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Sample records for aerobic deterioration influences

  1. Aerobic deterioration influences the fermentative, microbiological and nutritional quality of maize and sorghum silages on farm in high quality milk and cheese production chains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgio Borreani

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Maize and sorghum silages are good sources of energy for lactating dairy cows that produce milk destined for fresh and matured cheeses. Silages are usually stored in horizontal silos with or without side walls on commercial farms throughout the world. The main microbiological and nutritional quality problems are related to harvesting time, ensiling technology, and management practices during filling and feed-out. Aerobic deterioration is a key point that must avoided on farms in order to improve the hygienic, chemical and sensorial quality of milk and cheeses. Aerobic deterioration causes large losses of dry matter (DM and quality, and it can cause health problems for animals and humans through the transfer of pathogens and mycotoxins from feed and livestock to food products. The objectives of the present work were to overview management practices connected to the storage of maize and sorghum in horizontal silos on farms producing milk for make Protected Designation of Origin (PDO hard ripened cheese, to define good management practices that should be applied as the basis for safe silage production and to reduce the extent of aerobic deterioration.As silagens de milho e de sorgo são importantes fontes de energia em rações utilizadas na bovinocultura leiteira, sendo que a estocagem desses volumosos é realizada em silos horizontais com ou sem a presença de paredes laterais (trincheira ou superfície, respectivamente, os quais são atrativos em razão do baixo custo de armazenamento, porém suas conformações determinam grande superfície de exposição, o que torna as silagens mais susceptíveis a deterioração aeróbia. Os maiores problemas envolvendo a qualidade microbiológica e nutricional em silagens, estão relacionados às práticas de manejo na colheita, no abastecimento e compactação da massa, na vedação e, principalmente, durante o desabastecimento do silo. O controle da deterioração aeróbia em silagens pode ser o principal

  2. Dynamics Associated with Prolonged Ensiling and Aerobic Deterioration of Total Mixed Ration Silage Containing Whole Crop Corn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huili; Ning, Tingting; Hao, Wei; Zheng, Mingli; Xu, Chuncheng

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the dynamics associated with prolonged ensiling and aerobic deterioration of whole crop corn (WCC) silages and total mixed ration (TMR) silages containing WCC (C-TMR silages) to clarify the differences that account for the enhanced aerobic stability of TMR silages. Laboratory-scale barrel silos were randomly opened after 7, 14, 28, and 56 d of ensiling and were subjected to analyses of fermentation quality, microbial and temperature dynamics during aerobic exposure. WCC and C-TMR silages were both well preserved and microorganisms were inhibited with prolonged ensiling, including lactic acid bacteria. Yeast were inhibited to below the detection limit of 500 cfu/g fresh matter within 28 d of ensiling. Aerobic stability of both silages was enhanced with prolonged ensiling, whereas C-TMR silages were more aerobically stable than WCC silages for the same ensiling period. Besides the high moisture content, the weak aerobic stability of WCC silage is likely attributable to the higher lactic acid content and yeast count, which result from the high water-soluble carbohydrates content in WCC. After silo opening, yeast were the first to propagate and the increase in yeast levels is greater than that of other microorganisms in silages before deterioration. Besides, increased levels of aerobic bacteria were also detected before heating of WCC silages. The temperature dynamics also indicated that yeast are closely associated with the onset of the aerobic deterioration of C-TMR silage, whereas for WCC silages, besides yeast, aerobic bacteria also function in the aerobic deterioration. Therefore, the inclusion of WCC might contribute to the survival of yeast during ensiling but not influence the role of yeast in deterioration of C-TMR silages. PMID:26732329

  3. Lactic Acid Bacteria in Total Mixed Ration Silage Containing Soybean Curd Residue: Their Isolation, Identification and Ability to Inhibit Aerobic Deterioration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y; Wang, F; Nishino, N

    2016-04-01

    We investigated the effects of the predominant lactic acid bacteria (LAB) on the fermentation characteristics and aerobic stability of total mixed ration (TMR) silage containing soybean curd residue (SC-TMR silage). The SC-TMR materials were ensiled in laboratory silos for 14 or 56 days. LAB predominant in SC-TMR silage were identified (Exp. 1). Lactobacillus fermentum (L. fermentum) and Streptococcus bovis (S. bovis) were found in the untreated materials, Leuconostoc pseudomesenteroides (L. pseudomesenteroides) in 14-day silage and Lactobacillus plantarum (L. plantarum) in all silages. Pediococcus acidilactici (P. acidilactici), Lactobacillus paracasei (L. paracasei), and Lactobacillus brevis (L. brevis) formed more than 90% of the isolates in 56-day silage. Italian ryegrass and whole crop maize were inoculated with P. acidilactici and L. brevis isolates and the fermentation and aerobic stability determined (Exp. 2). Inoculation with P. acidilactici and L. brevis alone or combined improved the fermentation products in ryegrass silage and markedly enhanced its aerobic stability. In maize silage, P. acidilactici and L. brevis inoculation caused no changes and suppressed deterioration when combined with increases in acetic acid content. The results indicate that P. acidilactici and L. brevis may produce a synergistic effect to inhibit SC-TMR silage deterioration. Further studies are needed to identify the inhibitory substances, which may be useful for developing potential antifungal agents.

  4. The influence of age and aerobic fitness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hey-Mogensen, M; Rabøl, R; Stride, N;

    2012-01-01

    Mitochondrial function has previously been studied in ageing, but never in humans matched for maximal oxygen uptake ((V)·O2max). Furthermore, the influence of ageing on mitochondrial substrate sensitivity is not known....

  5. Influence of inorganic salt on aerobic biodegradability of dyestuffs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    this paper, the influence of inorganic salt on aerobic biodegradability of dyestuffs was studied by means of semicontinuous activated sludge method. It was found that: biodegradability of dyestuffs would decrease with the increase of the concentration of NaCl; however, biodegradability in the condition of NaCl = 30 g/L was better than that in the condition of NaCl =15 g/L; in the three NaCl conditions, biodegradability of tasted dyestuffs followed the following order: NaCl= 0 g/L > NaCl= 30g/L>NaCl= 15 g/L.

  6. Metagenomic characterization of 'Candidatus Defluviicoccus tetraformis strain TFO71', a tetrad-forming organism, predominant in an anaerobic-aerobic membrane bioreactor with deteriorated biological phosphorus removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobu, Masaru K; Tamaki, Hideyuki; Kubota, Kengo; Liu, Wen-Tso

    2014-09-01

    In an acetate-fed anaerobic-aerobic membrane bioreactor with deteriorated enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR), Defluviicoccus-related tetrad-forming organisms (DTFO) were observed to predominate in the microbial community. Using metagenomics, a partial genome of the predominant DTFO, 'Candidatus Defluviicoccus tetraformis strain TFO71', was successfully constructed and characterized. Examining the genome confirmed the presence of genes related to the synthesis and degradation of glycogen and polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA), which function as energy and carbon storage compounds. TFO71 and 'Candidatus Accumulibacter phosphatis' (CAP) UW-1 and CAP UW-2, representative polyphosphate-accumulating organisms (PAO), have PHA metabolism-related genes with high homology, but TFO71 has unique genes for PHA synthesis, gene regulation and granule management. We further discovered genes encoding DTFO polyphosphate (polyP) synthesis, suggesting that TFO71 may synthesize polyP under untested conditions. However, TFO71 may not activate these genes under EBPR conditions because the retrieved genome does not contain all inorganic phosphate transporters that are characteristic of PAOs (CAP UW-1, CAP UW-2, Microlunatus phosphovorus NM-1 and Tetrasphaera species). As a first step in characterizing EBPR-associated DTFO metabolism, this study identifies important differences between DTFO and PAO that may contribute to EBPR community competition and deterioration. PMID:24428681

  7. The influence of a six month aerobics programme on middle aged women's aerobic capacity and body composition

    OpenAIRE

    Barbora Šeděnková; Pavel Stejskal; Jaroslav Šimíček; Milan Elfmark; Tereza Bušinová; Barbora Raníková

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Regular physical activity has a positive influence on increasing physical fitness, which has considerable impact on health and, consequently, on the quality and length of human life. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to assess the influence of six months of physical endurance activity on the body composition and aerobic capacity of middle aged women. METHODS: Forty women between the ages of 40 to 55 years with a sedentary occupation and without regular physical activity took par...

  8. Research on aerobics classes influence on physical prepareduess of students.

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    Krasulia M. А.

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Physical skills of female students doing aerobics have been studied. 165 female students aged 17-18 divided into three groups of 55 each have taken part in the experiment. Groups have been trained according to different methods conventionally called 'power aerobics', 'dance aerobics' and 'jump aerobics'. Level of female students' physical skills has been determined by the results of seven tests in the beginning of an academic year and after six-months term. Mathematical treatment of the results has been carried out. The most preferable as to improving physical skills level method has been discovered to be the one aimed on power abilities development method.

  9. Resistance of biofilm-covered mortars to microbiologically influenced deterioration simulated by sulfuric acid exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soleimani, Sahar, E-mail: ssoleima@connect.carleton.ca; Isgor, O. Burkan, E-mail: burkan_isgor@carleton.ca; Ormeci, Banu, E-mail: banu_ormeci@carleton.ca

    2013-11-15

    Following the reported success of biofilm applications on metal surfaces to inhibit microbiologically influenced corrosion, effectiveness and sustainability of E. coli DH5α biofilm on mortar surface to prevent microbiologically influenced concrete deterioration (MICD) are investigated. Experiments simulating microbial attack were carried out by exposing incrementally biofilm-covered mortar specimens to sulfuric acid solutions with pH ranging from 3 to 6. Results showed that calcium concentration in control reactors without biofilm was 23–47% higher than the reactors with biofilm-covered mortar. Formation of amorphous silica gel as an indication of early stages of acid attack was observed only on the control mortar specimens without biofilm. During acidification, the biofilm continued to grow and its thickness almost doubled from ∼ 30 μm before acidification to ∼ 60 μm after acidification. These results demonstrated that E. coli DH5α biofilm was able to provide a protective and sustainable barrier on mortar surfaces against medium to strong sulfuric acid attack. -- Highlights: •Effectiveness of E.coli DH5α biofilm to prevent MICD was studied. •Conditions that lead to MICD were simulated by chemical acidification. •Biofilm-covered mortar specimens were exposed to sulfuric acid solutions. •The presence of biofilm helped reduce the chemically-induced mortar deterioration. •Biofilm remained alive and continued to grow during the acidification process.

  10. Physical health of young and middle age women under influence of step-aerobics exercises

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    Masliak I.P.

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to determine the degree of step-aerobics exercises’ influence on 20-35 years age women’s health. Material: in the research 28 women of 20-35 years old age participated. Anthropometric indicators, heart beats rate in rest and after load (20 squats for 30 sec., blood pressure, vital capacity of lungs, hand dynamometry were registered. Results: level of physical health has been determined; influence of step-aerobics on women’s health has been found; age differences in the tested indicators have been analyzed. It was found out that step-aerobic trainings influence greatly on the following indicators: body mass, circumferential sizes and cardio vascular system; on functioning of respiratory system, strength of hand’s flexors and regulation of 31-35 years age women’s cardio-vascular system. Conclusions: application of step-aerobic exercises positively influenced on health of 20-35 years old women.

  11. Influence employment by improving aerobics on motor readiness of girls

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    Shypulo I. P.

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : substantiate the effect of employment by improving aerobics on motor readiness of girls in extracurricular educational institutions. Material : the study involved 90 women aged 16-18 years old. Classes are held 3 times a week for 1 hour each. Results : defined state and the most informative indicators motor fitness girls. Built analytical model of graph model for forecasting and conducting quantitative and qualitative control of motor fitness girls. The degree of severity of each of the parameters studied motor fitness girls. Conclusions : the possibilities of predicting outcomes. Recommended method of aerobics classes, which has five stages. Its main feature - the constant objective control efficiency of employment.

  12. Influence of nuclear glasses composition on their liability to deterioration; Influence de la composition des verres nucleaires sur leur alterabilite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tovena, I.

    1995-09-29

    This contributes to the study of the nuclear glasses composition influence on their liability to deterioration. The methodology of the experimental research used has lead to define between the thirty oxides which form the reference glass light water, six oxides of interest. For each of these oxides, a composition variation area has been defined. A matrix of twenty glass compositions has then been defined. The preparation of materials of these compositions has sometimes lead to materials weakly heterogeneous which have been characterized before deterioration. This study has been completed by those of three glasses in a composition variation area narrower of the light water nuclear glass : the R7T7 and two glasses at limits having respectively an initial dissolution velocity at 100 degrees Celsius theoretically maximum and minimum. Some deterioration parameters in pure water have been experimentally measured on the twenty three glasses : 1) an initial dissolution velocity at 100 degrees (Vo{sub 1}00) Celsius and another one at 90 degrees Celsius (Vo{sub 9}0) 2) a dissolution velocity in conditions near the saturation at 90 degrees Celsius 3) an apparent solubility of glass based on the ortho silicic acid activity 4) the evolution of the dissolution kinetics at 90 degrees Celsius in sub-saturated medium towards saturated medium 5) the alteration films nature developed at the glasses surface during these last alteration tests. Some thermodynamic and structural models have been studied in order to predict Vo{sub 9}0 and Vo{sub 1}00. The dissolution kinetic law developed from reference glass dissolution results has been studied with the calculation code LIXIVER. It has not been able to be used for most of the glasses compositions studied. As a consequence, the glasses dissolution control by a surface reaction which are itself controlled by the only dissolved silica is an hypothesis which is not verified for the greater part of the glasses. (O.L.). refs., figs., tabs.

  13. The influence of a six month aerobics programme on middle aged women's aerobic capacity and body composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbora Šeděnková

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Regular physical activity has a positive influence on increasing physical fitness, which has considerable impact on health and, consequently, on the quality and length of human life. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to assess the influence of six months of physical endurance activity on the body composition and aerobic capacity of middle aged women. METHODS: Forty women between the ages of 40 to 55 years with a sedentary occupation and without regular physical activity took part in the study. The experimental group (n = 21 participated in dance aerobics lessons combined with strength training three times a week for 6 months, during exercise heart rate was monitored by heart rate monitors. The control group (n = 19 did not change their lifestyle during the observed period. All participants passed an all-out bicycle ergometer test to exhaustion and anthropometric measurement (bioelectrical impedance analysis method before and after this six month program. RESULTS: In the experimental group, after finishing the intervention programme, positive changes were perceptible in almost all monitored parameters; specifically an increase of fat free mass in the lower limbs, peak oxygen consumption, and the duration of the exercise test was statistically significant. Although, in the control group, some monitored parameters changed almost identically; the amount of fat free mass decreased and the duration of the exercise test diminished. Analysis of variance at repeated measurements confirmed that the intervention programme had a statistically significant and positive effect on the duration of the exercise test and on the amount of muscle and fat free mass in the right lower limb. CONCLUSIONS: Physical intervention had a statistically important positive influence on the amount of muscle and fat free mass in the right lower limb and on the duration of the exercise test (also logically significant. The results were affected by the women's poor

  14. Influence employment by improving aerobics on motor readiness of girls

    OpenAIRE

    Shypulo I. P.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose : substantiate the effect of employment by improving aerobics on motor readiness of girls in extracurricular educational institutions. Material : the study involved 90 women aged 16-18 years old. Classes are held 3 times a week for 1 hour each. Results : defined state and the most informative indicators motor fitness girls. Built analytical model of graph model for forecasting and conducting quantitative and qualitative control of motor fitness girls. The degree of severity of each of...

  15. Influence of different substrates on the formation and characteristics of aerobic granules in sequencing batch reactors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Fei-yun; YANG Cheng-yong; LI Jiu-yi; YANG Ya-jing

    2006-01-01

    The effects of different substrates on the aerobic granulation process were studied using laboratory-scale sequencing batch reactors (SBRs). Four parallel granules sequencing batch reactors (GSBR): R1, R2, R3, and R4 were fed with acetate, glucose, peptone and fecula, respectively. Stable aerobic granules were successfully cultivated in R1, R2, R4, and smaller granules less than 500 μm were formed in R3. Morphology and the physic-chemical characteristics of aerobic granules fed with different carbon substrates were investigated by the four reactors operated under the same pressure. The aerobic granules in the four reactors were observed and found that peptone was the most stable one due to its good settleability even after a sludge age as short as l0 d. A strong correlation was testified between the characteristics of aerobic granules and the properties of carbon substrates. The stability of aerobic granules was affected by extracellular polymer substances (EPS) derived from microorganism growth during feast time fed with different carbon substrates, and the influence of the property of storage substance was greater than that of its quantity. Optimal carbon substrates, which are helpful in the cultivation and retention of well-settling granules and in the enhancement of the overall ability of the aerobic granules reactors, were found.

  16. Aerobic capacity as a mediator of the influence of birth weight and school performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Hermoso, A

    2016-08-01

    Low birth weight is associated with cognitive impairments persisting into adolescence and early adulthood. The purposes of this study was two-fold: to analyse the association between birth weight (BW) and school performance, and to determine the influence of adolescent aerobic capacity and muscular strength on the association between BW and school performance in children at 12-13 years. The study included 395 children (50.4% boys, aged 12-13 years). Self-reported BW was evaluated. We measured school performance (mean of the grades obtained in language and mathematics) and two physical fitness tests (aerobic capacity and muscular strength). Analysis of variance was used to analyse the differences in school performance according to BW categories (⩽2500, 2500-3500 and ⩾3500 g). Linear regression models fitted for mediation analyses examined whether the association between BW and school performance was mediated by aerobic capacity and/or muscular strength. Higher BW was associated with better school performance independent of current body mass index. These differences disappeared after controlling for aerobic capacity, which also mediated the association between BW and school performance (13.4%). The relationship between BW and school performance seems to be dependent on aerobic capacity fitness. Our results are of importance because the consequences of BW tend to continue into childhood, and current physical fitness of the children may potentially be modified to improve school performance. PMID:27020122

  17. The influence of childhood aerobic fitness on learning and memory.

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    Lauren B Raine

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: There is a growing trend of inactivity among children, which may not only result in poorer physical health, but also poorer cognitive health. Previous research has shown that lower fitness has been related to decreased cognitive function for tasks requiring perception, memory, and cognitive control as well as lower academic achievement. PURPOSE: To investigate the relationship between aerobic fitness, learning, and memory on a task that involved remembering names and locations on a fictitious map. Different learning strategies and recall procedures were employed to better understand fitness effects on learning novel material. METHODS: Forty-eight 9-10 year old children (n = 24 high fit; HF and n = 24 low fit; LF performed a task requiring them to learn the names of specific regions on a map, under two learning conditions in which they only studied (SO versus a condition in which they were tested during study (TS. The retention day occurred one day after initial learning and involved two different recall conditions: free recall and cued recall. RESULTS: There were no differences in performance at initial learning between higher fit and lower fit participants. However, during the retention session higher fit children outperformed lower fit children, particularly when the initial learning strategy involved relatively poor recall performance (i.e., study only versus test-study strategy. CONCLUSIONS: We interpret these novel data to suggest that fitness can boost learning and memory of children and that these fitness-associated performance benefits are largest in conditions in which initial learning is the most challenging. Such data have important implications for both educational practice and policy.

  18. Estimation of Concrete Carbonation Depth Considering Multiple Influencing Factors on the Deterioration of Durability for Reinforced Concrete Structures

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    Hae-Chang Cho

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available While the durability of concrete structures is greatly influenced by many factors, previous studies typically considered only a single durability deterioration factor. In addition, these studies mostly conducted their experiments inside the laboratory, and it is extremely hard to find any case in which data were obtained from field inspection. Accordingly, this study proposed an Adaptive Neurofuzzy Inference System (ANFIS algorithm that can estimate the carbonation depth of a reinforced concrete member, in which combined deterioration has been reflected based on the data obtained from field inspections of 9 buildings. The proposed ANFIS algorithm closely estimated the carbonation depths, and it is considered that, with further inspection data, a higher accuracy would be achieved. Thus, it is expected to be used very effectively for durability estimation of a building of which the inspection is performed periodically.

  19. Influence of microbial community structure of seed sludge on the properties of aerobic nitrifying granules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Zhiwei; Li, Ting; Wang, Qiuxu; Pan, Yu; Li, Lixin

    2015-09-01

    In order to evaluate the influence of microbial community structure of seed sludge on the properties of aerobic nitrifying granules, these granules were cultivated with different seed sludge, and the variation of microbial community and dominant bacterial groups that impact the nitrogen removal efficiency of the aerobic nitrifying granules were analyzed and identified using 16s rDNA sequence and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) profiles. The results presented here demonstrated that the influence of the community structure of seed sludge on the properties of aerobic nitrifying granules was remarkable, and the granules cultivated by activated sludge from a beer wastewater treatment plant showed better performance, with a stable sludge volume index (SVI) value of 20mL/g, high extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) content of 183.3mg/L, high NH4(+)-N removal rate of 89.42% and abundant microbial population with 10 dominant bacterial groups. This indicated that activated sludge with abundant communities is suitable for use as seed sludge in culturing aerobic nitrifying granules. PMID:26354703

  20. Feed restriction and a diet's caloric value: The influence on the aerobic and anaerobic capacity of rats

    OpenAIRE

    Moura Leandro; Kalva-Filho Carlos; Loures João; de Sousa Silva Maria; Zorzetto Lucas; Junior Marcelo; de Araújo Michel; Dalia Rodrigo; de Mello Maria

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background The influence of feed restriction and different diet's caloric value on the aerobic and anaerobic capacity is unclear in the literature. Thus, the objectives of this study were to determine the possible influences of two diets with different caloric values and the influence of feed restriction on the aerobic (anaerobic threshold: AT) and anaerobic (time to exhaustion: Tlim) variables measured by a lactate minimum test (LM) in rats. Methods We used 40 adult Wistar rats. The...

  1. [Application of cowl in semi-aerobic landfill and its influence in initial stage].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Dan; Zhao, You-cai; Xue, Bin-jie; Gao, Pin

    2009-10-15

    Enhancement of semi-aerobic landfill performance through a cowl installed on the gas ventilation pipeline using a simulated landfill box with 2 m x 1 m x 2 m in size was investigated, aiming at the maximum methane emission reduction. Influence of cowl on semi-aerobic environment formation was explored, and variety of methane and carbon dioxide concentrations at different wind speeds and mechanism of cowl operation were identified to provide information on design and improvement of semi-aerobic landfill. The results show that the cowl speeds up the semi-aerobic environment to shape, from over 50 days down to approximately 40 days, and reduces methane emission by promoting methane transformation to carbon dioxide. When the cowl is taken off suddenly during the normal operation, carbon dioxide concentration falls to 15.88% from the initial 16.67% immediately, and methane concentration increases to 16.12% from 6.14%. However, the carbon dioxide and methane concentration becomes 19.18% and 10.05%, respectively, as the cowl is taken on again. Additionally, methane emissions in the exhaust gas were monitored at different wind speeds of 2.0, 3.5, 5.0, 6.5, 8.0 m/s, and finds that the methane concentration reduces from the initial 15% to below 5% when the wind speed increases from 2 m/s to 8 m/s.

  2. Influence of bovine lactoferrin on the growth of selected probiotic bacteria under aerobic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Po-Wen; Ku, Yu-We; Chu, Fang-Yi

    2014-10-01

    Bovine lactoferrin (bLf) is a natural glycoprotein, and it shows broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity. However, reports on the influences of bLf on probiotic bacteria have been mixed. We examined the effects of apo-bLf (between 0.25 and 128 mg/mL) on both aerobic and anaerobic cultures of probiotics. We found that bLf had similar effects on the growth of probiotics under aerobic or anaerobic conditions, and that it actively and significantly (at concentrations of >0.25 mg/mL) retarded the growth rate of Bifidobacterium bifidum (ATCC 29521), B. longum (ATCC 15707), B. lactis (BCRC 17394), B. infantis (ATCC 15697), Lactobacillus reuteri (ATCC 23272), L. rhamnosus (ATCC 53103), and L. coryniformis (ATCC 25602) in a dose-dependent manner. Otherwise, minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were 128 or >128 mg/mL against B. bifidum, B. longum, B. lactis, L. reuteri, and L. rhamnosus (ATCC 53103). With regard to MICs, bLf showed at least four-fold lower inhibitory effect on probiotics than on pathogens. Intriguingly, bLf (>0.25 mg/mL) significantly enhanced the growth of Rhamnosus (ATCC 7469) and L. acidophilus (BCRC 14065) by approximately 40-200 %, during their late periods of growth. Supernatants produced from aerobic but not anaerobic cultures of L. acidophilus reduced the growth of Escherichia coli by about 20 %. Thus, bLf displayed a dose-dependent inhibitory effect on the growth of most probiotic strains under either aerobic or anaerobic conditions. An antibacterial supernatant prepared from the aerobic cultures may have significant practical use. PMID:24916115

  3. Aerobic glycolysis during brain activation: adrenergic regulation and influence of norepinephrine on astrocytic metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dienel, Gerald A; Cruz, Nancy F

    2016-07-01

    Aerobic glycolysis occurs during brain activation and is characterized by preferential up-regulation of glucose utilization compared with oxygen consumption even though oxygen level and delivery are adequate. Aerobic glycolysis is a widespread phenomenon that underlies energetics of diverse brain activities, such as alerting, sensory processing, cognition, memory, and pathophysiological conditions, but specific cellular functions fulfilled by aerobic glycolysis are poorly understood. Evaluation of evidence derived from different disciplines reveals that aerobic glycolysis is a complex, regulated phenomenon that is prevented by propranolol, a non-specific β-adrenoceptor antagonist. The metabolic pathways that contribute to excess utilization of glucose compared with oxygen include glycolysis, the pentose phosphate shunt pathway, the malate-aspartate shuttle, and astrocytic glycogen turnover. Increased lactate production by unidentified cells, and lactate dispersal from activated cells and lactate release from the brain, both facilitated by astrocytes, are major factors underlying aerobic glycolysis in subjects with low blood lactate levels. Astrocyte-neuron lactate shuttling with local oxidation is minor. Blockade of aerobic glycolysis by propranolol implicates adrenergic regulatory processes including adrenal release of epinephrine, signaling to brain via the vagus nerve, and increased norepinephrine release from the locus coeruleus. Norepinephrine has a powerful influence on astrocytic metabolism and glycogen turnover that can stimulate carbohydrate utilization more than oxygen consumption, whereas β-receptor blockade 're-balances' the stoichiometry of oxygen-glucose or -carbohydrate metabolism by suppressing glucose and glycogen utilization more than oxygen consumption. This conceptual framework may be helpful for design of future studies to elucidate functional roles of preferential non-oxidative glucose utilization and glycogen turnover during brain

  4. Aerobic capacity influences the spatial position of individuals within fish schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killen, Shaun S; Marras, Stefano; Steffensen, John F; McKenzie, David J

    2012-01-22

    The schooling behaviour of fish is of great biological importance, playing a crucial role in the foraging and predator avoidance of numerous species. The extent to which physiological performance traits affect the spatial positioning of individual fish within schools is completely unknown. Schools of juvenile mullet Liza aurata were filmed at three swim speeds in a swim tunnel, with one focal fish from each school then also measured for standard metabolic rate (SMR), maximal metabolic rate (MMR), aerobic scope (AS) and maximum aerobic swim speed. At faster speeds, fish with lower MMR and AS swam near the rear of schools. These trailing fish required fewer tail beats to swim at the same speed as individuals at the front of schools, indicating that posterior positions provide hydrodynamic benefits that reduce swimming costs. Conversely, fish with high aerobic capacity can withstand increased drag at the leading edge of schools, where they could maximize food intake while possibly retaining sufficient AS for other physiological functions. SMR was never related to position, suggesting that high maintenance costs do not necessarily motivate individuals to occupy frontal positions. In the wild, shifting of individuals to optimal spatial positions during changing conditions could influence structure or movement of entire schools.

  5. Genetic Influences on Physiological and Subjective Responses to an Aerobic Exercise Session among Sedentary Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hollis C. Karoly

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To determine whether genetic variants suggested by the literature to be associated with physiology and fitness phenotypes predicted differential physiological and subjective responses to a bout of aerobic exercise among inactive but otherwise healthy adults. Method. Participants completed a 30-minute submaximal aerobic exercise session. Measures of physiological and subjective responding were taken before, during, and after exercise. 14 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs that have been previously associated with various exercise phenotypes were tested for associations with physiological and subjective response to exercise phenotypes. Results. We found that two SNPs in the FTO gene (rs8044769 and rs3751812 were related to positive affect change during exercise. Two SNPs in the CREB1 gene (rs2253206 and 2360969 were related to change in temperature during exercise and with maximal oxygen capacity (VO2 max. The SLIT2 SNP rs1379659 and the FAM5C SNP rs1935881 were associated with norepinephrine change during exercise. Finally, the OPRM1 SNP rs1799971 was related to changes in norepinephrine, lactate, and rate of perceived exertion (RPE during exercise. Conclusion. Genetic factors influence both physiological and subjective responses to exercise. A better understanding of genetic factors underlying physiological and subjective responses to aerobic exercise has implications for development and potential tailoring of exercise interventions.

  6. Evaluation of E. coli biofilm as a protective barrier against microbiologically influenced deterioration of concrete (MICD) under mesophilic temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soleimani, S; Ormeci, B; Isgor, O B

    2013-01-01

    In this study, Escherichia coli DH5α biofilm was evaluated for its potential to control and minimize microbiologically influenced concrete deterioration (MICD) under mesophilic temperatures (37 °C). Escherichia coli DH5α biofilm was first grown on Portland cement mortar disks for 8 days. Mortar disks were then exposed to two different types of sulfur oxidizing bacteria (SOB) (Thiobacillus neapolitanus and Thiobacillus thiooxidans), which use sulfur compounds as substrate and oxidize them to sulfate and sulfuric acid. The effectiveness of the biofilm against MICD was evaluated by measuring pH, sulfate, calcium concentrations in the reactors and surface analysis of the mortar samples using X-ray diffraction and visual inspection. Overall, the results indicate that the E. coli DH5α biofilm showed good protection against MICD induced by SOB at 37 °C.

  7. The influence of fitball-aerobics classes on the level of female-students physical preparation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chernenko E. E.

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses the peculiarities of fitball-aerobics classes on the level of 17-20 years old female-students physical preparation. The results received in the process of the carried out experimental investigation, give a chance to state that under the influence of classes the results of female-students became better almost in all test exercises, the exception is the result of the test "Bending of the arms in the emphasis lying". The greatest relative gain of the results was fixed in the tests, characterizing the level of flexibility improvement and functions of equilibrium.

  8. The influence of fitball-aerobics classes on the level of female-students physical preparation.

    OpenAIRE

    Chernenko E. E.; Malikov N.V.

    2011-01-01

    The article analyses the peculiarities of fitball-aerobics classes on the level of 17-20 years old female-students physical preparation. The results received in the process of the carried out experimental investigation, give a chance to state that under the influence of classes the results of female-students became better almost in all test exercises, the exception is the result of the test "Bending of the arms in the emphasis lying". The greatest relative gain of the results was fixed in the...

  9. Influence of aerobic exercise training on post-exercise responses of aortic pulse pressure and augmentation pressure in postmenopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuhiko eAkazawa

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Central arterial blood pressure (BP is more predictive of future cardiovascular events than is brachial BP because it reflects the BP load imposed on the left ventricle with greater accuracy. However, little is known about the effects of exercise training on central hemodynamic response to acute exercise. The purpose of the present study was to determine the influence of an aerobic exercise regimen on the response of aortic BP after a single aerobic exercise in postmenopausal women. Nine healthy postmenopausal women (age: 61 ± 2 years participated in a 12-week aerobic exercise training regimen. Before and after the training, each subjects performed a single bout of cycling at ventilatory thresholds for 30 min. We evaluated the post-exercise aortic BP response, which was estimated via the general transfer function from applanation tonometry. After the initial pre-training aerobic exercise session, aortic BP did not change significantly: however, aortic pulse pressure and augmentation pressure were significantly attenuated after the single aerobic exercise session following the 12-week training regimen. The present study demonstrated that a regular aerobic exercise training regimen induced the post-exercise reduction of aortic pulse pressure and augmentation pressure. Regular aerobic exercise training may enhance post-exercise reduction in aortic BP.

  10. Influence of repeated bouts of eccentric exercise on high-intensity aerobic performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higino, Wonder Passoni; Aparecido de Souza, Renato; Cavalcanti, Fabio de Sousa; Cardoso, Anderlei Dos Santos; Vasconcelos, Murilo Victor; Fernandes da Silva, Fabiano; Leme, José Alexandre C A

    2016-08-01

    [Purpose] It is believed that eccentric high-intensity exercise can decrease performance in subsequent exercise. However, with repetition, the deleterious effects can be minimized. Thus, this study evaluated the influence of repeated bouts of eccentric exercise on subsequent high-intensity aerobic performance. [Subjects and Methods] Seven healthy and sedentary male volunteers were recruited. a) Visit 1: determination of maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max) and speed associated with maximum oxygen uptake (vVO2max) in incremental treadmill testing; b) Visit 2: run to exhaustion at vVO2max (Tlim control); c) Visit 3: 10 sets of 10 depth jumps, followed by a run to exhaustion at vVO2max (Tlim 1); d) Visit 4: after 6 weeks without any physical training, the volunteers carried out the same procedures as on the third visit (Tlim 2). Data were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) with the post-hoc Tukey test. [Results] Significant differences were found between Tlim control and Tlim 1 (283.4 ± 47.7 s vs. 125.2 ± 64.1 s, respectively), these were not different from Tlim 2. [Conclusion] Eccentric exercise showed deleterious effects on subsequent high-intensity aerobic performance. These effects were minimized after the exercise protocol was repeated 6 weeks after the first event.

  11. Influence of Nitrogen Containing Wastes Addition on Natural Aerobic Composting of Rice Straw

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaniya Kaosol

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Rice straw is an agricultural residue. Typically, the rice straw can be burn in the rice field after the harvesting process. The burning can cause air pollution. Another alternative rice straw management method is animal feed. The amount of rice straw is enormus in Thailand. Another sustainable way to manage rice straw is required. Rice straw is used as main waste to compost with nitrogen containing wastes such as golden apple snail, cattle dung and urea in natural aerobic composting reactors. The golden apple snail is a pesticide and cattle dung is an animal waste. Both materials are all waste of low values. The main purpose of this study was to determine the influence of nitrogen containing wastes addition to rice straw on the performance of natural aerobic composting process in terms of the following parameters: pH, temperature, organic matter, C/N ratio, electrical conductivity and GI. The impact of this study is to reuse agriculture residue by composting. Approach: The experiments was consisted of three reactors. The reactor 1 contains the rice straws and golden apple snails while the reactor 2 contains the rice straws, golden apple snails and urea. The reactor 3 contains the rice straws, cattle dung and urea. The experiments were carried out in designed natural aerobic reactors (60 L under controlled laboratory conditions over 60 days. The analysis was done every 5 days however the temperature was measured daily. Results: The experimental results showed that the initial C/N ratio was 30.7, 30.3 and 31.8 in the reactor 1, 2 and 3, respectively. After the 60-day period, the final C/N ratio was reduced to 17.9, 16.9 and 18.4 in the reactor 1, 2 and 3, respectively. The main nutrients (N: P: K from all reactors achieved the standard level for Thai compost standard. The rice straw as agricultural residue was suitable for co-composting with golden apple snails and cattle dung as the nitrogen containing wastes. Conclusion: The

  12. Influence of aerobic training on cardiovascular and metabolic parameters in elderly hypertensive women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayara F. T. Braz

    2012-01-01

    Conclusion: The proposed walking program did not alter serum cholesterol, but it did reduce resting blood pressure, improve aerobic performance and accelerate the fall in heart rate and mean blood pressure during the postprogressive maximal aerobic exercise recovery period in elderly hypertensive women.

  13. Understanding the removal mechanisms of PPCPs and the influence of main technological parameters in anaerobic UASB and aerobic CAS reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarino, T., E-mail: teresa.alvarino@usc.es; Suarez, S., E-mail: Sonia.suarez@usc.es; Lema, J.M., E-mail: juan.lema@usc.es; Omil, F., E-mail: francisco.omil@usc.es

    2014-08-15

    Highlights: • Removals of 16 PPCPs under aerobic and anaerobic conditions were quantified. • Operation conditions (HRT, v{sub up}, biomass activity and conformation) influenced removal. • Highest removals associated to aerobic biodegradation. • Sorption was only relevant for lipophilic compounds in the UASB reactor. - Abstract: The removal of 16 Pharmaceutical and Personal Care Products (PPCPs) were studied in a conventional activated sludge (CAS) unit and an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor. Special attention was paid to each biomass conformation and activity as well as to operational conditions. Biodegradation was the main PPCP removal mechanism, being higher removals achieved under aerobic conditions, except in the case of sulfamethoxazole and trimetrophim. Under anaerobic conditions, PPCP biodegradation was correlated with the methanogenic rate, while in the aerobic reactor a relationship with nitrification was found. Sorption onto sludge was influenced by biomass conformation, being only significant for musk fragrances in the UASB reactor, in which an increase of the upward velocity and hydraulic retention time improved this removal. Additionally, PPCP sorption increased with time in the UASB reactor, due to the granular biomass structure which suggests the existence of intra-molecular diffusion.

  14. Understanding the removal mechanisms of PPCPs and the influence of main technological parameters in anaerobic UASB and aerobic CAS reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Removals of 16 PPCPs under aerobic and anaerobic conditions were quantified. • Operation conditions (HRT, vup, biomass activity and conformation) influenced removal. • Highest removals associated to aerobic biodegradation. • Sorption was only relevant for lipophilic compounds in the UASB reactor. - Abstract: The removal of 16 Pharmaceutical and Personal Care Products (PPCPs) were studied in a conventional activated sludge (CAS) unit and an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor. Special attention was paid to each biomass conformation and activity as well as to operational conditions. Biodegradation was the main PPCP removal mechanism, being higher removals achieved under aerobic conditions, except in the case of sulfamethoxazole and trimetrophim. Under anaerobic conditions, PPCP biodegradation was correlated with the methanogenic rate, while in the aerobic reactor a relationship with nitrification was found. Sorption onto sludge was influenced by biomass conformation, being only significant for musk fragrances in the UASB reactor, in which an increase of the upward velocity and hydraulic retention time improved this removal. Additionally, PPCP sorption increased with time in the UASB reactor, due to the granular biomass structure which suggests the existence of intra-molecular diffusion

  15. The influence of aerobic fitness status on ventilatory efficiency in patients with coronary artery disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo M.L. Prado

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To test the hypotheses that 1 coronary artery disease patients with lower aerobic fitness exhibit a lower ventilatory efficiency and 2 coronary artery disease patients with lower initial aerobic fitness exhibit greater improvements in ventilatory efficiency with aerobic exercise training. METHOD: A total of 123 patients (61.0±0.7 years with coronary artery disease were divided according to aerobic fitness status into 3 groups: group 1 (n = 34, peak VO217.5 and 24.5 ml/kg/min. All patients performed a cardiorespiratory exercise test on a treadmill. Ventilatory efficiency was determined by the lowest VE/VCO2 ratio observed. The exercise training program comprised moderate-intensity aerobic exercise performed 3 times per week for 3 months. Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT02106533 RESULTS: Before intervention, group 1 exhibited both lower peak VO2 and lower ventilatory efficiency compared with the other 2 groups (p<0.05. After the exercise training program, group 1 exhibited greater improvements in aerobic fitness and ventilatory efficiency compared with the 2 other groups (group 1: ▵ = -2.5±0.5 units; group 2: ▵ = -0.8±0.3 units; and group 3: ▵ = -1.4±0.6 units, respectively; p<0.05. CONCLUSIONS: Coronary artery disease patients with lower aerobic fitness status exhibited lower ventilatory efficiency during a graded exercise test. In addition, after 3 months of aerobic exercise training, only the patients with initially lower levels of aerobic fitness exhibited greater improvements in ventilatory efficiency.

  16. Aerobic capacity influences the spatial position of individuals within fish schools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Killen, Shaun S.; Marras, Stefano; Steffensen, John Fleng;

    2012-01-01

    of juvenile mullet Liza aurata were filmed at three swim speeds in a swim tunnel, with one focal fish from each school then also measured for standard metabolic rate (SMR), maximal metabolic rate (MMR), aerobic scope (AS) and maximum aerobic swim speed. At faster speeds, fish with lower MMR and AS swam near...... the rear of schools. These trailing fish required fewer tail beats to swim at the same speed as individuals at the front of schools, indicating that posterior positions provide hydrodynamic benefits that reduce swimming costs. Conversely, fish with high aerobic capacity can withstand increased drag...

  17. The Influence of Time Spent in Outdoor Play on Daily and Aerobic Step Count in Costa Rican Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morera Castro, Maria del Rocio

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the influence of time spent in outdoor play (i.e., on weekday and weekend days) on daily (i.e., average step count) and aerobic step count (i.e., average moderate to vigorous physical activity [MVPA] during the weekdays and weekend days) in fifth grade Costa Rican children. It was hypothesized that: (a)…

  18. The influence of preliminary aerobic treatment on the efficacy of waste stabilisation under leachate recirculation conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Suchowska-Kisielewicz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the changes in the chemical composition of leachate and the concentrations and quantity of methane production in each individual decomposition phases, determined for untreated and after aerobic treatment of waste stabilised in anaerobic reactors with and without leachate recirculation. The research results demonstrate that leachate recirculation intensifies the decomposition of both aerobically treated and untreated waste. The methane production in the reactor with untreated, stabilised waste with recirculation was 28% higher; and in the reactor with aerobically treated waste, the methane production was 24% higher than in the reactors without recirculation. An important finding of the study is that aerobic treatment of waste prior to landfilling effectively reduces the quantity of pollutant emissions in leachate and biogas from waste and increases the availability for methane micro-organisms of organic substrates from difficult-to-decompose organic substances.

  19. Influence of aeration intensity on mature aerobic granules in sequencing batch reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Da-Wen; Liu, Lin; Liang, Hong

    2013-05-01

    Aeration intensity is well known as an important factor in the formation of aerobic granules. In this research, two identical lab-scale sequencing batch reactors with aeration intensity of 0.8 (R1) and 0.2 m(3)/h (R2) were operated to investigate the characteristics and kinetics of matured aerobic granules. Results showed that both aeration intensity conditions induced granulation, but they showed different effects on the characteristics of aerobic granules. Compared with the low aeration intensity (R2), the aerobic granules under the higher aeration intensity (R1) had better physical characteristics and settling ability. However, the observed biomass yield (Y obs) in R1 [0.673 kg mixed liquor volatile suspended solids (MLVSS)/kg chemical oxygen demand (COD)] was lower than R2 (0.749 kg MLVSS/kg COD). In addition, the maximum specific COD removal rates (q max) and apparent half rate constant (K) of mature aerobic granular sludge under the two aeration intensities were at a similar level. Therefore, the matured aerobic granule system does not require to be operated in a higher aeration intensity, which will reduce the energy consumption.

  20. The influence of an acute bout of aerobic exercise on cortical contributions to motor preparation and execution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thacker, Jonathan S; Middleton, Laura E; McIlroy, William E; Staines, W Richard

    2014-10-01

    Increasing evidence supports the use of physical activity for modifying brain activity and overall neurological health. Specifically, aerobic exercise appears to have a positive effect on cognitive function, which some have suggested to be a result of increasing levels of arousal. However, the role of aerobic exercise on movement-related cortical activity is less clear. We tested the hypothesis that (1) an acute bout of exercise modulates excitability within motor areas and (2) transient effects would be sustained as long as sympathetic drive remained elevated (indicated by heart rate). In experiment 1, participants performed unimanual self-paced wrist extension movements before and after a 20-min, moderate intensity aerobic exercise intervention on a recumbent cycle ergometer. After the cessation of exercise, Bereitschaftspotentials (BP), representative cortical markers for motor preparation, were recorded immediately postexercise (Post) and following a return to baseline heart rate (Post[Rest]). Electroencephalography (EEG) was used to measure the BP time-locked to onset of muscle activity and separated into three main components: early, late and reafferent potentials. In experiment 2, two additional time points postexercise were added to the original protocol following the Post[Rest] condition. Early BP but not late BP was influenced by aerobic exercise, evidenced by an earlier onset, indicative of a regionally selective effect across BP generators. Moreover, this effect was sustained for up to an hour following exercise cessation and this effect was following a return to baseline heart rate. These data demonstrate that acute aerobic exercise may alter and possibly enhance the cortical substrates required for the preparation of movement. PMID:25355852

  1. Influence of Age and Aerobic Fitness on the Multifractal Characteristics of Electrocardiographic RR Time-Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael James Lewis

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Multifractal properties of electrocardiographic inter-beat (RR time-series offer insight into its long-term correlation structure, independently of RR variability. Here we quantify multifractal characteristics of RR data during 24-hour diurnal-nocturnal activity in healthy participants. We tested the hypotheses that (1 age, gender and aerobic fitness influence RR multifractal properties, and that (2 these are influenced by circadian variation.Seventy adults (39 males aged 19-58 years and of various fitness levels were monitored using 24-hour ECG. Participants were dichotomised by median age and fitness for sub-group analysis. Gender and fitness were independent of age (p=0.1, p>0.5. Younger/older group ages were substantially different (p<0.0005 and were independent of gender and fitness. Multifractality was quantified using the probability spectrum of Hölder exponents (h, from which modal h (h* and the full-width and half-widths at half-maximum measures (FWHM, HWHM+ and HWHM- were derived. FWHM decreased (p=0.004 and h* increased (p=0.011 in older people, indicating diminished long-range RR correlations and weaker anti-persistent behavior. Anti-persistent correlation (h* was strongest in the youngest/fittest individuals and weakest in the oldest/least fit individuals (p=0.015. Long-range correlation (HWHM+/FWHM was strongest in the fittest males and weakest in the least fit females (p=0.007-0.033.Multifractal RR characteristics in our healthy participants showed strong age-dependence with diminished long-range anti-persistent correlation in older people. Circadian variation of these characteristics was influenced by fitness and gender: fitter males and females of all ages had the greatest degree of multifractality or long-range order. Multifractal characterisation appears to be a useful method for exploring the physiological basis of long-term correlation structure in RR time-series as well as the benefits thereon of physical fitness training.

  2. Influence of Aerobic Training and Combinations of Interventions on Cognition and Neuroplasticity after Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constans, Annabelle; Pin-Barre, Caroline; Temprado, Jean-Jacques; Decherchi, Patrick; Laurin, Jérôme

    2016-01-01

    Stroke often aggravated age-related cognitive impairments that strongly affect several aspects of quality of life. However, few studies are, to date, focused on rehabilitation strategies that could improve cognition. Among possible interventions, aerobic training is well known to enhance cardiovascular and motor functions but may also induce beneficial effects on cognitive functions. To assess the effectiveness of aerobic training on cognition, it seems necessary to know whether training promotes the neuroplasticity in brain areas involved in cognitive functions. In the present review, we first explore in both human and animal how aerobic training could improve cognition after stroke by highlighting the neuroplasticity mechanisms. Then, we address the potential effect of combinations between aerobic training with other interventions, including resistance exercises and pharmacological treatments. In addition, we postulate that classic recommendations for aerobic training need to be reconsidered to target both cognition and motor recovery because the current guidelines are only focused on cardiovascular and motor recovery. Finally, methodological limitations of training programs and cognitive function assessment are also developed in this review to clarify their effectiveness in stroke patients. PMID:27445801

  3. Aerobic Exercise and Other Healthy Lifestyle Factors That Influence Vascular Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos-Parker, Jessica R.; LaRocca, Thomas J.; Seals, Douglas R

    2014-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) remain the leading cause of death in the United States and other modern societies. Advancing age is the major risk factor for CVD, primarily due to stiffening of the large elastic arteries and the development of vascular endothelial dysfunction. In contrast, regular aerobic exercise protects against the development…

  4. Acute exercise and aerobic fitness influence selective attention during visual search

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom eBullock

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Successful goal directed behavior relies on a human attention system that is flexible and able to adapt to different conditions of physiological stress. However, the effects of physical activity on multiple aspects of selective attention and whether these effects are mediated by aerobic capacity, remains unclear. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of a prolonged bout of physical activity on visual search performance and perceptual distraction. Two groups of participants completed a hybrid visual search flanker/response competition task in an initial baseline session and then at 17-minute intervals over a 2 hour 16 minute test period. Participants assigned to the exercise group engaged in steady-state aerobic exercise between completing blocks of the visual task, whereas participants assigned to the control group rested in between blocks. The key result was a correlation between individual differences in aerobic capacity and visual search performance, such that those individuals that were more fit performed the search task more quickly. Critically, this relationship only emerged in the exercise group after the physical activity had begun. The relationship was not present in either group at baseline and never emerged in the control group during the test period, suggesting that under these task demands, aerobic capacity may be an important determinant of visual search performance under physical stress. The results enhance current understanding about the relationship between exercise and cognition, and also inform current models of selective attention.

  5. Microbially influenced corrosion of stainless steels by aerobic bacteria; Kokisei saikin no kanyoshita sutenresu ko no biseibutsu fushoku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amaya, H.; Miyuki, H. [Sumitomo Metal Inductries Ltd., Osaka (Japan). Corporate Research and Development Lab.

    1996-03-20

    Influence of microorganisms on the corrosion of metals has been recognized since Kuhr proposed the hypothesis of corrosion promotion due to so called hydrogen double electrode when hydrogen formed in corrosion reaction of steel is used by anaerobic bacteria. Corrosion of metals caused by the influence of such type of microorganisms is known as Microbially influenced corrosion (MIC), and recently is paid attention specially in Europe and America. These recent years, research on MIC is showing active trend even in Japan. As for the research subjects of MIC, the example of corrosion promotion of carbon steel by sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) in anaerobic environment is paid attention conventionally. Further, at present, effect of general type of aerobic heterotrophic bacteria on the corrosion of steel is paid attention and research is carried out actively. In this report, effect of aerobic heterotrophic bacteria on the corrosion of stainless steel is introduced focusing to the authors knowhow regarding the ennoblement phenomena of corrosion potential of stainless steel in natural sea water. 44 refs., 10 figs., 3 tabs.

  6. Influence of Nitrogen Containing Wastes Addition on Natural Aerobic Composting of Rice Straw

    OpenAIRE

    Thaniya Kaosol; Suchinun Kiepukdee; Prawit Towatana

    2012-01-01

    Problem statement: Rice straw is an agricultural residue. Typically, the rice straw can be burn in the rice field after the harvesting process. The burning can cause air pollution. Another alternative rice straw management method is animal feed. The amount of rice straw is enormus in Thailand. Another sustainable way to manage rice straw is required. Rice straw is used as main waste to compost with nitrogen containing wastes such as golden apple snail, cattle dung and urea in natural aerobic ...

  7. Influence of employment by various kinds of improving aerobics on a level of physical readiness of girls of 18-20 years

    OpenAIRE

    Chernenko E.; Gureeva A.

    2010-01-01

    In clause features of influence of employment by step-aerobics and fitball-aerobics on a level of physical readiness of girls of 18-20 years are analyzed. The results received during the lead experimental research, have allowed ascertaining, that under influence of employment results have improved at girls of both groups. However, authentic improvement of parameters is observed at girls of group №1 in the tests describing development of speed-power qualities and force, and at girls of group №...

  8. Feed restriction and a diet's caloric value: The influence on the aerobic and anaerobic capacity of rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Moura Leandro

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The influence of feed restriction and different diet's caloric value on the aerobic and anaerobic capacity is unclear in the literature. Thus, the objectives of this study were to determine the possible influences of two diets with different caloric values and the influence of feed restriction on the aerobic (anaerobic threshold: AT and anaerobic (time to exhaustion: Tlim variables measured by a lactate minimum test (LM in rats. Methods We used 40 adult Wistar rats. The animals were divided into four groups: ad libitum commercial Purina® diet (3028.0 Kcal/kg (ALP, restricted commercial Purina® diet (RAP, ad libitum semi-purified AIN-93 diet (3802.7 Kcal/kg (ALD and restricted semi-purified AIN-93 diet (RAD. The animals performed LM at the end of the experiment, 48 h before euthanasia. Comparisons between groups were performed by analysis of variance (p Results At the end of the experiment, the weights of the rats in the groups with the restricted diets were significantly lower than those in the groups with ad libitum diet intakes. In addition, the ALD group had higher amounts of adipose tissue. With respect to energetic substrates, the groups subjected to diet restriction had significantly higher levels of liver and muscle glycogen. There were no differences between the groups with respect to AT; however, the ALD group had lower lactatemia at the AT intensity and higher Tlim than the other groups. Conclusions We conclude that dietary restriction induces changes in energetic substrates and that ad libitum intake of a semi-purified AIN-93 diet results in an increase in adipose tissue, likely reducing the density of the animals in water and favouring their performance during the swimming exercises.

  9. Influence of gamma irradiation on the deterioration of reactor pressure vessel materials and on reactor dosimetry measurements. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation embrittlement of pressure vessel steel in mixed neutron-gamma fields is mostly determined by neutrons, but in some cases also by gamma-radiation. Depending on the reactor type, gamma radiation can influence evaluations of lead factors of surveillance specimens, effect the interpretation of results of irradiation experiments and finally, it can result in changed pressure vessel lifetime evaluations. The project aimed at the evaluation of the importance of gamma radiation for RPV steel damage for several types of light-water reactors. Absolute neutron and gamma fluence rate spectra had been calculated for the Russian PWR types VVER-440 and two core loading variants of VVER-1000, for a German 1300 MW PWR and a German 900 MW BWR. Based on the calculated spectra several flux integrals and radiation damage parameters were derived for the region of the azimuthal flux maxima in the mid-planes for different radial positions between core and biological shield, especially, at the inner and outer surfaces of the PV walls, at the (1/4)-PV-thickness and at the surveillance positions. Fissionable materials are often used as activation detectors for neutron fluence measurements. To get the real value the analysis demands to take into account the gamma induced fissions. Therefore, the part of these fissions in the total number of fissions was estimated for the detector reactions 237Np(n,f) and 238U(n,f) in the calculated neutron/gamma fields. It has been found that considerable corrections of the neutron fluence measurements can be necessary, especially in case of 238U(n,f). Most of the calculations were performed using a three-dimensional synthesis of 2D/1D-flux distributions obtained by the SN-code DORT with the BUGLE-96T group cross-section library. (orig.)

  10. Temperature influence on biological phosphorus removal induced by aerobic/extended-idle regime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hong-Bo; Wang, Dong-Bo; Li, Xiao-Ming; Yang, Qi; Luo, Kun; Zeng, Guang-Ming

    2014-05-01

    Previous researches have demonstrated that biological phosphorus removal (BPR) from wastewater could be driven by the aerobic/extended-idle (A/EI) regime. This study further investigated temperature effects on phosphorus removal performance in six A/EI sequencing batch reactors (SBRs) operated at temperatures ranging from 5 to 30 °C. The results showed that phosphorus removal efficiency increased with temperature increasing from 5 to 20 °C but slightly decreased when temperature continually increased to 30 °C. The highest phosphorus removal rate of 97.1 % was obtained at 20 °C. The biomass cultured at 20 °C contained more polyphosphate accumulating organisms (PAO) and less glycogen accumulating organisms (GAO) than that cultured at any other temperatures investigated. The mechanism studies revealed that temperature affected the transformations of glycogen and polyhydroxyalkanoates, and the activities of exopolyphosphatase and polyphosphate kinase activities. In addition, phosphorus removal performances of the A/EI and traditional anaerobic/oxic (A/O) SBRs were compared at 5 and 20 °C, respectively. The results showed the A/EI regime drove better phosphorus removal than the A/O regime at both 5 and 20 °C, and more PAO and less GAO abundances in the biomass might be the principal reason for the higher BPR in the A/EI SBRs as compared with the A/O SBRs. PMID:24464081

  11. Influence of temperature on the characteristics of aerobic granulation in sequencing batch airlift reactors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Zhiwei; REN Nanqi; ZHANG Kun; TONG Longyan

    2009-01-01

    Aerobic granular sludge were cultivated in sequencing batch airlift reactors (SBAR) at 25, 30 and 35℃,respectively. The effects of temperature on the granules characteristics were analyzed and the microbial community structures of the granules were probed using scanning electron micrograph (SEM) and polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE). The results showed that 30℃ is optimum for matured granules cultivated, where the granules had more compact structure, better settling ability and higher bioactivity, the OUR reached to 1.14 mg O2/(g MLVSS·min) with 97% removal rate of COD and 75% removal rate of TP, and the removal efficiency of NH3-N increased along with the temperature rising in the range of 68.5%-87.5%. DGGE profiles revealed that microbial community structure at 25℃ showed the lowest similarity with others, the sequencing results indicated that most of dominant microbes belonged to Actinobacteria and Proteobacterium. Thermomonas sp., Ottowia sp. and Curtobacterium ammoniigenes may act important roles respectively at different temperature.

  12. The influence of hydrolysis induced biopolymers from recycled aerobic sludge on specific methanogenic activity and sludge filterability in an anaerobic membrane bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buntner, D; Spanjers, H; van Lier, J B

    2014-03-15

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the impact of excess aerobic sludge on the specific methanogenic activity (SMA), in order to establish the maximum allowable aerobic sludge loading. In batch tests, different ratios of aerobic sludge to anaerobic inoculum were used, i.e. 0.03, 0.05, 0.10 and 0.15, showing that low ratios led to an increased SMA. However, the ratio 0.15 caused more than 20% SMA decrease. In addition to the SMA tests, the potential influence of biopolymers and extracellular substances, that are generated as a result of excess aerobic sludge hydrolysis, on membrane performance was determined by assessing the fouling potential of the liquid broth, taking into account parameters such as specific resistance to filtration (SRF) and supernatant filterability (SF). Addition of aerobic sludge to the anaerobic biomass resulted in a high membrane fouling potential. The increase in biopolymers could be ascribed to aerobic sludge hydrolysis. A clear positive correlation between the concentration of the colloidal fraction of biopolymer clusters (cBPC) and the SRF was observed and a negative correlation between the cBPC and the SF measured at the end of the above described SMA tests. The latter implies that sludge filtration resistance increases when more aerobic sludge is hydrolyzed, and thus more cBPC is released. During AnMBR operation, proteins significantly contributed to sludge filterability decrease expressed as SRF and SF, whereas the carbohydrate fraction of SMP was of less importance due to low concentrations. On the contrary, carbohydrates seemed to improve filterability and diminish SRF of the sludge. Albeit, cBPC increase caused an increase in mean TMP during the AnMBR operation, confirming that cBPC is positively correlated to membrane fouling.

  13. The influence of hydrolysis induced biopolymers from recycled aerobic sludge on specific methanogenic activity and sludge filterability in an anaerobic membrane bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buntner, D; Spanjers, H; van Lier, J B

    2014-03-15

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the impact of excess aerobic sludge on the specific methanogenic activity (SMA), in order to establish the maximum allowable aerobic sludge loading. In batch tests, different ratios of aerobic sludge to anaerobic inoculum were used, i.e. 0.03, 0.05, 0.10 and 0.15, showing that low ratios led to an increased SMA. However, the ratio 0.15 caused more than 20% SMA decrease. In addition to the SMA tests, the potential influence of biopolymers and extracellular substances, that are generated as a result of excess aerobic sludge hydrolysis, on membrane performance was determined by assessing the fouling potential of the liquid broth, taking into account parameters such as specific resistance to filtration (SRF) and supernatant filterability (SF). Addition of aerobic sludge to the anaerobic biomass resulted in a high membrane fouling potential. The increase in biopolymers could be ascribed to aerobic sludge hydrolysis. A clear positive correlation between the concentration of the colloidal fraction of biopolymer clusters (cBPC) and the SRF was observed and a negative correlation between the cBPC and the SF measured at the end of the above described SMA tests. The latter implies that sludge filtration resistance increases when more aerobic sludge is hydrolyzed, and thus more cBPC is released. During AnMBR operation, proteins significantly contributed to sludge filterability decrease expressed as SRF and SF, whereas the carbohydrate fraction of SMP was of less importance due to low concentrations. On the contrary, carbohydrates seemed to improve filterability and diminish SRF of the sludge. Albeit, cBPC increase caused an increase in mean TMP during the AnMBR operation, confirming that cBPC is positively correlated to membrane fouling. PMID:24284260

  14. In situ measurements of soil solution to assess the influence of aerobic/anaerobic conditions on metal mobility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cary, L.; Trolard, F.; Bourrie, G.

    2003-04-01

    Submerged soils are submitted to fast variations of aeration and aerobic-anaerobic conditions. Especially, paddy soils show hydromorphic phenomena on surface - induced by flooding - and in shallow depth in the soil. In Camargue (France), there occurs natural and intensively rice cultivated soils with an aquifer at less than 2 m deep. The aim is to observe and modelize the effects of aerobic-anaerobic variations on the mobility of metals in soils (Pb, Cu, Zn, Fe, Mn and Al). These are linked to oxygen inputs in the soil, due to aeration or oxygenation (Mediterranean storms), O_2 consumption and oxido-reduction processes. While Al, Fe and Mn are mainly inherited, Cu, Zn and Pb are mostly brought by anthropogenic inputs and/or atmospheric deposits. In order to monitor fast variations, we have installed instruments to acquire continuous and in situ measures since summer 2002. We used a multiparametric probe designed for oceanic measurements in seawater. The probe was adapted to monitor in situ pH, oxido-reduction potential, dissolved oxygen, electric conductivity, temperature and pressure in soil solution at 1.1 m depth every hour. It does not require maintenance for months. We added tubing to sample the soil solution in the measuring cell, free from atmosphere and light. Fe(II), nitrogen and sulphides are immediately analysed with a portable spectrophotometer. The results show that low frequency events, such as storms, influence strongly the chemical composition of soil solution at depth, through sharp variations of pH, Eh, Al, Fe(II) and Mn concentrations. The variations of heavy metals are best explained by considering the dynamics of these latter metals, which suggests that soil Al, Fe and Mn oxides act both as sources and as sinks for the former metals.

  15. Influence of bleaching technologies on the aerobic biodegradability of effluents from Eucalyptus kraft pulps factories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gladys Vidal

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Aerobic biodegradability of effluents from different Eucalyptus kraft pulp bleaching processes was studied. Bleaching effluents were obtained from: i Chlorine Bleaching (CB processes, with partial substitution of chlorine by chlorine dioxide and ii Total Chlorine Free (TCF processes. The overall biodegradability, in terms of Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD was higher for TCF effluents (96-98% than for CB ones (82-93%. Taking into account the higher organic load of CB effluents, this fact implied a much higher residual COD for them (100-180 mg/L than for TCF effluents (10-30 mg/L. Furthermore, a refractory fraction of molecular weight higher than 43,000 Da was found in CB effluent, which implied the necessity of a further specific treatment. The toxicity was completely removed after the biological treatmentA biodegradabilidade aerobica das águas residuais provenientes de diferentes procesos de branqueos de pulpa kraft foi estudada. Os efluentes são gerados no branqueo com cloro ou parcialmente sustituido com dioxido de cloro (CB ou bem em processos livres do cloro (TCF. A biodegradabilidade, quantificada como DQO foi maior para as águas do processo CB. Tendo em conta o elevado conteúdo orgânico do efluente CB obteinse uma maior concentraç&ão do DQO final neste efluente comparado com o efluente TCF. Uma fracçao recalcitrante maior a 43,000 Da no effluente BC foi encontrada, isto significa um tratamento adicional específico para sua eliminaçã o. A toxicidade foi totalmente eliminada despois do tratamento aeração.

  16. Influence of aeration modes on leachate characteristic of landfills that adopt the aerobic-anaerobic landfill method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chuanfu; Shimaoka, Takayuki; Nakayama, Hirofumi; Komiya, Teppei; Chai, Xiaoli; Hao, Yongxia

    2014-01-01

    As far as the optimal design, operation, and field application of the Aerobic-Anaerobic Landfill Method (AALM) are concerned, it is very important to understand how aeration modes (different combinations of aeration depth and air injection rate) affect the biodegradation of organic carbon and the transformation of nitrogen in landfill solid waste. Pilot-scale lysimeter experiments were carried out under different aeration modes to obtain detailed information regarding the influence of aeration modes on leachate characteristics. Results from these lysimeter experiments revealed that aeration at the bottom layer was the most effective for decomposition of organic carbon when compared with aeration at the surface or middle layers. Moreover, the air injection rate led to different nitrogen transformation patterns, unlike the lesser influence it has on organic carbon decomposition. Effective simultaneous nitrification and denitrification were observed for the aeration mode with a higher air injection rate (=1.0 L/min). On the other hand, the phenomenon of sequenced nitrification and denitrification could be observed when a low air injection rate (=0.5L/min.) was employed. Finally, it is concluded that, for AALM, air injection with a higher air injection rate at the deepest layer near the leachate collection pipe tends to accelerate the stabilization of landfill waste as defined in terms of the enhancement of denitrification as well as organic carbon decomposition.

  17. Influence of selected environmental factors on the abundance of aerobic anoxygenic phototrophs in peat-bog lakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lew, Sylwia; Lew, Marcin; Koblížek, Michal

    2016-07-01

    Aerobic anoxygenic phototrophs (AAPs) are photoheterotrophic prokaryotes that are widespread in many limnic and marine environments. So far, little is known about their distribution in peat-bog lakes. Seventeen peat-bog lakes were sampled during three summer seasons 2009, 2011, and 2012, and the vertical distribution of AAPs was determined by infrared epifluorescence microscopy. The analysis demonstrated that in the surface layers of the studied lakes, AAP abundance ranged from 0.3 to 12.04 × 10(5) cells mL(-1), which represents water column with minimum numbers in the anoxic bottom waters. We have shown that the AAP abundance was significantly positively correlated with the water pH, and the highest proportion of photoheterotrophs was found in peat-bog lakes with a pH between 6.7 and 7.6. Our results demonstrated an influence of water acidity on the abundance of AAPs, which may reflect a fundamental difference in the microbial composition between acidic and pH neutral peat-bog lakes. PMID:27032635

  18. Influence of aerobic exercise intensity on myofibrillar and mitochondrial protein synthesis in young men during early and late postexercise recovery

    OpenAIRE

    Di Donato, Danielle M.; Daniel W D West; Churchward-Venne, Tyler A.; Breen, Leigh; Baker, Steven K.; Phillips, Stuart M.

    2014-01-01

    Aerobic exercise is typically associated with expansion of the mitochondrial protein pool and improvements in muscle oxidative capacity. The impact of aerobic exercise intensity on the synthesis of specific skeletal muscle protein subfractions is not known. We aimed to study the effect of aerobic exercise intensity on rates of myofibrillar (MyoPS) and mitochondrial (MitoPS) protein synthesis over an early (0.5–4.5 h) and late (24–28 h) period during postexercise recovery. Using a within-subje...

  19. Influence of employment by various kinds of improving aerobics on a level of physical readiness of girls of 18-20 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chernenko E.

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In clause features of influence of employment by step-aerobics and fitball-aerobics on a level of physical readiness of girls of 18-20 years are analyzed. The results received during the lead experimental research, have allowed ascertaining, that under influence of employment results have improved at girls of both groups. However, authentic improvement of parameters is observed at girls of group №1 in the tests describing development of speed-power qualities and force, and at girls of group №2 parameters of development of flexibility have authentically improved. The results fixed in other tests of girls of both groups, testify to the tendency to improvement of these parameters.

  20. The influence of aerobic fitness on obesity and its parent-offspring correlations in a cross-sectional study among German families

    OpenAIRE

    Foraita, Ronja; Brandes, Mirko; Günther, Frauke; Bammann, Karin; Pigeot, Iris; Ahrens, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    Background Overweight/obesity is an important public health burden worldwide, increasing the risk for the development of cardiovascular diseases or the metabolic syndrome. This risk may be reduced by a good aerobic fitness (AF) that can be improved by physical activity but is also influenced by genetic factors. The aim of this study was to test for familial aggregation of AF measured by maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) and to estimate its heritability. Furthermore, an exploratory analysis of th...

  1. 健美操训练对女性有氧适能、身体形态与心理健康的影响研究%Research on the Influence of Aerobics Training to Female Aerobic Fitness, Physical Shape and Psychological Health

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李银银; 魏纯

    2015-01-01

    In order to find how aerobics training affects female aerobic fitness, body shape and mental health, with the method of experiments, mathematical statistic and reading existing documents, this paper based on a research of a 12 weeks aerobics training of 30 non – PE major females and the testing results unveiled the positive influence of Aerobics training on female aerobic fitness , physical shape and psychological health.%采用实验测试法、文献资料法和数理统计法,对湖南理工学院非体育专业30名女大学生12周健美操训练后进行有氧适能、身体形态等指标的测试,说明健美操对女性改善有氧适能、身体形态与心理健康中的作用。

  2. The influence of an acute bout of aerobic exercise on cortical contributions to motor preparation and execution

    OpenAIRE

    Thacker, Jonathan S.; Middleton, Laura E; McIlroy, William E.; Staines, W. Richard

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Increasing evidence supports the use of physical activity for modifying brain activity and overall neurological health. Specifically, aerobic exercise appears to have a positive effect on cognitive function, which some have suggested to be a result of increasing levels of arousal. However, the role of aerobic exercise on movement‐related cortical activity is less clear. We tested the hypothesis that (1) an acute bout of exercise modulates excitability within motor areas and (2) trans...

  3. Deterioration of Concrete Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thoft-Christensen, Palle

    Chloride ingress is a common cause of deterioration of reinforced concrete bridges. Concrete may be exposed to chloride by seawater or de-icing salts. The chloride initiates corrosion of the reinforcement, which through expansion disrupts the concrete. In addition, the corrosion reduces the cross...

  4. Influência dos grãos deteriorados ("tipo" sobre a qualidade da "bebida" de café Influence of deteriorated coffee beans on the taste of the beverage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Lazzarini

    1958-01-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho foi estudada a hipótese de que os grãos de café deteriorados - parcial ou totalmente - existentes normalmente no café beneficiado, pudessem ocasionar desvalorização na qualidade da BEBIDA além do natural rebaixamento do TIPO. Em amostras de café de diversas procedências foi constatado que há acentuada influência dos grãos deteriorados na qualidade da bebida. Cafés isentos de grãos deteriorados foram classificados como de bebida estritamente mole ou mole tornando-se de bebida dura quando nesse mesmo café se encontrou elevada quantidade daqueles grãos. Com menores proporções de grãos deteriorados eram obtidas bebidas de classificação intermediária. Para os cafés de bebida Rio não houve variação na classificação: as amostras com ou sem grãos deteriorados se apresentavam sempre com a mesma bebida.Partly or fully deteriorated beans are present in varying amounts in commercial coffee. They seem to have been affected by external agents prior to drying and vary in color from almost normal to black. The experiments reported in this paper were designed to study the influence of the deteriorated beans on the coffee flavor. Samples were secured from the various coffee growing areas of São Paulo: Campinas, Ribeirão Prêto, Mococa, Pindorama, and Vale do Paraíba. Each was hand--graded, the partly or fully deteriorated beans being separated from the normal ones. The normal beans were then mixed with varying amounts of partly or fully deteriorated beans from the same samples. The following blends were prepared for each of the coffee sources: 1 . normal beans only 2. partly deteriorated beans exclusively 3. mixture of normal beans plus 10% in weight of partly deteriorated ones 4. ditto with 20% 5. ditto with 40% 6. ditto with 2.5% of fully deteriorated beans 7. ditto with 5% 8. ditto with 10% The 8 treatments for each source were replicated 4 times, giving thus a total of 256 variables. They were then submitted to

  5. The influence of a pre-exercise sports drink (PRX on factors related to maximal aerobic performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mooneyhan Andy

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pre-exercise sports drinks (PRX are commonly used as ergogenic aids in athletic competitions requiring aerobic power. However, in most cases, claims regarding their effectiveness have not been substantiated. In addition, the ingredients in PRX products must be deemed acceptable by the athletic governing bodies that regulate their use in training and competition. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a modified PRX formulation (known as EM·PACT™ from earlier investigations on factors related to maximal aerobic performance during a graded exercise test. The modification consisted of removing creatine to meet the compliance standards set forth by various athletic organizations that regulate the use of nutritional supplements. Methods Twenty-nine male and female college students varying in levels of aerobic fitness participated in a randomized crossover administration of PRX (containing 14 g/serving of fructose, medium-chain triglycerides, and amino acids mixed with 8 oz. of water and placebo (PL 30 minutes prior to performing a treadmill test with approximately one week separation between the trials. VO2max, maximal heart rate (HR, time to exhaustion (Time, and percentage estimated non-protein fat substrate utilization (FA during two a priori submaximal stages of a graded exercise testing were evaluated. Results The VO2max mean value of the PRX trial was significantly greater than the PL trial (P Conclusions The modified PRX formulation utilized in this investigation supports the findings of the previous investigation and its efficacy for enhancing indices of aerobic performance (specifically VO2max, Time, & FA during graded exercise testing.

  6. The influence of a pre-exercise sports drink (PRX) on factors related to maximal aerobic performance

    OpenAIRE

    Mooneyhan Andy; Simpson Warren; Keith Susan; Byars Allyn; Greenwood Mike

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Pre-exercise sports drinks (PRX) are commonly used as ergogenic aids in athletic competitions requiring aerobic power. However, in most cases, claims regarding their effectiveness have not been substantiated. In addition, the ingredients in PRX products must be deemed acceptable by the athletic governing bodies that regulate their use in training and competition. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a modified PRX formulation (known as EM·PACT™) from ear...

  7. Castle-palace of “La Calahorra”, Granada: influence of climatic and architectural factors in differential deterioration of their stone masonries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guardia, J. J.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The castle-palace of La Calahorra is a historical building (6th century with a dual-function. The exterior is a castle-fortress of late-medieval style, built with rubbles and rough ashlars of a crystalline limestone of great hardness and strength. The interior is a Renaissance palace, made of micritic limestone and dolomitic sandstone ashlars, both stone materials are porous, soft and low strength. The entire building has an orangey colored due to an iron patina that stains its stone masonries as a result of wind action. There is a differential deterioration among its external and internal, depending on the type of stone used factories, the rainwater and wind action and the building defects detected. While the exterior stone is in good state of conservation, the interior stones shows some important deterioration processes , mainly the micritic limestone present in the ornamental and decorative areas of the central courtyard.El castillo-palacio de La Calahorra es un edificio histórico (s. XVI con una doble funcionalidad. El exterior es un castillo-fortaleza de estilo tardo-medieval, construido con mampuestos y sillarejos de una caliza cristalina de gran dureza y resistencia. El interior es un palacio renacentista, hecho con sillares de caliza micrítica y arenisca dolomítica, ambos materiales pétreos son porosos, blandos y poco resistentes. Todo el edificio tiene una tonalidad anaranjada debido a la pátina de hierro que tiñe sus fábricas y que es consecuencia de la acción del viento. Existe un deterioro diferencial entre sus fábricas externas e internas, según el tipo de piedra empleado, la acción del agua de lluvia y el viento, y los defectos constructivos detectados. Mientras que la piedra exterior está en buen estado de conservación, las interiores sufren importantes procesos de deterioro, principalmente la caliza micrítica presente en las zonas ornamentales y decorativas del patio central.

  8. Calcium carbonate precipitation by heterotrophic bacteria isolated from biofilms formed on deteriorated ignimbrite stones: influence of calcium on EPS production and biofilm formation by these isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Moreno, Angélica; Sepúlveda-Sánchez, José David; Mercedes Alonso Guzmán, Elia Mercedes; Le Borgne, Sylvie

    2014-01-01

    Heterotrophic CaCO3-precipitating bacteria were isolated from biofilms on deteriorated ignimbrites, siliceous acidic rocks, from Morelia Cathedral (Mexico) and identified as Enterobacter cancerogenus (22e), Bacillus sp. (32a) and Bacillus subtilis (52g). In solid medium, 22e and 32a precipitated calcite and vaterite while 52g produced calcite. Urease activity was detected in these isolates and CaCO3 precipitation increased in the presence of urea in the liquid medium. In the presence of calcium, EPS production decreased in 22e and 32a and increased in 52g. Under laboratory conditions, ignimbrite colonization by these isolates only occurred in the presence of calcium and no CaCO3 was precipitated. Calcium may therefore be important for biofilm formation on stones. The importance of the type of stone, here a siliceous stone, on biological colonization is emphasized. This calcium effect has not been reported on calcareous materials. The importance of the effect of calcium on EPS production and biofilm formation is discussed in relation to other applications of CaCO3 precipitation by bacteria.

  9. Influence of carbon source on nutrient removal performance and physical-chemical characteristics of aerobic granular sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lashkarizadeh, Monireh; Yuan, Qiuyan; Oleszkiewicz, Jan A

    2015-01-01

    The impact of carbon source variation on the physical and chemical characteristics of aerobic granular sludge and its biological nutrient (nitrogen and phosphorus) removal performance was investigated. Two identical sequencing batch reactors, R1 and R2, were set up. Granular biomass was cultivated to maturity using acetate-based synthetic wastewater. After mature granules in both reactors with simultaneous chemical oxygen demand (COD), ammonium and phosphorus removal capability were achieved, the feed of R2 was changed to municipal wastewater and R1 was continued on synthetic feed as control. Biological phosphorus removal was completely inhibited in R2 due to lack of readily biodegradable COD; however, the biomass maintained high ammonium and COD removal efficiencies. The disintegration of the granules in R2 occurred during the first two weeks after the change of feed, but it did not have significant impacts on settling properties of the sludge. Re-granulation of the biomass in R2 was then observed within 30 d after granules' disintegration when the biomass acclimated to the new substrate. The granular biomass in R1 and R2 maintained a Sludge Volume Index close to 60 and 47 mL g(-1), respectively, during the experimental period. It was concluded that changing the carbon source from readily biodegradable acetate to the more complex ones present in municipal wastewater did not have significant impacts on aerobic granular sludge characteristics; it particularly did not affect its settling properties. However, sufficient readily biodegradable carbon would have to be provided to maintain simultaneous biological nitrate and phosphorus removal. PMID:25719420

  10. Influence of reductive diet and physical aerobic training on binding and degradation of 125J-insulin by erythrocyte receptors in children with simple obesity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Insuline resistance, expressed by lower insuline binding by receptors, is related to the obesity. Improvement of the binding was observed together with reduction of body weight and in result of physical exercise. In the work was investigated an influence of complex result of reductive diet at the level of 1300-1500 kcal and systematic half-an-hour aerobic exercise on binding and degradation of 125J-insulin by erythrocyte receptors in children with simple obesity. The rest binding of insulin by erythrocyte receptors in obese children was compared with the result observed in the children having normal body weight. Results of these researches confirm that systematic physical exercise connected with reductive diet improves the indexes of lipid balance, increases efficiency of the organism, estimated by maximal oxygen absorption, decreases body weight and improves binding of 125J-insulin to erythrocyte receptors. (authors)

  11. Influence of aerobic and anaerobic conditions on survival of Escherichia coli O157 : H7 and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium in Luria-Bertani broth, farm-yard manure and slurry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Semenov, Alexander V.; van Overbeek, Leo; Termorshuizen, Aad J.; van Bruggen, Ariena H. C.

    2011-01-01

    The influence of aerobic and anaerobic conditions on the survival of the enteropathogens Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella serovar Typhimurium was investigated in microcosms with broth, cattle manure or slurry. These substrates were inoculated with a green fluorescent protein transformed strai

  12. Influence of aerobic and anaerobic conditions on survival of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium in Luria-Bertani broth, farm-yard manure and slurry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Semenov, A.V.; Overbeek, van L.S.; Termorshuizen, A.J.; Bruggen, van A.H.C.

    2011-01-01

    The influence of aerobic and anaerobic conditions on the survival of the enteropathogens Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella serovar Typhimurium was investigated in microcosms with broth, cattle manure or slurry. These substrates were inoculated with a green fluorescent protein transformed strai

  13. The influence of the marine aerobic Pseudomonas strain on the corrosion of 70/30 Cu-Ni alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A comparative study of the corrosion behavior of the 70/30 Cu-Ni alloy in a nutrient-rich simulated seawater-based nutrient-rich medium in the presence and the absence of a marine aerobic Pseudomonas bacterium was carried out by electrochemical experiments, microscopic methods and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The results of Tafel plot measurements showed the noticeable increase in the corrosion rate of the alloy in the presence of the Pseudomonas bacteria as compared to the corresponding control samples. The E1S data demonstrated that the charge transfer resistance, Rct, and the resistance of oxide film, Rf, gradually increased with time in the abiotic medium; whereas, both of them dramatically decreased with time in the biotic medium inoculated with the Pseudomonas, indicative of the acceleration of corrosion rates of the alloy. The bacterial cells preferentially attached themselves to the alloy surface to form patchy or blotchy biofilms, as observed by fluorescent microscopy (FM). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images revealed the occurrence of micro-pitting corrosion underneath the biofilms on the alloy surface after the biofilm removal. XPS studies presented the evolution of the passive film on the alloy surface with time in the presence and the absence of the Pseudomonas bacteria under experimental conditions, and further revealed that the presence of the Pseudomonas cells and its extra-cellular polymers (EPS) on the alloy surface retarded the formation process or impaired the protective nature of the oxide film. Furthermore, XPS results verified the difference in the chelating functional groups between the conditioning layers and the bacterial cells and the EPS in the biofilms, which was believed to connect with the loss of the passivity of the protective oxide film

  14. Aerobic exercise (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aerobic exercise gets the heart working to pump blood through the heart more quickly and with more force than ... must be oxygenated more quickly, which quickens respiration. Aerobic exercise strengthens the heart and boosts healthy cholesterol ...

  15. How "healthful" are aerobics classes? Exploring the health and wellness messages in aerobics classes for women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Abundo, Michelle Lee

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the health messages communicated by aerobics instructors in aerobics classes for women. A theoretical framework influenced by adult learning theory and feminist pedagogy was used in this qualitative study. Over a 3-month period, the practices of five aerobics instructors working at one nonprofit fitness center and one wellness facility were explored. The methods of data collection were one interview with each aerobics instructor and 14 site visits to conduct participant observations and to retrieve of documents. Despite the nonprofit and wellness-based environment of the exercise facilities in this research, there was still an overemphasis on the physical aspect of aerobics classes. Therefore, the potential wellness-related benefits of aerobics classes for women, especially in environments that identified themselves as promoting wellness, were not fully realized. PMID:17148107

  16. The indicators of the physical health of students on the characteristics of the physical fitness, aerobic and anaerobic productivity of their body

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serorez T.B.

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : identification and assessment of physical health of students on physical performance characteristics, aerobic and anaerobic performance of their body. The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of cross-country training aerobic and anaerobic focus on physical performance, aerobic and anaerobic organism performance of students. Material : The study involved 413 students (boys aged 21 - 23 years. Efficiency of impact studies using cross-country loads of aerobic and anaerobic focus on the physical health of students. Results : It was found that the level of physical health of students on a scale of G.L. Apanasenko steadily deteriorating. Decrease is observed to a safe level in 22 years and further still below the safe level for 23 years. Anaerobic performance level of students in the body 21, 22 and 23 do not differ significantly and is below the average. Conclusions: confirmed that aerobic and anaerobic capacity of the organism students do not meet the proper level and require correction. Found that such a correction would be the most effective subject to the development and implementation of health technologies. Technology based on the use of extracurricular activities running exercises.

  17. Mental deterioration in lafora's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Cukiert

    1990-06-01

    Full Text Available Lafora's disease is included among the progressive myoclonic epilepsies. Despite the fact that dementia is a constant finding in this disease only a few papers have studied the timing of riental deterioration. We have performed wide neuropsychological testing in two cases early diagnosed as Lafora disease. The initial neuropsychological testing was carried out by the time there were no complaints of mental deterioration in both cases. In the first case consecutive neuropsychological testing demonstrated the rapidly progressive dementia. All neuropsychological testings in these cases showed severe impairment of right parietal lobe functions. Higher cortical functions related to language and intelectual processes were beet preserved in both cases. The functions related to constructional praxis, memory and abstract concepts and processes were severily impaired. Our data suggest that mental deterioration is an early manifestation in Lafora disease, even by the time normal social life is not yet disturbed. Dominant hemisphere cognitivo functions have been less impaired than the non-dominant ones. How a diffuse illness such as Lafora disease can cause such an asymmetrical higher cortical function deficit is not yet clear.

  18. Discontinuous aerobic biodegradation of dairy wastewater: influence of operation conditions; Depuracion aerobia de vertidos lacteos en regimen discontinuo: influencia de las condiciones de operacion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez Mateos, P.; Romero guzman, F.; Pereda Marin, J. [Departamento Ingenieria Quimica, Facultad de Quimica, Universidad de Sevilla, Sevilla (Spain)

    1995-11-01

    In this work, the effect of different parameters on the aerobic biodegradation of the dairy wastewater has been studied. The variables have been: temperature, initial pH value, light, temperature of the incubation and conditions of adaptability of the inoculum and initial organic load. a kinetic equation that fit of the best to this biodegradation process is studied. 8 refs.

  19. 40 CFR 1033.245 - Deterioration factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Deterioration factors. 1033.245... CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM LOCOMOTIVES Certifying Engine Families § 1033.245 Deterioration factors. Establish deterioration factors for each pollutant to determine, as described in § 1033.240, whether...

  20. 盐水环境下水泥土桩劣化效应及其对道路复合地基沉降的影响%Deterioration Effect of Soil-cement Pile Under Saltwater Environment and Its Influence on Composite Foundation Settlement of Road

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔新壮; 龚晓南; 李术才; 汤潍泽; 张炯

    2015-01-01

    In order to reveal deterioration effect of soil-cement pile in saltwater environment and its influence on road composite foundation settlement,the deterioration effect of soil-cement in Yellow River Delta in saltwater environment was investigated by model test.The deterioration depth of soil-cement and evolution laws of compressive strength in non-deteriorated regions were analyzed.Based on the conclusion of previous researches on soil-cement deterioration,a practical prediction method for entire life-cycle bearing capacity of soil-cement piles in saltwater environment was proposed based on soil-cement early strength test.At the same time,influence of deterioration of soil-cement pile on composite foundation settlement was investigated by model test and numerical simulation.The results show that during reinforcing the soft subsoil with high salinity groundwater,soil-cement piles are deteriorated from outside to inside.Deterioration of soil-cement has a great influence on bearing capacity of mixed pile,which increases settlement of composite foundation.Furthermore,the pile defects will aggravate deterioration effect of soilcement pile.In order to ensure sustainable stability of subgrade and control its long-term settlement,deterioration of soil-cement should be considered during the design of composite foundation in saltwater region.%为了揭示盐水环境下水泥土桩的劣化效应及其对道路复合地基沉降的影响,通过室内模型试验研究了黄河三角洲盐水环境下水泥土的劣化效应,分析了水泥土劣化深度和未劣化部分抗压强度的演化规律.通过对已有水泥土劣化研究成果进行总结分析,提出了基于水泥土早期强度试验的盐水环境下水泥土桩全寿命周期承载力实用预测方法;同时,通过模型试验和数值模拟研究了水泥土桩劣化对复合地基沉降的影响.研究结果表明:在加固地下水矿化度高的软弱地基时,水泥土桩会从外向内逐渐劣化;

  1. Evaluation of Seismic Behaviors of Partially Deteriorated Reinforced Concrete Circular Columns Retrofitted with CFRP

    OpenAIRE

    Dongxu Hou; Jianyun Pan; Xinglang Fan; Zhimin Wu; Prosper Marindiko

    2014-01-01

    Deficiency of the concrete strength in some regions of reinforced concrete (RC) columns in practice may weaken the seismic behaviors of columns. Its effects on RC columns should be well understood. This paper aims to investigate the influences of deteriorated segment on the seismic behaviors of partially deteriorated RC columns and attempts to recover the seismic behaviors of partially deteriorated columns with Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer (CFRP) composites. A finite element analysis was c...

  2. Influence of Seed Sludge on the Reactivation of Aerobic Sludge Granular After Storage%接种污泥对好氧颗粒污泥稳定性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋志伟; 程晓霞; 乔艳云; 潘宇; 罗克洁

    2011-01-01

    In order to investigate the influence of seed sludge on the stability of aerobic granular sludge, aerobic granules which was cultivated using different kinds of seed sludge were restarted in sequencing batch airlift reactor after a prolonged storage period, the influence of seed sludge on the properties and microbial community of aerobic sludge granular were studied. The results showed that seed sludge had some effect on the stability of aerobic granular, the morphology of aerobic granular developed using activated sludge taken from beer wastewater treatment plant, which has better settleability and biological activity, can recover quickly after 35 d restarting, its settleability reached 93% of fresh aerobic granular, and its removal rate of COD, NH3 - N was similar to that of aerobic granular cultivated using activated sludge taken from domestic wastewater treatment plant, but its removal rate of TP was better, they were 95.10% ,91.80% and 94.00% respectively. DGGE profiles indicated that the microbial community diversity was abundant for seed sludge from beer wastewater treatment plant with its dominant microbial species of 20 operational taxonomy units(OTUs), and even simple for seed sludge from domestic wastewater treatment plant with the dominant species of 11 OTUs.%为研究接种污泥对好氧颗粒污泥稳定性的影响,将以城市污水处理厂的活性污泥和以啤酒废水处理厂的活性污泥为接种污泥培养的成熟好氧颗粒污泥封存后重新启动运行,探讨其理化性能、降解性能的恢复以及种群结构的变化情况.结果表明:接种污泥对好氧颗粒污泥的稳定性具有一定的影响,沉降性能好、生物活性强的啤酒废水处理厂的接种污泥形成的颗粒污泥形态恢复快,约需35 d,沉降性能恢复为贮存前的93%,具有较好的稳定性;对COD、NH3-N的降解效果与用城市污水厂的污泥接种形成的好氧颗粒污泥相近,但其时TP

  3. What Is Aerobic Dancing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... after exercising, see a physician. Common Aerobics Injuries Plantar fasciitis (arch pain) -- Arch pain is often caused by ... rearfoot instability, with excessive pronation, may result in plantar fasciitis. Shoes with proper support in the arch often ...

  4. Evaluation of Seismic Behaviors of Partially Deteriorated Reinforced Concrete Circular Columns Retrofitted with CFRP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongxu Hou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Deficiency of the concrete strength in some regions of reinforced concrete (RC columns in practice may weaken the seismic behaviors of columns. Its effects on RC columns should be well understood. This paper aims to investigate the influences of deteriorated segment on the seismic behaviors of partially deteriorated RC columns and attempts to recover the seismic behaviors of partially deteriorated columns with Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer (CFRP composites. A finite element analysis was carried out to simulate the seismic behaviors of CFRP-confined partially deteriorated RC columns. The numerical results were verified by the laboratory tests of six specimens. Based on the finite element results, the failure location of partially deteriorated columns in an earthquake was predicted, and the effectiveness of CFRP retrofitted on partially deteriorated columns was evaluated.

  5. Does job insecurity deteriorate health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caroli, Eve; Godard, Mathilde

    2016-02-01

    This paper estimates the causal effect of perceived job insecurity - that is, the fear of involuntary job loss - on health in a sample of men from 22 European countries. We rely on an original instrumental variable approach on the basis of the idea that workers perceive greater job security in countries where employment is strongly protected by the law and more so if employed in industries where employment protection legislation is more binding; that is, in induastries with a higher natural rate of dismissals. Using cross-country data from the 2010 European Working Conditions Survey, we show that, when the potential endogeneity of job insecurity is not accounted for, the latter appears to deteriorate almost all health outcomes. When tackling the endogeneity issue by estimating an instrumental variable model and dealing with potential weak-instrument issues, the health-damaging effect of job insecurity is confirmed for a limited subgroup of health outcomes; namely, suffering from headaches or eyestrain and skin problems. As for other health variables, the impact of job insecurity appears to be insignificant at conventional levels.

  6. Does job insecurity deteriorate health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caroli, Eve; Godard, Mathilde

    2016-02-01

    This paper estimates the causal effect of perceived job insecurity - that is, the fear of involuntary job loss - on health in a sample of men from 22 European countries. We rely on an original instrumental variable approach on the basis of the idea that workers perceive greater job security in countries where employment is strongly protected by the law and more so if employed in industries where employment protection legislation is more binding; that is, in induastries with a higher natural rate of dismissals. Using cross-country data from the 2010 European Working Conditions Survey, we show that, when the potential endogeneity of job insecurity is not accounted for, the latter appears to deteriorate almost all health outcomes. When tackling the endogeneity issue by estimating an instrumental variable model and dealing with potential weak-instrument issues, the health-damaging effect of job insecurity is confirmed for a limited subgroup of health outcomes; namely, suffering from headaches or eyestrain and skin problems. As for other health variables, the impact of job insecurity appears to be insignificant at conventional levels. PMID:25431120

  7. The Campylobacter jejuni MarR-like transcriptional regulators RrpA and RrpB both influence bacterial responses to oxidative and aerobic stresses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozan eGundogdu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The ability of the human intestinal pathogen Campylobacter jejuni to respond to oxidative stress is central to bacterial survival both in vivo during infection and in the environment. Re-annotation of the C. jejuni NCTC11168 genome revealed the presence of two MarR-type transcriptional regulators Cj1546 and Cj1556, originally annotated as hypothetical proteins, which we have designated RrpA and RrpB (regulator of response to peroxide respectively. Previously we demonstrated a role for RrpB in both oxidative and aerobic (O2 stress and that RrpB was a DNA binding protein with auto-regulatory activity, typical of MarR-type transcriptional regulators. In this study, we show that RrpA is also a DNA binding protein and that a rrpA mutant in strain 11168H exhibits increased sensitivity to hydrogen peroxide oxidative stress. Mutation of either rrpA or rrpB reduces catalase (KatA expression. However a rrpAB double mutant exhibits higher levels of resistance to hydrogen peroxide oxidative stress, with levels of KatA expression similar to the wild-type strain. Neither the rrpA nor rrpB mutant exhibits any significant difference in sensitivity to either cumene hydroperoxide or menadione oxidative stresses, but both mutants exhibit a reduced ability to survive aerobic (O2 stress, enhanced biofilm formation and reduced virulence in the Galleria mellonella infection model. The rrpAB double mutant exhibits wild-type levels of biofilm formation and wild-type levels of virulence in the Galleria mellonella infection model. Together these data indicate a role for both RrpA and RrpB in the C. jejuni peroxide oxidative and aerobic (O2 stress responses, enhancing bacterial survival in vivo and in the environment.

  8. 健美操锻炼对高校女生体质健康指标的影响%The Influence of Aerobics Training on University Girl Students' Physical Health Index

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何美敏; 郑伟

    2014-01-01

    In order to explore the influence of aerobics training on university girl students' physical health index, this paper took 16 Grade 2011 public sports girls as the research object, and carried out a successive 16 weeks of training of the third set of aerobics. Through experimental method, mathematical statistical method and literature review method, the data before and after the exper-iment was compared, and the result shows that aerobics training plays a pivotal role in promoting the improvement of university girl students' physical health, having a positive effect on physique improvement, weight reduction, strength increase of muscles in waist and legs, endurance improvement, and vital capacity im-provement.%为探讨高校女生健美操锻炼对体质健康指标的影响,以16名2011级公体女生为研究对象,进行维持16周的第三套健美操的锻炼。通过实验法、数理统计和文献资料法等科研方法对比实验前后数据,结果表明健美操锻炼对高校女生体质健康水平的提高有着很大的促进作用,对改善身体形态,降低体重指数,提高腰部腿部的肌肉力量,提高耐力素质,改善肺活量指标均有积极影响。

  9. 40 CFR 1042.245 - Deterioration factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... as described in § 1042.125 and 40 CFR part 1065, subpart E. (d) Include the following information in... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Deterioration factors. 1042.245... Certifying Engine Families § 1042.245 Deterioration factors. This section describes how to...

  10. Biodegradation Process and Influencing Factors of Azo Using Anaerobic-aerobic Technology%偶氮染料的厌氧-好氧生物降解过程和影响因素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    温贝贝; 刘志刚; 马鲁铭

    2013-01-01

    The total amount and kinds of azo dyes are the biggest of synthetic dyes. Usually the anaerobic-aerobic process is adopted to degrade the azo dyes, for the azo dyes can be reduced to aromatic amines in anaerobic condition, and then degraded completely in the following aerobic condition. Anaerobic reduction process of azo dyes is influenced by the structure and concentration of azo dye, the kind and concentration of substrates, other electron acceptors, redox mediator, environmental parameters such as temperature and dissolved oxygen, and hydraulic retention time. The degradation of aromatic amines under aerobic conditions is affected by its own structure, concentration, additional carbon, degradation system etc. and disturbed by the auto-oxidation of aromatic amines. Good conditions should be provided to improve the azo dyes degradation efficiency of anaerobic-aerobic technology in practical wastewater treatment.%偶氮染料是总量最大、种类最多的合成染料,其降解处理通常采用厌氧-好氧技术.厌氧过程可实现偶氮染料的还原,好氧过程则完成还原产物芳香胺的去除.厌氧过程受偶氮染料结构和浓度、底物的种类和浓度、其他电子受体、氧化还原介体、温度和DO等环境因素以及水力停留时间的影响.好氧条件下芳香胺的降解过程受其自身的结构、浓度、外加碳源以及降解体系等影响,且自氧化过程影响了芳香胺的生物降解.在实际废水处理中应创造良好的条件提高偶氮染料的厌氧-好氧生物降解效率.

  11. 影响健美操裁判员智能构成因素分析%Analysis on Factors Influencing Aerobics Referees Intelligent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶李军

    2012-01-01

    通过文献资料法和专家访谈法等方法对健美操智能构成因素注意力、记忆力、观察力、反应力等进行分析和探讨,为今后加强裁判能力的教学、评价及培养提供理论依据。%Through using the method of literature review and expert interview, this paper made analysis and dis- cussion on attention, memory, observation and reaction of aerobic intelligent. The main purpose is to provide the theoretical basis for strengthening the ability of teaching, evaluation and training.

  12. Influence of fungi and bacteria total aerobic of biodegradation of municipal solid waste in the city of Campina Grande – PB in scale experimental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Costa Meira

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The biodegradation of solid waste is the joint action of different species of microorganisms and begins with a predominance of fungi and bacteria due to the presence of oxygen diffused in the middle of the mass of garbage. This study proposes to examine the evolution of the growth of fungi and aerobic bacteria in a bioreactor fed with solid waste (MSW from the city of Campina Grande - PB. The monitoring of the bioreactor (lysimeter involved collection of regular solid samples for laboratory testing and quantification of colony forming units of bacterial and fungal colonies. The results showed a tendency to decrease with time indicating a decrease of oxygen inside the lysimeter mainly in the lower portion of which, probably, have more anaerobic conditions

  13. The hydraulic capacity of deteriorating sewer systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollert, J; Ugarelli, R; Saegrov, S; Schilling, W; Di Federico, V

    2005-01-01

    Sewer and wastewater systems suffer from insufficient capacity, construction flaws and pipe deterioration. Consequences are structural failures, local floods, surface erosion and pollution of receiving waters bodies. European cities spend in the order of five billion Euro per year for wastewater network rehabilitation. This amount is estimated to increase due to network ageing. The project CARE-S (Computer Aided RE-habilitation of Sewer Networks) deals with sewer and storm water networks. The final project goal is to develop integrated software, which provides the most cost-efficient system of maintenance, repair and rehabilitation of sewer networks. Decisions on investments in rehabilitation often have to be made with uncertain information about the structural condition and the hydraulic performance of a sewer system. Because of this, decision-making involves considerable risks. This paper presents the results of research focused on the study of hydraulic effects caused by failures due to temporal decline of sewer systems. Hydraulic simulations are usually carried out by running commercial models that apply, as input, default values of parameters that strongly influence results. Using CCTV inspections information as dataset to catalogue principal types of failures affecting pipes, a 3D model was used to evaluate their hydraulic consequences. The translation of failures effects in parameters values producing the same hydraulic conditions caused by failures was carried out through the comparison of laboratory experiences and 3D simulations results. Those parameters could be the input of 1D commercial models instead of the default values commonly inserted. PMID:16477988

  14. The Deterioration of the English Language

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹轶群

    2013-01-01

    The English language has been deteriorating because of the modern e-mail and chat room language abbreviations, in-corporation of different dialects depending on culture, and the inappropriate use of words as well as incorrect spelling. If we want to keep English language from deterioration, we should take advantage of the advances in technology and to learn about other cultures dialects, but we should keep the proper written and spoken English in mind.

  15. Postural Balance Following Aerobic Fatigue Tests: A Longitudinal Study Among Young Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Nili; Eliakim, Alon; Zaav, Aviva; Pantanowitz, Michal; Halumi, Monder; Eisenstein, Tamir; Meckel, Yoav; Nemet, Dan

    2016-01-01

    General fatigue can cause aggravation of postural balance, with increased risk for injuries. The present longitudinal study aimed to evaluate the postural balance of young athletes following field aerobic tests throughout 1 year of training. Thirty children from a sports center in Nazareth, participating in a 3 times/week training program (specific to basketball, soccer, or athletic training), were assessed. Postural balance parameters were taken before, immediately after, and 10 min after a 20 m shuttle-run aerobic test, at 3 time points during 1 training year (Start/Y, Mid/Y, and End/Y). Fitness improved at the Mid/Y and End/Y compared to Start/Y. Postural balance significantly deteriorated immediately after the aerobic test and improved significantly in the 10-min testing in all 3 time points, with significant deterioration in the End/Y compared with the Start/Y. In conclusions, postural balance deteriorates immediately after aerobic exercises, and at the end of the year. To better practice drills related to postural balance and possibly to prevent injuries, it is best for young athletes to properly rest immediately following aerobic exercises and to practice postural balance mainly at the beginning and at the middle of the training year.

  16. Postural Balance Following Aerobic Fatigue Tests: A Longitudinal Study Among Young Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Nili; Eliakim, Alon; Zaav, Aviva; Pantanowitz, Michal; Halumi, Monder; Eisenstein, Tamir; Meckel, Yoav; Nemet, Dan

    2016-01-01

    General fatigue can cause aggravation of postural balance, with increased risk for injuries. The present longitudinal study aimed to evaluate the postural balance of young athletes following field aerobic tests throughout 1 year of training. Thirty children from a sports center in Nazareth, participating in a 3 times/week training program (specific to basketball, soccer, or athletic training), were assessed. Postural balance parameters were taken before, immediately after, and 10 min after a 20 m shuttle-run aerobic test, at 3 time points during 1 training year (Start/Y, Mid/Y, and End/Y). Fitness improved at the Mid/Y and End/Y compared to Start/Y. Postural balance significantly deteriorated immediately after the aerobic test and improved significantly in the 10-min testing in all 3 time points, with significant deterioration in the End/Y compared with the Start/Y. In conclusions, postural balance deteriorates immediately after aerobic exercises, and at the end of the year. To better practice drills related to postural balance and possibly to prevent injuries, it is best for young athletes to properly rest immediately following aerobic exercises and to practice postural balance mainly at the beginning and at the middle of the training year. PMID:26731202

  17. 40 CFR 52.1929 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1929 Section 52.1929 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) Regulation for preventing significant deterioration of air... preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  18. Heritability of aerobic power of individuals in northeast Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, L; Souza, Ec; Oliveira, Mv; do Nascimento, Lfe; Dantas, Pms

    2014-12-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the genetic and environmental contribution to variation in aerobic power in monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins. The sample consisted of 20 MZ individuals (12 females and 8 males) and 16 DZ individuals (12 females and 4 males), aged from 8 to 26 years, residents in Natal, Rio Grande do Norte. The twins were assessed by a multistage fitness test. The rate of heritability found for aerobic power was 77%. Based on the results, the estimated heritability was largely responsible for the differences in aerobic power. This implies that such measures are under strong genetic influence.

  19. Increased Blood Lactate Level Deteriorates Running Economy in World Class Endurance Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoff, Jan; Støren, Øyvind; Finstad, Arnstein; Wang, Eivind; Helgerud, Jan

    2016-05-01

    Blood lactate accumulation is associated with development of muscle fatigue and negatively correlated to endurance performance. No research has quantified the effects of lactate presence at moderate levels of lactate accumulation. The purpose of this study was to test whether 2 moderate blood lactate concentration levels affect running economy (RE) when running at the individual lactate threshold (LT). Seven male world class endurance athletes with an average V[Combining Dot Above]O2max of 80.7 ± 2.7 ml·kg·min or 5.8 ± 0.5 L·min participated in this study. After the V[Combining Dot Above]O2max test, the subjects were resting or walking and in a random order tested for RE at their LT velocity when the blood lactate level reached either 3 mmol·L or 5 mmol·L. After a new 5-minute exercising period at maximal aerobic velocity, the crossover lactate value RE testing was performed. Running economy was significantly (p ≤ 0.05) deteriorated from 0.668 ± 0.044 to 0.705 ± 0.056 ml·kg·m or 5.5% (p ≤ 0.05) for blood lactate level of 3 mmol·L compared with 5 mmol·L, respectively. Increased lactate level from 3 to 5 mmol·L is thus accompanied by deteriorated RE at LT running velocity. The deteriorated RE at moderate levels of lactate concentration emphasizes the importance of avoiding intensities above LT in the early parts of a dominantly aerobic endurance competition. It also emphasizes the importance of a high V[Combining Dot Above]O2max for aerobic endurance athletes and may partly explain the V[Combining Dot Above]O2 slow component as impaired RE.

  20. Response of flood discharging capacity to the deterioration of the lower Yellow River

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Wenxue; LI Yong; YAO Wenyi; SU Yunqi; ZHANG Xiaohua

    2004-01-01

    Based on the clarifications of the deterioration characteristics of the lower Yellow River (LYR), the influence of river deterioration on flood discharging capacity is studied through theoretical derivation and analysis of field data. This study indicates that response of flood discharging capacity to river deterioration is nonlinear. Sediment depositions in the main channel cause the reductions of dominant discharge and thus the increase of initial flood stage. Reductions in the channel width result in the increases of the rising rate of flood stage and the decrease of flood discharging capacity.

  1. Assessment of a maintenance model for a multi-deteriorating mode system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ponchet, Amelie, E-mail: amelie.ponchet@utt.f [Institut Charles Delaunay, Universite de technologie de Troyes, UMR CNRS 6279 STMR, 12 rue Marie Curie, 10010 Troyes (France); Fouladirad, Mitra [Institut Charles Delaunay, Universite de technologie de Troyes, UMR CNRS 6279 STMR, 12 rue Marie Curie, 10010 Troyes (France); Grall, Antoine, E-mail: antoine.grall@utt.f [Institut Charles Delaunay, Universite de technologie de Troyes, UMR CNRS 6279 STMR, 12 rue Marie Curie, 10010 Troyes (France)

    2010-11-15

    This paper deals with maintenance policies for stochastically deteriorating systems which are subject to sudden changes in their degradation processes. The main aim is to assess the interest of using change mode monitoring information from a maintenance decision making point of view. Two condition-based maintenance policies are considered and compared, each of them adapted to a specific level of available information, with or without change mode monitoring. Numerical examples show that the time distribution of the change of deterioration rate and the difference between the two possible deterioration rates strongly influence the choice of the best decision rule structure.

  2. Performance deterioration modeling and optimal preventive maintenance strategy under scheduled servicing subject to mission time

    OpenAIRE

    Li Dawei; Zhang Zhihua; Zhong Qianghui; Zhai Yali

    2014-01-01

    Servicing is applied periodically in practice with the aim of restoring the system state and prolonging the lifetime. It is generally seen as an imperfect maintenance action which has a chief influence on the maintenance strategy. In order to model the maintenance effect of servicing, this study analyzes the deterioration characteristics of system under scheduled servicing. And then the deterioration model is established from the failure mechanism by compound Poisson process. On the basis of ...

  3. Annular purpura and step aerobics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan, S J; Humphreys, F; Buxton, P K

    1994-09-01

    Step aerobic classes are at present one of the most popular forms of exercise undertaken by young adults. To date no dermatological abnormalities have been described in people regularly performing step aerobics. We describe a case in which a healthy young woman developed an extensive pigmented purpuric eruption 4 weeks after commencing regular step aerobic classes. The eruption resolved completely 8 weeks after regular exercise was ceased. PMID:7955503

  4. Aerobic landfill bioreactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudgins, Mark P; Bessette, Bernard J; March, John; McComb, Scott T.

    2000-01-01

    The present invention includes a method of decomposing municipal solid waste (MSW) within a landfill by converting the landfill to aerobic degradation in the following manner: (1) injecting air via the landfill leachate collection system (2) injecting air via vertical air injection wells installed within the waste mass; (3) applying leachate to the waste mass using a pressurized drip irrigation system; (4) allowing landfill gases to vent; and (5) adjusting air injection and recirculated leachate to achieve a 40% to 60% moisture level and a temperature between 120.degree. F. and 140.degree. F. in steady state.

  5. Prediction of Deterioration of Concrete Bridges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaal, G.C.M.

    2004-01-01

    In the early 20th century, the general idea was that concrete structures would never show deterioration. However, in the 1990s concrete structures showed an increase in number of cracks and area of spalling. Especially spalling of the concrete cover could create a harmful situation to the users. Spa

  6. Similarities and differences in bare concrete deck deterioration curves from multi NDE technology surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jinyoung; Gucunski, Nenad; Dinh, Kien

    2016-04-01

    Reinforced concrete decks are in most cases the fastest deteriorating components of a bridge due to the multitude of influencing factors: direct traffic loading and environmental effects, maintenance activities (salting), etc. Among many deterioration types, corrosion-induced deterioration is the most common problem in reinforced concrete decks. The study concentrates on the condition assessment of bridge decks using complementary NDE techniques. The assessment has three main components: assessment of corrosive environment and corrosion processes, and assessment with respect to the deck delamination. The study concentrates on a complementary use of five NDE techniques: impact echo (IE) to detect and characterize delamination, ground penetrating radar (GPR) to describe the corrosive environment and detect delamination, and electrical resistivity (ER) to estimate the corrosion rate by measuring concrete resistivity. The ability of the NDE methods to objectively characterize deterioration progression is illustrated by the results from NDE surveys of 10 bridges of different ages in New Jersey during a period of one year. The deterioration progression is illustrated by condition maps and condition indices. As demonstrated in the paper, multiple deterioration models are developed utilizing the proposed methodology, which shows high potential for development of more realistic deterioration and life cycle cost models for bridge decks.

  7. Laboratory investigation of the microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) resistance of a novel Cu-bearing 2205 duplex stainless steel in the presence of an aerobic marine Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Jin; Yang, Chunguang; Xu, Dake; Sun, Da; Nan, Li; Sun, Ziqing; Li, Qi; Gu, Tingyue; Yang, Ke

    2015-01-01

    The microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) resistance of a novel Cu-bearing 2205 duplex stainless steel (2205 Cu-DSS) against an aerobic marine Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm was investigated. The electrochemical test results showed that Rp increased and icorr decreased sharply after long-term immersion in the inoculation medium, suggesting that 2205 Cu-DSS possessed excellent MIC resistance to the P. aeruginosa biofilm. Fluorescence microscope images showed that 2205 Cu-DSS possessed a strong antibacterial ability, and its antibacterial efficiency after one and seven days was 7.75% and 96.92%, respectively. The pit morphology comparison after 14 days between 2205 DSS and 2205 Cu-DSS demonstrated that the latter showed a considerably reduced maximum MIC pit depth compared with the former (1.44 μm vs 9.50 μm). The experimental results suggest that inhibition of the biofilm was caused by the copper ions released from the 2205 Cu-DSS, leading to its effective mitigation of MIC by P. aeruginosa. PMID:26194639

  8. Influence of Aerobic Exercise on Obese Children Body Fat Consumption%有氧运动对肥胖者儿童的体脂比消耗影响的分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖波

    2015-01-01

    目的:研究有氧运动对肥胖者儿童体脂比消耗的影响。方法:实验组运动时专业技术人员采用POLAR表对受试者的运动心率进行监控,使其控制在心率储备的20%~40%范围内,保证运动强度在有氧运动范围内。实验组每天运动3次,每次1 h,共进行5周有氧训练,运动前后各进行10~20 min的准备活动。对照组不进行有氧运动。结果:实验组体重、体重指数、体脂比、体脂含量实验后与实验前相比,实验组与对照组相比显著降低。TG实验组实验后与实验前相比,实验组与对照组相比显著降低;TC实验组实验后与实验前相比,实验组与对照组相比,均非常显著性降低,对照组实验前与试验后相比,显著性降低;HDL实验组与对照组相比,显著增加;LDL实验组实验后与实验前相比显著降低。TG、FIN、FBG末次与安静时相比,末次与首次相比,均显著降低;HDL、LDL末次与安静时相比,末次与首次相比,均有非常显著性差异;TC末次与安静时相比,显著降低,末次与首次相比非常显著性降低。Ins实验后与实验前相比,实验组与对照组相比均非常显性降低;Cor实验后与实验前相比,实验组与对照组相比均显著降低。Ins末次与安静时和首次相比,均非常显著性降低。结论:有氧运动能够增加肥胖者儿童的体脂比消耗。%Objective:to study the aerobic exercise for obese children body fat than the influence of consumption.Methods:the experimental group sports professional and technical personnel will use the POLAR table to the subjects' heart rate monitor, make its control within the scope of the heart rate reserve of 20%~40%, guarantee the exercise intensity in the range of aerobic exercise.Experimental exercise three times a day, 1 hour at a time, a total of five weeks aerobic training, and the for 10 to 20 minutes before and after the movement

  9. Fermentation and aerobic stability of corn silage inoculated with Lactobacillus buchneri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Carvalho Basso

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The characteristics of fermentation and aerobic stability were evaluated in corn silage inoculated with different doses of Lactobacillus buchneri. The whole corn plant (300 g/kg DM was ensiled in quadruplicate laboratory silos (7L. L. buchneri 40788 was applied at 5×10(4, 1×10(5, 5×10(5 and 1×10(6 cfu/g of fresh forage. Silages with no additive were used as controls. After 130 d of ensiling, the silages were subjected to an aerobic stability evaluation for 12 days, in which chemical and microbiological parameters as well as the temperature of the silage were measured to determine the aerobic deterioration. The addition of L. buchneri resulted in increased acetic acid concentrations. The number of yeast colonies was low in all treated silages. The pH, lactic and propionic acid concentrations did not differ between silages. Under aerobic conditions, all the treated silages showed a low number of yeasts and a great aerobic stability. Therefore, L. buchneri is effective against yeasts and improves the aerobic stability of corn silage in laboratory silos. However, doses equal or superior to 1×10(5 cfu/g of fresh forage were more efficient in the control of aerobic spoilage.

  10. Health-improving possibilities of usage of aerobics in the senior classes of comprehensive school.

    OpenAIRE

    Kravchuk T.N.; Shahov Р.V.; Gubina I.J.; Guslyaeva E.J.; Ryadinskaya I.A.

    2010-01-01

    In the article is opened health-improving possibilities of use of aerobics at physical training lessons in the senior classes. The technique of carrying out of lessons of physical training in the senior classes with use of different kinds of aerobics is proved and developed, and also their influence on indicators of health of senior pupils is investigated. It is shown that employment by aerobics promotes considerable improvement of health of senior pupils, increase of mood, state of health an...

  11. Deterioration of gait and balance over time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreisel, Stefan H; Blahak, Christian; Bäzner, Hansjörg;

    2013-01-01

    investigates if the degree of prevalent ARWMC has a differential effect on lower body motor function as it changes over time, hypothesizing that individuals with more severe baseline white matter pathology experience greater clinical deterioration independent of potential confounders. This is of clinical......Cross-sectional studies have shown an association between the severity of age-related white matter change (ARWMC) and lower body motor function. However, the association between prevalent ARWMC and incident deterioration of balance and gait remains insufficiently investigated. This study...... relevance: given the increasing use of neuroimaging, incidental white matter pathology is common; being able to delineate natural trajectories of balance and gait function given ARWMC may improve patient advice and help optimize allocation of care....

  12. Economic growth and deterioration of living environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper is dealing with the issues of relationship between economic growth and deterioration of living environment. It provides a brief and truthful overview of the generic acceptable conceptions and views of the relationship. Economic growth vs. environment has become an insistent subject of concern of the social and economic disciplines with aim to manage the threat of breaking their equilibrium and in such a way to create an optimistic vision of the next development. (authors)

  13. Mechanisms of aerobic performance impairment with heat stress and dehydration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheuvront, Samuel N; Kenefick, Robert W; Montain, Scott J; Sawka, Michael N

    2010-12-01

    Environmental heat stress can challenge the limits of human cardiovascular and temperature regulation, body fluid balance, and thus aerobic performance. This minireview proposes that the cardiovascular adjustments accompanying high skin temperatures (T(sk)), alone or in combination with high core body temperatures (T(c)), provide a primary explanation for impaired aerobic exercise performance in warm-hot environments. The independent (T(sk)) and combined (T(sk) + T(c)) effects of hyperthermia reduce maximal oxygen uptake (Vo(2max)), which leads to higher relative exercise intensity and an exponential decline in aerobic performance at any given exercise workload. Greater relative exercise intensity increases cardiovascular strain, which is a prominent mediator of rated perceived exertion. As a consequence, incremental or constant-rate exercise is more difficult to sustain (earlier fatigue) or requires a slowing of self-paced exercise to achieve a similar sensation of effort. It is proposed that high T(sk) and T(c) impair aerobic performance in tandem primarily through elevated cardiovascular strain, rather than a deterioration in central nervous system (CNS) function or skeletal muscle metabolism. Evaporative sweating is the principal means of heat loss in warm-hot environments where sweat losses frequently exceed fluid intakes. When dehydration exceeds 3% of total body water (2% of body mass) then aerobic performance is consistently impaired independent and additive to heat stress. Dehydration augments hyperthermia and plasma volume reductions, which combine to accentuate cardiovascular strain and reduce Vo(2max). Importantly, the negative performance consequences of dehydration worsen as T(sk) increases.

  14. On some microstructural aspects of concrete deterioration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Draper, E. A.

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available There are numerous mechanisms that can lead to deterioration of portland-cement concrete in service. The best known are corrosion of reinforcement, freezing-thawing expansion, alkali-silica reaction, acid attack, and sulfate-related problems, including delayed ettringite formation. Additionally, concrete can deteriorate as a consequence of improper processing, including curing. Often, several of the above mechanisms of deterioration are jointly responsible for the observed damage. This paper briefly reviews the light-optical and electronoptical microscopic methods available to study some of the causes of concrete deterioration, and briefly describes selected case studies. Specifically, microstructural features resulting from physical (e.g., freezing-thawing and chemical (e.g., alkali-silica reaction, delayed ettringite formation deterioration of concrete are highlighted. Corrosion of reinforcement is not discussed.

    Hay numerosos procesos que pueden afectar al hormigón de cemento portland. Los más conocidos son: la corrosión de las armaduras, el efecto expansivo del hielo-deshielo, la reacción álcali-árido, el ataque ácido y los problemas que atañen a los sulfates, incluyendo la formación de ettringita expansiva. Además, el hormigón puede deteriorarse como consecuencia de determinados procesos, entre los que se cuenta el curado. A menudo, más de uno de los mecanismos citados influyen conjuntamente en el daño observado en el hormigón. El presente artículo revisa brevemente métodos de microscopía óptica y electrónica utilizados para estudiar las causas que motivaron deterioro en el hormigón, y resume algún caso seleccionado; concretamente, se destacan los efectos microestructurales que resultan de mecanismos físicos (por ejemplo, de hielo-deshielo y químicos (p.ej., reacción álcali-sílice; formación de ettringita expansiva. No se hace mención de aspectos relativos a corrosión de armaduras.

  15. Research on the Influence of Aerobic Exercise in Fitness Clubs on Female Member's Physical and Mental Health Self-evaluation%健身会所女性会员有氧锻炼对于提高身心健康自评水平的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许锁迪

    2012-01-01

    This paper adopts the method of questionnaire survey,establishes the multivariable stepwise regression model,and carries out a survey into the aerobic exercise of young female members at the age of 20~40 in Ningbo fitness clubs.It is of great significance to enhancing the effect of aerobic exercises and the physical and mental health of young females.This study's result reveals that the duration of each aerobic exercise and the frequency of aerobic exercises for each week have an outstanding positive influence on reducing young females' physical and mental pressure and enhancing their physical and mental health,while the intensity of aerobic exercise has little to do with health self-evaluation.%采用问卷调查法,建立逐步多元性回归分析模型,对宁波市健身会所中20~40岁中青年会员的有氧锻炼情况进行调查。这对提高中青年女性的有氧锻炼的效果及身心健康有很大的价值。研究结果显示:每次有氧锻炼时间和每周锻炼次数的多少对减轻中青年女性的身心压力、提高身心健康自评水平有非常显著的积极影响,而有氧锻炼的强度对健康自评则无显著作用。

  16. Influencia del ejercicio físico aeróbico durante el embarazo en los niveles de hemoglobina y de hierro maternos. (Influence of the physical aerobic exercise during pregnancy in the maternal haemoglobin and iron levels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Stirling

    2008-04-01

    coexist without maternal-foetal conflicts and without the pregnancy outcome are altered. Especially when day by day, they are more the women that want to continue training in some way, during their pregnancy. The aim of this investigation is to know the influence of the moderate aerobic exercise developed during the second and third pregnancy trimesters on haemoglobin and iron maternal levels. Materials and methods: An experimental design was used. It included a total of 142 pregnant. Cases Group: integrated by 72 women. Control Group: integrated by 70 women. The studied maternal parameters were: iron levels, haemoglobin level, gestational age, type of delivery. Foetal: birth weight, size, cranial perimeter, Apgar test (1´y 5´. Results: Results show not significant differences between both groups at statistical level (p menor que 0.05, cases group (exercise present similar results related to haemoglobin levels: 12.1 ± 0.8 and iron: 65.90 ± 7.1 that the control group: haemoglobin: 12.3 ± 0.8 and iron: 66.42 ± 8.4. The birth weight was inferior in the case group inside nor- mal values (-142.1grs.. Conclusion: The moderate and aerobic exercise developed during the second and third pregnancy trimester seems not to influence in maternal haemoglobin and iron levels.

  17. The generation and influencing factors of spontaneous combustion of iron sulfide under aerobic condition%有氧条件下硫化铁的生成及自燃性影响因素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高建辉; 赵杉林; 张振华; 李萍; 李迪

    2015-01-01

    油品中的活性硫对设备具有腐蚀作用,探究有氧条件下硫化铁的生成及自燃性影响因素,对预防硫化铁自燃事故的发生具有重要意义。实验以三氧化二铁为主要原料,在氧气浓度为21%的条件下,与硫化氢气体反应来制备硫化铁。考察了环境温度、硫化产物的存放时间和储热条件对硫化铁自燃性的影响。结果表明,有氧条件下硫化铁的生成过程是一个硫化和氧化同时进行的过程,试样温度上升幅度大,单质硫生成量高;环境温度越高,所生成的硫化铁氧化升温越明显;存放时间对硫化铁的自燃性有重要影响,在存放过程中单质硫与FeS反应生成自燃性更高的多硫化物;储热条件越好,越易造成热量的堆积,加剧硫化铁的氧化放热反应。%The active sulfur in oil has a corrosive effect on the device,exploring the generation and influ-encing factors of spontaneous combustion of iron sulfide under the aerobic conditions has a great signifi-cance to prevent accidents caused by spontaneous combustion of iron sulfide. Experiment takes iron oxide as the main raw material to react with hydrogen sulfide gas under the condition that oxygen concentration is 21% to prepare the iron sulfide and investigates the effects of ambient temperature,storage time and storage conditions for curing hot products on spontaneous combustion of iron sulfide. The results show that the process of generating the iron sulfide under aerobic conditions is a process that oxidation and vulcani-zation taking place at the same time and when the sample temperature rising amplitude is bigger,genera-ting capacity of elemental sulfur will be higher;The higher the ambient temperature is,the more obvious the resulting iron sulfide oxidation temperature is rising;Storage time has considerable influences to spon-taneous combustion of iron sulfide and elemental sulfur reacts with FeS to form higher spontaneous com

  18. Aerobic fitness is associated with greater hippocampal cerebral blood flow in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaddock-Heyman, Laura; Erickson, Kirk I; Chappell, Michael A; Johnson, Curtis L; Kienzler, Caitlin; Knecht, Anya; Drollette, Eric S; Raine, Lauren B; Scudder, Mark R; Kao, Shih-Chun; Hillman, Charles H; Kramer, Arthur F

    2016-08-01

    The present study is the first to investigate whether cerebral blood flow in the hippocampus relates to aerobic fitness in children. In particular, we used arterial spin labeling (ASL) perfusion MRI to provide a quantitative measure of blood flow in the hippocampus in 73 7- to 9-year-old preadolescent children. Indeed, aerobic fitness was found to relate to greater perfusion in the hippocampus, independent of age, sex, and hippocampal volume. Such results suggest improved microcirculation and cerebral vasculature in preadolescent children with higher levels of aerobic fitness. Further, aerobic fitness may influence how the brain regulates its metabolic demands via blood flow in a region of the brain important for learning and memory. To add specificity to the relationship of fitness to the hippocampus, we demonstrate no significant association between aerobic fitness and cerebral blood flow in the brainstem. Our results reinforce the importance of aerobic fitness during a critical period of child development. PMID:27419884

  19. Beyond vascularization: aerobic fitness is associated with N-acetylaspartate and working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Kirk I; Weinstein, Andrea M; Sutton, Bradley P; Prakash, Ruchika Shaurya; Voss, Michelle W; Chaddock, Laura; Szabo, Amanda N; Mailey, Emily L; White, Siobhan M; Wojcicki, Thomas R; McAuley, Edward; Kramer, Arthur F

    2012-01-01

    Aerobic exercise is a promising form of prevention for cognitive decline; however, little is known about the molecular mechanisms by which exercise and fitness impacts the human brain. Several studies have postulated that increased regional brain volume and function are associated with aerobic fitness because of increased vascularization rather than increased neural tissue per se. We tested this position by examining the relationship between cardiorespiratory fitness and N-acetylaspartate (NAA) levels in the right frontal cortex using magnetic resonance spectroscopy. NAA is a nervous system specific metabolite found predominantly in cell bodies of neurons. We reasoned that if aerobic fitness was predominantly influencing the vasculature of the brain, then NAA levels should not vary as a function of aerobic fitness. However, if aerobic fitness influences the number or viability of neurons, then higher aerobic fitness levels might be associated with greater concentrations of NAA. We examined NAA levels, aerobic fitness, and cognitive performance in 137 older adults without cognitive impairment. Consistent with the latter hypothesis, we found that higher aerobic fitness levels offset an age-related decline in NAA. Furthermore, NAA mediated an association between fitness and backward digit span performance, suggesting that neuronal viability as measured by NAA is important in understanding fitness-related cognitive enhancement. Since NAA is found exclusively in neural tissue, our results indicate that the effect of fitness on the human brain extends beyond vascularization; aerobic fitness is associated with neuronal viability in the frontal cortex of older adults. PMID:22574272

  20. Brain Plasticity and Aerobic Fitness

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, Adam G.; Johansen-Berg, Heidi; Bandettini, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Regular aerobic exercise has a wide range of positive effects on health and cognition. Exercise has been demonstrated to provide a particularly powerful and replicable method of triggering a wide range of structural changes within both human and animal brains. However, the details and mechanisms of these changes remain poorly understood. This thesis undertakes a comprehensive examination of the relationship between brain plasticity and aerobic exercise. A large, longitudinal experiment ...

  1. Acute functional deterioration in a child with cerebral palsy

    OpenAIRE

    Smyth, Elizabeth; Kaliaperumal, Chandrasekaran; Leonard, Jane; Caird, John

    2012-01-01

    We describe a case of acute functional deterioration in a 13-year-old girl with severe spastic diplegia (GMFCS III) and a new diagnosis of diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG). She presented with acute deterioration in mobility and motor function over 1 month, which was associated with dysarthria, dysphagia and behavioural change. Her mother had noticed subtle functional deterioration over the 2 months prior to this. Her physiotherapist who was concerned about her acute functional deterior...

  2. 40 CFR 86.432-78 - Deterioration factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Deterioration factor. 86.432-78... 1978 and Later New Motorcycles, General Provisions § 86.432-78 Deterioration factor. (a) Deterioration factors shall be developed for each test vehicle from the emission test results. A separate factor...

  3. 40 CFR 52.2451 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2451 Section 52.2451 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... Quality Deterioration. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  4. 40 CFR 52.2497 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2497 Section 52.2497 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  5. 40 CFR 52.1603 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1603 Section 52.1603 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  6. 40 CFR 52.2676 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2676 Section 52.2676 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  7. 40 CFR 52.2729 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2729 Section 52.2729 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  8. 40 CFR 52.530 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.530 Section 52.530 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) EPA approves the Florida Prevention of Significant Deterioration program,...

  9. 40 CFR 52.2528 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2528 Section 52.2528 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of Sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... Quality Deterioration. (b) Regulations for Preventing Significant Deterioration of Air Quality,...

  10. 40 CFR 52.1165 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1165 Section 52.1165 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulation for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  11. 40 CFR 52.1234 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1234 Section 52.1234 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  12. 40 CFR 52.1689 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1689 Section 52.1689 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  13. 40 CFR 52.2779 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2779 Section 52.2779 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  14. 40 CFR 52.1884 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1884 Section 52.1884 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  15. 40 CFR 52.499 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.499 Section 52.499 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  16. 40 CFR 52.1180 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1180 Section 52.1180 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  17. 40 CFR 52.2827 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2827 Section 52.2827 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  18. 肥胖对心肌梗死后患者峰值有氧工作能力的影响%The influence of adiposity on peak aerobic capacity in post myocardial infarction patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘洵; Brodie DA; 周凤; 冯晟; 陈彦平; 刘静; 梁晓琳; 李承蒙; Bundred PE

    2011-01-01

    检测肥胖对心肌梗死后(PMI)患者心脏康复早期有氧工作能力的影响.方法:116例男性PMI患者根据其身体质量指数(BMI)高于或低于25和服用或未服用β-阻断剂被分为4组,然后进行递增负荷运动实验,其间记录每级负荷时的摄氧量(VO2)、心率(HR)、血压和自我用力感觉(RPE),并持续监测12导联心电图(ECG).结果:BMI< 25的两组患者都能坚持较长时间的运动(P< 0.05),有较高的峰值摄氧量(P<0.05)和较低的有氧能力的损伤(P< 0.01).当RPE到达13时,其他组别的V02分别是BMI< 25且服用β-阻断剂组的90%(未服用β-阻断剂,BMI< 25),75%(服用β-阻断剂,BMI> 25)和70%(未服用β-阻断剂,BMI> 25).结论:肥胖会影响患者运动中的功能和代谢能力,但服用β-阻断剂对此可有所补偿.BMI< 25对于减轻氧能力损伤将会有明显的益处.%Objective: To examine the influence of adiposity on the aerobic capacity of post myocardial infarction (PMI) patients during early stage of cardiac rehabilitation.Method: One hundred and sixteen male recent PMI patients were divided into four groups according to their body mass index (BMI) above or below 25, and with or without taking β -blocker. Then, a graded exercise test was performed; oxygen uptake (VO2), heart rate (HR), blood pressure and ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) were recorded, and 12 lead electrocardiogram (ECG) was monitored continuously.Result: Both groups with BMI25) and 70% (no β -blocker, BMI>25) respectively.Conclusion: Adiposity can compromise patients' function and metabolic capacity during exercise, but in patients taking β -blocker there may be some compensation. One with BMI <25 will have particular benefits for alleviating functional aerobic impairment.Author's address Department of Human Movement Science, Tianjin University of Sport, Tianjin, 300381

  19. Assessing and updating the reliability of concrete bridges subjected to spatial deterioration - principles and software implementation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneider, Ronald; Fischer, Johannes; Bügler, Maximilian;

    2015-01-01

    to implement the method presented here. The software prototype is applied to a typical highway bridge and the influence of inspection information on the system deterioration state and the structural reliability is quantified taking into account the spatial correlation of the corrosion process. This work...

  20. The influence of combustion derived pollutants on limestone deterioration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnson, JB; Montgomery, Melanie; Thompson, GE;

    1996-01-01

    This study concerns quantification of the relative chemical degradation effects of dry deposition of combustion-derived atmospheric pollutants, HCl, SO2 and NO2, on Portland and Monks Park limestones, employing laboratory exposure chambers for periods of 30 days. Using presentation rates up to 40 x...... to the anions. From these data, the total calcium released from limestone to reaction ions and products and the percentages of each pollutant reacted (and so the deposition velocity (V-D)) in each exposure regime were calculated. HCl acted independently of the presence of other pollutants, showed 40 and 100......, chemical constitution and transfer, smoke particle size distribution should also be considered in any possible action on limestone. Concerning naturally exposed samples, non-wetted surface reaction products tended to reduce the attack of pollutants, but had no resisting effect when wetted....

  1. The Influence of Combustion-derived pollutants on limestone deterioration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnson, J.B.; Montgomery, Melanie; Thompson, G.E.;

    1996-01-01

    The wet deposition of combustion-derived atmospheric pollutant species, on to freshly cut or diesel-smoked Portland and Monks Park limestone and marble samples, was carried out in a laboratory 'wetting and drying' salt spray chamber for 84 days. Along with the effect of CO2-equilibrated de.......e. released from limestone to reaction ions and products, a theoretical limestone surface chemical recession rate was calculated. It was found that, at pH 5.5, water and solutions of individual anions gave similar recession rates within the range of 7.8 +/- 1.8 and 11.5 +/- 2.3 mu m yr(-1) for Portland...... and Monks Park limestones, respectively. At pH 3.8 the individual anion recession rates were increased to 11.1 +/- 0.5 and 13.9 +/- 0.5 mu m yr(-1) respectively, similar to the rates of 12.5 +/- 1.6 and 13.8 +/- 2.2 mu m yr(-1) for the mixed anion artificial acid rain solution on Portland and Monks Park...

  2. Influence of aerobic exercise on blood pressure in patients with white coat hypertension%有氧运动对白大衣高血压患者血压的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董雅娟; 王敬

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To observe influence of aerobic exercise on blood pressure in patients with white coat hypertension (WCH).Methods:A total of 51 newly diagnostic WCH patients were randomly divided into exercise group (n =26) and WCH control group (n =25).Patients in exercise group received aerobic exercise training (walking on flat ground by constant speed,twice a day,50~80 min each time for three months) ; The WCH control group did not exercise.Office blood pressure (OBP) and 24h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) were measured in both groups before and three months after treatment.Results:There were no significant difference in indexes of OBP and ABPM between two groups before treatment (P>0.05).After three months,compared with before treatment,indexes of OBP and ABPM significantly decreased in exercise group and they were significantly lower than those of WCH control group in OBP [OSBP:(132.54±17.60) mmHg vs.(143.68±20.35) mmHg,ODBP:(89.12±18.39) mmHg vs.(92.75±17.24) mmHg] and ABPM [mSBP:(121.57±20.86) mmHg vs.(128.06±19.45) mmHg,mDBP:(76.24±15.28) mmHgvs.(84.55±17.31) mmHg; dSBP:(124.27±22.50) mmHg vs.(130.85±24.61) mmHg,dDBP:(77.95± 18.42) mmHgvs.(82.36±17.59) mmHg],P<0.05~<0.01.Conclusion:Aerobic exercise can significantly improve blood pressure in patients with white coat hypertension.%目的::观察有氧运动对白大衣高血压(WCH)患者血压的影响.方法:51例新近确诊的WCH患者被随机分为运动组(26例)和WCH对照组(25例),运动组接受了有氧运动锻炼训练(等速平地步行,2次/d,50~80 min/次,持续3个月);WCH对照组未进行运动训练.两组患者在确诊时和3个月后分别进行了诊室血压(OBP)和24h动态血压(ABPM)检测.结果:两组患者首次检测各项OBP和ABPM指标无显著差异(P均>0.05);3个月后运动组OBP和ABPM各指标较干预前明显降低,且明显低于WCH对照组,OBP[OSBP:(132.54±17.60) mmHg比(143.68±20.35) mmHg、ODBP:(89.12±18.39)mmHg比(92

  3. 有氧运动对肥胖青少年心率变异性的影响%Influence of aerobic exercise in heart rate variability in obese adolescents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李光欣; 王占一; 吕薇; 赵立君

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore the influence of 8-week aerobic exercise in heart rate variability (HRV)in obese adolescents and to provide the evidence for formulating special exercise prescription.Methods Forty male obese adolescents (BMI≥25 kg·m-2 )were randomly divided into exercise group (n=20)and control group (n=20). The subjects in exercise group conducted a 8-week (five times/week,50-60 min)aerobic exercise while those in control group maintained their routine lifestyle. The body composition, hemodynamic parameters including heart rate(HR)and blood pressure and HRV parameters including total power (TP),normalized low frequency (LFn), normalized high frequency (HFn)and LFn/HFn ratio were measured before and after experiment.Results There were no significant differences of the indicators of the subjects between two groups before experiment (P>0.05). At the end of experiment,compared before experiment,the fat mass(FM),the percentage of body fat(BF%), the rest HR,SBP and DBP were decreased (P0.05).Compared control group,the FM,the BF%, the rest HR,SBP,DBP,LFn and LFn/HFn ratio were decreased while the TP and HFn were increased (P<0.01)in exercise group after experiment.Conclusion Aerobic exercise may effectively reduce the sympathetic activity and increase the vagal tone in the obese adolescents.%目的:探讨有氧运动对肥胖青少年心率变异性(HRV)的影响,为制定特异性的运动处方提供依据。方法:40名男性肥胖青少年[体质量指数(BMI)≥25 kg·m-2)]随机分为运动组(n=20)和对照组(n=20)。运动组受试者进行有氧运动干预,每周5次,每次持续50~60 min,共8周;对照组受试者保持日常生活习惯不变。实验前后分别测定受试者的身体成分、血液动力学参数[(心率(HR)和血压)]和心率变异性(HRV)参数[总功率(TP)、标准化低频功率(LFn)、标准化高频功率(HFn)以及 LFn/HFn比值]。结果:实验前2组受试

  4. China's FDI Net Inflow and Deterioration of Terms of Trade: Paradox and Explanation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huizhong Li; Ping Huang; Jialun Li

    2007-01-01

    Starting from the contradiction between China's sustained growth in foreign direct investment(FDI) net inflow and deterioration of the terms of trade, this paper analyzes the characteristics of FDI sectoral structure since the 1990. Moreover, considering the international market competitive environment, this paper gives a concrete analysis of the influence mechanism and concludes that the flowing of FDI into labor-intensive export sectors caused the deterioration of China's terms of trade. To improve its terms of trade, China needs to direct FDI inflow into capital- and technology-intensive sectors and service sectors.

  5. Mechanisms of deterioration of nutrients. [freeze drying methods for space flight food

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karel, M.; Flink, J. M.

    1974-01-01

    Methods are reported by which freeze dried foods of improved quality will be produced. The applicability of theories of flavor retention has been demonstrated for a number of food polymers, both proteins and polysacchardies. Studies on the formation of structures during freeze drying have been continued for emulsified systems. Deterioration of organoleptic quality of freeze dried foods due to high temperature heating has been evaluated and improved procedures developed. The influence of water activity and high temperature on retention of model flavor materials and browning deterioration has been evaluated for model systems and food materials.

  6. Analysis on Influence Factors of China's Competitive Aerobics Game Music%对我国竞技健美操比赛音乐影响因素的分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈昌

    2014-01-01

    本文采用文献资料法、专家访谈法、问卷调查法等研究方法,调查我国竞技健美操相关人员,了解我国竞技健美操音乐的应用情况,通过数理统计法并结合相关的文献资料及问卷结果,初步研究出我国竞技健美操比赛音乐的影响因素主要有:创编因子、动作因子、音乐文化因子和情感因子。并针对因子进行分析,力图提高我国竞技健美操水平。%Through using the method of literature review , expert interview and questionnaire , this paper makes survey on our competitive aerobics personnel and understood the application of our competitive aerobics music .By means of mathematical statistics and combined with literature data and questionnaire results , the author makes preliminary studies on the impact factors of China's competitive aerobics music .There are composing factor , action factor, music culture factor and emotion factor .According to factor analysis , this paper tries to improve the level of our competitive aerobics .

  7. Low-cost step aerobics system with virtual aerobics trainer

    OpenAIRE

    Rosa, Alejandro; Barbancho, Isabel; Tardón, Lorenzo J.; Barbancho, Ana M.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper a low-cost step-aerobics instructor simulation system is presented. The proposed system analyses a given song to iden- tify its rhythmic pattern. Subsequently, this rhythmic pattern is used in order to issue a set of steps-aerobics commands to the user, thus simu- lating a training session. The system uses a Wii Balance Board to track exercises performed by users and runs on an Android smartphone. A set of tests were conducted to assess user experience and opin...

  8. Tree mineral nutrition is deteriorating in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonard, Mathieu; Fürst, Alfred; Verstraeten, Arne;

    2015-01-01

    The response of forest ecosystems to increased atmospheric CO2 is constrained by nutrient availability. It is thus crucial to account for nutrient limitation when studying the forest response to climate change. The objectives of this study were to describe the nutritional status of the main...... European tree species, to identify growth-limiting nutrients and to assess changes in tree nutrition during the past two decades. We analysed the foliar nutrition data collected during 1992–2009 on the intensive forest monitoring plots of the ICP Forests programme. Of the 22 significant temporal trends...... to higher nutrient demand by trees. As the soil nutrient supply was not always sufficient to meet the demands of faster growing trees, this could partly explain the deterioration of tree mineral nutrition. The results suggest that when evaluating forest carbon storage capacity and when planning to reduce CO...

  9. Evaluating Deterioration of Concrete by Sulfate Attack

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Effects of factors such as water to cement ratio, fly ash and silica fume on the resistance of concrete to sulfate attack were investigated by dry-wet cycles and immersion method. The index of the resistance to sulfate attack was used to evaluate the deterioration degree of concrete damaged by sulfate. The relationship between the resistance of concrete to sulfate attack and its permeability/porosity were analyzed as well as its responding mechanism. Results show that the depth of sulfate crystal attack from surface to inner of concrete can be reduced by decreasing w/c and addition of combining fly ash with silica fume. The variation of relative elastic modulus ratio and relative flexural strength ratio of various specimens before and after being subjected to sulfate attack was compared.

  10. An inventory model of instantaneous deteriorating items with controllable deterioration rate for time dependent demand and holding cost

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinod Kumar Mishra

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this paper to develop an inventory model for instantaneous deteriorating items with the consideration of the facts that the deterioration rate can be controlled by using the preservation technology (PT and the holding cost & demand rate both are linear function of time which was treated as constant in most of the deteriorating inventory model. Design/methodology/approach: Developed the mathematical equation of deterministic deteriorating inventory model in which demand rate and holding cost both is linear function of time, deterioration rate is constant, backlogging rate is variable and depend on the length of the next replenishment, shortages are allowed and partially backlogged and obtain an analytical solution which optimizes the total cost of the proposed inventory model. Findings: The model can be applied for optimizing the total inventory cost of deteriorating items inventory for such business enterprises where they use the preservation technology to control the deterioration rate under other assumptions of the model. Originality/value: The inventory system for deteriorating items has been an object of study for a long time, but little is known about the effect of investing in reducing the rate of product deterioration and their significant impact in the business. The proposed model is effective as well as efficient for the business organization that uses the preservation technology to reduce the deterioration rate of the instantaneous deteriorating items of the inventory.

  11. Condition-based inspection/replacement policies for non-monotone deteriorating systems with environmental covariates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao Xuejing [Universite de Technologie de Troyes, Institut Charles Delaunay and STMR UMR CNRS 6279, 12 rue Marie Curie, 10010 Troyes (France); School of mathematics and statistics, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Fouladirad, Mitra, E-mail: mitra.fouladirad@utt.f [Universite de Technologie de Troyes, Institut Charles Delaunay and STMR UMR CNRS 6279, 12 rue Marie Curie, 10010 Troyes (France); Berenguer, Christophe [Universite de Technologie de Troyes, Institut Charles Delaunay and STMR UMR CNRS 6279, 12 rue Marie Curie, 10010 Troyes (France); Bordes, Laurent [Universite de Pau et des Pays de l' Adour, LMA UMR CNRS 5142, 64013 PAU Cedex (France)

    2010-08-15

    The aim of this paper is to discuss the problem of modelling and optimising condition-based maintenance policies for a deteriorating system in presence of covariates. The deterioration is modelled by a non-monotone stochastic process. The covariates process is assumed to be a time-homogenous Markov chain with finite state space. A model similar to the proportional hazards model is used to show the influence of covariates on the deterioration. In the framework of the system under consideration, an appropriate inspection/replacement policy which minimises the expected average maintenance cost is derived. The average cost under different conditions of covariates and different maintenance policies is analysed through simulation experiments to compare the policies performances.

  12. Effects of aerobic training on heart rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos B. Almeida

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Regular physical exercise is an important factor to reduce the indexes of cardiovascular and all causes morbimortality. However, there is, apparently, additional and independent benefits of the regular practice of physical exercise and the improvement of the level of aerobic condition. Heart rate (HR is mediated primarily by the direct activity of the autonomic nervous system (ANS, specifically through the sympathetic and parasympathetic branches activities over the sinus node autorhythmicity, with predominance of the vagal activity (parasympathetic at rest, that is progressively inhibited since the onset of the exercise. The HR behavior has been widely studied during different conditions and protocols associated to the exercise. A reduction of the cardiac vagal tone (parasympathetic function and consequently a diminished HR variability in rest, independently of the protocol of measurement used, is related to an autonomic dysfunction, chronic-degenerative diseases and increased mortality risk. Individuals with high levels of aerobic condition have a lower resting HR, along with a larger parasympathetic activity or smaller sympathetic activity, but it is not necessarily a direct consequence of the exercise training, as long as other inherent adaptations to the aerobic conditioning can influence the resting HR. The HR response in the onset of the exercise represents the integrity of the vagus nerve, and the HR recovery on the post-exercise transient also denotes important prognostic information; by the way, individuals that have a slow HR recovery in the first minute post-exercise have increased mortality risk. In conclusion, the physiological mechanisms modulating HR during or after an exercise program are not totally clear, and further studies are needed.

  13. Nociception Before and After Exercise In Rats Bred for High and Low Aerobic Capacity

    OpenAIRE

    Geisser, Michael E; Wang, Wenfei; Smuck, Matthew; Koch, Lauren G.; Britton, Steven L.; Lydic, Ralph

    2008-01-01

    Exercise and stress are known to influence pain perception. However, little is known about how level of fitness influences pain perception and the experience of pain. In the present study, pain perception before and after exercise to exhaustion was examined in 6 rats systematically bred to have a high aerobic capacity (HCR animals) and 6 rats systematically bred to have a low aerobic capacity (LCR animals). HCR animals had significantly higher pain thresholds compared to LCR animals before an...

  14. Fermentation and aerobic stability of high-moisture corn silages inoculated with different levels of Lactobacillus buchneri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Carvalho Basso

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Fermentation and aerobic stability were evaluated in high-moisture corn (HMC silage inoculated with different levels of Lactobacillus buchneri. The HMC composed of 654 g/kg dry matter (DM was ensiled in quadruplicate laboratory silos (7 L per treatment. L. buchneri 40788 was applied at 5 × 10(4; 1 × 10(5; 5 × 10(5; and 1 × 10(6 cfu/g to the ground corn. Silages with no additive were used as controls. After 140 d of ensiling, the silages were subjected to an aerobic stability evaluation for 12 days in which the chemical parameters, microbiological parameters and silage temperature were measured to determine the aerobic deterioration. The lactic acid, acetic acid and propionic acid concentrations did not differ between silages. The fermentation parameters of HMC were not affected by L. buchneri. The HMC containing L. buchneri had a low number of yeast and mould colonies and a more stable pH until in the eighth measurement, which improved the aerobic stability without affecting gas loss. Doses of L. buchneri greater than or equal to 5 × 10(5 cfu/g applied to the HMC were the most efficient in control of aerobic deterioration.

  15. Aerobic exercise in pulmonary rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Brasileiro de Vasconcelos

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to conduct a literature review on the usefulness of aerobic exercise in pulmonary rehabilitation. This is an exploratory study of literature through the electronic databases Medline, Lilacs, Scielo, Pubmed and Google Scholar, published between 1996 and 2012, conducted during the period February to May 2012 with the following keywords: COPD, pulmonary rehabilitation, aerobic exercises, physical training, quality of life. The change in pulmonary function and dysfunction of skeletal muscles that result in exercise intolerance and reduced fitness and may cause social isolation, depression, anxiety and addiction. The training exercise is the most important component of the program of pulmonary rehabilitation where the aerobic training provides consistent results in clinical improvement in levels of exercise tolerance and decreased dyspnea generating more benefits to the body, reducing the chance of cardiovascular disease and improves quality and expectation of life. We demonstrated that the use of aerobic exercise in pulmonary rehabilitation program, allows an improvement of motor skills, decreased muscle fatigue and deconditioning, reducing sedentary lifestyle; however, has little or no effect on the reduction of strength and atrophy muscle.

  16. Blade Deterioration in a Gas Turbine Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Tabakoff

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available A study has been conducted to predict blade erosion of gas turbine engines. The blade material erosion model is based on three dimensional particle trajectory simulation in the three-dimensional turbine flow field. The trajectories provide the special distribution of the particle impact parameters over the blade surface. A semi-empirical erosion model, derived from erosion tests of material samples at different particulate flow conditions, is used in the prediction of blade surface erosion based on the trajectory impact data. To improve the blade erosion resistance and to decrease the blade deterioration, the blades must be coated. For this purpose, an experimental study was conducted to investigate the behavior of rhodium platinum aluminide coating exposed to erosion by fly ash particles. New protective coatings are developed for erosion and thermal barrier. Chemical vapor deposition technique (CVD was used to apply the ceramic TiC coatings on INCO 718 and stainless steel 410. The erosive wear of the coated samples was investigated experimentally by exposing them to particle laden flow at velocities from 180 to 305m/s and temperatures from ambient to 538°C in a specially designed erosion wind tunnel. Both materials (INCO 718 and stainless steel 410 coated with CVD TiC showed one order of magnitude less erosion rate compared to some commercial coatings on the same substrates.

  17. Bridge concrete deteriorating diagnosis by infrared thermography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, Hiroki; Fukuyama, Nobuhiro; Sakuma, Joji; Mochizuki, Jun; Kimura, Yukinori

    2006-04-01

    Bridge is indispensable as social overhead capital. In the past, concrete construction was believed to be semi-permanent. Actually, however, concrete is deteriorated by various factors including seawater damage, annual temperature change, etc. Therefore, it is now obvious that maintenance and management are essential to keep performance of the bridge. In Japan, we had many reports of using infrared thermography for diagnosis of building, mainly for delamination of tile and mortar used for surface of the building for more than 10 years. In recent years, infrared thermogrephy is more actively used for delamination of surface of the bridge. Passive method is usually used for open-air concrete structure diagnosis, which utilizes intraday environmental temperature change and/or radiation energy emitted from the sun which create delta-T of delamination portion of the concrete structure. It is very important to take thermal image at right conditions. Otherwise, you may easily fall onto false diagnosis. In our presentation, many case examples and study of thermal data will be shown, which are taken at the right condition.

  18. 高校教学中健美操对学生身体自我概念影响探析%Exploration of Influence of Aerobics on College Students'Body Self Concept in College Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白路霞

    2015-01-01

    In common sense,self -concept is an individual 's knowledge and understanding of certain thing, namely it is a unique knowledge about the external world and the ego formed after a series of activities.This knowledge is a complicated multidimensional concept on aspects of self -identity,social environment,natural environment and interpersonal relationship.Shavelson put forward the multidimensional theoretical model of self concept.At the top of this model lies self concept,which includes self concept of body,feeling,society and academic performance.Among them,physical appearance and performance make up body self concept. At present,physical and mental development of college students are not satisfactory.So it is important to help carry out the work of improving college students'physical and mental development.Only related researches can help college students check themselves with objective and right attitudes and constantly improve their psychological state in practice to finally become healthy.Based on literature and 8 -week following -up investigation with methods of psychological measurement and teaching experiments,this paper explores the influence of aerobics on college students'body self concept.The paper aims to promote college students'knowledge of body self concept and ensure efficient interference of students and teachers on college students'physical and mental health by taking aerobics as a platform.%通常说来,自我概念是个体对某一事物的认识、理解,即个体通过一系列的活动之后,对外界、自身形成了一种独有的认识,该认识有自我属性、社会环境、自然环境、人际关系等方面的感知,是复杂的多维性概念。也就说是,自我概念是有层次性的、多维度的认知。赛佛森提出“自我概念的多维度层次理论模型”。在该模型,最顶层为自我概念,包含:身体自我概念、情绪自我概念、社会自我概念以及学业自我概念,其中

  19. Influence of aerobic training on the reduced vasoconstriction to angiotensin II in rats exposed to intrauterine growth restriction: possible role of oxidative stress and AT2 receptor of angiotensin II.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Oliveira

    Full Text Available Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR is associated with impaired vascular function, which contributes to the increased incidence of chronic disease. The aim of this study was to investigate whether aerobic training improves AngII-induced vasoconstriction in IUGR rats. Moreover, we assess the role of superoxide dismutase (SOD isoforms and NADPH oxidase-derived superoxide anions in this improvement. Female Wistar rats were randomly divided into two groups on day 1 of pregnancy. A control group was fed standard chow ad libitum, and a restricted group was fed 50% of the ad libitum intake throughout gestation. At 8 weeks of age, male offspring from both groups were randomly assigned to 4 experimental groups: sedentary control (SC, trained control (TC, sedentary restricted (SRT, and trained restricted (TRT. The training protocol was performed on a treadmill and consisted of a continuous 60-min session 5 days/week for 10 weeks. Following aerobic training, concentration-response curves to AngII were obtained in endothelium-intact aortic rings. Protein expression of SOD isoforms, AngII receptors and the NADPH oxidase component p47phox was assessed by Western blot analysis. The dihydroethidium was used to evaluate the in situ superoxide levels under basal conditions or in the presence of apocynin, losartan or PD 123,319. Our results indicate that aerobic training can prevent IUGR-associated increases in AngII-dependent vasoconstriction and can restore basal superoxide levels in the aortic rings of TRT rats. Moreover, we observed that aerobic training normalized the increased p47phox protein expression and increased MnSOD and AT2 receptor protein expression in thoracic aortas of SRT rats. In summary, aerobic training can result in an upregulation of antioxidant defense by improved of MnSOD expression and attenuation of NADPH oxidase component p47phox. These effects are accompanied by increased expression of AT2 receptor, which provide positive effects

  20. Running for Exercise Mitigates Age-Related Deterioration of Walking Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Justus D.; Beck, Owen N.; Roby, Jaclyn M.; Turney, Aria L.; Kram, Rodger

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Impaired walking performance is a key predictor of morbidity among older adults. A distinctive characteristic of impaired walking performance among older adults is a greater metabolic cost (worse economy) compared to young adults. However, older adults who consistently run have been shown to retain a similar running economy as young runners. Unfortunately, those running studies did not measure the metabolic cost of walking. Thus, it is unclear if running exercise can prevent the deterioration of walking economy. Purpose To determine if and how regular walking vs. running exercise affects the economy of locomotion in older adults. Methods 15 older adults (69±3 years) who walk ≥30 min, 3x/week for exercise, “walkers” and 15 older adults (69±5 years) who run ≥30 min, 3x/week, “runners” walked on a force-instrumented treadmill at three speeds (0.75, 1.25, and 1.75 m/s). We determined walking economy using expired gas analysis and walking mechanics via ground reaction forces during the last 2 minutes of each 5 minute trial. We compared walking economy between the two groups and to non-aerobically trained young and older adults from a prior study. Results Older runners had a 7–10% better walking economy than older walkers over the range of speeds tested (p = .016) and had walking economy similar to young sedentary adults over a similar range of speeds (p = .237). We found no substantial biomechanical differences between older walkers and runners. In contrast to older runners, older walkers had similar walking economy as older sedentary adults (p = .461) and ∼26% worse walking economy than young adults (p<.0001). Conclusion Running mitigates the age-related deterioration of walking economy whereas walking for exercise appears to have minimal effect on the age-related deterioration in walking economy. PMID:25411850

  1. Concern With Environmental Deterioration and Attitudes Toward Population Limitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Larry D.

    1970-01-01

    Analysis of Gallup Poll data of Junuary 1969 reveals weak association between concern about environmental deterioration and the recognition of need for eventual limitation of human population. Suggests that to increase favorable attitudes to population control, role of overpopulation in causing environmental deterioration needs to be presented to…

  2. Review of inventory systems with deterioration since 2001

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, M.; Riezebos, J.; Teunter, R.H.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an up-to-date review of the advances made in the field of inventory control of perishable items (deteriorating inventory). The last extensive review on this topic dates back to 2001 (Goyal S.K. and Giri B.C., Recent trends in modeling of deteriorating inventory, European Journal

  3. 40 CFR 52.1436 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.1436 Section 52.1436 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air...

  4. 40 CFR 52.2131 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.2131 Section 52.2131 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a)-(b) (c) All applications and other information required...

  5. 40 CFR 52.144 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.144 Section 52.144 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Act are not met... lands does not include approvable procedures for preventing the significant deterioration of air...

  6. 40 CFR 52.581 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.581 Section 52.581 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) All applications and other information required pursuant to § 52.21 of...

  7. 40 CFR 52.2303 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2303 Section 52.2303 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The plan submitted by Texas is approved as meeting the requirements of part C, Clean Air Act for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The...

  8. 40 CFR 52.1116 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... deterioration of air quality. (b) The following provisions of 40 CFR 52.21 are hereby incorporated and made a... quality. 52.1116 Section 52.1116 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean...

  9. 40 CFR 52.738 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.738 Section 52.738 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act are not met... air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The...

  10. 40 CFR 52.1529 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.1529 Section 52.1529 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. New Hampshire's Part Env-A 623, “Requirements for Prevention...

  11. 40 CFR 52.2083 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.2083 Section 52.2083 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The Rhode Island plan, as submitted, is approved as meeting...

  12. 40 CFR 52.96 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.96 Section 52.96 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The State of Alaska Department of Environmental Conservation Air Quality... deterioration of air quality. (b) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act are not...

  13. 40 CFR 52.1485 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1485 Section 52.1485 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... include approvable procedures for preventing the significant deterioration of air quality. (b)...

  14. 40 CFR 52.2346 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2346 Section 52.2346 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The Utah plan, as submitted, is approved as meeting the... construct on Indian Reservations. (b) Regulation for prevention of significant deterioration of air...

  15. 40 CFR 52.2178 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2178 Section 52.2178 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The South Dakota plan, as submitted, is approved as meeting the... on Indian reservations; (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  16. 40 CFR 52.833 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.833 Section 52.833 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act are met... for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The provisions of § 52.21 except paragraph...

  17. 40 CFR 52.2380 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.2380 Section 52.2380 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. The program to review the construction and operation of new...

  18. 40 CFR 52.793 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.793 Section 52.793 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act are not met... air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The...

  19. 40 CFR 52.2581 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... provisions for prevention of significant deterioration of air quality at 40 CFR 52.21 are applicable to the... quality. 52.2581 Section 52.2581 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a)-(c) (d) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of...

  20. 40 CFR 52.884 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.884 Section 52.884 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of section 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act, as...

  1. 40 CFR 52.632 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.632 Section 52.632 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act are not met... air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The...

  2. 40 CFR 52.270 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.270 Section 52.270 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) With the exception of the areas listed in paragraph (b) of this section: (1... plan does not include approvable procedures for preventing the significant deterioration of air...

  3. 40 CFR 52.343 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.343 Section 52.343 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act are not met for the following categories of sources for preventing the significant deterioration of air...

  4. 40 CFR 52.382 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.382 Section 52.382 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act are not...

  5. 40 CFR 52.432 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.432 Section 52.432 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act are not met... air quality. (b) Regulation for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The provisions...

  6. 40 CFR 52.986 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.986 Section 52.986 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The plan submitted by the Governor of Louisiana on August 14, 1984 (as adopted... preventing significant deterioration of air quality. (b) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of...

  7. 40 CFR 52.1280 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.1280 Section 52.1280 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) All applications and other information required pursuant to §...

  8. 40 CFR 52.1987 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1987 Section 52.1987 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The Oregon Department of Environmental Quality rules for the prevention of significant deterioration of air quality (provisions of OAR chapter 340, Divisions 200,...

  9. 40 CFR 52.683 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.683 Section 52.683 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The State of Idaho Rules for Control of Air Pollution in Idaho, specifically... the Clean Air Act for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. (b) The requirements...

  10. 40 CFR 52.181 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.181 Section 52.181 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The plan submitted by the Governor of Arkansas as follows: (1) April 23,...

  11. 40 CFR 52.931 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.931 Section 52.931 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The..., the Kentucky Division for Air Quality has determined that the application complies with the...

  12. 40 CFR 52.1029 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.1029 Section 52.1029 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. The program to review operation and construction of new and...

  13. Communicating hydrocephalus in the intellectual deterioration of diabetes mellitus.

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, D.B.; Hosker, J. P.; Asplin, C M

    1983-01-01

    Atherosclerosis of cerebral vessels (Grunnet 1963) and hypoglycaemia (Bale 1973) are thought to be involved in the premature intellectual deterioration which occurs in some diabetics. Two diabetics are now reported who, in the course of their investigation for intellectual deterioration, were found to have communicating hydrocephalus.

  14. Acute functional deterioration in a child with cerebral palsy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Smyth, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    We describe a case of acute functional deterioration in a 13-year-old girl with severe spastic diplegia (GMFCS III) and a new diagnosis of diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG). She presented with acute deterioration in mobility and motor function over 1 month, which was associated with dysarthria, dysphagia and behavioural change. Her mother had noticed subtle functional deterioration over the 2 months prior to this. Her physiotherapist who was concerned about her acute functional deterioration referred her for emergency review. Neurological imaging revealed a diffuse pontine lesion consistent with DIPG. She was subsequently referred to oncology. She deteriorated further, clinically, over the next few days and following discussion with the team; her family opted for palliative treatment, given the poor prognosis associated with DIPG.

  15. MODELING PAVEMENT DETERIORATION PROCESSES BY POISSON HIDDEN MARKOV MODELS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Le Thanh; Kaito, Kiyoyuki; Kobayashi, Kiyoshi; Okizuka, Ryosuke

    In pavement management, it is important to estimate lifecycle cost, which is composed of the expenses for repairing local damages, including potholes, and repairing and rehabilitating the surface and base layers of pavements, including overlays. In this study, a model is produced under the assumption that the deterioration process of pavement is a complex one that includes local damages, which occur frequently, and the deterioration of the surface and base layers of pavement, which progresses slowly. The variation in pavement soundness is expressed by the Markov deterioration model and the Poisson hidden Markov deterioration model, in which the frequency of local damage depends on the distribution of pavement soundness, is formulated. In addition, the authors suggest a model estimation method using the Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) method, and attempt to demonstrate the applicability of the proposed Poisson hidden Markov deterioration model by studying concrete application cases.

  16. Early neurological deterioration after thrombolysis: Clinical and imaging predictors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Claus Z; Schmitz, Marie Louise; Hjørringgaard Madsen, Mette;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale is the most common scale used in stroke patients. An increase of four points or more within 24 h signifies early neurological deterioration. We aimed to establish how often early neurological deterioration occurs in a cohort selected...... by magnetic resonance imaging and which factors predicted early neurological deterioration. METHODS: In this single-center study, we collected epidemiological, imaging and outcome data on 569 consecutive patients undergoing reperfusion therapy after magnetic resonance imaging selection. RESULTS: Of these, 33...... (5.8%) experienced early neurological deterioration. Seven were due to a symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage, 23 were caused by extension of ischemia on follow-up imaging and three were due to progression on the basis of small vessel disease. Early neurological deterioration was predicted...

  17. Deterioration of Safety Related Concrete Structures in Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Young Chul; Cho, Myung Sug; Suh, Young Pyue; Jung, Hyung Jin; Pang, Gi Sung [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jang Hwa; Kim, Keung Hwan; Park, Heung Seik; You, Young Chan; Kim, Do Gyeum; Jeong, Youn Ju; Lee, Jong Suk [Korea Institute of Construction Technology (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-12-31

    In general, the Safety Related Concrete Structures(SRCS) in nuclear power plants are progressively deteriorated as the total service life is increased. The deterioration of SRCS becomes major concern in the maintenance of the nuclear power plants since the failure of SRCS can cause safety problems. To ensure safety of SRCS, the maintenance of SRCS should be conducted according to the reliable maintenance techniques. For this reason, this study to evaluate the soundness of the existing SRCS and to develop an advanced maintenance technique which is named Structural Aging Maintenance System(SAMS), especially for the efficient treatment of deteriorated SRCS. SAMS can handle input/output and search/control of the results, detection of deterioration causes by using Deterioration Diagnosis System(DDS), and establishment of the maintenance plan which including repairs and retrofit. (author). 82 refs., 46 figs.

  18. Aerobic microbial enhanced oil recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torsvik, T. [Univ. of Bergen (Norway); Gilje, E.; Sunde, E.

    1995-12-31

    In aerobic MEOR, the ability of oil-degrading bacteria to mobilize oil is used to increase oil recovery. In this process, oxygen and mineral nutrients are injected into the oil reservoir in order to stimulate growth of aerobic oil-degrading bacteria in the reservoir. Experiments carried out in a model sandstone with stock tank oil and bacteria isolated from offshore wells showed that residual oil saturation was lowered from 27% to 3%. The process was time dependent, not pore volume dependent. During MEOR flooding, the relative permeability of water was lowered. Oxygen and active bacteria were needed for the process to take place. Maximum efficiency was reached at low oxygen concentrations, approximately 1 mg O{sub 2}/liter.

  19. Health-improving possibilities of usage of aerobics in the senior classes of comprehensive school.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kravchuk T.N.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In the article is opened health-improving possibilities of use of aerobics at physical training lessons in the senior classes. The technique of carrying out of lessons of physical training in the senior classes with use of different kinds of aerobics is proved and developed, and also their influence on indicators of health of senior pupils is investigated. It is shown that employment by aerobics promotes considerable improvement of health of senior pupils, increase of mood, state of health and activity.

  20. Effects of gamma irradiation on deteriorated paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bicchieri, Marina; Monti, Michela; Piantanida, Giovanna; Sodo, Armida

    2016-08-01

    Even though gamma radiation application, also at the minimum dosage required for disinfection, causes depolymerization and degradation of the paper substrate, recently published papers seemed, instead, to suggest that γ-rays application could be envisaged in some conditions for Cultural Heritage original documents and books. In some of the published papers, the possible application of γ-rays was evaluated mainly by using mechanical tests that scarcely reflect the chemical modifications induced in the cellulosic support. In the present article the effect of low dosage γ-irradiation on cellulosic substrates was studied and monitored applying different techniques: colorimetry, spectroscopic measurements, carbonyl content and average viscometric degree of polymerization. Two different papers were investigated, a non-sized, non-filled cotton paper, and a commercial permanent paper. To simulate a real deteriorated document, which could need γ-rays irradiation, some samples were submitted to a hydrolysis treatment. We developed a treatment based on the exposition of paper to hydrochloric acid vapors, avoiding any contact of the samples with water. This method induces a degradation similar to that observed on original documents. The samples were then irradiated with 3 kGy γ-rays at a 5258 Gy/h rate. The aforementioned analyses were performed on the samples just irradiated and after artificial ageing. All tests showed negative effects of gamma irradiation on paper. Non-irradiated paper preserves better its appearance and chemical properties both in the short term and after ageing, while the irradiated samples show appreciable color change and higher oxidation extent. Since the Istituto centrale restauro e conservazione patrimonio archivistico e librario is responsible for the choice of all restoration treatments that could be applied on library and archival materials under the protection of the Italian State (http://www.icpal.beniculturali.it/allegati/DM-7

  1. The Effect of Units Lost Due to Deterioration in Fuzzy Economic Order Quantity (FEOQ Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Pattnaik

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available For several decades, the Economic Order Quantity (EOQ model and its variations have received much attention from researchers. Recently, there has been an investigation into an EOQ model incorporating effect of units lost due to deterioration in infinite planning horizon with crisp decision environment. Accounting for holding and ordering cost, as has traditionally been the case of modeling inventory systems in fuzzy environment are investigated which are not precisely known and defined on a bounded interval of real numbers. The question is how reliable are the EOQ models when items stocked deteriorate one time. This paper introduces Fuzzy Economic Order Quantity (FEOQ model in which it assumes that units lost due to deterioration is included in the objective function to properly model the problem in finite planning horizon. The numerical analysis shows that an appropriate fuzzy policy can benefit the retailer and that is significant, especially for deteriorating items is shown to be superior to that of crisp decision making. A computational algorithm using LINGO 13.0 and MATLAB (R2009a software are developed to find the optimal solution. Sensitivity analysis of the optimal solution is also studied and managerial insights are drawn which shows the influence of key model parameters.

  2. Aerobic conditioning for team sport athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Nicholas M; Kilding, Andrew E

    2009-01-01

    Team sport athletes require a high level of aerobic fitness in order to generate and maintain power output during repeated high-intensity efforts and to recover. Research to date suggests that these components can be increased by regularly performing aerobic conditioning. Traditional aerobic conditioning, with minimal changes of direction and no skill component, has been demonstrated to effectively increase aerobic function within a 4- to 10-week period in team sport players. More importantly, traditional aerobic conditioning methods have been shown to increase team sport performance substantially. Many team sports require the upkeep of both aerobic fitness and sport-specific skills during a lengthy competitive season. Classic team sport trainings have been shown to evoke marginal increases/decreases in aerobic fitness. In recent years, aerobic conditioning methods have been designed to allow adequate intensities to be achieved to induce improvements in aerobic fitness whilst incorporating movement-specific and skill-specific tasks, e.g. small-sided games and dribbling circuits. Such 'sport-specific' conditioning methods have been demonstrated to promote increases in aerobic fitness, though careful consideration of player skill levels, current fitness, player numbers, field dimensions, game rules and availability of player encouragement is required. Whilst different conditioning methods appear equivalent in their ability to improve fitness, whether sport-specific conditioning is superior to other methods at improving actual game performance statistics requires further research.

  3. Effects of stage of maturity at harvest, wilting and LAB inoculant on aerobic stability of wheat silages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weinberg, Z.G.; Khanal, Prabhat; Chen, Y.;

    2010-01-01

    The objective was to study effects of cultivar, stage of maturity at harvest, wilting, and addition of lactic acid bacterial (LAB) inoculant at ensiling, and their interactions, on the aerobic stability of wheat silages. Wheat of two cultivars, harvested at the flowering or the milk stage of matu...... control and inoculated silages deteriorated similarly with time of exposure to air. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved....

  4. Methods to determine aerobic endurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosquet, Laurent; Léger, Luc; Legros, Patrick

    2002-01-01

    Physiological testing of elite athletes requires the correct identification and assessment of sports-specific underlying factors. It is now recognised that performance in long-distance events is determined by maximal oxygen uptake (V(2 max)), energy cost of exercise and the maximal fractional utilisation of V(2 max) in any realised performance or as a corollary a set percentage of V(2 max) that could be endured as long as possible. This later ability is defined as endurance, and more precisely aerobic endurance, since V(2 max) sets the upper limit of aerobic pathway. It should be distinguished from endurance ability or endurance performance, which are synonymous with performance in long-distance events. The present review examines methods available in the literature to assess aerobic endurance. They are numerous and can be classified into two categories, namely direct and indirect methods. Direct methods bring together all indices that allow either a complete or a partial representation of the power-duration relationship, while indirect methods revolve around the determination of the so-called anaerobic threshold (AT). With regard to direct methods, performance in a series of tests provides a more complete and presumably more valid description of the power-duration relationship than performance in a single test, even if both approaches are well correlated with each other. However, the question remains open to determine which systems model should be employed among the several available in the literature, and how to use them in the prescription of training intensities. As for indirect methods, there is quantitative accumulation of data supporting the utilisation of the AT to assess aerobic endurance and to prescribe training intensities. However, it appears that: there is no unique intensity corresponding to the AT, since criteria available in the literature provide inconsistent results; and the non-invasive determination of the AT using ventilatory and heart rate

  5. Monitoring the Deterioration of Stone at Mindener MUSEUM'S Lapidarium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomaska, G.

    2013-07-01

    Mindener Museum's Lapidarium incorporates a collection of stone work like reliefs, sculptures and inscriptions from different time epochs as advices of the city's history. These gems must be protected against environmental influences and deterioration. In advance of the measures a 3D reconstruction and detailed documentation has to be taken. The framework to establish hard- and software must match the museum's infrastructure. Two major question will be answered. Are low-cost scanning devices like depth cameras and digital of the shelf cameras suitable for the data acquisition? Does the functionality of open source and freeware covers the demand on investigation and analysis in this application? The working chain described in this contribution covers the structure from motion method and the reconstruction with RGB-D cameras. Mesh processing such as cleaning, smoothing, poisson surface reconstruction and texturing will be accomplished with MeshLab. Data acquisition and modelling continues in structure analysis. Therefore the focus lies as well on latest software developments related to 3D printing technologies. Repairing and finishing of meshes is a task for MeshMixer. Netfabb as a tool for positioning, dimensioning and slicing enables virtual handling of the items. On the Sketchfab web site one can publish and share 3D objects with integration into web pages supported by WebGL. Finally if a prototype is needed, the mesh can be uploaded to a 3D printing device provided by an online service.

  6. The moisture – a negative deterioration factor of rock mass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlastimil Boháč

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The rock mass deterioration is caused by exogenous factors from which the main role play the temperature and moisture content. A monitoring system of the rock moisture content based on the transient Hot-ball method of measuring of the thermal conductivity of materials was installed on the Perún`s rock at the Spiš Castle. So called, hot ball method was used for the estimation of the water content in various depths inside the rock mass in order to assess its effect on the temperature penetration depth beneath the surface, which might control the volumetric change (dilation of the rock cliff and its stability. The preliminary results showed relation between q/Tm index and the precipitation registered by the nearby meteorological station. This dependence was manifested in the near subsurface parts of the rock face while the deeper sensors were not influenced. This suggests that the surface parts of the travertine rock body are more prone to the temperature dilation effects and therefore the thermal flux through the upper 40 cm of rock is faster than through the deeper parts.

  7. Aerobic Degradation of Trichloroethylene by Co-Metabolism Using Phenol and Gasoline as Growth Substrates

    OpenAIRE

    Yan Li; Bing Li; Cui-Ping Wang; Jun-Zhao Fan; Hong-Wen Sun

    2014-01-01

    Trichloroethylene (TCE) is a common groundwater contaminant of toxic and carcinogenic concern. Aerobic co-metabolic processes are the predominant pathways for TCE complete degradation. In this study, Pseudomonas fluorescens was studied as the active microorganism to degrade TCE under aerobic condition by co-metabolic degradation using phenol and gasoline as growth substrates. Operating conditions influencing TCE degradation efficiency were optimized. TCE co-metabolic degradation rate reached ...

  8. Natural history of hearing deterioration in intracanalicular vestibular schwannoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pennings, R.J.E.; Morris, D.P.; Clarke, L.; Allen, S.; Walling, S.; Bance, M.L.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Intracanalicular vestibular schwannomas have a range of treatment options that can preserve hearing: microsurgery, stereotactic radiotherapy, and conservative observation. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the natural course of hearing deterioration during a period of conservative observation. METH

  9. Aerobic capacity and disease activity in children, adolescents and young adults with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Pelt Philomien A

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA progress into adulthood, long-term outcome is determined by disease activity, physical and psychosocial development. Decreased aerobic capacity may play a critical role in health-related outcomes in JIA, since it has been linked with cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in late adulthood. The objectives of the current study are to examine the aerobic capacity and its relation to parameters of disease activity in children, adolescents and young adults with JIA. Methods Sixty-three patients with JIA (aged 10–27 years were cross sectional studied regarding their aerobic capacity and correlations were made to demographic, disease-related variables, and medication utilization. in a cross-sectional study group of 63 patients of all subtypes. Patients were divided in three age groups, 10–13 years; 14–17 years and 18–27 years. Results Reduced aerobic capacity is found in clinical remission as well as active disease in all subtypes and all age groups. Aerobic capacity is more impaired in active disease shown by DAS 28, JADAS 27, ESR and serum thrombocyte counts. Lower haemoglobin has a negative impact. Long-term used medication including methotrexate and corticosteroids didn’t influence outcome. There is no association with current sports participation. Conclusion Reduced aerobic capacity is present in children and adolescents with JIA, both in active disease and in patients with remission. Measures of aerobic capacity may serve as important outcome measure in JIA.

  10. Influence of predominant aerobic bacteria isolated from different healthy animals on daidzein biotransforming capacity by co-culture with different daidzein biotransforming bacteria%不同动物肠道优势需氧菌对黄豆苷原转化菌株转化能力的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗景龙; 王秀伶; 樊进茹; 王世英; 李佳

    2011-01-01

    [目的]探讨不同动物肠道优势需氧菌对黄豆苷原转化菌株转化能力的影响.[方法]有氧条件下,采用稀释涂布法分别从ICR小鼠、芦花鸡、长白猪和獭兔等4种健康动物肠道中分离优势需氧菌,将不同动物的优势需氧菌分别与不同类型黄豆苷原转化菌株进行厌氧混合培养,高效液相色谱检测培养液中黄豆苷原的转化情况.[结果]16S rRNA基因序列分析,结合形态学及相关理化特性分析表明,分离的22株优势需氧菌分属埃希氏菌属(10株)、变形菌属(5株)、肠球菌属(4株)、芽胞杆菌属(2株)和假单胞菌属(1株)五个属.混菌培养结果显示,兔源蜡样芽胞杆菌(R1)和铜绿假单胞菌(R5)与转化菌株混合并连续转接2-3次后,转化菌株的转化活性完全丧失,而其它用于混合培养的肠道优势需氧菌对转化菌株转化能力均无明显影响.菌株R1和R5分别与30只ICR小鼠肠道菌群在人工模拟肠道营养液中混合并连续5次转接培养后,约90%的ICR小鼠肠道菌群完全丧失将黄豆苷原转化为雌马酚的能力.[结论]不同动物肠道优势需氧菌对黄豆苷原转化菌株转化能力有不同影响,兔源蜡样芽胞杆菌R1和铜绿假单胞菌R5对转化菌株的转化能力有明显抑制作用.%[ Objective ] To investigate the influence of isolated predominant aerobic bacteria on daidzein biotransformation capacity by co-culture with daidzein biotransforming bacteria. [ Methods ] Predominant aerobic bacteria were isolated from diluted feces solutions of different healthy animals, including ICR mice, Luhua chicken, Landrace pigs and Rex rabbits. Daidzein biotransforming bacteria were anaerobically co-cultured with the isolated predominant aerobic bacteria and the cultural broth was extracted and detected by high performance liquid chromatography ( HPLC). [ Results ] Twenty two predominant aerobic bacteria were isolated from the four different healthy animals mentioned

  11. Aerobic Development of Elite Youth Ice Hockey Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiter, Jeff R; Cordingley, Dean M; MacDonald, Peter B

    2015-11-01

    Ice hockey is a physiologically complex sport requiring aerobic and anaerobic energy metabolism. College and professional teams often test aerobic fitness; however, there is a paucity of information regarding aerobic fitness of elite youth players. Without this knowledge, training of youth athletes to meet the standards of older age groups and higher levels of hockey may be random, inefficient, and or effective. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the aerobic fitness of elite youth hockey players. A retrospective database review was performed for 200 male AAA hockey players between the ages of 13 and 17 (age, 14.4 ± 1.2 years; height, 174.3 ± 8.5 cm; body mass, 67.2 ± 11.5 kg; body fat, 9.8 ± 3.5%) before the 2012-13 season. All subjects performed a graded exercise test on a cycle ergometer, whereas expired air was collected by either a Parvo Medics TrueOne 2400 or a CareFusion Oxycon Mobile metabolic cart to determine maximal oxygen consumption (V[Combining Dot Above]O2max). Body mass, absolute V[Combining Dot Above]O2max, and the power output achieved during the last completed stage increased in successive age groups from age 13 to 15 years (p ≤ 0.05). Ventilatory threshold (VT) expressed as a percentage of V[Combining Dot Above]O2max and the heart rate (HR) at which VT occurred decreased between the ages of 13 and 14 years (p ≤ 0.05), whereas the V[Combining Dot Above]O2 at which VT occurred increased from the age of 14-15 years. There were no changes in relative V[Combining Dot Above]O2max or HRmax between any successive age groups. The aerobic fitness levels of elite youth ice hockey players increased as players age and mature physically and physiologically. However, aerobic fitness increased to a lesser extent at older ages. This information has the potential to influence off-season training and maximize the aerobic fitness of elite amateur hockey players, so that these players can meet standards set by advanced elite age groups.

  12. A production inventory model with deteriorating items and shortages

    OpenAIRE

    Samanta G.P.; Roy Ajanta

    2004-01-01

    A continuous production control inventory model for deteriorating items with shortages is developed. A number of structural properties of the inventory system are studied analytically. The formulae for the optimal average system cost, stock level, backlog level and production cycle time are derived when the deterioration rate is very small. Numerical examples are taken to illustrate the procedure of finding the optimal total inventory cost, stock level, backlog level and production cycle time...

  13. Host genetics predict clinical deterioration in HCV-related cirrhosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsay Y King

    Full Text Available Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in the epidermal growth factor (EGF, rs4444903, patatin-like phospholipase domain-containing protein 3 (PNPLA3, rs738409 genes, and near the interleukin-28B (IL28B, rs12979860 gene are linked to treatment response, fibrosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC in chronic hepatitis C. Whether these SNPs independently or in combination predict clinical deterioration in hepatitis C virus (HCV-related cirrhosis is unknown. We genotyped SNPs in EGF, PNPLA3, and IL28B from liver tissue from 169 patients with biopsy-proven HCV cirrhosis. We estimated risk of clinical deterioration, defined as development of ascites, encephalopathy, variceal hemorrhage, HCC, or liver-related death using Cox proportional hazards modeling. During a median follow-up of 6.6 years, 66 of 169 patients experienced clinical deterioration. EGF non-AA, PNPLA3 non-CC, and IL28B non-CC genotypes were each associated with increased risk of clinical deterioration in age, sex, and race-adjusted analysis. Only EGF non-AA genotype was independently associated with increased risk of clinical deterioration (hazard ratio [HR] 2.87; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.31-6.25 after additionally adjusting for bilirubin, albumin, and platelets. Compared to subjects who had 0-1 unfavorable genotypes, the HR for clinical deterioration was 1.79 (95%CI 0.96-3.35 for 2 unfavorable genotypes and 4.03 (95%CI 2.13-7.62 for unfavorable genotypes for all three loci (Ptrend<0.0001. In conclusion, among HCV cirrhotics, EGF non-AA genotype is independently associated with increased risk for clinical deterioration. Specific PNPLA3 and IL28B genotypes also appear to be associated with clinical deterioration. These SNPs have potential to identify patients with HCV-related cirrhosis who require more intensive monitoring for decompensation or future therapies preventing disease progression.

  14. Modelling of the Deterioration of Reinforced Concrete Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thoft-Christensen, Palle

    Stochastic modelling of the deterioration of reinforced concrete structures is addressed in this paper on basis of a detailed modelling of corrosion initiation and corrosion cracking. It is proposed that modelling of the deterioration of concrete should be based on a sound understanding of the ph...... of the physical and chemical properties of the concrete. The relationship between rebar corrosion and crack width is investigated. A new service life definition based on evolution of the corrosion crack width is proposed....

  15. Age-Related Deterioration of Rod Vision in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Kolesnikov, Alexander V.; Fan, Jie; Crouch, Rosalie K.; Kefalov, Vladimir J.

    2010-01-01

    Even in healthy individuals, aging leads to deterioration in visual acuity, contrast sensitivity, visual field, and dark adaptation. Little is known about the neural mechanisms that drive the age-related changes of the retina and more specifically of photoreceptors. According to one hypothesis, the age-related deterioration in rod function is due to the limited availability of 11-cis-retinal for rod pigment formation. To determine how aging affects rod photoreceptors and to test the retinoid ...

  16. Energetic and metabolic consequences of aerobic and an-aerobic ATP-production.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreurs, V.V.A.M.; Aarts, M.J.; IJssennagger, N.; Hermans, J.; Hendriks, W.H.

    2007-01-01

    ATP, the currency of cellular energy metabolism, can be produced during aerobic and an-aerobic oxidation of metabolic substrates. The aerobic oxidation yields CO2 + H2O as metabolic end products while ATP is produced by oxidative phosphorylation in the mitochondria. Carbohydrate, protein and fat pro

  17. CSTR反应器好氧颗粒污泥脱氮影响因素研究%STUDY ON INFLUENCING FACTORS OF DENITRIFICATION OF AEROBIC GRANULAR SLUDGE IN CSTR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张雯; 邓风; 何超群

    2011-01-01

    Vaccinated anaerobic granular sludge in the reactor of continuous flow, and cultivated the aerobic granular sludge successfully, which had a good removal capacity for COD and NH4+-N.Experimental studied by pulsed reactor flow pattern, and studied how to affect the nitrogen removal of aerobic granular sludge by those elements synchronously, such as temperature, C/N, HRT, dissolved oxygen concentration, pH, intermittent aeration cycle, and so on.after further study, it made the optimal parameters as: temperature at 25 ℃, C/N between 6~8, HRT about 8 hours, dissolved oxygen concentration 2 mg·L-1, pH between 7.5 ~8.0, aeration 3 h and hypoxia mixing 3 h, aeration 4 h and hypoxia mixing 3 h.%在连续流反应器中接种厌氧颗粒污泥,成功培养出好氧颖粒污泥,具有良好的COD及氨氮去除能力.通过脉冲试验考察反应器水流流态,同时考察温度、C/N、水力停留时间、溶解氧质量浓度、pH、间歇曝气周期等对好氧颗粒污泥脱氮的影响,并确定最佳工艺参数为:温度为25℃、 C/N在6~8.HRT为8h左右、溶解氧质量浓度为2 mg·L~-1、pH为7.5~8.0.曝气3h及缺氧搅拌3h和曝气4h及缺氧搅拌3 h.

  18. Influence of tobacco smoke on the aerobic exercise ability and function of mice%烟草烟雾对小鼠有氧运动能力和机能恢复的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑丽君

    2013-01-01

    目的 研究烟草烟雾对小鼠有氧运动能力和机能恢复的影响.方法 将30只小鼠随机分为实验Ⅰ组、实验Ⅱ组和对照组,于实验后分别测定3组小鼠的力竭游泳时间、血清SOD活性和MDA含量.结果 实验Ⅰ组、Ⅱ组的游泳时间和血清SOD活性较对照组显著降低、MDA含量明显升高,且实验Ⅱ组的各项指标均较实验Ⅰ组变化显著,差异有统计学意义.结论 香烟烟雾可使小鼠的有氧运动能力和抗疲劳能力明显减弱,这与被动吸烟引起SOD活性降低,MDA含量升高有关,且吸烟时间越长不良影响越严重.%OBJECTIVE To study tobacco smoke on mouse aerobic exercise capacity and functional recovery effect. METHODS 30 mice were randomly divided into experimental group Ⅰ, experiment group Ⅱ and control group, and exhaustive swimming time, serum SOD activity and MDA content were measured in the 3 groups of mice after experiment. RESULTS The experimental group Ⅰ, group Ⅱ swimming time and serum SOD activity were significantly decreased, MDA levels increased significantly and the experimental group of indicators compared with the experimental group changed significantly, the difference was significant. CONCLUSION Cigarette smoke can weaken the aerobic exercise capacity and anti fatigue ability apparently, which is related with passive smoking making SOD activity decrease and the content of MDA increase, and the longer smoking, more serious adverse effects.

  19. Interaction between age and aerobic fitness in determining heart rate dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heart rate variability (HRV) and phase-rectified signal averaging (PRSA) estimates of heart rate dynamics are diminished in older people compared with younger people. However, it is not fully elucidated whether these differences are related to age per se or to the concomitant influence of aerobic fitness. Aerobic fitness (peak oxygen uptake, gas exchange threshold, oxygen uptake kinetics, exercise economy) was assessed in 70 healthy adults (41 male) aged 18–57 years. Participants also underwent a 24 h, ambulatory ECG for the derivation of HRV and PRSA variables. HRV was most sensitive to age and aerobic fitness when measured during the morning period (6 am–12 pm). HRV and PRSA were both diminished with age and were higher in aerobically superior participants. The decline in HRV with age was predominantly attributable to age itself (33%), with aerobic fitness representing an additional modulating factor. The present study also provides tentative evidence that assessment of the influence of aerobic fitness should not rely on .VO2peak alone. These findings demonstrate that age per se is an important factor in determining HRV. However, given the clinical importance of diminished HRV and the immutable nature of aging, the potential significance of physical activity/training to enhance cardiac regulatory function should not be underestimated. (paper)

  20. Aerobic rice mechanization: techniques for crop establishment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khusairy, K. M.; Ayob, H.; Chan, C. S.; Fauzi, M. I. Mohamed; Mohamad Fakhrul, Z. O.; Shahril Shah, G. S. M.; Azlan, O.; Rasad, M. A.; Hashim, A. M.; Arshad, Z.; E, E. Ibrahim; Saifulizan, M. N.

    2015-12-01

    Rice being the staple food crops, hundreds of land races in it makes the diversity of rice crops. Aerobic rice production was introduced which requires much less water input to safeguard and sustain the rice production and conserve water due to decreasing water resources, climatic changes and competition from urban and industrial users. Mechanization system plays an important role for the success of aerobic rice cultivation. All farming activities for aerobic rice production are run on aerobic soil conditions. Row seeder mechanization system is developed to replace conventional seeding technique on the aerobic rice field. It is targeted for small and the large scale aerobic rice farmers. The aero - seeder machine is used for the small scale aerobic rice field, while the accord - seeder is used for the large scale aerobic rice field. The use of this mechanization machine can eliminate the tedious and inaccurate seeding operations reduce labour costs and increases work rate. The machine is easy to operate and it can increase crop establishment rate. It reduce missing hill, increasing planting and crop with high yield can be produce. This machine is designed for low costs maintenance and it is easy to dismantle and assemble during maintenance and it is safe to be used.

  1. Skeletal Muscle Hypertrophy after Aerobic Exercise Training

    OpenAIRE

    Konopka, Adam R.; Harber, Matthew P.

    2014-01-01

    Current dogma suggests aerobic exercise training has minimal effect on skeletal muscle size. We and others have demonstrated that aerobic exercise acutely and chronically alters protein metabolism and induces skeletal muscle hypertrophy. These findings promote an antithesis to the status quo by providing novel perspective on skeletal muscle mass regulation and insight into exercise-countermeasures for populations prone to muscle loss.

  2. Effect of Applying Molasses and Propionic Acid on Fermentation Quality and Aerobic Stability of Total Mixed Ration Silage Prepared with Whole-plant Corn in Tibet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lei; Guo, Gang; Yuan, Xianjun; Shimojo, Masataka; Yu, Chengqun; Shao, Tao

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of molasses and propionic acid on the fermentation quality and aerobic stability of total mixed ration (TMR) silages prepared with whole-plant corn in Tibet. TMR (354 g/kg DM) was ensiled with four different treatments: no additive (control), molasses (M), propionic acid (P), and molasses+propionic acid (PM), in laboratory silos (250 mL) and fermented for 45 d. Silos were opened and silages were subjected to an aerobic stability test for 12 days, in which chemical and microbiological parameters of TMR silages were measured to determined the aerobic deterioration. After 45 d of ensiling, the four TMR silages were of good quality with low pH value and ammonia/total N (AN), and high lactic acid (LA) content and V-scores. M silage showed the highest (p105 cfu/g FM), however, it appeared to be more stable as indicated by a delayed pH value increase. P and PM silages showed fewer yeasts (<105 cfu/g FM) (p<0.05) and were more stable than the control and M silages during aerobic exposure. It was concluded that M application increased LA content and improved aerobic stability of TMR silage prepared with whole-plant corn in Tibet. P application inhibited lactic acid production during ensiling, and apparently preserved available sugars which stimulated large increases in lactic acid during aerobic exposure stage, which resulted in greater aerobic stability of TMR silage. PMID:25049961

  3. Microbiologically influenced corrosion evaluation on brass (UNS C68700, UNS C443) and AISI 316 stainless steel; Estudio de la influencia microbiologica en la corrosion de latones (UNS C68700, UNS C443) y acero inoxidable AISI 316

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohanian, M.; Diaz, V.; Corengia, M.; Russi, P.; Pianzzola, M. J.; Menes, R. J.

    2014-10-01

    Microorganisms may play an important role in the corrosion process and generate conditions which affect the rate and/or the mechanism of deterioration. They become visible by the formation of bio films: clusters of microorganisms and extracellular polymers. These bio films affect not only the durability of the material, but also reduce the heat transfer. The present work studied the growth of aerobic and anaerobic heterotrophic microorganisms and sulfate reducing bacteria on aluminum brass (Uns C.a.), admiralty brass (Uns C.a.) and stainless steel Asi 316 in exposure experiments held in the Bay of Montevideo (Uruguay). The influence of the biofilm growth on the corrosion behavior was studied by electrochemical techniques: polarization curves and Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (Ei). The selection of the most suitable material for the exposure conditions is discussed and hypotheses of the corrosion mechanism are presented. Although stainless steel Asi 316 presented the lowest corrosion rate it showed localized deterioration. (Author)

  4. Stochastic modeling of deterioration in nuclear power plant components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Xianxun

    2007-12-01

    The risk-based life-cycle management of engineering systems in a nuclear power plant is intended to ensure safe and economically efficient operation of energy generation infrastructure over its entire service life. An important element of life-cycle management is to understand, model and forecast the effect of various degradation mechanisms affecting the performance of engineering systems, structures and components. The modeling of degradation in nuclear plant components is confounded by large sampling and temporal uncertainties. The reason is that nuclear systems are not readily accessible for inspections due to high level of radiation and large costs associated with remote data collection methods. The models of degradation used by industry are largely derived from ordinary linear regression methods. The main objective of this thesis is to develop more advanced techniques based on stochastic process theory to model deterioration in engineering components with the purpose of providing more scientific basis to life-cycle management of aging nuclear power plants. This thesis proposes a stochastic gamma process (GP) model for deterioration and develops a suite of statistical techniques for calibrating the model parameters. The gamma process is a versatile and mathematically tractable stochastic model for a wide variety of degradation phenomena, and another desirable property is its nonnegative, monotonically increasing sample paths. In the thesis, the GP model is extended by including additional covariates and also modeling for random effects. The optimization of age-based replacement and condition-based maintenance strategies is also presented. The thesis also investigates improved regression techniques for modeling deterioration. A linear mixed-effects (LME) regression model is presented to resolve an inconsistency of the traditional regression models. The proposed LME model assumes that the randomness in deterioration is decomposed into two parts: the unobserved

  5. Assessment of bacterial and structural dynamics in aerobic granular biofilms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David G. Weissbrodt

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Aerobic granular sludge is based on self-granulated flocs forming mobile biofilms with a gel-like consistence. Bacterial and structural dynamics from flocs to granules were followed in anaerobic-aerobic sequencing batch reactors fed with synthetic wastewater, namely a bubble column (BC-SBR operated under wash-out conditions for fast granulation, and two stirred-tank enrichments of Accumulibacter (PAO-SBR and Competibacter (GAO-SBR operated at steady-state. In the BC-SBR, granules formed within two weeks by swelling of Zoogloea colonies around flocs, developing subsequently smooth zoogloeal biofilms. However, Zoogloea predominance (37-79% led to deteriorated nutrient removal during the first months of reactor operation. Upon maturation, improved nitrification (80-100%, nitrogen removal (43-83%, and high but unstable dephosphatation (75-100% were obtained. Proliferation of dense clusters of nitrifiers, Accumulibacter, and Competibacter from granule cores outwards resulted in heterogeneous bioaggregates, inside which only low abundance Zoogloea (<5% were detected in biofilm interstices. The presence of different extracellular glycoconjugates detected by fluorescence lectin-binding analysis showed the complex nature of the intracellular matrix of these granules. In the PAO-SBR, granulation occurred within two months with abundant and active Accumulibacter populations (56±10% that were selected under full anaerobic uptake of volatile fatty acids and that aggregated as dense clusters within heterogeneous granules. Flocs self-granulated in the GAO-SBR after 480 days during a period of over-aeration caused by biofilm growth on the oxygen sensor. Granules were dominated by heterogeneous clusters of Competibacter (37±11%. Zoogloea were never abundant in biomass of both PAO- and GAO-SBRs. This study showed that Zoogloea, Accumulibacter, and Competibacter affiliates can form granules, and that the granulation mechanisms rely on the dominant population

  6. Application of Artificial Intelligence for Bridge Deterioration Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhang; Wu, Yangyang; Li, Li; Sun, Lijun

    2015-01-01

    The deterministic bridge deterioration model updating problem is well established in bridge management, while the traditional methods and approaches for this problem require manual intervention. An artificial-intelligence-based approach was presented to self-updated parameters of the bridge deterioration model in this paper. When new information and data are collected, a posterior distribution was constructed to describe the integrated result of historical information and the new gained information according to Bayesian theorem, which was used to update model parameters. This AI-based approach is applied to the case of updating parameters of bridge deterioration model, which is the data collected from bridges of 12 districts in Shanghai from 2004 to 2013, and the results showed that it is an accurate, effective, and satisfactory approach to deal with the problem of the parameter updating without manual intervention.

  7. EOQ Model for Time-Deteriorating Items Using Penalty cost

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meenakshi Srivastava

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In inventory, the utility of the deteriorating items decreases with time. The degree ofdeterioration of product utility can be treated as penalty cost in the inventory replenishmentsystem. In this paper, we present EOQ model for those perishable products, which do notdeteriorate for some period of time and after that time they continuously deteriorate with time andloose their importance. This loss can be incurred as penalty cost to the wholesaler / retailer. Theprime focus of our paper is to develop the EOQ model for time-deteriorating items using penaltycost with finite and infinite production rate. For simplicity, linear and exponential penalty costfunctions have been considered as a measurement of the utility of the product. The theoreticalexpressions are obtained for optimum inventory level and cycle time. All the theoreticaldevelopments are numerically justified.

  8. Optimal dynamic pricing and replenishment policies for deteriorating items

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Rabbani

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Marketing strategies and proper inventory replenishment policies are often incorporated by enterprises to stimulate demand and maximize profit. The aim of this paper is to represent an integrated model for dynamic pricing and inventory control of deteriorating items. To reflect the dynamic characteristic of the problem, the selling price is defined as a time-dependent function of the initial selling price and the discount rate. In this regard, the price is exponentially discounted to compensate negative impact of the deterioration. The planning horizon is assumed to be infinite and the deterioration rate is time-dependent. In addition to price, the demand rate is dependent on advertisement as a powerful marketing tool. Several theoretical results and an iterative solution algorithm are developed to provide the optimal solution. Finally, to show validity of the model and illustrate the solution procedure, numerical results are presented.

  9. Application of Artificial Intelligence for Bridge Deterioration Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The deterministic bridge deterioration model updating problem is well established in bridge management, while the traditional methods and approaches for this problem require manual intervention. An artificial-intelligence-based approach was presented to self-updated parameters of the bridge deterioration model in this paper. When new information and data are collected, a posterior distribution was constructed to describe the integrated result of historical information and the new gained information according to Bayesian theorem, which was used to update model parameters. This AI-based approach is applied to the case of updating parameters of bridge deterioration model, which is the data collected from bridges of 12 districts in Shanghai from 2004 to 2013, and the results showed that it is an accurate, effective, and satisfactory approach to deal with the problem of the parameter updating without manual intervention.

  10. Aerobic methanotroph diversity in Sanjiang wetland, Northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Juanli; Zhang, Hongxun; Deng, Yongcui; Wang, Yanfen

    2015-04-01

    Aerobic methanotrophs present in wetlands can serve as a methane filter and thereby significantly reduce methane emissions. Sanjiang wetland is a major methane source and the second largest wetland in China, yet little is known about the characteristics of aerobic methanotrophs in this region. In the present study, we investigated the diversity and abundance of methanotrophs in marsh soils from Sanjiang wetland with three different types of vegetation by 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) and pmoA gene analysis. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis revealed the highest number of pmoA gene copies in marsh soils vegetated with Carex lasiocarpa (10(9) g(-1) dry soil), followed by Carex meyeriana, and the least with Deyeuxia angustifolia (10(8) g(-1) dry soil). Consistent results were obtained using Sanger sequencing and pyrosequencing techniques, both indicating the codominance of Methylobacter and Methylocystis species in Sanjiang wetland. Other less abundant methanotrophy, including cultivated Methylomonas and Methylosinus genus, and uncultured clusters such as LP20 and JR-1, were also detected in the wetland. Methanotroph diversity was almost the same in three different vegetation covered soils, suggesting that vegetation types had very little influence on the methanotroph diversity. Our study gives an in-depth insight into the community composition of aerobic methanotrophs in the Sanjiang wetland. PMID:25351140

  11. Echinacea Supplementation: Does it Really Improve Aerobic Fitness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, Cory W.; Kwak, Dongmin

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] Echinacea is an herbal supplement used by endurance athletes for its performance boosting properties. It is thought that Echinacea improves the blood’s oxygen carrying capacity by increasing production of erythropoietin (EPO), a glycoprotein that regulates red blood cell formation. Subsequently, these changes would lead to an overall improvement in maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) and running economy (RE), two markers of aerobic fitness. The purpose of this review is to briefly discuss the physiological variables associated with distance running performance and how these variables are influenced by Echinacea supplementation. [Methods] To determine Echinacea’s ergogenic potential, human studies that used Echinacea in conjunction to analyzing the blood’s oxygen carrying capacity and/or aerobic fitness were assessed. [Results] Taken together, the majority of the published literature does not support the claim that Echinacea is a beneficial ergogenic aid. With the exception of one study, several independent groups have reported Echinacea supplementation does not increase EPO production, blood markers of oxygen transport, VO2max or RE in healthy untrained or trained subjects. [Conclusion] To date, the published literature does not support the use of Echinacea as an ergogenic aid to improve aerobic fitness in healthy untrained or trained subjects.

  12. Low aerobic fitness in Brazilian adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Augusto Santos Silva

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: aerobic fitness is considered one of the most important components of health-related physical fitness, with low levels related to increased risk of premature death from all causes, especially cardiovascular diseases. OBJECTIVE: to identify the characteristics of adolescents at higher risk of low levels of aerobic fitness. METHODS: the study included 696 adolescents 15-17 years of age enrolled in public high schools of Florianópolis, southern Brazil. This cross-sectional epidemiological study was conducted in Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brazil. Aerobic fitness was measured using the modified Canadian Aerobic Fitness Test mCAFT. Sociodemographic gender, age, school grade, paternal and maternal schooling, socioeconomic status, and anthropometric variables body weight, height, triceps and subscapular skinfold thickness, sexual maturation, physical activity, sedentary behavior, and eating habits were collected. RESULTS: it was found that 31.5% of adolescents had low aerobic fitness levels, being higher in boys 49.2% compared to girls 20.6%. Moreover, girls with sedentary behavior, overweight and high body fat percentage were the groups most likely to have inadequate aerobic fitness. In males, the groups most likely to have inadequate aerobic fitness were those whose parents studied more than eight years, those with low levels of physical activity, and those with inadequate nutrition and excessive body fat. CONCLUSION: low aerobic fitness levels were present in one third of adolescents and was more prevalent in boys. Lifestyle changes, including replacement of sedentary behaviors by physical and sport activities , may assist in improving the aerobic fitness of Brazilian adolescents.

  13. A production inventory model with deteriorating items and shortages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samanta G.P.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A continuous production control inventory model for deteriorating items with shortages is developed. A number of structural properties of the inventory system are studied analytically. The formulae for the optimal average system cost, stock level, backlog level and production cycle time are derived when the deterioration rate is very small. Numerical examples are taken to illustrate the procedure of finding the optimal total inventory cost, stock level, backlog level and production cycle time. Sensitivity analysis is carried out to demonstrate the effects of changing parameter values on the optimal solution of the system.

  14. Aerobic Methane Oxidation in Alaskan Lakes Along a Latitudinal Transect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Cruz, K. C.; Sepulveda-Jauregui, A.; Walter Anthony, K. M.; Anthony, P.; Thalasso, F.

    2013-12-01

    Karla Martinez-Cruz* **, Armando Sepulveda-Jauregui*, Katey M. Walter Anthony*, Peter Anthony*, and Frederic Thalasso**. * Water and Environmental Research Center, Institute of Northern Engineering, University of Alaska Fairbanks, Fairbanks, Alaska. ** Biotechnology and Bioengineering Department, Cinvestav, Mexico city, D. F., Mexico. Methane (CH4) is the third most important greenhouse gas in the atmosphere, after carbon dioxide and water vapor. Boreal lakes play an important role in the current global warming by contributing as much as 6% of global atmospheric CH4 sources annually. On the other hand, aerobic methane oxidation (methanotrophy) in lake water is a fundamental process in global methane cycling that reduces the amount of CH4 emissions to the atmosphere. Several environmental factors affect aerobic methane oxidation in the water column both directly and indirectly, including concentration of CH4 and O2, temperature and carbon budgets of lakes. We analyzed the potential of aerobic methane oxidation (PMO) rates in incubations of water collected from 30 Alaskan lakes along a north-south transect during winter and summer 2011. Our findings showed an effect of CH4 and O2 concentrations, temperature and yedoma thawing permafrost on PMO activity in the lake water. The highest PMO rates were observed in summer by lakes situated on thawing yedoma permafrost, most of them located in the interior of Alaska. We also estimated that 60-80% of all CH4 produced in Alaskan lakes could be taken up by methanotrophs in the lake water column, showing the significant influence of aerobic methane oxidation of boreal lakes to the global CH4 budget.

  15. Influence of thermophilic aerobic digestion as a sludge pre-treatment and solids retention time of mesophilic anaerobic digestion on the methane production, sludge digestion and microbial communities in a sequential digestion process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Hyun Min; Cho, Hyun Uk; Park, Sang Kyu; Ha, Jeong Hyub; Park, Jong Moon

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the changes in sludge reduction, methane production and microbial community structures in a process involving two-stage thermophilic aerobic digestion (TAD) and mesophilic anaerobic digestion (MAD) under different solid retention times (SRTs) between 10 and 40 days were investigated. The TAD reactor (RTAD) was operated with a 1-day SRT and the MAD reactor (RMAD) was operated at three different SRTs: 39, 19 and 9 days. For a comparison, control MAD (RCONTROL) was operated at three different SRTs of 40, 20 and 10 days. Our results reveal that the sequential TAD-MAD process has about 42% higher methane production rate (MPR) and 15% higher TCOD removal than those of RCONTROL when the SRT decreased from 40 to 20 days. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and real-time PCR results indicate that RMAD maintained a more diverse bacteria and archaea population compared to RCONTROL, due to the application of the biological TAD pre-treatment process. In RTAD, Ureibacillus thermophiles and Bacterium thermus were the major contributors to the increase in soluble organic matter. In contrast, Methanosaeta concilii, a strictly aceticlastic methanogen, showed the highest population during the operation of overall SRTs in RMAD. Interestingly, as the SRT decreased to 20 days, syntrophic VFA oxidizing bacteria, Clostridium ultunense sp., and a hydrogenotrophic methanogen, Methanobacterium beijingense were detected in RMAD and RCONTROL. Meanwhile, the proportion of archaea to total microbe in RMAD and RCONTROL shows highest values of 10.5 and 6.5% at 20-d SRT operation, respectively. Collectively, these results demonstrate that the increased COD removal and methane production at different SRTs in RMAD might be attributed to the increased synergism among microbial species by improving the hydrolysis of the rate limiting step in sludge with the help of the biological TAD pre-treatment. PMID:23871253

  16. Deterioration of ancient metallic elements taken from Toledo cathedral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castaño González, Juan Guillermo

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available The construction of Toledo Cathedral spanned a period of more than 200 years and was influenced by many different trends and criteria, reflected in the wide range of styles it accommodates (basically Mudéjar and Gothic, with Flemish, baroque and renaissance elements. Over the centuries it has undergone numerous restorations, also according to different criteria. The cathedral is situated in an environment of low aggressivity, in terms of atmospheric contamination, but the passage of time has taken its toll on many structural, architectural and artistic elements. During recent restoration work several metallic elements, which have been exposed for many years or even centuries to the inclemencies of the Toledo climate, were taken in order to analyse their composition and deterioration. The techniques used have been Scanning Electron Microscopy with X-Ray Microprobe (SEM/EDAX, X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD. The elements considered are a piece of roofing lead, a lead slate clamp, a piece of stained glass window leading, and an iron nail.

    La Catedral de Toledo se edificó en un período de más de 200 años, bajo numerosos criterios de construcción que se reflejan en la multiplicidad de estilos que alberga (entre mudéjar y gótico, con aportaciones flamencas, barrocas y renacentistas. A través de los siglos, ha sido objeto de numerosas restauraciones, también bajo distintos criterios. La catedral está ubicada en un ambiente poco agresivo, en cuanto a corrosión atmosférica se refiere. Sin embargo, el discurrir de tantos años no deja de hacer mella en los diversos elementos estructurales, arquitectónicos y artísticos que la componen. En recientes restauraciones se obtuvieron algunos elementos metálicos que han estado expuestos, por muchos años, siglos inclusive, a las inclemencias del clima toledano, con el propósito de analizar su composición y deterioro, empleando las técnicas de Microscopio

  17. Effectiveness of respiratory rates in determining clinical deterioration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mølgaard, Rikke Rishøj; Larsen, Palle; Håkonsen, Sasa Jul

    2016-01-01

    Review question/objective: The objective of this systematic review is to identify, appraise and synthesize the best available evidence on the effectiveness of manually measuring respiratory rates for 60 s or less in detecting clinical deterioration of inpatients. More specifically, the review...

  18. 40 CFR 52.60 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.60 Section 52.60 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) All applications and other information required pursuant to § 52.21 from... “Guideline on Air Quality Models (Revised)” or other models approved by EPA....

  19. 40 CFR 52.1778 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1778 Section 52.1778 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a)-(b) (c) All applications and other information required pursuant... Air Quality, 1641 Mail Service Center, Raleigh, North Carolina 27699-1641 or local agencies,...

  20. 40 CFR 52.2233 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2233 Section 52.2233 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a)(1) Paragraph 1200-3-9-.01(4)-(0)-2. of Tennessee's regulations... requesting innovative technology waivers which would significantly impact air quality in adjacent states....

  1. 40 CFR 52.1634 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1634 Section 52.1634 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The plan submitted by the Governor of New Mexico on February 21... adopted by the NMEID on March 9, 1990), Air Quality Control Regulation 707—Permits, Prevention...

  2. Risk-Based Decision Making for Deterioration Processes Using POMDP

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jannie Sønderkær; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes a method for risk-based decision making for maintenance of deteriorating components, based on the partially observable Markov decision process (POMDP). Unlike most methods, the decision polices do not need to be stationary and can vary according to seasons and near the end of ...

  3. Neuromodulation of Aerobic Exercise—A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saskia eHeijnen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Running, and aerobic exercise in general, is a physical activity that increasingly many people engage in but that also has become popular as a topic for scientific research. Here we review the available studies investigating whether and to which degree aerobic exercise modulates hormones, amino acids, and neurotransmitters levels. In general, it seems that factors such as genes, gender, training status, and hormonal status need to be taken into account to gain a better understanding of the neuromodular underpinnings of aerobic exercise. More research using longitudinal studies and considering individual differences is necessary to determine actual benefits. We suggest that, in order to succeed, aerobic exercise programs should include optimal periodization, prevent overtraining and be tailored to interindividual differences, including neuro-developmental and genetically-based factors.

  4. Stimulating kinetic of aerobic reactions skilled athlete in sport dance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Bo

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Changes speed of development of reaction of frequency of heart-throbs are appraised under act of the program of trainings facilities. Directions stimulation of the cardiorespiratory system of sportsmen are rotined. In research took part 2 homogeneous groups of sportsmen for 12 sportsmen (6 pair. It is set that the high-rate of development of reactions of aerobic power providing reflects reactive properties of the cardiorespiratory system and influences on efficiency of functional preparation on the whole. Possibilities of estimation of reactive properties of the cardiorespiratory system are rotined in the natural terms of training process.

  5. Collection of "strengthening sets" of aerobics lesson.\\\\

    OpenAIRE

    CAKL, Vojtěch

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this bachelor study was to create a strengthening sets for aerobic lessons including showing these possisions in practice on selective aerobic lessons . Based on special literature the author had chosen suitable muscle development exercises to increase the body strenth. These exercises were there practised for six weeks continuously. Before and after the research were selected individuals who were compared by 4 exact same tests to detect static and dynamic body strength. The result...

  6. Evaluation of A "Floating" Aerobics Floor

    OpenAIRE

    Favor, Craig M.

    1997-01-01

    Aerobics dance floors often produce annoying floor vibrations in adjacent parts of a building due to the rhythmic impact of the aerobicists. Various types of shock absorbing aerobics and dance floors are widely used to prevent injuries to the participants, but the floors may not prevent vibrations in adjacent areas of the building. The purpose of this investigation is to evaluate a temporary "floating" concrete a...

  7. Temperature effect on aerobic denitrification and nitrification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Shu-guang; ZHANG Xiao-jian; WANG Zhan-sheng

    2003-01-01

    Nitrogen loss without organic removal in biofilter was observed and its possible reason was explained. A lower hydraulic loading could improve aerobic denitrification rate. Aerobic denitrification was seriously affected by low temperature(below 10oC). However, nitrification rate remained high when the temperature dropped from 15oC to5oC. It seemed the autotrophic biofilm in BAF could alleviate the adverse effect of low temperature.

  8. Enhanced in situ aerobic bioremediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharfe, K. [CleanEARTH Solutions Ltd., Concord, ON (Canada)

    2007-07-01

    An enhanced in situ aerobic bioremediation process was described. The process used microbe supporting emulsifications to enhance bioavailability as well as to attenuate microbe competition and boost microbial production. Microbes were added prior to application and rapidly initiated bioremediation once applied to impacted areas. The microbe supporting emulsifiers were metabolically active. The study showed that exposed surface areas increased as hydrocarbon masses were divided, which in turn increased the water/substrate interface where microbial action occurred. Nutrients were used to ensure that crowding and waste accumulation were attenuated in order to ensure that the speed of growth and reproduction progressed exponentially. Water-carrying bacteria, enzymes and nutrients were adsorbed to the soil's particle surface and then diffused between particles. The sequestered hydrocarbons were then emulsified and removed in order to be bioremediated. It was concluded that biological catalysts were used to increase microbial activity and to trigger anabolic responses in microbes. Details of a biocatalyst laboratory solution analysis were also included. tabs., figs.

  9. Influência do treinamento aeróbio sobre o cortisol e glicose plasmáticos em equinos Influence of the aerobic training on cortisol and glucose levels in horses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.C. Ferraz

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se a resposta do cortisol e da glicemia em 12 equinos da raça Puro Sangue Árabe destreinados (T0 por oito meses e submetidos a um período de 90 dias de treinamento aeróbio (T90. Para avaliação dos efeitos do treinamento, empregou-se teste ergométrico constituído de exercício progressivo em esteira rolante, acompanhado por colheitas de sangue 15 segundos antes do término de cada etapa de esforço. A velocidade (intensidade do treino foi definida como sendo 80% da V4 (velocidade na qual a lactacidemia atinge 4mmol/L. Adicionalmente, no último mês de treinamento, foi instituído, uma vez por semana, exercício com velocidades variáveis, chamado "fartlek". Após 90 dias de treinamento, a concentração plasmática de cortisol elevou-se e após o teste de esforço (20min, houve aumento da glicemia. Este resultado reflete a possibilidade de adaptação ao treinamento. Conclui-se que o cortisol plasmático pode ser utilizado como ferramenta na avaliação de um programa de treinamento em equinos.Cortisol and glucose responses were evaluated in 12 Arabian (PSA horses submitted to a detraining period of eight months (T0 and to 90 days of aerobic training (T90. For the evaluation of the effect of training, a standardized incremental exercise test in a treadmill was used. Fifteen seconds before the ending of each effort step, blood samples were collected. The speed (intensity of the training was defined as being 80% of the V4 (speed at which the blood lactate concentration reaches 4mmol/L. Additionally, in the last month of training, velocity play, a type of exercise with varying velocities called "fartlek" was instituted, once a week. Results showed that after 90 days of training, the plasmatic concentrations of cortisol and glucose increased when compared to the untrained horses. This result reflects the possibility of adaptation to the training. The blood cortisol levels may be used as a tool for the evaluation of a training program

  10. Influences of Short -term Aerobic Exercise and Supplementation of Carnitine With or Without Choline on Body Weight, Serum Leptin and Carnitine as Well as Lipid Status In Male Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neamat E. Hishem*, Bushra H. El-Zawahry*, Seham M.S. El Nakeeb**

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Carnitine is essential for fatty acids translocation, muscles function and exercise performance. Choline is a lipotropic agent that prevents deposition of fat in the liver. The studies concerning the effects of carnitine and choline supplementation with exercise on carnitine status and serum leptin are rare. The aim of the present study was to study the effect of carnitine and its combination with choline, with or without exercise on body and total fat pad (TFP weights, serum carnitine, leptin, -hydroxy butyric acid (-HBA, triacylglycerols (TAG and Free Fatty acids (FFA. Also, total lipids (TL and TAG content of TFP and urinary carnitine were investigated. Material and Methods: 48 male rats were equally divided to the following groups: control (C, carnitine (5 g/Kg diet supplemented, carnitine plus choline (5 and 11.5 g /Kg diet respectively supplemented. Half of each group was subjected to short term aerobic exercise on manual treadmill, in which the speed and duration were gradually increased via the course of the experiment, to be 10 m/min for 20 min/day, 5 days/week in the last 2 weeks. Body weights were recorded weekly. After 6 weeks, The 24 hours urine was collected then the fasted rats were sacrificed and blood and the total fat pad (TFP were collected for analysis. Results: Carnitine supplementation, tended to decrease body weight, TFP, TAG content and serum FFA, and significantly decreased the TL content, serum leptin, TAG (P<0.0005. Carnitine feeding resulted in a significant elevation of serum carnitine, -HBA and urinary carnitine (P<0.0005, compared to sedentary control rats. These values became more pronounced on choline addition to the diet except for serum and urinary carnitine that reversed (i.e. decreased by choline addition. Exercise intervention resulted in a significant decrease in body weight, TFP, TL content and serum leptin, TAG and FFA. These values were more pronounced in both supplements with exercise

  11. Water aerobics in pregnancy: cardiovascular response, labor and neonatal outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Braga Angelica F

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To evaluate the association between water aerobics, maternal cardiovascular capacity during pregnancy, labor and neonatal outcomes. Methods A randomized, controlled clinical trial was carried out in which 34 pregnant women were allocated to a water aerobics group and 37 to a control group. All women were submitted to submaximal ergometric tests on a treadmill at 19, 25 and 35 weeks of pregnancy and were followed up until delivery. Oxygen consumption (VO2 max, cardiac output (CO, physical fitness, skin temperature, data on labor and delivery, and neonate outcomes were evaluated. Frequency distributions of the baseline variables of both groups were initially performed and then analysis of the outcomes was carried out. Categorical data were compared using the chi-square test, and numerical using Student's t or Mann-Whitney tests. Wilk's Lambda or Friedman's analysis of repeat measurements were applied for comparison of physical capacity, cardiovascular outcomes and maternal temperature. Results VO2 max and physical fitness were higher in both groups in the second trimester, returning to basal levels in the third trimester. In both groups, CO increased as pregnancy progressed and peak exercise temperature was higher than resting temperature, increasing further after five minutes of recovery and remaining at this level until 15 minutes after exercise completion. There was no difference between the two groups regarding duration (457.9 ± SD 249.6 vs 428.9 ± SD 203.2 minutes or type of delivery. Labor analgesia was requested by significantly fewer women in the water aerobics group (27% vs 65%; RR = 0.42 95%CI 0.23–0.77. Neonatal results were similar in both groups. Conclusion The regular practice of moderate water aerobics by sedentary and low risk pregnant women was not detrimental to the health of the mother or the child. There was no influence on maternal cardiovascular capacity, duration of labor or type of delivery; however

  12. Aerobic Digestion. Sludge Treatment and Disposal Course #166. Instructor's Guide [and] Student Workbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klopping, Paul H.

    This lesson is a basic description of aerobic digestion. Topics presented include a general process overview discussion of a typical digester's components, factors influencing performance, operational controls, and biological considerations for successful operation. The lesson includes an instructor's guide and student workbook. The instructor's…

  13. Can Sensors Solve the Deterioration Problems of Public Infrastructure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miki, Chitoshi

    2014-11-01

    Various deteriorations are detected in public infrastructures, such as bridges, viaducts, piers and tunnels and caused fatal accidents in some cases. The possibility of the applications of health monitoring by using sensors is the issues of this lecture. The inspection and diagnosis are essential in the maintenance works which include appropriate rehabilitations and replacements. The introduction of monitoring system may improve accuracy and efficiency of inspection and diagnosis. This seems to be innovation of maintenance, old structures may change smart structures by the installation of nerve network and brain, specifically. Cost- benefit viewpoint is also important point, because of public infrastructures. The modes of deterioration are fatigue, corrosion, and delayed fracture in steel, and carbonization and alkali aggregate reaction in concrete. These are like adult disease in human bodies. The developments of Infrastructures in Japan were concentrated in the 1960th and 1970th. These ages are approaching 50 and deterioration due to aging has been progress gradually. The attacks of earthquakes are also a major issue. Actually, these infrastructures have been supporting economic and social activities in Japan and the deterioration of public infrastructure has become social problems. How to secure the same level of safety and security for all public infrastructures is the challenge we face now. The targets of monitoring are external disturbances such as traffic loads, earthquakes, winds, temperature, responses against external disturbances, and the changes of performances. In the monitoring of infrastructures, 3W1H(WHAT, WHERE, WHEN and HOW) are essential, that is what kind of data are necessary, where sensors place, when data are collected, and how to collect and process data. The required performances of sensors are accuracy, stability for long time. In the case of long term monitoring, the durability of systems needs more than five years, because the interval

  14. Optimal dynamic pricing and replenishment policies for deteriorating items

    OpenAIRE

    Masoud Rabbani; Nadia Pourmohammad Zia; Hamed Rafiei

    2014-01-01

    Marketing strategies and proper inventory replenishment policies are often incorporated by enterprises to stimulate demand and maximize profit. The aim of this paper is to represent an integrated model for dynamic pricing and inventory control of deteriorating items. To reflect the dynamic characteristic of the problem, the selling price is defined as a time-dependent function of the initial selling price and the discount rate. In this regard, the price is exponentially discounted to compensa...

  15. Clinical and radiological deterioration in a patient with AIDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paradoxical clinical deterioration of miliary tuberculosis, characterized by pulmonary and abdominal manifestations, is reported in a patient with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, after initiation of treatment with highly active antiretroviral therapy. Paradoxical reaction was attributed to partial restoration of cell-mediated immunity related to highly effective antiretroviral therapy. Because tuberculosis has a high prevalence in HIV patients and tuberculosis is often characterized by miliary spreading of disease in these patients, it is important to recognize this phenomenon. (orig.)

  16. Deterioration of Damselfly Flight Performance due to Wing Damage

    CERN Document Server

    Ren, Yan; Gai, Kuo; Li, Chengyu; Zeyghami, Samane; Dong, Haibo

    2011-01-01

    In this video, effect of chordwise damage on a damselfly (American Rubyspot)'s wings is investigated. High speed photogrammetry was used to collect the data of damselflies' flight with intact and damaged wings along the wing chord. Different level of deterioration of flight performance can be observed. Further investigation will be on the dynamic and aerodynamic roles of each wing with and without damage.

  17. Optimal control of decoupling point with deteriorating items

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuan Yang

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this paper is to develop a dynamic model to simultaneously determine the optimal position of the decoupling point and the optimal path of the production rate as well as the inventory level in a supply chain. With the objective to minimize the total cost of the deviation from the target setting, the closed forms of the optimal solution are derived over a finite planning horizon with deterioration rate under time-varying demand rate.Design/methodology/approach: The Pontryagin's Maximum Principle is employed to explore the optimal position of decoupling point and the optimal production and inventory rate for the proposed dynamic models. The performances of parameters are illustrated through analytical and numerical approaches.Findings: The results denote that the optimal production rate and inventory level are closely related to the target setting which are highly dependent on production policy; meanwhile the optimal decoupling point is exist and unique with the fluctuating of deteriorating rate and product life cycle. The further analyses through both mathematic and numerical approaches indicate that the shorten of product life cycle shifts the optimal decoupling point forward to the end customer meanwhile a backward shifting appears when the deterioration rate increase.Research limitations/implications: There is no shortage allowed and the replacement policy is not taken into account.Practical implications: Solutions derived from this study of the optimal production-inventory plan and decoupling point are instructive for operation decision making. The obtained knowledge about the performance of different parameters is critical to deteriorating supply chains management.Originality/value: Many previous models of the production-inventory problem are only focused on the cost. The paper introduces the decoupling point control into the production and inventory problem such that a critical element-customer demand, can be taken into

  18. Age-related Deterioration of Hematopoietic Stem Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Mi Jung; Kim, Min Hwan; Kim, Seung Ah; Chang, Jae Suk

    2008-01-01

    Aging is the process of system deterioration over time in the whole body. Stem cells are self-renewing and therefore have been considered exempt from the aging process. Earlier studies by Hayflick showed that there is an intrinsic limit to the number of divisions that mammalian somatic cells can undergo, and cycling kinetics and ontogeny-related studies strongly suggest that even the most primitive stem cell functions exhibit a certain degree of aging. Despite these findings, studies on the e...

  19. Lipid oxidation in fish oil enriched mayonnaise : Calcium disodium ethylenediaminetetraacetate, but not gallic acid, strongly inhibited oxidative deterioration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Charlotte; Hartvigsen, Karsten; Thomsen, Mikael Holm;

    2001-01-01

    The antioxidative effects of gallic acid, EDTA, and extra emulsifier Panodan DATEM TR in mayonnaise enriched with 16% fish oil were investigated. EDTA reduced the formation of free radicals, lipid hydroperoxides, volatiles, and fishy and rancid off-flavors. The antioxidative effect of EDTA...... was attributed to its ability to chelate free metal ions and iron from egg yolk located at the oil-water interface. Gallic acid reduced the levels of both free radicals and lipid hydroperoxides but promoted slightly the oxidative flavor deterioration in mayonnaise and influenced the profile of volatiles. Gallic...... acid may therefore promote the decomposition of lipid hydroperoxides to volatile oxidation products. Addition of extra emulsifier reduced the lipid hydroperoxide levels but did not influence the level of free radicals or the oxidative flavor deterioration in mayonnaisse; however, it appeared to alter...

  20. Geoenvironmental weathering/deterioration of landfilled MSWI-BA glass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yunmei; Saffarzadeh, Amirhomayoun; Shimaoka, Takayuki; Zhao, Chun; Peng, Xuya; Gao, Junmin

    2014-08-15

    Municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash (MSWI-BA) glass serves as a matrix of assorted bottom ash (BA) compounds. Deterioration of the BA glass phases is quite important as they regulate the distribution of a series of toxic elements. This paper studied landfilled MSWI-BA samples from the mineralogical and geochemical viewpoint to understand the deterioration behavior of the BA glass phases as well as mechanisms involved. Bulk analysis by PXRD as well as micro-scale analysis by optical microscopy and SEM/EDX was conducted for such purposes. The results revealed that dissolution of the BA glass phases has resulted in a deterioration layer of 10(0)-10(2)μm thickness after years of disposal. This rapid weathering process is highly relevant to the specific glass characteristics and solution pH. The BA glass phases with more embedded compounds and cracks/fissures tend to be more vulnerable. Moreover, the generally alkaline pH in ash deposit favors a rapid disruption of the glass phase. The weathering products are mainly gel phases (including Al-Si gel, Ca-Al-Si gel, Fe-Al-Si gel etc.) with iron oxide/hydroxide as accessory products. Breakdown of the BA glass phases triggers chemical evolution of the embedded compounds. Based on all the findings above, a model is proposed to illustrate a general evolution trend for the landfilled MSWI-BA glass phases.

  1. Film with anthocyanins as an indicator of chilled pork deterioration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luana Baptista Golasz

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available An indicator can be defined as a substance which indicates the presence or absence of another substance or the degree of a certain reaction through characteristic changes, especially color. Therefore, the aim of this work is to evaluate the performance of a bio-based film with anthocyanin as an indicator of chilled pork deterioration. A film made of cassava starch, glycerol, and grape anthocyanins was prepared using the casting technique. Pork loin samples were put in Petri dishes containing an anthocyanin film on the bottom and stored at 4 ºC. Psychrotrophic microorganism count and the pH of the pork loin samples were analyzed for a 14 day- period. At the same time, the films were subjected to colorimetric analysis using D65 illuminant and the CIELAB system. Chroma and hue angle data for these films were evaluated by Anova and Dunnett's test. An increase in the microbial population and in the pH was observed over the storage period as result of pork deterioration. Color changes were also identified in the film. However, only at the beginning of the storage period was it possible to establish a correlation between film color and pork deterioration. The shelf life end-point could not be clearly detected by the film.

  2. Study on the deterioration origin of thermomechanical contact fatigue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tudose-Sandu-Ville, O. F.

    2016-08-01

    Thermomechanical wear is a complex phenomenon present in a number of industrial domains, such as rolling bearings, gears, friction wheels, rolling mill rollers. In this type of surface tribological deterioration, both fundamental and some peculiar wears are combined (abrasive, adhesive, corrosive wear and contact fatigue), with mechanical ant thermal causes. The present paper takes into account the contact fatigue type of deterioration, with both causes in mechanical variable load and the thermal tide action on the contact surface. There are some theories synthetically presented regarding the location of critical stresses in rolling contact fatigue. The Jacq thermal effect is briefly presented with some considerations concerning the temperature gradient in the metallic wall. The connection between the Jacq thermal anomaly and the thermomechanical contact fatigue is considered to be a new approach. Also, the same location for both mechanical and thermal critical stresses gives a strong support for the thermomechanical contact fatigue primary deterioration, according to the results obtained during the author's PhD research.

  3. Aerobic capacity and disease activity in children, adolescents and young adults with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Pelt Philomine A

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA progress into adulthood, long-term outcome is determined by disease activity, physical and psychosocial development. Decreased aerobic capacity may play a critical role in health-related outcomes in JIA, since it has been linked with cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in late adulthood. The objectives of the current study are to examine the aerobic capacity and its relation to parameters of disease activity in children, adolescents and young adults with JIA. Methods Sixty-three patients with JIA (aged 10–27 years were cross sectional studied regarding their aerobic capacity and correlations were made to demographic, disease-related variables, and medication utilization. in a cross-sectional study group of 63 patients of all subtypes. Patients were divided in three age groups, 10–13 years; 14–17 years and 18–27 years. Results Reduced aerobic capacity is found in clinical remission as well as active disease in all subtypes and all age groups. Aerobic capacity is more impaired in active disease shown by DAS 28, JADAS 27, ESR and serum thrombocyte counts. Lower haemoglobin has a negative impact. Long-term used medication including methotrexate and corticosteroids didn’t influence outcome. There is no association with current sports participation. Conclusion Reduced aerobic capacity is present in adolescents and young adults with JIA, both in active disease and in patients with remission. Measures of aerobic capacity may serve as important outcome measure in JIA.

  4. Endurance training and aerobic fitness in young people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baquet, Georges; van Praagh, Emmanuel; Berthoin, Serge

    2003-01-01

    Training-induced adaptations in aerobic fitness have been extensively studied in adults, and some exercise scientists have recommended similar training programmes for young people. However, the subject of the response to aerobic training of children and adolescents is controversial. The effects of exercise training on prepubertal children are particularly debatable. The latter may be partly explained by different training designs, which make comparisons between studies very problematic. We have analysed the procedures applied to protocol design and training methods to highlight the real impact of aerobic training on the peak oxygen uptake (V-dotO2) of healthy children and adolescents. In accordance with previously published reviews on trainability in youngsters, research papers were rejected from the final analysis according to criteria such as the lack of a control group, an unclear training protocol, inappropriate statistical procedures, small sample size, studies with trained or special populations, or with no peak V-dotO2 data. Factors such as maturity, group constitution, consistency between training and testing procedures, drop out rates, or attendance were considered, and possible associations with changes in peak V-dotO2 with training are discussed. From 51 studies reviewed, 22 were finally retained. In most of the studies, there was a considerable lack of research regarding circumpubertal individuals in general, and particularly in girls. The results suggest that methodologically listed parameters will exert a potential influence on the magnitude of peak V-dotO2 improvement. Even if little difference is reported for each parameter, it is suggested that the sum of errors will result in a significant bias in the assessment of training effects. The characteristics of each training protocol were also analysed to establish their respective potential influence on peak V-dotO2 changes. In general, aerobic training leads to a mean improvement of 5-6% in the peak V

  5. [Anaerobic-aerobic infection in acute appendicitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamchich, V I; Ulitovskiĭ, I V; Savich, E I; Znamenskiĭ, V A; Beliaeva, O A

    1998-01-01

    362 patients with acute appendicitis (AA) were examined. For microbiological diagnosis of aerobic and anaerobic nonclostridial microflora we used complex accelerated methods (including evaluation of gram-negative microorganisms in comparison with tinctorial-fermentative method of differential staining according to oxygen sensitivity of catalasopositive together with aerobic and cathalasonegative anaerobic microorganisms) as well as complete bacteriologic examination with determination of sensitivity of the above microorganism to antimicrobial remedies. High rate of aerobic-anaerobic microbial associations and substantial identity of microflora from appendicis and exudate from abdominal cavity was revealed, which evidenced the leading role of endogenous microorganisms in etiology and pathogenesis of AA and peritonitis i. e. autoinfection. In patients with destructive forms of AA, complicated by peritonitis it is recommended to use the accelerated method of examination of pathologic material as well as the complete scheme of examination with the identification of the isolated microorganisms and the correction of antibiotic treatment. PMID:9511291

  6. Drying and recovery of aerobic granules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jianjun; Zhang, Quanguo; Chen, Yu-You; Lee, Duu-Jong

    2016-10-01

    To dehydrate aerobic granules to bone-dry form was proposed as a promising option for long-term storage of aerobic granules. This study cultivated aerobic granules with high proteins/polysaccharide ratio and then dried these granules using seven protocols: drying at 37°C, 60°C, 4°C, under sunlight, in dark, in a flowing air stream or in concentrated acetone solutions. All dried granules experienced volume shrinkage of over 80% without major structural breakdown. After three recovery batches, although with loss of part of the volatile suspended solids, all dried granules were restored most of their original size and organic matter degradation capabilities. The strains that can survive over the drying and storage periods were also identified. Once the granules were dried, they can be stored over long period of time, with minimal impact yielded by the applied drying protocols. PMID:27392096

  7. Mechanism of Kenaf Retting Using Aerobes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢士森; 陈季华; 黄秀宝

    2001-01-01

    The experimental results showed that the duration of microbial retting processing of kenaf fibers by using aerobic microbe was four times shorter than that by using anaerobic microbe. The residual gum percentage,breaking strength, breaking elongation and linear density of aerobic retted kenaf bundle fibers did not show significantly difference with that of anaerobic retted kenaf bundle fibers by ANOVA-Tukey's studentized test at a = 5% except for the softness. The bioenergetic principle and the calculation of the amount of ATP produced during the decomposition processing of kenaf gums were used to explain why the retting duration in the case of using aerobic microbes was much shorter than that of using anaerobic microbes.

  8. Influence of Aerobic Exercise on Stress Response and Circulatory Function in Patients with High Risk of Cardiovas-cular Diseases after Intensive Military Trainings%有氧运动对心血管病高危因素新兵高强度军事训练后机体循环功能与应激反应的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张鹏; 韩国华; 蒋希; 马兴杰; 董岸莺; 乔昆

    2015-01-01

    目的:观察有氧运动对存在心血管病高危因素新兵高强度军事训练后机体循环功能与应激反应的影响。方法选取某部存在心血管病高危因素的新入伍战士40名,在常规体能锻炼基础上增加有氧运动,为期2个月,于有氧锻炼开始前和结束后行10 km 跑步运动应激测试,记录受试者运动应激前30 min 及后10 min 心率、收缩压、心率血压乘积的变化,以及血超敏 C 反应蛋白(hs-CRP)、心肌型肌酸激酶同工酶(CK-MB)和氨基末端脑钠肽前体(NT-proBNP)浓度的变化。结果受试者两次运动应激后心率、收缩压、心率血压乘积及血 hs-CRP、NT-proBNP 浓度均升高(P <0.01);第2次运动应激后心率、心率血压乘积及血 hs-CRP、NT-proBNP 浓度升高幅度低于首次运动应激后(P <0.05或 P <0.01)。结论高强度军事训练可增加心血管病高危人群的应激反应并影响其循环功能,合理的体能锻炼联合有氧运动有助于减少急性心血管病事件甚至心源性猝死的发生。%Objective To observe the influences of aerobic exercise on stress response and circulatory function in the patients with high risk of cardiovascular diseases after intensive military training. Methods A comprehensive method was used including questionnaire survey, physical examination and 12-lead electrocardiogram. The population with cardiovascular high-risk (n = 40) was intervened by aerobic exercise for 2 months. The changes of HR, blood pressure, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), creatinekinase-MB ( CK-MB) and amino-terminal pro-B-type brain natriuretic peptide ( NT-proBNP) were compared between the two groups before and after a 10 km run. Results There was no significant difference in rate-pressure product and biological indexes among two groups before the exercise. After the exercise,rate-pressure product, hs-CRR, and NT-proBNP increased and there was statistical difference between the two

  9. 有氧运动对2型糖尿病大鼠血浆晚期糖基化终产物的影响%The influence of aerobic exercise on the level of advanced glyclation end products in plasma in type 2 diabetic rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈志祥; 刘翠鲜; 郑洁皎; 孙圣婴; 刘宇春; 孟萌; 赵剑

    2011-01-01

    Objective To determine the influence of aerobic exercise on advanced glycation end products (AGEs)in plasma using a rat model of type 2 diabetes,and to provide an experimental basis for explaining the rehabilitative mechanism of aerobic exercise in type 2 diabetes.Methods Fifty-two healthy 8-week-old male SpragueDawley rats were allocated at random into a normal control group(n=10)and a type 2 diabetes model group(n=42).The latter were overfed with a high-sugar,high-fat and high-energy diet for 4 weeks,then 30ms/kg of streptozotocin was injected intraperitoneally to create a model of type 2 diabetes.Thirty diabetic rats were then allocated at random into a diabetes control group,a low intensity exercise group and a moderate intensity exercise group with 10 in each group.The treadmill exercise was administered to the animals in the low and moderate exercise groups accordingly.Results Compared with the normal control group,plasma AGEs increased significantly in the diabetes control and moderate intensity exercise groups.Compared with the diabetes control group,AGEs in the lower intensity exercise group were significantly lower.Compared with the moderate intensity exercise group,plasma AGEs in the low intensity exercise group were somewhat lower,but not significantly.Conclusion Aerobic exercise can reduce plasma AGE levels in rats with a model of type 2 diabetes.The effect is probably related to decreasing excessive blood glncose and the exercise intensity.%目的 探讨有氧运动对2型糖尿病大鼠血浆晚期糖基化终产物(AGEs)的影响.方法 将52只8周龄健康雄性SD大鼠分为正常对照组10只和2型糖尿病造模组42只.造模组大鼠用高糖、高脂和高能量饲料喂养4周后,予以一次性腹腔注射链脲佐菌素(30 ms/kg体重),以建立2型糖尿病大鼠模型.取30只成功造模的2型糖尿病大鼠,分为糖尿病对照组、小强度运动组和中强度运动组,每组10只.小、中强度运

  10. The effect of regular aerobic exercise on urinary brain-derived neurotrophic factor in children

    OpenAIRE

    Yunita Fediani; Masayu Rita Dewi; Muhammad Irfannuddin; Masagus Irsan Saleh; Safri Dhaini

    2014-01-01

    Background Nervous system development in early life influences the quality of cognitive ability during adulthood. Neuronal development and neurogenesis are highly influenced by neurotrophins. The most active neurotrophin is brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). Physical activity has a positive effect on cognitive function. However, few experimental studies have been done on children to assess the effect of aerobic regular exercise on BDNF levels. Objective To assess the effect of regu...

  11. The effect of regular aerobic exercise on urinary brain-derived neurotrophic factor in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunita Fediani

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background Nervous system development in early life influences the quality of cognitive ability during adulthood. Neuronal development and neurogenesis are highly influenced by neurotrophins. The most active neurotrophin is brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF. Physical activity has a positive effect on cognitive function. However, few experimental studies have been done on children to assess the effect of aerobic regular exercise on BDNF levels. Objective To assess the effect of regular aerobic exercise on urinary BDNF levels in children. Methods This clinical study was performed in 67 children aged 6-8 years in Palembang. The intervention group (n=34 engaged in aerobic gymnastics three times per week for 8 weeks, while the control group (n=33 engaged in gymnastic only once per week. Measurements of urinary BDNF were performed on both groups before and after intervention. Mann-Whitney and Wilcoxon rank tests were used to analyze the differences between groups. Results There was no difference in urinary BDNF levels between the two groups prior to the intervention. After intervention, the mean urinary BDNF levels were significantly higher in the intervention group than in the control group, 230.2 (SD 264.4 pg/mL vs. 88.0 (SD 35.4 pg/mL, respectively (P=0.027. We also found that engaging in aerobic gymnastics significantly increased urinary BDNF levels from baseline in both groups (P=0.001. Conclusion Regular aerobic exercise can increase urinary BDNF levels and potentially improve cognitive function. Aerobic exercise should be a routine activity in school curriculums in combination with the learning process to improve children’s cognitive ability.[Paediatr Indones. 2014;54:351-7.].

  12. 76 FR 10894 - Notice of Issuance of Prevention of Significant Deterioration and Federal Operating Permits to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Notice of Issuance of Prevention of Significant Deterioration and Federal Operating Permits to... existing Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) permit, also known as an Air Quality...

  13. ANAEROBIC AND AEROBIC TREATMENT OF CHLORINATED ALIPHATIC COMPOUNDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biological degradation of 12 chlorinated aliphatic compounds (CACs) was assessed in bench-top reactors and in serum bottle tests. Three continuously mixed daily batch-fed reactor systems were evaluated: anaerobic, aerobic, and sequential-anaerobic-aerobic (sequential). Glucose,...

  14. Standard instruction versus simulation: Educating registered nurses in the early recognition of patient deterioration in paediatric critical care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Leary, Jessica; Nash, Robyn; Lewis, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Identifying and stabilising deterioration in a child with significant clinical compromise is both a challenging and necessary role of the paediatric critical care nurse. Within adult critical care research, high fidelity patient simulation (HFPS) has been shown to positively impact learner outcomes regarding identification and management of a deteriorating patient; however, there is a paucity of evidence examining the use of HFPS in paediatric nursing education. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of HFPS on nurses' self-efficacy and knowledge for recognising and managing paediatric deterioration. Further, participants' perceptions of the learning experiences specific to the identification and management of a deteriorating child were also explored. Registered nurses working in a tertiary-referral paediatric critical care unit were recruited for this quasi-experimental study. Using a pre-test/post-test control-group design, participants were assigned to one of two learning experiences: HFPS or standard instruction. Following the learning experience, nurses were also invited to participate in semi-structured interviews. 30 nurses participated in the study (control n=15, experiment n=15). Participants in the HFPS intervention were most likely to demonstrate an increase in both perceived self-efficacy (p=experiment group compared to the control. HFPS also yielded higher follow-up knowledge scores (p=0.01) compared to standard instruction. Ten nurses participated in semi-structured interviews. Thematic analysis of the interview data identified four themes: self-awareness, hands-on learning, teamwork, and maximising learning. The results of this study suggest that HFPS can positively influence nurses' self-efficacy and knowledge test scores specific to the recognition and management of paediatric deterioration. PMID:26249644

  15. Predicting Future Deterioration of Hydraulic Steel Structures with Markov Chain and Multivariate Samples of Statistical Distributions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo A. Riveros

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Combined effects of several complex phenomena cause the deterioration of elements of steel hydraulic structures on the nation’s lock systems: loss of protective systems, corrosion, cracking and fatigue, impacts, and overloads. This paper presents examples of deterioration of steel hydraulic structures. A method for predicting future deterioration based on current conditions is also presented. This paper also includes a procedure for developing deterioration curves when condition state data is available.

  16. Seniors’ self-preservation by maintaining established self and defying deterioration – A grounded theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeanette Källstrand Eriksson

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this classic grounded theory study was to understand how seniors who are living independently resolve issues influenced by visual impairment and high fall risk. We interviewed and observed 13 seniors with visual impairment in their homes. We also interviewed six visual instructors with experience from many hundreds of relevant incidents from the same group of seniors. We found that the seniors are resolving their main concern of “remaining themselves as who they used to be” by self-preservation. Within this category, the strategies maintaining the established self and defying deterioration emerged as the most prominent in our data. The theme maintaining the established self is mostly guided by change inertia and includes living the past (retaining past activities, reminiscing, and keeping the home intact and facading (hiding impairment, leading to avoidance of becoming a burden and to risk juggling. Defying deterioration is a proactive scheme and involves moving (by exercising, adapting activities, using walking aids, driving, adapting (by finding new ways, and networking by sustaining old support networks or finding new networks. Self-preservation is generic human behavior and modifying this theory to other fields may therefore be worthwhile. In addition, health care providers may have use for the theory in fall preventive planning.

  17. Seniors' self-preservation by maintaining established self and defying deterioration - A grounded theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, Jeanette Källstrand; Hildingh, Cathrine; Buer, Nina; Thulesius, Hans

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this classic grounded theory study was to understand how seniors who are living independently resolve issues influenced by visual impairment and high fall risk. We interviewed and observed 13 seniors with visual impairment in their homes. We also interviewed six visual instructors with experience from many hundreds of relevant incidents from the same group of seniors. We found that the seniors are resolving their main concern of "remaining themselves as who they used to be" by self-preservation. Within this category, the strategies maintaining the established self and defying deterioration emerged as the most prominent in our data. The theme maintaining the established self is mostly guided by change inertia and includes living the past (retaining past activities, reminiscing, and keeping the home intact) and facading (hiding impairment, leading to avoidance of becoming a burden and to risk juggling). Defying deterioration is a proactive scheme and involves moving (by exercising, adapting activities, using walking aids, driving), adapting (by finding new ways), and networking by sustaining old support networks or finding new networks. Self-preservation is generic human behavior and modifying this theory to other fields may therefore be worthwhile. In addition, health care providers may have use for the theory in fall preventive planning. PMID:27172511

  18. Performance deterioration modeling and optimal preventive maintenance strategy under scheduled servicing subject to mission time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Dawei

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Servicing is applied periodically in practice with the aim of restoring the system state and prolonging the lifetime. It is generally seen as an imperfect maintenance action which has a chief influence on the maintenance strategy. In order to model the maintenance effect of servicing, this study analyzes the deterioration characteristics of system under scheduled servicing. And then the deterioration model is established from the failure mechanism by compound Poisson process. On the basis of the system damage value and failure mechanism, the failure rate refresh factor is proposed to describe the maintenance effect of servicing. A maintenance strategy is developed which combines the benefits of scheduled servicing and preventive maintenance. Then the optimization model is given to determine the optimal servicing period and preventive maintenance time, with an objective to minimize the system expected life-cycle cost per unit time and a constraint on system survival probability for the duration of mission time. Subject to mission time, it can control the ability of accomplishing the mission at any time so as to ensure the high dependability. An example of water pump rotor relating to scheduled servicing is introduced to illustrate the failure rate refresh factor and the proposed maintenance strategy. Compared with traditional methods, the numerical results show that the failure rate refresh factor can describe the maintenance effect of servicing more intuitively and objectively. It also demonstrates that this maintenance strategy can prolong the lifetime, reduce the total lifetime maintenance cost and guarantee the dependability of system.

  19. Seniors' self-preservation by maintaining established self and defying deterioration - A grounded theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, Jeanette Källstrand; Hildingh, Cathrine; Buer, Nina; Thulesius, Hans

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this classic grounded theory study was to understand how seniors who are living independently resolve issues influenced by visual impairment and high fall risk. We interviewed and observed 13 seniors with visual impairment in their homes. We also interviewed six visual instructors with experience from many hundreds of relevant incidents from the same group of seniors. We found that the seniors are resolving their main concern of "remaining themselves as who they used to be" by self-preservation. Within this category, the strategies maintaining the established self and defying deterioration emerged as the most prominent in our data. The theme maintaining the established self is mostly guided by change inertia and includes living the past (retaining past activities, reminiscing, and keeping the home intact) and facading (hiding impairment, leading to avoidance of becoming a burden and to risk juggling). Defying deterioration is a proactive scheme and involves moving (by exercising, adapting activities, using walking aids, driving), adapting (by finding new ways), and networking by sustaining old support networks or finding new networks. Self-preservation is generic human behavior and modifying this theory to other fields may therefore be worthwhile. In addition, health care providers may have use for the theory in fall preventive planning.

  20. Breaking object correspondence across saccadic eye movements deteriorates object recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian H. Poth

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Visual perception is based on information processing during periods of eye fixations that are interrupted by fast saccadic eye movements. The ability to sample and relate information on task-relevant objects across fixations implies that correspondence between presaccadic and postsaccadic objects is established. Postsaccadic object information usually updates and overwrites information on the corresponding presaccadic object. The presaccadic object representation is then lost. In contrast, the presaccadic object is conserved when object correspondence is broken. This helps transsaccadic memory but it may impose attentional costs on object recognition. Therefore, we investigated how breaking object correspondence across the saccade affects postsaccadic object recognition. In Experiment 1, object correspondence was broken by a brief postsaccadic blank screen. Observers made a saccade to a peripheral object which was displaced during the saccade. This object reappeared either immediately after the saccade or after the blank screen. Within the postsaccadic object, a letter was briefly presented (terminated by a mask. Observers reported displacement direction and letter identity in different blocks. Breaking object correspondence by blanking improved displacement identification but deteriorated postsaccadic letter recognition. In Experiment 2, object correspondence was broken by changing the object’s contrast-polarity. There were no object displacements and observers only reported letter identity. Again, breaking object correspondence deteriorated postsaccadic letter recognition. These findings identify transsaccadic object correspondence as a key determinant of object recognition across the saccade. This is in line with the recent hypothesis that breaking object correspondence results in separate representations of presaccadic and postsaccadic objects which then compete for limited attentional processing resources (Schneider, 2013. Postsaccadic

  1. Development of Improved Mechanistic Deterioration Models for Flexible Pavements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ullidtz, Per; Ertman, Hans Larsen

    1998-01-01

    The paper describes a pilot study in Denmark with the main objective of developing improved mechanistic deterioration models for flexible pavements based on an accelerated full scale test on an instrumented pavement in the Danish Road Tessting Machine. The study was the first in "International...... Pavement Subgrade Performance Study" sponsored by the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), USA. The paper describes in detail the data analysis and the resulting models for rutting, roughness, and a model for the plastic strain in the subgrade.The reader will get an understanding of the work needed...

  2. Deterioration of polymethyl methacrylate dentures in the oral cavity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuo, Hiroshi; Suenaga, Hanako; Takahashi, Masatoshi; Suzuki, Osamu; Sasaki, Keiichi; Takahashi, Nobuhiro

    2015-01-01

    Polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA)-made prostheses used in the oral cavity were evaluated by multimodal assessment in order to elucidate the biodeterioration of PMMA. In used dentures (UD), the micro-Vickers hardness of the polished denture surface and denture basal surface was lower than that of the torn surface (pPMMA deteriorated during long-term use in the oral cavity in terms of hardness and volatile content with component alteration, and suggests the involvement of biodeterioration, possibly due to saliva and oral microbiota.

  3. Logarithmic inventory model with shortage for deteriorating items

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khedlekar Uttam Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we have modeled a business which starts with shortage of deteriorating items. After a duration, managers have freedom to order the stock of assurance of committed customers. There are many products that follow logarithmic demand pattern, so in this paper we incorporate it with the shortage of items at the beginning. A new model is developed to obtain the optimal solution for such type of market situation and have obtained some valuable results. Numerical examples and simulation study is appended along with managerial insights.

  4. THE RATE AND NATURE OF WOMEN INJURIES IN STEP AEROBICS

    OpenAIRE

    Gholam Ali Ghasemi; Vahid Zolaktaf; Fereshteh Kazemi

    2011-01-01

    Step aerobics is a form of aerobic exercise that utilizes a 90×45×20 centimeter platform. ItsInternational competitions are held annually. This sport is popular in Iranian specialist femalesport clubs and its national competitions are growing gradually. The purpose of this survey wasto determine the rate and nature of sport injury in Iranian athletes of step aerobics. Weadministered a structured interview using a modified version of standard questionnaire of"Aerobics Pathology". The populatio...

  5. An EOQ Model with Two-Parameter Weibull Distribution Deterioration and Price-Dependent Demand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhopadhyay, Sushanta; Mukherjee, R. N.; Chaudhuri, K. S.

    2005-01-01

    An inventory replenishment policy is developed for a deteriorating item and price-dependent demand. The rate of deterioration is taken to be time-proportional and the time to deterioration is assumed to follow a two-parameter Weibull distribution. A power law form of the price dependence of demand is considered. The model is solved analytically…

  6. Reflections on Psychotherapy and Aerobic Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, Wade

    This document provides a series of reflections by a practicing psychologist on the uses of aerobic workouts in psychotherapy. Two case histories are cited to illustrate the contention that the mode of exercise, rather than simply its presence or absence, is the significant indicator of a patient's emotional well-being or psychopathology. The first…

  7. Glycogen metabolism in aerobic mixed cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dircks, Klaus; Beun, J.J.; van Loosdrecht, M.C.M.;

    2001-01-01

    In this study, the metabolism of glycogen storage and consumption in mixed cultures under aerobic conditions is described. The experimental results are used to calibrate a metabolic model, which as sole stoichiometric variables has the efficiency of oxidative phosphorylation (delta) and maintenan...

  8. EFFECTS OF AQUA AEROBICS AND FLOOR AEROBICS ON BREATH HOLDING TIME AMONG SCHOOL GIRLS

    OpenAIRE

    P.V. Shelvam; S. Arunadevi

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to find out the effects of aqua aerobics and floor aerobics on breath holding time among school girls. To achieve this purpose of the study, ninety school girls were selected as subjects who were studied Cornation Higher Secondary School, Sivakasi. The selected subjects were aged between 15 to 17 years. The selected subjects were randomly divided into three groups of 30 subjects each group. Group one acted as experimental group I and group two acted as experimenta...

  9. A Study on Overlay Design of Repeatedly Deteriorating Flexible Pavement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahendrakar Kiran Kumar

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A factor, which causes further concern in India, is very high and very low pavement temperature in some parts of the country. Under these conditions, flexible pavements tend to become soft in summer and brittle in winter. Further increase in road traffic during the last one decade with an unduly low level of maintenance has contributed to accelerated deterioration of road surfacing. To prevent this deterioration process, several types of measures may be adopted effectively such as improved design, use of high performance materials and effective construction technologies. Over the last two decades, traffic volume and the percentage of heavy truck traffic have increased enormously on the National High Way No 18. This pavement is a Flexible pavement with bituminous surfacing. The high traffic intensity in terms of commercial vehicles, overloading of axles and significant variations in daily and seasonal temperature of the pavement have been always responsible for early development of distress symptoms like undulations, rutting, cracking, bleeding, raveling, shoving and potholing of bituminous surfacing.

  10. Simulating the Gradually Deteriorating Performance of an RTG

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Eric G.; Ewell, Richard C.; Patel, Jagdish; Hanks, David R.; Lozano, Juan A.; Snyder, G. Jeffrey; Noon, Larry

    2008-01-01

    Degra (now in version 3) is a computer program that simulates the performance of a radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG) over its lifetime. Degra is provided with a graphical user interface that is used to edit input parameters that describe the initial state of the RTG and the time-varying loads and environment to which it will be exposed. Performance is computed by modeling the flows of heat from the radioactive source and through the thermocouples, also allowing for losses, to determine the temperature drop across the thermocouples. This temperature drop is used to determine the open-circuit voltage, electrical resistance, and thermal conductance of the thermocouples. Output power can then be computed by relating the open-circuit voltage and the electrical resistance of the thermocouples to a specified time-varying load voltage. Degra accounts for the gradual deterioration of performance attributable primarily to decay of the radioactive source and secondarily to gradual deterioration of the thermoelectric material. To provide guidance to an RTG designer, given a minimum of input, Degra computes the dimensions, masses, and thermal conductances of important internal structures as well as the overall external dimensions and total mass.

  11. Biocalcifying Bacillus subtilis cells effectively consolidate deteriorated Globigerina limestone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micallef, Roderick; Vella, Daniel; Sinagra, Emmanuel; Zammit, Gabrielle

    2016-07-01

    Microbially induced calcite precipitation occurs naturally on ancient limestone surfaces in Maltese hypogea. We exploited this phenomenon and treated deteriorated limestone with biocalcifying bacteria. The limestone was subjected to various mechanical and physical tests to present a statistically robust data set to prove that treatment was indeed effective. Bacillus subtilis conferred uniform bioconsolidation to a depth of 30 mm. Drilling resistance values were similar to those obtained for freshly quarried limestone (9 N) and increased up to 15 N. Treatment resulted in a high resistance to salt deterioration and a slow rate of water absorption. The overall percentage porosity of treated limestone varied by ±6 %, thus the pore network was preserved. We report an eco-friendly treatment that closely resembles the mineral composition of limestone and that penetrates into the porous structure without affecting the limestones' natural properties. The treatment is of industrial relevance since it compares well with stone consolidants available commercially. PMID:27072564

  12. SYDDARTA: new methodology for digitization of deterioration estimation in paintings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granero-Montagud, Luís.; Portalés, Cristina; Pastor-Carbonell, Begoña.; Ribes-Gómez, Emilio; Gutiérrez-Lucas, Antonio; Tornari, Vivi; Papadakis, Vassilis; Groves, Roger M.; Sirmacek, Beril; Bonazza, Alessandra; Ozga, Izabela; Vermeiren, Jan; van der Zanden, Koen; Föster, Matthias; Aswendt, Petra; Borreman, Albert; Ward, Jon D.; Cardoso, António; Aguiar, Luís.; Alves, Filipa; Ropret, Polonca; Luzón-Nogué, José María.; Dietz, Christian

    2013-05-01

    The SYDDARTA project is an on-going European Commission funded initiative under the 7th Framework Programme. Its main objective is the development of a pre-industrial prototype for diagnosing the deterioration of movable art assets. The device combines two different optical techniques for the acquisition of data. On one hand, hyperspectral imaging is implemented by means of electronically tunable filters. On the other, 3D scanning, using structured light projection and capturing is developed. These techniques are integrated in a single piece of equipment, allowing the recording of two optical information streams. Together with multi-sensor data merging and information processing, estimates of artwork deterioration and degradation can be made. In particular, the resulting system will implement two optical channels (3D scanning and short wave infrared (SWIR) hyperspectral imaging) featuring a structured light projector and electronically tunable spectral separators. The system will work in the VIS-NIR range (400-1000nm), and SWIR range (900-2500nm). It will be also portable and user-friendly. Among all possible art work under consideration, Baroque paintings on canvas and wooden panels were selected as the project case studies.

  13. ICU PATIENT DETERIORATION PREDICTION: A DATA-MINING APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noura AlNuaimi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available A huge amount of medical data is generated every day, which presents a challenge in analysing these data. The obvious solution to this challenge is to reduce the amount of data without information loss. Dimension reduction is considered the most popular approach for reducing data size and also to reduce noise and redundancies in data. In this paper, we investigate the effect of feature selection in improving the prediction of patient deterioration in ICUs. We consider lab tests as features. Thus, choosing a subset of features would mean choosing the most important lab tests to perform. If the number of tests can be reduced by identifying the most important tests, then we could also identify the redundant tests. By omitting the redundant tests, observation time could be reduced and early treatment could be provided to avoid the risk. Additionally, unnecessary monetary cost would be avoided. Our approach uses state-of-the-art feature selection for predicting ICU patient deterioration using the medical lab results. We apply our technique on the publicly available MIMIC-II database and show the effectiveness of the feature selection. We also provide a detailed analysis of the best features identified by our approach.

  14. Melatonin attenuates postharvest physiological deterioration of cassava storage roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Qiuxiang; Zhang, Ting; Zhang, Peng; Wang, Zhen-Yu

    2016-05-01

    Melatonin reportedly increases abiotic and biotic stress tolerance in plants, but information on its in vivo effects during postharvest physiological deterioration (PPD) in cassava is limited. In this study, we investigated the effect of melatonin in regulating cassava PPD. Treatment with 500 mg/L melatonin significantly delayed cassava PPD and reduced the accumulation of hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ) while increasing the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione reductase (GR), but not ascorbate peroxidase (APX). Transcript analysis further showed that expression of copper/zinc SOD (MeCu/ZnSOD), MeCAT1, glutathione peroxidase (MeGPX), peroxidase 3 (MePX3), and glutathione S-transferases (MeGST) was higher in cassava roots sliced treated with 500 mg/L melatonin than in those not exposed to exogenous melatonin. These data demonstrate that melatonin delays cassava PPD by directly or indirectly maintaining homoeostasis of cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS). We also found that accumulation of endogenous melatonin and the transcript levels of melatonin biosynthesis genes changed dynamically during the PPD process. This finding suggested that endogenous melatonin acts as a signal modulator for maintaining cassava PPD progression and that manipulation of melatonin biosynthesis genes through genetic engineering might prevent cassava root deterioration. PMID:26989849

  15. The Influence the Aerobic Exercise on the Hepatic Glycogen and Muscular Glycogen Indexes of the Dif-ferent month SD Male Bandicoot%有氧运动对不同月龄SD雄性大鼠肌糖元、肝糖元含量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵玉华; 李丽; 梁美杨

    2015-01-01

    目的::探讨有氧运动对不同月龄SD雄性大鼠股四头肌肌糖元含量、Ca2+-ATPase、Na+-k+-AT-Pase活性及肝组织中肝糖元含量的影响。方法:取清洁级SD雄性大鼠60只,分为3月龄对照组、3月龄运动组、7月龄对照组、7月龄运动组、13月龄对照组和13月龄运动组。每组10只,运动组参照T. G. Bedford标准,采用跑台进行有氧运动。8周后麻醉分别取肝脏和肌组织进行实验分析。结果:1.经过8周有氧运动3月龄、7月龄、13月龄运动组与对照组相比肌糖元含量有高度显著性增加(P<0.01),3月龄运动组与对照组肝糖元含量有显著性增加(P<0.01),3月龄与7月龄对照组大鼠肌糖元含量无统计学差异,13月龄大鼠体内肌糖元含量下降并与其它两组具有统计学差异(P<0.05),三组对照组肝糖元含量无统计学差异。2. Ca2+-ATPase、Na+-k+-ATPase的活性运动组与对照组相比有高度显著性增加(P<0.01),对照组三种酶活性比较有显著性差异。结论:有氧运动可有效提高不同月龄SD雄性大鼠肌糖元的含量和ATPase的活性,随着年龄增长肝糖元含量和 ATPase 的活性下降。%The aim of the paper is to probe the influence of the aerobic exercise on the muscular glycogen contents of the SD Male bandicoot quadriceps,the liveness of Ca2+-ATPase、Na+ -K+ -ATPase,and the hepatic glycogen of the hepatic tissue. Method:to take 60 clean SD male bandicoots as the examples,which were divided into 3 -month control groups,3-month training group,7-month control groups,7-month training group,13-month con-trol groups and 13 - month training group. Each group contains 10 bandicoots. Referring to the T. G. Bedford standard,the training groups do the aerobic exercise by u-sing the treadmill. Eight weeks later, they will be anaes-thetized, eviscerated the liver and muscular tissues, and then analyzed. Result:through 8 weeks aerobic exercise the muscular glycogen of the 3-month,7

  16. Theoretical and Numerical Study of Heat Transfer Deterioration in High Performance Light Water Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Palko

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A numerical investigation of the heat transfer deterioration (HTD phenomena is performed using the low-Re k-ω turbulence model. Steady-state Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations are solved together with equations for the transport of enthalpy and turbulence. Equations are solved for the supercritical water flow at different pressures, using water properties from the standard IAPWS (International Association for the Properties of Water and Steam tables. All cases are extensively validated against experimental data. The influence of buoyancy on the HTD is demonstrated for different mass flow rates in the heated pipes. Numerical results prove that the RANS low-Re turbulence modeling approach is fully capable of simulating the heat transfer in pipes with the water flow at supercritical pressures. A study of buoyancy influence shows that for the low-mass flow rates of coolant, the influence of buoyancy forces on the heat transfer in heated pipes is significant. For the high flow rates, buoyancy influence could be neglected and there are clearly other mechanisms causing the decrease in heat transfer at high coolant flow rates.

  17. Anaerobic Metabolism: Linkages to Trace Gases and Aerobic Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megonigal, J. P.; Hines, M. E.; Visscher, P. T.

    2003-12-01

    Life evolved and flourished in the absence of molecular oxygen (O2). As the O2 content of the atmosphere rose to the present level of 21% beginning about two billion years ago, anaerobic metabolism was gradually supplanted by aerobic metabolism. Anaerobic environments have persisted on Earth despite the transformation to an oxidized state because of the combined influence of water and organic matter. Molecular oxygen diffuses about 104 times more slowly through water than air, and organic matter supports a large biotic O2 demand that consumes the supply faster than it is replaced by diffusion. Such conditions exist in wetlands, rivers, estuaries, coastal marine sediments, aquifers, anoxic water columns, sewage digesters, landfills, the intestinal tracts of animals, and the rumen of herbivores. Anaerobic microsites are also embedded in oxic environments such as upland soils and marine water columns. Appreciable rates of aerobic respiration are restricted to areas that are in direct contact with air or those inhabited by organisms that produce O2.Rising atmospheric O2 reduced the global area of anaerobic habitat, but enhanced the overall rate of anaerobic metabolism (at least on an area basis) by increasing the supply of electron donors and acceptors. Organic carbon production increased dramatically, as did oxidized forms of nitrogen, manganese, iron, sulfur, and many other elements. In contemporary anaerobic ecosystems, nearly all of the reducing power is derived from photosynthesis, and most of it eventually returns to O2, the most electronegative electron acceptor that is abundant. This photosynthetically driven redox gradient has been thoroughly exploited by aerobic and anaerobic microorganisms for metabolism. The same is true of hydrothermal vents (Tunnicliffe, 1992) and some deep subsurface environments ( Chapelle et al., 2002), where thermal energy is the ultimate source of the reducing power.Although anaerobic habitats are currently a small fraction of Earth

  18. A deterministic inventory model for deteriorating items with selling price dependent demand and three-parameter Weibull distributed deterioration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asoke Kumar Bhunia

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an attempt is made to develop two inventory models for deteriorating items with variable demand dependent on the selling price and frequency of advertisement of items. In the first model, shortages are not allowed whereas in the second, these are allowed and partially backlogged with a variable rate dependent on the duration of waiting time up to the arrival of next lot. In both models, the deterioration rate follows three-parameter Weibull distribution and the transportation cost is considered explicitly for replenishing the order quantity. This cost is dependent on the lot-size as well as the distance from the source to the destination. The corresponding models have been formulated and solved. Two numerical examples have been considered to illustrate the results and the significant features of the results are discussed. Finally, based on these examples, the effects of different parameters on the initial stock level, shortage level (in case of second model only, cycle length along with the optimal profit have been studied by sensitivity analyses taking one parameter at a time keeping the other parameters as same.

  19. CFD Study of Deteriorated Turbulent Heat Transfer in Upward Flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nietiadi, Yohanes Setiawan; Lee, Jeong Ik [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Addad, Yacine [Khalifa University of Science and Technology and Research, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates)

    2014-10-15

    DTHT regime can be induced by two effects: buoyancy and acceleration. Apart from these two deteriorating effects, another unique behavior of fluid in the DTHT regime is that the convective heat transfer rate will continue to deteriorate until it reaches certain point. The downstream of this point, is known as the recovery region, where the convective heat transfer rate returns back to the high values by recovering turbulence. We called this phenomena as re-turbulization.. The map of the DTHT regime can be seen from fig. 2, where the x-axis is the buoyancy parameter and y-axis is the acceleration parameter which is the agreed governing non-dimensional numbers among the researchers to illustrate the phenomena. The Buoyancy parameter is defind in Eq. (1) and the acceleration parameter is defined in Eq. (2), respectively. The threshold value for both effects to move from the forced turbulent heat transfer to the DTHT regime are found to be Bo* ≥ 2x10{sup -6}and Kv ≥ 2.5x10{sup -6} in the previous works. Bo{sup *}=Gr{sub q}/Re{sup 3}'.{sup 425} Pr{sup 0}'.{sup 8} (1). K{sub v}=4q{sup +}/Re (2). Many experiments and simulation have been done to investigate this phenomenon and the boundary of the regime. However, very limited number of experiment was conducted in the regime where buoyancy effect and acceleration effect are in the same order of magnitude and high enough to cause DTHT (mixed DTHT). Some important experimental researches that have been done in the gas DTHT regime is Lee et al. who investigated the heat transfer of gas flow in the range of buoyancy parameter from 3x10{sup -9} to 10{sup -5} and acceleration parameter span from 6x10{sup -8} to 5x10{sup -6} and presented the behavior of Nusselt number ratio from the experiment as fig. 3 and fig. 4. This paper will discuss a Computational Fluid Dynamics analysis on DTHT by assuming hypothetical boundary conditions especially on the mixed DTHT regime. It has been found that a gas cooled fast reactor

  20. Concrete Deterioration under Alternate Action of Carbonation and Sulfate Attack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fenglan Li

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available By micro- and macro-observations, the study reveals the deterioration mechanisms of concrete under alternate action of carbonation and sodium sulfate solution attack (C-SA comparied with the single sodium sulfate solution attack (SA. The studies indicate that in both cases, the main attack product is ettringite, some gypsum is checked only in the first layer of case SA, the thaumasite form of sulfate attack is not initiated in case C-SA. Compared with the single sodium sulfate solution attack, although the carbonation layer mitigates the extent of sulfate attack in limited exposure period, the alternate action of carbonation and sulfate attack still leads to strength degradation to some extent. The effect of carbonation on sulfate attack for longer exposure period deserves further research.

  1. Optimal integrated process control and maintenance under general deterioration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We develop an integrated Statistical Process Control (SPC) and preventive maintenance (PM) model for three-state processes (two operational states and a non-operational failure state) taking into account the interrelation between quality degradation and proneness to complete failure. No restriction is placed on the distributions of the times to quality shifts and failures and different types of inspection policies and tools are allowed signifying a wide practical applicability of the model. The proposed scheme leads to significant economic improvement compared to: (a) independently obtained SPC and PM policies, which treat quality shifts and failures in isolation, and (b) approximate models, which assume Markovian deterioration. - Highlights: ► Joint statistical process control and maintenance procedures are considered. ► The random times to quality shifts and failures follow general distributions. ► The model combines minimal and perfect preventive maintenance actions. ► The economic effectiveness of the proposed integrated model is illustrated.

  2. Social Combustion Theory: Dynamics of Social System Deterioration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Wen-Yuan

    Social Harmony Equation (SHE) leads the social system to the evolution direction of social by accumulation of “social combustion substances”, i.e., the accumulation of microcosmic entropy increase “basic particles” (individual) in social system from assimilated “basic social energy” to dissimilated one; meanwhile, the catalysis of “social combustion promoter” (social excitation energy) has enhanced the “social temperature” of disordering process of social system and completed the energy accumulation of social entropy increase that can generate the transition. Finally, ignited by the “social trigger threshold”, the social system has completed the abrupt change from orderliness to disorderliness. The continuous variation of the above-mentioned three basic non-linear processes has jointly composed the whole contents of social combustion theory. Under the restriction of such conditions of different time (t), different space (α) and different scale (β), it is finally explained as a comprehensive dynamics of social system deterioration.

  3. Managing dual warehouses with an incentive policy for deteriorating items

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jonas C. P.; Wang, Kung-Jeng; Lin, Yu-Siang

    2016-02-01

    Distributors in a supply chain usually limit their own warehouse in finite capacity for cost reduction and excess stock is held in a rent warehouse. In this study, we examine inventory control for deteriorating items in a two-warehouse setting. Assuming that there is an incentive offered by a rent warehouse that allows the rental fee to decrease over time, the objective of this study is to maximise the joint profit of the manufacturer and the distributor. An optimisation procedure is developed to derive the optimal joint economic lot size policy. Several criteria are identified to select the most appropriate warehouse configuration and inventory policy on the basis of storage duration of materials in a rent warehouse. Sensitivity analysis is done to examine the results of model robustness. The proposed model enables a manufacturer with a channel distributor to coordinate the use of alternative warehouses, and to maximise the joint profit of the manufacturer and the distributor.

  4. Oxidative flavour deterioration of fish oil enriched milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruni Let, Mette; Jacobsen, Charlotte; Frankel, E.N.;

    2003-01-01

    The oxidative deterioration of milk emulsions supplemented with 1.5 wt-% fish oil was investigated by sensory evaluation and by determining the peroxide value and volatile oxidation products after cold storage. Two types of milk emulsions were produced, one with a highly unsaturated tuna oil (38 wt...... emulsions, indicating that metal chelation with EDTA could inhibit the decomposition of lipid hydroperoxides in these emulsions. This study showed that an oxidatively stable milk emulsion containing highly polyunsaturated tuna fish oil could be prepared without significant fishy off-flavour development upon...... than the tuna oil emulsions, having a lower initial peroxide value (0.1 meq/kg). In the tuna oil emulsions the fishy off-flavour could not be detected throughout the storage period. Addition of 5-50 ppm EDTA significantly reduced the development of volatile oxidation products in the cod liver oil...

  5. Effect Of Single And Short-Term Aerobics On Selected Mental State Parametres In Adult Females

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyselovičová Oľga

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine the degree of the influence of aerobic program on mental state of the trainees after a single and short-term application. We tried to find out the positive effects of an aerobics on the selected parameters of mental state of women that performed aerobics recreationally. Twenty-two healthy women (age 35 ± 5 years were involved in the specific aerobic program with mini trampolines (jumping over the period of 5 weeks. To measure the psychological parameters a modified questionnaire of type X-STAI was distributed before and after the single work out at the beginning of the study and after the 5 weeks period. Chi-quadrat analysis was used to evaluate the data. The greatest and statistically the most significant differences were recorded in the parameters ´enthusiastic´, ´boosted by energy´ and ´relaxed´, in comparison with the emotions at the beginning and at the end of the lesson in initial measuring. Comparison of changes after the 5 weeks period at the beginning and at the end of the lesson shows statistical significance in all parameters, except ´tired´. No statistical changes occurred at either the beginning or the end of the lesson comparing initial and final phases. Based on the results, we can conclude that specialized aerobic training provokes immediate changes in psychological state of the trainees via increase of their positive and decrease of negative emotions right after the lesson and when compared to its beginning. This leads to a better mental stability and a greater resistance to the influences of outer environment on mental state.

  6. Experimental evidence for aerobic bio-denitrification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Nitrate pollution of groundwater is paid more and more attention for its hazardous to environments and human health. A strain of DN11 was isolated from soil and used in the laboratory columns filled with various media for nitrate removal. The experimental results showed that DN11could reduce nitrate at different rates in different media under the aerobic condition. The mechanism for nitrate removal with DN11 is explained meanwhile.

  7. Acute effects of aerobic exercise promote learning

    OpenAIRE

    Renza Perini; Marta Bortoletto; Michela Capogrosso; Anna Fertonani; Carlo Miniussi

    2016-01-01

    The benefits that physical exercise confers on cardiovascular health are well known, whereas the notion that physical exercise can also improve cognitive performance has only recently begun to be explored and has thus far yielded only controversial results. In the present study, we used a sample of young male subjects to test the effects that a single bout of aerobic exercise has on learning. Two tasks were run: the first was an orientation discrimination task involving the primary visual cor...

  8. Nitrification and aerobic denitrification in anoxic-aerobic sequencing batch reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alzate Marin, Juan C; Caravelli, Alejandro H; Zaritzky, Noemí E

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of achieving nitrogen (N) removal using a lab-scale sequencing batch reactor (SBR) exposed to anoxic/aerobic (AN/OX) phases, focusing to achieve aerobic denitrification. This process will minimize emissions of N2O greenhouse gas. The effects of different operating parameters on the reactor performance were studied: cycle duration, AN/OX ratio, pH, dissolved oxygen concentration (DOC), and organic load. The highest inorganic N removal (NiR), close to 70%, was obtained at pH=7.5, low organic load (440mgCOD/(Lday)) and high aeration given by 12h cycle, AN/OX ratio=0.5:1.0 and DOC higher than 4.0mgO2/L. Nitrification followed by high-rate aerobic denitrification took place during the aerobic phase. Aerobic denitrification could be attributed to Tetrad-forming organisms (TFOs) with phenotype of glycogen accumulating organisms using polyhydroxyalkanoate and/or glycogen storage. The proposed AN/OX system constitutes an eco-friendly N removal process providing N2 as the end product. PMID:26512862

  9. Research on aerobics classes influence on physical prepareduess of students.

    OpenAIRE

    Krasulia M. А.

    2011-01-01

    Рассмотрена физическая подготовленность девушек-студенток, занимающихся аэробикой. В эксперименте принимали участие 165 студенток в возрасте 17-18 лет, которые были разделены на три группы по 55 человек в каждой. Группы занимались по различным методикам, которые условно названы как «силовая аэробика», «танцевальная аэробика» и «прыжковая аэробика». Уровень физической подготовленности студенток определяли по результатам 7-и тестов в начале учебного года и по истечении полугода занятий. Была пр...

  10. 24-weeks Pilates-aerobic and educative training to improve body fat mass in elderly Serbian women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruiz-Montero PJ

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pedro Jesús Ruiz-Montero,1 Alfonso Castillo-Rodriguez,2 Milena Mikalacki,3 Čokorilo Nebojsa,3 Darinka Korovljev3 1Department of Physical Education and Sport, Faculty of Physical Activity and Sport, University of Granada, Granada, Spain; 2Faculty of Sport, University of Pablo de Olavide, Seville, Spain; 3Faculty of Sport and Physical Education, University of Novi Sad, Novi Sad, Serbia Background: The purpose of this study was to examine the differences in anthropometric measurements using an aerobic and Pilates exercise program which lasted 24 weeks. Method: This was a clinical intervention study of 303 women over the age of 60 living in Novi Sad, Serbia. Changes in body mass index and skinfold thickness were estimated through height, weight, and anthropometric measurements. The program comprised Pilates exercises for upper- and lower-body strength, agility, and aerobic capacity. Results: Fat mass (FM improved significantly (pre-test, 32.89%, 8.65; post-test, 28.25%, 6.58; P<0.01. Bone diameters and muscle perimeters showed no significant changes pre- and post-test (P>0.05, but there was a higher correlation between FM (% and waist–hip ratio (rho, 0.80; P<0.01. Conclusion: A mixed program of aerobics and Pilates, controls and improves baseline muscle mass and decreases FM values, without causing deterioration during practice and follow-up exercises. Keywords: lean body mass, anthropometric measures, educative program

  11. Cerebrovascular reactivity is associated with maximal aerobic capacity in healthy older adults

    OpenAIRE

    Barnes, Jill N.; Taylor, Jennifer L.; Kluck, Breann N.; Johnson, Christopher P.; Joyner, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    Recently, several high-impact reviews suggest that regular aerobic exercise is beneficial for maintaining cognitive function in aging adults. Higher cerebral blood flow and/or cerebrovascular reactivity may explain the favorable effect of exercise on cognition. In addition, prostaglandin-mediated vasodilator responses may be influenced by regular exercise. Therefore, our purpose was to evaluate middle cerebral artery (MCA) vasodilator responses in healthy adults before and after cyclooxygenas...

  12. Randomized controlled trial of the efficacy of aerobic exercise in reducing metabolic risk in healthy older people: The Hertfordshire Physical Activity Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Sharp Stephen J; Sleigh Alison; Rolfe Ema; Horton Kenneth; Besson Hervé; Brage Soren; Savage David B; Purslow Lisa R; Horton Jessica; Finucane Francis M; Martin Helen J; Sayer Avan; Cooper Cyrus; Ekelund Ulf; Griffin Simon J

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background While there are compelling observational data confirming that individuals who exercise are healthier, the efficacy of aerobic exercise interventions to reduce metabolic risk and improve insulin sensitivity in older people has not been fully elucidated. Furthermore, while low birth weight has been shown to predict adverse health outcomes later in life, its influence on the response to aerobic exercise is unknown. Our primary objective is to assess the efficacy of a fully su...

  13. Performance deterioration modeling and optimal preventive maintenance strategy under scheduled servicing subject to mission time

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Dawei; Zhang Zhihua; Zhong Qianghui; Zhai Yali

    2014-01-01

    Servicing is applied periodically in practice with the aim of restoring the system state and prolonging the lifetime. It is generally seen as an imperfect maintenance action which has a chief influ-ence on the maintenance strategy. In order to model the maintenance effect of servicing, this study analyzes the deterioration characteristics of system under scheduled servicing. And then the deterio-ration model is established from the failure mechanism by compound Poisson process. On the basis of the system damage value and failure mechanism, the failure rate refresh factor is proposed to describe the maintenance effect of servicing. A maintenance strategy is developed which combines the benefits of scheduled servicing and preventive maintenance. Then the optimization model is given to determine the optimal servicing period and preventive maintenance time, with an objective to minimize the sys-tem expected life-cycle cost per unit time and a constraint on system survival probability for the dura-tion of mission time. Subject to mission time, it can control the ability of accomplishing the mission at any time so as to ensure the high dependability. An example of water pump rotor relating to scheduled servicing is introduced to illustrate the failure rate refresh factor and the proposed maintenance strat-egy. Compared with traditional methods, the numerical results show that the failure rate refresh factor can describe the maintenance effect of servicing more intuitively and objectively. It also demonstrates that this maintenance strategy can prolong the lifetime, reduce the total lifetime maintenance cost and guarantee the dependability of system.

  14. Groundwater level deterioration issues and suggested solution for the water curtain cultivation area in South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yongcheol; Lee, Bongju; Ha, Kucheol; Yoon, Yunyeol; Moon, Sangho; Cho, Suyoung; Kim, Seongyun

    2013-04-01

    Protected water curtain cultivation system is an energy saving technique for winter season by splashing groundwater on the inner roof of the green house. But the issue is that the method results in groundwater level deterioration because it disposes the used groundwater to nearby stream. Reuse of the groundwater for water curtain cultivation is important Groundwater level, steam level, and groundwater usage rate are investigated at the five green house concentrated areas such as Cheongwon, Namyangju, Choongju, Namwon, Jinju. Groundwater usage rate is estimated using a ultrasonic flowmeter for a specific well and using the combination of pressure sensor and propeller type velocity counting equipment at a water disposal channel from November to April which is water curtain cultivating season. Groundwater usage rate ranges from 46.9m3/d to 108.0m3/d for a 10a greenhouse. Groundwater level change is strongly influenced by seasonal variation of rainfall and concentrated pumping activities in winter but the level is lower than stream level all year long resulting in all year around losing stream at Cheongwon, Namyangju, Jinju. At Nanwon, the stream is converted from losing one in winter to gaining one in summer. Groundwater level deterioration at concentrated water curtain cultivation area is found to be severe for some area where circulating water curtain cultivation system is need to be applied for groundwater restoration and sustainable cultivation in winter. Circulating water curtain cultivation system can restore the groundwater level by recharging the used groundwater through injection well and then pumping out from pumping well.

  15. Influência do treinamento aeróbio e anaeróbio na massa de gordura corporal de adolescentes obesos Influencia del entrenamiento aeróbico y anaeróbico en la masa grasa corporal de adolescentes obesos Influence of the aerobic and anaerobic training on the body fat mass in obese adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cláudia Fernandez

    2004-06-01

    porcentaje de grasa; y el ejercicio aeróbico fue más eficaz en el sentido de preservar y/o aumentar la masa magra y la masa libre de grasa.The aim of this study was to verify the influences of anaerobic and aerobic exercise in the body composition of obese male adolescents. The sample was constituted of 28 adolescents with ages ranging from 15 and 19 years, and severe obesity. The volunteers were divided into three groups and for all groups was provided nutritional orientation. The intervention period was 12 weeks. Group I accomplished interval training in a cycle ergometer that consisted of 12 shots of 30 sec. with maximum power and speed, pedaling with high load (0.8% of the body weight x 25 watts and 3 min recover. Group II accomplished aerobic training in a cycle ergometer pedaling with relative load to the ventilatory threshold for 50 min. Group III served as control, and was not submitted to physical activity. All volunteers underwent bone densitometry with analysis of the body composition (DEXA and medical and fitness evaluations. For the variables weight and BMI exercise groups presented reductions when initial and final interventions periods were compared. Regarding to the body composition, there was a decrease in total body and lower limbs fat mass (in grams and in the fat percentage of the lower limbs in the exercise groups when initial and final periods were compared. There was a significant difference between groups I and II for the percentile deltas of total body fat mass and of lower limbs and in the percentage of fat of lower limbs. The data suggest that anaerobic and aerobic exercise with nutritional orientation promoted a larger weight reduction, when compared with nutritional orientation only. The anaerobic exercise proposed in this study was more efficient to produce reduction of body fat and fat percentage. The aerobic exercise seemed to have been more effective preserving and/or increasing free fat mass.

  16. Rhamnolipid-enhanced aerobic biodegradation of triclosan (TCS) by indigenous microorganisms in water-sediment systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Qian; Yan, Jia; Wen, Junjie; Hu, Yongyou; Chen, Yuanbo; Wu, Wenjin

    2016-11-15

    Bioremediation of triclosan (TCS) is a challenge because of its low bioavailability, persistence in the environment and recalcitrance to remediation efforts. Rhamnolipid (RL) was used to enhance TCS biodegradation by indigenous microbes in an aerobic water-sediment system. However, knowledge of the effects of TCS on the bacterial community and environmental factors in an RL-enhanced, TCS-degrading system are lacking. Therefore, in this study, the influence of environmental factors on RL-enhanced biodegradation of TCS was investigated by single factor experiments, and shifts in aerobic TCS-degrading bacterial populations, with and without RL, were analyzed by high-throughput sequencing technology. The results showed that aerobic biodegradation of TCS was significantly promoted by the addition of RL. Environmental conditions, which included RL addition (0.125-0.5g/L), medium concentrations of TCS (environments (pH8-9), were monitored. High concentrations of TCS had a remarkable influence on the bacterial community structure, and this influence on the distribution proportion of the main microorganisms was strengthened by RL addition. Alpha-proteobacteria (e.g., Sphingomonadaceae and Caulobacteraceae) might be resistant to TCS or even capable of TCS biodegradation, while Sphingobacteria, Beta- and Delta-proteobacteria were sensitive to TCS toxicity. This research provides ecological information on the degradation efficiency and bacterial community stability in RL-enhanced bioremediation of TCS-polluted aquatic environments. PMID:27476727

  17. Analysing deterioration of marble stones exposed to underwater conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cámara, Beatriz; Álvarez de Buergo, Mónica; Bethencourt, Manuel; Freire-Lista, David; Fort, Rafael

    2016-04-01

    The peculiar conditions of the marine environment make the conservation of underwater archaeological sites an extremely complex procedure. This is due to the fact that the prevailing conditions in this environment promote the development of deterioration phenomena in submerged artefacts through the synergistic action of physical, chemical and biological factors. The objective of the present investigation was to determine how petrophysical properties of cultural heritage materials can be affected by being exposed to the specific underwater conditions of the sea bottom, and so, to evaluate how this can affect, in a long term, in their durability and evolution when they part of an archaeological site. For this purpose, two types of marble (the Italian Carrara and the Spanish Macael) were subjected to an experiment consisting of exposing stone materials for one and a half year to underwater conditions. The experimental test was located in an archaeological site in the Bay of Cadiz (southern Spain), Bajo del Chapitel (recognized as Cultural Interest), which includes remains of shipwrecks from different periods. In this site, samples were submerged to 12 m depth and placed in the sea bottom simulating the different positions in which underwater archaeological objects can be found (fully exposed, half buried and covered). Petrophysical characterisation involved determination of the apparent and bulk densities, water saturation (maximum water content a material may contain), open porosity (porosity accessible to water), chromatic parameters and ultrasonic velocity. Before measuring, samples were subjected to mechanical cleaning (in those samples with biological colonization) and to removal of salt deposits. Results showed significant differences in these petrophysical properties after underwater submersion, which were directly related to the type of underwater exposure condition. Comparative analysis of petrophysical properties, like the one conducted in this study

  18. A production inventory model for an item with three parameter Weibull Deterioration and price discount

    OpenAIRE

    Pradhan L.M; Tripathy C.K.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Deterioration is a natural process for most of the items as such it cannot be ignored in study of inventory control and management. In recent years great deal of study is devoted in developing inventory models for deteriorating items considering various practical situations. Price discount for partially deteriorated items is considerably a new concept introduced in developing various models. Methods: This paper deals with the development of an inventory model for Weibull...

  19. The effects of an enhanced simulation programme on medical students’ confidence responding to clinical deterioration

    OpenAIRE

    Hogg, George; Miller, David

    2016-01-01

    Background Clinical deterioration in adult hospital patients is an identified issue in healthcare practice globally. Teaching medical students to recognise and respond to the deteriorating patient is crucial if we are to address the issue in an effective way. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of an enhanced simulation exercise known as RADAR (Recognising Acute Deterioration: Active Response), on medical students’ confidence. Methods A questionnaire survey was conducted; the in...

  20. Predictive maintenance policy for a gradually deteriorating system subject to stress

    OpenAIRE

    Deloux, Estelle; Castanier, Bruno; Bérenguer, Christophe

    2009-01-01

    This paper deals with a predictive maintenance policy for a continuously deteriorating system subject to stress. We consider a system with two failure mechanisms which are, respectively, due to an excessive deterioration level and a shock. To optimize the maintenance policy of the system, an approach combining statistical process control (SPC) and condition-based maintenance (CBM) is proposed. CBM policy is used to inspect and replace the system according to the observed deterioration level. ...

  1. Aerobic power and peak power of elite America's Cup sailors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neville, Vernon; Pain, Matthew T G; Folland, Jonathan P

    2009-05-01

    Big-boat yacht racing is one of the only able bodied sporting activities where standing arm-cranking ('grinding') is the primary physical activity. However, the physiological capabilities of elite sailors for standing arm-cranking have been largely unreported. The purpose of the study was to assess aerobic parameters, VO(2peak) and onset of blood lactate (OBLA), and anaerobic performance, torque-crank velocity and power-crank velocity relationships and therefore peak power (P (max)) and optimum crank-velocity (omega(opt)), of America's Cup sailors during standing arm-cranking. Thirty-three elite professional sailors performed a step test to exhaustion, and a subset of ten grinders performed maximal 7 s isokinetic sprints at different crank velocities, using a standing arm-crank ergometer. VO(2peak) was 4.7 +/- 0.5 L/min (range 3.6-5.5 L/min) at a power output of 332 +/- 44 W (range 235-425 W). OBLA occurred at a power output of 202 +/- 31 W (61% of W(max)) and VO(2) of 3.3 +/- 0.4 L/min (71% of VO(2peak)). The torque-crank velocity relationship was linear for all participants (r = 0.9 +/- 0.1). P (max) was 1,420 +/- 37 W (range 1,192-1,617 W), and omega(opt) was 125 +/- 6 rpm. These data are among the highest upper-body anaerobic and aerobic power values reported. The unique nature of these athletes, with their high fat-free mass and specific selection and training for standing arm cranking, likely accounts for the high values. The influence of crank velocity on peak power implies that power production during on-board 'grinding' may be optimised through the use of appropriate gear-ratios and the development of efficient gear change mechanisms. PMID:19234715

  2. Anaerobic and Aerobic Performances in Elite Basketball Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gomes de Araujo Gustavo

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to propose a specific lactate minimum test for elite basketball players considering the: Running Anaerobic Sprint Test (RAST as a hyperlactatemia inductor, short distances (specific distance, 20 m during progressive intensity and mathematical analysis to interpret aerobic and anaerobic variables. The basketball players were assigned to four groups: All positions (n=26, Guard (n= 7, Forward (n=11 and Center (n=8. The hyperlactatemia elevation (RAST method consisted of 6 maximum sprints over 35 m separated by 10 s of recovery. The progressive phase of the lactate minimum test consisted of 5 stages controlled by an electronic metronome (8.0, 9.0, 10.0, 11.0 and 12.0 km/h over a 20 m distance. The RAST variables and the lactate values were analyzed using visual and mathematical models. The intensity of the lactate minimum test, determined by a visual method, reduced in relation to polynomial fits (2nd degree for the Small Forward positions and General groups. The Power and Fatigue Index values, determined by both methods, visual and 3rd degree polynomial, were not significantly different between the groups. In conclusion, the RAST is an excellent hyperlactatemia inductor and the progressive intensity of lactate minimum test using short distances (20 m can be specifically used to evaluate the aerobic capacity of basketball players. In addition, no differences were observed between the visual and polynomial methods for RAST variables, but lactate minimum intensity was influenced by the method of analysis

  3. Aerobic power and peak power of elite America's Cup sailors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neville, Vernon; Pain, Matthew T G; Folland, Jonathan P

    2009-05-01

    Big-boat yacht racing is one of the only able bodied sporting activities where standing arm-cranking ('grinding') is the primary physical activity. However, the physiological capabilities of elite sailors for standing arm-cranking have been largely unreported. The purpose of the study was to assess aerobic parameters, VO(2peak) and onset of blood lactate (OBLA), and anaerobic performance, torque-crank velocity and power-crank velocity relationships and therefore peak power (P (max)) and optimum crank-velocity (omega(opt)), of America's Cup sailors during standing arm-cranking. Thirty-three elite professional sailors performed a step test to exhaustion, and a subset of ten grinders performed maximal 7 s isokinetic sprints at different crank velocities, using a standing arm-crank ergometer. VO(2peak) was 4.7 +/- 0.5 L/min (range 3.6-5.5 L/min) at a power output of 332 +/- 44 W (range 235-425 W). OBLA occurred at a power output of 202 +/- 31 W (61% of W(max)) and VO(2) of 3.3 +/- 0.4 L/min (71% of VO(2peak)). The torque-crank velocity relationship was linear for all participants (r = 0.9 +/- 0.1). P (max) was 1,420 +/- 37 W (range 1,192-1,617 W), and omega(opt) was 125 +/- 6 rpm. These data are among the highest upper-body anaerobic and aerobic power values reported. The unique nature of these athletes, with their high fat-free mass and specific selection and training for standing arm cranking, likely accounts for the high values. The influence of crank velocity on peak power implies that power production during on-board 'grinding' may be optimised through the use of appropriate gear-ratios and the development of efficient gear change mechanisms.

  4. Weed competitiveness and yielding ability of aerobic rice genotypes

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, D.L.

    2006-01-01

    Keywords:    Broad-sense heritability; Crop vigour; Genetic correlation; Indirect selection index; Plant erectness; Rice germplasm; Seeding rate; Vegetative growth; Weed-suppressive ability.Aerobic rice, grown under aerobic soil conditions like maize or wheat, is an innovative way to cope with the growing demand for rice and the increasing water scarcity. Weeds are the most severe constraint to aerobic rice. The use of herbicides causes environmental pollution and induces the proliferation of...

  5. Perfection aerobic possibilities of athletes in sport dance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Bo

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The organized analysis to functions of the aerobic metabolism of the sport dancers. They are determined reduced components of the aerobic metabolism of partners (male and female. The motivated directivity of the training means and program for development component of the aerobic functions skilled athlete in sport dance. It is proved that loading that is used in training process by sport dances must have a character of cardiorespiratory system.

  6. Flight into sanity. Jones's allegation of Ferenczi's mental deterioration reconsidered.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonomi, C

    1999-06-01

    In 'The Life and Work of Sigmund Freud', Volume III, Ernest Jones explained Ferenczi's final contributions as the product of a mental deterioration based on a progressive psychosis. Erich Fromm collected various testimonies by witnesses of Ferenczi's last years, all contrasting with Jones's assertions, and challenged Jones's manner of writing history. However, since Fromm was himself a dissident, and his witnesses were pupils, relatives or friends of Ferenczi's, they were discarded as 'partisans'. The present study aims at reconsidering the question of Ferenczi's insanity on the basis of many unpublished documents. The consulted documents do not support Jones's allegation of Ferenczi's insanity. At the same time, they show that Jones's allegation was not a one-man fabrication, but reflected a shared belief, eliciting many questions about the nature of this belief, the lack of scrutiny that characterised its spreading, and its possible function within the psychoanalytic community. It is suggested that Ferenczi's personality and teaching, especially his emphasis on the need to accept the patient's criticism, contrasted with the dominant conception of psychoanalysis, based on the analyst's infallibility.

  7. AIR QUALITY DETERIORATION IN TEHRAN DUE TO MOTORCYCLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Shafiepour and H. Kamalan

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Since there is a rise of motorcycles population as well as other motor vehicles, it seems that air Pollution deterioration should be studied as one of its environmental impacts. The main objective of this study was to develop a number of scenarios in order to determine the amount of Tehran's air pollution attributable to motorcycles and select the best and the most probable case to be recommended for implementation. The first step was to collect data such as the number of active motorcycles, daily traffic volume, average traveling speed and actual emission factors. For this purpose, a detailed questionnaire was designed to be completed by field surveys and measurements. The collected data were compared with traffic volume data, manufacturing statistics and the latest production capacity forecast in this field. Finally, with this data and emission factors for each type of motorcycle, an emissions inventory model was chosen to provide annual emissions from motorcycles in Tehran in different scenarios. The results showed that in 2002, there has been about 450'000 active motorcycles (4-stroke 58%, 2-stroke 28%, and moped 14% with average speed of 40 km/h and average mileage of 110 km/d. Five scenarios were developed. The best scenario was "Changing all motorcycles to 4-strokes under EU-97 standard" which would result in reduction of NMVOC by 75%, CO by 35% and PM10 by 88%.

  8. A damage mechanics based approach to structural deterioration and reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Structural deterioration often occurs without perceptible manifestation. Continuum damage mechanics defines structural damage in terms of the material microstructure, and relates the damage variable to the macroscopic strength or stiffness of the structure. This enables one to predict the state of damage prior to the initiation of a macroscopic flaw, and allows one to estimate residual strength/service life of an existing structure. The accumulation of damage is a dissipative process that is governed by the laws of thermodynamics. Partial differential equations for damage growth in terms of the Helmholtz free energy are derived from fundamental thermodynamical conditions. Closed-form solutions to the equations are obtained under uniaxial loading for ductile deformation damage as a function of plastic strain, for creep damage as a function of time, and for fatigue damage as function of number of cycles. The proposed damage growth model is extended into the stochastic domain by considering fluctuations in the free energy, and closed-form solutions of the resulting stochastic differential equation are obtained in each of the three cases mentioned above. A reliability analysis of a ring-stiffened cylindrical steel shell subjected to corrosion, accidental pressure, and temperature is performed

  9. Maintenance scheduling of a manufacturing system subject to deterioration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmadi, Reza, E-mail: reza.ahmadi.1@city.ac.uk [City University London (United Kingdom); Newby, Martin, E-mail: m.j.newby@city.ac.uk [City University London (United Kingdom)

    2011-10-15

    This paper presents an integrated model for the joint determination of both optimal inspection strategy and optimal repair policy for a manufacturing system whose resulting output is subject to system state. An appropriate maintenance strategy is essential to optimize revenue from a manufacturing system which is in continuous operation and subject to deterioration. The optimum policy balances the amount of maintenance required to increase availability against the loss of revenue arising from the down time: insufficient maintenance leads to an increase in the number of defective items, low profit and low maintenance cost; excessive maintenance results in a reduction in the proportion of defective items, high profit and high maintenance cost. In this paper, an intensity control model adapted to partial information provides an optimal inspection intensity and repair degree of the system as an optimal control process to yield maximum revenue. The solution is obtained through formulating an equivalent deterministic Hamilton-Jacobi equation. A numerical example is provided to illustrate the behavior of the optimal control process. The optimal control process determines a solution to both optimum inspection frequency and optimal replacement policy which results in an optimal production run length of the system. - Highlights: > We develop an optimum asset management strategy based on the revenue generated by the asset. > The optimum strategy controls the intensity, rate of occurrence, of interruptions to service. > The decisions are based on partial observation of the system and do not need perfect information. There is no need for continuous monitoring of the system.

  10. A damage mechanics based approach to structural deterioration and reliability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattcharya, B.; Ellingwood, B. [Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering

    1998-02-01

    Structural deterioration often occurs without perceptible manifestation. Continuum damage mechanics defines structural damage in terms of the material microstructure, and relates the damage variable to the macroscopic strength or stiffness of the structure. This enables one to predict the state of damage prior to the initiation of a macroscopic flaw, and allows one to estimate residual strength/service life of an existing structure. The accumulation of damage is a dissipative process that is governed by the laws of thermodynamics. Partial differential equations for damage growth in terms of the Helmholtz free energy are derived from fundamental thermodynamical conditions. Closed-form solutions to the equations are obtained under uniaxial loading for ductile deformation damage as a function of plastic strain, for creep damage as a function of time, and for fatigue damage as function of number of cycles. The proposed damage growth model is extended into the stochastic domain by considering fluctuations in the free energy, and closed-form solutions of the resulting stochastic differential equation are obtained in each of the three cases mentioned above. A reliability analysis of a ring-stiffened cylindrical steel shell subjected to corrosion, accidental pressure, and temperature is performed.

  11. Finite Element Investigation of the Deterioration of Doweled Rigid Pavements

    CERN Document Server

    Ghauch, Ziad G

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to describe the failure of concrete around dowel bars in jointed rigid pavements, and the resulting effect on the pavement performance. In fact, under repetitive vehicle loading, concrete in contact with the dowel bar deteriorates, particularly at the joint face. The degradation of concrete around the dowel negatively affects the latter's performance in terms of transferring wheel loads through vertical shear action. In this context, a nonlinear 3D Finite Element analysis was performed using the commercial FE code Abaqus (v-6.11). The FE model was validated with classical analytical solutions of shear and moment along the dowel. A concrete damaged plasticity model was used for the PCC slab to model the degradation of concrete matrix around the dowels under incremental loading. Results obtained show, among other things, that the degradation of concrete matrix around the dowel was found to initiate at the face of the joint and propagate towards the interior of the dowel. Also, resul...

  12. Long-term deterioration of composite resin and amalgam restorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smales, R J

    1991-01-01

    Previous long-term longitudinal studies of two different methods of placing an auto-cured conventional anterior composite resin, and of a low- and a high-copper amalgam alloy, had shown similar restoration survivals despite the different resin treatment methods used or the types of amalgam alloy placed. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to assess several clinical factors or characteristics of these restorations that were believed to affect the survival of the restorative materials. The 950 composite resin and the 1042 amalgam restorations examined were placed by many operators in numerous patients attending a dental hospital. The composite resin restorations were placed using unetched- and etched-enamel-bonding treatment methods, and the amalgam restorations were polished after insertion. Clinical ratings supplemented by color transparencies were used for the assessment of four factors for the resin, and four factors for the amalgam restoration. Significant deterioration differences were found for several of the clinical factors assessed for both the two different composite resin treatment methods, and for the two different amalgam alloys, which were not directly related to the restoration survivals. PMID:1840079

  13. Aerobic capacity related to cardiac size in young children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dencker, M; Wollmer, P; Karlsson, M;

    2013-01-01

    Aerobic capacity, defined as peak oxygen uptake (VO2PEAK), is generally considered to be the best single marker for aerobic fitness. We assessed if VO2PEAK is related to different cardiac dimensions in healthy young children on a population base.......Aerobic capacity, defined as peak oxygen uptake (VO2PEAK), is generally considered to be the best single marker for aerobic fitness. We assessed if VO2PEAK is related to different cardiac dimensions in healthy young children on a population base....

  14. The effect of aerobic exercise on intrahepatocellular and intramyocellular lipids in healthy subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Egger

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Intrahepatocellular (IHCL and intramyocellular (IMCL lipids are ectopic lipid stores. Aerobic exercise results in IMCL utilization in subjects over a broad range of exercise capacity. IMCL and IHCL have been related to impaired insulin action at the skeletal muscle and hepatic level, respectively. The acute effect of aerobic exercise on IHCL is unknown. Possible regulatory factors include exercise capacity, insulin sensitivity and fat availability subcutaneous and visceral fat mass. AIM: To concomitantly investigate the effect of aerobic exercise on IHCL and IMCL in healthy subjects, using Magnetic Resonance spectroscopy. METHODS: Normal weight, healthy subjects were included. Visit 1 consisted of a determination of VO2max on a treadmill. Visit 2 comprised the assessment of hepatic and peripheral insulin sensitivity by a two-step hyperinsulinaemic euglycaemic clamp. At Visit 3, subcutaneous and visceral fat mass were assessed by whole body MRI, IHCL and IMCL before and after a 2-hours aerobic exercise (50% of VO(2max using ¹H-MR-spectroscopy. RESULTS: Eighteen volunteers (12M, 6F were enrolled in the study (age, 37.6±3.2 years, mean±SEM; VO(2max, 53.4±2.9 mL/kg/min. Two hours aerobic exercise resulted in a significant decrease in IMCL (-22.6±3.3, % from baseline and increase in IHCL (+34.9±7.6, % from baseline. There was no significant correlation between the exercise-induced changes in IMCL and IHCL and exercise capacity, subcutaneous and visceral fat mass and hepatic or peripheral insulin sensitivity. CONCLUSIONS: IMCL and IHCL are flexible ectopic lipid stores that are acutely influenced by physical exercise, albeit in different directions. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrial.gov NCT00491582.

  15. Cellular fibronectin response to supervised moderate aerobic training in patients with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alghadir, Ahmad H; Gabr, Sami A; Al-Eisa, Einas

    2016-04-01

    [Purpose] Physical activity is one of the most pivotal targets for the prevention and management of vascular complications, especially endothelial dysfunctions. Cellular fibronectin is an endothelium-derived protein involved in subendothelial matrix assembly. Its plasma levels reflect matrix alterations and vessel wall destruction in patients with type II diabetes. This study investigated the influence of 12 weeks of supervised aerobic training on cellular fibronectin and its relationship with insulin resistance and body weight in type II diabetic subjects. [Subjects and Methods] This study included 50 men with type II diabetes who had a mean age of 48.8 ± 14.6 years and were randomly divided into two groups: an aerobic exercise group (12 weeks, three 50 minutes sessions per week) and control group. To examine changes in cellular fibronectin, glycosylated hemoglobin, insulin resistance, fasting insulin, fasting blood sugar, and lipid profile, 5 ml of blood was taken from the brachial vein of patients before and 48 hours after completion of the exercise period and after 12 hours of fasting at rest. Data analysis was performed using the SPSS-16 software with the independent and paired t-tests. [Results] A significant decrease was observed in body mass index and body fat percentage in the experimental group. Compared with the control group, the aerobic exercise group showed a significant decrease in cellular fibronectin, glycosylated hemoglobin, insulin resistance, fasting insulin, fasting blood sugar, and lipid profile after 12 weeks of aerobic exercise. The change in cellular fibronectin showed positive significant correlation with body mass index, diabetic biomarkers, and physical activity level. [Conclusion] The results showed that supervised aerobic exercise as a stimulus can change the levels of cellular fibronectin as matrix metalloproteinase protein a long with improvement of insulin sensitivity and glycosylated hemoglobin in order to prevent

  16. The effect of aerobic exercise on cortical architecture in patients with chronic schizophrenia: a randomized controlled MRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falkai, Peter; Malchow, Berend; Wobrock, Thomas; Gruber, Oliver; Schmitt, Andrea; Honer, William G; Pajonk, Frank-Gerald; Sun, Frank; Cannon, Tyrone D

    2013-09-01

    Via influencing brain plasticity, aerobic exercise could contribute to the treatment of schizophrenia patients. As previously shown, physical exercise increases hippocampus volume and improves short-term memory. We now investigated gray matter density and brain surface expansion in this sample using MRI-based cortical pattern matching methods. Comparing schizophrenia patients to healthy controls before and after 3 months of aerobic exercise training (cycling) plus patients playing table football yielded gray matter density increases in the right frontal and occipital cortex merely in healthy controls. However, respective exercise effects might be attenuated in chronic schizophrenia, which should be verified in a larger sample. PMID:23161338

  17. Aerobic Biostabilization of Old MSW Landfills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. C. Zanetti

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Many years after the end of the cultivation phase, landfills may generate intense odours, toxic and explosive gases and heavily-polluted leachate. A wide-spreading trend in the management of MSW landfills is represented by the forced aeration of wastes in order to achieve the stabilization, reducing the negative environmental impact of uncontrolled sites (old landfills which can be definitely considered as contaminated sites and the management costs of controlled and working facilities. One of the most interesting challenges is the in situ waste aerobic stabilization, obtained by insufflating air into the wastes. The aerobic metabolism is energetically convenient in comparison with the anaerobic one, it is characterized by a higher degradation rate and a temperature increase (like in the compost production. In order to obtain an aerobic biostabilization of waste in landfills, several air injection systems have been developed and applied in the last years, like Biopuster© or AEROflott® patented systems. The feasibility of the application of in situ biostabilization must be evaluated by means of different tests, in order to evaluate the main characteristics of the wastes. The main parameters to be evaluated are the biological stability and the air permeability of the wastes. In March 2006, the biological stability of the wastes located in the Trinitapoli Landfill, Italy, has been evaluated by the Politecnico di Torino. Black Index Test and Static Respirometric Index Test have been performed in the laboratories of the Politecnico. On the basis of the obtained results, the potential biogas production from the examined landfill was estimated together with the potential volume reduction.

  18. Dancing the aerobics "Hearing loss choreography"

    OpenAIRE

    Beatriz M. Pinto; Carvalho, A.; Sérgio Oliveira

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the health clubs acoustic problems when used for aerobics exercises classes (and similar) with loud noise levels in sound amplified music. A sample of five schools in Portugal was chosen for this survey. Noise levels in each room were measured and analyzed to calculate the standardized daily personal noise exposure levels (Leq8). Leq8 values up to 96 dB(A) were found in this type of room inducing a health risk for its occupants. This type of gymnasium is usu...

  19. [Heterotrophic Nitrification and Aerobic Denitrification of the Hypothermia Aerobic Denitrification Bacterium: Arthrobacter arilaitensis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Teng-xia; Ni, Jiu-pai; Li, Zhen-lun; Sun, Quan; Ye Qing; Xu, Yi

    2016-03-15

    High concentrations of ammonium, nitrate and nitrite nitrogen were employed to clarify the abilities of heterotrophic nitrification and aerobic denitrification of Arthrobacter arilaitensis strain Y-10. Meanwhile, by means of inoculating the strain suspension into the mixed ammonium and nitrate, ammonium and nitrite nitrogen simulated wastewater, we studied the simultaneous nitrification and denitrification ability of Arthrobacter arilaitensis strain Y-10. In addition, cell optical density was assayed in each nitrogen removal process to analyze the relationship of cell growth and nitrogen removal efficiency. The results showed that the hypothermia denitrification strain Arthrobacter arilaitensis Y-10 exhibited high nitrogen removal efficiency during heterotrophic nitrification and aerobic denitrification. The ammonium, nitrate and nitrite removal rates were 65.0%, 100% and 61.2% respectively when strain Y-10 was cultivated for 4 d at 15°C with initial ammonium, nitrate and nitrite nitrogen concentrations of 208.43 mg · L⁻¹, 201.16 mg · L⁻¹ and 194.33 mg · L⁻¹ and initial pH of 7.2. Nitrite nitrogen could only be accumulated in the medium containing nitrate nitrogen during heterotrophic nitrification and aerobic denitrification process. Additionally, the ammonium nitrogen was mainly removed in the inorganic nitrogen mixed synthetic wastewater. In short, Arthrobacter arilaitensis Y-10 could conduct nitrification and denitrification effectively under aerobic condition and the ammonium nitrogen removal rate was more than 80.0% in the inorganic nitrogen mixed synthetic wastewater. PMID:27337904

  20. Study of glazed building ceramics from central Europe (Budapest, Hungary) in aspect of deterioration by environmental factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baricza, Ágnes; Bajnóczi, Bernadett; Tóth, Mária; Szabó, Csaba

    2014-05-01

    The Zsolnay products are one of the most famous Hungarian ceramics. The glazed building ceramics, which were produced by this factory, were often applied in Hungary and the surrounding countries. Since their outplacements the ceramics have suffered from numerous environmental and human influences. There is no profound knowledge about deterioration of these building materials. Beside the characterization of the Zsolnay ceramics, our purpose is to attempt to explain the deterioration caused by environmental factors considering that these ceramics have never been studied in this aspect before. Other goal is to reveal if there is any influence on the deterioration depending on the location of building covered by Zsolnay ceramics. The studied objects were used on buildings of the Museum of Applied Arts (in the center with high traffic) and the Hungarian Geological and Geophysical Institute in Budapest (in a quarter with moderate traffic). We examined the physical and chemical features of the glaze and the ceramic body (e.g., phase composition, texture, microstructure, alteration) and the depositions on the glazed and the unglazed sides of some selected ceramics. Based on the results, three different types of ceramics were used as building materials. We observed several kinds of damage (e.g. cracks, pitting corrosions), black deposition layer and alterations in different extent. Natural and artificial particles (e.g. iron-oxide, mica, calcite and glauberithe) and spherules were deposited on the surface. Traces of biological activity were also found and connected to these organic residues calcium-oxalate was detected. On some objects of the Museum the glaze has started to weather and its lead was leached glaze by rainfall. Weathering also occurs along cracks in the glaze interior together with precipitation of lead-rich phases. Gypsum layer frequently covers the ceramics. In conclusions, the ceramics from the Museum are in worse condition than the ceramics from the

  1. Bacterial selection during the formation of early-stage aerobic granules in wastewater treatment systems operated under wash-out dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Gregory Weissbrodt

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Aerobic granular sludge is attractive for high-rate biological wastewater treatment. Biomass wash-out conditions stimulate the formation of aerobic granules. Deteriorated performances in biomass settling and nutrient removal during start-up have however often been reported. The effect of wash-out dynamics was investigated on bacterial selection, biomass settling behavior, and metabolic activities during the formation of early-stage granules from activated sludge of two wastewater treatment plants (WWTP over start-up periods of maximum 60 days. Five bubble-column sequencing batch reactors were operated with feast-famine regimes consisting of rapid pulse or slow anaerobic feeding followed by aerobic starvation. Slow-settling fluffy granules were formed when an insufficient superficial air velocity (SAV; 1.8 cm s-1 was applied, when the inoculation sludge was taken from a WWTP removing organic matter only, or when reactors were operated at 30°C. Fast-settling dense granules were obtained with 4.0 cm s-1 SAV, or when the inoculation sludge was taken from a WWTP removing all nutrients biologically. However, only carbon was aerobically removed during start-up. Fluffy granules and dense granules were displaying distinct predominant phylotypes, namely filamentous Burkholderiales affiliates and Zoogloea relatives, respectively. The latter were predominant in dense granules independently from the feeding regime. A combination of insufficient solid retention time and of leakage of acetate into the aeration phase during intensive biomass wash-out was the cause for the proliferation of Zoogloea spp. in dense granules, and for the deterioration of BNR performances. It is however not certain that Zoogloea-like organisms are essential in granule formation. Optimal operation conditions should be elucidated for maintaining a balance between organisms with granulation propensity and nutrient removing organisms in order to form granules with BNR activities in

  2. Mechanisms of cementitious material deterioration in biogas digester.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voegel, C; Bertron, A; Erable, B

    2016-11-15

    Digesters produce biogas from organic wastes through anaerobic digestion processes. These digesters, often made of concrete, suffer severe premature deterioration caused mainly by the presence of fermentative microorganisms producing metabolites that are aggressive towards cementitious materials. To clarify the degradation mechanisms in an anaerobic digestion medium, ordinary Portland cement paste specimens were immersed in the liquid fraction of a running, lab-scale digester for 4weeks. The anaerobic digestion medium was a mixture of a biowaste substrate and sludge from municipal wastewater treatment plant used as a source of anaerobic bacteria. The chemical characteristics of the anaerobic digestion liquid phase were monitored over time using a pH metre, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and ion chromatography (HPIC). An initial critical period of low pH in the bioreactors was observed before the pH stabilized around 8. Acetic, propionic and butyric acids were produced during the digestion with a maximum total organic acid concentration of 50mmolL(-1). The maximum ammonium content of the liquid phase was 40mmolL(-1), which was about seven times the upper limit of the highly aggressive chemical environment class (XA3) as defined by the European standard for the specification of concrete design in chemically aggressive environments (EN 206). The changes in the mineralogical, microstructural and chemical characteristics of the cement pastes exposed to the solid and liquid phase of the digesters were analysed at the end of the immersion period by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) coupled with energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDS) and electron-probe micro-analysis (EPMA). A 700-μm thick altered layer was identified in the cement paste specimens. The main biodeterioration patterns in the bioreactors' solid/liquid phase were calcium leaching and carbonation of the cement matrix.

  3. Sclerostin antibody inhibits skeletal deterioration due to reduced mechanical loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spatz, Jordan M; Ellman, Rachel; Cloutier, Alison M; Louis, Leeann; van Vliet, Miranda; Suva, Larry J; Dwyer, Denise; Stolina, Marina; Ke, Hua Zhu; Bouxsein, Mary L

    2013-04-01

    Sclerostin, a product of the SOST gene produced mainly by osteocytes, is a potent negative regulator of bone formation that appears to be responsive to mechanical loading, with SOST expression increasing following mechanical unloading. We tested the ability of a murine sclerostin antibody (SclAbII) to prevent bone loss in adult mice subjected to hindlimb unloading (HLU) via tail suspension for 21 days. Mice (n = 11-17/group) were assigned to control (CON, normal weight bearing) or HLU and injected with either SclAbII (subcutaneously, 25 mg/kg) or vehicle (VEH) twice weekly. SclAbII completely inhibited the bone deterioration due to disuse, and induced bone formation such that bone properties in HLU-SclAbII were at or above values of CON-VEH mice. For example, hindlimb bone mineral density (BMD) decreased -9.2% ± 1.0% in HLU-VEH, whereas it increased 4.2% ± 0.7%, 13.1% ± 1.0%, and 30.6% ± 3.0% in CON-VEH, HLU-SclAbII, and CON-SclAbII, respectively (p bone volume, assessed by micro-computed tomography (µCT) imaging of the distal femur, was lower in HLU-VEH versus CON-VEH (p bone outcomes appeared to be enhanced by normal mechanical loading. Altogether, these results confirm the ability of SclAbII to abrogate disuse-induced bone loss and demonstrate that sclerostin antibody treatment increases bone mass by increasing bone formation in both normally loaded and underloaded environments.

  4. Mechanisms of cementitious material deterioration in biogas digester.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voegel, C; Bertron, A; Erable, B

    2016-11-15

    Digesters produce biogas from organic wastes through anaerobic digestion processes. These digesters, often made of concrete, suffer severe premature deterioration caused mainly by the presence of fermentative microorganisms producing metabolites that are aggressive towards cementitious materials. To clarify the degradation mechanisms in an anaerobic digestion medium, ordinary Portland cement paste specimens were immersed in the liquid fraction of a running, lab-scale digester for 4weeks. The anaerobic digestion medium was a mixture of a biowaste substrate and sludge from municipal wastewater treatment plant used as a source of anaerobic bacteria. The chemical characteristics of the anaerobic digestion liquid phase were monitored over time using a pH metre, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and ion chromatography (HPIC). An initial critical period of low pH in the bioreactors was observed before the pH stabilized around 8. Acetic, propionic and butyric acids were produced during the digestion with a maximum total organic acid concentration of 50mmolL(-1). The maximum ammonium content of the liquid phase was 40mmolL(-1), which was about seven times the upper limit of the highly aggressive chemical environment class (XA3) as defined by the European standard for the specification of concrete design in chemically aggressive environments (EN 206). The changes in the mineralogical, microstructural and chemical characteristics of the cement pastes exposed to the solid and liquid phase of the digesters were analysed at the end of the immersion period by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) coupled with energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDS) and electron-probe micro-analysis (EPMA). A 700-μm thick altered layer was identified in the cement paste specimens. The main biodeterioration patterns in the bioreactors' solid/liquid phase were calcium leaching and carbonation of the cement matrix. PMID:27432729

  5. Can cognitive deterioration associated with Down syndrome be reduced?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiel, R; Fowkes, S W

    2005-01-01

    Individuals with Down syndrome have signs of possible brain damage prior to birth. In addition to slowed and reduced mental development, they are much more likely to have cognitive deterioration and develop dementia at an earlier age than individuals without Down syndrome. Some of the cognitive impairments are likely due to post-natal hydrogen peroxide-mediated oxidative stress caused by overexpression of the superoxide dismutase (SOD-1) gene, which is located on the triplicated 21st chromosome and known to be 50% overexpressed. However, some of this disability may also be due to early accumulation of advanced protein glycation end-products, which may play an adverse role in prenatal and postnatal brain development. This paper suggests that essential nutrients such as folate, vitamin B6, vitamin C, vitamin E, selenium, and zinc, as well as alpha-lipoic acid and carnosine may possibly be partially preventive. Acetyl-L-carnitine, aminoguanidine, cysteine, and N-acetylcysteine are also discussed, but have possible safety concerns for this population. This paper hypothesizes that nutritional factors begun prenatally, in early infancy, or later may prevent or delay the onset of dementia in the Down syndrome population. Further examination of these data may provide insights into nutritional, metabolic and pharmacological treatments for dementias of many kinds. As the Down syndrome population may be the largest identifiable group at increased risk for developing dementia, clinical research to verify the possible validity of the prophylactic use of anti-glycation nutrients should be performed. Such research might also help those with glycation complications associated with diabetes or Alzheimer's. PMID:15617860

  6. Drusen maculopathy: a risk factor for visual deterioration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Algvere, Peep V; Kvanta, Anders; Seregard, Stefan

    2016-08-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD), the most common cause of visual loss after the age of 65, displays a degeneration of the retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells and photoreceptors in the retinal centre (macula). The central macula (fovea) that contains mostly cone photoreceptors mediates the high visual acuity. Drusen maculopathy may lead to visual deterioration. Drusen are extracellular deposits of debris that accumulate on Bruch's membrane. Drusen attract inflammatory, immunological and vasoactive stimuli. RPE and photoreceptor cells overlying drusen exhibit biochemical and morphological signs of degeneration. Strong and intermittent light exposure (photons) induces the formation of free radicals in the very high oxygen tension milieu of the retina. The negative effects of irradiation stimulate accumulation of lipofuscin in RPE and photoreceptor cells leading to mitochondrial dysfunction and apoptotic cell death. A hydrophobic barrier is built up in Bruch's membrane reducing diffusion to the choroid. Hereditary and inflammatory factors modify the risk for AMD. There is a genetic dysregulation of the complement system leading to inappropriate complement activation. The genetic polymorphism of complement factor H (CFH) and age-related maculopathy susceptibilty 2 (ARMS2) increase the risk of progression to advanced AMD. The photoelectric effect creates free radicals, resulting in a continuous increase of lipofuscin formation and impairing mitochondrial activity. In addition, inflammation and complement dysregulation contribute to the formation of drusen and vasoproliferative reactions with neovascularization. Antioxidants neutralize reactive oxygen species and reduce lipofuscin accumulation in RPE and photoreceptor cells. For prophylactic treatment of drusen maculopathy, high doses of antioxidants such as vitamins C and E, lutein, zeaxanthine and zinc are used according to the Age-Related Eye Disease Study 2 (AREDS 2). The risk of developing advanced AMD was

  7. The Paroxetine Effect on Exercise Performance Depends on the Aerobic Capacity of Exercising Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Teixeira-Coelho, João Paulo Uendeles-Pinto, Ana Cláudia Alves Serafim, Samuel Penna Wanner, Márcio de Matos Coelho, Danusa Dias Soares

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the influence of aerobic capacity on the activation of the central serotonergic system and exercise fatigue in young men that ingested a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor and were then subjected to moderate-intensity physical exercise. The maximal oxygen consumption of sixteen volunteers was measured during an incremental test. The volunteers were divided into two groups: subjects with higher (HAC and lower (LAC aerobic capacities. The volunteers were subjected to four experimental trials in which they ingested either placebo or paroxetine (10, 20 or 40 mg and, 4.5 h later, cycled at 60% of their maximal power output until reaching fatigue. None of the three paroxetine doses influenced the total exercise time in the LAC group. However, for the HAC group, the time to fatigue in the 20 mg paroxetine condition was 15% less than that in the placebo condition (76.3 ± 5.1 min vs. 90.0 ± 7.9 min; p < 0.05. The time to fatigue was higher in the HAC group than in the LAC group for all treatments. Our results provide additional evidence that aerobic capacity modulates the activity of the serotonergic system. However, contrary to what would be expected considering previous reports, the activation of the serotonergic system in exercising subjects in the HAC group was not less than that in the LAC group.

  8. Characterization and aerobic biodegradation of selected monoterpenes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Misra, G.; Pavlostathis, S.G.; Li, J.; Purdue, E.M. [Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Monoterpenes are biogenic chemicals and occur in abundance in nature. Large-scale industrial use of these chemicals has recently been initiated in an attempt to replace halogenated solvents and chlorofluorocarbons which have been implicated in the stratospheric depletion of ozone. This study examined four hydrocarbon monoterpenes (d-limonene, {alpha}-pinene, {gamma}-terpinene, and terpinolene) and four alcohols (arbanol, linalool, plinol, and {alpha}-terpineol). Water solubility, vapor pressure, and octanol/water partition coefficients were estimated. Aerobic biodegradability tests were conducted in batch reactors by utilizing forest soil extract and enriched cultures as inoculum. The hydrophobic nature and high volatility of the hydrocarbons restricted the investigation to relatively low aqueous concentrations. Each monoterpene was analyzed with a gas chromatograph equipped with a flame ionization detector after extraction from the aqueous phase with isooctane. Terpene mineralization was tested by monitoring liquid-phase carbon, CO{sub 2} production and biomass growth. All four hydrocarbons and two alcohols readily degraded under aerobic conditions. Plinol resisted degradation in assays using inocula from diverse sources, while arbanol degraded very slowly. The intrinsic biokinetics coefficients for the degradation of d-limonene and {alpha}-terpineol were estimated by using cultures enriched with the respective monoterpenes. Monoterpene biodegradation followed Monod kinetics.

  9. Aerobic Thermophilic Composting of Municipal Solid Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D V Wadkar

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Composting is a natural process that turns organic material into a dark rich substance called compost. Aerobic Composting is the creation of compost that depends on bacteria that thrive in an oxygen rich environment. Aerobic bacteria manage the chemical process by converting the inputs (i.e. air, water and carbon and nitrogen rich materials into heat, carbon dioxide and ammonium. The ammonium is further converted by bacteria into plant nourishing nitrites and nitrates through the process of nitrification. Thermophilic Composting is breaking down biological waste with thermophilic (heat loving bacteria. A cylindrical reactor was made. Organic wasteincluded dry vegetable waste collected from MSW ramp, Koregaon park, Pune. The characteristics of compost like pH, moisture content, temperature, C/N ratio and volume reduction were studied for the period of maturation (42days. It can be concluded that the values are within the desired limits and compost is suitable for ornamental plants. The setup of reactor is affordable and thus the compost obtained is effective and economical.

  10. 76 FR 23489 - Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) and Nonattainment New Source Review (NSR...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-27

    ..., ``Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) and Nonattainment New Source Review (NSR): Reconsideration of... AGENCY 40 CFR Parts 51 and 52 RIN 2060-AQ73 Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) and Nonattainment New Source Review (NSR): Reconsideration of Inclusion of Fugitive Emissions; Interim Rule;...

  11. 75 FR 16012 - Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) and Nonattainment New Source Review (NSR...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-31

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Parts 51 and 52 Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) and Nonattainment New Source... inclusion of fugitive emissions requirements in the federal Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) program published in the Federal Register on December 19, 2008, in the final rule entitled,...

  12. 75 FR 6823 - Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) and Nonattainment New Source Review (NSR...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-11

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Parts 51 and 52 RIN 2060-AP73 Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) and Nonattainment New Source Review (NSR): Reconsideration of Inclusion of Fugitive Emissions; Proposal for... emissions requirements in the federal Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) program published in...

  13. 75 FR 27191 - Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) and Nonattainment New Source Review (NSR): Aggregation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-14

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Parts 51 and 52 RIN 2060-AP80 Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) and Nonattainment New Source Review (NSR): Aggregation AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice... period on our proposed reconsideration of the Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD)...

  14. 76 FR 48006 - Limited Federal Implementation Plan; Prevention of Significant Deterioration; California; North...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-08

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Limited Federal Implementation Plan; Prevention of Significant Deterioration... (NAAQS or standards) and the 1997 fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) NAAQS (2007 Transport SIP) (76 FR 31263, May 31, 2011). This limited FIP establishes Federal Prevention of Significant Deterioration...

  15. Laboratory Test on Long-Term Deterioration of Cement Soil in Seawater Environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨俊杰; 闫楠; 刘强; 张玥宸

    2016-01-01

    Laboratory tests were conducted to study the effects of curing time, cement ratio and seawater pressure on cement soil deterioration formed at simulative marine soft clay sites. Deterioration depth was determined on the basis of characteristics of penetration resistance and penetration depth curves, and the deterioration depth of cement soil with the cement ratio of 7%, reached 31.8 mm after 720 d. Results of research indicated that deterioration ex-tended quickly under seawater environment and the deterioration depth increased with the prolonging curing time. In addition, the water pressure could speed up deterioration. With the increase of cement content, the strength of cement soil increased obviously. At the same time, the deterioration depth decreased significantly. The concentra-tion of calcium ion in the cement stabilized soil increased with the increase of depth, while that of magnesium ion gradually decreased. The variations were consistent with energy dispersive spectrometer(EDS)analysis results, and the calcium concentration with depth was in a good consistency with strength distribution at long term. The results showed that the deterioration became more serious with the curing time, and it was related to calcium leaching.

  16. 40 CFR 52.1382 - Prevention of significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Prevention of significant deterioration of air quality. 52.1382 Section 52.1382 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... § 52.1382 Prevention of significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The Montana plan, as...

  17. 40 CFR 52.1829 - Prevention of significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Prevention of significant deterioration of air quality. 52.1829 Section 52.1829 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Dakota § 52.1829 Prevention of significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The North Dakota plan,...

  18. 40 CFR 52.2630 - Prevention of significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Prevention of significant deterioration of air quality. 52.2630 Section 52.2630 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... § 52.2630 Prevention of significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The Wyoming plan, as...

  19. 40 CFR 51.166 - Prevention of significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Prevention of significant deterioration... of New Sources and Modifications § 51.166 Prevention of significant deterioration of air quality... cause or contribute to a violation of the applicable increment(s). If a plan revision proposing...

  20. 40 CFR 52.2058 - Prevention of significant air quality deterioration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Prevention of significant air quality deterioration. 52.2058 Section 52.2058 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Prevention of significant air quality deterioration. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of...

  1. Molecular analysis of differentially expressed genes during postharvest deterioration in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) tuberous roots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huang, J.; Bachem, C.W.B.; Jacobsen, E.; Visser, R.

    2001-01-01

    One of the major problems for cassava is the rapid deterioration after harvesting cassava tuberous roots, which limits the possibilities for production and distribution of cassava in the world. Postharvest deterioration is an inherent problem for cassava since wounding and mechanical damage of the t

  2. Controllable deterioration rate for time-dependent demand and time-varying holding cost

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mishra Vinod Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we develop an inventory model for non-instantaneous deteriorating items under the consideration of the facts: deterioration rate can be controlled by using the preservation technology (PT during deteriorating period, and holding cost and demand rate both are linear function of time, which was treated as constant in most of the deteriorating inventory models. So in this paper, we developed a deterministic inventory model for non-instantaneous deteriorating items in which both demand rate and holding cost are a linear function of time, deterioration rate is constant, backlogging rate is variable and depend on the length of the next replenishment, shortages are allowed and partially backlogged. The model is solved analytically by minimizing the total cost of the inventory system. The model can be applied to optimizing the total inventory cost of non-instantaneous deteriorating items inventory for the business enterprises, where the preservation technology is used to control the deterioration rate, and demand & holding cost both are a linear function of time.

  3. The Effects of Eight Weeks Selected Aerobic Exercises on Sleep Quality of Middle-Aged Non-Athlete Females

    OpenAIRE

    Kashefi, Zahra; Mirzaei, Bahman; Shabani, Ramin

    2014-01-01

    Background: Sleep is considered as one of the most important factors, directly influencing mental and physical health components. In the last decade, low sleep quality - i.e. poor sleep - has become one of the major problems of the individuals, especially in middle-aged women. Low quality sleep also directly influences memory, functional components, nutrition, and mood. Objectives: This study aims to detect the effect of selected aerobic exercises on sleep quality in non-athlete middle-aged w...

  4. Acute aerobic exercise and information processing: energizing motor processes during a choice reaction time task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audiffren, Michel; Tomporowski, Phillip D; Zagrodnik, James

    2008-11-01

    The immediate and short-term after effects of a bout of aerobic exercise on young adults' information processing were investigated. Seventeen participants performed an auditory two-choice reaction time (RT) task before, during, and after 40 min of ergometer cycling. In a separate session, the same sequence of testing was completed while seated on an ergometer without pedalling. Results indicate that exercise (1) improves the speed of reactions by energizing motor outputs; (2) interacts with the arousing effect of a loud auditory signal suggesting a direct link between arousal and activation; (3) gradually reduces RT and peaks between 15 and 20 min; (4) effects on RT disappear very quickly after exercise cessation; and (5) effects on motor processes cannot be explained by increases in body temperature caused by exercise. Taken together, these results support a selective influence of acute aerobic exercise on motor adjustment stage. PMID:18930445

  5. Effect of improving aerobics classes at the level of flexibility of female students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pogrebniak I. M.

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The features of the influence of a set of special exercises with gymnastic stick and elements of stretching to develop flexibility while improving aerobics classes. In pedagogical experiment involved 20 girls 17 - 18 years old, first-year student. During the final part of the session used a set of special exercises aimed at increasing the range of motion when the torso and the mobility of the shoulder joints. The dynamics of indicators of flexibility. Determined that the selected set of special exercises in the classroom improving aerobics has a positive effect on the performance increase flexibility. Significant increase in the results can be seen in test 1 tilt body forward, which is characterized by increased mobility of the joints of the spine. It was determined that the transfer of gymnastic stick behind his back indicates an increase in the mobility of the shoulder joints.

  6. Results of experimental testing of hee girl students’ motor skills at aerobic trainings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martinova N. P.

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to analyze dynamic of motor skills’ formation in girl students, who practice aerobic by experimental program. Material: in the research 40 girl students participated. Motor skills level was tested with the help of state and additional tests. Results: it was found that for training quickness it is necessary to use rope skipping in mode, corresponding to development of this quality. For training maximal strength it is purposeful to use more complex power exercises in ground part of the complex. Conclusions: implementation of rope skipping means in dance aerobic trainings increases training influence on practically all motor skills. Rope skipping permits to doze and regulate training load. The same under musical accompaniment develop sense of rhythm. In some modes such jumps facilitate training of speed power qualities and power endurance.

  7. Constant growth rate can be supported by decreasing energy flux and increasing aerobic glycolysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slavov, Nikolai; Budnik, Bogdan A; Schwab, David; Airoldi, Edoardo M; van Oudenaarden, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Fermenting glucose in the presence of enough oxygen to support respiration, known as aerobic glycolysis, is believed to maximize growth rate. We observed increasing aerobic glycolysis during exponential growth, suggesting additional physiological roles for aerobic glycolysis. We investigated such ro

  8. Deterioration of the Floor of Interior Courtyard of Sultan Hassan Mosque in Cairo, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazel, Tarek

    The college- mosque of Sultan Hassan is considered one of the finest examples of Islamic architecture not only in Egypt but also in the East. Its open interior courtyard is paved with three different types of marble slabs. These marble slabs suffer from severe deterioration. Causes of this deterioration were determined accurately through the ocular examination of the courtyard and confirmed by the laboratory tests which were carried out on samples representing the three common types of marble used in the floor namely the white, the red and the black marble. Sun light and heat are the main deterioration factors and the consequent thermal expansion is the main property which led to the detected deterioration phenomena. Types and mechanisms of deterioration affected the floor were described and explained.

  9. Differential production of slime under aerobic and anaerobic conditions.

    OpenAIRE

    Barker, L P; Simpson, W A; Christensen, G D

    1990-01-01

    A series of 37 clinical isolates of coagulase-negative staphylococci previously identified as negative for slime production by the tube test were reexamined by the tissue culture plate test under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. None of the strains produced slime under anaerobic conditions; however, five strains (13%) produced slime under aerobic conditions.

  10. Longitudinal Predictors of Aerobic Performance in Adolescent Soccer Players

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valente-dos-Santos, Joao; Coelho-e-Silva, Manuel J.; Duarte, Joao; Figueiredo, Antonio J.; Liparotti, Joao R.; Sherar, Lauren B.; Elferink-Gemser, Marije T.; Malina, Robert M.

    2012-01-01

    Background. The importance of aerobic performance in youth soccer is well established. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the contributions of chronological age (CA), skeletal age (SA), body size, and training to the longitudinal development of aerobic performance in youth male soccer play

  11. Aerobic Fitness Thresholds Associated with Fifth Grade Academic Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittberg, Richard; Cottrell, Lesley A.; Davis, Catherine L.; Northrup, Karen L.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Whereas effects of physical fitness and physical activity on cognitive function have been documented, little is known about how they are related. Purpose: This study assessed student aerobic fitness measured by FITNESSGRAM Mile times and/or Pacer circuits and whether the nature of the association between aerobic fitness and…

  12. Water Aerobics as a Form of Health Activities

    OpenAIRE

    Anna S. Batrak; Antonina V. Polyakova

    2013-01-01

    The offered literature review considers water aerobics as a form of health activities. Water aerobics is wide spread and popular, especially among women, because it is also the form of adaptive and health activities. It enlarges general physiological effect of physical exercises on the human body. Regular exercises improve physical fitness and physical development, health, mood, sleep, intensify activities and working efficiency.

  13. Aerobic Digestion. Student Manual. Biological Treatment Process Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klopping, Paul H.

    This manual contains the textual material for a single-lesson unit on aerobic sludge digestion. Topic areas addressed include: (1) theory of aerobic digestion; (2) system components; (3) performance factors; (4) indicators of stable operation; and (5) operational problems and their solutions. A list of objectives, glossary of key terms, and…

  14. Dose-dependent deterioration of swallowing function after induction chemotherapy and definitive chemoradiotherapy for laryngopharyngeal cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haderlein, M.; Semrau, S.; Ott, O.; Speer, S.; Fietkau, R. [University Hospital Erlangen, Department of Radiation Oncology, Erlangen (Germany); Bohr, C. [University Hospital Erlangen, Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Erlangen (Germany)

    2014-02-15

    To evaluate the influence of clinical, treatment- and dose-dependent factors on posttreatment swallowing function after induction chemotherapy and definitive chemoradiotherapy in a group of homogeneously treated laryngopharyngeal cancer patients. From 28 May 2008 to 15 February 2013, 45 patients with borderline inoperable laryngopharyngeal cancer that had responded well to induction chemotherapy were treated with definitive chemoradiotherapy. Median follow-up was 22 months. Swallowing function and clinical data were prospectively analyzed using the EORTC QLQ-C30 questionnaire. Swallowing structures were retrospectively delineated on the original treatment planning CT. Dose-volume histograms were calculated for swallowing structures and D{sub mean}, D{sub max} and V50-V64 values (in 2 Gy increments) were determined for each patient. Tumor volume and infiltration of the swallowing apparatus was defined by CT before induction chemotherapy. Of the 45 patients, 26 (57.8 %) fully regained swallowing function after chemoradiotherapy. A further 12 patients (26.7 %) were able to manage soft, pureed and/or liquid foods; the remaining 7 (15.6 %) were completely dependent on percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG). Posttreatment swallowing function was significantly influenced by D{sub mean} to the superior pharyngeal constrictor muscle (PCM, p = 0.041). Correlations between late dysphagia and dose-volume relationships in the superior PCM and soft palate were also observed, which were significant from V60 (p = 0.043) and V58 for the soft palate and superior PCM, respectively. Of the evaluated clinical and tumor-related factors, only alcohol abuse (p = 0.024) had an influence on posttreatment swallowing function. Almost 50 % of patients had deterioration of swallowing function after definitive chemoradiotherapy for laryngopharyngeal cancer. The dose to anatomical structures responsible for swallowing function appears to play a role. Therefore, in selected patients, target

  15. 反应器类型对好氧颗粒污泥形成与运行稳定性的影响试验分析%Analysis of Influence Caused by the Different Types of Reactor on the Formation and Stability of Aerobic Granular Sludge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王瑛; 孟爱; 张瀚月; 张磊

    2013-01-01

    In order to investigate how to form aerobic granular sludge quickly,the intermittent flow method has been used in the experiment. The process which aerobic granular sludge is steadily fostered in Pore Plate of Plastic Sequencing Batch Reactor with different aspect ratio is studied in this paper. The paper also expounds the factor of reactor type (H/D) and affect that is caused by setting up Pore Plate of Plastic in the reactor when aerobic sludge granules form fast and steadily. The experimental results show that in the reactor under the condition of adding Pore Plate of Plastic,aerobic granular sludge can be fostered when H/ D≥75:7 but can not be fostered when H/D=l :1.%为探讨如何能快速形成好氧颗粒污泥,在不同的SBR反应器内分别加设网板直径为16 cm和6 cm,孔径为8 mm,孔间距为1 mm的水平网板,并在此基础上改变反应器的高径比(H/D),分析了网板及H/D对好氧颗粒污泥快速颗粒化的影响.试验结果表明:在反应器加设网板的条件下,H/D≥75∶7时可培养出好氧颗粒污泥,而H/D=1∶1时不能形成好氧颗粒污泥.

  16. Heart rate during aerobics classes in women with different previous experience of aerobics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laukkanen, R M; Kalaja, M K; Kalaja, S P; Holmala, E B; Paavolainen, L M; Tummavuori, M; Virtanen, P; Rusko, H K

    2001-01-01

    This study measured heart rate during floor and step aerobic classes at three intensity levels. A group of 20 female occasional exercisers [mean age 33 (SD 8) years, mean body mass index 21 (SD 2) kg.m-2 volunteered to participate in six aerobic classes (three floor classes, three step classes) and in a laboratory test as members of one of two groups according to their prestudy regular participation in aerobics classes. Subjects in group A had participated four or more times a week and those of group B less than twice a week. The characteristics of the groups were as follows: group A, n = 10, mean maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) 38.7 (SD 3.6) ml.kg-1.min-1, mean maximal heart rate (HRmax) 183 (SD 8) beats.min-1; group B, n = 10, VO2max 36.1 (SD 3.6) ml.kg-1.min-1, HRmax 178 (SD 7) beats.min-1. Each class consisted of a warm-up, a 20 min period of structured aerobic exercise (cardiophase) and a cool-down. The cardiophase was planned and guided as light, (rate of perceived exertion, RPE 11-12), moderate (RPE 13-14) or heavy (RPE 15-17) by an experienced instructor. The mean heart rates during the light classes were 72 (step) and 74 (floor) %HRmax in group A and 75 (step) and 79 (floor) %HRmax in group B; during the moderate classes, 84 (step) and 80 (floor) %HRmax in group A and 82 (step) and 83 (floor) %HRmax in group B, and during the heavy classes 89 (step and floor) %HRmax in group A and 88 (step) and 92 (floor) %HRmax in group B. Differences in heart rate and %HRmax were not statistically significant between the groups. However, differences in heart rate and %HRmax between the intensities (light vs moderate, moderate vs heavy and light vs heavy) were significant within both groups (all, P < 0.01). Based on the results, we conclude that intensity management during the aerobics classes was generally successful regardless of the participants' prior participation in aerobics. However, some individuals who were older and/or had less prior participation tended to

  17. Is aerobic workload positively related to ambulatory blood pressure?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korshøj, Mette; Clays, Els; Lidegaard, Mark;

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: Cardiovascular disease is prevalent among workers with high levels of occupational physical activity. The increased risk may be due to a high relative aerobic workload, possibly leading to increased blood pressure. However, studies investigating the relation between relative aerobic...... workload and ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) are lacking. The aim was to explore the relationship between objectively measured relative aerobic workload and ABP. METHODS: A total of 116 cleaners aged 18-65 years were included after informed consent was obtained. A portable device (Spacelabs 90217...... relative aerobic workload and ABP were significant. CONCLUSIONS: Because workers may have an elevated relative aerobic workload for several hours each working day, this relationship may elucidate a mechanism behind the increased risk for cardiovascular disease among workers exposed to high levels...

  18. Aerobic rice: crop performance and water use efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Grassi

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Rice (Oryza sativa production largely depends on traditional flooded rice systems whose sustainability is threatened by a progressive decrease in water availability and a constant increase in rice demand due to strong demographic boom in world population. A newly developed water-saving rice system is aerobic rice in which rice grows in nonflooded and unsaturated soil. From 2001, at the International Rice Research Institute in the Philippines, this system has been monitored to identify potentially promising varieties of rice able to grow as an irrigated upland crop and quantify yield potential and water use efficiency. This study reports on the results of cultivating the upland rice variety Apo under different water conditions in 2004-2005 at the IRRI farm in both the dry and wet seasons. The water treatments considered were: aerobic and flooded conditions, alternated flooded and aerobic conditions and aerobic after fallow. Yield and water productivity were compared between aerobic and flooded treatment in both seasons, with the objective of analysing the differences between water treatments. In the experiment the effect of different nitrogen (N application is also considered. The results indicate that the aerobic rice yield was lower than rice production under flood treatment, confirming that observed over past years. Nevertheless, when the aerobic condition is alternated with the anaerobic condition, or a fallow period, the production under aerobic treatment provides good yields (respectively 4.2 and 4.4 ha-1. The fallow period was introduced to observe the response of rice grown under this management. Water productivity was higher in aerobic fields, especially after fallow (0.88 g kg-1. The nitrogen application induced an increase in yield and water productivity, partially compensating for the lack of water in aerobic fields.

  19. TWO ORIGINS SEED DETERIORATION Swietenia macrophylla King., UNDER DIFFERENT STORAGE METHODOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos R. Soto Hernández

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available SUMMARY Three Factors (humidity content, container and storage trat might affect seed viability of two provenances of Swietenia macrophylla King were evaluated, taking in consideration as main factor the germination percentage and relating it with the humidity content through three storage and the fatty acids at the beginning at the ending and, the measurement of the humidity content was done by the conventional method, the lipids quality was done by chromatography gas technique; the experimental design was completely made at random of factorial arrangements with tree it´s viability repetitions results show that humidity content is related with it´s viability and besides it is influenced by container type in this case it turned out to be the metal container, the best, stored freeze camara at 5C; five lipids were determined, the insatured of these ones acelerate the deterioration process of the seed´s physiological quality, which is more noticeable in the Campeche provenance.

  20. Influence of material deterioration on strength properties of hydraulic timber structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gard, W.F.; Van de Kuilen, J.W.G.; Cabrera de Diego, M.

    2014-01-01

    Hydraulic timber structures such as mooring poles, fenders, lock gates and jetties are widely-used in inner and sea harbours all over the world. In general these structures give satisfactory performance with regard to the technical requirements. Because of the harsh exposure conditions such as brack

  1. Aerobics trainer, health club settle discrimination lawsuit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-04-01

    A health club settled out-of-court, agreeing to pay an undisclosed sum of money and to train its managers on the legal obligations of people with HIV and other disabilities, following litigation brought by an aerobics instructor at the club. The instructor filed the suit after he was forced to either disclose his HIV status to the 3,000 members or be fired. He was fired after he refused to sign a letter drafted by the club's manager. Six months later the club's president gave club employees the letter which the plaintiff argued violated his right to privacy. This is the second time a health club has settled an AIDS discrimination case. Both cases focused on the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA). In settling the case, the club denied any wrongdoing and said they settled out of court to avoid the costs of litigation. PMID:11362274

  2. Aerobic exercises: their cardiovascular and other benefits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aerobic exercise can help prevent ischemic heart disease and other diseases. Physical inactivity is a major factor for developing Coronary Artery Disease (CAD) which is characterized by deposit of cholesterol, calcium and other substances in the inner lining of the arteries, that supply to cardiac muscle. It also contributes to other risk factors including obesity, hypertension, increased triglycerides, low level of HDL cholesterol and diabetes. The essential components of a systematic individualized exercise prescription include the appropriate mode, intensity, duration, frequency and progression of physical activity. There are four components of exercise program; a warm up, an endurance phase, optional recreational activity and a cool down. For sedentary individuals, exercise should start at 60% of maximum heart rare. Benefits of physical activity depend on the total amount of exercise. Vigorous leisure time activity should be promoted in order to give way to healthy living. (author)

  3. Aerobic growth at nanomolar oxygen concentrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stolper, Daniel; Revsbech, Niels Peter; Canfield, Donald Eugene

    2010-01-01

    known. These capabilities also provide a framework for reconstructing a critical period in the history of life, because low, but not negligible, atmospheric oxygen levels could have persisted before the "Great Oxidation" of the Earth's surface about 2.3 to 2.4 billion years ago. Here, we show......Molecular oxygen (O2) is the second most abundant gas in the Earth's atmosphere, but in many natural environments, its concentration is reduced to low or even undetectable levels. Although low-oxygen-adapted organisms define the ecology of low-oxygen environments, their capabilities are not fully...... that Escherichia coli K-12, chosen for its well-understood biochemistry, rapid growth rate, and low-oxygen-affinity terminal oxidase, grows at oxygen levels of ≤ 3 nM, two to three orders of magnitude lower than previously observed for aerobes. Our study expands both the environmental range and temporal history...

  4. Aerobic growth at nanomolar oxygen concentrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stolper, Daniel Aaron; Revsbech, Niels Peter; Canfield, Donald Eugene

    2010-01-01

    known. These capabilities also provide a framework for reconstructing a critical period in the history of life, because low, but not negligible, atmospheric oxygen levels could have persisted before the “Great Oxidation” of the Earth’s surface about 2.3 to 2.4 billion years ago. Here, we show......Molecular oxygen (O2) is the second most abundant gas in the Earth’s atmosphere, but in many natural environments, its concentration is reduced to low or even undetectable levels. Although low-oxygen-adapted organisms define the ecology of low-oxygen environments, their capabilities are not fully...... that Escherichia coli K-12, chosen for its well-understood biochemistry, rapid growth rate, and low-oxygen-affinity terminal oxidase, grows at oxygen levels of ≤ 3 nM, two to three orders of magnitude lower than previously observed for aerobes. Our study expands both the environmental range and temporal history...

  5. Effects of Kettlebell Training on Aerobic Capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falatic, J Asher; Plato, Peggy A; Holder, Christopher; Finch, Daryl; Han, Kyungmo; Cisar, Craig J

    2015-07-01

    This study examined the effects of a kettlebell training program on aerobic capacity. Seventeen female National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I collegiate soccer players (age: 19.7 ± 1.0 years, height: 166.1 ± 6.4 cm, weight: 64.2 ± 8.2 kg) completed a graded exercise test to determine maximal oxygen consumption (V̇O2max). Participants were assigned to a kettlebell intervention group (KB) (n = 9) or a circuit weight-training (CWT) control group (n = 8). Participants in the KB group completed a kettlebell snatch test to determine individual snatch repetitions. Both groups trained 3 days a week for 4 weeks in addition to their off-season strength and conditioning program. The KB group performed the 15:15 MVO2 protocol (20 minutes of kettlebell snatching with 15 seconds of work and rest intervals). The CWT group performed multiple free-weight and dynamic body-weight exercises as part of a continuous circuit program for 20 minutes. The 15:15 MVO2 protocol significantly increased V̇O2max in the KB group. The average increase was 2.3 ml·kg⁻¹·min⁻¹, or approximately a 6% gain. There was no significant change in V̇O2max in the CWT control group. Thus, the 4-week 15:15 MVO2 kettlebell protocol, using high-intensity kettlebell snatches, significantly improved aerobic capacity in female intercollegiate soccer players and could be used as an alternative mode to maintain or improve cardiovascular conditioning. PMID:26102260

  6. Time resolution deterioration with increasing crystal length in a TOF-PET system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gundacker, S., E-mail: stefan.gundacker@cern.ch; Knapitsch, A.; Auffray, E.; Jarron, P.; Meyer, T.; Lecoq, P.

    2014-02-11

    Highest time resolution in scintillator based detectors is becoming more and more important. In medical detector physics L(Y)SO scintillators are commonly used for time of flight positron emission tomography (TOF-PET). Coincidence time resolutions (CTRs) smaller than 100 ps FWHM are desirable in order to improve the image signal to noise ratio and thus give benefit to the patient by shorter scanning times. Also in high energy physics there is the demand to improve the timing capabilities of calorimeters down to 10 ps. To achieve these goals it is important to study the whole chain, i.e. the high energy particle interaction in the crystal, the scintillation process itself, the scintillation light transfer in the crystal, the photodetector and the electronics. Time resolution measurements for a PET like system are performed with the time-over-threshold method in a coincidence setup utilizing the ultra-fast amplifier-discriminator NINO. With 2×2×3 mm{sup 3} LSO:Ce codoped 0.4%Ca crystals coupled to commercially available SiPMs (Hamamatsu S10931-050P MPPC) we achieve a CTR of 108±5 ps FWHM at an energy of 511 keV. Under the same experimental conditions an increase in crystal length to 5 mm deteriorates the CTR to 123±7 ps FWHM, 10 mm to 143±7 ps FWHM and 20 mm to 176±7 ps FWHM. This degradation in CTR is caused by the light transfer efficiency (LTE) and light transfer time spread (LTTS) in the crystal. To quantitatively understand the measured values, we developed a Monte Carlo simulation tool in MATLAB incorporating the timing properties of the photodetector and electronics, the scintillation properties of the crystal and the light transfer within the crystal simulated by SLITRANI. In this work, we show that the predictions of the simulation are in good agreement with the experimental data. We conclude that for longer crystals the deterioration in CTR is mainly caused by the LTE, i.e. the ratio of photons reaching the photodetector to the total amount of photons

  7. Transcriptomic and metabolomic profiling of Zymomonas mobilis during aerobic and anaerobic fermentations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Shihui [ORNL; Tschaplinski, Timothy J [ORNL; Engle, Nancy L [ORNL; Carroll, Sue L [ORNL; Martin, S L. [North Carolina State University; Davison, Brian H [ORNL; Palumbo, Anthony Vito [ORNL; Brown, Steven D [ORNL

    2009-01-01

    abundant under anaerobic conditions in the stationary phase based on quantitative-PCR results. We also identified differentially expressed ZM4 genes predicted by The Institute for Genomic Research (TIGR) that were not predicted in the primary annotation. High oxygen concentrations present during Z. mobilis fermentations negatively influence fermentation performance. The maximum specific growth rates were not dramatically different between aerobic and anaerobic conditions, yet oxygen did affect the physiology of the cells leading to the buildup of metabolic byproducts that ultimately led to greater differences in transcriptomic profiles in stationary phase.

  8. Transcriptomic and metabolomic profiling of Zymomonas mobilis during aerobic and anaerobic fermentations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palumbo Anthony V

    2009-01-01

    production, were at least 30-fold more abundant under anaerobic conditions in the stationary phase based on quantitative-PCR results. We also identified differentially expressed ZM4 genes predicted by The Institute for Genomic Research (TIGR that were not predicted in the primary annotation. Conclusion High oxygen concentrations present during Z. mobilis fermentations negatively influence fermentation performance. The maximum specific growth rates were not dramatically different between aerobic and anaerobic conditions, yet oxygen did affect the physiology of the cells leading to the buildup of metabolic byproducts that ultimately led to greater differences in transcriptomic profiles in stationary phase.

  9. Quantification of the Value of Structural Health Monitoring Information for Fatigue Deteriorating Structural Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thöns, Sebastian; Schneider, Ronald; Faber, Michael Havbro

    2015-01-01

    This paper addresses the quantification of the value of structural health monitoring (SHM) before its implementation for structural systems on the basis of its Value of Information (VoI). The value of SHM is calculated utilizing the Bayesian pre-posterior decision analysis modelling the structural...... and is quantified with this framework. The approach is focused on fatigue deteriorating structural steel systems for which a continuous resistance deterioration formulation is introduced. In a case study, the value of SHM for load monitoring is calculated for a Daniels system subjected to fatigue deterioration...

  10. A Realistic Digital Deteriorating Patient to Foster Emergency Decision-Making Skills in Medical Students

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blanchard, Emmanuel G.; Wiseman, Jeffrey; Naismith, Laura;

    2012-01-01

    The Deteriorating Patient Activity (DPA) is a real-life educational simulation that prepares medical students to effectively approach emergency situations through a role play where their instructor plays the role of a patient whose state is rapidly deteriorating. Although proven engaging...... and effective in improving student decision making, DPA is difficult to carry out since it requires students and medical instructors, all busy people, to be available at the same time and location. The present paper describes the “Digital” Deteriorating Patient Activity (DDPA), an agent-based tutoring system...

  11. Sorption and degradation of bisphenol A by aerobic activated sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laboratory-scale batch experiments were conducted to investigate the sorption and degradation of bisphenol A (BPA) at μg/L range in an aerobic activated sludge system. The sorption isotherms and thermodynamics indicated that the sorption of BPA on sludge was mainly a physical process in which partitioning played a dominating role. The values of sorption coefficient Koc were between 621 and 736 L/kg in the temperature range of 10-30 deg. C. Both mixed liquor suspended solid (MLSS) and temperature influenced BPA sorption on sludge. The degradation of BPA by acclimated activated sludge could be described by first-order reaction equation with the first-order degradation rate constant of 0.80 h-1 at 20 deg. C. The decrease of initial COD concentration and the increase of MLSS concentration and temperature enhanced BPA degradation rate. The removal of BPA in the activated sludge system was characterized by a quick sorption on the activated sludge and subsequent biodegradation

  12. Cerebrovascular reactivity is associated with maximal aerobic capacity in healthy older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Jill N; Taylor, Jennifer L; Kluck, Breann N; Johnson, Christopher P; Joyner, Michael J

    2013-05-15

    Recently, several high-impact reviews suggest that regular aerobic exercise is beneficial for maintaining cognitive function in aging adults. Higher cerebral blood flow and/or cerebrovascular reactivity may explain the favorable effect of exercise on cognition. In addition, prostaglandin-mediated vasodilator responses may be influenced by regular exercise. Therefore, our purpose was to evaluate middle cerebral artery (MCA) vasodilator responses in healthy adults before and after cyclooxygenase inhibition. A total of 16 young (26 ± 6 yr; 8 males, 8 females) and 13 older (64 ± 6 yr; 7 males, 6 females) healthy adults participated in the study. Aerobic fitness was determined by maximal aerobic capacity (Vo2max) on a cycle ergometer. MCA velocity (MCAv) was measured at baseline and during stepped hypercapnia (2%, 4%, and 6% FiCO2) before and after cyclooxygenase inhibition using indomethacin. To account for differences in blood pressure, cerebrovascular conductance index (CVCi) was calculated as MCAv/mean arterial pressure. Cerebrovascular reactivity slopes were calculated from the correlation between either MCAv or CVCi and end-tidal CO2. Young adults demonstrated greater MCAv reactivity (1.61 ± 0.17 vs. 1.06 ± 0.15 cm·s(-1)·mmHg(-1); P exercise and improved cognitive function in aging adults. PMID:23471946

  13. Mathematical modelling of the effects of aerobic and anaerobic chelate biodegradation on actinide speciation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biodegradation of natural and anthropogenic chelating agents directly and indirectly affects the speciation, and hence, the mobility of actinides in subsurface environments. We combined mathematical modelling with laboratory experimentation to investigate the effects of aerobic and anaerobic chelate biodegradation on actinide [Np(IV/V), Pu(IV)] speciation. Under aerobic conditions, nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA) biodegradation rates were strongly influenced by the actinide concentration. Actinide-chelate complexation reduced the relative abundance of available growth substrate in solution and actinide species present or released during chelate degradation were toxic to the organisms. Aerobic bioutilization of the chelates as electron-donor substrates directly affected actinide speciation by releasing the radionuclides from complexed form into solution, where their fate was controlled by inorganic ligands in the system. Actinide speciation was also indirectly affected by pH changes caused by organic biodegradation. The two concurrent processes of organic biodegradation and actinide aqueous chemistry were accurately linked and described using CCBATCH, a computer model developed at Northwestern University to investigate the dynamics of coupled biological and chemical reactions in mixed waste subsurface environments. CCBATCH was then used to simulate the fate of Np during anaerobic citrate biodegradation. The modelling studies suggested that, under some conditions, chelate degradation can increase Np(IV) solubility due to carbonate complexation in closed aqueous systems. (orig.)

  14. [Long-Term Inhibition of FNA on Aerobic Phosphate Uptake and Variation of Phosphorus Uptake Properties of the Sludge].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Juan; Li, Lu; Yu, Xiao-jun; Sun, Lei-jun; Sun, Hong-wei; Chen, Yong-zhi

    2015-10-01

    An alternating anaerobic/oxic ( An/O) sequencing batch reactor (SBR) was employed to investigate the long-term inhibitory effect of free nitrous acid (FNA) on aerobic phosphorus uptake performance and variation of phosphorus uptake properties of the sludge by adding nitrite. The reactor was started up under the condition of 21-23 degrees C. The results showed that FNA had no impact on phosphate release and uptake capacities of the sludge. However, the specific phosphate release/uptake rates was found to be higher. As FNA concentration (measure by HNO2-N) was lower than 0.53 x 10(-3) mg x L(-1), phosphorus removal efficiency of the system was higher than 96.9%. When the FNA concentration was increased to 0.99 x 10(-3) mg x L(-1), 1.46 x 10(-3) mg x L(-1) and 1.94 x 10(-3) mg x L(-1), the phosphorus removal performance deteriorated rapidly. The phosphorus removal efficiency was recovered to 64.42%, 67.33% and 44.14% after 50, 12 and 30 days, respectively, which implied the deterioration of phosphorus removal performance caused by FNA inhibition could be recovered and long-term acclimation could shorten the recovery process. Notably, increasing nitrite consumption appeared during aerobic phase with the concentration of FNA below 1.46 x 10(-3) mg x L(-1). It was also observed that the phosphorus uptake properties of the sludge varied after long-term inhibition. Nitrate and nitrite type anoxic phosphorus uptake capacity was increased by 3.35 and 3.86 times, respectively, suggesting long-term dosing FNA may facilitate the denitrifying of polyphosphate in organisms utilizing nitrite as electron acceptor. Moreover, long-term acclimation favored sludge settling. PMID:26841613

  15. A probability evaluation method of early deterioration condition for the critical components of wind turbine generator systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yaogang; Li, Hui; Liao, Xinglin; Song, Erbing; Liu, Haitao; Chen, Z.

    2016-08-01

    This study determines the early deterioration condition of critical components for a wind turbine generator system (WTGS). Due to the uncertainty nature of the fluctuation and intermittence of wind, early deterioration condition evaluation poses a challenge to the traditional vibration-based condition monitoring methods. Considering the its thermal inertia and strong anti-interference capacity, temperature characteristic parameters as a deterioration indication cannot be adequately disturbed by the uncontrollable noise and uncertainty nature of wind. This paper provides a probability evaluation method of early deterioration condition for critical components based only on temperature characteristic parameters. First, the dynamic threshold of deterioration degree function was proposed by analyzing the operational data between temperature and rotor speed. Second, a probability evaluation method of early deterioration condition was presented. Finally, two cases showed the validity of the proposed probability evaluation method in detecting early deterioration condition and in tracking their further deterioration for the critical components.

  16. Environmental control on aerobic methane oxidation in coastal waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinle, Lea; Maltby, Johanna; Engbersen, Nadine; Zopfi, Jakob; Bange, Hermann; Elvert, Marcus; Hinrichs, Kai-Uwe; Kock, Annette; Lehmann, Moritz; Treude, Tina; Niemann, Helge

    2016-04-01

    Large quantities of methane are produced in anoxic sediments of continental margins and may be liberated to the overlying water column, where some of it is consumed by aerobic methane oxidizing bacteria (MOB). Aerobic methane oxidation (MOx) in the water column is consequently the final sink for methane before its release to the atmosphere, where it acts as a potent greenhouse gas. In the context of the ocean's contribution to atmospheric methane, coastal seas are particularly important accounting >75% of global methane emission from marine systems. Coastal oceans are highly dynamic, in particular with regard to the variability of methane and oxygen concentrations as well as temperature and salinity, all of which are potential key environmental factors controlling MOx. To determine important environmental controls on the activity of MOBs in coastal seas, we conducted a two-year time-series study with measurements of physicochemical water column parameters, MOx activity and the composition of the MOB community in a coastal inlet in the Baltic Sea (Boknis Eck Time Series Station, Eckernförde Bay - E-Bay). In addition, we investigated the influence of temperature and oxygen on MOx during controlled laboratory experiments. In E-Bay, hypoxia developed in bottom waters towards the end of the stratification period. Constant methane liberation from sediments resulted in bottom water methane accumulations and supersaturation (with respect to the atmospheric equilibrium) in surface waters. Here, we will discuss the factors impacting MOx the most, which were (i) perturbations of the water column (ii) temperature and (iii) oxygen concentration. (i) Perturbations of the water column caused by storm events or seasonal mixing led to a decrease in MOx, probably caused by replacement of stagnant water with a high standing stock of MOB by 'new' waters with a lower abundance of methanotrophs. b) An increase in temperature generally led to higher MOx rates. c) Even though methane was

  17. Aerobic granules formation and nutrients removal characteristics in sequencing batch airlift reactor (SBAR) at low temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To understand the effect of low temperature on the formation of aerobic granules and their nutrient removal characteristics, an aerobic granular sequencing batch airlift reactor (SBAR) has been operated at 10 deg. C using a mixed carbon source of glucose and sodium acetate. The results showed that aerobic granules were obtained and that the reactor performed in stable manner under the applied conditions. The granules had a compact structure and a clear out-surface. The average parameters of the granules were: diameter 3.4 mm, wet density 1.036 g mL-1, sludge volume index 37 mL g-1, and settling velocity 18.6-65.1 cm min-1. Nitrite accumulation was observed, with a nitrite accumulation rate (NO2--N/NOx--N) between 35% and 43% at the beginning of the start-up stage. During the stable stage, NOx was present at a level below the detection limit. However, when the influent COD concentration was halved (resulting in COD/N a reduction of the COD/N from 20:1 to 10:1) nitrite accumulation was observed once more with an effluent nitrite accumulation rate of 94.8%. Phosphorus release was observed in the static feeding phase and also during the initial 20-30 min of the aerobic phase. Neither the low temperature nor adjustment of the COD/P ratio from 100:1 to 25:1 had any influence on the phosphorus removal efficiency under the operating conditions. In the granular reactor with the influent load rates for COD, NH4+-N, and PO43--P of 1.2-2.4, 0.112 and 0.012-0.024 kg m-3 d-1, the respective removal efficiencies at low temperature were 90.6-95.4%, 72.8-82.1% and 95.8-97.9%.

  18. Individual variation and repeatability in aerobic and anaerobic swimming performance of European sea bass, Dicentrarchus labrax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marras, S; Claireaux, G; McKenzie, D J; Nelson, J A

    2010-01-01

    Studies of inter-individual variation in fish swimming performance may provide insight into how selection has influenced diversity in phenotypic traits. We investigated individual variation and short-term repeatability of individual swimming performance by wild European sea bass in a constant acceleration test (CAT). Fish were challenged with four consecutive CATs with 5 min rest between trials. We measured maximum anaerobic speed at exhaustion (U(CAT)), gait transition speed from steady aerobic to unsteady anaerobic swimming (U(gt)), routine metabolic rate (RMR), post-CAT maximum metabolic rate (MMR), aerobic scope and recovery time from the CATs. Fish achieved significantly higher speeds during the first CAT (U(CAT)=170 cm s(-1)), and had much more inter-individual variation in performance (coefficient of variation, CV=18.43%) than in the subsequent three tests (U(CAT)=134 cm s(-1); CV=7.3%), which were very repeatable among individuals. The individual variation in U(CAT) in the first trial could be accounted for almost exclusively by variation in anaerobic burst-and-coast performance beyond U(gt). The U(gt) itself varied substantially between individuals (CV=11.4%), but was significantly repeatable across all four trials. Individual RMR and MMR varied considerably, but the rank order of post-CAT MMR was highly repeatable. Recovery rate from the four CATs was highly variable and correlated positively with the first U(CAT) (longer recovery for higher speeds) but negatively with RMR and aerobic scope (shorter recovery for higher RMR and aerobic scope). This large variation in individual performance coupled with the strong correlations between some of the studied variables may reflect divergent selection favouring alternative strategies for foraging and avoiding predation.

  19. Short term aerobic exercise alters the reinforcing value of food in inactive adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panek, Leah M; Jones, Kelly R; Temple, Jennifer L

    2014-10-01

    Motivation to eat, or the reinforcing value of food, may be influenced by a number of factors, including physical activity. The purpose of these studies was to test the hypothesis that short-term moderate-vigorous intensity aerobic exercise would alter the reinforcing value of high (HED) and low (LED) energy density foods in inactive adults. The reinforcing value of LED and HED food was measured at baseline and again after two weeks of aerobic exercise. In Experiment 1, 41 participants were randomized to a no exercise condition or aerobic exercise for 3 days per week for two weeks. In Experiment 2, 76 participants were randomized to one of four aerobic exercise frequencies, 0, 1, 3, or 5 days per week for two weeks. In both experiments, exercise reduced the reinforcing value of HED food compared to baseline and to non-exercise controls. In Experiment 2, the 5 day group also showed a significant increase in the reinforcing value of LED food compared to baseline and other exercise frequencies. Liking of HED and LED foods and consumption of HED food were not affected by exercise treatment. Finally, in Experiment 2, the 5 day group reported consuming more energy outside of the laboratory than the other groups. Taken together, these data suggest, in inactive individuals, motivation to obtain HED and LED foods can be altered with a short-term moderate-vigorous intensity exercise intervention. Further research is needed to understand the cognitive and physiological processes involved in food choices paired with exercise.

  20. Influence of Aerobics Exercise on Physical and Mental Health for the Elderly ---Taking Elderly in Zhengzhou City as an Example%浅析健身操对老年人身心健康的影响--以郑州市老年人为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王慧

    2014-01-01

    本文通过文献资料法、问卷调查法、数理统计法和逻辑分析法对郑州市老年人练习健身操的现状进行了调查。结果表明,健身操可以有效缓解老年人的身体症状,可以降低体内脂肪、提高身体各种机能水平,并且对肺活量和心脏等具有重要的作用。另外,对身体的各种常见病症还具有缓解作用,对老年人腿脚疼痛有良好的治疗效果。因此,政府相关部门应该积极引导老年人参加健身操运动,大力开展社区文化,让各种文体活动走进社区,更好的发挥健身操对老年人身心健康的促进作用,促使全民健身计划的进一步落实。%Through using the method of literature review, questionnaire survey, mathematical statistics and logic analysis, this paper makes investigation on the present conditions of the old people practicing aerobics exercise in Zhengzhou city.The results show that the aerobics exercise can effectively alleviate the physical symptoms of the elderly, reduce body fat and improve body function of various levels, and plays an important role in lung capacity and heart, etc.In addition, all kinds of common diseases of the body is relieved, leg pain has a good therapeutic effect for the elderly.Accordingly, relevant government departments should actively guide the elderly to participate in aerobics exercise, to develop community culture, make sports activities into the community, better play to the aerobics exercise physical and mental health to the elderly, to further implement the national fitness program.

  1. Early warning scores: a sign of deterioration in patients and systems

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Fox, A

    2015-02-01

    The early warning score is a decision-making tool that has a simple design, yet its implementation in healthcare organisations is proving complex. This article reports the results of a survey that evaluated the nurses’ experiences of using the NEWS (National Early Warning Score) in an acute hospital in Ireland. Staff reported that the NEWS was easy to use, did not increase workload and enhanced their ability to identify deteriorating patients. However, they also identified problems related to doctors’ delayed response times, doctors lack of training in the use of the tool, and a failure by doctors to modify parameters for patients with chronic conditions. NEWS enhances nurses’ role in early detection of patient deterioration but delays in response times by doctors, exposes systematic flaws in healthcare. This suggests that it is not only an indicator of patient deterioration but also of deteriorating healthcare systems.

  2. Toward better understanding of postharvest deterioration: biochemical changes in stored cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uarrota, Virgílio Gavicho; Nunes, Eduardo da Costa; Peruch, Luiz Augusto Martins; Neubert, Enilto de Oliveira; Coelho, Bianca; Moresco, Rodolfo; Domínguez, Moralba Garcia; Sánchez, Teresa; Meléndez, Jorge Luis Luna; Dufour, Dominique; Ceballos, Hernan; Becerra Lopez-Lavalle, Luis Augusto; Hershey, Clair; Rocha, Miguel; Maraschin, Marcelo

    2016-05-01

    Food losses can occur during production, postharvest, and processing stages in the supply chain. With the onset of worldwide food shortages, interest in reducing postharvest losses in cassava has been increasing. In this research, the main goal was to evaluate biochemical changes and identify the metabolites involved in the deterioration of cassava roots. We found that high levels of ascorbic acid (AsA), polyphenol oxidase (PPO), dry matter, and proteins are correlated with overall lower rates of deterioration. On the other hand, soluble sugars such as glucose and fructose, as well as organic acids, mainly, succinic acid, seem to be upregulated during storage and may play a role in the deterioration of cassava roots. Cultivar Branco (BRA) was most resilient to postharvest physiological deterioration (PPD), while Oriental (ORI) was the most susceptible. Our findings suggest that PPO, AsA, and proteins may play a distinct role in PPD delay. PMID:27247771

  3. Online maintenance policy for a deteriorating system with random change of mode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saassouh, B. [Laboratoire de Modelisation et Surete des Systemes, Institut Charles Delaunay-FRE CNRS 2848, Universite de Technologie de Troyes, 12, rue Marie Curie-BP 2060, 10010 Troyes Cedex (France); Dieulle, L. [Laboratoire de Modelisation et Surete des Systemes, Institut Charles Delaunay-FRE CNRS 2848, Universite de Technologie de Troyes, 12, rue Marie Curie-BP 2060, 10010 Troyes Cedex (France); Grall, A. [Laboratoire de Modelisation et Surete des Systemes, Institut Charles Delaunay-FRE CNRS 2848, Universite de Technologie de Troyes, 12, rue Marie Curie-BP 2060, 10010 Troyes Cedex (France)]. E-mail: antoine.grall@utt.fr

    2007-12-15

    Most of maintenance policies proposed in the literature for gradually deteriorating systems, consider a stationary deterioration process. This paper is an attempt to take into account stochastically deteriorating systems which are subject to a sudden change in their degradation process. A technical device subject to gradual degradation is considered. It is assumed that the level of degradation can be resumed by a single scalar variable. An online maintenance decision rule is proposed, which makes it possible to take into account in real time the online information available on the operating mode of the system as well as its actual deterioration level. We show the efficiency of considering online decision rules for maintenance with respect to traditional maintenance policies based on a static alarm threshold. Numerical simulations are given, to assess and optimize the performance of the maintained system from its asymptotic unavailability point of view. It is compared to the results obtained with classical control-limit maintenance policies.

  4. Single-machine group scheduling problems with deteriorating and learning effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xingong, Zhang; Yong, Wang; Shikun, Bai

    2016-07-01

    The concepts of deteriorating jobs and learning effects have been individually studied in many scheduling problems. However, most studies considering the deteriorating and learning effects ignore the fact that production efficiency can be increased by grouping various parts and products with similar designs and/or production processes. This phenomenon is known as 'group technology' in the literature. In this paper, a new group scheduling model with deteriorating and learning effects is proposed, where learning effect depends not only on job position, but also on the position of the corresponding job group; deteriorating effect depends on its starting time of the job. This paper shows that the makespan and the total completion time problems remain polynomial optimal solvable under the proposed model. In addition, a polynomial optimal solution is also presented to minimise the maximum lateness problem under certain agreeable restriction.

  5. Deterioration of concrete structures in coastal environment due to carbonation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaji, K V G D; Gopalaraju, S S S V; Trilochan, Jena

    2010-07-01

    Failure of existing concrete structures takes place due to lack of durability, and not due to less structural strength. One of the important aspects of durability is carbonation depth. The rate of carbonation in concrete is influenced by both its physical properties and exposure conditions. Rebar corrodes when carbonation reaches to a depth of concrete cover provided. In the present work, various concrete structures with different life periods and exposed to different weather conditions have been considered to study the carbonation effect. It is observed that the effect of carbonation is more in the structures located near to the sea coast and on windward face of the structure. PMID:21391402

  6. Non-invasive attractor reconstruction analysis for early detection of deteriorations

    OpenAIRE

    Charlton, Peter Harcourt; Camporota, Luigi; Smith, John; Nandi, Manasi; Christie, Mark Ian; Aston, Philip; Beale, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Acutely-ill hospital patients are at risk of clinical deteriorations. Attractor reconstruction (AR) analysis of the arterial blood pressure (ABP) signal has recently been proposed as a method for measuring the changes in cardiovascular state which accompany deteriorations. Since ABP signals are only available in a minority of clinical scenarios, we sought to determine whether AR could also be performed on more widely available pulse oximetry (photoplethysmogram, PPG) signals. AR analysis was ...

  7. Multi-Physics and Multi-Scale Deterioration Modelling of Reinforced Concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michel, Alexander; Stang, Henrik; Lepech, M.;

    2016-01-01

    Deterioration of reinforced concrete infrastructure such as bridges, tunnels, and buildings represents one of the major challenges currently facing developed countries. While engineering tools and methods for structural modelling and design of new reinforced concrete infrastructure are mature...... approach includes physical, chemical, electrochemical, and fracture mechanical processes at the material and meso-scale, which are further coupled with mechanical deterioration processes at the structural scale....

  8. Transcriptional profiling of trait deterioration in the insect pathogenic nematode Heterorhabditis bacteriophora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shapiro-Ilan David I

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The success of a biological control agent depends on key traits, particularly reproductive potential, environmental tolerance, and ability to be cultured. These traits can deteriorate rapidly when the biological control agent is reared in culture. Trait deterioration under laboratory conditions has been widely documented in the entomopathogenic nematode (EPN Heterorhabditis bacteriophora (Hb but the specific mechanisms behind these genetic processes remain unclear. This research investigates the molecular mechanisms of trait deterioration of two experimental lines of Hb, an inbred line (L5M and its original parental line (OHB. We generated transcriptional profiles of two experimental lines of Hb, identified the differentially expressed genes (DEGs and validated their differential expression in the deteriorated line. Results An expression profiling study was performed between experimental lines L5M and OHB of Hb with probes for 15,220 ESTs from the Hb transcriptome. Microarray analysis showed 1,185 DEGs comprising of 469 down- and 716 up-regulated genes in trait deteriorated nematodes. Analysis of the DEGs showed that trait deterioration involves massive changes of the transcripts encoding enzymes involved in metabolism, signal transduction, virulence and longevity. We observed a pattern of reduced expression of enzymes related to primary metabolic processes and induced secondary metabolism. Expression of sixteen DEGs in trait deteriorated nematodes was validated by quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR which revealed similar expression kinetics for all the genes tested as shown by microarray. Conclusion As the most closely related major entomopathogen to C. elegans, Hb provides an attractive near-term application for using a model organism to better understand interspecies interactions and to enhance our understanding of the mechanisms underlying trait deterioration in biological control agents. This information

  9. A review of patients who suddenly deteriorate in the presence of paramedics

    OpenAIRE

    Archer Frank; Smith Erin C; Boyle Malcolm J

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background The report of the Ministerial Review of Trauma and Emergency Services in Victoria, Australia, recommended that paramedics be permitted to divert to the closest hospital in incidences of life threatening situations prior to and during transport. An audit of patients that suddenly deteriorated in paramedic care was recommended by the Ministerial Review. The objective of the study was to identify the number and outcome of patients who suddenly deteriorated in the presence of ...

  10. Engineering aspects and time effects of rapid deterioration of sandstone in the tropical environment of Sabah, Malaysia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tating, Frederick; Hack, Robert; Jetten, Victor

    2013-01-01

    Cut slopes in rock masses start to deteriorate directly after excavation due to stress relief and weathering. The deterioration is a time dependent process that depends on the local climate and the rock mass including its history, and the environment. The amount of deterioration per time unit (‘the

  11. The Influence of Redundant Structural System Characteristics on the Value of SHM Information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thöns, Sebastian

    2015-01-01

    This paper addresses the influence of deteriorating structural system characteristics on the value of structural health monitoring (SHM) before its implementation. The value of SHM is quantified as the difference between the life cycle benefits with and without SHM for a structural system subjected...... to fatigue deterioration. The results indicate that the value of SHM is strongly influenced by the component reliability, comparably moderately by the resistance correlation and conditional moderately by the deterioration correlation between the structural components....

  12. DIFFERENTIAL PATTERNS OF PREMORBID SOCIAL AND ACADEMIC DETERIORATION IN DEFICIT AND NONDEFICIT SCHIZOPHRENIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, Gregory P.; Allen, Daniel N.; Miski, Pinar; Buchanan, Robert W.; Kirkpatrick, Brian; Carpenter, William T.

    2011-01-01

    Numerous studies indicate that social dysfunction is associated with negative symptoms of schizophrenia during the chronic phase of illness. However, it is unclear whether social abnormalities exist during the premorbid phase in people who later develop schizophrenia with prominent negative symptoms, or whether social functioning becomes progressively worse in these individuals from childhood to late adolescence. The current study examined differences in academic and social premorbid functioning in people with schizophrenia meeting criteria for deficit (i.e., primary and enduring negative symptoms) (DS: n=74) and non-deficit forms of schizophrenia (ND: n=271). Premorbid social and academic functioning was assessed for childhood, early adolescence, and late adolescence developmental periods on the Premorbid Adjustment Scale (PAS). Results indicated that both DS and ND participants showed deterioration in social and academic functioning from childhood to late adolescence. However, while ND schizophrenia demonstrated greater deterioration of academic compared to social premorbid functioning from childhood to late adolescence, the DS group exhibited comparable deterioration across both premorbid domains, with more severe social deterioration than the ND group. Findings suggest that people with DS show poorer social premorbid adjustment than those with ND as early as childhood, and are particularly susceptible to accelerated deterioration as the onset of schizophrenia becomes imminent. Thus, poor premorbid social adjustment and significant social deterioration from childhood to adolescence may be a hallmark feature of people who later go on to develop prominent negative symptoms and a unique marker for the DS subtype of schizophrenia. PMID:22130110

  13. An EOQ Model for Time Dependent Weibull Deterioration with Linear Demand and Shortages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umakanta Mishra

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background. The study of control and maintenance of production inventories of deteriorating items with and without shortages  has grown in its importance recently. The effect of deterioration is very important in many inventory systems. Deterioration is defined as decay or damage such that the item cannot be used for its original purpose. Methods: In this article order level inventory models have been developed for deteriorating items with linear demand and Weibull deterioration.  In developing the model we have assumed that the production rate and the demand rate are time dependent. The unit production cost is inversely proportional to demand. Inventory-production system has two parameters Weibull deterioration.  Results and conclusions:  Two models have been developed considering without shortage cases and with shortage case where the shortages are completely backlogged. The objective of the model is to develop an optimal policy that minimizes the total average cost. Sensitivity analysis has been carried out to show the effect of changes in the parameter on the optimum total average cost.  

  14. A simulation study of turbofan engine deterioration estimation using Kalman filtering techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Heather H.

    1991-01-01

    Deterioration of engine components may cause off-normal engine operation. The result is an unecessary loss of performance, because the fixed schedules are designed to accommodate a wide range of engine health. These fixed control schedules may not be optimal for a deteriorated engine. This problem may be solved by including a measure of deterioration in determining the control variables. These engine deterioration parameters usually cannot be measured directly but can be estimated. A Kalman filter design is presented for estimating two performance parameters that account for engine deterioration: high and low pressure turbine delta efficiencies. The delta efficiency parameters model variations of the high and low pressure turbine efficiencies from nominal values. The filter has a design condition of Mach 0.90, 30,000 ft altitude, and 47 deg power level angle (PLA). It was evaluated using a nonlinear simulation of the F100 engine model derivative (EMD) engine, at the design Mach number and altitude over a PLA range of 43 to 55 deg. It was found that known high pressure turbine delta efficiencies of -2.5 percent and low pressure turbine delta efficiencies of -1.0 percent can be estimated with an accuracy of + or - 0.25 percent efficiency with a Kalman filter. If both the high and low pressure turbine are deteriorated, the delta efficiencies of -2.5 percent to both turbines can be estimated with the same accuracy.

  15. Field Performance of Differentially Deteriorated Seed Lots of Maize (Zea mays under Different Irrigation Treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazem GHASSEMI-GOLEZANI

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available A sub-sample of maize (cv. KSC301 seeds was kept as control or vigorous seed lot and two other sub-samples with about 16% moisture content were artificially deteriorated at 40C for 16 and 18 days. The three seed lots had seed viabilities of 99% (V1, 91% (V2 and 79% (V3. Laboratory tests were carried out as CR design with four replicates. However, the field experiment was conducted as factorial based on RCB design with three replicates to investigate the performance of differentially deteriorated seed lots under four irrigation treatments (irrigation after 70, 90, 110 and 130 mm evaporation from class A pan. Germination and emergence times significantly increased with increasing seed deterioration, but mean viability percentage, seedling dry weight, seedling emergence and protein and grain yields decreased as seed deterioration increased. Even plants from less deteriorated seed lot (V2 with acceptable germination (91% showed 25.1% reduction in grain yield per unit area. The superiority of V1 to V2 seeds of maize increased as water limitation increased. Protein yield was also decreased as a result of seed deterioration. Seedling dry weight highly correlated with the field emergence and grain and protein yields. Thus, it is necessary to produce and cultivate high vigor seeds of maize, in order to ensure satisfactory yield achievement, particularly under adverse environmental conditions.

  16. Enhanced aerobic nitrifying granulation by static magnetic field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin-Hua; Diao, Mu-He; Yang, Ying; Shi, Yi-Jing; Gao, Ming-Ming; Wang, Shu-Guang

    2012-04-01

    One of the main challenging issues for aerobic nitrifying granules in treating high strength ammonia wastewater is the long granulation time required for activated sludge to transform into aerobic granules. The present study provides a novel strategy for enhancing aerobic nitrifying granulation by applying an intensity of 48.0mT static magnetic field. The element analysis showed that the applied magnetic field could promote the accumulation of iron compounds in the sludge. And then the aggregation of iron decreased the full granulation time from 41 to 25days by enhancing the setting properties of granules and stimulating the secretion of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS). Long-term, cycle experiments and fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH) analysis proved that an intensity of 48.0mT magnetic field could enhance the activities and growth of nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB). These findings suggest that magnetic field is helpful and reliable for accelerating the aerobic nitrifying granulation.

  17. THE RELATIONSHIP OF CHOREOGRAPHY PREPARATION AND ARTISTRY IN AEROBIC GYMNASTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Sokolova

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Examines the impact choreography training in sports aerobics on artistic skills.Objective to investigate whether the use of funds choreo-graphy in training athletes involved in sports aerobics, to find the relationship between choreographic training and asses-sment for artistry.Method or methodology of work methods of studying the theoretical ski works of scientific content, analysis and processing of scientific texts.The results revealed the relationship between estimates for artistry and means-you dance training in sports aerobics. The scope of the results, the materials may be used by coaches in sports aerobics, for further research on the problem of constructing workout.

  18. WAYS TO IMPROVE THE PHYSICAL FITNESS THROUGH AEROBIC GYMNASTICS MEANS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaharia A.M.

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to study the probable effects that aerobic gymnastics could have on the body, for improving the physical fitness. The main goal of the research was to identify the effects the aerobic gymnastics has in improving physical fitness.This research was conducted on 15 subjects between 18 and 30 years old, who participated in aerobic gymnastics fitness-type lessons, three times a week. The programs comprised exercises of physical development , stretching and elasticity, of relaxation, of coordination, and not in the least, of muscle strengthening. In order to evaluate the effectiveness of the applied means, the Ruffier test was used to assess the physical fitness of the subjects, and the Dorgo Index, to assess the cool-down response. The research data emphasized the subjects' interest for their physical fitness through a dynamic activity, constituting an argument for the practice of aerobic gymnastics throughout one's entire life, as a mean to preserve one's youth and beauty.

  19. Aerobic training and postexercise protein in facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Grete; Prahm, Kira P; Dahlqvist, Julia R;

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of regular aerobic training and postexercise protein-carbohydrate supplementation in patients with facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD). METHODS: In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled parallel study, we randomized untrained men (n = 21...

  20. Nitrifying and denitrifying bacteria in aerobic granules formed in sequencing batch airlift reactors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Fang; YANG Fenglin; QI Aijiu

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate nitrifying bacteria and denitrifying bacteria isolated from aerobic granules.Aerobic granules were formed in an internal-circulate sequencing batch airlift reactor(SBAR)and biodegradation of NH3 -N was analyzed in the reactor.Bacteria were isolated and determined from aerobic granules using selected media.The growth properties and morphology of bacteria colonies were observed by controlling aerobic or anaerobic conditions in the culture medium.It was found that bacteria in aerobic granules were diverse and some of them were facultative aerobes.The diversity of bacteria in aerobic granules was a premise of simultaneous nitrification and denitrification.

  1. 24-weeks Pilates-aerobic and educative training to improve body fat mass in elderly Serbian women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruiz-Montero PJ

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pedro Jesús Ruiz-Montero,1 Alfonso Castillo-Rodriguez,2 Milena Mikalacki,3 Čokorilo Nebojsa,3 Darinka Korovljev31Department of Physical Education and Sport, Faculty of Physical Activity and Sport, University of Granada, Granada, Spain; 2Faculty of Sport, University of Pablo de Olavide, Seville, Spain; 3Faculty of Sport and Physical Education, University of Novi Sad, Novi Sad, SerbiaBackground: The purpose of this study was to examine the differences in anthropometric measurements using an aerobic and Pilates exercise program which lasted 24 weeks.Method: This was a clinical intervention study of 303 women over the age of 60 living in Novi Sad, Serbia. Changes in body mass index and skinfold thickness were estimated through height, weight, and anthropometric measurements. The program comprised Pilates exercises for upper- and lower-body strength, agility, and aerobic capacity.Results: Fat mass (FM improved significantly (pre-test, 32.89%, 8.65; post-test, 28.25%, 6.58; P<0.01. Bone diameters and muscle perimeters showed no significant changes pre- and post-test (P>0.05, but there was a higher correlation between FM (% and waist–hip ratio (rho, 0.80; P<0.01.Conclusion: A mixed program of aerobics and Pilates, controls and improves baseline muscle mass and decreases FM values, without causing deterioration during practice and follow-up exercises.Keywords: lean body mass, anthropometric measures, educative programA Letter to the Editor has been received and published for this article.

  2. Analysis on Influence of Aerobic Exercise on Serum Contents of Thyroid Hormone (TH)and Dopamine (DA)in Anxious Rats%有氧运动对焦虑大鼠血清甲状腺激素(TH)、多巴胺(DA)的水平影响研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩继明; 杨玲

    2013-01-01

    目的:观察焦虑大鼠和有氧运动焦虑大鼠血清甲状腺激素(TH)、多巴胺(DA)的含量的变化.方法:清洁级SD雄性大鼠60只随机分成3组,即:A组自然对照组(national control group)(n=20),B组基础对照组(Foundation control group)(n=20),C组有氧运动组(aerobic exercise group)(n=20).用昼夜颠倒的方法制焦虑大鼠模型.将B组、C组40只大鼠白天置于黑暗密闭空间,晚上用灯管照明,共持续14 d.自然对照组和基础对照组:40只大鼠每天自由饮食.有氧运动组:让焦虑模型大鼠20只每周1、3、5进行持续1h的动物跑台跑步训练,共持续6周.结果:有氧运动组大鼠与基础对照组相比,大鼠血清甲状腺激素(TH)、多巴胺(DA)的含量明显低于基础对照组(P<0.01);有氧运动组大鼠与自然对照组相比,大鼠血清甲状腺激素(TH)、多巴胺(DA)的含量低于自然对照组(P<0.05);自然对照组与基础对照组比较:大鼠血清甲状腺激素(TH)、多巴胺(DA)的含量明显低于基础对照组(P<0.01).结论:适宜的有氧运动可以缓解大鼠的焦虑程度,降低焦虑大鼠血清甲状腺激素(TH)、多巴胺(DA)的水平,是一种有效地缓解焦虑的方法,值得广泛推广.%Objective : To observe the content changes in serum of thyroid hormone ( TH ) and dopamine ( DA ) of anxious rats and aerobic exercise anxious rats. Method: 60 clean level SD male rats were randomly divided into 3 groups: group A natural control group ( n=20 ), group B foundation control group ( n=20 ), group C aerobic exercise group ( n=20 ). 40 rats in group B and C were in the darkness during the day and at night given light tube lighting, lasting for 14 days. In the nature and foundation control groups: 40 rats fed freely every day. Aerobic exercise group: rats were forced to do a training run for 1 hour on Monday, Wednesday and Friday in every week, lasting for six weeks. Results: Compared with controls, thyroid hormone ( TH ) and dopamine

  3. Aerobic and Anaerobic Starvation Metabolism in Methanotrophic Bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Roslev, P.; King, G. M.

    1995-01-01

    The capacity for anaerobic metabolism of endogenous and selected exogenous substrates in carbon- and energy-starved methanotrophic bacteria was examined. The methanotrophic isolate strain WP 12 survived extended starvation under anoxic conditions while metabolizing 10-fold less endogenous substrate than did parallel cultures starved under oxic conditions. During aerobic starvation, the cell biomass decreased by 25% and protein and lipids were the preferred endogenous substrates. Aerobic prote...

  4. p53 aerobics: the major tumor suppressor fuels your workout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruse, Jan-Philipp; Gu, Wei

    2006-07-01

    In addition to its role as the central regulator of the cellular stress response, p53 can regulate aerobic respiration via the novel transcriptional target SCO2, a critical regulator of the cytochrome c oxidase complex (Matoba et al., 2006). Loss of p53 results in decreased oxygen consumption and aerobic respiration and promotes a switch to glycolysis, thereby reducing endurance during physical exercise. PMID:16814724

  5. Dosing method of physical activity in aerobics classes for students

    OpenAIRE

    Beliak Yu. I.; Zinchenko N.M.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose : reasons for the method of dosing of physical activity in aerobics classes for students. The basis of the method is the evaluation of the metabolic cost of funds used in them. Material : experiment involved the assessment of the pulse response of students to load complexes classical and step aerobics (n = 47, age 20-23 years). In complexes used various factors regulating the intensity: perform combinations of basic steps, involvement of movements with his hands, holding in hands dumb...

  6. Water aerobics in pregnancy: cardiovascular response, labor and neonatal outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Braga Angelica F; Cecatti Jose G; Pereira Rosa I; Baciuk Erica P; Cavalcante Sergio R

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background To evaluate the association between water aerobics, maternal cardiovascular capacity during pregnancy, labor and neonatal outcomes. Methods A randomized, controlled clinical trial was carried out in which 34 pregnant women were allocated to a water aerobics group and 37 to a control group. All women were submitted to submaximal ergometric tests on a treadmill at 19, 25 and 35 weeks of pregnancy and were followed up until delivery. Oxygen consumption (VO2 max), cardiac outp...

  7. Audio Processing Solution for Video Conference Based Aerobics

    OpenAIRE

    Berggren, Magnus; Stjernberg, Louise; Lindström, Fredric; Claesson, Ingvar

    2010-01-01

    In this paper an audio processing solution for video conference based aerobics is presented. The proposed solution leaves the workout music unaltered by separating it from the speech and processing each signal separately. The speech signal processing is also performed at a lower sample rate, which saves computational power. Real time evaluation of the system shows that high quality music as well as a good two-way communication is maintained during the aerobic session.

  8. Fetal cardiotocography before and after water aerobics during pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Silveira Carla; Pereira Belmiro G; Cecatti Jose G; Cavalcante Sergio R; Pereira Rosa I

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Objective To evaluate the effect of moderate aerobic physical activity in water on fetal cardiotocography patterns in sedentary pregnant women. Method In a non-randomized controlled trial, 133 previously sedentary pregnant women participated in multiple regular sessions of water aerobics in a heated swimming pool. Cardiotocography was performed for 20 minutes before and just after the oriented exercise. Cardiotocography patterns were analyzed pre- and post-exercise according to gesta...

  9. Impact of brisk walking and aerobics in overweight women

    OpenAIRE

    Melam, Ganeswara Rao; Alhusaini, Adel A.; Buragadda, Syamala; Kaur, Taranpreet; Khan, Imran Ali

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] Lack of physical activity and an uncontrolled diet cause excessive weight gain, which leads to obesity and other metabolic disorders. Studies have indicated that brisk walking and aerobics are the best methods for controlling and reducing weight and body mass composition. [Subjects and Methods] In this study, 45 overweight women were enrolled and divided into 3 groups. Women not involved in brisk walking or aerobics were included in group A (n = 15) as control subjects; women involv...

  10. THE RELATIONSHIP OF CHOREOGRAPHY PREPARATION AND ARTISTRY IN AEROBIC GYMNASTICS

    OpenAIRE

    I. V. Sokolova

    2015-01-01

    Examines the impact choreography training in sports aerobics on artistic skills.Objective to investigate whether the use of funds choreo-graphy in training athletes involved in sports aerobics, to find the relationship between choreographic training and asses-sment for artistry.Method or methodology of work methods of studying the theoretical ski works of scientific content, analysis and processing of scientific texts.The results revealed the relationship between estimates for artistry and me...

  11. The medically important aerobic actinomycetes: epidemiology and microbiology.

    OpenAIRE

    McNeil, M. M.; Brown, J. M.

    1994-01-01

    The aerobic actinomycetes are soil-inhabiting microorganisms that occur worldwide. In 1888, Nocard first recognized the pathogenic potential of this group of microorganisms. Since then, several aerobic actinomycetes have been a major source of interest for the commercial drug industry and have proved to be extremely useful microorganisms for producing novel antimicrobial agents. They have also been well known as potential veterinary pathogens affecting many different animal species. The medic...

  12. Water Aerobics as a Form of Health Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna S. Batrak

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The offered literature review considers water aerobics as a form of health activities. Water aerobics is wide spread and popular, especially among women, because it is also the form of adaptive and health activities. It enlarges general physiological effect of physical exercises on the human body. Regular exercises improve physical fitness and physical development, health, mood, sleep, intensify activities and working efficiency.

  13. Maximal aerobic exercise following prolonged sleep deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, J; Radomski, M; Hart, L; Plyley, M; Shephard, R J

    1989-12-01

    The effect of 60 h without sleep upon maximal oxygen intake was examined in 12 young women, using a cycle ergometer protocol. The arousal of the subjects was maintained by requiring the performance of a sequence of cognitive tasks throughout the experimental period. Well-defined oxygen intake plateaus were obtained both before and after sleep deprivation, and no change of maximal oxygen intake was observed immediately following sleep deprivation. The endurance time for exhausting exercise also remained unchanged, as did such markers of aerobic performance as peak exercise ventilation, peak heart rate, peak respiratory gas exchange ratio, and peak blood lactate. However, as in an earlier study of sleep deprivation with male subjects (in which a decrease of treadmill maximal oxygen intake was observed), the formula of Dill and Costill (4) indicated the development of a substantial (11.6%) increase of estimated plasma volume percentage with corresponding decreases in hematocrit and red cell count. Possible factors sustaining maximal oxygen intake under the conditions of the present experiment include (1) maintained arousal of the subjects with no decrease in peak exercise ventilation or the related respiratory work and (2) use of a cycle ergometer rather than a treadmill test with possible concurrent differences in the impact of hematocrit levels and plasma volume expansion upon peak cardiac output and thus oxygen delivery to the working muscles. PMID:2628360

  14. Personality, metabolic rate and aerobic capacity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Terracciano

    Full Text Available Personality traits and cardiorespiratory fitness in older adults are reliable predictors of health and longevity. We examined the association between personality traits and energy expenditure at rest (basal metabolic rate and during normal and maximal sustained walking. Personality traits and oxygen (VO(2 consumption were assessed in 642 participants from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging. Results indicate that personality traits were mostly unrelated to resting metabolic rate and energy expenditure at normal walking pace. However, those who scored lower on neuroticism (r = -0.12 and higher on extraversion (r = 0.11, openness (r = 0.13, and conscientiousness (r = 0.09 had significantly higher energy expenditure at peak walking pace. In addition to greater aerobic capacity, individuals with a more resilient personality profile walked faster and were more efficient in that they required less energy per meter walked. The associations between personality and energy expenditure were not moderated by age or sex, but were in part explained by the proportion of fat mass. In conclusion, differences in personality may matter the most during more challenging activities that require cardiorespiratory fitness. These findings suggest potential pathways that link personality to health outcomes, such as obesity and longevity.

  15. Aerobic training in children with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nsenga, A L; Shephard, R J; Ahmaidi, S; Ahmadi, S

    2013-06-01

    Rehabilitation is a major goal for children with cerebral palsy, although the potential to enhance cardio-respiratory fitness in such individuals remains unclear. This study thus compared current cardio-respiratory status between children with cerebral palsy and able-bodied children, and examined the ability to enhance the cardio-respiratory fitness of children with cerebral palsy by cycle ergometer training. 10 children with cerebral palsy (Gross Motor Function Classification System levels I and II) participated in thrice-weekly 30 min cycle ergometer training sessions for 8 weeks (mean age: 14.2±1.9 yrs). 10 additional subjects with cerebral palsy (mean age: 14.2±1.8 yrs) and 10 able-bodied subjects (mean age: 14.1±2.1 yrs) served as controls, undertaking no training. All subjects undertook a progressive cycle ergometer test of cardio-respiratory fitness at the beginning and end of the 8-week period. Cardio-respiratory parameters [oxygen intake V˙O2), ventilation V ˙ E) and heart rate (HR)] during testing were measured by Cosmed K4 b gas analyzer. The children with cerebral palsy who engaged in aerobic training improved their peak oxygen consumption, heart rate and ventilation significantly (pchildren with cerebral palsy can benefit significantly from cardio-respiratory training, and such training should be included in rehabilitation programs.

  16. Energy efficient aerobic treatment of forest industry wastewaters; Energieffektiv aerob rening av skogsindustriella avloppsvatten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandberg, Maria; From-Aldaron, Mattias

    2011-01-15

    There is great potential to reduce energy requirements in aerobic biological purification if the oxygen demand can be reduced and oxygen delivery, when process water is aerated, is made more efficient. A model was developed to estimate the possible reduction in oxygen demand. Model variables were COD reduction, sludge withdrawal, oxygen, and alpha-value. Attempts made in an aerator in the lab-scale process shows that water content strongly affects oxygen transport and alpha-value. Surface active extract substances such as fatty acids and resin acids have greatest significance. The effect increases with the concentration of extract substances and decreases with added sodium chloride content

  17. Vyučovací jednotky tance a tanečního aerobiku: Jak role žáka ovlivňuje pohybovou aktivitu dívek ve vyučovacím procesu Dance and aerobic dance in physical education lessons: The influence of the student's role on physical activity in girls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gareth Stratton

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Hlavním cílem školní tělesné výchovy je podporovat celoživotní pohybovou aktivitu (PA a zvyšovat pohybovou gramotnost dětí. Edukační proces je v tělesné výchově (TV naplňován pohybově aktivním zapojením žáků, a proto by měla být převážná část jednotek TV trávena aktivní pohybovou činností s odpovídajícím tělesným zatížením. Cílem této studie je zjistit, zda tělesné zatížení v jednotkách tance a aerobiku splňuje doporučení strávit alespoň 50 % času pohybovou aktivitou střední a vysoké intenzity (USDHHS, 2000 a zda role žáka v edukačním procesu ovlivňuje pohybovou aktivitu dívek. 241 děvčat absolvovalo program tvořený tradičními a progresivními vyučovacími jednotkami tance a aerobiku. Srdeční frekvence děvčat byla v průběhu vyučovacích jednotek monitorována systémem Team Polar. Děvčata trávila více než 50 % času pohybovou aktivitou střední a vysoké intenzity v tradičních i progresivních vyučovacích jednotkách tance i aerobiku. Výsledky této studie potvrzují, že zvýšená role žáka napomáhá plnit cíle TV, jako například odpovědnost za vlastní rozhodování a tvořivost, aniž by docházelo ke snižování pohybové aktivity ve vyučovacích jednotkách. The primary aim of physical education (PE is to promote lifelong physical activity (PA and to promote physical literacy in children. During classes children should learn through participation in physical activities and thus physical education lessons should be as active as possible. The aims of this study were firstly to compare physical load in dance and aerobic dance lessons to the recommendation of the minimum of 50% of class time being physically active (USDHHS, 2000 and secondly to identify how the students’ role in the educational process affects their engagement in PA. Two hundred and forty one girls completed the full program of dance and aerobic dance lessons. Heart rate

  18. Continuous Aerobic Training in Individualized Intensity Avoids Spontaneous Physical Activity Decline and Improves MCT1 Expression in Oxidative Muscle of Swimming Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Paulo Menezes Scariot

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Although aerobic training has been shown to affect the lactate transport of skeletal muscle, there is no information concerning the effect of continuous aerobic training on spontaneous physical activity (SPA. Because every movement in daily life (i.e. SPA is generated by skeletal muscle, we think that it is possible that an improvement of SPA could affect the physiological properties of muscle with regard to lactate transport. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of 12 weeks of continuous aerobic training in individualized intensity on SPA of rats and their gene expressions of monocarboxylate transporters (MCT 1 and 4 in soleus (oxidative and white gastrocnemius (glycolytic muscles. We also analyzed the effect of continuous aerobic training on aerobic and anaerobic parameters using the lactate minimum test (LMT. 60-day-old rats were randomly divided into three groups: a baseline group in which rats were evaluated prior to initiation of the study; a control group (Co in which rats were kept without any treatment during 12 weeks; and a chronic exercise group (Tr in which rats swam for 40min/day, 5 days/week at 80% of anaerobic threshold during 12 weeks. After the experimental period, SPA of rats was measured using a gravimetric method. Rats had their expression of MCTs determined by RT-PCR analysis. In essence, aerobic training is effective in maintaining SPA, but did not prevent the decline of aerobic capacity and anaerobic performance, leading us to propose that the decline of SPA is not fully attributed to a deterioration of physical properties. Changes in SPA were concomitant with changes in MCT1 expression in the soleus muscle of trained rats, suggestive of an additional adaptive response toward increased lactate clearance. This result is in line with our observation showing a better equilibrium on lactate production-remotion during the continuous exercise (LMT. We propose an approach to combat the decline of SPA of rats in their

  19. Continuous Aerobic Training in Individualized Intensity Avoids Spontaneous Physical Activity Decline and Improves MCT1 Expression in Oxidative Muscle of Swimming Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scariot, Pedro P M; Manchado-Gobatto, Fúlvia de Barros; Torsoni, Adriana S; Dos Reis, Ivan G M; Beck, Wladimir R; Gobatto, Claudio A

    2016-01-01

    Although aerobic training has been shown to affect the lactate transport of skeletal muscle, there is no information concerning the effect of continuous aerobic training on spontaneous physical activity (SPA). Because every movement in daily life (i.e., SPA) is generated by skeletal muscle, we think that it is possible that an improvement of SPA could affect the physiological properties of muscle with regard to lactate transport. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of 12 weeks of continuous aerobic training in individualized intensity on SPA of rats and their gene expressions of monocarboxylate transporters (MCT) 1 and 4 in soleus (oxidative) and white gastrocnemius (glycolytic) muscles. We also analyzed the effect of continuous aerobic training on aerobic and anaerobic parameters using the lactate minimum test (LMT). Sixty-day-old rats were randomly divided into three groups: a baseline group in which rats were evaluated prior to initiation of the study; a control group (Co) in which rats were kept without any treatment during 12 weeks; and a chronic exercise group (Tr) in which rats swam for 40 min/day, 5 days/week at 80% of anaerobic threshold during 12 weeks. After the experimental period, SPA of rats was measured using a gravimetric method. Rats had their expression of MCTs determined by RT-PCR analysis. In essence, aerobic training is effective in maintaining SPA, but did not prevent the decline of aerobic capacity and anaerobic performance, leading us to propose that the decline of SPA is not fully attributed to a deterioration of physical properties. Changes in SPA were concomitant with changes in MCT1 expression in the soleus muscle of trained rats, suggestive of an additional adaptive response toward increased lactate clearance. This result is in line with our observation showing a better equilibrium on lactate production-remotion during the continuous exercise (LMT). We propose an approach to combat the decline of SPA of rats in their home

  20. The Training Effects of Dance Aerobics: A Review with an Emphasis on the Perspectives of Investigations

    OpenAIRE

    Zaletel, Petra; Gabrilo, Goran; Perić, Mia

    2013-01-01

    The training effects of contemporary aerobics programmes (hi lo, dance aerobics, step aerobics, aqua aerobics etc.) have been frequently investigated. However, we found no recent paper which reviewed aerobic programmes with regard to their training effectiveness, characteristics of the subjects involved, variables of interest and experimental design. In this paper we summarise the findings of more than 40 studies published in the 2000–2011 period that investigated the training effects of diff...

  1. Comparison on aerobic stability between silage and usual TMRs%普通与发酵全混合日粮的好气安定性比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王福金; 西野直树; 王靖宇

    2011-01-01

    This experiment was designed to investigate advantages of aerobic stability between usual TMR and TMR silages. Four TMR were prepared with 3, 4, 5 and 6 ingredients in experiment 1 , and two TMR were prepared with 50% brewers grains or soybean curd residue in experiment 2 and four ensiling materials were prepared with brewers grains and soybean curd residue alone or in comhination with other feeds as TMR in experiment 3. The aerobic stabilities were compared between usual TMR ( stored for 0 day) and TMR silage ( stored for 14 or 56 days). The results indicated that the aerobic stability of TMR silage was higher than that of usual TMR, and the aerobic stabilities of TMR silages with ensiled for long ( stored for 56 days) were higher than that for short ( stored for 14 days) . The finding of our experiment suggested that the aerobic stability of TMR silages were better than usual TMR. In particular, the TMR silages were not easy to deteriorate above ensiled 56 days after exposure to air. This expcnment provided a basis for solving TMR deterioration prohlems in the production.%本试验旨在比较普通与发酵全混合日粮(TMR)的好气安定性的优劣.选用3~6种不同材料与啤酒糟调制成的4种TMR、含50%的啤酒糟和豆腐渣与其他材料调制的2种TMR、啤酒糟和豆腐渣的单独贮存及与其他材料调制的TMR等进行了3个试验,对普通TMR(贮存0 d)与发酵TMR(贮存14和56 d)的好气安定性进行了比较.结果显示:发酵TMR的好气安定性高于普通TMR,而且贮存时间长(56 d)的发酵TMR的好气安定性高于贮存时间短(14 d)的发酵TMR.提示发酵TMR的好气安定性较好,尤其发酵56 d以上的发酵TMR,开封后不易变坏,为实际生产中解决TMR变败问题提供了依据.

  2. Mineralization of 14C-ring Labelled 2,4-D in Egyptian Soils Under Aerobic and Anaerobic Conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Obiectives To study the mineralization of 2,4-D in clay and clay loam Egyptian soils under subtropical conditions over a period of 90 d. Methods Using 14C-ring labelled pesticide, laboratory studies under aerobic and anaerobic conditions were conducted. 14C-activity in solutions was directly determined by liquid scintillation counting. Unextractable soil residues were determined by combustion.The nature of methanolic 14C-residues was determined by thin layer and high performance liquid chromatographic analysis. Results Under aerobic conditions 10%-14% of applied dose was mineralized during 90 d irrespective of soil type. The soil extractable pesticide residues decreased with time and the bound residues gradually increased. The highest binding capacity of about 26%-29% was observed in clay soil under aerobic conditions after 90 d. A good balance sheet was obtained and the percentage recovery was generally between 91% and 100%. Conclusion The mineralization of 2,4-D in clay soil was higher than that in clay loam soil under anaerobic conditions.Under aerobic conditions, the soil type had no influence on mineralizaion capacity of 2,4-D during 90 d. The soil binding increased with time whereby the extractable 14C-residues simultaneously decreased.Chromatographic analysis of the methanol extractable 14C-residues of soils revealed the presence of 2,4-D as a main product together with 2,4-dichlorophenol.

  3. Hypertrophy-Promoting Effects of Leucine Supplementation and Moderate Intensity Aerobic Exercise in Pre-Senescent Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Zhi; Cholewa, Jason; Zhao, Yan; Yang, Yue-Qin; Shang, Hua-Yu; Guimarães-Ferreira, Lucas; Naimo, Marshall Alan; Su, Quan-Sheng; Zanchi, Nelo Eidy

    2016-01-01

    Several studies have indicated a positive influence of leucine supplementation and aerobic training on the aging skeletal muscle signaling pathways that control muscle protein balance and muscle remodeling. However, the effect of a combined intervention requires further clarification. Thirteen month old CD-1(®) mice were subjected to moderate aerobic exercise (45 min swimming per day with 3% body weight workload) and fed a chow diet with 5% leucine or 3.4% alanine for 8 weeks. Serum and plasma were prepared for glucose, urea nitrogen, insulin and amino acid profile analysis. The white gastrocnemius muscles were used for determination of muscle size and signaling proteins involved in protein synthesis and degradation. The results show that both 8 weeks of leucine supplementation and aerobic training elevated the activity of mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin) and its downstream target p70S6K and 4E-BP1, inhibited the ubiquitin-proteasome system, and increased fiber cross-sectional area (CSA) in white gastrocnemius muscle. Moreover, leucine supplementation in combination with exercise demonstrated more significant effects, such as greater CSA, protein content and altered phosphorylation (suggestive of increased activity) of protein synthesis signaling proteins, in addition to lower expression of proteins involved in protein degradation compared to leucine or exercise alone. The current study shows moderate aerobic training combined with 5% leucine supplementation has the potential to increase muscle size in fast-twitch skeletal muscle during aging, potentially through increased protein synthesis and decreased protein breakdown. PMID:27144582

  4. Hypertrophy-Promoting Effects of Leucine Supplementation and Moderate Intensity Aerobic Exercise in Pre-Senescent Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi Xia

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have indicated a positive influence of leucine supplementation and aerobic training on the aging skeletal muscle signaling pathways that control muscle protein balance and muscle remodeling. However, the effect of a combined intervention requires further clarification. Thirteen month old CD-1® mice were subjected to moderate aerobic exercise (45 min swimming per day with 3% body weight workload and fed a chow diet with 5% leucine or 3.4% alanine for 8 weeks. Serum and plasma were prepared for glucose, urea nitrogen, insulin and amino acid profile analysis. The white gastrocnemius muscles were used for determination of muscle size and signaling proteins involved in protein synthesis and degradation. The results show that both 8 weeks of leucine supplementation and aerobic training elevated the activity of mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin and its downstream target p70S6K and 4E-BP1, inhibited the ubiquitin-proteasome system, and increased fiber cross-sectional area (CSA in white gastrocnemius muscle. Moreover, leucine supplementation in combination with exercise demonstrated more significant effects, such as greater CSA, protein content and altered phosphorylation (suggestive of increased activity of protein synthesis signaling proteins, in addition to lower expression of proteins involved in protein degradation compared to leucine or exercise alone. The current study shows moderate aerobic training combined with 5% leucine supplementation has the potential to increase muscle size in fast-twitch skeletal muscle during aging, potentially through increased protein synthesis and decreased protein breakdown.

  5. Evaluating the impact of different exogenous factors on silk textiles deterioration with use of size exclusion chromatography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawcenis, Dominika; Smoleń, Mariusz; Aksamit-Koperska, Monika A.; Łojewski, Tomasz; Łojewska, Joanna

    2016-06-01

    Size exclusion chromatography (SEC), especially coupled with multiple angle laser light scattering detector (MALLS) is a powerful tool in diagnostics of deterioration of historic and art objects to evaluate their condition. In this paper, SEC-UV-MALLS-DRI technique was applied to study degradation of silk fibroin samples ( Bombyx mori) artificially aged under various conditions: in the presence of oxygen, in different amount of water vapour and in volatile organic products (VOCs), all at temperature of 90 °C. Conditions were chosen in such a way that it mimicked real conditions of textiles' storing during exhibitions and in show cases. The influence of temperature, moisture and VOCs content on the state of silk textiles was examined with the use of size exclusion chromatography. Pseudo-zero-order Ekenstam equation was applied to study degradation rates of fibroin with use of the approximated values of DP of fibroin.

  6. An Inventory Model for Two Warehouses with Constant Deterioration and Quadratic Demand Rate under Inflation and Permissible Delay in Payments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. B. Gothi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we have analysed a two-warehouse inventory model for deteriorating items with quadratic demand with time varying holding cost. The effect of permissible delay in payments is also considered, which is usual practice in most of the businesses i.e. purchasers are allowed a period to pay back for the goods brought without paying any interest. To make it more suitable to the present environment the effect of inflation is also considered. Our objective is to minimize the average total cost per time unit under the influence of inflation. Numerical examples are provided to illustrate the model and sensitivity analysis is also carried out for the parameters

  7. Features of musical accompaniment on the lessons of physical culture with the use of complexes of aerobics at school.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalinichenko E.N.

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Reading of physical culture is considered with the elements of aerobics, which was conducted under musical accompaniment. In an experiment 517 schoolboys took part from the different classes of different educational establishments. It is well-proven that music positively influences on the psycoemotional state of children of school age, promotes a capacity and creates a background for rest, and also can make happy and sadden, excite and calm a child.

  8. Physical activity patterns, aerobic fitness and body composition in Norwegian children and adolescents : The Physical Activity among Norwegian Children Study

    OpenAIRE

    Kolle, Elin

    2009-01-01

    Regular physical activity is important for children and adolescent’s healthy growth and for their physical, social and mental health. Therefore, comprehensive knowledge is needed on levels and patterns of physical activity, as well as factors influencing physical activity participation. PURPOSE: The overall purpose was to increase the knowledge regarding 9- and 15-year-olds physical activity level, aerobic fitness and their body composition. Further, to gain increased insight w...

  9. Supplementary Low-Intensity Aerobic Training Improves Aerobic Capacity and Does Not Affect Psychomotor Performance in Professional Female Ballet Dancers

    OpenAIRE

    Smol, Ewelina; Fredyk, Artur

    2012-01-01

    We investigated whether 6-week low-intensity aerobic training program used as a supplement to regular dance practice might improve both the aerobic capacity and psychomotor performance in female ballet dancers. To assess their maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) and anaerobic threshold (AT), the dancers performed a standard graded bicycle ergometer exercise test until volitional exhaustion prior to and after the supplementary training. At both these occasions, the psychomotor performance (assessed...

  10. Another look at the deterioration of calcium aluminate cement concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jambor, Jaromir

    1996-03-01

    Full Text Available Potential degradation of concrete structures made of calcium aluminate cement (CAC is well known and is caused by transformation (conversion of the thermodynamically metastable into stable calcium aluminate hydrate phases. This recrystallization is influenced by temperature and humidity; the structural degradation of the concrete itself thus its loss of strength, is strongly related to the pore structure of the hydrated cement paste, the critical parameters being the total volume of pores below 15-20 nm and the median micropore radius. This constitutes a novel procedure for evaluation of existing CAC concrete structure.

    La degradación potencial de estructuras de hormigón elaboradas con cemento aluminoso (CA es bien conocida. Este deterioro está causado por la recristalización (conversión de las fases del aluminato cálcico que son termodinámicamente metastables, en fases estables. En esta recristalización influye la temperatura y la humedad. Tanto la degradación del propio hormigón, como su pérdida de resistencias están relacionadas estrechamente con la estructura porosa de la pasta del cemento hidratado, siendo parámetros críticos el volumen total de los poros inferiores a 15-20 nm y el tamaño medio de los radios de los microporos. Esto constituye un nuevo procedimiento para evaluar las estructuras existentes de hormigón de cemento aluminoso (CA.

  11. A review of patients who suddenly deteriorate in the presence of paramedics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Archer Frank

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The report of the Ministerial Review of Trauma and Emergency Services in Victoria, Australia, recommended that paramedics be permitted to divert to the closest hospital in incidences of life threatening situations prior to and during transport. An audit of patients that suddenly deteriorated in paramedic care was recommended by the Ministerial Review. The objective of the study was to identify the number and outcome of patients who suddenly deteriorated in the presence of paramedics. Methods A retrospective cohort study of trauma patients who suddenly deteriorated in the presence of paramedics during 2002. As there was no standard definition, sudden deterioration was defined using a predetermined set of physiological criteria. Patient care record data of patients who suddenly deteriorated were compared with the State Trauma Registry to determine those who sustained hospital defined major trauma. Patient care records where hospital bypass was undertaken were identified and analysed. Ethics committee approval was obtained. Results There were 2,893 patients that suddenly deteriorated according to predefined criteria. 2,687 (5.1% of the total trauma patients for 2002 were suitable for further analysis. The majority of patients had a sudden decrease in BP (n = 2,463 with 4.3% having hospital defined major trauma. For patients with a sudden decrease in conscious state or a total GCS score of less than 13 (n = 77, 37.7% had hospital defined major trauma; and a sudden increase/decrease in pulse rate and sudden decrease in BP (n = 65, 26.2% had hospital defined major trauma. Only 28 documented incidents of hospital bypass were identified. Conclusion This study suggests that the incidents of patients suddenly deteriorating in the presence of paramedics are low and the incidence of hospital bypass is not well documented.

  12. Formation and functions of aerobic microbial granula; Entstehung und Funktionen aerober mikrobieller Granula

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Etterer, T.; Wilderer, P.A. [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Garching (Germany). Lehrstuhl und Pruefamt fuer Wasserguete- und Abfallwirtschaft

    1999-07-01

    The present project investigates the phenomenon of the formation of aerobic microbial granula and their properties. To generate granula, sequencing batch reactors fed in batches were used. As shown by microbiological assays, fungi played an above-average role in granula formation and build-up. In first degradation experiments, furthermore, chemical oxygen demand (COD) could be reduced by over 90 %. The determination yielded comparable values to activated sludge, standing on average at 1.044g/ml. (orig.) [German] Im Rahmen des hier vorgestellten Projekts wurde das Phaenomen der Bildung aerober mikrobieller Granula sowie deren Eigenschaften untersucht. Zur Erzeugung von Granula wurden schubweise beschickte Reaktoren, sogenannte Sequencing-Batch-Reaktoren (SBR) verwendet. Wie mikrobiologische Untersuchungen zeigten spielen Pilze bei der Entstehung und beim Aufbau eine ueberdurchschnittliche Rolle. Des weiteren konnte in ersten Abbauversuchen der chemische Sauerstoff-Bedarf (CSB) um ueber 90% gesenkt werden. Die Dichtebestimmung ergab vergleichbare Werte zu Belebtschlamm und zwar im Durchschnitt 1,044 g/ml. (orig.)

  13. Enhanced selection of micro-aerobic pentachlorophenol degrading granular sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: In this work, an aerobic column reactor was placed before the USB to maintain micro-oxygen condition in the reactor and the micro-aerobic pentachlorophenol (PCP) degrading granular sludge under oxygen-limited conditions (0.1–0.2 mg L−1) was successfully obtained. PCP degradation by the micro-aerobic system was studied and the variance of microbial community was also discussed by using PCR-DGGE analysis. - Highlights: • Micro-aerobic granular sludge was cultivated in column-type combined reactors. • PCP biodegradation, VFA accumulation and biogas production were studied. • The function of Methanogenic archaeon in the system was investigated. • Fluctuation and diversity of microbial community were discussed by DGGE analysis. • The dominated microorganisms were identified by 16S rDNA sequences. - Abstract: Column-type combined reactors were designed to cultivate micro-aerobic pentachlorophenol (PCP) degrading granular sludge under oxygen-limited conditions (0.1–0.2 mg L−1) over 39-day experimental period. Micro-aerobic granular had both anaerobic activity (SMA: 2.34 mMCH4/h g VSS) and aerobic activity (SOUR: 2.21 mMO2/h g VSS). Metabolite analysis results revealed that PCP was sequentially dechlorinated to TCP, DCP, and eventually to MCP. Methanogens were not directly involved in the dechlorination of PCP, but might played a vital role in stabilizing the overall structure of the granule sludge. For Eubacteria, the Shannon Index (2.09 in inoculated granular sludge) increased both in micro-aerobic granular sludge (2.61) and PCP-degradation granular sludge (2.55). However, for Archaea, it decreased from 2.53 to 1.85 and 1.84, respectively. Although the Shannon Index demonstrated slight difference between micro-aerobic granular sludge and PCP-degradation granular sludge, the Principal Component Analysis (PCA) indicated obvious variance of the microbial composition, revealing significant effect of micro-aerobic condition and PCP on

  14. Enhanced selection of micro-aerobic pentachlorophenol degrading granular sludge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lv, Yuancai, E-mail: donkey1204@hotmail.com [State Key Laboratory of Pulp and Paper Engineering, College of Light Industry and Food Science, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Chen, Yuancai, E-mail: chenyc@scut.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Pulp and Paper Engineering, College of Light Industry and Food Science, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Ecological Remediation for Industrial Agglomeration Area, College of Environment and Energy, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Song, Wenzhe, E-mail: songwenzhe007@126.com [Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Ecological Remediation for Industrial Agglomeration Area, College of Environment and Energy, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Hu, Yongyou, E-mail: ppyyhu@scut.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Pulp and Paper Engineering, College of Light Industry and Food Science, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Ecological Remediation for Industrial Agglomeration Area, College of Environment and Energy, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006 (China)

    2014-09-15

    Graphical abstract: In this work, an aerobic column reactor was placed before the USB to maintain micro-oxygen condition in the reactor and the micro-aerobic pentachlorophenol (PCP) degrading granular sludge under oxygen-limited conditions (0.1–0.2 mg L{sup −1}) was successfully obtained. PCP degradation by the micro-aerobic system was studied and the variance of microbial community was also discussed by using PCR-DGGE analysis. - Highlights: • Micro-aerobic granular sludge was cultivated in column-type combined reactors. • PCP biodegradation, VFA accumulation and biogas production were studied. • The function of Methanogenic archaeon in the system was investigated. • Fluctuation and diversity of microbial community were discussed by DGGE analysis. • The dominated microorganisms were identified by 16S rDNA sequences. - Abstract: Column-type combined reactors were designed to cultivate micro-aerobic pentachlorophenol (PCP) degrading granular sludge under oxygen-limited conditions (0.1–0.2 mg L{sup −1}) over 39-day experimental period. Micro-aerobic granular had both anaerobic activity (SMA: 2.34 mMCH{sub 4}/h g VSS) and aerobic activity (SOUR: 2.21 mMO{sub 2}/h g VSS). Metabolite analysis results revealed that PCP was sequentially dechlorinated to TCP, DCP, and eventually to MCP. Methanogens were not directly involved in the dechlorination of PCP, but might played a vital role in stabilizing the overall structure of the granule sludge. For Eubacteria, the Shannon Index (2.09 in inoculated granular sludge) increased both in micro-aerobic granular sludge (2.61) and PCP-degradation granular sludge (2.55). However, for Archaea, it decreased from 2.53 to 1.85 and 1.84, respectively. Although the Shannon Index demonstrated slight difference between micro-aerobic granular sludge and PCP-degradation granular sludge, the Principal Component Analysis (PCA) indicated obvious variance of the microbial composition, revealing significant effect of micro-aerobic

  15. Percentile values for aerobic performance running/walking field tests in children aged 6 to 17 years: influence of weight status Valores de percentiles de los tests de campo de capacidad aeróbica en niños de 6 a 17 años: influencia del peso corporal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Castro-Piñero

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to provide percentiles values for four different aerobic performance tests in 2752 (1,261 girls Spanish children aged 6 to 17.9 years. Aerobic performance was assessed by the shuttle run test (20mSRT, 1-mile, 1/2-mile and 1/4-mile run/walk tests. Height and weight were measured, and body mass index was calculated. Boys had significantly better score than girls in the studied tests in all age groups, except in 1/4-mile test in 6-7 year old children. Underweight children had similar performance than their normalweight counterparts, and underweight boys had better performance than their obese counterparts. Overweight and obese children had lower performance than their normalweight counterparts. Having percentile values of the most used field tests to measure aerobic performance in youth may help to identify children and adolescents at risk for the major chronic diseases, as well as to evaluate the effects of alternative interventions.El propósito de este estudio fue proporcionar los valores de percentiles para cuatro pruebas de rendimiento aeróbico en 2752 (1261 chicas niños españoles con edades de 6 a 17,9 años. El rendimiento aeróbico se evalúo mediante la carrera durante 20 minutos (20mSRT, y las pruebas de correr / caminar 1 milla, ½ milla y ¼ de milla. Se midieron el peso y la talla y se calculó el índice de masa corporal. Los chicos tuvieron puntuaciones significativamente mejores que las chicas en las pruebas evaluadas y para todos los grupos de edad, excepto en la prueba de ¼ de milla en el grupo de 6-7 años. Los niños con peso bajo mostraron un rendimiento similar a sus homólogos con peso normal y los primeros tuvieron un rendimiento mejor que sus homólogos obesos. Los niños obesos y con sobrepeso tuvieron un menor rendimiento que sus homólogos con peso normal. El disponer de valores de percentiles para las pruebas empleadas más habitualmente para evaluar el rendimiento aeróbico en los j

  16. The Metabolic Syndrome and the immediate antihypertensive effects of aerobic exercise: a randomized control design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maresh Carl M

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The metabolic syndrome (Msyn affects about 40% of those with hypertension. The Msyn and hypertension have a common pathophysiology. Exercise is recommended for their treatment, prevention and control. The influence of the Msyn on the antihypertensive effects of aerobic exercise is not known. We examined the influence of the Msyn on the blood pressure (BP response following low (LIGHT, 40% peak oxygen consumption, VO2peak and moderate (MODERATE, 60% VO2peak intensity, aerobic exercise. Methods Subjects were 46 men (44.3 ± 1.3 yr with pre- to Stage 1 hypertension (145.5 ± 1.6/86.3 ± 1.2 mmHg and borderline dyslipidemia. Men with Msyn (n = 18 had higher fasting insulin, triglycerides and homeostasis model assessment (HOMA and lower high density lipoprotein than men without Msyn (n = 28 (p Results Systolic BP (SBP was reduced 8 mmHg (p 2 = 0.123, p = 0.020, Msyn (β = 0.277, r2 = 0.077, p = 0.069, and HOMA (β = -0.124, r2 = 0.015, p = 0.424. Msyn (r2 = 0.096, p = 0.036 was the only significant correlate of the DBP response after LIGHT. Conclusion Men without the Msyn respond more favorably to the antihypertensive effects of lower intensity, aerobic exercise than men with the Msyn. If future work confirms our findings, important new knowledge will be gained for the personalization of exercise prescriptions among those with hypertension and the Msyn.

  17. Computational analysis of deterioration phenomena and thermal-hydraulic design of SCR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Supercritical fluids exhibit heat transfer deterioration near pseudo-critical temperature where specific heat exhibits a peak. Numerical simulation is carried out to analyze the deterioration phenomena in supercritical water cooling. Jones-Launder's k-ε model is employed as the turbulence model. The calculated heat transfer coefficient agrees with the experimental data obtained by Yamagata et al. The calculation result explains the mechanism of the deterioration phenomena; local decrease of the Prandtl number near the heated wall causes the deterioration when the mass velocity is relatively high, while flattening of the mass velocity distribution reduces turbulence when the mass velocity is low and buoyancy is influential. Since the heat transfer deterioration is mild and gradual, it is not necessary to employ the critical heat flux as a design criterion of supercritical water-cooled reactors (SCRs). Design criteria of SCRs at steady-state, transients and accidents are proposed without the critical heat flux. This enables us to enhance the core outlet coolant temperature, and the size of balance of plant (BOP) will be reduced as well as thermal efficiency is enhanced. (author)

  18. Prognosis and risk factors for deterioration in patients admitted to a medical emergency department

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Daniel Pilsgaard; Brabrand, Mikkel; Lassen, Annmarie Touborg

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Patients that initially appear stable on arrival to the hospital often have less intensive monitoring of their vital signs, possibly leading to excess mortality. The aim was to describe risk factors for deterioration in vital signs and the related prognosis among patients with normal...... presentation, 1440/4292 (33.6%) had all normal vital signs and were included in study, 44.0% were male, median age 64 years (5th/95th percentile: 21-90 years) and 446/1440 (31.0%) deteriorated within 24 hours. Independent risk factors for deterioration included age 65-84 years odds ratio (OR): 1.79 (95.......2-3.0%) among the non-deteriorating, hazard ratio 4.11 (95% CI: 2.38-7.10). CONCLUSIONS: Among acutely admitted medical patients who arrive with normal vital signs, 31.0% showed signs of deterioration within 24 hours. Risk factors included old age, Do-not-attempt-to-resuscitate order, admission from the open...

  19. Field tests for evaluating the aerobic work capacity of firefighters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann-Sofie Lindberg

    Full Text Available Working as a firefighter is physically strenuous, and a high level of physical fitness increases a firefighter's ability to cope with the physical stress of their profession. Direct measurements of aerobic capacity, however, are often complicated, time consuming, and expensive. The first aim of the present study was to evaluate the correlations between direct (laboratory and indirect (field aerobic capacity tests with common and physically demanding firefighting tasks. The second aim was to give recommendations as to which field tests may be the most useful for evaluating firefighters' aerobic work capacity. A total of 38 subjects (26 men and 12 women were included. Two aerobic capacity tests, six field tests, and seven firefighting tasks were performed. Lactate threshold and onset of blood lactate accumulation were found to be correlated to the performance of one work task (r(s = -0.65 and -0.63, p<0.01, respectively. Absolute (mL · min(-1 and relative (mL · kg(-1 · min(-1 maximal aerobic capacity was correlated to all but one of the work tasks (r(s = -0.79 to 0.55 and -0.74 to 0.47, p<0.01, respectively. Aerobic capacity is important for firefighters' work performance, and we have concluded that the time to row 500 m, the time to run 3000 m relative to body weight (s · kg(-1, and the percent of maximal heart rate achieved during treadmill walking are the most valid field tests for evaluating a firefighter's aerobic work capacity.

  20. Interaction of Cadmium With the Aerobic Bacterium Pseudomonas Mendocina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schramm, P. J.; Haack, E. A.; Maurice, P. A.

    2006-05-01

    The fate of toxic metals in the environment can be heavily influenced by interaction with bacteria in the vadose zone. This research focuses on the interactions of cadmium with the strict aerobe Pseudomonas mendocina. P. mendocina is a gram-negative bacterium that has shown potential in the bioremediation of recalcitrant organic compounds. Cadmium is a common environmental contaminant of wide-spread ecological consequence. In batch experiments P. mendocina shows typical bacterial growth curves, with an initial lag phase followed by an exponential phase and a stationary to death phase; concomitant with growth was an increase in pH from initial values of 7 to final values at 96 hours of 8.8. Cd both delays the onset of the exponential phase and decreases the maximum population size, as quantified by optical density and microscopic cell counts (DAPI). The total amount of Cd removed from solution increases over time, as does the amount of Cd removed from solution normalized per bacterial cell. Images obtained with transmission electron microscopy (TEM) showed the production of a cadmium, phosphorus, and iron containing precipitate that was similar in form and composition to precipitates formed abiotically at elevated pH. However, by late stationary phase, the precipitate had been re-dissolved, perhaps by biotic processes in order to obtain Fe. Stressed conditions are suggested by TEM images showing the formation of pili, or nanowires, when 20ppm Cd was present and a marked decrease in exopolysaccharide and biofilm material in comparison to control cells (no cadmium added).

  1. Effects of body fat and dominant somatotype on explosive strength and aerobic capacity trainability in prepubescent children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marta, Carlos C; Marinho, Daniel A; Barbosa, Tiago M; Carneiro, André L; Izquierdo, Mikel; Marques, Mário C

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the influence of body fat and somatotype on explosive strength and aerobic capacity trainability in the prepubertal growth spurt, marked by rapid changes in body size, shape, and composition, all of which are sexually dimorphic. One hundred twenty-five healthy children (58 boys, 67 girls), aged 10-11 years (10.8 ± 0.4 years), who were self-assessed in Tanner stages 1-2, were randomly assigned into 2 experimental groups to train twice a week for 8 weeks: strength training group (19 boys, 22 girls), endurance training group (21 boys, 24 girls), and a control group (18 boys, 21 girls). Evaluation of body fat was carried out using the method described by Slaughter. Somatotype was computed according to the Heath-Carter method. Increased endomorphy reduced the likelihood of vertical jump height improvement (odds ratio [OR], 0.10; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.01-0.85), increased mesomorphy (OR, 6.15; 95% CI, 1.52-24.88) and ectomorphy (OR, 6.52; 95% CI, 1.71-24.91) increased the likelihood of sprint performance, and increased ectomorphy (OR, 3.84; 95% CI, 1.20-12.27) increased the likelihood of aerobic fitness gains. Sex did not affect the training-induced changes in strength or aerobic fitness. These data suggest that somatotype has an effect on explosive strength and aerobic capacity trainability, which should not be disregarded. The effect of adiposity on explosive strength, musculoskeletal magnitude on running speed, and relative linearity on running speed and aerobic capacity seem to be crucial factors related to training-induced gains in prepubescent boys and girls. PMID:24077372

  2. Microbiology and potential applications of aerobic methane oxidation coupled to denitrification (AME-D) process: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jing; Wang, Qian; Yuan, Mengdong; Tan, Giin-Yu Amy; Sun, Faqian; Wang, Cheng; Wu, Weixiang; Lee, Po-Heng

    2016-03-01

    Aerobic methane oxidation coupled to denitrification (AME-D) is an important link between the global methane and nitrogen cycles. This mini-review updates discoveries regarding aerobic methanotrophs and denitrifiers, as a prelude to spotlight the microbial mechanism and the potential applications of AME-D. Until recently, AME-D was thought to be accomplished by a microbial consortium where denitrifying bacteria utilize carbon intermediates, which are excreted by aerobic methanotrophs, as energy and carbon sources. Potential carbon intermediates include methanol, citrate and acetate. This mini-review presents microbial thermodynamic estimations and postulates that methanol is the ideal electron donor for denitrification, and may serve as a trophic link between methanotrophic bacteria and denitrifiers. More excitingly, new discoveries have revealed that AME-D is not only confined to the conventional synergism between methanotrophic bacteria and denitrifiers. Specifically, an obligate aerobic methanotrophic bacterium, Methylomonas denitrificans FJG1, has been demonstrated to couple partial denitrification with methane oxidation, under hypoxia conditions, releasing nitrous oxide as a terminal product. This finding not only substantially advances the understanding of AME-D mechanism, but also implies an important but unknown role of aerobic methanotrophs in global climate change through their influence on both the methane and nitrogen cycles in ecosystems. Hence, further investigation on AME-D microbiology and mechanism is essential to better understand global climate issues and to develop niche biotechnological solutions. This mini-review also presents traditional microbial techniques, such as pure cultivation and stable isotope probing, and powerful microbial techniques, such as (meta-) genomics and (meta-) transcriptomics, for deciphering linked methane oxidation and denitrification. Although AME-D has immense potential for nitrogen removal from wastewater, drinking

  3. Effect of Nordic Walking and Water Aerobics Training on Body Composition and the Blood Flow in Lower Extremities in Elderly Women

    OpenAIRE

    Jasiński Ryszard; Socha Małgorzata; Sitko Ludmiła; Kubicka Katarzyna; Woźniewski Marek; Sobiech Krzysztof A.

    2015-01-01

    Nordic walking and water aerobics are very popular forms of physical activity in the elderly population. The aim of the study was to evaluate the influence of regular health training on the venous blood flow in lower extremities and body composition in women over 50 years old. Twenty-four women of mean age 57.9 (± 3.43) years, randomly divided into three groups (Nordic walking, water aerobics, and non-training), participated in the study. The training lasted 8 weeks, with one-hour sessions tw...

  4. Intelligent, Robust Control of Deteriorated Turbofan Engines via Linear Parameter Varying Quadratic Lyapunov Function Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turso, James A.; Litt, Jonathan S.

    2004-01-01

    A method for accommodating engine deterioration via a scheduled Linear Parameter Varying Quadratic Lyapunov Function (LPVQLF)-Based controller is presented. The LPVQLF design methodology provides a means for developing unconditionally stable, robust control of Linear Parameter Varying (LPV) systems. The controller is scheduled on the Engine Deterioration Index, a function of estimated parameters that relate to engine health, and is computed using a multilayer feedforward neural network. Acceptable thrust response and tight control of exhaust gas temperature (EGT) is accomplished by adjusting the performance weights on these parameters for different levels of engine degradation. Nonlinear simulations demonstrate that the controller achieves specified performance objectives while being robust to engine deterioration as well as engine-to-engine variations.

  5. Research on Deterioration Mechanism of Concrete Materials in an Actual Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiping Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The cause for deterioration of the concrete structure located in severe environment has been explored both in field and in laboratory. Serious cracking and spalling appeared upon surface of the concrete structure soon after the structure was put into service. Both alkali-aggregate reaction and freeze-thaw cycles may result in similar macro visible cracking and spalling. The possibility of alkali-aggregate reaction was excluded by both field survey and lab examination such as chemical analysis, petrographic analysis, and determination of alkali reactivity of aggregates. According to results of freeze-thaw cycles, impermeability testing, and microstructure analysis, it is deduced that the severe environmental conditions plus the relatively inferior frost resistance cause the deterioration of concrete. Usage of air entraining admixture can improve frost resistance and impermeability. Furthermore, new approaches to mitigate the deterioration of concrete used in severe environmental condition are discussed.

  6. EOQ Model for Delayed Deteriorating Items with Shortages and Trade Credit Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Sundararajan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with a deterministic inventory model for deteriorating items under the condition of permissible delay in payments with constant demand rate is a function of time which differs from before and after deterioration for a single item. Shortages are allowed and completely backlogged which is a function of time. Under these assumptions, this paper develops a retailer's model for obtaining an optimal cycle length and ordering quantity in deteriorating items of an inventory model. Thus, our objective is retailer's cost minimization problem to nd an optimal replenishment policy under various parameters. The convexity of the objective function is derived and the numerical examples are provided to support the proposed model. Sensitivity analysis of the optimal solution with respect to major parameters of the model is included and the implications are discussed.

  7. Predictive maintenance policy for a gradually deteriorating system subject to stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deloux, E. [IRCCyN/Ecole des Mines de Nantes, Nantes (France); Castanier, B. [IRCCyN/Ecole des Mines de Nantes, Nantes (France)], E-mail: bruno.castanier@emn.fr; Berenguer, C. [Universite de Technologie de Troyes/CNRS, Troyes (France)

    2009-02-15

    This paper deals with a predictive maintenance policy for a continuously deteriorating system subject to stress. We consider a system with two failure mechanisms which are, respectively, due to an excessive deterioration level and a shock. To optimize the maintenance policy of the system, an approach combining statistical process control (SPC) and condition-based maintenance (CBM) is proposed. CBM policy is used to inspect and replace the system according to the observed deterioration level. SPC is used to monitor the stress covariate. In order to assess the performance of the proposed maintenance policy and to minimize the long-run expected maintenance cost per unit of time, a mathematical model for the maintained system cost is derived. Analysis based on numerical results are conducted to highlight the properties of the proposed maintenance policy in respect to the different maintenance parameters.

  8. Effects of environmental conditions on aerobic degradation of a commercial naphthenic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinley, Ciera M; Gaspari, Daniel P; McQueen, Andrew D; Rodgers, John H; Castle, James W; Friesen, Vanessa; Haakensen, Monique

    2016-10-01

    Naphthenic acids (NAs) are problematic constituents in energy-derived waters, and aerobic degradation may provide a strategy for mitigating risks to aquatic organisms. The overall objective of this study was to determine the influence of concentrations of N (as ammonia) and P (as phosphate), and DO, as well as pH and temperatures on degradation of a commercial NA in bench-scale reactors. Commercial NAs provided replicable compounds necessary to compare influences of environmental conditions on degradation. NAs were quantified using high performance liquid chromatography. Microbial diversity and relative abundance were measured in treatments as explanatory parameters for potential effects of environmental conditions on microbial populations to support analytically measured NA degradation. Environmental conditions that positively influenced degradation rates of Fluka NAs included nutrients (C:N 10:1-500:1, C:P 100:1-5000:1), DO (4.76-8.43 mg L(-1)), pH (6-8), and temperature (5-25 °C). Approximately 50% removal of 61 ± 8 mg L(-1) was achieved in less than 2 d after NA introduction, achieving the method detection limit (5 mg L(-1)) by day 6 of the experiment in treatments with a C:N:P ratio of 100:10:1, DO > 8 mg L(-1), pH ∼8-9, and temperatures >23 °C. Microbial diversity was lowest in lower temperature treatments (6-16 °C), which may have resulted in observed slower NA degradation. Based on results from this study, when macro- and micronutrients were available, DO, pH, and temperature (within environmentally relevant ranges) influenced rates of aerobic degradation of Fluka NAs. This study could serve as a model for systematically evaluating environmental factors that influence NA degradation in field scenarios. PMID:27459161

  9. Effects of environmental conditions on aerobic degradation of a commercial naphthenic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinley, Ciera M; Gaspari, Daniel P; McQueen, Andrew D; Rodgers, John H; Castle, James W; Friesen, Vanessa; Haakensen, Monique

    2016-10-01

    Naphthenic acids (NAs) are problematic constituents in energy-derived waters, and aerobic degradation may provide a strategy for mitigating risks to aquatic organisms. The overall objective of this study was to determine the influence of concentrations of N (as ammonia) and P (as phosphate), and DO, as well as pH and temperatures on degradation of a commercial NA in bench-scale reactors. Commercial NAs provided replicable compounds necessary to compare influences of environmental conditions on degradation. NAs were quantified using high performance liquid chromatography. Microbial diversity and relative abundance were measured in treatments as explanatory parameters for potential effects of environmental conditions on microbial populations to support analytically measured NA degradation. Environmental conditions that positively influenced degradation rates of Fluka NAs included nutrients (C:N 10:1-500:1, C:P 100:1-5000:1), DO (4.76-8.43 mg L(-1)), pH (6-8), and temperature (5-25 °C). Approximately 50% removal of 61 ± 8 mg L(-1) was achieved in less than 2 d after NA introduction, achieving the method detection limit (5 mg L(-1)) by day 6 of the experiment in treatments with a C:N:P ratio of 100:10:1, DO > 8 mg L(-1), pH ∼8-9, and temperatures >23 °C. Microbial diversity was lowest in lower temperature treatments (6-16 °C), which may have resulted in observed slower NA degradation. Based on results from this study, when macro- and micronutrients were available, DO, pH, and temperature (within environmentally relevant ranges) influenced rates of aerobic degradation of Fluka NAs. This study could serve as a model for systematically evaluating environmental factors that influence NA degradation in field scenarios.

  10. Impact of brisk walking and aerobics in overweight women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melam, Ganeswara Rao; Alhusaini, Adel A; Buragadda, Syamala; Kaur, Taranpreet; Khan, Imran Ali

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] Lack of physical activity and an uncontrolled diet cause excessive weight gain, which leads to obesity and other metabolic disorders. Studies have indicated that brisk walking and aerobics are the best methods for controlling and reducing weight and body mass composition. [Subjects and Methods] In this study, 45 overweight women were enrolled and divided into 3 groups. Women not involved in brisk walking or aerobics were included in group A (n = 15) as control subjects; women involved in brisk walking were in group B (n = 15); and those involved in aerobics were in group C (n = 15). [Results] This program was carried out 5 days/week for 10 weeks. Pre- and post-measurements of body mass index, waist and hip circumference, and skinfold thickness of the abdomen, subscapular area, biceps, and triceps were recorded for the women in all 3 groups. All values decreased in women who participated in brisk walking and aerobics for 10 weeks. [Conclusion] These results indicate that aerobics with diet therapy is a more effective intervention program for controlling and reducing body mass index and skinfold thickness than brisk walking with diet therapy in North Indian women. PMID:26957777

  11. Denitrification characteristics of a marine origin psychrophilic aerobic denitrifying bacterium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Haiyan; Liu, Ying; Sun, Guangdong; Gao, Xiyan; Zhang, Qingling; Liu, Zhipei

    2011-01-01

    A psychrophilic aerobic denitrifying bacterium, strain S1-1, was isolated from a biological aerated filter conducted for treatment of recirculating water in a marine aquaculture system. Strain S1-1 was preliminarily identified as Psychrobacter sp. based on the analysis of its 16S rRNA gene sequence, which showed 100% sequence similarity to that of Psychrobacter sp. TSBY-70. Strain S1-1 grew well either in high nitrate or high nitrite conditions with a removal of 100% nitrate or 63.50% nitrite, and the total nitrogen removal rates could reach to 46.48% and 31.89%, respectively. The results indicated that nitrate was mainly reduced in its logarithmic growth phase with a very low level accumulation of nitrite, suggesting that the aerobic denitrification process of strain S1-1 occurred mainly in this phase. The GC-MS results showed that N2O was formed as the major intermediate during the aerobic denitrifying process of strain S1-1. Finally, factors affecting the growth of strain S1-1 and its aerobic denitrifying ability were also investigated. Results showed that the optimum aerobic denitrification conditions for strain S1-1 were sodium succinate as carbon source, C/N ratio15, salinity 10 g/L NaCl, incubation temperature 20 degrees C and initial pH 6.5. PMID:22432315

  12. [EPIDEMIOLOGICAL, CLINICAL AND MICROBIOLOGICAL FINDINGS IN WOMEN WITH AEROBIC VAGINITIS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dermendjiev, T; Pehlivanov, B; Hadjieva, K; Stanev, S

    2015-01-01

    Aerobic vaginitis (AV) is an alterarion of the normal lactobacillic flora accompanied by signs of inflammation, presence of mainly aerobic microorganisms from intestinal commensals or other aerobic pathogens. Clinical symptoms may vary by type and intensity and are marked by a high tendency for recurrence and chronification. Inflammation and ulcerations in AV could increase the risk of contracting HIV or other sexually transmitted infections. The aim is to study some epidemiological, clinical and microbiological features of the aerobic vaginitis in patients of the specialized Obstetric and Gynecological Clinic in Plovdiv, Bulgaria. In a retrospective research 4687 vaginal smears have been gathered in Microbiological laboratory at "St. George" Hospital - Plovdiv. We used clinical, microbiological and statistical methods. Information processing is performed by variation, alternative, correlation and graphical analysis using specialized package SPSS v13.0. The overall prevalence rate of AV in the studied population is 11.77%. The levels of prevalence of AV in pregnant and non-pregnant women are respectively 13.08% and 4.34%. The highest frequency of AV is in the age group 21-30 years (32.3%). The results show a marked association between Escherichia coli and the cases of AV (p vaginal symptoms in patients of specialized ambulatory outpatient. One in ten women with vaginal complaints suffers from AV Streptococcus agalactiae and Escherichia coli are most often isolated aerobic microorganisms. PMID:26863788

  13. Denitrification characteristics of a marine origin psychrophilic aerobic denitrifying bacterium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Haiyan Zheng; Ying Liu; Guangdong Sun; Xiyan Gao; Qingling Zhang; Zhipei Liu

    2011-01-01

    A psychrophilic aerobic denitrifying bacterium,strain S1-1,was isolated from a biological aerated filter conducted for treatment of recirculating water in a marine aquaculture system.Strain S1-1 was preliminarily identified as Psychrobacter sp.based on the analysis of its 16S rRNA gene sequence,which showed 100% sequence similarity to that of Psychrobacter sp.TSBY-70.Strain S 1-1 grew well either in high nitrate or high nitrite conditions with a removal of 100% nitrate or 63.50% nitrite,and the total nitrogen removal rates could reach to 46.48% and 31.89%,respectively.The results indicated that nitrate was mainly reduced in its logarithmic growth phase with a very low leve 1 accumulation of nitrite,suggesting that the aerobic denitrification process of strain S l-1 occurred mainly in this phase.The GC-MS results showed that N2O was formed as the major intermediate during the aerobic denitrifying process of strain S1-1.Finally,factors affecting the growth of strain Sl-1 and its aerobic denitrifying ability were also investigated.Results showed that the optimum aerobic denitrification conditions for strain S1-1 were sodium succinate as carbon source,C/N ratio15,salinity 10 g/L NaCl,incubation temperature 20℃ and initial pH 6.5.

  14. Improving the Quality of the Deteriorated Regions of Multicrystalline Silicon Ingots during General Solar Cell Processes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Shan-Shan; WANG Lei; YANG De-Ren

    2011-01-01

    @@ The behavior of wafers and solar cells from the border of a multicrystalline silicon(mc-Si)ingot, which contain deteriorated regions, is investigated.It is found that the diffusion length distribution of minority carriers in the cells is uniform, and high efficiency of the solar cells(about 16%)is achieved.It is considered that the quality of the deteriorated regions could be improved to be similar to that of adjacent regions.Moreover, it is indicated that during general solar cell fabrication, phosphorus gettering and hydrogen passivation could significantly improve the quality of deteriorated regions, while aluminum gettering by RTP could not.Therefore, it is suggested that the border of a me-Si ingot could be used to fabricate high efficiency solar cells, which will increase me-Si utilization effectively.%The behavior of wafers and solar cells from the border of a multicrystalline silicon (mc-Si) ingot, which contain deteriorated regions, is investigated. It is found that the diffusion length distribution of minority carriers in the cells is uniform, and high efficiency of the solar cells (about 16%) is achieved. It is considered that the quality of the deteriorated regions could be improved to be similar to that of adjacent regions. Moreover, it is indicated that during general solar cell fabrication, phosphorus gettering and hydrogen passivation could significantly improve the quality of deteriorated regions, while aluminum gettering by RTP could not. Therefore, it is suggested that the border of a mc-Si ingot could be used to fabricate high efficiency solar cells, which will increase mc-Si utilization effectively.

  15. Plasma Disinfection and the Deterioration of Surgical Tools at Atmospheric Pressure Plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaaba, Siti Khadijah; Akitsu, Tetsuya; Ohkawa, Hiroshi; Katayama-Hirayama, Keiko; Tsuji, Masao; Shimizu, Naohiro; Imanishi, Yuichirou

    The purpose of this paper is to present and compare disinfection effect of plasma by means of Atmospheric Pressure Glow plasma and streamer discharge. Geobacillus stearothermophilus was used as biological indicator for disinfection process. The effect of blades after irradiated in plasma was also studied by SEM analysis. It was found that the disinfection process was effective when the cylindrical configuration was applied. Carbon steel blade was also found to be deteriorated after immersed in plasma irradiation. Results indicate that disinfection can be achieved and at the same time deteriorations of the tools were observed.

  16. An EOQ model for deteriorating items under supplier credits when demand is stock dependent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shah Nita H.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In many circumstances retailer is not able to settle the account as soon as items are received. In that scenario supplier can offer two promotional schemes namely cash discount and /or a permissible delay to the customer. In this study, an EOQ model is developed when units in inventory deteriorate at a constant rate and demand is stock dependent. The salvage value is associated to deteriorated units. An algorithm is given to find the optimal solution. The sensitivity analysis is carried out to analyze the effect of critical parameters on optimal solution.

  17. Visual data mining of rechargeable lithium-ion battery deterioration characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    水口, 晋; 小木, 哲朗

    2012-01-01

    With the wide spread of Electric Vehicles(EV) and its potential for reusability, the secondary use of in-car Lithium Ion Batteries has become significantly important. In order to realize the secondary use of in-car Li+B batteries, it is required to understand how the deterioration of battery can be analyzed through a set of running data. The deterioration of batteries will occur from time to time, thus, it is necessary to measure by multiple points for accurate speculation.The data sets of EV...

  18. Vibration-based localisation of structural deterioration in frame-like civil engineering structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulriksen, Martin Dalgaard; Damkilde, Lars

    2016-01-01

    , these vibrations can potentially lead to an evident risk of structural deterioration. In order to ensure the safety of the structures, it is thus paramount that the potential structural deterioration can be identified before it becomes critical from a structural integrity point of view. One way of facilitating...... such identification is by use of structural health monitoring (SHM) techniques, which enable remote, typically through pre-installed sensors, diagnosing of the structural health. In the present paper, it is examined whether a vibration-based SHM approach proposed by the authors—and previously applied successfully...

  19. Deteriorating inventory model with quadratically time varying demand and partial backlogging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinod Kumar Mishra

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a deterministic inventory model is developed for deteriorating items in whichshortages are allowed and partially backlogged. Deterioration rate is constant, demand rate isquadratic function of time and holding cost is linear function of time, backlogging rate isvariable and is dependent on the length of the next replenishment. The model is solvedanalytically by minimizing the total inventory cost. This inventory model is also use as aninventory model for linear as well as constant demand rate by very small change in theparameter of the quadratic function. Numerical examples are provided to illustrate thesolution and application of the model.

  20. The Climate and its Impacts on deterioration and weathering rate of EI-Nadura Temple in El- Kharga Oasis, Western Desert of Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismael, Hossam

    2015-04-01

    agreement with the observed values in the study area. The deterioration of El-Nadora temple is above 45 % of original temple (138-161 BC), these deteriorations have occurred not only due to the age of the structures, but also due to the climate elements. It was found that the climate is the most important elements influencing weathering. El-Nadora temple is highly influenced by wind action because it was built on a hill top 180 meter in hyper arid climate and exposed to wind without any obstruction. Finally, El-Nadora Temple has lost about 42.46 % of its original size. And if the rate of deterioration continues, the major landmarks, symbols and inscriptions will fully disappear in 2150.

  1. Aerobic Microbial Respiration In Oceanic Oxygen Minimum Zones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalvelage, Tim; Lavik, Gaute; Jensen, Marlene Mark;

    2015-01-01

    Namibia and Peru. Experiments with additions of double-labelled oxygen revealed high aerobic activity in the upper OMZs, likely controlled by surface organic matter export. Consistently observed oxygen consumption in samples retrieved throughout the lower OMZs hints at efficient exploitation of vertically...... denitrification and alternative anaerobic pathways of organic matter remineralization cannot account for the ammonium requirements of reported anammox rates. Here, we explore the significance of microaerobic respiration as a source of ammonium during organic matter degradation in the oxygen-deficient waters off...... and laterally advected, oxygenated waters in this zone by aerobic microorganisms. In accordance, metagenomic and metatranscriptomic analyses identified genes encoding for aerobic terminal oxidases and demonstrated their expression by diverse microbial communities, even in virtually anoxic waters. Our...

  2. Impact of 6-month aerobic exercise on Alzheimer's symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Fang; Thomas, William; Nelson, Nathaniel W; Bronas, Ulf G; Dysken, Maurice; Wyman, Jean F

    2015-06-01

    Little is known about how aerobic exercise affects Alzheimer's disease (AD). The purpose of this pilot study was to test the impact of 6-month cycling on AD symptoms in community-dwelling older adults with mild-to-moderate AD, using a single-group, repeated-measures design (n = 26). AD symptoms were measured with the AD Assessment Scale-Cognitive (ADAS-Cog), Disability in AD (DAD), and Neuropsychiatric Inventory-Caregiver (NPI-Q) scales at baseline, 3 and 6 months. Data were analyzed using mixed linear models. The ADAS-Cog, DAD, and NPI-Q severity scores remained unchanged over the 6-month period, while caregiver distress decreased 40% (p < .05). We conclude that aerobic exercise may reduce AD symptoms and appears effective in decreasing caregiver distress. Further randomized controlled trials are needed to examine the effects of aerobic exercise in AD. PMID:24652914

  3. Isolation and denitrification characteristic of an aerobic denitrifier

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Dan-dan; MA Fang; WANG Hong-yu; DONG Shuang-shi; WANG Ai-jie

    2006-01-01

    Aerobic denitrifiers were enriched by activated sludge cultivation method. By this way, 105 strains were isolated from the activated sludge and 25 strains were confirmed to be capable of obtaining energy by deoxidization of nitrate to nitrogen gas under aerobic condition. The characteristic of one denitrifier, Pseudomonas chloritidismutans strain, was particularly studied due to its higher nitrogen removal rate. It was found that Pseudomonas chloritidismutans can use nitrite, nitrate and oxygen for aerobic respiration in liquid medium, and the pH increased and ORP decreased by activated denitrifier. When they used nitrite or nitrate for respiration, nitrogen removal effect was high and nitrite could be reduced more efficiently than nitrate. Denitrification process was accomplished faster when both nitrite and nitrate existed in the medium compared to each of which existed alone. Particularly, at denitrifying activity, the nitrogen removal rate of strain was not affected by the DO concentration in the culture media.

  4. Virulence factors enhance Citrobacter rodentium expansion through aerobic respiration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Christopher A; Miller, Brittany M; Rivera-Chávez, Fabian; Velazquez, Eric M; Byndloss, Mariana X; Chávez-Arroyo, Alfredo; Lokken, Kristen L; Tsolis, Renée M; Winter, Sebastian E; Bäumler, Andreas J

    2016-09-16

    Citrobacter rodentium uses a type III secretion system (T3SS) to induce colonic crypt hyperplasia in mice, thereby gaining an edge during its competition with the gut microbiota through an unknown mechanism. Here, we show that by triggering colonic crypt hyperplasia, the C. rodentium T3SS induced an excessive expansion of undifferentiated Ki67-positive epithelial cells, which increased oxygenation of the mucosal surface and drove an aerobic C. rodentium expansion in the colon. Treatment of mice with the γ-secretase inhibitor dibenzazepine to diminish Notch-driven colonic crypt hyperplasia curtailed the fitness advantage conferred by aerobic respiration during C. rodentium infection. We conclude that C. rodentium uses its T3SS to induce histopathological lesions that generate an intestinal microenvironment in which growth of the pathogen is fueled by aerobic respiration. PMID:27634526

  5. Catalytic aerobic oxidation of bio-renewable chemicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorbanev, Yury

    -free conditions. Moreover, a detailed study on the performance and stability of the ruthenium hydroxide catalysts on magnesium-containing supports under reaction conditions was conducted. The aerobic oxidation of HMF to form another value-added chemical, 2,5-diformylfuran (DFF), was also investigated......, EDS, XRF and other methods. Supported gold and ruthenium hydroxide catalyst systems were explored for the aerobic oxidation of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) to 2,5-furandicarboxylic acid (FDA), a potential polymer building block for the plastic industry, or its dimethyl ester (FDMC). High product......Ox deposited on various metal oxides. Furthermore, this thesis presents the results of the catalytic aerobic oxidative degradation of higher alcohols over supported ruthenium hydroxide catalysts. A very efficient oxidative cleavage of vic-diols to form respective acids was also shown under examined conditions...

  6. Supplementary Low-Intensity Aerobic Training Improves Aerobic Capacity and Does Not Affect Psychomotor Performance in Professional Female Ballet Dancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smol, Ewelina; Fredyk, Artur

    2012-01-01

    We investigated whether 6-week low-intensity aerobic training program used as a supplement to regular dance practice might improve both the aerobic capacity and psychomotor performance in female ballet dancers. To assess their maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) and anaerobic threshold (AT), the dancers performed a standard graded bicycle ergometer exercise test until volitional exhaustion prior to and after the supplementary training. At both these occasions, the psychomotor performance (assessed as multiple choice reaction time) and number of correct responses to audio-visual stimuli was assessed at rest and immediately after cessation of maximal intensity exercise. The supplementary low-intensity exercise training increased VO2max and markedly shifted AT toward higher absolute workload. Immediately after completion of the graded exercise to volitional exhaustion, the ballerinas’ psychomotor performance remained at the pre-exercise (resting) level. Neither the resting nor the maximal multiple choice reaction time and accuracy of responses were affected by the supplementary aerobic training. The results of this study indicate that addition of low-intensity aerobic training to regular dance practice increases aerobic capacity of ballerinas with no loss of speed and accuracy of their psychomotor reaction. PMID:23485962

  7. The use of radiography and GIS to assess the deterioration of archaeological iron objects from a water logged environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matthiesen, Henning; Salomonsen, Eva; Sørensen, Birgit

    2004-01-01

    Pollution, acid rain, and modern agricultural practise are often blamed when archaeological metal objects are heavily deteriorated. However, looking at a deteriorated object, it can be difficult to differentiate whether the deterioration took place recently, or maybe hundreds or even thousands...... studied, to see if it was possible to correlate the state of preservation with the exact find location, the year of excavation or the method of deposition. Apparently, in this case the method of deposition was most important, so that the deterioration pattern observed today is decided during the first few...... years after deposition, which took place in 200e500 AD. It has not been possible to demonstrate an increased deterioration from the first excavations in 1859 until today. The work is part of a major project in Nydam, which has also involved studying corrosion products, deterioration of modern materials...

  8. Autonomic adjusting of activity of cardio-vessel system of girls of the prepubescence period, engaged in dancing aerobic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romanchuk А.P.

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The vegetative adjusting of activity of the cardio-vessel system of girls is investigational. In an experiment took part girls of 9-12 years old. A type of sport is a dancing aerobics. The indexes of general power of spectrum of variability of cardiac rhythm are presented, systole and diastole arteriotony. Motion of the adaptation re-erecting is appraised under influence of the physical loadings in the conditions of current and operative control. Certain change activity and tone of vegetative influences on the cardio-vessel system. They determine the features of the further adaptation re-erecting in an organism.

  9. Aerobic bioremediation of petroleum contaminated soil using controlled landfarming technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports that the Delaware Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Control (DNREC) has been concerned about open, uncontrolled landfarming remediation procedures producing a significant amount of atmospheric volatile petroleum discharge and increasing the probability of the remediation site's soil and groundwater becoming contaminated by rainwater. WIK Associates, Inc., therefore, has been developing full scale aerobic bioremediation technology for clients within the Delaware area in order to carry out year round, full scale, aerobic biodegradation of petroleum contaminated soils, while controlling any volatile emissions

  10. Enhancing excess sludge aerobic digestion with low intensity ultrasound

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DING Wen-chuan; LI Dong-xue; ZENG Xiao-lan; LONG Teng-rui

    2006-01-01

    In order to enhance the efficiency of aerobic digestion, the excess sludge was irradiated by low intensity ultrasound at a frequency of 28 kHz and acoustic intensity of 0.53 W/cm2. The results show that the sludge stabilization without ultrasonic treatment can be achieved after 17 d of digestion, whereas the digestion time of ultrasonic groups can be cut by 3 - 7 d. During the same digestion elapsing, in ultrasonic groups the total volatile suspended solid removal rate is higher than that in the control group. The kinetics of aerobic digestion of excess sludge with ultrasound can also be described with first-order reaction.

  11. Exercise intensity during Zumba fitness and Tae-bo aerobics

    OpenAIRE

    Hižnayová, Kristína

    2013-01-01

    This study analyzed and compared the exercise intensity in Zumba fitness and Tae-bo aerobics. Object of the research was monitoring of the heart rate and energy consumption in kcal during exercise unit, by using Heart Rate Monitor Suunto Memory Belt. All measurements were attended by randomly selected 11 women. The data we collected during the six units of the Zumba fitness and six units of the Tae-bo aerobics . Obtained data of the heart rate were evaluated in three main parts of workout: af...

  12. Aerobic Rice: Benefits without going to the Gym?

    OpenAIRE

    Bayot, Ruvicyn; Templeton, Deborah J.

    2009-01-01

    Rice, a staple food for over 70% of Asians, is also the single biggest user of water, requiring 2‐3 times more water per unit of grain produced than crops such as wheat and maize. With growing populations, increased urbanisation and environmental degradation, the supply of fresh water is depleting. Recognising the water constraints to rice yield, the aim of the project entitled ‘Developing a System of Temperate and Tropical Aerobic Rice (STAR) in Asia’ was to develop water‐efficient aerobic r...

  13. Novel aerobic tetracycline resistance gene that chemically modifies tetracycline.

    OpenAIRE

    Speer, B S; Salyers, A A

    1989-01-01

    A tetracycline resistance gene that was found originally on the Bacteroides plasmid pBF4 confers resistance on Escherichia coli but only when cells are growing aerobically. When E. coli EM24 carrying this aerobic tetracycline resistance (*Tcr) gene is grown in medium containing tetracycline, the resulting spent medium is no longer toxic to tetracycline-sensitive (Tcs) E. coli EM24 (B.S. Speer and A.A. Salyers, J. Bacteriol. 170: 1423-1429, 1988). To determine whether the *Tcr gene product mod...

  14. Copper intoxication inhibits aerobic nucleotide synthesis in Streptococcus pneumoniae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Michael D. L.; Kehl-Fie, Thomas E.; Rosch, Jason W.

    2015-01-01

    Copper is universally toxic in excess, a feature exploited by the human immune system to facilitate bacterial clearance. The mechanism of copper intoxication remains unknown for many bacterial species. Here, we demonstrate that copper toxicity in Streptococcus pneumoniae is independent from oxidative stress but, rather, is the result of copper inhibiting the aerobic dNTP biosynthetic pathway. Furthermore, we show that copper-intoxicated S. pneumoniae is rescued by manganese, which is an essential metal in the aerobic nucleotide synthesis pathway. These data provide insight into new targets to enhance copper-mediated toxicity during bacterial clearance. PMID:25730343

  15. Effect of Aerobics on Physical Self-esteem of College Female Students%健美操运动对女大学生身体自尊的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗海燕

    2014-01-01

    Through using the method of the questionnaire , taking the college female students majoring in aerobics as research object , this paper investigates the effect of aerobics on physical self -esteem of college female students.The result shows that it has significant difference between ordinary students and students majoring in aerobics concerning about the influence of aerobics on physical self -esteem.The students majoring in aerobics got much more influence on their physical self -esteem and value through aerobics .%本文采用问卷调查的方法,以本校健美操运动专项和普通女大学生为研究对象,调查了健美操对女大学生身体自尊的影响。结果表明:健美操对健美操专项和普通女大学生身体自尊的影响差异显著;健美操运动对女大学生身体自尊中身体吸引力和身体自我价值感的影响作用较大。

  16. The Effect of Microbial Inoculants Applied at Ensiling on Sorghum Silage Characteristics and Aerobic Stability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUAN Wu-tai; Ashbell G; Hen Y; Weinberg Z G

    2002-01-01

    Whole crop forage sorghum (Saccharatum) cultivar FS5 was harvested at the soft dough stage of maturity. The sorghum was chopped to approximately 2 cm pieces and ensiled under laboratory conditions in 1.5 L Weck glass jars. At ensiling, it was treated with two commercial microbial inoculants: inoculant A and inoculant B. The inoculants were applied at 2 × 105 colony forming units g- 1 DM. Silage with no additives served as a control. Three jars per treatment were opened on days 2, 4, 8, 15 and 60 post-ensiling to study fermentation dynamics. After 60 days of ensiling, the silages were analyzed and subjected to an aerobic stability test lasting 5 days. Results showed that both inoculants caused a more rapid rate of pH decline and a higher amount of lactic acid production. Silages treated with each inoculant produced a little more CO2 and resulted in more glucose loss as compared with the control. Addition of inoculants did not influence ( P > 0.05) the ash and crude protein contents, but tended to decrease the concentration of acetic acid (P < 0.05), butyric acid (P < 0.01) and propionic acid ( P < 0.01 ), and increase the lactic acid concentration ( P < 0.01 ). Silages treated with inoculant A possess the more DM loss, and the higher yeast counts upon aerobic exposure. Silage treated with inoculant B had the most DM (P < 0.05), lactic acid contents (P < 0.01 ), the least acetic acid content (P < 0.05). Inoculant B reduced the ADF (P < 0.01), ADL and NDF ( P < 0.05) contents. It was concluded that lactic bacteria inoculants may improve the fermentation but might impair the aerobic stability for sorghum ensilage.

  17. Bone Tissue in Down Syndrome Patients Deteriorates Following Aging: A Study Based on Bone Ultrasound Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirela Gavris

    2014-03-01

    Conclusion: This study showed that BUA is sufficiently sensitive to highlight the bone degradation that occurs at the end of adolescence and in adulthood in individuals with DS. In addition, BUA and stabilometric performances were able to distinguish DS patients from controls in the two older age groups, indicating that bone tissue and postural control of DS patients deteriorate with aging.

  18. Partial discharge patterns and surface deterioration in voids in filled and unfilled epoxy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holbøll, Joachim; Henriksen, Mogens

    1992-01-01

    Results are presented from analyses of pulses from partial discharges (PDs) in single spherical voids in filled and unfilled epoxy plastic and related to the observed surface deterioration. The filler types used were dolomite, alumina, and silica. Long-time aging tests including pulse phase...

  19. Deterioration Mechanisms and Durability of Sprayed Concrete for Rock Support in Tunnels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hagelia, P.

    2011-01-01

    Steel fibre reinforced sprayed concretes used for rock support in tunnels are subjected to variable and complex exposure conditions. Structurally weakened concretes (5 to 35 years old) were investigated with respect to deterioration mechanisms, sources of aggressive agents and related engineering as

  20. 75 FR 19567 - Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) and Nonattainment New Source Review (NSR...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-15

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Parts 51 and 52 RIN 2060-AP80 Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) and Nonattainment New Source Review (NSR): Aggregation; Reconsideration AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA... a Clean Air Act (CAA) rule, the New Source Review (NSR) Aggregation Amendments, which...