WorldWideScience

Sample records for aero engine applications

  1. RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT OF HIGH TEMPERATURE STRUCTURAL MATERIALS FOR AERO-ENGINE APPLICATIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    G.Q. Zhang

    2005-01-01

    The status of research, development of superalloys and materials processing & fabrication technologies for aero-engine applications in China Aviation Industry, with an emphasis on recent achievements at BIAM including directionally solidified and single crystal superalloys for blade and vane applications, wrought superalloys for aero-engine disks and rings, and powder metallurgy (PM) superalloys for high performance disk applications were described. It was also reviewed the development of new class of high temperature structural materials, such as structural intermetallics, and advanced material processing technologies including rapid solidification,spray forming and so on. The trends of research and development of the above mentioned superalloys and processing technologies are outlined. Cast, wrought and PM superalloys are the workhorse materials for the hot section of current aero-engines. New high temperature materials and advanced processing technologies have been and will be the subject of study. It is speculated that high performance, high purity and low cost superalloys and technologies will play key roles in aero-engines.

  2. Advanced materials and protective coatings in aero-engines application

    OpenAIRE

    M. Hetmańczyk; L. Swadźba; B. Mendala

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The following article demonstrates the characteristics of the materials applied as parts of aircraft engine turbines and the stationary gas turbines. The principal technologies for manufacturing the heat resistant coatings and the erosion and corrosion resistant coatings were characterized. Sample applications for the aforementioned coatings are presented: on turbine blades, compressor blades and on parts of combustion chambers of aircraft engines.Design/methodology/approach: The nic...

  3. High-Temperature Oxidation Behavior of Two Nickel-Based Superalloys Produced by Metal Injection Molding for Aero Engine Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, Benedikt; Völkl, Rainer; Glatzel, Uwe

    2014-09-01

    For different high-temperature applications like aero engines or turbochargers, metal injection molding (MIM) of superalloys is an interesting processing alternative. For operation at high temperatures, oxidation behavior of superalloys produced by MIM needs to match the standard of cast or forged material. The oxidation behavior of nickel-based superalloys Inconel 713 and MAR-M247 in the temperature interval from 1073 K to 1373 K (800 °C to 1100 °C) is investigated and compared to cast material. Weight gain is measured discontinuously at different oxidation temperatures and times. Analysis of oxidized samples is done via SEM and EDX-measurements. MIM samples exhibit homogeneous oxide layers with a thickness up to 4 µm. After processing by MIM, Inconel 713 exhibits lower weight gain and thinner oxide layers than MAR-M247.

  4. Experimental Technique of Titanium Fire in Aero-engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MI Guangbao

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Titanium fire is the typical catastrophic fault in the aero-engine. Aiming at the urgent demand for experimental technique of titanium fire from advanced high thrust-weight ratio aero-engine, the combustion technology and theory of titanium alloy based on friction oxygen concentration method (FOC were systematically studied. The evaluation method of fireproof property and the friction ignition model were built, and the fireproof mechanism was illustrated. By generalizing recent progress in experimental technique of titanium fire from three levels, including evolutionary rule, mechanism and prevention and control technology, the ideas and directions of experimental technique associated with the application research of titanium fire in the future were proposed, namely overall evaluation of fireproof property close to air flow environment of the aero-engine, prediction model of fireproof property and experimental verification of fireproof technique under the air flow environment of aero-engine. It is necessary to establish the prevention system of titanium fire in aero-engine, which contributes to the realization of "full titanium" in compressor and to the increase of high thrust-weight ratio.

  5. A Honeycomb-Structured Ti-6Al-4V Oil-Gas Separation Rotor Additively Manufactured by Selective Electron Beam Melting for Aero-engine Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, H. P.; Wang, Q. B.; Yang, G. Y.; Gu, J.; Liu, N.; Jia, L.; Qian, M.

    2016-03-01

    Oil -gas separation is a key process in an aero-engine lubrication system. This study reports an innovative development in oil -gas separation. A honeycomb-structured rotor with hexagonal cone-shaped pore channels has been designed, additively manufactured from Ti-6Al-4V using selective electron beam melting (SEBM) and assessed for oil -gas separation for aero-engine application. The Ti-6Al-4V honeycomb structure showed a high compressive strength of 110 MPa compared to less than 20 MPa for metal foam structures. The oil -gas separation efficiency of the honeycomb-structured separation rotor achieved 99.8% at the rotation speed of 6000 rpm with much lower ventilation resistance (17.3 kPa) than that of the separator rotor constructed using a Ni-Cr alloy foam structure (23.5 kPa). The honeycomb-structured Ti-6Al-4V separator rotor produced by SEBM provides a promising solution to more efficient oil -gas separation in the aero-engine lubrication system.

  6. Surface integrity of GH4169 affected by cantilever finish grinding and the application in aero-engine blades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Xun

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available GH4169 is the main material for aero-engine blades and integrated blisks. Because GH4169 has a poor milling performance, the profile precision and surface integrity of blades and integrated blisks are difficult to be met by utilizing the conventional milling process, which directly influence the global performance and reliability of aero-engines. Through grinding experiments on parameters and surface integrity optimization, the helical cantilever grinding process utilizing a 300# CBN RB wheel is presented and applied in finish machining of GH4169 blades. The profile errors of the blade surface are within ±0.01 mm, the roughness is less than 0.4 μm, the residual compressive stresses and the hardening rate are appropriate, there are no phenomena of burr and smearing with the grinding chips, and the leading/trailing edge can be smoothly connected with the suction/pressure surface. All the experimental results indicate that this grinding process is greatly suitable for the profile finish machining of GH4169 blades.

  7. Surface integrity of GH4169 affected by cantilever finish grinding and the application in aero-engine blades

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Xun; Ma Shuang; Meng Fanjun

    2015-01-01

    GH4169 is the main material for aero-engine blades and integrated blisks. Because GH4169 has a poor milling performance, the profile precision and surface integrity of blades and integrated blisks are difficult to be met by utilizing the conventional milling process, which directly influence the global performance and reliability of aero-engines. Through grinding experiments on parameters and surface integrity optimization, the helical cantilever grinding process utilizing a 300# CBN RB wheel is presented and applied in finish machining of GH4169 blades. The profile errors of the blade surface are within ±0.01 mm, the roughness is less than 0.4 lm, the residual compressive stresses and the hardening rate are appropriate, there are no phenomena of burr and smearing with the grinding chips, and the leading/trailing edge can be smoothly connected with the suction/pressure surface. All the experimental results indicate that this grinding process is greatly suitable for the profile finish machining of GH4169 blades.

  8. Application of computational fluid dynamics to the development of compressors for aero jet engines; Koku engine yo asshukuki kaihatsu eno CFD tekiyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashimoto, K.; Suga, S.; Matsuoka, A.; Sakai, Y. [Kawasaki Heavy Industries, Ltd., Kobe (Japan)

    1997-07-20

    This paper describes studies on application of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) to the development of compressors for aero jet engines, and development of highly-loaded compressor cascade of blades. The compressor used for validation is a single-stage axial-flow transonic compressor using rotor blades with low aspect ratio, whose circumferential velocity at their tips is about 430 m/s and the relative inflow Mach number reaches 1.3. The numerical analysis used a three-dimensional viscosity analysis code based on a high-accuracy upwind scheme using as a governing equation the Navier-Stokes equation for time averaging of three-dimensional compressibility of ideal gas. The calculations were executed on models with two patterns of with or without clearance on the tip of a rotor blade. The calculations were conducted at the design rotation speed and with multiple number of flow rates. The estimation accuracy on the whole performance was evaluated by using the comparison with the test result. The calculations were found 2-4% higher than the experimental values. The maximum flow rate agreed well with the experimental value. A high-performance tandem cascade of rotor blades was developed newly by utilizing the CFD analysis. As a result, the pressure ratio has increased up to 2.7 far exceeding the conventional maximum value of 1.8. A pressure ratio as high as about 50% has been achieved. 9 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Recognition and practice on remanufacturing engineering management of military aero-engines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiang Qiao

    2014-01-01

    The technologies of design,manufacture and MRO (maintenance,repair and overhaul) for the mili-tary aero-engines,particularly for the fighters,are much more difficult to be mastered than those for any other aero-engines. They have been monopolized by only a few countries and the core technologies have never been transferred due to high risk,high investment,high barrier and high cost. Therefore,our country has long relied on mapping and copying the others’engines to satisfy the domestic demand due to not having our own indepen-dent technologies for the design and manufacture of military aero-engines. However,through over 20 years of unremitting effort,the independent MRO has been achieved for all the Chinese fighter engines,covering in-R&D (research and development) and in-service engines;and the MRO technologies,capabilities,quality, cost-efficiency have reached or exceeded those of original manufacturers. It has grown out of nothing,and then from weak to strong. In particular,dozens of projects concerning the R&D and engineering application of re-manufacturing have obtained the independent intellectual property rights and are playing an irreplaceable role in achieving leaping improvement of independent MRO for Chinese military aero-engines.

  10. Recognition and practice on remanufacturing engineering management of military aero-engines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiang Qiao

    2014-01-01

    The technologies of design, manufacture and MRO (maintenance, repair and overhaul) tor the mili- tary aero-engines, particularly for the fighters, are much more difficult to be mastered than those for any other aero-engines. They have been monopolized by only a few countries and the core technologies have never been transferred due to high risk, high investment, high barrier and high cost. Therefore, our country has long relied on mapping and copying the others' engines to satisfy the domestic demand due to not having our own indepen- dent technologies for the design and manufacture of military aero-engines. However, through over 20 years of unremitting effort, the independent MRO has been achieved for all the Chinese fighter engines, covering in- R&D (research and development) and in-service engines; and the MRO technologies, capabilities, quality, cost-efficiency have reached or exceeded those of original manufacturers. It has grown out of nothing, and then from weak to strong. In particular, dozens of projects concerning the R&D and engineering application of re- manufacturing have obtained the independent intellectual property rights and are playing an irreplaceable role in achieving leaping improvement of independent MRO for Chinese military aero-engines.

  11. APPLICATION OF ROUGH SET THEORY TO MAINTENANCE LEVEL DECISION-MAKING FOR AERO-ENGINE MODULES BASED ON INCREMENTAL KNOWLEDGE LEARNING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆晓华; 左洪福; 蔡景

    2013-01-01

    The maintenance of an aero-engine usually includes three levels ,and the maintenance cost and period greatly differ depending on the different maintenance levels .To plan a reasonable maintenance budget program , airlines would like to predict the maintenance level of aero-engine before repairing in terms of performance parame-ters ,which can provide more economic benefits .The maintenance level decision rules are mined using the histori-cal maintenance data of a civil aero-engine based on the rough set theory ,and a variety of possible models of upda-ting rules produced by newly increased maintenance cases added to the historical maintenance case database are in-vestigated by the means of incremental machine learning .The continuously updated rules can provide reasonable guidance suggestions for engineers and decision support for planning a maintenance budget program before repai-ring .The results of an example show that the decision rules become more typical and robust ,and they are more accurate to predict the maintenance level of an aero-engine module as the maintenance data increase ,which illus-trates the feasibility of the represented method .

  12. Generic methods for aero-engine exhaust emission prediction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shakariyants, S.A.

    2008-01-01

    In the thesis, generic methods have been developed for aero-engine combustor performance, combustion chemistry, as well as airplane aerodynamics, airplane and engine performance. These methods specifically aim to support diverse emission prediction studies coupled with airplane and engine simulation

  13. Fault Diagnosis of Demountable Disk-Drum Aero-Engine Rotor Using Customized Multiwavelet Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinglong Chen

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The demountable disk-drum aero-engine rotor is an important piece of equipment that greatly impacts the safe operation of aircraft. However, assembly looseness or crack fault has led to several unscheduled breakdowns and serious accidents. Thus, condition monitoring and fault diagnosis technique are required for identifying abnormal conditions. Customized ensemble multiwavelet method for aero-engine rotor condition identification, using measured vibration data, is developed in this paper. First, customized multiwavelet basis function with strong adaptivity is constructed via symmetric multiwavelet lifting scheme. Then vibration signal is processed by customized ensemble multiwavelet transform. Next, normalized information entropy of multiwavelet decomposition coefficients is computed to directly reflect and evaluate the condition. The proposed approach is first applied to fault detection of an experimental aero-engine rotor. Finally, the proposed approach is used in an engineering application, where it successfully identified the crack fault of a demountable disk-drum aero-engine rotor. The results show that the proposed method possesses excellent performance in fault detection of aero-engine rotor. Moreover, the robustness of the multiwavelet method against noise is also tested and verified by simulation and field experiments.

  14. Frequency-domain Model Matching PID Controller Design for Aero-engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Nan; Huang, Jinquan; Lu, Feng

    2014-12-01

    The nonlinear model of aero-engine was linearized at multiple operation points by using frequency response method. The validation results indicate high accuracy of static and dynamic characteristics of the linear models. The improved PID tuning method of frequency-domain model matching was proposed with the system stability condition considered. The proposed method was applied to the design of PID controller of the high pressure rotor speed control in the flight envelope, and the control effects were evaluated by the nonlinear model. Simulation results show that the system had quick dynamic response with zero overshoot and zero steadystate error. Furthermore, a PID-fuzzy switching control scheme for aero-engine was designed, and the fuzzy switching system stability was proved. Simulations were studied to validate the applicability of the multiple PIDs fuzzy switching controller for aero-engine with wide range dynamics.

  15. Failure Analysis towards Reliable Performance of Aero-Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Jayakumar

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available Aero-engines are critical components whose reliable performance decides the primary safety of anaircrafthelicopter. This is met by rigorous maintenance schedule with periodic inspection/nondestructive testingof various engine components. In spite of these measures, failure of areo-engines do occur rather frequentlyin comparison to failure of other components. Systematic failure analysis helps one to identify root causeof the failure, thus enabling remedial measures to prevent recurrence of such failures. Turbine blades madeof nickel or cobalt-based alloys are used in aero-engines. These blades are subjected to complex loadingconditions at elevated temperatures. The main causes of failure of blades are attributed to creep, thermalfatigue and hot corrosion. Premature failure of blades in the combustion zone was reported in one of theaero-engines. The engine had both the compressor and the free-turbine in a common shaft. Detailedfailure analysis revealed the presence of creep voids in the blades that failed. Failure of turbine bladeswas also detected in another aero-engine operating in a coastal environment. In this failure, the protectivecoating on the blades was cracked at many locations. Grain boundary spikes were observed on these locations.The primary cause of this failure was the hot corrosion followed by creep damage

  16. Maintenance Decision Based on Data Fusion of Aero Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huawei Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Maintenance has gained a great importance as a support function for ensuring aero engine reliability and availability. Cost-effectiveness and risk control are two basic criteria for accurate maintenance. Given that aero engines have much condition monitoring data, this paper presents a new condition-based maintenance decision system that employs data fusion for improving accuracy of reliability evaluation. Bayesian linear model has been applied, so that the performance degradation evaluation of aero engines could be realized. A reliability evaluation model has been presented based on gamma process, which achieves the accurate evaluation by information fusion. In reliability evaluation model, the shape parameter is estimated by the performance degradation evaluation result, and the scale parameter is estimated by failure, inspection, and repair information. What is more, with such reliability evaluation as input variables and by using particle swarm optimization (PSO, a stochastic optimization of maintenance decision for aircraft engines has been presented, in which the effectiveness and the accuracy are demonstrated by a numerical example.

  17. Net-Shape Processing Applied to Aero-Engine Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-05-01

    sustainable in the aero-engine business as the cost of key materials such as titanium and nickel alloys is escalating, fuelled by the seemingly...have deformed to consolidate the powder is removed by rough machining and/or pickling to reveal the net-shape component. The key to producing net...being relatively expensive in terms of cost and environmental impact, mainly due to the cost of machining the mild steel tooling and having to pickle

  18. Fuzzy Computing for Control of Aero Gas Turbine Engines .

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. R. Balakrishnan

    1994-10-01

    Full Text Available Many methods, techniques and procedures available for designing the control system of plants and processes, are applied only after knowing accurately the plant or process to be controlled. However, in some complex situations where plants/processes cannot be accurately modelled, and especially where their control has human interaction, controller design may not be completely satisfactory. In such cases, it has been found that control decisions can be made on the basis of heuristic/linguistic measures or fuzzy algorithms. Fuzzy set principles have been used in controlling various plants/processes ranging from a laboratory steam engine to an autopilot, including an aero gas turbine engine engine for which the response of the engine speed for a fuzzy input of fuel flow has been studied. In this paper, certain stipulations and logic are suggested for the control of the total gas turbine engine. A case study of a single spool aero gas turbine engine with one of its state variables varied by heuristic logic is presented.

  19. Optimization of Heat Exchangers for Intercooled Recuperated Aero Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrios Misirlis

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In the framework of the European research project LEMCOTEC, a section was devoted to the further optimization of the recuperation system of the Intercooled Recuperated Aero engine (IRA engine concept, of MTU Aero Engines AG. This concept is based on an advanced thermodynamic cycle combining both intercooling and recuperation. The present work is focused only on the recuperation process. This is carried out through a system of heat exchangers mounted inside the hot-gas exhaust nozzle, providing fuel economy and reduced pollutant emissions. The optimization of the recuperation system was performed using computational fluid dynamics (CFD computations, experimental measurements and thermodynamic cycle analysis for a wide range of engine operating conditions. A customized numerical tool was developed based on an advanced porosity model approach. The heat exchangers were modeled as porous media of predefined heat transfer and pressure loss behaviour and could also incorporate major and critical heat exchanger design decisions in the CFD computations. The optimization resulted in two completely new innovative heat exchanger concepts, named as CORN (COnical Recuperative Nozzle and STARTREC (STraight AnnulaR Thermal RECuperator, which provided significant benefits in terms of fuel consumption, pollutants emission and weight reduction compared to more conventional heat exchanger designs, thus proving that further optimization potential for this technology exists.

  20. Dynamical mechanism in aero-engine gas path system using minimum spanning tree and detrended cross-correlation analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Keqiang; Zhang, Hong; Gao, You

    2017-01-01

    Identifying the mutual interaction in aero-engine gas path system is a crucial problem that facilitates the understanding of emerging structures in complex system. By employing the multiscale multifractal detrended cross-correlation analysis method to aero-engine gas path system, the cross-correlation characteristics between gas path system parameters are established. Further, we apply multiscale multifractal detrended cross-correlation distance matrix and minimum spanning tree to investigate the mutual interactions of gas path variables. The results can infer that the low-spool rotor speed (N1) and engine pressure ratio (EPR) are main gas path parameters. The application of proposed method contributes to promote our understanding of the internal mechanisms and structures of aero-engine dynamics.

  1. RANDOM-FUZZY SAFETY ANALYSIS FOR AN AERO ENGINE TURBINE DISK

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Z.Z. Lü; C.L. Liu; Y.L. Xu; Z.F. Yue

    2004-01-01

    A numerical simulation method is presented for the random-fuzzy safety analysis of an aero engine disk. Based on the equivalent transformation from a fuzzy variable to a random variable, the equivalent random Probability Density Functions(PDFs)are got from their corresponding Fuzzy Possibility Distributions(FPDs) for the fuzzy variables. In that case the perfect numerical simulation method for the random uncertainty is employed to solve the fuzzy uncertainty. For the complex structure such as the aero engine disk with implicit relationship between the input basic variable and the response variable, the equivalent PDFs of the input basic variables are delivered simultaneously to the response variable by an empirical PDF, which is simulated by Finite Element Method(FEM). Then, in view of the fuzzy application requirement occurring in engineering usually, the reliability definition and calculation are discussed for the aero engine disk with multiple fuzzy failure modes. On the other hand, through the inverse transformation of the fuzzy variable to the random variable, the FPDs of the response variables can be calculated from their empirical PDFs as well.

  2. Overview of additive manufacturing activities at MTU aero engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamberg, Joachim; Dusel, Karl-Heinz; Satzger, Wilhelm

    2015-03-01

    Additive Manufacturing (AM) is a promising technology to produce parts easily and effectively, just by using metallic powder or wire as starting material and a sophisticated melting process. In contrast to milling or turning technologies complex shaped and hollow parts can be built up in one step. That reduces the production costs and allows the implementation of complete new 3D designs. Therefore AM is also of great interest for aerospace and aero engine industry. MTU Aero Engines has focused its AM activities to the selective laser melting technique (SLM). This technique uses metallic powder and a laser for melting and building up the part layer by layer. It is shown which lead part was selected for AM and how the first production line was established. A special focus is set on the quality assurance of the selective laser melting process. In addition to standard non-destructive inspection techniques a new online monitoring tool was developed and integrated into the SLM machines. The basics of this technique is presented.

  3. Recent trends in superalloys research for critical aero-engine components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Remy, Luc [Mine ParisTech, CNRS UMR 7633, 91 - Evry (France). Centre des Materiaux; Guedou, Jean-Yves [Snecma Safran Group, Moissy-Cramayel (France). Materials and Processes Dept.

    2010-07-01

    This paper is a brief survey of common research activity on superalloys for aero-engines between Snecma and Mines ParisTech Centre des Materiaux during recent years. First in disks applications, the development of new powder metallurgy superalloys is shown. Then grain boundary engineering is investigated in a wrought superalloy. Secondly, design oriented research on single crystals blades is shown: a damage model for low cycle fatigue is used for life prediction when cracks initiated at casting pores. The methodology developed for assessing coating life is illustrated for thermal barrier coating deposited on AMI single crystal superalloy. (orig.)

  4. High Performance Magnetic Bearings for Aero Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allaire, P. E.; Knospe, C. R.; Williams, R. D.; Lewis, D. W.; Barrett, L. E.; Maslen, E. H.; Humphris, R. R.

    1997-01-01

    Several previous annual reports were written and numerous papers published on the topics for this grant. That work is not repeated here in this final report. Only the work completed in the final year of the grant is presented in this final report. This final year effort concentrated on power loss measurements in magnetic bearing rotors. The effect of rotor power losses in magnetic bearings are very important for many applications. In some cases, these losses must be minimized to maximize the length of time the rotating machine can operate on a fixed energy or power supply. Examples include aircraft gas turbine engines, space devices, or energy storage flywheels. In other applications, the heating caused by the magnetic bearing must be removed. Excessive heating can be a significant problem in machines as diverse as large compressors, electric motors, textile spindles, and artificial heart pumps.

  5. Aero-Engine Fault Diagnosis Using Improved Local Discriminant Bases and Support Vector Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianwei Cui

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an effective approach for aero-engine fault diagnosis with focus on rub-impact, through combination of improved local discriminant bases (LDB with support vector machine (SVM. The improved LDB algorithm, using both the normalized energy difference and the relative entropy as quantification measures, is applied to choose the optimal set of orthogonal subspaces for wavelet packet transform- (WPT- based signal decomposition. Then two optimal sets of orthogonal subspaces have been obtained and the energy features extracted from those subspaces appearing in both sets will be selected as input to a SVM classifier to diagnose aero-engine faults. Experiment studies conducted on an aero-engine rub-impact test system have verified the effectiveness of the proposed approach for classifying working conditions of aero-engines.

  6. Research and Development of Some Advanced High Temperature Titanium Alloys for Aero-engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CAI Jian-ming

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Some advanced high temperature titanium alloys are usually selected to be manufactured into blade, disc, case, blisk and bling under high temperature environment in compressor and turbine system of a new generation high thrust-mass ratio aero-engine. The latest research progress of 600℃ high temperature titanium alloy, fireproof titanium alloy, TiAl alloy, continuous SiC fiber reinforced titanium matrix composite and their application technology in recent years in China were reviewed in this paper. The key technologies need to be broken through in design, processing and application of new material and component are put forward, including industrial ingot composition of high purified and homogeneous control technology, preparation technology of the large size bar and special forgings, machining technology of blisk and bling parts, material property evaluation and application design technique. The future with the continuous application of advanced high temperature titanium alloys, will be a strong impetus to the development of China's aero-engine technology.

  7. Corin/Dorin: A WDM-Enabled Platform for Aero-Engine Control Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Xia, Ming; Moslehi, Behzad; Mukherjee, Biswanath; Behbahani, Alireza; Millar, Richard

    2008-01-01

    The Full Authority Digital Electronic Control (FADEC) centralized architecture has become the norm in aero-engine control systems. With a centralized system, changes are costly and complex [1]. The goal of this work is to develop the architectural design concept for a distributed supporting network called Coarse WDM Optical Ring Network (CORIN) appropriate for aero-engine performance monitoring. A CORIN features high bandwidth, reliability, modularity, scalability, flexibility, an...

  8. Fault Diagnosis of Demountable Disk-Drum Aero-Engine Rotor Using Customized Multiwavelet Method

    OpenAIRE

    Jinglong Chen; Yu Wang; Zhengjia He; Xiaodong Wang

    2015-01-01

    The demountable disk-drum aero-engine rotor is an important piece of equipment that greatly impacts the safe operation of aircraft. However, assembly looseness or crack fault has led to several unscheduled breakdowns and serious accidents. Thus, condition monitoring and fault diagnosis technique are required for identifying abnormal conditions. Customized ensemble multiwavelet method for aero-engine rotor condition identification, using measured vibration data, is developed in this paper. Fir...

  9. Multidisciplinary Design Optimization on Conceptual Design of Aero-engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao-bo; Wang, Zhan-xue; Zhou, Li; Liu, Zeng-wen

    2016-06-01

    In order to obtain better integrated performance of aero-engine during the conceptual design stage, multiple disciplines such as aerodynamics, structure, weight, and aircraft mission are required. Unfortunately, the couplings between these disciplines make it difficult to model or solve by conventional method. MDO (Multidisciplinary Design Optimization) methodology which can well deal with couplings of disciplines is considered to solve this coupled problem. Approximation method, optimization method, coordination method, and modeling method for MDO framework are deeply analyzed. For obtaining the more efficient MDO framework, an improved CSSO (Concurrent Subspace Optimization) strategy which is based on DOE (Design Of Experiment) and RSM (Response Surface Model) methods is proposed in this paper; and an improved DE (Differential Evolution) algorithm is recommended to solve the system-level and discipline-level optimization problems in MDO framework. The improved CSSO strategy and DE algorithm are evaluated by utilizing the numerical test problem. The result shows that the efficiency of improved methods proposed by this paper is significantly increased. The coupled problem of VCE (Variable Cycle Engine) conceptual design is solved by utilizing improved CSSO strategy, and the design parameter given by improved CSSO strategy is better than the original one. The integrated performance of VCE is significantly improved.

  10. Qualification of Indigenously Developed Special Coatings for Aero-Engine Components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Sambasiva Rao

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available The demand for higher performance and reliability of aero-engiaes necessitates its components to worksatisfactorily under severe operating conditions. The durability of various components in these environmentis often enhanced by applying suitable coatings. The development of new materials/processing methods andalso various coatings to protect the components have been driven by the ever-increasing severity of theaero-engine internal environment. While the selection of a coating is dictated by the operating conditionsand the nature of the environment and also on the substrate, the durability of the coating depends uponthe mode of degradation of the coating and substrate in service.Though certification of an aero-engine after developmt obviously includes: validation of the componentsand its coatings, indigenous substitution of an already-qualified component system requires a re-orientationof the qualification methodology. This paper describes an approach for qualification of indigenously developedspecial coatings processes for application on aero-engine components. This approach has been adoptedsuccesshlly in validating several indigenous coatingslpmcesses, viz, aluminium-silicon diffusion coating appliedby pack cementation for oxidationhot comsion resistance, cobalt-chromium carbide coating by electrodepositionfor wear resistance, chromium carbide-nickel chromium coating applied by detonation gun and yttria-stabilisedzirconia thermal barrier coating applied by plasma spray.The approaih consists of a series of validation tests configured to assess the coating-substrate system.The rationale in evolving the qualification tests based on the type of coating, coating process, operating conditionsfor the components, probable failure modes and coating-base metal interaction, are described. In addition,comparison of the test results obtained on the test specimens coated with indigenously developed coatingsand imported coatings is also enumerated to show

  11. Aero-engine fault diagnosis applying new fast support vector algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Qi-hua; GENG Shuai; SHI Jun

    2012-01-01

    A new fast learning algorithm was presented to solve the large-scale support vector machine ( SVM ) training problem of aero-engine fault diagnosis.The relative boundary vectors ( RBVs ) instead of all the original training samples were used for the training of the binary SVM fault classifiers.This pruning strategy decreased the number of final training sample significantly and can keep classification accuracy almost invariable.Accordingly , the training time was shortened to 1 / 20compared with basic SVM classifier.Meanwhile , owing to the reduction of support vector number , the classification time was also reduced.When sample aliasing existed , the aliasing sample points which were not of the same class were eliminated before the relative boundary vectors were computed.Besides , the samples near the relative boundary vectors were selected for SVM training in order to prevent the loss of some key sample points resulted from aliasing.This can improve classification accuracy effectively.A simulation example to classify 5classes of combination fault of aero-engine gas path components was finished and the total fault classification accuracy reached 96.1%.Simulation results show that this fast learning algorithm is effective , reliable and easy to be implemented for engineering application.

  12. 76 FR 77108 - Airworthiness Directives; International Aero Engines Turbofan Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-12

    ... EGT margin abrupt trend shifts. We disagree. EGT margin allows the operator to use more of the... Changes One commenter, TAM Airlines, asked for guidance on how to manage engine position changes after... Exhaust gas seal segments hours- seal segments cycles- temperature margin Engine model since-new or since...

  13. SFC Optimization for Aero Engine Based on Hybrid GA-SQP Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jie; Fan, Ding; Sreeram, Victor

    2013-12-01

    This study focuses on on-line specific fuel consumption (SFC) optimization of aero engines. For solving this optimization problem, a nonlinear pneumatic and thermodynamics model of the aero engine is built and a hybrid optimization technique which is formed by combining the genetic algorithm (GA) and the sequential quadratic programming (SQP) is presented. The ability of standard GA and standard SQP in solving this type of problem is investigated. It has been found that, although the SQP is fast, very little SFC reductions can be obtained. The GA is able to solve the problem well but a lot of computational time is needed. The presented hybrid GA-SQP gives a good SFC optimization effect and saves 76.6% computational time when compared to the standard GA. It has been shown that the hybrid GA-SQP is a more effective and higher real-time method for SFC on-line optimization of the aero engine.

  14. Finite element analysis of welding residual stress of aero engine blisk by controlling heat input

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Xueqiu; Yang Jianguo; Chen Xuhui; Fang Hongyuan; Qu Shen; Wang Licheng

    2009-01-01

    In order to improve aero engine performance, it is necessary to reduce the welding residual stress of aero engine blisk. In this paper, finite element method was employed to simulate electron beam welding process of blisk, in accordance with the deducing formula (p = kh) , the heat input is changed with the weld depth to control welding residual stress of blisk. The calculation results show that welding residual stress of blisk can be controlled effectively by reducing the heat input on the conditions of meeting the demand of weld penetration and guaranteeing the welding quality, a new theoretical method and some numerical data are provided for controlling welding residual stress of blisk.

  15. Aero Engine Fault Diagnosis Using an Optimized Extreme Learning Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinyi Yang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A new extreme learning machine optimized by quantum-behaved particle swarm optimization (QPSO is developed in this paper. It uses QPSO to select optimal network parameters including the number of hidden layer neurons according to both the root mean square error on validation data set and the norm of output weights. The proposed Q-ELM was applied to real-world classification applications and a gas turbine fan engine diagnostic problem and was compared with two other optimized ELM methods and original ELM, SVM, and BP method. Results show that the proposed Q-ELM is a more reliable and suitable method than conventional neural network and other ELM methods for the defect diagnosis of the gas turbine engine.

  16. Dual-frequency Eddy Current Non-destructive Detection of Fatigue Cracks in Compressor Discs of Aero Engines

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    B. Sasi; B.P.C. Rao; T. Jayakumar

    2004-01-01

    ... related aircraft components. This paper discusses a dual-frequency eddy current testing procedure developed for inspection of compressor discs of aero engines for detecting fatigue cracks with high sensitivity and reliability...

  17. Studies on dynamic characteristics of the joint in the aero-engine rotor system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuguo, Liu; Yanhong, Ma; Dayi, Zhang; Jie, Hong

    2012-05-01

    The joint as a major part of the aero-engine rotating shafts directly influences its rotordynamics and state stability. This paper studies the dynamic effects of structure parameters and the external load on the stiffness and contact state of the rotor joints with nonlinear finite-element method and experiments. And a sensitivity analysis of critical speeds and vibration modes with respect to typical parameters (stiffness of the spline joints) is performed with finite difference methods, through two approaches, i.e. relative sensitivity analysis and absolute sensitivity analysis. The study results show that the stiffness and contact state of joints vary with external loads and geometry structures, and affect the rotor system operating. It is advisable to consider the influence of the position, structural parameter and external load of the rotor joints on aero-engine structure dynamics design.

  18. CFD predictions of LBO limits for aero-engine combustors using fuel iterative approximation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hu Bin; Huang Yong; Wang Fang; Xie Fa

    2013-01-01

    Lean blow-out (LBO) is critical to operational performance of combustion systems in propulsion and power generation.Current predictive tools for LBO limits are based on decadesold empirical correlations that have limited applicability for modern combustor designs.According to the Lefebvre's model for LBO and classical perfect stirred reactor (PSR) concept,a load parameter (LP) is proposed for LBO analysis of aero-engine combustors in this paper.The parameters contained in load parameter are all estimated from the non-reacting flow field of a combustor that is obtained by numerical simulation.Additionally,based on the load parameter,a method of fuel iterative approximation (FIA) is proposed to predict the LBO limit of the combustor.Compared with experimental data for 19 combustors,it is found that load parameter can represent the actual combustion load of the combustor near LBO and have good relativity with LBO fuel/air ratio (FAR).The LBO FAR obtained by FIA shows good agreement with experimental data,the maximum prediction uncertainty of FIA is about ± 17.5%.Because only the non-reacting flow is simulated,the time cost of the LBO limit prediction using FIA is relatively low (about 6 h for one combustor with computer equipment of CPU 2.66 GHz × 4 and 4 GB memory),showing that FIA is reliable and efficient to be used for practical applications.

  19. Mode shape description of an aero-engine casing structure using Zernike moment descriptors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Ying-chao; ZANG Chao-ping

    2011-01-01

    Vibration mode shape description of an aero-engine casing structure using Zernike moment descriptor (ZMD) was introduced in this paper. The mode shapes of the aero-engine casing structure can be decomposed as a linear combination of a series of Zernike polynomials, with the feature of each Zernike polynomial reflecting a part of characteristic of mode shapes, based on Zernike moment transformation. Meanwhile, the reconstruction of mode shapes with ZMD was explored and its ability to filtering the noise contaminated in the mode shapes was studied. Simulation of the aero-engine casing structure indicated the advantage of this method to depict the mode shapes of a symmetric structure. Results demonstrate that the Zernike moment description of the mode shapes can effectively describe the double modes in the symmetric structure and also has the ability to remove or significantly reduce the influence of noise in the mode shapes. Such feature shows great practical value for further research on the correlation, model updating and model validation of the symmetric structure's finite element model.

  20. Influence of high rotational speeds on heat transfer and oil film thickness in aero-engine bearing chambers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittig, S.; Glahn, A.; Himmelsbach, J.

    1994-04-01

    Increasing the thermal loading of bearing chambers in modern aero-engines requires advanced techniques for the determination of heat transfer characteristics. In the present study, film thickness and heat transfer measurements have been carried out for the complex two-phase oil/air flow in bearing chambers. In order to ensure real engine conditions, a new test facility has been built up, designed for rotational speeds up to n = 16,000 rpm and maximum flow temperatures of T(sub max) = 473 K. Sealing air and lubrication oil flow can be varied nearly in the whole range of aero-engine applications. Special interest is directed toward the development of an ultrasonic oil film thickness measuring technique, which can be used without any reaction on the flow inside the chamber. The determination of local heat transfer at the bearing chamber housing is based on a well-known temperature gradient method using surface temperature measurements and a finite element code to determine temperature distributions within the bearing chamber housing. The influence of high rotational speed on the local heat transfer and the oil film thickness is discussed.

  1. LMI-BASED AERO-ENGINE CONTROLLER DESIGN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The problem of analysis and synthesis of robust control is addressed in this work. The approach transferring the robust control design into Linear Matrix Inequality(LMI) is provided. The LMI standard structure of robust controller is also given and the controller is obtained through solving three LMIs. As an example, a robust control law is designed to the twin-spool turbojet engine system using the given approach. The result shows that LMI approach is feasible.

  2. Reliability analysis of aero-engine blades considering nonlinear strength degeneration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lin Jiewei; Zhang Junhong; Yang Shuo; Bi Fengrong

    2013-01-01

    To comprehensively consider the effects of strength degeneration and failure correlation,an improved stress-strength interference (SSI) model is proposed to analyze the reliability of aeroengine blades with the fatigue failure mode.Two types of TC4 alloy experiments are conducted for the study on the damage accumulation law.All the parameters in the nonlinear damage model are obtained by the tension-compression fatigue tests,and the accuracy of the nonlinear damage model is verified by the damage tests.The strength degeneration model is put forward on the basis of the Chaboche nonlinear damage theory and the Griffith fracture criterion,and determined by measuring the fatigue toughness during the tests.From the comparison of two kinds of degeneration models based on the Miner's linear law and the nonlinear damage model respectively,the nonlinear model has a significant advantage on prediction accuracy especially in the later period of life.A time-dependent SSI reliability model is established.By computing the stress distribution using the finite element (FE) technique,the reliability of a single blade during the whole service life is obtained.Considering the failure correlation of components,a modified reliability model of aero-engine blades with common cause failure (CCF) is presented.It shows a closer and more reasonable process with the actual working condition.The improved reliability model is illustrated to be applied to aero-engine blades well,and the approach purposed in this paper is suitable for any actual machinery component of aero-engine rotor systems.

  3. RELIABILITY ANALYSIS FOR AN AERO ENGINE TURBINE DISK UNDER LOW CYCLE FATIGUE CONDITION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    C.L. Liu; Z.Z. Lü; Y.L. Xu

    2004-01-01

    Reliability analysis methods based on the linear damage accumulation law (LDAL) and load-life interference model are studied in this paper. According to the equal probability rule, the equivalent loads are derived, and the reliability analysis method based on load-life interference model and recurrence formula is constructed. In conjunction with finite element analysis (FEA) program, the reliability of an aero engine turbine disk under low cycle fatigue (LCF) condition has been analyzed. The results show the turbine disk is safety and the above reliability analysis methods are feasible.

  4. A Virtual Assembly System for Aero-engines Based on VR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Ying; GUO Yun-peng; SHAO Ya-nan; XU Zhi-guo

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, a synthesized technique is explored through design of a virtual experiment system for main aeroengine based on VR, which attempts to integrate some VR techniques, such as 3D stereo simulation and modeling, 3D scene management and human-computer virtual assembly based on data glove and collision detection. The geometry modeling and instantiation technique, virtual hand modeling and data glove interaction technique are discussed chiefly. Finally, taking aim at assembling and dismantling experiment system of a certain aero-engine, interface technology is expounded also.

  5. The Chaotic Prediction for Aero-Engine Performance Parameters Based on Nonlinear PLS Regression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunxiao Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The prediction of the aero-engine performance parameters is very important for aero-engine condition monitoring and fault diagnosis. In this paper, the chaotic phase space of engine exhaust temperature (EGT time series which come from actual air-borne ACARS data is reconstructed through selecting some suitable nearby points. The partial least square (PLS based on the cubic spline function or the kernel function transformation is adopted to obtain chaotic predictive function of EGT series. The experiment results indicate that the proposed PLS chaotic prediction algorithm based on biweight kernel function transformation has significant advantage in overcoming multicollinearity of the independent variables and solve the stability of regression model. Our predictive NMSE is 16.5 percent less than that of the traditional linear least squares (OLS method and 10.38 percent less than that of the linear PLS approach. At the same time, the forecast error is less than that of nonlinear PLS algorithm through bootstrap test screening.

  6. A Co-modeling Method Based on Component Features for Mechatronic Devices in Aero-engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bin; Zhao, Haocen; Ye, Zhifeng

    2017-08-01

    Data-fused and user-friendly design of aero-engine accessories is required because of their structural complexity and stringent reliability. This paper gives an overview of a typical aero-engine control system and the development process of key mechatronic devices used. Several essential aspects of modeling and simulation in the process are investigated. Considering the limitations of a single theoretic model, feature-based co-modeling methodology is suggested to satisfy the design requirements and compensate for diversity of component sub-models for these devices. As an example, a stepper motor controlled Fuel Metering Unit (FMU) is modeled in view of the component physical features using two different software tools. An interface is suggested to integrate the single discipline models into the synthesized one. Performance simulation of this device using the co-model and parameter optimization for its key components are discussed. Comparison between delivery testing and the simulation shows that the co-model for the FMU has a high accuracy and the absolute superiority over a single model. Together with its compatible interface with the engine mathematical model, the feature-based co-modeling methodology is proven to be an effective technical measure in the development process of the device.

  7. USAF bioenvironmental noise data handbook. Volume 172: Hush-noise suppressor (Aero Systems Engineering, Incorporated) far-field noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, R. A.; Rau, T. H.; Jones, C.

    1982-07-01

    The hush-house noise suppressor was made by Aero Systems Engineering of Texas, Inc. for acoustical suppression of various AF fighter/trainer aircraft during ground runup operations. This report provides measured and extrapolated data defining the bioacoustic environments produced by several aircraft/engines operating in the hush-house suppressor for various engine power configurations. Far-field data measured at 20 locations are normalized to standard meteorological conditions and extrapolated from 75-8000 meters to derive sets of equal-value contours for seven acoustic measures as function of angle and distance from the source. Refer to Volume 1 of this handbook, 'USAF Bioenvironmental Noise Data Handbook, Vol 1: Organization, Content and Application,' AMRL-TR-75(1) 1975, for discussion of the objective and design of the handbook, the types of data presented, measurement procedures, instrumentation, data processing, definitions of quantities, symbols, equations, applications, limitations, etc. Data are presented for the following aircraft/engines operating in the hush-house noise suppressor: F-4, F-15, F-16, F-105, F-106, F-111F and T-38 aircraft and the TF41-A-1, J79-GE-15, F100-PW-100, J75-P19, J-75-P-17 and TF30-P-100 engines.

  8. Experimental and Numerical Correlation of Impact of Spherical Projectile for Damage Analysis of Aero Engine Component

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anuradha Nayak Majila

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Studies the impact response of flat Titanium alloy plate against spherical projectile for damage analysis of aero engine components using experimental and finite element techniques. Compressed gas gun has been used to impart speed to spherical projectile at various impact velocities for damage studies. Crater dimensions (diameter and depth obtained due to impact have been compared with finite element results using commercially available explicit finite element method code LS-DYNA. Strain hardening, high strain rate and thermal softening effect along with damage parameters have been considered using modified Johnson-Cook material model of LS-DYNA. Metallographic analysis has been performed on the indented specimen. This analysis is useful to study failure analysis of gas turbine engine components subjected to domestic object damage of gas turbine engine. Defence Science Journal, Vol. 66, No. 2, March 2016, pp. 193-199, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.66.9130

  9. A Rapid Method to Achieve Aero-Engine Blade Form Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Sun

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a rapid method to detect aero-engine blade form, according to the characteristics of an aero-engine blade surface. This method first deduces an inclination error model in free-form surface measurements based on the non-contact laser triangulation principle. Then a four-coordinate measuring system was independently developed, a special fixture was designed according to the blade shape features, and a fast measurement of the blade features path was planned. Finally, by using the inclination error model for correction of acquired data, the measurement error that was caused by tilt form is compensated. As a result the measurement accuracy of the Laser Displacement Sensor was less than 10 μm. After the experimental verification, this method makes full use of optical non-contact measurement fast speed, high precision and wide measuring range of features. Using a standard gauge block as a measurement reference, the coordinate system conversion data is simple and practical. It not only improves the measurement accuracy of the blade surface, but also its measurement efficiency. Therefore, this method increases the value of the measurement of complex surfaces.

  10. Application of Multihop Relay for Performance Enhancement of AeroMACS Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamali, Behnam; Wilson, Jeffrey D.; Kerczewski, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    A new transmission technology, based on IEEE 802.16-2009 (WiMAX), is currently being developed for airport surface communications. A C-band spectrum allocation at 5091 to 5150 MHz has been created by International Telecommunications Union (ITU) to carry this application. The proposed technology, known as AeroMACS, will be used to support fixed and mobile ground to ground applications and services. This article proposes and demonstrates that IEEE 802.16j-amendment-based WiMAX is most feasible for AeroMACS applications. This amendment introduces multihop relay as an optional deployment that may be used to provide additional coverage and/or enhance the capacity of the network. Particular airport surface radio coverage situations for which IEEE 802.16-2009-WiMAX provides resolutions that are inefficient, costly, or excessively power consuming are discussed. In all these cases, it is argued that 16j technology offers a much better alternative. A major concern about deployment of AeroMACS is interference to co-allocated applications such as the Mobile Satellite Service (MSS) feeder link. Our initial simulation results suggest that no additional interference to MSS feeder link is caused by deployment of IEEE 802.16j-based AeroMACS.

  11. Ceramics for Turbine Engine Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-03-01

    ENGINES LI ENGINES Fig 38 w’F Number of employees in the European aero engine industry -EG-EEC LRI - Germ~an Aerospace Industrie Fig.- 36 7 4 0 J 96 M U J...disc materials Fatigu 1 So noe 1 undr Wsg~lovturbline disc materials * Ti 6. CaSVo owpiressor disc matmlials __ T=20r C I(average values) 0 k4 io8 02...silicon carbide in heaters and a singular application which exploits the brittle nature of thre material - namely body armour . In this paper only the

  12. Unified Multi-speed analysis (UMA) for the condition monitoring of aero-engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nembhard, Adrian D.; Sinha, Jyoti K.

    2015-12-01

    For rotating machinery in which speeds and dynamics constantly change, performing vibration-based condition monitoring can be challenging. Thus, an effort is made here to develop a Unified Multi-speed fault diagnosis technique that can exploit useful vibration information available at various speeds from a rotating machine in a single analysis. Commonly applied indicators are computed from data collected from a rig at different speeds for a baseline case and different faults. Four separate analyses are performed: single speed at a single bearing, integrated features from multiple speeds at a single bearing, single speed for integrated features from multiple bearings and the proposed Unified Multi-speed analysis. The Unified Multi-speed approach produces the most conspicuous separation and isolation among the conditions tested. Observations made here suggest integration of more dynamic features available at different speeds improves the learning process of the tool which could prove useful for aero-engine condition monitoring.

  13. Some Issues Relating to Design and Development of an All-Composite Aero Gas Turbine Engine Rotor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Gupta

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper addresses some of the issues involved in the development of an all-composite aero gasturbine engine rotor with a view to reducing the total engine weight and increasing the thrust-weightratio beyond 20: I. It identifies the materials to be used for different components, i.e. shafts, discs andblades in the high and iow temperature regions. The various problems anticipated in its developmentare discussed and solutions recommended, wherever possible.

  14. An Aerodynamic Analysis of a Robustly Redesigned Modern Aero-Engine Fan

    CERN Document Server

    Seshadri, Pranay; Shahpar, Shahrokh

    2016-01-01

    This paper documents results from a recent computational study aimed at de-sensitizing fan stage aerodynamics---in a modern, high bypass ratio aero-engine---to the effects of rear-seal leakage flows. These flows are the result of seal erosion between a rotor and stator disk in an engine, and deterioration over the life of an engine. The density-matching technique for optimization under uncertainty was applied to this problem. This involved RANS and adjoint flow solves of a full fan stage carried out at two different leakage conditions. Here a detailed analysis of the fan stage aerodynamics is carried out to determine why exactly the new design is more insensitive to the effects of leakage flows. Specifically, it is shown that this insensitivity is attributed to three main factors: a slight rearward shift in loading, and thus a reduction in incidence; a reduction in the cross-passage pressure gradient; and a re-acceleration of the flow towards the trailing edge, which prevented any corner separation.

  15. 间冷回热循环发动机电子样机设计%Digital mock- up design of the intercooled recuperated cycle aero- engine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾庆万; 冯松涛; 马健

    2016-01-01

    Based on the tracking and analysis of the application of intercooled recuperated technology on aero-engine overseas, according to the domestic research status, experiment research of intercooler and re⁃cuperator was carried out. The general structure of the intercooled recuperated aero-engine was primarily studied and built as digital mock-up. The layout rules of components, systems, and special intercooler pipe⁃line and recuperator pipeline were summarized. By building the mock-up, the characteristics of project de⁃sign for the intercooled recuperated aero-engine were grasped, and the layout of components and systems were explored, which provide a basement for the optimization of engineering design.%在追踪和分析国外间冷回热技术在航空发动机领域应用的基础上,根据国内研究现状,对间冷器和回热器进行了模拟实验研究。初步拟定了间冷回热发动机总体结构方案,并将此结构方案建立为电子样机。总结了间冷回热发动机中各部件、系统,以及特有的间冷器管路系统和回热器管路系统的布局规律。通过样机建模,初步掌握了间冷回热发动机总体结构方案设计特点,探索了各部件、系统的布局,为间冷回热发动机的进一步研究积累了经验。

  16. Dynamic behavior of aero-engine rotor with fusing design suffering blade off

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cun WANG

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Fan blade off (FBO from a running turbofan rotor will introduce sudden unbalance into the dynamical system, which will lead to the rub-impact, the asymmetry of rotor and a series of interesting dynamic behavior. The paper first presents a theoretical study on the response excited by sudden unbalance. The results reveal that the reaction force of the bearing located near the fan could always reach a very high value which may lead to the crush of ball, journal sticking, high stress on the other components and some other failures to endanger the safety of engine in FBO event. Therefore, the dynamic influence of a safety design named “fusing” is investigated by mechanism analysis. Meantime, an explicit FBO model is established to simulate the FBO event, and evaluate the effectiveness and potential dynamic influence of fusing design. The results show that the fusing design could reduce the vibration amplitude of rotor, the reaction force on most bearings and loads on mounts, but the sudden change of support stiffness induced by fusing could produce an impact effect which will couple with the influence of sudden unbalance. Therefore, the implementation of the design should be considered carefully with optimized parameters in actual aero-engine.

  17. Uncertainty of measurement for large product verification: evaluation of large aero gas turbine engine datums

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muelaner, J. E.; Wang, Z.; Keogh, P. S.; Brownell, J.; Fisher, D.

    2016-11-01

    Understanding the uncertainty of dimensional measurements for large products such as aircraft, spacecraft and wind turbines is fundamental to improving efficiency in these products. Much work has been done to ascertain the uncertainty associated with the main types of instruments used, based on laser tracking and photogrammetry, and the propagation of this uncertainty through networked measurements. Unfortunately this is not sufficient to understand the combined uncertainty of industrial measurements, which include secondary tooling and datum structures used to locate the coordinate frame. This paper presents for the first time a complete evaluation of the uncertainty of large scale industrial measurement processes. Generic analysis and design rules are proven through uncertainty evaluation and optimization for the measurement of a large aero gas turbine engine. This shows how the instrument uncertainty can be considered to be negligible. Before optimization the dominant source of uncertainty was the tooling design, after optimization the dominant source was thermal expansion of the engine; meaning that no further improvement can be made without measurement in a temperature controlled environment. These results will have a significant impact on the ability of aircraft and wind turbines to improve efficiency and therefore reduce carbon emissions, as well as the improved reliability of these products.

  18. Nonlocal sparse model with adaptive structural clustering for feature extraction of aero-engine bearings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Han; Chen, Xuefeng; Du, Zhaohui; Li, Xiang; Yan, Ruqiang

    2016-04-01

    Fault information of aero-engine bearings presents two particular phenomena, i.e., waveform distortion and impulsive feature frequency band dispersion, which leads to a challenging problem for current techniques of bearing fault diagnosis. Moreover, although many progresses of sparse representation theory have been made in feature extraction of fault information, the theory also confronts inevitable performance degradation due to the fact that relatively weak fault information has not sufficiently prominent and sparse representations. Therefore, a novel nonlocal sparse model (coined NLSM) and its algorithm framework has been proposed in this paper, which goes beyond simple sparsity by introducing more intrinsic structures of feature information. This work adequately exploits the underlying prior information that feature information exhibits nonlocal self-similarity through clustering similar signal fragments and stacking them together into groups. Within this framework, the prior information is transformed into a regularization term and a sparse optimization problem, which could be solved through block coordinate descent method (BCD), is formulated. Additionally, the adaptive structural clustering sparse dictionary learning technique, which utilizes k-Nearest-Neighbor (kNN) clustering and principal component analysis (PCA) learning, is adopted to further enable sufficient sparsity of feature information. Moreover, the selection rule of regularization parameter and computational complexity are described in detail. The performance of the proposed framework is evaluated through numerical experiment and its superiority with respect to the state-of-the-art method in the field is demonstrated through the vibration signals of experimental rig of aircraft engine bearings.

  19. Least Squares Support Vector Machine Based Real-Time Fault Diagnosis Model for Gas Path Parameters of Aero Engines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xu-hui; HUANG Sheng-guo; WANG Ye; LIU Yong-jian; SHU Ping

    2009-01-01

    Least squares support vector machine (LS-SVM) is applied in gas path fault diagnosis for aero engines.Firstly,the deviation data of engine cruise are analyzed.Then,model selection is conducted using pattern search method.Finally,by decoding aircraft communication addressing and reporting system (ACARS) report,a real-time cruise data set is acquired,and the diagnosis model is adopted to process data.In contrast to the radial basis function (RBF) neutral network,LS-SVM is more suitable for real-time diagnosis of gas turbine engine.

  20. 3 D FEM analysis of welding residual stress and deformation of aero-engine blisk

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨建国; 周号; 雷靖; 方洪渊; 张学秋; 曲伸

    2014-01-01

    Aero-engine blisk welded by electron beam welding(EBW)method is a complicated structure.Fixtures were used to control the deformation ofblisk during its manufacturing process.Finite element method was utilized to study the evolution of the welding residual stress and deformation of this structure.In which an attenuation function was applied to the double ellipsoid heat source model based on the characteristic ofEBW,and the effects offixtures on the welding residual stresses and deforamtion were also reserached.The simulation results showed that the temperature contour ofweld cross section vertical to the weld centerline followed a “V”shape.Moreover,large welding residual stress and distortion were found in the interface between blisk and fixtures.The stress concentration was reduced sufficiently in starting and end part ofweldment as the fixtures were removed after welding process,while the removing operation had almost no effects on the welding residual stress in the middle section ofweld bead.

  1. Active generalized predictive control of turbine tip clearance for aero-engines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peng Kai; Fan Ding; Yang Fan; Fu Qiang; Li Yong

    2013-01-01

    Active control of turbine blade tip clearance continues to be a concern in design and con-trol of gas turbines. Ever increasing demands for improved efficiency and higher operating temper-atures require more stringent tolerances on turbine tip clearance. In this paper, a turbine tip clearance control apparatus and a model of turbine tip clearance are proposed;an implicit active generalized predictive control (GPC), with auto-regressive (AR) error modification and fuzzy adjustment on control horizon, is presented, as well as a quantitative analysis method of robust per-turbation radius of the system. The active clearance control (ACC) of aero-engine turbine tip clear-ance is evaluated in a lapse-rate take-off transient, along with the comparative and quantitative analysis of the stability and robustness of the active tip clearance control system. The results show that the resultant active tip clearance control system with the improved GPC has favorable steady-state and dynamic performance and benefits of increased efficiency, reduced specific fuel consump-tion, and additional service life.

  2. Sensitivity Analysis on Variation of Vane Natural Frequency of a Typical Aero Engine Impeller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selwyn Anbarasan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Centrifugal compressors are widely used in small and medium class turbo shaft and turbo prop aero engines. Inevitably the variation in the manufacturing process will lead to variation in natural frequency of blade vanes in an impeller which usually termed as Mistuning. The variation in natural frequency will increase the forced frequency response of the vanes than the tuned vanes. In-service deterioration of vanes dimension due to erosion, corrosion and FOD also adds to further variation in natural frequency. The amplification factor of the response will lead to reduced HCF life of the vanes than the tuned vanes. It is important for the designer to envisage the variation of natural frequency of the vanes to estimate the life of the impeller to avoid premature failure. This also helps in monitoring the health of the impeller during service. This paper deals with prediction of the effects of manufacturing/geometry variation and variation in material properties on impeller vane natural frequency of a turbo shaft engine. FEM model is created to accommodate the geometry variation of the impeller. The parameters influencing the natural frequency are varied and its corresponding variation in frequency is predicted. Several conditions are also simulated and sensitivity analysis is carried out with the above result to predict the order of influencing parameters. Influencing parameters are ranked and the most influencing parameter is found to be the Young’s Modulus of the material for this case of impeller. Maximum influencing parameter Young’s modulus contributes to 5.8% variation and the least contributing factor density to 0.6% variation in natural frequency. This result enables the designer to forecast the possible range of natural frequencies in the design phase, so that he can limit the analysis to predict the response due to mistuning to the estimated range of frequencies.

  3. A method for the assessment of operational severity for a high pressure turbine blade of an aero-engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haslam, Anthony; Abu, Abdullahi; Laskaridis, Panagiotis

    2015-12-01

    This paper provides a tool for the estimation of the operational severity of a high pressure turbine blade of an aero engine. A multidisciplinary approach using aircraft/ engine performance models which provide inputs to a thermo-mechanical fatigue damage model is presented. In the analysis, account is taken of blade size, blade metal temperature distribution, relevant heat transfer coefficients and mechanical and thermal stresses. The leading edge of the blade is selected as the critical part in the estimation of damage severity for different design and operational parameters. The study also suggests a method for production of operational severity data for the prediction of maintenance intervals.

  4. Dual-frequency Eddy Current Non-destructive Detection of Fatigue Cracks in Compressor Discs of Aero Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Sasi

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Eddy current non-destructive testing is used to inspect the critical aircraft components. The shortcomings of the inspection method identified, based on a few accidents, necessitatethe development of high sensitive and reliable testing procedures for inspecting the critical safety related aircraft components. This paper discusses a dual-frequency eddy current testingprocedure developed for inspection of compressor discs of aero engines for detecting fatigue cracks with high sensitivity and reliability. This procedure is capable of detecting fatigue crackssmaller than 2 mm in comparison to 4 mm cracks that can be detected with the currently practiced eddy current testing procedure.

  5. Numerical Prediction of Flow and Heat Transfer on lubricant Supplying and Scavenging Flow Path of an Aero-Engine Lubrication System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, S. Q.; Liu, Z. X.; Lv, Y. G.; Zhang, L. F.; Xu, T.

    This paper presents a numerical model of internal flows on lubricant supplying and scavenging flow path of an aero-engine lubrication system. The numerical model was built in the General Analysis Software of Aero-engine Lubrication System (GASLS), developed by Northwestern Polytechnical University. The lubricant flow flux, pressure and temperature distribution at steady state were calculated. GASLS is a general purpose computer program employed a ID steady state network algorithm for analyzing flowrates, pressures and temperatures in a complex flow network. All kinds of aero-engine lubrication systems can be divided into finite correlative typical elements and nodes from which the calculation network is developed in GASLS. Special emphasis is put on how to use combinational elements which is a type of typical elements to replace some complex components such as bearing compartments, accessory drive gearboxes or heat exchangers. This method can reduce network complexity and improve calculation efficiency. The computational results show good agreement with experimental data.

  6. MAINTENANCE LEVEL DECISION OF AERO-ENGINE BASED ON VPRS THEORY%基于VPRS理论的航空发动机送修等级决策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张海军; 左洪福; 梁剑

    2005-01-01

    An aero-engine is a typically repairable and complex system and its maintenance level has a close relationship with the maintenance cost. The inaccurate measurement for the maintenance level of an aero-engine can induce higher overhaul maintenance costs. Variable precision rough set (VPRS) theory is used to determine the maintenance level of an aero-engine. According to the relationship between condition information and performance parameters of aero-engine modules, decision rules are established for reflecting the real condition of an aeroengine when its maintenance level needs to be determined. Finally, the CF6 engine is used as an example to illustrate the method to be effective.%应用变精度粗糙集理论研究了发动机状态信息与单元体性能参数之间的关系,提出了一种基于信息熵属性约简的航空公司发动机维修等级决策方法,从而在维修决策时能够更加客观地反映发动机实际损伤程度.最后以CF6型发动机维修等级决策规则生成为例说明了该决策方法的有效性.

  7. Aeronautical Mobile Airport Communications System (AeroMACS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budinger, James M.; Hall, Edward

    2011-01-01

    To help increase the capacity and efficiency of the nation s airports, a secure wideband wireless communications system is proposed for use on the airport surface. This paper provides an overview of the research and development process for the Aeronautical Mobile Airport Communications System (AeroMACS). AeroMACS is based on a specific commercial profile of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) 802.16 standard known as Wireless Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access or WiMAX (WiMax Forum). The paper includes background on the need for global interoperability in air/ground data communications, describes potential AeroMACS applications, addresses allocated frequency spectrum constraints, summarizes the international standardization process, and provides findings and recommendations from the world s first AeroMACS prototype implemented in Cleveland, Ohio, USA.

  8. Chatter stability prediction in four-axis milling of aero-engine casings with bull-nose end mill

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhou Xu; Zhang Dinghua; Luo Ming; Wu Baohai

    2015-01-01

    An analytical model for chatter stability prediction in bull-nose end milling of aero-engine casings is presented in this paper. And the mechanics and dynamics variations due to the complex cutter and workpiece geometry are considered by analyzing the effects of the lead angle on the milling process. Firstly, the tool-workpiece engagement region is obtained by using a previously developed method and divided into several disk elements along the tool-axis direction. Secondly, a 3D dynamic model for stability limit calculation is developed and simplified into a 1D model in normal direction considering only the dominant mode of the workpiece. Then the cutting force coefficients, the start and exit angles corresponding to each disk element are determined. And the total stability lobe diagram is calculated using an iterative algorithm. Finally, several experimental tests are carried out to validate the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed prediction approach.

  9. Chatter stability prediction in four-axis milling of aero-engine casings with bull-nose end mill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Xu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available An analytical model for chatter stability prediction in bull-nose end milling of aero-engine casings is presented in this paper. And the mechanics and dynamics variations due to the complex cutter and workpiece geometry are considered by analyzing the effects of the lead angle on the milling process. Firstly, the tool-workpiece engagement region is obtained by using a previously developed method and divided into several disk elements along the tool-axis direction. Secondly, a 3D dynamic model for stability limit calculation is developed and simplified into a 1D model in normal direction considering only the dominant mode of the workpiece. Then the cutting force coefficients, the start and exit angles corresponding to each disk element are determined. And the total stability lobe diagram is calculated using an iterative algorithm. Finally, several experimental tests are carried out to validate the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed prediction approach.

  10. Experience with Aero- and Fluid-Dynamic Testing for Engineering and CFD Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, James C.

    2016-01-01

    Ever since computations have been used to simulate aerodynamics the need to ensure that the computations adequately represent real life has followed. Many experiments have been performed specifically for validation and as computational methods have improved, so have the validation experiments. Validation is also a moving target because computational methods improve requiring validation for the new aspect of flow physics that the computations aim to capture. Concurrently, new measurement techniques are being developed that can help capture more detailed flow features pressure sensitive paint (PSP) and particle image velocimetry (PIV) come to mind. This paper will present various wind-tunnel tests the author has been involved with and how they were used for validation of various kinds of CFD. A particular focus is the application of advanced measurement techniques to flow fields (and geometries) that had proven to be difficult to predict computationally. Many of these difficult flow problems arose from engineering and development problems that needed to be solved for a particular vehicle or research program. In some cases the experiments required to solve the engineering problems were refined to provide valuable CFD validation data in addition to the primary engineering data. All of these experiments have provided physical insight and validation data for a wide range of aerodynamic and acoustic phenomena for vehicles ranging from tractor-trailers to crewed spacecraft.

  11. System-Level Development of Fault-Tolerant Distributed Aero-Engine Control Architecture Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA's vision for an "intelligent engine" will be realized with the development of a truly distributed control system and reliable smart transducer node components;...

  12. Aerotrace. Measurement of trace species in the exhaust of aero engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cottington, R.V. [DRA, Farnborough (United Kingdom)

    1997-12-31

    There is growing evidence that trace species, both gaseous and particulate, play an important role in the chemistry of the atmosphere. Very little is currently known about the nature and concentration of these species emitted by aircraft engines. The purpose of AEROTRACE, therefore, is to make representative measurements of trace species emissions, such as particulates, hydrocarbon constituents and various nitrogen compounds, from engine combustors over the entire flight altitude range from ground level to cruise conditions. An overview of the programme and progress to date is presented. (author)

  13. Two-Phase Air/Oil Flow in Aero-Engine Bearing Chambers – Assessment of an Analytical Prediction Method for the Internal Wall Heat Transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Glahn

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper gives a theoretical outline on liquid film flows driven by superimposed effects of interfacial shear and gravity forces and discusses related heat transfer processes which are relevant for lubrication oil systems of aero engines. It is shown that a simple analytical approach is able to predict measured heat transfer data fairly well. Therefore, it offers scope for improvements within the analysis of bearing chamber heat transfer characteristics as well as for appropriate studies with respect to other components of the lubrication oil system such as vent pipeline elements.

  14. Particle image velocimetry of highly luminescent, pressurized combustion flows of aero engine combustors

    OpenAIRE

    Schroll, Michael; Klinner, Joachim; Lange, Lena; Willert, Christian

    2013-01-01

    This contribution describes recent efforts leading toward the successful application of particle image velocimetry (PIV) in highly luminescent flames avoiding saturation of the second frame of commonly available double shutter PIV cameras, which is usually inevitable when using their interline-transfer CCD sensors. Information on fuel placement, reaction zone and temperature field among other quantities can be provided by frequently used spectroscopic techniques. The velocity information is o...

  15. Applicability of the Aero-Optic Linking Equation to a Highly Coherent, Transitional Shear Layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hugo, Ronald J.; Jumper, Eric J.

    2000-08-01

    We investigate the validity of applying a simplified (under the assumptions of isotropic and homogeneous turbulence) aero-optic linking equation to a flow field that is known to consist of anisotropic and nonhomogeneous turbulence. The investigation is performed in the near-nozzle region of a heated two-dimensional jet, and the study makes use of a conditional-sampling experiment to acquire a spatiotemporal temperature field database for the heated-jet flow field. After compensating for the bandwidth limitations of constant-current wire temperature measurements, the temperature field database is applied to the computation of optical degradation through both direct and indirect methods, relying on the aero-optic linking equation. The simplified version of the linking equation was found to provide good agreement with direct calculations, provided that the length scale of the density fluctuations was interpreted as being the integral scale, with the limits of integration being the first two zero crossings of the covariance coefficient function.

  16. Stirling engine application study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teagan, W. P.; Cunningham, D.

    1983-01-01

    A range of potential applications for Stirling engines in the power range from 0.5 to 5000 hp is surveyed. Over one hundred such engine applications are grouped into a small number of classes (10), with the application in each class having a high degree of commonality in technical performance and cost requirements. A review of conventional engines (usually spark ignition or Diesel) was then undertaken to determine the degree to which commercial engine practice now serves the needs of the application classes and to detemine the nature of the competition faced by a new engine system. In each application class the Stirling engine was compared to the conventional engines, assuming that objectives of ongoing Stirling engine development programs are met. This ranking process indicated that Stirling engines showed potential for use in all application classes except very light duty applications (lawn mowers, etc.). However, this potential is contingent on demonstrating much greater operating life and reliability than has been demonstrated to date by developmental Stirling engine systems. This implies that future program initiatives in developing Stirling engine systems should give more emphasis to life and reliability issues than has been the case in ongoing programs.

  17. Engineering Web Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Casteleyn, Sven; Daniel, Florian; Dolog, Peter

    Nowadays, Web applications are almost omnipresent. The Web has become a platform not only for information delivery, but also for eCommerce systems, social networks, mobile services, and distributed learning environments. Engineering Web applications involves many intrinsic challenges due...

  18. Fusing Simulation Results From Multifidelity Aero-servo-elastic Simulators - Application To Extreme Loads On Wind Turbine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdallah, Imad; Sudret, Bruno; Lataniotis, Christos

    2015-01-01

    Fusing predictions from multiple simulators in the early stages of the conceptual design of a wind turbine results in reduction in model uncertainty and risk mitigation. Aero-servo-elastic is a term that refers to the coupling of wind inflow, aerodynamics, structural dynamics and controls. Fusing...... the response data from multiple aero-servo-elastic simulators could provide better predictive ability than using any single simulator. The co-Kriging approach to fuse information from multifidelity aero-servo-elastic simulators is presented. We illustrate the co-Kriging approach to fuse the extreme flapwise...... bending moment at the blade root of a large wind turbine as a function of wind speed, turbulence and shear exponent in the presence of model uncertainty and non-stationary noise in the output. The extreme responses are obtained by two widely accepted numerical aero-servo-elastic simulators, FAST...

  19. 欧盟间冷回热循环燃气涡轮发动机发展综述%The development of intercooled recuperated cycle aero- engine in Europe Union

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈虹; 周军; 陈玉洁; 李茜

    2016-01-01

    As a new concept of power technology, the intercooled recuperated gas turbine engine could meet demands of cost, environmental-friendliness and fuel efficiency from future propulsion system. Struc⁃ture features and performance advantages of intercooled recuperated aero-engines (IRA) were presented;IRA engine development carried out and results achieved by EU according to 5th and 6th frameworks were al⁃so introduced in detail. Based on the characteristics of aero-engine, the key to develop new IRA engine was pointed out, that is the compact intercooler with high heat exchange efficiency and light weight as well as in⁃novative design of recuperator, and the application of intercooled recuperated cycle in aviation still faces a lot of challenges.%作为一种新概念动力技术,间冷回热循环燃气涡轮发动机可满足未来推进装置对成本控制、环境友好性和燃料高效利用等方面的要求。概述了间冷回热发动机的结构特点和性能优势,并详细介绍了欧盟根据第5和第6框架协议所开展的间冷回热涡扇发动机研发工作及取得的成果。结合航空发动机的特点,指出研制和发展新型间冷回热航空发动机的关键,在于结构紧凑、换热效率高、质量轻的间冷器和回热器的创新设计,间冷回热循环在航空领域的应用还将面临一系列挑战。

  20. Microwave power engineering applications

    CERN Document Server

    Okress, Ernest C

    2013-01-01

    Microwave Power Engineering, Volume 2: Applications introduces the electronics technology of microwave power and its applications. This technology emphasizes microwave electronics for direct power utilization and transmission purposes. This volume presents the accomplishments with respect to components, systems, and applications and their prevailing limitations in the light of knowledge of the microwave power technology. The applications discussed include the microwave heating and other processes of materials, which utilize the magnetron predominantly. Other applications include microwave ioni

  1. Engineering Web Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Casteleyn, Sven; Daniel, Florian; Dolog, Peter

    Nowadays, Web applications are almost omnipresent. The Web has become a platform not only for information delivery, but also for eCommerce systems, social networks, mobile services, and distributed learning environments. Engineering Web applications involves many intrinsic challenges due to their......Nowadays, Web applications are almost omnipresent. The Web has become a platform not only for information delivery, but also for eCommerce systems, social networks, mobile services, and distributed learning environments. Engineering Web applications involves many intrinsic challenges due...... to their distributed nature, content orientation, and the requirement to make them available to a wide spectrum of users who are unknown in advance. The authors discuss these challenges in the context of well-established engineering processes, covering the whole product lifecycle from requirements engineering through...

  2. Information Engineering and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Ma, Yan; International Conference on Information Engineering and Applications (IEA) 2011

    2012-01-01

    The International Conference on Information Engineering and Applications (IEA) 2011 will be held on October 21-24, 2011, in Chongqing, China. It is organized by Chongqing Normal University, Chongqing University, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Nanyang Technological University, the University of Michigan, Chongqing University of Arts and Sciences, and sponsored by the National Natural Science Foundation of China. The objective of IEA 2011 is to facilitate an exchange of information on best practices for the latest research advances in the area of information engineering and intelligence applications, which mainly includes computer science and engineering, informatics, communications and control, electrical engineering, information computing, business intelligence and management. IEA 2011 will provide a forum for engineers and scientists in academia, industry, and government to address the most innovative research and development including technical challenges, social and economic issues, and to present and disc...

  3. Engineering Adaptive Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dolog, Peter

    for a domain.In this book, we propose a new domain engineering framework which extends a development process of Web applications with techniques required when designing such adaptive customizable Web applications. The framework is provided with design abstractions which deal separately with information served...

  4. Engineering Adaptive Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dolog, Peter

    . The different requirements might be satisfied by different variants of features maintained and provided by Web applications. An adaptive Web application can be seen as a family of Web applications where application instances are those generated for particular user based on his characteristics relevant...... for a domain.In this book, we propose a new domain engineering framework which extends a development process of Web applications with techniques required when designing such adaptive customizable Web applications. The framework is provided with design abstractions which deal separately with information served...

  5. Fusing Simulation Results From Multifidelity Aero-servo-elastic Simulators - Application To Extreme Loads On Wind Turbine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdallah, Imad; Sudret, Bruno; Lataniotis, Christos

    2015-01-01

    bending moment at the blade root of a large wind turbine as a function of wind speed, turbulence and shear exponent in the presence of model uncertainty and non-stationary noise in the output. The extreme responses are obtained by two widely accepted numerical aero-servo-elastic simulators, FAST......Fusing predictions from multiple simulators in the early stages of the conceptual design of a wind turbine results in reduction in model uncertainty and risk mitigation. Aero-servo-elastic is a term that refers to the coupling of wind inflow, aerodynamics, structural dynamics and controls. Fusing...

  6. Engineering electrochemical capacitor applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, John R.

    2016-09-01

    Electrochemical capacitor (EC) applications have broadened tremendously since EC energy storage devices were introduced in 1978. Then typical applications operated below 10 V at power levels below 1 W. Today many EC applications operate at voltages approaching 1000 V at power levels above 100 kW. This paper briefly reviews EC energy storage technology, shows representative applications using EC storage, and describes engineering approaches to design EC storage systems. Comparisons are made among storage systems designed to meet the same application power requirement but using different commercial electrochemical capacitor products.

  7. Improvement of Laval nozzle calculation model and simulative verification in aero-engine performance calculation%拉瓦尔喷管计算模型的改进及其整机仿真验证

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周文祥; 黄金泉; 周人治

    2009-01-01

    根据拉瓦尔喷管的典型工作状态.建立了零维拉瓦尔喷管气体动力学模型,并将其集成到发动机整机部件级模型中,开展了发动机整机加速动态仿真.仿真结果表明:①随着喷口面积的不断收小,发动机低压转速加速曲线存在一段"先降后升"区域,这与实际试车结果吻合;②贴口正激波被推出管外的瞬间,出口马赫数从亚声速突变至超声速,但喷管出口流量、发动机推力变化连续,未见突变现象.%By analyzing typical operating regimes of Laval nozzle, a zero-dimensional pneumatic model was built to evaluate the influence of Laval nozzle on the performance of aero-engine. The Laval nozzle model was integrated into a whole aero-engine component-level model. Numerical simulations were performed to study transient performance of aero-engine when nozzle throat and outlet areas decreased during accelerating process from idle to middle state. Results show that low pressure rotor speed decreases during some specific regimes, along with the reduction of Laval nozzle area in accelerating process, which also exists in real aero-engine rig tests. Besides, after normal shock clinging to nozzle outlet section was pushed out, there was a mach number break from subsonic to supersonic in nozzle outlet section, however, both the outflow rate and thrust changed smoothly without any break at the accelerating curve.

  8. Sideband Difference Diagnostics of Local Defects for Aero-engine Intershaft Bearing%航空发动机中介轴承局部故障边带差值诊断法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓巍; 廖明夫; 马振国

    2012-01-01

    Aiming at the problem of difficult to diagnose local defects of aero-engine intershaft bearing, a new diag- nosis approach of sideband difference diagnostics of local defects for aero-engine intershaft bearing was proposed in this paper. Based on operating characteristic of intershaft bearing for both inner and outer ring rotation, the ap- proach used signal modulation frequency sideband as the main fault information, and established a complete set of fault diagnosis procedure. Experiments of an aero-engine inter bearing with the outer ring failure were carried out. Using the proposed approach, the local defects of the bearing was judged accurately. The theoretical analysis and fault bearing diagnosis example showed that the method can identify local defects of intershaft bearing and is effec- tive in local defects diagnosis for the aero-engine intershaft bearing%针对航空发动机中介轴承局部故障难以诊断的问题,提出了航空发动机中介轴承局部故障边带差值诊断法。该方法利用中介轴承内外环均旋转的运转特点,将其故障振动信号的调制边频带分量作为故障信息,建立了一套完整的故障诊断步骤,在实验器上对具有外环剥落故障的某型中介轴承进行实验,准确判断了该轴承故障。理论分析和诊断实例表明,该方法可以识别中介轴承局部故障,是一种适合航空发动机中介轴承局部故障诊断的有效方法。

  9. Performance of a Supercritical CO2 Bottoming Cycle for Aero Applications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Florian Jacob; Andrew Martin Rolt; Joshua Marius Sebastiampillai; Vishal Sethi; Mathieu Belmonte; Pedro Cobas

    2017-01-01

    .... This could provide additional shaft power. Supercritical carbon dioxide closed-circuit power cycles are currently being investigated primarily for stationary power applications, but their high power density and efficiency, even for modest...

  10. 发动机吊挂与机翼连接接头强度分析与试验%Strength Analysis and Test on Connecting Joints between Aero Engine Pylon and Wing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙滨; 林鸿志; 谭伟; 薛彩军

    2012-01-01

    The connecting joints between aircraft pylon and wing which are mainly used for transferring loads from aero engine are critical parts of aircraft structure and strength design. In order to analyze the joint strength as well as stress and strain distribution accurately, a static test system is established, and a finite element mod- eling method for the connecting joints is studied. Detailed finite element model is built based on the joint loads obtaining from the overall finite element model, and two serious load cases for the joints are analyzed. Compari- son of computing results and test results demonstrates that the finite element modeling method of joint strength is reasonable, which is of an application and reference value for the joint design between aero engine pylon and wing.%飞机吊挂与机翼连接接头主要用于传递来自动力装置的载荷,是飞机结构强度设计的关键件。为了精确分析吊挂与机翼连接接头强度及应力应变分布规律,设计了一套接头强度静力试验系统,研究了接头强度有限元建模方法。以总体有限元分析得到吊挂与机翼连接接头载荷为基础,建立了接头的细节有限元模型,分析了对接头强度影响较为严重的两种工况。有限元分析结果与试验结果对比,验证了接头强度有限元建模方法合理,对民机发动机吊挂与机翼接头设计具有应用参考价值。

  11. 航空发动机空气系统验算标定%Calibration of Calculation for Aero-Engine Air System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    呼艳丽; 徐连强; 赵维维

    2014-01-01

    利用流量特性试验得到的相关流路元件的流阻计算模型,和旋转状态下阶梯齿风阻温升计算方法,通过调节封严篦齿间隙等参数,对航空发动机空气系统的压力、温度进行验算标定,并根据验算结果分析发现后续试验中存在和需要注意的问题。验算标定结果表明:通过对发动机试验工况的验算标定,可发现试验中存在的问题,较准确地模拟出后续试验中的问题和试验风险,确保发动机的工作安全,并为空气系统的进一步改进和优化提供依据。%A calibration method for aero-engine air system was presented, with the air system throttle ele-ments flow loss coefficient experiment data and the rotating step labyrinth seal windage temperature rise cal-culation method. The pressure and temperature of air system were calibrated by adjusting the labyrinth seal clearance. Some possible and noteworthy problems in the following tests were found out according to the cal-ibrated results. The results show that through the calibration of experimental conditions, the problems could be revealed and the risk of the following tests can be simulated perfectly to ensure the safety of engine work-ing which could be referential for the further improvements of engine's air system.

  12. Dual use application of killer app FHE products for Mil/Aero

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackler, R. Douglas

    2016-05-01

    The flexible electronics industry has adopted flexible hybrid electronic (FHE) systems as a go to market strategy. High volume products are emerging for body worn bio patches, conformal structural appliques and smart labels. These products were principally developed for volume consumer and industrial market solutions but are directly applicable to advanced defense systems. This article highlights the state of the art for bio patch, conformal and smart FHE products and identifies their dual use capability for defense systems. A discussion of the manufacturing base for FHE products is presented and current experimental prototype results and performance are shared.

  13. Fusing Simulation Results From Multifidelity Aero-servo-elastic Simulators - Application To Extreme Loads On Wind Turbine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdallah, Imad; Sudret, Bruno; Lataniotis, Christos

    2015-01-01

    bending moment at the blade root of a large wind turbine as a function of wind speed, turbulence and shear exponent in the presence of model uncertainty and non-stationary noise in the output. The extreme responses are obtained by two widely accepted numerical aero-servo-elastic simulators, FAST...... and BLADED. With limited high-fidelity response samples, the co-Kriging model produced notably accurate prediction of validation data....

  14. Individual hollow and mesoporous aero-graphitic microtube based devices for gas sensing applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupan, Oleg; Postica, Vasile; Marx, Janik; Mecklenburg, Matthias; Mishra, Yogendra K.; Schulte, Karl; Fiedler, Bodo; Adelung, Rainer

    2017-06-01

    In this work, individual hollow and mesoporous graphitic microtubes were integrated into electronic devices using a FIB/SEM system and were investigated as gas and vapor sensors by applying different bias voltages (in the range of 10 mV-1 V). By increasing the bias voltage, a slight current enhancement is observed, which is mainly attributed to the self-heating effect. A different behavior of ammonia NH3 vapor sensing by increasing the applied bias voltage for hollow and mesoporous microtubes with diameters down to 300 nm is reported. In the case of the hollow microtube, an increase in the response was observed, while a reverse effect has been noticed for the mesoporous microtube. It might be explained on the basis of the higher specific surface area (SSA) of the mesoporous microtube compared to the hollow one. Thus, at room temperature when the surface chemical reaction rate (k) prevails on the gas diffusion rate (DK) the structures with a larger SSA possess a higher response. By increasing the bias voltage, i.e., the overall temperature of the structure, DK becomes a limiting step in the gas response. Therefore, at higher bias voltages the larger pores will facilitate an enhanced gas diffusion, i.e., a higher gas response. The present study demonstrates the importance of the material porosity towards gas sensing applications.

  15. Engineering Adaptive Web Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dolog, Peter

    2007-01-01

    suit the user profile the most. This paper summarizes the domain engineering framework for such adaptive web applications. The framework provides guidelines to develop adaptive web applications as members of a family. It suggests how to utilize the design artifacts as knowledge which can be used......Information and services on the web are accessible for everyone. Users of the web differ in their background, culture, political and social environment, interests and so on. Ambient intelligence was envisioned as a concept for systems which are able to adapt to user actions and needs....... With the growing amount of information and services, the web applications become natural candidates to adopt the concepts of ambient intelligence. Such applications can deal with divers user intentions and actions based on the user profile and can suggest the combination of information content and services which...

  16. Aircraft propulsion and gas turbine engines

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    El-Sayed, Ahmed F

    2008-01-01

    ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xvii xxxi xxxiii xxxv Part I Aero Engines and Gas Turbines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C...

  17. Modeling and experimental study of the mechanism of electrification from aero-engine jet%航空发动机喷流起电机理建模与试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱利; 刘尚合; 郑会志; 魏明; 胡小锋; 索罗金·安德烈

    2013-01-01

    以研究航空发动机喷流起电的机理以及喷流起电对飞行器整体带电特性的影响为目的,对起电机理进行了建模和实验验证。首先以流体运动方程为基础,建立了航空发动机带电粒子浓度的动态仿真模型,仿真得到发动机燃烧过程中的各类粒子浓度变化情况。其次,设计了用于发动机喷流起电探测的静电感应传感器,对装配涡扇发动机的某型飞行器进行了地面试验测试,得到了发动机启动、稳定运行、加速、减速、停止等状态的动态电位。仿真及实验结果详细地描述了发动机喷流起电的机理,以及喷流起电会使飞行器带负电的结论,为进一步分析飞行器飞行过程中整体带电特性提供了指导。%To investigate the mechanism of electrification from aero-engine jet and the electrification effect on the overall charging charac-teristics of vehicle, a simulation model of concentration of charged particles in aero-engine is build based on the equations of fluid motion. And concentration changes of various particles are simulated. To verify the simulation result, a special electrostatic induction sensor for detecting the electrification of engine jet is designed, according to the principle of the Faraday cup, to measure the dynamic potential when the turbofan engine starts, operates steadily, accelerates, decelerates and stops. The simulation and experimental re-sults show that the aircraft is negatively charged by the electrification from aero-engine jet and the mechanism of electrification from aero-engine jet is described specifically. The research may provide a guidance to the further study on analyzing the overall charging characteristics of vehicle during the flight.

  18. Yip - Development and Application of a High-Speed Three-Dimensional Density Measurement Technique for Aero-Optic Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-25

    Fuel Distributions in an HCCI Engine ." (Proceedings of the Combustion Institute) 29, pp. 679-685 (2002). Ponder, Z.B., Rennie, R.M., Abado, S., and...Aerospace Engineering 211 Davis Hall Auburn University, AL 36849-5338 (334) 844-6827 thurow@auburn.edu http://www.eng.auburn.edu/users/thurobs/ 1...performed. (Nygren, et al. 2002) successfully performed 3-D acetone LIF (acetone mixed with ethanol) to study fuel location and concentration in an HCCI

  19. Grey Comprehensive Evaluation of Cutting Tool Performance for Aero-engine Blisk%航空发动机整体叶盘刀具性能灰色综合评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾玉佩; 赵威; 李亮

    2016-01-01

    A grey comprehensive evaluation method of CNC milling tool performance was pro—posed for an aero-engine titanium alloy blisk with the CNC milling of a type of aero-engine blisk as the research obj ect.In this method,a benchmark with some typical difficult-to-machine features extracted from aero-engine blisk was designed,and the processing route was developed.In addition,grey com—prehensive evaluation models of cutting tool performance were established for roughing and finishing tools respectively.Finally,experiments of CNC milling the benchmark were carried out,and then the grey comprehensive evaluation models were used to evaluate the cutting tools.The results show that the method is convenient and effective to evaluate the cutting tool performance for aero-engine blisks.%以某型航空发动机钛合金整体叶盘的数控铣削为研究对象,提出了一种面向航空发动机整体叶盘的数控铣削刀具性能灰色综合评价方法。首先设计涵盖航空发动机整体叶盘难加工特征的基准件模型,然后基于灰色关联度分别构建了粗精加工刀具性能灰色综合评价模型,最后进行基准件的切削试验并应用所建立的灰色综合评价模型对刀具性能进行综合评价。研究结果表明,所构建的基准件模型和灰色综合评价模型可以快捷、有效地评价刀具性能。

  20. Industrial applications of affective engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Shiizuka, Hisao; Lee, Kun-Pyo; Otani, Tsuyoshi; Lim, Chee-Peng

    2014-01-01

    This book examines the industrial applications of affective engineering. The contributors cover new analytical methods such as fluctuation, fuzzy logic, fractals, and complex systems. These chapters also include interdisciplinary research that traverses a wide range of fields, including information engineering, human engineering, cognitive science, psychology, and design studies. The text is split into two parts: theory and applications. This work is a collection of the best papers from ISAE2013 (International Symposium of Affective Engineering) held at Kitakyushu, Japan and Japan Kansei Engineering Meeting on March 6-8, 2013.

  1. Engine Modelling for Control Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendricks, Elbert

    1997-01-01

    In earlier work published by the author and co-authors, a dynamic engine model called a Mean Value Engine Model (MVEM) was developed. This model is physically based and is intended mainly for control applications. In its newer form, it is easy to fit to many different engines and requires little...... engine data for this purpose. It is especially well suited to embedded model applications in engine controllers, such as nonlinear observer based air/fuel ratio and advanced idle speed control. After a brief review of this model, it will be compared with other similar models which can be found...

  2. application to engine systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. George Zhu

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The q-Markov COVariance Equivalent Realization (q-Markov Cover method for identification uses either pulse, white noise or PRBS (Pseudo-Random Binary Signal as test excitation. This paper extended the q-Markov Cover using PRBS to the weighted multirate case, that is, the sample rate of the PRBS signal is different from the system output one. Then, the multirate PRBS q-Markov Cover is applied to identify a diesel engine model from the fuel command input to the engine speed output. The identified engine model has order of two and approximates the pure fuel system time delay using a first-order transfer function with a non-minimum phase numerator. Finally, the identified engine model was successfully used for designing engine idle speed governor and obtained satisfactory performance in the first try.

  3. Application of Weakest Link Probabilistic Framework for Fatigue Notch Factor to Aero Engine Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-25

    where m  is the density of mobile dislocation, b is the burgers vector and v  is the average velocity of the burgers vector. Using Equations...complicated interaction of dislocations created by cross slip which result in an increased dislocation density and restricts the motion of mobile ...137, pp. 173-210 , 2006. [150] McGinty R D , "Multiscale representation of polycrystaline inelasticity PhD Thesis," Georgia Institute of Technolgy , Atlanta USA , 2001.

  4. 航空活塞发动机接口模拟器快速开发新技术研究%The Research on the Rapid Development Techniques for Aero Piston Engine Interface Simulator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周彰毅; 于兵; 张天宏

    2014-01-01

    To overcome the deficiencies of the current aero engine interface simulator, a new joint development method is presented based on DSP and MATLAB/SIMULINK. The hardware platform is designed based on DSP. Modeling with MATLAB/SIMULINK,portable embedded engine model C code is generated through RTW,and the model C code is integrated into DSP. The engine model to the interface simulator is introduced quickly and effectively,therefore,the interface simulator can simulate the states of aero engine more accurately. Test showed that this new method is feasible and effective.%针对目前航空发动机接口模拟器设计中的不足,提出了一种基于DSP+MATLAB/SIMULINK的航空活塞发动机接口模拟器联合开发新方法,基于DSP设计接口模拟器硬件平台,利用SUMULINK建立发动机模型,使用RTW从发动机模型中生成可移植的嵌入式模型C代码,通过代码集成在DSP中加入发动机模型,高效快速地解决了如何在接口模拟器中融入发动机模型的难题。所设计接口模拟器能更真实准确地模拟航空活塞发动机工作状态,试验验证了接口模拟器的可靠性和该方法的可行性。

  5. Vortex Characterization for Engineering Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jankun-Kelly, M; Thompson, D S; Jiang, M; Shannahan, B; Machiraju, R

    2008-01-30

    Realistic engineering simulation data often have features that are not optimally resolved due to practical limitations on mesh resolution. To be useful to application engineers, vortex characterization techniques must be sufficiently robust to handle realistic data with complex vortex topologies. In this paper, we present enhancements to the vortex topology identification component of an existing vortex characterization algorithm. The modified techniques are demonstrated by application to three realistic data sets that illustrate the strengths and weaknesses of our approach.

  6. Nonlinear Approaches in Engineering Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Jazar, Reza

    2012-01-01

    Nonlinear Approaches in Engineering Applications focuses on nonlinear phenomena that are common in the engineering field. The nonlinear approaches described in this book provide a sound theoretical base and practical tools to design and analyze engineering systems with high efficiency and accuracy and with less energy and downtime. Presented here are nonlinear approaches in areas such as dynamic systems, optimal control and approaches in nonlinear dynamics and acoustics. Coverage encompasses a wide range of applications and fields including mathematical modeling and nonlinear behavior as applied to microresonators, nanotechnologies, nonlinear behavior in soil erosion,nonlinear population dynamics, and optimization in reducing vibration and noise as well as vibration in triple-walled carbon nanotubes. This book also: Provides a complete introduction to nonlinear behavior of systems and the advantages of nonlinearity as a tool for solving engineering problems Includes applications and examples drawn from the el...

  7. Engineering applications of soft computing

    CERN Document Server

    Díaz-Cortés, Margarita-Arimatea; Rojas, Raúl

    2017-01-01

    This book bridges the gap between Soft Computing techniques and their applications to complex engineering problems. In each chapter we endeavor to explain the basic ideas behind the proposed applications in an accessible format for readers who may not possess a background in some of the fields. Therefore, engineers or practitioners who are not familiar with Soft Computing methods will appreciate that the techniques discussed go beyond simple theoretical tools, since they have been adapted to solve significant problems that commonly arise in such areas. At the same time, the book will show members of the Soft Computing community how engineering problems are now being solved and handled with the help of intelligent approaches. Highlighting new applications and implementations of Soft Computing approaches in various engineering contexts, the book is divided into 12 chapters. Further, it has been structured so that each chapter can be read independently of the others.

  8. MEMS and mil/aero: technology push and market pull

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clifford, Thomas H.

    2001-04-01

    MEMS offers attractive solutions to high-density fluidics, inertial, optical, switching and other demanding military/aerospace (mil/aero) challenges. However, full acceptance must confront the realities of production-scale producibility, verifiability, testability, survivability, as well as long-term reliability. Data on these `..ilities' are crucial, and are central in funding and deployment decisions. Similarly, mil/aero users must highlight specific missions, environmental exposures, and procurement issues, as well as the quirks of its designers. These issues are particularly challenging in MEMS, because of the laws of physics and business economics, as well as the risks of deploying leading-edge technology into no-fail applications. This paper highlights mil/aero requirements, and suggests reliability/qualification protocols, to guide development effort and to reassure mil/aero users that MEMS labs are mindful of the necessary realities.

  9. ELECTRICAL TECHNIQUES FOR ENGINEERING APPLICATIONS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisdorf, Robert J.

    1985-01-01

    Surface electrical geophysical methods have been used in such engineering applications as locating and delineating shallow gravel deposits, depth to bedrock, faults, clay zones, and other geological phenomena. Other engineering applications include determining water quality, tracing ground water contaminant plumes and locating dam seepages. Various methods and electrode arrays are employed to solve particular geological problems. The sensitivity of a particular method or electrode array depends upon the physics on which the method is based, the array geometry, the electrical contrast between the target and host materials, and the depth to the target. Each of the available electrical methods has its own particular advantages and applications which the paper discusses.

  10. A Simple Exponent Extrapolation Method of Sub-idle Characteristics on Aero-engine%一种简便的叶轮部件低状态特性的指数扩展方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐鲁兵; 潘尚能; 陈竞炜

    2013-01-01

    A simple exponent extrapolation method of sub-idle characteristics on aero-engine was presented.Based on the basic theory of similarity of pump at low speed and taking the influence of air/gas compressibility into account,a correctional exponent extrapolation mathematic model was developed and was applied to supplement the sub-idle rotating component characteristics through selected two lowest speed line.The comparison between calculated results and original datas for a certain compressor and turbine characteristics indicated that this exponent extrapolation method is simple,general and has acceptable precision,and the supplemented sub-idle component characteristics can be applied to estimate the starting characteristics of aero-engine.%介绍了一种简便的航空发动机叶轮部件低状态特性的扩展方法.基于低转速泵相似理论,并考虑了空气/燃气的可压缩性影响,给出了修正的指数关系方程;针对已知的两条较低转速特性线外插得到更低转速状态的部件特性.结合已有叶轮部件特性进行有效性验证.结果表明方法具有较强的实用性、通用性和一定的精度,扩展得到的低状态部件特性可以满足发动机起动性能模拟的工程应用.

  11. Condition Assessment for Aero -Engine Rolling Bearings Based on Posterior Probability SVM%基于后验概率 SVM的航空发动机滚动轴承状态评估

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪瑾; 陈果; 王洪伟; 冯康佳; 陈立波

    2015-01-01

    为了准确地进行航空发动机滚动轴承状态评估,提出了一种基于后验概率支持向量机的航空发动机滚动轴承状态评估方法。首先利用仿真数据建立了后验支持向量机模型,进行了分类试验和后验概率预测验证,然后利用航空轴承失效监控试验系统进行了滚动轴承性能退化试验,得到轴承不同工作状态的振动数据,最后利用获取的试验数据进行了滚动轴承状态评估,充分验证了该评估方法的正确性。%For assessment of condition for aero -engine rolling bearings,a method is proposed based on posterior prob-ability SVM.Firstly,the posterior probability SVMmodel is established by using simulation data,and the classification experiment and posterior probability prediction verification are carried out.Then,the performance degradation experi-ments for rolling bearings are conducted by using the aero -engine bearing failure monitoring test system,the vibration data of bearings under different working conditions is obtained.Finally,the rolling bearing condition assessment is car-ried out by using collected experiment data,and the validity of assessment method is fully verified.

  12. Reverse Engineering Malicious Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan Cristian Iacob

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Detecting new and unknown malware is a major challenge in today’s software. Security profession. A lot of approaches for the detection of malware using data mining techniques have already been proposed. Majority of the works used static features of malware. However, static detection methods fall short of detecting present day complex malware. Although some researchers proposed dynamic detection methods, the methods did not use all the malware features. In this work, an approach for the detection of new and unknown malware was proposed and implemented. Each sample was reverse engineered for analyzing its effect on the operating environment and to extract the static and behavioral features. 

  13. Tissue engineering for clinical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, Sujata K

    2010-12-01

    Tissue engineering is increasingly being recognized as a beneficial means for lessening the global disease burden. One strategy of tissue engineering is to replace lost tissues or organs with polymeric scaffolds that contain specialized populations of living cells, with the goal of regenerating tissues to restore normal function. Typical constructs for tissue engineering employ biocompatible and degradable polymers, along with organ-specific and tissue-specific cells. Once implanted, the construct guides the growth and development of new tissues; the polymer scaffold degrades away to be replaced by healthy functioning tissue. The ideal biomaterial for tissue engineering not only defends against disease and supports weakened tissues or organs, it also provides the elements required for healing and repair, stimulates the body's intrinsic immunological and regenerative capacities, and seamlessly interacts with the living body. Tissue engineering has been investigated for virtually every organ system in the human body. This review describes the potential of tissue engineering to alleviate disease, as well as the latest advances in tissue regeneration. The discussion focuses on three specific clinical applications of tissue engineering: cardiac tissue regeneration for treatment of heart failure; nerve regeneration for treatment of stroke; and lung regeneration for treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Copyright © 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Aero-Assisted Spacecraft Missions Using Hypersonic Waverider Aeroshells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knittel, Jeremy

    This work examines the use of high-lift, low drag vehicles which perform orbital transfers within a planet's atmosphere to reduce propulsive requirements. For the foreseeable future, spacecraft mission design will include the objective of limiting the mass of fuel required. One means of accomplishing this is using aerodynamics as a supplemental force, with what is termed an aero-assist maneuver. Further, the use of a lifting body enables a mission designer to explore candidate trajectory types wholly unavailable to non-lifting analogs. Examples include missions to outer planets by way of an aero-gravity assist, aero-assisted plane change, aero-capture, and steady atmospheric periapsis probing missions. Engineering level models are created in order to simulate both atmospheric and extra-atmospheric space flight. Each mission is parameterized using discrete variables which control multiple areas of design. This work combines the areas of hypersonic aerodynamics, re-entry aerothermodynamics, spacecraft orbital mechanics, and vehicle shape optimization. In particular, emphasis is given to the parametric design of vehicles known as "waveriders" which are inversely designed from known shock flowfields. An entirely novel means of generating a class of waveriders known as "starbodies" is presented. A complete analysis is performed of asymmetric starbody forms and compared to a better understood parameterization, "osculating cone" waveriders. This analysis includes characterization of stability behavior, a critical discipline within hypersonic flight. It is shown that asymmetric starbodies have significant stability improvement with only a 10% reduction in the lift-to-drag ratio. By combining the optimization of both the shape of the vehicle and the trajectory it flies, much is learned about the benefit that can be expected from lifting aero-assist missions. While previous studies have conceptually proven the viability, this work provides thorough quantification of the

  15. Concurrent Engineering Research and Application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    Research and application of Concurrent Engineering have produced good results. A Chinese style concurrent engineering architecture and reference mode has been produced. A series of break thoughts in BPR (Business Process Reengineering) have been made with organization of the IPT (Integrated Product Development Team) and engineering support technologies. Several prototype tools were developed, including product development process modeling and management, QFD-based schema design and decision making, PDM-based concurrent design, STEP-based CAD/CAPP/CAM integration, design for assembly, design for manufacturing, computer aided fixture design, and machining process simulation. Finally, the research results were used in the development of two complex components in an aerospace application, and satisfactory results were obtained.

  16. Biomedical applications of control engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Hacısalihzade, Selim S

    2013-01-01

    Biomedical Applications of Control Engineering is a lucidly written textbook for graduate control engin­eering and biomedical engineering students as well as for medical prac­ti­tioners who want to get acquainted with quantitative methods. It is based on decades of experience both in control engineering and clinical practice.   The book begins by reviewing basic concepts of system theory and the modeling process. It then goes on to discuss control engineering application areas like ·         Different models for the human operator, ·         Dosage and timing optimization in oral drug administration, ·         Measuring symptoms of and optimal dopaminergic therapy in Parkinson’s disease, ·         Measure­ment and control of blood glucose le­vels both naturally and by means of external controllers in diabetes, and ·         Control of depth of anaesthesia using inhalational anaesthetic agents like sevoflurane using both fuzzy and state feedback controllers....

  17. Industrial and Systems Engineering Applications in NASA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shivers, Charles H.

    2006-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation on the many applications of Industrial and Systems Engineering used for safe NASA missions is shown. The topics include: 1) NASA Information; 2) Industrial Engineering; 3) Systems Engineering; and 4) Major NASA Programs.

  18. Diesel Engine Light Truck Application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2007-12-31

    The Diesel Engine Light Truck Application (DELTA) program consists of two major contracts with the Department of Energy (DOE). The first one under DE-FC05-97-OR22606, starting from 1997, was completed in 2001, and consequently, a final report was submitted to DOE in 2003. The second part of the contract was under DE-FC05-02OR22909, covering the program progress from 2002 to 2007. This report is the final report of the second part of the program under contract DE-FC05-02OR22909. During the course of this contract, the program work scope and objectives were significantly changed. From 2002 to 2004, the DELTA program continued working on light-duty engine development with the 4.0L V6 DELTA engine, following the accomplishments made from the first part of the program under DE-FC05-97-OR22606. The program work scope in 2005-2007 was changed to the Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) soot layer characterization and substrate material assessment. This final report will cover two major technical tasks. (1) Continuation of the DELTA engine development to demonstrate production-viable diesel engine technologies and to demonstrate emissions compliance with significant fuel economy advantages, covering progress made from 2002 to 2004. (2) DPF soot layer characterization and substrate material assessment from 2005-2007.

  19. Phased Array Ultrasonic Nondestructive Testing for Aero-engine Turbine Blade%航空发动机涡轮叶片相控阵超声检测研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江文文; 柏逢明

    2011-01-01

    超声波无损检测技术(UNT)是航空工件检测中应用较多的一种检测方法.本文对航空发动机涡轮叶片进行了超声波无损检测;传统检测是用反射波形和波幅特征分析检测出发动机涡轮叶片缺陷;相控阵超声检测(PAUT)是利用相位延迟达到相控效果,形成清晰的图像,和传统超声波检测相比,更能直观的显示缺陷的位置和形状.%Ultrasonic Nondestructive Testing (UNT) is widely used in aviation component test .This paper adopts UNT in aero-engine turbine blade .Traditional detection uses reflection waveform and amplitude characteristic to check out flaw in engine turbine blade . Phased Array Ultrasonic nondestructive Testing (PAUT) takes advantage of phased delay to obtain phased effect and product clear image .Comparing with traditional ultrasonic detection, PAUT shows position and sharp of flaw more directly.

  20. A Multi-Thread Data Acquisition Module for Vibration Signal of Aero-Engine%一种航空发动机振动信号多线程采集模块设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金路; 廖明夫; 黄巍

    2013-01-01

    A multi-thread data acquisition module based on the NI (National Instruments)' s DAQ card is designed for the vibration signal measurement of aero-engine.Data collection and extraction are placed in different threads in order to make them synchronous.This module is designed to be a dynamic link library(DLL).Many test systems programmed with different computer languages could use it.The aero-engine has two kinds of working states:steady state and transient state.The vibration signal acquisitions in these two states have different characteristic,so that two sub-modules are designed for the two states.Due to the widely use of double rotor in aero-engine,double speed acquisition module is programmed and the corresponding data processing method is designed.The module is examined by acquiring vibration signal on site.The results show that the data loss problem in transient process is solved,the rotor speed and vabrition signal in both steady process and transient process are collected accurately and real-time.The module has been sucessfully applied to fieldmeasurement.%开发了Windows环境下基于NI公司数据采集卡的航空发动机振动测试系统通用数据采集模块.该采集模块采用了多线程技术,将数据采集和提取置于不同的线程中,以达到两者同步的目的.将该模块制作为Windows动态链接库(DLL),利用DLL资源共享特点来满足多种测试系统的调用请求.同时根据航空发动机运行过程分为稳态运行及暂态过程的特点,分别设计了对应的振动信号采集子模块,以满足不同运行状态的测试要求.由于航空发动机多为双转子,针对这一特点设计了双转速采集及数据处理程序.经过测试,该模块较好地解决了暂态过程中的数据丢失问题,能够实时准确地采集稳态过程及暂态过程的转速和振动信号,并已成功运用于现场实测.

  1. Engineered bamboo for structural applications

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma, Bhavna; Gatóo, Ana; Bock, Maximilian; Ramage, Michael

    2015-01-01

    This is the published version. It was first published at http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0950061815001117# Bamboo is a rapidly renewable material that has many applications in construction. Engineered bamboo products result from processing the raw bamboo culm into a laminated composite, similar to glue-laminated timber products. These products allow the material to be used in standardised sections and have less inherent variability than the natural material. The present w...

  2. Aero and vibroacoustics of automotive turbochargers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen-Schaefer, Hung [Bosch Mahle Turbo Systems GmbH, Stuttgart (Germany)

    2013-02-01

    First book about the aeroacoustics of automotive turbochargers. Author of the book ''Rotordynamics of Automotive Turbochargers'', Springer, 2012. Written by an R and D expert in the turbocharger industry. Aero and Vibroacoustics of Automotive Turbochargers is a topic involving aspects from the working fields of thermodynamics of turbomachinery, aerodynamics, rotordynamics, and noise propagation computation. In this broadly interdisciplinary subject, thermodynamics of turbomachinery is used to design the turbocharger and to determine its operating conditions. Aerodynamics is needed to study the compressor flow dynamics and flow instabilities of rotating stall and surge, which can produce growling and whining-type noises. Rotordynamics is necessary to study rotor unbalance and self-excited oil-whirl instabilities, which lead to whistling and constant tone-type noises in rotating floating oil-film type bearings. For the special case of turbochargers using ball bearings, some high-order harmonic and wear noises also manifest in the rotor operating range. Lastly, noise propagation computation, based on Lighthill's analogy, is required to investigate airborne noises produced by turbochargers in passenger vehicles. The content of this book is intended for advanced undergraduates, graduates in mechanical engineering, research scientists and practicing engineers who want to better understand the interactions between these working fields and the resulting impact on the interesting topic of Aero and Vibroacoustics of Automotive Turbochargers.

  3. Handbook of bioplastics and biocomposites engineering applications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pilla, Srikanth

    2011-01-01

    "The Handbook of Bioplastics & Biocomposites Engineering Applications brings together scientists, from academia and industries, to report on current research and applications, in the bioplastics and biocomposites arena...

  4. Partition optimization in the flight envelope for control design of aero-engines%用于控制器分区设计的发动机飞行包线区域最优划分

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李述清; 张胜修; 胡卫红

    2012-01-01

    结合最优化理论和线性系统理论,对控制问题中航空发动机飞行包线区域划分方法展开了研究.首先基于小偏离线性动态模型,根据线性系统理论,将发动机动态特性的摄动归为线性模型的状态矩阵特征值和稳态增益的摄动来表征.然后在此基础上,定义了一种广义距离以表征发动机动态特性的摄动程度,并以定义了区域的划分原则.继而提出将飞行包线区域划分问题转化为一个基于该广义距离的最优化问题.最后就某型涡扇发动机情形,对其飞行包线区域进行了划分计算,并对划分区域内发动机线性模型摄动进行了比较。结果表明该区域划分和标称点选择方法的有效性.%According to the optimization theory and linear system theory, the method of flight-envelop optimization partition for aero-engines is researched. First, linear state variable mode (LSVM) was used to describe aero-engine's dynamic characteristic of small perturbation on steady operating point, and the perturbation between LSVMs was denoted by the perturbation of coefficient matrix eigenvalues and low-frequency gains of the LSVMs. Then, a general distance based on the perturbation of eigenvalues and low-frequency gains of the LSVMs was put forward. And the problem of dividing the flight envelope and selecting the nominal points in a flight envelope was translated into a most overlay problem. Thus, based on the general distance, a set of least number of nominal points could be found to divide the flight envelope by using optimizing method. Last, a flight envelope area of a turbofan engine was divided by using this method, and the results indicated that this method was proper.

  5. Abrupt fault diagnosis of aero-engine based on affinity propagation clustering%基于相似性传播聚类的航空发动机突发故障诊断

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李丽敏; 王仲生; 姜洪开

    2014-01-01

    针对航空发动机突发故障,构建了一种基于相似性传播聚类的突发故障诊断方法。首先利用突发故障历史监测数据建立突发故障数据库,通过相似性传播聚类找到数据库中所有突发故障数据的中心,当诊断新采集数据的突发故障类型时,通过相似性传播聚类找到当前新采集数据的中心,经过与突发故障数据库中的数据中心进行匹配判断该新采集数据所对应的突发故障类型。将该突发故障诊断方法应用到发动机转子实验台的突发故障诊断中,仿真和实验结果表明该方法的可行性,并通过与其他方法比较,表明该方法具有诊断时间短和误差小的优点。%Aiming at aero-engine faults,an abrupt fault diagnosis method based on affinity propagation clustering was proposed.Abrupt fault historical monitoring data were used to establish faults database.Through affinity propagation clustering,all the exemplars of abrupt faults in the database were found and the affinity propagation clustering was applied once again to find the exemplar of the new collected data.The fault type was then identified by matching the center with the centers obtained from the faults database.The method was used in the aero-engine abrupt fault diagnosis.The simulation and experiment results show that the method is feasible to diagnose abrupt fault,and compared with other methods,it needs shorter time consuming and produces lower error.

  6. 套齿联轴器对航空发动机振动特性的影响%Effects of Gear Coupling on Aero-engine Vibration Characteristics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖仲坤; 陈果; 王海飞

    2015-01-01

    The aero-engine gear coupling stiffness was studied herein ,and the coupling dynamic gearing forces were deduced ,the relationship among the gear coupling gearing forces and the torque , misalignment ,and the dynamic relative displacements was analyzed .According to aero-engine gearing structure characteristics ,a rotor dynamic model including gear coupling and the three supports was es-tablished ,and the effects of gear coupling stiffness on the system frequency response function were an-alyzed;under the conditions of considering the angle misalignment between two rotors ,the effects of gear stiffness on the misalignment responses were studied .The results show that the dynamic gearing stiffness model can simulate the gear coupling dynamic stiffness very correctly ,but the dynamic change range of the stiffness is not enough to change obviously the system dynamic characteristics , however ,the effects of the angle stiffness of gear coupling on the system vibration characteristics are very great .%研究了航空发动机套齿联轴器的连接刚度,推导了套齿动态啮合力计算模型,分析了随扭矩、套齿不对中和动态相对位移变化的套齿啮合力和啮合刚度。依据航空发动机套齿连接结构,建立了含套齿联轴器的三支点转子动力学模型,分析了套齿连接刚度对系统频率响应特性的影响,在考虑转轴间角度不对中的情况下,分析了套齿连接刚度对系统不对中响应的影响规律。结果发现,动态啮合力模型能够更加真实地模拟套齿连接刚度的变化,但是,当其径向啮合刚度变化不大时,其计算结果与等效刚度模型的计算结果相同,套齿角向刚度对系统动力性能影响很大,在套齿设计、装配和使用中需要重视。

  7. 航空发动机对转涡轮气动设计技术研究进展%Aerodynamic Design of Counter-rotating Turbine for Aero-engine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周琨; 邹正平; 刘火星; 王雷

    2012-01-01

    随着航空工业的发展,民用或者军用飞行器都对航空发动机要求越来越高,对转涡轮由于其气动布局上的优势能成为未来航空发动机的关键技术之一.本文通过对国内外文献的调研,结合课题组多年研究工作,分析了对转涡轮内部的特征,并从对转涡轮速度三角形参数分析和气动设计准则、内部复杂流动机制、激波组织技术和收扩叶型造型方法等方面对其研究进展进行了论述;在此基础上考虑加工工艺、结构强度、传热冷却等多学科耦合因素,探讨了转涡轮技术在工程应用中面临的挑战及可能的解决方向,展望了转涡轮技术的发展趋势.%With the development of aviation industry, more and more requirements are submitted during the design of civil and military aero-engines, such as higher thrust-weight ratio, lower fuel consumption, more affordability, etc. The counter-rotating turbine technology provides a powerful solution for the problems. The relevant literatures are reviewed from the aspects of velocity triangle parametric analyses, aerodynamic design criteria, internal (low mechanisms, Shockwave control methods, and design techniques of convergent-divergent airfoils, respectively. By combining literature review with the research carried out in many years by authors, the characteristics of counter-rotating turbine are analyzed. However some challenges are also encountered when the counter-rotation turbine technology is applied to the aero-engines. These challenges in terms of processing technology, structural strength, heal transfer/cooling as well as their possible solutions are considered. Finally, the development trends of the technology are predicted.

  8. Optimization of Simplex Atomizer Inlet Port Configuration through Computational Fluid Dynamics and Experimental Study for Aero-Gas Turbine Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marudhappan, Raja; Chandrasekhar, Udayagiri; Hemachandra Reddy, Koni

    2016-06-01

    The design of plain orifice simplex atomizer for use in the annular combustion system of 1100 kW turbo shaft engine is optimized. The discrete flow field of jet fuel inside the swirl chamber of the atomizer and up to 1.0 mm downstream of the atomizer exit are simulated using commercial Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) software. The Euler-Euler multiphase model is used to solve two sets of momentum equations for liquid and gaseous phases and the volume fraction of each phase is tracked throughout the computational domain. The atomizer design is optimized after performing several 2D axis symmetric analyses with swirl and the optimized inlet port design parameters are used for 3D simulation. The Volume Of Fluid (VOF) multiphase model is used in the simulation. The orifice exit diameter is 0.6 mm. The atomizer is fabricated with the optimized geometric parameters. The performance of the atomizer is tested in the laboratory. The experimental observations are compared with the results obtained from 2D and 3D CFD simulations. The simulated velocity components, pressure field, streamlines and air core dynamics along the atomizer axis are compared to previous research works and found satisfactory. The work has led to a novel approach in the design of pressure swirl atomizer.

  9. Optimization of Simplex Atomizer Inlet Port Configuration through Computational Fluid Dynamics and Experimental Study for Aero-Gas Turbine Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marudhappan, Raja; Chandrasekhar, Udayagiri; Hemachandra Reddy, Koni

    2017-10-01

    The design of plain orifice simplex atomizer for use in the annular combustion system of 1100 kW turbo shaft engine is optimized. The discrete flow field of jet fuel inside the swirl chamber of the atomizer and up to 1.0 mm downstream of the atomizer exit are simulated using commercial Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) software. The Euler-Euler multiphase model is used to solve two sets of momentum equations for liquid and gaseous phases and the volume fraction of each phase is tracked throughout the computational domain. The atomizer design is optimized after performing several 2D axis symmetric analyses with swirl and the optimized inlet port design parameters are used for 3D simulation. The Volume Of Fluid (VOF) multiphase model is used in the simulation. The orifice exit diameter is 0.6 mm. The atomizer is fabricated with the optimized geometric parameters. The performance of the atomizer is tested in the laboratory. The experimental observations are compared with the results obtained from 2D and 3D CFD simulations. The simulated velocity components, pressure field, streamlines and air core dynamics along the atomizer axis are compared to previous research works and found satisfactory. The work has led to a novel approach in the design of pressure swirl atomizer.

  10. Coastal Processes with Engineering Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Robert G.; Dalrymple, Robert A.

    2004-03-01

    The world's coastlines, dividing land from sea, are geological environments that are unique in their composition and the physical processes affecting them. At the dynamically active intersection of land and the oceans, humans have been building structures throughout history. Initially used for naval and commercial purposes, more recently recreation and tourism have increased activity in the coastal zone dramatically. Shoreline development is now causing a significant conflict with natural coastal processes. This text on coastal engineering will help the reader understand these coastal processes and develop strategies to cope effectively with shoreline erosion. The book is organized in four parts: (1) an overview of coastal engineering, using case studies to illustrate problems; (2) hydrodynamics of the coastal zone, reviewing storm surges, water waves, and low frequency motions within the nearshore and surf zone; (3) coastal responses including equilibrium beach profiles and sediment transport; (4) applications such as erosion mitigation, beach nourishment, coastal armoring, tidal inlets, and shoreline management.

  11. THE APPLICATION OF REMOTE SENSING AND AERO-GEOPHYSICS DATA FUSION ON METALLOGENIC PROGNOSIS IN QIMANTAGE OF EAST KUNLUN MONTAIN AREA

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Based on west of Qimantage of East Kunlun mountain area, takes advantage of ASTER data, according to the altered mineral spectral characteristics, remote sensing alteration information is extracted. Incorporation the anomaly extraction results with high-precision aero geophysical data processing results, a multiple resource information fusion model is proposed. The fusion model of two totally different type of data which is a special attention in geospatial academia now, which can im...

  12. Study on thermodynamic cycle parameter matching for intercooled recuperated aero-engine%间冷回热循环航空发动机参数匹配研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚昊; 王占学; 刘增文

    2012-01-01

    The intercooled and recuperated processes were incorporated into the conventional high bypass turbofan engine thermodynamic cycle. Consequently, the intercooled recuperated aero-engine (IRA) simulation model was built and an overall performance simulation program was developed. Then, analysis on choosing and matching the thermodynamic cycle parameters of IRA was conducted. The result indicates that there are some thermody- namic cycle parameters such as intercooler effectiveness, recuperator effectiveness, bypass intercooling split, pressure ratio assignment between booster and high pressure compressor, overall pressure ratio and bypass ratio, which have significant influence on IRA performance. The turbofan engine performance can be improved with the proper use of intercooling, recuperation and the optimized matching of the thermodynamic cycle parameters.%在常规大涵道比涡扇发动机热力循环基础上增加间冷过程和回热过程,发展了间冷回热循环航空发动机(IRA)的计算模型和相应的性能仿真程序.分析了采用间冷回热技术的分排大涵道比涡扇发动机的热力循环参数选择与匹配.结果表明:间冷度、回热度、外涵道间冷用气量、增压级和高压压气机压比分配、总增压比、涵道比等热力循环参数对IRA的性能有很大影响;合理应用间冷回热技术,并优化发动机热力循环参数匹配可以显著改善发动机的性能.

  13. Experiment of Kerosene/Air Pulse Detonation Engine with Aero-valve Structure%气动阀门结构煤油/空气脉冲爆震发动机试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何小明; 王家骅; 张靖周

    2011-01-01

    以煤油为燃料、空气为氧化剂,采用气动阀门结构进气,组合结构障碍物强化燃烧和双半V型障碍物加强激波反射,在内径100 mm,长为1 340 mm的爆震管内进行大量的爆震试验,实现工作频率58.8 Hz协调工作.研究爆震室内主要部件在不同工作阶段的功能,并分析主要部件的工作机理,分析了煤油/空气两相可燃混气形成过程,研究煤油/空气脉冲爆震发动机爆震波特性,获得煤油/空气脉冲爆震发动机协调工作关键技术.研究结果为煤油/空气脉冲爆震发动机原理样机设计提供了理论基础.%Multi-cycle pulse detonation experiments with heated air filled and liquid kerosene fuel injected by aero-valve and accelerating combustion by combined intensifying combustion assembly are carried out in a detonation tube with 100 mm in inner diameter and 1 340 mm in length, and the pulse detonation engine can operate at a frequency up to 58-8 Hz. The function and principle of main parts in the detonation chamber are analyzed with different operation process of pulse detonation engine. The formation mechanism of two-phase combustible mixture and the detonation wave properties are investigated. The key technologies of harmony operation of kerosene/air pulse detonation engine are obtained.

  14. 75 FR 59067 - Airworthiness Directives; International Aero Engines AG V2500-A1, V2522-A5, V2524-A5, V2525-D5...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-27

    .... (4) These engines are installed on, but not limited to, Airbus A319, A320, and A321, and McDonnell.... Drums cleaned before the effective date of this AD using engine manual task 72-41-11-110- 001 satisfy... to 8 drum in IAE engine manual task 72-41-11-200-001. (iv) Installation of a zero-time HPC stage 3...

  15. SIERRA/Aero User Manual Version 4.44

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sierra Thermal/Fluid Team

    2017-04-01

    SIERRA/Aero is a compressible fluid dynamics program intended to solve a wide variety compressible fluid flows including transonic and hypersonic problems. This document describes the commands for assembling a fluid model for analysis with this module, henceforth referred to simply as Aero for brevity. Aero is an application developed using the SIERRA Toolkit (STK). The intent of STK is to provide a set of tools for handling common tasks that programmers encounter when developing a code for numerical simulation. For example, components of STK provide field allocation and management, and parallel input/output of field and mesh data. These services also allow the development of coupled mechanics analysis software for a massively parallel computing environment. In the definitions of the commands that follow, the term Real_Max denotes the largest floating point value that can be represented on a given computer. Int_Max is the largest such integer value.

  16. SIERRA/Aero Theory Manual Version 4.44

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sierra Thermal/Fluid Team

    2017-04-01

    SIERRA/Aero is a two and three dimensional, node-centered, edge-based finite volume code that approximates the compressible Navier-Stokes equations on unstructured meshes. It is applicable to inviscid and high Reynolds number laminar and turbulent flows. Currently, two classes of turbulence models are provided: Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) and hybrid methods such as Detached Eddy Simulation (DES). Large Eddy Simulation (LES) models are currently under development. The gas may be modeled either as ideal, or as a non-equilibrium, chemically reacting mixture of ideal gases. This document describes the mathematical models contained in the code, as well as certain implementation details. First, the governing equations are presented, followed by a description of the spatial discretization. Next, the time discretization is described, and finally the boundary conditions. Throughout the document, SIERRA/ Aero is referred to simply as Aero for brevity.

  17. Test-system Design of Nozzle Solenoid Valve for the Certain Aero-engine%某型飞机发动机喷口电磁阀测试系统的设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张伟; 任再青

    2015-01-01

    Based on the test requirement of hydraulic solenoid valve of exhaust nozzle exit of a certain aero-engine, the test-system of the hy-draulic solenoid valve is designed. The test-system consists of hydraulic measurement and control unit, a electronic measurement unit and a software control unit. It can be used to perform the performance parameter test of the hydraulic solenoid valve.The test-system is fulfilled the needs of fighter repair factories and worked in good condition.%根据飞机发动机喷口电磁阀的测试需求,设计了电磁阀的测试系统.该系统由液压测控单元,电子测量单元,软件控制单元组成.可以对喷口电磁阀密封性能、溢流性能、工作性能参数测量.试验结果表明:测试系统满足航修厂对喷口电磁阀的测试需求,在应用中取得良好效果.

  18. Industrial Applications of LES in Mechanical Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-08-01

    UNCLASSIFIED Defense Technical Information Center Compilation Part Notice ADP013624 TITLE: Industrial Applications of LES in Mechanical Engineering DISTRIBUTION...compilation report: ADP013620 thru ADP013707 UNCLASSIFIED INDUSTRIAL APPLICATIONS OF LES IN MECHANICAL ENGINEERING CHISACHI KATO Institute of Industrial...Science University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan MASAYUKI KAIHO, AKIRA MANABE Mechanical Engineering Research Laboratory Hitachi LTD., Ibaraki, Japan Abstract

  19. Inequalities with applications to engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Cloud, Michael J; Lebedev, Leonid P

    2014-01-01

    This book offers a concise introduction to mathematical inequalities for graduate students and researchers in the fields of engineering and applied mathematics. It begins by reviewing essential facts from algebra and calculus and proceeds with a presentation of the central inequalities of applied analysis, illustrating a wide variety of practical applications. The text provides a gentle introduction to abstract spaces, such as metric, normed, and inner product spaces. It also provides full coverage of the central inequalities of applied analysis, such as Young's inequality, the inequality of the means, Hölder's inequality, Minkowski's inequality, the Cauchy–Schwarz inequality, Chebyshev's inequality, Jensen's inequality, and the triangle inequality. The second edition features extended coverage of applications, including continuum mechanics and interval analysis. It also includes many additional examples and exercises with hints and full solutions that may appeal to upper-level undergraduate and graduate...

  20. 模糊自整定PID的航空发动机转速控制研究%Rotating Speed Control for Aero-engine Based on Fuzzy Serf-tuning PID Controller

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乔伯真; 缑林峰

    2013-01-01

    Due to the strong nonlinearity and time - variation of aero - engine, it is difficult for the rotating speed control system based on the method of fixed parameters PID to possess the consistent performance. In consideration of this problem, a fuzzy self - tuning PID controller was proposed. On the base of the input errors and its changing rate, a group of online self - tuning rules were built for PID parameters. And the fuzzy reasoning methods were used to calculate the new parameters in real - time. Then combining with the nonlinear real - time model of an core - engine, the rotating speed cascade control hardware system was simulated in the loop. The result indicates that the fuzzy self - tuning PID controller realizes the online tuning of parameters with a small switchover disturbance and meets the requirements of the rotate speed control in the full envelope.%航空发动机具有强非线性和强时变性的特点,使用定参数PID方法的转速控制系统的性能在全飞行包线内难以保证.针对上述问题,提出设计模糊自整定PID控制器,利用输入误差及变化率建立一组PID参数在线调整规则,运用模糊推理方法实时进行参数自整定.结合某型航空发动机核心机非线性实时模型,进行转速串级控制硬件在回路仿真.结果表明,提出的模糊自整定PID控制方法实现了控制器参数在线调整,参数切换扰动小,满足全包线内转速控制的指标要求.

  1. Traffic engineering for Internet applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jena, Ajit K.; Popescu, Adrian

    2001-07-01

    The focus of the paper is on resource engineering for supporting Service Level Agreements (SLAs) in IP networks. SLA at both link level and application level are considered. Using an object-oriented simulation model a case study is presented for client-server interactions generated by mixed traffic conditions in a Frame Relay (FR) WAN. Performance issues of Short Range Dependence and Long Range Dependence traffic under different resource control regimes are compared. The results show that major portion of the end-to- end delay comes from the queueing delay at the WAN ingress points, which is due to the significant bandwidth differences that may exist between LAN and WAN link layers. The results also highlight the role TCP window size and FR PVC control mechanisms play in the provision of delay performance for Internet services.

  2. REVERSE ENGINEERING AND ITS REALISTIC APPLICATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Nikita Bakshi; Shruti Gujral

    2014-01-01

    Reverse-engineering is used for many purposes like as a learning tool, as a way to make compatible products that are cheaper than what is currently on the market. This paper discusses what is software, its type, reverse engineering, applications of reverse engineering and their tools.

  3. REVERSE ENGINEERING AND ITS REALISTIC APPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikita Bakshi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Reverse-engineering is used for many purposes like as a learning tool, as a way to make compatible products that are cheaper than what is currently on the market. This paper discusses what is software, its type, reverse engineering, applications of reverse engineering and their tools.

  4. 75 FR 6860 - Airworthiness Directives; International Aero Engines AG (IAE) V2500-A1, V2522-A5, V2524-A5, V2525...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-12

    ... limited to, Airbus A319, A320, and A321, and McDonnell Douglas MD-90 airplanes. Unsafe Condition (d) This... effective date of this AD using engine manual task 72-41-11-110-001 satisfy this requirement. (iii... manual task 72-41-11-200-001. (iv) Installation of a zero-time HPC stage 3 to 8 drum or a drum that...

  5. Geothermal engineering fundamentals and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Watson, Arnold

    2013-01-01

    This book explains the engineering required to bring geothermal resources into use. The book covers specifically engineering aspects that are unique to geothermal engineering, such as measurements in wells and their interpretation, transport of near-boiling water through long pipelines, turbines driven by fluids other than steam, and project economics. The explanations are reinforced by drawing comparisons with other energy industries.

  6. Aero Fighter - 2D Gaming

    CERN Document Server

    Ahmed, Zeeshan

    2010-01-01

    Designing and developing quality based computer game is always a challenging task for developers. In this paper I briefly discuss aero fighting war game based on simple 2D gaming concepts and developed in C & C++ programming languages, using old bitmapping concepts. Going into the details of the game development, I discuss the designed strategies, flow of game and implemented prototype version of game, especially for beginners of game programming.

  7. Nonlinear approaches in engineering applications 2

    CERN Document Server

    Jazar, Reza N

    2013-01-01

    Provides updated principles and applications of the nonlinear approaches in solving engineering and physics problems Demonstrates how nonlinear approaches may open avenues to better, safer, cheaper systems with less energy consumption Has a strong emphasis on the application, physical meaning, and methodologies of nonlinear approaches in different engineering and science problems

  8. Digital holographic interferometry for characterizing deformable mirrors in aero-optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trolinger, James D.; Hess, Cecil F.; Razavi, Payam; Furlong, Cosme

    2016-08-01

    Measuring and understanding the transient behavior of a surface with high spatial and temporal resolution are required in many areas of science. This paper describes the development and application of a high-speed, high-dynamic range, digital holographic interferometer for high-speed surface contouring with fractional wavelength precision and high-spatial resolution. The specific application under investigation here is to characterize deformable mirrors (DM) employed in aero-optics. The developed instrument was shown capable of contouring a deformable mirror with extremely high-resolution at frequencies exceeding 40 kHz. We demonstrated two different procedures for characterizing the mechanical response of a surface to a wide variety of input forces, one that employs a high-speed digital camera and a second that employs a low-speed, low-cost digital camera. The latter is achieved by cycling the DM actuators with a step input, producing a transient that typically lasts up to a millisecond before reaching equilibrium. Recordings are made at increasing times after the DM initiation from zero to equilibrium to analyze the transient. Because the wave functions are stored and reconstructable, they can be compared with each other to produce contours including absolute, difference, and velocity. High-speed digital cameras recorded the wave functions during a single transient at rates exceeding 40 kHz. We concluded that either method is fully capable of characterizing a typical DM to the extent required by aero-optical engineers.

  9. Biocatalysts: application and engineering for industrial purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jemli, Sonia; Ayadi-Zouari, Dorra; Hlima, Hajer Ben; Bejar, Samir

    2016-01-01

    Enzymes are widely applied in various industrial applications and processes, including the food and beverage, animal feed, textile, detergent and medical industries. Enzymes screened from natural origins are often engineered before entering the market place because their native forms do not meet the requirements for industrial application. Protein engineering is concerned with the design and construction of novel enzymes with tailored functional properties, including stability, catalytic activity, reaction product inhibition and substrate specificity. Two broad approaches have been used for enzyme engineering, namely, rational design and directed evolution. The powerful and revolutionary techniques so far developed for protein engineering provide excellent opportunities for the design of industrial enzymes with specific properties and production of high-value products at lower production costs. The present review seeks to highlight the major fields of enzyme application and to provide an updated overview on previous protein engineering studies wherein natural enzymes were modified to meet the operational conditions required for industrial application.

  10. Microbiome engineering: Current applications and its future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foo, Jee Loon; Ling, Hua; Lee, Yung Seng; Chang, Matthew Wook

    2017-03-01

    Microbiomes exist in all ecosystems and are composed of diverse microbial communities. Perturbation to microbiomes brings about undesirable phenotypes in the hosts, resulting in diseases and disorders, and disturbs the balance of the associated ecosystems. Engineering of microbiomes can be used to modify structures of the microbiota and restore ecological balance. Consequently, microbiome engineering has been employed for improving human health and agricultural productivity. The importance and current applications of microbiome engineering, particularly in humans, animals, plants and soil is reviewed. Furthermore, we explore the challenges in engineering microbiome and the future of this field, thus providing perspectives and outlook of microbiome engineering.

  11. Soil variability in engineering applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vessia, Giovanna

    2014-05-01

    Natural geomaterials, as soils and rocks, show spatial variability and heterogeneity of physical and mechanical properties. They can be measured by in field and laboratory testing. The heterogeneity concerns different values of litho-technical parameters pertaining similar lithological units placed close to each other. On the contrary, the variability is inherent to the formation and evolution processes experienced by each geological units (homogeneous geomaterials on average) and captured as a spatial structure of fluctuation of physical property values about their mean trend, e.g. the unit weight, the hydraulic permeability, the friction angle, the cohesion, among others. The preceding spatial variations shall be managed by engineering models to accomplish reliable designing of structures and infrastructures. Materon (1962) introduced the Geostatistics as the most comprehensive tool to manage spatial correlation of parameter measures used in a wide range of earth science applications. In the field of the engineering geology, Vanmarcke (1977) developed the first pioneering attempts to describe and manage the inherent variability in geomaterials although Terzaghi (1943) already highlighted that spatial fluctuations of physical and mechanical parameters used in geotechnical designing cannot be neglected. A few years later, Mandelbrot (1983) and Turcotte (1986) interpreted the internal arrangement of geomaterial according to Fractal Theory. In the same years, Vanmarcke (1983) proposed the Random Field Theory providing mathematical tools to deal with inherent variability of each geological units or stratigraphic succession that can be resembled as one material. In this approach, measurement fluctuations of physical parameters are interpreted through the spatial variability structure consisting in the correlation function and the scale of fluctuation. Fenton and Griffiths (1992) combined random field simulation with the finite element method to produce the Random

  12. Mathematics and Engineering Applications, Some Selected Examples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France).

    This document, a report of a seminar arranged by the Royal Belgian Society of Engineers and Industrialists, contains 35 papers illustrating the application of modern mathematics in engineering. There are eleven sections: Statistics, Operational Research, Boolean Algebra, Numerical Analysis, Eigenvalues, variations, Integral Equations and…

  13. Applications of Computer Graphics in Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    Various applications of interactive computer graphics to the following areas of science and engineering were described: design and analysis of structures, configuration geometry, animation, flutter analysis, design and manufacturing, aircraft design and integration, wind tunnel data analysis, architecture and construction, flight simulation, hydrodynamics, curve and surface fitting, gas turbine engine design, analysis, and manufacturing, packaging of printed circuit boards, spacecraft design.

  14. Potentials of manufacture and repair of nickel base turbine components used in aero engines and power plants by laser metal deposition and laser drilling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    I.Kelbassa; K.Walther; L.Trippe; W.Meiners; C.Over

    2007-01-01

    High pressure turbine (HPT) parts like blades and vanes with integrated cooling channels are challenging concerning overhaul and repair.So far damaged parts have to be replaced by the operator.The aim is to design and implement a refurbishment process chain to avoid scrapping of used parts.This process chain implies three different laser applications 1.Direct Laser Forming (DLF),2.Laser Metal Deposition (LMD) and 3.Laser Drilling (LD).The laser processing was extended in the last years towards application near materials like Nickel and Titanium base alloys.Concerning LMD and DLF the achieved results are investigated regarding macro and micro structure,hardness,defects (e.g.cracks,bonding defects,porosity) and contamination with atmospheric elements (e.g.O, N,C and H) are presented for Titanium alloys like Ti-6Al-4V,Ti-6246 and Ti-17 as well as for Nickel base alloys like Inconel 718 and Rene 80.Suitable process parameters are presented with the achieved static (tensile) and dynamic mechanical properties (HCF) and compared to those of heat treated raw materials.One innovative solution (manufacturing case) is to fabricate the small and complex shaped geometrical elements by LMD and/or DLF.By LMD these elements are built-up directly.With DLF the elements are manufactured separately in the DLF machine and connected by a subsequent joining technique with the large parts.With DLF small complex shaped parts like combustor swirlers,HPT blades and vanes with internal cooling channels are manufactured completely.LMD and DLF can be used in combination with subsequent LD.Depending on the application two different drilling techniques by dominant melt ejection-percussion drilling and trepanning-are classified and characterised.The drilling techniques are exemplarily presented for stainless steel and nickel base alloys (diameter 0.2~0.6 mm,aspect ratio<30,inclination up to 60°) using pulsed laser radiation (Nd:YAG,1064 nm,0.5~1 ms).The experimental results of coaxial

  15. Application of neural networks in coastal engineering

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mandal, S.

    methods. That is why it is becoming popular in various fields including coastal engineering. Waves and tides will play important roles in coastal erosion or accretion. This paper briefly describes the back-propagation neural networks and its application...

  16. 间冷回热循环发动机回热器套管结构优化%Structural optimization on recuperator guide vane of intercooled recuperated aero- engine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周雷; 娄德仓; 郭文; 童传琛

    2016-01-01

    以减小回热器管束内流量分配不均匀度和套管质量为目的,利用Isight集成CFD建模和仿真流程,优化间冷回热循环发动机回热器套管结构尺寸,同时还分析了单个及多个套管结构对回热器流量均匀度的影响。结果表明,单套管长度为135 mm时,回热器内不均匀度最低,为0.27422;两套管结构套管长度分别为75 mm和203 mm时,不均匀度最低;三套管结构套管长度分别为23 mm、121 mm和78 mm时,不均匀度最低。前端套管对回热器不均匀度的影响最大,回热器中套管数目越多其不均匀度越大。%In order to reduce the mass flow non-uniformity and the weight of guide vane in recuperator, CFD modeling and simulation integrated by Isight was used to optimize the size of recuperator guide vane of intercooled recuperated aero-engine (IRA), and the influence of single and multiple guide vane struc⁃ture on mass flow non-uniformity was analyzed at the same time. The results show that when the length equals to 135 mm, the mass flow non-uniformity of single guide vane structure is the least; that’s the same for the double guide vane structure with 75 mm and 203 mm long and the three guide vane structure with 23 mm, 121 mm and 78 mm long. The optimization results show that the front guide vane of recupera⁃tor has most influence on mass flow non-uniformity. The more guide vanes in recuperator, the worse non-uniformity will be.

  17. Rotary-Wing Relevant Compressor Aero Research and Technology Development Activities at Glenn Research Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, Gerard E.; Hathaway, Michael D.; Skoch, Gary J.; Snyder, Christopher A.

    2012-01-01

    Technical challenges of compressors for future rotorcraft engines are driven by engine-level and component-level requirements. Cycle analyses are used to highlight the engine-level challenges for 3000, 7500, and 12000 SHP-class engines, which include retention of performance and stability margin at low corrected flows, and matching compressor type, axial-flow or centrifugal, to the low corrected flows and high temperatures in the aft stages. At the component level: power-to-weight and efficiency requirements impel designs with lower inherent aerodynamic stability margin; and, optimum engine overall pressure ratios lead to small blade heights and the associated challenges of scale, particularly increased clearance-to-span ratios. The technical challenges associated with the aerodynamics of low corrected flows and stability management impel the compressor aero research and development efforts reviewed herein. These activities include development of simple models for clearance sensitivities to improve cycle calculations, full-annulus, unsteady Navier-Stokes simulations used to elucidate stall, its inception, and the physics of stall control by discrete tip-injection, development of an actuator-duct-based model for rapid simulation of nonaxisymmetric flow fields (e.g., due inlet circumferential distortion), advanced centrifugal compressor stage development and experimentation, and application of stall control in a T700 engine.

  18. Application of the CALIOP Layer Product to Evaluate the Vertical Distribution of Aerosols Estimated by Global Models: AeroCom Phase I Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koffi, Brigitte; Schulz, Michael; Breon, Francois-Marie; Griesfeller, Jan; Winker, David; Balkanski, Yves; Bauer, Susanne; Berntsen, Terje; Chin, Mian; Collins, William D.; hide

    2012-01-01

    The CALIOP (Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization) layer product is used for a multimodel evaluation of the vertical distribution of aerosols. Annual and seasonal aerosol extinction profiles are analyzed over 13 sub-continental regions representative of industrial, dust, and biomass burning pollution, from CALIOP 2007-2009 observations and from AeroCom (Aerosol Comparisons between Observations and Models) 2000 simulations. An extinction mean height diagnostic (Z-alpha) is defined to quantitatively assess the models' performance. It is calculated over the 0-6 km and 0-10 km altitude ranges by weighting the altitude of each 100 m altitude layer by its aerosol extinction coefficient. The mean extinction profiles derived from CALIOP layer products provide consistent regional and seasonal specificities and a low inter-annual variability. While the outputs from most models are significantly correlated with the observed Z-alpha climatologies, some do better than others, and 2 of the 12 models perform particularly well in all seasons. Over industrial and maritime regions, most models show higher Z-alpha than observed by CALIOP, whereas over the African and Chinese dust source regions, Z-alpha is underestimated during Northern Hemisphere Spring and Summer. The positive model bias in Z-alpha is mainly due to an overestimate of the extinction above 6 km. Potential CALIOP and model limitations, and methodological factors that might contribute to the differences are discussed.

  19. 航空发动机高速电磁阀控制模式分析研究%Research on High Speed Duty Ratio Control Method of Solenoid on Aero-engine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王秋霞; 樊丁; 彭凯; 刘宇琦

    2013-01-01

    High speed solenoid is a key component of aero-engine electric control system. Two control methods applied in engineering are the variable frequency method and the steady frequency method. However, it is not easy to find the research on the comparison of these two methods both at home and abroad. To better understand the different effects these two methods have on the control of the system and offer some help on the choice of the control method in engineering, the model of high speed solenoid and typical mechanical—hydraulic control system was built with AMES-im. Based on this model, two comparisons have been made. One of them was between the settled frequency duty ratio (SFDR) control algorithm and the variable frequency duty ratio (VFDR) control algorithm. The other one was done according to the different frequency in the settled frequency control. The simulation shows that the VFDR has better quality than the SFDR in the response time, and they are nearly equal in other aspects. As the frequency grows, the response time slows down while the overshoot of the system decreases. As the frequency decreases, the result is completely opposite.%高速电磁阀是航空发动机实现电子控制部件,工程应用中通常采用定频与变频两种驱动方式,而应对控制效果方面进行对比研究.为比较两种方式对系统控制的影响,为相关控制模式选型提供参考,在AMESim环境下建立了电磁阀及典型航空发动机机械液压主燃油流量控制系统的数学模型,运用数字仿真方法,研究了定频变占空比及变频变占空比两种驱动控制模式对系统性能的影响,以及定频控制模式下不同频率对系统性能的影响.结果表明:变频控制方式在快速性方面优于定频控制,其它性能相当.定频控制模式下,驱动频率增加,系统响应的超调量减小但响应速度变慢;驱动频率降低,系统的响应速度变快但超调量增大.

  20. Basic Mechanics with Engineering Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, J; Fawcett, J N

    2012-01-01

    This book gives a sufficient grounding in mechanics for engineers to tackle a significant range of problems encountered in the design and specification of simple structures and machines. It also provides an excellent background for students wishing to progress to more advanced studies in three-dimensional mechanics.

  1. Ishikawajima-Harima Engineering Review, Vol. 33, No. 6, November 1993. Special issue: Applications development of polymer matrix composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-11-01

    ;Contents: Technical Problems and Future Possibility of Polymer Matrix Composites as Structural Materials; Polymer Matrix Composites at IHI, Present and Future; Development and Application of Graphite Epoxy Strut to Space Vehicle Structures; Development of CFRP Pressurant Tank for Satellite Propulsion System; Development of FRP Parts in Civil Aero-Engine; CFRP Cross Bar Developed for Large Transfer Press Used for Car Bodies; Development of CFRP Diaphragm for Hydaulic Speaker; Sports Fishing Vessel Made of Fiber Reinforced Plastic Using Fire Retardant Resins; Scrap FRP Pulverizing and Recycling Technology; Development of High Power Electron Beam Gun with LaB6 Cathode; Development of SDC Honeycomb Vacuum Vessel; Application of Welding Robot System to Ship Hull Assembly; Manufacturing Process of 70 MWe Class IHI-PFBC Boiler.

  2. Thermal barrier coatings application in diesel engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fairbanks, J.W.

    1995-10-01

    Commercial use of thermal barrier coatings in diesel engines began in the mid 70`s by Dr. Ingard Kvernes at the Central Institute for Industrial Research in Oslo, Norway. Dr. Kvernes attributed attack on diesel engine valves and piston crowns encountered in marine diesel engines in Norwegian ships as hot-corrosion attributed to a reduced quality of residual fuel. His solution was to coat these components to reduce metal temperature below the threshold of aggressive hot-corrosion and also provide protection. Roy Kamo introduced thermal barrier coatings in his `Adiabatic Diesel Engine` in the late 70`s. Kamo`s concept was to eliminate the engine block water cooling system and reduce heat losses. Roy reported significant performance improvements in his thermally insulated engine at the SAE Congress in 1982. Kamo`s work stimulates major programs with insulated engines, particularly in Europe. Most of the major diesel engine manufacturers conducted some level of test with insulated combustion chamber components. They initially ran into increased fuel consumption. The German engine consortium had Prof. Woschni of the Technical Institute in Munich. Woschni conducted testing with pistons with air gaps to provide the insulation effects. Woschni indicated the hot walls of the insulated engine created a major increase in heat transfer he refers to as `convection vive.` Woschni`s work was a major factor in the abrupt curtailment of insulated diesel engine work in continental Europe. Ricardo in the UK suggested that combustion should be reoptimized for the hot-wall effects of the insulated combustion chamber and showed under a narrow range of conditions fuel economy could be improved. The Department of Energy has supported thermal barrier coating development for diesel engine applications. In the Clean Diesel - 50 Percent Efficient (CD-50) engine for the year 2000, thermal barrier coatings will be used on piston crowns and possibly other components.

  3. Kansei engineering and its applications

    OpenAIRE

    Uzundurugan, Elçin; FIĞLALI, Alpaslan; Nilgün FIĞLALI

    2002-01-01

    In the 1970's, manufacturers produced a volume of products and people bought them. Nowadays consumers desire the products that match their own feelings of design, function and price. That's why the newest ergonomic technology, which was the opposite pole from western objectivity and logical thinking -named Kansei Engineering (KE) - was born in Japan. KE aims to implement the consumer's needs and desires into the product design. In this study, the need of consumer centered design, the develo...

  4. Conducting polypyrrole in tissue engineering applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zhong-Bing; Yin, Guang-Fu; Liao, Xiao-Ming; Gu, Jian-Wen

    2014-03-01

    Polypyrrole (PPy), the earliest prepared conducting polymer, has good biocompatibility, easy synthesis and flexibility in processing. Compared with metal and inorganic materials, doped PPy has better mechanical match with live tissue, resulting in its many applications in biomedical field. This mini-review presents some information on specific PPy properties for tissue engineering applications, including its synthesis, doping, bio-modification. Although some challenges and unanswered problems still remain, PPy as novel biomaterial has promoted the development tissue engineering for its clinical application in the future.

  5. Fuzzy logic applications in engineering science

    CERN Document Server

    Harris, J

    2006-01-01

    Fuzzy logic is a relatively new concept in science applications. Hitherto, fuzzy logic has been a conceptual process applied in the field of risk management. Its potential applicability is much wider than that, however, and its particular suitability for expanding our understanding of processes and information in science and engineering in our post-modern world is only just beginning to be appreciated. Written as a companion text to the author's earlier volume "An Introduction to Fuzzy Logic Applications", the book is aimed at professional engineers and students and those with an interest in exploring the potential of fuzzy logic as an information processing kit with a wide variety of practical applications in the field of engineering science and develops themes and topics introduced in the author's earlier text.

  6. Compound cycle engine for helicopter application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castor, Jere; Martin, John; Bradley, Curtiss

    1987-01-01

    The compound cycle engine (CCE) is a highly turbocharged, power-compounded, ultra-high-power-density, lightweight diesel engine. The turbomachinery is similar to a moderate-pressure-ratio, free-power-turbine gas turbine engine and the diesel core is high speed and a low compression ratio. This engine is considered a potential candidate for future military helicopter applications. Cycle thermodynamic specific fuel consumption (SFC) and engine weight analyses performed to establish general engine operating parameters and configurations are presented. An extensive performance and weight analysis based on a typical 2-hour helicopter (+30 minute reserve) mission determined final conceptual engine design. With this mission, CCE performance was compared to that of a contemporary gas turbine engine. The CCE had a 31 percent lower-fuel consumption and resulted in a 16 percent reduction in engine plus fuel and fuel tank weight. Design SFC of the CCE is 0.33 lb/hp-hr and installed wet weight is 0.43 lb/hp. The major technology development areas required for the CCE are identified and briefly discussed.

  7. SDM applications to machine tools and engines

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A Sestieri

    2000-06-01

    The method of structural dynamic optimization is applied here to two real-life structures, a small two-cylinder, air-cooled gasoline engine and a high speed machine tool. The aim of the first application isthe reduction of the kinematic vibration transmission path composed of a piston-connecting rod, a crankshaft and an engine block, while the goal of the second application is the lowering of the peaks of the spindle-drive point FRFs measured along two orthogonal directions.It is shown how the addition of a small amount of mass at a few points on the engine block, and a small dynamic absorber with highly damped elastic connections provides the required improvements for the engine and the machine tool respectively.

  8. Aloe Vera for Tissue Engineering Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Shekh; Carter, Princeton; Bhattarai, Narayan

    2017-02-14

    Aloe vera, also referred as Aloe barbadensis Miller, is a succulent plant widely used for biomedical, pharmaceutical and cosmetic applications. Aloe vera has been used for thousands of years. However, recent significant advances have been made in the development of aloe vera for tissue engineering applications. Aloe vera has received considerable attention in tissue engineering due to its biodegradability, biocompatibility, and low toxicity properties. Aloe vera has been reported to have many biologically active components. The bioactive components of aloe vera have effective antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and immune-modulatory effects that promote both tissue regeneration and growth. The aloe vera plant, its bioactive components, extraction and processing, and tissue engineering prospects are reviewed in this article. The use of aloe vera as tissue engineering scaffolds, gels, and films is discussed, with a special focus on electrospun nanofibers.

  9. Aloe Vera for Tissue Engineering Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shekh Rahman

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Aloe vera, also referred as Aloe barbadensis Miller, is a succulent plant widely used for biomedical, pharmaceutical and cosmetic applications. Aloe vera has been used for thousands of years. However, recent significant advances have been made in the development of aloe vera for tissue engineering applications. Aloe vera has received considerable attention in tissue engineering due to its biodegradability, biocompatibility, and low toxicity properties. Aloe vera has been reported to have many biologically active components. The bioactive components of aloe vera have effective antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and immune-modulatory effects that promote both tissue regeneration and growth. The aloe vera plant, its bioactive components, extraction and processing, and tissue engineering prospects are reviewed in this article. The use of aloe vera as tissue engineering scaffolds, gels, and films is discussed, with a special focus on electrospun nanofibers.

  10. Lattice engineering technology and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Shumin

    2012-01-01

    This book contains comprehensive reviews of different technologies to harness lattice mismatch in semiconductor heterostructures and their applications in electronic and optoelectronic devices. While the book is a bit focused on metamorphic epitaxial growth, it also includes other methods like compliant substrate, selective area growth, wafer bonding and heterostructure nanowires etc. Basic knowledge on dislocations in semiconductors and innovative methods to eliminate threading dislocations are provided, and successful device applications are reviewed. It covers a variety of important semicon

  11. The optimal homotopy asymptotic method engineering applications

    CERN Document Server

    Marinca, Vasile

    2015-01-01

    This book emphasizes in detail the applicability of the Optimal Homotopy Asymptotic Method to various engineering problems. It is a continuation of the book “Nonlinear Dynamical Systems in Engineering: Some Approximate Approaches”, published at Springer in 2011, and it contains a great amount of practical models from various fields of engineering such as classical and fluid mechanics, thermodynamics, nonlinear oscillations, electrical machines, and so on. The main structure of the book consists of 5 chapters. The first chapter is introductory while the second chapter is devoted to a short history of the development of homotopy methods, including the basic ideas of the Optimal Homotopy Asymptotic Method. The last three chapters, from Chapter 3 to Chapter 5, are introducing three distinct alternatives of the Optimal Homotopy Asymptotic Method with illustrative applications to nonlinear dynamical systems. The third chapter deals with the first alternative of our approach with two iterations. Five application...

  12. Collisions engineering. Theory and applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fremond, Michel [Rome ' ' Tor Vergata' ' Univ. (Italy). Dept. of Civil Engineering and Computer Science

    2017-02-01

    This book investigates collisions occurring in the motion of solids, in the motion of fluids but also in the motion of pedestrians in crowds. The duration of these presented collisions is short compared to the whole duration of the motion: they are assumed instantaneous. The innovative concept demonstrated in this book is that a system made of two solids, is deformable because their relative position changes. The definition of the velocities of deformation of the system introduced in the classical developments of mechanics, the principle of the virtual work and the laws of thermodynamics, allows a large range of applications such as crowd motions, debris flow motions, and shape memory alloys motions. The set of the applications is even larger: social sciences and mechanics are unified to predict the motion of crowds with application to transport management and to evacuation of theaters management.

  13. Collisions engineering theory and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Frémond, Michel

    2017-01-01

    This book investigates collisions occurring in the motion of solids, in the motion of fluids but also in the motion of pedestrians in crowds. The duration of these presented collisions is short compared to the whole duration of the motion: they are assumed instantaneous. The innovative concept demonstrated in this book is that a system made of two solids, is deformable because their relative position changes. The definition of the velocities of deformation of the system introduced in the classical developments of mechanics, the principle of the virtual work and the laws of thermodynamics, allows a large range of applications such as crowd motions, debris flow motions, and shape memory alloys motions. The set of the applications is even larger: social sciences and mechanics are unified to predict the motion of crowds with application to transport management and to evacuation of theaters management.

  14. Injectable, Biodegradable Hydrogels for Tissue Engineering Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huaping Tan

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogels have many different applications in the field of regenerative medicine. Biodegradable, injectable hydrogels could be utilized as delivery systems, cell carriers, and scaffolds for tissue engineering. Injectable hydrogels are an appealing scaffold because they are structurally similar to the extracellular matrix of many tissues, can often be processed under relatively mild conditions, and may be delivered in a minimally invasive manner. This review will discuss recent advances in the field of injectable hydrogels, including both synthetic and native polymeric materials, which can be potentially used in cartilage and soft tissue engineering applications.

  15. Optimization strategies for complex engineering applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eldred, M.S.

    1998-02-01

    LDRD research activities have focused on increasing the robustness and efficiency of optimization studies for computationally complex engineering problems. Engineering applications can be characterized by extreme computational expense, lack of gradient information, discrete parameters, non-converging simulations, and nonsmooth, multimodal, and discontinuous response variations. Guided by these challenges, the LDRD research activities have developed application-specific techniques, fundamental optimization algorithms, multilevel hybrid and sequential approximate optimization strategies, parallel processing approaches, and automatic differentiation and adjoint augmentation methods. This report surveys these activities and summarizes the key findings and recommendations.

  16. Coordination of engineering applications: Project summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cassidy, P.J.

    1996-08-31

    The purpose of this project was to focus on and coordinate several active engineering applications projects to optimize their integration. The end result of the project was to develop and demonstrate the capability of electronically receiving a part from the originating design agency, performing computer-aided engineering analyses, developing process plans, adding electronic input from numerous onsite systems, and producing an online operation sheet (manual) for viewing on a shop floor workstation. A successful demonstration of these applications was performed in December 1988.

  17. DESIGN QUALITY IN MECHANICAL ENGINEERING APPLICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayşegül Akdogan Eker

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available There is a close relationship between material chose and quality in mechanical engineering application like there is in all the other engineering applications. If this relation is balanced then engineering success increases. Material chose comes to fore in the design process most of the time. The two most important responsibilities of the design engineer in here is to chose suitable material and to know the production processes about design. The chose of material of a design that will fulfill the needs all through its life has great importance. It is needed to limit the material applicants by choosing the most suitable ones among variable material. Choosing materials that were examined before and whose behavior is well known provides the designer to feel confident. However since using highly successful materials would increase the competitive power of the designs; designers should follow the developments in materials and know the features of new materials. The description of these features can be interpreted within quality. Quality from the point of engineer is the total fulfillment of expectations.Engineer today are faced with very important problems such as fast technological innovations, a dynamic socio-economical environment, global rivalry. One of the life buoys they stick while trying to solve these problems is total method of quality control. Total Quality model which can provide higher competitive power compared to classical management model brings success only when applied with its whole components. "Approach toward prevention" and "measurement and statistics" have an important place among these elements. The first step of the approach toward prevention composes of design quality and Quality Function Deployment (QFD, or in other words The House of Quality method that will provide this. In this paper; considering the quality function deployment, how the chose of material are done in mechanical engineering applications will be explained.

  18. Engineering Stem Cells for Biomedical Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Perry T; Han, Edward; Lee, Ki-Bum

    2016-01-07

    Stem cells are characterized by a number of useful properties, including their ability to migrate, differentiate, and secrete a variety of therapeutic molecules such as immunomodulatory factors. As such, numerous pre-clinical and clinical studies have utilized stem cell-based therapies and demonstrated their tremendous potential for the treatment of various human diseases and disorders. Recently, efforts have focused on engineering stem cells in order to further enhance their innate abilities as well as to confer them with new functionalities, which can then be used in various biomedical applications. These engineered stem cells can take on a number of forms. For instance, engineered stem cells encompass the genetic modification of stem cells as well as the use of stem cells for gene delivery, nanoparticle loading and delivery, and even small molecule drug delivery. The present Review gives an in-depth account of the current status of engineered stem cells, including potential cell sources, the most common methods used to engineer stem cells, and the utilization of engineered stem cells in various biomedical applications, with a particular focus on tissue regeneration, the treatment of immunodeficiency diseases, and cancer.

  19. Carbon nanotubes: engineering biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Gualdrón, Diego A; Burgos, Juan C; Yu, Jiamei; Balbuena, Perla B

    2011-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are cylinder-shaped allotropic forms of carbon, most widely produced under chemical vapor deposition. They possess astounding chemical, electronic, mechanical, and optical properties. Being among the most promising materials in nanotechnology, they are also likely to revolutionize medicine. Among other biomedical applications, after proper functionalization carbon nanotubes can be transformed into sophisticated biosensing and biocompatible drug-delivery systems, for specific targeting and elimination of tumor cells. This chapter provides an introduction to the chemical and electronic structure and properties of single-walled carbon nanotubes, followed by a description of the main synthesis and post-synthesis methods. These sections allow the reader to become familiar with the specific characteristics of these materials and the manner in which these properties may be dependent on the specific synthesis and post-synthesis processes. The chapter ends with a review of the current biomedical applications of carbon nanotubes, highlighting successes and challenges.

  20. Thermal barrier coatings application in diesel engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairbanks, J. W.

    1995-01-01

    Commercial use of thermal barrier coatings in diesel engines began in the mid 70's by Dr. Ingard Kvernes at the Central Institute for Industrial Research in Oslo, Norway. Dr. Kvernes attributed attack on diesel engine valves and piston crowns encountered in marine diesel engines in Norwegian ships as hot-corrosion attributed to a reduced quality of residual fuel. His solution was to coat these components to reduce metal temperature below the threshold of aggressive hot-corrosion and also provide protection. Roy Kamo introduced thermal barrier coatings in his 'Adiabatic Diesel Engine' in the late 70's. Kamo's concept was to eliminate the engine block water cooling system and reduce heat losses. Roy reported significant performance improvements in his thermally insulated engine at the SAE Congress in 1982. Kamo's work stimulates major programs with insulated engines, particularly in Europe. Most of the major diesel engine manufacturers conducted some level of test with insulated combustion chamber components. They initially ran into increased fuel consumption. The German engine consortium had Prof. Woschni of the Technical Institute in Munich. Woschni conducted testing with pistons with air gaps to provide the insulation effects. Woschni indicated the hot walls of the insulated engine created a major increase in heat transfer he refers to as 'convection vive.' Woschni's work was a major factor in the abrupt curtailment of insulated diesel engine work in continental Europe. Ricardo in the UK suggested that combustion should be reoptimized for the hot-wall effects of the insulated combustion chamber and showed under a narrow range of conditions fuel economy could be improved. The Department of Energy has supported thermal barrier coating development for diesel engine applications. In the Clean Diesel - 50 Percent Efficient (CD-50) engine for the year 2000, thermal barrier coatings will be used on piston crowns and possibly other components. The primary purpose of the

  1. Biological and biomedical applications of engineered nucleases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Yunzhi; Xiao, Li; Li, Alice S S; Zhang, Xu; Sirois, Pierre; Zhang, Jia; Li, Kai

    2013-09-01

    The development of engineered nucleases is the fruit of a new technological approach developed in the last two decades which has led to significant benefits on genome engineering, particularly on gene therapy. These applications enable efficient and specific genetic modifications via the induction of a double-strand break (DSB) in a specific genomic target sequence, followed by the homology-directed repair (HDR) or non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) pathways. In addition to the application on gene modification in cells and intact organisms, a number of recent papers have reported that this gene editing technology can be applied effectively to human diseases. With the promising data obtained using engineered endonucleases in gene therapy, it appears reasonable to expect that more diseases could be treated and even be cured in this new era of individualized medicine. This paper first brief introduces the development of engineered nucleases with a special emphasis on zinc-finger nucleases (ZFNs) and transcription activator-like effector (TALE) nucleases (TALENs), and then takes CCR5-based gene therapy as an example to discuss the therapeutic applications of engineered nucleases.

  2. Surface electromyography physiology, engineering and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Farina, Dario

    2016-01-01

    The book presents a quantitative approach to the study and use of noninvasively detected electromyographic (EMG) signals, as well as their numerous applications in various aspects of the life sciences. Surface Electromyography: Physiology, Engineering, and Applications is an update of Electromyography: Physiology, Engineering, and Noninvasive Applications (Wiley-IEEE Press, 2004) and focuses on the developments that have taken place over the last decade. The first nine chapters deal with the generation, detection, understanding, interpretation, and modeling of EMG signals. Detection technology, with particular focus on EMG imaging techniques that are based on two-dimensional electrode arrays are also included in the first half of the book. The latter 11 chapters deal with applications, which range fro monitoring muscle fatigue, electrically elicited contractions, posture analysis, prevention of work-related and child-delivery-related neuromuscular disorders, ergonomics, movement analysis, physical therapy, ex...

  3. 基于实数编码量子进化算法和模态区间数学的航空发动机设计%Aero-engine Design Based on Real-coded Quantum Evolutionary Algorithm and Modal Interval Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈思兵; 张凯; 潘率诚; 杨冬卫

    2014-01-01

    Real-coded quantum evolutionary algorithm and Modal Interval Analysis were combined to solve dififcult problems in Modal Interval Analysis. Used real-coded quantum evolutionary algorithm to solve modal interval liner equations and inverse matrix of modal interval matrix. And then used real-coded quantum evolutionary algorithm and Modal Interval Analysis in overall performance design of aero-engine. Design method of overall performance of aero-engine based on Modal Interval Analysis wass presented , which can analysis design uncertainty. Took a certain type of turbojet engine as an example to calculate and design the results are more in line with the actual situation.%本文将实数编码量子进化算法和模态区间数学相结合用于解决模态区间数学中的某些难以求解的问题。应用量子进化算法进行了模态区间数学方程组的求解和模态区间矩阵的求逆,将量子进化算法和模态区间数学用于航空发动机的设计,给出了基于模态区间数学的航空发动机总体性能设计方法。这种设计方法能够考虑设计的不确定性。并以某型涡喷发动机为例进行计算,设计结果更符合实际情况。

  4. Smart Rotor Modeling: Aero-Servo-Elastic Modeling of a Smart Rotor with Adaptive Trailing Edge Flaps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergami, Leonardo

    This book presents the formulation of an aero-servo-elastic model for a wind turbine rotor equipped with Adaptive Trailing Edge Flaps (ATEF), a smart rotor configuration. As the name suggests, an aero-servo-elastic model consists of three main components: an aerodynamic model, a structural model......, and a control model. The book first presents an engineering type of aerodynamic model that accounts for the dynamic effects of flap deflection. The aerodynamic model is implemented in a Blade Element Momentum framework, and coupled with a multi-body structural model in the aero-servoelastic simulation code HAWC...... the trailing edge flap deflection to actively reduce the fatigue loads on the structure. The performance of the smart rotor configuration and its control algorithms are finally quantified by aero-servo-elastic simulations of the smart rotor turbine operating in a standard turbulent wind field....

  5. Foam engineering fundamentals and applications

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    Containing contributions from leading academic and industrial researchers, this book provides a much needed update of foam science research. The first section of the book presents an accessible summary of the theory and fundamentals of foams. This includes chapters on morphology, drainage, Ostwald ripening, coalescence, rheology, and pneumatic foams. The second section demonstrates how this theory is used in a wide range of industrial applications, including foam fractionation, froth flotation and foam mitigation. It includes chapters on suprafroths, flotation of oil sands, foams in enhancing petroleum recovery, Gas-liquid Mass Transfer in foam, foams in glass manufacturing, fire-fighting foam technology and consumer product foams.

  6. Reverse engineering of relational database applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeer, W.W.M.; Apers, P.M.G.

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents techniques for reverse engineering of relational database applications. The target of such an effort is the definition of a fully equipped object-oriented view of the relational database, including methods and constraints. Such views can be seen as a full specification of the dat

  7. Electromyography physiology engineering and noninvasive applications

    CERN Document Server

    Parker, Philip; John Wiley & Sons

    2004-01-01

    "Featuring contributions from key innovators working in the field today, Electromyography reveals the broad applications of EMG data in areas as diverse as neurology, ergonomics, exercise physiology, rehabilitation, movement analysis, biofeedback, and myoelectric control of prostheses." "Electromyography offers physiologists, medical professionals, and students in biomedical engineering a new window into the possibilities of this technology."--Jacket.

  8. A coupled aero-structural model of a HAWT blade for dynamic load and response prediction in time-domain for health monitoring applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauder, Heather Scot

    experience for fatigue life prediction procedures. To fill in the gaps in the existing knowledge and meet the overall goal of the proposed research, the following objectives were accomplished: (a) improve the existing aeroelastic (motion- and turbulence-induced) load models to predict the response of wind turbine blade airfoils to understand its behavior in turbulent wind, (b) understand, model and predict the response of wind turbine blades in transient or gusty wind, boundary-layer wind and incoherent wind over the span of the blade, (c) understand the effects of aero-structural coupling between the along-wind, cross-wind and torsional vibrations, and finally (d) develop a computational tool using the improved time-domain load model to predict the real-time load, stress distribution and response of a given wind turbine blade during operating and parked conditions subject to a specific wind environment both in a short and long term for damage, flutter and fatigue life predictions.

  9. Thermal barrier coatings application in diesel engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fairbanks, J.W.

    1995-03-01

    Commercial use of thermal barrier coatings in diesel engines began in the mid 70`s by Dr. Ingard Kvernes at the Central Institute for Industrial Research in Oslo, Norway. Dr. Kvernes attributed attack on diesel engine valves and piston crowns encountered in marine diesel engines in Norwegian ships as hot-corrosion attributed to a reduced quality of residual fuel. His solution was to coat these components to reduce metal temperature below the threshold of aggressive hot-corrosion and also to provide protection. The Department of Energy has supported thermal barrier coating development for diesel engine applications. In the Clean Diesel - 50 Percent Efficient (CD-50) engine for the year 2000, thermal barrier coatings will be used on piston crowns and possibly other components. The primary purpose of the thermal barrier coatings will be to reduce thermal fatigue as the engine peak cylinder pressure will nearly be doubled. As the coatings result in higher available energy in the exhaust gas, efficiency gains are achieved through use of this energy by turbochargers, turbocompounding or thermoelectric generators.

  10. Practical applications of soft computing in engineering

    CERN Document Server

    2001-01-01

    Soft computing has been presented not only with the theoretical developments but also with a large variety of realistic applications to consumer products and industrial systems. Application of soft computing has provided the opportunity to integrate human-like vagueness and real-life uncertainty into an otherwise hard computer program. This book highlights some of the recent developments in practical applications of soft computing in engineering problems. All the chapters have been sophisticatedly designed and revised by international experts to achieve wide but in-depth coverage. Contents: Au

  11. Multiscale-multiphysics approaches for engineering applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozzetti, Gabriele; Peters, Bernhard

    2017-07-01

    Engineering applications often require the study of complex Multiphysics systems. In order to provide solutions for problems of industrial-environmental interest, methods that can capture the influence of all the different scales of composite phenomena must be developed. Due to these necessities multiscale and multiphysics approaches are rapidly becoming a standard in the mathematical-numerical description of engineering systems. The goal of the symposium is to bring together industrial and environmental researcher and practitioners, in order to discuss techniques that aim to solve this kind of heterogeneous problem in an highly efficient way.

  12. A finite element modeling method of aero-engine rotor without physical prototype%一种无样机的航空发动机转子有限元建模方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    边杰; 梅庆; 臧朝平; 杨海

    2015-01-01

    established. As the frequency error of the reference model and tested model is within 3%, the reference model can be used to update the simplified model. Finally, a correlation was analyzed and frequency response functions between the tested model and updated simplified model were com-pared. The frequency differences of them are in 2%, and matching values of modal assurance criteri-on are higher than 81%, which verified the correctness and effectiveness of the updated simplified model updated by the reference model. When this method is used to establish finite element model of a real aero-engine without physical prototype, the calculation accuracy can be improved and the a-mount of calculation can be reduced, also the period of research and development can be shortened.

  13. Engineered cell manipulation for biomedical application

    CERN Document Server

    Akashi, Misturu; Matsusaki, Michiya

    2014-01-01

    This book is the first to summarize new technologies for engineered cell manipulation. The contents focus on control of cellular functions by nanomaterials and control of three-dimensional cell-cell interactions. Control of cellular functions is important for cell differentiation, maturation, and activation, which generally are controlled by the addition of soluble cytokines or growth factors into cell culture dishes. Target antigen molecules can be efficiently delivered to the cytosol of the dendritic cells using the nanoparticle technique described here, and cellular functions such as dendritic cell maturation can be controlled easily and with precision. This book describes basic preparation of the nanoparticles, activation control of dendritic cells, immune function control, and in vivo application for various vaccination systems. The second type of control,that of cell-cell interaction, is important for tissue engineering in order to develop three-dimensional cellular constructs. To achieve in vitro engin...

  14. Engineered Proteins: Redox Properties and Their Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabhulkar, Shradha; Tian, Hui; Wang, Xiaotang; Zhu, Jun-Jie

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Oxidoreductases and metalloproteins, representing more than one third of all known proteins, serve as significant catalysts for numerous biological processes that involve electron transfers such as photosynthesis, respiration, metabolism, and molecular signaling. The functional properties of the oxidoreductases/metalloproteins are determined by the nature of their redox centers. Protein engineering is a powerful approach that is used to incorporate biological and abiological redox cofactors as well as novel enzymes and redox proteins with predictable structures and desirable functions for important biological and chemical applications. The methods of protein engineering, mainly rational design, directed evolution, protein surface modifications, and domain shuffling, have allowed the creation and study of a number of redox proteins. This review presents a selection of engineered redox proteins achieved through these methods, resulting in a manipulation in redox potentials, an increase in electron-transfer efficiency, and an expansion of native proteins by de novo design. Such engineered/modified redox proteins with desired properties have led to a broad spectrum of practical applications, ranging from biosensors, biofuel cells, to pharmaceuticals and hybrid catalysis. Glucose biosensors are one of the most successful products in enzyme electrochemistry, with reconstituted glucose oxidase achieving effective electrical communication with the sensor electrode; direct electron-transfer-type biofuel cells are developed to avoid thermodynamic loss and mediator leakage; and fusion proteins of P450s and redox partners make the biocatalytic generation of drug metabolites possible. In summary, this review includes the properties and applications of the engineered redox proteins as well as their significance and great potential in the exploration of bioelectrochemical sensing devices. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 17, 1796–1822. PMID:22435347

  15. Nano-surface Engineering for Remanufacturing Application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Wei; XU Bin-shi; ZHANG Shu

    2005-01-01

    As system of a serial of technologies and engineering activities, remanufacturing aims at restoring and rebuilding waste machinery through advanced technologies and industrialized measures under the direction of the product total life cycle theory. With the development of surface engineering, nano-surface engineering has beenone subject of intensive studies. In addition, nano-surface engineering has become an important means for property reforming and promoting of remanufacturing parts. Many low-dimension and nano-size or nano-structure functional coatings, which can improve materials properties evidently, are deposited by new methods. In this paper, some researches about the new achievement and remanufacturing application of the nano-stmctured coatings by different nano-surface engineering technologies in our laboratory were introduced. Especially, nano-structured DLC multi layer coatings by d.c. plasma CVD, nano-composed Al2O3/Ni, SiC/Ni and Diamond/Ni coatings by brush plating,and nano-composed Al2O3/TiO2 coating by plasma spraying were introduced in detail.

  16. Application of Formal Methods in Software Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Morales

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research work is to examine: (1 why are necessary the formal methods for software systems today, (2 high integrity systems through the methodology C-by-C –Correctness-by-Construction–, and (3 an affordable methodology to apply formal methods in software engineering. The research process included reviews of the literature through Internet, in publications and presentations in events. Among the Research results found that: (1 there is increasing the dependence that the nations have, the companies and people of software systems, (2 there is growing demand for software Engineering to increase social trust in the software systems, (3 exist methodologies, as C-by-C, that can provide that level of trust, (4 Formal Methods constitute a principle of computer science that can be applied software engineering to perform reliable process in software development, (5 software users have the responsibility to demand reliable software products, and (6 software engineers have the responsibility to develop reliable software products. Furthermore, it is concluded that: (1 it takes more research to identify and analyze other methodologies and tools that provide process to apply the Formal Software Engineering methods, (2 Formal Methods provide an unprecedented ability to increase the trust in the exactitude of the software products and (3 by development of new methodologies and tools is being achieved costs are not more a disadvantage for application of formal methods.

  17. Heat transfer applications for the practicing engineer

    CERN Document Server

    Theodore, Louis

    2011-01-01

    This book serves as a training tool for individuals in industry and academia involved with heat transfer applications. Although the literature is inundated with texts emphasizing theory and theoretical derivations, the goal of this book is to present the subject of heat transfer from a strictly pragmatic point of view. The book is divided into four Parts: Introduction, Principles, Equipment Design Procedures and Applications, and ABET-related Topics. The first Part provides a series of chapters concerned with introductory topics that are required when solving most engineering problems, inclu

  18. The Physics of Boundary-Layer Aero-Optic Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    index-of refraction in turn depends on the media density, ρ, via a Gladstone -Dale relation, [1], ’)1( nKnK GDGD =−=ρ , where KGD is a Gladstone -Dale...6. References [1] Gladstone , J. H., Dale, T. P. 1863 “Researches on the Refraction, Dispersion, and Sensitiveness of Liquids”, Philosophical...AIAA J, 7 9 ( 1969 ), pp. 1737–1743. [9] R.J. Hugo and E.J. Jumper, ”Applicability of the Aero-Optic Linking Equation to a Highly Coherent

  19. Electrospinning of Nanofibers for Tissue Engineering Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haifeng Liu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Electrospinning is a method in which materials in solution are formed into nano- and micro-sized continuous fibers. Recent interest in this technique stems from both the topical nature of nanoscale material fabrication and the considerable potential for use of these nanoscale fibres in a range of applications including, amongst others, a range of biomedical applications processes such as drug delivery and the use of scaffolds to provide a framework for tissue regeneration in both soft and hard tissue applications systems. The objectives of this review are to describe the theory behind the technique, examine the effect of changing the process parameters on fiber morphology, and discuss the application and impact of electrospinning on the fields of vascular, neural, bone, cartilage, and tendon/ligament tissue engineering.

  20. On Proper Selection of Multihop Relays for Future Enhancement of AeroMACS Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamali, Behnam; Kerczewski, Robert J.; Apaza, Rafael D.

    2015-01-01

    As the Aeronautical Mobile Airport Communications System (AeroMACS) has evolved from a technology concept to a deployed communications network over major US airports, it is now time to contemplate whether the existing capacity of AeroMACS is sufficient to meet the demands set forth by all fixed and mobile applications over the airport surface given the AeroMACS constraints regarding bandwidth and transmit power. The underlying idea in this article is to present IEEE 802.16j-based WiMAX as a technology that can address future capacity enhancements and therefore is most feasible for AeroMACS applications. The principal argument in favor IEEE 802.16j technology is the flexible and cost effective extension of radio coverage that is afforded by relay fortified networks, with virtually no increase in the power requirements and virtually no rise in interference levels to co-allocated applications. The IEEE 802.16j-based multihop relay systems are briefly described. The focus is on key features of this technology, frame structure, and its architecture. Next, AeroMACS is described as a WiMAX-based wireless network. The two major relay modes supported by IEEE 802.16j amendment, i.e., transparent and non-transparent are described. The benefits of employing multihop relays are listed. Some key challenges related to incorporating relays into AeroMACS networks are discussed. The selection of relay type in a broadband wireless network affects a number of network parameters such as latency, signal overhead, PHY (Scalable Physical Layer) and MAC (Media Access Layer) layer protocols, consequently it can alter key network quantities of throughput and QoS (Quality of Service).

  1. Current Application of Search Engines and Their Developing Trend

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Li; SHAO Shi-huang; WU Xiao-qiong; ZENG Xian-hui; FAN Xiao-wen

    2002-01-01

    The basic types of current search engines which can help users to perfume laborious information-gathering tasks on Internet is proposed. Basically, the search engines can be classified into index engine, directory engine and agent engine on WWW information service. The key technologies of web mine, automatic classifying of documents and ordering regulation of feedback information are discussed. Finally, the developing trend of search engines is pointed out by analyzing their practical application on World Wide Web.

  2. Electrospun polyurethane membranes for Tissue Engineering applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriel, Laís P; Rodrigues, Ana Amélia; Macedo, Milton; Jardini, André L; Maciel Filho, Rubens

    2017-03-01

    Tissue Engineering proposes, among other things, tissue regeneration using scaffolds integrated with biological molecules, growth factors or cells for such regeneration. In this research, polyurethane membranes were prepared using the electrospinning technique in order to obtain membranes to be applied in Tissue Engineering, such as epithelial, drug delivery or cardiac applications. The influence of fibers on the structure and morphology of the membranes was studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), the structure was evaluated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), and the thermal stability was analyzed by thermogravimetry analysis (TGA). In vitro cells attachment and proliferation was investigated by SEM, and in vitro cell viability was studied by 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assays and Live/Dead® assays. It was found that the membranes present an homogeneous morphology, high porosity, high surface area/volume ratio, it was also observed a random fiber network. The thermal analysis showed that the membrane degradation started at 254°C. In vitro evaluation of fibroblasts cells showed that fibroblasts spread over the membrane surface after 24, 48 and 72h of culture. This study supports the investigation of electrospun polyurethane membranes as biocompatible scaffolds for Tissue Engineering applications and provides some guidelines for improved biomaterials with desired properties. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Application of physics engines in virtual worlds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Mark; Taylor, Tim

    2002-03-01

    Dynamic virtual worlds potentially can provide a much richer and more enjoyable experience than static ones. To realize such worlds, three approaches are commonly used. The first of these, and still widely applied, involves importing traditional animations from a modeling system such as 3D Studio Max. This approach is therefore limited to predefined animation scripts or combinations/blends thereof. The second approach involves the integration of some specific-purpose simulation code, such as car dynamics, and is thus generally limited to one (class of) application(s). The third approach involves the use of general-purpose physics engines, which promise to enable a range of compelling dynamic virtual worlds and to considerably speed up development. By far the largest market today for real-time simulation is computer games, revenues exceeding those of the movie industry. Traditionally, the simulation is produced by game developers in-house for specific titles. However, off-the-shelf middleware physics engines are now available for use in games and related domains. In this paper, we report on our experiences of using middleware physics engines to create a virtual world as an interactive experience, and an advanced scenario where artificial life techniques generate controllers for physically modeled characters.

  4. Solar photovoltaic research and development program of the Air Force Aero Propulsion Laboratory. [silicon solar cell applicable to satellite power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, J.

    1979-01-01

    Progress is reported in the following areas: laser weapon effects, solar silicon solar cell concepts, and high voltage hardened, high power system technology. Emphasis is placed on solar cells with increased energy conversion efficiency and radiation resistance characteristics for application to satellite power systems.

  5. Engineering growth factors for regenerative medicine applications.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, Aaron C.; Briquez, Priscilla S.; Hubbell, Jeffrey A.; Cochran, Jennifer R.

    2016-01-15

    Growth factors are important morphogenetic proteins that instruct cell behavior and guide tissue repair and renewal. Although their therapeutic potential holds great promise in regenerative medicine applications, translation of growth factors into clinical treatments has been hindered by limitations including poor protein stability, low recombinant expression yield, and suboptimal efficacy. This review highlights current tools, technologies, and approaches to design integrated and effective growth factor-based therapies for regenerative medicine applications. The first section describes rational and combinatorial protein engineering approaches that have been utilized to improve growth factor stability, expression yield, biodistribution, and serum half-life, or alter their cell trafficking behavior or receptor binding affinity. The second section highlights elegant biomaterial-based systems, inspired by the natural extracellular matrix milieu, that have been developed for effective spatial and temporal delivery of growth factors to cell surface receptors. Although appearing distinct, these two approaches are highly complementary and involve principles of molecular design and engineering to be considered in parallel when developing optimal materials for clinical applications.

  6. Interactive Computing Framework for Engineering Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Knezevic

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Even though the computational steering state-of-the-art environments allow users to embed their simulation codes as a module for an interactive steering without the necessity for their own expertise in high-performance computing and visualisation, e.g., these environments are limited in their possible applications and mostly entail heavy code changes in order to integrate the existing code. Approach: In this study, we introduce an integration framework for engineering applications that supports distributed computations as well as visualization on-the-fly in order to reduce latency and enable a high degree of interactivity with only minor code alterations involved. Moreover, we tackle the problem of long communication delays in the case of huge data advent, which occur due to rigid coupling of simulation back-ends with visualization front-ends and handicap a user in exploring intuitively the relation of cause and effect. Results: The results for the first test cases are encouraging, both showing that we obtain excellent speedup in parallel scenarios and proving that the overhead introduced by the framework itself is negligible. Conclusion/Recommendations: Testing the case involving massively parallel simulation, as well as the integration of the framework into several parallel engineering applications are part of our imminent research.

  7. Tissue engineering skeletal muscle for orthopaedic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payumo, Francis C.; Kim, Hyun D.; Sherling, Michael A.; Smith, Lee P.; Powell, Courtney; Wang, Xiao; Keeping, Hugh S.; Valentini, Robert F.; Vandenburgh, Herman H.

    2002-01-01

    With current technology, tissue-engineered skeletal muscle analogues (bioartificial muscles) generate too little active force to be clinically useful in orthopaedic applications. They have been engineered genetically with numerous transgenes (growth hormone, insulinlike growth factor-1, erythropoietin, vascular endothelial growth factor), and have been shown to deliver these therapeutic proteins either locally or systemically for months in vivo. Bone morphogenetic proteins belonging to the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily are osteoinductive molecules that drive the differentiation pathway of mesenchymal cells toward the chondroblastic or osteoblastic lineage, and stimulate bone formation in vivo. To determine whether skeletal muscle cells endogenously expressing bone morphogenetic proteins might serve as a vehicle for systemic bone morphogenetic protein delivery in vivo, proliferating skeletal myoblasts (C2C12) were transduced with a replication defective retrovirus containing the gene for recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-6 (C2BMP-6). The C2BMP-6 cells constitutively expressed recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-6 and synthesized bioactive recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-6, based on increased alkaline phosphatase activity in coincubated mesenchymal cells. C2BMP-6 cells did not secrete soluble, bioactive recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-6, but retained the bioactivity in the cell layer. Therefore, genetically-engineered skeletal muscle cells might serve as a platform for long-term delivery of osteoinductive bone morphogenetic proteins locally.

  8. A Data Manager for Engineering Applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑卫东; 林宗楷; 等

    1993-01-01

    Efficient data management is crucial to the success of a CAD/CAM system.Traditional databas systems,designed to deal with only regular and structural data,cannot efficiently manage design data.In this paper,we present a data manager called EDBMS/2,which has been developed by our laboratory for engineering support applications.EDBMS/2 has a data model that combines features of both relational and semantic ones and owns flexible abilities for modeling engineering data,such as variable-length data processing,integrated management of structuresd data and unstructured data,and composite object handling.Mechanisms based on DBV and DBV graph concepts,proposed in EDBMS/2 ,make EDBMS/2 own powerful abilities for version management and run efficiently.By now,EDBMS/2 has been used successfully in EDCADS(integrated Electronic Devices CAD environment)project and as a lower level support to develop and object-oriented DBMS for mechanical engineering.

  9. Engineering nanomaterial surfaces for biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Liu, Li-Hong; Ramström, Olof; Yan, Mingdi

    2009-10-01

    Nanomaterials, possessing unique physical and chemical properties, have attracted much interest and generated wide varieties of applications. Recent investigations of functionalized nanomaterials have expanded into the biological area, providing a versatile platform in biomedical applications such as biomolecular sensing, biological imaging, drug delivery and disease therapy. Bio-functions and bio-compatibility of nanomaterials are realized by introducing synthetic ligands or natural biomolecules onto nanomaterials, and combining ligand-receptor biological interactions with intrinsic nanomaterial properties. Common strategies of engineering nanomaterial surfaces involve physisorption or chemisorption of desired ligands. We developed a photochemically initiated surface coupling chemistry, bringing versatility and simplicity to nanomaterial functionalization. The method was applied to attach underivatized carbohydrates efficiently on gold and iron oxide nanoparticles, and the resulting glyconanoparticles were successfully used as a sensitive biosensing system probing specific interactions between carbohydrates and proteins as well as bacteria.

  10. Engineering Nanomaterial Surfaces for Biomedical Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Liu, Li-Hong; Ramström, Olof; Yan, Mingdi

    2014-01-01

    Nanomaterials, possessing unique physical and chemical properties, have attracted much interest and generated wide varieties of applications. Recent investigations of functionalized nanomaterials have expanded into the biological area, providing a versatile platform in biomedical applications such as biomolecular sensing, biological imaging, drug delivery and disease therapy. Bio-functions and bio-compatibility of nanomaterials are realized by introducing synthetic ligands or natural biomolecules onto nanomaterials, and combining ligand-receptor biological interactions with intrinsic nanomaterial properties. Common strategies of engineering nanomaterial surfaces involve physisorption or chemisorption of desired ligands. We developed a photochemically initiated surface coupling chemistry, bringing versatility and simplicity to nanomaterial functionalization. The method was applied to attach underivatized carbohydrates efficiently on gold and iron oxide nanoparticles, and the resulting glyconanoparticles were successfully used as a sensitive biosensing system probing specific interactions between carbohydrates and proteins as well as bacteria. PMID:19596820

  11. Simultaneous measurement of aero-optical distortion and turbulent structure in a heated boundary layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxton-Fox, Theresa; McKeon, Beverley; Smith, Adam; Gordeyev, Stanislav

    2014-11-01

    This study examines the relationship between turbulent structures and the aero-optical distortion of a laser beam passing through a turbulent boundary layer. Previous studies by Smith et al. (AIAA, 2014--2491) have found a bulk convection velocity of 0 . 8U∞ for aero-optical distortion in turbulent boundary layers, motivating a comparison of the distortion with the outer boundary layer. In this study, a turbulent boundary layer is developed over a flat plate with a moderately-heated section of length 25 δ . Density variation in the thermal boundary layer leads to aero-optical distortion, which is measured with a Malley probe (Smith et al., AIAA, 2013--3133). Simultaneously, 2D PIV measurements are recorded in a wall-normal, streamwise plane centered on the Malley probe location. Experiments are run at Reθ = 2100 and at a Mach number of 0.03, with the heated wall 10 to 20°C above the free stream temperature. Correlations and conditional averages are carried out between Malley probe distortion angles and flow features in the PIV vector fields. Aero-optical distortion in this study will be compared to distortion in higher Mach number flows studied by Gordeyev et al. (J. Fluid Mech., 2014), with the aim of extending conclusions into compressible flows. This research is made possible by the Department of Defense through the National Defense & Engineering Graduate Fellowship (NDSEG) Program and by the Air Force Office of Scientific Research Grant # FA9550-12-1-0060.

  12. Application of systems engineering: An acquisition agent perspective

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Niken, A

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This article covers a descriptive case study on the application of systems engineering and systems engineering management at Armscor. The report also covers the investigation into development methods used and the how the requirements changes...

  13. Application of systems engineering: An acquisition agent perspective

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Niken, A

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This article covers a descriptive case study on the application of systems engineering and systems engineering management at Armscor. The report also covers the investigation into development methods used and the how the requirements changes...

  14. Applications of metaheuristic optimization algorithms in civil engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Kaveh, A

    2017-01-01

    The book presents recently developed efficient metaheuristic optimization algorithms and their applications for solving various optimization problems in civil engineering. The concepts can also be used for optimizing problems in mechanical and electrical engineering.

  15. Engineering of staphylococcal surfaces for biotechnological applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wernérus, Henrik; Lehtiö, Janne; Samuelson, Patrik; Ståhl, Stefan

    2002-06-13

    Novel surface proteins can be introduced onto bacterial cell surfaces by recombinant means. Here, we describe various applications of two such display systems for the food-grade bacteria Staphylococcus carnosus and Staphylococcus xylosus, respectively. The achievements in the use of such staphylococci as live bacterial vaccine delivery vehicles will be described. Co-display of proteins and peptides with adhesive properties to enable targeting of the bacteria, have significantly improved the vaccine delivery potential. Recently, protective immunity to respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) could be evoked in mice by intranasal immunization using such 'second generation' vaccine delivery systems. Furthermore, antibody fragments and other 'affinity proteins' with capacity to specifically bind a certain protein, e.g. Staphylococcus aureus protein A-based affibodies, have been surface-displayed on staphylococci as initial efforts to create whole-cell diagnostic devices. Surface display of metal-binding peptides, or protein domains into which metal binding properties has been engineered by combinatorial protein engineering, have been exploited to create staphylococcal bioadsorbents for potential environmental or biosensor applications. The use of these staphylococcal surface display systems as alternatives for display of large protein libraries and subsequent affinity selection of relevant binding proteins by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) will be discussed.

  16. Intelligent techniques in engineering management theory and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Onar, Sezi

    2015-01-01

    This book presents recently developed intelligent techniques with applications and theory in the area of engineering management. The involved applications of intelligent techniques such as neural networks, fuzzy sets, Tabu search, genetic algorithms, etc. will be useful for engineering managers, postgraduate students, researchers, and lecturers. The book has been written considering the contents of a classical engineering management book but intelligent techniques are used for handling the engineering management problem areas. This comprehensive characteristics of the book makes it an excellent reference for the solution of complex problems of engineering management. The authors of the chapters are well-known researchers with their previous works in the area of engineering management.

  17. Evaluation of heat engine for hybrid vehicle application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, H. W.

    1984-01-01

    The status of ongoing heat-engine developments, including spark-ignition, compression-ignition, internal-combustion, and external-combustion engines is presented. The potential of engine concepts under consideration for hybrid vehicle use is evaluated, using self-imposed criteria for selection. The deficiencies of the engines currently being evaluated in hybrid vehicles are discussed. Focus is on recent research with two-stroke, rotary, and free-piston engines. It is concluded that these engine concepts have the most promising potential for future application in hybrid vehicles. Recommendations are made for analysis and experimentation to evaluate stop-start and transient emission behavior of recommended engine concepts.

  18. Optical engine initiation: multiple compartment applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Jeffrey H.

    2009-05-01

    Modern day propulsion systems are used in aerospace applications for different purposes. The aerospace industry typically requires propulsion systems to operate in a rocket mode in order to drive large boost vehicles. The defense industry generally requires propulsion systems to operate in an air-breathing mode in order to drive missiles. A mixed system could use an air-breathing first stage and a rocket-mode upper stage for space access. Thus, propulsion systems can be used for high mass payloads and where the payload is dominated by the fuel/oxidizer mass being used by the propulsion system. The pulse detonation wave engine (PDWE) uses an alternative type of detonation cycle to achieve the same propulsion results. The primary component of the PDWE is the combustion chamber (or detonation tube). The PDWE represents an attractive propulsion source since its engine cycle is thermodynamically closest to that of a constant volume reaction. This characteristic leads to the inference that a maximum of the potential energy of the PDWE is put into thrust and not into flow work. Consequently, the volume must be increased. The technical community has increasingly adopted the alternative choice of increasing total volume by designing the engine to include a set of banks of smaller combustion chambers. This technique increases the complexity of the ignition subsystem because the inter-chamber timing must be considered. Current approaches to igniting the PDWE have involved separate shock or blast wave initiators and chemical additives designed to enhance detonatibility. An optical ignition subsystem generates a series of optical pulses, where the optical pulses ignite the fuel/oxidizer mixture such that the chambers detonate in a desired order. The detonation system also has an optical transport subsystem for transporting the optical pulses from the optical ignition subsystem to the chambers. The use of optical ignition and transport provides a non-toxic, small, lightweight

  19. Thermodynamic efficiency of present types of internal combustion engines for aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucke, Charles E

    1917-01-01

    Report presents requirements of internal combustion engines suitable for aircraft. Topics include: (1) service requirements for aeronautic engines - power versus weight, reliability, and adaptability factors, (2) general characteristics of present aero engines, (3) aero engine processes and functions of parts versus power-weight ratio, reliability, and adaptability factors, and (4) general arrangement, form, proportions, and materials of aero parts - power-weight ratio, reliability, and adaptability.

  20. The DAN-AERO MW Experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagaard Madsen, Helge; Bak, Christian; Schmidt Paulsen, Uwe

    This report describes the DAN-AERO MW experiments carried out within a collaborative, three years research project between Risø DTU and the industrial partners LM Glasfiber, Siemens Wind Power, Vestas Wind Systems A/S and the utility company DONG Energy. The main objective of the project was to e......This report describes the DAN-AERO MW experiments carried out within a collaborative, three years research project between Risø DTU and the industrial partners LM Glasfiber, Siemens Wind Power, Vestas Wind Systems A/S and the utility company DONG Energy. The main objective of the project...... in a wind tunnel and the unsteady 3D flow conditions on a rotor. The different transition characteristics might explain some of the differences between the 2D and 3D airfoil data and the experiments have been set up to provide data on this subject. The overall experimental approach has been to carry out...

  1. Active IR-applications in civil engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiggenhauser, H.

    2002-06-01

    Applications of IR-thermography in civil engineering are not limited to the identification of heat losses in building envelopes. As it is well known from other areas of non-destructive testing, active IR-thermographic methods such as cooling down or lock-in thermography improves the results in many investigations. In civil engineering these techniques have not been used widely. Mostly thermography is used in a quasi-static manner. The interpretation of moisture measurements with thermography on surfaces can be very difficult due to several overlapping effects: emissivity changes due to composition, heat transfer through wet sections of the specimen, cooling through air flow or reflected spurious radiation sources. These effects can be reduced by selectively measuring the reflection in two wavelength windows, one on an absorption band of water and another in a reference band and then combining the results in a moisture index image. Cooling down thermography can be used to identify subsurface structural deficiencies. For building materials like concrete these measurements are performed on a much longer time scale than in flash lamp experiments. A quantitative analysis of the full cooling down process over several minutes can reliably identify defects at different depths. Experiments at BAM have shown, that active thermography is capabale of identifying structural deficiencies or moist areas in building materials much more reliable than quasi-static thermography.

  2. Software engineering processes principles and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Yingxu

    2000-01-01

    Fundamentals of the Software Engineering ProcessIntroductionA Unified Framework of the Software Engineering ProcessProcess AlgebraProcess-Based Software EngineeringSoftware Engineering Process System ModelingThe CMM ModelThe ISO 9001 ModelThe BOOTSTRAP ModelThe ISO/IEC 15504 (SPICE) ModelThe Software Engineering Process Reference Model: SEPRMSoftware Engineering Process System AnalysisBenchmarking the SEPRM ProcessesComparative Analysis of Current Process ModelsTransformation of Capability Levels Between Current Process ModelsSoftware Engineering Process EstablishmentSoftware Process Establish

  3. Engineering β-sheet peptide assemblies for biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zhiqiang; Cai, Zheng; Chen, Qiling; Liu, Menghua; Ye, Ling; Ren, Jiaoyan; Liao, Wenzhen; Liu, Shuwen

    2016-03-01

    Hydrogels have been widely studied in various biomedical applications, such as tissue engineering, cell culture, immunotherapy and vaccines, and drug delivery. Peptide-based nanofibers represent a promising new strategy for current drug delivery approaches and cell carriers for tissue engineering. This review focuses on the recent advances in the use of self-assembling engineered β-sheet peptide assemblies for biomedical applications. The applications of peptide nanofibers in biomedical fields, such as drug delivery, tissue engineering, immunotherapy, and vaccines, are highlighted. The current challenges and future perspectives for self-assembling peptide nanofibers in biomedical applications are discussed.

  4. Soft computing techniques in engineering applications

    CERN Document Server

    Zhong, Baojiang

    2014-01-01

    The Soft Computing techniques, which are based on the information processing of biological systems are now massively used in the area of pattern recognition, making prediction & planning, as well as acting on the environment. Ideally speaking, soft computing is not a subject of homogeneous concepts and techniques; rather, it is an amalgamation of distinct methods that confirms to its guiding principle. At present, the main aim of soft computing is to exploit the tolerance for imprecision and uncertainty to achieve tractability, robustness and low solutions cost. The principal constituents of soft computing techniques are probabilistic reasoning, fuzzy logic, neuro-computing, genetic algorithms, belief networks, chaotic systems, as well as learning theory. This book covers contributions from various authors to demonstrate the use of soft computing techniques in various applications of engineering.  

  5. Application of Internet in Road Traffic Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Dadić

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the implementation of Internet in trafficengineering with the purpose of improving the professionaland scientific research development of the traffic system in theRepublic of Croatia.Fast growth of the world computer network, Internet, andits applications in almost all the fields of human activities,change the picture of the modern world. The current exchangeof data in all their forms and the daily growth of the network,supplemented by almost incredible amounts of data that can bealmost instantly accessible, indicates that Internet is not just theinfomwtion technology revolution, but that it is a revolutionper se. More than 100 million computers are estimated to benetworked beginning of the 21" century.Internet seems almost as if it were created for the purposesof knowledge and expe1ience exchange in traffic, a relativelyyoung scientific branch. 11 can be concluded that the presenceof traffic engineers in Internet is today's reality and tomon·ow'snecessity.

  6. Civil engineering applications of ground penetrating radar

    CERN Document Server

    Pajewski, Lara

    2015-01-01

    This book, based on Transport and Urban Development COST Action TU1208, presents the most advanced applications of ground penetrating radar (GPR) in a civil engineering context, with documentation of instrumentation, methods, and results. It explains clearly how GPR can be employed for the surveying of critical transport infrastructure, such as roads, pavements, bridges, and tunnels, and for the sensing and mapping of underground utilities and voids. Detailed attention is also devoted to use of GPR in the inspection of geological structures and of construction materials and structures, including reinforced concrete, steel reinforcing bars, and pre/post-tensioned stressing ducts. Advanced methods for solution of electromagnetic scattering problems and new data processing techniques are also presented. Readers will come to appreciate that GPR is a safe, advanced, nondestructive, and noninvasive imaging technique that can be effectively used for the inspection of composite structures and the performance of diagn...

  7. AeroValve Experimental Test Data Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noakes, Mark W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2014-09-01

    This report documents the collection of experimental test data and presents performance characteristics for the AeroValve brand prototype pneumatic bidirectional solenoid valves tested at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in July/August 2014 as part of a validation of AeroValve energy efficiency claims. The test stand and control programs were provided by AeroValve. All raw data and processing are included in the report attachments.

  8. Enhanced Engine Performance During Emergency Operation Using a Model-Based Engine Control Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csank, Jeffrey T.; Connolly, Joseph W.

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses the design and application of model-based engine control (MBEC) for use during emergency operation of the aircraft. The MBEC methodology is applied to the Commercial Modular Aero-Propulsion System Simulation 40k (CMAPSS40k) and features an optimal tuner Kalman Filter (OTKF) to estimate unmeasured engine parameters, which can then be used for control. During an emergency scenario, normally-conservative engine operating limits may be relaxed to increase the performance of the engine and overall survivability of the aircraft; this comes at the cost of additional risk of an engine failure. The MBEC architecture offers the advantage of estimating key engine parameters that are not directly measureable. Estimating the unknown parameters allows for tighter control over these parameters, and on the level of risk the engine will operate at. This will allow the engine to achieve better performance than possible when operating to more conservative limits on a related, measurable parameter.

  9. CMC Technology Advancements for Gas Turbine Engine Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grady, Joseph E.

    2013-01-01

    CMC research at NASA Glenn is focused on aircraft propulsion applications. The objective is to enable reduced engine emissions and fuel consumption for more environmentally friendly aircraft. Engine system studies show that incorporation of ceramic composites into turbine engines will enable significant reductions in emissions and fuel burn due to increased engine efficiency resulting from reduced cooling requirements for hot section components. This presentation will describe recent progress and challenges in developing fiber and matrix constituents for 2700 F CMC turbine applications. In addition, ongoing research in the development of durable environmental barrier coatings, ceramic joining integration technologies and life prediction methods for CMC engine components will be reviewed.

  10. C-Band Airport Surface Communications System Standards Development. Phase II Final Report. Volume 1: Concepts of Use, Initial System Requirements, Architecture, and AeroMACS Design Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Edward; Isaacs, James; Henriksen, Steve; Zelkin, Natalie

    2011-01-01

    This report is provided as part of ITT s NASA Glenn Research Center Aerospace Communication Systems Technical Support (ACSTS) contract NNC05CA85C, Task 7: New ATM Requirements-Future Communications, C-Band and L-Band Communications Standard Development and was based on direction provided by FAA project-level agreements for New ATM Requirements-Future Communications. Task 7 included two subtasks. Subtask 7-1 addressed C-band (5091- to 5150-MHz) airport surface data communications standards development, systems engineering, test bed and prototype development, and tests and demonstrations to establish operational capability for the Aeronautical Mobile Airport Communications System (AeroMACS). Subtask 7-2 focused on systems engineering and development support of the L-band digital aeronautical communications system (L-DACS). Subtask 7-1 consisted of two phases. Phase I included development of AeroMACS concepts of use, requirements, architecture, and initial high-level safety risk assessment. Phase II builds on Phase I results and is presented in two volumes. Volume I (this document) is devoted to concepts of use, system requirements, and architecture, including AeroMACS design considerations. Volume II describes an AeroMACS prototype evaluation and presents final AeroMACS recommendations. This report also describes airport categorization and channelization methodologies. The purposes of the airport categorization task were (1) to facilitate initial AeroMACS architecture designs and enable budgetary projections by creating a set of airport categories based on common airport characteristics and design objectives, and (2) to offer high-level guidance to potential AeroMACS technology and policy development sponsors and service providers. A channelization plan methodology was developed because a common global methodology is needed to assure seamless interoperability among diverse AeroMACS services potentially supplied by multiple service providers.

  11. C-Band Airport Surface Communications System Standards Development. Phase II Final Report. Volume 2: Test Bed Performance Evaluation and Final AeroMACS Recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Edward; Magner, James

    2011-01-01

    This report is provided as part of ITT s NASA Glenn Research Center Aerospace Communication Systems Technical Support (ACSTS) contract NNC05CA85C, Task 7: New ATM Requirements-Future Communications, C-Band and L-Band Communications Standard Development and was based on direction provided by FAA project-level agreements for New ATM Requirements-Future Communications. Task 7 included two subtasks. Subtask 7-1 addressed C-band (5091- to 5150-MHz) airport surface data communications standards development, systems engineering, test bed and prototype development, and tests and demonstrations to establish operational capability for the Aeronautical Mobile Airport Communications System (AeroMACS). Subtask 7-2 focused on systems engineering and development support of the L-band digital aeronautical communications system (L-DACS). Subtask 7-1 consisted of two phases. Phase I included development of AeroMACS concepts of use, requirements, architecture, and initial high-level safety risk assessment. Phase II builds on Phase I results and is presented in two volumes. Volume I is devoted to concepts of use, system requirements, and architecture, including AeroMACS design considerations. Volume II (this document) describes an AeroMACS prototype evaluation and presents final AeroMACS recommendations. This report also describes airport categorization and channelization methodologies. The purposes of the airport categorization task were (1) to facilitate initial AeroMACS architecture designs and enable budgetary projections by creating a set of airport categories based on common airport characteristics and design objectives, and (2) to offer high-level guidance to potential AeroMACS technology and policy development sponsors and service providers. A channelization plan methodology was developed because a common global methodology is needed to assure seamless interoperability among diverse AeroMACS services potentially supplied by multiple service providers.

  12. Two-Mode Operation Engine Mount Design for Automotive Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Reza Tikani; Nader Vahdati; Saeed Ziaei-Rad

    2012-01-01

    Hydraulic engine mounts are applied to the automotive applications to isolate the chassis from the high frequency noise and vibration generated by the engine as well as to limit the engine shake motions resulting at low frequencies. In this paper, a new hydraulic engine mount with a controllable inertia track profile is proposed and its dynamic behavior is investigated. The profile of the inertia track is varied by applying a controlled force to a cylindrical rubber disk, placed in the inerti...

  13. Engineering Mechanics and Design Applications Transdisciplinary Engineering Fundamentals

    CERN Document Server

    Ertas, Atila

    2011-01-01

    In the last decade, the number of complex problems facing engineers has increased, and the technical knowledge required to address and mitigate them continues to evolve rapidly. These problems include not only the design of engineering systems with numerous components and subsystems, but also the design, redesign, and interaction of social, political, managerial, commercial, biological, medical, and other systems. These systems are likely to be dynamic and adaptive in nature. Finding creative solutions to such large-scale, unstructured problems requires activities that cut across traditional d

  14. Extracellular matrix and tissue engineering applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fernandes, Hugo; Moroni, Lorenzo; Blitterswijk, van Clemens; Boer, de Jan

    2009-01-01

    The extracellular matrix is a key component during regeneration and maintenance of tissues and organs, and it therefore plays a critical role in successful tissue engineering as well. Tissue engineers should recognise that engineering technology can be deduced from natural repair processes. Due to a

  15. Microbial xylanases: engineering, production and industrial applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juturu, Veeresh; Wu, Jin Chuan

    2012-01-01

    and paper industries for a longer time but more and more attention has been paid to using them in producing sugars and other chemicals from lignocelluloses in recent years. Mining new genes from nature, rational engineering of known genes and directed evolution of these genes are required to get tailor-made xylanases for various industrial applications. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. [Shape-memory polymers for biomedical engineering applications].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Guangming; Liu, Zhongrang

    2005-10-01

    The latest progress in shape-memory polymer for biomedical engineering applications was summarized in this paper. The mechanism responsible for shape memory effect was analyzed in reference to the polymer structure. Also introduced and reviewed were the characteristics of some shape-memory polymers (polyurethane polycaprolactone and polylactide) and their applications in medical engineering.

  17. 2003 SNL ASCI applications software quality engineering assessment report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schofield, Joseph Richard, Jr.; Ellis, Molly A.; Williamson, Charles Michael; Bonano, Lora A.

    2004-02-01

    This document describes the 2003 SNL ASCI Software Quality Engineering (SQE) assessment of twenty ASCI application code teams and the results of that assessment. The purpose of this assessment was to determine code team compliance with the Sandia National Laboratories ASCI Applications Software Quality Engineering Practices, Version 2.0 as part of an overall program assessment.

  18. 2002 SNL ASCI Applications Software Engineering Assessment Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    WILLIAMSON, CHARLES MICHAEL; OGDEN, HARVEY C.; BYLE, KATHLEEN A.

    2002-07-01

    This document describes the 2002 SNL Accelerated Strategic Computing Initiative (ASCI) Applications Software Quality Engineering (SQE) Assessment and the assessment results. The primary purpose of the assessment was to establish the current state of software engineering practices within the SNL ASCI Applications Program.

  19. External combustion wankel engine for solar applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovarsky, N.; Kaftori, D.; Gamzon, E.; Dgani, E. [Silver Arrow (Israel)

    1999-03-01

    An External Combustion Wankel Engine (ECWE), intended for use in a dish-engine solar power plant is discussed. The engine operates in a Brayton cycle using a gaseous working fluid, which is heated outside of the engine by concentrated solar radiation or fossil fuel. A computer simulation code that models the ECWE's operation and performance has been developed The program takes into account all of the engine's characteristics, subsystems and operating conditions. In the present work, the advantages and features of ECWE are considered in detail, together with simulation results of its performance. (authors)

  20. Advanced materials for aircraft engine applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backman, D G; Williams, J C

    1992-02-28

    A review of advances for aircraft engine structural materials and processes is presented. Improved materials, such as superalloys, and the processes for making turbine disks and blades have had a major impact on the capability of modern gas turbine engines. New structural materials, notably composites and intermetallic materials, are emerging that will eventually further enhance engine performance, reduce engine weight, and thereby enable new aircraft systems. In the future, successful aerospace manufacturers will combine product design and materials excellence with improved manufacturing methods to increase production efficiency, enhance product quality, and decrease the engine development cycle time.

  1. Commercial Modular Aero-Propulsion System Simulation 40k

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Ten-Huei; Lavelle, Thomas; Litt, Jonathan; Csank, Jeffrey; May, Ryan

    2011-01-01

    The Commercial Modular Aero-Propulsion System Simulation 40k (CMAPSS40k) software package is a nonlinear dynamic simulation of a 40,000-pound (approximately equals 178-kN) thrust class commercial turbofan engine, written in the MATLAB/Simulink environment. The model has been tuned to capture the behavior of flight test data, and is capable of running at any point in the flight envelope [up to 40,000 ft (approximately equals 12,200 m) and Mach 0.8]. In addition to the open-loop engine, the simulation includes a controller whose architecture is representative of that found in industry. C-MAPSS40k fills the need for an easy-to-use, realistic, transient simulation of a medium-size commercial turbofan engine with a representative controller. It is a detailed component level model (CLM) written in the industry-standard graphical MATLAB/Simulink environment to allow for easy modification and portability. At the time of this reporting, no other such model exists in the public domain.

  2. Dynamic systems-engineering process - The application of concurrent engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiskerchen, Michael J.; Pittman, R. Bruce

    1989-01-01

    A system engineering methodology is described which enables users, particulary NASA and DOD, to accommodate changing needs; incorporate emerging technologies; identify, quantify, and manage system risks; manage evolving functional requirements; track the changing environment; and reduce system life-cycle costs. The approach is a concurrent, dynamic one which starts by constructing a performance model defining the required system functions and the interrelationships. A detailed probabilistic risk assessment of the system elements and their interrelationships is performed, and quantitative analysis of the reliability and maintainability of an engineering system allows its different technical and process failure modes to be identified and their probabilities to be computed. Decision makers can choose technical solutions that maximize an objective function and minimize the probability of failure under resource constraints.

  3. Application for certification 1993 model year heavy-duty diesel engines - Cummins Engine Company

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-01-01

    Each year, each manufacturer of passenger cars, light-duty trucks, motorcycles, or heavy-duty engines submits to EPA an application for certification. In the application, the manufacturer gives a detailed technical description of the vehicles or engines he intends to market during the upcoming model year. These engineering data include explanations and/or drawings which describe engine/vehicle parameters such as basic engine design, fuel systems, ignition systems and exhaust and evaporative emission control systems. It also provides information on emission test procedures, service accumulation procedures, fuels to be used, and proposed maintenance requirements to be followed during testing. Section 16 of the application contains the results of emission testing, a statement or compliance to the regulations, production engine parameters, and a Summary Sheet Input Form on which issuance of a Certificate of Conformity is based.

  4. International conference on Information Engineering and Applications (IEA) 2012

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    Information engineering and applications is the field of study concerned with constructing information computing, intelligent systems, mathematical models, numerical solution techniques, and using computers and other electronic devices to analyze and solve natural scientific, social scientific and engineering problems.   Information engineering is an important underpinning for techniques used in information and computational science and there are many unresolved problems worth studying. The Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Information Engineering and Applications (IEA 2012), which was held in Chongqing, China, from October 26-28, 2012, discusses the most innovative research and developments including technical challenges and social, legal, political, and economic issues.   A forum for engineers and scientists in academia, industry, and government, the Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Information Engineering and Applications presents ideas, results, works in progress, and ...

  5. Applications of sliding mode control in science and engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Lien, Chang-Hua

    2017-01-01

    Gathering 20 chapters contributed by respected experts, this book reports on the latest advances in and applications of sliding mode control in science and engineering. The respective chapters address applications of sliding mode control in the broad areas of chaos theory, robotics, electrical engineering, physics, chemical engineering, memristors, mechanical engineering, environmental engineering, finance, and biology. Special emphasis has been given to papers that offer practical solutions, and which examine design and modeling involving new types of sliding mode control such as higher order sliding mode control, terminal sliding mode control, super-twisting sliding mode control, and integral sliding mode control. This book serves as a unique reference guide to sliding mode control and its recent applications for graduate students and researchers with a basic knowledge of electrical and control systems engineering.

  6. Recent advances in electrical engineering and control applications

    CERN Document Server

    Bououden, Sofiane; Zelinka, Ivan

    2017-01-01

    This book of proceedings includes papers presenting the state of art in electrical engineering and control theory as well as their applications. The topics focus on classical as well as modern methods for modeling, control, identification and simulation of complex systems with applications in science and engineering. The papers were selected from the hottest topic areas, such as control and systems engineering, renewable energy, faults diagnosis—faults tolerant control, large-scale systems, fractional order systems, unconventional algorithms in control engineering, signals and communications. The control and design of complex systems dynamics, analysis and modeling of its behavior and structure is vitally important in engineering, economics and in science generally science today. Examples of such systems can be seen in the world around us and are a part of our everyday life. Application of modern methods for control, electronics, signal processing and more can be found in our mobile phones, car engines, hom...

  7. Aero-acoustic modeling using large eddy simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shen, Wen Zhong; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær

    2007-01-01

    The splitting technique for aero-acoustic computations is extended to simulate three-dimensional flow and acoustic waves from airfoils. The aero-acoustic model is coupled to a sub-grid-scale turbulence model for Large-Eddy Simulations. In the first test case, the model is applied to compute laminar...

  8. Teaching learning based optimization algorithm and its engineering applications

    CERN Document Server

    Rao, R Venkata

    2016-01-01

    Describing a new optimization algorithm, the “Teaching-Learning-Based Optimization (TLBO),” in a clear and lucid style, this book maximizes reader insights into how the TLBO algorithm can be used to solve continuous and discrete optimization problems involving single or multiple objectives. As the algorithm operates on the principle of teaching and learning, where teachers influence the quality of learners’ results, the elitist version of TLBO algorithm (ETLBO) is described along with applications of the TLBO algorithm in the fields of electrical engineering, mechanical design, thermal engineering, manufacturing engineering, civil engineering, structural engineering, computer engineering, electronics engineering, physics and biotechnology. The book offers a valuable resource for scientists, engineers and practitioners involved in the development and usage of advanced optimization algorithms.

  9. Metal Vapour Lasers: Physics, Engineering and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Christopher E.

    1999-03-01

    Metal Vapour Lasers Christopher E. Little University of St Andrews, St Andrews, Scotland Since the first successful demonstration of a metal vapour laser (MVL) in 1962, this class of laser has become widely used in a broad range of fields including precision materials processing, isotope separation and medicine. The MVLs that are used today have a range of impressive characteristics that are not readily available using other technologies. In particular, the combination of high average output powers, pulse recurrence frequencies and beam quality available from green/yellow Cu vapour lasers (CVLs) and Cu bromide lasers, coupled with the high-quality, multiwatt ultraviolet (265-289 nm) radiation that can be produced using simple nonlinear optical techniques, means that Cu lasers will continue to be important for many years. Metal Vapour Lasers covers all the most commercially important and scientifically interesting pulsed and continuous wave (CW) gas-discharge MVLs, and includes device histories, operating characteristics, engineering, kinetics, commercial exploitation and applications. Short descriptions of gas discharges and excitation techniques make this volume self-consistent. A comprehensive bibliography is also provided. The greater part of this book is devoted to CVLs and their variants, including new sealed-off, high-power 'kinetically enhanced' CVLs and Cu bromide lasers. However, many other self-terminating MVLs are also discussed, including the red AuVL, green/infrared MnVL and infrared BaVL. Pulsed, high-gain, high average power lasers in the UV/violet (373.7, 430.5 nm) spectral regions are represented by Sr¯+ and Ca¯+ discharge-afterglow recombination lasers. The most commercially successful of the MVLs - the CW, UV/blue cataphoretic He-Cd¯+ ion laser - is described. Hollow cathode lasers are represented in two guises: 'white light' (blue/green/red) He-Cd¯+ ion lasers and UV/infrared Ne/He-Cu¯+ ion lasers. This unique volume is an

  10. National aero-space plane: Flight mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mciver, Duncan E.; Morrell, Frederick R.

    1990-01-01

    The current status and plans of the U.S. National Aero-Space Plane (NASP) program are reviewed. The goal of the program is to develop technology for single stage, hypersonic vehicles which use airbreathing propulsion to fly directly to orbit. The program features an X-30 flight research vehicle to explore altitude-speed regimes not amenable to ground testing. The decision to build the X-30 is now scheduled for 1993, with the first flight in the late 1990's. The flight mechanics, controls, flight management, and flight test considerations for the X-30 are discussed.

  11. Piezoelectric materials and devices applications in engineering and medical sciences

    CERN Document Server

    Vijaya, M S

    2012-01-01

    Piezoelectric Materials and Devices: Applications in Engineering and Medical Sciences provides a complete overview of piezoelectric materials, covering all aspects of the materials starting from fundamental concepts. The treatment includes physics of piezoelectric materials, their characteristics and applications. The author uses simple language to explain the theory of piezoelectricity and introduce readers to the properties and design of different types of piezoelectric materials, such as those used in engineering and medical device applications.This book: Introduces various types of dielect

  12. Aero-/hydro-elastic stability of flexible panels: Prediction and control using localised spring support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, B. H.; Lucey, A. D.; Howell, R. M.

    2013-12-01

    We study the effect of adding localised stiffness, via a spring support, on the stability of flexible panels subjected to axial uniform incompressible flow. Applications are considered that range from the hydro-elasticity of hull panels of high-speed ships to the aero-elasticity of glass panels in the curtain walls of high-rise buildings in very strong winds. A two-dimensional linear analysis is conducted using a hybrid of theoretical and computational methods that calculates the system eigen-states but can also be used to capture the transient behaviour that precedes these. We show that localised stiffening is a very effective means to increase the divergence-onset flow speed in both hydro- and aero-elastic applications. It is most effective when located at the mid-chord of the panel and there exists an optimum value of added stiffness beyond which further increases to the divergence-onset flow speed do not occur. For aero-elastic applications, localised stiffening can be used to replace the more destructive flutter instability that follows divergence at higher flow speeds by an extended range of divergence. The difference in eigen-solution morphology between aero- and hydro-elastic applications is highlighted, showing that for the former coalescence of two non-oscillatory divergence modes is the mechanism for flutter onset. This variation in solution morphology is mapped out in terms of a non-dimensional mass ratio. Finally, we present a short discussion of the applicability of the stabilisation strategy in a full three-dimensional system.

  13. Protein engineering and its applications in food industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapoor, Swati; Rafiq, Aasima; Sharma, Savita

    2017-07-24

    Protein engineering is a young discipline that has been branched out from the field of genetic engineering. Protein engineering is based on the available knowledge about the proteins structure/function(s), tools/instruments, software, bioinformatics database, available cloned gene, knowledge about available protein, vectors, recombinant strains and other materials that could lead to change in the protein backbone. Protein produced properly from genetic engineering process means a protein that is able to fold correctly and to do particular function(s) efficiently even after being subjected to engineering practices. Protein is modified through its gene or chemically. However, modification of protein through gene is easier. There is no specific limitation of Protein Engineering tools; any technique that can lead to change the protein constituent of amino acid and result in the modification of protein structure/function is in the frame of Protein Engineering. Meanwhile, there are some common tools used to reach a specific target. More active industrial and pharmaceutical based proteins have been invented by the field of Protein Engineering to introduce new function as well as to change its interaction with surrounding environment. A variety of protein engineering applications have been reported in the literature. These applications range from biocatalysis for food and industry to environmental, medical and nanobiotechnology applications. Successful combinations of various protein engineering methods had led to successful results in food industries and have created a scope to maintain the quality of finished product after processing.

  14. Application of Statistics in Engineering Technology Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Wei; Fink, Rainer; Fang, Alex

    2010-01-01

    Statistics is a critical tool for robustness analysis, measurement system error analysis, test data analysis, probabilistic risk assessment, and many other fields in the engineering world. Traditionally, however, statistics is not extensively used in undergraduate engineering technology (ET) programs, resulting in a major disconnect from industry…

  15. Computational Aero-acoustics As a Tool For Turbo-machinery Noise Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyson, Rodger W.

    2003-01-01

    This talk will provide an overview of the field of computational aero-acoustics and its use in fan noise prediction. After a brief history of computational fluid dynamics, some of the recent developments in computational aero-acoustics will be explored. Computational issues concerning sound wave production, propagation, and reflection in practical turbo-machinery applications will be discussed including: (a) High order/High Resolution Numerical Techniques. (b) High Resolution Boundary Conditions. [c] MIMD Parallel Computing. [d] Form of Governing Equations Useful for Simulations. In addition, the basic design of our Broadband Analysis Stator Simulator (BASS) code and its application to a 2 D rotor wake-stator interaction will be shown. An example of the noise produced by the wakes from a rotor impinging upon a stator cascade will be shown.

  16. Engineered carbon foam for temperature control applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almajali, Mohammad Rajab

    pressure within the foam matrix were investigated. These factors lowered the heat transfer rate considerably and the melting area was reduced by more than 23%. Two samples, coated and uncoated carbon foam, were infiltrated with PCM and subjected to a uniform heat load test in a vacuum. The coated foam showed excellent performance compared to the uncoated foam. (iii) Finally, the new engineered carbon foam was used as a heat sink and heat exchanger in a thermoelectric cooler for a cooling vest application. Using carbon foam as the core material for this application, the effective transfer of heat was significantly increased while reducing the size and weight of the heat exchanger.

  17. Engineering applications of strong ground motion simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somerville, Paul

    1993-02-01

    The formulation, validation and application of a procedure for simulating strong ground motions for use in engineering practice are described. The procedure uses empirical source functions (derived from near-source strong motion recordings of small earthquakes) to provide a realistic representation of effects such as source radiation that are difficult to model at high frequencies due to their partly stochastic behavior. Wave propagation effects are modeled using simplified Green's functions that are designed to transfer empirical source functions from their recording sites to those required for use in simulations at a specific site. The procedure has been validated against strong motion recordings of both crustal and subduction earthquakes. For the validation process we choose earthquakes whose source models (including a spatially heterogeneous distribution of the slip of the fault) are independently known and which have abundant strong motion recordings. A quantitative measurement of the fit between the simulated and recorded motion in this validation process is used to estimate the modeling and random uncertainty associated with the simulation procedure. This modeling and random uncertainty is one part of the overall uncertainty in estimates of ground motions of future earthquakes at a specific site derived using the simulation procedure. The other contribution to uncertainty is that due to uncertainty in the source parameters of future earthquakes that affect the site, which is estimated from a suite of simulations generated by varying the source parameters over their ranges of uncertainty. In this paper, we describe the validation of the simulation procedure for crustal earthquakes against strong motion recordings of the 1989 Loma Prieta, California, earthquake, and for subduction earthquakes against the 1985 Michoacán, Mexico, and Valparaiso, Chile, earthquakes. We then show examples of the application of the simulation procedure to the estimatation of the

  18. Development and Validation of a New Blade Element Momentum Skewed-Wake Model within AeroDyn: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ning, S. A.; Hayman, G.; Damiani, R.; Jonkman, J.

    2014-12-01

    Blade element momentum methods, though conceptually simple, are highly useful for analyzing wind turbines aerodynamics and are widely used in many design and analysis applications. A new version of AeroDyn is being developed to take advantage of new robust solution methodologies, conform to a new modularization framework for National Renewable Energy Laboratory's FAST, utilize advanced skewed-wake analysis methods, fix limitations with previous implementations, and to enable modeling of highly flexible and nonstraight blades. This paper reviews blade element momentum theory and several of the options available for analyzing skewed inflow. AeroDyn implementation details are described for the benefit of users and developers. These new options are compared to solutions from the previous version of AeroDyn and to experimental data. Finally, recommendations are given on how one might select from the various available solution approaches.

  19. The Signal Data Explorer: A high performance Grid based signal search tool for use in distributed diagnostic applications

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    We describe a high performance Grid based signal search tool for distributed diagnostic applications developed in conjunction with Rolls-Royce plc for civil aero engine condition monitoring applications. With the introduction of advanced monitoring technology into engineering systems, healthcare, etc., the associated diagnostic processes are increasingly required to handle and consider vast amounts of data. An exemplar of such a diagnosis process was developed during the DAME project, which b...

  20. Perivascular cells and tissue engineering: Current applications and untapped potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avolio, Elisa; Alvino, Valeria V; Ghorbel, Mohamed T; Campagnolo, Paola

    2017-03-01

    The recent development of tissue engineering provides exciting new perspectives for the replacement of failing organs and the repair of damaged tissues. Perivascular cells, including vascular smooth muscle cells, pericytes and other tissue specific populations residing around blood vessels, have been isolated from many organs and are known to participate to the in situ repair process and angiogenesis. Their potential has been harnessed for cell therapy of numerous pathologies; however, in this Review we will discuss the potential of perivascular cells in the development of tissue engineering solutions for healthcare. We will examine their application in the engineering of vascular grafts, cardiac patches and bone substitutes as well as other tissue engineering applications and we will focus on their extensive use in the vascularization of engineered constructs. Additionally, we will discuss the emerging potential of human pericytes for the development of efficient, vascularized and non-immunogenic engineered constructs. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Introduction to tissue engineering applications and challenges

    CERN Document Server

    Birla, Ravi

    2014-01-01

    Covering a progressive medical field, Tissue Engineering describes the innovative process of regenerating human cells to restore or establish normal function in defective organs. As pioneering individuals look ahead to the possibility of generating entire organ systems, students may turn to this textbook for a comprehensive understanding and preparation for the future of regenerative medicine. This book explains chemical stimulations, the bioengineering of specific organs, and treatment plans for chronic diseases. It is a must-read for tissue engineering students and practitioners.

  2. Modelling of Electrokinetic Processes in Civil and Environmental Engineering Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paz-Garcia, Juan Manuel; Johannesson, Björn; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.

    2011-01-01

    A mathematical model for the electrokinetic phenomena is described. Numerical simulations of different applications of electrokinetic techniques to the fields of civil and environmental engineering are included, showing the versatility and consistency of the model. The electrokinetics phenomena...

  3. 冲压进气冷却对发动机舱温度分布的影响%Impact of Ram Air Inlet Cooling on Temperature Distribution of Aero-Engine Compartment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马松; 李堃; 张志伟; 王占学

    2014-01-01

    冲压进气冷却是目前控制战斗机发动机舱内温度分布的主要方式。利用基于模型的发动机性能分析方法,提供不同工况下发动机分段热壁边界条件,通过非结构化网格和k-ε湍流模型方法求解流动与传热控制方程,数值模拟了某型发动机舱在典型飞行状态和发动机工况下的流动特征及流场关键参数分布,并与试验结果进行了对比分析。结果表明,模拟结果与试验结果吻合良好,模拟方法能准确预测发动机舱温度场分布,为通风冷却系统和灭火系统的设计与优化提供依据。%Ram air inlet cooling is the main way to control the fighter engine compartment temperature dis-tribution. Based on the model of the engine performance under different working conditions, engine block hot wall boundary conditions were provided. By means of the unstructured grid and k-ε turbulent model method, the flow and heat transfer control equations were solved. The flow characteristics of key parameters and flow field distribution of a certain type of engine compartment in a typical flight condition and engine working conditions were simulated and compared with the test results. The results show that the simulation results agree with test results and the method can accurately forecast engine compartment temperature field distribution that will provide a scientific basis for ventilation cooling system and fire extinguishing system design and optimization.

  4. International Conference on Soft Computing Techniques and Engineering Application

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Xiaolong

    2014-01-01

    The main objective of ICSCTEA 2013 is to provide a platform for researchers, engineers and academicians from all over the world to present their research results and development activities in soft computing techniques and engineering application. This conference provides opportunities for them to exchange new ideas and application experiences face to face, to establish business or research relations and to find global partners for future collaboration.

  5. Vacuum plasma spray applications on liquid fuel rocket engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mckechnie, T. N.; Zimmerman, F. R.; Bryant, M. A.

    1992-01-01

    The vacuum plasma spray process (VPS) has been developed by NASA and Rocketdyne for a variety of applications on liquid fuel rocket engines, including the Space Shuttle Main Engine. These applications encompass thermal barrier coatings which are thermal shock resistant for turbopump blades and nozzles; bond coatings for cryogenic titanium components; wear resistant coatings and materials; high conductivity copper, NaRloy-Z, combustion chamber liners, and structural nickel base material, Inconel 718, for nozzle and combustion chamber support jackets.

  6. Nonlinear optimization in electrical engineering with applications in Matlab

    CERN Document Server

    Bakr, Mohamed

    2013-01-01

    Nonlinear Optimization in Electrical Engineering with Applications in MATLAB® provides an introductory course on nonlinear optimization in electrical engineering, with a focus on applications such as the design of electric, microwave, and photonic circuits, wireless communications, and digital filter design. Basic concepts are introduced using a step-by-step approach and illustrated with MATLAB® codes that the reader can use and adapt. Topics covered include: classical optimization methods; one dimensional optimization; unconstrained and constrained optimization; global optimization; space map

  7. Pharmaceutical and biomedical applications of surface engineered carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehra, Neelesh Kumar; Jain, Keerti; Jain, Narendra Kumar

    2015-06-01

    Surface engineered carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are attracting recent attention of scientists owing to their vivid biomedical and pharmaceutical applications. The focus of this review is to highlight the important role of surface engineered CNTs in the highly challenging but rewarding area of nanotechnology. The major strength of this review lies in highlighting the exciting applications of CNTs to boost the research efforts, which unfortunately are otherwise scattered in the literature making the reading non-coherent and non-homogeneous.

  8. Applications of Tissue Engineering in Joint Arthroplasty: Current Concepts Update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeineddine, Hussein A; Frush, Todd J; Saleh, Zeina M; El-Othmani, Mouhanad M; Saleh, Khaled J

    2017-07-01

    Research in tissue engineering has undoubtedly achieved significant milestones in recent years. Although it is being applied in several disciplines, tissue engineering's application is particularly advanced in orthopedic surgery and in degenerative joint diseases. The literature is full of remarkable findings and trials using tissue engineering in articular cartilage disease. With the vast and expanding knowledge, and with the variety of techniques available at hand, the authors aimed to review the current concepts and advances in the use of cell sources in articular cartilage tissue engineering. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Fundamentals of reliability engineering applications in multistage interconnection networks

    CERN Document Server

    Gunawan, Indra

    2014-01-01

    This book presents fundamentals of reliability engineering with its applications in evaluating reliability of multistage interconnection networks. In the first part of the book, it introduces the concept of reliability engineering, elements of probability theory, probability distributions, availability and data analysis.  The second part of the book provides an overview of parallel/distributed computing, network design considerations, and more.  The book covers a comprehensive reliability engineering methods and its practical aspects in the interconnection network systems. Students, engineers, researchers, managers will find this book as a valuable reference source.

  10. Applications of Statistics and Probability in Civil Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faber, Michael Havbro

    contains the proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Applications of Statistics and Probability in Civil Engineering (ICASP11, Zürich, Switzerland, 1-4 August 2011). The book focuses not only on the more traditional technical issues, but also emphasizes the societal context...... and reliability in engineering; to professionals and engineers, including insurance and consulting companies working with natural hazards, design, operation and maintenance of civil engineering and industrial facilities; and to decision makers and professionals in the public sector, including nongovernmental...

  11. Engineering

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Includes papers in the following fields: Aerospace Engineering, Agricultural Engineering, Chemical Engineering, Civil Engineering, Electrical Engineering, Environmental Engineering, Industrial Engineering, Materials Engineering, Mechanical...

  12. Systematic Applications of Metabolomics in Metabolic Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert A. Dromms

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The goals of metabolic engineering are well-served by the biological information provided by metabolomics: information on how the cell is currently using its biochemical resources is perhaps one of the best ways to inform strategies to engineer a cell to produce a target compound. Using the analysis of extracellular or intracellular levels of the target compound (or a few closely related molecules to drive metabolic engineering is quite common. However, there is surprisingly little systematic use of metabolomics datasets, which simultaneously measure hundreds of metabolites rather than just a few, for that same purpose. Here, we review the most common systematic approaches to integrating metabolite data with metabolic engineering, with emphasis on existing efforts to use whole-metabolome datasets. We then review some of the most common approaches for computational modeling of cell-wide metabolism, including constraint-based models, and discuss current computational approaches that explicitly use metabolomics data. We conclude with discussion of the broader potential of computational approaches that systematically use metabolomics data to drive metabolic engineering.

  13. Systematic Applications of Metabolomics in Metabolic Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dromms, Robert A.; Styczynski, Mark P.

    2012-01-01

    The goals of metabolic engineering are well-served by the biological information provided by metabolomics: information on how the cell is currently using its biochemical resources is perhaps one of the best ways to inform strategies to engineer a cell to produce a target compound. Using the analysis of extracellular or intracellular levels of the target compound (or a few closely related molecules) to drive metabolic engineering is quite common. However, there is surprisingly little systematic use of metabolomics datasets, which simultaneously measure hundreds of metabolites rather than just a few, for that same purpose. Here, we review the most common systematic approaches to integrating metabolite data with metabolic engineering, with emphasis on existing efforts to use whole-metabolome datasets. We then review some of the most common approaches for computational modeling of cell-wide metabolism, including constraint-based models, and discuss current computational approaches that explicitly use metabolomics data. We conclude with discussion of the broader potential of computational approaches that systematically use metabolomics data to drive metabolic engineering. PMID:24957776

  14. Statistics and probability with applications for engineers and scientists

    CERN Document Server

    Gupta, Bhisham C

    2013-01-01

    Introducing the tools of statistics and probability from the ground up An understanding of statistical tools is essential for engineers and scientists who often need to deal with data analysis over the course of their work. Statistics and Probability with Applications for Engineers and Scientists walks readers through a wide range of popular statistical techniques, explaining step-by-step how to generate, analyze, and interpret data for diverse applications in engineering and the natural sciences. Unique among books of this kind, Statistics and Prob

  15. Medical Engineering and Microneurosurgery: Application and Future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morita, Akio; Sora, Shigeo; Nakatomi, Hirofumi; Harada, Kanako; Sugita, Naohiko; Saito, Nobuhito; Mitsuishi, Mamoru

    2016-10-15

    Robotics and medical engineering can convert traditional surgery into digital and scientific procedures. Here, we describe our work to develop microsurgical robotic systems and apply engineering technology to assess microsurgical skills. With the collaboration of neurosurgeons and an engineering team, we have developed two types of microsurgical robotic systems. The first, the deep surgical systems, enable delicate surgical procedures such as vessel suturing in a deep and narrow space. The second type allows for super-fine surgical procedures such as anastomosing artificial vessels of 0.3 mm in diameter. Both systems are constructed with master and slave manipulator robots connected to local area networks. Robotic systems allowed for secure and accurate procedures in a deep surgical field. In cadaveric models, these systems showed a good potential of being useful in actual human surgeries, but mechanical refinements in thickness and durability are necessary for them to be established as clinical systems. The super-fine robotic system made the very intricate surgery possible and will be applied in clinical trials. Another trial included the digitization of surgical technique and scientific analysis of surgical skills. Robotic and human hand motions were analyzed in numerical fashion as we tried to define surgical skillfulness in a digital format. Engineered skill assessment is also feasible and should be useful for microsurgical training. Robotics and medical engineering should bring science into the surgical field and training of surgeons. Active collaboration between medical and engineering teams and academic and industry groups is mandatory to establish such medical systems to improve patient care.

  16. Medical Engineering and Microneurosurgery: Application and Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    MORITA, Akio; SORA, Shigeo; NAKATOMI, Hirofumi; HARADA, Kanako; SUGITA, Naohiko; SAITO, Nobuhito; MITSUISHI, Mamoru

    2016-01-01

    Robotics and medical engineering can convert traditional surgery into digital and scientific procedures. Here, we describe our work to develop microsurgical robotic systems and apply engineering technology to assess microsurgical skills. With the collaboration of neurosurgeons and an engineering team, we have developed two types of microsurgical robotic systems. The first, the deep surgical systems, enable delicate surgical procedures such as vessel suturing in a deep and narrow space. The second type allows for super-fine surgical procedures such as anastomosing artificial vessels of 0.3 mm in diameter. Both systems are constructed with master and slave manipulator robots connected to local area networks. Robotic systems allowed for secure and accurate procedures in a deep surgical field. In cadaveric models, these systems showed a good potential of being useful in actual human surgeries, but mechanical refinements in thickness and durability are necessary for them to be established as clinical systems. The super-fine robotic system made the very intricate surgery possible and will be applied in clinical trials. Another trial included the digitization of surgical technique and scientific analysis of surgical skills. Robotic and human hand motions were analyzed in numerical fashion as we tried to define surgical skillfulness in a digital format. Engineered skill assessment is also feasible and should be useful for microsurgical training. Robotics and medical engineering should bring science into the surgical field and training of surgeons. Active collaboration between medical and engineering teams and academic and industry groups is mandatory to establish such medical systems to improve patient care. PMID:27464471

  17. [Chondrocyte mecanobiology. Application in cartilage tissue engineering].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoltz, Jean François; Netter, Patrick; Huselstein, Céline; de Isla, Natalia; Wei Yang, Jing; Muller, Sylvaine

    2005-11-01

    Cartilage is a hydrated connective tissue that withstands and distributes mechanical forces within joints. Chondrocytes utilize mechanical signals to maintain cartilaginous tissue homeostasis. They regulate their metabolic activity through complex biological and biophysical interactions with the extracellular matrix (ECM). Some mechanotransduction mechanisms are known, while many others no doubt remain to be discovered. Various aspects of chondrocyte mechanobiology have been applied to tissue engineering, with the creation of replacement tissue in vitro from bioresorbable or non-bioresorbable scaffolds and harvested cells. The tissues are maintained in a near-physiologic mechanical and biochemical environment. This paper is an overview of both chondrocyte mechanobiology and cartilage tissue engineering

  18. Key applications of plant metabolic engineering.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warren Lau

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Great strides have been made in plant metabolic engineering over the last two decades, with notable success stories including Golden rice. Here, we discuss the field's progress in addressing four long-standing challenges: creating plants that satisfy their own nitrogen requirement, so reducing or eliminating the need for nitrogen fertilizer; enhancing the nutrient content of crop plants; engineering biofuel feed stocks that harbor easy-to-access fermentable saccharides by incorporating self-destructing lignin; and increasing photosynthetic efficiency. We also look to the future at emerging areas of research in this field.

  19. The application of reaction engineering to biocatalysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ringborg, Rolf Hoffmeyer; Woodley, John

    2016-01-01

    Biocatalysis is a growing area of synthetic and process chemistry with the ability to deliver not only improved processes for the synthesis of existing compounds, but also new routes to new compounds. In order to assess the many options and strategies available to an engineer developing a new...... outline the benefits of reaction engineering in this development process, with particular emphasis of reaction kinetics. Future research needs to focus on rapid methods to collect such data at sufficient accuracy that it can be used forthe effective design of new biocatalytic processes....

  20. Advances in Computer Science, Engineering & Applications : Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Computer Science, Engineering & Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Zizka, Jan; Nagamalai, Dhinaharan

    2012-01-01

    The International conference series on Computer Science, Engineering & Applications (ICCSEA) aims to bring together researchers and practitioners from academia and industry to focus on understanding computer science, engineering and applications and to establish new collaborations in these areas. The Second International Conference on Computer Science, Engineering & Applications (ICCSEA-2012), held in Delhi, India, during May 25-27, 2012 attracted many local and international delegates, presenting a balanced mixture of  intellect and research both from the East and from the West. Upon a strenuous peer-review process the best submissions were selected leading to an exciting, rich and a high quality technical conference program, which featured high-impact presentations in the latest developments of various areas of computer science, engineering and applications research.  

  1. Advances in Computer Science, Engineering & Applications : Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Computer Science, Engineering & Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Zizka, Jan; Nagamalai, Dhinaharan

    2012-01-01

    The International conference series on Computer Science, Engineering & Applications (ICCSEA) aims to bring together researchers and practitioners from academia and industry to focus on understanding computer science, engineering and applications and to establish new collaborations in these areas. The Second International Conference on Computer Science, Engineering & Applications (ICCSEA-2012), held in Delhi, India, during May 25-27, 2012 attracted many local and international delegates, presenting a balanced mixture of  intellect and research both from the East and from the West. Upon a strenuous peer-review process the best submissions were selected leading to an exciting, rich and a high quality technical conference program, which featured high-impact presentations in the latest developments of various areas of computer science, engineering and applications research.

  2. Two-Mode Operation Engine Mount Design for Automotive Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Tikani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydraulic engine mounts are applied to the automotive applications to isolate the chassis from the high frequency noise and vibration generated by the engine as well as to limit the engine shake motions resulting at low frequencies. In this paper, a new hydraulic engine mount with a controllable inertia track profile is proposed and its dynamic behavior is investigated. The profile of the inertia track is varied by applying a controlled force to a cylindrical rubber disk, placed in the inertia track. This design provides a hydraulic engine mount design with an adjustable notch frequency location and also damping characteristics in shake motions. By using a simple control strategy, the efficiency of the proposed hydraulic engine mount in two-mode operation meaning isolating mode in the highway driving condition and damping mode in the shock motions, is investigated.

  3. Android Application Protection against Static Reverse Engineering based on Multidexing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nak Young Kim

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available DEX files are executable files of Android applications. Since DEX files are in the format of Java bytecodes, their Java source codes can be easily obtained using static reverse engineering tools. This results in numerous Android application thefts. There are some tools (e.g. bangcle, ijiami, liapp that protect Android applications against static reverse engineering utilizing dynamic code loading. These tools usually encrypt classes.dex in an APK file. When the application is launched, the encrypted classes.dex file is decrypted and dynamically loaded. However, these tools fail to protect multidex APKs, which include more than one DEX files (classes2.dex, classes3.dex, ... to accommodate large-sized execution codes. In this paper, we propose a technique that protects multidex Android applications against static reverse engineering. The technique can encrypt/decrypt multiple DEX files in APK files and dynamically load them. The experimental results show that the proposed technique can effiectively protect multidex APKs.

  4. Pxi测试系统在航空发动机试验中的应用%Application of Pxi Test System in Aero Engine Test

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨学广

    2015-01-01

    当今,自动化测试和控制在速度和品质上的要求更高,Pxi平台应运而生.Pxi的特点是灵活、开放,相辅相成的NI图形化编程软件LabVIEW力挺其在测试测量领域的领先.%Today, the automation testing and control in speed and quality requirements higher, Pxi platform came into being. The characteristics of Pxi are flexible, open, and complementary NI graphical programming software LabVIEW behind the test and measurement in the field of leading.

  5. Aero and vibroacoustics of automotive turbochargers

    CERN Document Server

    Nguyen-Schäfer, Hung

    2013-01-01

    Aero and Vibroacoustics of Automotive Turbochargers is a topic involving aspects from the working fields of thermodynamics of turbomachinery, aerodynamics, rotordynamics, and noise propagation computation.   In this broadly interdisciplinary subject, thermodynamics of turbomachinery is used to design the turbocharger and to determine its operating conditions.  Aerodynamics is needed to study the compressor flow dynamics and flow instabilities of rotating stall and surge, which can produce growling and whining-type noises. Rotordynamics is necessary to study rotor unbalance and self-excited oil-whirl instabilities, which lead to whistling and constant tone-type noises in rotating floating oil-film type bearings. For the special case of turbochargers using ball bearings, some high-order harmonic and wear noises also manifest in the rotor operating range. Lastly, noise propagation computation, based on Lighthill’s analogy, is required to investigate airborne noises produced by turbochargers in passenger vehi...

  6. Multicomponent and multiscale systems theory, methods, and applications in engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Geiser, Juergen

    2016-01-01

    This book examines the latest research results from combined multi-component and multi-scale explorations. It provides theory, considers underlying numerical methods, and presents brilliant computational experimentation. Engineering computations featured in this monograph further offer particular interest to many researchers, engineers, and computational scientists working in frontier modeling and applications of multicomponent and multiscale problems. Professor Geiser gives specific attention to the aspects of decomposing and splitting delicate structures and controlling decomposition and the rationale behind many important applications of multi-component and multi-scale analysis. Multicomponent and Multiscale Systems: Theory, Methods, and Applications in Engineering also considers the question of why iterative methods can be powerful and more appropriate for well-balanced multiscale and multicomponent coupled nonlinear problems. The book is ideal for engineers and scientists working in theoretical and a...

  7. Hollow fiber bioreactor technology for tissue engineering applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eghbali, Hadis; Nava, Michele M; Mohebbi-Kalhori, Davod; Raimondi, Manuela T

    2016-01-01

    Hollow fiber bioreactors are the focus of scientific research aiming to mimic physiological vascular networks and engineer organs and tissues in vitro. The reason for this lies in the interesting features of this bioreactor type, including excellent mass transport properties. Indeed, hollow fiber bioreactors allow limitations to be overcome in nutrient transport by diffusion, which is often an obstacle to engineer sizable constructs in vitro. This work reviews the existing literature relevant to hollow fiber bioreactors in organ and tissue engineering applications. To this purpose, we first classify the hollow fiber bioreactors into 2 categories: cylindrical and rectangular. For each category, we summarize their main applications both at the tissue and at the organ level, focusing on experimental models and computational studies as predictive tools for designing innovative, dynamic culture systems. Finally, we discuss future perspectives on hollow fiber bioreactors as in vitro models for tissue and organ engineering applications.

  8. Engineering applications of pneumatics and hydraulics

    CERN Document Server

    Turner, Ian C

    2014-01-01

    Assuming only the most basic knowledge of the physics of fluids, this book aims to equip the reader with a sound understanding of fluid power systems and their uses in practical engineering. In line with the strongly practical bias of the book, maintenance and trouble-shooting are covered, with particular emphasis on safety systems and regulations.

  9. Confocal Raman Microscopy; applications in tissue engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Apeldoorn, Aart A.

    2005-01-01

    This dissertation describes the use of confocal Raman microscopy and spectroscopy in the field of tissue engineering. Moreover, it describes the combination of two already existing technologies, namely scanning electron microscopy and confocal Raman spectroscopy in one apparatus for the enhancement

  10. Value Engineering: An Application to Computer Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-06-01

    characteristics? Repns: A software product de-veloped wit’h superior software engineering exhibits all the quality characteristics listed above. Horever, if...of VE in sortware acquisitionfdevelopment (ie. educacion , award programs, designate Govt. savings for use in 77 generating additional savings

  11. Advances in polymeric systems for tissue engineering and biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravichandran, Rajeswari; Sundarrajan, Subramanian; Venugopal, Jayarama Reddy; Mukherjee, Shayanti; Ramakrishna, Seeram

    2012-03-01

    The characteristics of tissue engineered scaffolds are major concerns in the quest to fabricate ideal scaffolds for tissue engineering applications. The polymer scaffolds employed for tissue engineering applications should possess multifunctional properties such as biocompatibility, biodegradability and favorable mechanical properties as it comes in direct contact with the body fluids in vivo. Additionally, the polymer system should also possess biomimetic architecture and should support stem cell adhesion, proliferation and differentiation. As the progress in polymer technology continues, polymeric biomaterials have taken characteristics more closely related to that desired for tissue engineering and clinical needs. Stimuli responsive polymers also termed as smart biomaterials respond to stimuli such as pH, temperature, enzyme, antigen, glucose and electrical stimuli that are inherently present in living systems. This review highlights the exciting advancements in these polymeric systems that relate to biological and tissue engineering applications. Additionally, several aspects of technology namely scaffold fabrication methods and surface modifications to confer biological functionality to the polymers have also been discussed. The ultimate objective is to emphasize on these underutilized adaptive behaviors of the polymers so that novel applications and new generations of smart polymeric materials can be realized for biomedical and tissue engineering applications.

  12. Connecting NASA science and engineering with earth science applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    The National Research Council (NRC) recently highlighted the dual role of NASA to support both science and applications in planning Earth observations. This Editorial reports the efforts of the NASA Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission to integrate applications with science and engineering i...

  13. Engineering artificial machines from designable DNA materials for biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Hao; Huang, Guoyou; Han, Yulong; Zhang, Xiaohui; Li, Yuhui; Pingguan-Murphy, Belinda; Lu, Tian Jian; Xu, Feng; Wang, Lin

    2015-06-01

    Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) emerges as building bricks for the fabrication of nanostructure with complete artificial architecture and geometry. The amazing ability of DNA in building two- and three-dimensional structures raises the possibility of developing smart nanomachines with versatile controllability for various applications. Here, we overviewed the recent progresses in engineering DNA machines for specific bioengineering and biomedical applications.

  14. Application of microdialysis in tissue engineering monitoring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhaohui Li; Zhanfeng Cui

    2008-01-01

    In this review article,the microdialysis for tissue engineering monitoring is discussed.Among various monitoring techniques,microdialysis is advantageous for its capacity of perfusion on-line,and off-line multiple parameter monitoring.Following a description on the general system and performance,the main challenges to apply this technique for reliable long term monitoring are outlined.Further opportunities are identified.

  15. Applications of observational techniques in pavement engineering

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Steyn, WJVDM

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available includes engineers, site agents, contractors, managers and anybody else that has a specific concern with roads and their functioning) has a daily requirement to record events on roads. These include the whole spectrum of the life of a road, starting... to the travelling public include the following: • Visual evaluation of pavement condition as required for Pavement Management Systems (PMS) and rehabilitation evaluations; • Forensic investigations of failures on pavements; • Construction / as-built records...

  16. Uprated OMS engine status and future applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, W. C.; Brasher, W. L.

    1986-01-01

    The baseline Orbital Maneuvering Engine (OME) of the Space Shuttle has the potential for significant performance uprating, leading to increased Shuttle performance capability. The approach to uprating that is being pursued at the NASA Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center is the use of a gas generator-driven turbopump to increase OME operating pressure. A higher pressure engine can have a greater nozzle expansion ratio in the same envelope and at the same thrust level, giving increased engine Isp. The results of trade studies and analyses that have led to the preferred uprated OME configuration are described. The significant accomplishments of a pre-development component demonstration program are also presented, including descriptions of test hardware and discussion of test results. It is shown that testing to date confirms the capability of the preferred uprated OME configuration to meet or exceed performance and life requirements. Potential future activities leading up to a full-scale development program are described, and the capability for the uprated OME to be used in future storable propellant upper stages is discussed.

  17. Uncertainty Quantification with Applications to Engineering Problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bigoni, Daniele

    The systematic quantification of the uncertainties affecting dynamical systems and the characterization of the uncertainty of their outcomes is critical for engineering design and analysis, where risks must be reduced as much as possible. Uncertainties stem naturally from our limitations in measu......The systematic quantification of the uncertainties affecting dynamical systems and the characterization of the uncertainty of their outcomes is critical for engineering design and analysis, where risks must be reduced as much as possible. Uncertainties stem naturally from our limitations...... in measurements, predictions and manufacturing, and we can say that any dynamical system used in engineering is subject to some of these uncertainties. The first part of this work presents an overview of the mathematical framework used in Uncertainty Quantification (UQ) analysis and introduces the spectral tensor...... some auxiliary properties, we will apply PC on it, obtaining the STT-decomposition. This will allow the decoupling of each dimension, leading to a much cheaper construction of the PC surrogate. In the associated paper, the capabilities of the STT-decomposition are checked on commonly used test...

  18. Microwave RF antennas and circuits nonlinearity applications in engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Aluf, Ofer

    2017-01-01

    This book describes a new concept for analyzing RF/microwave circuits, which includes RF/microwave antennas. The book is unique in its emphasis on practical and innovative microwave RF engineering applications. The analysis is based on nonlinear dynamics and chaos models and shows comprehensive benefits and results. All conceptual RF microwave circuits and antennas are innovative and can be broadly implemented in engineering applications. Given the dynamics of RF microwave circuits and antennas, they are suitable for use in a broad range of applications. The book presents analytical methods for microwave RF antennas and circuit analysis, concrete examples, and geometric examples. The analysis is developed systematically, starting with basic differential equations and their bifurcations, and subsequently moving on to fixed point analysis, limit cycles and their bifurcations. Engineering applications include microwave RF circuits and antennas in a variety of topological structures, RFID ICs and antennas, micros...

  19. Engineering application of anaerobic ammonium oxidation process in wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Nianjia; Ren, Hongqiang; Geng, Jinju; Ding, Lili; Xu, Ke

    2017-08-01

    Anaerobic ammonium oxidation (Anammox), a promising biological nitrogen removal process, has been verified as an efficient, sustainable and cost-effective alternative to conventional nitrification and denitrification processes. To date, more than 110 full-scale anammox plants have been installed and are in operation, treating industrial NH4(+)-rich wastewater worldwide, and anammox-based technologies are flourishing. This review the current state of the art for engineering applications of the anammox process, including various anammox-based technologies, reactor selection and attempts to apply it at different wastewater plants. Process control and implementation for stable performance are discussed as well as some remaining issues concerning engineering application are exposed, including the start-up period, process disturbances, greenhouse gas emissions and especially mainstream anammox applications. Finally, further development of the anammox engineering application is proposed in this review.

  20. 2D-C/[SiC-(B-C)]复合材料在航空发动机燃烧室中的自愈合行为研究%Self-healing Behavior of 2D-C/[SiC-(B-C)] Composite in Aero-engine Combustion Chamber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘光海; 成来飞; 栾新刚; 刘永胜

    2011-01-01

    采用以B-C陶瓷为基体自愈合改性组元的2D-C/[SiC-(B-C)]以及经过硅硼玻璃改性的2D-C/[SiC-(B-C)]制备浮壁瓦片,分别在1000、1200、1350℃下对其进行发动机燃烧室环境考核.对考核后的浮壁瓦片进行取样,并在室温下进行拉伸强度以及三点弯曲强度测试.结果发现:经过环境考核试样的力学性能都有不同程度的提高,拉伸强度和三点弯曲强度随着考核温度的升高而提高,其中三点弯曲强度的升高速率更快.通过SEM观察,B-C自愈合组元氧化生成的玻璃相以及改性硅硼玻璃相在考核过程中有效地封填了试样的孔隙和裂纹.最后通过力学性能测试结合SEM观察,初步分析了两种复合材料在航空发动机燃烧室中的愈合机制.%2D-C/[SiC-(B-C)] samples modified by B-C ceramic as self-healing component and boron-silicon glass phase were assessed by environmental engine experiments at 1000℃, 1200℃, 1350℃. Furthermore, tensile strength and three point bending strength of the samples were tested at room temperature after assessment. The results showed that the tensile strength and three point bending strength increased with the increase of assessment temperature, however, three point bending mechanical properties increased at a higher rate. SEM results showed that the glass phase generated by oxidization of B-C self-healing component and the boron oxide glass phase filled pores and cracks effectively. According to the experiments results, the self-healing mechanisms in aero-engine combustion chamber of such two samples were discussed.

  1. Piezoelectric polymers as biomaterials for tissue engineering applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Clarisse; Sencadas, Vítor; Correia, Daniela M; Lanceros-Méndez, Senentxu

    2015-12-01

    Tissue engineering often rely on scaffolds for supporting cell differentiation and growth. Novel paradigms for tissue engineering include the need of active or smart scaffolds in order to properly regenerate specific tissues. In particular, as electrical and electromechanical clues are among the most relevant ones in determining tissue functionality in tissues such as muscle and bone, among others, electroactive materials and, in particular, piezoelectric ones, show strong potential for novel tissue engineering strategies, in particular taking also into account the existence of these phenomena within some specific tissues, indicating their requirement also during tissue regeneration. This referee reports on piezoelectric materials used for tissue engineering applications. The most used materials for tissue engineering strategies are reported together with the main achievements, challenges and future needs for research and actual therapies. This review provides thus a compilation of the most relevant results and strategies and a start point for novel research pathways in the most relevant and challenging open questions.

  2. The DAN-AERO MW experiments. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aagaard Madsen, H.; Bak, C.; Schmidt Paulsen, U.; Gaunaa, M. (Risoe DTU, Roskilde (Denmark)); Fuglsang, P. (LM Glasfiber, Kolding (Denmark)); Romblad, J.; Olesen, N.A. (Vestas Wind Systems, Ringkoebing (Denmark)); Enevoldsen, P.; Laursen, J. (Siemens Wind Power, Ballerup (Denmark)); Jensen, Leo (DONG Energy, Fredericia (Denmark))

    2010-09-15

    This report describes the DAN-AERO MW experiments carried out within a collaborative, three years research project between Risoe DTU and the industrial partners LM Glasfiber, Siemens Wind Power, Vestas Wind Systems A/S and the utility company DONG Energy. The main objective of the project was to establish an experimental data base which can provide new insight into a number of fundamental aerodynamic and aero-acoustic issues, important for the design and operation of MW size turbines. The most important issue is the difference between airfoil characteristics measured under 2D, steady conditions in a wind tunnel and the unsteady 3D flow conditions on a rotor. The different transition characteristics might explain some of the differences between the 2D and 3D airfoil data and the experiments have been set up to provide data on this subject. The overall experimental approach has been to carry out a number of coordinated, innovative measurements on full scale MW size rotors as well as on airfoils for MW size turbines in wind tunnels. Shear and turbulence inflow characteristics were measured on a Siemens 3.6 MW turbine with a five hole pitot tube. Pressure and turbulent inflow characteristics were measured on a 2MW NM80 turbine with an 80 m rotor. One of the LM38.8 m blades on the rotor was replaced with a new LM38.8 m blade where instruments for surface pressure measurements at four radial sections were build into the blade during the blade production process. Additionally, the outmost section on the blade was further instrumented with around 50 microphones for high frequency surface pressure measurements. The surface pressure measurements have been correlated with inflow measurements from four five hole pitot tubes and two sensors for measuring the high frequency (50 Hz to10 kHz) contents of the inflow turbulence. In parallel, 2D wind tunnel measurements on common airfoils for wind turbine applications have been conducted in three different wind tunnels at Delft

  3. Computer Applications in Production and Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Torben

    1997-01-01

    into an integrated manufacturing unit. Such units are known as Computer Integrated Manufacturing and Engineering (CIME) systems.The basic concept in CIME is to share and reuse information between the different computer based subsystems. Consequently, for the integration purposes, the CIME systems are highly......This paper address how neutral product model interfaces can be identified, specified, and implemented to provide intelligent and flexible means for information management in manufacturing of discrete mechanical products.The use of advanced computer based systems, such as CAD, CAE, CNC, and robotics...

  4. Application of Stem Cells in Tissue Engineering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Stem cells have become an important source of seed cells for tissue engineering because they are relatively easy to expand in vitro and can be induced to differentiate into various cell types in vitro or in vivo. In the current stage, most stem cell researches focus on in vitro studies, including in vitro induction and phenotype characterization. Our center has made a great deal of effort in the in vivo study by using stem cells as seed cells for tissue construction. We have used bone marrow stem cells (BMS...

  5. Fabrication and Application of Nanofibrous Scaffolds in Tissue Engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Wan-Ju; Tuan, Rocky S

    2009-01-01

    Nanofibers fabricated by electrospinning are morphological mimics of fibrous components of the native extracellular matrix, making nanofibrous scaffolds ideal for three-dimensional cell culture and tissue engineering applications. Although electrospinning is not a conventional technique in cell biology, the experimental set-up may be constructed in a relatively straightforward manner and the procedure can be carried by individuals with limited engineering experience. We detail here a protocol...

  6. Fuzzy Sets Applications in Civil Engineering Basic Areas

    OpenAIRE

    UĞUR, Latif Onur; BAYKAN, Umut Naci

    2016-01-01

    Civil engineering is a professional engineering discipline that deals with the design, construction, and maintenance of the physical and naturally built environment, including works like roads, bridges, canals, dams, and buildings. This paper presents some Fuzzy Logic (FL) applications in civil engeering discipline and shows the potential of facilities of FL in this area. The potential role of fuzzy sets in analysing system and human uncertainty is investigated in the paper. The main finding ...

  7. Protein engineering of enzymes for process applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Woodley, John M

    2013-01-01

    Scientific progress in the field of enzyme modification today enables the opportunity to tune a given biocatalyst for a specific industrial application. Much work has been focused on extending the substrate repertoire and altering selectivity. Nevertheless, it is clear that many new forthcoming...... opportunities will be targeted on modification to enable process application. This article discusses the challenges involved in enzyme modification focused on process requirements, such as the need to fulfill reaction thermodynamics, specific activity under the required conditions, kinetics at required...

  8. Research on Sand Mould Casting Process for an Aero-engine Oil Distributing Sleeve%某航空发动机分油套筒砂型铸造工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄艳松; 余继华; 冯保东

    2014-01-01

    In order to resolve the problem of metallurgical quality defects which are existed in the engine oil distributing sleeve casting,combined casting structure with performance features of magnesium alloy,analyzed the reasons of quality de-fects.The paper made a plan of measures including adding sprue filter,collocating reasonably with induced cold iron colora-tion,adopting sloping casting and establishing enlarged feed size based on the original casting system,casting system and process files has been completed and trial manufacturing validation has been organized.The results showed that quality de-fects of casting had been removed and products percent of pass had been increased largely.%针对某航空发动机分油套筒铸件(下述简称铸件)存在冶金质量缺陷的问题,结合铸件结构和镁合金性能特点,分析了其质量缺陷的成因。立足于原有浇注系统,制定了增加浇道过滤网、合理搭配激冷冷铁、采用倾斜浇注及增加冒口尺寸等改进措施,对浇注系统和工艺资料进行了完善,并进行了试验验证。结果表明,铸件内部质量缺陷已消除,产品合格率大幅提高。

  9. 航空发动机燃烧室试验废气治理方法研究%Research on Waste Gas Treatment Method of Combustion Testfor Aero Engine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡志敏; 蒋荣伟; 敬东; 张阳

    2015-01-01

    航空发动机燃烧室性能试验具有高温、高压、大流量的特点,长期以来燃烧室性能试验废气污染未得到有效治理,本文介绍了在燃烧室试验器排气消音塔内部增设喷淋洗气系统,将冷却降温后的试验废气引入排气消音塔底部进入喷淋洗气系统,废气中的未燃碳氢化合物(UHC)、氮氧化物(NOx)、一氧化碳(CO)、烟尘等污染物大部分被洗涤,减少了污染物排放,取得了较好的效果。%Aero engine combustor performance test features high temperature, high pressure and large flow. Waste gas for combustorperformancetest has not been treated efficiently for a long time.In this paper waste gas treatment methods are used to reduce the emission of contamination, that is, tolead the testing waste gas into the bottom of theexhausting sound absorption towerand then into the spraying gas washing system in the toweron testing benchafter waste gas is cooled down, thussome contaminants in the waste gas, such as unburnt UHC, NOx and CO,are mostly washed, therefore, contamination emission is reduced andbetter results for environmental protection are achieved.

  10. Mathematical modeling and computational intelligence in engineering applications

    CERN Document Server

    Silva Neto, Antônio José da; Silva, Geraldo Nunes

    2016-01-01

    This book brings together a rich selection of studies in mathematical modeling and computational intelligence, with application in several fields of engineering, like automation, biomedical, chemical, civil, electrical, electronic, geophysical and mechanical engineering, on a multidisciplinary approach. Authors from five countries and 16 different research centers contribute with their expertise in both the fundamentals and real problems applications based upon their strong background on modeling and computational intelligence. The reader will find a wide variety of applications, mathematical and computational tools and original results, all presented with rigorous mathematical procedures. This work is intended for use in graduate courses of engineering, applied mathematics and applied computation where tools as mathematical and computational modeling, numerical methods and computational intelligence are applied to the solution of real problems.

  11. Supercritical fluid mixing in Diesel Engine Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo, Luis; Ma, Peter; Kurman, Matthew; Tess, Michael; Ihme, Matthias; Kweon, Chol-Bum

    2014-11-01

    A numerical framework for simulating supercritical fluids mixing with large density ratios is presented in the context of diesel sprays. Accurate modeling of real fluid effects on the fuel air mixture formation process is critical in characterizing engine combustion. Recent work (Dahms, 2013) has suggested that liquid fuel enters the chamber in a transcritical state and rapidly evolves to supercritical regime where the interface transitions from a distinct liquid/gas interface into a continuous turbulent mixing layer. In this work, the Peng Robinson EoS is invoked as the real fluid model due to an acceptable compromise between accuracy and computational tractability. Measurements at supercritical conditions are reported from the Constant Pressure Flow (CPF) chamber facility at the Army Research Laboratory. Mie and Schlieren optical spray diagnostics are utilized to provide time resolved liquid and vapor penetration length measurement. The quantitative comparison presented is discussed. Oak Ridge Associated Universities (ORAU).

  12. Computer Applications in Production and Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Torben

    1997-01-01

    This paper address how neutral product model interfaces can be identified, specified, and implemented to provide intelligent and flexible means for information management in manufacturing of discrete mechanical products.The use of advanced computer based systems, such as CAD, CAE, CNC, and robotics......, offers a potential for significant cost-savings and quality improvements in manufacturing of discrete mechanical products.However, these systems are introduced into production as 'islands of automation' or 'islands of information', and to benefit from the said potential, the systems must be integrated...... into an integrated manufacturing unit. Such units are known as Computer Integrated Manufacturing and Engineering (CIME) systems.The basic concept in CIME is to share and reuse information between the different computer based subsystems. Consequently, for the integration purposes, the CIME systems are highly...

  13. 46 CFR 113.35-15 - Mechanical engine order telegraph systems; application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Mechanical engine order telegraph systems; application...) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING COMMUNICATION AND ALARM SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Engine Order Telegraph Systems § 113.35-15 Mechanical engine order telegraph systems; application. If a mechanical engine order...

  14. Implementation of Scientific Computing Applications on the Cell Broadband Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guochun Shi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The Cell Broadband Engine architecture is a revolutionary processor architecture well suited for many scientific codes. This paper reports on an effort to implement several traditional high-performance scientific computing applications on the Cell Broadband Engine processor, including molecular dynamics, quantum chromodynamics and quantum chemistry codes. The paper discusses data and code restructuring strategies necessary to adapt the applications to the intrinsic properties of the Cell processor and demonstrates performance improvements achieved on the Cell architecture. It concludes with the lessons learned and provides practical recommendations on optimization techniques that are believed to be most appropriate.

  15. Prospects of Emerging Engineered oxide nanomaterials and their Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jitendra Gangwar

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This review article mainly focused on the recent progress on the synthesis and characterization of emerging artificially engineered nanostructures of oxide materials as well as their potential applications. A fundamental understanding about the state-of-the-art of the synthesis for different size, shape and morphology, which can be tuned to the desired properties of oxide nanomaterials have discussed in details in this review. The present review covers the a wide range of artificially engineered oxide nanomaterials such as cadmium-, cupric-, nickel-, magnesium-, zinc-, titanium-, tin-, aluminium-, and vanadium-oxides and their useful applications in sensors, optical displays, nanofluids and defence.

  16. Introduction to Plasma Technology Science, Engineering and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Harry, John Ernest

    2011-01-01

    Written by a university lecturer with more than forty years experience in plasma technology, this book adopts a didactic approach in its coverage of the theory, engineering and applications of technological plasmas. The theory is developed in a unified way to enable brevity and clarity, providing readers with the necessary background to assess the factors that affect the behavior of plasmas under different operating conditions. The major part of the book is devoted to the applications of plasma technology and their accompanying engineering aspects, classified by the various pressure and densit

  17. Quantitative Robust Control Engineering: Theory and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-09-01

    1992). Discrete quantitative feedback technique, Capítulo 16 en el libro : Digital Control Systems: theory, hardware, software, 2ª edicion. McGraw...Rasmussen S.J., Garcia-Sanz, M. (2001, 2005), Software de diseño del libro Quantitative Feedback Theory: Fundamentals and Applications. Edición 2ª. CRCPress

  18. Aero-Thermo-Dynamic Mass Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiba, Kota; Yoshikawa, Genki

    2016-07-01

    Each gas molecule has its own molecular weight, while such a microscopic characteristic is generally inaccessible, and thus, it is measured indirectly through e.g. ionization in conventional mass analysis. Here, we present a novel approach to the direct measurement of molecular weight through a nanoarchitectonic combination of aerodynamics, thermodynamics, and mechanics, transducing microscopic events into macroscopic phenomena. It is confirmed that this approach can provide molecular weight of virtually any gas or vaporizable liquid sample in real-time without ionization. Demonstrations through analytical calculations, numerical simulations, and experiments verify the validity and versatility of the novel mass analysis realized by a simple setup with a flexible object (e.g. with a bare cantilever and even with a business card) placed in a laminar jet. Owing to its unique and simple working principle, this aero-thermo-dynamic mass analysis (AMA) can be integrated into various analytical devices, production lines, and consumer mobile platforms, opening new chapters in aerodynamics, thermodynamics, mechanics, and mass analysis.

  19. Qualitative knowledge engineering for nuclear applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jae H.; Kim, Ko R.; Lee, Jae C.

    1996-01-01

    After the TMI nuclear power plant accident, the two topics of plant safety and operational efficiency became more important areas of artificial intelligence, which have difference characteristics. Qualitative deep model is the recently prospective technology of AI, that can overcome several handicaps of the existing expert systems such as lack of common sense reasoning. The application of AI to the large and complex system like nuclear power plants is typically and effectively done through a module-based hierarchical system. As each module has to be built with suitable AI system. Through the experiences of hierarchical system construction, we aimed to develop basic AI application schemes for the power plant safety and operational efficiency as well as basic technologies for autonomous power plants. The goal of the research is to develop qualitative reasoning technologies for nuclear power plants. For this purpose, the development of qualitative modeling technologies and qualitative behaviour prediction technologies of the power plant are accomplished. In addition, the feasibility of application of typical qualitative reasoning technologies to power plants is studied . The goal of the application is to develop intelligent control technologies of power plants, support technologies. For these purposes, we analyzed the operation of power plants according to its operation purpose: power generation operation, shut-down and start-up operation. As a result, qualitative model of basic components were sketched, including pipes, valves, pumps and heat exchangers. Finally, plant behaviour prediction technologies through qualitative plant heat transfer model and design support technologies through 2nd-order differential equation were developed. For the construction of AI system of power plants, we have studied on the mixed module based hierarchical software. As a testbed, we have considered the spent fuel system and the feedwater system. We also studied the integration

  20. Applications of Engineering Seismology for Site Characterization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Oz Yilmaz; Murat Eser; Mehmet Berilgen

    2009-01-01

    We determined the seismic model of the soil column within a residential project site in Istanbul, Turkey. Specifically, we conducted a refraction seismic survey at 20 locations using a receiver spread with 484.5-Hz vertical geophones at 2-m intervals. We applied nonlinear tomography to first-arrival times to estimate the P-wave velocity-depth profiles and performed Rayleigh-wave inversion to estimate the S-wave velocity-depth profiles down to a depth of 30 m at each of the locations. We then combined the seismic velocities with the geotechnical borehole information regarding the lithology of the soil column and determined the site-specific geotechnical earthquake engineering parameters for the site. Specifically, we computed the maximum soil amplification ratio, maximum surface-bedrock acceleration ratio, depth interval of significant acceleration, maximum soil-rock response ratio, and design spectrum periods TA-TB. We conducted reflection seismic surveys along five line traverses with lengths between 150 and 300 m and delineated landslide failure surfaces within the site. We recorded shot gathers at 2-m intervals along each of the seismic line traverses using a receiver spread with 4 840-Hz vertical geophones at 2-m intervals. We applied nonlinear tomograpby to first-arrival times to estimate a P-wave velocity-depth model and analyzed the reflected waves to obtain a seismic image of the deep near-surface along each of the line traverses.

  1. Advances in Industrial Engineering Applications and Pratice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Torben

    1997-01-01

    This paper address how neutral product model interfaces can be developed to provide intelligent and flexible means for information management in manufacturing of discrete mechanical products. The use of advanced computer based systems, such as CAD, CAE, CNC, and robotics, offers a potential for s...... methodologies can be utilized to make neutral interfaces between the various CA(X) systems. That is, interfaces including e.g. native CACSD and CAR data in addition to, e.g. the standardized STEP Part 42 data for geometry.......This paper address how neutral product model interfaces can be developed to provide intelligent and flexible means for information management in manufacturing of discrete mechanical products. The use of advanced computer based systems, such as CAD, CAE, CNC, and robotics, offers a potential...... are known as Computer Integrated Manufacturing and Engineering (CIME) systems. The basic concept in CIME is to share and reuse information between the different computer based subsystems. Consequently, for the integration purposes, the CIME systems are highly dependent on reliable product model interfaces...

  2. Thermal and Environmental Barrier Coatings for Advanced Turbine Engine Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Dong-Ming; Miller, Robert A.

    2005-01-01

    Ceramic thermal and environmental barrier coatings (T/EBCs) will play a crucial role in advanced gas turbine engine systems because of their ability to significantly increase engine operating temperatures and reduce cooling requirements, thus help achieve engine low emission and high efficiency goals. Advanced T/EBCs are being developed for the low emission SiC/SiC ceramic matrix composite (CMC) combustor applications by extending the CMC liner and vane temperature capability to 1650 C (3000 F) in oxidizing and water vapor containing combustion environments. Low conductivity thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) are also being developed for metallic turbine airfoil and combustor applications, providing the component temperature capability up to 1650 C (3000 F). In this paper, ceramic coating development considerations and requirements for both the ceramic and metallic components will be described for engine high temperature and high-heat-flux applications. The underlying coating failure mechanisms and life prediction approaches will be discussed based on the simulated engine tests and fracture mechanics modeling results.

  3. Bioreactors in tissue engineering - principles, applications and commercial constraints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansmann, Jan; Groeber, Florian; Kahlig, Alexander; Kleinhans, Claudia; Walles, Heike

    2013-03-01

    Bioreactor technology is vital for tissue engineering. Usually, bioreactors are used to provide a tissue-specific physiological in vitro environment during tissue maturation. In addition to this most obvious application, bioreactors have the potential to improve the efficiency of the overall tissue-engineering concept. To date, a variety of bioreactor systems for tissue-specific applications have been developed. Of these, some systems are already commercially available. With bioreactor technology, various functional tissues of different types were generated and cultured in vitro. Nevertheless, these efforts and achievements alone have not yet led to many clinically successful tissue-engineered implants. We review possible applications for bioreactor systems within a tissue-engineering process and present basic principles and requirements for bioreactor development. Moreover, the use of bioreactor systems for the expansion of clinically relevant cell types is addressed. In contrast to cell expansion, for the generation of functional three-dimensional tissue equivalents, additional physical cues must be provided. Therefore, bioreactors for musculoskeletal tissue engineering are discussed. Finally, bioreactor technology is reviewed in the context of commercial constraints.

  4. LCCP Desktop Application v1.0 Engineering Reference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beshr, Mohamed [University of Maryland, College Park; Aute, Vikrant [University of Maryland, College Park

    2014-04-01

    This Life Cycle Climate Performance (LCCP) Desktop Application Engineering Reference is divided into three parts. The first part of the guide, consisting of the LCCP objective, literature review, and mathematical background, is presented in Sections 2-4. The second part of the guide (given in Sections 5-10) provides a description of the input data required by the LCCP desktop application, including each of the input pages (Application Information, Load Information, and Simulation Information) and details for interfacing the LCCP Desktop Application with the VapCyc and EnergyPlus simulation programs. The third part of the guide (given in Section 11) describes the various interfaces of the LCCP code.

  5. Applications of Statistics and Probability in Civil Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faber, Michael Havbro

    and reliability in engineering; to professionals and engineers, including insurance and consulting companies working with natural hazards, design, operation and maintenance of civil engineering and industrial facilities; and to decision makers and professionals in the public sector, including nongovernmental......contains the proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Applications of Statistics and Probability in Civil Engineering (ICASP11, Zürich, Switzerland, 1-4 August 2011). The book focuses not only on the more traditional technical issues, but also emphasizes the societal context...... of the decision making problems including the interaction between stakeholders. This holistic perspective supports the enhanced and sustainable allocation of limited resources for the improvement of safety, environment and economy. The book is of interest to researchers and scientists working in the field of risk...

  6. Applications of chaos and nonlinear dynamics in engineering - Vol 1

    CERN Document Server

    Rondoni, Lamberto; Banerjee, Santo

    2011-01-01

    Chaos and nonlinear dynamics initially developed as a new emergent field with its foundation in physics and applied mathematics. The highly generic, interdisciplinary quality of the insights gained in the last few decades has spawned myriad applications in almost all branches of science and technology—and even well beyond. Wherever quantitative modeling and analysis of complex, nonlinear phenomena is required, chaos theory and its methods can play a key role.   This volume concentrates on reviewing the most relevant contemporary applications of chaotic nonlinear systems as they apply to the various cutting-edge branches of engineering. The book covers the theory as applied to robotics, electronic and communication engineering (for example chaos synchronization and cryptography) as well as to civil and mechanical engineering, where its use in damage monitoring and control is explored). Featuring contributions from active and leading research groups, this collection is ideal both as a reference and as a ‘r...

  7. Advance elements of optoisolation circuits nonlinearity applications in engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Aluf, Ofer

    2017-01-01

    This book on advanced optoisolation circuits for nonlinearity applications in engineering addresses two separate engineering and scientific areas, and presents advanced analysis methods for optoisolation circuits that cover a broad range of engineering applications. The book analyzes optoisolation circuits as linear and nonlinear dynamical systems and their limit cycles, bifurcation, and limit cycle stability by using Floquet theory. Further, it discusses a broad range of bifurcations related to optoisolation systems: cusp-catastrophe, Bautin bifurcation, Andronov-Hopf bifurcation, Bogdanov-Takens (BT) bifurcation, fold Hopf bifurcation, Hopf-Hopf bifurcation, Torus bifurcation (Neimark-Sacker bifurcation), and Saddle-loop or Homoclinic bifurcation. Floquet theory helps as to analyze advance optoisolation systems. Floquet theory is the study of the stability of linear periodic systems in continuous time. Another way to describe Floquet theory, it is the study of linear systems of differential equations with p...

  8. 4th International Conference in Software Engineering for Defence Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Sillitti, Alberto; Succi, Giancarlo; Messina, Angelo

    2016-01-01

    This book presents high-quality original contributions on new software engineering models, approaches, methods, and tools and their evaluation in the context of defence and security applications. In addition, important business and economic aspects are discussed, with a particular focus on cost/benefit analysis, new business models, organizational evolution, and business intelligence systems. The contents are based on presentations delivered at SEDA 2015, the 4th International Conference in Software Engineering for Defence Applications, which was held in Rome, Italy, in May 2015. This conference series represents a targeted response to the growing need for research that reports and debates the practical implications of software engineering within the defence environment and also for software performance evaluation in real settings through controlled experiments as well as case and field studies. The book will appeal to all with an interest in modeling, managing, and implementing defence-related software devel...

  9. Hypermedia support for engineering design systems: Application to fatigue analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeaeski, Juha; Sipilae, Sisko; Marquis, Gary

    1992-12-01

    The possibilities of using hypermedia for supporting engineering design systems are discussed. The application selected to test the hypermedia ideas was fatigue analysis. In addition, the possibility of combining hypermedia and expert system ideas into a fatigue expert system is reported. Hypermedia's underlying notion of linking nodes of information and its capability to handle these information entities stored appear to be well suited for engineering system support systems, especially in those engineering design systems where there exists a great demand for representing graphical information in a convenient way. This can be realized using hypermedia tools that are based on hypermedia techniques. The resulting fatigue handbook covers only part of the hypermedia's possibilities. The development of a prototype application indicates the efficiency of a hypermedia tool to create an electronic manual.

  10. Multi-Wavelength Optical Pyrometry Investigation for Turbine Engine Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estevadeordal, Jordi; Nirmalan, Nirm; Wang, Guanghua; Thermal Systems Team

    2011-11-01

    An investigation of optical Pyrometry using multiple wavelengths and its application to turbine engine is presented. Current turbine engine Pyrometers are typically broadband Si-detector line-of-sight (LOS) systems. They identify hot spots and spall areas in blades and bucket passages by detection of bursts of higher voltage signals. However, the single color signal can be misleading for estimating temperature and emissivity variations in these bursts. Results of the radiant temperature, multi-color temperature and apparent emissivity are presented for turbine engine applications. For example, the results indicate that spall regions can be characterized using multi-wavelength techniques by showing that the temperature typically drops and the emissivity increases and that differentiates from the emissivity of the normal regions. Burst signals are analyzed with multicolor algorithms and changes in the LOS hot-gas-path properties and in the suction side, trailing edge, pressure side, fillet and platform surfaces characterized.

  11. System Engineering of Photonic Systems for Space Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Michael D.; Pryor, Jonathan E.

    2014-01-01

    The application of photonics in space systems requires tight integration with the spacecraft systems to ensure accurate operation. This requires some detailed and specific system engineering to properly incorporate the photonics into the spacecraft architecture and to guide the spacecraft architecture in supporting the photonics devices. Recent research in product focused, elegant system engineering has led to a system approach which provides a robust approach to this integration. Focusing on the mission application and the integration of the spacecraft system physics incorporation of the photonics can be efficiently and effectively accomplished. This requires a clear understanding of the driving physics properties of the photonics device to ensure proper integration with no unintended consequences. The driving physics considerations in terms of optical performance will be identified for their use in system integration. Keywords: System Engineering, Optical Transfer Function, Optical Physics, Photonics, Image Jitter, Launch Vehicle, System Integration, Organizational Interaction

  12. Applications of Green's functions in science and engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Greenberg, Michael D

    2015-01-01

    Concise and highly regarded, this treatment of Green's functions and their applications in science and engineering is geared toward undergraduate and graduate students with only a moderate background in ordinary differential equations and partial differential equations. The text also includes a wealth of information of a more general nature on boundary value problems, generalized functions, eigenfunction expansions, partial differential equations, and acoustics. The two-part treatment begins with an overview of applications to ordinary differential equations. Topics include the adjoint operato

  13. Handbook of power systems engineering with power electronics applications

    CERN Document Server

    Hase, Yoshihide

    2012-01-01

    Formerly known as Handbook of Power System Engineering, this second edition provides rigorous revisions to the original treatment of systems analysis together with a substantial new four-chapter section on power electronics applications. Encompassing a whole range of equipment, phenomena, and analytical approaches, this handbook offers a complete overview of power systems and their power electronics applications, and presents a thorough examination of the fundamental principles, combining theories and technologies that are usually treated in separate specialised fields, in a single u

  14. Solar energy sciences and engineering applications

    CERN Document Server

    Enteria, Napoleon

    2013-01-01

    Solar energy is available all over the world in different intensities. Theoretically, the solar energy available on the surface of the earth is enough to support the energy requirements of the entire planet. However, in reality, progress and development of solar science and technology depends to a large extent on human desires and needs. This is due to the various barriers to overcome and to deal with the economics of practical utilization of solar energy.This book will introduce the rapid development and progress in the field of solar energy applications for science and technology: the advanc

  15. Application of Plagiarism Screening Software in the Chemical Engineering Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Matthew E.; Bullard, Lisa G.

    2014-01-01

    Plagiarism is an area of increasing concern for written ChE assignments, such as laboratory and design reports, due to ease of access to text and other materials via the internet. This study examines the application of plagiarism screening software to four courses in a university chemical engineering curriculum. The effectiveness of plagiarism…

  16. Coaxial electrospun fibers: applications in drug delivery and tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yang; Huang, Jiangnan; Yu, Guoqiang; Cardenas, Romel; Wei, Suying; Wujcik, Evan K; Guo, Zhanhu

    2016-09-01

    Coelectrospinning and emulsion electrospinning are two main methods for preparing core-sheath electrospun nanofibers in a cost-effective and efficient manner. Here, physical phenomena and the effects of solution and processing parameters on the coaxial fibers are introduced. Coaxial fibers with specific drugs encapsulated in the core can exhibit a sustained and controlled release. Their exhibited high surface area and three-dimensional nanofibrous network allows the electrospun fibers to resemble native extracellular matrices. These features of the nanofibers show that they have great potential in drug delivery and tissue engineering applications. Proteins, growth factors, antibiotics, and many other agents have been successfully encapsulated into coaxial fibers for drug delivery. A main advantage of the core-sheath design is that after the process of electrospinning and release, these drugs remain bioactive due to the protection of the sheath. Applications of coaxial fibers as scaffolds for tissue engineering include bone, cartilage, cardiac tissue, skin, blood vessels and nervous tissue, among others. A synopsis of novel coaxial electrospun fibers, discussing their applications in drug delivery and tissue engineering, is covered pertaining to proteins, growth factors, antibiotics, and other drugs and applications in the fields of bone, cartilage, cardiac, skin, blood vessel, and nervous tissue engineering, respectively. WIREs Nanomed Nanobiotechnol 2016, 8:654-677. doi: 10.1002/wnan.1391 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website.

  17. Application of Plagiarism Screening Software in the Chemical Engineering Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Matthew E.; Bullard, Lisa G.

    2014-01-01

    Plagiarism is an area of increasing concern for written ChE assignments, such as laboratory and design reports, due to ease of access to text and other materials via the internet. This study examines the application of plagiarism screening software to four courses in a university chemical engineering curriculum. The effectiveness of plagiarism…

  18. Training human mesenchymal stromal cells for bone tissue engineering applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doorn, J.

    2012-01-01

    Human mesenchymal stromal cells (hMSCs) are an interesting source for cell therapies and tissue engineering applications, because these cells are able to differentiate into various target tissues, such as bone, cartilage, fat and endothelial cells. In addition, they secrete a wide array of growth fa

  19. Nuclear magnetic resonance in environmental engineering: principles and applications.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lens, P.N.L.; Hemminga, M.A.

    1998-01-01

    This paper gives an introduction to nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in relation to applications in the field of environmental science and engineering. The underlying principles of high resolution solution and solid state NMR, relaxation time measure

  20. Research Challenges on Engineering Service-Oriented Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Di Nitto, E.; Meliander, D.; Gorlatch, D.; Metzger, A.; Psaier, H.; Dustdar, S.; Razavian, M.; Tamburri, D.A.; Lago, P.

    2012-01-01

    This paper focuses on providing an overview of the research challenges that have been identified toward the end of the S-Cube network in the area of service engineering. These challenges concern the need for agility and dynamicity of the development process for service-based applications, the import

  1. Reverse engineering of multilayer coatings for ultrafast laser applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trubetskov, M; Amotchkina, T; Tikhonravov, A; Pervak, V

    2014-02-01

    We propose a reliable reverse engineering approach for a postproduction characterization of complicated optical coatings for ultrafast laser applications. We perform the postproduction characterization on the basis of in situ broadband monitoring data and validate the results using ex situ transmittance data and group delay measurements.

  2. Novel application of plasma treatment for pharmaceutical and biomedical engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzuya, Masayuki; Sasai, Yasushi; Kondo, Shin-Ichi; Yamauchi, Yukinori

    2009-06-01

    The nature of plasma-induced surface radicals formed on a variety of organic polymers has been studied by electron spin resonance (ESR), making it possible to provide a sound basis for future experimental design of polymer surface processing using plasma treatment. On the basis of the findings from such studies, several novel bio-applications in the field of drug- and biomedical- engineering have been developed. Applications for drug engineering include the preparation of reservoir-type drug delivery system (DDS) of sustained- and delayed-release, and floating drug delivery system (FDDS) possessing gastric retention capabilities, followed by preparation of "Patient-Tailored DDS". Furthermore, the preparation of composite powders applicable to matrix-type DDS was developed by making a mechanical application to the surface radical-containing polymer powders with drug powders. In applications for biomedical engineering, the novel method to introduce the durable surface hydrophilicity and lubricity on hydrophobic biomedical polymers was developed by plasma-assisted immobilization of carboxyl group-containing polymer on the polymer substrate. The surfaces thus prepared were further used for the covalent immobilization of oligo-nucleotides (DNA) onto the polymer surfaces applicable to constructing DNA diagnosis system, and also plasma-assisted preparation of functionalized chemo-embolic agent of vinyl alcohol-sodium acrylate copolymer (PVA- PAANa).

  3. Aero-Optic Evaluation Center (AOEC), Large Energy National Shock (LENS) Tunnels I & II

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The AOEC facility provides world class capability for aero-thermo-chemical, aerooptics and aero-propulsion testing in the Mach number range from 2.5 to 15 using the...

  4. Some Applications of Fractional Calculus in Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Tenreiro Machado

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Fractional Calculus (FC goes back to the beginning of the theory of differential calculus. Nevertheless, the application of FC just emerged in the last two decades, due to the progress in the area of chaos that revealed subtle relationships with the FC concepts. In the field of dynamical systems theory some work has been carried out but the proposed models and algorithms are still in a preliminary stage of establishment. Having these ideas in mind, the paper discusses FC in the study of system dynamics and control. In this perspective, this paper investigates the use of FC in the fields of controller tuning, legged robots, redundant robots, heat diffusion, and digital circuit synthesis.

  5. Computational electromagnetics recent advances and engineering applications

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    Emerging Topics in Computational Electromagnetics in Computational Electromagnetics presents advances in Computational Electromagnetics. This book is designed to fill the existing gap in current CEM literature that only cover the conventional numerical techniques for solving traditional EM problems. The book examines new algorithms, and applications of these algorithms for solving problems of current interest that are not readily amenable to efficient treatment by using the existing techniques. The authors discuss solution techniques for problems arising in nanotechnology, bioEM, metamaterials, as well as multiscale problems. They present techniques that utilize recent advances in computer technology, such as parallel architectures, and the increasing need to solve large and complex problems in a time efficient manner by using highly scalable algorithms.

  6. Applications of synchrotron radiation to Chemical Engineering Science: Workshop report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-07-01

    This report contains extended abstracts that summarize presentations made at the Workshop on Applications of Synchrotron Radiation to Chemical Engineering Science held at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), Argonne, IL, on April 22--23, 1991. The talks emphasized the application of techniques involving absorption fluorescence, diffraction, and reflection of synchrotron x-rays, with a focus on problems in applied chemistry and chemical engineering, as well as on the use of x-rays in topographic, tomographic, and lithographic procedures. The attendees at the workshop included experts in the field of synchrotron science, scientists and engineers from ANL, other national laboratories, industry, and universities; and graduate and undergraduate students who were enrolled in ANL educational programs at the time of the workshop. Talks in the Plenary and Overview Session described the status of and special capabilities to be offered by the Advanced Photon Source (APS), as well as strategies and opportunities for utilization of synchrotron radiation to solve science and engineering problems. Invited talks given in subsequent sessions covered the use of intense infrared, ultraviolet, and x-ray photon beams (as provided by synchrotrons) in traditional and nontraditional areas of chemical engineering research related to electrochemical and corrosion science, catalyst development and characterization, lithography and imaging techniques, and microanalysis.

  7. Semi-active engine mount development for variable displacement engine applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arzanpour, S.; Mansour, H.; Golnaraghi, M.F. [Simon Fraser Univ., Burnaby, BC (Canada). Mechatronic Systems Engineering; Parameswaran, A.M. [Simon Fraser Univ., Burnaby, BC (Canada). School of Engineering Science, Inst. of Micromachine and Microfabrication Research

    2008-07-01

    Fuel efficient variable displacement engines (VDE) were developed in an effort to minimize fuel consumption. A VDE system saves fuel by using the engine power whenever it is needed. The engine management unit (EMU) automatically deactivates half of the operating cylinders. This study described the development of semi-active engine bushings for VDE isolation applications. The objective of the study was to isolate vibration inside the VDE. Conventional hydraulic bushing frequency response was first reviewed and a newly derived mathematical model was then presented. The vibration isolation for VDE systems requires engine mounts that are much softer than conventional hydraulic mounts. The compliance of the pumping chamber was identified as an ideal parameter to control the isolation property of the mount. A magnetorheological (MR) chamber was manufactured for this purpose. The innovative feature of this MR chamber was the minimization of the amount of the MR fluid. The performance of the semi-active engine mount was studied using a specially designed experimental setup. The results confirmed the capability and outstanding performance of this semi-active method. The most important features were the minimum cost and low power requirements. 12 refs., 5 figs.

  8. Engineering biofunctional magnetic nanoparticles for biotechnological applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moros, Maria; Pelaz, Beatriz; López-Larrubia, Pilar; García-Martin, Maria L.; Grazú, Valeria; de La Fuente, Jesus M.

    2010-09-01

    Synthesis and characterization of magnetic nanoparticles with excellent size control are showed here. Their functionalization using an amphiphilic polymer is also described. This strategy allows the stabilization of magnetic nanoparticles in aqueous solvents and in addition, the polymer shell serves as a platform to incorporate relevant biomolecules, such as poly(ethylene glycol) and a number of carbohydrates. Nanoparticles functionalized with carbohydrates show the ability to avoid unspecific interactions between proteins present in the working medium and the nanoparticles, so can be used as an alternative to poly(ethylene glycol) molecules. Results confirm these nanoparticles as excellent contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging. Changes in the spin-spin transversal relaxation times of the surrounding water protons due to nanoparticle aggregation demonstrates the bioactivity of these nanoparticles functionalized with carbohydrates. To finish with, nanoparticle toxicity is evaluated by means of MTT assay. The obtained results clearly indicate that these nanoparticles are excellent candidates for their further application in nanomedicine or nanobiotechnology.Synthesis and characterization of magnetic nanoparticles with excellent size control are showed here. Their functionalization using an amphiphilic polymer is also described. This strategy allows the stabilization of magnetic nanoparticles in aqueous solvents and in addition, the polymer shell serves as a platform to incorporate relevant biomolecules, such as poly(ethylene glycol) and a number of carbohydrates. Nanoparticles functionalized with carbohydrates show the ability to avoid unspecific interactions between proteins present in the working medium and the nanoparticles, so can be used as an alternative to poly(ethylene glycol) molecules. Results confirm these nanoparticles as excellent contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging. Changes in the spin-spin transversal relaxation times of the

  9. Recent Advances in Application of Biosensors in Tissue Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anwarul Hasan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Biosensors research is a fast growing field in which tens of thousands of papers have been published over the years, and the industry is now worth billions of dollars. The biosensor products have found their applications in numerous industries including food and beverages, agricultural, environmental, medical diagnostics, and pharmaceutical industries and many more. Even though numerous biosensors have been developed for detection of proteins, peptides, enzymes, and numerous other biomolecules for diverse applications, their applications in tissue engineering have remained limited. In recent years, there has been a growing interest in application of novel biosensors in cell culture and tissue engineering, for example, real-time detection of small molecules such as glucose, lactose, and H2O2 as well as serum proteins of large molecular size, such as albumin and alpha-fetoprotein, and inflammatory cytokines, such as IFN-g and TNF-α. In this review, we provide an overview of the recent advancements in biosensors for tissue engineering applications.

  10. Application of adult stem cells in neural tissue engineering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lihong Piao; Wei Wang

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTTIVE:To investigate the progress in finding,isolation and culture.proliferation and differentiation,and application in neural tissue engineering of adult stem cells(ASCs).DATA SOURCES:Using the terms"adult stem cells,nerve,tissue engineering".we searched the PubMed for adult stem ceils-related studies published in English from January 2001 to August 2006.Meanwhile,we also performed a China National Knowledge Infrastructure(CNKI)search for homochronous correlative literatures on the computer by inputting the terms"adult stem cells,nerve,tissue engineering"in Chinese.texts were searched for.Inclusive criteria:①Literatures about the sources,distribution,culture.proliferation and differentiation.and application in the repair of neural ASCs by tissue engineering.②Articles recommended either by randomized.blind or by other methods were not excluded.Exclusive criteria:①Embryonic stem cells.②Review,repetitive study,case report,Meta analysis. DATA EXTRACTION:Totally 1 278 articles related to ASCs were collected,32 were involved and the other 1 246 were excluded. DATA SYNTHESIS:Adult stem cell has the ability of self-renewal.unceasing proliferation and transdifferentiation.It has wide source,which does not involved in ethical problems.It has advantages over embryonic stem cell.Studies on the isolation and culture,induction and differentiation and application in neural ASCs by tissue engineering contribute to obtaining considerable ASCs,so as to provide experimental and theoretical bases for CONCLUSION:ASCs play a very important role in neural tissue engineering.

  11. 3D-Printed Biopolymers for Tissue Engineering Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoming Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available 3D printing technology has recently gained substantial interest for potential applications in tissue engineering due to the ability of making a three-dimensional object of virtually any shape from a digital model. 3D-printed biopolymers, which combine the 3D printing technology and biopolymers, have shown great potential in tissue engineering applications and are receiving significant attention, which has resulted in the development of numerous research programs regarding the material systems which are available for 3D printing. This review focuses on recent advances in the development of biopolymer materials, including natural biopolymer-based materials and synthetic biopolymer-based materials prepared using 3D printing technology, and some future challenges and applications of this technology are discussed.

  12. Engineering of Glasses for Advanced Optical Fiber Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan Carlie

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Advanced optical applications (such as fiber opticsdemand the engineering of innovative materialswhich provide the requisite optical performance in aform with specific functionality necessary for thedesired application. We will report on recent effortsto engineer new non-oxide glasses with tailoredphoto-sensitive response, and multi-component oxideglasses optimized for use in next generation Ramanamplification applications. The ultimate performanceof such glasses relies on control of the formation andstability of defective and/or metastable structuralconfigurations and their impact on physical as well aslinear and nonlinear optical properties. Direct laserwriting has drawn considerable attention since thedevelopment of femtosecond lasers and therecognition that such systems possess the requisiteintensity to modify, reversibly or irreversibly thephysical properties of optical materials. Such“structuring” has emerged as one of several possibleroutes for the fabrication of waveguides and otherphoto-induced structures.

  13. Using MS visual basic to write engineering applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres, D.E.; Anders, J.L.

    1995-12-31

    Microsoft Visual Basic for Windows (VB) allows Engineers to develop engineering applications that run in the Windows environment. VB provides the engineer a programming tool to write simple programs quickly that meet their needs. It is relatively easy to learn and use. Development of a Windows-like user interface is easy to do and there is a growing base of users and add-in applications. The technological advances that have allowed engineering workstations to convert from a mainframe environment to a stand alone PC connected to a network have also provided new programming tools. Modern programming languages allow the programmer to quickly design screen panels and easily reuse code. This paper discusses the features available in VB and provides several program examples. Example programs written using VB include gas and oil fluid correlations, interpolation software, gas well bottom hole pressure from surface conditions, volumetric reserve calculations, simple log anlaysis, water pattern analysis and bottom hole pressure analysis. These applications were developed with Visual Basic version 3.0 Professional.

  14. Rough sets selected methods and applications in management and engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Peters, Georg; lzak, Dominik

    2012-01-01

    Rough Set Theory, introduced by Pawlak in the early 1980s, has become an important part of soft computing within the last 25 years. However, much of the focus has been on the theoretical understanding of Rough Sets, with a survey of Rough Sets and their applications within business and industry much desired. Rough Sets: Selected Methods and Applications in Management and Engineering provides context to Rough Set theory, with each chapter exploring a real-world application of Rough Sets. Rough Sets is relevant to managers striving to improve their businesses, industry researchers looking to imp

  15. Engineering of Brome mosaic virus for biomedical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildiz, Ibrahim; Tsvetkova, Irina; Wen, Amy M.; Shukla, Sourabh; Masarapu, M. Hema; Dragnea, Bogdan; Steinmetz, Nicole F.

    2016-01-01

    Viral nanoparticles (VNPs) are becoming versatile tools in platform technology development. Their well-defined structures as well as their programmability through chemical and genetic modification allow VNPs to be engineered for potential imaging and therapeutic applications. In this article, we report the application of a variety of bioconjugation chemistries to the plant VNP Brome mosaic virus (BMV). Functional BMV nanoparticles displaying multiple copies of fluorescent dyes, PEG molecules, chemotherapeutic drug moieties, targeting proteins and cell penetrating peptides were formulated. This opens the door for the application of BMV in nanomedicine. PMID:28018580

  16. Recent applications of synthetic biology tools for yeast metabolic engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Michael Krogh; Keasling, Jay

    2015-01-01

    with continuous decreases in price and improvements in DNA synthesis, assembly and sequencing, synthetic biology tools will rationalize time-consuming strain engineering, improve control of metabolic fluxes, and diversify screening assays for cellular metabolism. This review outlines some recently developed...... to engineer microbial chemical factories has steadily decreased, improvement is still needed. Through the development of synthetic biology tools for key microbial hosts, it should be possible to further decrease the development times and improve the reliability of the resulting microorganism. Together...... synthetic biology tools and their application to improve production of chemicals and fuels in yeast. Finally, we provide a perspective for the challenges that lie ahead....

  17. Introduction to the application of genetic algorithms in engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. S. Shaw

    1998-07-01

    Full Text Available Genetic algorithms constitute a new research area in the field of artificial intelligence. This work is aimed at their application in specific areas of engineering where good results have already been achieved. The purpose of this work is to provide a basic introduction for students as well as experienced engineers who wish to upgrade their knowledge. A distinctive feature of artificial intelligence is that instead of mathematical models, either direct human experience or certain functions of the human brain for the modelling of physical phenomena are used.

  18. Advanced FDTD methods parallelization, acceleration, and engineering applications

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Wenhua

    2011-01-01

    The finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method has revolutionized antenna design and electromagnetics engineering. Here's a cutting-edge book that focuses on the performance optimization and engineering applications of FDTD simulation systems. Covering the latest developments in this area, this unique resource offer you expert advice on the FDTD method, hardware platforms, and network systems. Moreover the book offers guidance in distinguishing between the many different electromagnetics software packages on the market today. You also find a complete chapter dedicated to large multi-scale pro

  19. Probability with applications to investments, insurance, and engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Bean, Michael A

    2009-01-01

    This book covers the basic probability of distributions with an emphasis on applications from the areas of investments, insurance, and engineering. Written by a Fellow of the Casualty Actuarial Society and the Society of Actuaries with many years of experience as a university professor and industry practitioner, the book is suitable as a text for senior undergraduate and beginning graduate students in mathematics, statistics, actuarial science, finance, or engineering as well as a reference for practitioners in these fields. The book is particularly well suited for students preparing for profe

  20. Applications of CRISPR-Cas9 mediated genome engineering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao Yang

    2015-01-01

    Targeted mutagenesis based on homologous recombination has been a powerful tool for understanding the mechanisms underlying development, normal physiology, and disease. A recent breakthrough in genome engineering technology based on the class of RNA-guided endonucleases, such as clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-associated Cas9, is further revolutionizing biology and medical studies. The simplicity of the CRISPR-Cas9 system has enabled its widespread applications in generating germline animal models, somatic genome engineering, and functional genomic screening and in treating genetic and infectious diseases. This technology will likely be used in all fields of biomedicine, ranging from basic research to human gene therapy.

  1. Biodegradable and biocompatible polymers for tissue engineering application: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asghari, Fatemeh; Samiei, Mohammad; Adibkia, Khosro; Akbarzadeh, Abolfazl; Davaran, Soodabeh

    2017-03-01

    Since so many years ago, tissue damages that are caused owing to various reasons attract scientists' attention to find a practical way to treat. In this regard, many studies were conducted. Nano scientists also suggested some ways and the newest one is called tissue engineering. They use biodegradable polymers in order to replace damaged structures in tissues to make it practical. Biodegradable polymers are dominant scaffolding materials in tissue engineering field. In this review, we explained about biodegradable polymers and their application as scaffolds.

  2. Engineering applications of discrete-time optimal control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vidal, Rene Victor Valqui; Ravn, Hans V.

    1990-01-01

    of some well-known and new results in discrete time optimal control methods applicable to practical problem solving within engineering. Emphasis is placed on dynamic programming, the classical maximum principle and generalized versions of the maximum principle for optimal control of discrete time systems......Many problems of design and operation of engineering systems can be formulated as optimal control problems where time has been discretisized. This is also true even if 'time' is not involved in the formulation of the problem, but rather another one-dimensional parameter. This paper gives a review...

  3. Computer, Network, Software, and Hardware Engineering with Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Schneidewind, Norman F

    2012-01-01

    There are many books on computers, networks, and software engineering but none that integrate the three with applications. Integration is important because, increasingly, software dominates the performance, reliability, maintainability, and availability of complex computer and systems. Books on software engineering typically portray software as if it exists in a vacuum with no relationship to the wider system. This is wrong because a system is more than software. It is comprised of people, organizations, processes, hardware, and software. All of these components must be considered in an integr

  4. Quantum searching application in search based software engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Nan; Song, FangMin; Li, Xiangdong

    2013-05-01

    The Search Based Software Engineering (SBSE) is widely used in software engineering for identifying optimal solutions. However, there is no polynomial-time complexity solution used in the traditional algorithms for SBSE, and that causes the cost very high. In this paper, we analyze and compare several quantum search algorithms that could be applied for SBSE: quantum adiabatic evolution searching algorithm, fixed-point quantum search (FPQS), quantum walks, and a rapid modified Grover quantum searching method. The Grover's algorithm is thought as the best choice for a large-scaled unstructured data searching and theoretically it can be applicable to any search-space structure and any type of searching problems.

  5. Engineering of cyclodextrin glucanotransferases and the impact for biotechnological applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leemhuis, Hans; Kelly, Ronan M; Dijkhuizen, Lubbert

    2010-01-01

    Cyclodextrin glucanotransferases (CGTases) are industrially important enzymes that produce cyclic alpha-(1,4)-linked oligosaccharides (cyclodextrins) from starch. Cyclodextrin glucanotransferases are also applied as catalysts in the synthesis of glycosylated molecules and can act as antistaling agents in the baking industry. To improve the performance of CGTases in these various applications, protein engineers are screening for CGTase variants with higher product yields, improved CD size specificity, etc. In this review, we focus on the strategies employed in obtaining CGTases with new or enhanced enzymatic capabilities by searching for new enzymes and improving existing enzymatic activities via protein engineering.

  6. Engineering applications of discrete-time optimal control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vidal, Rene Victor Valqui; Ravn, Hans V.

    1990-01-01

    Many problems of design and operation of engineering systems can be formulated as optimal control problems where time has been discretisized. This is also true even if 'time' is not involved in the formulation of the problem, but rather another one-dimensional parameter. This paper gives a review...... of some well-known and new results in discrete time optimal control methods applicable to practical problem solving within engineering. Emphasis is placed on dynamic programming, the classical maximum principle and generalized versions of the maximum principle for optimal control of discrete time systems...

  7. Applications of CRISPR-Cas9 mediated genome engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiao

    2015-01-01

    Targeted mutagenesis based on homologous recombination has been a powerful tool for understanding the mechanisms underlying development, normal physiology, and disease. A recent breakthrough in genome engineering technology based on the class of RNA-guided endonucleases, such as clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-associated Cas9, is further revolutionizing biology and medical studies. The simplicity of the CRISPR-Cas9 system has enabled its widespread applications in generating germline animal models, somatic genome engineering, and functional genomic screening and in treating genetic and infectious diseases. This technology will likely be used in all fields of biomedicine, ranging from basic research to human gene therapy.

  8. Vehicle Health Management Communications Requirements for AeroMACS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerczewski, Robert J.; Clements, Donna J.; Apaza, Rafael D.

    2012-01-01

    As the development of standards for the aeronautical mobile airport communications system (AeroMACS) progresses, the process of identifying and quantifying appropriate uses for the system is progressing. In addition to defining important elements of AeroMACS standards, indentifying the systems uses impacts AeroMACS bandwidth requirements. Although an initial 59 MHz spectrum allocation for AeroMACS was established in 2007, the allocation may be inadequate; studies have indicated that 100 MHz or more of spectrum may be required to support airport surface communications. Hence additional spectrum allocations have been proposed. Vehicle health management (VHM) systems, which can produce large volumes of vehicle health data, were not considered in the original bandwidth requirements analyses, and are therefore of interest in supporting proposals for additional AeroMACS spectrum. VHM systems are an emerging development in air vehicle safety, and preliminary estimates of the amount of data that will be produced and transmitted off an aircraft, both in flight and on the ground, have been prepared based on estimates of data produced by on-board vehicle health sensors and initial concepts of data processing approaches. This allowed an initial estimate of VHM data transmission requirements for the airport surface. More recently, vehicle-level systems designed to process and analyze VHM data and draw conclusions on the current state of vehicle health have been undergoing testing and evaluation. These systems make use of vehicle system data that is mostly different from VHM data considered previously for airport surface transmission, and produce processed system outputs that will be also need to be archived, thus generating additional data load for AeroMACS. This paper provides an analysis of airport surface data transmission requirements resulting from the vehicle level reasoning systems, within the context of overall VHM data requirements.

  9. Investigation of the WANKEL Jet-A rotary engine for applicability in general aviation (experimental program). Final report; Untersuchung der Tauglichkeit des WANKEL-Kerosin-Kreiskolbenmotors fuer den Einsatz in der allgemeinen Luftfahrt. Erstellung von drei 2-Laeufer-Motoren und Leistungsnachweis auf dem Motorpruefstand (Experimentalprogramm). Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klotz, R.; Eiermann, D.; Kolossow, S.

    1999-12-29

    This report describes a project which was performed within the German national aeronautical research program. Subject of the investigation is the Diesel/Jet-A rotary engine developed by WANKEL ROTARY and its applicability as aero propulsion system by an experimental program. The technologies which were used to adapt the existing basic construction to the specific requirements of an aero engine are presented. The results of the performed theoretical and experimental investigations are explained and evaluated, also in relation to the preconditions and the future possibilities for development. (orig.) [German] Der Bericht beschreibt ein im Rahmen des nationalen Luftfahrt-Forschungsprogramms durchgefuehrtes Vorhaben. Gegenstand der Untersuchung ist der von WANKEL ROTARY entwickelte Diesel/Kerosin-Kreiskolbenmotor und seine Verwendbarkeit als Flugantrieb in einem Experimentalprogramm. Es werden die verwendeten Technologien dargestellt, um die vorhandene Grundkonstruktion an die spezifischen Erfordernisse als Flugantrieb anzupassen. Die Ergebnisse der hierzu durchgefuehrten theoretischen und experimentellen Untersuchungen werden erlaeutert, bewertet und in Bezug zu den Voraussetzungen und zukuenftigen Weiterentwicklungsmoeglichkeiten gesetzt. (orig.)

  10. Metabolic engineering of Yarrowia lipolytica for industrial applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Quinn; Jackson, Ethel N

    2015-12-01

    Yarrowia lipolytica is a safe and robust yeast that has a history of industrial applications. Its physiological, metabolic and genomic characteristics have made it a superior host for metabolic engineering. The results of optimizing internal pathways and introducing new pathways have demonstrated that Y. lipolytica can be a platform cell factory for cost-effective production of chemicals and fuels derived from fatty acids, lipids and acetyl-CoA. Two products have been commercialized from metabolically engineered Y. lipolytica strains producing high amounts of omega-3 eicosapentaenoic acid, and more products are on the way to be produced at industrial scale. Here we review recent progress in metabolic engineering of Y. lipolytica for production of biodiesel fuel, functional fatty acids and carotenoids. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. Application of MRI and biomedical engineering in speech production study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura, S R; Freitas, D R; Tavares, João Manuel R S

    2009-12-01

    Speech production has always been a subject of interest both at the morphological and acoustic levels. This knowledge is useful for a better understanding of all the involved mechanisms and for the construction of articulatory models. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a powerful technique that allows the study of the whole vocal tract, with good soft tissue contrast and resolution, and permits the calculation of area functions towards a better understanding of this mechanism. Thus, our aim is to demonstrate the value and application of MRI in speech production study and its relationship with engineering, namely with biomedical engineering. After vocal tract contours extraction, data were processed for 3D reconstruction culminating in model construction of some of the sounds of European Portuguese. MRI provides useful morphological data about the position and shape of the different speech articulators, and the biomedical engineering computational tools for its analysis.

  12. Application of new metabolic engineering tools for Clostridium acetobutylicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lütke-Eversloh, Tina

    2014-07-01

    The renewed interests in clostridial acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation as a next-generation biofuel source led to significantly intensified research in the past few years. This mini-review focuses on the current status of metabolic engineering techniques available for the model organism of ABE fermentation, Clostridium acetobutylicum. A comprehensive survey of various application examples covers two general issues related to both basic and applied research questions: (i) how to improve biofuel production and (ii) what information can be deduced from respective genotype/phenotype manipulations. Recently developed strategies to engineer C. acetobutylicum are summarized including the current portfolio of altered gene expression methodologies, as well as systematic (rational) and explorative (combinatorial) metabolic engineering approaches.

  13. Graphene directed architecture of fine engineered nanostructures with electrochemical applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hou, Chengyi; Zhang, Minwei; Halder, Arnab

    2017-01-01

    . In this review, we aim to highlight some recent efforts devoted to rational design, assembly and fine engineering of electrochemically active nanostructures using graphene or/and its derivatives as soft templates for controlled synthesis and directed growth. We organize the contents according to the chemically...... classified nanostructures, including metallic nanostructures, self-assembled organic and supramolecular structures, and fine engineered metal oxides. In these cases, graphene templates either sacrificed during templating synthesis or retained as support for final products. We also discuss remained challenges...... and future perspective in the graphene-templating design and synthesis of various materials. Overall, this review could offer crucial insights into the nanoscale engineering of new nanostructures using graphene as a soft template and their potential applications in electrochemical science and technology. We...

  14. Solar-Powered Electric Propulsion Systems: Engineering and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stearns, J. W.; Kerrisk, D. J.

    1966-01-01

    Lightweight, multikilowatt solar power arrays in conjunction with electric propulsion offer potential improvements to space exploration, extending the usefulness of existing launch vehicles to higher-energy missions. Characteristics of solar-powered electric propulsion missions are outlined, and preliminary performance estimates are shown. Spacecraft system engineering is discussed with respect to parametric trade-offs in power and propulsion system design. Relationships between mission performance and propulsion system performance are illustrated. The present state of the art of electric propulsion systems is reviewed and related to the mission requirements identified earlier. The propulsion system design and test requirements for a mission spacecraft are identified and discussed. Although only ion engine systems are currently available, certain plasma propulsion systems offer some advantages in over-all system design. These are identified, and goals are set for plasma-thrustor systems to make them competitive with ion-engine systems for mission applications.

  15. Applications of Multi-criteria Decision Making in Software Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumeet Kaur Sehra

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Every complex problem now days require multicriteria decision making to get to the desired solution. Numerous Multi-criteria decision making (MCDM approaches have evolved over recent time to accommodate various application areas and have been recently explored as alternative to solve complex software engineering problems. Most widely used approach is Analytic Hierarchy Process that combines mathematics and expert judgment. Analytic Hierarchy Process suffers from the problem of imprecision and subjectivity. This paper proposes to use Fuzzy AHP (FAHP instead of traditional AHP method. The usage of FAHP helps decision makers to make better choices both in relation to tangible criteria and intangible criteria. The paper provides a clear guide on how FAHP can be applied, particularly in the software engineering area in specific situations. The conclusion of this study would help and motivate practitioners and researchers to use multi-criteria decision making approaches in the area of software engineering.

  16. [Plastid genome engineering: novel optimization strategies and applications].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Fei; Lu, Shizhan; Gao, Liang; Zhang, Juanjuan; Lin, Yongjun

    2015-08-01

    The plastid genome engineering system allows site-specific modifications via two homologous recombination events. It is much safer, more precise and efficient compared with the nuclear transformation system. This technology can be applied to the basic research to expand plastid genome function analysis, and it also provides an excellent platform for not only high-level production of recombinant proteins but also plant breeding. In this review, we summarize the state of the art and progresses in this field. We focus on novel breeding strategies in transformation system improvement and new tools to enhance plastid transgene expression levels. In addition, we highlight selected applications in resistance engineering and quality improvement via metabolic engineering. We believe that by overcoming current technological limitations in the plastid transformation system can another green revolution for crop breeding beckon.

  17. GLobal Integrated Design Environment (GLIDE): A Concurrent Engineering Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, Melissa L.; Kunkel, Matthew R.; Smith, David A.

    2010-01-01

    The GLobal Integrated Design Environment (GLIDE) is a client-server software application purpose-built to mitigate issues associated with real time data sharing in concurrent engineering environments and to facilitate discipline-to-discipline interaction between multiple engineers and researchers. GLIDE is implemented in multiple programming languages utilizing standardized web protocols to enable secure parameter data sharing between engineers and researchers across the Internet in closed and/or widely distributed working environments. A well defined, HyperText Transfer Protocol (HTTP) based Application Programming Interface (API) to the GLIDE client/server environment enables users to interact with GLIDE, and each other, within common and familiar tools. One such common tool, Microsoft Excel (Microsoft Corporation), paired with its add-in API for GLIDE, is discussed in this paper. The top-level examples given demonstrate how this interface improves the efficiency of the design process of a concurrent engineering study while reducing potential errors associated with manually sharing information between study participants.

  18. Rapid prototyping technology and its application in bone tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Bo; Zhou, Sheng-Yuan; Chen, Xiong-Sheng

    Bone defects arising from a variety of reasons cannot be treated effectively without bone tissue reconstruction. Autografts and allografts have been used in clinical application for some time, but they have disadvantages. With the inherent drawback in the precision and reproducibility of conventional scaffold fabrication techniques, the results of bone surgery may not be ideal. This is despite the introduction of bone tissue engineering which provides a powerful approach for bone repair. Rapid prototyping technologies have emerged as an alternative and have been widely used in bone tissue engineering, enhancing bone tissue regeneration in terms of mechanical strength, pore geometry, and bioactive factors, and overcoming some of the disadvantages of conventional technologies. This review focuses on the basic principles and characteristics of various fabrication technologies, such as stereolithography, selective laser sintering, and fused deposition modeling, and reviews the application of rapid prototyping techniques to scaffolds for bone tissue engineering. In the near future, the use of scaffolds for bone tissue engineering prepared by rapid prototyping technology might be an effective therapeutic strategy for bone defects.

  19. Application of borehole acoustic logging techniques in engineering geology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCann, D.M.; McCann, C.

    1977-01-01

    Most site investigations for civil engineering developments use a large number of boreholes to obtain geological information and to collect samples for geotechnical measurements in the laboratory. However, samples taken from boreholes are often highly disturbed and even the most carefully taken sample is subjected to a relief in the overburden pressure as it is removed from the ground. There has, thus, been a growing interest in the use of boreholes for in-situ testing methods in order to optimize the amount of useful information that can be obtained from a borehole study. In this paper, the use of borehole geophysical logging technique in engineering geological applications is reviewed with special emphasis on acoustic methods. The study also includes the associated methods of surface to borehole and borehole to borehole measurements, which have an equally important role to play in the civil engineering field. The results of several case histories are presented and these demonstrate the practical application of borehole geophysical techniques. Of particular interest in the study is an examination of (a) the determination of the dynamic elastic moduli in a rock mass, (b) the variation in lithology with depth and associated changes in the engineering properties and (c) the continuity of strata between boreholes.

  20. Clinical application of tissue-engineered transplants. Part I: mucosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauerbier, Sebastian; Gutwald, Ralf; Wiedmann-Al-Ahmad, Margit; Lauer, Günter; Schmelzeisen, Rainer

    2006-12-01

    The study series aims at testing the feasibility of the clinical application of tissue-engineered oral mucosa. The preliminary results were gathered over a period varying from 6 months to 12 years depending on the surgical method. Tissue-engineered oral mucosa was used to cover defects in various surgical procedures like vestibuloplasty (n=42), freeing of the tongue (n=10), prelaminating the radial flap (n=5) and reconstruction of the urethra (n=16). In all interventions small samples of oral mucosa were harvested, cut into small pieces, resuspended in culture medium and seeded into a culture flask. Cultured keratinocytes were transferred onto membranes which then were used to cover mucosal defects in the oral cavity. To gain a graft of 15 cm(2) size a mucosa biopsy of 4-8 mm(2) and 40 ml autologous patients serum is needed. Tissue-engineered oral mucosa was applied successfully in all four surgical methods. Six months after transplantation a regular epithelial layering with a histological delimitation of the stratum, epithelial crest and a strong basal membrane appeared. According to the reception site the tissue engineered oral mucosa differentiated in several ways. Tissue-engineered oral mucosa fulfils the requirements for clinical routine. With view to healing time and outcome it does not appear to be superior to regular harvested oral mucosa transplants. Because of a smaller harvesting defect and primary wound closure at the actual operation site the patients' convenience is increased. Thus this method reduces morbidity and advances the quality of life.

  1. The development and application of engineered proteins for bioremediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trewhella, J. [ed.

    1995-09-26

    Clean up of the toxic legacy of the Cold War is projected to be the most expensive domestic project the nation has yet undertaken. Remediation of the Department of Energy and Department of Defense toxic waste sites alone are projected to cost {approximately}$1 trillion over a 20-30 year period. New, cost effective technologies are needed to attack this enormous problem. Los Alamos has put together a cross-divisional team of scientist to develop science based bioremediation technology to work toward this goal. In the team we have expertise in: (1) molecular, ecosystem and transport modeling; (2) genetic and protein engineering; (3) microbiology and microbial ecology; (4) structural biology; and (5) bioinorganic chemistry. This document summarizes talks at a workshop of different aspects of bioremediation technology including the following: Introducing novel function into a Heme enzyme: engineering by excavation; cytochrome P-450: ideal systems for bioremediation?; selection and development of bacterial strains for in situ remediation of cholorinated solvents; genetic analysis and preparation of toluene ortho-monooxygenase for field application in remediation of trichloroethylene; microbial ecology and diversity important to bioremediation; engineering haloalkane dehalogenase for bioremediation; enzymes for oxidative biodegradation; indigenous bacteria as hosts for engineered proteins; performance of indigenous bacterial, hosting engineered proteins in microbial communities.

  2. Vortex-Based Aero- and Hydrodynamic Estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemati, Maziar Sam

    Flow control strategies often require knowledge of unmeasurable quantities, thus presenting a need to reconstruct flow states from measurable ones. In this thesis, the modeling, simulation, and estimator design aspects of flow reconstruction are considered. First, a vortex-based aero- and hydrodynamic estimation paradigm is developed to design a wake sensing algorithm for aircraft formation flight missions. The method assimilates wing distributed pressure measurements with a vortex-based wake model to better predict the state of the flow. The study compares Kalman-type algorithms with particle filtering algorithms, demonstrating that the vortex nonlinearities require particle filters to yield adequate performance. Furthermore, the observability structure of the wake is shown to have a negative impact on filter performance regardless of the algorithm applied. It is demonstrated that relative motions can alleviate the filter divergence issues associated with this observability structure. In addition to estimator development, the dissertation addresses the need for an efficient unsteady multi-body aerodynamics testbed for estimator and controller validation studies. A pure vortex particle implementation of a vortex panel-particle method is developed to satisfy this need. The numerical method is demonstrated on the impulsive startup of a flat plate as well as the impulsive startup of a multi-wing formation. It is clear, from these validation studies, that the method is able to accommodate the unsteady wake effects that arise in formation flight missions. Lastly, successful vortex-based estimation is highly dependent on the reliability of the low-order vortex model used in representing the flow of interest. The present treatise establishes a systematic framework for vortex model improvement, grounded in optimal control theory and the calculus of variations. By minimizing model predicted errors with respect to empirical data, the shortcomings of the baseline vortex model

  3. Collagen-Based Biomaterials for Tissue Engineering Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François Berthod

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Collagen is the most widely distributed class of proteins in the human body. The use of collagen-based biomaterials in the field of tissue engineering applications has been intensively growing over the past decades. Multiple cross-linking methods were investigated and different combinations with other biopolymers were explored in order to improve tissue function. Collagen possesses a major advantage in being biodegradable, biocompatible, easily available and highly versatile. However, since collagen is a protein, it remains difficult to sterilize without alterations to its structure. This review presents a comprehensive overview of the various applications of collagen-based biomaterials developed for tissue engineering, aimed at providing a functional material for use in regenerative medicine from the laboratory bench to the patient bedside.

  4. Some design considerations for ceramic components in heat engine applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyekenyesi, John P.

    1986-01-01

    The design methodology for brittle material structures which is being developed and used at the Lewis Research Center for sizing ceramic components in heat engine applications is reviewed. Theoretical aspects of designing with structural ceramics are discussed, and a general purpose reliability program for predicting fast fracture response due to volume distributed flaws is described. Statistical treatment of brittle behavior, based on the Weibull model, is reviewed and its advantages, as well as drawbacks, are listed. A mechanistic statistical fracture theory, proposed by Batdorf to overcome the Weibull model limitations and based on Griffith fracture mechanics, is summarized. Failure probability predictions are made for rotating annular Si3N4 disks using various fracture models, and the results are compared to actual failure data. The application of these design methods to Government funded ceramics engine demonstration programs is surveyed. The uncertainty in observed component performance emphasizes the need for proof testing and improved nondestructive evaluation to guarantee adequate structural integrity.

  5. Applications of computational tools in biosciences and medical engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Altenbach, Holm

    2015-01-01

     This book presents the latest developments and applications of computational tools related to the biosciences and medical engineering. It also reports the findings of different multi-disciplinary research projects, for example, from the areas of scaffolds and synthetic bones, implants and medical devices, and medical materials. It is also shown that the application of computational tools often requires mathematical and experimental methods. Computational tools such as the finite element methods, computer-aided design and optimization as well as visualization techniques such as computed axial tomography open up completely new research fields that combine the fields of engineering and bio/medical. Nevertheless, there are still hurdles since both directions are based on quite different ways of education. Often even the “language” can vary from discipline to discipline.

  6. Catastrophe theory and its application status in mechanical engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinge LIU

    Full Text Available Catastrophe theory is a kind of mathematical method which aims to apply and interpret the discontinuous phenomenon. Since its emergence, it has been widely used to explain a variety of emergent phenomena in the fields of natural science, social science, management science and some other science and technology fields. Firstly, this paper introduces the theory of catastrophe in several aspects, such as its generation, radical principle, basic characteristics and development. Secondly, it summarizes the main applications of catastrophe theory in the field of mechanical engineering, focusing on the research progress of catastrophe theory in revealing catastrophe of rotor vibration state, analyzing friction and wear failure, predicting metal fracture, and so on. Finally, it advises that later development of catastrophe theory should pay more attention to the combination of itself with other traditional nonlinear theories and methods. This paper provides a beneficial reference to guide the application of catastrophe theory in mechanical engineering and related fields for later research.

  7. The application of Hartley transform to ocean engineering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hequan Sun; Dahong Qiu; Yongxue Wang

    2003-01-01

    The Hartley transform is a real integral transform based on harmonic functions and hassome characteristics similar to the Fourier transform. Most applications in ocean engineering requiringthe Fourier transform can also be performed by the Hartley transform. The fast Hartley transform istwice faster and more convenient to handle than the corresponding fast Fourier transform, so it is a realvalued alternative to the complex Fourier transform in many applications. The use of the Hartley trans-form in ocean engineering is presented in detail in this paper, including wave spectral analysis, separationof waves, cross-correlation in PIV technique and expression of equation in the Hartley domain. The ex-amples in the paper show deeply the advantage and efficiency of the Hartley transform over the Fouriertransform.

  8. Fabrication and application of nanofibrous scaffolds in tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wan-Ju; Tuan, Rocky S

    2009-03-01

    Nanofibers fabricated by electrospinning are morphological mimics of fibrous components of the native extracellular matrix, making nanofibrous scaffolds ideal for three-dimensional cell culture and tissue engineering applications. Although electrospinning is not a conventional technique in cell biology, the experimental setup may be constructed in a relatively straightforward manner, and the procedure can be carried out by individuals with limited engineering experience. Here, we detail a protocol for electrospinning of nanofibers and provide relevant specific details concerning the optimization of fiber formation (Basic Protocol 1). The protocol also includes conditions required for preparing biodegradable polymer solutions for the fabrication of nonwoven and aligned nanofibrous scaffolds suitable for various cell/tissue applications. In addition, information on effective cell loading into nanofibrous scaffolds and cellular constructs grown in a bioreactor is provided (Basic Protocol 2). Instructions for building the electrospinning apparatus are also included (see the Support Protocol).

  9. [Flexible print circuit technology application in biomedical engineering].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Lihua; Cao, Yi; Zheng, Xiaolin

    2013-06-01

    Flexible print circuit (FPC) technology has been widely applied in variety of electric circuits with high precision due to its advantages, such as low-cost, high specific fabrication ability, and good flexibility, etc. Recently, this technology has also been used in biomedical engineering, especially in the development of microfluidic chip and microelectrode array. The high specific fabrication can help making microelectrode and other micro-structure equipment. And good flexibility allows the micro devices based on FPC technique to be easily packaged with other parts. In addition, it also reduces the damage of microelectrodes to the tissue. In this paper, the application of FPC technology in biomedical engineering is introduced. Moreover, the important parameters of FPC technique and the development trend of prosperous applications is also discussed.

  10. Microscale and nanoscale heat transfer fundamentals and engineering applications

    CERN Document Server

    Sobhan, CB

    2008-01-01

    Preface Introduction to Microscale Heat Transfer Microscale Heat Transfer: A Recent Avenue in Energy Transport State of the Art: Some Introductory Remarks Overview of Microscale Transport Phenomena Discussions on Size-Effect Behavior Fundamental Approach for Microscale Heat Transfer Introduction to Engineering Applications of Microscale Heat Transfer Microscale Heat Conduction Review of Conduction Heat Transfer Conduction at the Microscale Space and Timescales Fundamental Approach Thermal Conductivity Boltzmann Equation and Phonon Transport Conduction in Thin Films

  11. Sterilization techniques for biodegradable scaffolds in tissue engineering applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Zheng; Ronholm, Jennifer; Tian, Yiping; Sethi, Benu; Cao, Xudong

    2016-01-01

    Biodegradable scaffolds have been extensively studied due to their wide applications in biomaterials and tissue engineering. However, infections associated with in vivo use of these scaffolds by different microbiological contaminants remain to be a significant challenge. This review focuses on different sterilization techniques including heat, chemical, irradiation, and other novel sterilization techniques for various biodegradable scaffolds. Comparisons of these techniques, including their sterilization mechanisms, post-sterilization effects, and sterilization efficiencies, are discussed. PMID:27247758

  12. Nuclear magnetic resonance in environmental engineering: principles and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lens, P N; Hemminga, M A

    1998-01-01

    This paper gives an introduction to nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in relation to applications in the field of environmental science and engineering. The underlying principles of high resolution solution and solid state NMR, relaxation time measurements and imaging are presented. Then, the use of NMR is illustrated and reviewed in studies of biodegradation and biotransformation of soluble and solid organic matter, removal of nutrients and xenobiotics, fate of heavy metal ions, and transport processes in bioreactor systems.

  13. Laser Ignition Technology for Bi-Propellant Rocket Engine Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Matt; Bossard, John; Early, Jim; Trinh, Huu; Dennis, Jay; Turner, James (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation gives an overview of laser ignition technology for bipropellant rocket engines applications. The objectives of this project include: (1) the selection test chambers and flows; (2) definition of the laser ignition setup; (3) pulse format optimization; (4) fiber optic coupled laser ignition system analysis; and (5) chamber integration issues definition. The testing concludes that rocket combustion chamber laser ignition is imminent. Support technologies (multiplexing, window durability/cleaning, and fiber optic durability) are feasible.

  14. APPLICATION OF HIERARCHICAL REINFORCEMENT LEARNING IN ENGINEERING DOMAIN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI LI; Qingtai YE; Changming ZHU

    2005-01-01

    The slow convergence rate of reinforcement learning algorithms limits their wider application.In engineering domains, hierarchical reinforcement learning is developed to perform actions temporally according to prior knowledge. This system can converge fast due to reduced state space.There is a test of elevator group control to show the power of the new system. Two conventional group control algorithms are adopted as prior knowledge. Performance indicates that hierarchical reinforcement learning can reduce the learning time dramatically.

  15. Lean NOx Trap Catalysis for Lean Natural Gas Engine Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parks, II, James E [ORNL; Storey, John Morse [ORNL; Theiss, Timothy J [ORNL; Ponnusamy, Senthil [ORNL; Ferguson, Harley Douglas [ORNL; Williams, Aaron M [ORNL; Tassitano, James B [ORNL

    2007-09-01

    Distributed energy is an approach for meeting energy needs that has several advantages. Distributed energy improves energy security during natural disasters or terrorist actions, improves transmission grid reliability by reducing grid load, and enhances power quality through voltage support and reactive power. In addition, distributed energy can be efficient since transmission losses are minimized. One prime mover for distributed energy is the natural gas reciprocating engine generator set. Natural gas reciprocating engines are flexible and scalable solutions for many distributed energy needs. The engines can be run continuously or occasionally as peak demand requires, and their operation and maintenance is straightforward. Furthermore, system efficiencies can be maximized when natural gas reciprocating engines are combined with thermal energy recovery for cooling, heating, and power applications. Expansion of natural gas reciprocating engines for distributed energy is dependent on several factors, but two prominent factors are efficiency and emissions. Efficiencies must be high enough to enable low operating costs, and emissions must be low enough to permit significant operation hours, especially in non-attainment areas where emissions are stringently regulated. To address these issues the U.S. Department of Energy and the California Energy Commission launched research and development programs called Advanced Reciprocating Engine Systems (ARES) and Advanced Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines (ARICE), respectively. Fuel efficiency and low emissions are two primary goals of these programs. The work presented here was funded by the ARES program and, thus, addresses the ARES 2010 goals of 50% thermal efficiency (fuel efficiency) and <0.1 g/bhp-hr emissions of oxides of nitrogen (NOx). A summary of the goals for the ARES program is given in Table 1-1. ARICE 2007 goals are 45% thermal efficiency and <0.015 g/bhp-hr NOx. Several approaches for improving the

  16. Real cases study through computer applications for futures Agricultural Engineers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moratiel, R.; Durán, J. M.; Tarquis, A. M.

    2010-05-01

    One of the huge concerns on the higher engineer education is the lag of real cases study that the future professionals need in the work and corporation market. This concern was reflected in Bologna higher education system including recommendations in this respect. The knowhow as why this or other methodology is one of the keys to resolve this problem. In the last courses given in Department of Crop Production, at the Agronomy Engineer School of Madrid (Escuela Técnica Superior de Ingenieros Agrónomos, UPM) we have developed more than one hundred applications in Microsoft Excel®. Our aim was to show different real scenarios which the future Agronomic Engineers can be found in their professional life and with items related to crop production field. In order to achieve our target, each application in Excel presents a file text in which is explained the theoretical concepts and the objectives, as well as some resources used from Excel syntax. In this way, the student can understand and use of such application, even they can modify and customize it for a real case presented in their context and/or master project. This electronic monograph gives an answer to the need to manage data in several real scenarios showed in lectures, calculus resolution, information analysis and manage worksheets in a professional and student level.

  17. Photonics applications and web engineering: WILGA Summer 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romaniuk, Ryszard S.

    2016-09-01

    Wilga Summer 2016 Symposium on Photonics Applications and Web Engineering was held on 29 May - 06 June. The Symposium gathered over 350 participants, mainly young researchers active in optics, optoelectronics, photonics, electronics technologies and applications. There were presented around 300 presentations in a few main topical tracks including: bio-photonics, optical sensory networks, photonics-electronics-mechatronics co-design and integration, large functional system design and maintenance, Internet of Thins, and other. The paper is an introduction the 2016 WILGA Summer Symposium Proceedings, and digests some of the Symposium chosen key presentations.

  18. Generalized Linear Models with Applications in Engineering and the Sciences

    CERN Document Server

    Myers, Raymond H; Vining, G Geoffrey; Robinson, Timothy J

    2012-01-01

    Praise for the First Edition "The obvious enthusiasm of Myers, Montgomery, and Vining and their reliance on their many examples as a major focus of their pedagogy make Generalized Linear Models a joy to read. Every statistician working in any area of applied science should buy it and experience the excitement of these new approaches to familiar activities."-Technometrics Generalized Linear Models: With Applications in Engineering and the Sciences, Second Edition continues to provide a clear introduction to the theoretical foundations and key applications of generalized linear models (GLMs). Ma

  19. Orthogonal polarization in lasers physical phenomena and engineering applications

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Shulian

    2013-01-01

    This practical book summarizes the latest research results of orthogonally polarized lasers, birefringence laser cavities, and their applications. Coverage ranges from basic principles and technologies to the characteristics of different cavities and lasers to various measurement techniques. A number of figures, experimental designs, and measurement curves are included, helping readers gain a thorough understanding of the many applications in modern engineering and start their own projects. Many types of relevant lasers (Helium/Neon lasers, Nd:YAG lasers, laser diodes, etc.) are also discussed

  20. Statistical learning methods for aero-optic wavefront prediction and adaptive-optic latency compensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, W. Robert

    Since the early 1970's research in airborne laser systems has been the subject of continued interest. Airborne laser applications depend on being able to propagate a near diffraction-limited laser beam from an airborne platform. Turbulent air flowing over the aircraft produces density fluctuations through which the beam must propagate. Because the index of refraction of the air is directly related to the density, the turbulent flow imposes aberrations on the beam passing through it. This problem is referred to as Aero-Optics. Aero-Optics is recognized as a major technical issue that needs to be solved before airborne optical systems can become routinely fielded. This dissertation research specifically addresses an approach to mitigating the deleterious effects imposed on an airborne optical system by aero-optics. A promising technology is adaptive optics: a feedback control method that measures optical aberrations and imprints the conjugate aberrations onto an outgoing beam. The challenge is that it is a computationally-difficult problem, since aero-optic disturbances are on the order of kilohertz for practical applications. High control loop frequencies and high disturbance frequencies mean that adaptive-optic systems are sensitive to latency in sensors, mirrors, amplifiers, and computation. These latencies build up to result in a dramatic reduction in the system's effective bandwidth. This work presents two variations of an algorithm that uses model reduction and data-driven predictors to estimate the evolution of measured wavefronts over a short temporal horizon and thus compensate for feedback latency. The efficacy of the two methods are compared in this research, and evaluated against similar algorithms that have been previously developed. The best version achieved over 75% disturbance rejection in simulation in the most optically active flow region in the wake of a turret, considerably outperforming conventional approaches. The algorithm is shown to be

  1. Progress in the field of electrospinning for tissue engineering applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Seema; Wendorff, Joachim H; Greiner, Andreas

    2009-09-04

    Electrospinning is an extremely promising method for the preparation of tissue engineering (TE) scaffolds. This technique provides nonwovens resembling in their fibrillar structures those of the extracellular matrix (ECM), and offering large surface areas, ease of functionalization for various purposes, and controllable mechanical properties. The recent developments toward large-scale productions combined with the simplicity of the process render this technique very attractive. Progress concerning the use of electrospinning for TE applications has advanced impressively. Different groups have tackled the problem of electrospinning for TE applications from different angles. Nowadays, electrospinning of the majority of biodegradable and biocompatible polymers, either synthetic or natural, for TE applications is straightforward. Different issues, such as cell penetration, incorporation of growth and differentiating factors, toxicity of solvents used, productivity, functional gradient, etc. are main points of current considerations. The progress in the use of electrospinning for TE applications is highlighted in this article with focus on major problems encountered and on various solutions available until now.

  2. Engineering applications of a dynamical state feedback chaotification method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şahin, Savaş; Güzeliş, Cüneyt

    2012-09-01

    This paper presents two engineering applications of a chaotification method which can be applied to any inputstate linearizable (nonlinear) system including linear controllable ones as special cases. In the used chaotification method, a reference chaotic and linear system can be combined into a special form by a dynamical state feedback increasing the order of the open loop system to have the same chaotic dynamics with the reference chaotic system. Promising dc motor applications of the method are implemented by the proposed dynamical state feedback which is based on matching the closed loop dynamics to the well known Chua and also Lorenz chaotic systems. The first application, which is the chaotified dc motor used for mixing a corn syrup added acid-base mixture, is implemented via a personal computer and a microcontroller based circuit. As a second application, a chaotified dc motor with a taco-generator used in the feedback is realized by using fully analog circuit elements.

  3. Global dust model intercomparison in AeroCom phase I

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huneeus, N.; Schulz, M.; Balkanski, Y.; Griesfeller, J.; Krol, M.C.

    2011-01-01

    This study presents the results of a broad intercomparison of a total of 15 global aerosol models within the AeroCom project. Each model is compared to observations related to desert dust aerosols, their direct radiative effect, and their impact on the biogeochemical cycle, i.e., aerosol optical dep

  4. Aero-servo-viscoelasticity theory: Lifting surfaces, plates, velocity transients, flutter, and instability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrett, Craig G.

    Modern flight vehicles are fabricated from composite materials resulting in flexible structures that behave differently from the more traditional elastic metal structures. Composite materials offer a number of advantages compared to metals, such as improved strength to mass ratio, and intentional material property anisotropy. Flexible aircraft structures date from the Wright brothers' first aircraft with fabric covered wooden frames. The flexibility of the structure was used to warp the lifting surface for flight control, a concept that has reappeared as aircraft morphing. These early structures occasionally exhibited undesirable characteristics during flight such as interactions between the empennage and the aft fuselage, or control problems with the elevators. The research to discover the cause and correction of these undesirable characteristics formed the first foray into the field of aeroelasticity. Aeroelasticity is the intersection and interaction between aerodynamics, elasticity, and inertia or dynamics. Aeroelasticity is well suited for metal aircraft, but requires expansion to improve its applicability to composite vehicles. The first is a change from elasticity to viscoelasticity to more accurately capture the solid mechanics of the composite material. The second change is to include control systems. While the inclusion of control systems in aeroelasticity lead to aero-servo-elasticity, more control possibilities exist for a viscoelastic composite material. As an example, during the lay-up of carbon-epoxy plies, piezoelectric control patches are inserted between different plies to give a variety of control options. The expanded field is called aero-servo-viscoelasticity. The phenomena of interest in aero-servo-viscoelasticity are best classified according to the type of structure considered, either a lifting surface or a panel, and the type of dynamic stability present. For both types of structures, the governing equations are integral

  5. The System Concept and Its Application to Engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Aslaksen, Erik W

    2013-01-01

    Systems engineering is a mandatory approach in some industries, and is gaining wider acceptance for complex projects in general. However, under the imperative of delivering these projects on time and within budget, the focus has been mainly on the management aspects, with less attention to improving the core engineering activity – design. This book addresses the application of the system concept to design in several ways: by developing a deeper understanding of the system concept, by defining design and its characteristics within the process of engineering, and by applying the system concept to the early stage of design, where it has the greatest impact.   A central theme of the book is that the purpose of engineering is to be useful in meeting the needs of society, and that therefore the ultimate measure of the benefit of applying the system concept should be the extent to which it advances the achievement of that purpose. Consequently, any consistent, top-down development of the functionality required of...

  6. Applications of active adaptive noise control to jet engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoureshi, Rahmat; Brackney, Larry

    1993-01-01

    During phase 2 research on the application of active noise control to jet engines, the development of multiple-input/multiple-output (MIMO) active adaptive noise control algorithms and acoustic/controls models for turbofan engines were considered. Specific goals for this research phase included: (1) implementation of a MIMO adaptive minimum variance active noise controller; and (2) turbofan engine model development. A minimum variance control law for adaptive active noise control has been developed, simulated, and implemented for single-input/single-output (SISO) systems. Since acoustic systems tend to be distributed, multiple sensors, and actuators are more appropriate. As such, the SISO minimum variance controller was extended to the MIMO case. Simulation and experimental results are presented. A state-space model of a simplified gas turbine engine is developed using the bond graph technique. The model retains important system behavior, yet is of low enough order to be useful for controller design. Expansion of the model to include multiple stages and spools is also discussed.

  7. CRISPR Mediated Genome Engineering and its Application in Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaboli, Saeed; Babazada, Hasan

    2017-09-07

    The CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat)-Cas9 (CRISPR-associated nuclease 9) method has been dramatically changing the field of genome engineering. It is a rapid, highly efficient and versatile tool for precise modification of genome that uses a guide RNA (gRNA) to target Cas9 to a specific sequence. This novel RNA-guided genome-editing technique has become a revolutionary tool in biomedical science and has many innovative applications in different fields. In this review, we briefly introduce the Cas9-mediated genome-editing tool, summarize the recent advances in CRISPR/Cas9 technology to engineer the genomes of a wide variety of organisms, and discuss their applications to treatment of fungal and viral disease. We also discuss advantageous of CRISPR/Cas9 technology to drug design, creation of animal model, and to food, agricultural and energy sciences. Adoption of the CRISPR/Cas9 technology in biomedical and biotechnological researches would create innovative applications of it not only for breeding of strains exhibiting desired traits for specific industrial and medical applications, but also for investigation of genome function.

  8. Integrated evaluation of the geology, aero gamma spectrometry and aero magnetometry of the Sul-Riograndense Shield, southernmost Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartmann, Leo A.; Savian, Jairo F., E-mail: leo.hartmann@ufrgs.br [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Instituto de Geociencias; Lopes, William R. [Servico Geologico do Brasil (CPRM), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Gerencia de Geologia e Mineracao

    2016-03-15

    An integrated evaluation of geology, aero gamma spectrometry and aero magnetometry of the Sul-Riograndense Shield is permitted by the advanced stage of understanding of the geology and geochronology of the southern Brazilian Shield and a 2010 airborne geophysical survey. Gamma rays are registered from the rocks near the surface and thus describe the distribution of major units in the shield, such as the Pelotas batholith, the juvenile São Gabriel terrane, the granulite-amphibolite facies Taquarembo terrane and the numerous granite intrusions in the foreland. Major structures are also observed, e.g., the Dorsal de Cangucu shear. Magnetic signals register near surface crustal compositions (analytic signal) and total crust composition (total magnetic signal), so their variation as measured indicates either shallow or whole crustal structures. The Cacapava shear is outstanding on the images as is the magnetic low along the N-S central portion of the shield. These integrated observations lead to the deepening of the understanding of the largest and even detailed structures of the Sul-Riograndense Shield, some to be correlated to field geology in future studies. Most significant is the presence of different provinces and their limits depending on the method used for data acquisition - geology, aero gamma spectrometry or aero magnetometry. (author)

  9. Applications of Ecological Engineering Remedies for Uranium Processing Sites, USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waugh, William [Navarro Research and Engineering

    2016-05-23

    The U.S. Department of Energy (USDOE) is responsible for remediation of environmental contamination and long-term stewardship of sites associated with the legacy of nuclear weapons production during the Cold War in the United States. Protection of human health and the environment will be required for hundreds or even thousands of years at many legacy sites. USDOE continually evaluates and applies advances in science and technology to improve the effectiveness and sustainability of surface and groundwater remedies (USDOE 2011). This paper is a synopsis of ecological engineering applications that USDOE is evaluating to assess the effectiveness of remedies at former uranium processing sites in the southwestern United States. Ecological engineering remedies are predicated on the concept that natural ecological processes at legacy sites, once understood, can be beneficially enhanced or manipulated. Advances in tools for characterizing key processes and for monitoring remedy performance are demonstrating potential. We present test cases for four ecological engineering remedies that may be candidates for international applications.

  10. [Application and potential of genome engineering by artificial enzymes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, Wataru

    2015-01-01

    Artificial zinc finger proteins (ZFPs) consist of Cys2-His2-type modules composed of approximately 30 amino acids that adopt a ββα structure and coordinate a zinc ion. ZFPs recognizing specific DNA target sequences can substitute for the binding domains of various DNA-modifying enzymes to create designer nucleases, recombinases, and methylases with programmable sequence specificity. Enzymatic genome editing and modification can be applied to many fields of basic research and medicine. The recent development of new platforms using transcription activator-like effector (TALE) proteins or the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/CRISPR-associated protein (CRISPR/Cas) system has expanded the range of possibilities for genome-editing technologies. These technologies empower investigators with the ability to efficiently knockout or regulate the functions of genes of interest. In this review, we discuss historical advancements in artificial ZFP applications and important issues that may influence the future of genome editing and engineering technologies. The development of artificial ZFPs has greatly increased the feasibility of manipulating endogenous gene functions through transcriptional control and gene modification. Advances in the ZFP, TALE, and CRISPR/Cas platforms have paved the way for the next generation of genome engineering approaches. Perspectives for the future of genome engineering are also discussed, including applications of targeting specific genomic alleles and studies in synthetic biology.

  11. Computer- Aided Design in Power Engineering Application of Software Tools

    CERN Document Server

    Stojkovic, Zlatan

    2012-01-01

    This textbooks demonstrates the application of software tools in solving a series of problems from the field of designing power system structures and systems. It contains four chapters: The first chapter leads the reader through all the phases necessary in the procedures of computer aided modeling and simulation. It guides through the complex problems presenting on the basis of eleven original examples. The second chapter presents  application of software tools in power system calculations of power systems equipment design. Several design example calculations are carried out using engineering standards like MATLAB, EMTP/ATP, Excel & Access, AutoCAD and Simulink. The third chapters focuses on the graphical documentation using a collection of software tools (AutoCAD, EPLAN, SIMARIS SIVACON, SIMARIS DESIGN) which enable the complete automation of the development of graphical documentation of a power systems. In the fourth chapter, the application of software tools in the project management in power systems ...

  12. Photoreconfigurable polymers for biomedical applications: chemistry and macromolecular engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Congcong; Ninh, Chi; Bettinger, Christopher J

    2014-10-13

    Stimuli-responsive polymers play an important role in many biomedical technologies. Light responsive polymers are particularly desirable because the parameters of irradiated light and diverse photoactive chemistries produce a large number of combinations between functional materials and associated stimuli. This Review summarizes recent advances in utilizing photoactive chemistries in macromolecules for prospective use in biomedical applications. Special focus is granted to selection criterion when choosing photofunctional groups. Synthetic strategies to incorporate these functionalities into polymers and networks with different topologies are also highlighted herein. Prospective applications of these materials are discussed including programmable matrices for controlled release, dynamic scaffolds for tissue engineering, and functional coatings for medical devices. The article concludes by summarizing the state of the art in photoresponsive polymers for biomedical applications including current challenges and future opportunities.

  13. Computational intelligence in time series forecasting theory and engineering applications

    CERN Document Server

    Palit, Ajoy K

    2005-01-01

    Foresight in an engineering enterprise can make the difference between success and failure, and can be vital to the effective control of industrial systems. Applying time series analysis in the on-line milieu of most industrial plants has been problematic owing to the time and computational effort required. The advent of soft computing tools offers a solution. The authors harness the power of intelligent technologies individually and in combination. Examples of the particular systems and processes susceptible to each technique are investigated, cultivating a comprehensive exposition of the improvements on offer in quality, model building and predictive control and the selection of appropriate tools from the plethora available. Application-oriented engineers in process control, manufacturing, production industry and research centres will find much to interest them in this book. It is suitable for industrial training purposes, as well as serving as valuable reference material for experimental researchers.

  14. Intelligent computer systems in engineering design principles and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Sunnersjo, Staffan

    2016-01-01

    This introductory book discusses how to plan and build useful, reliable, maintainable and cost efficient computer systems for automated engineering design. The book takes a user perspective and seeks to bridge the gap between texts on principles of computer science and the user manuals for commercial design automation software. The approach taken is top-down, following the path from definition of the design task and clarification of the relevant design knowledge to the development of an operational system well adapted for its purpose. This introductory text for the practicing engineer working in industry covers most vital aspects of planning such a system. Experiences from applications of automated design systems in practice are reviewed based on a large number of real, industrial cases. The principles behind the most popular methods in design automation are presented with sufficient rigour to give the user confidence in applying them on real industrial problems. This book is also suited for a half semester c...

  15. Decomposition techniques in mathematical programming engineering and science applications

    CERN Document Server

    Conejo, Antonio J; Minguez, Roberto; Garcia-Bertrand, Raquel

    2006-01-01

    Optimization plainly dominates the design, planning, operation, and c- trol of engineering systems. This is a book on optimization that considers particular cases of optimization problems, those with a decomposable str- ture that can be advantageously exploited. Those decomposable optimization problems are ubiquitous in engineering and science applications. The book considers problems with both complicating constraints and complicating va- ables, and analyzes linear and nonlinear problems, with and without in- ger variables. The decomposition techniques analyzed include Dantzig-Wolfe, Benders, Lagrangian relaxation, Augmented Lagrangian decomposition, and others. Heuristic techniques are also considered. Additionally, a comprehensive sensitivity analysis for characterizing the solution of optimization problems is carried out. This material is particularly novel and of high practical interest. This book is built based on many clarifying, illustrative, and compu- tional examples, which facilitate the learning p...

  16. The applicability of chemical alternatives assessment for engineered nanomaterials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Rune; Hansen, Steffen Foss; Jacobs, Molly;

    2017-01-01

    The use of alternatives assessment to substitute hazardous chemicals with inherently safer options is gaining momentum worldwide as a legislative and corporate strategy to minimize consumer, occupational, and environmental risks. Engineered nanomaterials represent an interesting case for alternat......The use of alternatives assessment to substitute hazardous chemicals with inherently safer options is gaining momentum worldwide as a legislative and corporate strategy to minimize consumer, occupational, and environmental risks. Engineered nanomaterials represent an interesting case...... for alternatives assessment approaches as they can be considered both emerging “chemicals” of concern, as well as potentially safer alternatives to hazardous chemicals. However, comparing the hazards of nanomaterials to traditional chemicals or to other nanomaterials is challenging and critical elements...... in chemical hazard and exposure assessment may have to be fundamentally altered to sufficiently address nanomaterials. The aim of this paper is to assess the overall applicability of alternatives assessment methods for nanomaterials and outline recommendations to enhance their use in this context. This paper...

  17. Knowledge Engineering Aspects of Affective Bi-Modal Educational Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alepis, Efthymios; Virvou, Maria; Kabassi, Katerina

    This paper analyses the knowledge and software engineering aspects of educational applications that provide affective bi-modal human-computer interaction. For this purpose, a system that provides affective interaction based on evidence from two different modes has been developed. More specifically, the system's inferences about students' emotions are based on user input evidence from the keyboard and the microphone. Evidence from these two modes is combined by a user modelling component that incorporates user stereotypes as well as a multi criteria decision making theory. The mechanism that integrates the inferences from the two modes has been based on the results of two empirical studies that were conducted in the context of knowledge engineering of the system. The evaluation of the developed system showed significant improvements in the recognition of the emotional states of users.

  18. Elements of quantum computing history, theories and engineering applications

    CERN Document Server

    Akama, Seiki

    2015-01-01

    A quantum computer is a computer based on a computational model which uses quantum mechanics, which is a subfield of physics to study phenomena at the micro level. There has been a growing interest on quantum computing in the 1990's, and some quantum computers at the experimental level were recently implemented. Quantum computers enable super-speed computation, and can solve some important problems whose solutions were regarded impossible or intractable with traditional computers. This book provides a quick introduction to quantum computing for readers who have no backgrounds of both theory of computation and quantum mechanics. “Elements of Quantum Computing” presents the history, theories, and engineering applications of quantum computing. The book is suitable to computer scientists, physicist, and software engineers.

  19. Joining and Integration of Silicon Carbide for Turbine Engine Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halbig, Michael C.; Singh, Mrityunjay; Coddington, Bryan; Asthana, Rajiv

    2010-01-01

    The critical need for ceramic joining and integration technologies is becoming better appreciated as the maturity level increases for turbine engine components fabricated from ceramic and ceramic matrix composite materials. Ceramic components offer higher operating temperatures and reduced cooling requirements. This translates into higher efficiencies and lower emissions. For fabricating complex shapes, diffusion bonding of silicon carbide (SiC) to SiC is being developed. For the integration of ceramic parts to the surrounding metallic engine system, brazing of SiC to metals is being developed. Overcoming the chemical, thermal, and mechanical incompatibilities between dissimilar materials is very challenging. This presentation will discuss the types of ceramic components being developed by researchers and industry and the benefits of using ceramic components. Also, the development of strong, crack-free, stable bonds will be discussed. The challenges and progress in developing joining and integration approaches for a specific application, i.e. a SiC injector, will be presented.

  20. Mobile Timekeeping Application Built on Reverse-Engineered JPL Infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witoff, Robert J.

    2013-01-01

    Every year, non-exempt employees cumulatively waste over one man-year tracking their time and using the timekeeping Web page to save those times. This app eliminates this waste. The innovation is a native iPhone app. Libraries were built around a reverse- engineered JPL API. It represents a punch-in/punch-out paradigm for timekeeping. It is accessible natively via iPhones, and features ease of access. Any non-exempt employee can natively punch in and out, as well as save and view their JPL timecard. This app is built on custom libraries created by reverse-engineering the standard timekeeping application. Communication is through custom libraries that re-route traffic through BrowserRAS (remote access service). This has value at any center where employees track their time.

  1. An engineered plant peroxisome and its application in biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessel-Vigelius, Sarah K; Wiese, Jan; Schroers, Martin G; Wrobel, Thomas J; Hahn, Florian; Linka, Nicole

    2013-09-01

    Plant metabolic engineering is a promising tool for biotechnological applications. Major goals include enhancing plant fitness for an increased product yield and improving or introducing novel pathways to synthesize industrially relevant products. Plant peroxisomes are favorable targets for metabolic engineering, because they are involved in diverse functions, including primary and secondary metabolism, development, abiotic stress response, and pathogen defense. This review discusses targets for manipulating endogenous peroxisomal pathways, such as fatty acid β-oxidation, or introducing novel pathways, such as the synthesis of biodegradable polymers. Furthermore, strategies to bypass peroxisomal pathways for improved energy efficiency and detoxification of environmental pollutants are discussed. In sum, we highlight the biotechnological potential of plant peroxisomes and indicate future perspectives to exploit peroxisomes as biofactories. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  2. Lead-free bearing alloys for engine applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratke, Lorenz; Ågren, John; Ludwig, Andreas; Tonn, Babette; Gránásy, László; Mathiesen, Ragnvald; Arnberg, Lars; Anger, Gerd; Reifenhäuser, Bernd; Lauer, Michael; Garen, Rune; Gust, Edgar

    2005-10-01

    Recent developments to reduce the fuel consumption, emission and air pollution, size and weight of engines for automotive, truck, ship propulsion and electrical power generation lead to temperature and load conditions within the engines that cannot be borne by conventional bearings. Presently, only costly multilayer bearings with electroplated or sputtered surface coatings can cope with the load/speed combinations required. Ecological considerations in recent years led to a ban by the European Commission on the use of lead in cars a problem for the standard bronze-lead bearing material. This MAP project is therefore developing an aluminium-based lead-free bearing material with sufficient hardness, wear and friction properties and good corrosion resistance. Only alloys made of components immiscible in the molten state can meet the demanding requirements. Space experimentation plays a crucial role in optimising the cast microstructure for such applications.

  3. Application study of developmental engineering for livestock production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ushijima, Hitoshi

    2005-02-01

    This paper describes several technical improvements in developmental engineering for livestock production, including their practical utility in the field. The artificial production of monozygotic twins via embryo splitting is shown to increase embryo productivity, while embryo sexing capability provides added value without compromising offspring productivity, with both techniques being adequate for practical field applications. It is also shown that: (1) the development of nuclear transfer utilizing oocytes collected from slaughtered ovaries and matured in vitro enables producing a large number of cloned embryos, (2) the intracytoplasmic injection of somatic cell improves the productivity of nuclear transplantation, and (3) the injection of sperm increases the rate of normal oocytes with male and female pronuclei allowing further preimplantation development. Finally, the removal of cytoplasmic lipid droplets from embryos following centrifugation alters an embryo's intrinsic sensitivity to low temperature allowing long-term preservation. Collectively, these techniques have clearly provided improvements in developmental engineering for livestock production.

  4. Advanced Aero-Propulsive Mid-Lift-to-Drag Ratio Entry Vehicle for Future Exploration Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, C. H.; Stosaric, R. R; Cerimele, C. J.; Wong, K. A.; Valle, G. D.; Garcia, J. A.; Melton, J. E.; Munk, M. M.; Blades, E.; Kuruvila, G.; hide

    2012-01-01

    NASA is currently looking well into the future toward realizing Exploration mission possibilities to destinations including the Earth-Moon Lagrange points, Near-Earth Asteroids (NEAs) and the Moon. These are stepping stones to our ultimate destination Mars. New ideas will be required to conquer the significant challenges that await us, some just conceptions and others beginning to be realized. Bringing these ideas to fruition and enabling further expansion into space will require varying degrees of change, from engineering and integration approaches used in spacecraft design and operations, to high-level architectural capabilities bounded only by the limits of our ideas. The most profound change will be realized by paradigm change, thus enabling our ultimate goals to be achieved. Inherent to achieving these goals, higher entry, descent, and landing (EDL) performance has been identified as a high priority. Increased EDL performance will be enabled by highly-capable thermal protection systems (TPS), the ability to deliver larger and heavier payloads, increased surface access, and tighter landing footprints to accommodate multiple asset, single-site staging. In addition, realizing reduced cost access to space will demand more efficient approaches and reusable launch vehicle systems. Current operational spacecraft and launch vehicles do not incorporate the technologies required for these far-reaching missions and goals, nor what is needed to achieve the desired launch vehicle cost savings. To facilitate these missions and provide for safe and more reliable capabilities, NASA and its partners will need to make ideas reality by gaining knowledge through the design, development, manufacturing, implementation and flight testing of robotic and human spacecraft. To accomplish these goals, an approach is recommended for integrated development and implementation of three paradigm-shifting capabilities into an advanced entry vehicle system with additional application to launch

  5. Chitosan for gene delivery and orthopedic tissue engineering applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raftery, Rosanne; O'Brien, Fergal J; Cryan, Sally-Ann

    2013-05-15

    Gene therapy involves the introduction of foreign genetic material into cells in order exert a therapeutic effect. The application of gene therapy to the field of orthopaedic tissue engineering is extremely promising as the controlled release of therapeutic proteins such as bone morphogenetic proteins have been shown to stimulate bone repair. However, there are a number of drawbacks associated with viral and synthetic non-viral gene delivery approaches. One natural polymer which has generated interest as a gene delivery vector is chitosan. Chitosan is biodegradable, biocompatible and non-toxic. Much of the appeal of chitosan is due to the presence of primary amine groups in its repeating units which become protonated in acidic conditions. This property makes it a promising candidate for non-viral gene delivery. Chitosan-based vectors have been shown to transfect a number of cell types including human embryonic kidney cells (HEK293) and human cervical cancer cells (HeLa). Aside from its use in gene delivery, chitosan possesses a range of properties that show promise in tissue engineering applications; it is biodegradable, biocompatible, has anti-bacterial activity, and, its cationic nature allows for electrostatic interaction with glycosaminoglycans and other proteoglycans. It can be used to make nano- and microparticles, sponges, gels, membranes and porous scaffolds. Chitosan has also been shown to enhance mineral deposition during osteogenic differentiation of MSCs in vitro. The purpose of this review is to critically discuss the use of chitosan as a gene delivery vector with emphasis on its application in orthopedic tissue engineering.

  6. Lot-sizing algorithms with applications to engineering and economics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vidal, Rene Victor Valqui; Ferreira, Jose S.

    1984-01-01

    The paper presents two new solution procedures for a deterministic lot size problem, a matrix algorithm and a heuristic matrix method. The algorithm is based on the dual of a linear programming model formulation of the lot size problem, and it provides optimal solutions even in the general case...... of time-varying parameters. A comparison of the efficiency of the new solution procedures with well-known methods is developed. New applications of the techniques described within the fields of engineering (optimal design of a pump-pipe system) and economics (a model for import-planning) are referred to...

  7. Application of advanced coating techniques to rocket engine components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, S. K.

    1988-01-01

    The materials problem in the space shuttle main engine (SSME) is reviewed. Potential coatings and the method of their application for improved life of SSME components are discussed. A number of advanced coatings for turbine blade components and disks are being developed and tested in a multispecimen thermal fatigue fluidized bed facility at IIT Research Institute. This facility is capable of producing severe strains of the degree present in blades and disk components of the SSME. The potential coating systems and current efforts at IITRI being taken for life extension of the SSME components are summarized.

  8. Application Of Long Range Holography In Earthquake Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trolinger, James D.; Weber, David C.; Pardoen, Gary; Gunnarsson, G. T.; Fagan, William F.

    1990-04-01

    Holography concepts have been evaluated as nonintrusive tools that can measure earthquake effects and earthquake resistance of structures. The methods offer potential for removing limitations currently obstructing the application of advanced design techniques in civil and earthquake engineering. Methods under study can result in a capability to holographically monitor large, distant surfaces such as the face of a building, bridge foundation, liquid storage tank, or dam during interaction with geological or meteorological forces. This work included the successful demonstration that holography could be used to obtain modal information from a 3.4-meter-tall, liquid storage tank at a distance of 20 meters.

  9. Applications of CFD in Hydraulics and River Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Van Thinh; Nestmann, Franz

    2004-02-01

    In this paper, various applications and developments of CFD technology in hydraulics and river engineering are presented. Numerical studies of three-dimensional turbulent flow fields in open channels and rivers are carried out by CFD packages such as the finite element code FIDAP and finite volume code COMET. Meshing procedures are implemented by GAMBIT or CFD-GEOM. To calculate the position of the free surface two methods are applied, free surface tracking and volume-of-fluid, and some comparisons of these methods are discussed.

  10. Applications of CFD in hydraulics and river engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, V.T.; Nestmann, F. [Univ. of Karlsruhe, Civil Engineering, Karlsruhe (Germany)]. E-mail: ge27@rz.uni-karlsruhe.de; Franz.Nestmann@iwk.uni-karlsruhe.de

    2002-07-01

    In this paper various applications and developments of CFD technology in hydraulics and river engineering are presented. Numerical studies of three dimensional turbulent flow fields in open channels and rivers are carried out by CFD packages such as finite element FIDAP of Fluent and finite volume COMET of ICCM (Institute of Computational Continuum Mechanics GmbH). Meshing procedures are implemented by GAMBIT (Fluent) or CFD-GEOM (CFDRC). Especially, to calculate the position of the free surface both methods, free surface tracking and Volume-Of-Fluid (VOF), are applied. (author)

  11. Thermal barrier coatings for diesel engine exhaust applications

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    The strive to increase the engine efficiency in terms of fuel consumption and lower emissions have lead to higher demands on materials. In this thesis five different thermal barrier coatings applied using air plasma spraying to three materials commonly used for exhaust application are evaluated. This thesis work was done at Scania CV in Södertälje with main focus on evaluation during thermal cycling. The goal of this thesis is to evaluate the coatings and correlate their behaviour to their ch...

  12. Application of ionizing radiation processing in biomedical engineering and microelectronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hongfej, H.; Jilan, W.

    1988-01-01

    The applied radiation chemistry has made great contributions to the development of polymeric industrial materials by the characteristics reaction means such as crosslinking, graft copolymerization and low-temperature or solid-phase polymerization, and become a important field on peaceful use of atomic energy. A brief review on the applications of ionizing radiation processing in biomedical engineering and microelectronics is presented. The examples of this technique were the studies on biocompatible and biofunctional polymers for medical use and on resists of lithography in microelectronics.

  13. Advanced stress analysis methods applicable to turbine engine structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pian, Theodore H. H.

    1991-01-01

    The following tasks on the study of advanced stress analysis methods applicable to turbine engine structures are described: (1) constructions of special elements which contain traction-free circular boundaries; (2) formulation of new version of mixed variational principles and new version of hybrid stress elements; (3) establishment of methods for suppression of kinematic deformation modes; (4) construction of semiLoof plate and shell elements by assumed stress hybrid method; and (5) elastic-plastic analysis by viscoplasticity theory using the mechanical subelement model.

  14. Model-Driven Engineering Support for Building C# Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derezińska, Anna; Ołtarzewski, Przemysław

    Realization of Model-Driven Engineering (MDE) vision of software development requires a comprehensive and user-friendly tool support. This paper presents a UML-based approach for building trustful C# applications. UML models are refined using profiles for assigning class model elements to C# concepts and to elements of implementation project. Stereotyped elements are verified on life and during model to code transformation in order to prevent creation of an incorrect code. The Transform OCL Fragments into C# system (T.O.F.I.C.) was created as a feature of the Eclipse environment. The system extends the IBM Rational Software Architect tool.

  15. Application of Professional Software in Vehicle Engineering Electronic Control Experiment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FAN Xiao-bin; JIN Ke

    2016-01-01

    In order to overcome the limitation of vehicle engineering professional laboratory personnel and facilities, some of them is commonly used auxiliary software in the professional field for design, calculation and research, including characteristics of software, application scope and methods are presented in this paper. Through these industries aided software powerful calculation, analysis functions and convenient visualization means, for the virtual simulation experiment, it can help to clearly illustrate the concept, deepen students′understanding level of vehicle professional course, improve the enthusiasm of the students, improve the ability of autonomous learning and improve students' thinking ability and practice ability, and can effectively train high⁃quality professionals with good quality.

  16. Development of biosensors and their application in metabolic engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Jie; Jensen, Michael Krogh; Keasling, Jay

    2015-01-01

    for the desired phenotypes. However, methods available for microbial genome diversification far exceed our ability to screen and select for those variants with optimal performance. Genetically encoded biosensors have shown the potential to address this gap, given their ability to respond to small molecule binding...... and ease of implementation with high-throughput analysis. Here we describe recent progress in biosensor development and their applications in a metabolic engineering context. We also highlight examples of how biosensors can be integrated with synthetic circuits to exert feedback regulation...

  17. Structurally embedded fiber Bragg gratings: civil engineering applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nellen, Philipp M.; Broennimann, Rolf; Frank, Andreas; Mauron, Pascal; Sennhauser, Urs J.

    1999-12-01

    In civil engineering it is of interest to monitor long-term performance of structures made of new lightweight materials like glass or carbon fiber reinforced polymers (GFRP/CFRP). In contrast to surface applied optical fiber sensors, embedded sensors are expected to be better protected against rough handling and harsh environmental conditions. We report on two recently done fiber optical sensor applications in civil engineering. Both include structurally embedded fiber Bragg grating (BG) arrays but have different demands with respect to their operation. For the first application fiber BGs were embedded in GFRP rockbolts of 3 - 5 m in length either of 3, 8, or 22 mm diameter. The sensor equipped rockbolts are made for distributed measurements of boulder motion during tunnel construction and operation and should withstand strain up to 1.6%. Rockbolt sensors were field tested in a tunnel near Sargans in Switzerland. For a second application fiber BGs were embedded in CFRP wires of 5 mm diameter used for the pre- stressing cables of a 56 m long bridge near Lucerne in Switzerland. The permanent load on the cable corresponds to 0.8% strain. Due to the embedded sensors, strain decay inside the cable anchoring heads could be measured for the first time during loading and operation of the cables. For both applications mechanical and thermal loading tests were performed to assess the function of these new elements. Also, temperature and strain sensitivity were calibrated. Reliability studies with respect to stress transfer, fiber mechanical failure, and wavelength shift caused by thermal BG decay as well as monitoring results of both applications are presented.

  18. Polymeric Scaffolds in Tissue Engineering Application: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brahatheeswaran Dhandayuthapani

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Current strategies of regenerative medicine are focused on the restoration of pathologically altered tissue architectures by transplantation of cells in combination with supportive scaffolds and biomolecules. In recent years, considerable interest has been given to biologically active scaffolds which are based on similar analogs of the extracellular matrix that have induced synthesis of tissues and organs. To restore function or regenerate tissue, a scaffold is necessary that will act as a temporary matrix for cell proliferation and extracellular matrix deposition, with subsequent ingrowth until the tissues are totally restored or regenerated. Scaffolds have been used for tissue engineering such as bone, cartilage, ligament, skin, vascular tissues, neural tissues, and skeletal muscle and as vehicle for the controlled delivery of drugs, proteins, and DNA. Various technologies come together to construct porous scaffolds to regenerate the tissues/organs and also for controlled and targeted release of bioactive agents in tissue engineering applications. In this paper, an overview of the different types of scaffolds with their material properties is discussed. The fabrication technologies for tissue engineering scaffolds, including the basic and conventional techniques to the more recent ones, are tabulated.

  19. Osteochondral tissue engineering: scaffolds, stem cells and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nooeaid, Patcharakamon; Salih, Vehid; Beier, Justus P; Boccaccini, Aldo R

    2012-01-01

    Osteochondral tissue engineering has shown an increasing development to provide suitable strategies for the regeneration of damaged cartilage and underlying subchondral bone tissue. For reasons of the limitation in the capacity of articular cartilage to self-repair, it is essential to develop approaches based on suitable scaffolds made of appropriate engineered biomaterials. The combination of biodegradable polymers and bioactive ceramics in a variety of composite structures is promising in this area, whereby the fabrication methods, associated cells and signalling factors determine the success of the strategies. The objective of this review is to present and discuss approaches being proposed in osteochondral tissue engineering, which are focused on the application of various materials forming bilayered composite scaffolds, including polymers and ceramics, discussing the variety of scaffold designs and fabrication methods being developed. Additionally, cell sources and biological protein incorporation methods are discussed, addressing their interaction with scaffolds and highlighting the potential for creating a new generation of bilayered composite scaffolds that can mimic the native interfacial tissue properties, and are able to adapt to the biological environment. PMID:22452848

  20. Evaluation of Vortex Chamber Concepts for Liquid Rocket Engine Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinh, Huu Phuoc; Knuth, Williams; Michaels, Scott; Turner, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Rocket-based combined-cycle engines (RBBC) being considered at NASA for future generation launch vehicles feature clusters of small rocket thrusters as part of the engine components. Depending on specific RBBC concepts, these thrusters may be operated at various operating conditions including power level and/or propellant mixture ratio variations. To pursue technology developments for future launch vehicles, NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is examining vortex chamber concepts for the subject cycle engine application. Past studies indicated that the vortex chamber schemes potentially have a number of advantages over conventional chamber methods. Due to the nature of the vortex flow, relatively cooler propellant streams tend to flow along the chamber wall. Hence, the thruster chamber can be operated without the need of any cooling techniques. This vortex flow also creates strong turbulence, which promotes the propellant mixing process. Consequently, the subject chamber concepts not only offer the system simplicity but they also would enhance the combustion performance. The test results showed that the chamber performance was markedly high even at a low chamber length-to- diameter ratio (L/D). This incentive can be translated to a convenience in the thrust chamber packaging.

  1. Applications of chaos and nonlinear dynamics in science and engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Rondoni, Lamberto; Mitra, Mala

    Chaos and nonlinear dynamics initially developed as a new emergent field with its foundation in physics and applied mathematics. The highly generic, interdisciplinary quality of the insights gained in the last few decades has spawned myriad applications in almost all branches of science and technology—and even well beyond. Wherever the quantitative modeling and analysis of complex, nonlinear phenomena are required, chaos theory and its methods can play a key role.    This second volume concentrates on reviewing further relevant, contemporary applications of chaotic nonlinear systems as they apply to the various cutting-edge branches of engineering. This encompasses, but is not limited to, topics such as the spread of epidemics; electronic circuits; chaos control in mechanical devices; secure communication; and digital watermarking. Featuring contributions from active and leading research groups, this collection is ideal both as a reference work and as a ‘recipe book’ full of tried and tested, successf...

  2. An Application Study of Transition Surface Reconstruction in Reverse Engineering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUJing-ping; HEYu-lin; LIAOXiao-ping

    2004-01-01

    the reconstruction of transition surface is one of time consuming activities during surface modeling in reverse engineering. Yet currently available software applications suffer from shortcoming in processing the connection among free form surfaces. In this paper, a new method is put forward combining Surfacer with Unigraphics to resolve this problem: Curves and surfaces are first constructed in Surfacer, then, the finished data is imported into Unigraphics based on IGES format. At last, the transition surface can be reconstructed in Unigraphics. The application of this method in transition surface reconstruction is illustrated by means of two case studies,showing the connection between free form surfaces; filleting and rounding among multiple surfaces; transition surface between two sets of surfaces.

  3. Molecularly engineered graphene surfaces for sensing applications: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Jingquan, E-mail: jliu@qdu.edu.cn [College of Chemical Science and Engineering, Laboratory of Fiber Materials and Modern Textile, The Growing Base for State Key Laboratory, Qingdao University, Qingdao (China); Liu, Zhen; Barrow, Colin J. [Centre for Chemistry and Biotechnology, Deakin University, Geelong, VIC 3217 (Australia); Yang, Wenrong, E-mail: wenrong.yang@deakin.edu.au [Centre for Chemistry and Biotechnology, Deakin University, Geelong, VIC 3217 (Australia)

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • The importance of surface chemistry of graphene materials is clearly described. • We discuss molecularly engineered graphene surfaces for sensing applications. • We describe the latest developments of these materials for sensing technology. - Abstract: Graphene is scientifically and commercially important because of its unique molecular structure which is monoatomic in thickness, rigorously two-dimensional and highly conjugated. Consequently, graphene exhibits exceptional electrical, optical, thermal and mechanical properties. Herein, we critically discuss the surface modification of graphene, the specific advantages that graphene-based materials can provide over other materials in sensor research and their related chemical and electrochemical properties. Furthermore, we describe the latest developments in the use of these materials for sensing technology, including chemical sensors and biosensors and their applications in security, environmental safety and diseases detection and diagnosis.

  4. Surface engineering of graphene-based nanomaterials for biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Sixiang; Chen, Feng; Ehlerding, Emily B; Cai, Weibo

    2014-09-17

    Graphene-based nanomaterials have attracted tremendous interest over the past decade due to their unique electronic, optical, mechanical, and chemical properties. However, the biomedical applications of these intriguing nanomaterials are still limited due to their suboptimal solubility/biocompatibility, potential toxicity, and difficulties in achieving active tumor targeting, just to name a few. In this Topical Review, we will discuss in detail the important role of surface engineering (i.e., bioconjugation) in improving the in vitro/in vivo stability and enriching the functionality of graphene-based nanomaterials, which can enable single/multimodality imaging (e.g., optical imaging, positron emission tomography, magnetic resonance imaging) and therapy (e.g., photothermal therapy, photodynamic therapy, and drug/gene delivery) of cancer. Current challenges and future research directions are also discussed and we believe that graphene-based nanomaterials are attractive nanoplatforms for a broad array of future biomedical applications.

  5. Application of micro-seismic monitoring technology in mining engineering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Jian; Wang Lianguo; Hou Huaqiang

    2012-01-01

    Micro-seismic phenomena,occurring when rock masses are subjected to forces and failures,allow the determination of their unstable states and failure zones by analyzing micro-seismic signals.We first present the principles of micro-seismic monitoring and location,as well as an underground explosion-proof micro-seismic monitoring system.Given a practical engineering application,we describe the application of micro-seismic monitoring technology in determining the height of a "two-zone" overburden,i.e.,a caving zone and a fracture zone,the width of a coal-pillar section and the depth of failure of a floor.The workfaces monitored accomplished safe and highly efficient mining based on our micro-seismic monitoring results and provide direct proof of the reliability and validity of micro-seismic monitoring technology.

  6. A review on stereolithography and its applications in biomedical engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melchels, Ferry P W; Feijen, Jan; Grijpma, Dirk W

    2010-08-01

    Stereolithography is a solid freeform technique (SFF) that was introduced in the late 1980s. Although many other techniques have been developed since then, stereolithography remains one of the most powerful and versatile of all SFF techniques. It has the highest fabrication accuracy and an increasing number of materials that can be processed is becoming available. In this paper we discuss the characteristic features of the stereolithography technique and compare it to other SFF techniques. The biomedical applications of stereolithography are reviewed, as well as the biodegradable resin materials that have been developed for use with stereolithography. Finally, an overview of the application of stereolithography in preparing porous structures for tissue engineering is given.

  7. Light-Guided Surface Engineering for Biomedical Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayagopal, Ashwath; Stone, Gregory P.; Haselton, Frederick R.

    2010-01-01

    Free radical species generated through fluorescence photobleaching have been reported to effectively couple a water-soluble species to surfaces containing electron-rich sites (1). In this report, we expand upon this strategy to control the patterned attachment of antibodies and peptides to surfaces for biosensing and tissue engineering applications. In the first application, we compare hydrophobic attachment and photobleaching methods to immobilize FITC-labeled anti-M13K07 bacteriophage antibodies to the SiO2 layer of a differential capacitive biosensor and to the polyester filament of a feedback-controlled filament array. On both surfaces, antibody attachment and function were superior to the previously employed hydrophobic attachment. Furthermore, a laser scanning confocal microscope could be used for automated, software-guided photoattachment chemistry. In a second application, the cell-adhesion peptide RGDS was site-specifically photocoupled to glass coated with fluorescein-conjugated poly(ethylene glycol). RGDS attachment and bioactivity were characterized by a fibroblast adhesion assay. Cell adhesion was limited to sites of RGDS photocoupling. These examples illustrate that fluorophore-based photopatterning can be achieved by both solution-phase fluorophores or surface-adhered fluorophores. The coupling preserves the bioactivity of the patterned species, is amenable to a variety of surfaces, and is readily accessible to laboratories with fluorescence imaging equipment. The flexibility offered by visible light patterning will likely have many useful applications in bioscreening and tissue engineering where the controlled placement of biomolecules and cells is critical, and should be considered as an alternative to chemical coupling methods. PMID:18314938

  8. CAD/CAM/CAI Application for High-Precision Machining of Internal Combustion Engine Pistons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Postnov

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available CAD/CAM/CAI application solutions for internal combustion engine pistons machining was analyzed. Low-volume technology of internal combustion engine pistons production was proposed. Fixture for CNC turning center was designed.

  9. Preparation of laponite bioceramics for potential bone tissue engineering applications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuanshun Wang

    Full Text Available We report a facile approach to preparing laponite (LAP bioceramics via sintering LAP powder compacts for bone tissue engineering applications. The sintering behavior and mechanical properties of LAP compacts under different temperatures, heating rates, and soaking times were investigated. We show that LAP bioceramic with a smooth and porous surface can be formed at 800°C with a heating rate of 5°C/h for 6 h under air. The formed LAP bioceramic was systematically characterized via different methods. Our results reveal that the LAP bioceramic possesses an excellent surface hydrophilicity and serum absorption capacity, and good cytocompatibility and hemocompatibility as demonstrated by resazurin reduction assay of rat mesenchymal stem cells (rMSCs and hemolytic assay of pig red blood cells, respectively. The potential bone tissue engineering applicability of LAP bioceramic was explored by studying the surface mineralization behavior via soaking in simulated body fluid (SBF, as well as the surface cellular response of rMSCs. Our results suggest that LAP bioceramic is able to induce hydroxyapatite deposition on its surface when soaked in SBF and rMSCs can proliferate well on the LAP bioceramic surface. Most strikingly, alkaline phosphatase activity together with alizarin red staining results reveal that the produced LAP bioceramic is able to induce osteoblast differentiation of rMSCs in growth medium without any inducing factors. Finally, in vivo animal implantation, acute systemic toxicity test and hematoxylin and eosin (H&E-staining data demonstrate that the prepared LAP bioceramic displays an excellent biosafety and is able to heal the bone defect. Findings from this study suggest that the developed LAP bioceramic holds a great promise for treating bone defects in bone tissue engineering.

  10. Preparation of laponite bioceramics for potential bone tissue engineering applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chuanshun; Wang, Shige; Li, Kai; Ju, Yaping; Li, Jipeng; Zhang, Yongxing; Li, Jinhua; Liu, Xuanyong; Shi, Xiangyang; Zhao, Qinghua

    2014-01-01

    We report a facile approach to preparing laponite (LAP) bioceramics via sintering LAP powder compacts for bone tissue engineering applications. The sintering behavior and mechanical properties of LAP compacts under different temperatures, heating rates, and soaking times were investigated. We show that LAP bioceramic with a smooth and porous surface can be formed at 800°C with a heating rate of 5°C/h for 6 h under air. The formed LAP bioceramic was systematically characterized via different methods. Our results reveal that the LAP bioceramic possesses an excellent surface hydrophilicity and serum absorption capacity, and good cytocompatibility and hemocompatibility as demonstrated by resazurin reduction assay of rat mesenchymal stem cells (rMSCs) and hemolytic assay of pig red blood cells, respectively. The potential bone tissue engineering applicability of LAP bioceramic was explored by studying the surface mineralization behavior via soaking in simulated body fluid (SBF), as well as the surface cellular response of rMSCs. Our results suggest that LAP bioceramic is able to induce hydroxyapatite deposition on its surface when soaked in SBF and rMSCs can proliferate well on the LAP bioceramic surface. Most strikingly, alkaline phosphatase activity together with alizarin red staining results reveal that the produced LAP bioceramic is able to induce osteoblast differentiation of rMSCs in growth medium without any inducing factors. Finally, in vivo animal implantation, acute systemic toxicity test and hematoxylin and eosin (H&E)-staining data demonstrate that the prepared LAP bioceramic displays an excellent biosafety and is able to heal the bone defect. Findings from this study suggest that the developed LAP bioceramic holds a great promise for treating bone defects in bone tissue engineering.

  11. Assuring consumer safety without animals: Applications for tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westmoreland, Carl; Holmes, Anthony M

    2009-04-01

    Humans are exposed to a variety of chemicals in their everyday lives through interactions with the environment and through the use of consumer products. It is a basic requirement that these products are tested to assure they are safe under normal and reasonably foreseeable conditions of use. Within the European Union, the majority of tests used for generating toxicological data rely on animals. However recent changes in legislation (e.g., 7(th) amendment of the Cosmetics Directive and REACH) are driving researchers to develop and adopt non-animal alternative methods with which to assure human safety. Great strides have been made to this effect, but what other opportunities/technologies exist that could expedite this? Tissue engineering has increasing scope to contribute to replacing animals with scientifically robust alternatives in basic research and safety testing, but is this application of the technology being fully exploited? This review highlights how the consumer products industry is applying tissue engineering to ensure chemicals are safe for human use without using animals, and identifies areas for future development and application of the technology.

  12. XCOR AeroSpace: Providing Low Cost Access to Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-02-01

    transport anywhere in world and fly (6-8000 ft of runway needed) • Fly unpredictable times, multiple times per day, cheaply! • Small Satellite Launch...programs • Avoiding ONE failure or substantial program slip pays for the whole Lynx program many -fold UPDATE - Progress In Last 30 Days 7 •Further...troops released from delivery system – TPS built in to suits or MOOSE -like solo system – Aero deceleration high in atmosphere, GPS-guided chutes

  13. Air Force Research in Aero Propulsion Technology (AFRAPT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-09-27

    Aero Propulsion Technology (AFRAPT) 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) Profs. J. Dugundji , A. Epstein, M. Giles, E. Greitzer, M. Martinez-Sanchez, flr r T~ri 13a...Professor of Aeronautics and Astronautics Director, Gas Turbine Laboratory John Dugundji Professor, Dept. of Aeronautics and Astronautics Alan H. Epstein...Professor J. Dugundji /Professor E.M. Greitzer Project: Compressor Stabilization Through Structural Feedback Trainee: Dana Lindquist Advisor: Professor M.B

  14. Experimental Study on Aero Conductivity of Porous Media

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    To study the variation pattern of aero conductivity of different porous media under low pressure conditions, three kinds of media are selected.These include sandy clay loam, fine sand, and medium sand, and air as fluid to conduct soil column ventilation tests.Pressure at both ends of the columns is measured under different ventilation flow rates during testing.The test results show that the aero conductivity, solved by Darcy's law, is not a constant.It is a variable, which increases first when air flow velocity is less than 0.258 7 cm/ s for sandy clay loam, 0.637 3 cm/s for fine sand and then decreases when air flow velocity is bigger than that with the increase of the ventilation flow rate when the medium is determined.By analyzing various factors that influence the flow resistance, the reasons for variation in aero conductivity are found as follows: first, the change of pore structure results in better ventilation; second, the relationship between pressure head loss and air flow velocity is nonlinear, and it is beyond the condition of the laminar flow domain to which Darcy's law can be applied, when the air flow rate increases to a certain value and the flow velocity is in the transition range to turbulent flow.

  15. Application and challenges of big data in quality monitoring of highway engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Xianglin; Zhou, Chunrong

    2017-03-01

    Generation of big data brings opportunities and challenges to quality monitoring technologies of highway engineering. Big data of highway engineering quality monitoring is featured by typical "4V" characteristics. In order to deeply analyze application of big data in quality monitoring of highway engineering, the paper discusses generation, processing processes, key technologies as well as other aspects of big data of highway engineering quality monitoring. The paper analyzes storage structure, computing courses and data visualized processing processes of the big data of highway engineering quality monitoring and points out the problems and challenges encountered by application of big data in quality monitoring of highway engineering.

  16. Plasma Assisted Combustion: Fundamental Studies and Engine Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefkowitz, Joseph K.

    Successful and efficient ignition in short residence time environments or ultra-lean mixtures is a key technological challenge for the evolution of advanced combustion devices in terms of both performance and efficiency. To meet this challenge, interest in plasma assisted combustion (PAC) has expanded over the past 20 years. However, understanding of the underlying physical processes of ignition by plasma discharge remains elementary. In order to shed light on the key processes involved, two main thrusts of research were undertaken in this dissertation. First, demonstration of the applicability of plasma discharges in engines and engine-like environments was carried out using a microwave discharge and a nanosecond repetitively pulsed discharge in an internal combustion engine and a pulsed detonation engine, respectively. Major conclusions include the extension of lean ignition limits for both engines, significant reduction of ignition time for mixtures with large minimum ignition energy, and the discovery of the inter-pulse coupling effect of nanosecond repetitively pulsed (NRP) discharges at high frequency. In order to understand the kinetic processes that led to these improvements, the second thrust of research directly explored the chemical kinetic processes of plasma discharges with hydrocarbon fuels. For this purpose, a low pressure flow reactor with a NRP dielectric barrier discharge cell was assembled. The discharge cell was fitted with a Herriott type multipass mirror arrangement, which allowed quantitative laser absorption spectroscopy to be performed in situ during the plasma discharge. Experiments on methane and ethylene mixtures with oxygen, argon, and helium revealed the importance of low temperature oxidation pathways in PAC. In particular, oxygen addition reactions were shown to be of primary importance in the oxidation of these small hydrocarbons in the temperature range of 300-600 K. Kinetic modeling tools, including both a coupled plasma and

  17. Tissue Engineering Applications of Three-Dimensional Bioprinting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoying; Zhang, Yangde

    2015-07-01

    Recent advances in tissue engineering have adapted the additive manufacturing technology, also known as three-dimensional printing, which is used in several industrial applications, for the fabrication of bioscaffolds and viable tissue and/or organs to overcome the limitations of other in vitro conventional methods. 3D bioprinting technology has gained enormous attention as it enabled 3D printing of a multitude of biocompatible materials, different types of cells and other supporting growth factors into complex functional living tissues in a 3D format. A major advantage of this technology is its ability for simultaneously 3D printing various cell types in defined spatial locations, which makes this technology applicable to regenerative medicine to meet the need for suitable for transplantation suitable organs and tissues. 3D bioprinting is yet to successfully overcome the many challenges related to building 3D structures that closely resemble native organs and tissues, which are complex structures with defined microarchitecture and a variety of cell types in a confined area. An integrated approach with a combination of technologies from the fields of engineering, biomaterials science, cell biology, physics, and medicine is required to address these complexities. Meeting this challenge is being made possible by directing the 3D bioprinting to manufacture biomimetic-shaped 3D structures, using organ/tissue images, obtained from magnetic resonance imaging and computerized tomography, and employing computer-aided design and manufacturing technologies. Applications of 3D bioprinting include the generation of multilayered skin, bone, vascular grafts, heart valves, etc. The current 3D bioprinting technologies need to be improved with respect to the mechanical strength and integrity in the manufactured constructs as the presently used biomaterials are not of optimal viscosity. A better understanding of the tissue/organ microenvironment, which consists of multiple types of

  18. The applicability of chemical alternatives assessment for engineered nanomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjorth, Rune; Hansen, Steffen Foss; Jacobs, Molly; Tickner, Joel; Ellenbecker, Michael; Baun, Anders

    2017-01-01

    The use of alternatives assessment to substitute hazardous chemicals with inherently safer options is gaining momentum worldwide as a legislative and corporate strategy to minimize consumer, occupational, and environmental risks. Engineered nanomaterials represent an interesting case for alternatives assessment approaches, because they can be considered both emerging "chemicals" of concern, as well as potentially safer alternatives to hazardous chemicals. However, comparing the hazards of nanomaterials to traditional chemicals or to other nanomaterials is challenging, and critical elements in chemical hazard and exposure assessment may have to be fundamentally altered to sufficiently address nanomaterials. The aim of this paper is to assess the overall applicability of alternatives assessment methods for nanomaterials and to outline recommendations to enhance their use in this context. The present paper focuses on the adaptability of existing hazard and exposure assessment approaches to engineered nanomaterials as well as strategies to design inherently safer nanomaterials. We argue that alternatives assessment for nanomaterials is complicated by the sheer number of nanomaterials possible. As a result, the inclusion of new data tools that can efficiently and effectively evaluate nanomaterials as substitutes is needed to strengthen the alternatives assessment process. However, we conclude that with additional tools to enhance traditional hazard and exposure assessment modules of alternatives assessment, such as the use of mechanistic toxicity screens and control banding tools, alternatives assessment can be adapted to evaluate engineered nanomaterials as potential substitutes for chemicals of concern and to ensure safer nanomaterials are incorporated in the design of new products. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2017;13:177-187. © 2016 SETAC.

  19. Engineering Applications of Computational Fluid Dynamics: Volume 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maher A.R. Sadiq Al-Baghdadi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Chapter 1: CFD Modeling of Methane Reforming in Compact Reformers. Meng Ni Chapter 2: FEM Based Solution of Thermo Fluid Dynamic Phenomena in Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFCS. F. Arpino, A. Carotenuto, N. Massarotti, A. Mauro Chapter 3: Computational Fluid Dynamics in the Development of a 3D Simulator for Testing Pollution Monitoring Robotic Fishes. John Oyekan, Bowen Lu, Huosheng Hu Chapter 4: CFD Applications in Electronic Packaging. C.Y. Khor, Chun-Sean Lau, M.Z. Abdullah Chapter 5: CFD Simulation of Savonius Wind Turbine Operation. Jo?o Vicente Akwa, Adriane Prisco Petry Chapter 6: Intermittency Modelling of Transitional Boundary Layer Flows on Steam and Gas Turbine Blades. Erik Dick, Slawomir Kubacki, Koen Lodefier, Witold Elsner Chapter 7: Numerical Analysis of the Flow through Fitting in Air Conditioning Systems. N.C. Uz?rraga-Rodriguez, A. Gallegos-Mu?oz, J.M. Belman-Flores, J.C. Rubio-Arana Chapter 8: Design and Optimization of Food Processing Equipments using Computational Fluid Dynamics Modeling. N. Chhanwal and C. Anandharamakrishnan Chapter 9: Fuel and Intake Systems Optimization of a Converted LPG Engine: Steady and Unsteady in-Cylinder Flow CFD Investigations and Experiments Validation. M. A. Jemni, G. Kantchev, Z. Driss, M. S. Abid Chapter 10: Computational Fluid Dynamics Application for Thermal Management in Underground Mines. Agus P. Sasmito, Jundika C. Kurnia, Guan Mengzhao, Erik Birgersson, Arun S. Mujumdar Chapter 11: Computational Fluid Dynamics and its Applications. R.Parthiban, C.Muthuraj, A.Rajakumar

  20. Renewable energy technology from underpinning physics to engineering application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Infield, D. G.

    2008-03-01

    The UK Energy Research Centre (UKERC) in it's submission to the DTI's 2006 Energy Review reminded us that the ''UK has abundant wind, wave and tidal resources available; its mild climate lends itself to bio-energy production, and solar radiation levels are sufficient to sustain a viable solar industry''. These technologies are at different stages of development but they all draw on basic and applied Science and Engineering. The paper will briefly review the renewable energy technologies and their potential for contributing to a sustainable energy supply. Three research topics will be highlighted that bridge the gap between the physics underpinning the energy conversion, and the engineering aspects of development and deployment; all three are highly relevant to the Government's programme on micro-generation. Two are these are taken from field of thin film photovoltaics (PV), one related to novel device development and the other to a measurement technique for assessing the manufacturing quality of PV modules and their performance. The third topic concerns the development of small building integrated wind turbines and examines the complex flow associated with such applications. The paper will conclude by listing key research challenges that are central to the search for efficient and cost-effective renewable energy generation.

  1. Applications of the discrete element method in mechanical engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fleissner, Florian, E-mail: fleissner@itm.uni-stuttgart.de; Gaugele, Timo, E-mail: gaugele@itm.uni-stuttgart.de; Eberhard, Peter [University of Stuttgart, Institute of Engineering and Computational Mechanics (Germany)], E-mail: eberhard@itm.uni-stuttgart.de

    2007-08-15

    Compared to other fields of engineering, in mechanical engineering, the Discrete Element Method (DEM) is not yet a well known method. Nevertheless, there is a variety of simulation problems where the method has obvious advantages due to its meshless nature. For problems where several free bodies can collide and break after having been largely deformed, the DEM is the method of choice. Neighborhood search and collision detection between bodies as well as the separation of large solids into smaller particles are naturally incorporated in the method. The main DEM algorithm consists of a relatively simple loop that basically contains the three substeps contact detection, force computation and integration. However, there exists a large variety of different algorithms to choose the substeps to compose the optimal method for a given problem. In this contribution, we describe the dynamics of particle systems together with appropriate numerical integration schemes and give an overview over different types of particle interactions that can be composed to adapt the method to fit to a given simulation problem. Surface triangulations are used to model complicated, non-convex bodies in contact with particle systems. The capabilities of the method are finally demonstrated by means of application examples.

  2. Sonication induced silk fibroin cryogels for tissue engineering applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadakia, P. U.; Jain, E.; Hixon, K. R.; Eberlin, C. T.; Sell, S. A.

    2016-05-01

    In this study, we report a method to form macroporous silk fibroin (SF) scaffolds through a combination of ultrasonication followed by cryogelation at subzero temperatures. The resultant sonication induced SF cryogels encompassed larger pore sizes (151 ± 56 μm) and higher mechanical stability (127.15 ± 24.71 kPa) than their hydrogel counterparts made at room temperature. Furthermore, the addition of dopants like Manuka honey and bone char in SF cryogels did not affect cryogel synthesis but decreased the pore size in a concentration dependent manner. With no crack propagation at 50% strain and promising stability under cyclic loads, mineralization and cellular infiltration potential were analyzed for bone tissue engineering purposes. Although the scaffolds showed limited mineralization, encouraging cellular infiltration results yield promise for other tissue engineering applications. The use of mild processing conditions, a simplistic procedure, and the lack of organic solvents or chemical cross-linkers renders the combination of sonication and cryogelation as an attractive fabrication technique for 3D SF macroporous scaffolds.

  3. Microscale Bioadhesive Hydrogel Arrays for Cell Engineering Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Ravi Ghanshyam; Purwada, Alberto; Cerchietti, Leandro; Inghirami, Giorgio; Melnick, Ari; Gaharwar, Akhilesh K; Singh, Ankur

    2014-09-01

    Bioengineered hydrogels have been explored in cell and tissue engineering applications to support cell growth and modulate its behavior. A rationally designed scaffold should allow for encapsulated cells to survive, adhere, proliferate, remodel the niche, and can be used for controlled delivery of biomolecules. Here we report a microarray of composite bioadhesive microgels with modular dimensions, tunable mechanical properties and bulk modified adhesive biomolecule composition. Composite bioadhesive microgels of maleimide functionalized polyethylene glycol (PEG-MAL) with interpenetrating network (IPN) of gelatin ionically cross-linked with silicate nanoparticles were engineered by integrating microfabrication with Michael-type addition chemistry and ionic gelation. By encapsulating clinically relevant anchorage-dependent cervical cancer cells and suspension leukemia cells as cell culture models in these composite microgels, we demonstrate enhanced cell spreading, survival, and metabolic activity compared to control gels. The composite bioadhesive hydrogels represent a platform that could be used to study independent effect of stiffness and adhesive ligand density on cell survival and function. We envision that such microarrays of cell adhesive microenvironments, which do not require harsh chemical and UV crosslinking conditions, will provide a more efficacious cell culture platform that can be used to study cell behavior and survival, function as building blocks to fabricate 3D tissue structures, cell delivery systems, and high throughput drug screening devices.

  4. Probability with applications in engineering, science, and technology

    CERN Document Server

    Carlton, Matthew A

    2014-01-01

    This book provides a contemporary and lively postcalculus introduction to the subject of probability.  The exposition reflects a desirable balance between fundamental theory and many applications involving a broad range of real problem scenarios.   It is intended to appeal to a wide audience, including mathematics and statistics majors, prospective engineers and scientists, and those business and social science majors interested in the quantitative aspects of their disciplines.  A one-term course would cover material in the core chapters (1-4), hopefully supplemented by selections from one or more of the remaining chapters on statistical inference (Ch. 5), Markov chains (Ch. 6), stochastic processes (Ch. 7), and signal processing (Ch. 8). The last chapter is specifically designed for electrical and computer engineers, making the book suitable for a one-term class on random signals and noise. Alternatively, there is certainly enough material for those lucky enough to be teaching or taking a year-long cours...

  5. Hydroxyapatite-titanium bulk composites for bone tissue engineering applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Alok; Biswas, Krishanu; Basu, Bikramjit

    2015-02-01

    The research work on bulk hydroxyapatite (HA)-based composites are driven by the need to develop biomaterials with better mechanical properties without compromising its bioactivity and biocompatibility properties. Despite several years of research, the mechanical properties of the HA-based composites still need to be enhanced to match the properties of natural cortical bone. In this regard, the scope of this review on the HA-based bulk biomaterials is limited to the processing and the mechanical as well as biocompatibility properties for bone tissue engineering applications of a model system that is hydroxyapatite-titanium (HA-Ti) bulk composites. It will be discussed in this review how HA-Ti based bulk composites can be processed to have better fracture toughness and strength without compromising biocompatibility. The advantages of the functionally gradient materials to integrate the mechanical and biocompatibility properties is a promising approach in hard tissue engineering and has been emphasized here in reference to the limited literature reports. On the biomaterials fabrication aspect, the recent results are discussed to demonstrate that advanced manufacturing techniques, like spark plasma sintering can be adopted as a processing route to restrict the sintering reactions, while enhancing the mechanical properties. Various toughening mechanisms related to careful tailoring of microstructure are discussed. The in vitro cytocompatibilty, cell fate processes as well as in vivo biocompatibility results are also reviewed and the use of flow cytometry to quantify in vitro cell fate processes is being emphasized. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Hairy Root and Its Application in Plant Genetic Engineering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Agrobacterium rhizogenes Conn. causes hairy root disease in plants. Hairy root-infected A. rhizogenes is characterized by a high growth rate and genetic stability. Hairy root cultures have been proven to be an efficient means of producing secondary metabolites that are normally biosynthesized in roots of differentiated plants.Furthermore, a transgenic root system offers tremendous potential for introducing additional genes along with the Ri plasmid, especially with modified genes, into medicinal plant cells with A. rhizogenes vector systems.The cultures have turned out to be a valuable tool with which to study the biochemical properties and the gene expression profile of metabolic pathways. Moreover, the cultures can be used to elucidate the intermediates and key enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites. The present article discusses various applications of hairy root cultures in plant genetic engineering and potential problems associated with them.

  7. Applications of distributed fiber Bragg grating sensors in civil engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nellen, Philipp M.; Broennimann, Rolf; Sennhauser, Urs J.; Askins, Charles G.; Putnam, Martin A.

    1995-09-01

    We report on civil engineering applications of wavelength multiplexed optical-fiber Bragg grating arrays produced directly on the draw tower for testing and surveying advanced structures and material like carbon fiber reinforced concrete elements and prestressing tendons. We equipped a 6 m X 0.9 m X 0.5 m concrete cantilever beam reinforced with carbon fiber lamellas with fiber Bragg grating sensors. Static and dynamic strain levels up to 1500 micrometers /m were measured with a Michelson interferometer used as Fourier spectrometer with resolutions of about 10 micrometers /m for all sensors. Comparative measurements with electrical resistance strain gauges were in good agreement with the fiber optic results. We used the fiber sensors in two different arrangements: some Bragg grating array elements measured the local strain while others were configured in an extensometric way to measure moderate strain over 0.1-1 m.

  8. Development of Desktop Computing Applications and Engineering Tools on GPUs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Hans Henrik Brandenborg; Glimberg, Stefan Lemvig; Hansen, Toke Jansen

    (GPUs) for high-performance computing applications and software tools in science and engineering, inverse problems, visualization, imaging, dynamic optimization. The goals are to contribute to the development of new state-of-the-art mathematical models and algorithms for maximum throughout performance......GPULab - A competence center and laboratory for research and collaboration within academia and partners in industry has been established in 2008 at section for Scientific Computing, DTU informatics, Technical University of Denmark. In GPULab we focus on the utilization of Graphics Processing Units......, improved performance profiling tools and assimilation of results to academic and industrial partners in our network. Our approaches calls for multi-disciplinary skills and understanding of hardware, software development, profiling tools and tuning techniques, analytical methods for analysis and development...

  9. Computer graphics application in the engineering design integration system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glatt, C. R.; Abel, R. W.; Hirsch, G. N.; Alford, G. E.; Colquitt, W. N.; Stewart, W. A.

    1975-01-01

    The computer graphics aspect of the Engineering Design Integration (EDIN) system and its application to design problems were discussed. Three basic types of computer graphics may be used with the EDIN system for the evaluation of aerospace vehicles preliminary designs: offline graphics systems using vellum-inking or photographic processes, online graphics systems characterized by direct coupled low cost storage tube terminals with limited interactive capabilities, and a minicomputer based refresh terminal offering highly interactive capabilities. The offline line systems are characterized by high quality (resolution better than 0.254 mm) and slow turnaround (one to four days). The online systems are characterized by low cost, instant visualization of the computer results, slow line speed (300 BAUD), poor hard copy, and the early limitations on vector graphic input capabilities. The recent acquisition of the Adage 330 Graphic Display system has greatly enhanced the potential for interactive computer aided design.

  10. The Application of Quantum Energy Saver on Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Xiong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to reduce diesel fuel consumption, this paper conducts the research in view of a new type of quantum energy saving device, and then produce the sample and applied on automobile engine, Detect fuel use of an automobile by automobile fuel saving technology as-sessment methods from the department of transportation. Compare the changes of fuel use be-fore and after installation of quantum energy saving device on the same car, and give the feed-back of energy saving capability. The result shows, after installed quantum energy saver, both fuel consumption and the smoke of tail gas has decreased. The analysis and application of this paper carry out the conclusion that the quantum energy saver can play an important role in en-ergy saving and emission reduction, and provide a reference for other related research.

  11. Introduction to computational mass transfer with applications to chemical engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Kuo-Tsong

    2014-01-01

    This book presents a new computational methodology called Computational Mass Transfer (CMT). It offers an approach to rigorously simulating the mass, heat and momentum transfer under turbulent flow conditions with the help of two newly published models, namely the C’2—εC’ model and the Reynolds  mass flux model, especially with regard to predictions of concentration, temperature and velocity distributions in chemical and related processes. The book will also allow readers to understand the interfacial phenomena accompanying the mass transfer process and methods for modeling the interfacial effect, such as the influences of Marangoni convection and Rayleigh convection. The CMT methodology is demonstrated by means of its applications to typical separation and chemical reaction processes and equipment, including distillation, absorption, adsorption and chemical reactors. Professor Kuo-Tsong Yu is a Member of the Chinese Academy of Sciences. Dr. Xigang Yuan is a Professor at the School of Chemical Engine...

  12. Cell surface engineering of yeast for applications in white biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroda, Kouichi; Ueda, Mitsuyoshi

    2011-01-01

    Cell surface engineering is a promising strategy for the molecular breeding of whole-cell biocatalysts. By using this strategy, yeasts can be constructed by the cell surface display of functional proteins; these yeasts are referred to as arming yeasts. Because reactions using arming yeasts as whole-cell biocatalysts occur on the cell surface, materials that cannot enter the cell can be used as reaction substrates. Numerous arming yeasts have therefore been constructed for a wide range of uses such as biofuel production, synthesis of valuable chemicals, adsorption or degradation of environmental pollutants, recovery of rare metal ions, and biosensors. Here, we review the science of yeast cell surface modification as well as current applications and future opportunities.

  13. Application of GIS in hydrogeology and engineering geology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Mihalová

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogeology as a specific science discipline has a multi spectral interest focused to officiating sources in drink water and utilization water and also in area aimed for pure mineral water sources. Although engineering geology works exercise with piece of knowledge, geosciences are focused to territorial planning, investment construction and protection environment. Application of GIS in appointed problems purvey possibility quality, quick and high special analysis appointed problems and take advantage all accessible quality and quantity related information of water focused to hydrogeology, as to occurrence varied basement soil, appropriate for building activity, possibly appointed for protection. Solution of this probleme is on first name terms definite interest area, as to adjudication sources focused economic significance state.

  14. Development of biosensors and their application in metabolic engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jie; Jensen, Michael K; Keasling, Jay D

    2015-10-01

    In a sustainable bioeconomy, many commodities and high value chemicals, including pharmaceuticals, will be manufactured using microbial cell factories from renewable feedstocks. These cell factories can be efficiently generated by constructing libraries of diversified genomes followed by screening for the desired phenotypes. However, methods available for microbial genome diversification far exceed our ability to screen and select for those variants with optimal performance. Genetically encoded biosensors have shown the potential to address this gap, given their ability to respond to small molecule binding and ease of implementation with high-throughput analysis. Here we describe recent progress in biosensor development and their applications in a metabolic engineering context. We also highlight examples of how biosensors can be integrated with synthetic circuits to exert feedback regulation on the metabolism for improved performance of cell factories. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. 2nd International Conference on Advanced Engineering : Theory and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Dao, Tran; Zelinka, Ivan; Choi, Hyeung-Sik; Chadli, Mohammed

    2016-01-01

    This proceeding book consists of 10 topical areas of selected papers like: telecommunication, power systems, robotics, control system, renewable energy, power electronics, computer science and more. All selected papers represent interesting ideas and state of the art overview. Readers will find interesting papers of those areas about design and implement of dynamic positioning control system for USV, scheduling problems, motor control, backtracking search algorithm for distribution network and others. All selected papers represent interesting ideas and state of art overview. The proceeding book will also be a resource and material for practitioners who want to apply discussed problems to solve real-life problems in their challenging applications. It is also devoted to the studies of common and related subjects in intensive research fields of modern electric, electronic and related technologies. For these reasons, we believe that this proceeding book will be useful for scientists and engineers working in the ...

  16. Laser-activated remote phosphor light engine for projection applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Martin; Mehl, Oliver; Hartwig, Ulrich

    2015-09-01

    Recent developments in blue emitting laser diodes enable attractive solutions in projection applications using phosphors for efficient light conversion with very high luminance levels. Various commercially available projectors incorporating this technology have entered the market in the past years. While luminous flux levels are still comparable to lamp-based systems, lifetime expectations of classical lamp systems are exceeded by far. OSRAM GmbH has been exploring this technology for several years and has introduced the PHASER® brand name (Phosphor + laser). State-of-the-art is a rotating phosphor wheel excited by blue laser diodes to deliver the necessary primary colors, either sequentially for single-imager projection engines, or simultaneously for 3-panel systems. The PHASER® technology enables flux and luminance scaling, which allows for smaller imagers and therefore cost-efficient projection solutions. The resulting overall efficiency and ANSI lumen specification at the projection screen of these systems is significantly determined by the target color gamut and the light transmission efficiency of the projection system. With increasing power and flux level demand, thermal issues, especially phosphor conversion related, dominate the opto-mechanical system design requirements. These flux levels are a great challenge for all components of an SSL-projection system (SSL:solid-state lighting). OSRAḾs PHASER® light engine platform is constantly expanded towards higher luminous flux levels as well as higher luminance levels for various applications. Recent experiments employ blue laser pump powers of multiple 100 Watts to excite various phosphors resulting in luminous flux levels of more than 40 klm.

  17. Simulation of Laser Cooling and Trapping in Engineering Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez-Serrano, Jaime; Kohel, James; Thompson, Robert; Yu, Nan; Lunblad, Nathan

    2005-01-01

    An advanced computer code is undergoing development for numerically simulating laser cooling and trapping of large numbers of atoms. The code is expected to be useful in practical engineering applications and to contribute to understanding of the roles that light, atomic collisions, background pressure, and numbers of particles play in experiments using laser-cooled and -trapped atoms. The code is based on semiclassical theories of the forces exerted on atoms by magnetic and optical fields. Whereas computer codes developed previously for the same purpose account for only a few physical mechanisms, this code incorporates many more physical mechanisms (including atomic collisions, sub-Doppler cooling mechanisms, Stark and Zeeman energy shifts, gravitation, and evanescent-wave phenomena) that affect laser-matter interactions and the cooling of atoms to submillikelvin temperatures. Moreover, whereas the prior codes can simulate the interactions of at most a few atoms with a resonant light field, the number of atoms that can be included in a simulation by the present code is limited only by computer memory. Hence, the present code represents more nearly completely the complex physics involved when using laser-cooled and -trapped atoms in engineering applications. Another advantage that the code incorporates is the possibility to analyze the interaction between cold atoms of different atomic number. Some properties that cold atoms of different atomic species have, like cross sections and the particular excited states they can occupy when interacting with each other and light fields, play important roles not yet completely understood in the new experiments that are under way in laboratories worldwide to form ultracold molecules. Other research efforts use cold atoms as holders of quantum information, and more recent developments in cavity quantum electrodynamics also use ultracold atoms to explore and expand new information-technology ideas. These experiments give a hint

  18. Application of thermal barrier coating in a Diesel engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buyukkaya, E. [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Sakarya Univ., Sakarya (Turkey); Demirkiran, A.S. [Dept. of Metallurgical and Materials Science Engineering, Sakarya Univ., Sakarya (Turkey); Cerit, M.

    2004-07-01

    In this study, an investigation of the effects of ceramic coatings on Diesel engine performance and exhaust emissions was presented. Tests were carried out a range of engine speeds at low, middle and high load conditions for a standard engine and a ceramic-coated engine. Cylinder head and valves of an engine were coated with a 0.35 mm thickness of CaZrO{sub 3} over a 0.15 mm thickness of NiCrAl bond coat. Pistons were also coated with MgZrO{sub 3}. The coatings were produced using atmospheric plasma spray technique. Specific fuel consumption values of insulated engine were lower than standard engine (about 1-6%). Due to the better combustion efficiency in the coated engine, particulate emissions were lower than the standard engine (about 48%). (orig.)

  19. Application for certification 1982 model year heavy-duty diesel engines - General Motors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-01-01

    Every year, each manufacturer of passenger cars, light-duty trucks, motorcycles, or heavy-duty engines submits to EPA an application for certification. In the application, the manufacturer gives a detailed technical description of the vehicles or engines he intends to market during the upcoming model year. These engineering data include explanations and/or drawings which describe engine/vehicle parameters such as basic engine design, fuel systems, ignition systems and exhaust and evaporative emission control systems. It also provides information on emission test procedures, service accumulation procedures, fuels to be used, and proposed maintenance requirements to be followed during testing.

  20. Optimal Solution for an Engineering Applications Using Modified Artificial Immune System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padmanabhan, S.; Chandrasekaran, M.; Ganesan, S.; patan, Mahamed Naveed Khan; Navakanth, Polina

    2017-03-01

    An Engineering optimization leads a essential role in several engineering application areas like process design, product design, re-engineering and new product development, etc. In engineering, an awfully best answer is achieved by comparison to some completely different solutions by utilization previous downside information. An optimization algorithms provide systematic associate degreed economical ways that within which of constructing and comparison new design solutions so on understand at best vogue, thus on best solution efficiency and acquire the foremost wonderful design impact. In this paper, a new evolutionary based Modified Artificial Immune System (MAIS) algorithm used to optimize an engineering application of gear drive design. The results are compared with existing design.

  1. Building information modelling review with potential applications in tunnel engineering of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Weihong; Qin, Haiyang; Qiu, Junling; Fan, Haobo; Lai, Jinxing; Wang, Ke; Wang, Lixin

    2017-08-01

    Building information modelling (BIM) can be applied to tunnel engineering to address a number of problems, including complex structure, extensive design, long construction cycle and increased security risks. To promote the development of tunnel engineering in China, this paper combines actual cases, including the Xingu mountain tunnel and the Shigu Mountain tunnel, to systematically analyse BIM applications in tunnel engineering in China. The results indicate that BIM technology in tunnel engineering is currently mainly applied during the design stage rather than during construction and operation stages. The application of BIM technology in tunnel engineering covers many problems, such as a lack of standards, incompatibility of different software, disorganized management, complex combination with GIS (Geographic Information System), low utilization rate and poor awareness. In this study, through summary of related research results and engineering cases, suggestions are introduced and an outlook for the BIM application in tunnel engineering in China is presented, which provides guidance for design optimization, construction standards and later operation maintenance.

  2. Engineering water repellency in granular materials for ground applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lourenco, Sergio; Saulick, Yunesh; Zheng, Shuang; Kang, Hengyi; Liu, Deyun; Lin, Hongjie

    2017-04-01

    Synthetic water repellent granular materials are a novel technology for constructing water-tight barriers and fills that is both inexpensive and reliant on an abundant local resource - soils. Our research is verifying its stability, so that perceived risks to practical implementation are identified and alleviated. Current ground stabilization measures are intrusive and use concrete, steel, and glass fibres as reinforcement elements (e.g. soil nails), so more sustainable approaches that require fewer raw materials are strongly recommended. Synthetic water repellent granular materials, with persistent water repellency, have been tested for water harvesting and proposed as landfill and slope covers. By chemically, physically and biologically adjusting the magnitude of water repellency, they offer the unique advantage of controlling water infiltration and allow their deployment as semi-permeable or impermeable materials. Other advantages include (1) volumetric stability, (2) high air permeability and low water permeability, (3) suitability for flexible applications (permanent and temporary usage), (4) improved adhesion aggregate-bitumen in pavements. Application areas include hydraulic barriers (e.g. for engineered slopes and waste containment), pavements and other waterproofing systems. Chemical treatments to achieve water repellency include the use of waxes, oils and silicone polymers which affect the soil particles at sub-millimetric scales. To date, our research has been aimed at demonstrating their use as slope covers and establishing the chemical compounds that develop high and stable water repellency. Future work will determine the durability of the water repellent coatings and the mechanics and modelling of processes in such soils.

  3. Applications of Chondrocyte-Based Cartilage Engineering: An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul-Rehman Phull

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Chondrocytes are the exclusive cells residing in cartilage and maintain the functionality of cartilage tissue. Series of biocomponents such as different growth factors, cytokines, and transcriptional factors regulate the mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs differentiation to chondrocytes. The number of chondrocytes and dedifferentiation are the key limitations in subsequent clinical application of the chondrocytes. Different culture methods are being developed to overcome such issues. Using tissue engineering and cell based approaches, chondrocytes offer prominent therapeutic option specifically in orthopedics for cartilage repair and to treat ailments such as tracheal defects, facial reconstruction, and urinary incontinence. Matrix-assisted autologous chondrocyte transplantation/implantation is an improved version of traditional autologous chondrocyte transplantation (ACT method. An increasing number of studies show the clinical significance of this technique for the chondral lesions treatment. Literature survey was carried out to address clinical and functional findings by using various ACT procedures. The current study was conducted to study the pharmacological significance and biomedical application of chondrocytes. Furthermore, it is inferred from the present study that long term follow-up studies are required to evaluate the potential of these methods and specific positive outcomes.

  4. Engineered soy oils for new value added applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Phuong T.

    Soybean oil is an abundant annually renewable resource. It is composed of triglycerides with long chain saturated and unsaturated fatty acids. The presence of unsaturated fatty acids allows for chemical modification to introduce new functionalities to soybean oil. A portfolio of chemically modified soy oil with suitable functional groups has been designed and engineered to serve as the starting material in applications such as polyamides, polyesters, polyurethanes, composites, and lubricants. Anhydride, hydroxyl, and silicone functionalities were introduced to soy oil. Anhydride functionality was introduced using a single-step free radical initiated process, and the chemically modified soy oils were evaluated for potential applications as a composite and lubricant. Hydroxyl functionalities were introduced in a single-step catalytic ozonolysis process recently developed in our labs, which proceeds rapidly and efficiently at room temperature without solvent. The transformed soy oil was used to successfully prepare bio-lubricants with good thermal/oxidative stability and bio-plastics such as polyamides, polyesters, and polyurethanes. A new class of organic-inorganic hybrid materials was prepared by curing vinyltrimethoxysilane functionalized soy oil. This hybrid material could have potential as biobased sealant through a moisture initiated room temperature cure. These new classes of soy-based materials are competitive both in cost and performance to petroleum based materials, but offer the advantage of being biobased.

  5. Applications of Chondrocyte-Based Cartilage Engineering: An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eo, Seong-Hui; Abbas, Qamar; Ahmed, Madiha

    2016-01-01

    Chondrocytes are the exclusive cells residing in cartilage and maintain the functionality of cartilage tissue. Series of biocomponents such as different growth factors, cytokines, and transcriptional factors regulate the mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) differentiation to chondrocytes. The number of chondrocytes and dedifferentiation are the key limitations in subsequent clinical application of the chondrocytes. Different culture methods are being developed to overcome such issues. Using tissue engineering and cell based approaches, chondrocytes offer prominent therapeutic option specifically in orthopedics for cartilage repair and to treat ailments such as tracheal defects, facial reconstruction, and urinary incontinence. Matrix-assisted autologous chondrocyte transplantation/implantation is an improved version of traditional autologous chondrocyte transplantation (ACT) method. An increasing number of studies show the clinical significance of this technique for the chondral lesions treatment. Literature survey was carried out to address clinical and functional findings by using various ACT procedures. The current study was conducted to study the pharmacological significance and biomedical application of chondrocytes. Furthermore, it is inferred from the present study that long term follow-up studies are required to evaluate the potential of these methods and specific positive outcomes. PMID:27631002

  6. Engineering and Applications of fungal laccases for organic synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ballesteros Antonio

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Laccases are multi-copper containing oxidases (EC 1.10.3.2, widely distributed in fungi, higher plants and bacteria. Laccase catalyses the oxidation of phenols, polyphenols and anilines by one-electron abstraction, with the concomitant reduction of oxygen to water in a four-electron transfer process. In the presence of small redox mediators, laccase offers a broader repertory of oxidations including non-phenolic substrates. Hence, fungal laccases are considered as ideal green catalysts of great biotechnological impact due to their few requirements (they only require air, and they produce water as the only by-product and their broad substrate specificity, including direct bioelectrocatalysis. Thus, laccases and/or laccase-mediator systems find potential applications in bioremediation, paper pulp bleaching, finishing of textiles, bio-fuel cells and more. Significantly, laccases can be used in organic synthesis, as they can perform exquisite transformations ranging from the oxidation of functional groups to the heteromolecular coupling for production of new antibiotics derivatives, or the catalysis of key steps in the synthesis of complex natural products. In this review, the application of fungal laccases and their engineering by rational design and directed evolution for organic synthesis purposes are discussed.

  7. Lattice Boltzmann method and its applications in engineering thermophysics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE YaLing; LI Qing; WANG Yong; TANG GuiHua

    2009-01-01

    The lattice Boltzmann method (LBM),a mesoscopic method between the molecular dynamics method and the conventional numerical methods,has been developed into a very efficient numerical alternative in the past two decades.Unlike conventional numerical methods,the kinetic theory based LBM simulates fluid flows by tracking the evolution of the particle distribution function,and then accumulates the distribution to obtain macroscopic averaged properties.In this article we review some work on LBM applications in engineering thermophysics:(1) brief introduction to the development of the LBM; (2)fundamental theory of LBM including the Boltzmann equation,Maxwell distribution function,Boltzmann-BGK equation,and the lattice Boltzmann-BGK equation; (3) lattice Boltzmann models for compressible flows and non-equilibrium gas flows,bounce back-specular-reflection boundary scheme for microscale gaseous flows,the mass modified outlet boundary scheme for fully developed flows,and an implicit-explicit finite-difference-based LBM; and (4) applications of the LBM to oscillating flow,compressible flow,porous media flow,non-equilibrium flow,and gas resonant oscillating flow.

  8. Laser processing of ormosils for tissue engineering applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matei, A.; Zamfirescu, M.; Radu, C.; Dinescu, M.; Buruiana, E. C.; Buruiana, T.; Sima, L. E.; Petrescu, S. M.

    2011-09-01

    Hybrid methacrylates based on silane derivates (ormosils) have been considered for applications in electronics, microtechnology, corrosion resistant coatings, dentistry, and biomedical implants. The presence of both inorganic chains, responsible for chemical and thermal stability, hardness, and transparency, and organic groups, which bring new advantages such as the possibility of functionalization and easy, low temperature processing, can result in the appearance of unique properties. 2D structures of hybrid polymers were produced by Two Photon Polymerization (2PP). A Ti: Sapphire laser having 200 fs pulse duration and 2 kHz repetition rate, working at a wavelength of 775 nm, was used for the 2PP experiments. The biocompatibility of the obtained structures (scaffolds) was tested in different cell cultures, which is a first step toward exploring their potential for applications in tissue engineering. Cells morphology, adhesion, and alignment were studied on polymeric structures with different shapes, obtained in various experimental conditions. Their interaction with normal human epidermal melanocytes (NHEM) and dysplastic oral keratinocytes (DOK) was investigated, with the aim of obtaining an epidermal graft.

  9. Engineering photo-plasmonic devices for spectroscopy and sensing applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasquale, Alyssa J.

    The control of light on the nano-scale has driven the development of novel optical devices such as biosensors, antennas and guiding elements. These applications benefit from the distinctive resonant properties of noble metal thin films and nanoparticles. Many optimization parameters exist in order to engineer nanoparticle properties for spectroscopy and sensing applications: for example, the choice of metal, the particle morphology, and the array geometry. By utilizing various designs from simple monomer gratings to more complex engineered arrays, we model and characterize plasmonic arrays for sensing applications. In this thesis, I have focused on the novel paradigm of photonic-plasmonic coupling to design, fabricate, and characterize optimized nanosensors. In particular, nanoplasmonic necklaces, which consist of circular loops of closely spaced gold nanoparticles, are designed using 3D finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) simulations, fabricated with electron-beam lithography, and characterized using dark-field scattering and surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) of p-mercaptoaniline (pMA) monolayers. I show that such necklaces are able to support hybridized dipolar scattering resonances and polarization-controlled electromagnetic hot-spots. In addition, necklaces exhibit strong intensity enhancement when the necklace diameter leads to coupling between the broadband plasmonic resonance and the circular resonator structure of the necklace. Hence, these necklaces lead to stronger field intensity enhancement than nanoparticle monomers and dimers, which are also carefully studied. Furthermore, by embedding a dimer into one or more concentric necklace resonators, I am able to efficiently couple radiation into the dimer hot-spot by utilizing first- and second-order far-field coupling. This nanolensing leads to an order of 6-18 times improvement in Raman enhancement over isolated dimers, which is a promising platform for compact on-chip sensors. Additionally, I

  10. Engineered Plant Minichromosome and Its Application in Genomics and Genetic Engineering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Engineered minichromosomes have been constructed as novel artificial chromosome platforms for future genetic engineering in maize.We demonstrated that minichromosomes could be created by telomere-mediated chromosomal truncation of both normal A chromosomes and the supernumerary B

  11. Deployable Engine Air-Brake for Drag Management Applications Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ATA Engineering, Inc., (ATA) proposes a Phase II SBIR program to demonstrate an innovative engine air-brake (EAB) technology that uses a deployable swirl vane...

  12. Deployable Engine Air-Brake for Drag Management Applications Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ATA Engineering, Inc, proposes an SBIR program to demonstrate an innovative engine air-brake (EAB) technology that uses a deployable swirl vane mechanism to switch...

  13. The United Stirling P40 engine for solar dish concentrator application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortegren, L.; Sjostedt, L. E.

    1980-01-01

    The United Stirling P40 engine is a key component in a solar concentration based energy conversion system, to be demonstrated and tested during 1980-81. The inherent characteristics of modern Stirling engines is reviewed focusing on the baseline P40 double-acting engine. The extent of modifications required for the solar application is reviewed and performance data are predicted. Finally, the potential of an advanced solar Stirling engine is briefly considered.

  14. 78 FR 56589 - Airworthiness Directives; PIAGGIO AERO INDUSTRIES S.p.A Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-13

    .... Request To Change Compliance Time From Hours Time-in-Service (TIS) to Landings Carlo Cardu of PIAGGIO AERO... Change the Requirement To Replace the Main Landing Gear (MLG) Lever Hinge Fitting (LHF) Carlo Cardu of... Clarify Inspection Requirements for Newly Installed MLG Carlo Cardu of PIAGGIO AERO INDUSTRIES...

  15. Update of development on the new Audi NSU rotary engine generation. [for application to aircraft engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanbasshuysen, R.

    1978-01-01

    Rotary engines with a chamber volume of 750 cc as a two rotor automotive powerplant, called KKM 871 are described. This engine is compared to a 3 liter or 183 cubic inch, six-cylinder reciprocating engine. Emphasis is placed on exhaust emission control and fuel economy.

  16. Engineering Gold Nanorod-Based Plasmonic Nanocrystals for Optical Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Jianfeng

    2015-09-01

    Plasmonic nanocrystals have a unique ability to support localized surface plasmon resonances and exhibit rich and intriguing optical properties. Engineering plasmonic nanocrystals can maximize their potentials for specific applications. In this dissertation, we developed three unprecedented Au nanorod-based plasmonic nanocrystals through rational design of the crystal shape and/or composition, and successfully demonstrated their applications in light condensation, photothermal conversion, and surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS). The “Au nanorod-Au nanosphere dimer” nanocrystal was synthesized via the ligand-induced asymmetric growth of a Au nanosphere on a Au nanorod. This dimeric nanostructure features an extraordinary broadband optical absorption in the range of 400‒1400nm, and it proved to be an ideal black-body material for light condensation and an efficient solar-light harvester for photothermal conversion. The “Au nanorod (core) @ AuAg alloy (shell)” nanocrystal was built through the epitaxial growth of homogeneously alloyed AuAg shells on Au nanorods by precisely controlled synthesis. The resulting core-shell structured, bimetallic nanorods integrate the merits of the AuAg alloy with the advantages of anisotropic nanorods, exhibiting strong, stable and tunable surface plasmon resonances that are essential for SERS applications in a corrosive environment. The “high-index faceted Au nanorod (core) @ AuPd alloy (shell)” nanocrystal was produced via site-specific epitaxial growth of AuPd alloyed horns at the ends of Au nanorods. The AuPd alloyed horns are bound with high-index side facets, while the Au nanorod concentrates an intensive electric field at each end. This unique configuration unites highly active catalytic sites with strong SERS sites into a single entity and was demonstrated to be ideal for in situ monitoring of Pd-catalyzed reactions by SERS. The synthetic strategies developed here are promising towards the fabrication of

  17. Spatiotemporal stochastic models for earth science and engineering applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Xiaochun

    1998-12-01

    Spatiotemporal processes occur in many areas of earth sciences and engineering. However, most of the available theoretical tools and techniques of space-time daft processing have been designed to operate exclusively in time or in space, and the importance of spatiotemporal variability was not fully appreciated until recently. To address this problem, a systematic framework of spatiotemporal random field (S/TRF) models for geoscience/engineering applications is presented and developed in this thesis. The space-tune continuity characterization is one of the most important aspects in S/TRF modelling, where the space-time continuity is displayed with experimental spatiotemporal variograms, summarized in terms of space-time continuity hypotheses, and modelled using spatiotemporal variogram functions. Permissible spatiotemporal covariance/variogram models are addressed through permissibility criteria appropriate to spatiotemporal processes. The estimation of spatiotemporal processes is developed in terms of spatiotemporal kriging techniques. Particular emphasis is given to the singularity analysis of spatiotemporal kriging systems. The impacts of covariance, functions, trend forms, and data configurations on the singularity of spatiotemporal kriging systems are discussed. In addition, the tensorial invariance of universal spatiotemporal kriging systems is investigated in terms of the space-time trend. The conditional simulation of spatiotemporal processes is proposed with the development of the sequential group Gaussian simulation techniques (SGGS), which is actually a series of sequential simulation algorithms associated with different group sizes. The simulation error is analyzed with different covariance models and simulation grids. The simulated annealing technique honoring experimental variograms, is also proposed, providing a way of conditional simulation without the covariance model fitting which is prerequisite for most simulation algorithms. The proposed

  18. A software engineering process for safety-critical software application.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Byung Heon; Kim, Hang Bae; Chang, Hoon Seon; Jeon, Jong Sun [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-02-01

    Application of computer software to safety-critical systems in on the increase. To be successful, the software must be designed and constructed to meet the functional and performance requirements of the system. For safety reason, the software must be demonstrated not only to meet these requirements, but also to operate safely as a component within the system. For longer-term cost consideration, the software must be designed and structured to ease future maintenance and modifications. This paper presents a software engineering process for the production of safety-critical software for a nuclear power plant. The presentation is expository in nature of a viable high quality safety-critical software development. It is based on the ideas of a rational design process and on the experience of the adaptation of such process in the production of the safety-critical software for the shutdown system number two of Wolsung 2, 3 and 4 nuclear power generation plants. This process is significantly different from a conventional process in terms of rigorous software development phases and software design techniques, The process covers documentation, design, verification and testing using mathematically precise notations and highly reviewable tabular format to specify software requirements and software requirements and software requirements and code against software design using static analysis. The software engineering process described in this paper applies the principle of information-hiding decomposition in software design using a modular design technique so that when a change is required or an error is detected, the affected scope can be readily and confidently located. it also facilitates a sense of high degree of confidence in the `correctness` of the software production, and provides a relatively simple and straightforward code implementation effort. 1 figs., 10 refs. (Author).

  19. Aero-acoustic noise of wind turbines. Noise prediction models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maribo Pedersen, B. [ed.

    1997-12-31

    Semi-empirical and CAA (Computational AeroAcoustics) noise prediction techniques are the subject of this expert meeting. The meeting presents and discusses models and methods. The meeting may provide answers to the following questions: What Noise sources are the most important? How are the sources best modeled? What needs to be done to do better predictions? Does it boil down to correct prediction of the unsteady aerodynamics around the rotor? Or is the difficult part to convert the aerodynamics into acoustics? (LN)

  20. An Integrated Heavy Fuel Piston Engine Ducted Fan Propulsion Unit for Personal Air Vehicles Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed PAVE propulsion system technology demonstration combines an innovative high-speed aero-diesel engine with a novel ducted fan assembly resulting in a low...