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Sample records for aerobic actinomycetes epidemiology

  1. The medically important aerobic actinomycetes: epidemiology and microbiology.

    OpenAIRE

    McNeil, M. M.; Brown, J. M.

    1994-01-01

    The aerobic actinomycetes are soil-inhabiting microorganisms that occur worldwide. In 1888, Nocard first recognized the pathogenic potential of this group of microorganisms. Since then, several aerobic actinomycetes have been a major source of interest for the commercial drug industry and have proved to be extremely useful microorganisms for producing novel antimicrobial agents. They have also been well known as potential veterinary pathogens affecting many different animal species. The medic...

  2. [EPIDEMIOLOGICAL, CLINICAL AND MICROBIOLOGICAL FINDINGS IN WOMEN WITH AEROBIC VAGINITIS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dermendjiev, T; Pehlivanov, B; Hadjieva, K; Stanev, S

    2015-01-01

    Aerobic vaginitis (AV) is an alterarion of the normal lactobacillic flora accompanied by signs of inflammation, presence of mainly aerobic microorganisms from intestinal commensals or other aerobic pathogens. Clinical symptoms may vary by type and intensity and are marked by a high tendency for recurrence and chronification. Inflammation and ulcerations in AV could increase the risk of contracting HIV or other sexually transmitted infections. The aim is to study some epidemiological, clinical and microbiological features of the aerobic vaginitis in patients of the specialized Obstetric and Gynecological Clinic in Plovdiv, Bulgaria. In a retrospective research 4687 vaginal smears have been gathered in Microbiological laboratory at "St. George" Hospital - Plovdiv. We used clinical, microbiological and statistical methods. Information processing is performed by variation, alternative, correlation and graphical analysis using specialized package SPSS v13.0. The overall prevalence rate of AV in the studied population is 11.77%. The levels of prevalence of AV in pregnant and non-pregnant women are respectively 13.08% and 4.34%. The highest frequency of AV is in the age group 21-30 years (32.3%). The results show a marked association between Escherichia coli and the cases of AV (p vaginal symptoms in patients of specialized ambulatory outpatient. One in ten women with vaginal complaints suffers from AV Streptococcus agalactiae and Escherichia coli are most often isolated aerobic microorganisms. PMID:26863788

  3. Transformation of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) by actinomycetes isolated from TNT-contaminated and uncontaminated environments.

    OpenAIRE

    Pasti-Grigsby, M B; Lewis, T A; Crawford, D L; Crawford, R L

    1996-01-01

    Actinomycete strains isolated from 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT)-contaminated and uncontaminated environments were compared for TNT tolerance and abilities to transform TNT. Regardless of previous TNT exposure history, no significant differences in TNT tolerance were seen among strains. Selected strains did not significantly mineralize [14C]TNT. The actinomycetes did, however, transform TNT into reduced intermediates. The data indicate that, in actinomycete-rich aerobic environments like compos...

  4. Therapeutically Active Biomolecules from Marine Actinomycetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mani Jayaprakashvel

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available For the past few centuries, the biological sources of terrestrial origin have been explored and exploited for bioactive metabolites. This has resulted in the stagnancy of discovering either novel compounds or compounds with novel bioactivities. Thus, researchers across the globe have started exploring our big Oceans, for the search of bioactive metabolites. During the past few decades, the research on bioactive metabolites from marine biological resources has geared up and among the sources marine actinomycetes are proved to be best. Marine actinomycetes, the filamentous bacteria from marine environment have been intensively studied for bioactive metabolites. The biological diversity of marine actinomycetes was found to be enormous, thanks to culture dependent and culture independent biodiversity approaches. This great diversity of marine actinomycetes has offered greater chemical diversity. The diverse chemical compounds of marine actinomycetes have been found to have various biological activities such as antimicrobial, anti-tumor, anti-malarial, anti-algal, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory etc. These various bioactive metabolites of marine actinomycetes are having scope for developing as potent therapeutic agents. The potential of marine actinomycetes is rightly realized though the current biological wealth of these organisms isrelatively unexplored.

  5. Detection and identification of novel actinomycetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, S T; Locci, R; Beswick, A; Kurtböke, D I; Kuznetsov, V D; Le Monnier, F J; Long, P F; Maycroft, K A; Palma, R A; Petrolini, B

    1993-10-01

    The actinomycetes are well known as a group of filamentous, Gram-positive bacteria that produce many useful secondary metabolites, including antibiotics and enzymes. Although they have been intensively studied for both theoretical and practical objectives, there is much scope for developing our basic knowledge of the means of detection and isolation of these microbes. This session concentrated on new methods for the detection and identification of novel actinomycetes from a range of environments. Approaches to the detection of actinomycetes ranged from investigations of neglected habitats and extreme environments (e.g. alkaline soils and oil drills) to the analysis of DNA extracted from the environment and use of specific phages. The continuing problems of the identification of actinomycete isolates were also considered. Topics discussed included use of phage typing, DNA probes, and correlation between phenetic and genotypic species of Streptomyces.

  6. Novel method for selective isolation of actinomycetes.

    OpenAIRE

    Hirsch, C F; Christensen, D L

    1983-01-01

    A new technique for the selective isolation of actinomycetes from natural mixed microbial populations is described. A nutrient agar medium was overlaid with a 0.22- to 0.45-microns-pore cellulose ester membrane filter, and the surface of the filter was inoculated. During incubation, the branched mycelia of the actinomycetes penetrated the filter pores to the underlying agar medium, whereas growth of nonactinomycete bacteria was restricted to the filter surface. The membrane filter was removed...

  7. Isolation and phylogenetic assignation of actinomycetes in the marine sediments from the Arctic Ocean

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Yong; LI Huirong; ZENG Yinxin; CHEN Bo

    2005-01-01

    Actinomycetes in five marine sediments collected from the Arctic Ocean at depths of 43 to 3 050 m were cultivated using a variety of media. A total of 61 actinomycete colonies with substrate mycelia only were observed, and no colonies with aerial mycelia were observed under aerobic conditions at 15 ℃. From these colonies, 28 were selected to represent different morphological types.Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) was used to check the purity of isolates and select representatives for subsequent sequencing. Phylogentic analyses based on nearly full-length 16S ribosomal RNA gene (rDNA) sequences indicated that the actinomycetes isolated were accommodated within genus Rhodococcus of family Nocardiaceae, genus Dietzia of family Dietziaceae,genera Janibacter and Terrabacter of family Instrasporangiaceae and genera Kocuria and Arthrobacter of family Micrococcaceae. One of the strains (P27-24) from the deep-sea sediment at depth of 3 050 m was found to be identical in 16S rDNA sequence(1474/1474)with the radiation-resistant Kocuria rosea ATCC 187T isolated from air. More than halfofthe isolates showed the similarities ranging from 99.5% to 99.9% in 16S rDNA sequence to dibenzofran-degrading, butyl 2-ethylhexanoate-hydrolysising and nitrile-metabolizing actinomycetes. All the strains isolated were psychrotolerant bacteria and grew better on the media prepared with natural seawater than on the media prepared with deionized water. Three of them (Dietzia sp. P27-10, Rhodococcus sp. S11-3 and Rhodococcus sp.P11-5)had an obligate growth requirement for salt, confirming that these strains are indigenous marine actinomycetes.

  8. Fermentative production of carotenoids from marine actinomycetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Ashokkumar

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: In marine actinomycetes, carotenoid production occurs in constitutive, light-dependent or cryptic manner. The present work deals with the fermentative production of carotenoids from marine actinomycetes."nMaterials and Methods: Marine actinomycetes namely Streptomyces strain AQBMM35 was isolated from the marine sponge Mycale mytilorum collected from South West coast of India using ISP media. The Streptomyces isolates were characterized for their colony characteristics, morphological properties, physiological and biochemical properties and were tentatively identified. Fermentation of the strain under fluorescent white light was carried out for the production of carotenoids. UV spectrum, TLC and HPLC analysis were done for the confirmation of carotenoids."nResults: The characteristics studied strongly suggest that the strain AQBMM35 belongs to the genus Streptomyces sp. It has been found that Streptomyces strain (AQBMM35 fermenting under fluorescent white light produced carotenoids. Spectrophotometric analysis of the carotenoid fraction revealed a peak at 280 nm. TLC analysis of the carotenoid extract showed the presence of phytoene (Rf of 0.81. HPLC confirmed the production of phytoene when compared with standards."nConclusion: The fermenting sponge-associated Streptomyces isolate (AQBMM35 produced carotenoids namely phytoene. If this symbiotic Streptomyces strain, from which secondary metabolite like carotenoids are derived, can be cultured under light, then it can be used for mass production of precursor pigment and it can be used as an antioxidant and also as a food additive.

  9. 癌症患者革兰阴性杆菌感染状态的流行病学模式的建立%Epidemiologic Model of Gram-negative Aerobic Bacteria in Hospitalized Cancer Patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张彩云; 芮芳; 王彦

    2011-01-01

    对本地区癌症患者感染的革兰阴性杆菌进行包括感染的细菌种类、感染的脏器、不同癌症类型感染状态及耐药情况、耐药基因作流行病学调查分析,指导本地区癌症患者抗感染治疗.应用聚合酶链式反应对耐药菌株进行耐药基因分析;对临床分离的革兰阴性杆菌鉴定、分类.归纳出临床标本革兰阴性杆菌检出谱、血液肿瘤及实体肿瘤患者各类感染的优势菌检出谱、肠杆菌科及假单胞菌属耐药谱.系统地建立了本地区革兰阴性杆菌引起的肿瘤患者感染的菌群分布、抗生素耐药及耐药基因存在模式,为临床合理使用抗生素提供了理论和实验依据.%To survey the epidemiologic model of gram-negative aerobic bacteria in hospitalized cancer patients, to access the species of Gram-negative Aerobic Bacteria, the status of infection and the antimicrobial resistance patterns, to study the variations of drug resistance genes, and to instruct anti-infective treatment. Gram-negative bacteria from all clinical specimens were isolated, cultured and identified; PCR method was used to detect and analyze drug resistance gene in drug resistance strains. Spectrum of Gram-negative aerobic bacteria from hospitalized cancer patients, spectrum of superior strains from both patients with hematological malignancies ( leukemia patients) and patients with solid tumors and antimicrobial resistance patterns of Enterobacteriaeeae and pseudomonad were summarized. In addition, patterns of drug resistance gene were described. This study can direct intelligent use of antibiotics, and the patterns of drug resistance gene in this study provide variation of drug resistance gene in Bao Ding City with date basis.

  10. Actinomycetes in garden soils of the city of Kirov

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirokikh, I. G.; Solov'eva, E. S.; Ashikhmina, T. Ya.

    2013-05-01

    The population density, diversity, and structure of the actinomycetic complexes were studied in garden soils of the city of Kirov. The relationships between the structure of the complexes and the acidity, the concentrations of the mobile forms of heavy metals, and the soil humus content were analyzed. The specific features of the actinomycetic population in the garden soils of the city in comparison with the transport ecotopes and suburban territories were revealed. It was demonstrated that the actinomycetic complexes in the garden soils preserve their structural similarity with the actinomycetic complexes of the suburban forest parks despite certain changes in the composition of the dominant species and the relative abundance of the separate taxa. The obtained data indicate that the garden plots in the city contribute to the preservation of ecologically balanced ecosystems.

  11. Site-Specific Recombination Strategies for Engineering Actinomycete Genomes

    OpenAIRE

    Herrmann, Simone; Siegl, Theresa; Luzhetska, Marta; Petzke, Lutz; Jilg, Caroline; Welle, Elisabeth; Erb, Annette; Leadlay, Peter F; Bechthold, Andreas; Luzhetskyy, Andriy

    2012-01-01

    The feasibility of using technologies based on site-specific recombination in actinomycetes was shown several years ago. Despite their huge potential, these technologies mostly have been used for simple marker removal from a chromosome. In this paper, we present different site-specific recombination strategies for genome engineering in several actinomycetes belonging to the genera Streptomyces, Micromonospora, and Saccharothrix. Two different systems based on Cre/loxP and Dre/rox have been ut...

  12. Antibacterial activity of some actinomycetes from Tamil Nadu, India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pachaiyappan Saravana Kumar; John Poonga Preetam Raj; Veeramuthu Duraipandiyan; Savarimuthu Ignacimuthu

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To isolate novel actinomycetes and to evaluate their antibacterial activity. Methods:Three soil samples were collected from Vengodu (village) in Kanchipuram district, Tamil Nadu, India. Actinomycetes were isolated using serial dilution and plating method on actinomycetes isolation agar. Results: Totally 35 isolates were obtained on the basis of colony characteristics on actinomycetes isolation agar. All the isolates were screened for antibacterial activity by cross streak method. Medium and optimization of day were done for the potent strains using Nathan's agar well diffusion method. Isolation of bioactive compounds from significant active isolates was done by using different media. The most active isolate VAS 10 was identified as Actinobacterium Loyola PBT VAS 10 (accession No. JF501398) using 16s rRNA sequence method. The hexane, ethyl acetate, dichloromethane and butanol extracts of VAS 10 were tested against bacteria. The maximum antibacterial activity was observed in dichloromethane and ethyl acetate;maximum zones of inhibition were observed against Enterococcus durans. The rRNA secondary structure and the restriction sites of Actinobacterium Loyola VAS 10 were predicted using Genebee and NEBCutter online tools respectively. Conclusions: The present study showed that among the isolated actinomycetes, Actinobacterium Loyola PBT VAS 10 (accession No. JF501398) showed good antibacterial activity against the tested bacteria.

  13. Antimicrobial potential of Actinomycetes species isolated from marine environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Valli S; Suvathi Sugasini S; Aysha OS; Nirmala P; Vinoth Kumar P; Reena A

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the antimicrobial activity of Actinomycetes species isolated from marine environment. Methods: Twenty one strains of Actinomycetes were isolated from samples of Royapuram, Muttukadu, Mahabalipuram sea shores and Adyar estuary. Preliminary screening was done using cross-streak method against two gram-positive and eight gram-negative bacteria. The most potent strains C11 and C12 were selected from which antibacterial substances were extracted. The antibacterial activities of the extracts were performed using Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method. Molecular identification of those isolates was done. Results:All those twenty one isolates were active against at least one of the test organisms. Morphological characters were recorded. C11 showed activity against Staphylococcus species (13.0±0.5 mm), Vibrio harveyi (11.0±0.2 mm), Pseudomonas species (12.0±0.3 mm). C12 showed activity against Staphylococcus species (16.0±0.4 mm), Bacillus subtilis (11.0±0.2 mm), Vibrio harveyi (9.0±0.1 mm), Pseudomonas species (10.0±0.2 mm). 16S rRNA pattern strongly suggested that C11 and C12 strains were Streptomyces species. Conclusions: The results of the present investigation reveal that the marine Actinomycetes from coastal environment are the potent source of novel antibiotics. Isolation, characterization and study of Actinomycetes can be useful in discovery of novel species of Actinomycetes.

  14. CRISPR-Cas9 Based Engineering of Actinomycetal Genomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tong, Yaojun; Charusanti, Pep; Zhang, Lixin;

    2015-01-01

    . To facilitate the genetic manipulation of actinomycetes, we developed a highly efficient CRISPR-Cas9 system to delete gene(s) or gene cluster(s), implement precise gene replacements, and reversibly control gene expression in actinomycetes. We demonstrate our system by targeting two genes, actIORF1 (SCO5087......) and actVB (SCO5092), from the actinorhodin biosynthetic gene cluster in Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2). Our CRISPR-Cas9 system successfully inactivated the targeted genes. When no templates for homology-directed repair (HDR) were present, the site-specific DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) introduced by Cas9....... Moreover, we developed a system to efficiently and reversibly control expression of target genes, deemed CRISPRi, based on a catalytically dead variant of Cas9 (dCas9). The CRISPR-Cas9 based system described here comprises a powerful and broadly applicable set of tools to manipulate actinomycetal genomes....

  15. [Isolation of Actinomycetes synthesizing proteases with thrombolytic activity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lysenko, S V; Salivonik, S M

    1988-01-01

    Proteases with the thrombolytic activity were studied in 212 strains of actinomycetes isolated from different soils of the Soviet Union. The cultures belonged to the genera Micromonospora, Nocardia and Streptomyces. Proteases were synthesized by 41% of the studied actinomycetes and some of their strains completely dissolved in vitro artificially obtained blood thrombi within 120-240 min. In the Streptomyces genus, more active strains were found in the groups Flavus, Fradia and Globisporus. The groups Olivaceus, Violaceus and Viridis had less active strains. PMID:3062331

  16. ISOLATION OF ENDOPHYTIC ACTINOMYCETES FROM MEDICINAL PLANTS AND ITS MUTATIONAL EFFECT IN BIOCONTROL ACTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hema Shenpagam N.*, D. Kanchana Devi ** and Sinduja G.

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the endophytic actinomycetes were collected from three medicinal plants Azadiracta indica, Ocimum sanctum and Phyllanthus amarus. Endophytic actinomycetes were isolated using different media like Starch casein agar, Starch casein nitrate agar, Actinomycetes isolation agar and Soyabean agar, while it showed more colonies in Starch casein agar. The endophytic actinomycetes were stained and biochemical tests were performed. Antimicrobial compound was purified from the filtrate by ethanol extraction method. Antagonistic activities of endophytic actinomycetes isolates were tested against bacterial pathogens (Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa and the fungi Rhizopus. For the selected isolates antibiotic resistance was checked using various antibiotic discs like Amoxycillin, Penicillin, Rifampicin and Ampicillin. The strains which showed efficient antibacterial activity were selected to study the effect of mutation by physical and chemical method. In this study, UV mutated endophytic actinomycetes increase antibiotic production than non-mutated endophytic Actinomycetes, whereas in chemical mutation it does not increase the antibiotic production.

  17. A New Degraded Sesquiterpene from Marine Actinomycete Streptomyces sp. 0616208

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiu Chao XIE; Wen Li MEI; You Xing ZHAO; Kui HONG; Hao Fu DAI

    2006-01-01

    A new degraded sesquiterpene was isolated from the marine actinomycete Streptomyces sp. 0616208. Its structure was elucidated as (1α, 4aα, 5α, 7β, 8aβ)-5, 8a-dimethyl-decahydrona-phthalene-1, 4a, 7-triol on the basis of spectroscopic data.

  18. Environmental and metabolomic study of antibiotic production by actinomycetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhu, Hua

    2014-01-01

    This thesis may be regarded as a concept work, to see how feasible drug discovery approaches still are. For this, a strain collection was built up consisting of actinomycetes from soil in the Qinling and Himalaya mountains, which were subsequently tested for antibiotic production against multi-drug

  19. Low aerobic fitness in Brazilian adolescents

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    Diego Augusto Santos Silva

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: aerobic fitness is considered one of the most important components of health-related physical fitness, with low levels related to increased risk of premature death from all causes, especially cardiovascular diseases. OBJECTIVE: to identify the characteristics of adolescents at higher risk of low levels of aerobic fitness. METHODS: the study included 696 adolescents 15-17 years of age enrolled in public high schools of Florianópolis, southern Brazil. This cross-sectional epidemiological study was conducted in Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brazil. Aerobic fitness was measured using the modified Canadian Aerobic Fitness Test mCAFT. Sociodemographic gender, age, school grade, paternal and maternal schooling, socioeconomic status, and anthropometric variables body weight, height, triceps and subscapular skinfold thickness, sexual maturation, physical activity, sedentary behavior, and eating habits were collected. RESULTS: it was found that 31.5% of adolescents had low aerobic fitness levels, being higher in boys 49.2% compared to girls 20.6%. Moreover, girls with sedentary behavior, overweight and high body fat percentage were the groups most likely to have inadequate aerobic fitness. In males, the groups most likely to have inadequate aerobic fitness were those whose parents studied more than eight years, those with low levels of physical activity, and those with inadequate nutrition and excessive body fat. CONCLUSION: low aerobic fitness levels were present in one third of adolescents and was more prevalent in boys. Lifestyle changes, including replacement of sedentary behaviors by physical and sport activities , may assist in improving the aerobic fitness of Brazilian adolescents.

  20. Aerobic exercise (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aerobic exercise gets the heart working to pump blood through the heart more quickly and with more force than ... must be oxygenated more quickly, which quickens respiration. Aerobic exercise strengthens the heart and boosts healthy cholesterol ...

  1. Marine actinomycetes from Madeira Archipelago preliminary taxonomic studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilda Santos Sanches

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The oceans cover 70 % of the Earth´s surface and harbor most of the planet´s biodiversity. However the microbiological component of this diversity remains relatively unexplored. Marine actinomycetes, are a robust resource of chemically prolific novelty. Producing structurally unique biological active secondary metabolites, generating a valuable source for innovative biotechnology and drug discovery[1,2]. As a consequence, the ecological role of actinomycetes and their marine ecosystems may no longer be neglected. It is crucial to move our research efforts into ocean regions for which we know little or nothing about the indigenous microbial diversity. The Portuguese Archipelago, Madeira is located in the Macaronesian Atlantic region, emerging from the African tectonic plate, found in the extreme south of the Tore-Madeira ridge, has a unique biogeography and biodiversity. These distinctive characteristics combined with the fact that Madeira have never been explored, as far as indigenous marine actinomycetes are concerned, makes it from the scientific point of view, the perfect target for our studies. From 662 marine sediment samples collected along Madeira Archipelago (Figure 1 during June of 2012, covering depths from 10-1310 m, a total of 421 actinomycete strains were isolated. In a previous study, an assemblage of 82 strains was selected for taxonomic identification, having into account representative morphological diversity characteristics of the actinomycetes, isolated from Madeira Archipelago. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing, it was observed that the genera Streptomyces, Micromonospora and Salinispora were predominant, 81% [3]. Additionally, in a recent study, our team selected 168 strains with Salinispora look-alike morphological features. From these 28 strains were identified as belonging to the seawater-obligate marine actinomycete genus Salinispora. Representing the first report of Salinispora spp. in the Macaronesian Atlantic Ocean

  2. Hydrophobic nature and effects of culture conditions on biofilm formation by the cellulolytic actinomycete Thermobifida fusca

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    Almaris N. Alonso

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Thermobifida fusca produces a firmly attached biofilm on nutritive and non-nutritive surfaces, such as cellulose, glass, plastic, metal and Teflon®. The ability to bind to surfaces has been suggested as a competitive advantage for microbes in soil environments. Results of previous investigations indicated that a Gram-positive cellulolytic soil bacteria, Cellulomonas uda, a facultative aerobe, specifically adhered to nutritive surfaces forming biofilms, but cells did not colonize non-nutritive surfaces. Cell surface hydrophobicity has been implicated in the interactions between bacteria and the adhesion to surfaces. It was recently described that the cellulolytic actinomycete T. fusca cells hydrophobicity was measured and compared to the cellulolytic soil bacteria C. uda. Also, T. fusca biofilm formation on non-nutritive surface, such as polyvinyl chloride, was examined by testing various culture ingredients to determine a possible trigger mechanism for biofilm formation. Experimental results showed that partitioning of bacterial cells to various hydrocarbons was higher in T. fusca cells than in C. uda. The results of this study suggest that the attachment to multiple surfaces by T. fusca could depend on nutrient availability, pH, salt concentrations, and the higher hydrophobic nature of bacterial cells. Possibly, these characteristics may confer T. fusca a selective advantage to compete and survive among the many environments it thrives.

  3. Distribution of actinomycetes in oil contaminated ultisols of the Niger Delta (Nigeria)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The distribution of actinomycetes in oil contaminated sandy loam ultisols of the Niger Delta region of Nigeria was studied to aid in understanding the effect of hydrocarbons on indigenous microbial population in tropical soils. The average total counts of actinomycetes in all the oil samples analysed was 103 cfu/g. Higher counts of actinomycetes were observed during the dry season than during the wet season. The counts of hydrocarbonoclastic actinomycetes correlated positively with the total count of actinomycetes.The actinomycetes were generally restricted to the top soil(0-10 cm soil depth) although a seemingly deeper(down to 40 cm soil depth) distribution was noticed in the dry season. The isolates included oil degrading species of Actinoplanes, Norcadia,Streptomyces and Streptosporangium. Their high oil utilization ability indicates their positive potential and role in the bioremediation of oil-spilled soils.

  4. Competitive biosorption of thorium and uranium by actinomycetes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The competitive biosorption of thorium and uranium by actinomycetes was examined. Of the actinomycetes tested, Streptomyces levoris showed the highest ability to sorb both thorium and uranium from aqueous systems. Thorium sorption was not affected by co-existed uranium, while uranium sorption was strongly hindered by co-existed thorium. The amounts of both thorium and uranium sorbed by Streptomyces levoris cells increased with an increase of the solution pH. Although the equilibrium isotherm of uranium biosorption is in similar manner as that of thorium biosorption, uranium was sorbed much faster than thorium. Biosorption isotherm of each metal ion could be well fitted by Langmuir isotherm taking the ionic charge of metal ions into account. The Langmuir isotherm for binary system did not explain completely the competitive biosorption of thorium and uranium by Streptomyces levoris. However, the results suggested that the ion species of both metals in the cells should be Th(OH)22+ and UO22+, respectively. (author)

  5. Ecological features of rare actinomycetes genera in soils of Azerbaijan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. R. Abushova

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of the research of rare species of actinomycetes in some soils of Azerbaijan were studied. On the selective media the representatives of Streptomyces, Streptosporangium, Micromonospora, Actinomadura, Microbispora, Saccharopolyspora and Saccharomonospora were revealed. Species of Streptomyces and Micromonospora dominate in mountain-wood ecosystems (60 %.. It was established that among streptomyces species of Cinereus section of Violaceus series; Helvolo-Flavus sections of Helvolus series, Roseus sections of Fuscus series; Azureus sections of Coerulescens series. It was established that amount of termotolerant actinomycetes in the investigated desert soils of Azerbaijan depends on the incubation temperature. The species of Streptomyces, Micromonospora, Saccharopolyspora and Actinomadura genera were isolated from desert soils of Azerbaijan.

  6. Actinomycetes for Marine Drug Discovery Isolated from Mangrove Soils and Plants in China

    OpenAIRE

    Hong, Kui; Gao, An-Hui; Xie, Qing-Yi; Gao, Hao Gao; Zhuang, Ling; Lin, Hai-Peng; Yu, Hai-Ping; Li, Jia; Yao, Xin-Sheng; Goodfellow, Michael; Ruan, Ji-Sheng

    2009-01-01

    The mangrove ecosystem is a largely unexplored source for actinomycetes with the potential to produce biologically active secondary metabolites. Consequently, we set out to isolate, characterize and screen actinomycetes from soil and plant material collected from eight mangrove sites in China. Over 2,000 actinomycetes were isolated and of these approximately 20%, 5%, and 10% inhibited the growth of Human Colon Tumor 116 cells, Candida albicans and Staphylococcus aureus, respectively, while 3%...

  7. Isolation and characterization of marine-derived actinomycetes with cytotoxic activity from the Red Sea coast

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamed Saleh Abdelfattah; Mohammed Ismail Youssef Elmallah; Usama Wahid Hawas; Lamia Taha Abou El-Kassema; Mennat Allah Gamal Eid

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To isolate and evaluate the cytotoxic activity of different actinomycetes species isolated from the Red Sea coast in Sharm el-Sheikh, Egypt. Methods: Forty actinomycetes strains were isolated from different sediments and seawater samples collected from the Red Sea coast in Egypt. Actinomycetes were recognized by morphological and microscopic examinations. Cell viability and cytotoxicity induced by the crude extracts on breast cancer cell lines MDA-MB-231 were assessed using meth...

  8. 放线菌分类研究进展%Advance on taxonomy of actinomycetes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘燕娟; 李婵; 周倩

    2009-01-01

    The status of actinomycetes classification study of the evolution and classification methods were overviewed, as well as domestic actinomycetes classification status,and actinomycetes classification was forecasted.%综述了放线菌分类地位的演变和分类研究方法,以及国内放线菌分类现状,并对放线菌分类研究进行了展望.

  9. Lactose-reversible coaggregation between oral actinomycetes and Streptococcus sanguis.

    OpenAIRE

    Kolenbrander, P. E.; Williams, B L

    1981-01-01

    Freshly isolated strains of oral actinomycetes were obtained from human dental plaque and were tested for the ability to coaggregate with common laboratory stock strains of Streptococcus sanguis. Strains belonging to the genera Actinomyces, Arachnia, Bifidobacterium, and Bacterionema were isolated. Only members of the genus Actinomyces coaggregated with the streptococci, and only Actinomyces viscosus and Actinomyces naeslundii exhibited lactose-reversible interactions. A total of 61 strains, ...

  10. Degradation of Lignin-Related Compounds by Actinomycetes

    OpenAIRE

    Ball, A.S.; Betts, W. B.; McCarthy, A.J.

    1989-01-01

    Evidence for activity against the lignin fraction of straw was produced for a range of actinomycete strains. Decolorization of the polymeric dye Poly R and oxidation of veratryl alcohol, indicators of ligninolytic activity in white rot fungi, and utilization of fractionated Kraft lignin and low-molecular-weight methoxylated aromatic compounds were the criteria used. The relationships between these activities and the solubilization of native lignin are discussed.

  11. Ecological features of rare actinomycetes genera in soils of Azerbaijan

    OpenAIRE

    A. R. Abushova; S. A. Gasanova; M. A. Kasimzade

    2010-01-01

    The results of the research of rare species of actinomycetes in some soils of Azerbaijan were studied. On the selective media the representatives of Streptomyces, Streptosporangium, Micromonospora, Actinomadura, Microbispora, Saccharopolyspora and Saccharomonospora were revealed. Species of Streptomyces and Micromonospora dominate in mountain-wood ecosystems (60 %.). It was established that among streptomyces species of Cinereus section of Violaceus series; Helvolo-Flavus sections of Helvolus...

  12. ISOLATION AND ANTIMICROBIAL AND DEGRADATIVE POTENTIAL OF ACTINOMYCETES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Padma Singh* and Vani Sharma

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Problem Statement: Does the soil Actinomycetes have Antimicrobial and Petrol degradation potential? It is an intriguing question. Actinomycetes are continues to be a subject of study with reference to their Antimicrobial and degradative potential. However studies have been done is limited. Our object was to study its Antimicrobial activity in wide spectrum and to study its degradation potential on Petrol. Approach: In this study we have isolated total 5 Actinomycetes from the Ganga river bed. All the isolates later purified and identified by various Morphological and Biochemical test. Here Nocardia was subjected to antimicrobial test against Streptococcus, Mucor and Aspergillus and it was also subjected to degradation test against Petrol. Result: The 5 isolates are Streptomyces, Micromonospora, Micromono sporangium and 2 different strain of Nocardia (Na1 and Na2. The 2 strains of Nocardia are active against Streptococcus (Na1 29.6mm, Na2 26.6mm, Mucor (Na1 12.5mm, Na2 22.5mm and Aspergillus (Na1 50%, Na2 60%. They also degrade Petrol very effectively, decrease in total organic carbon of the medium was observed during the degradation of petrol. Conclusion: Our observation provides us with evidence that these agents can be used for the production of new antibiotics and as the agent to control the environment pollution.

  13. CRISPR-Cas9 Based Engineering of Actinomycetal Genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Yaojun; Charusanti, Pep; Zhang, Lixin; Weber, Tilmann; Lee, Sang Yup

    2015-09-18

    Bacteria of the order Actinomycetales are one of the most important sources of pharmacologically active and industrially relevant secondary metabolites. Unfortunately, many of them are still recalcitrant to genetic manipulation, which is a bottleneck for systematic metabolic engineering. To facilitate the genetic manipulation of actinomycetes, we developed a highly efficient CRISPR-Cas9 system to delete gene(s) or gene cluster(s), implement precise gene replacements, and reversibly control gene expression in actinomycetes. We demonstrate our system by targeting two genes, actIORF1 (SCO5087) and actVB (SCO5092), from the actinorhodin biosynthetic gene cluster in Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2). Our CRISPR-Cas9 system successfully inactivated the targeted genes. When no templates for homology-directed repair (HDR) were present, the site-specific DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) introduced by Cas9 were repaired through the error-prone nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ) pathway, resulting in a library of deletions with variable sizes around the targeted sequence. If templates for HDR were provided at the same time, precise deletions of the targeted gene were observed with near 100% frequency. Moreover, we developed a system to efficiently and reversibly control expression of target genes, deemed CRISPRi, based on a catalytically dead variant of Cas9 (dCas9). The CRISPR-Cas9 based system described here comprises a powerful and broadly applicable set of tools to manipulate actinomycetal genomes.

  14. [Isolation and antimicrobial activities of actinomycetes from vermicompost].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xue-jun; Yan, Shuang-lin; Min, Chang-li; Yang, Yan

    2015-02-01

    In this paper, actinomycetes were isolated from vermicompost by tablet coating method. Antimicrobial activities of actinomycetes were measured by the agar block method. Strains with high activity were identified based on morphology and biochemical characteristics, as well as 16S rDNA gene sequence analysis. The results showed that 26 strains of actinomycetes were isolated, 16 of them had antimicrobial activities to the test strains which accounts for 61.54% of all strains. Among the 16 strains, the strain QYF12 and QYF22 had higher antimicrobial activity to Micrococcus luteus, with a formed inhibition zone of 27 mm and 31 mm, respectively. While the strain QYF26 had higher antimicrobial activity to Bacillus subtilis, and the inhibition zone diameter was 21 mm. Based on the identification of strains with high activity, the strain QYF12 was identified as Streptomyces chartreusis, the strain QYF22 was S. ossamyceticus and the strain QYF26 was S. gancidicus. This study provided a theoretical basis for further separate antibacterial product used for biological control. PMID:26137678

  15. Actinomycetes in Karstic caves of northern Spain (Altamira and Tito Bustillo).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groth, I; Vettermann, R; Schuetze, B; Schumann, P; Saiz-Jimenez, C

    1999-05-01

    A variety of isolation procedures were carried out to study the involvement of bacteria in the colonisation and biodeterioration of Spanish caves with paleolithic rock art (Altamira and Tito Bustillo). The applied techniques mainly aimed to isolate heterotrophic bacteria such as streptomycetes, nocardioform and coryneform actinomycetes, and other gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. The results demonstrated that actinomycetes were the most abundant gram-positive bacteria in the caves. Actinomycetes revealed a great taxonomic diversity with the predominant isolates belonging to the genus Streptomyces. Members of the genera Nocardia, Rhodococcus, Nocardioides, Amycolatopsis, Saccharothrix, Brevibacterium, Microbacterium, and coccoid actinomycetes (family Micrococcaceae) were also found. PMID:10353805

  16. Airway inflammation among compost workers exposed to actinomycetes spores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kari Kulvik Heldal

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To study the associations between exposure to bioaerosols and work-related symptoms, lung function and biomarkers of airway inflammation in compost workers. Materials and method. Personal full-shift exposure measurements were performed on 47 workers employed at five windrow plants (n=20 and five reactor plants (n=27. Samples were analyzed for endotoxins, bacteria, fungal and actinomycetes spores. Health examinations were performed on workers and 37 controls before and after work on the day exposure was measured. The examinations included symptoms recorded by questionnaire, lung function by spirometry and nasal dimensions by acoustic rhinometry (AR. The pneumoproteins CC16, SP-D and SP-A were measured in a blood sample drawn at the end of the day. Results. The levels of endotoxins (median 3 EU/m[sup]3[/sup] , range 0–730 EU/m[sup]3[/sup] and actinomycetes spores (median 0.2 × 10[sup]6[/sup] spores/m[sup]3[/sup] , range 0–590 × 10[sup]6[/sup] spores/m[sup]3[/sup] were significantly higher in reactor plants compared to windrow plants. However, windrow composting workers reported more symptoms than reactor composting workers, probably due to use of respiratory protection. Exposure-response relationships between actinomycetes spores exposure and respiratory effects, found as cough and nose irritation during a shift, was significantly increased (OR 4.3, 95% CI 1.1–16, OR 6.1, 95% CI 1.5–25, respectively, p<0.05 among workers exposed to 0.02–0.3 × 10[sup]6[/sup] actinomycetes spores/m 3 , and FEV1/FVC% decreased cross shift (b=–3.2, SE=1.5%, p<0.01. Effects were weaker in the highest exposed group, but these workers used respiratory protection, frequently limiting their actual exposure. No relationships were found between exposure and pneumoprotein concentrations. Conclusions. The major agent in the aerosol generated at compost plants was actinomycetes spores which was associated with work related cough symptoms and work

  17. Actinomycete integrative and conjugative pMEA-like elements of Amycolatopsis and Saccharopolyspora decoded

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poele, Evelien M. Te; Samborskyy, Markiyan; Oliynyk, Markiyan; Leadlay, Peter F.; Bolhuis, Henk; Dijkhuizen, Lubbert

    2008-01-01

    Actinomycete integrative and conjugative elements (AICEs) are present in diverse genera of the actinomycetes, the most important bacterial producers of bioactive secondary metabolites. Comparison of pMEA100 of Amycolatopsis mediterranei, pMEA300 of Amycolatopsis methanolica and pSE211 of Saccharopol

  18. Influence of Xenobiotic Substances on Actinomycete Comunities in Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marioara Nicoleta Filimon

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Sulfonylurea herbicides are frequently used in agricultural crops even if they determine quantitative and qualitativechanges in soil microbial communities. In this study it was used increasing doses of two sulfonylurea herbicides,tribenuron-methyl and nicosulfuron, in order to establish their effect on actinomyces communities from soil underlaboratory conditions. Using nutritive gelose with soil extract and Gause medium the main species of actinomyceswere identified: Streptomyces albus, Streptomyces aureus and Streptomyces chrysomallus. Streptomyces albus is themost abundant species, which could indicate a resistance to used herbicides. Sulfonylurea herbicides, tribenuronmethyland nicosulfuron, point out a lower value, inhibiting the actinomycete communities from soil.

  19. Therapeutic Potential of Biologically Reduced Silver Nanoparticles from Actinomycete Cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. K. Sukanya

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Silver nanoparticles are applied in nanomedicine from time immemorial and are still used as powerful antibiotic and anti-inflammatory agents. Antibiotics produced by actinomycetes are popular in almost all the therapeutic measures, and this study has proven that these microbes are also helpful in the biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles with good surface and size characteristics. Silver can be synthesized by various chemical methodologies, and most of them have turned to be toxic. This study has been successful in isolating the microbes from polluted environment, and subjecting them to the reduction of silver nanoparticles, characterizing the nanoparticles by UV spectrophotometry and transmission electron microscopy. The nanoparticles produced were tested for their antimicrobial property, and the zone of inhibition was greater than those produced by their chemically synthesized counterparts. Actinomycetes, helpful in bioremediating heavy metals, are useful for the production of metallic nanoparticles. The biosynthesized silver nanoparticles loaded with antibiotics prove to be better in killing the pathogens and have opened up new areas for developing nanobiotechnological research based on microbial applications.

  20. New Dimensions of Research on Actinomycetes: Quest for Next Generation Antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jose, Polpass Arul; Jha, Bhavanath

    2016-01-01

    Starting with the discovery of streptomycin, the promise of natural products research on actinomycetes has been captivating researchers and offered an array of life-saving antibiotics. However, most of the actinomycetes have received a little attention of researchers beyond isolation and activity screening. Noticeable gaps in genomic information and associated biosynthetic potential of actinomycetes are mainly the reasons for this situation, which has led to a decline in the discovery rate of novel antibiotics. Recent insights gained from genome mining have revealed a massive existence of previously unrecognized biosynthetic potential in actinomycetes. Successive developments in next-generation sequencing, genome editing, analytical separation and high-resolution spectroscopic methods have reinvigorated interest on such actinomycetes and opened new avenues for the discovery of natural and natural-inspired antibiotics. This article describes the new dimensions that have driven the ongoing resurgence of research on actinomycetes with historical background since the commencement in 1940, for the attention of worldwide researchers. Coupled with increasing advancement in molecular and analytical tools and techniques, the discovery of next-generation antibiotics could be possible by revisiting the untapped potential of actinomycetes from different natural sources. PMID:27594853

  1. Diversity and Antagonistic Activity of Actinomycete Strains From Myristica Swamp Soils Against Human Pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varghese Rlnoy

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Under the present investigation Actinomycetes were isolated from the soils of Myristica swamps of southern Western Ghats and the antagonistic activity against different human bacterial pathogens was evaluated. Results of the present study revealed that Actinomycetes population in the soils of Myristica swamp was spatially and seasonally varied. Actinomycetes load was varied from 24×104 to 71×103, from 129×103 to 40×103 and from 31×104 to 84×103 in post monsoon, monsoon and pre monsoon respectively. A total of 23 Actinomycetes strains belonging to six genera were isolated from swamp soils. Identification of the isolates showed that most of the isolates belonged to the genus Streptomyces (11, followed by Nocardia (6, Micromonospora (3, Pseudonocardia (1, Streptosporangium (1, and Nocardiopsis (1. Antagonistic studies revealed that 91.3% of Actinomycete isolates were active against one or more tested pathogens, of that 56.52% exhibited activity against Gram negative and 86.95% showed activity against Gram positive bacteria. 39.13% isolates were active against all the bacterial pathogens selected and its inhibition zone diameter was also high. 69.5% of Actinomycetes were exhibited antibacterial activity against Listeria followed by Bacillus cereus (65.21%, Staphylococcus (60.86%, Vibrio cholera (52.17%, Salmonella (52.17% and E. coli (39.13%. The results indicate that the Myristica swamp soils of Southern Western Ghats might be a remarkable reserve of Actinomycetes with potential antagonistic activity.

  2. New Dimensions of Research on Actinomycetes: Quest for Next Generation Antibiotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polpass Arul Jose

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Starting with the discovery of streptomycin, the promise of natural products research on actinomycetes has been captivat¬ing researchers and offered an array of life-saving antibiotics. However, most of the actinomycetes have received a little attention of researchers beyond isolation and activity screening. Noticeable gaps in genomic information and associated biosynthetic potential of actinomycetes are mainly the reasons for this situation, which has led to a decline in the discovery rate of novel antibiotics. Recent insights gained from genome mining have revealed a massive existence of previously unrecognized biosynthetic potential in actinomycetes. Successive developments in next-generation sequencing, genome editing, analytical separation and high-resolution spectroscopic methods have reinvigorated interest on such actinomycetes and opened new avenues for the discovery of natural and natural-inspired antibiotics. This article describes the new dimensions that have driven the ongoing resurgence of research on actinomycetes with historical background since the commencement in 1940, for the attention of worldwide researchers. Coupled with increasing advancement in molecular and analytical tools and techniques, the discovery of next-generation antibiotics could be possible by revisiting the untapped potential of actinomycetes from different natural sources.

  3. Terrestrial actinomycetes from diverse locations of Uttarakhnad, India: Isolation and screening for their antibacterial activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay Kumar

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Uttarakhand region is less explored, but possess a great biodiversity. This diversity can be explored for isolation and characterization of new actinomycetes strains for seeking antimicrobial molecules. It can therefore be predicted that novel bioactive metabolite producing actinomycetes can be discovered to combat multidrug resistant bacterial pathogens.Variations in the viable count of actinomycetes were accessed in different altitudes. Actinomycetes were isolated, indentified and screened for their antibacterial activity.The highest viable counts of actinomycetes were recorded in valleys followed by mid hills and high hills. A total of 512 actinomycetes were isolated which were found to belong the 14 different genera of actinomycetes. Mainly the genus Streptomyces was dominant in all the soil samples. Out of 512 isolates recovered, 23.44% exhibited antibacterial activity against one or more tested bacterial pathogens. Of these 56.67% showed activity against Gram-positive bacteria, 26.67% against Gram-negative bacteria while 16.67% showed broad spectrum activity. Isolate DV1S and GR9a-5 showed highest antibacterial properties against several multi-drug resistant bacterial pathogens and were identified using polyphasic approach. DV1S and GR9a-5 were found to be most closely related with S. massasporeus NBRC 12796(T and Nocardia nova JCM 6044(T respectively.The results of this study strongly support the idea that the viable count of actinomycetes varied greatly with altitude. The actinomycetes species isolated from valleys, mid hills and high hills possess significant capacity to produce compounds which are active against several drug resistant bacterial pathogens.

  4. What Is Aerobic Dancing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... after exercising, see a physician. Common Aerobics Injuries Plantar fasciitis (arch pain) -- Arch pain is often caused by ... rearfoot instability, with excessive pronation, may result in plantar fasciitis. Shoes with proper support in the arch often ...

  5. New Benzoxazine Secondary Metabolites from an Arctic Actinomycete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyuho Moon

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Two new secondary metabolites, arcticoside (1 and C-1027 chromophore-V (2, were isolated along with C-1027 chromophore-III and fijiolides A and B (3–5 from a culture of an Arctic marine actinomycete Streptomyces strain. The chemical structures of 1 and 2 were elucidated through NMR, mass, UV, and IR spectroscopy. The hexose moieties in 1 were determined to be d-glucose from a combination of acid hydrolysis, derivatization, and gas chromatographic analyses. Arcticoside (1 and C-1027 chromophore-V (2, which have a benzoxazine ring, inhibited Candida albicans isocitrate lyase. Chromophore-V (2 exhibited significant cytotoxicity against breast carcinoma MDA-MB231 cells and colorectal carcinoma cells (line HCT-116, with IC50 values of 0.9 and 2.7 μM, respectively.

  6. Isolation and identification of actinomycetes from a compost-amended soil with potential as biocontrol agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuesta, Gonzalo; García-de-la-Fuente, Rosana; Abad, Manuel; Fornes, Fernando

    2012-03-01

    The search for new biocontrol strategies to inhibit the growth of phytopathogenic microorganisms has become widely widespread due to environmental concerns. Among actinomycetes, Streptomyces species have been extensively studied since they have been recognized as important sources of antibiotics. Actinomycete strains were isolated from a calcareous soil, 2 two-phase olive mill waste ('alperujo') composts, and the compost-amended soil by using selective media, and they were then co-cultured with 5 phytopathogenic fungi and 1 bacterium to perform an in vitro antagonism assay. Forty-nine actinomycete strains were isolated, 12 of them showing a great antagonistic activity towards the phytopathogenic microorganisms tested. Isolated strains were identified by 16S rDNA sequence analysis and phenotypic procedures. Eleven isolates concerned the genus Streptomyces and 1 actinomycete with chitinolytic activity belonged to the genus Lechevalieria. PMID:21190787

  7. Metabolic engineering of antibiotic factories: New tools for antibiotic production in actinomycetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weber, Tilmann; Charusanti, Pep; Musiol-Kroll, Ewa Maria;

    2015-01-01

    Actinomycetes are excellent sources for novel bioactive compounds, which serve as potential drug candidates for antibiotics development. While industrial efforts to find and develop novel antimicrobials have been severely reduced during the past two decades, the increasing threat of multidrug...

  8. Mutational analysis of primary alcohol metabolism in the methylotrophic actinomycete Amycolatopsis methanolica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hektor, Harm J.; Dijkhuizen, Lubbert

    1996-01-01

    Mutants of the methylotrophic actinomycete Amycolatopsis methanolica unable to grow on methanol as carbon source were isolated and characterized. Mutants specifically affected in methanol utilization were deficient in formaldehyde assimilation. Mutants blocked in the first step of primary alcohol ox

  9. Exploring plant growth-promotion actinomycetes from vermicompost and rhizosphere soil for yield enhancement in chickpea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreevidya, M; Gopalakrishnan, S; Kudapa, H; Varshney, R K

    2016-01-01

    The main objective of the present study was to isolate and characterize actinomycetes for their plant growth-promotion in chickpea. A total of 89 actinomycetes were screened for their antagonism against fungal pathogens of chickpea by dual culture and metabolite production assays. Four most promising actinomycetes were evaluated for their physiological and plant growth-promotion properties under in vitro and in vivo conditions. All the isolates exhibited good growth at temperatures from 20°C to 40°C, pH range of 7-11 and NaCl concentrations up to 8%. These were also found highly tolerant to Bavistin, slightly tolerant to Thiram and Captan (except VAI-7 and VAI-40) but susceptible to Benlate and Ridomil at field application levels and were found to produce siderophore, cellulase, lipase, protease, chitinase (except VAI-40), hydrocyanic acid (except VAI-7 and VAI-40), indole acetic acid and β-1,3-glucanase. When the four actinomycetes were evaluated for their plant growth-promotion properties under field conditions on chickpea, all exhibited increase in nodule number, shoot weight and yield. The actinomycetes treated plots enhanced total N, available P and organic C over the un-inoculated control. The scanning electron microscope studies exhibited extensive colonization by actinomycetes on the root surface of chickpea. The expression profiles for indole acetic acid, siderophore and β-1,3-glucanase genes exhibited up-regulation for all three traits and in all four isolates. The actinomycetes were identified as Streptomyces but different species in the 16S rDNA analysis. It was concluded that the selected actinomycetes have good plant growth-promotion and biocontrol potentials on chickpea. PMID:26887230

  10. Exploring plant growth-promotion actinomycetes from vermicompost and rhizosphere soil for yield enhancement in chickpea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sreevidya

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The main objective of the present study was to isolate and characterize actinomycetes for their plant growth-promotion in chickpea. A total of 89 actinomycetes were screened for their antagonism against fungal pathogens of chickpea by dual culture and metabolite production assays. Four most promising actinomycetes were evaluated for their physiological and plant growth-promotion properties under in vitro and in vivo conditions. All the isolates exhibited good growth at temperatures from 20 °C to 40 °C, pH range of 7–11 and NaCl concentrations up to 8%. These were also found highly tolerant to Bavistin, slightly tolerant to Thiram and Captan (except VAI-7 and VAI-40 but susceptible to Benlate and Ridomil at field application levels and were found to produce siderophore, cellulase, lipase, protease, chitinase (except VAI-40, hydrocyanic acid (except VAI-7 and VAI-40, indole acetic acid and β-1,3-glucanase. When the four actinomycetes were evaluated for their plant growth-promotion properties under field conditions on chickpea, all exhibited increase in nodule number, shoot weight and yield. The actinomycetes treated plots enhanced total N, available P and organic C over the un-inoculated control. The scanning electron microscope studies exhibited extensive colonization by actinomycetes on the root surface of chickpea. The expression profiles for indole acetic acid, siderophore and β-1,3-glucanase genes exhibited up-regulation for all three traits and in all four isolates. The actinomycetes were identified as Streptomyces but different species in the 16S rDNA analysis. It was concluded that the selected actinomycetes have good plant growth-promotion and biocontrol potentials on chickpea.

  11. Exploring plant growth-promotion actinomycetes from vermicompost and rhizosphere soil for yield enhancement in chickpea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreevidya, M; Gopalakrishnan, S; Kudapa, H; Varshney, R K

    2016-01-01

    The main objective of the present study was to isolate and characterize actinomycetes for their plant growth-promotion in chickpea. A total of 89 actinomycetes were screened for their antagonism against fungal pathogens of chickpea by dual culture and metabolite production assays. Four most promising actinomycetes were evaluated for their physiological and plant growth-promotion properties under in vitro and in vivo conditions. All the isolates exhibited good growth at temperatures from 20°C to 40°C, pH range of 7-11 and NaCl concentrations up to 8%. These were also found highly tolerant to Bavistin, slightly tolerant to Thiram and Captan (except VAI-7 and VAI-40) but susceptible to Benlate and Ridomil at field application levels and were found to produce siderophore, cellulase, lipase, protease, chitinase (except VAI-40), hydrocyanic acid (except VAI-7 and VAI-40), indole acetic acid and β-1,3-glucanase. When the four actinomycetes were evaluated for their plant growth-promotion properties under field conditions on chickpea, all exhibited increase in nodule number, shoot weight and yield. The actinomycetes treated plots enhanced total N, available P and organic C over the un-inoculated control. The scanning electron microscope studies exhibited extensive colonization by actinomycetes on the root surface of chickpea. The expression profiles for indole acetic acid, siderophore and β-1,3-glucanase genes exhibited up-regulation for all three traits and in all four isolates. The actinomycetes were identified as Streptomyces but different species in the 16S rDNA analysis. It was concluded that the selected actinomycetes have good plant growth-promotion and biocontrol potentials on chickpea.

  12. Occurrence of Rhodococcus coprophilus and associated actinomycetes in feces, sewage, and freshwater.

    OpenAIRE

    Mara, D. D.; Oragui, J I

    1981-01-01

    Freshwater, sewage, and fecal samples from various sources were examined for Rhodococcus coprophilus, associated actinomycetes, Escherichia coli, and fecal streptococci. Rhodococcus coprophilus was isolated consistently from feces of farm animals, poultry reared in proximity to farm animals, freshwater, and wastewater polluted with animal fecal wastes. It was not isolated from samples of human feces. The ratio of R. coprophilus total actinomycetes was higher in feces from cattle, sheep, ducks...

  13. Isolation and characterization of actinomycete antagonists of a fungal root pathogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, D L; Lynch, J M; Whipps, J M; Ousley, M A

    1993-11-01

    By use of selective media, 267 actinomycete strains were isolated from four rhizosphere-associated and four non-rhizosphere-associated British soils. Organic media with low nutrient concentrations were found to be best for isolating diverse actinomycetes while avoiding contamination and overgrowth of isolation media by eubacteria and fungi. While all isolates grew well at pHs 6.5 to 8.0, a few were unable to grow at pH 6.0 and a significant number failed to grow at pH 5.5. Eighty-two selected isolates were screened for in vitro antagonism towards Pythium ultimum by use of a Difco cornmeal agar assay procedure. Five isolates were very strong antagonists of the fungus, four were strong antagonists, and ten others were weakly antagonistic. The remaining isolates showed no antagonism by this assay. Additional studies showed that several of the P. ultimum antagonists also strongly inhibited growth of other root-pathogenic fungi. Twelve isolates showing antifungal activity in the in vitro assay were also tested for their effects on the germination and short-term growth of lettuce plants in glasshouse pot studies in the absence of pathogens. None of the actinomycetes prevented seed germination, although half of the isolates retarded seed germination and outgrowth of the plants by 1 to 3 days. During 18-day growth experiments, biomass yields of some actinomycete-inoculated plants were reduced in comparison with untreated control plants, although all plants appeared healthy and well rooted. None of the actinomycetes significantly enhanced plant growth over these short-term experiments. For some, but not all, actinomycetes, some correlations between delayed seed germination and reduced 18-day plant biomass yields were seen. For others, plant biomass yields were not reduced despite an actinomycete-associated delay in seed germination and plant outgrowth. Preliminary glasshouse experiments indicated that some of the actinomycetes protect germinating lettuce seeds against

  14. Isolation of endophytic actinomycetes from roots and leaves of maize (Zea mays L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Araújo, Janete M.; da Silva, Adilson C.; João L. Azevedo

    2000-01-01

    Actinomycetes were isolated from surface sterilized leaves and roots of maize. A total of 53 isolates were obtained, 31 of them from leaves and 22 from roots. The genus Microbispora was the most frequently found followed by the genera Streptomyces and Streptosporangium. From the isolated actinomycetes, 43.4% showed antimicrobial activity against one or more tested bacteria and yeast.Microrganismos endofíticos são frequentemente encontrados no interior de plantas cultivadas. Embora vários tipo...

  15. Actinomycetes from Western Ghats of Tamil Nadu with its antimicrobial properties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Valan Arasu M; Ignacimuthu S; Agastian P

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To isolate the actinomycetes from Western Ghats of Tamil Nadu with its antimicrobial properties. Methods: Starch casein agar medium supplemented with actidione and nalidixic acid was used to isolate actinomycetes from Western Ghates region of Kanyakumari, Thirunelveli, Dindigul and Nilgiri districts. Modified nutrient medium was used as the base for screening actinomycetes against pathogenic Gram positive, Gram negative and filamentous fungi. Results:Among 367 actinomycetes; 17.71% showed activity against both bacteria and fungi. The highest antibacterial activity was observed against B. subtilis, 140 isolates (38.1%), S. aureus 128 (34.9%);S. epidermidis 123 (33.5%); P. aeruginosa 105 (28.6%); K. pneumoniae 88 (24%); Xanthomonas sp 62 (16.9%). Less number of actinomycetes showed activity against Erwinia, S. typhi, V. fischeri andP. vulgaris. Hundred and three isolates showed activity against B. cinerea and A. niger. Twenty five isolates revealed activity against T. simii. Conclusions: Present investigation concludes that Western Ghats region of Tamil Nadu is the potential place for actinomycetes diversity. Further studying about these medically important strains from this region can be useful in identification of valuable bio-molecules.

  16. Enrichment Method for the Isolation of Bioactive Actinomycetes From Mangrove Sediments of Andaman Islands, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baskaran, R.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Various pre-treatment methods and three different media were employed for the isolation of bioactive actinomycetes from mangrove sediments of Andaman and Nicobar Islands, India. Sediments from four different sites of mangrove forest were collected and pre-treated by dry heat method, and the media were supplemented with cycloheximide 80 µg/mL and nalidixic acid 75 µg/mL. The mean actinomycetes population density in sediment samples were recorded as 22 CFU-10^-6/gm in KUA medium followed by 12 CFU-10^-6/gm in AIA medium and 8 CFU-10^-6/gm in SCA medium. A total of 42 actinomycetes were isolated, and all the isolates were evaluated for their antibacterial activity against pathogenic bacteria on two different media. Among 42 isolates tested, 22 species were found to be antibacterial metabolite producer against test bacteria namely, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Salmonella typhi and Klebsiella pneumoniae. Particularly, the actinomycete strains such as A101, A102, A107, A116, A121, A125, A130, F101, F102, F104, F106, De101 and De102 significantly inhibited the growth of all bacteria which were tested. Of these strains, A107 was identified as Streptomyces spp. This strain had the maximum activity against all used pathogens on both medium. Hence, the isolation, characterization and studies of secondary metabolites of actinomycetes from mangrove sediments in Andaman and Nicobar Island could be a pathway for discovery of antibiotics from marine actinomycetes.

  17. Characterization of a chitinase from the cellulolytic actinomycete Thermobifida fusca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaber, Yasser; Mekasha, Sophanit; Vaaje-Kolstad, Gustav; Eijsink, Vincent G H; Fraaije, Marco W

    2016-09-01

    Thermobifida fusca is a well-known cellulose-degrading actinomycete, which produces various glycoside hydrolases for this purpose. However, despite the presence of putative chitinase genes in its genome, T. fusca has not been reported to grow on chitin as sole carbon source. In this study, a gene encoding a putative membrane-anchored GH18 chitinase (Tfu0868) from T. fusca has been cloned and overexpressed in Escherichia coli. The protein was produced as SUMO fusion protein and, upon removal of the SUMO domain, soluble pure TfChi18A was obtained with yields typically amounting to 150mg per litre of culture. The enzyme was found to be relatively thermostable (apparent Tm=57.5°C) but not particularly thermoactive, the optimum temperature being 40-45°C. TfChi18A bound to α- and β-chitin and degraded both these substrates. Interestingly, activity towards colloidal chitin was minimal and in this case, substrate inhibition was observed. TfChi18A also cleaved soluble chito-oligosaccharides and showed a clear preference for substrates having five sugars or more. While these results show that TfChi18A is a catalytically competent GH18 chitinase, the observed catalytic rates were low compared to those of well-studied GH18 chitinases. This suggests that TfChi18A is not a true chitinase and not likely to endow T. fusca with the ability to grow on chitin. PMID:27108953

  18. Actinomycetes from red sea sponges: Sources for chemical and phylogenetic diversity

    KAUST Repository

    Abdelmohsen, Usama Ramadan

    2014-05-12

    The diversity of actinomycetes associated with marine sponges collected off Fsar Reef (Saudi Arabia) was investigated in the present study. Forty-seven actinomycetes were cultivated and phylogenetically identified based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing and were assigned to 10 different actinomycete genera. Eight putatively novel species belonging to genera Kocuria, Mycobacterium, Nocardia, and Rhodococcus were identified based on sequence similarity values below 98.2% to other 16S rRNA gene sequences available in the NCBI database. PCR-based screening for biosynthetic genes including type I and type II polyketide synthases (PKS-I, PKS-II) as well as nonribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPS) showed that 20 actinomycete isolates encoded each at least one type of biosynthetic gene. The organic extracts of nine isolates displayed bioactivity against at least one of the test pathogens, which were Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, fungi, human parasites, as well as in a West Nile Virus protease enzymatic assay. These results emphasize that marine sponges are a prolific resource for novel bioactive actinomycetes with potential for drug discovery. 2014 by the authors; licensee MDPI.

  19. Screening of Actinomycetes From Lipar Area of Oman Sea to Investigate the Antibacterial Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shams

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background Actinomycetes are one of the most important sources for the production of antibacterial compounds. Marine environments, due to their unique characteristics, are considered a good option to search for bacteria with the capability of producing antimicrobial compounds. Objectives The purpose of this study was to isolate the actinomycetes producing antibacterial compounds. Materials and Methods A total of 35 actinomycetes were isolated from Oman Sea (Lipar Area. To investigate antibacterial activity, the isolated actinomycetes were assessed against reference and pathogenic bacteria, including Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcu intermedius, Staphylococcu chromogenes, Staphylococcu saprophyticus, Bacillus cereus and methicillin-resistance Staphylococcu aureus, Pseudomonas, Listeria, Klebsiella, Salmonella, Acinetobacter, and Escherichia coli O157:H7, using the cross streak method. Results Based on the morphological characterization, 35 isolated cases belonged to actinomycetes and %94 of them had the ability to produce antibacterial compounds. In the cross streak method, most of the isolated bacteria have antibacterial activity against reference S. aureus among Gram-positive bacteria and Acinetobacter among Gram-negative bacteria. Inhibition zone diameters were measured between 2-25 and 1-20 mm for Gram-positive and -negative bacteria, receptivity. Conclusions Preliminary results indicate that the native Iranian Actinobacteria could be considered a suitable option for screening of the new antibacterial compounds. Molecular research and antibacterial compound extraction against the aforementioned pathogenic strains are also being conducted.

  20. lsolation and characterization of marine-derived actinomycetes with cytotoxic activity from the Red Sea coast

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohamed Saleh Abdelfattah; Usama Wahid Hawas; Lamia Taha Abou El-Kassema; Mennat Allah Gamal Eid

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To isolate and evaluate the cytotoxic activity of different actinomycetes species isolated from the Red Sea coast in Sharm el-Sheikh, Egypt. Methods: Forty actinomycetes strains were isolated from different sediments and seawater samples collected from the Red Sea coast in Egypt. Actinomycetes were recognized by morphological and microscopic examinations. Cell viability and cyto-toxicity induced by the crude extracts on breast cancer cell lines MDA-MB-231 were assessed using methylene blue assay. The strains with promising cytotoxic activity were identified by sequencing and amplifying the 16S rRNA genes. The antibacterial activities of the crude extracts were performed using Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method. Results: The results indicated that five ethyl acetate extracts exhibited cytotoxicity to-wards breast cancer cell lines MDA-MB-231. The highest cytotoxic activity was found for the ethyl acetate extracts of EGY2 and EGY39. The isolate EGY3 was identified as a new Streptomyces species, while the actinomycete EGY22 was found to be a member of the genus Nocardiopsis sp. The crude extract of the isolate EGY8 showed slightly high antimicrobial activity against different test microorganisms. Conclusions: The results of the present study reveal that marine sediments of the Red Sea are a potent source of novel species of actinomycetes. The isolates may be useful in discovery of novel bioactive compounds and an important step in the development of microbial natural product research.

  1. Actinomycetes from Red Sea Sponges: Sources for Chemical and Phylogenetic Diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usama Ramadan Abdelmohsen

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The diversity of actinomycetes associated with marine sponges collected off Fsar Reef (Saudi Arabia was investigated in the present study. Forty-seven actinomycetes were cultivated and phylogenetically identified based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing and were assigned to 10 different actinomycete genera. Eight putatively novel species belonging to genera Kocuria, Mycobacterium, Nocardia, and Rhodococcus were identified based on sequence similarity values below 98.2% to other 16S rRNA gene sequences available in the NCBI database. PCR-based screening for biosynthetic genes including type I and type II polyketide synthases (PKS-I, PKS-II as well as nonribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPS showed that 20 actinomycete isolates encoded each at least one type of biosynthetic gene. The organic extracts of nine isolates displayed bioactivity against at least one of the test pathogens, which were Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, fungi, human parasites, as well as in a West Nile Virus protease enzymatic assay. These results emphasize that marine sponges are a prolific resource for novel bioactive actinomycetes with potential for drug discovery.

  2. [Distribution and characteristics of soil antagonistic actinomycetes on northern slope of Taibai Mountain, Qinling].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wen-Jie; Xue, Quan-Hong; Cao, Yan-Ru; Xue, Lei; Shen, Guang-Hui; Lai, Hang-Xian

    2011-11-01

    Twelve representative soil samples were collected from different altitudes on the northern slope of Taibai Mountain to study the distribution and characteristics of soil antagonistic actinomyces by using agar block method. There existed a great deal of soil antagonistic actinomyces in the study area. Among the 141 actinomycete strains isolated, 116 strains (82.3%) showed antagonism toward 12 target bacteria or fungi. The antagonistic strains at altitudes 800-1845, 3488, 3655, and 3670 m occupied 73.7% -86.8%, 81.3%, 78.9% and 82.3% of the total, respectively. 42.1% of the strains at altitudes 1200-2300 m and > 3400 m showed strong and broad spectrum antagonistic activity, suggesting that there was a great potential for the isolation of actinomycete strains with strong anti-biotic capability at these altitudes. 24.1% of the antagonistic actinomycetes showed antagonism against Staphyloccocus aureu, and 2.4%, 6.9% and 11.2% of them showed activity toward Verticillium dahliae in cotton, Phytophthora sp. in strawberry and Neonectria radiciccla in ginseng, respectively. This study showed that the soil actinomycete antagonistic potentiality (SAAP) could be used as a quantitative indicator to evaluate the potential of antagonistic actinomycete resources in soil. PMID:22303680

  3. Amylase activity of aquatic actinomycetes isolated from the sediments of mangrove forests in south of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farshid Kafilzadeh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study amylase producing actinomycetes were isolated from the sediments of mangrove forests in the south of Iran and the rate of amylase activity was measured. The samples of sediments were collected from one hundred different places in mangrove forests of the south of Iran. Collected samples were diluted then they were purified on the starch (casein agar culture and Woodruff. After that they were examined in terms of amylase production on agar–starch culture. The activity of the produced amylase by the isolated aquatic actinomycetes was measured by dinitrosalicylic acid (DNS method. The results showed that aquatic actinomycetes were isolated from 86 per 100 places in spring (86% and from 61 per 100 places in summer (61%. The highest rates of producing enzyme were related to isolated samples in spring (62.97 U/ml. Biochemical and Bergey’s book tests showed that the most isolated aquatic actinomycetes belonged to Streptomyces genus. As regards this, it is economical and easy to isolate the aquatic actinomycetes which produce amylase that is used in different industries in Iran from the sediments of mangrove forests of the south of Iran. So the isolated strains in this study can be suitable candidates for amylase production after genetic manipulation.

  4. SCREENING OF ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY AND GENES CODING POLYKETIDE SYNTHETASE AND NONRIBOSOMAL PEPTIDE SYNTHETASE OF ACTINOMYCETE ISOLATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Kovácsová

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to observe antimicrobial activity using agar plate diffusion method and screening genes coding polyketide synthetase (PKS-I and nonribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS from actinomycetes. A total of 105 actinomycete strains were isolated from arable soil. Antimicrobial activity was demonstrated at 54 strains against at least 1 of total 12 indicator organisms. Antifungal properties were recorded more often than antibacterial properties. The presence of PKS-I and NRPS genes were founded at 61 of total 105 strains. The number of strains with mentioned biosynthetic enzyme gene fragments matching the anticipated length were 19 (18% and 50 (47% respectively. Overall, five actinomycete strains carried all the biosynthetical genes, yet no antimicrobial activity was found against any of tested pathogens. On the other hand, twenty-one strains showed antimicrobial activity even though we were not able to amplify any of the PKS or NRPS genes from them. Combination of the two methods showed broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity of actinomycetes isolated from arable soil, which indicate that actinomycetes are valuable reservoirs of novel bioactive compounds.

  5. Isolation of actinomycetes from mangrove and estuarine sediments of Cochin and screening for antimicrobial activity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Emilda Rosmine

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To isolate and screen actinomycetes for antimicrobial activity from mangroves and estuarine soil samples of Cochin. Methods: In the present study, sediment samples collected from mangroves and various stations of Cochin estuary were pretreated and actinomycetes were isolated on different selective media. The isolates were screened for antibiotic activity by following disc diffusion assay (Kirby-Bauer method) against human pathogens, fish pathogens and Gram-positive bacteria. The isolates were identified based on their morphology. Results:Only 2 actinomycete isolates (ER7and ER10) of the 50 isolates screened had antimicrobial activities against one or more pathogens tested. ER7 isolate showed higher antimicrobial activity as compared to that of ER10 isolate. The maximum inhibition zone of crude extract from ER7 was 16.7 mm. The methanol extract of ER7 showed antimicrobial activity against all the pathogens tested with a maximum zone of 21.0 mm. The isolates with antimicrobial activity were found to belong to the genusStreptomyces. Conclusions:There is no significant report on bioactive actinomycetes from the present study areas. Potent antibiotics from the selected isolates could contribute to fight against several human and fish diseases. Further purification, structural elucidation and characterization are recommended to know the quality, novelty and commercial value of these antibiotics. Hence, the mangroves and estuary of Kochi show great promise for the discovery of bioactive actinomycetes.

  6. Endodontic Epidemiology

    OpenAIRE

    Shahravan, Arash; Haghdoost, Ali Akbar

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiology is the study of disease distribution and factors determining or affecting it. Likewise, endodontic epidemiology can be defined as the science of studying the distribution pattern and determinants of pulp and periapical diseases; specially apical periodontitis. Although different study designs have been used in endodontics, researchers must pay more attention to study designs with higher level of evidence such as randomized clinical trials.

  7. Phylogenetic characterization of culturable actinomycetes associated with the mucus of the coral Acropora digitifera from Gulf of Mannar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nithyanand, Paramasivam; Manju, Sivalingam; Karutha Pandian, Shunmugiah

    2011-01-01

    The marine environment is a virtually untapped source of novel actinomycete diversity and its metabolites. Investigating the diversity of actinomycetes in other marine macroorganisms, like seaweeds and sponges, have resulted in isolation of novel bioactive metabolites. Actinomycetes diversity associated with corals and their produced metabolites have not yet been explored. Hence, in this study we attempted to characterize the culturable actinomycetes population associated with the coral Acropora digitifera. Actinomycetes were isolated from the mucus of the coral wherein the actinomycetes count was much higher when compared with the surrounding seawater and sediment. Actinobacteria-specific 16S rRNA gene primers were used for identifying the isolates at the molecular level in addition to biochemical tests. Amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis using three restriction enzymes revealed several polymorphic groups within the isolates. Sequencing and blast analysis of the isolates revealed that some isolates had only 96.7% similarity with its nearest match in GenBank indicating that they may be novel isolates at the species level. The isolated actinomycetes exhibited good antibacterial activity against various human pathogens. This study offers for the first time a prelude about the unexplored culturable actinomycetes diversity associated with a scleractinian coral and their bioactive capabilities. PMID:21105906

  8. Aerobic fitness in adolescents in southern Brazil: Association with sociodemographic aspects, lifestyle and nutritional status

    OpenAIRE

    D.A.S. Silva; D. Monteiro Teixeira; Oliveira, G; E.L. Petroski; J. Marcio de Farias

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The purpose was to investigate the factors related to aerobic fitness levels of adolescents in southern Brazil. Methods: The sample consisted of 1081 students (545 males and 536 females), with mean age of 12.8 (± 1.2) years. This is a cross-sectional epidemiological study. Aerobic fitness was assessed by the 9-min running test. The independent variables analyzed were: age, socioeconomic status, school system (public/private), sedentary behavior, physical activity level, nutritio...

  9. A Search and Improvement of Actinomycetes Strains by Gamma Radiation for Biological Control of Plant Pathogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two hundred isolates of actinomycetes isolate from soil sample in Sakaerat Bioshere Reserve and Suwanvajokkasikit Field Corps Research Station were tested the ability of actinomycetes on chitinase production and inhibition on the growth of 3 phyto pathogenic fung: Fusarium sporotrichiodes, Rhizoctonia solani and Sclerotium rolfsii, It was found that 7 isolates showed good tendency to control the growth of phyto pathogenic fungi in the with and with chitin. To increase the ability on antifungal activity the select show were mutant using gamma irradiation of radiance 173 isolates of mutant actinomycetes we found that only 35 isolates showed higher in inhibitory effect on three phyto pathogenic fungi tested. three isolate. Three isolates of mutant strains, SJ9I-15, SG4I-17 and SG4I-38 and two isolates of wild type strain which are SJ9 and SG4 were selected for controlling phyto pathogenic fungi in the green house.

  10. A comparative study on selected marine actinomycetes from Pulicat, Muttukadu, and Ennore estuaries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SChacko Vijai Sharma; Ernest David

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To isolate and make a comparative study of marine sediments actinomycetes from Pulicat estuary, Muttukadu estuary and Ennore estuary, TamilNadu, India. Methods: A unique selective enrichment procedure has resulted in the isolation and identification a total of 304 actinomycetes colonies which were isolated from different stations of marine soil sediments in Pulicat estuary, Muttukadu estuary and Ennore estuary, TamilNadu, India. Results: Among them, 277 isolates were morphologically distinct on the basis of spore mass colour, aerial and substrate mycelium formation and production of diffusible pigment. The majority (60%; 162 isolates) were assigned to the genus Streptomyces. (35%; 104 isolates) were assigned to the genus Actinopolyspora, (5%; 11 isolates) were assigned to the genus Nocardiodes. Conclusions: The present study concluded that the physiological characteristics of actinomycetes Streptomyces, Actinopolyspora and Nocardiodes varied by available nutrients in the medium and the physical conditions.

  11. Exploration of Potential Actinomycetes from CIFOR Forest Origin as Antimicrobial, Antifungus, and Producing Extracellular Xylanase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sipriyadi Sipriyadi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to isolate and explore the actinomycetes of CIFOR forest origin as an antimicrobial and antifungal agent, to produce an extracellular xylanase, and to identify isolates based on 16S rRNA gene sequences. Actinomycetes were isolated using Humic-acid Vitamin-B agar (HV media. Actinomycetes colonies that grow on the medium HV was subsequently purified by growing them on yeast malt agar (YMA media, then an antagonistic test of selected bacteria against Bacillus sp., Escherichia coli, Fusarium oxysporum, and Sclerotium sp was performed. Xylanase activity test was detected by observing a clear zone, followed by identification. Total of 35 isolates of actinomycetes isolated based on their colony morphology characteristics and diverse types of spore chains showed Streptomyces spp. of isolates CFR-06, CFR-15, CFR-17, CFR-18, and CFR-19 were able to inhibit the growth of Bacillus sp.. The highest inhibition zone has a diameter of 10.1 mm (isolate CFR-17. Isolates CFR-01 and CFR-15 were able to inhibit the growth of E. coli with the highest inhibition zone diameter of 5.1 mm (isolate CFR-15. Isolates CFR-29 and CFR-12 were able to inhibit the growth of F. oxysporum while isolate CFR-35 were able to inhibit the growth of Sclerotium sp.. Xylanase activity test showed that isolates CFR-12, CFR-20, CFR-22, CFR-24, CFR-25, CFR-30, CFR-33, CFR-34 have an ability to produce extracellular xylanase enzyme. Actinomycetes isolate (Xyl_22 as a potential xylanase enzyme producer was closely related with Streptomyces drozdowicii by the maximum similarity of 99%.How to CiteSipriyadi, S., Lestari, Y., Wahyudi, A., & Meryandini, A. (2016. Exploration Potential CIFOR Forest actinomycetes origin as Antimicrobial, Anti Fungus and Producing Enzymes Extracellular Xylanase. Biosaintifika: Journal of Biology & Biology Education, 8(1, 94-102.

  12. Antibacterial activity of actinomycetes isolated from different soil samples of Sheopur (A city of central India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hotam S Chaudhary

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of the present study was isolation, purification, and characterization of actinomycetes from soil samples, having antimicrobial activity against 12 selected pathogenic strains. Soils samples were taken from different niche habitats of Sheopur district, Madhya Pradesh, India. These samples were serially diluted and plated on actinomycete isolation agar media. Potential colonies were screened, purified, and stored in glycerol stock. Isolates were morphologically and biochemically characterized. These isolates were subjected to extraction for production of the antibacterial compound. Antibacterial activity and Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC of the purified extract of isolates were evaluated. Totally 31 actinomycete isolates were tested for antagonistic activity against 12 pathogenic microorganisms. Isolates AS14, AS27, and AS28 were highly active, while AS1 showed less activity against the pathogenic microorganisms. Isolate AS7 exhibited the highest antagonistic activity against Bacillus cereus (24 mm and AS16 showed the highest activity against Enterococcus faecalis (21 mm. MIC was also determined for actinomycete isolates against all the tested microorganisms. MIC of actinomycete isolates was found to be 2.5 mg/ml against Shigella dysenteriae, Vancomycin-resistant enterococci, and Klebsiella pneumoniae, and was 1.25 mg/ml for Staphylococcus saprophyticus, Streptococcus pyogenes, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus, Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus xylosus, Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, and Staphylococcus aureus. All actinomycetes isolates showed antibacterial activity against S. aureus, while they showed less activity against S. dysenteriae. These isolates had antibacterial activity and could be used in the development of new antibiotics for pharmaceutical or agricultural purposes.

  13. Isolation and Characterization of Actinomycete Antagonists of a Fungal Root Pathogen †

    OpenAIRE

    Crawford, Don L.; Lynch, James M.; Whipps, John M.; Ousley, Margaret A.

    1993-01-01

    By use of selective media, 267 actinomycete strains were isolated from four rhizosphere-associated and four non-rhizosphere-associated British soils. Organic media with low nutrient concentrations were found to be best for isolating diverse actinomycetes while avoiding contamination and overgrowth of isolation media by eubacteria and fungi. While all isolates grew well at pHs 6.5 to 8.0, a few were unable to grow at pH 6.0 and a significant number failed to grow at pH 5.5. Eighty-two selected...

  14. Actinomycetes bioactivos de sedimento marino de la costa central del Perú

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge León

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo evaluamos la actividad antibacteriana y antifúngica de actinomycetes marinos sobre patógenos de origen clínico. Asimismo, fueron evaluadas la capacidad de producir enzimas extracelulares como carbohidrasas, lipasas y proteasas. Los Actinomycetes fueron aislados de sedimentos colectados entre setiembre a diciembre del 2005 de las Bahías de Ancón (Lima e Independencia (Ica de 34 y 100 m de profundidad. El aislamiento se realizó en Agar Caseína - Almidón (ACA y Agar Marino (AM con adición de Cicloheximide (10 μg/mL. Las evaluaciones antimicrobianas fueron realizadas frente a bacterias patógenas antibiótico-multirresistentes y hongos de origen clínico; en tanto, para evaluar su actividad multienzimática se utilizaron sustratos poliméricos diversos. Se aislaron un total de 62 actinomycetes, de los cuales 31 (50% mostraron actividad antibacteriana frente a Staphylococcus aureus, 36 (59% frente a Pseudomonas aeruginosa y 23 (37% a ambos patógenos. Las cepas de actinomycetes I-400A y M10-77 identificadas en cada caso como Streptomyces y Thermoactinomyces fueron las que exhibieron mayor actividad inhibitoria frente a P. aeruginosa y S. aureus respectivamente. Asimismo, 13 actinomycetes (20,97% mostraron actividad antifúngica frente a cultivos de Candida albicans cepa 1511 y 17 (27,42% frente a Candida albicans cepa 1511MIC; sin embargo, ningún actinomycete presentó actividad inhibitoria frente a Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus fumigatus y Trichophyton mentagrophytes. La mayoría de los actinomycetes mostraron tener actividad multienzimática capaz de hidrolizar compuestos poliméricos como el tween-80 (96%, la gelatina (95%, almidón (93%, lecitina (88% y la caseína (74%. Extractos del compuesto activo obtenidos de la cepa M10-77 con etil acetato rindieron notable actividad inhibitoria contra S. aureus. Se concluye que el sedimento marino es fuente de Actinomycetes con gran capacidad de producir sustancias

  15. Glucose metabolism in the antibiotic producing actinomycete Nonomuraea sp ATCC 39727

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gunnarsson, Nina; Bruheim, Per; Nielsen, Jens

    2004-01-01

    The actinomycete Nonomuraea sp. ATCC 39727, producer of the glycopeptide A40926 that is used as precursor for the novel antibiotic dalbavancin, has an unusual carbon metabolism. Glucose is primarily metabolized via the Entner-Doudoroff (ED) pathway, although the energetically more favorable Embden...... - Meyerhof - Parnas (EMP) pathway is present in this organism. Moreover, Nonomuraea utilizes a PPi-dependent phosphofructokinase, an enzyme that has been connected with anaerobic metabolism in eukaryotes and higher plants, but recently has been recognized in several actinomycetes. In order to study its...

  16. Annular purpura and step aerobics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan, S J; Humphreys, F; Buxton, P K

    1994-09-01

    Step aerobic classes are at present one of the most popular forms of exercise undertaken by young adults. To date no dermatological abnormalities have been described in people regularly performing step aerobics. We describe a case in which a healthy young woman developed an extensive pigmented purpuric eruption 4 weeks after commencing regular step aerobic classes. The eruption resolved completely 8 weeks after regular exercise was ceased. PMID:7955503

  17. Epidemiological criminology

    OpenAIRE

    Ignjatović Đorđe

    2015-01-01

    Paper deals with one of so-called „new criminologies“ - specific amalgam composed by criminological and epidemiological experiences. First of all, the author points the main characteristics of these two sciences and their connections. After such explanations, he give examples of famous research in the field of ‘epidemiological criminology’. They show how many important issues in criminology has been neglected until the end of the twentieth century (evaluati...

  18. Endodontic Epidemiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahravan, Arash; Haghdoost, Ali Akbar

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiology is the study of disease distribution and factors determining or affecting it. Likewise, endodontic epidemiology can be defined as the science of studying the distribution pattern and determinants of pulp and periapical diseases; specially apical periodontitis. Although different study designs have been used in endodontics, researchers must pay more attention to study designs with higher level of evidence such as randomized clinical trials. PMID:24688577

  19. Aerobic landfill bioreactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudgins, Mark P; Bessette, Bernard J; March, John; McComb, Scott T.

    2000-01-01

    The present invention includes a method of decomposing municipal solid waste (MSW) within a landfill by converting the landfill to aerobic degradation in the following manner: (1) injecting air via the landfill leachate collection system (2) injecting air via vertical air injection wells installed within the waste mass; (3) applying leachate to the waste mass using a pressurized drip irrigation system; (4) allowing landfill gases to vent; and (5) adjusting air injection and recirculated leachate to achieve a 40% to 60% moisture level and a temperature between 120.degree. F. and 140.degree. F. in steady state.

  20. Anthracimycin, a potent anthrax antibiotic from a marine-derived actinomycete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Kyoung Hwa; Nam, Sang-Jip; Locke, Jeffrey B; Kauffman, Christopher A; Beatty, Deanna S; Paul, Lauren A; Fenical, William

    2013-07-22

    Licensed to kill: A new antibiotic, anthracimycin (see scheme), produced by a marine-derived actinomycete in saline culture, shows significant activity toward Bacillus anthracis, the bacterial pathogen responsible for anthrax infections. Chlorination of anthracimycin gives a dichloro derivative that retains activity against Gram-positive bacteria, such as anthrax, but also shows activity against selected Gram-negative bacteria. PMID:23776159

  1. Isolation and characterization of marine-derived actinomycetes with cytotoxic activity from the Red Sea coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Saleh Abdelfattah

    2016-08-01

    Conclusions: The results of the present study reveal that marine sediments of the Red Sea are a potent source of novel species of actinomycetes. The isolates may be useful in discovery of novel bioactive compounds and an important step in the development of microbial natural product research.

  2. Comparative genome-scale metabolic modeling of actinomycetes : The topology of essential core metabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alam, Mohammad Tauqeer; Medema, Marnix H.; Takano, Eriko; Breitling, Rainer; Gojobori, Takashi

    2011-01-01

    Actinomycetes are highly important bacteria. On one hand, some of them cause severe human and plant diseases, on the other hand, many species are known for their ability to produce antibiotics. Here we report the results of a comparative analysis of genome-scale metabolic models of 37 species of act

  3. Comparative genome-scale metabolic modeling of actinomycetes: the topology of essential core metabolism.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alam, M.T.; Medema, M.H.; Takano, E.; Breitling, R.

    2011-01-01

    Actinomycetes are highly important bacteria. On one hand, some of them cause severe human and plant diseases, on the other hand, many species are known for their ability to produce antibiotics. Here we report the results of a comparative analysis of genome-scale metabolic models of 37 species of act

  4. Isolation and identification of actinomycetes from a compost-amended soils biocontrol agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia de la Fuente, R.; Cuesta, G.; Fornes, F.; Abad, M.

    2009-07-01

    Compost capability to suppress soil-borne plant pathogens has become an interesting subject as a strategy for reducing the adverse effects of massive fungicides application in the environmental. In this context, actinomycetes have received considerable attention as biocontrol agents, particularly Streptomyces species. (Author)

  5. Characterization of cytotoxic compound from marine sediment derived actinomycete Streptomyces avidinii strain SU4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Sudha

    2012-10-01

    Conclusion: This study clearly proves that the marine sediment derived actinomycetes with bioactive metabolites can be expected to provide high quality biological material for high throughout biochemical and anticancer screening programs. These results help us to conclude that the potential of using metabolic engineering and post genomic approaches to isolate more bioactive compounds and make their possible commercial application is not far off.

  6. Aerobic microorganisms associated with alfalfa leafcutter bees (megachile rotundata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inglis, G D; Sigler, L; Goette, M S

    1993-09-01

    Characterization of microorganisms associated with alfalfa leaf-cutter bee (Megachile rotundata) nectar, pollen, provisions, larval guts, and frass (excreta) in Alberta demonstrated a varied aerobic microflora. Yeasts were isolated frequently from nectar, pollen, and provisions but rarely from guts or frass. The most prevalent yeast taxa were: Candida bombicola, Cryptococcus albidus, Metschnikowia reukaufii, and Rhodotorula glutinis. Although few filamentous fungi were found in nectar, they were frequently isolated from pollen and provisions; the predominant taxa were Alternaria alternata, Cladosporium cladosporioides, C. herbarum, Epicoccum nigrum, and Penicillium chrysogenum. Bacteria, including species of Bacillus, Corynebacterium, Micrococcus, and the actinomycete Streptomyces, also were prevalent in provisions and/or on pollen. In general, the diversity of microorganisms isolated from alimentary canals and frass was lower than from nectar, pollen, and provisions. Bacillus firmus, B. licheniformis, B. megaterium, B. pumilus, and Streptomyces spp. were the most frequently isolated bacteria, whereas Trichosporonoides megachiliensis was the most common filamentous fungus isolated from larval guts and/or frass. These taxa may be part of the resident microflora of the alimentary canal. Populations of bacteria and filamentous fungi, but not yeasts, were larger from Ascosphaera aggregata-infected larvae than from healthy larvae. However, with the exception of Aspergillus niger and T. megachiliensis in frass from healthy larvae, no taxon of filamentous fungi was conspicuously present or absent in infected larvae, healthy larvae, or their frass. PMID:24190009

  7. A mixed community of actinomycetes produce multiple antibiotics for the fungus farming ant Acromyrmex octospinosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barke Jörg

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Attine ants live in an intensely studied tripartite mutualism with the fungus Leucoagaricus gongylophorus, which provides food to the ants, and with antibiotic-producing actinomycete bacteria. One hypothesis suggests that bacteria from the genus Pseudonocardia are the sole, co-evolved mutualists of attine ants and are transmitted vertically by the queens. A recent study identified a Pseudonocardia-produced antifungal, named dentigerumycin, associated with the lower attine Apterostigma dentigerum consistent with the idea that co-evolved Pseudonocardia make novel antibiotics. An alternative possibility is that attine ants sample actinomycete bacteria from the soil, selecting and maintaining those species that make useful antibiotics. Consistent with this idea, a Streptomyces species associated with the higher attine Acromyrmex octospinosus was recently shown to produce the well-known antifungal candicidin. Candicidin production is widespread in environmental isolates of Streptomyces, so this could either be an environmental contaminant or evidence of recruitment of useful actinomycetes from the environment. It should be noted that the two possibilities for actinomycete acquisition are not necessarily mutually exclusive. Results In order to test these possibilities we isolated bacteria from a geographically distinct population of A. octospinosus and identified a candicidin-producing Streptomyces species, which suggests that they are common mutualists of attine ants, most probably recruited from the environment. We also identified a Pseudonocardia species in the same ant colony that produces an unusual polyene antifungal, providing evidence for co-evolution of Pseudonocardia with A. octospinosus. Conclusions Our results show that a combination of co-evolution and environmental sampling results in the diversity of actinomycete symbionts and antibiotics associated with attine ants.

  8. Molecular, chemical and biological screening of soil actinomycete isolates in seeking bioactive peptide metabolites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javad Hamedi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Due to the evolution of multidrug-resistant strains, screening of natural resources, especially actinomycetes, for new therapeutic agents discovery has become the interests of researchers. In this study, molecular, chemical and biological screening of soil actinomycetes was carried out in order to search for peptide-producing actinomycetes.Materials and Methods: 60 actinomycetes were isolated from soils of Iran. The isolates were subjected to molecular screening for detection NRPS (non-ribosomal peptide synthetases gene. Phylogenic identification of NRPS containing isolates was performed. Chemical screening of the crude extracts was performed using chlorine o-dianisidine as peptide detector reagent and bioactivity of peptide producing strains was determined by antimicrobial bioassay. High pressure liquid chromatography- mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS with UV-visible spectroscopy was performed for detection of the metabolite diversity in selected strain.Results: Amplified NRPS adenylation gene (700 bp was detected among 30 strains. Phylogenic identification of these isolates showed presence of rare actinomycetes genera among the isolates and 10 out of 30 strains were subjected to chemical screening. Nocardia sp. UTMC 751 showed antimicrobial activity against bacterial and fungal test pathogens. HPLC-MSand UV-visible spectroscopy results from the crude extract showed that this strain has probably the ability to produce new metabolites.Conclusion: By application of a combined approach, including molecular, chemical and bioactivity analysis, a promising strain of Nocardia sp. UTMC 751 was obtained. This strain had significant activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Strain Nocardia sp. UTMC 751 produce five unknown and most probably new metabolites with molecular weights of 274.2, 390.3, 415.3, 598.4 and 772.5. This strain had showed 99% similarity to Nocardia ignorata DSM 44496 T.

  9. Gynaekologisk epidemiologi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lidegaard, Øjvind

    2006-01-01

    Epidemiological research has good possibilities in Denmark due to the fact that all people have a personal PIN code and due to our many National health registers. In gynaecology the National Register of Patients, the Birth Registry, IVF-registry, Cancer Registry and latest the National Prescription...... Database offer unique possibilities of linking exposure data with many clinical outcomes. Danish epidemiology has contributed with morbidity analyses on children concieved by in vitro fertilisation, pharmacoepidemiological studies on short and long term effects of oral contraceptives and hormone therapy...

  10. Epidemiological causality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morabia, Alfredo

    2005-01-01

    Epidemiological methods, which combine population thinking and group comparisons, can primarily identify causes of disease in populations. There is therefore a tension between our intuitive notion of a cause, which we want to be deterministic and invariant at the individual level, and the epidemiological notion of causes, which are invariant only at the population level. Epidemiologists have given heretofore a pragmatic solution to this tension. Causal inference in epidemiology consists in checking the logical coherence of a causality statement and determining whether what has been found grossly contradicts what we think we already know: how strong is the association? Is there a dose-response relationship? Does the cause precede the effect? Is the effect biologically plausible? Etc. This approach to causal inference can be traced back to the English philosophers David Hume and John Stuart Mill. On the other hand, the mode of establishing causality, devised by Jakob Henle and Robert Koch, which has been fruitful in bacteriology, requires that in every instance the effect invariably follows the cause (e.g., inoculation of Koch bacillus and tuberculosis). This is incompatible with epidemiological causality which has to deal with probabilistic effects (e.g., smoking and lung cancer), and is therefore invariant only for the population.

  11. In Vitro and In Vivo Plant Growth Promoting Activities and DNA Fingerprinting of Antagonistic Endophytic Actinomycetes Associates with Medicinal Plants

    OpenAIRE

    Ajit Kumar Passari; Vineet Kumar Mishra; Vijai Kumar Gupta; Mukesh Kumar Yadav; Ratul Saikia; Bhim Pratap Singh

    2015-01-01

    Endophytic actinomycetes have shown unique plant growth promoting as well as antagonistic activity against fungal phytopathogens. In the present study forty-two endophytic actinomycetes recovered from medicinal plants were evaluated for their antagonistic potential and plant growth-promoting abilities. Twenty-two isolates which showed the inhibitory activity against at least one pathogen were subsequently tested for their plant-growth promoting activities and were compared genotypically using...

  12. The Madeira Archipelago As a Significant Source of Marine-Derived Actinomycete Diversity with Anticancer and Antimicrobial Potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto-Davó, Alejandra; Dias, Tiago; Gomes, Sofia E.; Rodrigues, Sara; Parera-Valadez, Yessica; Borralho, Pedro M.; Pereira, Florbela; Rodrigues, Cecilia M. P.; Santos-Sanches, Ilda; Gaudêncio, Susana P.

    2016-01-01

    Marine-derived actinomycetes have demonstrated an ability to produce novel compounds with medically relevant biological activity. Studying the diversity and biogeographical patterns of marine actinomycetes offers an opportunity to identify genera that are under environmental pressures, which may drive adaptations that yield specific biosynthetic capabilities. The present study describes research efforts to explore regions of the Atlantic Ocean, specifically around the Madeira Archipelago, where knowledge of the indigenous actinomycete diversity is scarce. A total of 400 actinomycetes were isolated, sequenced, and screened for antimicrobial and anticancer activities. The three most abundant genera identified were Streptomyces, Actinomadura, and Micromonospora. Phylogenetic analyses of the marine OTUs isolated indicated that the Madeira Archipelago is a new source of actinomycetes adapted to life in the ocean. Phylogenetic differences between offshore (>100 m from shore) and nearshore (< 100 m from shore) populations illustrates the importance of sampling offshore in order to isolate new and diverse bacterial strains. Novel phylotypes from chemically rich marine actinomycete groups like MAR4 and the genus Salinispora were isolated. Anticancer and antimicrobial assays identified Streptomyces, Micromonospora, and Salinispora as the most biologically active genera. This study illustrates the importance of bioprospecting efforts at unexplored regions of the ocean to recover bacterial strains with the potential to produce novel and interesting chemistry. PMID:27774089

  13. Presence, molecular characteristics and geosmin producing ability of actinomycetes isolated from South Korean terrestrial and aquatic environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Gyu-Cheol; Kim, Yun S; Kim, Min-Jeong; Oh, Sung-Ae; Choi, Ilhwan; Choi, Jaewon; Park, Jong-Geun; Chong, Chom-Kyu; Kim, Yong-Yeon; Lee, Kyeunghee; Lee, Chan Hee

    2011-01-01

    The unpleasant odor of drinking water is one of the major problems in many water utilities in the world. Actinomycetes have long been associated with odorous compounds. Considering the paucity of research on Actinomycetes producing odorous compounds in South Korea, presence of Actinomycetes, their molecular characteristics and ability to produce odorous compounds were investigated in this study. Findings confirmed the presence of Actinomycetes in surface soil, sediment, and water samples from four sites: two artificial lakes [Paldang and Cheongpyeong (CP)], and two streams [Gyeongan (GA) and Yangpyeong]. Surface soil and sediment from CP area had the greatest concentration of Actinomycetes (8.2 x 10(7) and 6.8 x 10(6) colony forming units (CFUs)/gram, dry weight, respectively). When water samples are considered, samples from GA had the highest concentration (1.9 x 10(2) CFU/mL). 16S rRNA sequencing and molecular phylogenetic analysis showed that Streptomyces was the dominant genus (64.1%). In addition, the isolated Actinomycetes synthesized 5.4 ng/L geosmin as demonstrated by thermal desorption unit-gas chromatograph/mass spectrometry analysis.

  14. Brain Plasticity and Aerobic Fitness

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, Adam G.; Johansen-Berg, Heidi; Bandettini, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Regular aerobic exercise has a wide range of positive effects on health and cognition. Exercise has been demonstrated to provide a particularly powerful and replicable method of triggering a wide range of structural changes within both human and animal brains. However, the details and mechanisms of these changes remain poorly understood. This thesis undertakes a comprehensive examination of the relationship between brain plasticity and aerobic exercise. A large, longitudinal experiment ...

  15. Digital epidemiology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel Salathé

    Full Text Available Mobile, social, real-time: the ongoing revolution in the way people communicate has given rise to a new kind of epidemiology. Digital data sources, when harnessed appropriately, can provide local and timely information about disease and health dynamics in populations around the world. The rapid, unprecedented increase in the availability of relevant data from various digital sources creates considerable technical and computational challenges.

  16. Isolation and partial characterization of actinomycetes with antimicrobial activity against multidrug resistant bacteria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Smriti Singh; Pramod Kumar; N Gopalan; Bhuvnesh Shrivastava; RC Kuhad; Hotam Singh Chaudhary

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To isolate strains of Actinomycetes from different locations of Gwalior to evaluate its antimicrobial activity against multidrug resistant pathogenic strains. Method: Soil samples collected from different niche habitats of Gwalior were serially diluted and plated on selective media. Potential colonies were further purified and stored in agar slants and glycerol stocks. Isolates were biochemically characterized and purified isolates were test against pathogenic microorganisms for screening. Isolates with antagonistic properties were inoculated in production media and secondary metabolites or antimicrobial products were extracted. Result: The seven actinomycetes strains showing maximum antibacterial activity were isolated further characterized based on their colony characteristics and biochemical analyses. The isolates were screened for their secondary metabolites activity on three human pathogenic bacteria are Escherichia coli (E. coli), Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococci (VRE). Discussion: The strain MITS 1005 was found to be more active against the test bacteria.

  17. Inhibition of norsolorinic acid accumulation to Aspergillus parasiticus by marine actinomycetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Peisheng; Shi, Cuijuan; Shen, Jihong; Wang, Kai; Gao, Xiujun; Li, Ping

    2014-11-01

    Thirty-six strains of marine actinomycetes were isolated from a sample of marine sediment collected from the Yellow Sea and evaluated in terms of their inhibitory activity on the growth of Aspergillus parasiticus and the production of norsolorinic acid using dual culture plate assay and agar diffusion methods. Among them, three strains showed strong antifungal activity and were subsequently identified as Streptomyces sp. by 16S rRNA gene sequencing analysis. The supernatant from the fermentation of the MA01 strain was extracted sequentially with chloroform and ethyl acetate, and the activities of the extracts were determined by tip culture assay. The assay results show that both extracts inhibited mycelium growth and toxin production, and the inhibitory activities of the extracts increased as their concentrations increased. The results of this study suggest that marine actinomycetes are biologically important for the control of mycotoxins, and that these bacteria could be used as novel biopesticides against mycotoxins.

  18. Mutational analysis of primary alcohol metabolism in the methylotrophic actinomycete Amycolatopsis methanolica

    OpenAIRE

    Hektor, Harm J.; Dijkhuizen, Lubbert

    1996-01-01

    Mutants of the methylotrophic actinomycete Amycolatopsis methanolica unable to grow on methanol as carbon source were isolated and characterized. Mutants specifically affected in methanol utilization were deficient in formaldehyde assimilation. Mutants blocked in the first step of primary alcohol oxidation (C1-C4) had lost activity of the tetrazolium-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase, a three-component enzyme complex. This complex, or individual components, thus play a crucial role in utilizati...

  19. Bioleaching of Rare Earth Elements and Uranium From Sinai Soil, Egypt Using Actinomycetes

    OpenAIRE

    Maha Amin Hewedy, Abeer Ahmed Rushdy, and Noha Mohammed Kamal

    2013-01-01

    The use of microorganisms in the recovery of Rare Earth Elements (REEs) and Uranium (U) from low grade ores provides an appropriate eco-friendly alternative to chemical methods used in extraction and/or removal of metals from soils, with a higher efficiency, less destruction to the environment, and lower cost from a commercial view especially given that high-grade mineral resources that can be used in the chemical extraction of metals are being depleted. The feasibility of using actinomycetes...

  20. Mesophilic Actinomycetes in the natural and reconstructed sand dune vegetation zones of Fraser Island, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtböke, D I; Neller, R J; Bellgard, S E

    2007-08-01

    The natural coastal habitat of Fraser Island located in the State of Queensland, Australia, has been disturbed in the past for mining of the mineral sand ilmenite. Currently, there is no information available on whether these past mining disturbances have affected the distribution, diversity, and survival of beneficial soil microorganisms in the sand dunes of the island. This in turn could deleteriously affect the success of the natural regeneration, plant growth, and establishment on the sand dunes. To support ongoing restoration efforts at sites like these mesophilic actinomycetes were isolated using conventional techniques, with particular emphasis on the taxa previously reported to produce plant-growth-promoting substances and providing support to mycorrhizal fungi, were studied at disturbed sites and compared with natural sites. In the natural sites, foredunes contained higher densities of micromonosporae replaced by increasing numbers of streptomycete species in the successional dune and finally leading to complex actinomycete communities in the mature hind dunes. Whereas in the disturbed zones affected by previous mining activities, which are currently being rehabilitated, no culturable actinomycete communities were detected. These findings suggest that the paucity of beneficial microflora in the rehabilitated sand dunes may be limiting the successful colonization by pioneer plant species. Failure to establish a cover of plant species would result in the mature hind dune plants being exposed to harsh salt and climatic conditions. This could exacerbate the incidence of wind erosion, resulting in the destabilization of well-defined and vegetated successional dunal zones.

  1. Actinomycetes: A Repertory of Green Catalysts with a Potential Revenue Resource

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divya Prakash

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Biocatalysis, one of the oldest technologies, is becoming a favorable alternative to chemical processes and a vital part of green technology. It is an important revenue generating industry due to a global market projected at $7 billion in 2013 with a growth of 6.7% for enzymes alone. Some microbes are important sources of enzymes and are preferred over sources of plant and animal origin. As a result, more than 50% of the industrial enzymes are obtained from bacteria. The constant search for novel enzymes with robust characteristics has led to improvisations in the industrial processes, which is the key for profit growth. Actinomycetes constitute a significant component of the microbial population in most soils and can produce extracellular enzymes which can decompose various materials. Their enzymes are more attractive than enzymes from other sources because of their high stability and unusual substrate specificity. Actinomycetes found in extreme habitats produce novel enzymes with huge commercial potential. This review attempts to highlight the global importance of enzymes and extends to signify actinomycetes as promising harbingers of green technology.

  2. Actinomycetes: a repertory of green catalysts with a potential revenue resource.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, Divya; Nawani, Neelu; Prakash, Mansi; Bodas, Manish; Mandal, Abul; Khetmalas, Madhukar; Kapadnis, Balasaheb

    2013-01-01

    Biocatalysis, one of the oldest technologies, is becoming a favorable alternative to chemical processes and a vital part of green technology. It is an important revenue generating industry due to a global market projected at $7 billion in 2013 with a growth of 6.7% for enzymes alone. Some microbes are important sources of enzymes and are preferred over sources of plant and animal origin. As a result, more than 50% of the industrial enzymes are obtained from bacteria. The constant search for novel enzymes with robust characteristics has led to improvisations in the industrial processes, which is the key for profit growth. Actinomycetes constitute a significant component of the microbial population in most soils and can produce extracellular enzymes which can decompose various materials. Their enzymes are more attractive than enzymes from other sources because of their high stability and unusual substrate specificity. Actinomycetes found in extreme habitats produce novel enzymes with huge commercial potential. This review attempts to highlight the global importance of enzymes and extends to signify actinomycetes as promising harbingers of green technology.

  3. Changes in the structure of the rhizosphere complex of actinomycetes in the ontogenesis of winter rye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirokikh, I. G.; Merzaeva, O. V.; Zenova, G. M.

    2006-06-01

    Changes in the taxonomic structure of actinomycetes in the rhizosphere of winter rye ( Secale cereale L.) growing on acid soddy-podzolic soil were studied. During the first stages of ontogenesis of winter rye, the rhizosphere complex of mycelial prokaryotes was characterized by a relatively level generic structure (with respect to the indices of abundance and frequency of particular genera), low values of the species diversity, and low domination frequency of the species from the Streptomyces genus. The numbers and species diversity of the streptomycetes increased during the further growth of the winter rye, so that streptomycetes became a dominant group in the complex of the rhizosphere actinomycetes. According to the two-way ANOVA, the population density of the Micromonospora and the Streptosporangium genera in the rhizosphere was mainly dictated by the winter rye variety, whereas the population density of the streptomycetes depended on the particular stage of the winter rye development. The differences between the actinomycetal complexes characteristic of different varieties of winter rye at the early stages of its development was leveled by the end of the winter rye growth.

  4. Actinomycete complexes in soils of industrial and residential zones in the city of Kirov

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirokikh, I. G.; Solov'eva, E. S.; Ashikhmina, T. Ya.

    2014-02-01

    The number, diversity, and structure of the actinomycetal complexes in the soils of the industrial and residential zones of the city of Kirov are considered. The total content of mobile cadmium, zinc, lead, iron, and nickel in the soils of the industrial biotopes was 1.8 and 6.0 times higher than their concentration in the soils of the residential and background zones, respectively. In the heavy metal (HM)-polluted soils, the share of actinomycetes in the total number of prokaryotes and the relative abundance of the micromono-spores in the actinomycetal complex were much higher and the species diversity of the streptomycetes was lower than these characteristics in the soils of the residential zone. The differences in the composition of the mycelial prokaryote complexes appear to be related to the selective resistance of some of their representatives to heavy metals. The possibility to select the strains resistant to HMs and suitable for use in the bioremediation of polluted soils is considered.

  5. Occupational allergic respiratory diseases in garbage workers: relevance of molds and actinomycetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagemeyer, O; Bünger, J; van Kampen, V; Raulf-Heimsoth, M; Drath, C; Merget, R; Brüning, Th; Broding, H C

    2013-01-01

    Exposures to molds and bacteria (especially actinomycetes) at workplaces are common in garbage workers, but allergic respiratory diseases due to these microorganisms have been described rarely. The aim of our study was a detailed analysis of mold or bacteria-associated occupational respiratory diseases in garbage workers. From 2002 to 2011 four cases of occupational respiratory diseases related to garbage handling were identified in our institute (IPA). Hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP) was diagnosed in three subjects (cases 1-3, one smoker, two non-smokers), occupational asthma (OA) was diagnosed in one subject (case 4, smoker), but could not be excluded completely in case 2. Cases 1 and 2 worked in composting sites, while cases 3 and 4 worked in packaging recycling plants. Exposure periods were 2-4 years. Molds and actinomycetes were identified as allergens in all cases. Specific IgE antibodies to Aspergillus fumigatus were detected exclusively in case 4. Diagnoses of HP were essentially based on symptoms and the detection of specific IgG serum antibodies to molds and actinomycetes. OA was confirmed by bronchial provocation test with Aspergillus fumigatus in case 4. In conclusion, occupational HP and OA due to molds occur rarely in garbage workers. Technical prevention measures are insufficient and the diagnosis of HP is often inconclusive. Therefore, it is recommended to implement the full repertoire of diagnostic tools including bronchoalveolar lavage and high resolution computed tomography in the baseline examination. PMID:23835992

  6. Bioperspective of actinomycetes isolates from coastal soils: A new source of antimicrobial producers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rattanaporn Srivibool

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Forty five soil samples were collected from four coastal islands on the east coast of Thailand: Chang, Hwai, Lao-yanai in Trat Province and Pai Islands in Chonburi Province. On 3 isolating media, Actinomycetes Isolation Agar, Starch Casein Agar and Glucose Asparagine Agar, 495 isolates of actinomycetes were found. Preliminary test to search for antimicrobial activity was done with Bacillus subtilis TISTR 008, Staphylococcus aureus TISTR 885, Staphylococus aureus TISTR 517 (ATCC 25923, Micrococcus luteus TISTR 884 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa TISTR 781 and Escherichia coli TISTR 887 (ATCC 25922. Fifty-eight actinomycetes were found to be antimicrobial-producing strains. From the morphological determination, cell wall diaminopimelic acid and sugars in whole-cell hydrolysate studies, among the 58 strains, Streptomyces sp. and Actinomadura sp. were the predominant genera. The other antibiotic active strains were Micromonospora sp., Microbispora sp., Nocardia sp., Pseudonocardia sp., Saccharomonospora sp., Streptoalloteichus sp. and Streptoverticillium sp. Most of them could inhibit gram-positive bacteria, especially M. luteus TISTR 884, and 8 strains (4 strains of Actinomadura, 2 strains of Micromonospora, 1 strain of Microbispora, and 1 strain of Streptomyces could inhibit both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria.

  7. Anticancer property of sediment actinomycetes against MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cell lines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ravikumar S; Fredimoses M; Gnanadesigan M

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the anticancer property of marine sediment actinomycetes against two different breast cancer cell lines. Methods:In vitro anticancer activity was carried out against breast (MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231) cancer cell lines. Partial sequences of the 16s rRNA gene, phylogenetic tree construction, multiple sequence analysis and secondary structure analysis were also carried out with the actinomycetes isolates. Results: Of the selected five actinomycete isolates, ACT01 and ACT02 showed the IC50 value with (10.13±0.92) and (22.34±5.82)μg/mL concentrations, respectively for MCF-7 cell line at 48 h, but ACT01 showed the minimum (18.54±2.49 μg/mL) level of IC50 value with MDA-MB-231 cell line. Further, the 16s rRNA partial sequences of ACT01, ACT02, ACT03, ACT04 and ACT05 isolates were also deposited in NCBI data bank with the accession numbers of GQ478246, GQ478247, GQ478248, GQ478249 and GQ478250, respectively. The phylogenetic tree analysis showed that, the isolates of ACT02 and ACT03 were represented in group I and III, respectively, but ACT01 and ACT02 were represented in group II. The multiple sequence alignment of the actinomycete isolates showed that, the maximum identical conserved regions were identified with the nucleotide regions of 125 to 221st base pairs, 65 to 119th base pairs and 55, 48 and 31st base pairs. Secondary structure prediction of the 16s rRNA showed that, the maximum free energy was consumed with ACT03 isolate (-45.4 kkal/mol) and the minimum free energy was consumed with ACT04 isolate (-57.6 kkal/mol). Conclusions:The actinomycete isolates of ACT01 and ACT02 (GQ478246 and GQ478247) which are isolated from sediment sample can be further used as anticancer agents against breast cancer cell lines.

  8. Low-cost step aerobics system with virtual aerobics trainer

    OpenAIRE

    Rosa, Alejandro; Barbancho, Isabel; Tardón, Lorenzo J.; Barbancho, Ana M.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper a low-cost step-aerobics instructor simulation system is presented. The proposed system analyses a given song to iden- tify its rhythmic pattern. Subsequently, this rhythmic pattern is used in order to issue a set of steps-aerobics commands to the user, thus simu- lating a training session. The system uses a Wii Balance Board to track exercises performed by users and runs on an Android smartphone. A set of tests were conducted to assess user experience and opin...

  9. The biodegradation of layered silicates under the influence of cyanobacterial-actinomycetes associations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanova, Ekaterina

    2013-04-01

    The weathering of sheet silicates is well known to be related to local and global geochemical cycles. Content and composition of clay minerals in soil determine the sorption properties of the soil horizons, water-holding capacity of the soil, stickiness, plasticity, etc. Microorganisms have a diverse range of mechanisms of minerals' structure transformation (acid- and alkali formation, biosorption, complexing, etc). One of the methods is an ability of exopolysaccharide-formation, in particular the formation of mucus, common to many bacteria, including cyanobacteria. Mucous covers cyanobacteria are the specific econiches for other bacteria, including actinomycetes. The objective was to analyze the structural changes of clay minerals under the influence of the cyanobacterial-actinomycetes associative growth. The objects of the study were: 1) the experimental symbiotic association, consisting of free-living heterocyst-formative cyanobacterium Anabaena variabilis Kutz. ATCC 294132 and actinomycete Streptomyces cyaneofuscatus FR837630, 2) rock samples obtained from the Museum of the Soil Science Department of the Lomonosov Moscow State University: kaolinite, consisting of kaolin (96%) Al4 (OH) 8 [Si4O10]; mixed with hydromica, chlorite and quartz; vermiculite, consisting of vermiculite (Ca, Mg, ...)*(Mg, Fe)3(OH)2[(Si, Al)4O10]*4H2O and trioctahedral mica (biotite). The mineralogical compositions of the rocks were determined by the universal X-ray Diffractometer Carl Zeiss Yena. The operationg regime was kept constant (30 kv, 40 mA). The cultivation of the association of actinomycete S. cyanoefuscatus and cyanobacterium A. variabilis caused a reduction in the intensity of kaolinite and hydromica reflexes. However, since both (mica and kaolinite) components have a rigid structure, the significant structural transformation of the minerals was not revealed. Another pattern was observed in the experiment, where the rock sample of vermiculite was used as the mineral

  10. Succession of Actinomycetes During Composting Proccess of Dairy-Farm Waste Investigated by Culture-Dependent and Independent Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukhlissul Faatih1

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Mesophilic, thermophilic, and maturation phases were recognized in composting proccess. Temperaturechanges influence the microbial communities in compost within composting proccess. Actinomycetes account for alarger part of compost microbial population. The aim of this research was to study succession of actinomycetescommunity during composting of dairy-farm waste investigated by culture-dependent and independentapproaches.In culture-independent method, the succession of actinomycetes community was analyzed by nestedpolymerasechain reaction of ribosomal intergenic spacer (nested-PCR RISA using spesific primer F243 and primerR23S followed by a second PCR using primers F968 and R23S. In culture-dependent method actinomycetes fromcompost were isolated on selective media, starch-nitrate medium and humic-acid + vitamins medium. DNA ofactinomycetes was extracted and amplified by repetitive sequence-based PCR (rep-PCR using primer BOXA1R. Thebanding patterns were used to generate dendrograms by UPGMA clustering with NTSYS program. Microcosmcontaining sterile rice-straw and water which is inoculated with each actinomycetes isolates was used for examiningthe ability of each isolate in rice-straw degradation.The experiment results showed that succession of both bacteria and actinomycetes was occured withincomposting proccess of dairy-farm waste. Analysed by culture-independent method revealed that the highestcommunity of compost’s bacteria was on mesophilic, thermophilic, and maturation phases, respectively. WhereasPCR-nested RISA resulted the highest population of actinomycetes was on thermophilic, maturation, and mesophilicphases, respectively. By culture-dependent method was obtained 29 actinomycetes isolates from mesophilic phase,23 isolates from thermophilic phase, and 19 isolates from maturation phase. Genetic diversity analysis of the obtainedisolates showed the presence of phylogenetic grouping on each phase of composting proccess. This result

  11. Epidemiology of IBD

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... disease (IBD) What is IBD? Addressing IBD Epidemiology Epidemiology of the IBD Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... 5:1424-9. 2 Loftus EV, Jr. Clinical epidemiology of inflammatory bowel disease: Incidence, prevalence, and environmental ...

  12. Mathematical epidemiology

    CERN Document Server

    Driessche, Pauline; Wu, Jianhong

    2008-01-01

    Based on lecture notes of two summer schools with a mixed audience from mathematical sciences, epidemiology and public health, this volume offers a comprehensive introduction to basic ideas and techniques in modeling infectious diseases, for the comparison of strategies to plan for an anticipated epidemic or pandemic, and to deal with a disease outbreak in real time. It covers detailed case studies for diseases including pandemic influenza, West Nile virus, and childhood diseases. Models for other diseases including Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome, fox rabies, and sexually transmitted infections are included as applications. Its chapters are coherent and complementary independent units. In order to accustom students to look at the current literature and to experience different perspectives, no attempt has been made to achieve united writing style or unified notation. Notes on some mathematical background (calculus, matrix algebra, differential equations, and probability) have been prepared and may be downlo...

  13. Aerobic exercise in pulmonary rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Brasileiro de Vasconcelos

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to conduct a literature review on the usefulness of aerobic exercise in pulmonary rehabilitation. This is an exploratory study of literature through the electronic databases Medline, Lilacs, Scielo, Pubmed and Google Scholar, published between 1996 and 2012, conducted during the period February to May 2012 with the following keywords: COPD, pulmonary rehabilitation, aerobic exercises, physical training, quality of life. The change in pulmonary function and dysfunction of skeletal muscles that result in exercise intolerance and reduced fitness and may cause social isolation, depression, anxiety and addiction. The training exercise is the most important component of the program of pulmonary rehabilitation where the aerobic training provides consistent results in clinical improvement in levels of exercise tolerance and decreased dyspnea generating more benefits to the body, reducing the chance of cardiovascular disease and improves quality and expectation of life. We demonstrated that the use of aerobic exercise in pulmonary rehabilitation program, allows an improvement of motor skills, decreased muscle fatigue and deconditioning, reducing sedentary lifestyle; however, has little or no effect on the reduction of strength and atrophy muscle.

  14. SELEKSI DAN PEMANFAATAN ACTINOMYCETES SEBAGAI MIKROBA ANTAGONIS YANG RAMAH LINGKUNGAN TERHADAP Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cubense SECARA IN VITRO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I MADE SUDARMA

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A total of 119 different actinomycete isolate were recovered from banana crop habitats with and without Fusarium wilt disease symptom. These were than assessed for their antagonist ability against Fusarium oxysporum £sp. cubense (Foe in vitro. Results indicated that four of all actinomycete isolate active against Foe. The four of actinomycete isolates were Streptomyces sp. l (AAo4, Streptomyces sp.2 (AAo32 , Streptomyces sp.3 (AAo33 and Streptomyces sp. 4 (AAo35. It was can inhibit the Foe mycelium growth, 79,63%, 72,22%, 78,89% and 72,22% respectively. After tested with the 3 times replication, the four Streptomyces spp. isolate effective to control the Foe that attack Bali banana cultivars, such as Susu, Saba, Raja and Ketip.

  15. Lignin-solubilizing ability of actinomycetes isolated from termite (Termitidae) gut

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The lignocellulose-degrading abilities of 11 novel actinomycete strains isolated from termite gut were determined and compared with that of the well-characterized actinomycete, Streptomyces viridosporus T7A. Lignocellulose bioconversion was followed by (i) monitoring the degradation of [14C]lignin- and [14C]cellulose-labeled phloem of Abies concolor to 14CO2 and 14C-labeled water-soluble products, (ii) determining lignocellulose, lignin, and carbohydrate losses resulting from growth on a lignocellulose substrate prepared from corn stalks (Zea mays), and (iii) quantifying production of a water-soluble lignin degradation intermediate (acid-precipitable polymeric lignin). Of the assays used, total lignocellulose weight loss was most useful in determining overall bioconversion ability but not in identifying the best lignin-solubilizing strains. A screening procedure based on 14CO2 evolution from [14C-lignin]lignocellulose combined with measurement of acid-precipitable polymeric lignin yield was the most effective in identifying lignin-solubilizing strains. For the termite gut strains, the pH of the medium showed no increase after 3 weeks of growth on lignocellulose. This is markedly different from the pattern observed with S. viridosporus T7A, which raises the medium pH considerably. Production of extracellular peroxidases by the 11 strains and S. viridosporus T7A was followed for 5 days in liquid cultures. On the basis of an increase of specific peroxidase activity in the presence of lignocellulose in the medium, the actinomycetes could be placed into the same three groups

  16. Isolation and characterization of potential antibiotic producing actinomycetes from water and sediments of Lake Tana, Ethiopia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gebreselema Gebreyohannes; Feleke Moges; Samuel Sahile; Nagappan Raja

    2013-01-01

    To isolate, evaluate and characterize potential antibiotic producing actinomycetes from water and sediments of Lake Tana, Ethiopia. Methods: A total of 31 strains of actinomycetes were isolated and tested against Gram positive and Gram negative bacterial strains by primary screening. In the primary screening, 11 promising isolates were identified and subjected to solid state and submerged state fermentation methods to produce crude extracts. The fermented biomass was extracted by organic solvent extraction method and tested against bacterial strains by disc and agar well diffusion methods. The isolates were characterized by using morphological, physiological and biochemical methods. Results: The result obtained from agar well diffusion method was better than disc diffusion method. The crude extract showed higher inhibition zone against Gram positive bacteria than Gram negative bacteria. One-way analysis of variance confirmed most of the crude extracts were statistically significant at 95% confidence interval. The minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration of crude extracts were 1.65 mg/mL and 3.30 mg/mL against Staphylococcus aureus, and 1.84 mg/mL and 3.80 mg/mL against Escherichia coli respectively. The growth of aerial and substrate mycelium varied in different culture media used. Most of the isolates were able to hydrolysis starch and urea; able to survive at 5% concentration of sodium chloride; optimum temperature for their growth was 30 °C. Conclusions: The results of the present study revealed that freshwater actinomycetes of Lake Tana appear to have immense potential as a source of antibacterial compounds.

  17. Purification and characterization of protease enzyme from actinomycetes and its cytotoxic effect on cancer cell line (A549)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    C Balachandran; V Duraipandiyan; S Ignacimuthu

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To isolate active actinomycetes from soil samples of Northern Himalayas and study their culture characterization, protease production and cytotoxic effects on cancer cell line (A549). Methods: Forty six strains of actinomycetes were isolated from the soil collected from Northern Himalayas, India. Isolation of actinomycetes was performed by serial dilution plate technique. Forty six isolated actinomycetes cultures were grown in ISP 2 medium to study the morphology and biochemical characteristics. Isolated strains were studied for protease enzyme production in skim milk agar medium with solubilising capacity. Seven isolates were studied for melanin pigmentation and different NaCl concentration. Effects of environmental conditions influencing protease enzyme production of seven isolated strains were also studied at different pH, temperature and metal ions (β-mercaptoethanol, dithiothreitol, iodoacetamide, MgSO4, CaCl2 and EDTA). The seven isolates were also studied for lytic enzyme activity using different bacteria and yeast such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa), Enterococcus feacalis (E. feacalis), Escherishia coli (E. coli), Candida albicans (C. albicans), Bacillus subtilis (B. subtilis), Klebsiella pneumonia (K. pneumonia) and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus). Results: Isolates ERIA-31 and ERIA-33 produced more protease enzyme activity in modified nutrient agar media compared to other actinomycetes cultures. ERIA-31 and ERIA-33 were tested for cytotoxic effect in human adenocarcinoma cancer cell line (A549). IC50 for ERIA-31 was 57.04 μg/mL and IC50 for ERIA-33 was 55.07 μg/mL. Conclusion: Actinomycete being a protease producing bacteria has the potential for use in industrial purpose, pharmaceuticals, cytotoxic agent and its proteolytic activity. Isolates of ERIA-31 and ERIA-33 produced significant amount of protease enzymes.

  18. Use of bacteriophage for the selective isolation of thermophilic actinomycetes from composted eucalyptus bark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtböke, D I; Murphy, N E; Sivasithamparam, K

    1993-01-01

    A method was developed to reduce the numbers of thermophilic bacteria on isolation plates, which in turn facilitated the detection and isolation of thermophilic actinomycetes. The method involves exposing the test material to bacteriophage suspensions prior to inoculation on isolation plates. This method was applied to composted eucalyptus bark samples, which were then inoculated on R8 and 1/2 TSA + 0.2% casein hydrolysate agar plates. The phage susceptibility of thermophilic bacteria provided a selective means of reducing their numbers on isolation plates and hence increased the numbers of Thermomonospora, Saccharopolyspora rectivirgula, and thermophilic Streptomyces spp. on these media in comparison with the numbers recorded from control plates.

  19. EXPLORATION OF ACTINOMYCETES ENDOPHYTICALLY ASSOCIATED WITH PIPER NIGRUM FOR POTENTIAL BIOACTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasim B.

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Piper nigrum is well known for its metabolite richness. So endophytic microorganisms that reside within such environments can be expected to have promising biosynthetic potential. The current study identified three endophytic actinomycetes with broad bioactivity which can have applications in natural product related pharmacological research. The Verrucosispora sp identified in the study was found to have promising anticancer and antimicrobial activities and Streptomyces sp. was found to have antioxidant activity. The results obtained are supported by many previous reports and this suggests the isolates obtained in the study to have the possible presence of potential known or novel compounds with broad spectrum of activity.

  20. Characterization of cytotoxic compound from marine sediment derived actinomycete Streptomyces avidinii strain SU4

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sudha; S; Masilamani; Selvam; M

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the cytotoxic activity of actinomycete isolated from marine sediment.Methods:In the present study the DNA was isolated and the ITS region of 16s rRNA was amplified by polymerase chain reaction,using two universal bacterial primers,1492K(5’-GGTTACCTTG’TTAC GACTT-3’)and Eubac27F(5’-AGAGTTTGATCCTGGCTC AG-3’).The amplified products were purified using TIANgel mini purification kit,ligated to MD18-T simple vector(TaKaRa),and transformed into competent cells of Escherichia coli DH5α.16S rRNA gene fragment was sequenced using forward primer M13F(-47)and reverse primer M13R(-48).Blast search sequence similarity was found against the existing non-redundanl nucleotide sequence database thus,identified as Streptomyces sp SU,Streptomyces rubralavandulae strain SU1,Streptomyces cacaoi strain SU2,Streptomyces cavourensis strain SU3,Streptomyces avidinii strain SU4,Streptomyces globisporus strain SU5,Streptomyces variabilis strain SU6,Streptomyces coelicolor strain SU 7.Among the eight identified isolates,one actinomycete Streptomyces avidinii strain SU4 was selected for further study.Results:Crude extract of the actinomycete isolate exhibited IC50in 64.5μg against Hep-2 cell line,250μg in VERO cell line.This value is very close to the criteria of cytotoxicity activity for the crude extracts,as established by the American National Cancer Institute(NCI)is in IC50<30μg/mL.The CC MS analysis showed that the active principle might be 1,2-benzenedicarboxylic acid,bis(2-methylpropyl)ester(12.17%),isooctyl phthalate(15.29%)with the retention time 15.642 and 21.612,respectively.Conclusions:This study clearly proves that the marine sediment derived actinomycetes with bioactive metabolites can be expected to provide high quality biological material for high throughout biochemical and anticancer screening programs.These results help us to conclude that the potential of using metabolic engineering and post genomic

  1. Characterization of cytotoxic compound from marine sediment derived actinomycete Streptomyces avidinii strain SU4

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sudha S; Masilamani Selvam M

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the cytotoxic activity of actinomycete isolated from marine sediment. Methods: In the present study the DNA was isolated and the ITS region of 16s rRNA was amplified by polymerase chain reaction, using two universal bacterial primers, 1492R (5′-GGTTACCTTGTTAC GACTT-3′) and Eubac27F (5′-AGAGTTTGATCCTGGCTC AG-3′). The amplified products were purified using TIANgel mini purification kit, ligated to MD18-T simple vector (TaKaRa), and transformed into competent cells of Escherichia coli DH5α. 16S rRNA gene fragment was sequenced using forward primer M13F (-47) and reverse primer M13R (-48). Blast search sequence similarity was found against the existing non-redundant nucleotide sequence database thus, identified as Streptomyces sp SU, Streptomyces rubralavandulae strain SU1, Streptomyces cacaoi strain SU2, Streptomyces cavourensis strain SU3, Streptomyces avidinii strain SU4, Streptomyces globisporus strain SU5, Streptomyces variabilis strain SU6, Streptomycescoelicolor strain SU 7. Among the eight identified isolates, one actinomycete Streptomyces avidinii strain SU4 was selected for further study. Results: Crude extract of the actinomycete isolate exhibited IC50 in 64.5 μg against Hep-2 cell line, 250 μg in VERO cell line. This value is very close to the criteria of cytotoxicity activity for the crude extracts, as established by the American National Cancer Institute (NCI) is in IC50 < 30 μg /mL. The GC MS analysis showed that the active principle might be 1,2-benzenedicarboxylic acid, bis(2-methylpropyl) ester (12.17%), isooctyl phthalate (15.29%) with the retention time 15.642 and 21.612, respectively. Conclusions: This study clearly proves that the marine sediment derived actinomycetes with bioactive metabolites can be expected to provide high quality biological material for high throughout biochemical and anticancer screening programs. These results help us to conclude that the potential of using metabolic engineering and post genomic

  2. Longitudinal study of sports injuries in practitioners of aerobic gymnastics competition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocío Abalo Núñez

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTIntroduction:Aerobic gymnastics, since its membership in the International Gymnastics Federation, has undergone changes in its regulations.Objective:To analyze the injuries found in Spanish aerobic gymnastics athletes during different editions of the Code of Points.Methods:A descriptive, longitudinal and compara-tive study was carried out on the epidemiology of injuries in aerobic gymnastics published during different editions of the Code of Points.Results:It highlights that the number of injuries decreased from 156 to 38 last year. This decline has been related to the restriction on the number of difficulties in the exercise and the number of elements to be performed on the floor. However, they have increased the number and value of the difficulties.Conclusions:Therefore, it is concluded that the changes made in the regulations are intended to safeguard the health of athletes and ensure that competition develops at its best artistic and technical aspect.

  3. Aerobic microbial enhanced oil recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torsvik, T. [Univ. of Bergen (Norway); Gilje, E.; Sunde, E.

    1995-12-31

    In aerobic MEOR, the ability of oil-degrading bacteria to mobilize oil is used to increase oil recovery. In this process, oxygen and mineral nutrients are injected into the oil reservoir in order to stimulate growth of aerobic oil-degrading bacteria in the reservoir. Experiments carried out in a model sandstone with stock tank oil and bacteria isolated from offshore wells showed that residual oil saturation was lowered from 27% to 3%. The process was time dependent, not pore volume dependent. During MEOR flooding, the relative permeability of water was lowered. Oxygen and active bacteria were needed for the process to take place. Maximum efficiency was reached at low oxygen concentrations, approximately 1 mg O{sub 2}/liter.

  4. Streptomyces temperate bacteriophage integration systems for stable genetic engineering of actinomycetes (and other organisms).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltz, Richard H

    2012-05-01

    ϕC31, ϕBT1, R4, and TG1 are temperate bacteriophages with broad host specificity for species of the genus Streptomyces. They form lysogens by integrating site-specifically into diverse attB sites located within individual structural genes that map to the conserved core region of streptomycete linear chromosomes. The target genes containing the ϕC31, ϕBT1, R4, and TG1 attB sites encode a pirin-like protein, an integral membrane protein, an acyl-CoA synthetase, and an aminotransferase, respectively. These genes are highly conserved within the genus Streptomyces, and somewhat conserved within other actinomycetes. In each case, integration is mediated by a large serine recombinase that catalyzes unidirectional recombination between the bacteriophage attP and chromosomal attB sites. The unidirectional nature of the integration mechanism has been exploited in genetic engineering to produce stable recombinants of streptomycetes, other actinomycetes, eucaryotes, and archaea. The ϕC31 attachment/integration (Att/Int) system has been the most widely used, and it has been coupled with the ϕBT1 Att/Int system to facilitate combinatorial biosynthesis of novel lipopeptide antibiotics in Streptomyces fradiae.

  5. Screening of Marine Actinomycetes from Segara Anakan for Natural Pigment and Hydrolytic Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asnani, A.; Ryandini, D.; Suwandri

    2016-02-01

    Marine actinomycetes have become sources of great interest to natural product chemistry due to their new chemical entities and bioactive metabolites. Since April 2010, we have screened actinobacteria from five sites that represent different ecosystems of Segara Anakan lagoon. In this present study we focus on specific isolates, K-2C which covers 1) actinomycetes identification based on morphology observation and 16S rRNA gene; 2) fermentation and isolation of pigment; 3) structure determination of pigment; and 4) hydrolytic enzymes characterization; Methodologies relevant to the studies were implemented accordingly. The results indicated that K-2C was likely Streptomyces fradiae strain RSU15, and the best fermentation medium should contain starch and casein with 21 days of incubation. The isolate has extracellular as well as intracellular pigments. Isolated pigments gave purple color with λmax of 529.00 nm. The pigment was structurally characterized. Interestingly, Streptomyces K-2C was able to produce potential hydrolytic enzymes such as amylase, cellulase, protease, lipase, urease, and nitrate reductase.

  6. Endophytic Actinomycetes: A Novel Source of Potential Acyl Homoserine Lactone Degrading Enzymes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surang Chankhamhaengdecha

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Several Gram-negative pathogenic bacteria employ N-acyl-L-homoserine lactone (HSL quorum sensing (QS system to control their virulence traits. Degradation of acyl-HSL signal molecules by quorum quenching enzyme (QQE results in a loss of pathogenicity in QS-dependent organisms. The QQE activity of actinomycetes in rhizospheric soil and inside plant tissue was explored in order to obtain novel strains with high HSL-degrading activity. Among 344 rhizospheric and 132 endophytic isolates, 127 (36.9% and 68 (51.5% of them, respectively, possessed the QQE activity. The highest HSL-degrading activity was at 151.30±3.1 nmole/h/mL from an endophytic actinomycetes isolate, LPC029. The isolate was identified as Streptomyces based on 16S  rRNA gene sequence similarity. The QQE from LPC029 revealed HSL-acylase activity that was able to cleave an amide bond of acyl-side chain in HSL substrate as determined by HPLC. LPC029 HSL-acylase showed broad substrate specificity from C6- to C12-HSL in which C10HSL is the most favorable substrate for this enzyme. In an in vitro pathogenicity assay, the partially purified HSL-acylase efficiently suppressed soft rot of potato caused by Pectobacterium carotovorum ssp. carotovorum as demonstrated. To our knowledge, this is the first report of HSL-acylase activity derived from an endophytic Streptomyces.

  7. Endophytic actinomycetes: a novel source of potential acyl homoserine lactone degrading enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chankhamhaengdecha, Surang; Hongvijit, Suphatra; Srichaisupakit, Akkaraphol; Charnchai, Pattra; Panbangred, Watanalai

    2013-01-01

    Several Gram-negative pathogenic bacteria employ N-acyl-L-homoserine lactone (HSL) quorum sensing (QS) system to control their virulence traits. Degradation of acyl-HSL signal molecules by quorum quenching enzyme (QQE) results in a loss of pathogenicity in QS-dependent organisms. The QQE activity of actinomycetes in rhizospheric soil and inside plant tissue was explored in order to obtain novel strains with high HSL-degrading activity. Among 344 rhizospheric and 132 endophytic isolates, 127 (36.9%) and 68 (51.5%) of them, respectively, possessed the QQE activity. The highest HSL-degrading activity was at 151.30 ± 3.1 nmole/h/mL from an endophytic actinomycetes isolate, LPC029. The isolate was identified as Streptomyces based on 16S  rRNA gene sequence similarity. The QQE from LPC029 revealed HSL-acylase activity that was able to cleave an amide bond of acyl-side chain in HSL substrate as determined by HPLC. LPC029 HSL-acylase showed broad substrate specificity from C6- to C12-HSL in which C10HSL is the most favorable substrate for this enzyme. In an in vitro pathogenicity assay, the partially purified HSL-acylase efficiently suppressed soft rot of potato caused by Pectobacterium carotovorum ssp. carotovorum as demonstrated. To our knowledge, this is the first report of HSL-acylase activity derived from an endophytic Streptomyces.

  8. Antimethicilin resistance agents from marine actinomycetes from soil sediments of Lagos Lagoon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Davies Olabisi Flora; Adeleye Isaac Adeyemi; Wang Peng George

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate theisolation of actinomycetes strains with potential for producing antimicrobials with high methicilin resistance capability. Methods: The soil samples were collected from four different locations of Lagos lagoon. TheActinomycetes were isolated from the samples by serial dilution using spread plate method. Isolates were selected based on their cultural characteristics as well as their Gram reaction and phenotypically and molecularly characterizedStreptomyces sp. Isolates were inoculated in starch casein and Kuster’s broth media and secondary metabolites were screened for antimicrobial activity against the following microorganisms: methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus,Staphylococcus aureusATCC29213,Escherichia coliATCC 29522, Pseudomonas aeruginosaATCC27853,Candida albicans,Enterococcus faecalisATCC 29212. Coagulase-negative staphylococci isolated fromHIV patients were also used (Staphylococcus warneri,Staphylococcus xylosus andStaphylococcus epidermidis). The antimicrobial metabolites of the isolates were identified using gas chromatography-mass spectrometer. Results:Extracts from isolatesULS12 andULS13 showed antimicrobial activity against methicillin resistantStaphylococcus aureus whileULK3 inhibitedCandida albicans only. The gas chromatography-mass spectrometerdata analysis showed the antibiotic profile of these isolates. Conclusions: The isolatesULS12 andULS13 were found to display the highest antimicrobial activity against the test organisms and could be a potential source of new antibiotics.

  9. Antimethicilin resistance agents from marine actinomycetes from soil sediments of Lagos Lagoon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davies Olabisi Flora

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the isolation of actinomycetes strains with potential for producing antimicrobials with high methicilin resistance capability. Methods: The soil samples were collected from four different locations of Lagos lagoon. The Actinomycetes were isolated from the samples by serial dilution using spread plate method. Isolates were selected based on their cultural characteristics as well as their Gram reaction and phenotypically and molecularly characterized Streptomyces sp. Isolates were inoculated in starch casein and Kuster’s broth media and secondary metabolites were screened for antimicrobial activity against the following microorganisms: methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213, Escherichia coli ATCC 29522, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853, Candida albicans, Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212. Coagulase-negative staphylococci isolated from HIV patients were also used (Staphylococcus warneri, Staphylococcus xylosus and Staphylococcus epidermidis. The antimicrobial metabolites of the isolates were identified using gas chromatography-mass spectrometer. Results: Extracts from isolates ULS12 and ULS13 showed antimicrobial activity against methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus while ULK3 inhibited Candida albicans only. The gas chromatography-mass spectrometer data analysis showed the antibiotic profile of these isolates. Conclusions: The isolates ULS12 and ULS13 were found to display the highest antimicrobial activity against the test organisms and could be a potential source of new antibiotics.

  10. Genome sequencing reveals complex secondary metabolome in themarine actinomycete Salinispora tropica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Udwary, Daniel W.; Zeigler, Lisa; Asolkar, Ratnakar; Singan,Vasanth; Lapidus, Alla; Fenical, William; Jensen, Paul R.; Moore, BradleyS.

    2007-05-01

    Recent fermentation studies have identified actinomycetes ofthe marine-dwelling genus Salinispora as prolific natural productproducers. To further evaluate their biosynthetic potential, we analyzedall identifiable secondary natural product gene clusters from therecently sequenced 5,184,724 bp S. tropica CNB-440 circular genome. Ouranalysis shows that biosynthetic potential meets or exceeds that shown byprevious Streptomyces genome sequences as well as other naturalproduct-producing actinomycetes. The S. tropica genome features ninepolyketide synthase systems of every known formally classified family,non-ribosomal peptide synthetases and several hybrid clusters. While afew clusters appear to encode molecules previously identified inStreptomyces species,the majority of the 15 biosynthetic loci are novel.Specific chemical information about putative and observed natural productmolecules is presented and discussed. In addition, our bioinformaticanalysis was critical for the structure elucidation of the novelpolyenemacrolactam salinilactam A. This study demonstrates the potentialfor genomic analysis to complement and strengthen traditional naturalproduct isolation studies and firmly establishes the genus Salinispora asa rich source of novel drug-like molecules.

  11. Aerobic conditioning for team sport athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Nicholas M; Kilding, Andrew E

    2009-01-01

    Team sport athletes require a high level of aerobic fitness in order to generate and maintain power output during repeated high-intensity efforts and to recover. Research to date suggests that these components can be increased by regularly performing aerobic conditioning. Traditional aerobic conditioning, with minimal changes of direction and no skill component, has been demonstrated to effectively increase aerobic function within a 4- to 10-week period in team sport players. More importantly, traditional aerobic conditioning methods have been shown to increase team sport performance substantially. Many team sports require the upkeep of both aerobic fitness and sport-specific skills during a lengthy competitive season. Classic team sport trainings have been shown to evoke marginal increases/decreases in aerobic fitness. In recent years, aerobic conditioning methods have been designed to allow adequate intensities to be achieved to induce improvements in aerobic fitness whilst incorporating movement-specific and skill-specific tasks, e.g. small-sided games and dribbling circuits. Such 'sport-specific' conditioning methods have been demonstrated to promote increases in aerobic fitness, though careful consideration of player skill levels, current fitness, player numbers, field dimensions, game rules and availability of player encouragement is required. Whilst different conditioning methods appear equivalent in their ability to improve fitness, whether sport-specific conditioning is superior to other methods at improving actual game performance statistics requires further research.

  12. Methods to determine aerobic endurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosquet, Laurent; Léger, Luc; Legros, Patrick

    2002-01-01

    Physiological testing of elite athletes requires the correct identification and assessment of sports-specific underlying factors. It is now recognised that performance in long-distance events is determined by maximal oxygen uptake (V(2 max)), energy cost of exercise and the maximal fractional utilisation of V(2 max) in any realised performance or as a corollary a set percentage of V(2 max) that could be endured as long as possible. This later ability is defined as endurance, and more precisely aerobic endurance, since V(2 max) sets the upper limit of aerobic pathway. It should be distinguished from endurance ability or endurance performance, which are synonymous with performance in long-distance events. The present review examines methods available in the literature to assess aerobic endurance. They are numerous and can be classified into two categories, namely direct and indirect methods. Direct methods bring together all indices that allow either a complete or a partial representation of the power-duration relationship, while indirect methods revolve around the determination of the so-called anaerobic threshold (AT). With regard to direct methods, performance in a series of tests provides a more complete and presumably more valid description of the power-duration relationship than performance in a single test, even if both approaches are well correlated with each other. However, the question remains open to determine which systems model should be employed among the several available in the literature, and how to use them in the prescription of training intensities. As for indirect methods, there is quantitative accumulation of data supporting the utilisation of the AT to assess aerobic endurance and to prescribe training intensities. However, it appears that: there is no unique intensity corresponding to the AT, since criteria available in the literature provide inconsistent results; and the non-invasive determination of the AT using ventilatory and heart rate

  13. Azalomycin F4a 2-ethylpentyl ester, a new macrocyclic lactone, from mangrove actinomycete Streptomyces sp.211726

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gan Jun Yuan; Kui Hong; Hai Peng Lin; Jia Li

    2010-01-01

    Azalomycin F4a 2-ethylpentyl ester,a new 36-membered macrocyclic lactone antibiotic,was isolated from mangrove actinomycete Streptomyces sp.211726.Its structure was elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic data.The compound showed broad-spectrum antifungal activity and moderate cytotoxicity against human colon tumor cell HCT-116.

  14. In vitro Antimicrobial Assay of Actinomycetes in Rice AgainstXanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzicola and as Potential Plant Growth Promoter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erneeza Mohd Hata

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The aim of this work was to invitro assay the antimicrobial activity of actinomycetes in rice against Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzicola and as potential plant growth promoter. A total of 92 actinomycete strains were isolated from different rice plant components and field locations. Of these, only 21.74% showed antagonistic activity against the Xoc pathogen. Molecular identification via 16s rRNA amplification revealed that 60% of the active antagonistic strains belonged to the genus Streptomyces. Isolates that demonstrated the highest antagonistic activity were also able to produce hydrolytic enzymes and plant growth-promoting hormones. Combination of preliminary screening based on in vitro antagonistic, hydrolytic enzyme and plant growth hormone activity facilitated the best selection of actinomycete candidates as evidenced by strains classification using cluster analysis (Ward's Method. Results from the preliminary screening showed that actinomycetes, especially Streptomycetes, could offer a promising source for both biocontrol and plant growth-promotion agents against BLS disease in rice.

  15. International Lymphoma Epidemiology Consortium

    Science.gov (United States)

    The InterLymph Consortium, or formally the International Consortium of Investigators Working on Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma Epidemiologic Studies, is an open scientific forum for epidemiologic research in non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.

  16. Ehrlichiosis: Statistics and Epidemiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a tick Diseases transmitted by ticks Statistics and Epidemiology Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On this ... Holman RC, McQuiston JH, Krebs JW, Swerdlow DL. Epidemiology of human ehrlichiosis and anaplasmosis in the United ...

  17. Anaplasmosis: Statistics and Epidemiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a tick Diseases transmitted by ticks Statistics and Epidemiology Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On this ... Holman RC, McQuiston JH, Krebs JW, Swerdlow DL. Epidemiology of human ehrlichiosis and anaplasmosis in the United ...

  18. Energetic and metabolic consequences of aerobic and an-aerobic ATP-production.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreurs, V.V.A.M.; Aarts, M.J.; IJssennagger, N.; Hermans, J.; Hendriks, W.H.

    2007-01-01

    ATP, the currency of cellular energy metabolism, can be produced during aerobic and an-aerobic oxidation of metabolic substrates. The aerobic oxidation yields CO2 + H2O as metabolic end products while ATP is produced by oxidative phosphorylation in the mitochondria. Carbohydrate, protein and fat pro

  19. Cancer Epidemiology Matters Blog

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Cancer Epidemiology Matters blog helps foster a dialogue between the National Cancer Institute's (NCI) Epidemiology and Genomics Research Program (EGRP), extramural researchers, and other individuals, such as clinicians, community partners, and advocates, who are interested in cancer epidemiology and genomics.

  20. Components in Antineoplastic Actinomycete Strain(N2010-37)of Bottom Mud in Mangrove

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Zhong-liu; JIN Bei; YIN Wen-qing; FU Chun-yan; FENG Hua-fen

    2011-01-01

    Objective To study the antitumor components from an actinomycete strain(N2010-37)of bottom mud in Zhanjiang Mangrove,South China Sea.Methods The components were isolated and purified by chromatographic techniques and recrystallization,and the structures were identified by spectral methods together with physicochemical analyses.The antitumor effects of these components were tested in vitro by MTT method.Results Three compounds were identified including two anthrones and one novel lactone.They are(3S,4R,7R,8R,9S)-3,8-dihydroxy-4,7,9-trimethyl-2,6-cyclononanediolacetone(1),2-hydroxy-l-methoxy-3-methylanthraquinone(2),and 1,6,8-thihydroxy-3-methyl-anthraquinone(3).Conclusion Compound 1 is a new compound,and compounds 1 and 3 show the favorablecytotoxic activities against human chronic granulocytic leukemia cell line K562 strain by MTT method in vitro.

  1. Nocardia kroppenstedtii sp. nov., an actinomycete isolated from a lung transplant patient with a pulmonary infection.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Jones, Amanda L

    2014-03-01

    A novel actinomycete, strain N1286(T), isolated from a lung transplant patient with a pulmonary infection, was provisionally assigned to the genus Nocardia. The strain had chemotaxonomic and morphological properties typical of members of the genus Nocardia and formed a distinct phyletic line in the Nocardia 16S rRNA gene tree. Isolate N1286(T) was most closely related to Nocardia farcinica DSM 43665(T) (99.8% gene sequence similarity) but could be distinguished from the latter by the low level of DNA-DNA relatedness. These strains were also distinguishable on the basis of a broad range of phenotypic properties. It is concluded that strain N1286(T) represents a novel species of the genus Nocardia for which the name Nocardia kroppenstedtii sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is N1286(T) ( = DSM 45810(T) = NCTC 13617(T)).

  2. Semi-solid-state fermentation: a promising alternative for neomycin production by the actinomycete Streptomyces fradiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Isabel; Teixeira, José A; Rodríguez-Couto, Susana

    2013-06-10

    The production of neomycin by the actinomycete Streptomyces fradiae, under semi-solid-state fermentation conditions was the main subject of this study. Two supports (nylon sponge and orange peelings) were tested in order to determine the most suitable one for the production of neomycin by the above-mentioned microorganism. Nylon sponge led to the highest neomycin production, reaching a maximum value of 13,903 μg/mL on the 10th day of cultivation. As a control, the same experiment was performed under submerged fermentation (SmF) conditions, without solid support. Here the production of neomycin by S. fradiae was about 55-fold lower (i.e. 250 μg/mL) than that obtained for SSF.

  3. Identification of the Entner-Doudoroff pathway in an antibiotic-producing actinomycete species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gunnarsson, Nina; Mortensen, Uffe Hasbro; Sosio, M.;

    2004-01-01

    The metabolic network of the central carbon metabolism represents the backbone of cellular metabolism and provides the precursors and cofactors required for synthesis of secondary metabolites. It is therefore pivotal to map the operating metabolic network in the central carbon metabolism in order...... to design metabolic engineering strategies towards construction of more efficient producers of specific metabolites. In this context, methods that allow rapid and reliable mapping of the central carbon metabolism are valuable. In the present study, a C-13 labelling-based method was used to identify...... the primary metabolic pathways of the poorly characterized antibiotic-producing actinomycete Nonomuraea sp. ATCC 39727. Surprisingly, it was found that Nonomuraea sp. ATCC 39272 predominantly metabolizes glucose via the Entner-Doudoroff (ED) pathway. This represents the first time that the ED pathway has been...

  4. Himalomycin A and cycloheximide-producing marine actinomycete from Lagos Lagoon soil sediment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davies Olabisi Flora

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To isolate and screen Actinomycetes from Lagos Lagoon soil sediments for antibiotic production. Methods: Soil samples were collected from four different locations of Lagos Lagoon and were dried for 2 weeks. Actinomycetes were isolated by serial dilution using spread plate method on starch casein and Kuster’s agar supplemented with 80 μg/mL cycloheximide to prevent fungal growth. The plates were incubated at 28 °C for 1-2 weeks. Isolates were selected based on their cultural characteristics as well as their Gram’s reaction and subcultured on same media for isolation and incubated at 28 °C for 3 days. Pure cultures were maintained on nutrient agar slants at 4 °C. Thereafter, they were inoculated into starch casein and Kuster’s broth media and incubated at 28 °C for 8 days. The resulting crude extracts were screened for antimicrobial activity against the following microorganisms: methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213, Escherichia coli ATCC 29522, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853, Candida albicans and Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212. Coagulasenegative staphylococci isolated from HIV patients were also used (Staphylococcus warneri, Staphylococcus xylosus and Staphylococcus epidermidis. Extraction of secondary metabolites was carried out and analysed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometer. Results: All the isolates displayed varying antimicrobial activity against at least one of the test organisms. Himalomycin A was identified in the extract from isolate ULS7. The gas chromatography-mass spectrometer data analysis showed the antibiotic profile of these isolates. Conclusions: The isolate ULS7 was found to display the highest antimicrobial activity against the test organisms.

  5. Marine actinomycetes: a new source of compounds against the human malaria parasite.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques Prudhomme

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Malaria continues to be a devastating parasitic disease that causes the death of 2 million individuals annually. The increase in multi-drug resistance together with the absence of an efficient vaccine hastens the need for speedy and comprehensive antimalarial drug discovery and development. Throughout history, traditional herbal remedies or natural products have been a reliable source of antimalarial agents, e.g. quinine and artemisinin. Today, one emerging source of small molecule drug leads is the world's oceans. Included among the source of marine natural products are marine microorganisms such as the recently described actinomycete. Members of the genus Salinispora have yielded a wealth of new secondary metabolites including salinosporamide A, a molecule currently advancing through clinical trials as an anticancer agent. Because of the biological activity of metabolites being isolated from marine microorganisms, our group became interested in exploring the potential efficacy of these compounds against the malaria parasite. METHODS: We screened 80 bacterial crude extracts for their activity against malaria growth. We established that the pure compound, salinosporamide A, produced by the marine actinomycete, Salinispora tropica, shows strong inhibitory activity against the erythrocytic stages of the parasite cycle. Biochemical experiments support the likely inhibition of the parasite 20S proteasome. Crystal structure modeling of salinosporamide A and the parasite catalytic 20S subunit further confirm this hypothesis. Ultimately we showed that salinosporamide A protected mice against deadly malaria infection when administered at an extremely low dosage. CONCLUSION: These findings underline the potential of secondary metabolites, derived from marine microorganisms, to inhibit Plasmodium growth. More specifically, we highlight the effect of proteasome inhibitors such as salinosporamide A on in vitro and in vivo parasite development

  6. Antibiotic Producing Potentials of Three Freshwater Actinomycetes Isolated from the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy Sibanda

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Crude extracts of three actinomycetes species belonging to Saccharopolyspora (TR 046 and TR 039 and Actinosynnema (TR 024 genera were screened for antibacterial activities against a panel of several bacterial strains. The extracts showed antibacterial activities against both gram-negative and gram-positive test bacteria with inhibition zones ranging from 8 to 28 mm (TR 046; 8 to15 mm (TR 039; and 10 to 13 mm (TR 024. The minimum inhibitory concentrations ranged from 0.078 to 10 mg/mL (TR 046; 5 to >10 mg/mL (TR 039; and 1.25 to 5 mg/mL (TR 024. Time-kill studies revealed that crude extract of TR 046 showed strong bactericidal activity against Bacillus pumilus (ATCC14884, reducing the bacterial load by 104 cfu/mL and 102 cfu/mL at 4× MIC and 2× MIC, respectively, after 6 h of exposure. Similarly, against Proteus vulgaris (CSIR 0030, crude extract of TR 046 achieved a 0.9log10 and 0.13log10 cfu/mL reduction at 5 mg/mL (4× MIC and 1.25 mg/mL (2× MIC after 12 h of exposure. The extract was however weakly bactericidal against two environmental bacterial strains (Klebsiella pneumoniae and Staphylococcus epidermidis; and against Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 19582: the extract showed bacteriostatic activities at all concentrations tested. These freshwater actinomycetes appear to have immense potential as a source of new antibacterial compound(s.

  7. Himalomycin A and cycloheximide-producing marine actinomycete from Lagos Lagoon soil sediment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Davies Olabisi Flora; Adeleye IsaacAdeyemi; Wang Peng George

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To isolate and screen Actinomycetes from Lagos Lagoon soil sediments for antibiotic production. Methods: Soil samples were collected from four different locations of Lagos Lagoon and were dried for 2 weeks. Actinomycetes were isolated by serial dilution using spread plate method on starch casein and Kuster’s agar supplemented with 80 μg/mL cycloheximide to prevent fungal growth. The plates were incubated at 28 °C for 1-2 weeks. Isolates were selected based on their cultural characteristics as well as their Gram’s reaction and subcultured on same media for isolation and incubated at 28 °C for 3 days. Pure cultures were maintained on nutrient agar slants at 4 °C. Thereafter, they were inoculated into starch casein and Kuster’s broth media and incubated at 28 °C for 8 days. The resulting crude extracts were screened for antimicrobial activity against the following microorganisms: methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213, Escherichia coli ATCC 29522, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853, Candida albicans and Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212. Coagulase-negative staphylococci isolated from HIV patients were also used (Staphylococcus warneri, Staphylococcus xylosus and Staphylococcus epidermidis). Extraction of secondary metabolites was carried out and analysed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometer. Results: All the isolates displayed varying antimicrobial activity against at least one of the test organisms. Himalomycin A was identified in the extract from isolate ULS7. The gas chromatography-mass spectrometer data analysis showed the antibiotic profile of these isolates. Conclusions: The isolate ULS7 was found to display the highest antimicrobial activity against the test organisms.

  8. Antimicrobial Activities of Some Actinomycetes Isolated from Different Rhizospheric Soils in Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trabelsi, Ines; Oves, Daniel; Manteca, Angel; Genilloud, Olga; Altalhi, Abdullah; Nour, Mohamed

    2016-08-01

    Fifty four isolates of actinomycetes were collected from four different rhizospheric soils: 18 strains from palm tree bark and soil, 12 strains from an olive field soil, 9 strains from a coastal forest, and 15 strains from an agriculture soil situated in the Algerian-Tunisian border (Oum Tboul). Based on morphological and cultural characters, the isolates were classified as Streptomyces (42 strains), Micromonospora (4 strains), Pseudonocardia (1 strain), Actinomadura (1 strain), Nocardia (1 strain), and non-Streptomyces (5 strains). More than half of the isolates inhibited at least one tested pathogenic microorganisms in liquid culture. In addition, antimicrobial activities of some strains were tested on solid culture. Several bioactive compounds were identified by liquid chromatography joined with low-resolution mass spectroscopy (LC/MS) and analysed by MEDINA's database and by the dictionary of natural products Chapman & Hall. An interesting chlorinated compound with the molecular formula C20H37ClN2O4, produced by three different strains (SF1, SF2, and SF5), was subject of an attempted purification. However, it was demonstrated using confocal microscopy and LC/MS high resolution that this compound is produced only on solid culture. These three potential antimicrobial isolates showed high similarity with Streptomyces thinghirensis and Streptomyces lienomycini, in terms of morphological characteristics and 16S rRNA gene sequences (bootstrap 97 %). All these findings prove the high antimicrobial diversity of the studied soils. The potential of the selected and other relatively unexplored extreme environments constitute a source of interesting actinomycete strains producing several biologically active secondary metabolites. PMID:27139253

  9. SCREENING, ISOLATION AND PURIFICATION OF ANTIBIOTIC(S FROM MARINE ACTINOMYCETES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attimarad S L

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available As marine environmental conditions are extremely different from terrestrial ones, it is surmised that marine actinomycetes might produce novel bioactive compounds. Hence marine sediments, collected from the coastal areas of Gokharna and Muradeshwara of Karnataka state, were screened. Seventeen isolates were obtained on starch-casein agar media by soil dilution technique. However, only six isolates namely SUN-A2, SUN-A3, SUN-A4, SUN-A5, SUN-A7 and SUN-A15 showed significant antibacterial activity against both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. Further studies were carried out with the most active SUN-A2. Optimization of media, temperature and pH by shake flask fermentation indicated starch-casein, 28o C and pH 7 to be suitable for SUN-A2. The production of antibiotics began after 24 h reached maximum at 72 h and maintained at the same level up to 120 h. Ethyl acetate was used to extract antibacterial compounds from the culture filtrate. TLC was done on silica gel using ethyl acetate: methanol (6:4 and direct bioautography showed the presence of two active substance, one with Rf 0.8 more active than the other with Rf 0.4. Further purification is done by column chromatography using a mixture of dicholoromethane and ethyl acetate. The findings from this investigation reveal that the strain SUN-A2 in order exhibited superior antimicrobial activity to other sediment isolates of actinomycetes.

  10. Aerobic rice mechanization: techniques for crop establishment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khusairy, K. M.; Ayob, H.; Chan, C. S.; Fauzi, M. I. Mohamed; Mohamad Fakhrul, Z. O.; Shahril Shah, G. S. M.; Azlan, O.; Rasad, M. A.; Hashim, A. M.; Arshad, Z.; E, E. Ibrahim; Saifulizan, M. N.

    2015-12-01

    Rice being the staple food crops, hundreds of land races in it makes the diversity of rice crops. Aerobic rice production was introduced which requires much less water input to safeguard and sustain the rice production and conserve water due to decreasing water resources, climatic changes and competition from urban and industrial users. Mechanization system plays an important role for the success of aerobic rice cultivation. All farming activities for aerobic rice production are run on aerobic soil conditions. Row seeder mechanization system is developed to replace conventional seeding technique on the aerobic rice field. It is targeted for small and the large scale aerobic rice farmers. The aero - seeder machine is used for the small scale aerobic rice field, while the accord - seeder is used for the large scale aerobic rice field. The use of this mechanization machine can eliminate the tedious and inaccurate seeding operations reduce labour costs and increases work rate. The machine is easy to operate and it can increase crop establishment rate. It reduce missing hill, increasing planting and crop with high yield can be produce. This machine is designed for low costs maintenance and it is easy to dismantle and assemble during maintenance and it is safe to be used.

  11. Skeletal Muscle Hypertrophy after Aerobic Exercise Training

    OpenAIRE

    Konopka, Adam R.; Harber, Matthew P.

    2014-01-01

    Current dogma suggests aerobic exercise training has minimal effect on skeletal muscle size. We and others have demonstrated that aerobic exercise acutely and chronically alters protein metabolism and induces skeletal muscle hypertrophy. These findings promote an antithesis to the status quo by providing novel perspective on skeletal muscle mass regulation and insight into exercise-countermeasures for populations prone to muscle loss.

  12. Three different [NiFe] hydrogenases confer metabolic flexibility in the obligate aerobe Mycobacterium smegmatis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berney, Michael; Greening, Chris; Hards, Kiel; Collins, Desmond; Cook, Gregory M

    2014-01-01

    Mycobacterium smegmatis is an obligate aerobe that harbours three predicted [NiFe] hydrogenases, Hyd1 (MSMEG_2262–2263), Hyd2 (MSMEG_2720-2719) and Hyd3 (MSMEG_3931-3928). We show here that these three enzymes differ in their phylogeny, regulation and catalytic activity. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that Hyd1 groups with hydrogenases that oxidize H2 produced by metabolic processes, and Hyd2 is homologous to a novel group of putative high-affinity hydrogenases. Hyd1 and Hyd2 respond to carbon and oxygen limitation, and, in the case of Hyd1, hydrogen supplementation. Hydrogen consumption measurements confirmed that both enzymes can oxidize hydrogen. In contrast, the phylogenetic analysis and activity measurements of Hyd3 are consistent with the enzyme evolving hydrogen. Hyd3 is controlled by DosR, a regulator that responds to hypoxic conditions. The strict dependence of hydrogen oxidation of Hyd1 and Hyd2 on oxygen suggests that the enzymes are oxygen tolerant and linked to the respiratory chain. This unique combination of hydrogenases allows M. smegmatis to oxidize hydrogen at high (Hyd1) and potentially tropospheric (Hyd2) concentrations, as well as recycle reduced equivalents by evolving hydrogen (Hyd3). The distribution of these hydrogenases throughout numerous soil and marine species of actinomycetes suggests that oxic hydrogen metabolism provides metabolic flexibility in environments with changing nutrient fluxes.

  13. Clear felling and burning effects on soil nitrogen transforming bacteria and actinomycetes population in Chittagong University campus, Bangladesh

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S.M.Sirajul Haque; Rahima Ferdoshi; Sohag Miah; M.Nural Anwar

    2012-01-01

    The effect of forests clear felling and associated burning on the population of soil nitrogen transforming bacteria and actinomycetes are reported at three pair sites of Chittagong University campus,Bangladesh in monsoon tropical climate.Clear felled area or burnt site and 15-21 year mixed plantation of native and exotic species,situated side by side on low hill having Typic Dystrochrepts soil was represented at each pair site.At all the three pair sites,clear felled area or burnt site showed very significantly (p≤0.001) lower population of actinomycetes,Rhizobium,Nitrosomonas,Nitrobacter and ammonifying as well as denitrifying bacteria compared to their adjacent mixed plantation.From environmental consideration,this finding has implication in managing natural ecosystem.

  14. Distribution and generic composition of culturable marine actinomycetes from the sediments of Indian continental slope of Bay of Bengal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Surajit DAS; P.S.LYLA; S.AJMAL KHAN

    2008-01-01

    Actinomycetes population from continental slope sediment of the Bay of Bengal was studied.Samples were collected during two voyages of FORV Sagar Sampada in 2004 (May-June) and 2005 (July) respectively from 11 transects (each transect had ca.200m,500m,and 1000m depth stations).The physicochemical parameters of overlying water,and sediment samples were also recorded.The actinomycete population ranged from 5.17 to 51.94 CFU/g dry sediment weight and 9.38 to 45.22 CFU/g dry sediment weight during the two cruises respectively.No actinomycete colony was isolated from stations in 1000m depth.Two-way analysis of variance showed significant variation among stations (ANOVA two-way,P0.05),but no significance was found between the two cruises (ANOVA two-way,P0.05).Three actinomycetes genera were identified.Streptomyces was found to be the dominating one in both the cruises,followed by Micromonospora,and Actinomyces.The spore of Streptomyces isolates showed the abundance in spiral spore chain.Spore surface was smooth.Multiple regression analysis revealed that the influencing physico-chemical factors were sediment pH,sediment temperature,TOC,porosity,salinity,and pressure.The media used in the present study was prepared with seawater.Thus,they may represent an autochthonous marine flora and deny the theory of land runoff carriage into the sea for adaptation to the salinity of the seawater and sediments.

  15. Structures and comparative characterization of biosynthetic gene clusters for cyanosporasides, enediyne-derived natural products from marine actinomycetes

    OpenAIRE

    Lane, Amy L.; Nam, Sang Jip; Fukuda, Takashi; Yamanaka, Kazuya; Kauffman, Christopher A.; Jensen, Paul R; Fenical, William; Moore, Bradley S.

    2013-01-01

    Cyanosporasides are marine bacterial natural products containing a chlorinated cyclopenta[a]indene core of suspected enediyne polyketide biosynthetic origin. Herein, we report the isolation and characterization of novel cyanosporasides C–F (3–6) from the marine actinomycetes “Salinispora pacifica” CNS-143 and Streptomyces sp. CNT-179, highlighted by the unprecedented C-2' N-acetylcysteamine functionalized hexose group of 6. Cloning, sequencing, and mutagenesis of homologous ~50 kb cyanosporas...

  16. Degradative crystal–chemical transformations of clay minerals under the influence of cyanobacterium-actinomycetal symbiotic associations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina Ivanova

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Cyanobacteria and actinomycetes are essential components of soil microbial community and play an active role in ash elements leaching from minerals of the parent rock. Content and composition of clay minerals in soil determine the sorption properties of the soil horizons, water-holding capacity of the soil, stickiness, plasticity, etc. The transformative effect of cyanobacterial–actinomycetes associations on the structure of clay minerals – kaolinite, vermiculite, montmorillonite, biotite and muscovite – was observed, with the greatest structural lattice transformation revealed under the influence of association in comparison with monocultures of cyanobacterium and actinomycete. The range of the transformative effect depended both on the type of biota (component composition of association and on the crystal–chemical parameters of the mineral itself (trioctahedral mica – biotite, was more prone to microbial degradation than the dioctahedral – muscovite. The formation of the swelling phase – the product of biotite transformation into the mica–vermicullite mixed-layered formation was revealed as a result of association cultivation. Crystal chemical transformation of vermiculite was accompanied by the removal of potassium (К, magnesium (Mg and aluminum (Al from the crystal lattice. The study of such prokaryotic communities existed even in the early stages of the Earth's history helps to understand the causes and nature of the transformations undergone by the atmosphere, hydrosphere and lithosphere of the planet.contribution of treatments on structure induces and model parameters are discussed in the paper.

  17. Structural and Functional Characterizations of SsgB, a Conserved Activator of Developmental Cell Division in Morphologically Complex Actinomycetes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Qingping; Traag, Bjørn A.; Willemse, Joost; McMullan, Daniel; Miller, Mitchell D.; Elsliger, Marc-André; Abdubek, Polat; Astakhova, Tamara; Axelrod, Herbert L.; Bakolitsa, Constantina; Carlton, Dennis; Chen, Connie; Chiu, Hsiu-Ju; Chruszcz, Maksymilian; Clayton, Thomas; Das, Debanu; Deller, Marc C.; Duan, Lian; Ellrott, Kyle; Ernst, Dustin; Farr, Carol L.; Feuerhelm, Julie; Grant, Joanna C.; Grzechnik, Anna; Grzechnik, Slawomir K.; Han, Gye Won; Jaroszewski, Lukasz; Jin, Kevin K.; Klock, Heath E.; Knuth, Mark W.; Kozbial, Piotr; Krishna, S. Sri; Kumar, Abhinav; Marciano, David; Minor, Wladek; Mommaas, A. Mieke; Morse, Andrew T.; Nigoghossian, Edward; Nopakun, Amanda; Okach, Linda; Oommachen, Silvya; Paulsen, Jessica; Puckett, Christina; Reyes, Ron; Rife, Christopher L.; Sefcovic, Natasha; Tien, Henry J.; Trame, Christine B.; van den Bedem, Henry; Wang, Shuren; Weekes, Dana; Hodgson, Keith O.; Wooley, John; Deacon, Ashley M.; Godzik, Adam; Lesley, Scott A.; Wilson, Ian A.; van Wezel, Gilles P.; (Leiden-MC); (SLAC); (Scripps); (UV); (UCSD); (Burnham)

    2010-01-20

    SsgA-like proteins (SALPs) are a family of homologous cell division-related proteins that occur exclusively in morphologically complex actinomycetes. We show that SsgB, a subfamily of SALPs, is the archetypal SALP that is functionally conserved in all sporulating actinomycetes. Sporulation-specific cell division of Streptomyces coelicolor ssgB mutants is restored by introduction of distant ssgB orthologues from other actinomycetes. Interestingly, the number of septa (and spores) of the complemented null mutants is dictated by the specific ssgB orthologue that is expressed. The crystal structure of the SsgB from Thermobifida fusca was determined at 2.6 {angstrom} resolution and represents the first structure for this family. The structure revealed similarities to a class of eukaryotic 'whirly' single-stranded DNA/RNA-binding proteins. However, the electro-negative surface of the SALPs suggests that neither SsgB nor any of the other SALPs are likely to interact with nucleotide substrates. Instead, we show that a conserved hydrophobic surface is likely to be important for SALP function and suggest that proteins are the likely binding partners.

  18. Molecular Epidemiology of Rotaviruses

    OpenAIRE

    Nakagomi, Osamu

    2004-01-01

    Molecular epidemiology of rotaviruses emerged a little over 25 years ago as a fascinating branch of science that utilized then cutting-edge technology of RNA polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Molecular epidemiology, as I have observed it closely almost since its dawn, is an ever-evolving discipline which has incorporated the advances of the related sciences including molecular evolutionary biology and ecology, while it is firmly and deeply rooted in the edifice of epidemiology of infectious...

  19. Epidemiologi for sundhedspersonale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    En introduktion til fagområdet Epidemiologi. Målgruppen er studerende på mellemlange videregående uddannelser. Bogen består af følgende afsnit: Indledning, beskrivelse, analyse, intervention og anvendt epidemiologi. Herunder: Erhvervsepidemiologi......En introduktion til fagområdet Epidemiologi. Målgruppen er studerende på mellemlange videregående uddannelser. Bogen består af følgende afsnit: Indledning, beskrivelse, analyse, intervention og anvendt epidemiologi. Herunder: Erhvervsepidemiologi...

  20. Inhibition of Aspergillus parasiticus and cancer cells by marine actinomycete strains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ping; Yan, Peisheng

    2014-12-01

    Ten actinomycete strains isolated from the Yellow Sea off China's coasts were identified as belonging to two genera by 16S rDNA phylogenetic analysis: Streptomyces and Nocardiopsis. Six Streptomyces strains (MA10, 2SHXF01-3, MA35, MA05-2, MA05-2-1 and MA08-1) and one Nocardiopsis strain (MA03) were predicted to have the potential to produce aromatic polyketides based on the analysis of the KSα (ketoacyl-synthase) gene in the type II PKS (polyketides synthase) gene cluster. Four strains (MA03, MA01, MA10 and MA05-2) exhibited significant inhibitory effects on mycelia growth (inhibition rate >50%) and subsequent aflatoxin production (inhibition rate >75%) of the mutant aflatoxigenic Aspergillus parasiticus NFRI-95. The ethyl acetate extracts of the broth of these four strains displayed significant inhibitory effects on mycelia growth, and the IC50 values were calculated (MA03: 0.275 mg mL-1, MA01: 0.106 mg mL-1, MA10: 1.345 mg mL-1 and MA05-2: 1.362 mg mL-1). Five strains (2SHXF01-3, MA03, MA05-2, MA01 and MA08-1) were selected based on their high cytotoxic activities. The ethyl acetate extract of the Nocardiopsis strain MA03 was particularly noted for its high antitumor activity against human carcinomas of the cervix (HeLa), lung (A549), kidney (Caki-1) and liver (HepG2) (IC50: 2.890, 1.981, 3.032 and 2.603 μg mL-1, respectively). The extract also remarkably inhibited colony formation of HeLa cells at an extremely low concentration (0.5 μg mL-1). This study highlights that marine-derived actinomycetes are a huge resource of compounds for the biological control of aflatoxin contamination and the development of novel drugs for human carcinomas.

  1. The Effects of Aerobic Exercise on the Levels of Leptin and Adiponectin in Overweight Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyyed Reza Attarzadeh Hosseini

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objectives: Several epidemiological studies have indicated factors such as Leptin level, Adiponectin and plasma adiponectin-to-leptin index to be the predicting biomarkers for cardiovascular diseases. Given the importance of healthy nutrition and adequate exercise in reducing the risk of Atherosclerosis, this study aimed to investigate the effects of fasting and aerobic exercise on the level of leptin and adiponectin in overweight women.   Materials and Methods: In this study, 27 overweight and obese women with the body mass index (BMI of ≥25 kg/m2 and the age range of 45-20 years were selected by targeted sampling and were divided into two groups of fasting accompanied with aerobic exercise (N=15, and fasting only (N=12. The active group had an exercise protocol including three 60-minute sessions of aerobic exercise per week, with the maximum heart rate of 50-65%. Anthropometric dimensions and blood levels of leptin and adiponectin were measured in all the subjects before, at the second week and the fourth week and one week after Ramadan. Data analysis was carried out using repeated measures, and a P value of ≤0.05 was considered significant.   Results: In this study, one month of fasting accompanied with aerobic exercise had a significant effect on the amount of leptin, adiponectin and leptin-to-adiponectin ratio (P

  2. How "healthful" are aerobics classes? Exploring the health and wellness messages in aerobics classes for women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Abundo, Michelle Lee

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the health messages communicated by aerobics instructors in aerobics classes for women. A theoretical framework influenced by adult learning theory and feminist pedagogy was used in this qualitative study. Over a 3-month period, the practices of five aerobics instructors working at one nonprofit fitness center and one wellness facility were explored. The methods of data collection were one interview with each aerobics instructor and 14 site visits to conduct participant observations and to retrieve of documents. Despite the nonprofit and wellness-based environment of the exercise facilities in this research, there was still an overemphasis on the physical aspect of aerobics classes. Therefore, the potential wellness-related benefits of aerobics classes for women, especially in environments that identified themselves as promoting wellness, were not fully realized. PMID:17148107

  3. 红树林海洋淤泥中放线菌的分离与鉴定%Identification and Analysis of Actinomycetes in Marine Mud of Mangrove

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈森洲; 刘菁; 陈建宏; 骆耐香; 钟毓娟; 蒋莲秀

    2011-01-01

    To explore actinomycetes resources in marine mud of mangrove in Beihai city of Guangxi province,actinomycete samples in marine mud of mangrove were separated by using seawater prepared Gause culture medium, total DNA of 10 typical strains of actinomycetes was screened, separated and extracted, 16Sr DNA was amplified by PCR with universal primers. The results from DNA sequencing and comparison identification of amplified product show that 10 typical strains of actinomycetes belong to 2 genera, 8 of which are common actinomycetes and belong to Streptomyces (80%), the other 2 are rare actinomycetes and belong to Nocardia (20%). All above indicate that there are abundant species of actinomycetes in marine mud of mangrove in Beihai city of Guangxi province.%为了解广西北海红树林海洋淤泥中的放线菌资源,采用海水配制高氏培养基分离红树林海洋淤泥中的放线菌样品,从中筛选、分离、提取lO株典型放线菌菌株总DNA,用放线菌通用引物对16Sr DNA进行PCR扩增,对获得的扩增结果进行DNA序列测定和对比鉴定.结果表明,10株典型放线菌菌株为2种菌属,其中有8株为链霉菌属(80%),为常见放线菌;有2株为拟诺卡氏菌属(20%),为稀有放线菌.表明,广西北海红树林海洋淤泥蕴含着种类丰富的放线菌.

  4. Neuromodulation of Aerobic Exercise—A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saskia eHeijnen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Running, and aerobic exercise in general, is a physical activity that increasingly many people engage in but that also has become popular as a topic for scientific research. Here we review the available studies investigating whether and to which degree aerobic exercise modulates hormones, amino acids, and neurotransmitters levels. In general, it seems that factors such as genes, gender, training status, and hormonal status need to be taken into account to gain a better understanding of the neuromodular underpinnings of aerobic exercise. More research using longitudinal studies and considering individual differences is necessary to determine actual benefits. We suggest that, in order to succeed, aerobic exercise programs should include optimal periodization, prevent overtraining and be tailored to interindividual differences, including neuro-developmental and genetically-based factors.

  5. Collection of "strengthening sets" of aerobics lesson.\\\\

    OpenAIRE

    CAKL, Vojtěch

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this bachelor study was to create a strengthening sets for aerobic lessons including showing these possisions in practice on selective aerobic lessons . Based on special literature the author had chosen suitable muscle development exercises to increase the body strenth. These exercises were there practised for six weeks continuously. Before and after the research were selected individuals who were compared by 4 exact same tests to detect static and dynamic body strength. The result...

  6. Evaluation of A "Floating" Aerobics Floor

    OpenAIRE

    Favor, Craig M.

    1997-01-01

    Aerobics dance floors often produce annoying floor vibrations in adjacent parts of a building due to the rhythmic impact of the aerobicists. Various types of shock absorbing aerobics and dance floors are widely used to prevent injuries to the participants, but the floors may not prevent vibrations in adjacent areas of the building. The purpose of this investigation is to evaluate a temporary "floating" concrete a...

  7. Temperature effect on aerobic denitrification and nitrification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Shu-guang; ZHANG Xiao-jian; WANG Zhan-sheng

    2003-01-01

    Nitrogen loss without organic removal in biofilter was observed and its possible reason was explained. A lower hydraulic loading could improve aerobic denitrification rate. Aerobic denitrification was seriously affected by low temperature(below 10oC). However, nitrification rate remained high when the temperature dropped from 15oC to5oC. It seemed the autotrophic biofilm in BAF could alleviate the adverse effect of low temperature.

  8. Enhanced in situ aerobic bioremediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharfe, K. [CleanEARTH Solutions Ltd., Concord, ON (Canada)

    2007-07-01

    An enhanced in situ aerobic bioremediation process was described. The process used microbe supporting emulsifications to enhance bioavailability as well as to attenuate microbe competition and boost microbial production. Microbes were added prior to application and rapidly initiated bioremediation once applied to impacted areas. The microbe supporting emulsifiers were metabolically active. The study showed that exposed surface areas increased as hydrocarbon masses were divided, which in turn increased the water/substrate interface where microbial action occurred. Nutrients were used to ensure that crowding and waste accumulation were attenuated in order to ensure that the speed of growth and reproduction progressed exponentially. Water-carrying bacteria, enzymes and nutrients were adsorbed to the soil's particle surface and then diffused between particles. The sequestered hydrocarbons were then emulsified and removed in order to be bioremediated. It was concluded that biological catalysts were used to increase microbial activity and to trigger anabolic responses in microbes. Details of a biocatalyst laboratory solution analysis were also included. tabs., figs.

  9. Protoplast preparation and reversion to the normal filamentous growth in antibiotic-producing uncommon actinomycetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcone, Giorgia Letizia; Carrano, Lucia; Marinelli, Flavia; Beltrametti, Fabrizio

    2010-02-01

    Protoplast preparation, regeneration and fusion represent essential tools for those poorly studied biotechnologically valuable microorganisms inapplicable with the current molecular biology protocols. The protoplast production and regeneration method developed for Planobispora rosea and using the combination of hen egg-white lysozyme (HEWL) and Streptomyces globisporus mutanolysin was applied to a set of antibiotic-producing filamentous actinomycetes belonging to the Streptosporangiaceae, Micromonosporaceae and Streptomycetaceae. 10(7)-10(9) protoplasts were obtained from 100 ml of culture, after incubation times in the digestion solution ranging from a few hours to 1 or 2 days depending on the strain. The efficiency of protoplast reversion to the normal filamentous growth varied from 0.1 to nearly 50%. Analysis of cell wall peptidoglycan in three representative strains (Nonomuraea sp. ATCC 39727, Actinoplanes teichomyceticus ATCC 31121 and Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2)) has evidenced structural variations in the glycan strand and in the peptide chain, which may account for the different response to cell digestion and protoplast regeneration treatments. PMID:20057514

  10. Genome Sequence and Analysis of the Soil Cellulolytic ActinomyceteThermobifida fusca

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lykidis, Athanasios; Mavromatis, Konstantinos; Ivanova, Natalia; Anderson, Iain; Land, Miriam; DiBartolo, Genevieve; Martinez, Michele; Lapidus, Alla; Lucas, Susan; Copeland, Alex; Richardson, Paul; Wilson,David B.; Kyrpides, Nikos

    2007-02-01

    Thermobifida fusca is a moderately thermophilic soilbacterium that belongs to Actinobacteria. 3 It is a major degrader ofplant cell walls and has been used as a model organism for the study of 4secreted, thermostable cellulases. The complete genome sequence showedthat T. fusca has a 5 single circular chromosome of 3642249 bp predictedto encode 3117 proteins and 65 RNA6 species with a coding densityof 85percent. Genome analysis revealed the existence of 29 putative 7glycoside hydrolases in addition to the previously identified cellulasesand xylanases. The 8 glycosyl hydrolases include enzymes predicted toexhibit mainly dextran/starch and xylan 9 degrading functions. T. fuscapossesses two protein secretion systems: the sec general secretion 10system and the twin-arginine translocation system. Several of thesecreted cellulases have 11 sequence signatures indicating theirsecretion may be mediated by the twin-arginine12 translocation system. T.fusca has extensive transport systems for import of carbohydrates 13coupled to transcriptional regulators controlling the expression of thetransporters and14 glycosylhydrolases. In addition to providing anoverview of the physiology of a soil 15 actinomycete, this study presentsinsights on the transcriptional regulation and secretion of16 cellulaseswhich may facilitate the industrial exploitation of thesesystems.

  11. Diversity and bioactivity of actinomycetes from marine sediments of the Yellow Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shumin; Ye, Liang; Tang, Xuexi

    2012-03-01

    Among the 116 actinomycetes collected from marine sediments of the Yellow Sea, 56 grew slowly and appeared after 2-3 weeks of incubation. Among the 56 strains, only 3 required seawater (SW) for growth, and 21 grew well in the medium prepared with SW rather than distilled water (DW), while the remaining 32 grew well either with SW or with DW. Six representatives with different morphological characteristics, including 1 SW-requiring strain and 5 well-growing with SW strains, were selected for phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene. Two strains belong to Micrococcaceae and Nocardiopsaceae respectively. The other 4 strains belong to the family of Streptomycetaceae. In the analyzed 6 strains, one was related to Nocardiopsis spp. and the other three were related to Streptomyces spp., representing new taxa. Bioactivity testing of fermentation products from 3 SW-requiring strains and 21 well-growing with SW strains revealed that 17 strains possessed remarkable activities against gram-positive pathogen or/and tumor cells, suggesting that they were prolific resources for natural drug discovery.

  12. Antibiotic pigment from desert soil actinomycetes; biological activity, purification and chemical screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selvameenal L

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available An actinomycete strain, Streptomyces hygroscopicus subsp. ossamyceticus (strain D10 was isolated from Thar Desert soil, Rajasthan during the year 2006 and found to produce a yellow color pigment with antibiotic activity. Crude pigment was produced from strain D10 by solid state fermentation using wheat bran medium followed by extraction with ethyl acetate. The antimicrobial activity of the crude pigment was evaluated against drug resistant pathogens such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, extended spectrum b-lactamase producing cultures of Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella sp. About 420 mg of crude pigment was produced per 10 g of wheat bran medium. In the disc diffusion method the crude ethyl acetate extract showed a minimum of 10 mm inhibition against Klebsiella sp. and maximum of 19 mm of inhibition against Escherichia coli. The crude pigment was partially purified using thin layer chromatography with the solvent system chloroform:methanol (30:70 and the Rf value was calculated as 0.768. Antimicrobial activity of the partially purified compound from thin layer chromatography was determined using the bioautography method. The purified pigment showed minimum of 15 mm inhibition against Klebsiella sp. and a maximum of 23 mm of inhibition against vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in the disc diffusion method. Based on the results of chemical screening, the pigment was tentatively identified as group of sugar containing molecules.

  13. Diversity and Bioactivity of Actinomycetes from Marine Sediments of the Yellow Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Shumin; YE Liang; TANG Xuexi

    2012-01-01

    Among the 116 actinomycetes collected from marine sediments of the Yellow Sea,56 grew slowly and appeared after 2-3 weeks of incubation.Among the 56 strains,only 3 required seawater (SW) for growth,and 21 grew well in the medium prepared with SW rather than distilled water (DW),while the remaining 32 grew well either with SW or with DW.Six representatives with different morphological characteristics,including 1 SW-requiring strain and 5 well-growing with SW strains,were selected for phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene.Two strains belong to Micrococcaceae and Nocardiopsaceae respectively.The other 4strains belong to the family of Streptomycetaceae.In the analyzed 6 strains,one was related to Nocardiopsis spp.and the other three were related to Streptomyces spp.,representing new taxa.Bioactivity testing of fermentation products from 3 SW-requiring strains and 21 well-growing with SW strains revealed that 17 strains possessed remarkable activities against gram-positive pathogen or/and tumor cells,suggesting that they were prolific resources for natural drug discovery.

  14. Equações de predição da aptidão cardiorrespiratória sem testes de exercício e sua aplicabilidade em estudos epidemiológicos: uma revisão sistemática Prediction of aerobic fitness without stress testing and applicability to epidemiological studies: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldo de Albuquerque Maranhão Neto

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Uma baixa aptidão cardiorrespiratória é considerada fator de risco independente para o óbito por todas as causas, mas principalmente por doença coronariana. Devido a essa importância e à dificuldade de avaliá-la por meio de testes de exercícios, formas alternativas de avaliação foram sugeridas, envolvendo equações de predição sem a necessidade de realização de exercícios. O presente estudo objetivou analisar criticamente esses modelos e, principalmente, sua aplicabilidade em estudos epidemiológicos. Foi realizada uma revisão de artigos publicados entre 1966 e 2002. Os critérios para julgar a qualidade dos estudos foram: (a inclusão de variáveis explicativas com base teórica; (b critérios de validação (padrão-ouro; (c equações apresentadas por completo, incluindo erro padrão da estimativa; (d equações submetidas a processo de validação cruzada. Apenas cinco dos 23 estudos selecionados atenderam a todos os critérios de qualidade. Conclui-se que, em princípio, os modelos sem exercícios podem constituir alternativa viável para avaliação da aptidão cardiorrespiratória em estudos epidemiológicos. No entanto, ainda são poucas as equações disponíveis cuja validação permite grau aceitável de generalização.Cardiorespiratory fitness is used as an independent factor for evaluating risk of all-cause mortality, but mainly from coronary heart disease. Nevertheless, evaluation of fitness based on stress tests poses numerous epidemiological difficulties. Alternative forms of evaluation have therefore been suggested using non-exercise-based regression models. This study aimed to analyze these models and their applicability to epidemiological studies. A systematic review was conducted of articles published from 1966 to 2002. The models were classified according to: (a theoretical justification for the explanatory variables included in the model; (b validation criteria (gold standard; (c regression models fully

  15. Vaccine epidemiology: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahariya, Chandrakant

    2016-01-01

    This review article outlines the key concepts in vaccine epidemiology, such as basic reproductive numbers, force of infection, vaccine efficacy and effectiveness, vaccine failure, herd immunity, herd effect, epidemiological shift, disease modeling, and describes the application of this knowledge both at program levels and in the practice by family physicians, epidemiologists, and pediatricians. A case has been made for increased knowledge and understanding of vaccine epidemiology among key stakeholders including policy makers, immunization program managers, public health experts, pediatricians, family physicians, and other experts/individuals involved in immunization service delivery. It has been argued that knowledge of vaccine epidemiology which is likely to benefit the society through contributions to the informed decision-making and improving vaccination coverage in the low and middle income countries (LMICs). The article ends with suggestions for the provision of systematic training and learning platforms in vaccine epidemiology to save millions of preventable deaths and improve health outcomes through life-course. PMID:27453836

  16. Epidemiology of Rhodococcus equi infection in horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prescott, J F

    1987-08-01

    Current understanding of the epidemiology of Rhodococcus equi infection on horse farms is reviewed. Infection is widespread in herbivores and their environment, because herbivore manure supplies the simple organic acid substrates on which the organism thrives. There is a progressive development of infection in the soil on horse farms with prolonged use, because: (1) there is a continual supply of nutrients; (2) the organism multiplies progressively as temperatures rise; (3) the bacterium has a robust nature. While this aerobic organism fails to multiply in the largely anaerobic intestine of the adult horse, multiplication to very large numbers may occur in the intestine of a foal in its first 8-12 weeks of life. Farms used for foal breeding over many years may thus become particularly dangerous for foals. Areas for future study include the effectiveness of decontamination, manure-removal programs and dust reduction in reducing challenge to susceptible foals.

  17. 植物内生放线菌多样性研究进展%Research Progress in Diversity of Endophytic Actinomycetes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯天祥; 陆可茵; 陆兰依塔; 陈海敏; 盛清

    2015-01-01

    植物内生放线菌作为植物内生菌资源的一大类,具有丰富的多样性,其次级代谢产物也十分丰富,而且还具有各种生物学活性。通过了解植物内生放线菌资源的多样性,可以对其产生的生物活性物质进行筛选和分析,从而筛选出具有良好药理活性的物质应用于临床。从植物内生放线菌宿主植物、组织分布、种类和数量以及活性基因4个方面综述了植物内生放线菌的多样性资源,介绍植物内生放线菌新的微生物物种,总结了植物内生放线菌目前研究中存在的问题及展望。%Endophytic actinomycetes display abundant diversity and have a capacity to produce a huge number of sec-ondary metabolites exhibiting a broad variety of biological activities as a kind of endophyte resources.Biological activi-ties produced by endophytic actinomycetes are screened and analyzed via understanding the biodiversity of endophytic actinomycetes resources so that favorable pharmacological active substances were screened for clinical diseases.Re-cently, with the development of researches about endophytic actinomycetes, many novel microorganism species were reported.This review focuses on diversity resources of endophytic actinomycetes from four aspects:host plants of en-dophytic actinomycetes, distribution in host plants tissue, species and number diversity and active gene and introduces the researches of novel endophytic actinomycetes species.Finally, this article summarizes the problems of endophytic actinomycetes at present researches and gives the possible further research direction.Endophytic actinomycetes which are emerging microbial resources have an important effect on science researches and progress of mankind.

  18. Investigation on Actinomycetes Population in Yuxi Normal University%玉溪师范学院校园内土壤放线菌资源调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈艳; 李淑英; 刘家忠; 李红梅; 陈丽君; 刘菊安

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] Actinomycetes population in Yuxi normal university was investigated to provide information on the development and the utilization of actinomycetes resource. [Method] Ten soil samples from plant rhizosphere in Yuxi normal university were collected. Actinomycetes were isolated by spreading the samples on Gao 1 agar medium. Isolaets were identified at genus level.[Result] The number of actinomycetes was different in different plant rhizosphere. Streptomyces dominated. [Conclusion] Actinomycetes populations were rich in the soil of Yuxi normal university. Streptomyces dominated, mainly for the inerogriseus and the griseofuscus.%[目的]调查玉溪师范学院校园内土壤的放线菌资源,为云南放线菌资源开发利用提供资料.[方法]从玉溪师范学院校园内采集10种植物根际土壤,采用涂布平板法分离,用高氏一号培养基培养,采用国内通用的方法进行鉴定.[结果]不同植物根际分离到的放线菌数量不同;链霉菌占绝对优势.[结论]玉溪师院校园内土壤中放线菌资源丰富,链霉菌占绝对优势,主要为烬灰类群、灰褐类群.

  19. WHO - IPHECA: Epidemiological aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In May 1991 the World Health Assembly endorsed the establishment of the International Programme on the Health Effects of the Chernobyl Accident (IPHECA) under the auspices of WHO. Five pilot projects have been carried out within IPHECA in the study territories of Belarus, Russian Federation and Ukraine in a period from 1991 to 1994. This pilot projects dealt with the detection and treatment of leukaemia and related diseases (Haematology Project), thyroid disorders (Thyroid project), brain damage during exposure 'in-utero' (Brain Damage 'in-Utero' project) and with the development of the Chernobyl registries (Epidemiological Registry Project). A fifth pilot project on oral health was performed only in Belarus. Epidemiological investigations have been an important component of all IPHECA pilot projects. Within 'Epidemiological Registry' Project such investigations have been the principal activity. But with respect to other IPHECA projects it was carried out in addition to main objectives relating to medical monitoring, early diagnosis and treatment of specific diseases included in project protocols. To support the epidemiological investigations within IPHECA, WHO supplied 41 computers in Belarus, Russian Federation and Ukraine and provided training for specialists from these countries in internationally recognized centres. The training programmes and host countries were as follows: standardization of epidemiological investigations (United Kingdom), radiation epidemiology (Russia), development of software (United Kingdom), principles of epidemiological investigations (The Czech Republic), cohort investigations (Japan)

  20. Evolution and social epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishi, Akihiro

    2015-11-01

    Evolutionary biology, which aims to explain the dynamic process of shaping the diversity of life, has not yet significantly affected thinking in social epidemiology. Current challenges in social epidemiology include understanding how social exposures can affect our biology, explaining the dynamics of society and health, and designing better interventions that are mindful of the impact of exposures during critical periods. I review how evolutionary concepts and tools, such as fitness gradient in cultural evolution, evolutionary game theory, and contemporary evolution in cancer, can provide helpful insights regarding social epidemiology.

  1. Streptomyces formicae sp. nov., a novel actinomycete isolated from the head of Camponotus japonicus Mayr.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Lu; Liu, Chongxi; Guo, Lifeng; Piao, Chenyu; Li, Zhilei; Li, Jiansong; Jia, Feiyu; Wang, Xiangjing; Xiang, Wensheng

    2016-02-01

    During a screening for novel and biotechnologically useful actinobacteria in insects, a novel actinomycete with antifungal activity, designated strain 1H-GS9(T), was isolated from the head of a Camponotus japonicus Mayr ant, which were collected from Northeast Agricultural University (Harbin, Heilongjiang, China). Strain 1H-GS9(T) was characterised using a polyphasic approach. The organism was found to have morphological and chemotaxonomic characteristics typical of members of the genus Streptomyces. 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity studies showed that strain 1H-GS9(T) belongs to the genus Streptomyces with high sequence similarities to Streptomyces scopuliridis DSM 41917(T) (98.8 %) and Streptomyces mauvecolor JCM 5002(T) (98.6 %). However, phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence indicated that it forms a monophyletic clade with Streptomyces kurssanovii JCM 4388(T) (98.6 %), Streptomyces xantholiticus JCM 4282(T) (98.6 %) and Streptomyces peucetius JCM 9920(T) (98.5 %). Thus, a combination of DNA-DNA hybridization experiments and phenotypic tests were carried out between strain 1H-GS9(T) and the above-mentioned five strains, which further clarified their relatedness and demonstrated that strain 1H-GS9(T) could be distinguished from these strains. Therefore, the strain is concluded to represent a novel species of the genus Streptomyces, for which the name Streptomyces formicae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is 1H-GS9(T) (=CGMCC 4.7277(T) = DSM 100524(T)). PMID:26608172

  2. Rare actinomycetes Nocardia caishijiensis and Pseudonocardia carboxydivorans as endophytes, their bioactivity and metabolites evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanvir, Rabia; Sajid, Imran; Hasnain, Shahida; Kulik, Andreas; Grond, Stephanie

    2016-04-01

    Two strains identified as Nocardia caishijiensis (SORS 64b) and Pseudonocardia carboxydivorans (AGLS 2) were isolated as endophytes from Sonchus oleraceus and Ageratum conyzoides respectively. The analysis of their extracts revealed them to be strongly bioactive. The N. caishijiensis extract gave an LC50 of 570 μg/ml(-1) in the brine shrimp cytotoxicity assay and an EC50 of 0.552 μg/ml(-1) in the DPPH antioxidant assay. Antimicrobial activity was observed against Methicillin resistant Staphlococcus aureus (MRSA) and Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 (14 mm), Klebsiella pneumoniae ATCC 706003 (13 mm), S. aureus ATCC 25923 (11 mm) and Candida tropicalis (20 mm). For the extract of P. carboxydivorans the EC50 was 0.670 μg/ml(-1) and it was observed to be more bioactive against Bacillus subtilis DSM 10 ATCC 6051 (21 mm), C. tropicalis (20 mm), S. aureus ATCC 25923 (17 mm), MRSA (17 mm), E. coli K12 (W1130) (16 mm) and Chlorella vulgaris (10 mm). The genotoxicity testing revealed a 20 mm zone of inhibition against the polA mutant strain E. coli K-12 AB 3027 suggesting damage to the DNA and polA genes. The TLC and bioautography screening revealed a diversity of active bands of medium polar and nonpolar compounds. Metabolite analysis by HPLC-DAD via UV/vis spectral screening suggested the possibility of stenothricin and bagremycin A in the mycelium extract of N. caishijiensis respectively. In the broth and mycelium extract of P. carboxydivorans borrelidin was suggested along with α-pyrone. The HPLC-MS revealed bioactive long chained amide derivatives such as 7-Octadecenamide, 9, 12 octadecandienamide. This study reports the rare actinomycetes N. caishijiensis and P. carboxydivorans as endophytes and evaluates their bioactive metabolites. PMID:26946375

  3. Sphaerisporangium dianthi sp. nov., an endophytic actinomycete isolated from a root of Dianthus chinensis L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Jia; Liu, Chongxi; Zhang, Yuejing; He, Hairong; Zhou, Ying; Li, Lianjie; Zhao, Junwei; Liu, Shuanghe; Wang, Xiangjing; Xiang, Wensheng

    2015-01-01

    A novel actinomycete, designated strain NEAU-CY18(T), was isolated from the root of a Chinese medicinal plant Dianthus chinensis L and subjected to a polyphasic taxonomic study. The novel strain was found to develop spherical sporangia with non-motile spores on aerial mycelium. The cell-wall peptidoglycan was found to contain meso-diaminopimelic acid. The whole-cell sugars were identified as madurose, mannose, ribose, galactose and glucose. The phospholipid profile was found to contain diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylmethylethanolamine, phosphatidylethanolamine, hydroxy-phosphatidylmethylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidylinositol mannosides and an unidentified phospholipid. The predominant menaquinones were identified as MK-9(H4), MK-9(H2) and MK-9(H6). The major fatty acids were identified as C17:0 10-methyl, iso-C16:0 and C16:0. EzTaxon-e analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence indicated that the strain belongs to the genus Sphaerisporangium and was most closely related to Sphaerisporangium cinnabarinum JCM 3291(T) (98.9 %) and Sphaerisporangium melleum JCM 13064(T) (98.3 %). Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence indicated that strain NEAU-CY18(T) forms a monophyletic clade with S. cinnabarinum JCM 3291(T), an association that was supported by a bootstrap value of 97 % in the neighbour-joining tree and also recovered with the maximum-likelihood algorithm. Comparisons of some phenotypic properties and low DNA-DNA relatedness values enabled the strain to be differentiated from S. cinnabarinum JCM 3291(T) and S. melleum JCM 13064(T). Therefore, it is concluded that strain NEAU-CY18(T) represents a novel Sphaerisporangium species, for which the name Sphaerisporangium dianthi sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is NEAU-CY18(T) ( = CGMCC 4.7132(T) = DSM 46736(T)).

  4. Streptomyces zhaozhouensis sp. nov., an actinomycete isolated from candelabra aloe (Aloe arborescens Mill).

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Hairong; Liu, Chongxi; Zhao, Junwei; Li, Wenjun; Pan, Tong; Yang, Lingyu; Wang, Xiangjing; Xiang, Wensheng

    2014-04-01

    A novel endophytic actinomycete, designated strain NEAU-LZS-5(T), was isolated from the leaf of candelabra aloe (Aloe arborescens Mill) and characterized using a polyphasic approach. Analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence showed that strain NEAU-LZS-5(T) belongs to the genus Streptomyces and exhibited 99.51 and 97.37 % similarity to Streptomyces sedi YIM 65188(T) and Streptomyces specialis GW41-1564(T), respectively, whereas low similarity values (<97 %) distinguished strain NEAU-LZS-5(T) from all other species of the genus Streptomyces with validly published names. Two tree-making algorithms also supported the position that strain NEAU-LZS-5(T) formed a distinct clade with Streptomyces sedi YIM 65188(T) and Streptomyces specialis GW41-1564(T). However, levels of DNA-DNA relatedness between strain NEAU-LZS-5(T) and Streptomyces sedi YIM 65188(T) and Streptomyces specialis GW41-1564(T) were 45.59 and 31.90 %, respectively. A comparative study between strain NEAU-LZS-5(T) and the type strains of closest related species of the genus Streptomyces revealed that it differed from them in morphological, physiological and biochemical characteristics. Therefore, strain NEAU-LZS-5(T) represents a novel species of the genus Streptomyces, for which the name Streptomyces zhaozhouensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is NEAU-LZS-5(T) ( = CGMCC 4.7095(T) = DSM 42101(T)). PMID:24368691

  5. Diketopiperazine Derivatives from the Marine-Derived Actinomycete Streptomyces sp. FXJ7.328

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiming Zhu

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Five new diketopiperazine derivatives, (3Z,6E-1-N-methyl-3-benzy lidene-6-(2S-methyl-3-hydroxypropylidenepiperazine-2,5-dione (1, (3Z,6E-1-N-methyl-3-benzylidene-6-(2R-methyl-3-hydroxypropylidenepiperazine-2,5-dione (2, (3Z,6Z-3- (4-hydroxybenzylidene-6-isobutylidenepiperazine-2,5-dione (3, (3Z,6Z-3-((1H-imidazol-5-yl-methylene-6-isobutylidenepiperazine-2,5-dione (4, and (3Z,6S-3-benzylidene-6-(2S-but-2-ylpiperazine-2,5-dione (5, were isolated from the marine-derived actinomycete Streptomyces sp. FXJ7.328. The structures of 1–5 were determined by spectroscopic analysis, CD exciton chirality, the modified Mosher’s, Marfey’s and the C3 Marfey’s methods. Compound 3 showed modest antivirus activity against influenza A (H1N1 virus with an IC50 value of 41.5 ± 4.5 μM. In addition, compound 6 and 7 displayed potent anti-H1N1 activity with IC50 value of 28.9 ± 2.2 and 6.8 ± 1.5 μM, respectively. Due to the lack of corresponding data in the literature, the 13C NMR data of (3Z,6S-3-benzylidene-6-isobutylpiperazine-2,5-dione (6 were also reported here for the first time.

  6. Cancer Epidemiology Cohorts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohort studies are fundamental for epidemiological research by helping researchers better understand the etiology of cancer and provide insights into the key determinants of this disease and its outcomes.

  7. Epidemiology & Genomics Research Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Epidemiology and Genomics Research Program, in the National Cancer Institute's Division of Cancer Control and Population Sciences, funds research in human populations to understand the determinants of cancer occurrence and outcomes.

  8. In Vitro and In Vivo Plant Growth Promoting Activities and DNA Fingerprinting of Antagonistic Endophytic Actinomycetes Associates with Medicinal Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passari, Ajit Kumar; Mishra, Vineet Kumar; Gupta, Vijai Kumar; Yadav, Mukesh Kumar; Saikia, Ratul; Singh, Bhim Pratap

    2015-01-01

    Endophytic actinomycetes have shown unique plant growth promoting as well as antagonistic activity against fungal phytopathogens. In the present study forty-two endophytic actinomycetes recovered from medicinal plants were evaluated for their antagonistic potential and plant growth-promoting abilities. Twenty-two isolates which showed the inhibitory activity against at least one pathogen were subsequently tested for their plant-growth promoting activities and were compared genotypically using DNA based fingerprinting, including enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus (ERIC) and BOX repetitive elements. Genetic relatedness based on both ERIC and BOX-PCR generates specific patterns corresponding to particular genotypes. Exponentially grown antagonistic isolates were used to evaluate phosphate solubilization, siderophores, HCN, ammonia, chitinase, indole-3-acetic acid production, as well as antifungal activities. Out of 22 isolates, the amount of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) ranging between 10-32 μg/ml was produced by 20 isolates and all isolates were positive for ammonia production ranging between 5.2 to 54 mg/ml. Among 22 isolates tested, the amount of hydroxamate-type siderophores were produced by 16 isolates ranging between 5.2 to 36.4 μg/ml, while catechols-type siderophores produced by 5 isolates ranging from 3.2 to 5.4 μg/ml. Fourteen isolates showed the solubilisation of inorganic phosphorous ranging from 3.2 to 32.6 mg/100ml. Chitinase and HCN production was shown by 19 and 15 different isolates, respectively. In addition, genes of indole acetic acid (iaaM) and chitinase (chiC) were successively amplified from 20 and 19 isolates respectively. The two potential strains Streptomyces sp. (BPSAC34) and Leifsonia xyli (BPSAC24) were tested in vivo and improved a range of growth parameters in chilli (Capsicum annuum L.) under greenhouse conditions. This study is the first published report that actinomycetes can be isolated as endophytes from within these

  9. In Vitro and In Vivo Plant Growth Promoting Activities and DNA Fingerprinting of Antagonistic Endophytic Actinomycetes Associates with Medicinal Plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajit Kumar Passari

    Full Text Available Endophytic actinomycetes have shown unique plant growth promoting as well as antagonistic activity against fungal phytopathogens. In the present study forty-two endophytic actinomycetes recovered from medicinal plants were evaluated for their antagonistic potential and plant growth-promoting abilities. Twenty-two isolates which showed the inhibitory activity against at least one pathogen were subsequently tested for their plant-growth promoting activities and were compared genotypically using DNA based fingerprinting, including enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus (ERIC and BOX repetitive elements. Genetic relatedness based on both ERIC and BOX-PCR generates specific patterns corresponding to particular genotypes. Exponentially grown antagonistic isolates were used to evaluate phosphate solubilization, siderophores, HCN, ammonia, chitinase, indole-3-acetic acid production, as well as antifungal activities. Out of 22 isolates, the amount of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA ranging between 10-32 μg/ml was produced by 20 isolates and all isolates were positive for ammonia production ranging between 5.2 to 54 mg/ml. Among 22 isolates tested, the amount of hydroxamate-type siderophores were produced by 16 isolates ranging between 5.2 to 36.4 μg/ml, while catechols-type siderophores produced by 5 isolates ranging from 3.2 to 5.4 μg/ml. Fourteen isolates showed the solubilisation of inorganic phosphorous ranging from 3.2 to 32.6 mg/100ml. Chitinase and HCN production was shown by 19 and 15 different isolates, respectively. In addition, genes of indole acetic acid (iaaM and chitinase (chiC were successively amplified from 20 and 19 isolates respectively. The two potential strains Streptomyces sp. (BPSAC34 and Leifsonia xyli (BPSAC24 were tested in vivo and improved a range of growth parameters in chilli (Capsicum annuum L. under greenhouse conditions. This study is the first published report that actinomycetes can be isolated as endophytes from

  10. Genetic epidemiology of diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Permutt, M. Alan; Wasson, Jonathon; Cox, Nancy

    2005-01-01

    Conventional genetic analysis focuses on the genes that account for specific phenotypes, while traditional epidemiology is more concerned with the environmental causes and risk factors related to traits. Genetic epidemiology is an alliance of the 2 fields that focuses on both genetics, including allelic variants in different populations, and environment, in order to explain exactly how genes convey effects in different environmental contexts and to arrive at a more complete comprehension of t...

  11. Complete genome sequence of Kibdelosporangium phytohabitans KLBMP 1111(T), a plant growth promoting endophytic actinomycete isolated from oil-seed plant Jatropha curcas L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Sheng; Feng, Wei-Wei; Xing, Ke; Bai, Juan-Luan; Yuan, Bo; Liu, Wei-Jie; Jiang, Ji-Hong

    2015-12-20

    Kibdelosporangium phytohabitans KLBMP 1111(T) is a plant growth promoting endophytic actinomycete isolated from the oil-seed plant Jatropha curcas L. collected from dry-hot valley, in Sichuan, China. The complete genome sequence of this actinomycete consists of one chromosome (11,759,770bp) with no plasmid. From the genome, we identified gene clusters responsible for polyketide and nonribosomal peptide synthesis of natural products, and genes related to the plant growth promoting, such as zeatin, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase (ACCD) and siderophore. The complete genome information may be useful to understand the beneficial interactions between K. phytohabitans KLBMP 1111(T) and host plants. PMID:26516119

  12. Research Progress of Active Metabolite of Marine Actinomycetes%海洋放线菌活性代谢产物的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宗志友; 魏刚; 斯聪聪; 王莹

    2011-01-01

    The research background of marine actinomycetes are briefly introduced in this paper. The research progresses of the active metabolite of marine actinomycetes in recent years are summarized and these metabolites are discussed individually according to their structures.%简要介绍了海洋放线菌的研究背景,重点对近年来发现的由海洋放线菌产生的活性代谢产物的研究进展作一概述,并对这些代谢产物依据其结构进行分类概述.

  13. [Anaerobic-aerobic infection in acute appendicitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamchich, V I; Ulitovskiĭ, I V; Savich, E I; Znamenskiĭ, V A; Beliaeva, O A

    1998-01-01

    362 patients with acute appendicitis (AA) were examined. For microbiological diagnosis of aerobic and anaerobic nonclostridial microflora we used complex accelerated methods (including evaluation of gram-negative microorganisms in comparison with tinctorial-fermentative method of differential staining according to oxygen sensitivity of catalasopositive together with aerobic and cathalasonegative anaerobic microorganisms) as well as complete bacteriologic examination with determination of sensitivity of the above microorganism to antimicrobial remedies. High rate of aerobic-anaerobic microbial associations and substantial identity of microflora from appendicis and exudate from abdominal cavity was revealed, which evidenced the leading role of endogenous microorganisms in etiology and pathogenesis of AA and peritonitis i. e. autoinfection. In patients with destructive forms of AA, complicated by peritonitis it is recommended to use the accelerated method of examination of pathologic material as well as the complete scheme of examination with the identification of the isolated microorganisms and the correction of antibiotic treatment. PMID:9511291

  14. Drying and recovery of aerobic granules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jianjun; Zhang, Quanguo; Chen, Yu-You; Lee, Duu-Jong

    2016-10-01

    To dehydrate aerobic granules to bone-dry form was proposed as a promising option for long-term storage of aerobic granules. This study cultivated aerobic granules with high proteins/polysaccharide ratio and then dried these granules using seven protocols: drying at 37°C, 60°C, 4°C, under sunlight, in dark, in a flowing air stream or in concentrated acetone solutions. All dried granules experienced volume shrinkage of over 80% without major structural breakdown. After three recovery batches, although with loss of part of the volatile suspended solids, all dried granules were restored most of their original size and organic matter degradation capabilities. The strains that can survive over the drying and storage periods were also identified. Once the granules were dried, they can be stored over long period of time, with minimal impact yielded by the applied drying protocols. PMID:27392096

  15. Mechanism of Kenaf Retting Using Aerobes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢士森; 陈季华; 黄秀宝

    2001-01-01

    The experimental results showed that the duration of microbial retting processing of kenaf fibers by using aerobic microbe was four times shorter than that by using anaerobic microbe. The residual gum percentage,breaking strength, breaking elongation and linear density of aerobic retted kenaf bundle fibers did not show significantly difference with that of anaerobic retted kenaf bundle fibers by ANOVA-Tukey's studentized test at a = 5% except for the softness. The bioenergetic principle and the calculation of the amount of ATP produced during the decomposition processing of kenaf gums were used to explain why the retting duration in the case of using aerobic microbes was much shorter than that of using anaerobic microbes.

  16. ANAEROBIC AND AEROBIC TREATMENT OF CHLORINATED ALIPHATIC COMPOUNDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biological degradation of 12 chlorinated aliphatic compounds (CACs) was assessed in bench-top reactors and in serum bottle tests. Three continuously mixed daily batch-fed reactor systems were evaluated: anaerobic, aerobic, and sequential-anaerobic-aerobic (sequential). Glucose,...

  17. Effect of crude extracts of selected actinomycetes on biofilm formation of A. schindleri, M. aci, and B. cereus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleem, Hafiz Ghulam Murtaza; Aftab, Usman; Sajid, Imran; Abbas, Zaigham; Sabri, Anjum Nasim

    2015-05-01

    Actinomycetes are well known group of gram positive bacteria for their potential to produce antibiotics. This study sought to assess the ability of the selected actinomycetes to control biofilm forming bacteria isolated from different dental plaque samples. On the basis of morphological differences three out of ten different dental plaque bacterial isolates were selected for further study. These isolates were biochemically and genetically characterized and were identified as Acinetobacter schinndleri, Moraxella aci, and Bacillus cereus. Antibiotic resistant profile was measured through disc diffusion method and found that all three isolates were moderately sensitive to ofloxacin and erythromycin and resistant to trimethoprim. Antibacterial activity of ten different Streptomyces strains was assessed through an agar plug and well diffusion method against three dental biofilm forming bacteria. Two Streptomyces strains named as S. erythrogriseus and S. labedae showed good antibacterial activity against Moraxella and Acinetobacter strains. Ability of the four active antibiotic producing strains to inhibit biofilm formation was assessed using microtiter biofilm detection assay. It was found that biofilm forming ability of Acinetobacter and Moraxella was inhibited by S. labedae an antibiotic producing strain, while S. macrosporeus can only inhibit biofilm formation by B. cereus.

  18. Isolation and evaluation of proteolytic actinomycete isolates as novel inducers of pearl millet downy mildew disease protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jogaiah, Sudisha; Kurjogi, Mahantesh; Govind, Sharathchandra Ramasandra; Huntrike, Shekar Shetty; Basappa, Vedamurthy Ankala; Tran, Lam-Son Phan

    2016-01-01

    Native endophytic actinomycetes isolated from pearl millet roots were examined for their efficacy to protect pearl millet against downy mildew. Nineteen of 39 isolates were found to be proteolytic, of which 7 strains could directly suppress the sporangium formation of Sclerospora graminicola, the pearl millet downy mildew pathogen. Thus, mycelial suspensions containing either spores or cell-free extract of these 7 isolates were used for seed-coating and -soaking treatments to test for their induction of downy mildew resistance. Results indicated that seed-coating overall provided better protection to downy mildew than seed-soaking. In both treatments, the tested isolates demonstrated differential abilities in downy mildew disease protection, with Streptomyces griseus SJ_UOM-07-09 and Streptosporangium roseum SJ_UOM-18-09 showing the highest protection rates. Additionally, the levels of disease protection conferred by the actinomycetes were just slightly lower than that of the systemic fungicide Apron, suggesting their effectiveness. Further studies revealed that the more rapid root colonization by SJ_UOM-18-09 resulted in faster and higher induced resistance in comparison with SJ_UOM-07-09 under greenhouse conditions, indicating that SJ_UOM-18-09 was superior than SJ_UOM-07-09 in inducing resistance. Results from this study provide comprehensive information on biocontrol functions of SJ_UOM- 18-09 with great potential to control downy mildew disease in pearl millet. PMID:27499196

  19. Cytotoxicity of actinomycetes associated with the ascidian Eudistoma vannamei (Millar, 1977, endemic of northeastern coast of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula C Jimenez

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies demonstrated that the crude extract of the ascidian Eudistoma vannamei, endemic from northeasttern Brazil, strongly hinders growth of tumor cells in vitro by inducing apoptosis due to tryptophan derivatives, which are commonly found in bacteria. This study presents a bioactivity-guided screening among actinomycetes, associated with E. vannamei, aiming at recognizing active principles with biological relevance. Twenty strains of actinomycetes, designated as EVA 0101 through 0120, were isolated from colonies of E. vannamei among which 11 were selected for cytotoxicity evaluation. The extracts from EVA 0102, 0103, 0106, 0109 and 0113 were the most active, and were further studied for IC50 determination and chemical analysis by ¹H NMR. IC50 values obtained ranged from 3.62 µg mL-1 (for EVA 0109 in leukemia cells to 84.65 µg/mL (for EVA 0106 in melanoma cells. All active extracts exhibited the same TLC and spectroscopic profiles, suggesting the presence of quinones and other related secondary metabolites. Furthermore, these strains were identified and compared based on their respective 16S rRNA sequences. The results herein identified the five strains as Micromonospora spp. while phylogenetic analysis suggests that they are possibly two different Micromonospora species producing the cytotoxic compounds.

  20. THE RATE AND NATURE OF WOMEN INJURIES IN STEP AEROBICS

    OpenAIRE

    Gholam Ali Ghasemi; Vahid Zolaktaf; Fereshteh Kazemi

    2011-01-01

    Step aerobics is a form of aerobic exercise that utilizes a 90×45×20 centimeter platform. ItsInternational competitions are held annually. This sport is popular in Iranian specialist femalesport clubs and its national competitions are growing gradually. The purpose of this survey wasto determine the rate and nature of sport injury in Iranian athletes of step aerobics. Weadministered a structured interview using a modified version of standard questionnaire of"Aerobics Pathology". The populatio...

  1. EFFECT OF 8 WEEKS OF AEROBIC ON BODY COMPOSITION AND BLOOD PRESSURE IN POSTMENOPAUSAL WOMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahram Gholamrezai

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Nowadays increasing blood pressure is the most important risk factor of coronary, cerebral and renal vessel diseases. Epidemiological studies indicate that Physical inactivity adversely affects the blood pressure in postmenopausal women. The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of aerobic on body composition and blood pressure in postmenopausal women. Methods: 20 healthy postmenopausal women with similar age and weight were randomly devided in intervention and control groups. Subjects completed an informed consent form and health history questionnaire. The intervention group was trained in an aerobic exercise program for 8 weeks (3 sessions weekly. Weight, body fat percentage (BF%, body mass index (BMI, waist to hip ratio (WHR, Lean body mass and blood pressure (BP were measured in the beginning and the end of the study for all of the subjects. Data were analyzed by the Paired t-test and independent t- test. Results: The results showed that BF% , WHR, BMI decreased and Lean body mass increased significantly in training group after 8 weeks training (P0.05. Conclusions: It seems that a period of aerobic training for 8 weeks can be effective as a non-pharmacological treatment strategy for improvement some physical fitness and body composition indexes, blood pressure in postmenopausal women.

  2. Reflections on Psychotherapy and Aerobic Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, Wade

    This document provides a series of reflections by a practicing psychologist on the uses of aerobic workouts in psychotherapy. Two case histories are cited to illustrate the contention that the mode of exercise, rather than simply its presence or absence, is the significant indicator of a patient's emotional well-being or psychopathology. The first…

  3. Glycogen metabolism in aerobic mixed cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dircks, Klaus; Beun, J.J.; van Loosdrecht, M.C.M.;

    2001-01-01

    In this study, the metabolism of glycogen storage and consumption in mixed cultures under aerobic conditions is described. The experimental results are used to calibrate a metabolic model, which as sole stoichiometric variables has the efficiency of oxidative phosphorylation (delta) and maintenan...

  4. Saccharopolyspora subtropica sp. nov., a thermophilic actinomycete isolated from soil of a sugar cane field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hao; Liu, Bin; Pan, Shangli

    2016-05-01

    A novel thermophilic actinomycete, designated strain T3T, was isolated from a soil sample of a sugar cane field. The strain grew at 25-60 °C (optimum 37-50 °C), at pH 6.0-11.0 (optimum 7.0-9.0) and with 0-12.0 % (w/v) NaCl (optimum 0-7 %). The aerial mycelium was white and the vegetative mycelium was colourless to pale yellow. The substrate mycelium fragmented into rod-shaped elements after 4-5 days at 50 °C. The aerial mycelium formed flexuous chains of 5-20 spores per chain; the oval-shaped spores had spiny surfaces and were non-motile. The organism contained meso-diaminopimelic acid as the diagnostic diamino acid in the cell-wall peptidoglycan. The whole-cell sugars consisted of arabinose, galactose and ribose. The cellular fatty acid profile consisted mainly of anteiso-C17 : 0, iso-C17 : 0 and iso-C16 : 0. The quinone system was composed predominantly of MK-9(H4). The phospholipids detected were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylmethylethanolamine and ninhydrin-positive glycophospholipids. The DNA G+C content of strain T3T was 71.3 mol%. The organism showed a combination of morphological and chemotaxonomic properties typical of members of the genus Saccharopolyspora. In the 16S rRNA gene tree of Saccharopolyspora it formed a distinct phyletic line and was related most closely to Saccharopolyspora thermophila 216T. However, the phenotypic characteristics of strain T3T were significantly different from those of S. thermophila 216T and DNA-DNA hybridization revealed a low level of relatedness (28.6-32.3 %) between them. Based on the phenotypic and phylogenetic data, strain T3T represents a novel species in the genus Saccharopolyspora, for which the name Saccharopolyspora subtropica sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is T3T ( = DSM 46801T = CGMCC 4.7206T). PMID:26882893

  5. EFFECTS OF AQUA AEROBICS AND FLOOR AEROBICS ON BREATH HOLDING TIME AMONG SCHOOL GIRLS

    OpenAIRE

    P.V. Shelvam; S. Arunadevi

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to find out the effects of aqua aerobics and floor aerobics on breath holding time among school girls. To achieve this purpose of the study, ninety school girls were selected as subjects who were studied Cornation Higher Secondary School, Sivakasi. The selected subjects were aged between 15 to 17 years. The selected subjects were randomly divided into three groups of 30 subjects each group. Group one acted as experimental group I and group two acted as experimenta...

  6. Ophthalmic epidemiology in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Delcourt, Cécile; Korobelnik, Jean-François; Buitendijk, Gabriëlle H S;

    2015-01-01

    The European Eye Epidemiology (E3) consortium is a recently formed consortium of 29 groups from 12 European countries. It already comprises 21 population-based studies and 20 other studies (case-control, cases only, randomized trials), providing ophthalmological data on approximately 170,000 Euro......The European Eye Epidemiology (E3) consortium is a recently formed consortium of 29 groups from 12 European countries. It already comprises 21 population-based studies and 20 other studies (case-control, cases only, randomized trials), providing ophthalmological data on approximately 170......,000 European participants. The aim of the consortium is to promote and sustain collaboration and sharing of data and knowledge in the field of ophthalmic epidemiology in Europe, with particular focus on the harmonization of methods for future research, estimation and projection of frequency and impact...

  7. Pharmaceutical composition to protect an animal against a disorder arising from an infection with a bacterium that belongs to the group of nocardioform actinomycetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arnoldus, Christiaan Jacobs; van der Geize, Robert; Dijkhuizen, Lubbert

    2011-01-01

    The invention pertains to a pharmaceutical composition to protect an animal against a disorder arising from an infection with a bacterium that belongs to the group of nocardioform actinomycetes having the ability to survive within macrophages of the animal, comprising live bacteria of a nocardioform

  8. Complete Genome Sequence of Micromonospora Strain L5, a Potential Plant-Growth-Regulating Actinomycete, Originally Isolated from Casuarina equisetifolia Root Nodules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirsch, A. M.; Alvarado, J.; Bruce, D.; Chertkov, O.; De Hoff, P. L.; Detter, J. C.; Fujishige, N. A.; Goodwin, L. A.; Han, J.; Han, S.; Ivanova, N.; Land, M. L.; Lum, M. R.; Milani-Nejad, N.; Nolan, M.; Pati, A.; Pitluck, S.; Tran, S. S.; Woyke, T.; Valdes, M.

    2013-08-29

    Micromonospora species live in diverse environments and exhibit a broad range of functions including antibiotic production, biocontrol, and ability to degrade complex polysaccharides. To learn more about these versatile actinomycetes, we sequenced the genome of strain L5, originally isolated from root nodules of an actinorhizal plant growing in Mexico.

  9. XML In Vitro Comparison of MIC Crude Extracts of Active Actinomycetes Isolated with Terbinafine, Griseofulvin Ketoconazole and Fluconazole against Microsporum Canis, Microsporum Gypseum and Trichophyton Mentagrophytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keikha, N. (MSc

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Dermatophytes are the fungi that have the ability to attack the keratinized tissues such as the skin, hair and nails. Infections caused by these organisms are named dermatophytosis. We aimed to compare Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of Crude extracts of Active Actinomycete Isolates with Terbinafine, Griseofulvin, Ketoconazole and Fluconazole Drugs against Microsporum Canis, Microsporum gypseum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes. Material and Methods: In this experimental study, in order to find MIC by actionmycete, 100 isolates were studied and then crude extracts of the active actinomycete isolates were prepared in sterile conditions. Finally, the crude extracts obtained at different concentrations were used to obtain the MIC of Microsporum Canis, Microsporum gypseum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes. Moreover, various concentrations of the drugs such as terbinafine, griseofulvin, ketoconazole and fluconazole in solvent Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO were prepared and their growth inhibitory effect was evaluated and then compared with the results obtained from the crude extract of active actinomycete isolates. Results: the crude extracts obtained from active Actioiomycetes isolates and the drugs such as terbinafine, griseofulvin, ketoconazole and fluconazole, in a dose-dependent manner, could inhibit the growth of Microsporum Canis, Microsporum gypseum and Trichophyton Mentagrophytes. Conclusion: compared to MIC of Crude extract of active actinomycete isolates, Terbinafine has a significant effect on the growth inhibition in all of the fungal Dermatophytes and then griseofulvin, ketoconazole and fluconazole are in the next rank, respectively.

  10. Nuclear accidents and epidemiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A consultation on epidemiology related to the Chernobyl accident was held in Copenhagen in May 1987 as a basis for concerted action. This was followed by a joint IAEA/WHO workshop in Vienna, which reviewed appropriate methodologies for possible long-term effects of radiation following nuclear accidents. The reports of these two meetings are included in this volume, and cover the subjects: 1) Epidemiology related to the Chernobyl nuclear accident. 2) Appropriate methodologies for studying possible long-term effects of radiation on individuals exposed in a nuclear accident. Figs and tabs

  11. Isolation, abundance and phylogenetic affiliation of endophytic actinomycetes associated with medicinal plants and screening for their in vitro antimicrobial biosynthetic potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passari, Ajit K; Mishra, Vineet K; Saikia, Ratul; Gupta, Vijai K; Singh, Bhim P

    2015-01-01

    Microorganisms associated with medicinal plants are of interest as the producers of important bioactive compounds. To date, the diversity of culturable endophytic actinomycetes associated with medicinal plants is in its initial phase of exploration. In this study, 42 endophytic actinomycetes were isolated from different organs of seven selected medicinal plants. The highest number of isolates (n = 22, 52.3%) of actinomycetes was isolated from roots, followed by stems (n = 9, 21.4%), leaves (n = 6, 14.2%), flowers (n = 3, 7.1%), and petioles (n = 2, 4.7%). The genus Streptomyces was the most dominant among the isolates (66.6%) in both the locations (Dampa TRF and Phawngpuii NP, Mizoram, India). From a total of 42 isolates, 22 isolates were selected for further studies based on their ability to inhibit one of the tested human bacterial or fungal pathogen. Selected isolates were identified based on 16S rRNA gene analysis and subsequently the isolates were grouped to four different genera; Streptomyces, Brevibacterium, Microbacterium, and Leifsonia. Antibiotic sensitivity assay was performed to understand the responsible antimicrobials present in the isolates showing the antimicrobial activities and revealed that the isolates were mostly resistant to penicillin G and ampicillin. Further, antimicrobial properties and antibiotic sensitivity assay in combination with the results of amplification of biosynthetic genes polyketide synthase (PKS-I) and non-ribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) showed that the endophytic actinomycetes associated with the selected medicinal plants have broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity. This is the first report of the isolation of Brevibacterium sp., Microbacterium sp., and Leifsonia xyli from endophytic environments of medicinal plants, Mirabilis jalapa and Clerodendrum colebrookianum. Our results emphasize that endophytic actinomycetes associated with medicinal plants are an unexplored resource for the discovery of biologically active

  12. Metagenomic of Actinomycetes Based on 16S rRNA and nifH Genes in Soil and Roots of Four Indonesian Rice Cultivars Using PCR-DGGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahyarudin

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The research was conducted to study the metagenomic of actinomycetes based on 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA and bacterial nifH genes in soil and roots of four rice cultivars. The denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis profile based on 16S rRNA gene showed that the diversity of actinomycetes in roots was higher than soil samples. The profile also showed that the diversity of actinomycetes was similar in four varieties of rice plant and three types of agroecosystem. The profile was partially sequenced and compared to GenBank database indicating their identity with closely related microbes. The blast results showed that 17 bands were closely related ranging from 93% to 100% of maximum identity with five genera of actinomycetes, which is Geodermatophilus, Actinokineospora, Actinoplanes, Streptomyces and Kocuria. Our study found that Streptomyces species in soil and roots of rice plants were more varied than other genera, with a dominance of Streptomyces alboniger and Streptomyces acidiscabies in almost all the samples. Bacterial community analyses based on nifH gene denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis showed that diversity of bacteria in soils which have nifH gene was higher than that in rice plant roots. The profile also showed that the diversity of those bacteria was similar in four varieties of rice plant and three types of agroecosystem. Five bands were closely related with nifH gene from uncultured bacterium clone J50, uncultured bacterium clone clod-38, and uncultured bacterium clone BG2.37 with maximum identity 99%, 98%, and 92%, respectively. The diversity analysis based on 16S rRNA gene differed from nifH gene and may not correlate with each other. The findings indicated the diversity of actinomycetes and several bacterial genomes analyzed here have an ability to fix nitrogen in soil and roots of rice plant.

  13. Isolation, abundance and phylogenetic affiliation of endophytic actinomycetes associated with medicinal plants and screening for their in vitro antimicrobial biosynthetic potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajit Kumar Passari

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Microorganisms associated with medicinal plants are of interest as the producers of important bioactive compounds. To date, the diversity of culturable endophytic actinomycetes associated with medicinal plants is in its initial phase of exploration. In this study, 42 endophytic actinomycetes were isolated from different organs of seven selected medicinal plants. The highest number of isolates (n=22, 52.3% of actinomycetes was isolated from roots, followed by stems (n=9, 21.4%, leaves (n=6, 14.2%, flowers (n=3, 7.1% and petioles (n=2, 4.7%. The genus Streptomyces was the most dominant among the isolates (66.6% in both the locations (Dampa TRF and Phawngpuii NP, Mizoram, India. From a total of 42 isolates, 22 isolates were selected for further studies based on their ability to inhibit one of the tested human bacterial or fungal pathogen. Selected isolates were identified based on 16S rRNA gene analysis and subsequently the isolates were grouped to four different genera; Streptomyces, Brevibacterium, Microbacterium and Leifsonia. Antibiotic sensitivity assay was performed to understand the responsible antimicrobials present in the isolates showing the antimicrobial activities and revealed that the isolates were mostly resistant to penicillin G and ampicillin. Further, antimicrobial properties and antibiotic sensitivity assay in combination with the results of amplification of biosynthetic genes polyketide synthase (PKS-I and nonribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS showed that the endophytic actinomycetes associated with the selected medicinal plants have broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity. This is the first report of the isolation of Brevibacterium sp., Microbacterium sp. and Leifsonia xyli from endophytic environments of medicinal plants, Mirabilis jalapa and Clerodendrum colebrookianum. Our results emphasize that endophytic actinomycetes associated with medicinal plants are an unexplored resource for the discovery of biologically active

  14. Q Fever: Statistics and Epidemiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Rates Geography Seasonality Persons at Risk Further Reading Statistics and Epidemiology Annual Cases of Q Fever in ... CDC–INFO Q Fever Symptoms, Diagnosis, and Treatment Statistics and Epidemiology In-Depth Information Prevention Other Ricketssial ...

  15. Phylogenetically resolving epidemiologic linkage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Severson, Ethan O.; Bulla, Ingo; Leitner, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Although the use of phylogenetic trees in epidemiological investigations has become commonplace, their epidemiological interpretation has not been systematically evaluated. Here, we use an HIV-1 within-host coalescent model to probabilistically evaluate transmission histories of two epidemiologically linked hosts. Previous critique of phylogenetic reconstruction has claimed that direction of transmission is difficult to infer, and that the existence of unsampled intermediary links or common sources can never be excluded. The phylogenetic relationship between the HIV populations of epidemiologically linked hosts can be classified into six types of trees, based on cladistic relationships and whether the reconstruction is consistent with the true transmission history or not. We show that the direction of transmission and whether unsampled intermediary links or common sources existed make very different predictions about expected phylogenetic relationships: (i) Direction of transmission can often be established when paraphyly exists, (ii) intermediary links can be excluded when multiple lineages were transmitted, and (iii) when the sampled individuals’ HIV populations both are monophyletic a common source was likely the origin. Inconsistent results, suggesting the wrong transmission direction, were generally rare. In addition, the expected tree topology also depends on the number of transmitted lineages, the sample size, the time of the sample relative to transmission, and how fast the diversity increases after infection. Typically, 20 or more sequences per subject give robust results. We confirm our theoretical evaluations with analyses of real transmission histories and discuss how our findings should aid in interpreting phylogenetic results. PMID:26903617

  16. Epidemiology of Down Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, Stephanie L.; Allen, Emily G.; Bean, Lora H.; Freeman, Sallie B.

    2007-01-01

    Down syndrome (DS) is the most commonly identified genetic form of mental retardation and the leading cause of specific birth defects and medical conditions. Traditional epidemiological studies to determine the prevalence, cause, and clinical significance of the syndrome have been conducted over the last 100 years. DS has been estimated to occur…

  17. Changing epidemiology of AIDS.

    OpenAIRE

    Donovan, C. A.; Stratton, E.

    1994-01-01

    It has been 15 years since AIDS made its first appearance in North America, probably longer worldwide. In that time, our knowledge of the epidemiology of AIDS has grown and changed. This review highlights significant aspects of the epidemic with particular emphasis on the evolution of this disease in North America.

  18. Inflammatory bowel disease epidemiology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burisch, Johan; Munkholm, Pia

    2013-01-01

    The occurrence of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is increasing worldwide, yet the reasons remain unknown. New therapeutic approaches have been introduced in medical IBD therapy, but their impact on the natural history of IBD remains uncertain. This review will summarize the recent findings...... in the epidemiology of IBD....

  19. Experimental evidence for aerobic bio-denitrification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Nitrate pollution of groundwater is paid more and more attention for its hazardous to environments and human health. A strain of DN11 was isolated from soil and used in the laboratory columns filled with various media for nitrate removal. The experimental results showed that DN11could reduce nitrate at different rates in different media under the aerobic condition. The mechanism for nitrate removal with DN11 is explained meanwhile.

  20. Acute effects of aerobic exercise promote learning

    OpenAIRE

    Renza Perini; Marta Bortoletto; Michela Capogrosso; Anna Fertonani; Carlo Miniussi

    2016-01-01

    The benefits that physical exercise confers on cardiovascular health are well known, whereas the notion that physical exercise can also improve cognitive performance has only recently begun to be explored and has thus far yielded only controversial results. In the present study, we used a sample of young male subjects to test the effects that a single bout of aerobic exercise has on learning. Two tasks were run: the first was an orientation discrimination task involving the primary visual cor...

  1. Specificity of the mutualistic association between actinomycete bacteria and two sympatric species of Acromyrmex leaf-cutting ants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, M; Cafaro, M; Boomsma, J J;

    2005-01-01

    Acromyrmex leaf-cutting ants maintain two highly specialized, vertically transmitted mutualistic ectosymbionts: basidiomycete fungi that are cultivated for food in underground gardens and actinomycete Pseudonocardia bacteria that are reared on the cuticle to produce antibiotics that suppress...... the growth of Escovopsis parasites of the fungus garden. Mutualism stability has been hypothesized to benefit from genetic uniformity of symbionts, as multiple coexisting strains are expected to compete and, thus, reduce the benefit of the symbiosis. However, the Pseudonocardia symbionts are likely...... to be involved in Red-Queen-like antagonistic co-evolution with Escovopsis so that multiple strains per host might be favoured by selection provided the cost of competition between bacterial strains is low. We examined the genetic uniformity of the Pseudonocardia symbionts of two sympatric species of Acromyrmex...

  2. Nitrification and aerobic denitrification in anoxic-aerobic sequencing batch reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alzate Marin, Juan C; Caravelli, Alejandro H; Zaritzky, Noemí E

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of achieving nitrogen (N) removal using a lab-scale sequencing batch reactor (SBR) exposed to anoxic/aerobic (AN/OX) phases, focusing to achieve aerobic denitrification. This process will minimize emissions of N2O greenhouse gas. The effects of different operating parameters on the reactor performance were studied: cycle duration, AN/OX ratio, pH, dissolved oxygen concentration (DOC), and organic load. The highest inorganic N removal (NiR), close to 70%, was obtained at pH=7.5, low organic load (440mgCOD/(Lday)) and high aeration given by 12h cycle, AN/OX ratio=0.5:1.0 and DOC higher than 4.0mgO2/L. Nitrification followed by high-rate aerobic denitrification took place during the aerobic phase. Aerobic denitrification could be attributed to Tetrad-forming organisms (TFOs) with phenotype of glycogen accumulating organisms using polyhydroxyalkanoate and/or glycogen storage. The proposed AN/OX system constitutes an eco-friendly N removal process providing N2 as the end product. PMID:26512862

  3. Characterization and phylogenetic analysis of novel polyene type antimicrobial metabolite producing actinomycetes from marine sediments:Bay of Bengal India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Valan Arasu M; Asha KRT; Duraipandiyan V; Ignacimuthu S; Agastian P

    2012-01-01

    To isolate and indentify the promising antimicrobial metabolite producingStreptomyces strains from marine sediment samples from Andrapradesh coast of India. Methods:Antagonistic actinomycetes were isolated by starch casein agar medium and modified nutrient agar medium with 1% glucose used as a base for primary screening. Significant antimicrobial metabolite producing strains were selected and identified by using biochemical and 16S rDNA level. Minimum inhibitory concentrations of the organic extracts were done by using broth micro dilution method. Results: Among the 210 actinomycetes, 64.3% exhibited activity against Gram positive bacteria, 48.5 % showed activity towards Gram negative bacteria, 38.8% exhibited both Gram positive and negative bacteria and 80.85 % isolates revealed significant antifungal activity. However, five isolates AP-5, AP-18, AP-41 and AP-70 showed significant antimicrobial activity. The analysis of cell wall hydrolysates showed the presence of LL-diaminopimelic acid and glycine in all the isolates. Sequencing analysis indicated that the isolates shared 98.5%-99.8%sequence identity to the 16S rDNA gene sequences of the Streptomyces taxons. The antimicrobial substances were extracted using hexane and ethyl acetate from spent medium in which strains were cultivated at 30℃for five days. The antimicrobial activity was assessed using broth micro dilution technique. Each of the culture extracts from these five strains showed a typical polyene-like property. The lowest minimum inhibitory concentrations of ethyl acetate extracts against Escherichia coli and Curvularia lunata were 67.5 and 125.0 μg/mL, respectively. Conclusions: It can be concluded that hexane and ethyl acetate soluble extracellular products of novel isolates are effective against pathogenic bacteria and fungi.

  4. Molecular Epidemiology of Foodborne Pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi; Brown, Eric; Knabel, Stephen J.

    The purpose of this chapter is to describe the basic principles and advancements in the molecular epidemiology of foodborne pathogens. Epidemiology is the study of the distribution and determinants of infectious diseases and/or the dynamics of disease transmission. The goals of epidemiology include the identification of physical sources, routes of transmission of infectious agents, and distribution and relationships of different subgroups. Molecular epidemiology is the study of epidemiology at the molecular level. It has been defined as "a science that focuses on the contribution of potential genetic and environmental risk factors, identified at the molecular level, to the etiology, distribution and prevention of diseases within families and across populations".

  5. Epidemiology applied to health physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The technical program of the mid-year meeting of the Health Physics Society, entitled Epidemiology Applied to Health physics, was developed to meet three objectives: (1) give health physicists a deeper understanding of the basics of epidemiological methods and their use in developing standards, regulations, and criteria and in risk assessment; (2) present current reports on recently completed or on-going epidemiology studies; and (3) encourage greater interaction between the health physics and epidemiology disciplines. Included are studies relating methods in epidemiology to radiation protection standards, risk assessment from exposure to bone-seekers, from occupational exposures in mines, mills and nuclear facilities, and from radioactivity in building materials

  6. Epidemiology of colorectal cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marley, Andrew R; Nan, Hongmei

    2016-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is currently the third deadliest cancer in the United States and will claim an estimated 49,190 U.S. lives in 2016. The purpose of this review is to summarize our current understanding of this disease, based on nationally published statistics and information presented in peer-reviewed journal articles. Specifically, this review will cover the following topics: descriptive epidemiology (including time and disease trends both in the United States and abroad), risk factors (environmental, genetic, and gene-environment interactions), screening, prevention and control, and treatment. Landmark discoveries in colorectal cancer risk factor research will also be presented. Based on the information reviewed for this report, we suggest that future U.S. public health efforts aim to increase colorectal cancer screening among African American communities, and that future worldwide colorectal cancer epidemiology studies should focus on researching nutrient-gene interactions towards the goal of improving personalized treatment and prevention strategies.

  7. Screening and Identifying of Antagonistic Actinomycetes against Ralstonia Solancearum%烟草青枯菌拮抗放线菌的筛选及鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆铮铮; 彭丽娟; 丁海霞; 左希; 彭杰; 蒋选利

    2013-01-01

    In order to select effective antagonistic actinomycetes against Ralstonia solanacearum, we isolated 56 strains of actinomycetes from healthy tobacco rhizosphere soils. By pairing culture on plate method to screen antagonistic actinomycetes, we attained 3 strains of antagonistic actinomycetes, whose average inhibition diameters were more than 20 mm. We identified 3 strains of actinomycetes according to culture characteristics on differential culture mediums, spore and spore chain morphology, physiological and biochemical, molecular biology methods. The results showed that the 3 strains of actinomycetes were Streptomyces roseofulvus, Streptomyces olivaceoviridis and Streptomyces corchorusii. Among them, the best was S. roseofulvus, and average inhibition diameter was 54.66 mm. Average inhibition diameter of S.olivaceoviridis was 43.20 mm, and average inhibition diameter of S. corchorusii was 20.34 mm.%  为筛选出烟草青枯菌的有效拮抗菌,本研究从烟草根围土壤中分离了97株放线菌,通过平板对峙培养法筛选出抑菌圈直径均达20 mm以上的拮抗放线菌3株。根据其在鉴别培养基上的培养特征、孢子和孢子链的形态特征,生理生化特性以及16SrDNA序列分析对这3株拮抗放线菌进行鉴定。结果表明,3株拮抗放线菌都属于链霉菌属(Streptomyces),分别为粉红孢类群中的玫瑰暗黄链霉菌(S. roseofulvus Preobrazhenskaya)、绿色类群中的橄榄绿链霉菌(S. olivaceoviridis Preobrazhenskaya)和灰褐类群中的黄麻链霉菌(S. corchorusii Ahmed)。其中,玫瑰暗黄链霉菌菌株对青枯劳尔氏菌的拮抗效果最好,其平均抑菌圈直径可达54.66 mm;橄榄绿链霉菌菌株的拮抗效果次之,其平均抑菌圈直径为43.20 mm;黄麻链霉菌平均抑菌圈直径为20.34 mm。

  8. Diversity of actinomycetes in Taiwan strait marine sediments%台湾海峡海洋沉积物放线菌的多样性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁效伟; 陈名洪; 林如; 王海龙; 谢阳; 连云阳; 江红

    2012-01-01

    目的 探究台湾海峡海洋沉积物中放线菌的多样性及发现合成药物先导化合物的新菌源.方法 采用6种选择性培养基分离15份来自台湾海峡沉积物样品中含有的放线菌.挑选不同培养特征的放线菌进行初步分类鉴别、16S rRNA基因序列系统进化分析及基于PCR的烯二炔抗生素基因筛选.结果 共分离到497株放线菌,挑选的95株放线菌分别属于放线菌7个科,11个属.16S rRNA基因序列分析结果提示分离到的小单孢菌科菌种存在数个潜在新种,95株菌中有27%的菌株含有烯二炔抗生素核弹头的生物合成基因片段.结论 海洋环境蕴含丰富的放线菌资源,具有产生烯二炔类抗生素的潜能.%Objective To investigate the diversity of actinomycetes isolated from Taiwan strait marine sediments and isolate new actinomycetes for discovering compounds of pharmaceutical importance. Methods Six selective media were used to isolate actinomycetes from 15 sediment samples. Actinobacterial diversity in these sediments was investigated by phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences. To detect potential producer strains of enediyne antibiotics, PCR based screening strategy was used. Results A total of 497 strains of actinomycetes were isolated and 95 representative isolates were selected on the basis of their morphologies on different media. 16S rRNA gene sequences phylogenetic analysis showed that these strains belonged to seven families including eleven genera. Phylogenetic analyses also grouped many of the strains into clades distinct from alt known genera within Micromonosporaceae, indicating that they may be new genera. 27% of the above 95 strains were detected and found containing enediyne polyketide synthase (PK.S) gene. Conclusion The results confirm that marine sediments are rich source of rare actinomycetes and the actinomycetes from marine environment have the potential of producing enediyne family antibiotics.

  9. Epidemiology of ovarian malignancies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akanksha Sood

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: The epidemiology and presentation of ovarian tumours has remained unchanged since last 3 decades. Nulliparity is not as significant a factor in the aetiology of ovarian malignancy however contraception leading to anovulatory cycles (OC pills may have a protective role. Infertility can be suggested as a risk factor but the treatment for infertility and its role in oncogenesis remains controversial. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2016; 5(1.000: 186-193

  10. Causation in epidemiology

    OpenAIRE

    Parascandola, M; Weed, D

    2001-01-01

    Causation is an essential concept in epidemiology, yet there is no single, clearly articulated definition for the discipline. From a systematic review of the literature, five categories can be delineated: production, necessary and sufficient, sufficient-component, counterfactual, and probabilistic. Strengths and weaknesses of these categories are examined in terms of proposed characteristics of a useful scientific definition of causation: it must be specific enough to distinguish causation fr...

  11. Epidemiology of dentin hypersensitivity

    OpenAIRE

    Splieth, Christian H.; Tachou, Aikaterini

    2012-01-01

    Objective In contrast to the well-established caries epidemiology, data on dentin hypersensitivity seem to be scarce and contradictory. This review evaluates the available literature on dentin hypersensitivity and assesses its prevalence, distribution, and potential changes. Materials and methods The systematic search was performed to identify and select relevant publications with several key words in electronic databases. In addition, the articles’ bibliographies were consulted. Results Prev...

  12. Epidemiology of Lyme Disease

    OpenAIRE

    White, Dennis J

    1991-01-01

    Investigation of the epidemiology of Lyme disease depends upon information generated from several sources. Human disease surveillance can be conducted by both passive and active means involving physicians, public health agencies and laboratories. Passive and active tick surveillance programs can document the extent of tick-borne activity, identify the geographic range of potential vector species, and determine the relative risk of exposure to Lyme disease in specific areas. Standardized labor...

  13. [Occupational epidemiology in Italy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assennato, G; Bisceglia, L

    2003-01-01

    The development of Occupational Epidemiology in Italy is closely correlated with the political and social awareness of the needs of preventive strategies in the workplace. In the late '60s the Trade Unions supported a model of intervention based on the involvement of the so-called "Homogeneous group of workers" in the validation of the preventive measures taken on the workplace. In spite of the shortcomings of the model, it was extremely effective resulting in enhanced perception of the priority of preventive strategies and in the formation within the National Health Service of the Occupational Health Services. In Italy over the period 1973-2002 there has been an impressive trend of research in field of occupational epidemiology (a search on Medline shows an increasing trend over the years and, in terms of international comparison, higher figures than in Germany, France and Spain). Occupational Epidemiology is now present in the activities of the local Occupational Health Services and in the teaching activities of the Medical Schools throughout the country. PMID:14582235

  14. Auraticoccus monumenti gen. nov., sp. nov., an actinomycete isolated from a deteriorated sandstone monument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Vega, Pablo; Carro, Lorena; Martínez-Molina, Eustoquio; Trujillo, Martha E

    2011-05-01

    A Gram-type-positive, strictly aerobic actinobacterium, designated strain MON 2.2(T), was isolated from the surface of a sandstone monument. Cells with a coccoid shape, arranged in pairs or clusters, were non-motile and did not produce spores. The 10 closest 16S rRNA gene sequence matches (~95 % similarity) found in the public databases were uncultured actinobacteria, while the closest cultured members indicated a phylogenetic relationship with members of the family Propionibacteriaceae (92-95 % similarity). Subsequent phylogenetic analysis placed the new isolate within the radiation of the genera Friedmanniella and Microlunatus, but forming an independent branch. Chemotaxonomic markers were consistent with the classification of strain MON 2.2(T) in the family Propionibacteriaceae, amongst the genera containing ll-diaminopimelic acid in their peptidoglycan. Characteristic fatty acids iso-C(15 : 0) and anteiso-C(15 : 0) also supported its affiliation to this taxon; however, polar lipid and menaquinone compositions clearly differentiated strain MON 2.2(T) from other genera in the family. On the basis of these results and additional physiological data obtained in the present study, it is proposed that strain MON 2.2(T) be classified in a novel species in a new genus, for which the name Auraticoccus monumenti gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of Auraticoccus monumenti is MON 2.2(T) ( = CECT 7672(T)  = DSM 23257(T)  = LMG 25551(T)).

  15. Weed competitiveness and yielding ability of aerobic rice genotypes

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, D.L.

    2006-01-01

    Keywords:    Broad-sense heritability; Crop vigour; Genetic correlation; Indirect selection index; Plant erectness; Rice germplasm; Seeding rate; Vegetative growth; Weed-suppressive ability.Aerobic rice, grown under aerobic soil conditions like maize or wheat, is an innovative way to cope with the growing demand for rice and the increasing water scarcity. Weeds are the most severe constraint to aerobic rice. The use of herbicides causes environmental pollution and induces the proliferation of...

  16. Perfection aerobic possibilities of athletes in sport dance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Bo

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The organized analysis to functions of the aerobic metabolism of the sport dancers. They are determined reduced components of the aerobic metabolism of partners (male and female. The motivated directivity of the training means and program for development component of the aerobic functions skilled athlete in sport dance. It is proved that loading that is used in training process by sport dances must have a character of cardiorespiratory system.

  17. Research on aerobics classes influence on physical prepareduess of students.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krasulia M. А.

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Physical skills of female students doing aerobics have been studied. 165 female students aged 17-18 divided into three groups of 55 each have taken part in the experiment. Groups have been trained according to different methods conventionally called 'power aerobics', 'dance aerobics' and 'jump aerobics'. Level of female students' physical skills has been determined by the results of seven tests in the beginning of an academic year and after six-months term. Mathematical treatment of the results has been carried out. The most preferable as to improving physical skills level method has been discovered to be the one aimed on power abilities development method.

  18. Aerobic capacity related to cardiac size in young children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dencker, M; Wollmer, P; Karlsson, M;

    2013-01-01

    Aerobic capacity, defined as peak oxygen uptake (VO2PEAK), is generally considered to be the best single marker for aerobic fitness. We assessed if VO2PEAK is related to different cardiac dimensions in healthy young children on a population base.......Aerobic capacity, defined as peak oxygen uptake (VO2PEAK), is generally considered to be the best single marker for aerobic fitness. We assessed if VO2PEAK is related to different cardiac dimensions in healthy young children on a population base....

  19. Effects of aerobic training on heart rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos B. Almeida

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Regular physical exercise is an important factor to reduce the indexes of cardiovascular and all causes morbimortality. However, there is, apparently, additional and independent benefits of the regular practice of physical exercise and the improvement of the level of aerobic condition. Heart rate (HR is mediated primarily by the direct activity of the autonomic nervous system (ANS, specifically through the sympathetic and parasympathetic branches activities over the sinus node autorhythmicity, with predominance of the vagal activity (parasympathetic at rest, that is progressively inhibited since the onset of the exercise. The HR behavior has been widely studied during different conditions and protocols associated to the exercise. A reduction of the cardiac vagal tone (parasympathetic function and consequently a diminished HR variability in rest, independently of the protocol of measurement used, is related to an autonomic dysfunction, chronic-degenerative diseases and increased mortality risk. Individuals with high levels of aerobic condition have a lower resting HR, along with a larger parasympathetic activity or smaller sympathetic activity, but it is not necessarily a direct consequence of the exercise training, as long as other inherent adaptations to the aerobic conditioning can influence the resting HR. The HR response in the onset of the exercise represents the integrity of the vagus nerve, and the HR recovery on the post-exercise transient also denotes important prognostic information; by the way, individuals that have a slow HR recovery in the first minute post-exercise have increased mortality risk. In conclusion, the physiological mechanisms modulating HR during or after an exercise program are not totally clear, and further studies are needed.

  20. Aerobic Biostabilization of Old MSW Landfills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. C. Zanetti

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Many years after the end of the cultivation phase, landfills may generate intense odours, toxic and explosive gases and heavily-polluted leachate. A wide-spreading trend in the management of MSW landfills is represented by the forced aeration of wastes in order to achieve the stabilization, reducing the negative environmental impact of uncontrolled sites (old landfills which can be definitely considered as contaminated sites and the management costs of controlled and working facilities. One of the most interesting challenges is the in situ waste aerobic stabilization, obtained by insufflating air into the wastes. The aerobic metabolism is energetically convenient in comparison with the anaerobic one, it is characterized by a higher degradation rate and a temperature increase (like in the compost production. In order to obtain an aerobic biostabilization of waste in landfills, several air injection systems have been developed and applied in the last years, like Biopuster© or AEROflott® patented systems. The feasibility of the application of in situ biostabilization must be evaluated by means of different tests, in order to evaluate the main characteristics of the wastes. The main parameters to be evaluated are the biological stability and the air permeability of the wastes. In March 2006, the biological stability of the wastes located in the Trinitapoli Landfill, Italy, has been evaluated by the Politecnico di Torino. Black Index Test and Static Respirometric Index Test have been performed in the laboratories of the Politecnico. On the basis of the obtained results, the potential biogas production from the examined landfill was estimated together with the potential volume reduction.

  1. Dancing the aerobics "Hearing loss choreography"

    OpenAIRE

    Beatriz M. Pinto; Carvalho, A.; Sérgio Oliveira

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the health clubs acoustic problems when used for aerobics exercises classes (and similar) with loud noise levels in sound amplified music. A sample of five schools in Portugal was chosen for this survey. Noise levels in each room were measured and analyzed to calculate the standardized daily personal noise exposure levels (Leq8). Leq8 values up to 96 dB(A) were found in this type of room inducing a health risk for its occupants. This type of gymnasium is usu...

  2. [Heterotrophic Nitrification and Aerobic Denitrification of the Hypothermia Aerobic Denitrification Bacterium: Arthrobacter arilaitensis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Teng-xia; Ni, Jiu-pai; Li, Zhen-lun; Sun, Quan; Ye Qing; Xu, Yi

    2016-03-15

    High concentrations of ammonium, nitrate and nitrite nitrogen were employed to clarify the abilities of heterotrophic nitrification and aerobic denitrification of Arthrobacter arilaitensis strain Y-10. Meanwhile, by means of inoculating the strain suspension into the mixed ammonium and nitrate, ammonium and nitrite nitrogen simulated wastewater, we studied the simultaneous nitrification and denitrification ability of Arthrobacter arilaitensis strain Y-10. In addition, cell optical density was assayed in each nitrogen removal process to analyze the relationship of cell growth and nitrogen removal efficiency. The results showed that the hypothermia denitrification strain Arthrobacter arilaitensis Y-10 exhibited high nitrogen removal efficiency during heterotrophic nitrification and aerobic denitrification. The ammonium, nitrate and nitrite removal rates were 65.0%, 100% and 61.2% respectively when strain Y-10 was cultivated for 4 d at 15°C with initial ammonium, nitrate and nitrite nitrogen concentrations of 208.43 mg · L⁻¹, 201.16 mg · L⁻¹ and 194.33 mg · L⁻¹ and initial pH of 7.2. Nitrite nitrogen could only be accumulated in the medium containing nitrate nitrogen during heterotrophic nitrification and aerobic denitrification process. Additionally, the ammonium nitrogen was mainly removed in the inorganic nitrogen mixed synthetic wastewater. In short, Arthrobacter arilaitensis Y-10 could conduct nitrification and denitrification effectively under aerobic condition and the ammonium nitrogen removal rate was more than 80.0% in the inorganic nitrogen mixed synthetic wastewater. PMID:27337904

  3. Degradation of Textile Dye Reactive Navy – Blue Rx (Reactive blue–59) by an Isolated Actinomycete Streptomyces krainskii SUK – 5

    OpenAIRE

    Mane, U. V.; Gurav, P. N.; Deshmukh, A.M.; Govindwar, S. P.

    2008-01-01

    The isolated Actinomycete, Streptomyces krainskii, SUK -5 was found to decolorize and degrade textile dye Reactive blue–59.This azo dye was decolorized and degraded completely by Streptomyces krainskii SUK–5 at 24 h in shaking condition in the nutrient medium at pH 8. Induction in the activity of Lignin Peroxidase,and NADH-DCIP Reductase and MR reductase represents their role in degradation .The biodegradation was monitored by TLC, UV vis spectroscopy, FTIR. and GCMS analysis. Microbial and p...

  4. Geodermatophilus poikilotrophi sp. nov.: A Multitolerant Actinomycete Isolated from Dolomitic Marble

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria del Carmen Montero-Calasanz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel Gram-reaction-positive, aerobic actinobacterium, tolerant to mitomycin C, heavy metals, metalloids, hydrogen peroxide, desiccation, and ionizing- and UV-radiation, designated G18T, was isolated from dolomitic marble collected from outcrops in Samara (Namibia. The growth range was 15–35°C, at pH 5.5–9.5 and in presence of 1% NaCl, forming greenish-black coloured colonies on GYM Streptomyces agar. Chemotaxonomic and molecular characteristics of the isolate matched those described for other representatives of the genus Geodermatophilus. The peptidoglycan contained meso-diaminopimelic acid as diagnostic diaminoacid. The main phospholipids were phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylinositol, and small amount of diphosphatidylglycerol. MK-9(H4 was the dominant menaquinone and galactose was detected as diagnostic sugar. The major cellular fatty acids were branched-chain saturated acids iso-C16:0 and iso-C15:0 and the unsaturated C17:1ω8c and C16:1ω7c. The 16S rRNA gene showed 97.4–99.1% sequence identity with the other representatives of genus Geodermatophilus. Based on phenotypic results and 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, strain G18T is proposed to represent a novel species, Geodermatophilus poikilotrophi. Type strain is G18T (= DSM 44209T = CCUG 63018T. The INSDC accession number is HF970583. The novel R software package lethal was used to compute the lethal doses with confidence intervals resulting from tolerance experiments.

  5. Trichinosis: Epidemiology in Thailand

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Natthawut Kaewpitoon; Soraya Jatesadapattaya Kaewpitoon; Chutikan Philasri; Ratana Leksomboon; Chanvit Maneenin; Samaporn Sirilaph; Prasit Pengsaa

    2006-01-01

    Trichinosis is one of the most common food-borne parasitic zoonoses in Thailand and many outbreaks are reported each year. This paper reviews the history, species,and epidemiology of the disease and food habits of the people with an emphasis on the north, northeast, central and south regions of Thailand. The earliest record of trichinosis in Thailand was in 1962 in the Mae Sariang District, Mae Hong Son Province. Since then, about 130 outbreaks have been reported involving 7392 patients and 97 deaths (1962-2005). The highest number of cases, 557, was recorded in 1983. The annual epidemiological surveillance reports of the Bureau of Epidemiology,Department of Disease Control, Ministry of Public Health,Thailand, show that trichinosis cases increased from 61 in 1997 to 351 in 1998.In contrast to these figures, the number of reported cases decreased to 16 in 1999 and 128 cases in 2000. There was no record of trichinosis in 2001, but then the figures for 2002, 2003 and 2004 were 289, 126 and 212 respectively. The infected patients were mostly in the 35-44 years age group and the disease occurred more frequently in men than women at a ratio of 1.7-2.0:1. There were 84 reported cases of trichinosis in Chiang Rai, Nan, Chiang Mai, Si Sa ket,Nakhon Phanom, Kalasin, Nakhon Ratchasima, Nakhon Nayok, Nakhon Pathom and Surat Thani, provinces located in different parts of Thailand in 2005. The outbreaks were more common in the northern areas, especially in rural areas where people ate raw or under-cooked pork and/or wild animals. This indicates the need for health education programs to prevent and control trichinosis as soon as possible in the high-risk areas.

  6. Epidemiological Perspectives of Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Ziqi; Shi, Aimin; Zhao, Jing

    2015-09-01

    The global statistics of diabetes mellitus in year 2013 indicated, about 382 million people had this disease worldwide, with type 2 diabetes making up about 90 % of the cases. This is equal to 8.3 % of the adult population with equal rates in both women and men. In year 2012 and 2013 diabetes resulted in mortality of 1.5-5.1 million people per year, making it the 8th leading cause of death in the world. It is predicted that by year 2035 about 592 million people will die of diabetes. The economic cost of diabetes seems to have increased worldwide. An average age of onset of diabetes is 42.5 years and could be due to consumption of high sugar and high-calorie diet, low physical activity, genetic susceptibility, and lifestyle. Approximately 8 % children and about 26 % young adults have diabetes mellitus in the world. The results of epidemiological study of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D) are presented by demographic, geographic, biologic, cultural, and other factors in human populations. The prevalence of T1D has been increased by 2-5 % worldwide and its prevalence is approximately one in 300 in US by 18 years of age. The epidemiological studies are important to study the role, causes, clinical care, prevention, and treatment of type1 diabetes in pregnant women and their children before and after birth. In this article, causes, diagnosis, symptoms, treatment and medications, and epidemiology of diabetes will be described. PMID:25711186

  7. Structure of an MmyB-like regulator from C. aurantiacus, member of a new transcription factor family linked to antibiotic metabolism in actinomycetes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingping Xu

    Full Text Available Actinomycetes are important bacterial sources of antibiotics and other secondary metabolites. Many antibiotic gene clusters are controlled by pathway-specific activators that act in response to growth conditions. Here we present the crystal structure of an MmyB-like transcription regulator MltR (PDB code 3pxp (Caur_2278 from Chloroflexus aurantiacus, in complex with a fatty acid (myristic acid. MltR is a distant homolog of the methylenomycin activator MmyB and consists of an Xre-type N-terminal DNA-binding domain and a C-terminal ligand-binding module that is related to the Per-Arnt-Sim (PAS domain. This structure has enabled identification of a new family of bacterial transcription factors that are distributed predominantly in actinomycetes. Bioinformatics analysis of MltR and other characterized family members suggest that they are likely associated with antibiotic and fatty acid metabolism in actinomycetes. Streptomyces coelicolor SCO4944 is a candidate as an ancestral member of the family. Its ortholog in S. griseus, SGR_6891, is induced by A-factor, a γ-butyrolactone that controls antibiotic production and development, and is adjacent to the A-factor synthase gen, afsA. The location of mltR/mmyB homologs, in particular those adjacent to less well-studied antibiotic-related genes, makes them interesting genetic markers for identifying new antibiotic genes. A model for signal-triggered DNA-binding by MltR is proposed.

  8. The Bio - control and Application of Actinomycetes against Plant Diseases%放线菌对植物病害的防治作用及应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾雨; 贾丽苑; 黄建新

    2012-01-01

    Actinomycetes are one of the most important bio - control micro - organisms which produce antibiotics and enzymes and are advantageous in the bio - control of plant diseases. This study addresses the bio - control of actinomycetes against plant diseases in terms of actinomycetes' action on phytopathogen and on the plants' disease resistance under the soil environ- ment. The paper also gives a brief introduction to the applications of actinomycetes in the bio - control of plant diseases, research hotspot and development trend.%放线菌是产生抗生素和酶的重要微生物资源之一,在防治植物病害中有很多优势.主要从放线菌与植物病原菌的作用和土壤环境中的放线菌对植物的抗病作用两方面,介绍了放线菌对植物病害的防治作用;简述目前放线菌在植病生防中的应用状况;以及研究热点和发展趋势.

  9. Recent advances in the bioactive metabolites of marine actinomycetes%海洋放线菌活性代谢产物研究最新进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱峰; 刘晓红; 林永成

    2007-01-01

    近年来海洋放线菌代谢产物的研究取得了很大进展,从海洋放线菌中分离到许多结构新奇、有特殊生理活性和有潜在实用价值的新化合物.研究表明海洋放线菌有可能成为抗生紊等药物工业的又一重要微生物资源.本文分类介绍了2001年到2005年间海洋放线菌代谢产物的研究进展,重点在于从海洋放线菌发现的新化合物及其生物活性.%Studis on the metabolites of marine actinomycetes have been rapidly developed recently.A number of unique structural compounds with special bioactivities and potential values were isolated from marine actinomycetes,which were expected to be another important microorganism resources for pharmaceutical industries.The recent advances in the bioactive metabolites of marine actinomycetes were reviewed in this paper with the literature published during 2001~2005.The emphasis is on the novel compounds and the relative bioactivities based on the structural classification.

  10. Characterization and aerobic biodegradation of selected monoterpenes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Misra, G.; Pavlostathis, S.G.; Li, J.; Purdue, E.M. [Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Monoterpenes are biogenic chemicals and occur in abundance in nature. Large-scale industrial use of these chemicals has recently been initiated in an attempt to replace halogenated solvents and chlorofluorocarbons which have been implicated in the stratospheric depletion of ozone. This study examined four hydrocarbon monoterpenes (d-limonene, {alpha}-pinene, {gamma}-terpinene, and terpinolene) and four alcohols (arbanol, linalool, plinol, and {alpha}-terpineol). Water solubility, vapor pressure, and octanol/water partition coefficients were estimated. Aerobic biodegradability tests were conducted in batch reactors by utilizing forest soil extract and enriched cultures as inoculum. The hydrophobic nature and high volatility of the hydrocarbons restricted the investigation to relatively low aqueous concentrations. Each monoterpene was analyzed with a gas chromatograph equipped with a flame ionization detector after extraction from the aqueous phase with isooctane. Terpene mineralization was tested by monitoring liquid-phase carbon, CO{sub 2} production and biomass growth. All four hydrocarbons and two alcohols readily degraded under aerobic conditions. Plinol resisted degradation in assays using inocula from diverse sources, while arbanol degraded very slowly. The intrinsic biokinetics coefficients for the degradation of d-limonene and {alpha}-terpineol were estimated by using cultures enriched with the respective monoterpenes. Monoterpene biodegradation followed Monod kinetics.

  11. Aerobic Thermophilic Composting of Municipal Solid Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D V Wadkar

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Composting is a natural process that turns organic material into a dark rich substance called compost. Aerobic Composting is the creation of compost that depends on bacteria that thrive in an oxygen rich environment. Aerobic bacteria manage the chemical process by converting the inputs (i.e. air, water and carbon and nitrogen rich materials into heat, carbon dioxide and ammonium. The ammonium is further converted by bacteria into plant nourishing nitrites and nitrates through the process of nitrification. Thermophilic Composting is breaking down biological waste with thermophilic (heat loving bacteria. A cylindrical reactor was made. Organic wasteincluded dry vegetable waste collected from MSW ramp, Koregaon park, Pune. The characteristics of compost like pH, moisture content, temperature, C/N ratio and volume reduction were studied for the period of maturation (42days. It can be concluded that the values are within the desired limits and compost is suitable for ornamental plants. The setup of reactor is affordable and thus the compost obtained is effective and economical.

  12. The Epidemiology of Sarcopenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodds, Richard Matthew; Roberts, Helen Clare; Cooper, Cyrus; Sayer, Avan Aihie

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this review is to describe the epidemiology of sarcopenia, specifically prevalence, health outcomes, and factors across the life course that have been linked to its development. Sarcopenia definitions involve a range of measures (muscle mass, strength, and physical performance), which tend to decline with age, and hence sarcopenia becomes increasingly prevalent with age. Less is known about prevalence in older people in hospital and care homes, although it is likely to be higher than in community settings. The range of measures used, and the cutpoints suggested for each, presents a challenge for comparing prevalence estimates between studies. The importance of sarcopenia is highlighted by the range of adverse health outcomes that strength and physical performance (and to a lesser extent, muscle mass) have been linked to. This is shown most strikingly by the finding of increased all-cause mortality rates among those with weaker grip strength and slower gait speed. A life course approach broadens the window for our understanding of the etiology of sarcopenia and hence the potential intervention. An example is physical activity, with increased levels across midadulthood appearing to increase muscle mass and strength in early old age. Epidemiologic studies will continue to make an important contribution to our understanding of sarcopenia and possible avenues for intervention and prevention.

  13. Global epidemiology of sporotrichosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakrabarti, Arunaloke; Bonifaz, Alexandro; Gutierrez-Galhardo, Maria Clara; Mochizuki, Takashi; Li, Shanshan

    2015-01-01

    Sporotrichosis is an endemic mycosis caused by the dimorphic fungus Sporothrix schenckii sensu lato. It has gained importance in recent years due to its worldwide prevalence, recognition of multiple cryptic species within the originally described species, and its distinctive ecology, distribution, and epidemiology across the globe. In this review, we describe the current knowledge of the taxonomy, ecology, prevalence, molecular epidemiology, and outbreaks due to S. schenckii sensu lato. Despite its omnipresence in the environment, this fungus has remarkably diverse modes of infection and distribution patterns across the world. We have delved into the nuances of how sporotrichosis is intimately linked to different forms of human activities, habitats, lifestyles, and environmental and zoonotic interactions. The purpose of this review is to stimulate discussion about the peculiarities of this unique fungal pathogen and increase the awareness of clinicians and microbiologists, especially in regions of high endemicity, to its emergence and evolving presentations and to kindle further research into understanding the unorthodox mechanisms by which this fungus afflicts different human populations.

  14. Epidemiology of Neuroendocrine Tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraenkel, Merav; Faggiano, Antongiulio; Valk, Gerlof D

    2015-01-01

    Formerly named carcinoids, neuroendocrine tumors originate from diffuse endocrine cells, can involve any part of the gastrointestinal tract, endocrine pancreas and bronchopulmonary (BP) tree, and have a wide range of malignant potential. This chapter summarizes the data available on the epidemiology of neuroendocrine neoplasia (NEN) from around the world, including the relative frequency according to organ of origin, annual incidence rates (IR) and trends in IR at the various anatomic sites, age and stage at presentation, racial and gender differences in IR and 5-year survival rates. Over time, changes have been made in the classification and registration of NEN, both in the same registry and across the globe, thus confounding the possibility to draw conclusions as to the true rise in IR of NEN that is observed all over the world. BP NEN has become the most common site in many western countries, while NEN of the rectum is more common in the Far East. In some countries, appendiceal NEN is the most common site in females. When compared to adenocarcinoma of the same location, the prognosis of NEN patients is better. Five-year survival rates are highest for NEN originating in the rectum and appendix, but lower in small intestinal and pancreatic NEN. Future research is needed to understand the contribution of genetic and environmental factors to NEN epidemiology. PMID:26303701

  15. Clinical Epidemiology Of Stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagaraja D

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Stroke is a huge public health problem because of its high morbidity and disability. The epidemiology of stroke is of relevance to construct practical paradigms to tackle this major health issue in the community. Recent data have shown that about 72-86% of strokes are ischemic, 9-18% are due to hemorrhage (intracerebral of subarachnoid and the rest are undefined. The risk factors for stroke are multiple and combined. At present, stroke is no more considered as unavoidable and untreatable. It is an emergency and specialized units and teams improve outcome and lower costs. Death related to stroke is declining in many countries and in both sexes. This decrease in multifactorial. The detection and more effective treatment of hypertension may play an important factor, as well as the improved medical care and improvement in diagnostic procedures. While stroke incidence appears stable and stroke mortality is slowly declining, the absolute magnitude of stroke is likely to grow over the next 30 years. as the population ages, the absolute number of stroke victims and demands on healthcare and other support systems is likely to increase substantially in the future. Keeping this in perspective, this chapter shall focus on the epidemiology of stroke in the world and in Indian, in particular.

  16. Constant growth rate can be supported by decreasing energy flux and increasing aerobic glycolysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slavov, Nikolai; Budnik, Bogdan A; Schwab, David; Airoldi, Edoardo M; van Oudenaarden, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Fermenting glucose in the presence of enough oxygen to support respiration, known as aerobic glycolysis, is believed to maximize growth rate. We observed increasing aerobic glycolysis during exponential growth, suggesting additional physiological roles for aerobic glycolysis. We investigated such ro

  17. Differential production of slime under aerobic and anaerobic conditions.

    OpenAIRE

    Barker, L P; Simpson, W A; Christensen, G D

    1990-01-01

    A series of 37 clinical isolates of coagulase-negative staphylococci previously identified as negative for slime production by the tube test were reexamined by the tissue culture plate test under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. None of the strains produced slime under anaerobic conditions; however, five strains (13%) produced slime under aerobic conditions.

  18. Longitudinal Predictors of Aerobic Performance in Adolescent Soccer Players

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valente-dos-Santos, Joao; Coelho-e-Silva, Manuel J.; Duarte, Joao; Figueiredo, Antonio J.; Liparotti, Joao R.; Sherar, Lauren B.; Elferink-Gemser, Marije T.; Malina, Robert M.

    2012-01-01

    Background. The importance of aerobic performance in youth soccer is well established. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the contributions of chronological age (CA), skeletal age (SA), body size, and training to the longitudinal development of aerobic performance in youth male soccer play

  19. Aerobic Fitness Thresholds Associated with Fifth Grade Academic Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittberg, Richard; Cottrell, Lesley A.; Davis, Catherine L.; Northrup, Karen L.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Whereas effects of physical fitness and physical activity on cognitive function have been documented, little is known about how they are related. Purpose: This study assessed student aerobic fitness measured by FITNESSGRAM Mile times and/or Pacer circuits and whether the nature of the association between aerobic fitness and…

  20. Water Aerobics as a Form of Health Activities

    OpenAIRE

    Anna S. Batrak; Antonina V. Polyakova

    2013-01-01

    The offered literature review considers water aerobics as a form of health activities. Water aerobics is wide spread and popular, especially among women, because it is also the form of adaptive and health activities. It enlarges general physiological effect of physical exercises on the human body. Regular exercises improve physical fitness and physical development, health, mood, sleep, intensify activities and working efficiency.

  1. Aerobic Digestion. Student Manual. Biological Treatment Process Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klopping, Paul H.

    This manual contains the textual material for a single-lesson unit on aerobic sludge digestion. Topic areas addressed include: (1) theory of aerobic digestion; (2) system components; (3) performance factors; (4) indicators of stable operation; and (5) operational problems and their solutions. A list of objectives, glossary of key terms, and…

  2. Screening of Mangrove Forest Actinomycetes and Its Antitumor Activity Detection%红树林放线菌筛选及其抗肿瘤活性测定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周中流; 徐立军

    2012-01-01

    Objective To isolate and purify the microbial strains from sea mud samples collected in Zhanjiang mangrove wetland for screening and detecting the antitumor activity. Methods The morphological method was adopted to identify actinomycetes strains. The MTT assay was applied to measure two tumor cells lines ( A549 and K562 ) cytotoxicity of 72 strains of actinomycete fermentation broth. Results By identification of isolated 72 strains of actinomycete, 18 percents of actinomycete fermentation broth showed the cytotoxicity in varying degrees. Especially,the fermentation broth of N2010-37 and N2010-68 revealed obvious antitumor activity on the above - mentioned two tumor cells lines. Conclusion The research results establish the foundation for seeking the antitumor components from mangrove forest actinomycete in Zhanjiang.%目的 从我国湛江红树林采集的海泥样品中分离纯化微生物菌株并进行筛选及抗肿瘤活性测定.方法 采用形态学方法鉴定放线菌菌株;采用四氮唑盐(MTT)法测定筛选出的72株放线菌发酵液对肺癌细胞A549与人类慢性髓性白血病细胞K562两种肿瘤细胞的细胞毒活性.结果 经鉴定分离得到了72株放线菌,其中18%的放线菌发酵液具有不同程度的细胞毒活性.N2010-37和N2010-68两株放线菌发酵液对上述两种肿瘤细胞株作用较显著.结论 该研究结果为从湛江红树林放线菌中寻找抗肿瘤活性成分奠定了基础.

  3. Comparative study of different methods for isolation of marine actinomycetes%海洋放线菌不同分离方法的比较研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    常显波; 刘文正; 尹琦; 张晓华

    2012-01-01

    The isolation techniques for marine actinomycetes from the inter-tidal sediment at Qingdao were studied by using the series dilution and plate spreading methods. The impacts of different pretreatments, diluents, seawater concentrations and media on the isolation of actinomycetes were investigated. The results showed that the growth of bacteria were obviously restrained in the samples when pretreated with 55℃ for 6 minutes, which enhanced the isolation of actinomycetes from the inter-tidal sediment; dilution of the samples with 1/4 Ringer's solution and spreading them on the media prepared with pure seawater could improve the isolation of actinomycetes. The 9 media exhibited significant differences on the number of actinomycetes recovered, with media Ml, M6, M7 and M8 being more effective than others.%采用平板涂布法,以青岛海区潮间带沉积物为对象进行海洋放线菌的分离方法研究.具体分析了不同样品预处理方式、稀释液、海水浓度和培养基种类等对分离效果的影响.结果表明,55℃预处理样品6 min能有效减少细菌数量,利于潮间带沉积物中放线菌的分离;以1/4林格氏溶液稀释样品、纯海水配置培养基,可以分离得到较多的放线菌;不同培养基对沉积物中放线菌的分离效果差别很大,本实验设置的M1 ~ M9培养基中,M1、M6、M7和M8培养基的分离效果优于其他5种.

  4. Heart rate during aerobics classes in women with different previous experience of aerobics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laukkanen, R M; Kalaja, M K; Kalaja, S P; Holmala, E B; Paavolainen, L M; Tummavuori, M; Virtanen, P; Rusko, H K

    2001-01-01

    This study measured heart rate during floor and step aerobic classes at three intensity levels. A group of 20 female occasional exercisers [mean age 33 (SD 8) years, mean body mass index 21 (SD 2) kg.m-2 volunteered to participate in six aerobic classes (three floor classes, three step classes) and in a laboratory test as members of one of two groups according to their prestudy regular participation in aerobics classes. Subjects in group A had participated four or more times a week and those of group B less than twice a week. The characteristics of the groups were as follows: group A, n = 10, mean maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) 38.7 (SD 3.6) ml.kg-1.min-1, mean maximal heart rate (HRmax) 183 (SD 8) beats.min-1; group B, n = 10, VO2max 36.1 (SD 3.6) ml.kg-1.min-1, HRmax 178 (SD 7) beats.min-1. Each class consisted of a warm-up, a 20 min period of structured aerobic exercise (cardiophase) and a cool-down. The cardiophase was planned and guided as light, (rate of perceived exertion, RPE 11-12), moderate (RPE 13-14) or heavy (RPE 15-17) by an experienced instructor. The mean heart rates during the light classes were 72 (step) and 74 (floor) %HRmax in group A and 75 (step) and 79 (floor) %HRmax in group B; during the moderate classes, 84 (step) and 80 (floor) %HRmax in group A and 82 (step) and 83 (floor) %HRmax in group B, and during the heavy classes 89 (step and floor) %HRmax in group A and 88 (step) and 92 (floor) %HRmax in group B. Differences in heart rate and %HRmax were not statistically significant between the groups. However, differences in heart rate and %HRmax between the intensities (light vs moderate, moderate vs heavy and light vs heavy) were significant within both groups (all, P < 0.01). Based on the results, we conclude that intensity management during the aerobics classes was generally successful regardless of the participants' prior participation in aerobics. However, some individuals who were older and/or had less prior participation tended to

  5. Is aerobic workload positively related to ambulatory blood pressure?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korshøj, Mette; Clays, Els; Lidegaard, Mark;

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: Cardiovascular disease is prevalent among workers with high levels of occupational physical activity. The increased risk may be due to a high relative aerobic workload, possibly leading to increased blood pressure. However, studies investigating the relation between relative aerobic...... workload and ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) are lacking. The aim was to explore the relationship between objectively measured relative aerobic workload and ABP. METHODS: A total of 116 cleaners aged 18-65 years were included after informed consent was obtained. A portable device (Spacelabs 90217...... relative aerobic workload and ABP were significant. CONCLUSIONS: Because workers may have an elevated relative aerobic workload for several hours each working day, this relationship may elucidate a mechanism behind the increased risk for cardiovascular disease among workers exposed to high levels...

  6. CEDR: Comprehensive Epidemiologic Data Resource

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-08-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) and its predecessor agencies have a long history of epidemiologic research programs. The main focus of these programs has been the Health and Mortality Study of the DOE work force. This epidemiologic study began in 1964 with a feasibility study of workers at the Hanford facility. Studies of other populations exposed to radiation have also been supported, including the classic epidemiologic study of radium dial painters and studies of atomic bomb survivors. From a scientific perspective, these epidemiologic research program have been productive, highly credible, and formed the bases for many radiological protection standards. Recently, there has been concern that, although research results were available, the data on which these results were based were not easily obtained by interested investigators outside DOE. Therefore, as part of an effort to integrate and broaden access to its epidemiologic information, the DOE has developed the Comprehensive Epidemiologic Data Resource (CEDR) Program. Included in this effort is the development of a computer information system for accessing the collection of CEDR data and its related descriptive information. The epidemiologic data currently available through the CEDAR Program consist of analytic data sets, working data sets, and their associated documentation files. In general, data sets are the result of epidemiologic studies that have been conducted on various groups of workers at different DOE facilities during the past 30 years.

  7. Epidemiological Approaches to Metal Toxicology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grandjean, Philippe; Budtz-Jørgensen, Esben

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiological methods are crucial to extract as much valid information as possible from human metal exposures. Thus, modern epidemiological approaches have elucidated human health effects that were not apparent in the past. At the same time, metal toxicology has served as a useful arena...

  8. Epidemiology of Depression for Clinicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromberger, Joyce T.; Costello, Elizabeth Jane

    1992-01-01

    Reviews epidemiology of depression and ways this information can be useful for clinicians. Defines frequently used epidemiological terms; presents prevalence rates and risk factors; discusses impact and consequences of depression; and suggests arenas for prevention, early intervention, and treatment that can help clinicians in their everyday work.…

  9. [Descriptive epidemiology of urolithiasis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodama, H; Ohno, Y

    1989-06-01

    In this paper, urolithiasis is remarked from the standpoint of descriptive epidemiology, which examines the frequency distribution of a given disease in a population in terms of time, place and personal characteristics with an aim of identifying risk factors or some clues to the etiology. Some descriptive epidemiological features of urolithiasis are summarized. Prevalence rate is around 4% (4-15% in males and 4-8% in females), and incidence rate varies from area to area: 53.2 per 100,000 population in 1975 in Japan, 364 in 1976 in Malaysia, and 540 in 1979 in West Germany. Prevalence and/or incidence rates have, in general, increased in the developed countries since World War II and in the developing countries as well, where upward trends are quite analogous to the trends observed in the nineteenth century in Europe. Recurrence rate, which is much higher in males than in females, ranges from 31% to 75%, depending on the follow-up periods. In the industrialized countries, upper urinary (renal and ureteral) stones account for more than 90% of total stones, which are ordinarily calcium complexes in composition. More common in the developing countries are lower urinary (bladder and urethral) stones, frequently composed of magnesium ammonium phosphate, which indicates a close association with urinary tract infections. Variations in frequency are evident by season and by region within a country. Age and sex differentials in urinary stone formers are substantial: more common in males 30-40 years old in the industrialized countries and in children under 10 years old in the developing countries. Racial differentials are also noted; blacks appear to suffer less frequently than whites. Stone formers experience more frequent episodes of stone formation in their family members, particularly father and brothers, than non-stone formers. These findings on racial differentials and family preponderance suggest the possible relevance of genetic factors in stone formation. Stone

  10. Aerobic rice: crop performance and water use efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Grassi

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Rice (Oryza sativa production largely depends on traditional flooded rice systems whose sustainability is threatened by a progressive decrease in water availability and a constant increase in rice demand due to strong demographic boom in world population. A newly developed water-saving rice system is aerobic rice in which rice grows in nonflooded and unsaturated soil. From 2001, at the International Rice Research Institute in the Philippines, this system has been monitored to identify potentially promising varieties of rice able to grow as an irrigated upland crop and quantify yield potential and water use efficiency. This study reports on the results of cultivating the upland rice variety Apo under different water conditions in 2004-2005 at the IRRI farm in both the dry and wet seasons. The water treatments considered were: aerobic and flooded conditions, alternated flooded and aerobic conditions and aerobic after fallow. Yield and water productivity were compared between aerobic and flooded treatment in both seasons, with the objective of analysing the differences between water treatments. In the experiment the effect of different nitrogen (N application is also considered. The results indicate that the aerobic rice yield was lower than rice production under flood treatment, confirming that observed over past years. Nevertheless, when the aerobic condition is alternated with the anaerobic condition, or a fallow period, the production under aerobic treatment provides good yields (respectively 4.2 and 4.4 ha-1. The fallow period was introduced to observe the response of rice grown under this management. Water productivity was higher in aerobic fields, especially after fallow (0.88 g kg-1. The nitrogen application induced an increase in yield and water productivity, partially compensating for the lack of water in aerobic fields.

  11. A novel alkaloid from marine-derived actinomycete Streptomyces xinghaiensis with broad-spectrum antibacterial and cytotoxic activities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wence Jiao

    Full Text Available Due to the increasing emergence of drug-resistant bacteria and tumor cell lines, novel antibiotics with antibacterial and cytotoxic activities are urgently needed. Marine actinobacteria are rich sources of novel antibiotics, and here we report the discovery of a novel alkaloid, xinghaiamine A, from a marine-derived actinomycete Streptomyces xinghaiensis NRRL B24674(T. Xinghaiamine A was purified from the fermentation broth, and its structure was elucidated based on extensive spectroscopic analysis, including 1D and 2D NMR spectrum as well as mass spectrometry. Xinghaiamine A was identified to be a novel alkaloid with highly symmetric structure on the basis of sulfoxide functional group, and sulfoxide containing compound has so far never been reported in microorganisms. Biological assays revealed that xinghaiamine A exhibited broad-spectrum antibacterial activities to both Gram-negative persistent hospital pathogens (e.g. Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli and Gram-positive ones, which include Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis. In addition, xinghaiamine A also exhibited potent cytotoxic activity to human cancer cell lines of MCF-7 and U-937 with the IC50 of 0.6 and 0.5 µM, respectively.

  12. Genetic transformation of marine Actinomycete sp. Isolate M048 and expression of a recombinant plasmid carrying the apc gene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HOU Yanhua; LI Fuchao; QIN Song; WANG Quanfu

    2006-01-01

    Optimal conditions for protoplasts formation of marine Actinomycete sp. isolate M048 were described, dense and disperse mycelia were cultured in SGGP medium, 0.5% glycine, lysozyme exposure (2 mg/cm3, 37 ℃, 40 min), and the concentration of sucrose in protoplast buffer was 0.4 mol/dm3 for keeping the balance of osmotic pressure. Using PEG-mediated protoplasts transformation, the transformation frequency was 89 transformants per microgramme of pIJ702. Meanwhile, an effective transformation procedure was established based on intergeneric conjugation from E. coli ET12567 (pUZ8002) using shuttle vectors pPM801, pPM803 and a(ψ)C31-derived integration vector pIJ8600 containing oriT and attP fragments. Transformation frequencies were 5.30×10-4±0.26×10-4, 8.92×10-4±0.19×10-4 and 6.38×10-5±0.41×10-5, respectively. Further, the heterologous expression of the allophycocyanin gene (apc) in the strain M048 was used to demonstrate this transformation system. SDS-PAGE and Western blot analysis confirmed the expression of recombinant APC (rAPC).

  13. The Epidemiology of Sarcoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burningham Zachary

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Sarcomas account for over 20% of all pediatric solid malignant cancers and less than 1% of all adult solid malignant cancers. The vast majority of diagnosed sarcomas will be soft tissue sarcomas, while malignant bone tumors make up just over 10% of sarcomas. The risks for sarcoma are not well-understood. We evaluated the existing literature on the epidemiology and etiology of sarcoma. Risks for sarcoma development can be divided into environmental exposures, genetic susceptibility, and an interaction between the two. HIV-positive individuals are at an increased risk for Kaposi’s sarcoma, even though HHV8 is the causative virus. Radiation exposure from radiotherapy has been strongly associated with secondary sarcoma development in certain cancer patients. In fact, the risk of malignant bone tumors increases as the cumulative dose of radiation to the bone increases (p for trend

  14. Cancer epidemiology of woodworking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohtashamipur, E; Norpoth, K; Lühmann, F

    1989-01-01

    The literature published between 1965 and 1989 on the cancer epidemiology of woodworking in furniture industries and carpentry shops in 17 countries is reviewed. Included are some unpublished data obtained through personal communication with epidemiologists or collected from doctoral dissertations. Of 5,785 cases with sino-nasal cancers, about 23% were found to be woodworkers. Dusty jobs, especially wood processing using high-speed machines, are mainly associated with the enhanced incidence of nasal adenocarcinomas. The latency periods of the latter tumors ranged from 7 to 69 years in five European countries. A variety of neoplasias of the respiratory, digestive, and urinary tracts as well as the hemopoietic and lymphatic systems, including Hodgkin's disease are reported to be significantly associated with occupational exposure to wood dust. These data suggest that the exposure to some types of wood dust might cause a systemic rather than local neoplastic disorder.

  15. Epidemiological studies on syncope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruwald, Martin Huth

    2013-01-01

    The epidemiology and prognosis of ''fainting'' or syncope has puzzled physicians over the years. Is fainting dangerous? This is a question often asked by the patient--and the answer is ''it depends on a lot of things''. The diverse pathophysiology of syncope and the underlying comorbidites of the...... from smaller studies from different clinical settings with wide differences in patient morbidity. Through the extensive Danish registries we examined the characteristics and prognosis of the patients hospitalized due to syncope in a nationwide study. The aims of the present thesis were to investigate...... thesis demonstrated that the ICD-10 discharge diagnosis could reliably identify a cohort of patients admitted for syncope and that the discharge code carried a high number of unexplained cases despite use of numerous tests. The last studies showed that syncope is a common cause for hospital contact in...

  16. Epidemiological studies on syncope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruwald, Martin Huth

    2013-01-01

    The epidemiology and prognosis of ''fainting'' or syncope has puzzled physicians over the years. Is fainting dangerous? This is a question often asked by the patient--and the answer is ''it depends on a lot of things''. The diverse pathophysiology of syncope and the underlying comorbidites...... from smaller studies from different clinical settings with wide differences in patient morbidity. Through the extensive Danish registries we examined the characteristics and prognosis of the patients hospitalized due to syncope in a nationwide study. The aims of the present thesis were to investigate...... thesis demonstrated that the ICD-10 discharge diagnosis could reliably identify a cohort of patients admitted for syncope and that the discharge code carried a high number of unexplained cases despite use of numerous tests. The last studies showed that syncope is a common cause for hospital contact...

  17. Epidemiology of acne vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhate, K; Williams, H C

    2013-03-01

    Despite acne being an almost universal condition in younger people, relatively little is known about its epidemiology. We sought to review what is known about the distribution and causes of acne by conducting a systematic review of relevant epidemiological studies. We searched Medline and Embase to the end of November 2011. The role of Propionibacterium acnes in pathogenesis is unclear: antibiotics have a direct antimicrobial as well as an anti-inflammatory effect. Moderate-to-severe acne affects around 20% of young people and severity correlates with pubertal maturity. Acne may be presenting at a younger age because of earlier puberty. It is unclear if ethnicity is truly associated with acne. Black individuals are more prone to postinflammatory hyperpigmentation and specific subtypes such as 'pomade acne'. Acne persists into the 20s and 30s in around 64% and 43% of individuals, respectively. The heritability of acne is almost 80% in first-degree relatives. Acne occurs earlier and is more severe in those with a positive family history. Suicidal ideation is more common in those with severe compared with mild acne. In the U.S.A., the cost of acne is over 3 billion dollars per year in terms of treatment and loss of productivity. A systematic review in 2005 found no clear evidence of dietary components increasing acne risk. One small randomized controlled trial showed that low glycaemic index (GI) diets can lower acne severity. A possible association between dairy food intake and acne requires closer scrutiny. Natural sunlight or poor hygiene are not associated. The association between smoking and acne is probably due to confounding. Validated core outcomes in future studies will help in combining future evidence. PMID:23210645

  18. Epidemiology of acne vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhate, K; Williams, H C

    2013-03-01

    Despite acne being an almost universal condition in younger people, relatively little is known about its epidemiology. We sought to review what is known about the distribution and causes of acne by conducting a systematic review of relevant epidemiological studies. We searched Medline and Embase to the end of November 2011. The role of Propionibacterium acnes in pathogenesis is unclear: antibiotics have a direct antimicrobial as well as an anti-inflammatory effect. Moderate-to-severe acne affects around 20% of young people and severity correlates with pubertal maturity. Acne may be presenting at a younger age because of earlier puberty. It is unclear if ethnicity is truly associated with acne. Black individuals are more prone to postinflammatory hyperpigmentation and specific subtypes such as 'pomade acne'. Acne persists into the 20s and 30s in around 64% and 43% of individuals, respectively. The heritability of acne is almost 80% in first-degree relatives. Acne occurs earlier and is more severe in those with a positive family history. Suicidal ideation is more common in those with severe compared with mild acne. In the U.S.A., the cost of acne is over 3 billion dollars per year in terms of treatment and loss of productivity. A systematic review in 2005 found no clear evidence of dietary components increasing acne risk. One small randomized controlled trial showed that low glycaemic index (GI) diets can lower acne severity. A possible association between dairy food intake and acne requires closer scrutiny. Natural sunlight or poor hygiene are not associated. The association between smoking and acne is probably due to confounding. Validated core outcomes in future studies will help in combining future evidence.

  19. Epidemiology of HCV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldo, V; Baldovin, T; Trivello, R; Floreani, A

    2008-01-01

    It is estimated that approximately 130-170 million people worldwide are infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV). According to data from WHO community and blood donor surveys, the African and Eastern Mediterranean countries report the highest prevalence rates (>10%). The rates of infection in the general population and the incidence of newly-acquired cases indicate an appreciable change in the epidemiology of the infection in recent years. Prior to the widespread screening of blood donations, infected blood and blood products represented a common source of infection. On the other hand, the high peak in HCV antibodies among the elderly in Italian epidemiological studies on the population at large reflects a cohort effect due to an epidemic of HCV infection occurring after the Second World War. According to data reported by the CDC Surveillance System, the incidence of acute hepatitis C has declined since the late 1980s. In 2005, as in previous years, the majority of such cases in North America and Northern Europe occurred among young adults and injected drug use was the most common risk factor. Other, less commonly reported modes of HCV acquisition are occupational exposure to blood, high-risk sexual activity, tattooing, body piercing and other forms of skin penetration. Finally, the overall rate of mother-to-child transmission from HCV-infected, HIV-negative mothers has been estimated at around 5% (coinfection with HIV raises this figure to 19.4%). HCV prevention relies on identifying and counseling uninfected persons at risk of contracting hepatitis C. PMID:18673187

  20. Aerobics trainer, health club settle discrimination lawsuit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-04-01

    A health club settled out-of-court, agreeing to pay an undisclosed sum of money and to train its managers on the legal obligations of people with HIV and other disabilities, following litigation brought by an aerobics instructor at the club. The instructor filed the suit after he was forced to either disclose his HIV status to the 3,000 members or be fired. He was fired after he refused to sign a letter drafted by the club's manager. Six months later the club's president gave club employees the letter which the plaintiff argued violated his right to privacy. This is the second time a health club has settled an AIDS discrimination case. Both cases focused on the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA). In settling the case, the club denied any wrongdoing and said they settled out of court to avoid the costs of litigation. PMID:11362274

  1. Aerobic exercises: their cardiovascular and other benefits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aerobic exercise can help prevent ischemic heart disease and other diseases. Physical inactivity is a major factor for developing Coronary Artery Disease (CAD) which is characterized by deposit of cholesterol, calcium and other substances in the inner lining of the arteries, that supply to cardiac muscle. It also contributes to other risk factors including obesity, hypertension, increased triglycerides, low level of HDL cholesterol and diabetes. The essential components of a systematic individualized exercise prescription include the appropriate mode, intensity, duration, frequency and progression of physical activity. There are four components of exercise program; a warm up, an endurance phase, optional recreational activity and a cool down. For sedentary individuals, exercise should start at 60% of maximum heart rare. Benefits of physical activity depend on the total amount of exercise. Vigorous leisure time activity should be promoted in order to give way to healthy living. (author)

  2. Aerobic growth at nanomolar oxygen concentrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stolper, Daniel; Revsbech, Niels Peter; Canfield, Donald Eugene

    2010-01-01

    known. These capabilities also provide a framework for reconstructing a critical period in the history of life, because low, but not negligible, atmospheric oxygen levels could have persisted before the "Great Oxidation" of the Earth's surface about 2.3 to 2.4 billion years ago. Here, we show......Molecular oxygen (O2) is the second most abundant gas in the Earth's atmosphere, but in many natural environments, its concentration is reduced to low or even undetectable levels. Although low-oxygen-adapted organisms define the ecology of low-oxygen environments, their capabilities are not fully...... that Escherichia coli K-12, chosen for its well-understood biochemistry, rapid growth rate, and low-oxygen-affinity terminal oxidase, grows at oxygen levels of ≤ 3 nM, two to three orders of magnitude lower than previously observed for aerobes. Our study expands both the environmental range and temporal history...

  3. Aerobic growth at nanomolar oxygen concentrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stolper, Daniel Aaron; Revsbech, Niels Peter; Canfield, Donald Eugene

    2010-01-01

    known. These capabilities also provide a framework for reconstructing a critical period in the history of life, because low, but not negligible, atmospheric oxygen levels could have persisted before the “Great Oxidation” of the Earth’s surface about 2.3 to 2.4 billion years ago. Here, we show......Molecular oxygen (O2) is the second most abundant gas in the Earth’s atmosphere, but in many natural environments, its concentration is reduced to low or even undetectable levels. Although low-oxygen-adapted organisms define the ecology of low-oxygen environments, their capabilities are not fully...... that Escherichia coli K-12, chosen for its well-understood biochemistry, rapid growth rate, and low-oxygen-affinity terminal oxidase, grows at oxygen levels of ≤ 3 nM, two to three orders of magnitude lower than previously observed for aerobes. Our study expands both the environmental range and temporal history...

  4. Effects of Kettlebell Training on Aerobic Capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falatic, J Asher; Plato, Peggy A; Holder, Christopher; Finch, Daryl; Han, Kyungmo; Cisar, Craig J

    2015-07-01

    This study examined the effects of a kettlebell training program on aerobic capacity. Seventeen female National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I collegiate soccer players (age: 19.7 ± 1.0 years, height: 166.1 ± 6.4 cm, weight: 64.2 ± 8.2 kg) completed a graded exercise test to determine maximal oxygen consumption (V̇O2max). Participants were assigned to a kettlebell intervention group (KB) (n = 9) or a circuit weight-training (CWT) control group (n = 8). Participants in the KB group completed a kettlebell snatch test to determine individual snatch repetitions. Both groups trained 3 days a week for 4 weeks in addition to their off-season strength and conditioning program. The KB group performed the 15:15 MVO2 protocol (20 minutes of kettlebell snatching with 15 seconds of work and rest intervals). The CWT group performed multiple free-weight and dynamic body-weight exercises as part of a continuous circuit program for 20 minutes. The 15:15 MVO2 protocol significantly increased V̇O2max in the KB group. The average increase was 2.3 ml·kg⁻¹·min⁻¹, or approximately a 6% gain. There was no significant change in V̇O2max in the CWT control group. Thus, the 4-week 15:15 MVO2 kettlebell protocol, using high-intensity kettlebell snatches, significantly improved aerobic capacity in female intercollegiate soccer players and could be used as an alternative mode to maintain or improve cardiovascular conditioning. PMID:26102260

  5. 促己酸菌产己酸的优良放线菌的筛选%Screening of Fine Actinomycetes that Promoting Caproic Acid Bacteria Producing Caproic Acid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭威; 黄宇; 谢逾群; 方尚玲; 陈茂彬

    2016-01-01

    Research on actinomycetes related to liquor-making was not deep enough.More research were spent on molds, yeasts and bacteria.The paper screened an excellent actinomycetes named GW01 which can promoting caproic acid bacteria producing caproic acid. Moreover, GW01 can better adapt to the environment of pits.The development of actinomycetes GW01 may contribute to a better understanding of liquor brewing actinomycetes,and open up liquor brewing actinomycetes strain resources.%目前酿酒微生物的研究主要集中在霉菌、酵母菌和细菌。白酒酿造相关放线菌的研究存在进展缓慢、严重滞后、菌种资源匮乏等问题。以放线菌对己酸菌产己酸的影响为基础,筛选到一株优良放线菌GW01。该放线菌对己酸菌产己酸有较好促进作用,还对窖池环境有良好的适应性。放线菌GW01的开发有助于更好认识白酒酿造中的放线菌,拓展了白酒酿造放线菌资源。

  6. Study on method of actinomycetes isolation from Dead Sea%死海嗜盐耐盐放线菌分离方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任海柯; 来航线; 王晨霞; 韦小敏

    2012-01-01

    【Objective】 The study was to explore an optimal method of actinomycetes isolation from Dead Sea,so as to improve the isolation of actinomycetes from soil with high salt concentration.【Method】 Actinomycete counts and numbers of actinomycete species were analyzed from three aspects:sample pre-treatments,cultural media and salt concentrations of media.Nine pre-treatments,including chemical,physical and accumulation culture methods,three types of cultural media,ISP5,HV and CMKA,and three salt concentrations of each medium(150,225,300 g/L) were tested.【Result】 ① For sample pre-treatments,numbers of actinomycete species isolated from the chemical+physical pre-treated sample were apparently higher than that from others,whereas species numbers isolated from the accumulation cultured sample were the least on three media.② With all of the three salt concentrations,numbers of actinomycete species and actinomycete counts isolated from soil samples both led a trend:CMKA〉HV〉ISP5.③ On three media,numbers of actinomycete species isolated from samples showed:300 g/L〉225 g/L〉150 g/L,while actinomycete counts showed:150 g/L〉225 g/L〉300 g/L.【Conclusion】 Pretreating soil samples with chemical+physical method and using 225 g/L salt concentration CMKA medium is the best way to isolate actinomycetes from Dead Sea.%【目的】探讨死海高盐地区分离嗜盐耐盐放线菌的最佳方法,为高盐地区放线菌的分离提供理论依据。【方法】采用物理方法(微波)、化学方法(加入孢子活化剂)、富集培养法及3种方法的组合共计9种方法,对死海地区土样进行预处理,然后在3种复合盐含量(150,225,300g/L)及不同培养基(ISP5、CMKA、HV)条件下,研究复合盐含量及培养基对分离放线菌种类和数量的影响,并筛选嗜盐耐盐放线菌的最佳分离方法。【结果】①在3种培养基上,对土样采用9种方法进行预处理,其中物理+化学

  7. Heritability of aerobic power of individuals in northeast Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, L; Souza, Ec; Oliveira, Mv; do Nascimento, Lfe; Dantas, Pms

    2014-12-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the genetic and environmental contribution to variation in aerobic power in monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins. The sample consisted of 20 MZ individuals (12 females and 8 males) and 16 DZ individuals (12 females and 4 males), aged from 8 to 26 years, residents in Natal, Rio Grande do Norte. The twins were assessed by a multistage fitness test. The rate of heritability found for aerobic power was 77%. Based on the results, the estimated heritability was largely responsible for the differences in aerobic power. This implies that such measures are under strong genetic influence.

  8. 内生放线菌对鬼臼毒素的微生物转化%Microbial Transformation of Podophyllotoxin by Endophytic Actinomycetes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹松; 曾志刚

    2012-01-01

    The microbial transformation of podophyllotoxin by endophytic actinomycetes isolated from the rhizoma of Taoerqi ( Sinopodophyllum hexandrum) was investigated to obtain some structural analogues or derivatives of podophyllotoxin. Endophytic actinomycetes were isolated from the rhizoma of S. Hexandrum by surface-sterilization method, and screening test for the microbial transformation of podophyllotoxin was carried out using thin layer chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography ( HPLC ). Bio-transformed products of podophyllotoxin were isolated and purified by silica column chromatography and preparative HPLC, and chemical structures of transformed products were elucidated on the basis of chemical spectral data. The endophytic actinomycetes was identified by morphological characteristics, physiological and biochemical characteristics, and the analysis of fragment of 16S rRNA gene. The results showed that among totally isolated 20 endophytic actinomycetes, one was found to be able transform podophyllotoxin into 4'-demethylepipodophyllotoxin, which was identified preliminarily as Streptomyces sp. Endophytic actinomycetes Streptomyces sp. Was able to modify the chemical structure of podophyllotoxin by demethylation and isomerization reaction, it was deduced that this actinomycetes possessed 0-demethylation and isomerization enzyme.%调查桃儿七根茎内生放线菌对鬼臼毒素的微生物转化,以期获得一些鬼臼毒素的结构类似物或衍生物.利用表面消毒法分离内生放线菌;采用薄层层析和高效液相色谱(HPLC)方法筛选转化鬼臼毒素的内生放线菌;利用硅胶柱层析和制备HPLC分离纯化生物转化产物;应用波谱技术解析转化产物的化学结构;通过形态学、生理生化特征和16S rRNA基因序列分析对内生放线菌进行初步鉴定.从桃儿七根茎中分离出20株内生放线菌,经筛选发现其中1株放线菌能转化鬼臼毒素,其产物为4′-去甲基表

  9. Isolation of Actinomycetes from Mangrove in Guangxi and Extraction of Its Genomic DNA%广西红树林放线菌的分离和DNA的提取

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐雅娟; 陈森洲; 骆耐香; 孔杰; 黄大林

    2009-01-01

    The actinomycetes in sea mud samples that from mangrove in Guangxi was isolated and its genomic DNA was extracted for 16S rDNA PCR amplification, and the isolated actinomycetes was identified. The results showed that the genomic DNA of actinomycetes from mangrove soil could successfully amplified 16S rDNA.%从广西红树林海泥样本中分离放线菌,提取其基因组DNA并进行16S rDNA PCR扩增,对所得放线菌进行鉴定.结果表明,从红树林土壤中提取的放线菌基因组DNA可成功扩增出16S rDNA.

  10. Epidemiology of gastric cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Katherine D Crew; Alfred I Neugut

    2006-01-01

    The incidence and mortality of gastric cancer have fallen dramatically in US and elsewhere over the past several decades. Nonetheless, gastric cancer remains a major public health issue as the fourth most common cancer and the second leading cause of cancer death worldwide. Demographic trends differ by tumor location and histology. While there has been a marked decline in distal, intestinal type gastric cancers, the incidence of proximal, diffuse type adenocarcinomas of the gastric cardia has been increasing, particularly in the Western countries. Incidence by tumor sub-site also varies widely based on geographic location, race, and socioeconomic status. Distal gastric cancer predominates in developing countries, among blacks, and in lower socioeconomic groups, whereas proximal tumors are more common in developed countries, among whites, and in higher socio-economic classes. Diverging trends in the incidence of gastric cancer by tumor location suggest that they may represent two diseases with different etiologies. The main risk factors for distal gastric cancer include Helicobacter pylori (H pylori) infection and dietary factors, whereas gastroesophageal reflux disease and obesity play important roles in the development of proximal stomach cancer. The purpose of this review is to examine the epidemiology and risk factors of gastric cancer, and to discuss strategies for primary prevention.

  11. Radiobiology and Epidemiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main objectives of research in the field of radiobiology and epidemiology performed at the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK-CEN are: (1) to study cancer mortality in nuclear workers in Belgium and to co-ordinate the Belgian contribution to the 'International Collaborative Study of Cancer Risk among Radiation Workers in the Nuclear Industry'; (2) to elucidate the molecular basis of individual susceptibility to ionizing radiation in mammalian embryo during the early phases of its development; (3) to assess the genetic risk of maternal exposure to ionizing radiation; (4) to elucidate the cellular mechanisms leading to brain damage after prenatal irradiation; (5) to monitor the early variations of gene expression induced by ionising radiation and cytokines; (6) to evaluate the use of cytokines and natural substances for improving radiotherapy protocols; (6) to advise authorities and to provide the general population with adequate information concerning the health risk arising from radiation exposure. Progress and major achievements in these topical areas in 2000 are reported

  12. Radiobiology and Epidemiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Desaintes, C; Holmstock, L

    2001-04-01

    The main objectives of research in the field of radiobiology and epidemiology performed at the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK-CEN are: (1) to study cancer mortality in nuclear workers in Belgium and to co-ordinate the Belgian contribution to the 'International Collaborative Study of Cancer Risk among Radiation Workers in the Nuclear Industry'; (2) to elucidate the molecular basis of individual susceptibility to ionizing radiation in mammalian embryo during the early phases of its development; (3) to assess the genetic risk of maternal exposure to ionizing radiation; (4) to elucidate the cellular mechanisms leading to brain damage after prenatal irradiation; (5) to monitor the early variations of gene expression induced by ionising radiation and cytokines; (6) to evaluate the use of cytokines and natural substances for improving radiotherapy protocols; (6) to advise authorities and to provide the general population with adequate information concerning the health risk arising from radiation exposure. Progress and major achievements in these topical areas in 2000 are reported.

  13. Epidemiology of severe trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberdi, F; García, I; Atutxa, L; Zabarte, M

    2014-12-01

    Major injury is the sixth leading cause of death worldwide. Among those under 35 years of age, it is the leading cause of death and disability. Traffic accidents alone are the main cause, fundamentally in low- and middle-income countries. Patients over 65 years of age are an increasingly affected group. For similar levels of injury, these patients have twice the mortality rate of young individuals, due to the existence of important comorbidities and associated treatments, and are more likely to die of medical complications late during hospital admission. No worldwide, standardized definitions exist for documenting, reporting and comparing data on severely injured trauma patients. The most common trauma scores are the Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS), the Injury Severity Score (ISS) and the Trauma and Injury severity Score (TRISS). Documenting the burden of injury also requires evaluation of the impact of post-trauma impairments, disabilities and handicaps. Trauma epidemiology helps define health service and research priorities, contributes to identify disadvantaged groups, and also facilitates the elaboration of comparable measures for outcome predictions.

  14. Shigellosis: Epidemiology in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taneja, Neelam; Mewara, Abhishek

    2016-01-01

    Shigellosis is one of the major causes of diarrhoea in India. The accurate estimates of morbidity and mortality due to shigellosis are lacking, though it is endemic in the country and has been reported to cause many outbreaks. The limited information available indicates Shigella to be an important food-borne pathogen in India. S. flexneri is the most common species, S. sonnei and non-agglutinable shigellae seem to be steadily surfacing, while S. dysenteriae has temporarily disappeared from the northern and eastern regions. Antibiotic-resistant strains of different Shigella species and serotypes have emerged all over the world. Especially important is the global emergence of multidrug resistant shigellae, notably the increasing resistance to third generation cephalosporins and fluoroquinolones, and also azithromycin. This calls for a continuous and strong surveillance of antibiotic resistance across the country for periodic updation of the local antibiograms. The prevention of shigellosis is desirable as it will substantially reduce the morbidity associated with diarrhoea in the country. Public health measures like provision of safe water and adequate sanitation are of immense importance to reduce the burden of shigellosis, however, the provision of resources to develop such an infrastructure in India is a complex issue and will take time to resolve. Thus, the scientific thrust should be focused towards development of a safe and affordable multivalent vaccine. This review is focused upon the epidemiology, disease burden and the therapeutic challenges of shigellosis in Indian perspective. PMID:27487999

  15. Modeling Corporate Epidemiology

    CERN Document Server

    Waber, Benjamin; Cebrian, Manuel; Crane, Riley; Danon, Leon; Pentland, Alex

    2010-01-01

    Corporate responses to illness is currently an ad-hoc, subjective process that has little basis in data on how disease actually spreads at the workplace. Additionally, many studies have shown that productivity is not an individual factor but a social one: in any study on epidemic responses this social factor has to be taken into account. The barrier to addressing this problem has been the lack of data on the interaction and mobility patterns of people in the workplace. We have created a wearable Sociometric Badge that senses interactions between individuals using an infra-red (IR) transceiver and proximity using a radio transmitter. Using the data from the Sociometric Badges, we are able to simulate diseases spreading through face-to-face interactions with realistic epidemiological parameters. In this paper we construct a curve trading off productivity with epidemic potential. We are able to take into account impacts on productivity that arise from social factors, such as interaction diversity and density, wh...

  16. Shigellosis: Epidemiology in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taneja, Neelam; Mewara, Abhishek

    2016-05-01

    Shigellosis is one of the major causes of diarrhoea in India. The accurate estimates of morbidity and mortality due to shigellosis are lacking, though it is endemic in the country and has been reported to cause many outbreaks. The limited information available indicates Shigella to be an important food- borne pathogen in India. S. flexneri is the most common species, S. sonnei and non-agglutinable Shigellae seem to be steadily surfacing, while S. dysenteriae has temporarily disappeared from the northern and eastern regions. Antibiotic-resistant strains of different Shigella species and serotypes have emerged all over the world. Especially important is the global emergence of multidrug resistant Shigellae, notably the increasing resistance to third generation cephalosporins and fluoroquinolones, and also azithromycin. This calls for a continuous and strong surveillance of antibiotic resistance across the country for periodic updation of the local antibiograms. The prevention of shigellosis is desirable as it will substantially reduce the morbidity associated with diarrhoea in the country. Public health measures like provision of safe water and adequate sanitation are of immense importance to reduce the burden of shigellosis, however, the provision of resources to develop such an infrastructure in India is a complex issue and will take time to resolve. Thus, the scientific thrust should be focused towards development of a safe and affordable multivalent vaccine. this review is focused upon the epidemiology, disease burden and the therapeutic challenges of shigellosis in Indian perspective. PMID:27487999

  17. Shigellosis: Epidemiology in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neelam Taneja

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Shigellosis is one of the major causes of diarrhoea in India. The accurate estimates of morbidity and mortality due to shigellosis are lacking, though it is endemic in the country and has been reported to cause many outbreaks. The limited information available indicates Shigella to be an important food- borne pathogen in India. S. flexneri is the most common species, S. sonnei and non-agglutinable Shigellae seem to be steadily surfacing, while S. dysenteriae has temporarily disappeared from the northern and eastern regions. Antibiotic-resistant strains of different Shigella species and serotypes have emerged all over the world. Especially important is the global emergence of multidrug resistant Shigellae, notably the increasing resistance to third generation cephalosporins and fluoroquinolones, and also azithromycin. This calls for a continuous and strong surveillance of antibiotic resistance across the country for periodic updation of the local antibiograms. The prevention of shigellosis is desirable as it will substantially reduce the morbidity associated with diarrhoea in the country. Public health measures like provision of safe water and adequate sanitation are of immense importance to reduce the burden of shigellosis, however, the provision of resources to develop such an infrastructure in India is a complex issue and will take time to resolve. Thus, the scientific thrust should be focused towards development of a safe and affordable multivalent vaccine. this review is focused upon the epidemiology, disease burden and the therapeutic challenges of shigellosis in Indian perspective.

  18. Rosacea: current state of epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Jerry; Berg, Mats

    2013-12-01

    Case definitions are critical in epidemiologic research. However, modern disease indicators must now consider complex data from gene-based research along with traditional clinical parameters. Rosacea is a skin disorder with multiple signs and symptoms. In individuals, these features may be multiple or one may predominate. While studies on the epidemiology of rosacea have previously been sparse, there has been a recent increase in research activity. A broader body of epidemiological information that includes a greater variety of countries beyond Northern Europe and general population-based demographics is needed. As there are operational issues in current case definitions of rosacea subtypes--rationalization and standardization--universal consistent applications in future research is also imperative. Further improvement in disease definition combining new research information along with clinical pragmatism should increase the accuracy of rosacea case ascertainment and facilitate further epidemiological research.

  19. Metabolomics and Epidemiology Working Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Metabolomics and Epidemiology (MetEpi) Working Group promotes metabolomics analyses in population-based studies, as well as advancement in the field of metabolomics for broader biomedical and public health research.

  20. Sample Cancer Epidemiology Grant Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    The National Cancer Institute frequently receives questions from investigators for examples of successfully funded grant applications. Several investigators agreed to let the Epidemiology and Genomics Research Program post excerpts of their grant applications online.

  1. Genomic Resources for Cancer Epidemiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page provides links to research resources, complied by the Epidemiology and Genomics Research Program, that may be of interest to genetic epidemiologists conducting cancer research, but is not exhaustive.

  2. Structural equation modeling in epidemiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Denise Alves Ferreira Amorim

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Structural equation modeling (SEM is an important statistical tool for evaluating complex relations in several research areas. In epidemiology, the use and discussion of SEM have been limited thus far. This article presents basic principles and concepts in SEM, including an application using epidemiological data analysis from a study on the determinants of cognitive development in young children, considering constructs related to organization of the child's home environment, parenting style, and the child's health status. The relations between the constructs and cognitive development were measured. The results showed a positive association between psychosocial stimulus at home and cognitive development in young children. The article presents the contributions by SEM to epidemiology, highlighting the need for an a priori theoretical model for improving the study of epidemiological questions from a new perspective.

  3. Biological Control of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, Causal Agent of Sunflower Head and Stem Rot Disease, by Use of Soil borne Actinomycetes Isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Baniasadi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: High level of biosafety and non adverse effects on the environment of biocontrol strategies of pest management, are priorities of tomorrow's world agriculture. Actinomycetes are active biocontrol agents due to their antagonistic properties against wide range of plant pathogens particularly fungi. Fungal pathogens are liable for a big part of damages in agriculture economy. Approach: In the present research antifungal bioactivity of 50 isolates of Actinomycetes collected from soils of Kerman province of Iran was investigated against Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib., the causal agent of stem rot in sunflower, through agar disc method and dual culture bioassays. The Streptomyces isolate No. 363 was propagated in submerged cultures and active crude was prepared upon which several biological characterizations performed. Greenhouse studies were achieved to confirm laboratory results. Results: Among the tested Streptomyces isolates, 10 isolates revealed antagonistic properties in dual culture procedure from which isolate No. 363 showed highest bioactivity. The active metabolite of Streptomyces isolate No. 363 was polar and well soluble in H2O. Using agar-disc method, progressive growth of the pathogen was highly reduced by the antagonist through exhibiting ability to constitute fungus-free zones of inhibitions. The results indicated that isolate No. 363 was a proper candidate for field biocontrol studies. Conclusion: Results may open a horizon for production of resistant transgenic plants having antifungal properties originated from biologically active Streptomyces spp. recognition and production of effective metabolite(s of Streptomyces spp. which was responsible for antifungal activities will be our commercial goal due to rich reserves of soil borne Actinomycetes in Iran.

  4. Optimizing water treatment practices for the removal of actinomycetes and earthy odor in water of Bovilla reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ADELA KULLAJ

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Bovilla reservoir, which is situated 15 km North-East of Tirana the capital city of Albania is one of the major hidrotechnical works of this country. This reservoir is a warm monomictic water body and stratifies higher in the summer season. The predominant trophic state of Bovilla reservoir is oligotrophy. From autumn 2001 this reservoir repeatedly manifests an unpleasant taste and odor which is defined as musty- earthy. Taste and odor control has become an important issue for drinking water suppliers worldwide. Consumers react very sensitively to changes in the organoleptic quality of their drinking water. The reason is that odor compounds present a very low threshold of perception (10–20 ng/L. Bovilla water treatment plant treats 1800 L/s raw water taken from Bovilla reservoir, using oxidation, coagulation and flocculation, sedimentation, filtration and disinfection process. In cases of bad odor powdered activated carbon (PAC is added at the rapid mix section. Throughout the monitoring period were done: quality and sensory analysis of raw water on a weekly frequency, analysis of treated water after coagulation, laboratory scale experiments using different doses of chemicals, applying optimized doses in full scale and PAC adsorption experiments. The aims of this study were: to predict the PAC doses required to treat water of Bovilla reservoir containing bad taste and odor, to establish the removal efficiency of taste and odor by three types of activated carbons with different iodine number and to assess the impact of NaOCl and other chemical in the treatment process of the plant in removing actinomycetes and bad odor. Results have shown that traditional treatment processes are usually inadequate in removing taste and odor and optimization of plant practices is required. Powdered activated carbon (PAC can effectively remove taste and odor when the correct dose is applied.

  5. Bioactive 2(1H-Pyrazinones and Diketopiperazine Alkaloids from a Tunicate-Derived Actinomycete Streptomyces sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lamiaa A. Shaala

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available As a part of our ongoing effort to allocate marine microbial bioactive leads, a tunicate-derived actinomycete, Streptomyces sp. Did-27, was investigated. Three new 2(1H-pyrazinones derivatives, (S-6-(sec-butyl-3-isopropylpyrazin-2(1H-one (1, (S-3-(sec-butyl-6-isopropylpyrazin-2(1H-one (2 and (S-6-(sec-butyl-3-isobutylpyrazin-2(1H-one (3, together with the known (1H-pyrazinones analogues deoxymutaaspergillic acid (4, 3,6-diisobutyl-2(1H-pyrazinone (5 and 3,6-di-sec-butyl-2(1H-pyrazinone (6, and the diketopiperazine alkaloids cyclo(6-OH-d-Pro-l-Phe (7, bacillusamide B (8, cyclo(l-Pro-l-Leu and cyclo(l-Pro-l-Ile (10 were isolated from this strain. The structures of the compounds were determined by study of their one- and two-dimensional NMR spectra as well as high-resolution mass spectral determinations. Compound 4 was reported previously as a synthetic product, while compound 6 was reported as 2-hydroxy-3,6-di-sec-butylpyrazine. Herein, we report the complete NMR data for compounds 4 and 6. The compounds were evaluated for their cytotoxic activities against three cell lines. Compound 5 showed potent and selective activity against HCT-116 cell line with IC50 of 1.5 μg/mL, while 1–10 showed variable cytotoxic activities against these cancer cell lines. These results provide further understanding about the chemistry and bioactivities of the alkylated 2(1H-pyrazinone derivatives.

  6. Utilization of Agro-industrial Wastes for the Simultaneous Production of Amylase and Xylanase by Thermophilic Actinomycetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renu Singh

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Agro-industrial wastes such as sugarcane bagasse, wheat bran, rice bran, corn cob and wheat straw are cheapest and abundantly available natural carbon sources. The present study was aimed to production of amylase and xylanase simultaneously using agro-industrial waste as the sole carbon source. Seven thermophilic strains of actinomycete were isolated from the mushroom compost. Among of these, strain designated MSC702 having high potential to utilize agro-industrial wastes for the production of amylase and xylanase. Strain MSC702 was identified as novel species of Streptomyces through morphological characterization and 16S rRNA gene sequence. Enzyme production was determined using 1% (w/v of various agro-industrial waste in production medium containing (g/100mL: K2HPO4(0.1, (NH42SO4(0.1, NaCl (0.1, MgSO4(0.1 at pH 7.0 after incubation of 48 h at 50°C. The amylase activity (373.89 IU/mL and xylanase activity (30.15 IU/mL was maximum in rice bran. The decreasing order of amylase and xylanase activity in different type of agro-industrial wastes were found rice bran (RB > corn cob (CC > wheat bran (WB > wheat straw (WS > sugarcane bagasse (SB and rice bran (RB > wheat bran (WB > wheat straw (WS > sugarcane bagasse (SB > corn cob (CC, respectively. Mixed effect of different agro-industrial wastes was examined in different ratios. Enzyme yield of amylase and xylanase was ~1.3 and ~2.0 fold higher with RB: WB in 1:2 ratio.

  7. Enhanced aerobic nitrifying granulation by static magnetic field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin-Hua; Diao, Mu-He; Yang, Ying; Shi, Yi-Jing; Gao, Ming-Ming; Wang, Shu-Guang

    2012-04-01

    One of the main challenging issues for aerobic nitrifying granules in treating high strength ammonia wastewater is the long granulation time required for activated sludge to transform into aerobic granules. The present study provides a novel strategy for enhancing aerobic nitrifying granulation by applying an intensity of 48.0mT static magnetic field. The element analysis showed that the applied magnetic field could promote the accumulation of iron compounds in the sludge. And then the aggregation of iron decreased the full granulation time from 41 to 25days by enhancing the setting properties of granules and stimulating the secretion of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS). Long-term, cycle experiments and fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH) analysis proved that an intensity of 48.0mT magnetic field could enhance the activities and growth of nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB). These findings suggest that magnetic field is helpful and reliable for accelerating the aerobic nitrifying granulation.

  8. THE RELATIONSHIP OF CHOREOGRAPHY PREPARATION AND ARTISTRY IN AEROBIC GYMNASTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Sokolova

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Examines the impact choreography training in sports aerobics on artistic skills.Objective to investigate whether the use of funds choreo-graphy in training athletes involved in sports aerobics, to find the relationship between choreographic training and asses-sment for artistry.Method or methodology of work methods of studying the theoretical ski works of scientific content, analysis and processing of scientific texts.The results revealed the relationship between estimates for artistry and means-you dance training in sports aerobics. The scope of the results, the materials may be used by coaches in sports aerobics, for further research on the problem of constructing workout.

  9. WAYS TO IMPROVE THE PHYSICAL FITNESS THROUGH AEROBIC GYMNASTICS MEANS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaharia A.M.

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to study the probable effects that aerobic gymnastics could have on the body, for improving the physical fitness. The main goal of the research was to identify the effects the aerobic gymnastics has in improving physical fitness.This research was conducted on 15 subjects between 18 and 30 years old, who participated in aerobic gymnastics fitness-type lessons, three times a week. The programs comprised exercises of physical development , stretching and elasticity, of relaxation, of coordination, and not in the least, of muscle strengthening. In order to evaluate the effectiveness of the applied means, the Ruffier test was used to assess the physical fitness of the subjects, and the Dorgo Index, to assess the cool-down response. The research data emphasized the subjects' interest for their physical fitness through a dynamic activity, constituting an argument for the practice of aerobic gymnastics throughout one's entire life, as a mean to preserve one's youth and beauty.

  10. Aerobic training and postexercise protein in facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Grete; Prahm, Kira P; Dahlqvist, Julia R;

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of regular aerobic training and postexercise protein-carbohydrate supplementation in patients with facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD). METHODS: In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled parallel study, we randomized untrained men (n = 21...

  11. Degradation of Textile Dye Reactive Navy – Blue Rx (Reactive blue–59 by an Isolated Actinomycete Streptomyces krainskii SUK – 5

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mane, U. V.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The isolated Actinomycete, Streptomyces krainskii, SUK -5 was found to decolorize and degrade textile dye Reactive blue–59.This azo dye was decolorized and degraded completely by Streptomyces krainskii SUK–5 at 24 h in shaking condition in the nutrient medium at pH 8. Induction in the activity of Lignin Peroxidase,and NADH-DCIP Reductase and MR reductase represents their role in degradation .The biodegradation was monitored by TLC, UV vis spectroscopy, FTIR. and GCMS analysis. Microbial and phytotoxicity studies of the product were carried out.

  12. Nitrifying and denitrifying bacteria in aerobic granules formed in sequencing batch airlift reactors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Fang; YANG Fenglin; QI Aijiu

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate nitrifying bacteria and denitrifying bacteria isolated from aerobic granules.Aerobic granules were formed in an internal-circulate sequencing batch airlift reactor(SBAR)and biodegradation of NH3 -N was analyzed in the reactor.Bacteria were isolated and determined from aerobic granules using selected media.The growth properties and morphology of bacteria colonies were observed by controlling aerobic or anaerobic conditions in the culture medium.It was found that bacteria in aerobic granules were diverse and some of them were facultative aerobes.The diversity of bacteria in aerobic granules was a premise of simultaneous nitrification and denitrification.

  13. Aerobic and Anaerobic Starvation Metabolism in Methanotrophic Bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Roslev, P.; King, G. M.

    1995-01-01

    The capacity for anaerobic metabolism of endogenous and selected exogenous substrates in carbon- and energy-starved methanotrophic bacteria was examined. The methanotrophic isolate strain WP 12 survived extended starvation under anoxic conditions while metabolizing 10-fold less endogenous substrate than did parallel cultures starved under oxic conditions. During aerobic starvation, the cell biomass decreased by 25% and protein and lipids were the preferred endogenous substrates. Aerobic prote...

  14. p53 aerobics: the major tumor suppressor fuels your workout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruse, Jan-Philipp; Gu, Wei

    2006-07-01

    In addition to its role as the central regulator of the cellular stress response, p53 can regulate aerobic respiration via the novel transcriptional target SCO2, a critical regulator of the cytochrome c oxidase complex (Matoba et al., 2006). Loss of p53 results in decreased oxygen consumption and aerobic respiration and promotes a switch to glycolysis, thereby reducing endurance during physical exercise. PMID:16814724

  15. Dosing method of physical activity in aerobics classes for students

    OpenAIRE

    Beliak Yu. I.; Zinchenko N.M.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose : reasons for the method of dosing of physical activity in aerobics classes for students. The basis of the method is the evaluation of the metabolic cost of funds used in them. Material : experiment involved the assessment of the pulse response of students to load complexes classical and step aerobics (n = 47, age 20-23 years). In complexes used various factors regulating the intensity: perform combinations of basic steps, involvement of movements with his hands, holding in hands dumb...

  16. Water aerobics in pregnancy: cardiovascular response, labor and neonatal outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Braga Angelica F; Cecatti Jose G; Pereira Rosa I; Baciuk Erica P; Cavalcante Sergio R

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background To evaluate the association between water aerobics, maternal cardiovascular capacity during pregnancy, labor and neonatal outcomes. Methods A randomized, controlled clinical trial was carried out in which 34 pregnant women were allocated to a water aerobics group and 37 to a control group. All women were submitted to submaximal ergometric tests on a treadmill at 19, 25 and 35 weeks of pregnancy and were followed up until delivery. Oxygen consumption (VO2 max), cardiac outp...

  17. Audio Processing Solution for Video Conference Based Aerobics

    OpenAIRE

    Berggren, Magnus; Stjernberg, Louise; Lindström, Fredric; Claesson, Ingvar

    2010-01-01

    In this paper an audio processing solution for video conference based aerobics is presented. The proposed solution leaves the workout music unaltered by separating it from the speech and processing each signal separately. The speech signal processing is also performed at a lower sample rate, which saves computational power. Real time evaluation of the system shows that high quality music as well as a good two-way communication is maintained during the aerobic session.

  18. Fetal cardiotocography before and after water aerobics during pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Silveira Carla; Pereira Belmiro G; Cecatti Jose G; Cavalcante Sergio R; Pereira Rosa I

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Objective To evaluate the effect of moderate aerobic physical activity in water on fetal cardiotocography patterns in sedentary pregnant women. Method In a non-randomized controlled trial, 133 previously sedentary pregnant women participated in multiple regular sessions of water aerobics in a heated swimming pool. Cardiotocography was performed for 20 minutes before and just after the oriented exercise. Cardiotocography patterns were analyzed pre- and post-exercise according to gesta...

  19. Impact of brisk walking and aerobics in overweight women

    OpenAIRE

    Melam, Ganeswara Rao; Alhusaini, Adel A.; Buragadda, Syamala; Kaur, Taranpreet; Khan, Imran Ali

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] Lack of physical activity and an uncontrolled diet cause excessive weight gain, which leads to obesity and other metabolic disorders. Studies have indicated that brisk walking and aerobics are the best methods for controlling and reducing weight and body mass composition. [Subjects and Methods] In this study, 45 overweight women were enrolled and divided into 3 groups. Women not involved in brisk walking or aerobics were included in group A (n = 15) as control subjects; women involv...

  20. THE RELATIONSHIP OF CHOREOGRAPHY PREPARATION AND ARTISTRY IN AEROBIC GYMNASTICS

    OpenAIRE

    I. V. Sokolova

    2015-01-01

    Examines the impact choreography training in sports aerobics on artistic skills.Objective to investigate whether the use of funds choreo-graphy in training athletes involved in sports aerobics, to find the relationship between choreographic training and asses-sment for artistry.Method or methodology of work methods of studying the theoretical ski works of scientific content, analysis and processing of scientific texts.The results revealed the relationship between estimates for artistry and me...

  1. Water Aerobics as a Form of Health Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna S. Batrak

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The offered literature review considers water aerobics as a form of health activities. Water aerobics is wide spread and popular, especially among women, because it is also the form of adaptive and health activities. It enlarges general physiological effect of physical exercises on the human body. Regular exercises improve physical fitness and physical development, health, mood, sleep, intensify activities and working efficiency.

  2. Maximal aerobic exercise following prolonged sleep deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, J; Radomski, M; Hart, L; Plyley, M; Shephard, R J

    1989-12-01

    The effect of 60 h without sleep upon maximal oxygen intake was examined in 12 young women, using a cycle ergometer protocol. The arousal of the subjects was maintained by requiring the performance of a sequence of cognitive tasks throughout the experimental period. Well-defined oxygen intake plateaus were obtained both before and after sleep deprivation, and no change of maximal oxygen intake was observed immediately following sleep deprivation. The endurance time for exhausting exercise also remained unchanged, as did such markers of aerobic performance as peak exercise ventilation, peak heart rate, peak respiratory gas exchange ratio, and peak blood lactate. However, as in an earlier study of sleep deprivation with male subjects (in which a decrease of treadmill maximal oxygen intake was observed), the formula of Dill and Costill (4) indicated the development of a substantial (11.6%) increase of estimated plasma volume percentage with corresponding decreases in hematocrit and red cell count. Possible factors sustaining maximal oxygen intake under the conditions of the present experiment include (1) maintained arousal of the subjects with no decrease in peak exercise ventilation or the related respiratory work and (2) use of a cycle ergometer rather than a treadmill test with possible concurrent differences in the impact of hematocrit levels and plasma volume expansion upon peak cardiac output and thus oxygen delivery to the working muscles. PMID:2628360

  3. Personality, metabolic rate and aerobic capacity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Terracciano

    Full Text Available Personality traits and cardiorespiratory fitness in older adults are reliable predictors of health and longevity. We examined the association between personality traits and energy expenditure at rest (basal metabolic rate and during normal and maximal sustained walking. Personality traits and oxygen (VO(2 consumption were assessed in 642 participants from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging. Results indicate that personality traits were mostly unrelated to resting metabolic rate and energy expenditure at normal walking pace. However, those who scored lower on neuroticism (r = -0.12 and higher on extraversion (r = 0.11, openness (r = 0.13, and conscientiousness (r = 0.09 had significantly higher energy expenditure at peak walking pace. In addition to greater aerobic capacity, individuals with a more resilient personality profile walked faster and were more efficient in that they required less energy per meter walked. The associations between personality and energy expenditure were not moderated by age or sex, but were in part explained by the proportion of fat mass. In conclusion, differences in personality may matter the most during more challenging activities that require cardiorespiratory fitness. These findings suggest potential pathways that link personality to health outcomes, such as obesity and longevity.

  4. Aerobic training in children with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nsenga, A L; Shephard, R J; Ahmaidi, S; Ahmadi, S

    2013-06-01

    Rehabilitation is a major goal for children with cerebral palsy, although the potential to enhance cardio-respiratory fitness in such individuals remains unclear. This study thus compared current cardio-respiratory status between children with cerebral palsy and able-bodied children, and examined the ability to enhance the cardio-respiratory fitness of children with cerebral palsy by cycle ergometer training. 10 children with cerebral palsy (Gross Motor Function Classification System levels I and II) participated in thrice-weekly 30 min cycle ergometer training sessions for 8 weeks (mean age: 14.2±1.9 yrs). 10 additional subjects with cerebral palsy (mean age: 14.2±1.8 yrs) and 10 able-bodied subjects (mean age: 14.1±2.1 yrs) served as controls, undertaking no training. All subjects undertook a progressive cycle ergometer test of cardio-respiratory fitness at the beginning and end of the 8-week period. Cardio-respiratory parameters [oxygen intake V˙O2), ventilation V ˙ E) and heart rate (HR)] during testing were measured by Cosmed K4 b gas analyzer. The children with cerebral palsy who engaged in aerobic training improved their peak oxygen consumption, heart rate and ventilation significantly (pchildren with cerebral palsy can benefit significantly from cardio-respiratory training, and such training should be included in rehabilitation programs.

  5. Diversity of foam producing nocardioform actinomycetes isolated from biological foam from activated sludge plants in Comunidad Valenciana; Diversidad de actinomicetos nocardioformes productores de espumas biologicas aislados de plantas depuradoras de aguas residuales de la Comunidad Valenciana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soler, A.; Alonso, J.L.; Cuesta, G.

    2009-07-01

    The formation of biological foams in activated sludge systems is one of the most important problems of solid separation in wastewater treatment plants. Nocardioform actinomycetes are the most important filamentous bacteria responsible of foam formation. This group of microorganisms has hydrophobic cellular surfaces due to the mycolic acids. These foams interfere in wastewater treatment process because retain many suspended solids, block conductions and produce overflowing in the digesters and corridors. To identify correctly the nocardioform actinomycetes we have to do poli phasic taxonomy that includes 16S rDNA sequences analysis, determinate several chemo taxonomic markers and some phenotypic tests. (Author) 18 refs.

  6. Energy efficient aerobic treatment of forest industry wastewaters; Energieffektiv aerob rening av skogsindustriella avloppsvatten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandberg, Maria; From-Aldaron, Mattias

    2011-01-15

    There is great potential to reduce energy requirements in aerobic biological purification if the oxygen demand can be reduced and oxygen delivery, when process water is aerated, is made more efficient. A model was developed to estimate the possible reduction in oxygen demand. Model variables were COD reduction, sludge withdrawal, oxygen, and alpha-value. Attempts made in an aerator in the lab-scale process shows that water content strongly affects oxygen transport and alpha-value. Surface active extract substances such as fatty acids and resin acids have greatest significance. The effect increases with the concentration of extract substances and decreases with added sodium chloride content

  7. Epidemiology of juvenile violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrington, D P; Loeber, R

    2000-10-01

    It is difficult to review the epidemiology of juvenile violence because few studies focus specifically on this topic as opposed to childhood aggression or delinquency in general. More research is needed specifically on juvenile violence, which is generally measured using official records or self-reports. Self-report research shows that a substantial fraction of the male juvenile population commits violence, and that very few violent acts are followed by arrests or convictions. Racial differences in violence may be explainable by reference to racial differences in community contexts. There is a great deal of versatility in juvenile violence. Juveniles who commit one type of violent offense also tend to commit other types and nonviolent offenses. Violent offenders tend to be persistent or frequent offenders, and there is little difference between violent offenders and nonviolent but equally frequent offenders. Nevertheless, there is some degree of specialization in violence. More research is needed to investigate whether risk factors exist for violence that are not risk factors for serious nonviolent delinquency (e.g., biologic factors). Violent juveniles tend to have co-occurring problems such as victimization, substance abuse, and school failure. Often, they might be described as multiple-problem youth. There is considerable continuity from childhood aggression to juvenile violence. An early age of onset of violence predicts a large number of violent offenses. The major long-term risk factors for juvenile violence are individual (high impulsiveness and low intelligence, possibly linked to the executive functions of the brain), family (poor supervision, harsh discipline, child physical abuse, a violent parent, large family size, poverty, a broken family), peer delinquency, gang membership, urban residence, and living in a high-crime neighborhood (characterized by gangs, guns, and drugs in the United States). More research is needed on interactions among risk factors

  8. [Opportunity and challenge on molecular epidemiology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, G C; Chen, S Y

    2016-08-10

    Molecular epidemiology, a branch of epidemiology, combines the theories and methods, both in epidemiology and molecular biology. Molecular epidemiology mainly focuses on biological markers, describing the distribution, occurrence, development and prognosis of diseases at the molecular level. The completion of Human Genome Project and rapid development of Precision Medicine and Big Data not only offer the new development opportunities but also bring about a higher demand and new challenge for molecular epidemiology. PMID:27539332

  9. The Training Effects of Dance Aerobics: A Review with an Emphasis on the Perspectives of Investigations

    OpenAIRE

    Zaletel, Petra; Gabrilo, Goran; Perić, Mia

    2013-01-01

    The training effects of contemporary aerobics programmes (hi lo, dance aerobics, step aerobics, aqua aerobics etc.) have been frequently investigated. However, we found no recent paper which reviewed aerobic programmes with regard to their training effectiveness, characteristics of the subjects involved, variables of interest and experimental design. In this paper we summarise the findings of more than 40 studies published in the 2000–2011 period that investigated the training effects of diff...

  10. Biodegradation of 2,3,7,8 TCDD by anaerobic and aerobic microcosms collected from bioremediation treatments for cleaning up dioxin contaminated soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ha, Dang Thi; Tuan, Mai Anh; Viet, Nguyen Quoc; Sanh, Nguyen Thi [Vietnamese Academy of Science and Technology (VAST) (Viet Nam). Inst. of Biotechnology; Sau, Trinh Khac [Vietnam-Russian Tropical Center (Viet Nam); Papke, O. [ERGO Forschungsgesellschaft, Hamburg (Germany)

    2004-09-15

    There are many microbes that can degrade polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurants (PCDFs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have been isolated including purified bacteria, actinomycetes, white rods, filamentous fungi, anaerobes and also anaerobic and aerobic consortia. Bioremediation one of biological remediation has been studied as hopeful alternative to physical and chemical treatments that using for cleaning up PCDDs, PCDFs. In Vietnam for cleaning up ''hot spot'' of some former military air bases, bioremediation has been studying in different scales of Danang site. After 18 to 24 month treatments, the reduction of toxicity was significally detected. In order to study biodegradability by different groups and one of dominated strain that are existing microorganisms in our treatments, the investigation of 2,3,7,8 TCDD anaerobic and aerobic degradations was carried out in the laboratory condition. Anaerobic microbial consortium containing three different bacteria such as two Gram- negative vibrio and rod and one gram positive cocoides bacteria. This consortium could degrade 118 pg TEQ/ml 2,3,7,8 TCDD after 133 days under sulfate reduction. Concentration of 2,3,7,8 TCDD in the soil extract that adding to medium at starting point of cultivation was 144.6 pg TEQ/ml. About 81% toxicity was removed. Aerobic consortium containing all three Gram-negative bacteria and one fungal strain. After 9 day shaking at 180 rpm/min and 30 C, 85.6 % of 164.45 pg TEQ/ml 2,3,7,8 TCDD was removed. Other preliminary results of study of 2,3,7,8 TCDD biodegradation as sole carbon and energy by show that this strain FDN30 could remove 43,45 pg TEQ/ml (59%) of 73,1 pgTEQ/ml adding dioxin after two weeks. These findings explain why high concentration of contaminants in treated soil was decreased after two year treatment. Indigenous microorganisms play leading role in the detoxification of 2,3,7,8 TCDD in contaminated soils.

  11. Supplementary Low-Intensity Aerobic Training Improves Aerobic Capacity and Does Not Affect Psychomotor Performance in Professional Female Ballet Dancers

    OpenAIRE

    Smol, Ewelina; Fredyk, Artur

    2012-01-01

    We investigated whether 6-week low-intensity aerobic training program used as a supplement to regular dance practice might improve both the aerobic capacity and psychomotor performance in female ballet dancers. To assess their maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) and anaerobic threshold (AT), the dancers performed a standard graded bicycle ergometer exercise test until volitional exhaustion prior to and after the supplementary training. At both these occasions, the psychomotor performance (assessed...

  12. Formation and functions of aerobic microbial granula; Entstehung und Funktionen aerober mikrobieller Granula

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Etterer, T.; Wilderer, P.A. [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Garching (Germany). Lehrstuhl und Pruefamt fuer Wasserguete- und Abfallwirtschaft

    1999-07-01

    The present project investigates the phenomenon of the formation of aerobic microbial granula and their properties. To generate granula, sequencing batch reactors fed in batches were used. As shown by microbiological assays, fungi played an above-average role in granula formation and build-up. In first degradation experiments, furthermore, chemical oxygen demand (COD) could be reduced by over 90 %. The determination yielded comparable values to activated sludge, standing on average at 1.044g/ml. (orig.) [German] Im Rahmen des hier vorgestellten Projekts wurde das Phaenomen der Bildung aerober mikrobieller Granula sowie deren Eigenschaften untersucht. Zur Erzeugung von Granula wurden schubweise beschickte Reaktoren, sogenannte Sequencing-Batch-Reaktoren (SBR) verwendet. Wie mikrobiologische Untersuchungen zeigten spielen Pilze bei der Entstehung und beim Aufbau eine ueberdurchschnittliche Rolle. Des weiteren konnte in ersten Abbauversuchen der chemische Sauerstoff-Bedarf (CSB) um ueber 90% gesenkt werden. Die Dichtebestimmung ergab vergleichbare Werte zu Belebtschlamm und zwar im Durchschnitt 1,044 g/ml. (orig.)

  13. Enhanced selection of micro-aerobic pentachlorophenol degrading granular sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: In this work, an aerobic column reactor was placed before the USB to maintain micro-oxygen condition in the reactor and the micro-aerobic pentachlorophenol (PCP) degrading granular sludge under oxygen-limited conditions (0.1–0.2 mg L−1) was successfully obtained. PCP degradation by the micro-aerobic system was studied and the variance of microbial community was also discussed by using PCR-DGGE analysis. - Highlights: • Micro-aerobic granular sludge was cultivated in column-type combined reactors. • PCP biodegradation, VFA accumulation and biogas production were studied. • The function of Methanogenic archaeon in the system was investigated. • Fluctuation and diversity of microbial community were discussed by DGGE analysis. • The dominated microorganisms were identified by 16S rDNA sequences. - Abstract: Column-type combined reactors were designed to cultivate micro-aerobic pentachlorophenol (PCP) degrading granular sludge under oxygen-limited conditions (0.1–0.2 mg L−1) over 39-day experimental period. Micro-aerobic granular had both anaerobic activity (SMA: 2.34 mMCH4/h g VSS) and aerobic activity (SOUR: 2.21 mMO2/h g VSS). Metabolite analysis results revealed that PCP was sequentially dechlorinated to TCP, DCP, and eventually to MCP. Methanogens were not directly involved in the dechlorination of PCP, but might played a vital role in stabilizing the overall structure of the granule sludge. For Eubacteria, the Shannon Index (2.09 in inoculated granular sludge) increased both in micro-aerobic granular sludge (2.61) and PCP-degradation granular sludge (2.55). However, for Archaea, it decreased from 2.53 to 1.85 and 1.84, respectively. Although the Shannon Index demonstrated slight difference between micro-aerobic granular sludge and PCP-degradation granular sludge, the Principal Component Analysis (PCA) indicated obvious variance of the microbial composition, revealing significant effect of micro-aerobic condition and PCP on

  14. Enhanced selection of micro-aerobic pentachlorophenol degrading granular sludge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lv, Yuancai, E-mail: donkey1204@hotmail.com [State Key Laboratory of Pulp and Paper Engineering, College of Light Industry and Food Science, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Chen, Yuancai, E-mail: chenyc@scut.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Pulp and Paper Engineering, College of Light Industry and Food Science, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Ecological Remediation for Industrial Agglomeration Area, College of Environment and Energy, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Song, Wenzhe, E-mail: songwenzhe007@126.com [Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Ecological Remediation for Industrial Agglomeration Area, College of Environment and Energy, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Hu, Yongyou, E-mail: ppyyhu@scut.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Pulp and Paper Engineering, College of Light Industry and Food Science, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Ecological Remediation for Industrial Agglomeration Area, College of Environment and Energy, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006 (China)

    2014-09-15

    Graphical abstract: In this work, an aerobic column reactor was placed before the USB to maintain micro-oxygen condition in the reactor and the micro-aerobic pentachlorophenol (PCP) degrading granular sludge under oxygen-limited conditions (0.1–0.2 mg L{sup −1}) was successfully obtained. PCP degradation by the micro-aerobic system was studied and the variance of microbial community was also discussed by using PCR-DGGE analysis. - Highlights: • Micro-aerobic granular sludge was cultivated in column-type combined reactors. • PCP biodegradation, VFA accumulation and biogas production were studied. • The function of Methanogenic archaeon in the system was investigated. • Fluctuation and diversity of microbial community were discussed by DGGE analysis. • The dominated microorganisms were identified by 16S rDNA sequences. - Abstract: Column-type combined reactors were designed to cultivate micro-aerobic pentachlorophenol (PCP) degrading granular sludge under oxygen-limited conditions (0.1–0.2 mg L{sup −1}) over 39-day experimental period. Micro-aerobic granular had both anaerobic activity (SMA: 2.34 mMCH{sub 4}/h g VSS) and aerobic activity (SOUR: 2.21 mMO{sub 2}/h g VSS). Metabolite analysis results revealed that PCP was sequentially dechlorinated to TCP, DCP, and eventually to MCP. Methanogens were not directly involved in the dechlorination of PCP, but might played a vital role in stabilizing the overall structure of the granule sludge. For Eubacteria, the Shannon Index (2.09 in inoculated granular sludge) increased both in micro-aerobic granular sludge (2.61) and PCP-degradation granular sludge (2.55). However, for Archaea, it decreased from 2.53 to 1.85 and 1.84, respectively. Although the Shannon Index demonstrated slight difference between micro-aerobic granular sludge and PCP-degradation granular sludge, the Principal Component Analysis (PCA) indicated obvious variance of the microbial composition, revealing significant effect of micro-aerobic

  15. CLINICAL, EPIDEMIOLOGICAL AND MYCOLOGICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratheesh T

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Tinea versicolor is a chronic, mild, usually asymptomatic infection of the stratum corneum. The lesions are discrete or confluent and appear as discolored or hypo pigmented areas of the skin. The affected areas are located principally on the chest, abdomen, upper extremities and back. The etiologic agent is the lipophilic yeast Pityrosporum orbiculare, part of the normal flora of the human skin. This study is undertaken to know “clinical, patterns of the disease with respect to morphology and distribution, associated conditions and epidemiological factors like age, sex distribution and seasonal variation of the disease”. METHODS: Two hundred patients of tinea versicolor were selected. Patients belonging to the age group of above 10 years and below 60 years belonging to both sexes were selected and included in the study group after taking consent. A detailed history was taken with particular reference to onset, duration, symptoms and treatment taken and were recorded. Factors like – seasonal variation, family history and presence of any associated illnesses was also noted. A thorough clinical examination was done with reference to the location, the color, the extent of the lesions, the margins, the type of lesions and the details were recorded. Potassium hydroxide (KOH examination and Wood’s lamp examination were done in all the patients before therapy. RESULTS: Out of 200 patients, majority of them belong to 2nd and 3rd decade of life (72%. The Male: Female ratio was 1.5:1. There was a family history of 16%. The trunk was the most common site involved. Majority of the patients had exacerbation in summer. The most common associated dermatoses were acne vulgaris, immunosuppression and infections. INTERPRETATION AND CONCLUSION: Tinea versicolor is a disease of worldwide distribution, although it is significantly more common in humid and tropical climates. The true incidence cannot be estimated precisely because the disease is

  16. Production of Induced Secondary Metabolites by a Co-Culture of Sponge-Associated Actinomycetes, Actinokineospora sp. EG49 and Nocardiopsis sp. RV163

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yousef Dashti

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Two sponge-derived actinomycetes, Actinokineospora sp. EG49 and Nocardiopsis sp. RV163, were grown in co-culture and the presence of induced metabolites monitored by 1H NMR. Ten known compounds, including angucycline, diketopiperazine and β-carboline derivatives 1–10, were isolated from the EtOAc extracts of Actinokineospora sp. EG49 and Nocardiopsis sp. RV163. Co-cultivation of Actinokineospora sp. EG49 and Nocardiopsis sp. RV163 induced the biosynthesis of three natural products that were not detected in the single culture of either microorganism, namely N-(2-hydroxyphenyl-acetamide (11, 1,6-dihydroxyphenazine (12 and 5a,6,11a,12-tetrahydro-5a,11a-dimethyl[1,4]benzoxazino[3,2-b][1,4]benzoxazine (13a. When tested for biological activity against a range of bacteria and parasites, only the phenazine 12 was active against Bacillus sp. P25, Trypanosoma brucei and interestingly, against Actinokineospora sp. EG49. These findings highlight the co-cultivation approach as an effective strategy to access the bioactive secondary metabolites hidden in the genomes of marine actinomycetes.

  17. 嗜盐嗜碱放线菌的研究进展与展望%Research on Progress of Halophilic Basophilic Actinomycetes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    加苏尔·阿不都克里木; 旭格拉; 塔衣尔; 阿不都克里木·热依木; 木尼热木·阿力木江; 迪丽拜尔·托合提

    2015-01-01

    Haloalkaliphilic extremophiles were survied in saline alkali soil. Halophilic basophilic Actinomycetes with the genetic characteristics and the special supersedes way, produced a variety of secondary me⁃tabolites, was one of microbial resources with great application prospect. This paper mainly reviewed Halophilic ba⁃sophilic Actinomycetes Resources, standard classification, distribution, system science, development and utilization prospects.%嗜盐嗜碱极端微生物主要分布于地球上的盐碱土壤中,嗜盐嗜碱放线菌适应并长期生存这一特殊极端环境,已具备独特的遗传特性和新陈代谢途径,能够产生具有开发利用价值的多种次生代谢产物,是一类极具应用前景的微生物资源。文章主要综述了嗜盐嗜碱放线菌的资源、分类标准、分布、系统学及其发展趋势、开发利用前景。

  18. Determination of the Residual Anthracene Concentration in Cultures of Haloalkalitolerant Actinomycetes by Excitation Fluorescence, Emission Fluorescence, and Synchronous Fluorescence: Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reyna del Carmen Lara-Severino

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs are compounds that can be quantified by fluorescence due to their high quantum yield. Haloalkalitolerant bacteria tolerate wide concentration ranges of NaCl and pH. They are potentially useful in the PAHs bioremediation of saline environments. However, it is known that salinity of the sample affects fluorescence signal regardless of the method. The objective of this work was to carry out a comparative study based on the sensitivity, linearity, and detection limits of the excitation, emission, and synchronous fluorescence methods, during the quantification of the residual anthracene concentration from the following haloalkalitolerant actinomycetes cultures Kocuria rosea, Kocuria palustris, Microbacterium testaceum, and 4 strains of Nocardia farcinica, in order to establish the proper fluorescence method to study the PAHs biodegrading capacity of haloalkalitolerant actinobacteria. The study demonstrated statistical differences among the strains and among the fluorescence methods regarding the anthracene residual concentration. The results showed that excitation and emission fluorescence methods performed very similarly but sensitivity in excitation fluorescence is slightly higher. Synchronous fluorescence using Δλ=150 nm is not the most convenient method. Therefore we propose the excitation fluorescence as the fluorescence method to be used in the study of the PAHs biodegrading capacity of haloalkalitolerant actinomycetes.

  19. Field tests for evaluating the aerobic work capacity of firefighters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann-Sofie Lindberg

    Full Text Available Working as a firefighter is physically strenuous, and a high level of physical fitness increases a firefighter's ability to cope with the physical stress of their profession. Direct measurements of aerobic capacity, however, are often complicated, time consuming, and expensive. The first aim of the present study was to evaluate the correlations between direct (laboratory and indirect (field aerobic capacity tests with common and physically demanding firefighting tasks. The second aim was to give recommendations as to which field tests may be the most useful for evaluating firefighters' aerobic work capacity. A total of 38 subjects (26 men and 12 women were included. Two aerobic capacity tests, six field tests, and seven firefighting tasks were performed. Lactate threshold and onset of blood lactate accumulation were found to be correlated to the performance of one work task (r(s = -0.65 and -0.63, p<0.01, respectively. Absolute (mL · min(-1 and relative (mL · kg(-1 · min(-1 maximal aerobic capacity was correlated to all but one of the work tasks (r(s = -0.79 to 0.55 and -0.74 to 0.47, p<0.01, respectively. Aerobic capacity is important for firefighters' work performance, and we have concluded that the time to row 500 m, the time to run 3000 m relative to body weight (s · kg(-1, and the percent of maximal heart rate achieved during treadmill walking are the most valid field tests for evaluating a firefighter's aerobic work capacity.

  20. Anti-malarial Activities of Two Soil Actinomycete Isolates from Sabah via Inhibition of Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3β.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahari, Dhiana Efani; Salleh, Raifana Mohamad; Mahmud, Fauze; Chin, Lee Ping; Embi, Noor; Sidek, Hasidah Mohd

    2016-08-01

    Exploiting natural resources for bioactive compounds is an attractive drug discovery strategy in search for new anti-malarial drugs with novel modes of action. Initial screening efforts in our laboratory revealed two preparations of soil-derived actinomycetes (H11809 and FH025) with potent anti-malarial activities. Both crude extracts showed glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β)-inhibitory activities in a yeast-based kinase assay. We have previously shown that the GSK3 inhibitor, lithium chloride (LiCl), was able to suppress parasitaemia development in a rodent model of malarial infection. The present study aims to evaluate whether anti-malarial activities of H11809 and FH025 involve the inhibition of GSK3β. The acetone crude extracts of H11809 and FH025 each exerted strong inhibition on the growth of Plasmodium falciparum 3D7 in vitro with 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) values of 0.57 ± 0.09 and 1.28 ± 0.11 µg/mL, respectively. The tested extracts exhibited Selectivity Index (SI) values exceeding 10 for the 3D7 strain. Both H11809 and FH025 showed dosage-dependent chemo-suppressive activities in vivo and improved animal survivability compared to non-treated infected mice. Western analysis revealed increased phosphorylation of serine (Ser 9) GSK3β (by 6.79 to 6.83-fold) in liver samples from infected mice treated with H11809 or FH025 compared to samples from non-infected or non-treated infected mice. A compound already identified in H11809 (data not shown), dibutyl phthalate (DBP) showed active anti-plasmodial activity against 3D7 (IC50 4.87 ± 1.26 µg/mL which is equivalent to 17.50 µM) and good chemo-suppressive activity in vivo (60.80% chemo-suppression at 300 mg/kg body weight [bw] dosage). DBP administration also resulted in increased phosphorylation of Ser 9 GSK3β compared to controls. Findings from the present study demonstrate that the potent anti-malarial activities of H11809 and FH025 were mediated via inhibition of host GSK3β. In addition

  1. Epidemiología de campo y epidemiología social Field epidemiology and social epidemiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Segura del Pozo

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Mediante la comparación de la epidemiología de campo y la epidemiología social, se pretende reflexionar sobre los imaginarios no explícitos que operan en ambos ámbitos, necesariamente convergentes, sobre los obstáculos de la práctica epidemiológica actual para alcanzar su función social y sobre la necesidad de cambiar las bases epistemológicas, metodológicas y prácticas que operan en la epidemiología, empezando por la formación del epidemiólogo de campo. La epidemiología de campo tiende a la acción sin marco teórico. La epidemiología social, por el contrario, tiende a los desarrollos teóricos (reflexión e investigación sobre los determinantes sociales alejados de la acción, debido a los limitantes para cambiar las políticas públicas. Otras diferencias se sitúan en el nivel de intervención (micro/macroespacios, el objeto de intervención (control del brote frente a control de las desigualdades y en la forma de articular la comunicación con la sociedad. Se asemejan en la preocupación por el método, la predominancia de una orientación positivista y condicionada por la estadística, aunque en proceso de cierta apertura epistemológica, la tensión experimentada entre relacionarse con un mundo virtual de bases de datos o con la sociedad real, su situación en la periferia del sistema político-social-institucional-profesional y por estar abocadas a la frustración profesional. Finalmente, se formulan 10 interrogantes a los epidemiólogos de campo sobre su práctica actual, a través de los cuales se podría evaluar si están realizando una epidemiología social, y se sugieren cambios para introducir en la formación y práctica del epidemiólogo.Comparing field epidemiology and social epidemiology, we pretend to think about the no explicit images and meanings operating in both necessary convergent fields, about the obstacles present in epidemiological practice to fulfil its social function and about the necessity of

  2. Viral marketing as epidemiological model

    CERN Document Server

    Rodrigues, Helena Sofia

    2015-01-01

    In epidemiology, an epidemic is defined as the spread of an infectious disease to a large number of people in a given population within a short period of time. In the marketing context, a message is viral when it is broadly sent and received by the target market through person-to-person transmission. This specific marketing communication strategy is commonly referred as viral marketing. Due to this similarity between an epidemic and the viral marketing process and because the understanding of the critical factors to this communications strategy effectiveness remain largely unknown, the mathematical models in epidemiology are presented in this marketing specific field. In this paper, an epidemiological model SIR (Susceptible- Infected-Recovered) to study the effects of a viral marketing strategy is presented. It is made a comparison between the disease parameters and the marketing application, and simulations using the Matlab software are performed. Finally, some conclusions are given and their marketing impli...

  3. Nephrogenic systemic fibrosis: epidemiology update

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marckmann, P.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose of review The aim of this article is to outline the history of nephrogenic systemic fibrosis, a new and serious disease of patients with renal failure, and to give an update on its aetiology and prevalence. Recent findings Epidemiological and histochemical studies demonstrated that gadoli......Purpose of review The aim of this article is to outline the history of nephrogenic systemic fibrosis, a new and serious disease of patients with renal failure, and to give an update on its aetiology and prevalence. Recent findings Epidemiological and histochemical studies demonstrated...

  4. Research advances on endophytic actinomycetes and their bioactive metabolites%植物内生放线菌及其生理活性物质研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄小龙; 周双清; 陈吉良

    2011-01-01

    Endophytic actinomycetes are a new microbiological resources for development of potentials. Till now, many kinds of endophytic actinomycetes were isolated from many living internal plant tissues. Endophytic actinomycetes can produce a lot of important physiological bioactive metabolites such as antibiotics , plant growth promoters , plant growth inhibitors and new characteristic enzymes.This paper summarized the recent advances on the studies of endophytic actinomycetes of plants and their bioactive metabolites.%植物内生放线菌是一类具有巨大开发潜力的新微生物资源.目前从许多活体植物组织内已分离到种类众多的植物内生放线菌,已有的研究表明植物内生放线菌能产生许多重要的生理活性物质,如抗生素类物质、植物生长促进剂、植物生长抑制剂以及具有新特性的酶类.植物内生放线菌在农业生产、医药新药的筛选上显示出广阔的应用前景.

  5. Impact of brisk walking and aerobics in overweight women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melam, Ganeswara Rao; Alhusaini, Adel A; Buragadda, Syamala; Kaur, Taranpreet; Khan, Imran Ali

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] Lack of physical activity and an uncontrolled diet cause excessive weight gain, which leads to obesity and other metabolic disorders. Studies have indicated that brisk walking and aerobics are the best methods for controlling and reducing weight and body mass composition. [Subjects and Methods] In this study, 45 overweight women were enrolled and divided into 3 groups. Women not involved in brisk walking or aerobics were included in group A (n = 15) as control subjects; women involved in brisk walking were in group B (n = 15); and those involved in aerobics were in group C (n = 15). [Results] This program was carried out 5 days/week for 10 weeks. Pre- and post-measurements of body mass index, waist and hip circumference, and skinfold thickness of the abdomen, subscapular area, biceps, and triceps were recorded for the women in all 3 groups. All values decreased in women who participated in brisk walking and aerobics for 10 weeks. [Conclusion] These results indicate that aerobics with diet therapy is a more effective intervention program for controlling and reducing body mass index and skinfold thickness than brisk walking with diet therapy in North Indian women. PMID:26957777

  6. Denitrification characteristics of a marine origin psychrophilic aerobic denitrifying bacterium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Haiyan; Liu, Ying; Sun, Guangdong; Gao, Xiyan; Zhang, Qingling; Liu, Zhipei

    2011-01-01

    A psychrophilic aerobic denitrifying bacterium, strain S1-1, was isolated from a biological aerated filter conducted for treatment of recirculating water in a marine aquaculture system. Strain S1-1 was preliminarily identified as Psychrobacter sp. based on the analysis of its 16S rRNA gene sequence, which showed 100% sequence similarity to that of Psychrobacter sp. TSBY-70. Strain S1-1 grew well either in high nitrate or high nitrite conditions with a removal of 100% nitrate or 63.50% nitrite, and the total nitrogen removal rates could reach to 46.48% and 31.89%, respectively. The results indicated that nitrate was mainly reduced in its logarithmic growth phase with a very low level accumulation of nitrite, suggesting that the aerobic denitrification process of strain S1-1 occurred mainly in this phase. The GC-MS results showed that N2O was formed as the major intermediate during the aerobic denitrifying process of strain S1-1. Finally, factors affecting the growth of strain S1-1 and its aerobic denitrifying ability were also investigated. Results showed that the optimum aerobic denitrification conditions for strain S1-1 were sodium succinate as carbon source, C/N ratio15, salinity 10 g/L NaCl, incubation temperature 20 degrees C and initial pH 6.5. PMID:22432315

  7. Denitrification characteristics of a marine origin psychrophilic aerobic denitrifying bacterium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Haiyan Zheng; Ying Liu; Guangdong Sun; Xiyan Gao; Qingling Zhang; Zhipei Liu

    2011-01-01

    A psychrophilic aerobic denitrifying bacterium,strain S1-1,was isolated from a biological aerated filter conducted for treatment of recirculating water in a marine aquaculture system.Strain S1-1 was preliminarily identified as Psychrobacter sp.based on the analysis of its 16S rRNA gene sequence,which showed 100% sequence similarity to that of Psychrobacter sp.TSBY-70.Strain S 1-1 grew well either in high nitrate or high nitrite conditions with a removal of 100% nitrate or 63.50% nitrite,and the total nitrogen removal rates could reach to 46.48% and 31.89%,respectively.The results indicated that nitrate was mainly reduced in its logarithmic growth phase with a very low leve 1 accumulation of nitrite,suggesting that the aerobic denitrification process of strain S l-1 occurred mainly in this phase.The GC-MS results showed that N2O was formed as the major intermediate during the aerobic denitrifying process of strain S1-1.Finally,factors affecting the growth of strain Sl-1 and its aerobic denitrifying ability were also investigated.Results showed that the optimum aerobic denitrification conditions for strain S1-1 were sodium succinate as carbon source,C/N ratio15,salinity 10 g/L NaCl,incubation temperature 20℃ and initial pH 6.5.

  8. Screening of Ferulic acid degrading actinomycetes and their degradation and inhibiting effect%阿魏酸降解放线菌的筛选及其降解与拮抗效果研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓辉; 薛泉宏

    2011-01-01

    【目的】筛选用于降解西瓜根泌自毒物质阿魏酸的放线菌,研究其降解与拮抗效果。【方法】以127株放线菌为供筛菌株,采用液体发酵培养法筛选阿魏酸降解放线菌,并研究放线菌对阿魏酸的降解率及对西甜瓜枯萎病菌等病原菌的拮抗性。【结果】①从127株供试放线菌中筛选出了编号为25,28及Z30的3株放线菌,在纯培养条件下,以阿魏酸为惟一碳源时,25、28、Z30 3株放线菌对阿魏酸均有较好的降解效果,降解率分别为94.3%,92.6%和90.1%。②在以阿魏酸、淀粉为混合碳源时,3株放线菌对阿魏酸均有较强的降解作用,降解率最高达100%。③纯细胞培养时,3株放线菌对阿魏酸仅有微弱的降解效果。④3株放线菌对西甜瓜枯萎病菌有较强的拮抗作用。【结论】筛选的3株放线菌具有降解西瓜自毒物质阿魏酸及拮抗西甜瓜枯萎病菌的双重功能。%【Objective】 The experiment was to screen degradaeng actinomycetes of ferulic acid and to study the degradation and inhibitory effect of the actinomycetes.【Method】 Liquid fermentation experiment was carried out to screen degradating actinomycetes of ferulic acid from 127 actinomyces strains and to study the degradation rate of ferulic acid by the actinomyces and their inhibiting effect on melon and cucumber fusarium wilt pathogen.【Result】 ①The actinomycetes 25,28 and Z30 were screened from 127 tested actinomycetes strains.Under pure culture conditions,the ferulic acid was the sole carbon source.The degradation rates of ferulic acid completed by the actinomycetes 25,28 and Z30 were 94.3%,92.6% and 90.1%,respectively.②In a mixture of ferulic acid and starch as carbon sources,the degradation rate of ferulic acid completed by the three actinomycetes was 100%.③The degradation rate of ferulic acid by three actinomycetes as pure cell was low.④The three strains of actinomycets have good inhibiting effect on the melon and

  9. Mitochondrial DNA and Cancer Epidemiology Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    A workshop to review the state-of-the science in the mitochondrial DNA field and its use in cancer epidemiology, and to develop a concept for a research initiative on mitochondrial DNA and cancer epidemiology.

  10. Why does epidemiology need better questionnaires?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tong, S.; Ring, I.; Olsen, Jørn

    2003-01-01

    The authors argue for the use of validated questionnaires whenever possible to improve the quality of epidemiological research.......The authors argue for the use of validated questionnaires whenever possible to improve the quality of epidemiological research....

  11. About the Epidemiology and Genomics Research Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epidemiology is the scientific study of the causes and distribution of disease in populations. NCI-funded epidemiology research is conducted through research at institutions in the United States and internationally.

  12. The epidemiology of genital human papillomavirus infection.

    OpenAIRE

    Trottier, Helen; Franco, Eduardo L.

    2006-01-01

    KEYWORDS - CLASSIFICATION: cancer epidemiology;complications;Canada;epidemiology;Evaluation;Female;Genital Diseases,Female;Humans;Incidence;lifestyle modulation of cancer & cancer biomarkers;Papillomaviridae;Papillomavirus Infections;Risk Factors;Uterine Cervical Neoplasms;virology.

  13. Aerobic Microbial Respiration In Oceanic Oxygen Minimum Zones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalvelage, Tim; Lavik, Gaute; Jensen, Marlene Mark;

    2015-01-01

    Namibia and Peru. Experiments with additions of double-labelled oxygen revealed high aerobic activity in the upper OMZs, likely controlled by surface organic matter export. Consistently observed oxygen consumption in samples retrieved throughout the lower OMZs hints at efficient exploitation of vertically...... denitrification and alternative anaerobic pathways of organic matter remineralization cannot account for the ammonium requirements of reported anammox rates. Here, we explore the significance of microaerobic respiration as a source of ammonium during organic matter degradation in the oxygen-deficient waters off...... and laterally advected, oxygenated waters in this zone by aerobic microorganisms. In accordance, metagenomic and metatranscriptomic analyses identified genes encoding for aerobic terminal oxidases and demonstrated their expression by diverse microbial communities, even in virtually anoxic waters. Our...

  14. Impact of 6-month aerobic exercise on Alzheimer's symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Fang; Thomas, William; Nelson, Nathaniel W; Bronas, Ulf G; Dysken, Maurice; Wyman, Jean F

    2015-06-01

    Little is known about how aerobic exercise affects Alzheimer's disease (AD). The purpose of this pilot study was to test the impact of 6-month cycling on AD symptoms in community-dwelling older adults with mild-to-moderate AD, using a single-group, repeated-measures design (n = 26). AD symptoms were measured with the AD Assessment Scale-Cognitive (ADAS-Cog), Disability in AD (DAD), and Neuropsychiatric Inventory-Caregiver (NPI-Q) scales at baseline, 3 and 6 months. Data were analyzed using mixed linear models. The ADAS-Cog, DAD, and NPI-Q severity scores remained unchanged over the 6-month period, while caregiver distress decreased 40% (p < .05). We conclude that aerobic exercise may reduce AD symptoms and appears effective in decreasing caregiver distress. Further randomized controlled trials are needed to examine the effects of aerobic exercise in AD. PMID:24652914

  15. Isolation and denitrification characteristic of an aerobic denitrifier

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Dan-dan; MA Fang; WANG Hong-yu; DONG Shuang-shi; WANG Ai-jie

    2006-01-01

    Aerobic denitrifiers were enriched by activated sludge cultivation method. By this way, 105 strains were isolated from the activated sludge and 25 strains were confirmed to be capable of obtaining energy by deoxidization of nitrate to nitrogen gas under aerobic condition. The characteristic of one denitrifier, Pseudomonas chloritidismutans strain, was particularly studied due to its higher nitrogen removal rate. It was found that Pseudomonas chloritidismutans can use nitrite, nitrate and oxygen for aerobic respiration in liquid medium, and the pH increased and ORP decreased by activated denitrifier. When they used nitrite or nitrate for respiration, nitrogen removal effect was high and nitrite could be reduced more efficiently than nitrate. Denitrification process was accomplished faster when both nitrite and nitrate existed in the medium compared to each of which existed alone. Particularly, at denitrifying activity, the nitrogen removal rate of strain was not affected by the DO concentration in the culture media.

  16. Virulence factors enhance Citrobacter rodentium expansion through aerobic respiration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Christopher A; Miller, Brittany M; Rivera-Chávez, Fabian; Velazquez, Eric M; Byndloss, Mariana X; Chávez-Arroyo, Alfredo; Lokken, Kristen L; Tsolis, Renée M; Winter, Sebastian E; Bäumler, Andreas J

    2016-09-16

    Citrobacter rodentium uses a type III secretion system (T3SS) to induce colonic crypt hyperplasia in mice, thereby gaining an edge during its competition with the gut microbiota through an unknown mechanism. Here, we show that by triggering colonic crypt hyperplasia, the C. rodentium T3SS induced an excessive expansion of undifferentiated Ki67-positive epithelial cells, which increased oxygenation of the mucosal surface and drove an aerobic C. rodentium expansion in the colon. Treatment of mice with the γ-secretase inhibitor dibenzazepine to diminish Notch-driven colonic crypt hyperplasia curtailed the fitness advantage conferred by aerobic respiration during C. rodentium infection. We conclude that C. rodentium uses its T3SS to induce histopathological lesions that generate an intestinal microenvironment in which growth of the pathogen is fueled by aerobic respiration. PMID:27634526

  17. Catalytic aerobic oxidation of bio-renewable chemicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorbanev, Yury

    -free conditions. Moreover, a detailed study on the performance and stability of the ruthenium hydroxide catalysts on magnesium-containing supports under reaction conditions was conducted. The aerobic oxidation of HMF to form another value-added chemical, 2,5-diformylfuran (DFF), was also investigated......, EDS, XRF and other methods. Supported gold and ruthenium hydroxide catalyst systems were explored for the aerobic oxidation of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) to 2,5-furandicarboxylic acid (FDA), a potential polymer building block for the plastic industry, or its dimethyl ester (FDMC). High product......Ox deposited on various metal oxides. Furthermore, this thesis presents the results of the catalytic aerobic oxidative degradation of higher alcohols over supported ruthenium hydroxide catalysts. A very efficient oxidative cleavage of vic-diols to form respective acids was also shown under examined conditions...

  18. Supplementary Low-Intensity Aerobic Training Improves Aerobic Capacity and Does Not Affect Psychomotor Performance in Professional Female Ballet Dancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smol, Ewelina; Fredyk, Artur

    2012-01-01

    We investigated whether 6-week low-intensity aerobic training program used as a supplement to regular dance practice might improve both the aerobic capacity and psychomotor performance in female ballet dancers. To assess their maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) and anaerobic threshold (AT), the dancers performed a standard graded bicycle ergometer exercise test until volitional exhaustion prior to and after the supplementary training. At both these occasions, the psychomotor performance (assessed as multiple choice reaction time) and number of correct responses to audio-visual stimuli was assessed at rest and immediately after cessation of maximal intensity exercise. The supplementary low-intensity exercise training increased VO2max and markedly shifted AT toward higher absolute workload. Immediately after completion of the graded exercise to volitional exhaustion, the ballerinas’ psychomotor performance remained at the pre-exercise (resting) level. Neither the resting nor the maximal multiple choice reaction time and accuracy of responses were affected by the supplementary aerobic training. The results of this study indicate that addition of low-intensity aerobic training to regular dance practice increases aerobic capacity of ballerinas with no loss of speed and accuracy of their psychomotor reaction. PMID:23485962

  19. Candida infections : detection and epidemiology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borst, A. (Annemarie)

    2002-01-01

    Despite the fact that the yeast Candida is the number 4 cause of bloodstream infections in the United States and ranks number 8 in Europe, adequate detection methods are lacking. Furthermore, relatively little is known about the epidemiology of Candida. Our aim was to improve the detection and ident

  20. Epidemiology for the clinical neurologist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, M E; Ganguli, M

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiology is a foundation of all clinical and public health research and practice. Epidemiology serves seven important uses for the advancement of medicine and public health. It enables community diagnosis by quantifying risk factors and diseases in the community; completes the clinical picture of disease by revealing the entire distribution of disease and presenting meaningful population averages from representative samples; identifies risk factors for disease by detecting and quantifying associations between exposures and disease and evaluating causal hypotheses; computes individual risk to identify high-risk groups to whom preventive interventions can be targeted; evaluates historic trends that monitor disease over time and provide clues to etiology; delineates new syndromes and disease subtypes not previously apparent in clinical settings, helping to streamline effective disease management; and investigates the effects of health services on population health to identify effective public health interventions. The clinician with a grasp of epidemiologic principles is in a position to critically evaluate the research literature, to apply it to clinical practice, and to undertake valid clinical epidemiology research with patients in clinical settings. PMID:27637949

  1. Molecular epidemiology of glanders, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornstra, Heidie; Pearson, Talima; Georgia, Shalamar; Liguori, Andrew; Dale, Julia; Price, Erin; O'Neill, Matthew; Deshazer, David; Muhammad, Ghulam; Saqib, Muhammad; Naureen, Abeera; Keim, Paul

    2009-12-01

    We collected epidemiologic and molecular data from Burkholderia mallei isolates from equines in Punjab, Pakistan from 1999 through 2007. We show that recent outbreaks are genetically distinct from available whole genome sequences and that these genotypes are persistent and ubiquitous in Punjab, probably due to human-mediated movement of equines.

  2. Epidemiological studies and ionizing radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After some generalities on epidemiological studies, this report presents the current status of knowledge and researches in three peculiar domains: leukaemia for young people living around nuclear power stations, pathologies in workers of the nuclear sector, and health condition (incidence of cancers) of populations living around nuclear power stations

  3. Brain Tumor Epidemiology Consortium (BTEC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Brain Tumor Epidemiology Consortium is an open scientific forum organized to foster the development of multi-center, international and inter-disciplinary collaborations that will lead to a better understanding of the etiology, outcomes, and prevention of brain tumors.

  4. Epidemiology of acute wrist trauma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, C F; Lauritsen, Jens

    1993-01-01

    Epidemiological data on wrist injuries in a population can be used for planning by applying them to criteria for care and thus deriving estimates of provisions for care according to currently desirable standards. In a 1-year study all patients > or = 15 years with acute wrist trauma and treated i...

  5. Epidemiological methods: a brief review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epidemiology, the study of disease distributions in populations and the factors which influence these distributions, is an observational science, i.e., its data base consists of measurements made on free living individuals characterized by presence or absence of disease states and putative risk factors. Epidemiological studies are usually classified as descriptive or analytical. Descriptive studies are primarily used for planning and evaluating health programs or to generate etiological hypotheses. Analytical studies are primarily used for testing etiological hypotheses. Analytical studies are designed either as cohort investigations in which populations with and without a putative risk factor are followed through time to ascertain their differential incidence of disease, or case-control investigations in which the history of exposure to a putative risk factor is compared among persons with a disease and appropriate controls free of disease. Both descriptive and analytical epidemiological studies have been applied to health physics problems. Examples of such problems and the epidemiological methods used to explore them will be presented

  6. Composition and properties of the actinomycete flora in a ferralitic tropical soil (oxisol)-sugar cane ecological system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, C; Szabó, I M

    1978-01-01

    Streptomycetes constituted about 46--48 per cent of the total aerobic microflora in the cultivated horizon of the studied ferralitic tropical soil below sugar cane plantation. This streptomycete fraction of the soil microbial community was composed of 13 (or more) species of Streptomyces (S. chromofuscus, S. chromogenus, S. diastatochromogenes, S. flavochromogenes, S. griseolus, S. nigrescens, S. phaeofaciens, S. sterilis, S. violaceus, Streptomyces sp. I--III), and Streptoverticillium (Sv. aspergilloides). None of these organisms did occur, with detectable frequency of occurrence, in the root surface region of sugar cane. Here, in the rhizoplane, we found a numerically small population of streptomycetes (about 5 per cent of the total bacterial flora), composed of two species (Streptomyces sp. IV and S. griseorubiginosus) which were, however, not detected in soil samples. PMID:664932

  7. Relationship between acute and chronic disease epidemiology.

    OpenAIRE

    Kuller, L.H. (Lewis H.)

    1987-01-01

    Epidemiology is the study of epidemics. The primary goal of epidemiological studies should be the identification of the determinants of disease in order to decrease morbidity and mortality. Epidemiological studies evolve through descriptive, analytical, and experimental approaches. The traditional infectious disease epidemiology studies were primarily concerned with identification of an agent, incubation period, mode of transmission, population at risk, and methods of disease control. Chronic...

  8. The evolving epidemiology of inflammatory bowel disease.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Shanahan, Fergus

    2009-07-01

    Epidemiologic studies in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) include assessments of disease burden and evolving patterns of disease presentation. Although it is hoped that sound epidemiologic studies provide aetiological clues, traditional risk factor-based epidemiology has provided limited insights into either Crohn\\'s disease or ulcerative colitis etiopathogenesis. In this update, we will summarize how the changing epidemiology of IBD associated with modernization can be reconciled with current concepts of disease mechanisms and will discuss studies of clinically significant comorbidity in IBD.

  9. Travel epidemiology: the Saudi perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memish, Ziad A; Venkatesh, S; Ahmed, Qanta A

    2003-02-01

    The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia occupies four-fifths of the Arabian Peninsula, with a land area of 2 million square kilometres. Saudi Arabia holds a unique position in the Islamic world, as the custodian of the two holiest places of Islam, in Mecca and Medina. Annually, some 2 million Muslims from over 140 countries embark on Hajj. This extraordinary en masse migration is a unique forum for the study of travel epidemiology since the Hajj carries various health risks, both communicable and non-communicable, often on a colossal scale. Non-communicable hazards of the Hajj include stampede and motor vehicle trauma, fire-related burn injuries and accidental hand injury during animal slaughter. Communicable hazards in the form of outbreaks of multiple infectious diseases have been reported repeatedly, during and following the Hajj. Meningococcal meningitis, gastroenteritis, hepatitis A, B and C, and various zoonotic diseases comprise some of the possible infectious hazards at the Hajj. Many of these infectious and non-infectious hazards can be avoided or averted by adopting appropriate prophylactic measures. Physicians and health personnel must be aware of these risks to appropriately educate, immunize and prepare these travellers facing the unique epidemiological challenges of Hajj in an effort to minimize untoward effects. Travel epidemiology related to the Hajj is a new and exciting area, which offers valuable insights to the travel specialist. The sheer scale of numbers affords a rare view of migration medicine in action. As data is continually gathered and both national and international policy making is tailored to vital insights gained through travel epidemiology, the Hajj will be continually safeguarded. Practitioners will gain from findings of travel related epidemiological changes in evolution at the Hajj: the impact of vaccinating policies, infection control policies and public health are afforded a real-world laboratory setting at each annual Hajj, allowing us to

  10. Aerobic bioremediation of petroleum contaminated soil using controlled landfarming technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports that the Delaware Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Control (DNREC) has been concerned about open, uncontrolled landfarming remediation procedures producing a significant amount of atmospheric volatile petroleum discharge and increasing the probability of the remediation site's soil and groundwater becoming contaminated by rainwater. WIK Associates, Inc., therefore, has been developing full scale aerobic bioremediation technology for clients within the Delaware area in order to carry out year round, full scale, aerobic biodegradation of petroleum contaminated soils, while controlling any volatile emissions

  11. Enhancing excess sludge aerobic digestion with low intensity ultrasound

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DING Wen-chuan; LI Dong-xue; ZENG Xiao-lan; LONG Teng-rui

    2006-01-01

    In order to enhance the efficiency of aerobic digestion, the excess sludge was irradiated by low intensity ultrasound at a frequency of 28 kHz and acoustic intensity of 0.53 W/cm2. The results show that the sludge stabilization without ultrasonic treatment can be achieved after 17 d of digestion, whereas the digestion time of ultrasonic groups can be cut by 3 - 7 d. During the same digestion elapsing, in ultrasonic groups the total volatile suspended solid removal rate is higher than that in the control group. The kinetics of aerobic digestion of excess sludge with ultrasound can also be described with first-order reaction.

  12. Influence employment by improving aerobics on motor readiness of girls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shypulo I. P.

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : substantiate the effect of employment by improving aerobics on motor readiness of girls in extracurricular educational institutions. Material : the study involved 90 women aged 16-18 years old. Classes are held 3 times a week for 1 hour each. Results : defined state and the most informative indicators motor fitness girls. Built analytical model of graph model for forecasting and conducting quantitative and qualitative control of motor fitness girls. The degree of severity of each of the parameters studied motor fitness girls. Conclusions : the possibilities of predicting outcomes. Recommended method of aerobics classes, which has five stages. Its main feature - the constant objective control efficiency of employment.

  13. Exercise intensity during Zumba fitness and Tae-bo aerobics

    OpenAIRE

    Hižnayová, Kristína

    2013-01-01

    This study analyzed and compared the exercise intensity in Zumba fitness and Tae-bo aerobics. Object of the research was monitoring of the heart rate and energy consumption in kcal during exercise unit, by using Heart Rate Monitor Suunto Memory Belt. All measurements were attended by randomly selected 11 women. The data we collected during the six units of the Zumba fitness and six units of the Tae-bo aerobics . Obtained data of the heart rate were evaluated in three main parts of workout: af...

  14. Aerobic Rice: Benefits without going to the Gym?

    OpenAIRE

    Bayot, Ruvicyn; Templeton, Deborah J.

    2009-01-01

    Rice, a staple food for over 70% of Asians, is also the single biggest user of water, requiring 2‐3 times more water per unit of grain produced than crops such as wheat and maize. With growing populations, increased urbanisation and environmental degradation, the supply of fresh water is depleting. Recognising the water constraints to rice yield, the aim of the project entitled ‘Developing a System of Temperate and Tropical Aerobic Rice (STAR) in Asia’ was to develop water‐efficient aerobic r...

  15. Novel aerobic tetracycline resistance gene that chemically modifies tetracycline.

    OpenAIRE

    Speer, B S; Salyers, A A

    1989-01-01

    A tetracycline resistance gene that was found originally on the Bacteroides plasmid pBF4 confers resistance on Escherichia coli but only when cells are growing aerobically. When E. coli EM24 carrying this aerobic tetracycline resistance (*Tcr) gene is grown in medium containing tetracycline, the resulting spent medium is no longer toxic to tetracycline-sensitive (Tcs) E. coli EM24 (B.S. Speer and A.A. Salyers, J. Bacteriol. 170: 1423-1429, 1988). To determine whether the *Tcr gene product mod...

  16. Copper intoxication inhibits aerobic nucleotide synthesis in Streptococcus pneumoniae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Michael D. L.; Kehl-Fie, Thomas E.; Rosch, Jason W.

    2015-01-01

    Copper is universally toxic in excess, a feature exploited by the human immune system to facilitate bacterial clearance. The mechanism of copper intoxication remains unknown for many bacterial species. Here, we demonstrate that copper toxicity in Streptococcus pneumoniae is independent from oxidative stress but, rather, is the result of copper inhibiting the aerobic dNTP biosynthetic pathway. Furthermore, we show that copper-intoxicated S. pneumoniae is rescued by manganese, which is an essential metal in the aerobic nucleotide synthesis pathway. These data provide insight into new targets to enhance copper-mediated toxicity during bacterial clearance. PMID:25730343

  17. History and philosophy of modern epidemiology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Hanne

    2012-01-01

    Epidemiological studies of chronic diseases began around the mid-20th century. Contrary to the infectious disease epidemiology which had prevailed at the beginning of the 20th century and which had focused on single agents causing individual diseases, the chronic disease epidemiology which emerge...

  18. Cancer Epidemiology Matters Blog - 2012 Archive

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Cancer Epidemiology Matters blog helps foster a dialogue between the National Cancer Institute's (NCI) Epidemiology and Genomics Research Program (EGRP), extramural researchers, and other individuals, such as clinicians, community partners, and advocates, who are interested in cancer epidemiology and genomics.

  19. Cancer Epidemiology Matters Blog - 2014 Archive

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Cancer Epidemiology Matters blog helps foster a dialogue between the National Cancer Institute's (NCI) Epidemiology and Genomics Research Program (EGRP), extramural researchers, and other individuals, such as clinicians, community partners, and advocates, who are interested in cancer epidemiology and genomics.

  20. Cancer Epidemiology Matters Blog - 2013 Archive

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Cancer Epidemiology Matters blog helps foster a dialogue between the National Cancer Institute's (NCI) Epidemiology and Genomics Research Program (EGRP), extramural researchers, and other individuals, such as clinicians, community partners, and advocates, who are interested in cancer epidemiology and genomics.

  1. Cancer Epidemiology Matters Blog - 2015 Archive

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Cancer Epidemiology Matters blog helps foster a dialogue between the National Cancer Institute's (NCI) Epidemiology and Genomics Research Program (EGRP), extramural researchers, and other individuals, such as clinicians, community partners, and advocates, who are interested in cancer epidemiology and genomics.

  2. Volatile metabolites from actinomycetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scholler, C.E.G.; Gurtler, H.; Pedersen, R.;

    2002-01-01

    , sulfur compounds, and isoprenoid compounds. Among the most frequently produced compounds were isoprene, acetone, 1-butanol, 2-methyl-1-propanol,3-methyl-3-buten-1-ol, 3-methyl-1-butanol, 2-methyl-1-butanol, cyclopentanone, dimethyl disulfide, dimethyl trisulfide, 2-phenylethanol, and geosmin....... The relationship between the excretion of geosmin and the production of spores was examined for one isolate. A good correlation between headspace geosmin and the number of spores was observed, suggesting that VOCs could be used to indicate the activity of these microorganisms in heterogeneous substrates....

  3. Complete Genome Sequence of the Aerobic Marine Methanotroph Methylomonas methanica MC09

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boden, Rich [University of Warwick, UK; Cunliffe, Michael [University of Warwick, UK; Scanlan, Julie [University of Warwick, UK; Moussard, Helene [University of Warwick, UK; Kits, K. Dimitri [University of Alberta, Edmondton, Canada; Klotz, Martin G [University of Louisville, Louisville; Jetten, MSM [Radboud University Nijmegen, The Netherlands; Vuilleumier, Stephane [University of Strasbourg; Han, James [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Peters, Lin [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Mikhailova, Natalia [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Teshima, Hazuki [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Tapia, Roxanne [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Kyrpides, Nikos C [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Ivanova, N [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Pagani, Ioanna [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Cheng, Jan-Fang [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Goodwin, Lynne A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Han, Cliff [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Hauser, Loren John [ORNL; Land, Miriam L [ORNL; Lapidus, Alla L. [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Lucas, Susan [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Pitluck, Sam [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Woyke, Tanja [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Stein, Lisa Y. [University of Alberta, Edmondton, Canada; Murrell, Collin [University of Warwick, UK

    2011-01-01

    Methylomonas methanica MC09 is a mesophilic, halotolerant, aerobic, methanotrophic member of the Gammaproteobacteria, isolated from coastal seawater. Here we present the complete genome sequence of this strain, the first available from an aerobic marine methanotroph.

  4. Solid-Phase Thermophilic Aerobic Reactor (STAR) Processing of Fecal, Food, and Plant Residues

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    A description of the Solid Waste Resource Recovery ALS-NSCORT projects: Solid Phase Thermophilic Aerobic Reactor (STAR), Nitrogen Cycling in Advanced Life Support Systems, and Plant-based Anaerobic-Aerobic Bioreactor Linked Operation (PAABLO). 26 pages.

  5. [THE ROLE OF (p)ppGpp MOLECULES IN FORMATION OF "STRICT RESPONSE" IN BACTERIA AND BIOSYNTHESIS OF ANTIBIOTICS AND MORPHOLOGICAL DIFFERENTIATION IN ACTINOMYCETES].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klymyshin, D; Stephanyshyn, O; Fedorenko, V

    2016-01-01

    Strict response is a pleiotropic physiological response of cells caused by lack of aminoacetylated tRNAs. Experimentally, this response occurs due to the lack of amino acids in the environment and the limitation of tRNA aminoacylation even in the presence of the corresponding amino acids in the cell. Many features of this response indicate its dependence on the accumulation of ppGpp molecules. There is a correlation between the growth rate of actinomycetes and biosynthesis of their secondary metabolites. Introduction of additional relA gene copies of ppGpp synthetase can affect the production of antibiotics in streptomycetes. The article presents the authors' own experimental data, dedicated to the influence of heterologous relA gene expression in Streptomyces nogalater cells.

  6. Exercise training improves aerobic endurance and musculoskeletal fitness in female cardiac transplant recipients

    OpenAIRE

    Warburton Darren; Kim Daniel; Figgures Linda; Riess Kenneth; Haykowsky Mark; Jones Lee; Tymchak Wayne

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Aim Female cardiac transplant recipients' aerobic capacity is 60% lower than sex and age-predicted values. The effect of exercise training on restoring the impaired aerobic endurance and muscle strength in female cardiac transplant recipients is not known. This study examined the effect that aerobic and strength training have on improving aerobic endurance and muscle strength in female cardiac transplant recipients. Methods 20 female cardiac transplant recipients (51 ± 11 years) part...

  7. Treatment of anthraquinone dye wastewater by hydrolytic acidification-aerobic process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Jian; WU Min; Li Dan

    2004-01-01

    Experiment on microbial degradation with two kinds of biological process, hydrolytic acidification-aerobic process and aerobic process was conducted to treat the anthraquinone dye wastewater with CODCr concentration of 400 mg/L and chroma 800. The experimental result demonstrated that the hydrolytic-aerobic process could raise the biodegradability of anthraquinone dye wastewater effectively. The effluent CODCr can reach 120-170 mg/L and chroma 150 which is superior to that from simple aerobic process.

  8. Blood lactate level in Wistar rats after four and twelve week intermittent aerobic training

    OpenAIRE

    Dewi N. Sari; Sutjahjo Endardjo; Dewi I.S. Santoso

    2013-01-01

    Background: Aerobic training can be done not only continuously, but also intermittently. Intermittent aerobic training aimed to get blood lactate level lower than continuous aerobic training. Blood lactate concentration in one of the various factors that determine training performance. However, until recently, little studies about intermittent aerobic training and blood lactate levels have been done. Therefore, this study aimed to measure blood lactate levels in Wistar rats after 4 and 12 wee...

  9. Isolation of Actinomycetes from Xisha Islands and Their Antimicrobial Activities%西沙群岛海域海洋放线菌的分离及其抗菌活性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    房耀维; 王淑军; 刘姝; 吕明生; 焦豫良; 陈国强; 潘建梅

    2014-01-01

    Antimicrobial activities of actinomycete isolated from samples collected in Xisha Islands,Hainan Province, China were studied. The isolation of the samples adopted exsiccation,radiation,freezing,heating and others eleven sample pretreatment processes. Among them the typical strains were characterized and investigated for their growth and dependence on seawater. Staphylococcus aureus,E. coli,Saccharomyces cerevisiae,and Penicillium expansum were taken as indicators to test their antimicrobial activities. 383 actinomycete strains were isolated from samples collected in Xisha Islands. 23 of them were marine obligate actinomycetes. 93 typical strains were characterized and belonged to 9 families and 11 genera. The media used to isolated actinomycete strains had significantly affected the number and kinds of the strains. Six actinomycetes strains had antimicrobial activities against four tested indicators strains,among them four were marine obligate actinomycetes indicating that marine environment has abundant resources of actinomy-cetes. These actinomycetes,especially the marine obligate actinomycetes are hopeful to be a source to discover and develop novel antibiotic substances provide source for strain seeds.%分离西沙群岛海域放线菌并研究其抗菌活性。采用干燥、辐射、冷冻及加热处理等11种样品预处理方式和10种培养基对海洋放线菌进行分离,对代表性菌株进行鉴定,并考察分离放线菌生长的海水依赖性。进一步以金黄色葡萄球菌、大肠埃希菌、啤酒酵母和扩展青霉为指示菌考察分离放线菌的抗菌活性。从西沙群岛海域样品中分离获得放线菌383株,其中专性海洋放线菌23株。选定93株代表菌株进行鉴定,93株菌隶属于9个科,11个属。不同培养基对分离放线菌菌株的数量及种类影响显著。6株放线菌对4种指示菌均有抑菌活性,其中4株为专性海洋放线菌,表明海洋环境具有丰富的放线

  10. Identification and characterization of a new erythromycin biosynthetic gene cluster in Actinopolyspora erythraea YIM90600, a novel erythronolide-producing halophilic actinomycete isolated from salt field.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dandan Chen

    Full Text Available Erythromycins (Ers are clinically potent macrolide antibiotics in treating pathogenic bacterial infections. Microorganisms capable of producing Ers, represented by Saccharopolyspora erythraea, are mainly soil-dwelling actinomycetes. So far, Actinopolyspora erythraea YIM90600, a halophilic actinomycete isolated from Baicheng salt field, is the only known Er-producing extremophile. In this study, we have reported the draft genome sequence of Ac. erythraea YIM90600, genome mining of which has revealed a new Er biosynthetic gene cluster encoding several novel Er metabolites. This Er gene cluster shares high identity and similarity with the one of Sa. erythraea NRRL2338, except for two absent genes, eryBI and eryG. By correlating genotype and chemotype, the biosynthetic pathways of 3'-demethyl-erythromycin C, erythronolide H (EH and erythronolide I have been proposed. The formation of EH is supposed to be sequentially biosynthesized via C-6/C-18 epoxidation and C-14 hydroxylation from 6-deoxyerythronolide B. Although an in vitro enzymatic activity assay has provided limited evidence for the involvement of the cytochrome P450 oxidase EryFAc (derived from Ac. erythraea YIM90600 in the catalysis of a two-step oxidation, resulting in an epoxy moiety, the attempt to construct an EH-producing Sa. erythraea mutant via gene complementation was not successful. Characterization of EryKAc (derived from Ac. erythraea YIM90600 in vitro has confirmed its unique role as a C-12 hydroxylase, rather than a C-14 hydroxylase of the erythronolide. Genomic characterization of the halophile Ac. erythraea YIM90600 will assist us to explore the great potential of extremophiles, and promote the understanding of EH formation, which will shed new insights into the biosynthesis of Er metabolites.

  11. Identification and preliminary characterization of non-polyene antibiotics secreted by new strain of actinomycete isolated from sebkha of Kenadsa, Algeria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Omar; Messaoudi; Mourad; Bendahou; Ibrahim; Benamar; Djamal-Elddine; Abdelwouhid

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To study the antimicrobial activity of actinomycetes isolated from sabkha of Kenadsa and identification of the isolate interesting. Methods: Eighteen strains were isolated, using four culture media from sebkha of Kenadsa(Bechar, Southwestern Algeria). Screening of antimicrobial activity consisted of two steps: in primary screening, antibacterial activity was determined by using the agar plug method against test strains; in secondary screening, better isolate which showed a good activity in the first screening was selected to extract antimicrobial substances. The antimicrobial activities of extracts were evaluated by using Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method. Partial characterization of antimicrobial products was performed on the basis of chemical revelations, UV-vis spectrometry and infrared spectroscopy. The identification of isolate interesting was performed through morphological, chemical, biochemical and physiological characteristics. Results: All isolates showed antimicrobial activity against at least one microorganism test. One isolate, LAM143 cG 3, was selected for its broad spectrum and high antimicrobial activity. The isolate LAM143 c G3 was identified as Spirillospora sp. The comparison between the species of this genus(Spirillospora rubra and Spirillospora albida) and our isolate indicated the existence of several physiological and biochemical differences which led us to suppose that this was a new member of this genus. Primary characterization of antimicrobial substances produced by the isolate LAM143 c G3 indicated the presence of amines and phenols. The UV–vis spectrum suggested a non-polyenic nature of substances secreted by our isolate, while infrared confirmed the presence of amine groups.Conclusions: The result of the present study revealed that sebkha of Kenadsa was rich in rare actinomycetes, that secreted interesting antimicrobial substance.

  12. Strength training and aerobic exercise training for muscle disease (Review)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voet, N.B.M.; Kooi, E.L. van der; Riphagen, I.I.; Lindeman, E.; Engelen, B.G.M. van; Geurts, A.C.H.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Strength training or aerobic exercise programmes might optimise muscle and cardiorespiratory function and prevent additional disuse atrophy and deconditioning in people with a muscle disease. This is an update of a review first published in 2004. OBJECTIVES: To examine the safety and eff

  13. Intrinsic Aerobic Capacity Sets a Divide for Aging and Longevity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koch, G.; Kemi, O.J.; Qi, N.; Leng, S.X.; Bijma, P.; Gilligan, L.J.; Wilkinson, J.E.; Grevenhof, van E.M.

    2011-01-01

    Rationale: Low aerobic exercise capacity is a powerful predictor of premature morbidity and mortality for healthy adults as well as those with cardiovascular disease. For aged populations, poor performance on treadmill or extended walking tests indicates closer proximity to future health declines. T

  14. AEROBIC BIODEGRADATION OF GASOLINE OXYGENATES MTBE AND TBA

    Science.gov (United States)

    MTBE degradation was investigated using a continuously stirred tank reactor (CSTR) with biomass retention (porous pot reactor) operated under aerobic conditions. MTBE was fed to the reactor at an influent concentration of 150 mg/l (1.70 mmol/l). A second identifical rector was op...

  15. In situ aerobic cometabolism of chlorinated solvents: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frascari, Dario; Zanaroli, Giulio; Danko, Anthony S

    2015-01-01

    The possible approaches for in situ aerobic cometabolism of aquifers and vadose zones contaminated by chlorinated solvents are critically evaluated. Bioaugmentation of resting-cells previously grown in a fermenter and in-well addition of oxygen and growth substrate appear to be the most promising approaches for aquifer bioremediation. Other solutions involving the sparging of air lead to satisfactory pollutant removals, but must be integrated by the extraction and subsequent treatment of vapors to avoid the dispersion of volatile chlorinated solvents in the atmosphere. Cometabolic bioventing is the only possible approach for the aerobic cometabolic bioremediation of the vadose zone. The examined studies indicate that in situ aerobic cometabolism leads to the biodegradation of a wide range of chlorinated solvents within remediation times that vary between 1 and 17 months. Numerous studies include a simulation of the experimental field data. The modeling of the process attained a high reliability, and represents a crucial tool for the elaboration of field data obtained in pilot tests and for the design of the full-scale systems. Further research is needed to attain higher concentrations of chlorinated solvent degrading microbes and more reliable cost estimates. Lastly, a procedure for the design of full-scale in situ aerobic cometabolic bioremediation processes is proposed. PMID:25306537

  16. Aerobic exercise and intraocular pressure in normotensive and glaucoma patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chatzibalis Theodosios

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With the increasing number of people participating in physical aerobic exercise, jogging in particular, we considered that it would be worth knowing if there are should be limits to the exercise with regard to the intraocular pressure (IOP of the eyes. The purpose of this study is to check IOP in healthy and primary glaucoma patients after aerobic exercise. Methods 145 individuals were subdivided into seven groups: normotensives who exercised regularly (Group A; normotensives in whose right eye (RE timolol maleate 0.5% (Group B, latanoprost 0.005% (Group C, or brimonidine tartrate 0.2% (Group D was instilled; and primary glaucoma patients under monotherapy with β-blockers (Group E, prostaglandin analogues (Group F or combined antiglaucoma treatment (Group G instilled in both eyes. The IOP of both eyes was measured before and after exercise. Results A statistically significant decrease was found in IOP during jogging. The aerobic exercise reduces the IOP in those eyes where a b-blocker, a prostaglandin analogue or an α-agonist was previously instilled. The IOP is also decreased in glaucoma patients who are already under antiglaucoma treatment. Conclusion There is no ocular restriction for simple glaucoma patients in performing aerobic physical activity.

  17. Teaching Aerobic Cell Respiration Using the 5Es

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patro, Edward T.

    2008-01-01

    The 5E teaching model provides a five step method for teaching science. While the sequence of the model is strictly linear, it does provide opportunities for the teacher to "revisit" prior learning before moving on. The 5E method is described as it relates to the teaching of aerobic cell respiration.

  18. Aerobic Capacities of Early College High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loflin, Jerry W.

    2014-01-01

    The Early College High School Initiative (ECHSI) was introduced in 2002. Since 2002, limited data, especially student physical activity data, have been published pertaining to the ECHSI. The purpose of this study was to examine the aerobic capacities of early college students and compare them to state and national averages. Early college students…

  19. Aerobic Digestion. Biological Treatment Process Control. Instructor's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klopping, Paul H.

    This unit on aerobic sludge digestion covers the theory of the process, system components, factors that affect the process performance, standard operational concerns, indicators of steady-state operations, and operational problems. The instructor's guide includes: (1) an overview of the unit; (2) lesson plan; (3) lecture outline (keyed to a set of…

  20. PATTERN OF AEROBIC B ACTERIAL INFECTION O F DIABETIC FOOT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parmeshwari

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Diabetic foot ulcer is one of the commonest complications of longstanding diabetes. Diabetic foot is a common cause of hospital admission in diabetic patients in India. The trio of problems leading onto diabetic foot is neuropathy, vascular changes and infections, which constitute the diabetic foot syndrome. OBJECTIVES: To determine prevalence of aerobic pathogens in diabetic foot lesions. METHODS: Tissue samples were taken from the affected foot of 109 diabetic patients and processed by routine microbiological methods. RESULTS : A total of 244 aerobic organisms were isolated from 100 cases with an average of 2.5 organisms per case. Staphylococcus aureus was the predominant aerobe isolated (25.4% followed by Proteus mirabilis (21.3%. The other aerobes isolated were Pseudomonas aeruginosa (10.65%, Kleb siella pneumonia (8.6%, Escherichia coli (6.9%, Enterococcus faecalis (5.32%, Coagulase Negative Staphylococcus (4.5%, Proteus vulgaris (4.09%, Klebsiella oxytoca (3.27%, Citrobacter freudii (2.86%, Corynebacterium species (2.04%, Group A streptococci and Acinetobacter species (1.63%, and Enterobacter species (0.82%. MRSA was 17.8%. CONCLUSION : Diabetic foot infections are polymicrobial in nature. Staphylococcus aureus was the most common among gram - positive organisms, while P roteus mirabilis was the most frequent isolate among the gram - negative pathogens. Hence early identification of the risk factors and timely institution of appropriate treatment is indispensable to avoid amputations.

  1. Aerobic Capacity and Anaerobic Power Levels of the University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taskin, Cengiz

    2016-01-01

    The aim of study was to analyze aerobic capacity and anaerobic power levels of the university students. Total forty university students who is department physical education and department business (age means; 21.15±1.46 years for male and age means; 20.55±1.79 years for female in department physical education), volunteered to participate in this…

  2. COMMERCIAL-SCALE AEROBIC-ANAEROBIC BIOREACTOR LANDFILL OPERATIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    A sequential aerobic-anaerobic treatment system has been applied at a commercial scale (3,000 ton per day) municipal solid waste landfill in Kentucky, USA since 2001. In this system, the uppermost layer of landfilled waste is aerated and liquid waste including leachate, surface w...

  3. In situ aerobic cometabolism of chlorinated solvents: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frascari, Dario; Zanaroli, Giulio; Danko, Anthony S

    2015-01-01

    The possible approaches for in situ aerobic cometabolism of aquifers and vadose zones contaminated by chlorinated solvents are critically evaluated. Bioaugmentation of resting-cells previously grown in a fermenter and in-well addition of oxygen and growth substrate appear to be the most promising approaches for aquifer bioremediation. Other solutions involving the sparging of air lead to satisfactory pollutant removals, but must be integrated by the extraction and subsequent treatment of vapors to avoid the dispersion of volatile chlorinated solvents in the atmosphere. Cometabolic bioventing is the only possible approach for the aerobic cometabolic bioremediation of the vadose zone. The examined studies indicate that in situ aerobic cometabolism leads to the biodegradation of a wide range of chlorinated solvents within remediation times that vary between 1 and 17 months. Numerous studies include a simulation of the experimental field data. The modeling of the process attained a high reliability, and represents a crucial tool for the elaboration of field data obtained in pilot tests and for the design of the full-scale systems. Further research is needed to attain higher concentrations of chlorinated solvent degrading microbes and more reliable cost estimates. Lastly, a procedure for the design of full-scale in situ aerobic cometabolic bioremediation processes is proposed.

  4. Aerobic Removal of Technetium by a Marine Halomonas Strain▿ †

    OpenAIRE

    Fujimoto, Ken; Morita, Takami

    2006-01-01

    A novel strain of Halomonas (Tc-202), which has the capability of removing Tc(VII) from solid- and aqueous-phase material aerobically, was isolated from the marine environment. Tc-202 removed 55% of the total 99Tc in solutions at 15°C by reducing Tc(VII) to Tc(V), but other Halomonas strains did not.

  5. Kinetic comparisons of mesophilic and thermophilic aerobic biomass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogelaar, J.C.T.; Klapwijk, A.; Temmink, H.; Lier, van J.B.

    2003-01-01

    Kinetic parameters describing growth and decay of mesophilic (30degreesC) and thermophilic (55degreesC) aerobic biomass were determined in continuous and batch experiments by using oxygen uptake rate measurements
    Kinetic parameters describing growth and decay of mesophilic (30degreesC) and therm

  6. Aerobic Capacity in Children and Adolescents with Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verschuren, Olaf; Takken, Tim

    2010-01-01

    This study described the aerobic capacity [VO[subscript 2peak] (ml/kg/min)] in contemporary children and adolescents with cerebral palsy (CP) using a maximal exercise test protocol. Twenty-four children and adolescents with CP classified at Gross Motor Functional Classification Scale (GMFCS) level I or level II and 336 typically developing…

  7. Aerobic Oxidation of Methyl Vinyl Ketone in Supercritical Carbon Dioxide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    OUYANG,Xiao-Yue(欧阳小月); JIANG,Huan-Feng(江焕峰); CHENG,Jin-Sheng(程金生); ZHANG,Qun-Jian(张群健)

    2002-01-01

    Aerobic oxidation of methyl vinyl ketone to acetal in supercritical carbon dioxide are achieved in high conversion and high selectivity when oxygen pressure reaches 0.5MPa. The effects of cocatalysts,additive, pressure and temperature of the reaction are studied in detail.

  8. Aerobic capacity in children and adolescents with cerebral palsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verschuren, Olaf; Takken, Tim

    2010-01-01

    This study described the aerobic capacity [VO(2peak) (ml/kg/min)] in contemporary children and adolescents with cerebral palsy (CP) using a maximal exercise test protocol. Twenty-four children and adolescents with CP classified at Gross Motor Functional Classification Scale (GMFCS) level I or level

  9. Anaerobes unleashed: Aerobic fuel cells of Geobacter sulfurreducens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevin, Kelly P.; Zhang, Pei; Franks, Ashley E.; Woodard, Trevor L.; Lovley, Derek R.

    One of the limitations of power generation with microbial fuel cells is that the anode must typically be maintained under anaerobic conditions. When oxygen is present in the anode chamber microorganisms oxidize the fuel with the reduction of oxygen rather than electron transfer to the anode. A system in which fuel is provided from within a graphite anode and diffuses out to the outer surface of the anode was designed to overcome these limitations. A biofilm of Geobacter sulfurreducens strain KN400, pregrown on the surface of a graphite electrode in a traditional two-chambered system with an anaerobic anode chamber and acetate as an external fuel source, produced current just as well under aerobic conditions when acetate was provided via diffusion from an internal concentrated acetate solution. No acetate was detectable in the external medium. In contrast, aerobic systems in which acetate was provided in the external medium completely failed within 48 h. Internally fed anodes colonized by a strain of KN400 adapted to grow at marine salinities produced current in aerobic seawater as well as an anaerobic anode system. The ability to generate current with an anode under aerobic conditions increases the potential applications and design options for microbial fuel cells.

  10. Sequenced anaerobic-aerobic treatment of hemp pulping wastewaters.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kortekaas, S.

    1998-01-01

    Biological treatment is an indispensable instrument for water management of non-wood pulp mills, either as internal measure to enable progressive closure of water cycles, or as end of pipe treatment. In this thesis, the sequenced anaerobic-aerobic treatment of hemp ( Cannabis sativa L. ) pulping was

  11. Research on the Characteristic of Energy Metabolism of Aerobics Sports and Reasonable Nutrition Supplement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuang Cheng

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The reasonable nutrition problem has received extensive attention. In this study, it takes the characteristics of aerobics sports as the breakthrough point, by analyzing the characteristics of energy metabolism of aerobics; it explains the composition of three large energy systems of energy metabolism, then discusses the nutritional requirements of Fitness Aerobics as well as the reasonable nutrition supplement measures.

  12. Research on the Characteristic of Energy Metabolism of Aerobics Sports and Reasonable Nutrition Supplement

    OpenAIRE

    Shuang Cheng

    2015-01-01

    The reasonable nutrition problem has received extensive attention. In this study, it takes the characteristics of aerobics sports as the breakthrough point, by analyzing the characteristics of energy metabolism of aerobics; it explains the composition of three large energy systems of energy metabolism, then discusses the nutritional requirements of Fitness Aerobics as well as the reasonable nutrition supplement measures.

  13. Aerobic Development of Elite Youth Ice Hockey Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiter, Jeff R; Cordingley, Dean M; MacDonald, Peter B

    2015-11-01

    Ice hockey is a physiologically complex sport requiring aerobic and anaerobic energy metabolism. College and professional teams often test aerobic fitness; however, there is a paucity of information regarding aerobic fitness of elite youth players. Without this knowledge, training of youth athletes to meet the standards of older age groups and higher levels of hockey may be random, inefficient, and or effective. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the aerobic fitness of elite youth hockey players. A retrospective database review was performed for 200 male AAA hockey players between the ages of 13 and 17 (age, 14.4 ± 1.2 years; height, 174.3 ± 8.5 cm; body mass, 67.2 ± 11.5 kg; body fat, 9.8 ± 3.5%) before the 2012-13 season. All subjects performed a graded exercise test on a cycle ergometer, whereas expired air was collected by either a Parvo Medics TrueOne 2400 or a CareFusion Oxycon Mobile metabolic cart to determine maximal oxygen consumption (V[Combining Dot Above]O2max). Body mass, absolute V[Combining Dot Above]O2max, and the power output achieved during the last completed stage increased in successive age groups from age 13 to 15 years (p ≤ 0.05). Ventilatory threshold (VT) expressed as a percentage of V[Combining Dot Above]O2max and the heart rate (HR) at which VT occurred decreased between the ages of 13 and 14 years (p ≤ 0.05), whereas the V[Combining Dot Above]O2 at which VT occurred increased from the age of 14-15 years. There were no changes in relative V[Combining Dot Above]O2max or HRmax between any successive age groups. The aerobic fitness levels of elite youth ice hockey players increased as players age and mature physically and physiologically. However, aerobic fitness increased to a lesser extent at older ages. This information has the potential to influence off-season training and maximize the aerobic fitness of elite amateur hockey players, so that these players can meet standards set by advanced elite age groups.

  14. "Epidemiological criminology": coming full circle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akers, Timothy A; Lanier, Mark M

    2009-03-01

    Members of the public health and criminal justice disciplines often work with marginalized populations: people at high risk of drug use, health problems, incarceration, and other difficulties. As these fields increasingly overlap, distinctions between them are blurred, as numerous research reports and funding trends document. However, explicit theoretical and methodological linkages between the 2 disciplines remain rare. A new paradigm that links methods and statistical models of public health with those of their criminal justice counterparts is needed, as are increased linkages between epidemiological analogies, theories, and models and the corresponding tools of criminology. We outline disciplinary commonalities and distinctions, present policy examples that integrate similarities, and propose "epidemiological criminology" as a bridging framework.

  15. Epidemiology of cancer in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, E K

    1985-12-01

    Some information on cancer in Malaysia are available, and its epidemiology is described. There is a need for systematic and coordinated collection of cancer statistics which are essential to patient management, cancer control programme formulation, implementation and evaluation. The decision of the Ministry of Health to introduce National Cancer Registry and to encourage epidemiological studies, which will ultimately lead to the utilization of data and introduction of control and preventive activities for cancers are positive steps in the right direction. Meanwhile, curative and palliative treatment is available from the existing hospital facilities, and preventive activities such as actions on smoking and health will be continued until such time when a comprehensive prevention and control programme for cancers in the country is evolved.

  16. Epidemiology of psoriasis: clinical issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krueger, G G; Duvic, M

    1994-06-01

    Psoriasis is a genetically inherited spectrum of skin diseases characterized by epidermal proliferation and inflammation, which are reversible. Although many have reported that psoriasis is triggered by trauma, infections, stress, drugs, etc., the epidemiology of psoriasis remains poorly understood. Linkage to human leukocyte antigen-(HLA)-Cw6 and DR7 is strong in people with early onset disease, but concordance in monozygotic twins is only 67%, emphasizing the importance of a triggering event. Other factors that have been reported to affect the course of psoriasis include upper respiratory infections, smoking, obesity, alcohol ingestion, regional enteritis, and human immunodeficiency virus infection. This manuscript reviews the clinical epidemiology of psoriasis and highlights some of the needs for further investigation into specific areas of the disease.

  17. [The epidemiological transition in Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albalá, C; Vio, F; Robledo, A; Icaza, G

    1993-12-01

    Aiming to describe the place that Chile has in the epidemiological transition, a descriptive study of the changes in demographic and epidemiological profiles of the country during the last 30 years is presented. The important decrease in general and child mortality rates, that has lead to an increase in life expectancy and ageing of the population, is emphasized. A 82% reduction in the proportion of deaths among less than one year old children and a 62% increase in mortality among people 65 years or older is observed. In agreement with these changes, non transmissible chronic diseases appear as the principal cause of mortality (65% of all deaths). However, regarding morbidity, an increase in digestive infectious and sexually transmitted diseases and a decrease in immuno-preventable diseases, excepting measles, is noted. It is concluded that, according to mortality, Chile is in a post transition stage, but there is persistence of some infectious diseases, typical of a pre-transition stage. PMID:8085073

  18. Viral marketing as epidemiological model

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigues, Helena Sofia; Fonseca, Manuel José

    2015-01-01

    In epidemiology, an epidemic is defined as the spread of an infectious disease to a large number of people in a given population within a short period of time. In the marketing context, a message is viral when it is broadly sent and received by the target market through person-to-person transmission. This specific marketing communication strategy is commonly referred as viral marketing. Due to this similarity between an epidemic and the viral marketing process and because the understanding of...

  19. Epidemiology of Clostridium difficile Infection

    OpenAIRE

    DePestel, Daryl D.; David M. Aronoff

    2013-01-01

    There has been dramatic change in the epidemiology of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) since the turn of the 21st Century noted by a marked increase in incidence and severity, occurring at a disproportionately higher frequency in older patients. Historically considered a nosocomial infection associated with antibiotic exposure, CDI has now also emerged in the community in populations previously considered low risk. Emerging risk factors and disease recurrence represent continued challeng...

  20. Genetic epidemiology of prostate cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Wiklund, Fredrik

    2004-01-01

    Prostate cancer is a major health burden throughout the world, yet the etiology of prostate cancer is poorly understood. Evidence has accumulated supporting the existence of a hereditary form of this disease. Improved understanding of the genetic mechanisms underlying the development and progression of prostate cancer would be a major advance for improved prevention, detection and treatment strategies. This thesis evaluates different aspects of the genetic epidemiology of prostate cancer. In ...

  1. The renaissance of Hippocratic epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofman, A

    1996-11-01

    Epidemiology is a small but not unimportant field in medicine. It has a clear identity and special spirit. It is a science that has to avoid methodologic dogmatism. It is a science that is strongly dependent upon collaboration with medical practice and basic medical science. And it is a science that in the true spirit of Hippocrates tries to contribute to the conquering of diseases in patients and in populations. PMID:8987121

  2. The epidemiology of renal trauma

    OpenAIRE

    Voelzke, Bryan B.; Leddy, Laura

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Nonoperative and minimally invasive management techniques for both blunt and penetrating renal trauma have become standard of care over the past decades. We sought to examine the modern epidemiology of renal trauma over the past decade. Methods A systematic review of PubMed from the past decade was conducted to examine adult and pediatric renal trauma. A total of 605 articles were identified. Of these, 15 adult and 5 pediatric articles met our a priori search criteria. Results Th...

  3. Sarcopenia: Definition, Epidemiology, and Pathophysiology

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Tae Nyun; Choi, Kyung Mook

    2013-01-01

    The epidemiological trends that characterize our generation are the aging of the population. Aging results in a progressive loss of muscle mass and strength called sarcopenia, which is Greek for 'poverty of flesh'. Sarcopenia could lead to functional impairment, physical disability, and even mortality. Today, sarcopenia is a matter of immense public concern for aging prevention. Its prevalence continues to rise, probably as a result of increasing elderly populations all over the world. This p...

  4. Friction Burns: Epidemiology and Prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Agrawal, A; Raibagkar, S.C.; Vora, H.J.

    2008-01-01

    This epidemiological study deals with 60 patients with friction burns between January 2004 and January 2006. The age group most affected was that between 21 and 30 years, with male predominance. Road traffic accidents were the commonest cause of friction burns (56 patients), and the lower limb was the most frequently affected part of the body. Patient management was performed according to the degree of the burn injury. It is suggested that most friction burn injuries are neglected on admissio...

  5. [Epidemiology of burns in France].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latarjet, Jacques; Ravat, François

    2012-01-01

    As with most traumas, the epidemiology of the "burn" health-event has long been neglected by public health doctors and rarely considered by burns specialists. There were therefore few verified data and many approximations and preconceived ideas. The gathering of information recently undertaken in France enables the reliability of the data to be improved and the diagnostic and demographic elements relating to hospitalised patients with burns to be established.

  6. Epidemiological studies in psychosomatic medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastwood, M R

    1975-01-01

    The epidemiological triad of host, agent and environment used conceptually in infectious disease may serve as a model for psychosomatic disorders, despite the involvement of many more variables. There are major problems with diagnosis and measurement, however, and the term "psychosomatic" has several meanings. The two main senses are "specific" psychosomatic disorders and an ecological view of illness. The association between psychiatric and physical disorder has been examined in a variety of settings and the findings have suggested that there is a positive relationship. Despite considerable methodological and sampling difficulties in epidemiological research into psychosomatic illness, recent efforts have been made to overcome these. The results of ecological studies appear to be more consistent that those dealing with "specific" psychosomatic disorders and suggest that man has a general psychophysical propensity to disease. Although physical and mental illness do seem to be intimately linked, the reasons for "vulnerability" to illness and "clustering" of illness are obscure. The clarification of these areas appears to be the main task ahead for epidemiology in the field of psychosomatic medicine. PMID:773850

  7. Biomarkers in Prostate Cancer Epidemiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mudit Verma

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the etiology of a disease such as prostate cancer may help in identifying populations at high risk, timely intervention of the disease, and proper treatment. Biomarkers, along with exposure history and clinical data, are useful tools to achieve these goals. Individual risk and population incidence of prostate cancer result from the intervention of genetic susceptibility and exposure. Biochemical, epigenetic, genetic, and imaging biomarkers are used to identify people at high risk for developing prostate cancer. In cancer epidemiology, epigenetic biomarkers offer advantages over other types of biomarkers because they are expressed against a person’s genetic background and environmental exposure, and because abnormal events occur early in cancer development, which includes several epigenetic alterations in cancer cells. This article describes different biomarkers that have potential use in studying the epidemiology of prostate cancer. We also discuss the characteristics of an ideal biomarker for prostate cancer, and technologies utilized for biomarker assays. Among epigenetic biomarkers, most reports indicate GSTP1 hypermethylation as the diagnostic marker for prostate cancer; however, NKX2-5, CLSTN1, SPOCK2, SLC16A12, DPYS, and NSE1 also have been reported to be regulated by methylation mechanisms in prostate cancer. Current challenges in utilization of biomarkers in prostate cancer diagnosis and epidemiologic studies and potential solutions also are discussed.

  8. Systematics and epidemiology of trichinella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozio, Edoardo; Darwin Murrell, K

    2006-01-01

    In this review, we describe the current knowledge on the systematics, ecology and epidemiology of Trichinella and trichinellosis, and the impact of recent research discoveries on the understanding of this zoonosis. The epidemiology of this zoonosis has experienced important changes over the past two decades, especially with regard to the importance of the sylvatic cycle and the sylvatic species. Outbreaks of trichinellosis due to Trichinella spiralis from domestic swine, while still frequent, increasingly are caused by other Trichinella spp. infecting hosts such as horses, dogs, wild boars, bears and walruses. The latter revelations have occurred as a result of a series of discoveries on the systematics of Trichinella spp., facilitated by new molecular tools. As a consequence, the genus is now composed of two clades, an encapsulated group (five species and three genotypes) and a non-encapsulated one (three species). This has sparked renewed investigations on the host range of these parasites and their epidemiological features. Most dramatic, perhaps, is the recognition that reptiles may also serve as hosts for certain species. This new knowledge base, in addition to having an important relevance for food safety policies and protection measures, is raising important questions on the phylogeny of Trichinella spp., the ecological characteristics of the species and their geographic histories. Answers to these questions may have great value for the understanding of the evolutionary biology for other parasitic helminths, and may increase the value of this genus as models for research on parasitism in general. PMID:17134656

  9. Characterization of a marine origin aerobic nitrifying-denitrifying bacterium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Hai-Yan; Liu, Ying; Gao, Xi-Yan; Ai, Guo-Min; Miao, Li-Li; Liu, Zhi-Pei

    2012-07-01

    The bacterial strain F6 was isolated from a biological aerated filter that is used for purifying recirculating water in a marine aquaculture system and was identified as Marinobacter sp. based on the analysis of its 16S rRNA gene sequence. Strain F6 showed efficient aerobic denitrifying ability. One hundred percent of nitrates and 73.10% of nitrites were removed, and the total nitrogen (TN) removal rates reached 50.08% and 33.03% under a high nitrate and nitrite concentration in the medium, respectively. N(2)O and (15)N(2), as revealed by GC-MS and GC-IRMS, were the products of aerobic denitrification. Factors affecting the growth and aerobic denitrifying performance of strain F6 were investigated. The results showed that the optimum aerobic denitrification conditions for strain F6 were the presence of sodium succinate as a carbon source, a C/N ratio of 15, salinity ranging from 32-35 g/L of NaCl, incubation temperature of 30°C, an initial pH of 7.5, and rotation speed of 150 rpm [dissolved oxygen (DO) 6.75 mg/L]. In addition, strain F6 was confirmed to be a heterotrophic nitrifier through its NO(2)(-) generation and 25.96% TN removal when NH(4)(+) was used as the sole N source. Therefore, strain F6, the first reported member of genus Marinobacter with aerobic heterotrophic nitrifying-denitrifying ability, is an excellent candidate for facilitating simultaneous nitrification and denitrification (SND) in industry and aquaculture wastewater. PMID:22578593

  10. Aerobic exercise augments muscle transcriptome profile of resistance exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundberg, Tommy R; Fernandez-Gonzalo, Rodrigo; Tesch, Per A; Rullman, Eric; Gustafsson, Thomas

    2016-06-01

    Recent reports suggest that aerobic exercise may boost the hypertrophic response to short-term resistance training. This study explored the effects of an acute aerobic exercise bout on the transcriptional response to subsequent resistance exercise. Ten moderately trained men performed ∼45 min cycling on one leg followed by 4 × 7 maximal knee extensions for each leg, 15 min later. Thus, one limb performed aerobic and resistance exercise (AE + RE) while the opposing leg did resistance exercise only (RE). Biopsies were obtained from the vastus lateralis muscle of each leg 3 h after the resistance exercise bout. Using DNA microarray, we analyzed differences [≥1.5-fold, false discovery rate (FDR) ≤10%] in gene expression profiles for the two modes of exercise. There were 176 genes up (127)- or downregulated (49) by AE + RE compared with RE. Among the most significant differentially expressed genes were established markers for muscle growth and oxidative capacity, novel cytokines, transcription factors, and micro-RNAs (miRNAs). The most enriched functional categories were those linked to carbohydrate metabolism and transcriptional regulation. Upstream analysis revealed that vascular endothelial growth factor, cAMP-response element-binding protein, Tet methylcytosine dioxygenase, and mammalian target of rapamycin were regulators highly activated by AE + RE, whereas JnK, NF-κβ, MAPK, and several miRNAs were inhibited. Thus, aerobic exercise alters the skeletal muscle transcriptional signature of resistance exercise to initiate important gene programs promoting both myofiber growth and improved oxidative capacity. These results provide novel insight into human muscle adaptations to diverse exercise modes and offer the very first genomic basis explaining how aerobic exercise may augment, rather than compromise, muscle growth induced by resistance exercise. PMID:27101291

  11. Mechanisms of aerobic performance impairment with heat stress and dehydration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheuvront, Samuel N; Kenefick, Robert W; Montain, Scott J; Sawka, Michael N

    2010-12-01

    Environmental heat stress can challenge the limits of human cardiovascular and temperature regulation, body fluid balance, and thus aerobic performance. This minireview proposes that the cardiovascular adjustments accompanying high skin temperatures (T(sk)), alone or in combination with high core body temperatures (T(c)), provide a primary explanation for impaired aerobic exercise performance in warm-hot environments. The independent (T(sk)) and combined (T(sk) + T(c)) effects of hyperthermia reduce maximal oxygen uptake (Vo(2max)), which leads to higher relative exercise intensity and an exponential decline in aerobic performance at any given exercise workload. Greater relative exercise intensity increases cardiovascular strain, which is a prominent mediator of rated perceived exertion. As a consequence, incremental or constant-rate exercise is more difficult to sustain (earlier fatigue) or requires a slowing of self-paced exercise to achieve a similar sensation of effort. It is proposed that high T(sk) and T(c) impair aerobic performance in tandem primarily through elevated cardiovascular strain, rather than a deterioration in central nervous system (CNS) function or skeletal muscle metabolism. Evaporative sweating is the principal means of heat loss in warm-hot environments where sweat losses frequently exceed fluid intakes. When dehydration exceeds 3% of total body water (2% of body mass) then aerobic performance is consistently impaired independent and additive to heat stress. Dehydration augments hyperthermia and plasma volume reductions, which combine to accentuate cardiovascular strain and reduce Vo(2max). Importantly, the negative performance consequences of dehydration worsen as T(sk) increases.

  12. 垃圾堆肥放线菌发酵过滤液对高羊茅初期生长的影响%Effects of actinomycetes fermented filtrates from MSW compost on seedling growth of tall fescue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程田; 赵树兰; 多立安

    2012-01-01

    通过向草坪基质中加入不同浓度生活垃圾堆肥放线菌发酵滤液,研究了堆肥放线菌发酵液对草坪草高羊茅萌发及初期生长的影响。结果表明:各浓度放线菌发酵滤液对高羊茅的生长指标和叶绿素含量均有显著的促进作用,其中,以稀释4倍的放线菌发酵滤液的促进效果最为明显。在稀释4倍的放线菌发酵滤液的处理下,高羊茅的发芽率、株高、地上干重、地下干重和叶绿素含量分别比对照提高了17.3%、17.9%、20.0%、66.7%和60.3%。虽然,不同浓度的放线菌发酵滤液对高羊茅的萌发和初期生长均具有一定的促进作用,但以稀释4倍的放线菌发酵滤液效果为最佳。%The effect of different concentrations of actinomycetes fermented filtrate from municipal solid waste(MSW) compost on germination and seedling growth of tall fescue was studied.The results showed that different treatments of actinomycetes filtrates promoted the seed germination and growth.Among the three treatments,4 times diluted actinomycetes filtrate had the most obvious effect.Compared with the control,4 times diluted actinomycetes filtrate increased the germination rate,seedling height,aboveground dry weight,underground dry weight and total chlorophyll content by 17.3%,17.9%,20%,66.7% and 60.3% respectively.It could be concluded that actinomycetes filtrates at different concentrations could promote seed germination and seedling growth,and 4 times diluted actinomycetes filtrate was the most effective.

  13. Technical note: enumeration of mesophilic aerobes in milk: evaluation of standard official protocols and Petrifilm aerobic count plates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, R; Nero, L A; Carvalho, A F

    2009-07-01

    Enumeration of mesophilic aerobes (MA) is the main quality and hygiene parameter for raw and pasteurized milk. High levels of these microorganisms indicate poor conditions in production, storage, and processing of milk, and also the presence of pathogens. Fifteen raw and 15 pasteurized milk samples were submitted for MA enumeration by a conventional plating method (using plate count agar) and Petrifilm Aerobic Count plates (3M, St. Paul, MN), followed by incubation according to 3 official protocols: IDF/ISO (incubation at 30 degrees C for 72 h), American Public Health Association (32 degrees C for 48 h), and Brazilian Ministry of Agriculture (36 degrees C for 48 h). The results were compared by linear regression and ANOVA. Considering the results from conventional methodology, good correlation indices and absence of significant differences between mean counts were observed, independent of type of milk sample (raw or pasteurized) and incubation conditions (IDF/ISO, American Public Health Association, or Ministry of Agriculture). Considering the results from Petrifilm Aerobic Count plates, good correlation indices and absence of significant differences were only observed for raw milk samples. The microbiota of pasteurized milk interfered negatively with the performance of Petrifilm Aerobic Count plates, probably because of the presence of microorganisms that poorly reduce the dye indicator of this system.

  14. Cultivation of aerobic granules for simultaneous nitrification and denitrification by seeding different inoculated sludge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Fang; YANG Feng-lin; LIU Yi-hui; ZHANG Xing-wen

    2005-01-01

    Cultivation of aerobic granules for simultaneous nitrification and denitrification in two sequencing batch airlift bioreactors was studied. Conventional activated floc and anaerobic granules served as main two inoculated sludge in the systems. Morphological variations of sludge in the reactors were observed. It was found that the cultivation of aerobic granules was closely associated with the kind of inoculated sludge. Round and regular aerobic granules were prevailed in both reactors, and the physical characteristics of the aerobic granules in terms of settling ability, specific gravity, and ratio of water containing were distinct when the inoculate sludge was different.Aerobic granules formed by seeding activated floc are more excellent in simultaneous nitrification and denitrification than that by aerobic granules formed from anaerobic granules. It was concluded that inoculated sludge plays a crucial role in the cultivation of aerobic granules for simultaneous nitrification and denitrification.

  15. 浅议达托霉素在环境放线菌中的抗性机制%Extraction of Supporting Drug Resistance Mechanism of Actinomycetes in the Environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    倪慧慧

    2013-01-01

    本文通过对所有环境放线菌耐受达托霉素的程度上,进行了药性、药理的研究,并且为出现临床耐药机制提供了预警,从而说明了达托霉素在环境放线菌中具有很高的抗性频率,其中它的主要抗性机制之一是灭活达托霉素。%This article through to al environmental actinomycetes tolerance of the extent of toxin, the medicinal properties, pharmacological research, and provides a warning in clinical drug resistance mechanism, which shows up to Joe drug resistance of actinomycetes in the environment of has the very high frequency, which is one of the main resistance mechanism of inactivated a toxin.

  16. Epidemiology, molecular epidemiology, and risk factors for renal cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Paglino

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite only accounting for approximately 2% of all new primary cancer cases, renal cell carcinoma (RCC incidence has dramatically increased over time. Incidence rates vary greatly according to geographic areas, so that it is extremely likely that exogenous risk factors could play an important role in the development of this cancer. Several risk factors have been linked with RCC, including cigarette smoking, obesity, hypertension (and antihypertensive drugs, chronic kidney diseases (also dialysis and transplantation, as well as the use of certain analgesics. Furthermore, although RCC has not generally been considered an occupational cancer, several types of occupationally-derived exposures have been implicated in its pathogenesis. These include exposure to asbestos, chlorinated solvents, gasoline, diesel exhaust fumes, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, printing inks and dyes, cadmium and lead. Finally, families with a predisposition to the development of renal neoplasms were identified and the genes involved discovered and characterized. Therefore, there are now four well-characterized, genetically determined syndromes associated with an increased incidence of kidney tumors, i.e., Von Hippel Lindau (VHL, Hereditary Papillary Renal Carcinoma (HPRC, Birt-Hogg-Dubé Syndrome (BHD, and Hereditary Leiomyomatosis and Renal Cell Cancer (HLRCC. This review will address present knowledge about the epidemiology, molecular epidemiology and risk factors of RCC.

  17. Epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Kyle M; Ohgaki, Hiroko; Wrensch, Margaret R

    2016-01-01

    More than 250,000 new cases of primary malignant brain tumors are diagnosed annually worldwide, 77% of which are gliomas. A small proportion of gliomas are caused by the inheritance of rare high-penetrance genetic variants or high-dose radiation. Since 2009, inherited genetic variants in 10 regions near eight different genes have been consistently associated with glioma risk via genome-wide association studies. Most of these variants increase glioma risk by 20-40%, but two have higher relative risks. One on chromosome 8 increases risk of IDH-mutated gliomas sixfold and another that affects TP53 function confers a 2.5-fold increased risk of glioma. Functions of some of the other risk variants are known or suspected, but future research will determine functions of other risk loci. Recent progress also has been made in defining subgroups of glioma based on acquired alterations within tumors. Allergy history has been consistently associated with reduced glioma risk, though the mechanisms have not yet been clarified. Future studies will need to be large enough so that environmental and constitutive genetic risk factors can be examined within molecularly defined, etiologically homogeneous subgroups.

  18. Epidemiology and Statistical Modeling in Burn Injuries

    OpenAIRE

    Sadeghi Bazargani, Homayoun

    2010-01-01

    An important issue in assessing the epidemiology of injuries, including burns, is the investigation of appropriate methodologies and statistical modeling techniques to study injuries in an efficient and trustworthy manner. The overall aim of this thesis is to analyze epidemiological patterns and assess the appropriateness of supervised statistical models to investigate burn risks and patterns. This thesis contains four papers: the first two concern descriptive epidemiology of burns in Arda...

  19. Field assessment of semi-aerobic condition and the methane correction factor for the semi-aerobic landfills provided by IPCC guidelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Sangjae [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, College of Engineering, Seoul National University, 1 Gwanak-ro, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Nam, Anwoo [Korea Environment Corporation, 42 Hwangyeong-ro, Seo-gu, Incheon 404-170 (Korea, Republic of); Yi, Seung-Muk [Department of Environmental Health, School of Public Health, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jae Young, E-mail: jaeykim@snu.ac.kr [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, College of Engineering, Seoul National University, 1 Gwanak-ro, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • CH{sub 4}/CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} + CO{sub 2}% are proposed as indices to evaluate semi-aerobic landfills. • A landfill which CH{sub 4}/CO{sub 2} > 1.0 is difficult to be categorized as semi-aerobic landfill. • Field conditions should be carefully investigated to determine landfill types. • The MCF default value for semi-aerobic landfills underestimates the methane emissions. - Abstract: According to IPCC guidelines, a semi-aerobic landfill site produces one-half of the amount of CH{sub 4} produced by an equally-sized anaerobic landfill site. Therefore categorizing the landfill type is important on greenhouse gas inventories. In order to assess semi-aerobic condition in the sites and the MCF value for semi-aerobic landfill, landfill gas has been measured from vent pipes in five semi-aerobically designed landfills in South Korea. All of the five sites satisfied requirements of semi-aerobic landfills in 2006 IPCC guidelines. However, the ends of leachate collection pipes which are main entrance of air in the semi-aerobic landfill were closed in all five sites. The CH{sub 4}/CO{sub 2} ratio in landfill gas, indicator of aerobic and anaerobic decomposition, ranged from 1.08 to 1.46 which is higher than the values (0.3–1.0) reported for semi-aerobic landfill sites and is rather close to those (1.0–2.0) for anaerobic landfill sites. The low CH{sub 4} + CO{sub 2}% in landfill gas implied air intrusion into the landfill. However, there was no evidence that air intrusion has caused by semi-aerobic design and operation. Therefore, the landfills investigated in this study are difficult to be classified as semi-aerobic landfills. Also MCF of 0.5 may significantly underestimate methane emissions compared to other researches. According to the carbon mass balance analyses, the higher MCF needs to be proposed for semi-aerobic landfills. Consequently, methane emission estimate should be based on field evaluation for the semi-aerobically designed landfills.

  20. 放线菌A4产淀粉酶发酵条件的优化%Optimization of the Fermentation Conditions for Amylase-Producing Actinomycetes A4

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李堆淑

    2013-01-01

    In order to provide a certain theoretical reference for industrial production of amylase-producing actinomycetes, according to the nutritional requirement and growth characteristics of amylase-producing actinomycetes A, . the author analyzed the effects of different factors on fermentation of amylase-producing actinomycetes A,. The results showed that the optimal fermentation conditions included cornmeal 3.00%, liquid volume 80. 17 ml, pH 7. 75. beef extract 0. 5% and peptone 0. 49%. Under the optimum conditions, the average enzyme activity of amylase-producing actinomycetes A4 reached 1.939 U/mL.%为给工业化生产放线菌产淀粉酶提供一定的理论依据,根据产淀粉酶放线菌菌株A4的营养需要和生长特性,分析了不同因素对放线菌A4产淀粉酶发酵的影响.结果表明:放线菌A4产淀粉酶的最佳发酵条件为玉米粉3.00%、装液量80.17 mL、pH 7.75、牛肉膏0.5%和蛋白胨0.49%,在此条件下,产淀粉酶放线菌菌株A4的平均酶活力达1.939 U/mL.

  1. 一株产生物活性物质放线菌的分离鉴定%Isolation and Identification of a Strain of Actinomycetes Producing Bioactive Substance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    詹建立; 陈芸; 陈涛

    2014-01-01

    基于16S rRNA 序列分析,本文对塔什库尔干县土壤中的放线菌进行了初步分离和鉴定。通过平板培养法,对分离鉴定的放线菌菌株进行活性物质的分析和研究,从塔县土壤中分离得到8株放线菌,其中 CT -1产生的活性物质能够抑制 Bacillus subtilis。从8株放线菌选出3株16S rRNA 的序列分析,推断放线菌 CT -1、CT -3和 CT -7菌株同属于内芽孢杆菌属(Paenibacillus)。实验表明这3株放线菌虽然来源相同却有不同的生理生化特性。%Based on the analysis of 16S rRNA sequence, this study isolated and identified actinomycetes isolated from the soil of Taxkorgan County. Then, by the method of culturing on the plates, we analyzed and studied the active substance of the isolated actinomycetes. It is shown that the three separated actinomycetes possibly belonged to the genus of Paenibacillus, and their physio-logical and biochemical charateristics are different. Meanwhile, the strains of actinomycetes CT-1 had the antibacterial effects on Bacillus subtilis.

  2. Intrathoracic neoplasia: Epidemiology and etiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weller, R.E.

    1992-05-01

    Neoplasms of the thorax encompass those derived from the thoracic wall, trachea, mediastinum, lungs and pleura. They represent a wide variety of lesions including benign and malignant tumors arising from many tissues. The large surface area, 60 to 90 m{sup 2} in man, represented by the respiratory epithelium and associated thoracic structures are ideal targets for carcinogens carried by inspired air. The topic of discussion in this report is the epidemiology, etiology, and mechanisms of spontaneous intrathoracic neoplasia in animals and man. Much of what we know or suspect about thoracic neoplasia in animals has been extrapolated from experimentally-induced neoplasms.

  3. Epidemiological studies in mucus hypersecretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestbo, Jørgen

    2002-01-01

    hypothesis' it was reduced to being an innocent disorder in the 1980s but is now again recognized as a potential risk factor for an accelerated loss of lung function. Whereas early studies in mainly occupational cohorts showed no effect of chronic mucus hypersecretion on decline in lung function, such an...... presence of mucus. In asthma recent findings suggest that in epidemiology chronic mucus hypersecretion may indicate lack of control which leads to an accelerated loss of lung function and increased mortality in subjects with self-reported asthma....

  4. Psoriasis, Introduction, General Information, Epidemiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esra Adışen

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory skin disorder affecting 1-3% of the population and psoriatic patients constitute 6-8% of the attendants of outpatient dermatology polyclinics. Though it is a common disease with well known clinical features, current studies have focused on the pathogenesis and the treatment of the disease while little research has focused on epidemiologic characteristics of the disease. The etiopathogenesis of psoriasis is related with immunologic, autoimmune, and genetic factors. Currently psoriasis has been considered as a disease spectrum or a systemic disease and there is a growing body of research on the pathogenesis, associating disorders and treatment of the disease.

  5. Epidemiological investigation of esophageal carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong Zhang; Shao-Hua Chen; You-Ming Li

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To review the characteristics of esophageal carcinoma in recent 30 years in the epidemiological investigation.METHODS: A total of 1 520 cases of esophageal carcinoma in the First Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University Medical College admitted from 1970 until now were reviewed. Their age, gender, position of carcinoma and histological type were analyzed.RESULTS: The morbidity of esophageal carcinoma was increasing during the observation period. Compared with the 1970s (9.5%), the ratio of adenocarcinoma significantly increased after the 1980s (19.1%). The difference was significant (P≤0.05).CONCLUSION: The morbidity of esophageal adenocarcinoma was increasing and advanced clinical study should be strengthened.

  6. Epidemiology of recurrent venous thrombosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.D. Ribeiro

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Venous thrombosis, including deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism, is a common disease that frequently recurs. Recurrence can be prevented by anticoagulants, but this comes at the risk of bleeding. Therefore, assessment of the risk of recurrence is important to balance the risks and benefits of anticoagulant treatment. This review briefly outlines what is currently known about the epidemiology of recurrent venous thrombosis, and focuses in more detail on potential new risk factors for venous recurrence. The general implications of these findings in patient management are discussed.

  7. An introduction to mathematical epidemiology

    CERN Document Server

    Martcheva, Maia

    2015-01-01

    The book is a comprehensive, self-contained introduction to the mathematical modeling and analysis of infectious diseases. It includes model building, fitting to data, local and global analysis techniques. Various types of deterministic dynamical models are considered: ordinary differential equation models, delay-differential equation models, difference equation models, age-structured PDE models and diffusion models. It includes various techniques for the computation of the basic reproduction number as well as approaches to the epidemiological interpretation of the reproduction number. MATLAB code is included to facilitate the data fitting and the simulation with age-structured models.

  8. Clinical Epidemiology Unit - overview of research areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clinical Epidemiology Unit (CEU) conducts etiologic research with potential clinical and public health applications, and leads studies evaluating population-based early detection and cancer prevention strategies

  9. Genetics and epidemiology, congenital anomalies and cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedman, J.M. [Univ. of British Columbia, Vancouver (Canada)

    1997-03-01

    Many of the basic statistical methods used in epidemiology - regression, analysis of variance, and estimation of relative risk, for example - originally were developed for the genetic analysis of biometric data. The familiarity that many geneticists have with this methodology has helped geneticists to understand and accept genetic epidemiology as a scientific discipline. It worth noting, however, that most of the work in genetic epidemiology during the past decade has been devoted to linkage and other family studies, rather than to population-based investigations of the type that characterize much of mainstream epidemiology. 30 refs., 2 tabs.

  10. Clinical and Translational Epidemiology Branch (CTEB)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Clinical and Translational Epidemiology Branch focuses on factors that influence cancer progression, recurrence, survival, and other treatment outcomes, and factors associated with cancer development.

  11. Aerobic Microbial Respiration In Oceanic Oxygen Minimum Zones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalvelage, Tim; Lavik, Gaute; Jensen, Marlene Mark;

    2015-01-01

    denitrification and alternative anaerobic pathways of organic matter remineralization cannot account for the ammonium requirements of reported anammox rates. Here, we explore the significance of microaerobic respiration as a source of ammonium during organic matter degradation in the oxygen-deficient waters off...... and laterally advected, oxygenated waters in this zone by aerobic microorganisms. In accordance, metagenomic and metatranscriptomic analyses identified genes encoding for aerobic terminal oxidases and demonstrated their expression by diverse microbial communities, even in virtually anoxic waters. Our......Oxygen minimum zones are major sites of fixed nitrogen loss in the ocean. Recent studies have highlighted the importance of anaerobic ammonium oxidation, anammox, in pelagic nitrogen removal. Sources of ammonium for the anammox reaction, however, remain controversial, as heterotrophic...

  12. Aerobic exercise reduces biomarkers related to cardiovascular risk among cleaners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korshøj, Mette; Ravn, Marie Højbjerg; Holtermann, Andreas;

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: Blue-collar workers have an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Accordingly, elevated levels of biomarkers related to risk of cardiovascular disease, such as high-sensitive C-reactive protein, have been observed among blue-collar workers. The objective was to examine whether....... The reference group (n = 59) received lectures, and the aerobic exercise group (n = 57) performed worksite aerobic exercise (30 min twice a week). Levels of biomarkers (high-sensitive C-reactive protein, fibrinogen, cholesterol, low- and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglyceride) were collected...... at baseline and after 4 months. A repeated-measure, multi-adjusted, mixed-model intention-to-treat analysis was applied to compare between-group differences. The study was registered as ISRCTN86682076. RESULTS: Significant (p high...

  13. Axenic aerobic biofilms inhibit corrosion of copper and aluminum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaraman, A; Ornek, D; Duarte, D A; Lee, C C; Mansfeld, F B; Wood, T K

    1999-11-01

    The corrosion behavior of unalloyed copper and aluminum alloy 2024 in modified Baar's medium has been studied with continuous reactors using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. An axenic aerobic biofilm of either Pseudomonas fragi K or Bacillus brevis 18 was able to lessen corrosion as evidenced by a consistent 20-fold increase in the low-frequency impedance value of copper as well as by a consistent four- to seven-fold increase in the polarization resistance of aluminum 2024 after six days exposure compared to sterile controls. This is the first report of axenic aerobic biofilms inhibiting generalized corrosion of copper and aluminum. Addition of the representative sulfate-reducing bacterium (SRB) Desulfovibrio vulgaris (to simulate consortia corrosion behavior) to either the P. fragi K or B. brevis 18 protective biofilm on copper increased the corrosion to that of the sterile control unless antibiotic (ampicillin) was added to inhibit the growth of SRB in the biofilm. PMID:10616712

  14. [Fluorescence fingerprint transformation of municipal wastewater caused by aerobic treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jing; Cui, Shuo; Xie, Chao-bo; Cao, Zhi-ping; Chen, Mao-fu; Lü, Yan-li

    2011-12-01

    The conventional parameters such as COD and BOD only could represent information about total organic content. Fluorescence spectrum can display organic composition and it is unique for each sample, so it is referred as "fluorescence fingerprint". In the present study transformation of excitation-emission matrix of municipal wastewater with sewage as major components after aerobic treatment was investigated and then the zones of biodegradable and non-biodegradable organic matters were figured out: the fluorescence at excitation wavelength/emission wavelength of about 280/340 nm and 225/240 nm derived from biodegradable organics and those of the zone of excitation wavelength above 300 nm and the zone of excitation wavelength below 300 nm and emission wavelength above 400 nm were mainly related with non-biodegradable organics. The above-mentioned results indicated that fluorescence fingerprint could be used to evaluate the performance and instruct design and operation of aerobic systems. PMID:22295782

  15. Kinetic study for aerobic treatment of phenolic wastewater

    OpenAIRE

    Athar Hussain; Shashi Kant Dubey; Vinay Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Conventional physico-chemical treatment of industrial wastewater containing compounds such as phenol encounters difficulties due to low substrate level, additional use of chemicals, and generation of hazardous by products along with increased process cost. Biological treatment appears to be a solution for treatment of such industrial wastewater. In the present study an aerobic sequential batch reactor (SBR) has been used for treatment of synthetic wastewater containing phenol. The effects of ...

  16. Structural studies on aerobic and anaerobic respiratory complexes

    OpenAIRE

    Törnroth, Susanna

    2002-01-01

    All respiratory pathways, whether aerobic or anaerobic, are based on formation of an electrochemical proton gradient called proton motive force (pmf) that drives ATP formation. Membrane-bound respiratory complexes translocate protons across the membrane from a region of low [H+] and negative electrical potential to a region of high [H+] and positive electrical potential. This establishes a proton gradient and a membrane potential that together form pmf. The crystal structures of the respirat...

  17. Aerobic Methane Oxidation in Alaskan Lakes Along a Latitudinal Transect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Cruz, K. C.; Sepulveda-Jauregui, A.; Walter Anthony, K. M.; Anthony, P.; Thalasso, F.

    2013-12-01

    Karla Martinez-Cruz* **, Armando Sepulveda-Jauregui*, Katey M. Walter Anthony*, Peter Anthony*, and Frederic Thalasso**. * Water and Environmental Research Center, Institute of Northern Engineering, University of Alaska Fairbanks, Fairbanks, Alaska. ** Biotechnology and Bioengineering Department, Cinvestav, Mexico city, D. F., Mexico. Methane (CH4) is the third most important greenhouse gas in the atmosphere, after carbon dioxide and water vapor. Boreal lakes play an important role in the current global warming by contributing as much as 6% of global atmospheric CH4 sources annually. On the other hand, aerobic methane oxidation (methanotrophy) in lake water is a fundamental process in global methane cycling that reduces the amount of CH4 emissions to the atmosphere. Several environmental factors affect aerobic methane oxidation in the water column both directly and indirectly, including concentration of CH4 and O2, temperature and carbon budgets of lakes. We analyzed the potential of aerobic methane oxidation (PMO) rates in incubations of water collected from 30 Alaskan lakes along a north-south transect during winter and summer 2011. Our findings showed an effect of CH4 and O2 concentrations, temperature and yedoma thawing permafrost on PMO activity in the lake water. The highest PMO rates were observed in summer by lakes situated on thawing yedoma permafrost, most of them located in the interior of Alaska. We also estimated that 60-80% of all CH4 produced in Alaskan lakes could be taken up by methanotrophs in the lake water column, showing the significant influence of aerobic methane oxidation of boreal lakes to the global CH4 budget.

  18. Aerobic Methanotrophs in Natural and Agricultural Soils of European Russia

    OpenAIRE

    Irina Kravchenko; Andrey Yurkov; Anna Kizilova

    2013-01-01

    Human activities such as land management and global warming have great impact on the environment. Among changes associated with the global warming, rising methane emission is a serious concern. Therefore, we assessed methane oxidation activity and diversity of aerobic methanotrophic bacteria in eight soil types (both unmanaged and agricultural) distributed across the European part of Russia. Using a culture-independent approach targeting pmoA gene, we provide the first baseline data on the di...

  19. Poplar Lignin Decomposition by Gram-Negative Aerobic Bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Odier, E.; Janin, G.; Monties, B

    1981-01-01

    Eleven gram-negative aerobic bacteria (Pseudomonadaceae and Neisseriaceae) out of 122 soil isolates were selected for their ability to assimilate poplar dioxane lignin without a cosubstrate. Dioxane lignin and milled wood lignin degradation rates ranged between 20 and 40% of initial content after 7 days in mineral medium, as determined by a loss of absorbance at 280 nm; 10 strains could degrade in situ lignin, as evidenced by the decrease of the acetyl bromide lignin content of microtome wood...

  20. Sonified Aerobics - Interactive Sonification of coordinated body movements

    OpenAIRE

    Hermann, Thomas; Zehe, Sebastian; Worall, David; Wersényi, György

    2011-01-01

    This paper introduces a new hard-/ and software system for the interactive sonification of sports movement involving arm- and leg movements. Two different sonifications are designed to convey rhythmical patterns that become auditory gestalt so that listeners can identify features of the underlying coordinated movement. The Sonification is designed for the application to enable visually impaired users to participate in aerobics exercises, and also to enhance the perception of movements for sig...

  1. Influence employment by improving aerobics on motor readiness of girls

    OpenAIRE

    Shypulo I. P.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose : substantiate the effect of employment by improving aerobics on motor readiness of girls in extracurricular educational institutions. Material : the study involved 90 women aged 16-18 years old. Classes are held 3 times a week for 1 hour each. Results : defined state and the most informative indicators motor fitness girls. Built analytical model of graph model for forecasting and conducting quantitative and qualitative control of motor fitness girls. The degree of severity of each of...

  2. Biosorption of fluoroquinolones by activated sludge and aerobic granules sludge

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreira, Vanessa R. A.; Amorim, Catarina L.; Cravo, Sara M.; Tiritan, Maria E.; Castro, Paula M. L.; Afonso, Carlos M. M.

    2015-01-01

    Oral communication Antibiotic residues have been detected in various environmental matrices, such as surface water and even drinking water. Although present at low levels (μg/L, ng/L), many antibiotics are bioaccumulative, pseudo-persistent and can promote resistance/alterations in bacterial populations [1]. Recent studies on antibiotics removal by activated sludge (AS) and aerobic granules (AGS) show biosorption as the dominant process, determining the fate of these micropollutants [2-3]....

  3. Myocardial damage after continuous aerobic and anaerobic exercise in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rostika Flora

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Regular physical activity is highly recommended in preventive, curative, and rehabilitative programs in order to promote health, especially cardiovascular health. However, physical activity can also cause sudden death. In athletes, sudden death may occur during sport competitions, with myocardial infarction as the most common etiology. It is suspected that continuous training without any rest-day play a role in cardiac muscle damage and sudden death during competition. Our study was aimed to learn about cardiac muscle adaptation on continuous aerobic and anaerobic physical activity without any rest-day. Methods: The specimens in our study were cardiac muscle tissue obtained from rats that had performed aerobic and anaerobic physical activity on treadmill for 1, 3, 7, and 10 days without any rest-day. Blood gas analysis and hematological assessment were used as parameters of systemic adaptation to hypoxia during physical activity. Moreover, histopathology of cardiac muscle tissue was performed as parameter for cardiac muscle damage.Results: The results showed that aerobic and anaerobic physical activity caused a systemic hypoxic condition and triggered adaptation responses. Cardiac muscle damage occurred on the 10th day in both treatment groups, with more severe damage observed in the group with anaerobic physical activity. The tissue protein level in the anaerobic group increased progressively on the 10th day.Conclusion: Physical activity may result in hypoxia and systemic adaptation. Aerobic and anaerobic physical activities performed for 10 days without any rest-day may cause cardiac muscle damage. (Med J Indones. 2013;22:209-14. doi: 10.13181/mji.v22i4.601Keywords: Cardiac muscle, cardiac muscle damage, histopathology, physical activity

  4. Biodegradation of Asphalt Cement-20 by Aerobic Bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Pendrys, John P.

    1989-01-01

    Seven gram-negative, aerobic bacteria were isolated from a mixed culture enriched for asphalt-degrading bacteria. The predominant genera of these isolates were Pseudomonas, Acinetobacter, Alcaligenes, Flavimonas, and Flavobacterium. The mixed culture preferentially degraded the saturate and naphthene aromatic fractions of asphalt cement-20. A residue remained on the surface which was resistant to biodegradation and protected the underlying asphalt from biodegradation. The most potent asphalt-...

  5. Improving aerobic capacity through active videogames: A randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Jorge Luiz de Brito-Gomes; Raphael José Perrier-Melo; Erik Anders Wikstrom; Manoel da Cunha Costa

    2015-01-01

    AbstractThe rate of peak workload improvement between different types of Active Video Games (AVG) in young sedentary adults was investigated. Aerobic capacity improvement after a 6-week intervention between AVG types was also compared. Twenty participants, after baseline assessments, were randomized into one of three parallel groups: structured AVG (n= 6), unstructured AVG (n= 7) and a control group (n= 7). Participants played their respective AVG 3 times a week for 6-weeks (30 minutes-sessio...

  6. Aerobic oxidation assisted by ligand-free palladium catalysts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jia Rui Wang; Chu Ting Yang; Lei Liu; Qing Xiang Guo

    2007-01-01

    Aerobic oxidation of electron-rich benzylic and phenyl allylic alcohols was achieved with high yields with only 0.1 mol.% ofPd(OAc)2 catalyst in the absence of any ligand. This procedure was expected to be valuable for realistic industrial-scale applications from both economic as well as environmental points of view.(C) 2006 Qing Xiang Guo. Published by Elsevier B.V. on behalf of Chinese Chemical Society. All rights reserved.

  7. The Aerobic Biodegradation Kinetics of Plant Tannins in Industrial Wastewater

    OpenAIRE

    Tramšek, Marko; Goršek, Andreja; Glavič, Peter

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes an experimental determination of the biodegradation rate for tannins present in industrial wastewater, after the extraction of chestnut chips. Experiments were performed in a laboratory aerobic reactor (Armfield) by using biomass from an existing industrial wastewater treatment plant. The outlet tannins concentration was determined under various processing conditions. Simultaneously, an optical microscope was used to monitor the mix of microbiological cultures in the biom...

  8. Gaseous emissions reduction from aerobic MBT of municipal solid waste

    OpenAIRE

    Zdanevitch, Isabelle; Mallard, Pascal; Bour, Olivier; Briand, Mark

    2009-01-01

    Surface gaseous emissions, composition of soil gas and VOC concentration were determined on a French MBT plant, where the biodegradation process is aerobic. Measurements were performed on both the composting windrows and on the landfill cell which receives the sorting rejects. This allowed the comparison of the global methane and CO2 gases, as well as the characterization of the degradation process on the different parts of the site. The performance of the sorting chain allow to obtain a high...

  9. The Effects of Actinomycetes in Pit Mud of Nongxiang Baijiu(Liquor) on Liquor Quality%浓香型白酒窖泥中放线菌对酒质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李东; 黄明

    2015-01-01

    放线菌是原核生物的一个类群。其在土壤、空气和水中,尤其是含水量低、有机物丰富、呈中性或微碱性的土壤中数量较多。而泥土中散发出来的土腥味就主要是由放线菌中链霉菌产生的土腥素造成的。通过对放线菌生长的土壤浸取液对浓香型白酒酒质的影响,初步探索了放线菌对浓香型白酒生产的影响。%Actinomycetes is a group of prokaryotes. It is distributed in the soil, air and water, and it is rich especially in soil with low moisture content or rich organic substances, and in neutral or slightly alkaline soil. The smell of the soil mainly comes from geosmin produced by Strep-tomyces in Actinomycetes. In this paper, the effects of soil leaching solution (soil with the growth of Actinomycetes) on the quality of Nongx-iang Baijiu(liquor) were investigated.

  10. 海洋放线菌代谢产物蒽环类化合物研究进展%Research Progress in Anthracycline Compounds Produced by Marine Actinomycetes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马毅敏; 陆园园; 邢莹莹; 奚涛

    2011-01-01

    The marine actinomycetes are likely to be important sources of new natural products. In recent years,plenty of novel structures have been isolated from marine actinomycetes. Among them,there are many novel anthracycline metabolites with good antibacterial and antitumor activities. Anthracycline compounds isolated from marine actinomycetes and their activities were summarized in this paper,and a perspective in regard to the future development of the marine natural products was also discussed.%海洋放线菌代谢产物是抗肿瘤活性物质的重要来源.近年来,从海洋放线菌中分离到很多新化合物,其中许多结构新颖的蒽环类代谢产物具有良好的抗菌抗肿瘤活性.文章对近年来从海洋放线菌中分离得到的蒽环类代谢产物进行了归纳,并展望今后海洋天然产物的发展方向.

  11. Combined alkaline and ultrasonic pretreatment of sludge before aerobic digestion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIN Yiying; LI Huan; MAHAR Rasool Bux; WANG Zhiyu; NIE Yongfeng

    2009-01-01

    Alkaline and ultrasonic sludge disintegration can both be used as pretreatments of waste activated sludge (WAS) for improving the subsequent anaerobic or aerobic digestion. The pretreatment has been carried out using different combination of these two methods in this study. The effect was evaluated based on the quantity of soluble chemical oxygen demand (SCOD) in the pretreated sludge as well as the degradation of organic matter in the following aerobic digestion. For WAS samples with combined pretreatment, the released COD was in high level than those with ultrasonic or alkaline treatment. When combined with the same ultrasonic treatment, NaOH treatment resulted in more solubilization of WAS than Ca(OH)2. For combined NaOH and ultrasonic treatments with different sequences, the released COD were in the order: simultaneous treatment > ultrasonic treatment following NaOH treatment > NaOH treatment following ultrasonic treatment. For simultaneous treatment, low NaOH dosage (100 g/kg dry solid), short duration (30 min) of NaOH treatment, and low ultrasonic specific energy (7 500 kJ/kg dry solid) were beneficial for sludge disintegration. Using combined NaOH and ultrasonic pretreatment with the optimium parameters, the degradation efficiency of organic matter was increased from 38.0% to 50.7%, which is much higher than with ultrasonic (42.5%) or with NaOH pretreatment (43.5%) in the subsequent aerobic digestion at the same retention time.

  12. Aerobic methanotroph diversity in Sanjiang wetland, Northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Juanli; Zhang, Hongxun; Deng, Yongcui; Wang, Yanfen

    2015-04-01

    Aerobic methanotrophs present in wetlands can serve as a methane filter and thereby significantly reduce methane emissions. Sanjiang wetland is a major methane source and the second largest wetland in China, yet little is known about the characteristics of aerobic methanotrophs in this region. In the present study, we investigated the diversity and abundance of methanotrophs in marsh soils from Sanjiang wetland with three different types of vegetation by 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) and pmoA gene analysis. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis revealed the highest number of pmoA gene copies in marsh soils vegetated with Carex lasiocarpa (10(9) g(-1) dry soil), followed by Carex meyeriana, and the least with Deyeuxia angustifolia (10(8) g(-1) dry soil). Consistent results were obtained using Sanger sequencing and pyrosequencing techniques, both indicating the codominance of Methylobacter and Methylocystis species in Sanjiang wetland. Other less abundant methanotrophy, including cultivated Methylomonas and Methylosinus genus, and uncultured clusters such as LP20 and JR-1, were also detected in the wetland. Methanotroph diversity was almost the same in three different vegetation covered soils, suggesting that vegetation types had very little influence on the methanotroph diversity. Our study gives an in-depth insight into the community composition of aerobic methanotrophs in the Sanjiang wetland. PMID:25351140

  13. Improving aerobic capacity through active videogames: A randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Luiz de Brito-Gomes

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThe rate of peak workload improvement between different types of Active Video Games (AVG in young sedentary adults was investigated. Aerobic capacity improvement after a 6-week intervention between AVG types was also compared. Twenty participants, after baseline assessments, were randomized into one of three parallel groups: structured AVG (n= 6, unstructured AVG (n= 7 and a control group (n= 7. Participants played their respective AVG 3 times a week for 6-weeks (30 minutes-session. The control group maintained normal activities. Both structured and unstructured AVG improved peak workload after four weeks but only the structured group maintained this improvement through week five and six. Aerobic capacity improved in the unstructured (Pre: 36.0 ± 5.2ml.kg.min-¹,Post: 39.7 ± 4.9ml.kg.min-¹, p = .038 and structured AVG (Pre: 39.0 ± 5.9ml.kg.min-¹,Post: 47.8 ± 4.3ml.kg.min-¹, p = .006 groups. Structured AVG provide greater health benefits to aerobic capacity and peak workload in young sedentary but otherwise healthy males relative to unstructured AVG.

  14. Catabolic efficiency of aerobic glycolysis: The Warburg effect revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Yi

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cancer cells simultaneously exhibit glycolysis with lactate secretion and mitochondrial respiration even in the presence of oxygen, a phenomenon known as the Warburg effect. The maintenance of this mixed metabolic phenotype is seemingly counterintuitive given that aerobic glycolysis is far less efficient in terms of ATP yield per moles of glucose than mitochondrial respiration. Results Here, we resolve this apparent contradiction by expanding the notion of metabolic efficiency. We study a reduced flux balance model of ATP production that is constrained by the glucose uptake capacity and by the solvent capacity of the cell's cytoplasm, the latter quantifying the maximum amount of macromolecules that can occupy the intracellular space. At low glucose uptake rates we find that mitochondrial respiration is indeed the most efficient pathway for ATP generation. Above a threshold glucose uptake rate, however, a gradual activation of aerobic glycolysis and slight decrease of mitochondrial respiration results in the highest rate of ATP production. Conclusions Our analyses indicate that the Warburg effect is a favorable catabolic state for all rapidly proliferating mammalian cells with high glucose uptake capacity. It arises because while aerobic glycolysis is less efficient than mitochondrial respiration in terms of ATP yield per glucose uptake, it is more efficient in terms of the required solvent capacity. These results may have direct relevance to chemotherapeutic strategies attempting to target cancer metabolism.

  15. Aerobic and anaerobic growth of Paracoccus denitrificans on methanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamforth, C W; Quayle, J R

    1978-10-01

    1. The dye-linked methanol dehydrogenase from Paracoccus denitrificans grown aerobically on methanol has been purified and its properties compared with similar enzymes from other bacteria. It was shown to be specific and to have high affinity for primary alcohols and formaldehyde as substrate, ammonia was the best activator and the enzyme could be linked to reduction of phenazine methosulphate. 2. Paracoccus denitrificans could be grown anaerobically on methanol, using nitrate or nitrite as electron acceptor. The methanol dehydrogenase synthesized under these conditions could not be differentiated from the aerobically-synthesized enzyme. 3. Activities of methanol dehydrogenase, formaldehyde dehydrogenase, formate dehydrogenase, nitrate reductase and nitrite reductase were measured under aerobic and anaerobic growth conditions. 4. Difference spectra of reduced and oxidized cytochromes in membrane and supernatant fractions of methanol-grown P. denitrificans were measured. 5. From the results of the spectral and enzymatic analyses it has been suggested that anaerobic growth on methanol/nitrate is made possible by reduction of nitrate to nitrite using electrons derived from the pyridine nucleotide-linked dehydrogenations of formaldehyde and formate, the nitrite so produced then functioning as electron acceptor for methanol dehydrogenase via cytochrome c and nitrite reductase. PMID:718372

  16. Stimulated Growth of Aerobic Microbes Using Calcium Peroxide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Shejiang; LI Mujin; JIANG Bin; LI Xingang

    2006-01-01

    With continuous and slow oxygen-release characteristic,calcium peroxide (CaO2) has been a new source of supplying oxygen for aerobic microbes in bioremediation of contaminated groundwater.Batch experiments were conducted to evaluate the oxygen-release rate of CaO2 reacting with water,the regulation of high pH,as well as the growth of mixed aerobic microbes in the medium containing CaO2.The results show that the oxygen-release process of CaO2 comprises three phases.In the first phase,dissolved oxygen levels of water increased sharply,and average oxygen-release rates increased as the adding weight of CaO2 increased.However,the rates almost ly.As the necessary components of medium,potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KH2PO4) and ammonium sulphate ((NH4)2SO4) at a certain ratio could regulate pH caused by CaO2 from 12.1 to the range of 6.5-8.5,which is helpful for microbial growth.In addition,diauxic growth curve observed in the medium containing CaO2 suggested that the growth of mixed aerobic microbes could be stimulated by the addition of CaO2.

  17. Electric motor assisted bicycle as an aerobic exercise machine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagata, T; Okada, S; Makikawa, M

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this study is to maintain a continuous level of exercise intensity around the aerobic threshold (AT) during riding on an electric motor assisted bicycle using a new control system of electrical motor assistance which uses the efficient pedaling rate of popular bicycles. Five male subjects participated in the experiment, and the oxygen uptake was measured during cycling exercise using this new pedaling rate control system of electrical motor assistance, which could maintain the pedaling rate within a specific range, similar to that in previous type of electrically assisted bicycles. Results showed that this new pedaling rate control system at 65 rpm ensured continuous aerobic exercise intensity around the AT in two subjects, and this intensity level was higher than that observed in previous type. However, certain subjects were unable to maintain the expected exercise intensity because of their particular cycling preferences such as the pedaling rate. It is necessary to adjust the specific pedaling rate range of the electrical motor assist control according to the preferred pedaling rate, so that this system becomes applicable to anyone who want continuous aerobic exercise.

  18. Microbial fuel cells with highly active aerobic biocathodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milner, Edward M.; Popescu, Dorin; Curtis, Tom; Head, Ian M.; Scott, Keith; Yu, Eileen H.

    2016-08-01

    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs), which convert organic waste to electricity, could be used to make the wastewater infrastructure more energy efficient and sustainable. However, platinum and other non-platinum chemical catalysts used for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) at the cathode of MFCs are unsustainable due to their high cost and long-term degradation. Aerobic biocathodes, which use microorganisms as the biocatalysts for cathode ORR, are a good alternative to chemical catalysts. In the current work, high-performing aerobic biocathodes with an onset potential for the ORR of +0.4 V vs. Ag/AgCl were enriched from activated sludge in electrochemical half-cells poised at -0.1 and + 0.2 V vs. Ag/AgCl. Gammaproteobacteria, distantly related to any known cultivated gammaproteobacterial lineage, were identified as dominant in these working electrode biofilms (23.3-44.3% of reads in 16S rRNA gene Ion Torrent libraries), and were in very low abundance in non-polarised control working electrode biofilms (0.5-0.7%). These Gammaproteobacteria were therefore most likely responsible for the high activity of biologically catalysed ORR. In MFC tests, a high-performing aerobic biocathode increased peak power 9-fold from 7 to 62 μW cm-2 in comparison to an unmodified carbon cathode, which was similar to peak power with a platinum-doped cathode at 70 μW cm-2.

  19. Re-activation characteristics of preserved aerobic granular sludge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Li-li; ZHANG Bo; HUANG Yu-feng; CAI Wei-min

    2005-01-01

    In some industrial plants, wastewater was intermittently or seasonally generated. There may be periods during which wastewater treatment facilities have to be set into an idle phase over several weeks. When wastewater was generated again, the activated sludge flocs may have disintegrated. In this experiment, re-activation characteristics of aerobic granular sludge starved for 2 months were investigated.Specific oxygen utilization rate(SOUR) was used as an indicator to evaluate the metabolic activity of the sludge. The results revealed that aerobic granular sludge could be stored up to two months without running the risk of losing the integrity of the granules and metabolic potentials. The apparent color of aerobic granules stored at room temperature gradually turned from brownish-yellowish to gray brown.They appeared brownish-yellowish again 2 weeks after re-activation. The velocity and strength of granules after 2-month idle period could achieved. A stable effluent COD concentration of less than 150 mg/L was achieved during the re-activation process.

  20. Dosing method of physical activity in aerobics classes for students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beliak Yu.I.

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : reasons for the method of dosing of physical activity in aerobics classes for students. The basis of the method is the evaluation of the metabolic cost of funds used in them. Material : experiment involved the assessment of the pulse response of students to load complexes classical and step aerobics (n = 47, age 20-23 years. In complexes used various factors regulating the intensity: perform combinations of basic steps, involvement of movements with his hands, holding in hands dumbbells weighing 1kg increase in the rate of musical accompaniment, varying heights step platform. Results . on the basis of the relationship between heart rate and oxygen consumption was determined by the energy cost of each admission control load intensity. This indicator has been used to justify the intensity and duration of multiplicity aerobics. Figure correspond to the level of physical condition and motor activity deficits students. Conclusions : the estimated component of this method of dosing load makes it convenient for use in automated computer programs. Also it can be easily modified to dispense load other types of recreational fitness.

  1. Aerobic Microbial Respiration In Oceanic Oxygen Minimum Zones.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Kalvelage

    Full Text Available Oxygen minimum zones are major sites of fixed nitrogen loss in the ocean. Recent studies have highlighted the importance of anaerobic ammonium oxidation, anammox, in pelagic nitrogen removal. Sources of ammonium for the anammox reaction, however, remain controversial, as heterotrophic denitrification and alternative anaerobic pathways of organic matter remineralization cannot account for the ammonium requirements of reported anammox rates. Here, we explore the significance of microaerobic respiration as a source of ammonium during organic matter degradation in the oxygen-deficient waters off Namibia and Peru. Experiments with additions of double-labelled oxygen revealed high aerobic activity in the upper OMZs, likely controlled by surface organic matter export. Consistently observed oxygen consumption in samples retrieved throughout the lower OMZs hints at efficient exploitation of vertically and laterally advected, oxygenated waters in this zone by aerobic microorganisms. In accordance, metagenomic and metatranscriptomic analyses identified genes encoding for aerobic terminal oxidases and demonstrated their expression by diverse microbial communities, even in virtually anoxic waters. Our results suggest that microaerobic respiration is a major mode of organic matter remineralization and source of ammonium (~45-100% in the upper oxygen minimum zones, and reconcile hitherto observed mismatches between ammonium producing and consuming processes therein.

  2. Electric motor assisted bicycle as an aerobic exercise machine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagata, T; Okada, S; Makikawa, M

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this study is to maintain a continuous level of exercise intensity around the aerobic threshold (AT) during riding on an electric motor assisted bicycle using a new control system of electrical motor assistance which uses the efficient pedaling rate of popular bicycles. Five male subjects participated in the experiment, and the oxygen uptake was measured during cycling exercise using this new pedaling rate control system of electrical motor assistance, which could maintain the pedaling rate within a specific range, similar to that in previous type of electrically assisted bicycles. Results showed that this new pedaling rate control system at 65 rpm ensured continuous aerobic exercise intensity around the AT in two subjects, and this intensity level was higher than that observed in previous type. However, certain subjects were unable to maintain the expected exercise intensity because of their particular cycling preferences such as the pedaling rate. It is necessary to adjust the specific pedaling rate range of the electrical motor assist control according to the preferred pedaling rate, so that this system becomes applicable to anyone who want continuous aerobic exercise. PMID:23366293

  3. Color Changes of Package Silage In Period of Aerobic Stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Toruk

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, changes on color of the silage surface, chemical and microbiological parameters in six days period of aerobic stability of package silage were investigated. For this purpose, the effect of the silage additive materials and treatments dose also were examined. Treatments were determined as Control (C, Silo-king firm dose (FD, Silo-King double dose (D2, Sim-Silage firm dose (SF, and Sim-Silage double dose (S2.Maize was ensiled using a package silage machine. The package silages opened after three months storage was analyzed for colors during aerobic exposure. In this research, yellowness (yı* indicates were also measured to show the effect of fermentation process on the silage color properties. As the result of experiment, it was found that aerobic stability have significant effects on color of the silage surface (all parameters statistically (p<0.05. The lowest color alteration (ΔE was estimated as 8.96 in S2 treatment. The color alteration also was increased 96 h when increased at pH and temperature. The highest CO2 values were found at firm dose treatments.

  4. Aerobic fitness and orthostatic tolerance: Evidence against an association

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebert, Thomas J.

    1994-01-01

    This presentation will focus on only one side of the debate as to whether high levels of aerobic fitness have a deleterious effect on tolerance to gravitational stress. This issue was raised in the early 1970's as a result of two research publications. The first work investigated the carotid sinus baroreflex of humans with an airtight chamber that surrounded the head and neck. The steady-state reflex changes in blood pressure that were recorded 3 minutes after application of the head and neck stimuli, were attenuated in an athletic group compared to a sedentary group of volunteers. A second report in the NASA literature indicated that five endurance-trained runners were less tolerant to LBNP than five nonrunners. These early research findings have stimulated a considerable amount of interest that has lead to a growing number of research efforts seeking an association between aerobic fitness and orthostatic tolerance in humans. I will briefly review some of the more pertinent published research information which suggests that there is no relationship between aerobic fitness and orthostatic tolerance in humans.

  5. Echinacea Supplementation: Does it Really Improve Aerobic Fitness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, Cory W.; Kwak, Dongmin

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] Echinacea is an herbal supplement used by endurance athletes for its performance boosting properties. It is thought that Echinacea improves the blood’s oxygen carrying capacity by increasing production of erythropoietin (EPO), a glycoprotein that regulates red blood cell formation. Subsequently, these changes would lead to an overall improvement in maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) and running economy (RE), two markers of aerobic fitness. The purpose of this review is to briefly discuss the physiological variables associated with distance running performance and how these variables are influenced by Echinacea supplementation. [Methods] To determine Echinacea’s ergogenic potential, human studies that used Echinacea in conjunction to analyzing the blood’s oxygen carrying capacity and/or aerobic fitness were assessed. [Results] Taken together, the majority of the published literature does not support the claim that Echinacea is a beneficial ergogenic aid. With the exception of one study, several independent groups have reported Echinacea supplementation does not increase EPO production, blood markers of oxygen transport, VO2max or RE in healthy untrained or trained subjects. [Conclusion] To date, the published literature does not support the use of Echinacea as an ergogenic aid to improve aerobic fitness in healthy untrained or trained subjects.

  6. Aerobic exercise in children with oxidative phosphorylation defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luuk Schreuder

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Fatigue and exercise intolerance are symptoms in children with metabolic myopathy. Frequently this is combined with muscle pain in children with mitochondrial myopathy. Offering therapeutic advice remains challenging in this patient group. Here we describe five children above the age of four years, with normal intelligence, myopathy, exercise intolerance, motor developmental delay, and fatigue, who were diagnosed with a mitochondrial dysfunction. Based on the positive experience of condition training in adults with mitochondrial disease and inactivity, aerobic exercise training was advised for all the children. Because of the lack of clear protocols for individualized mitochondrial myopathies, regular training was initiated. The Movement Assessment Battery of Children, the Jamar dynamometer for grip force, and the Bruce protocol treadmill test were applied for evaluation. No patient showed significant disease progression on a weekly scheme of strength training or on aerobic training during periods varying between 6 and 18 months. Only one out of the five patients has shown an improvement after a period of structured, aerobic training, demonstrating good compliance and motivation over the course of 18 months. Some patients developed severe muscle pain after explosive exercise. Even in a relatively homogenous, intelligent group of patients and motivated parents, we could not reach full compliance. With our case studies, we would like to draw attention to the importance and pitfalls of movement therapy in children with mitochondrial disease.

  7. Comparison between Nintendo Wii Fit aerobics and traditional aerobic exercise in sedentary young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douris, Peter C; McDonald, Brittany; Vespi, Frank; Kelley, Nancy C; Herman, Lawrence

    2012-04-01

    Exergaming is becoming a popular recreational activity for young adults. The purpose was to compare the physiologic and psychological responses of college students playing Nintendo Wii Fit, an active video game console, vs. an equal duration of moderate-intensity brisk walking. Twenty-one healthy sedentary college-age students (mean age 23.2 ± 1.8 years) participated in a randomized, double cross-over study, which compared physiologic and psychological responses to 30 minutes of brisk walking exercise on a treadmill vs. 30 minutes playing Nintendo Wii Fit "Free Run" program. Physiologic parameters measured included heart rate, rate pressure product, respiratory rate, and rating of perceived exertion. Participants' positive well-being, psychological distress, and level of fatigue associated with each exercise modality were quantified using the Subjective Exercise Experience Scale. The mean maximum heart rate (HRmax) achieved when exercising with Wii Fit (142.4 ± 20.5 b·min(-1)) was significantly greater (p = 0.001) compared with exercising on the treadmill (123.2 ± 13.7 b·min(-1)). Rate pressure product was also significantly greater (p = 0.001) during exercise on the Wii Fit. Participants' rating of perceived exertion when playing Wii Fit (12.7 ± 3.0) was significantly greater (p = 0.014) when compared with brisk walking on the treadmill (10.1 ± 3.3). However, psychologically when playing Wii Fit, participants' positive well-being decreased significantly (p = 0.018) from preexercise to postexercise when compared with exercising on the treadmill. College students have the potential to surpass exercise intensities achieved when performing a conventional standard for moderate-intensity exercise when playing Nintendo Wii Fit "Free Run" with a self-selected intensity. We concluded that Nintendo Wii Fit "Free Run" may act as an alternative to traditional moderate-intensity aerobic exercise in fulfilling the American College of Sports Medicine requirements for

  8. Epidemiology of tibial shaft fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grecco Marco Aurélio Sertório

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work an epidemiological analysis on tibial shaft fractures was performed. During four years, our service treated 179 fractures, 132 in male, 47 in female, aged 14 to 83 years. The 21 to 30-year-old patiens were the more injured. Of these, 120 were open and 59 close fractures of which prevailing cause was road traffic accident. The study based on patients promptuaries analyses and radiographs. The fractures occurred 97 times in the middle third (54.18%; 102 times (56.98% presented simple fragments, and 57 (31.38% oblique lines. We treated close and open fractures, respectively, 48 and 38 cases with plaster cast immobilization; 3 and 67 with external fixation after plaster cast immobilization; 5 and 12 with osteosynthesis by means of plate and screws, and 2 and 3 with external fixation only. In both close and open fractures, respectively, 7 and 20 cases of pseudarthrosis and 1 and 11 of infections have occurred. With the data obtained we verified an actual validity of the epidemiological studies as a contribution for better identifying lesions features and their treatment and complications. This allows proceedings and apprenticeship refinement.

  9. en epidemiología

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana V. Diez Roux

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available La epidemiología sociocultural se caracteriza por la integración de procesos sociales, culturales, económicos y políticos con procesos biológicos en el estudio de los determinantes de la salud. Por definición, esto implica la consideración de determinantes especificados a múltiples niveles, desde los genes hasta las características de la sociedad en su totalidad. En este artículo se analizan diversos problemas metodológicos que surgen en epidemiología (y en las ciencias sociales en general por la presencia de múltiples niveles de organización que pueden ser relevantes para entender las causas de la salud y la enfermedad. Se subraya la necesidad de investigar conjuntamente (o de integrar determinantes de la salud definidos a distintos niveles. El artículo concluye con un examen de las implicaciones de la presencia de múltiples niveles para el estudio de los determinantes sociales o culturales de la salud.

  10. Epidemiology and the scientific method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalmers, A F

    1982-01-01

    This article refutes the claim that the field of epidemiology and community health would benefit from the application of the scientific method. It is argued that the methods of physics are not appropriate for other disciplines. When applied to the social sciences, positivism is a conservatizing force, causing theory to become based on a mere description of social phenomenon. Since it cannot lead to a deep understanding of social phenomena, positivism is incapable of revealing ways in which society could be radically changed. Moreover, such theory is far from neutral. Rather, it is formed and influenced by the forms of life experienced and practiced in the society. This is illustrated by an analysis of the origin of modern physics at the time when society was changing from a feudal to capitalist form of organization. It is concluded that advances will be made in epidemiology and community health when this field breaks from its focus on the individual and incorporates class into its analysis. However, given the interconnection between social structure and social theory, resistance to such a radical change can be expected. PMID:7141777

  11. [Epidemiology of acromegaly in Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sesmilo, Gemma

    2013-10-01

    Epidemiology of acromegaly in Spain does not differ from that reported in other published series. Prevalence rate is approximately 60 cases per million, peak incidence occurs in middle age, more women are affected (61%), and there is a substantial delay between occurrence of the first symptoms and diagnosis. Studies REA (Spanish Acromegaly Registry) and OASIS analyzed the epidemiology, clinical characteristics, and management of the disease in Spain. Surgery, performed in more than 80% of patients, has been (and continues to be) the main treatment for the past four decades. In the past decade, however, more patients have received somatostatin analogs (SSAs) as first-line treatment. Use of radiation therapy has significantly decreased in recent decades. Somatostatin analogs (SSAs) are the most commonly used drugs, administered to 85% of patients; however, only 12%-15% continue on drug treatment alone. The surgical remission rate was 38.4% in the last decade, with a significant improvement over decades. Preoperative treatment with SSAs has no influence on surgical cure rates. Second-line therapies used after surgical failure in the past decade included SSAs in 49% of patients, repeat surgery in 27%, radiotherapy in 11%, pegvisomant in 15%, and dopamine agonists in 5%. Mean cost of acromegaly treatment was 9.668€ (data estimated in 2009 and adjusted in 2010), of which 71% was due to the cost of SSAs. Patients treated with pegvisomant have a more aggressive form of the disease and higher comorbidity rates.

  12. Epidemiology: second-rate science?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parascandola, M

    1998-01-01

    In recent years epidemiology has come under increasing criticism in regulatory and public arenas for being "unscientific." The tobacco industry has taken advantage of this, insisting for decades that evidence linking cigarettes and lung cancer falls short of proof. Moreover, many epidemiologists remain unduly skeptical and self-conscious about the status of their own causal claims. This situation persists in part because of a widespread belief that only the laboratory can provide evidence sufficient for scientific proof. Adherents of this view erroneously believe that there is no element of uncertainty or inductive inference in the "direct observation" of the laboratory researcher and that epidemiology provides mere "circumstantial" evidence. The historical roots of this attitude can be traced to philosopher John Stuart Mill and physiologist Claude Bernard and their influence on modern experimental thinking. The author uses the debate over cigarettes and lung cancer to examine ideas of proof in medical science and public health, concluding that inductive inference from a limited sample to a larger population is an element in all empirical science.

  13. The landscape epidemiology of echinococcoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadavid Restrepo, Angela M; Yang, Yu Rong; McManus, Donald P; Gray, Darren J; Giraudoux, Patrick; Barnes, Tamsin S; Williams, Gail M; Soares Magalhães, Ricardo J; Hamm, Nicholas A S; Clements, Archie C A

    2016-01-01

    Echinococcoses are parasitic diseases of major public health importance globally. Human infection results in chronic disease with poor prognosis and serious medical, social and economic consequences for vulnerable populations. According to recent estimates, the geographical distribution of Echinococcus spp. infections is expanding and becoming an emerging and re-emerging problem in several regions of the world. Echinococcosis endemicity is geographically heterogeneous and over time it may be affected by global environmental change. Therefore, landscape epidemiology offers a unique opportunity to quantify and predict the ecological risk of infection at multiple spatial and temporal scales. Here, we review the most relevant environmental sources of spatial variation in human echinococcosis risk, and describe the potential applications of landscape epidemiological studies to characterise the current patterns of parasite transmission across natural and human-altered landscapes. We advocate future work promoting the use of this approach as a support tool for decision-making that facilitates the design, implementation and monitoring of spatially targeted interventions to reduce the burden of human echinococcoses in disease-endemic areas. PMID:26895758

  14. Measles - The epidemiology of elimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durrheim, David N; Crowcroft, Natasha S; Strebel, Peter M

    2014-12-01

    Tremendous progress has been made globally to reduce the contribution of measles to the burden of childhood deaths and measles cases have dramatically decreased with increased two dose measles-containing vaccine coverage. As a result the Global Vaccine Action Plan, endorsed by the World Health Assembly, has targeted measles elimination in at least five of the six World Health Organisation Regions by 2020. This is an ambitious goal, since measles control requires the highest immunisation coverage of any vaccine preventable disease, which means that the health system must be able to reach every community. Further, while measles remains endemic in any country, importations will result in local transmission and outbreaks in countries and Regions that have interrupted local endemic measles circulation. One of the lines of evidence that countries and Regions must address to confirm measles elimination is a detailed description of measles epidemiology over an extended period. This information is incredibly valuable as predictable epidemiological patterns emerge as measles elimination is approached and achieved. These critical features, including the source, size and duration of outbreaks, the seasonality and age-distribution of cases, genotyping pointers and effective reproduction rate estimates, are discussed with illustrative examples from the Region of the Americas, which eliminated measles in 2002, and the Western Pacific Region, which has established a Regional Verification Commission to review progress towards elimination in all member countries. PMID:25444814

  15. Epidemiologic research program: Selected bibliography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This bibliography is a current listing of scientific reports from epidemiologic and related activities sponsored by the Department of Energy. The Office of Epidemiology and Health Surveillance now is the departmental focal point for these activities and any others relating to the study of human health effects. The Office's mission is evolving to encompass the new role of the Department in environmental restoration, weapons dismantlement and nuclear material storage, and development of new energy technologies. Publications in these areas will be included in future editions of the bibliography. The present edition brings the listing up to date, and should facilitate access to specific reports. The program has been divided into several general areas of activity: the Radiation Effects Research Foundation, which supports studies of survivors of the atomic weapons in Hiroshima and Nagasaki; mortality and morbidity studies of DOE workers; studies on internally deposited alpha emitters; medical/histologic studies; studies on the genetic aspects of radiation damage; community health surveillance studies; and the development of computational techniques and of databases to make the results as widely useful as possible

  16. Water aerobics in pregnancy: cardiovascular response, labor and neonatal outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Braga Angelica F

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To evaluate the association between water aerobics, maternal cardiovascular capacity during pregnancy, labor and neonatal outcomes. Methods A randomized, controlled clinical trial was carried out in which 34 pregnant women were allocated to a water aerobics group and 37 to a control group. All women were submitted to submaximal ergometric tests on a treadmill at 19, 25 and 35 weeks of pregnancy and were followed up until delivery. Oxygen consumption (VO2 max, cardiac output (CO, physical fitness, skin temperature, data on labor and delivery, and neonate outcomes were evaluated. Frequency distributions of the baseline variables of both groups were initially performed and then analysis of the outcomes was carried out. Categorical data were compared using the chi-square test, and numerical using Student's t or Mann-Whitney tests. Wilk's Lambda or Friedman's analysis of repeat measurements were applied for comparison of physical capacity, cardiovascular outcomes and maternal temperature. Results VO2 max and physical fitness were higher in both groups in the second trimester, returning to basal levels in the third trimester. In both groups, CO increased as pregnancy progressed and peak exercise temperature was higher than resting temperature, increasing further after five minutes of recovery and remaining at this level until 15 minutes after exercise completion. There was no difference between the two groups regarding duration (457.9 ± SD 249.6 vs 428.9 ± SD 203.2 minutes or type of delivery. Labor analgesia was requested by significantly fewer women in the water aerobics group (27% vs 65%; RR = 0.42 95%CI 0.23–0.77. Neonatal results were similar in both groups. Conclusion The regular practice of moderate water aerobics by sedentary and low risk pregnant women was not detrimental to the health of the mother or the child. There was no influence on maternal cardiovascular capacity, duration of labor or type of delivery; however

  17. The influence of a six month aerobics programme on middle aged women's aerobic capacity and body composition

    OpenAIRE

    Barbora Šeděnková; Pavel Stejskal; Jaroslav Šimíček; Milan Elfmark; Tereza Bušinová; Barbora Raníková

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Regular physical activity has a positive influence on increasing physical fitness, which has considerable impact on health and, consequently, on the quality and length of human life. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to assess the influence of six months of physical endurance activity on the body composition and aerobic capacity of middle aged women. METHODS: Forty women between the ages of 40 to 55 years with a sedentary occupation and without regular physical activity took par...

  18. Evaluation of the petrifilm aerobic count plate for enumeration of aerobic marine bacteria from seawater and Caulerpa lentillifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudaka, Jun; Horii, Toru; Tamanaha, Koji; Itokazu, Kiyomasa; Nakamura, Masaji; Taira, Katsuya; Nidaira, Minoru; Okano, Sho; Kitahara, Akio

    2010-08-01

    The enumeration and evaluation of the activity of marine bacteria are important in the food industry. However, detection of marine bacteria in seawater or seafood has not been easy. The Petrifilm aerobic count plate (ACP) is a ready-to-use alternative to the traditional enumeration media used for bacteria associated with food. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of a simple detection and enumeration method utilizing the Petrifilm ACP for enumeration of aerobic marine bacteria from seawater and an edible seaweed, Caulerpa lentillifera. The efficiency of enumeration of total aerobic marine bacteria on Petrifilm ACP was compared with that using the spread plate method on marine agar with 80 seawater and 64 C. lentillifera samples. With sterile seawater as the diluent, a close correlation was observed between the method utilizing Petrifilm ACP and that utilizing the conventional marine agar (r=0.98 for seawater and 0.91 for C. lentillifera). The Petrifilm ACP method was simpler and less time-consuming than the conventional method. These results indicate that Petrifilm ACP is a suitable alternative to conventional marine agar for enumeration of marine microorganisms in seawater and C. lentillifera samples.

  19. Assessing aerobic natural attenuation of trichloroethene at four DOE sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koelsch, Michael C. [North Wind, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Starr, Robert C. [North Wind, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Sorenson, Jr., Kent S. [CDM, Inc., Denver, CO (United States)

    2005-03-01

    A 3-year Department of Energy Environmental Science Management Program (EMSP) project is currently investigating natural attenuation of trichloroethane (TCE) in aerobic groundwater. This presentation summarizes the results of a screening process to identify TCE plumes at DOE facilities that are suitable for assessing the rate of TCE cometabolism under aerobic conditions. In order to estimate aerobic degradation rates, plumes had to meet the following criteria: TCE must be present in aerobic groundwater, a conservative co-contaminant must be present and have approximately the same source as TCE, and the groundwater velocity must be known. A total of 127 TCE plumes were considered across 24 DOE sites. The four sites retained for the assessment were: (1) Brookhaven National Laboratory, OU III; (2) Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Northwest Plume; (3) Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site, Industrialized Area--Southwest Plume and 903 Pad South Plume; and (4) Savannah River Site, A/M Area Plume. For each of these sites, a co-contaminant derived from the same source area as TCE was used as a nonbiodegrading tracer. The tracer determined the extent to which concentration decreases in the plume can be accounted for solely by abiotic processes such as dispersion and dilution. Any concentration decreases not accounted for by these processes must be explained by some other natural attenuation mechanism. Thus, ''half-lives'' presented herein are in addition to attenuation that occurs due to hydrologic mechanisms. This ''tracer-corrected method'' has previously been used at the DOE's Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory in conjunction with other techniques to document the occurrence of intrinsic aerobic cometabolism. Application of this method to other DOE sites is the first step to determining whether this might be a significant natural attenuation mechanism on a broader scale. Application of the tracer

  20. 生防放线菌TGNBSA5的鉴定及其活性物质的研究%Identification of a Bioactive Endophytic Actinomycete TGNBSA5 and Study on Its Active Substances

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄以超; 颜霞; 王建华; 高小宁; 王惠; 黄丽丽

    2012-01-01

    Endophytic actinomycete TGNBSA5, isolated from Arctium lappa stem, has strong inhibitory activity against Pseudotnonas syringae pv, actinidiae (Psa). In order to exploit the bio-control application of the actinomycete, physiological and biochemical characterization, morphological, and 16S rDNA sequence analysis were conducted to identify the strain. Meanwhile, after further fermentation of the strain, bioactive compounds were isolated and purified by ethyl acetate extraction, chro-matographic technology, and HPLC detection. The result showed that the endophytic actinomycete was classified as Streptomyces sporovirgulis. NMR and UV spectra analysis indicated that one of the bioactive compounds was benzyl alcohol. It is the first time that the endophytic actinomycete Streptomyces sporovirguiis be isolated from plant. The clarification of the bioactive benzyl alcohol provides theoretical basis for the development of this actinomycete and the bio-control of kiwifruit canker disease as well.%牛蒡内生放线菌TGNBSA5对猕猴桃溃疡病菌有较好拮抗作用.为开发该生防菌的生物防治价值,采用生理生化活性测定、形态观察及16S rDNA序列分析,并经发酵培养后,发酵液采用乙酸乙酯萃取、柱层析和薄层层析、HPLC检测等方法分离纯化抑菌活性组分.结果表明,该内生放线菌为链霉菌属的孢杆链霉菌( Streptomyces sporovirgulis),经紫外和NMR鉴定活性组分之一为苯甲醇.孢杆链霉菌为第一次从植物中分离获得,且活性组分苯甲醇的明确将为猕猴桃溃疡病的防治提供理论依据.