till, Jacob E; Sturgeon, Kathleen; Zaslavsky, Alexander; Chen, Christopher S; Ryeom, Sandra

    2016-10-04

    Targeted therapies aimed at tumor vasculature are utilized in combination with chemotherapy to improve drug delivery and efficacy after tumor vascular normalization. Tumor vessels are highly disorganized with disrupted blood flow impeding drug delivery to cancer cells. Although pharmacologic anti-angiogenic therapy can remodel and normalize tumor vessels, there is a limited window of efficacy and these drugs are associated with severe side effects necessitating alternatives for vascular normalization. Recently, moderate aerobic exercise has been shown to induce vascular normalization in mouse models. Here, we provide a mechanistic explanation for the tumor vascular normalization induced by exercise. Shear stress, the mechanical stimuli exerted on endothelial cells by blood flow, modulates vascular integrity. Increasing vascular shear stress through aerobic exercise can alter and remodel blood vessels in normal tissues. Our data in mouse models indicate that activation of calcineurin-NFAT-TSP1 signaling in endothelial cells plays a critical role in exercise-induced shear stress mediated tumor vessel remodeling. We show that moderate aerobic exercise with chemotherapy caused a significantly greater decrease in tumor growth than chemotherapy alone through improved chemotherapy delivery after tumor vascular normalization. Our work suggests that the vascular normalizing effects of aerobic exercise can be an effective chemotherapy adjuvant.

  1. Aerobic Jogging Instruction for Students in Grades 7-12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nebraska State Dept. of Education, Lincoln.

    Jogging, a form of aerobic exercise, is the act of running at a slow trot. This guide describes an instructional program for high school students to jog progressively longer distances. The emphasis is on participation and gradual improvement. Training principles, teaching methods, common jogging problems, and safety precautions are listed to aid…

  2. Aerobic Oxidation of Methyl Vinyl Ketone in Supercritical Carbon Dioxide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    OUYANG,Xiao-Yue(欧阳小月); JIANG,Huan-Feng(江焕峰); CHENG,Jin-Sheng(程金生); ZHANG,Qun-Jian(张群健)

    2002-01-01

    Aerobic oxidation of methyl vinyl ketone to acetal in supercritical carbon dioxide are achieved in high conversion and high selectivity when oxygen pressure reaches 0.5MPa. The effects of cocatalysts,additive, pressure and temperature of the reaction are studied in detail.

  3. Aerobic Capacity and Anaerobic Power Levels of the University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taskin, Cengiz

    2016-01-01

    The aim of study was to analyze aerobic capacity and anaerobic power levels of the university students. Total forty university students who is department physical education and department business (age means; 21.15±1.46 years for male and age means; 20.55±1.79 years for female in department physical education), volunteered to participate in this…

  4. Aerobic exercise capacity in post-polio syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voorn, E.L.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to expand the body of knowledge on the diminished aerobic capacity of individuals with post-polio syndrome (PPS). The studies described in this thesis were based on the assumption that, besides a reduced muscle mass, deconditioning contributes to the severely diminished ae

  5. Aerobic Exercise Equipment Preferences among Older Adults: A Preliminary Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Looney, Marilyn A.; Rimmer, James H.

    2003-01-01

    Developed an instrument to measure the aerobic exercise equipment preference of a frail older population and applied many-facet Rasch analysis to study construct validity and equipment preferences. Results for 16 participants show the usefulness of many-facet Rasch analysis in guiding instrument revision. (SLD)

  6. Aerobic capacity in children and adolescents with cerebral palsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verschuren, Olaf; Takken, Tim

    2010-01-01

    This study described the aerobic capacity [VO(2peak) (ml/kg/min)] in contemporary children and adolescents with cerebral palsy (CP) using a maximal exercise test protocol. Twenty-four children and adolescents with CP classified at Gross Motor Functional Classification Scale (GMFCS) level I or level

  7. Aerobic exercise and intraocular pressure in normotensive and glaucoma patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chatzibalis Theodosios

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With the increasing number of people participating in physical aerobic exercise, jogging in particular, we considered that it would be worth knowing if there are should be limits to the exercise with regard to the intraocular pressure (IOP of the eyes. The purpose of this study is to check IOP in healthy and primary glaucoma patients after aerobic exercise. Methods 145 individuals were subdivided into seven groups: normotensives who exercised regularly (Group A; normotensives in whose right eye (RE timolol maleate 0.5% (Group B, latanoprost 0.005% (Group C, or brimonidine tartrate 0.2% (Group D was instilled; and primary glaucoma patients under monotherapy with β-blockers (Group E, prostaglandin analogues (Group F or combined antiglaucoma treatment (Group G instilled in both eyes. The IOP of both eyes was measured before and after exercise. Results A statistically significant decrease was found in IOP during jogging. The aerobic exercise reduces the IOP in those eyes where a b-blocker, a prostaglandin analogue or an α-agonist was previously instilled. The IOP is also decreased in glaucoma patients who are already under antiglaucoma treatment. Conclusion There is no ocular restriction for simple glaucoma patients in performing aerobic physical activity.

  8. COMMERCIAL-SCALE AEROBIC-ANAEROBIC BIOREACTOR LANDFILL OPERATIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    A sequential aerobic-anaerobic treatment system has been applied at a commercial scale (3,000 ton per day) municipal solid waste landfill in Kentucky, USA since 2001. In this system, the uppermost layer of landfilled waste is aerated and liquid waste including leachate, surface w...

  9. Intrinsic Aerobic Capacity Sets a Divide for Aging and Longevity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koch, G.; Kemi, O.J.; Qi, N.; Leng, S.X.; Bijma, P.; Gilligan, L.J.; Wilkinson, J.E.; Grevenhof, van E.M.

    2011-01-01

    Rationale: Low aerobic exercise capacity is a powerful predictor of premature morbidity and mortality for healthy adults as well as those with cardiovascular disease. For aged populations, poor performance on treadmill or extended walking tests indicates closer proximity to future health declines. T

  10. Aerobic Capacity in Children and Adolescents with Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verschuren, Olaf; Takken, Tim

    2010-01-01

    This study described the aerobic capacity [VO[subscript 2peak] (ml/kg/min)] in contemporary children and adolescents with cerebral palsy (CP) using a maximal exercise test protocol. Twenty-four children and adolescents with CP classified at Gross Motor Functional Classification Scale (GMFCS) level I or level II and 336 typically developing…

  11. Group Aquatic Aerobic Exercise for Children with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fragala-Pinkham, Maria; Haley, Stephen M.; O'Neill, Margaret E.

    2008-01-01

    The effectiveness and safety of a group aquatic aerobic exercise program on cardiorespiratory endurance for children with disabilities was examined using an A-B study design. Sixteen children (11 males, five females) age range 6 to 11 years (mean age 9y 7mo [SD 1y 4mo]) participated in this twice-per-week program lasting 14 weeks. The children's …

  12. Sequenced anaerobic-aerobic treatment of hemp pulping wastewaters.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kortekaas, S.

    1998-01-01

    Biological treatment is an indispensable instrument for water management of non-wood pulp mills, either as internal measure to enable progressive closure of water cycles, or as end of pipe treatment. In this thesis, the sequenced anaerobic-aerobic treatment of hemp ( Cannabis sativa L. ) pulping was

  13. White matter connectivity and aerobic fitness in male adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan M. Herting

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Exercise has been shown to have positive effects on the brain and behavior throughout various stages of the lifespan. However, little is known about the impact of exercise on neurodevelopment during the adolescent years, particularly with regard to white matter microstructure, as assessed by diffusion tensor imaging (DTI. Both tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS and tractography-based along-tract statistics were utilized to examine the relationship between white matter microstructure and aerobic exercise in adolescent males, ages 15–18. Furthermore, we examined the data by both (1 grouping individuals based on aerobic fitness self-reports (high fit (HF vs. low fit (LF, and (2 using VO2 peak as a continuous variable across the entire sample. Results showed that HF youth had an overall higher number of streamline counts compared to LF peers, which was driven by group differences in corticospinal tract (CST and anterior corpus callosum (Fminor. In addition, VO2 peak was negatively related to FA in the left CST. Together, these results suggest that aerobic fitness relates to white matter connectivity and microstructure in tracts carrying frontal and motor fibers during adolescence. Furthermore, the current study highlights the importance of considering the environmental factor of aerobic exercise when examining adolescent brain development.

  14. Aerobic Digestion. Biological Treatment Process Control. Instructor's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klopping, Paul H.

    This unit on aerobic sludge digestion covers the theory of the process, system components, factors that affect the process performance, standard operational concerns, indicators of steady-state operations, and operational problems. The instructor's guide includes: (1) an overview of the unit; (2) lesson plan; (3) lecture outline (keyed to a set of…

  15. Relative importance of aerobic versus resistance training for healthy aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    This review will focus on the importance of aerobic and resistance modes of physical activity for healthy aging as supported by findings in 2007. In line with public health recommendations, several studies in 2007 employed an exercise paradigm that combined both modes of physical activity. While a...

  16. In situ aerobic cometabolism of chlorinated solvents: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frascari, Dario; Zanaroli, Giulio; Danko, Anthony S

    2015-01-01

    The possible approaches for in situ aerobic cometabolism of aquifers and vadose zones contaminated by chlorinated solvents are critically evaluated. Bioaugmentation of resting-cells previously grown in a fermenter and in-well addition of oxygen and growth substrate appear to be the most promising approaches for aquifer bioremediation. Other solutions involving the sparging of air lead to satisfactory pollutant removals, but must be integrated by the extraction and subsequent treatment of vapors to avoid the dispersion of volatile chlorinated solvents in the atmosphere. Cometabolic bioventing is the only possible approach for the aerobic cometabolic bioremediation of the vadose zone. The examined studies indicate that in situ aerobic cometabolism leads to the biodegradation of a wide range of chlorinated solvents within remediation times that vary between 1 and 17 months. Numerous studies include a simulation of the experimental field data. The modeling of the process attained a high reliability, and represents a crucial tool for the elaboration of field data obtained in pilot tests and for the design of the full-scale systems. Further research is needed to attain higher concentrations of chlorinated solvent degrading microbes and more reliable cost estimates. Lastly, a procedure for the design of full-scale in situ aerobic cometabolic bioremediation processes is proposed.

  17. Kinetic comparisons of mesophilic and thermophilic aerobic biomass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogelaar, J.C.T.; Klapwijk, A.; Temmink, H.; Lier, van J.B.

    2003-01-01

    Kinetic parameters describing growth and decay of mesophilic (30degreesC) and thermophilic (55degreesC) aerobic biomass were determined in continuous and batch experiments by using oxygen uptake rate measurements
    Kinetic parameters describing growth and decay of mesophilic (30degreesC) and therm

  18. AEROBIC BIODEGRADATION OF GASOLINE OXYGENATES MTBE AND TBA

    Science.gov (United States)

    MTBE degradation was investigated using a continuously stirred tank reactor (CSTR) with biomass retention (porous pot reactor) operated under aerobic conditions. MTBE was fed to the reactor at an influent concentration of 150 mg/l (1.70 mmol/l). A second identifical rector was op...

  19. Strength training and aerobic exercise training for muscle disease (Review)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voet, N.B.M.; Kooi, E.L. van der; Riphagen, I.I.; Lindeman, E.; Engelen, B.G.M. van; Geurts, A.C.H.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Strength training or aerobic exercise programmes might optimise muscle and cardiorespiratory function and prevent additional disuse atrophy and deconditioning in people with a muscle disease. This is an update of a review first published in 2004. OBJECTIVES: To examine the safety and eff

  20. Reductive Dechlorination of Trichloroethylene and Tetrachloroethylene under Aerobic Conditions in a Sediment Column

    OpenAIRE

    Enzien, Michael V.; Picardal, Flynn; Terry C Hazen; Arnold, R. G.; Fliermans, Carl B.

    1994-01-01

    Biodegradation of trichloroethylene and tetrachloroethylene under aerobic conditions was studied in a sediment column. Cumulative mass balances indicated 87 and 90% removal for trichloroethylene and tetrachloroethylene, respectively. These studies suggest the potential for simultaneous aerobic and anaerobic biotransformation processes under bulk aerobic conditions.

  1. The use of radiography and GIS to assess the deterioration of archaeological iron objects from a water logged environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matthiesen, Henning; Salomonsen, Eva; Sørensen, Birgit

    2004-01-01

    Pollution, acid rain, and modern agricultural practise are often blamed when archaeological metal objects are heavily deteriorated. However, looking at a deteriorated object, it can be difficult to differentiate whether the deterioration took place recently, or maybe hundreds or even thousands...... studied, to see if it was possible to correlate the state of preservation with the exact find location, the year of excavation or the method of deposition. Apparently, in this case the method of deposition was most important, so that the deterioration pattern observed today is decided during the first few...

  2. Acute effects of aerobic stretching, health and happiness improving movement exercise on cortical activity of children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hyungsoo; Park, Sangjun; Kim, Kyekyoon Kevin; Lee, Kwanghee; Rhyu, Hyun-Seung

    2016-08-01

    Acute high-intensity physical exercise is known to improve cognitive performance of children, including those with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). In this work, we investigated the acute effect of an aerobic stretching and moderate-intensity, health and happiness improving movement (HHIM) exercise on the cortical activity of children with and without ADHD using electroencephalography (EEG). Children aged 12 to 14 yr with combined-type ADHD and age-matched healthy controls participated in the study, performing two individual movements (n=79, 35 controls) and a single exercise bout (n=45, 18 controls). electroencephalographic signals were recorded before and immediately after each movement, and before and after acute exercise under resting conditions, to obtain absolute and relative power estimates for the theta (3.5-8 Hz), alpha (8-12 Hz), sensory motor rhythm (12-16 Hz), and beta (16-25 Hz) bands. After acute HHIM exercise, all children showed significant changes in their relative EEG, mainly in the theta and alpha bands. Individual movements were found to influence relative theta, alpha and beta, and theta-to-beta ratios. He presents aerobic stretching HHIM exercise has demonstrated acute effect on the cortical activity of children.

  3. The effects of poststroke aerobic exercise on neuroplasticity: a systematic review of animal and clinical studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ploughman, Michelle; Austin, Mark W; Glynn, Lindsay; Corbett, Dale

    2015-02-01

    Aerobic exercise may be a catalyst to promote neuroplasticity and recovery following stroke; however, the optimal methods to measure neuroplasticity and the effects of training parameters have not been fully elucidated. We conducted a systematic review and synthesis of clinical trials and studies in animal models to determine (1) the extent to which aerobic exercise influences poststroke markers of neuroplasticity, (2) the optimal parameters of exercise required to induce beneficial effects, and (3) consistent outcomes in animal models that could help inform the design of future trials. Synthesized findings show that forced exercise at moderate to high intensity increases brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), nerve growth factor (NGF), and synaptogenesis in multiple brain regions. Dendritic branching was most responsive to moderate rather than intense training. Disparity between clinical stroke and stroke models (timing of initiation of exercise, age, gender) and clinically viable methods to measure neuroplasticity are some of the areas that should be addressed in future research.

  4. Severe Obesity Shifts Metabolic Thresholds but Does Not Attenuate Aerobic Training Adaptations in Zucker Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Thiago S.; Simões, Herbert G.; Rogero, Marcelo M.; Moraes, Milton R.; Denadai, Benedito S.; Arida, Ricardo M.; Andrade, Marília S.; Silva, Bruno M.

    2016-01-01

    Severe obesity affects metabolism with potential to influence the lactate and glycemic response to different exercise intensities in untrained and trained rats. Here we evaluated metabolic thresholds and maximal aerobic capacity in rats with severe obesity and lean counterparts at pre- and post-training. Zucker rats (obese: n = 10, lean: n = 10) were submitted to constant treadmill bouts, to determine the maximal lactate steady state, and an incremental treadmill test, to determine the lactate threshold, glycemic threshold and maximal velocity at pre and post 8 weeks of treadmill training. Velocities of the lactate threshold and glycemic threshold agreed with the maximal lactate steady state velocity on most comparisons. The maximal lactate steady state velocity occurred at higher percentage of the maximal velocity in Zucker rats at pre-training than the percentage commonly reported and used for training prescription for other rat strains (i.e., 60%) (obese = 78 ± 9% and lean = 68 ± 5%, P 0.05), whereas increase in maximal velocity was greater in the obese group (P < 0.05 vs. lean). In conclusion, lactate threshold, glycemic threshold and maximal lactate steady state occurred at similar exercise intensity in Zucker rats at pre- and post-training. Severe obesity shifted metabolic thresholds to higher exercise intensity at pre-training, but did not attenuate submaximal and maximal aerobic training adaptations. PMID:27148063

  5. An EOQ Model for Three parameter Weibull Deteriorating Item with Partial Backlogging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.M. Pradhan

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Business organisations are facing a lot of competition during these days. To withstand the competition and to remain in the front row, an enterprise should have optimum profitable plan for his business. Researchers in recent years have developed various inventory models for deteriorating items considering various practical situations. Partial backlogging is considerably a new concept introduced in developing various models for Weibull deteriorating items. Methodology: In this paper an inventory model has been developed considering three parameter Weibull deterioration of a single item with partial backlogging. Here demand rate is considered to be constant and lead time is zero. During the stock out period the backlogging rate is variable and is dependent on the length of the waiting time for the next replenishment. Results and conclusion: Optimal order quantity and total variable cost during a cycle has been derived for the proposed inventory model considering three parameter Weibull deteriorating item with partial backlogging. The results obtained in this paper are illustrated with the help of a numerical example and sensitivity analysis.

  6. Identification of concrete deteriorating minerals by polarizing and scanning electron microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregerova, Miroslava, E-mail: mirka@sci.muni.cz [Masaryk University in Brno, Faculty of Science, Institute of Geological Sciences, Kotlarska 2, 611 37 Brno (Czech Republic); Vsiansky, Dalibor, E-mail: daliborv@centrum.cz [Research Institute of Building Materials, JSC., Hnevkovskeho 65, 617 00 Brno (Czech Republic)

    2009-07-15

    The deterioration of concrete represents one of the most serious problems of civil engineering worldwide. Besides other processes, deterioration of concrete consists of sulfate attack and carbonation. Sulfate attack results in the formation of gypsum, ettringite and thaumasite in hardened concrete. Products of sulfate attack may cause a loss of material strength and a risk of collapse of the concrete constructions. The authors focused especially on the microscopical research of sulfate attack. Concrete samples were taken from the Charles Bridge in Prague, Czech Republic. A succession of degrading mineral formation was suggested. Microscope methods represent a new approach to solving the deterioration problems. They enable evaluation of the state of concrete constructions and in cooperation with hydro-geochemistry, mathematics and statistics permit prediction of the durability of a structure. Considering the number of concrete constructions and their age, research of concrete deterioration has an increasing importance. The results obtained can also be useful for future construction, because they identify the risk factors associated with formation of minerals known to degrade structures.

  7. Deterioration Mechanisms and Durability of Sprayed Concrete for Rock Support in Tunnels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hagelia, P.

    2011-01-01

    Steel fibre reinforced sprayed concretes used for rock support in tunnels are subjected to variable and complex exposure conditions. Structurally weakened concretes (5 to 35 years old) were investigated with respect to deterioration mechanisms, sources of aggressive agents and related engineering as

  8. Frequency of early warning score assessment and clinical deterioration in hospitalized patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, John Asger; Antonsen, Kristian; Rasmussen, Lars S

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To explore whether early warning score (EWS) measurements at 8h intervals is associated with better outcomes than 12h intervals. We hypothesized that the proportion of patients that deteriorated to a higher EWS at 24h after hospital admission would be lower with 8h interval than with 12h...

  9. Economic Stress, Social Support, and Maternal Depression: Is Social Support Deterioration Occurring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gjesfjeld, Christopher D.; Greeno, Catherine G.; Kim, Kevin H.; Anderson, Carol M.

    2010-01-01

    Maternal depression in low-income women is a significant problem because of its negative consequences for both mothers and their children. Economic stress increases risk for depression; however, mechanisms linking economic stress and depression are not well understood. The social support deterioration model suggests that chronic stressors can…

  10. Joint location, inventory, and preservation decisions for non-instantaneous deterioration items under delay in payments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsao, Yu-Chung

    2016-02-01

    This study models a joint location, inventory and preservation decision-making problem for non-instantaneous deteriorating items under delay in payments. An outside supplier provides a credit period to the wholesaler which has a distribution system with distribution centres (DCs). The non-instantaneous deteriorating means no deterioration occurs in the earlier stage, which is very useful for items such as fresh food and fruits. This paper also considers that the deteriorating rate will decrease and the reservation cost will increase as the preservation effort increases. Therefore, how much preservation effort should be made is a crucial decision. The objective of this paper is to determine the optimal locations and number of DCs, the optimal replenishment cycle time at DCs, and the optimal preservation effort simultaneously such that the total network profit is maximised. The problem is formulated as piecewise nonlinear functions and has three different cases. Algorithms based on piecewise nonlinear optimisation are provided to solve the joint location and inventory problem for all cases. Computational analysis illustrates the solution procedures and the impacts of the related parameters on decisions and profits. The results of this study can serve as references for business managers or administrators.

  11. A comparison of models for measurable deterioration: an application to coating on steel structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.P. Nicolai (Robin); R. Dekker (Rommert); J.M. van Noortwijk (Jan)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractSteel structures like bridges, tanks and pylons are exposed to outdoor weathering conditions. In order to prevent them from corrosion they are protected by organic coating systems. This paper focuses on modelling the deterioration of the organic coating layer that protects steel structur

  12. A model for determining condition-based maintenance policies for deteriorating multi-component systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hontelez, J.A.M.; Wijnmalen, D.J.D.

    1993-01-01

    We discuss a method to determine strategies for preventive maintenance of systems consisting of gradually deteriorating components. A model has been developed to compute not only the range of conditions inducing a repair action, but also inspection moments based on the last known condition value so

  13. 76 FR 2581 - Action To Ensure Authority To Issue Permits Under the Prevention of Significant Deterioration...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-14

    ... Deterioration Program to Sources of Greenhouse Gas Emissions: Federal Implementation Plan for Jefferson County... Air Pollution Control District (LMAPCD), through the Commonwealth of Kentucky, has not submitted by... greenhouse gases (GHGs). This action will ensure that a permitting authority--EPA--is available in...

  14. 76 FR 2591 - Action To Ensure Authority To Issue Permits Under the Prevention of Significant Deterioration...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-14

    ... or Contribute Findings for Greenhouse Gases Under Section 202(a) of the Clean Air Act.'' 74 FR 66496... Deterioration Program to Sources of Greenhouse Gas Emissions: Finding of Failure To Submit State Implementation Plan Revision Required of Louisville Metro Air Pollution Control District for Jefferson County,...

  15. Deterioration of depth measurements due to interference of multiple RGB-D sensors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martin Martin, Roberto; Lorbach, Malte T; Brock, Oliver

    2014-01-01

    Depth sensors based on projected structured light have become standard in robotics research. However, when several of these sensors share the same workspace, the measurement quality can deteriorate significantly due to interference of the projected light patterns. We present a comprehensive study of

  16. Predictable progressive Doppler deterioration in IUGR: does it really exist?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Unterscheider, Julia

    2013-12-01

    An objective of the Prospective Observational Trial to Optimize Pediatric Health in IUGR (PORTO) study was to evaluate multivessel Doppler changes in a large cohort of intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) fetuses to establish whether a predictable progressive sequence of Doppler deterioration exists and to correlate these Doppler findings with respective perinatal outcomes.

  17. Neurologic deterioration with progressive CT changes in a child with Kearns-Shy syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoda, Satoru; Kitahara, Fuminori; Akabane, Taro (Shinshu Univ., Matsumoto, Nagano (Japan). Faculty of Medicine); Terauchi, Akiko

    1984-01-01

    A case of the rare juvenile form of Kearns-Shy syndrome with progressive external ophthalmoplegia and lid ptosis, carditis, skeletal muscle weakness, seizures, mental subnormality, short stature, EEG abnormality and deafness is presented. Electromyography revealed a myopathic pattern. Histochemical studies on quadriceps biopsy specimens showed atrophy of type II fibers and ''ragged-red fibers.'' On electron microscopy these muscle cells were seen to contain an increased amount of glycogen particles and abnormal mitochondria were increased in number and size. It is of interest that abrupt deterioration of neurological findings such as seizures, mental subnormality, speech disturbance and deafness was present in our case. Computed tomographic scanning showed progressive changes of cerebral atrophy, low density of cerebral white matter and basal ganglia calcification, which were well associated with the clinical deterioration. A review of the literature also indicated that some patients with this syndrome showed abrupt neurological deterioration in childhood. Involvement of the central nervous system in this syndrome has to be considered as the cause of sudden deterioration and death in childhood.

  18. Factors of Ukrainian fisheries deterioration in terms of industrial enterprises mechanism of management formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Yarkina

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of factors predetermining the crisis situation of Ukrainian fisheries from the point of view of the appropriate areas of fishing activities, namely: aquaculture, fishery in the Black Sea and the Sea of Azov basin, ocean fishery is described in this article. Along with the transition period, common economical reasons which stipulated crisis tendencies of national fisheries development, certain industrial sectors were characterized by specifically industrial factors of fish catching volume reduction. Particularly, reasons of fish farming commodity production decreasing were such as: business environment changes; inadequate privatization; deterioration of fish farming technology; deterioration of Ukrainian market situation for national fish producer. In addition, fishery resources depletion reaching critical point also affected negatively the fish catching volume from inland water bodies. Reasons of catastrophic situation in national oceanic fishing are following: modifications of juridical and international legal terms in fishery; fishery monitoring by international fishery regional agencies; steady growth of world oil and oil products prices; quantitative and qualitative deterioration of ocean fleet bases. It is stated that resolution of the problems related to both the stagnation of national fishery and putting industrial enterprises out of crisis is basically outside the specific business entity competence and requires an immediate governmental interference. The set of measures of governmental support for revival and development of Ukrainian fisheries as a strategically important branch of national economy which was worked out with regard to identified factors of Ukrainian fisheries deterioration is to become one of key elements of fish industry enterprises mechanism of management

  19. Remaining Useful Lifetime Prognosis of Controlled Systems: A Case of Stochastically Deteriorating Actuator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danh Ngoc Nguyen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the case of automatic controlled system which deteriorates during its operation because of components’ wear or deterioration. Depending on its specific closed-loop structure, the controlled system has the ability to compensate for disturbances affecting the actuators which can remain partially hidden. The deterioration modeling and the Remaining Useful Lifetime (RUL estimation for such closed-loop dynamic system have not been addressed extensively. In this paper, we consider a controlled system with Proportional-Integral-Derivative controller. It is assumed that the actuator is subject to shocks that occur randomly in time. An integrated model is proposed to jointly describe the state of the controlled process and the actuator deterioration. Only the output of the controlled system is available to assess its health condition. By considering a Piecewise Deterministic Markov Process, the RUL of the system can be estimated by a two-step approach. In the first step referred as the “Diagnosis” step, the system state is estimated online from the available monitoring observations by using a particle filtering method. In the second step referred as the “Prognosis” step, the RUL is estimated as a conditional reliability by Monte Carlo simulation. To illustrate the approach, a simulated tank level control system is used.

  20. Bone Tissue in Down Syndrome Patients Deteriorates Following Aging: A Study Based on Bone Ultrasound Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirela Gavris

    2014-03-01

    Conclusion: This study showed that BUA is sufficiently sensitive to highlight the bone degradation that occurs at the end of adolescence and in adulthood in individuals with DS. In addition, BUA and stabilometric performances were able to distinguish DS patients from controls in the two older age groups, indicating that bone tissue and postural control of DS patients deteriorate with aging.