WorldWideScience

Sample records for aerial plant parts

  1. Echinophorin D a new polyacetylene from an edible plant, Echinophora platyloba aerial parts

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    Z. Mohammadi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: The aerial parts of Echinophora platyloba are added to cheese and yoghurt for flavoring. Besides, it is used for the treatment of flatulence and as air freshener. Despite several pharmacological studies on the plant, no attempt has been made to isolate non-volatile secondary metabolites from this plant. So, phytochemical investigation seems to be useful for better use of this plant in and to discover new compounds. Methods: Powdered aerial parts of the plant were extracted by Soxhlet apparatus with hexane, dichloromethane (DCM and acetone. The concentrated acetone extract was fractionated using silica open column and mixture of heptane and ethyl acetate while DCM extract was fractionated by reverse phase column chromatography on RP-18 sorbent using mixture of methanol and water as solvent system with decreasing polarity. All subfractions were analysed by 1H- NMR, COSY, HSQC, HMBC and 13C-NMR. Results: After column chromatography and HPLC purification of DCM extract one new polyacetylene compound called echinophorin D was obtained and one fatty acid (coriolic acid and one esteric polyacetylene (echinophorin B were isolated and identified from the acetone extract. Conclusion: Due to the isolation of coriolic acid for the first time from this genus and the role of this fatty acid in inflammatory processes and anticancer activity as well as isolating polyacetylene compounds which have antioxidant and anti-tomur activity, this plant can be used as a source for compounds with antioxidant and anticancer effects.

  2. Antioxidant property of aerial parts and root of Phyllanthus fraternus Webster, an important medicinal plant.

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    Upadhyay, Richa; Chaurasia, Jitendra Kumar; Tiwari, Kavindra Nath; Singh, Karuna

    2014-01-01

    In present study free radical scavenging potential of aerial parts and root of Phyllanthus fraternus was investigated. Extraction was done in water and ethanol. Total antioxidant capacity was measured by DPPH free radical scavenging method; ethanolic extract of aerial part was most potent in activity with 50% inhibition at 258 μg/mL concentration. Lipid peroxidation (LPO) was measured in terms of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) by using egg-yolk homogenates as lipid-rich media with EC₅₀ of aerial part (ethanolic) 1522 μg/mL which was found to be most active. Superoxide (SO) radical scavenging activity was measured using riboflavin-light-nitroblue tetrazolium assay. Ethanolic and aqueous extract of both aerial part and root was almost similar in superoxide radical scavenging activity. Reducing power was determined on the basis of Fe³⁺-Fe⁺ transformation in the presence of extract. Total phenolic and flavonoid contents were also measured by spectroscopic method. Results showed that the ethanolic fraction of aerial part is most active towards antioxidant potential and this activity is related to its polyphenolic content and reducing potential. Thus, P. fraternus extract can be used as potent natural antioxidant.

  3. Antimicrobial Activity of Aerial Part Crude Extracts from the Saharan plant Anabasis aretioides

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    A. AMARI

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The antimicrobial activity of several crude extracts from the aerial parts of Anabasis aretioides was investigated by the disc diffusion method. The S. aureus, C. albicans and S. cereviceae Bacteria showed good efficiency in bacterial activity with most of the tested extract.

  4. MEDICINAL PLANTS AND HERBS OF NEWFOUNDLAND. PART 1. CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS OF THE AERIAL PART OF PINEAPPLE WEED (Matricaria matricarioides

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    TIMOTHY F. LOOMIS

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available The aerial part of Pineapple weed (Matricaria matricarioides, an adulterant of Chamomile, was investigated for its chemical constituents. Nine compounds were isolated and identified as two spiroethers [cis - en - yn - dicycloether 1 and trans - en - yn - dicycloether 2], three coumarins [7 - methoxycoumarin (Herniarin 3, umbelliferone 4 and 7 - methoxy - 3, 4 -dihydrocoumarin 5], phytol 6, luteolin - 7 - glucoside 7, (Z - 2 - β - D - Glucopyranosyloxyl - 4 - methoxycinnamic acid 8, and (E - 2 - β -D-Glucopyranosyloxyl - 4 -methoxycinnamic acid 9. By GC-MS analysis, the major components of the steam distilled volatile oil were identified as trans-en-yn-dicycloether and cis-en- yn-dicycloether, with the trans-form being more abundant than the cis-form. The results indicated some similarities between the constituents of Pineapple weed and those of German Chamomile. All these nine compounds are reported for the first time from Pineapple weed growing in Newfoundland. Compound 5 is reported from this plant genus for the first time.

  5. Antiproliferative constituents in plants 9. Aerial parts of Lippia dulcis and Lippia canescens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Fumiko; Nagao, Tsuneatsu; Okabe, Hikaru

    2002-07-01

    The antiproliferative constituents in the MeOH extracts of the aerial parts of Lippia dulcis Trev. and Lippia canescens Kunth (Verbenaceae) were investigated. Activity-guided chemical investigation of the MeOH extracts resulted in the isolation of the three bisabolane-type sesquiterpenes [(+)-hernandulcin (1), (-)-epihernandulcin (2), and (+)-anymol (3)] and four phenylethanoid glycosides [acteoside (4), isoacteoside (5), martynoside (6), and a new diacetylmartynoside (7)] from the former, and four phenylethanoid glycosides [acteoside (4), isoacteoside (5), arenarioside (8), and leucosceptoside A (9)] and three flavones [desmethoxycentaureidin (10), eupafolin (11), and 6-hydroxyluteolin (12)] from the latter. Antiproliferative activity of the isolated compounds against murine melanoma (B16F10), human gastric adenocarcinoma (MK-1), and human uterine carcinoma (HeLa) cells was estimated. (+)-Anymol (3), acteoside (4), isoacteoside (5), arenarioside (8), eupafolin (11), and 6-hydroxyluteolin (12) had GI50 values of 10-16 microM against B16F10 cell. Desmethoxycentaureidin (10) and eupafolin (11) showed high inhibitory activity against HeLa cell growth (GI50 9 microM, and 6 microM, respectively).

  6. Measurement of total phenolic content and antioxidant activity of aerial parts of medicinal plant Coronopus didymus.

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    Noreen, Hafiza; Semmar, Nabil; Farman, Muhammad; McCullagh, James S O

    2017-08-01

    To evaluate the total phenolic content and compare the antioxidant activity of various solvent extracts and fractions from the aerial parts of Coronopus didymus through various assays. Total phenolic content was determined using the Folin-Ciocalteu assay and the in vitro antioxidant activity of a number of different extracts was investigated in a dose-dependent manner with three different methods: the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays. A flavone was isolated from the most active ethanolic extract with high antioxidant activity using size exclusion chromatography. IC 50 values were calculated for the DPPH and ABTS methods. The FRAP activity was assessed in terms of μM Fe (II) equivalent. The phenolic content was found to be highest in the ethanol extract (CDA Et; 47.8 mM GAE) and the lowest in the dichloromethane extract (CDA DCM; 3.13 mM GAE). The ethanol extract showed high radical scavenging activity towards DPPH and ABTS radicals with IC 50 values of (7.80 × 10 2 ) and (4.32 × 10 2 ) μg/mL, respectively. The most active ethanol extract had a FRAP value of 1921.7 μM Fe (II) equivalent. The isolated flavone F10C (5,7,4'-trihydroxy-3'-methoxy flavone) was far more effective for scavenging free radicals in the DPPH and ABTS assays with IC 50 of 43.8 and 0.08 μg/mL, than the standard trolox, with IC 50 values of 97.5 and 21.1 μg/mL, respectively. In addition, the flavone F10C and the standard ascorbic acid had FRAP values of 1621.7 and 16 038.0 μM Fe (II) equivalents, respectively. The total phenolic content of extracts in decreasing order is ethanol extract (CDA Et) > acetone extract (CDA ACE) > phenolic extract (CDA MW) > n-hexane extract (CDA nHX)> chloroform extract (CDA CHL) > dichloromethane extract (CDA DCM). The ordering of extracts in terms of antioxidant activity from highest to lowest is CDA Et

  7. Chemical Composition of the Essential Oil from the Aerial Parts of Satureja hortensis As a Potent Medical Plant Using Traditional Hydrodistillation

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    M. Mohammadhosseini

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The water-distilled essential oils, which were obtained from the fresh aerial parts of Satureja hortensis were analyzed by means of GC and CC/MS instruments. The plant was collected during the flowering stage from Foroomad Mountains, Semnan Province, and heart of Iran. Twenty compounds were identified in the different samples analyzed, representing 100% of the total oil contents. In terms of general categories, monoterpene hydrocarbons dominated the chemical profile of the oils with γ-terpinene (27.4%, carvacrol (23.7%, p-cymene (11.1%, α-terpinene (10.2%, α-pinene (5.1% and myrcene (5.1% as the main constituent components. The other constituents were found to be α-thujene (3.9%, β-pinene (3.0%, sylvestrene (3.0%, α-phellandrene (1.2% and (--terpinen-4-ol (1.0%.

  8. Chemical Composition of the Essential Oil from the Aerial Parts of Satureja hortensis As a Potent Medical Plant Using Traditional Hydrodistillation

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    M. Mohammadhosseini

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The water-distilled essential oils, which were obtained from the fresh aerial parts of Satureja hortensis were analyzed by means of GC and CC/MS instruments. The plant was collected during the flowering stage from Foroomad Mountains, Semnan Province, and heart of Iran. Twenty compounds were identified in the different samples analyzed, representing 100% of the total oil contents. In terms of general categories, monoterpene hydrocarbons dominated the chemical profile of the oils with γ-terpinene (27.4%, carvacrol (23.7%, p-cymene (11.1%, α-terpinene (10.2%, α-pinene (5.1% and myrcene (5.1% as the main constituent components. The other constituents were found to be α-thujene (3.9%, β-pinene (3.0%, sylvestrene (3.0%, α-phellandrene (1.2% and (--terpinen-4-ol (1.0%.

  9. Phytochemistry and antioxidant activity of Lallemantia iberica aerial parts

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    N. Khosravi Dehaghi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives:Lallemantia iberica (Lamiaceae is a medicinal plant distributed in different parts of Iran. This research, has evaluated the phytochemical constituents and antioxidant activity of the aerial parts of the plant. Methods: Different chromatographic methods such as column chromatographies using Silica gel (normal and reversed phases, Sephadex LH-20 and HPLC were used for isolation of the compounds from the ethyl acetate and methanol extract of L. iberica aerial parts. The structures of the isolated compounds were elucidated using 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR and EI-MS. Antioxidant activity of the extracts were also evaluated in DPPH and FRAP tests. Results: Two sterols,β-sitosterol acetate (1, β-sitosterol (2, one triterpenoic acid,ursolic acid (3, one polyphenol, rosmarinic acid (4 and six flavonoides,Luteolin-7-O-glucoside (5, 4'-methoxy-luteolin-7-O-glucoside (6, apigenin-7-O-glucoside (7, Luteolin (8,  diosmetin (9, apigenin (10 were isolated and identified from the ethyl acetate and methanol extracts. The antioxidant activity of the ethyl acetate (IC50 189.95±2.8 μg/mL and the methanol extracts (IC50 140±1.2 μg/mL were compared to the standard antioxidant, BHA (IC50 100±1.6 μg/mL in DPPH method. The reducing power of the ethyl acetate (300.28 μmol Eq FeSO4.7H2O/mg DW, the methanol extract (553.14 μmol Eq FeSO4.7H2O/mg DW and BHA (558.36 μmol Eq FeSO4.7H2O/mg of standard were elucidated in FRAP assay. Conclusion: The results introduce L. iberica as a medicinal plant with valuable constituents which are responsible of different pharmacological activities.

  10. Evaluation of ethanol extract of Artemisia maciverae aerial part for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    christy

    Evaluation of ethanol extract of Artemisia maciverae aerial part for antiplasmodial activity ... median lethal dose of A. maciverae in mice was determined to be greater than ... medicinal uses [9]. ..... mode of action and mechanism of resistance.

  11. In vitro antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of aerial parts of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: The crude extracts of the aerial parts of Jurinea humilis were obtained by ... and aluminum chloride procedures were used to quantify the total phenolic and flavonoid contents, ..... potential, DNA protection, and HPLC-DAD analysis of.

  12. Preliminary phytochemical screening of roots and aerial parts of leptadenia pyrotechnica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munazir, M.; Qureshi, R.; Munir, M.

    2015-01-01

    Leptadenia pyrotechnica (Forssk.) Decne is a medicinal plant that is native to hot deserts of Pakistan. This plant is sporadically known with reference to bioactivity including phytochemical screening especially from Pakistan. The present study was designed to screen out four major groups of phytochemicals such as alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins and tannins from eight solvents based roots and aerial parts extracts viz., hexane, chloroform, acetone, ethyl acetate, butanol, ethanol, methanol and water of the selected plant. The qualitative screening showed the presence of all major groups of phytochemicals in both plant parts extracts in which methanolic ones were the most efficient that extracted all the selected classes of phytochemicals. Quantitative screening revealed various concentrations of selected phytochemicals in both plant parts. The alkaloid contents were 3.267±0.643and 3±0.6 in roots and aerial parts respectively (p>0.05). The total flavonoid content was 76.867±2.266 and 139.448±8.677 QE/100g in roots and aerial parts respectively. In the case of total saponin contents, the proportions were 0.34±0.013% and 0.4 0.010% in roots and aerial parts respectively, whereas; total tannin contents were 62.713±4.841 and154.961±5.853 mg of TAE/100g of extract in roots and aerial parts, respectively. This study will serve as a benchmark for further pharmacological studies on the said plant that may be harnessed for drug development in the future. (author)

  13. A new flavonol glycoside and other flavonoids from the aerial parts of Taverniera aegyptiaca

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hassan, Ahmed R.; Amer, Khadiga F.; El-Toumy, Sayed A.

    2018-01-01

    Isolation of flavonoids from the aerial parts of Taverniera aegyptiaca Bioss. (Fabaceae) led to identification of one new flavonol glycoside, isorhamnetin-3-O-α-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2)-α-l-arabinopyranoside (1), along with eleven compounds, which previously have not been isolated from this plant...

  14. Essential oil constituents from the aerial parts of Perilla frutescens (L.) Britton

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dung, N.X.; Moi, La Dinh; Cu, Lu'u Dam; Leclercq, P.A.

    1995-01-01

    The essential oil obtained by steam distn. of the aerial parts of P. frutescens, a plant growing wild in Northwest Vietnam, was analyzed by a combination of GC and GC/MS. More than 50 compds. were detected, of which 25 components (95% of the oil) were identified. The main compds. were limonene

  15. Flavanones from aerial parts of Cordia globosa (Jacq. Kunth, Boraginaceae

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    Sâmia Andricia S. da Silva

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The phytochemical analysis of aerial parts of Cordia globosa, collected in the Municipality of Picuí, State of Paraíba, Brazil, resulted in the isolation and structural identification of narigenin-4',7-dimethyl ether (0.025 g and eriodictyol (0.015 g. These compounds are the first flavanones aglycones isolated from the genus Cordia.

  16. Cyclooxygenase inhibitory compounds from Gymnosporia heterophylla aerial parts.

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    Ochieng, Charles O; Opiyo, Sylvia A; Mureka, Edward W; Ishola, Ismail O

    2017-06-01

    Gymnosporia heterophylla (Celastraceae) is an African medicinal plants used to treat painful and inflammatory diseases with partial scientific validation. Solvent extractions followed by repeated chromatographic purification of the G. heterophylla aerial parts led to the isolation of one new β-dihydroagarofuran sesquiterpene alkaloid (1), and two triterpenes (2-3). In addition, eight known compounds including one β-dihydroagarofuran sesquiterpene alkaloid (4), and six triterpenes (5-10) were isolated. All structures were determined through extensive analysis of the NMR an MS data as well as by comparison with literature data. These compounds were evaluated for the anti-inflammatory activities against COX-1 and -2 inhibitory potentials. Most of the compound isolated showed non selective COX inhibitions except for 3-Acetoxy-1β-hydroxyLupe-20(29)-ene (5), Lup-20(29)-ene-1β,3β-diol (6) which showed COX-2 selective inhibition at 0.54 (1.85), and 0.45 (2.22) IC 50 , in mM (Selective Index), respectively. The results confirmed the presence of anti-inflammatory compounds in G. heterophylla which are important indicators for development of complementary medicine for inflammatory reactions; however, few could be useful as selective COX-2 inhibitor. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. De novo regeneration of Scrophularia yoshimurae Yamazaki (Scrophulariaceae) and quantitative analysis of harpagoside, an iridoid glucoside, formed in aerial and underground parts of in vitro propagated and wild plants by HPLC.

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    Sagare, A P; Kuo, C L; Chueh, F S; Tsay, H S

    2001-11-01

    A protocol for de novo regeneration and rapid micropropagation of Scrophularia yoshimurae (Scrophulariaceae) has been developed. Multiple shoot development was achieved by culturing the shoot-tip, leaf-base, stem-node and stem-internode explants on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with 4.44 microM N6-benzyladenine (BA) and 1.07 microM alpha-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA). Stem-node and shoot-tip explants showed the highest response (100%) followed by stem-internode (74.4%) and leaf-base (7.7%) explants. The shoots were multiplied by subculturing on the same medium used for shoot induction. Shoots were rooted on growth regulator-free MS basal medium and the plantlets were transplanted to soil and acclimatized in the growth chamber. The content of harpagoside, a quantitatively predominant iridoid glycoside, in different plant material was determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The analysis revealed that the content of harpagoside in the aerial and underground parts of S. yoshimurae was significantly higher than the marketed crude drug (underground parts of Scrophularia ningpoensis).

  18. Coumarins from the aerial parts of Prangos uloptera (Apiaceae

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    Seyed Mehdi Razavi

    Full Text Available Phytochemical studies on the aerial parts of Prangos uloptera, an endemic Iranian species of the genus Prangos, yielded five coumarins, xanthotoxin (1, prangenin (2, scopoletin (3, deltoin (4 and prangolarin (5. The structures of these coumarins were elucidated by spectroscopic means, and the antioxidant potential of 1-5 was evaluated by the DPPH assay. The chemotaxonomic significance of 1-5 is also discussed.

  19. GC-MS Analysis of Insecticidal Essential Oil of Aerial Parts of Echinops latifolius Tausch

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    Xin Chao Liu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The roots of Echinops latifolius Tausch (Asteraceae have been used in the traditional medicine. However, no report on chemical composition and insecticidal activities of the essential oil of this plant exists. The aim of this research was to determine chemical composition and insecticidal activities of the essential oil of E. latifolius aerial parts against maize weevils (Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky for the first time. Essential oil of E. latifolius aerial parts at flowering stage was obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS. A total of 35 components of the essential oil of E. latifolius aerial parts were identified. The major compounds in the essential oil were 1,8-cineole (19.63%, (Z-β-ocimene (18.44%, and β-pinene (15.56% followed by β-myrcene (4.75% and carvone (4.39%. The essential oil of E. latifolius possessed contact toxicity against S. zeamais with an LD50 value of 36.40 µg/adult. The essential oil also exhibited fumigant toxicity against S. zeamais with an LC50 value of 9.98 mg/L. The study indicates that the essential oil of E. latifolius aerial parts has a potential for development into a natural insecticide/fumigant for control of insects in stored grains.

  20. Anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities of Solenostemon monostachyus aerial part extract in mice

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    Jude Fiom Okokon

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Solenostemon monostachyus is used in traditional medicine for the treatment of various ailments such as ulcer, hypertension, pains and inflammatory diseases. Evaluation of anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of S. monostachyus aerial parts was carried out to ascertain its uses in traditional medicine. Materials and Methods: The aerial parts of S. monostachyus was cold extracted by soaking the dried powdered material in ethanol. The aerial parts crude extract (75 –225 mg/kg of  S. monostachyus was investigated for analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities using various experimental models; acetic acid, formalin and thermal- induced pains models for analgesic study and carrageenin, egg albumin and xylene – induced edema models for anti-inflammatory investigation. Results: The extract caused a significant (pConclusion: The anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects of this plant may in part be mediated through the chemical constituents of the plant and the results of the analgesic action suggest central and peripheral mechanisms. The findings of this work confirm the ethno medical use of this plant to treat inflammatory conditions.

  1. Estimating plant distance in maize using Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jinshui; Basso, Bruno; Price, Richard F; Putman, Gregory; Shuai, Guanyuan

    2018-01-01

    Distance between rows and plants are essential parameters that affect the final grain yield in row crops. This paper presents the results of research intended to develop a novel method to quantify the distance between maize plants at field scale using an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV). Using this method, we can recognize maize plants as objects and calculate the distance between plants. We initially developed our method by training an algorithm in an indoor facility with plastic corn plants. Then, the method was scaled up and tested in a farmer's field with maize plant spacing that exhibited natural variation. The results of this study demonstrate that it is possible to precisely quantify the distance between maize plants. We found that accuracy of the measurement of the distance between maize plants depended on the height above ground level at which UAV imagery was taken. This study provides an innovative approach to quantify plant-to-plant variability and, thereby final crop yield estimates.

  2. Essential oil constituents of the aerial parts and root of Cymbocarpum anethoides (Apiaceae) from Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasiri, N; Shamkhani, H; Ghelichpour, Z; Mohammadi, M A; Sonboli, A

    2017-04-01

    The essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation from aerial parts at different growing stages and root of Cymbocarpum anethoides DC., from Iran were investigated. The oils were analysed by GC-FID and GC-MS. Forty-five, 52, 40 and 36 components were identified in the essential oils of aerial parts (vegetative, flowering and fruit) and root representing of the 99.2, 99.0, 99.8 and 99.6% of the total oils, respectively. The essential oil of the aerial parts of the plant in vegetative stage was dominated by n-decanal (36.5%) and n-dodecanal (25.3%). n-Decanal (35.8%) and 2E-decenal (25.1%) were the main constituents of the plant oil in flowering stage whereas 2E-decenal (32.1%) and 2E-dodecenal (21.5%) were characterised as the main components of the plant oil in fruit stage. In the essential oil of root, the major identified components were 2-dodecenoic acid (29.8%) and 2E-Dodecenol (12.7%).

  3. Columnar apple primary roots share some features of the columnar-specific gene expression profile of aerial plant parts as evidenced by RNA-Seq analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Romina; Djozgic, Haris; Rieger, Benjamin; Rapp, Steffen; Schmidt, Erwin Robert

    2015-02-04

    Primary roots (radicles) represent the first visible developmental stages of the plant and are crucial for nutrient supply and the integration of environmental signals. Few studies have analyzed primary roots at a molecular level, and were mostly limited to Arabidopsis. Here we study the primary root transcriptomes of standard type, heterozygous columnar and homozygous columnar apple (Malus x domestica) by RNA-Seq and quantitative real-time PCR. The columnar growth habit is characterized by a stunted main axis and the development of short fruit spurs instead of long lateral branches. This compact growth possesses economic potential because it allows high density planting and mechanical harvesting of the trees. Its molecular basis has been identified as a nested Gypsy-44 retrotransposon insertion; however the link between the insertion and the phenotype as well as the timing of the phenotype emergence are as yet unclear. We extend the transcriptomic studies of columnar tissues to the radicles, which are the earliest developmental stage and investigate whether homozygous columnar seedlings are viable. Radicles mainly express genes associated with primary metabolism, growth and development. About 200 genes show differential regulation in a comparison of heterozygous columnar radicles with non-columnar radicles, whereas the comparison of homozygous columnar radicles with non-columnar radicles yields about 300 differentially regulated genes. Genes involved in cellulose and phenylpropanoid biosynthesis, cell wall modification, transcription and translation, ethylene and jasmonate biosynthesis are upregulated in columnar radicles. Genes in the vicinity of the columnar-specific Gypsy-44 insertion experience an especially strong differential regulation: the direct downstream neighbor, dmr6-like, is downregulated in heterozygous columnar radicles, but strongly upregulated in columnar shoot apical meristems. The transcriptomic profile of primary roots reflects their pivotal

  4. A New Flavonoid Glycoside from Salix denticulata Aerial Parts

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    Amita Bamola

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: A new flavonoid glycoside (1 has been isolated from the aerial parts of Salix denticulata (Salicaceae together with five known compounds, β-sitosterol, 2,6-dihydroxy- 4-methoxy acetophenone, eugenol-1-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, 1-O-β-D-(3’-benzoyl salicyl alcohol and luteolin-7-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-6-glucopyranoside. The structure of 1 was elucidated as 2’,5-dihydroxy-3’-methoxyflavone-7-O-β-D-glucopyranoside by means of chemical and spectral data including 2D NMR studies.

  5. Bioactive Constituents from the Aerial Parts of Lippia triphylla

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    Yi Zhang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Five new compounds, lippianosides A (1, B (2, C (3, D (4, and E (5, along with 26 (6–31 known ones were obtained from the 95% EtOH extract of Lippia triphylla (L. triphylla aerial parts collected from Rwanda, Africa. Among the known compounds, 11 and 17–30 were isolated from the Lippia genus for the first time. In addition, 12, 13, and 16 were firstly obtained from this species. The structures of them were elucidated by chemical and spectroscopic methods. The antioxidant and triglyceride accumulation inhibition effects of the 31 compounds were examined in L6 cells and HepG2 cells, respectively.

  6. Nematicidal natural products from the aerial parts of Buddleja crispa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultana, Nighat; Akhter, Musarrat; Khan, Rashid Ali; Afza, Nighat; Tareen, Rasool Bakh; Malik, Abdul

    2010-05-01

    Studies on the aerial parts of Buddleja crispa yielded 13 known compounds, nonyl benzoate, hexyl p-hydroxy-cinnamate, ginipin, gardiol, 1-heptacosanol, steroidal galactoside (22 R)-stigmasta-7,9 (11)-dien-22 beta-ol-3beta-O-beta-D-galactopyranoside, 3-methoxy benzoic acid, beta-sitosterol and ursolic acid. Besides this two iridoid galactosides buddlejosides A, buddlejosides B and a benzofuran-type sesquiterpene buddlejone have been isolated from the ETOAC fraction of B. crispa. Together with the above compounds, methyl benzoate (1) and 3-methoxy-4-hydroxy benzoic acid (2) were also isolated. Compound 2 (C(8)H(8)O(4)) was identified by comparison of its data with those reported earlier, which was originally isolated from Onosma hispidum, and this is the first report of its isolation from this species. For compounds 1 and 2, the total alcoholic soluble extract, methanol soluble, chloroform soluble, ethyl acetate soluble and petroleum ether soluble extract of the aerial parts of B. crispa were screened for nematicidal activity against nematodes of freshly hatched second-stage juveniles of Meloidogyne incognita (root-knot nematode), exhibiting 92%, 40%, 88%, 83%, 82% and 50% mortality, respectively, of eloids M. incognita at 0.5% concentration. Compound 1 was more potent than the nematicide Azadirachta indica at the same concentration. Negative results were obtained for the nematicidal activity of petroleum ether extract of B. crispa leaves.

  7. Phytochemical profile of aerial parts and roots of Wachendorfia thyrsiflora L. studied by LC-DAD-SPE-NMR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Jingjing; Kai, Marco; Schneider, Bernd

    2012-09-01

    Hyphenated liquid chromatography - diode array detection - solid phase extraction - nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (LC-DAD-SPE-NMR) was used to investigate the phytochemical composition of aerial parts and roots of Wachendorfia thyrsiflora (Haemodoraceae). Eleven phenylphenalenones and related compounds were identified in the aerial parts of the plant, ten compounds were found in the roots, and four additional compounds occurred in both plant parts. Twelve compounds are previously unreported natural products including five alkaloids (phenylbenzoisoquinolinones) are described here for the first time. In the work presented here, phenylphenalenones with an intact C(19) core structure were found only in the roots. Oxa analogs with a C(18)O scaffold occurred both in the roots and in the aerial plant parts, while most of the aza analogs with a C(18)N scaffold were detected in the aerial plant parts. This distribution pattern suggests that phenylphenalenones form in the roots, then the intact C(19) skeleton is converted into oxa analogs in the roots, translocated into the leaves and further reacted with amines or amino acids to form aza analogs (phenylbenzoisoquinolin-1,6-dione alkaloids). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Bioactive phenolic compounds from aerial parts of Plinia glomerata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafin, Cláudia; Nart, Viviane; Malheiros, Angela; de Souza, Márcia Maria; Fischer, Luiz; Delle Monache, Giuliano; Della Monache, Franco; Cechinel Filho, Valdir

    2007-01-01

    The present work describes the antinociceptive properties and chemical composition of the aerial parts of Plinia glomerata (Myrtaceae). Both of the extracts evaluated, acetonic and methanolic, showed potent antinociceptive action, when analyzed against acetic acid-induced abdominal constrictions in mice, with calculated ID50 (mg/kg, i. p.) values of 24.8 and 3.3, respectively. Through usual chromatographic techniques with an acetonic extract, the following compounds were obtained: 3,4,3'-trimethoxy flavellagic acid (1), 3,4,3'-trimethoxy flavellagic acid 4'-O-glucoside (3) and quercitrin (4), which were identified based on spectroscopic data. Compounds 1 (ID50 = 3.9 mg/kg, i. p., or 10.8 micromol/kg) and 3 (ID50 = 1.3 mg/kg or 2.5 micromol/kg) were notably more active than some well-known analgesic drugs used here for comparison.

  9. Contents of Aerial Parts of Salvia leriifolia Benth

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    Zahra Hosseinpoor Mohsen Abadi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, we have reported the total phenolic content, total flavonoid content, antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of aerial parts of Salvia leriifolia extracts and fractions. Methanolic, n-hexane, chloroform, and ethyl acetate extracts were screened to analysis their antioxidant activities by four complementary test systems, namely DPPH free radical scavenging activity (RSA, total phenolic content (TPC, total flavonoid content (TFC, and ferrous ion cheating (FIC. In most cases the leaf extracts and ethyl acetate fraction had more activity. The methanolic extracts of leaf and flower showed considerable antimicrobial activity using disc diffusion method against Escherichia coli, Streptococcus pneumonia, Acinetobacter, Serratia, Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The extracts showed the highest activity against P. aeruginosa and K. pneumonia.

  10. Amides and neolignans from the aerial parts of Piper bonii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Duo-Duo; Wang, Yue-Hu; Chen, Ya-Hui; Mei, Ren-Qiang; Yang, Jun; Luo, Ji-Feng; Li, Yan; Long, Chun-Lin; Kong, Yi

    2016-09-01

    Six amides, piperbonamides A-F, three neolignans piperbonins A-C, and 11 known compounds were isolated from the aerial parts of Piper bonii (Piperaceae). The structures of piperbonamides A-F and piperbonins A-C were elucidated based on the analysis of 1D and 2D NMR and MS data. Piperbonin A, (+)-trans-acuminatin, (+)-cis-acuminatin, (+)-kadsurenone, and pipernonaline showed weak activity against platelet aggregation with IC50 values of 118.2, 108.5, 90.02, 107.3, and 116.3 μM, respectively, as compared with the positive control, tirofiban, with an IC50 value of 5.24 μM. Piperbonamides A-F were inactive against five tumor cell lines at concentrations up to 40 μM. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. A new flavonol glucoside from the aerial parts of Sida glutinosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Niranjan; Achari, Basudev; Harigaya, Yoshihiro; Dinda, Biswanath

    2011-10-01

    Phytochemical investigation on the dried aerial parts of Sida glutinosa has led to the isolation of a new flavonol glucoside, glutinoside (1), along with seven known compounds, 24(28)-dehydromakisterone A (2), 1,2,3,9-tetrahydropyrrolo[2,1-b]-quinazolin-3-amine (3), docosanoic acid, 1-triacontanol, campesterol, stigmasterol, and β-sitosterol. The structures of these compounds were elucidated by means of extensive spectroscopic techniques as well as GC/MS analysis (for sterols) and comparison with the literature data. All these seven known compounds are reported from this plant for the first time.

  12. Anti-diabetic potential of aerial parts of Galium tricornutum (Dandy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To evaluate the anti-diabetic potential of methanol extract of the aerial parts of Galium tricornutum (Dandy) in diabetic rats. Methods: The methanol extract of the aerial parts of Galium tricornutum was first subjected to acute toxicity studies. Thereafter, the effect of the extract on oral glucose tolerance was determined ...

  13. Digital Counts of Maize Plants by Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs

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    Friederike Gnädinger

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Precision phenotyping, especially the use of image analysis, allows researchers to gain information on plant properties and plant health. Aerial image detection with unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs provides new opportunities in precision farming and precision phenotyping. Precision farming has created a critical need for spatial data on plant density. The plant number reflects not only the final field emergence but also allows a more precise assessment of the final yield parameters. The aim of this work is to advance UAV use and image analysis as a possible high-throughput phenotyping technique. In this study, four different maize cultivars were planted in plots with different seeding systems (in rows and equidistantly spaced and different nitrogen fertilization levels (applied at 50, 150 and 250 kg N/ha. The experimental field, encompassing 96 plots, was overflown at a 50-m height with an octocopter equipped with a 10-megapixel camera taking a picture every 5 s. Images were recorded between BBCH 13–15 (it is a scale to identify the phenological development stage of a plant which is here the 3- to 5-leaves development stage when the color of young leaves differs from older leaves. Close correlations up to R2 = 0.89 were found between in situ and image-based counted plants adapting a decorrelation stretch contrast enhancement procedure, which enhanced color differences in the images. On average, the error between visually and digitally counted plants was ≤5%. Ground cover, as determined by analyzing green pixels, ranged between 76% and 83% at these stages. However, the correlation between ground cover and digitally counted plants was very low. The presence of weeds and blurry effects on the images represent possible errors in counting plants. In conclusion, the final field emergence of maize can rapidly be assessed and allows more precise assessment of the final yield parameters. The use of UAVs and image processing has the potential to

  14. Phytochemical screening and chemical variability in volatile oils of aerial parts of Morinda morindoides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiazolu, J Boima; Intisar, Azeem; Zhang, Lingyi; Wang, Yun; Zhang, Runsheng; Wu, Zhongping; Zhang, Weibing

    2016-10-01

    Morinda morindoides is an important Liberian traditional medicine for the treatment of malaria, fever, worms etc. The plant was subjected to integrated approaches including phytochemical screening and gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analyses. Phytochemical investigation of the powdered plant revealed the presence of phenolics, tannins, flavonoids, saponins, terpenes, steroidal compounds and volatile oil. Steam distillation followed by GC-MS resulted in the identification of 47 volatiles in its aerial parts: 28 were in common including various bioactive volatiles. Major constituents of leaves were phytol (43.63%), palmitic acid (8.55%) and geranyl linalool (6.95%) and stem were palmitic acid (14.95%), eicosane (9.67%) and phytol (9.31%), and hence, a significant difference in the percentage composition of aerial parts was observed. To study seasonal changes, similarity analysis was carried out by calculating correlation coefficient (r) and vector angle cosine (z) that were more than 0.91 for stem-to-stem and leaf-to-leaf batches indicating considerable consistency.

  15. Antinociceptive effect of extracts of Marrubium astracanicum Jacq. aerial parts

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    Niloofar Kahkeshani

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The genus Marrubium is used for treatment of joint pain, gout, stomach-ache and colic in Iranian Traditional Medicine. Marrubium astracanicum Jacq. (M. astracanicum is a native species in the flora of Iran. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antinociceptive properties of various extracts of aerial parts of M. astracanicum.Materials and Methods: Antinociceptive activities of total hydroalcoholic extract (THE and its n-hexane (non-polar and residual partition (polar fractions were analyzed using formalin test in mice. Morphine (5 mg/kg and normal saline were used as positive and negative controls, respectively.Results: Intraperitoneal administration of THE (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg, non-polar fraction (200 mg/kg and polar fraction (100 and 200 mg/kg, 30 min before formalin injection, caused significant analgesic activity in acute phase (0-5 min after formalin injection of formalin test (p0.05 in comparison with morphine.  In chronic phase (15–60 min after formalin injection, non-polar and polar fractions (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg showed significant analgesic activity (p0.05 in comparison with morphine.Conclusion: Different extracts of M. astracanicum demonstrated antinociceptive activity that support the traditional usage of Marrubium genus for the treatment of arthritis, gout and other inflammatory diseases.

  16. In Vitro Antiviral Activity of Rubia Cordifolia Aerial Part Extract Against Rotavirus

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    Yuanyuan Sun

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The root of Rubia cordifolia (R. cordifolia has been used traditionally as a hemostatic agent, while the aerial part of the plant consisting of leaf and stem is known to exhibit anti-diarrheal properties and has been widely used as a remedy in many parts of China. As rotavirus is one of the most commonly associated diarrhea-causing pathogen, this study aims to investigate the anti-rotaviral effect of R. cordifolia aerial part (RCAP. The cytotoxicity of RCAP towards MA-104 cells was evaluated using the WST-8 assay. Colloidal gold method and real time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR assay were used to confirm the findings of the antiviral assay. Then, 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI staining method was subsequently used to investigate the mode of death among the cells. And the representative components of aqueous extract were isolated and identified. It was shown that both the viability of MA-104 cells and the viral load were reduced with increasing concentration of the extract. DAPI staining showed that virus-induced apoptosis was the cause of the low cell viability and viral load, an effect which was accelerated with incubation in the aqueous herbal extract. The major compounds postulated to exhibit this activity were isolated from the aqueous herbal extract and identified to be compounds Xanthopurpurin and Vanillic Acid. This study showed that RCAP extract effectively inhibited rotavirus multiplication by promoting virus-induced apoptosis in MA-104 cells.

  17. The relationship between growth of the aerial part and alkaloid content variation in cultivated Aconitum carmichaeli Debeaux.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawasaki, Ryoichi; Motoya, Wakako; Atsumi, Toshiyuki; Mouri, Chika; Kakiuchi, Nobuko; Mikage, Masayuki

    2011-01-01

    Processed root of aconite, Aconitum carmichaeli Debeaux--known as bushi in Japan--is indispensable for treating diseases among elderly persons in Japanese and Chinese traditional medicine. Its active component is bushi diester alkaloid (BDA), which consists of aconitine (ACO), mesaconitine (MES), hypaconitine (HYP), and jesaconitine (JES). Since an overdose of BDA results in severe side effects, the BDA content should be within safe limits. However, the BDA content of raw aconite root, even that produced by standard cultivation procedures, varies greatly. In this study, to clarify the cause of BDA variation, we examined the weight and BDA content of each part of cultivated A. carmichaeli: the aerial part, the mother tuberous root (MT), the daughter tuberous root (DT), and the rootlet (RL). We found the following positive relationships: between aerial part weight and DT weight, aerial part weight and BDA content in stem of apex, and BDA content in stem of apex and total BDA of DT attached to the plant. Furthermore, DT belonging to a higher weight group showed less BDA content variation. In addition, BDA of DT and those of MT and RL differ in both content and composition. In conclusion, it was suggested that the weight or the size of the aerial part was a good marker for monitoring BDA content and its variation in the tuberous root, and it was found to be desirable to prevent mixing MT and RL at harvest.

  18. Phytochemicals and antimicrobial activities of aerial parts and roots of Trigonella tehranica L. essential oils

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    F. Kiashi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Trigonella tehranica (Leguminosae is an indigenous plant in northern regions of Iran. There were many reports about antimicrobial activity of other specious of this genus; therefore, the aim of present study was investigation of chemical compounds and antimicrobial activities of T. tehranica essential oils for the first time. Methods: The essential oils of aerial parts and roots of T. tehranica from Taleqan, Alborz Province, Iran were obtained by hydro-distillation and analyzed by GC-MS. Antimicrobial activities of essential oils were tested against some Gram-positive bacteria (Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus aureus, Gram-negative bacteria (Salmonella paratyphi-A, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumonia, Shigella dysenteriae and Proteus vulgarisis and fungi (Aspergillus brasiliensis, Aspergillus niger and Candidia albicans via disc diffusion method and minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs were reporte. Results: The abundant compounds of aerial parts essential oil were n-hexadecanoic acid (20.84%, camphane (11.45% and neo-menthol (5.05%. The major volatiles of roots essential oil were hexanal (14.83%, butane, 2-methyl (13.39% and 1-pentene (12.80%. The roots essential oil showed the most antimicrobial activitiy on Bacillus stubtilis (inhibition zone (IZ equal to 21 mm and the aerial parts essential oil demonstrated the most effects on Bacillus stubtilis (IZ as16 mm and Candida albicans (IZ as 20 mm. Conclusion: Although essential oils of T. tehranica were effective on many examined microorganisms, their antifungal activity was higher significantly.

  19. Aerial parts of maca (Lepidium meyenii Walp.) as functional vegetables with gastrointestinal prokinetic efficacy in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Wenwen; Chen, Xuemin; Huo, Qing; Cui, Yajie; Yu, Zejun; Yu, Longjiang

    2018-06-20

    Lepidium meyenii Walp. (maca) has been utilized in the Andean region because of its edibleness and medicinal value. The aerial parts of maca (APM) were analyzed for protein, total sugar, vitamins, amino acids, and minerals and its characteristic active ingredients at five different growth stages. The results showed the high protein, total sugar, vitamin C, niacin, potassium, and calcium contents of APM. All 17 amino acids and the characteristic active ingredients, namely, macamide, glucosinolates, adenosine, and total saponins, were detected. We examined the effects of maca plant powders on gastric emptying and intestinal propulsion and the levels of serum motilin and gastrin in atropine-treated mice. Benzyl isothiocyanate (BITC) was investigated to identify the potential active material in APM. The results revealed that both maca plant powders and BITC can promote the gastrointestinal prokinetic efficacy. Thus, APM feature potential as new functional vegetable sources.

  20. Chemical Composition and Antimicrobial Activity of Essential Oils from the Aerial Parts of Salvia pinnata L.

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    Nehir Unver Somer

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The composition of the essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation from the aerial parts of Salvia pinnata L. (Labiatae, collected during flowering and fruiting periods, were analyzed by GC and GC-MS. 37 compounds were identified representing 96.1 % of the essential oil obtained from the plant material collected during flowering period. 30 compounds were detected constituting 94.7 % of the essential oil of the plant material collected in fruiting period. The main components of the essential oils were characterized as bornyl acetate, camphor, camphene, bornyl formate, a -pinene and borneol. The oils were screened for antimicrobial activity by the micro-dilution assay against standard bacteria (Escherichia coli, Salmonella enterica, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis and yeast (Candida albicans and Candida parapsilosis. Both of the oils showed antimicrobial activity against the tested organisms.

  1. Studies on physicochemical and nutritional properties of aerial parts of Cassia occidentalis L.

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    Sambasivam Manikandaselvi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In the present, work chemical composition and nutritional value of aerial parts of Cassia occidentalis L. was studied. The aerial parts of C. occidentalis possess favorable physicochemical properties with good nutritional value, such as high energy value, crude fibers, and vitamin levels. The X-ray fluorescence spectrophotometry data revealed that the sample is rich in minerals, especially in Fe, Ca, K, and Mn. Further, minerals such as Mg, Zn, Cu, Na, P, and S are present in good amount and depicted the nutritional value of the selected material. The plant sample is rich in phytochemicals such as flavonoids, alkaloids, lignin, tannins, and phenols. The presence of phytochemical constituents was confirmed by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry profile and high-performance thin layer chromatography fingerprinting techniques. The findings stimulate the on-farm cultivation of C. occidentalis on a large scale to relieve the iron deficiency in local community, and it can be used as a dietary supplement to treat anemia.

  2. Tyrosinase inhibitors from Calceolaria integrifolia s.l.: Calceolaria talcana aerial parts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Evelyn; Avila, Jose G; Alarcón, Julio; Kubo, Isao; Werner, Enrique; Céspedes, Carlos L

    2013-05-08

    As a defense mechanism of the aerial parts of Calceolaria talcana (Calceolariaceae; formerly Scrophulariaceae) against herbivore offenses and insect pest attack, diterpenoids, triterpenoids, phenylethanoids, flavonoids, and iridoids are rapidly accumulated along the aerial parts, resulting in a unique natural biopesticide complex from this plant. In addition to verbascoside a series of known compounds were screened for their inhibitory activity against mushroom tyrosinase and protease enzymes. Ethyl acetate and n-hexane extracts, together with cyclopropyl-7,15-ent-pimaradiene (1), abietatriene (2), ursolic acid (3), α-lupeol (4), β-sitosterol (5), 2-hydroxy-3-(1,1-dimethylallyl)-1,4-naphthoquinone (6), α-dunnione (7), verbascoside (8), martynoside (9), and some known model compounds proved to be inhibitors of oxidation of L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA) catalyzed by tyrosinase (EC 1.14.18.1) with an IC50 between 10.0 and 200 ppm or μM, respectively, suggesting that phenolic moieties in the molecules assayed are important for the activity.

  3. A new phenolic glycoside from the aerial parts of Solidago canadensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, JinSong; Zhang, XinQin; Lei, GuangQing; Li, Bo; Chen, JiaKuan; Zhou, TongShui

    2007-01-01

    A new phenolic glycoside, 2'-hydroxy-4',6'-di-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-butyrrophenone (1), was isolated from the aerial parts of Solidago canadensis. The structure was elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic methods.

  4. Isolation and identification of antibacterial compounds from Thymus kotschyanus aerial parts and Dianthus caryophyllus flower buds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Muthanna J; Al-Bayati, Firas A

    2009-06-01

    The aerial parts of Thymus kotschyanus Boiss. and Hohen. (Lamiaceae) and flower buds of Dianthus caryophyllus L. (Caryophyllaceae) have been traditionally implemented in the treatment of wounds, throat and gum infections and gastro-intestinal disorder by the indigenous people of northern Iraq, although the compounds responsible for the medicinal properties have not been identified. In this study, antibacterial compounds from both plants were isolated and characterized, and the biological activity of each compound was assessed individually and combined. Compounds were isolated and characterized from the extracted essential oils of both plants using different spectral techniques: TLC, FTIR spectra and HPLC. The minimum inhibitory concentrations MIC values for the compounds were assessed individually and combined based on a microdilution and the checkerboard method in 96 multi-well microtiter plates. Two known compounds were isolated from the essential oils of both plants and were identified as thymol and eugenol. The isolated compounds were investigated for their single and combined antibacterial activities against seven selected pathogenic bacteria; Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Listeria monocytogenes, Proteus mirabilis, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Thymol MIC values ranged from 15.6 to 250.0 microg/ml and B. cereus was found to be the most sensitive pathogen with a MIC value of 15.6 microg/ml. Eugenol achieved stronger MIC values against most tested pathogens and the best MIC value (15.6 microg/ml) was observed against B. cereus, L. monocytogenes and K. pneumoniae whereas, S. aureus, P. mirabilis and E. coli were inhibited with a MIC value of 31.2 microg/ml. Combination results had antibacterial enhancement against most pathogens and the best synergistic result was seen against P. mirabilis and E. coli. The isolation of two antibacterial compounds from Thymus kotschyanus aerial parts and Dianthus caryophyllus flower

  5. Isolation and Identification of Secondary Metabolites from the Aerial Parts of Stachys lavandulifolia Vahl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajjadi, Seyed Ebrahim; Ghanadian, Seyed Mustafa; Rabbani, Mohammad; Tahmasbi, Fateme

    2017-01-01

    Stachys lavandulifolia Vahl is an herbaceous wild plant native to Iran which is traditionally used in Iranian folk medicine as a mild sedative tea for reducing anxiety and for treatment of gastrointestinal disorders. Our previous study on ethyl acetate extract of S. lavandulifolia proved anti-anxiolytic activity and so the present study was designed to determine chemical components of this biologically active fraction. The extract was prepared using maceration method. Column chromatography and medium pressure liquid chromatography (MPLC) was used respectively to separate the fractions. Finally, some evaluated fractions were used for high pressure liquid (HPLC) and peak shaving recycle technique to achieve more purification. Separated compounds were determined using NMR analysis and mass spectroscopy. Six compounds have been isolated from ethylacetate extract of aerial parts of S. lavandulifolia including four flavonoids (apigenin, kumatakenin, penduletin and 4', 7-dihyroxy- 3, 5, 6-trimethoxy flavon), a labdan diterpenoid (labda-13-en-8, 15-diol), and an iridoid.

  6. Antioxidant constituents of the aerial parts of Globularia alypum growing in Morocco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Es-Safi, Nour-Eddine; Khlifi, Samira; Kerhoas, Lucien; Kollmann, Albert; El Abbouyi, Ahmed; Ducrot, Paul-Henri

    2005-08-01

    Three new phenolic compounds were isolated from the aerial parts of Globularia alypum. Their structures were determined as 6-hydroxyluteolin 7-O-laminaribioside (1), eriodictyol 7-O-sophoroside (2), and 6'-O-coumaroyl-1'-O-[2-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)ethyl]-beta-D-glucopyranoside (3). In addition, three phenylethanoid glycosides (acteoside, isoacteoside, and forsythiaside) and two flavonoid glycosides (6-hydroxyluteolin 7-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside and luteolin 7-O-sophoroside) were also isolated and are reported here for the first time in this plant. The structures of compounds 1-3 were established on the basis of their spectroscopic data analysis. Evaluation of the antioxidative activity, conducted in vitro, showed that the isolated phenylethanoids and flavonoid glycosides possess strong effects of this type.

  7. New flavonol glycoside from Scabiosa prolifera L. aerial parts with in vitro antioxidant and cytotoxic activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Qudah, Mahmoud A; Otoom, Noor K; Al-Jaber, Hala I; Saleh, Ayman M; Abu Zarga, Musa H; Afifi, Fatma U; Abu Orabi, Sultan T

    2017-12-01

    Phytochemical investigation of the chemical constituents of the aerial parts of Scabiosa prolifera L. led to the isolation of one new flavonol glycoside, kaempferol-3-O-(4″,6″-di-E-p-coumaroyl)-β-D-galactopyranoside (1), along with ten other known compounds including luteolin-7-O-(2″-O-ethyl-β-glucopyranoside), β-sitosterol, β-sitosterylglucoside, ursolic acid, corosolic acid, ursolic acid 3-O-β-D-arabinopyranoside, apigenin, methyl-α-D-glucopyranoside, luteolin-7-O-β-glucopyranoside and isoorientin. The structures of all isolated compounds were established using chemical methods and spectroscopic methods including IR, UV, NMR (1D and 2D) and HRESIMS. All compounds were isolated for the first time from the plant. The antioxidant and cytotoxic activities of compounds 1 and 2 were also investigated.

  8. Phytochemical screening and in vitro bioactivities of the extracts of aerial part of Boerhavia diffusa Linn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apu, Apurba Sarker; Liza, Mahmuda Sultana; Jamaluddin, A T M; Howlader, Md Amran; Saha, Repon Kumer; Rizwan, Farhana; Nasrin, Nishat

    2012-09-01

    To investigate the bioactivities of crude n-hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of aerial part of Boerhavia diffusa Linn. (B. diffusa) and its phytochemical analysis. The identification of phytoconstituents and assay of antioxidant, thrombolytic, cytotoxic, antimicrobial activities were conducted using specific standard in vitro procedures. The results showed that the plant extracts were a rich source of phytoconstituents. Methanol extract showed higher antioxidant, thrombolytic activity and less cytotoxic activity than those of n-hexane and ethyl acetate extracts of B. diffusa. Among the bioactivities, antioxidant activity was the most notable compared to the positive control and thus could be a potential rich source of natural antioxidant. In case of antimicrobial screening, crude extracts of the plant showed remarkable antibacterial activity against tested microorganisms. All the extracts showed significant inhibitory activity against Candida albicuns, at a concentration of 1000 µg/disc. The present findings suggest that, the plant widely available in Bangladesh, could be a prominent source of medicinally important natural compounds.

  9. Involvement of NFκB in the antirheumatic potential of Chenopodium album L., aerial parts extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Sumit K; Itankar, Prakash R; Verma, Prashant R; Bharne, Ashish P; Kokare, Dadasaheb M

    2014-08-08

    Chenopodium album L. (C. album) is commonly known as Bathua in Hindi (Family: Chenopodiaceae). Traditionally, the plant is used as a laxative, diuretic, sedative and the infusion of the plant is used for the treatment of rheumatism. However, no scientific validation is available on the antirheumatic potential of the plant. In the present investigation, role of NF kappa B (NFκB) in the antiarthritic potential of extracts of aerial parts of Chenopodium album was explored and evaluated. The defatted aerial parts of Chenopodium album were successively extracted with ethylacetate, acetone, methanol and 50% methanol to study their antioxidant capacity followed by antiarthritic potential using Complete Freund׳s adjuvant (CFA) induced arthritis model in rats. The polyphenol, flavonoid and flavanone contents of different extracts were quantified and correlated with their antioxidant capacity, antiarthritic activity and NFκB inhibition potential. The experimental data indicated that the acetone extract of Chenopodium album (ACCA) has shown significant reduction in rat paw edema (80.13%) at dose level of 200 mg/kg per oral in 21 days of this study. On 22nd day, hematological and biochemical parameters were estimated and it was observed that the altered hematological parameters (Hb, RBC, WBC and ESR), biochemical parameters (Serum creatinine, total proteins and acute phase proteins) and loss in body weight in the arthritic rats were significantly brought back to near normal level by the ACCA extract. ACCA extract significantly decreased the NFκB expression in paraventricular nucleus of hypothalamus and this effect is comparable with standard indomethacine in CFA treated rats. The polyphenolic and flavonoid content of different extracts were in the range of 14.56±0.21-42.00±0.2 mg (gallic acid equivalent/g extract) and 2.20±0.003-7.33±0.5 mg (rutin equivalent/g extract) respectively. The antiarthritic activity possessed by ACCA extract can be correlated directly to its

  10. Brine shrimp cytotoxicity of Caesalpinia pulcherrima aerial parts, antimicrobial activity and characterisation of isolated active fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanda, Sumitra; Baravalia, Yogesh

    2011-12-01

    Caesalpinia pulcherrima Swartz. is an ornamental plant, shrub or a small tree belonging to the family Caesalpiniaceae. The plant has been used for the treatment of inflammatory disorders, skin diseases and so on. In this study, the cytotoxicity of the methanol extract of the aerial parts of C. pulcherrima was tested using an Artemia salina (brine shrimp) bioassay. Further, the methanol extract was fractionated by silica gel column chromatography using a solvent gradient of hexane:ethyl acetate:methanol in different ratios and 56 fractions were collected. On the basis of thin layer chromatography profiles, 13 major fractions were obtained, which were tested for antimicrobial activity against 14 microorganisms using the agar disc diffusion method and also tested for their minimal inhibitory concentration and minimal bactericidal concentration values. In terms of cytotoxicity, the extract caused 26% mortality of brine shrimp larvae after 24 h at a concentration of 1000 µg mL(-1). Fractions 3, 9 and 10 showed significant antimicrobial activities. Phytochemical analysis of these three fractions led to the identification of 11 compounds, and their structures were established by means of gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy techniques. These findings suggest that these bioactive compounds may be useful as potential antimicrobials. Further investigation is needed to establish the mode of action of these bioactive compounds.

  11. Comparing larvicidal Effect of Methanol Extract of the Aerial Parts of Henbane (Hyoscyamus niger L. and Oleander ( Nerium oleander L. plants on Anopheles spp Larvae (Diptera: Culicidae in Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoodreza Behravan

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background Malaria is an infectious disease by fever and chills, anemia and splenomegaly genus Plasmodium parasite is the agent it. One of the easiest and least expensive methods to prevent this disease is removing the vector that usually by been done insecticides and chemical pesticides, but nowadays due to the damaging effects of by toxic chemicals is currently trying to organic toxic and plant compounds used to combat the pests. So in this study used from the Hyoscyamus niger L. and Nerium oleander L. to destroy the larvae of this vectors and positive results were compared these two plants together. Methods In this experimental study, H. niger and N. oleander collected and dried to extraction by methanol usingthe Rotary Evaporator. Mosquito larvae collected from stagnant water pits and ponds around the Birjand, Iran and order to apply the relevant identity tests and isolation of Anopheles spp mosquito larvae. Survival measurement were used to estimate LC50 values using Probit analysis in Excel 2010 and SPSS (ver 20 software. Results Both Hyoscyamus niger and Nerium oleander had positive effects on destroying the Anopheles spp larvae and between obtained results, the most effective extract for destroying the mosquitoes Anopheles spp larvae, was the flower extract of henbane (LC50 = 0/26 ppm and the weakest one, was the leaves extract of oleander (LC50 = 4/85 ppm. Conclusions According to the results, the flower extract of henbane is recommended as a toxic, organic and natural compounds to fight Anopheles spp mosquito larvae, which it is stronger and more effective compared to the other parts of these two plants.

  12. Anti-diabetic potential of aerial parts of Galium tricornutum (Dandy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Anti-diabetic potential of aerial parts of Galium tricornutum (Dandy) Rubiaceae. ... In addition, the effect of the extract on fasting blood glucose, as well as serum lipid profile, urea, creatinine, alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST), bilirubin, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and protein were investigated in ...

  13. New megastigmane glycoside and aromadendrane derivative from the aerial part of Piper elongatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuoka, Chikako; Ono, Masateru; Ito, Yasuyuki; Okawa, Masafumi; Nohara, Toshihiro

    2002-10-01

    A new megastigmane glycoside, called pipeloside A, and a new aromadendrane type sesquiterpenoid, pipelol A, were isolated from the MeOH extract of the aerial part of Piper elongatum VAHL. along with a known megastigmane glycoside, byzantionoside B. The structures of these compounds were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic data and chemical evidence.

  14. New cardenolide and acylated lignan glycosides from the aerial parts of Asclepias curassavica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warashina, Tsutomu; Shikata, Kimiko; Miyase, Toshio; Fujii, Satoshi; Noro, Tadataka

    2008-08-01

    Three new cardenolide glycosides and six new acylated lignan glycosides were obtained along with nineteen known compounds from the aerial parts of Asclepias curassavica L. (Asclepiadaceae). The structure of each compound was determined based on interpretations of NMR and MS measurements and chemical evidence.

  15. Chemical Composition of Buddleja polystachya Aerial Parts and its Bioactivity against Aedes aegypti

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new acylatediridoid glycoside, 6-O-a-L-(2''-acetyl-4''-O-trans-isoferuloyl) rhamnopyranosyl catalpol (9) together with 18 known compounds belonging to the iridoids, flavonoids, triterpene saponin glycosides and phenylethanoids (1-8, 10-18) were isolated from the aerial parts and the flowers of Bud...

  16. GC-MS Analysis of Insecticidal Essential Oil of Aerial Parts of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: Steam distillation of the aerial parts of P. scandens was carried out using Clavenger apparatus in order to obtain the volatile oils. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometric (GC/MS) analyses (HP-5MS column) of the essential oil were performed and its composition determined. Insecticidal activity of the essential oil ...

  17. Volatile constituents of the aerial parts of Vietnamese Polygonum odoratum L.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dung, N.X.; Le, Van Hac; Leclercq, P.A.

    1995-01-01

    The volatile compds. isolated from the aerial parts of Vietnamese P. odoratum were analyzed by a combination of high resoln. GC and HR-GC/MS. More than 50 compds. were detected, of which 28 were identified. The main compds. were b-caryophyllene (36.5%), dodecanal (11.4%) and caryophyllene oxide

  18. Evaluation of anti-arthritic potential of the methanolic extract of the aerial parts of Costus speciosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shruti Srivastava

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective : Costus speciosus Koen. (Keu, Crape ginger, an ornamental plant, widely distributed in India is traditionally used as astringent, aphrodisiac, purgative, anthelmintic, depurative, febrifuge and expectorant. The plant is also used in rheumatism, dropsy, urinary diseases and jaundice. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the anti-arthritic activity of the methanolic extract of the aerial parts of Costus speciosus (CS in experimental animal models. Materials and Methods: The powdered drug was subjected to successive solvent extraction, with solvents in increasing order of polarity to obtain the methanolic extract of the aerial parts of the plant. CS was evaluated for anti-arthritic action by Freund′s adjuvant induced arthritis test in adult Albino rats (150-200 gm. Rats were injected 0.1 ml of complete Freund′s adjuvant into the planter region of the left hind paw. Statistical analysis was performed using One way analysis of variance (ANOVA followed by Bonferonni test. P<0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results : The methanolic extract of CS in doses of 400 and 800 mg/kg showed 75.50% and 68.33% protection against increase in paw edema, respectively. CS showed dose-dependent action in all the experimental models. Conclusion : The present study indicates that CS has significant anti-arthritic properties.

  19. Novel roaming and stationary tethered aerial robots for continuous mobile missions in nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gu, Beom W.; Choi, Su Y.; Rim, Chun T. [Dept. of Nuclear and Quantum Engineering, KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Young Soo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Cai, Guowei; Seneviratne, Lakmal [Dept. of Aerospace Engineering, Khalifa University, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates)

    2016-08-15

    In this paper, new tethered aerial robots including roaming tethered aerial robots (RTARs) for radioactive material sampling and stationary tethered aerial robots (STARs) for environment monitoring are proposed to meet extremely-long-endurance missions of nuclear power plants. The flight of the proposed tethered aerial robots may last for a few days or even a few months as long as the tethered cable provides continuous power. A high voltage AC or DC power system was newly adopted to reduce the mass of the tethered cable. The RTAR uses a tethered cable spooled from the aerial robot and an aerial tension control system. The aerial tension control system provides the appropriate tension to the tethered cable, which is accordingly laid down on the ground as the RTAR roams. The STAR includes a tethered cable spooled from the ground and a ground tension control system, which enables the STAR to reach high altitudes. Prototypes of the RTAR and STAR were designed and successfully demonstrated in outdoor environments, where the load power, power type, operating frequency, and flight attitude of the RTAR and STAR were: 180 W, AC 100 kHz, and 20 m; and 300 W, AC or DC 100 kHz, and 80 m, respectively.

  20. Novel Roaming and Stationary Tethered Aerial Robots for Continuous Mobile Missions in Nuclear Power Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beom W. Gu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, new tethered aerial robots including roaming tethered aerial robots (RTARs for radioactive material sampling and stationary tethered aerial robots (STARs for environment monitoring are proposed to meet extremely-long-endurance missions of nuclear power plants. The flight of the proposed tethered aerial robots may last for a few days or even a few months as long as the tethered cable provides continuous power. A high voltage AC or DC power system was newly adopted to reduce the mass of the tethered cable. The RTAR uses a tethered cable spooled from the aerial robot and an aerial tension control system. The aerial tension control system provides the appropriate tension to the tethered cable, which is accordingly laid down on the ground as the RTAR roams. The STAR includes a tethered cable spooled from the ground and a ground tension control system, which enables the STAR to reach high altitudes. Prototypes of the RTAR and STAR were designed and successfully demonstrated in outdoor environments, where the load power, power type, operating frequency, and flight attitude of the RTAR and STAR were: 180 W, AC 100 kHz, and 20 m; and 300 W, AC or DC 100 kHz, and 80 m, respectively.

  1. Variability of procyanidin type A- and -B trimers content in aerial parts of some Vaccinium species and cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toomik, Peeter; Püssa, Tõnu; Raal, Ain

    2014-06-01

    Based on the ethnopharmacological data showing that either wild bilberry leaves or whole aerial parts of the plants have been used as antidiabetic drugs, it can be hypothesized that the controversial results of various clinical and animal investigations may be caused by different contents of the active principles in different aerial parts of the bilberry/blueberry (Vaccinium spp.) plants, as well as by their geographical and seasonal variability. The aim of this study was to compare the content of procyanidin type A- and -B trimers in different parts of wild bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus L.) and northern highbush blueberry (V. corymbosum L.) cultivars. Stems (60 samples) and leaves (30 samples) of wild bilberries and northern highbush blueberry cultivars 'Ama' and 'North Blue' were collected at different locations in Estonia around the year, and analyzed for the concentration of the target polyphenols by HPLC-MS/MS. The highest content of type A doubly linked trimer, a known antidiabetic substance, was established in the stems of V. myrtillus. These contained up to 100 times more of the active substance than the leaves of V. myrtillus and at least 1000 times more than the leaves of V. corymbosum, whereas the seasonal/geographical variation was nearly tenfold. We suggest using stems of V. myrtillus for future animal and clinical investigations of bilberry preparations against diabetes.

  2. Small unmanned aerial vehicles (micro-UAVs, drones) in plant ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruzan, Mitchell B; Weinstein, Ben G; Grasty, Monica R; Kohrn, Brendan F; Hendrickson, Elizabeth C; Arredondo, Tina M; Thompson, Pamela G

    2016-09-01

    Low-elevation surveys with small aerial drones (micro-unmanned aerial vehicles [UAVs]) may be used for a wide variety of applications in plant ecology, including mapping vegetation over small- to medium-sized regions. We provide an overview of methods and procedures for conducting surveys and illustrate some of these applications. Aerial images were obtained by flying a small drone along transects over the area of interest. Images were used to create a composite image (orthomosaic) and a digital surface model (DSM). Vegetation classification was conducted manually and using an automated routine. Coverage of an individual species was estimated from aerial images. We created a vegetation map for the entire region from the orthomosaic and DSM, and mapped the density of one species. Comparison of our manual and automated habitat classification confirmed that our mapping methods were accurate. A species with high contrast to the background matrix allowed adequate estimate of its coverage. The example surveys demonstrate that small aerial drones are capable of gathering large amounts of information on the distribution of vegetation and individual species with minimal impact to sensitive habitats. Low-elevation aerial surveys have potential for a wide range of applications in plant ecology.

  3. Small unmanned aerial vehicles (micro-UAVs, drones) in plant ecology1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruzan, Mitchell B.; Weinstein, Ben G.; Grasty, Monica R.; Kohrn, Brendan F.; Hendrickson, Elizabeth C.; Arredondo, Tina M.; Thompson, Pamela G.

    2016-01-01

    Premise of the study: Low-elevation surveys with small aerial drones (micro–unmanned aerial vehicles [UAVs]) may be used for a wide variety of applications in plant ecology, including mapping vegetation over small- to medium-sized regions. We provide an overview of methods and procedures for conducting surveys and illustrate some of these applications. Methods: Aerial images were obtained by flying a small drone along transects over the area of interest. Images were used to create a composite image (orthomosaic) and a digital surface model (DSM). Vegetation classification was conducted manually and using an automated routine. Coverage of an individual species was estimated from aerial images. Results: We created a vegetation map for the entire region from the orthomosaic and DSM, and mapped the density of one species. Comparison of our manual and automated habitat classification confirmed that our mapping methods were accurate. A species with high contrast to the background matrix allowed adequate estimate of its coverage. Discussion: The example surveys demonstrate that small aerial drones are capable of gathering large amounts of information on the distribution of vegetation and individual species with minimal impact to sensitive habitats. Low-elevation aerial surveys have potential for a wide range of applications in plant ecology. PMID:27672518

  4. Chemical and technological evaluation of the Phyllanthus niruri aerial parts as a function of cultivation and harvesting conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angélica G. Couto

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Tea from Phyllanthus niruri L., Phyllanthaceae, aerial parts is commonly used by Brazilian folk medicine for its benefits on the treatment of genitourinary disorders, for what the polyphenolic compounds are mainly responsible. The yield of such compounds may be influenced by several variables related with the plant growth. The effects of planting periods and harvesting conditions are investigated in this work, including four different seasons. The cultivation was characterized by dry mass yield of aerial parts, and the effect of pruning was analyzed. Leaves, stems and their mixtures were analyzed after drying and milling. Loss on drying and water soluble extractives were used as physical parameters for quality control. Flavonoid content and gallic acid were chosen as chemical markers for this work. The spectrophotometric trial based on the aluminum chloride complexes was applied to evaluate the total flavonoids content. Gallic acid contents were measured from the water extractive solutions by high-performance liquid chromatography. The pruning caused a positive influence on the amount of leaves and stems. The highest flavonoids and gallic acid contents were found in the leaves, which were developed over the summer and the winter, respectively, both from the second harvesting (after pruning. Chomatographic profile by HPLC was characterizes by the presence of gallic acid and two other major peaks (not identified substances, which relation was peculiar to each aerial part. In conclusion, these results suggest that even under less favorable climatic conditions, in winter, the pruning seems to cause a strong influence over the P. niruri polyphenolics production. Indeed, the total flavonoids content, as well as the HPLC profile, can be used as indicative parameters of the ratio of leaves and stem in the vegetal raw material.

  5. Isolation, chemical characterization, and free radical scavenging activity of phenolics from Triticum aestivum L. aerial parts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalska, Iwona; Pecio, Lukasz; Ciesla, Lukasz; Oleszek, Wieslaw; Stochmal, Anna

    2014-11-19

    Fourteen phenolic compounds (flavonoids and phenolic acids) were isolated and 19 were identified in the aerial parts of Triticum aestivum L. The structures of these compounds were established on the basis of the data obtained by electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques. T. aestivum L. was found to be rich in flavones, especially in luteolin derivatives. Three of the isolated compounds, including luteolin 6-C-[6Glc″-O-E-caffeoyl-β-D-glucopyranosyl(1″→2)-β-glucopyranoside], luteolin 6-C-[5Rib″-O-E-feruoyl-β-D-ribofuranosyl(1″→2)-β-glucopyranoside], and 3',4',5'-O-trimethyltricetin 7-O-[β-D-glucuropyranosyl(1″→2)-β-D-glucopyranoside], have been reported for the first time in the plant kingdom. The amount of individual phenolics, in winter wheat, was also determined. Additionally, the free radical scavenging potential of the isolated compounds was tested in a simple and rapid thin-layer chromatography-2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical test (TLC-DPPH•) with image processing.

  6. Screening of Alkaloidal Fraction of Conium maculatum L. Aerial Parts for Analgesic and Antiinflammatory Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madaan, Reecha; Kumar, S

    2012-09-01

    Conium maculatum Linn. (Umbelliferae) has been traditionally used in the treatment of spasmodic disorders, and to relieve nervous excitation, rheumatic pains in the old and feeble, pain in stomach, pain of gastric ulcer, nervousness and restlessness. Alkaloids have long been considered as bioactive group of constituents present in C. maculatum. Despite a long tradition of use, C. maculatum has not been evaluated pharmacologically to validate its traditional claims for analgesic and antiinflammatory activities. Thus, the present investigations were undertaken with an objective to evaluate alkaloidal fraction of C. maculatum aerial parts for analgesic and antiinflammatory activities. Test doses (100 or 200 mg/kg, p.o.) of alkaloidal fraction were evaluated for analgesic activity using tail flick test and antiinflammatory activity using carrageenan-induced paw oedema test in rats. Morphine (5 mg/kg, p.o.) and indomethacin (5 mg/kg, p.o.) were used as standard analgesic and antiinflammatory drugs, respectively. Alkaloidal fraction of the plant exhibited significant analgesic activity at a dose of 200 mg/kg as it showed significant increase in tail flicking reaction time with respect to the control during 2 h intervals of observation. It also exhibited significant antiinflammatory activity at a dose of 200 mg/kg as it inhibited paw oedema in rats to 71% and reduced the paw volume one-fourth to the control during 1(st) h of the study. The present investigations suggest that alkaloids are responsible for analgesic and antiinflammatory activities of C. maculatum.

  7. Maytenus salicifolia Reissek, Celastraceae: triterpenes isolated from stems and antioxidant property of extracts from aerial parts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cássia G. Magalhães

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Six pentacyclic triterpenes were isolated from hexane extract of stems of Maytenus salicifolia Reissek, Celastraceae: 30-hydroxyfriedelan-3-one (1, 3,16-dioxofriedelane (2, friedeline (3, lupeol (4, betuline (5 and lup-20(29-en-3,30-diol (6. The structure each one was established on the basis of detailed ¹H and 13C NMR spectral investigation and by comparison with the respective literature values. For compound 1, the complete 2D NMR (HMBC, HMQC and NOESY spectral data were herein reported for the first time. Compounds 1, 2, 5 and 6 were isolated for the first time from this plant. Antioxidant activity is described for some extracts from species of the Celastraceae family, then, the extracts from aerial parts of M. salicifolia were evaluated in relation to antioxidant potential using the DPPH method. Compared to quecertin, the AcEt extract (EAF from leaves, AcEt (EAPF and MeOH (EMPF from pulp fruit and AcEt (EAT and MeOH (EMT from stems showed significant antioxidant property.

  8. Autonomous Monitoring Aerial Robot System for Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ji H.; Gu, Beom W; Thai, Van X.; Rim, C. T. [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    In this paper, autonomous monitoring aerial robot system (AMARS), which includes omnidirectional wireless charging platform, aerial robot, landing coils and a battery management board, is proposed to guarantee automatic monitoring of NPPs. The prototype of the system is fabricated, and omnidirectional charging of the system is experimentally validated with 1 C charging state. AR(Aerial Robots)s are essential for NPP accident management because human cannot access to the accident site due to the risks of unexpected explosions, collapses, and high level of radioactive contaminants. Moreover, ARs can support operators to manage normal operation of NPPs built in harsh environment of high temperature and humidity such as UAE Barakah NPP. Because these ARs usually have very low energy capacity, however, the operation time of ARs is less than 30 minutes and should be recharged regularly by human powers, which makes it impossible to monitor NPPs by ARs automatically. In this paper, the concept of AMARS has been proposed and its performance was successfully verified with a fabricated prototype. The charging state of the on board battery in AR was measured as 0.5 C with the induced voltage of 18.6 V, which is well matched to the designed induced voltage when the AR was placed on the edge of the wireless charging platform.

  9. Flavonoids from the aerial parts of Artemisia biennis Willd

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mojarrab*

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: The genus Artemisia contains over 250 species all over the world. A. biennis Willd is one of the species which grows wildly in Iran. Camphor and (E-beta-farnesene have been reported as the major components of the essential oil from A. biennis. In spite of the presence of a rather wide range of reported bioactivities there is no previous phytochemical study on  A. biennis. Methods: The plant was collected from Zoshk (Khorasan Razavi province, Iran. Extraction was done by maceration method using petroleum ether, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, ethanol and equal amounts of water and ethanol (hydroethanolic extract, respectively. A combination of solid phase extraction (SPE and high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC of the hydroethanolic extract was used to purify the compounds. Structures of the isolated compounds were elucidated by spectroscopic means, including MS and 1HNMR. Results: Three known flavonoids, luteolin, kaempferol and apigenin were isolated and identified from the hydroethanolic extract. Conclusion: Our results are in good agreement with dominant presence of derivatives of the flavones luteolin and apigenin in the genus Artemisia which has been previously reported .

  10. Cytotoxic sesquiterpene lactones from the aerial parts of Inula aucheriana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Reza Gohari

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Inula aucheriana DC is a member of the family Asteraceae which is known to produce cytotoxic secondary metabolites noted as sesquiterpene lactones. In the present study, sesquiterpene lactones inuchinenolide B, 6-deoxychamissonolide (stevin and 14-acetoxy-1β,5α,7αH-4β-hydroxy-guai-9(10,11(13-dien-12,8α-olide were isolated from I. aucheriana. Inuchinenolide B and 14-acetoxy-1β,5α,7αH-4β-hydroxy-guai-9(10,11(13-dien-12,8α-olide were further evaluated by the MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide assay to demonstrate cytotoxic activity with IC50 values of (56.6, 19.0, (39.0, 11.8, and (55.7, 15.3 μg/mL against HepG-2, MCF-7 and A-549 cells, respectively. The cytotoxic activity of the two evaluated sesquiterpene lactones partly explains the cytotoxic activity that was previously observed for the extracts of Inula aucheriana. The isolated compounds could be further investigated in cancer research studies.

  11. A new acylated flavonol from the aerial parts of Asteriscus maritimus (L.) Less (Asteraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezzat, Marwa I; Ezzat, Shahira M; El Deeb, Kadriya S; El Fishawy, Ahlam M; El-Toumy, Sayed A

    2016-08-01

    Phytochemical investigation of the flowering aerial parts of Asteriscus maritimus (L.) Less (Asteraceae) led to the isolation of a new compound: patuletin 7-O-β-D-[(2″'S) 6″(3″'-hydroxy-2″'-methyl-propanoyl)] glucopyranoside, together with five known metabolites; β-sitosterol 2, chlorogenic acid 3, P-hydroxy -methylbenzoate 4, luteolin 5 and protocatechuic acid 6. The structures of the isolated compounds were determined by comprehensive analyses of its 1D and 2D NMR, HRMS and compared with previously known analogues. The ethanolic extract of the flowering aerial parts of A. maritimus was found to be safe (LD50 = 4.6 mg/kg) and possess significant antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities and this was in accordance with its high phenolic content (107.36 ± 0.051 mg GAE/g extract).

  12. Evaluation of CNS activities of aerial parts of Cynodon dactylon Pers. in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Dilipkumar

    2008-01-01

    The dried extracts of aerial parts of Cynodon dactylon Pers. (Graminae) were evaluated for CNS activities in mice. The ethanol extract of aerial parts of C. dactylon (EECD) was found to cause significant depression in general behavioral profiles in mice. EECD significantly potentiated the sleeping time in mice induced by standard hypnotics viz. pentobarbitone sodium, diazepam, and meprobamate in a dose dependant manner. EECD showed significant analgesic properties as evidenced by the significant reduction in the number of writhes and stretches induced in mice by 1.2% acetic acid solution. It also potentiated analgesia induced by morphine and pethidine in mice. EECD inhibited the onset and the incidence of convulsion in a dose dependent manner against pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced convulsion. The present study indicates that EECD has significant CNS depressant activities.

  13. An aerial radiological survey of the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant and surrounding area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sampoll-Ramirez, G.

    1994-09-01

    An aerial radiological survey was conducted from August 10-16, 1993, over a 78-square-kilometer (30-square-mile) area of the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant and surrounding area located near Portsmouth, Ohio. The survey was performed at a nominal altitude of 46 meters (150 feet) with a line spacing of 76 meters (250 feet). A contour map of the terrestrial gamma exposure rate extrapolated to 1 meter above ground level was prepared and overlaid on a set of United States Geological Survey topographic maps of the area and an aerial photograph of the plant. The terrestrial gamma exposure rates varied from about 7 to 14 microroentgens per hour at 1 meter above the ground. Protactinium-234m was observed at six sites within the boundaries of the plant. At a seventh site, only uranium-235 was observed. No other man-made, gamma ray-emitting radioactive material was present in a detectable quantity, either on or off the plant property. Soil sample and pressurized ion chamber measurements were obtained at four locations within the survey boundaries to support the aerial data. The results of the aerial and ground-based measurements were found to agree within ± 7.5%

  14. Phytochemical screening of volatile constituents from aerial parts of murraya paniculata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saied, S.

    2014-01-01

    The volatile components of the aerial parts of Murraya paniculata have been analyzed by GC and GC-MS, revealing the presence of forty eight compounds. Identifications were made by their respective characteristic mass fragmentation pattern, with the help of NIST mass spectral search program and GC-MS Library. These identities were further authenticated by comparison of their calculated Kovat's retention indices (RI) with those cited in literature. (author)

  15. 8,14-Secopregnane glycosides from the aerial parts of Asclepias tuberosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warashina, Tsutomu; Noro, Tadataka

    2009-07-01

    Twenty pregnane glycosides, tuberoside A(1)-L(5), were isolated from the diethyl ether-soluble fraction of the MeOH extract from the aerial parts of Asclepias tuberosa (Asclepiadaceae). The pregnane glycosides were composed of 8,12;8,20-diepoxy-8,14-secopregnane as aglycon, and D-cymarose, D-oleandrose, D-digitoxose and/or D-glucose as the component sugars. Their structures were established using NMR spectroscopic analysis and chemical methodologies.

  16. Bisabolane-type sesquiterpenes from the aerial parts of Lippia dulcis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Masateru; Tsuru, Tsuyoshi; Abe, Hiroaki; Eto, Masashi; Okawa, Masafumi; Abe, Fumiko; Kinjo, Junei; Ikeda, Tsuyoshi; Nohara, Toshihiro

    2006-10-01

    Six new bisabolane-type sesquiterpenes, peroxylippidulcines A-C (3-5), peroxyepilippidulcine B (6), and epilippidulcines B (7) and C (8), have been isolated from the aerial parts of Lippia dulcis, along with two known bisabolane-type sesquiterpenes, seven known flavonoids, and a known triterpenoid. The structures of 3-8 were characterized on the basis of NMR, MS, specific rotation, and X-ray crystallographic analysis data and chemical evidence.

  17. Antibacterial activities of methanolic extracts of aerial parts of delphinium uncinatum hook's and thoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zahoor, M.; Khan, N.

    2014-01-01

    Methanolic extracts of aerial parts of Delphinium uncinatum Hook's and Thoms were analysed for its antibacterial activities aligned to two gram positive bacterial strains, Bacillus cereus and Staphylococcus aureus and two gram negative bacterial strains, Escherichia coli and Klebsilla pneumonia, using Agar Well Diffusion method. Bactericidal activity was observed against both gram negative and gram positive bacterial strains. Extracts used were more active against Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus at all prepared concentrations but lesser against Klebsilla pneumonia. (author)

  18. Kalanchosides A-C, new cytotoxic bufadienolides from the aerial parts of Kalanchoe gracilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Pei-Lin; Hsu, Yu-Lin; Wu, Tian-Shung; Bastow, K F; Lee, Kuo-Hsiung

    2006-11-09

    [Structure: see text] Three new compounds, kalanchosides A-C (1-3), as well as five known compounds, were isolated from the aerial parts of Kalanchoe gracilis. The compound structures were determined by spectroscopic methods. All eight isolated compounds showed significant cytotoxic activity against a panel of human tumor cell lines, with potency reaching the nanomolar range. However, only bryophyllin B (8) inhibited HIV replication in H9 lymphocyte cells.

  19. GC-MS Analysis of Insecticidal Essential Oil of Flowering Aerial Parts of Saussurea Nivea Turcz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi Long Liu

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Background:Several species from Saussurea have been used in the traditional medicine, such as S. lappa, S. involucrate, and S. obvallata. There is no report on medicinal use of S. nivea. The aim of this research was to determine chemical composition and insecticidal activity of the essential oil of S. nivea Turcz (Asteraceae aerial parts against maize weevils (Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky for the first time.Results:Essential oil of S. nivea flowering aerial parts was obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by gas chromatography--mass spectrometry (GC-MS. A total of 43 components of the essential oil of S. nivea were identified. The principal compounds in the essential oil were (+-limonene (15.46%, caryophyllene oxide (7.62%, linalool (7.20%, alpha-pinene (6.43%, beta-pinene (5.66% and spathulenol (5.02% followed by beta-eudesmoll (4.64% and eudesma-4,11-dien-2-ol (3.76%. The essential oil of S. nivea exhibited strong contact toxicity against S. zeamais with an LD50 value of 10.56 mug/adult. The essential oil also possessed fumigant toxicity against S. zeamais with an LC50 value of 8.89 mg/L.Conclusion: The study indicates that the essential oil of S. nivea flowering aerial parts has a potential for development into a natural insecticide/fumigant for control of insects in stored grains.

  20. A source of almost pure methyl chavicol: volatile oil from the aerial parts of Tagetes lucida (Asteraceaecultivated in Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José F Cicció

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The plant Tagetes lucida Cav.(syn.T.florida Sweet,T.schiedeana Less.is an aromatic herb distributed naturally from Mexico to Honduras,at elevations between 1 000 and 2 000 m.It is used as a spice,for medicine,as insecticide and as ornamental plant.It is cultivated commercially in Costa Rica as a spice herb;it contains an oil having an anise-like odor,and the fresh aerial parts of this plant are sold in the supermarket as a substitute of tarragon (Artemisia dracunculus L..The essential oils isolated from aerial parts bought,at May and October,in a supermarket in San José (Costa Rica.Fresh flowering aerial parts,flowers and leaves plus stems, were subjected to hydrodistillation for 3 hr using a modified Clevenger-type apparatus.The distilled oils were collected and dried over anhydrous sodium sulphate and stored in a freezer (0-10 °C.The light yellow green oil yield was about 0.07%(v/w.GC/MS analyses were performed using a Shimadzu GCMS-QP5050 apparatus and CLASS 5000 software with Wiley 139 computer database.Identification of the components of the oil was performed using the retention indices,which were calculated in relation to a homologous series of hydrocarbons, and by comparison of their mass spectra with those published in the literature or those of our own database. Thirty compounds were identified,of which methyl chavicol (95-97%was the major constituent.From flower oil,two bithienyls were detected as minor constituents. Rev. Biol. Trop. 52(4:853-857.Epub 2005 Jun 24.Los aceites esenciales extraídos de las partes aéreas de la planta Tagetes lucida Cav.cultivada en Costa Rica y utilizada como condimento,fue estudiado mediante la técnica de GC/MS en combinación con los índices de retención.Se identificaron treinta compuestos.El componente mayoritario resultó ser metil chavicol (estragolen un 95-97%.En el aceite de las flores se detectaron e identificaron dos compuestos minoritarios que resultaron ser bitienilos no informados

  1. An aerial radiological survey of the Enrico Fermi Atomic Power Plant and surrounding area, Newport, Michigan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-05-01

    An aerial radiological survey was performed over the area surrounding the Enrico Fermi Atomic Power Plant during the period 27 to 30 May 1986. The survey covered a 64-square-kilometer (25-square-mile) area around the plant. The deteted radiation was due to the presence of varying concentrations of naturally-occurring radioactive materials. Radionuclides of the uranium and thorium decay chains and radioactive potassium were found. For the majority of the survey area, the inferred radiation exposure rate levels varied between 10 and 12 microroentgens per hour (μR/h). The reported exposure rate values included an estimated cosmic ray contribution of 3.7 μR/h. Ground-based measurements, conducted concurrently with the aerial survey, were compared to the inferred aerial results. Pressurized ionization chamber readings and a group of soil samples were acquired at five locations within the survey area. The exposure rate values obtained from these ground-based measurements were in good agreement with the corresponding inferred aerial values. No evidence was found of any radioactive contamination which might have occurred as a result of plant operations. This conclusion was supported by the results of the soil samples analyses and the comparison of the current survey data with those obtained in September 1970. 7 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  2. An aerial radiological survey of the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant and surrounding area, Paducah, Kentucky

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-11-01

    An aerial radiological survey of the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) and surrounding area in Paducah, Kentucky, was conducted during May 15--25, 1990. The purpose of the survey was to measure and document the terrestrial radiological environment at the PGDP and surrounding area for use in effective environmental management and emergency response planning. The aerial survey was flown at an altitude of 61 meters (200 feet) along a series of parallel lines 107 meters (350 feet) apart. The survey encompassed an area of 62 square kilometers (24 square miles), bordered on the north by the Ohio River. The results of the aerial survey are reported as inferred exposure rates at 1 meter above ground level in the form of a gamma radiation contour map. Typical background exposure rates were found to vary from 5 to 12 microroentgens per hour (μR/h). Protactinium-234m, a radioisotope indicative of uranium-238, was detected at several facilities at the PGDR. In support of the aerial survey, ground-based exposure rate and soil sample measurements were obtained at several sites within the survey perimeter. The results of the aerial and ground-based measurements were found to agree within ±15%

  3. Co-ordinated growth between aerial and root systems in young apple plants issued from in vitro culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costes, E; García-Villanueva, E; Jourdan, C; Regnard, J L; Guédon, Y

    2006-01-01

    In several species exhibiting a rhythmic aerial growth, the existence of an alternation between root and shoot growth has been demonstrated. The present study aims to investigate the respective involvement of the emergence of new organs and their elongation in relation to this phenomenon and its possible genotypic variation in young apple plants. Two apple varieties, X6407 (recently named 'Ariane') and X3305 ('Chantecler' x 'Baujade'), were compared. Five plants per variety, issued from in vitro culture, were observed in minirhizotrons over 4 months. For each plant, root emergence and growth were observed twice per week. Growth rates were calculated for all roots with more than two segments and the branching density was calculated on primary roots. On the aerial part, the number of leaves, leaf area and total shoot length were observed weekly. No significant difference was observed between varieties in any of the final characteristics of aerial growth. Increase in leaf area and shoot length exhibited a 3-week rhythm in X3305 while a weaker signal was observed in Ariane. The primary root growth rate was homogeneous between the plants and likewise between the varieties, while their branching density differed significantly. Secondary roots emerged rhythmically, with a 3-week and a 2-week rhythm, respectively, in X3305 and 'Ariane'. Despite a high intra-variety variability, significant differences were observed between varieties in the secondary root life span and mean length. A synchronism between leaf emergence and primary root growth was highlighted in both varieties, while an opposition phase was observed between leaf area increments and secondary root emergence in X3305 only. A biological model of dynamics that summarizes the interactions between processes and includes the assumption of a feedback effect of lateral root emergence on leaf emergence is proposed.

  4. An aerial radiological survey of the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant and surrounding area, Portsmouth, Ohio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-09-01

    An aerial radiological survey was conducted from July 11--20, 1990, over an 83-square-kilometer (32-square-mile) area surrounding the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant located near Portsmouth, Ohio. The survey was conducted at a nominal altitude of 91 meters (300 feet) with line spacings of 122 meters (400 feet). A contour map of the terrestrial gamma exposure rate extrapolated to 1 meter above ground level (AGL) was prepared and overlaid on an aerial photograph and a set of United States Geological Survey (USGS) topographic maps of the area. The terrestrial exposure rates varied from about 7 to 14 microroentgens per hour (μR/h) at 1 meter above the ground. Analysis of the data for man-made sources and for the uranium decay product, protactinium-234m ( 234m Pa), showed five sites within the boundaries of the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant with elevated readings. Spectra obtained in the vicinity of the buildings at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant showed the presence of 234m Pa, a uranium-238 ( 238 U) decay product. In addition, spectral analysis of the data obtained over the processing plant facility showed gamma activity indicative of uranium-235 ( 234 U). No other man-made gamma ray emitting radioactive material was detected, either on or off the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant property. Soil samples and pressurized ion chamber measurements were obtained at five different locations within the survey boundlaries to support the aerial data

  5. Evaluation of allelopathic impact of aqueous extract of root and aerial root of Tinospora cordifolia (Willd. miers on some weed plants

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    K. M. Abdul RAOOF

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The present laboratory experimental study was conducted to evaluate the allelopathic potential of Tinospora cordifolia (Willd. Miers on seed germination and seedling growth of weed plants (Chenopodium album L. Chenopodium murale L., Cassia tora L. and Cassia sophera L.. Root and aerial root aqueous extracts of Tinospora at 0.5, 1.0, 2.0 and 4.0% concentrations were applied to determine their effect on seed germination and seedling growth of test plants under laboratory conditions. Germination was observed for 15 days after that the root length and shoot length was measured. Dry weight was measured after oven drying the seedlings. The aqueous extracts from root and aerial root had inhibitory effect on seed germination of test plants. Aqueous extracts from root and aerial root significantly inhibited not only germination and seedling growth but also reduced dry weight of the seedlings. Root length, shoot length of weed species decreased progressively when plants were exposed to increasing concentration (0.5, 1, 2 and 4%. Aqueous extract of aerial root shows the least inhibition. The pH of aqueous extracts of different parts of T. cordifolia does not show any major change when the concentration increases.

  6. Iridoid glucosides from the aerial parts of Globularia alypum L. (Globulariaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Es-Safi, Nour-Eddine; Khlifi, Samira; Kollmann, Albert; Kerhoas, Lucien; El Abbouyi, Ahmed; Ducrot, Paul-Henri

    2006-01-01

    From the hydromethanolic extract of the aerial parts of Globularia alypum grown in Morocco, a new chlorinated iridoid glucoside, globularioside has been isolated beside 5 known iridoid glycosides, globularin, globularicisin, globularidin, globularinin and globularimin. This is the first report of a chlorinated iridoid in G. alypum and in the Globulareaceae. Unlike all other known 7-chlorinated iridoid glucosides where the chlorine atom exhibits an alpha configuration, globularioside incorporate the chlorine atom as a 7beta substituent. The structures of the isolated compounds were established on the basis of ESI-MS, MS-MS, 1D and 2D NMR spectral analysis.

  7. Chemical constituents of essential oils from aerial parts of Adenosma capitatum and Limnophila aromatica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Nazrul Islam Bhuiyan

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The essential oils were isolated by hydrodistillation from the aerial parts of Adenosma capitatum and Limnophila aromatica and were analyzed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS. Forty six and thirty components were identified, representing 98.8% and 99.3% of the total oils respectively. Oil of A. capitatum rich in limonene (24.74%, fenchone (21.59% and 2-carene (17.64%. On the other hand, L. aromatica rich in Z-ocimene (39.21%, terpinolene (17.24% and camphor (12.89%.

  8. Prenylated and geranylated chalcones and flavones from the aerial parts of Dorstenia ciliata

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    Simeon F. Kouam

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Investigation of the aerial parts of Dorstenia ciliata yielded two new prenylated flavones named ciliatins A and B and characterized as 6,7-(2’’-isopropenyldihydrofurano-5,4’-dihydroxyflavone and 6,5-(2,2-dimethyldihydropyrano-7,4’-dihydroxy-3’-methoxyflavone, respectively. Known flavonoids: stipulin, isobavachalcone, licoflavone C, 6-prenylapigenin, dinklagin C, gancaonin P, canniflavone and poinsettifolin A were also identified. Structures of these secondary metabolites were established on the basis of spectroscopic analysis, comparison with published information and with authentic specimen for some cases and chemical evidence for the dihydropyranoflavone derivative.

  9. The effect of date of aerial pollution of agricultural plants on 89 Sr content in crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arkhipov, N.P.; Tevraleva, L.T.

    1979-01-01

    On the basis of the experimental data obtained in different soil-climatic zones of the USSR it is shown that for tentative calculations of the radiostrontium content in farm crop with the aerial source of nuclide delivery the period of time from plant contamination to harvesting can be used. Given are the regression equations relating 89 Sr concentration in corn, wheat and potato crops with the time of crop contamination for six native zones and the characteristics of their accuracy

  10. New Apigenin Glycoside, Polyphenolic Constituents, Anti-inflammatory and Hepatoprotective Activities of Gaillardia grandiflora and Gaillardia pulchella Aerial Parts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moharram, Fatma A; El Dib, Rabab Abd El Moneim; Marzouk, Mohamed S; El-Shenawy, Siham M; Ibrahim, Haitham A

    2017-07-01

    Gaillardia grandiflora Hort. ex Van Houte and Gaillardia pulchella Foug are flowering plants widely cultivated in Egypt for their ornamental value. Previous reports demonstrated that sesquiterpene derivatives represent the major compounds in both species. Moreover, only few flavones were identified from genus Gaillardia and few studies on the cytotoxicity of G. pulchella were found. Investigation of the phenolic constituents of the aerial parts of both species and evaluation of their anti-inflammatory and hepatoprotective activities. The 80% aqueous methanol extracts (AME) were prepared for both plants and evaluated for their biological activities. Phytochemical investigation of both extracts resulted in isolation of twelve compounds, which have been identified on the basis of ultraviolet, 1D and 2D nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and negative ESI-MS. The new 8-hydroxyapigenin 6- O -β-D-apiofuranosyl-(1'''→6'')- C -β-D- 4 C 1 -glucopyranoside was isolated from G. grandiflora for the first time in nature, along with schaftoside, luteolin 6-C-β-D- 4 C 1 -glucopyranoside 8-methyl ether, apigenin 6- C -β-D- 4 C 1 -glucopyranoside 8-methyl ether, isoorientin, isovitexin, 6-methoxyluteolin and hispidulin, as well as vicenin-2, vitexin, luteolin and apigenin, which were isolated from G. pulchella together with 6-methoxyluteolin. Furthermore, the AME of both species were found to be nontoxic to mice and exhibited significant anti-inflammatory and hepatoprotective activities in dose dependent manner. Current results shed light on the phenolic constituents of G. grandiflora and G. pulchella aerial parts and the safety of the AME of both species, in addition to their significant anti-inflammatory and hepatoprotective activities. Both plant species may be promising candidates for natural anti-inflammatory and hepatoprotective drugs. Phytochemical investigation of Gaillardia grandiflora and Gaillardia pulchella 80% aqueous methanol extracts of the aerial parts led

  11. Spatio-temporal evaluation of plant height in corn via unmanned aerial systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varela, Sebastian; Assefa, Yared; Vara Prasad, P. V.; Peralta, Nahuel R.; Griffin, Terry W.; Sharda, Ajay; Ferguson, Allison; Ciampitti, Ignacio A.

    2017-07-01

    Detailed spatial and temporal data on plant growth are critical to guide crop management. Conventional methods to determine field plant traits are intensive, time-consuming, expensive, and limited to small areas. The objective of this study was to examine the integration of data collected via unmanned aerial systems (UAS) at critical corn (Zea mays L.) developmental stages for plant height and its relation to plant biomass. The main steps followed in this research were (1) workflow development for an ultrahigh resolution crop surface model (CSM) with the goal of determining plant height (CSM-estimated plant height) using data gathered from the UAS missions; (2) validation of CSM-estimated plant height with ground-truthing plant height (measured plant height); and (3) final estimation of plant biomass via integration of CSM-estimated plant height with ground-truthing stem diameter data. Results indicated a correlation between CSM-estimated plant height and ground-truthing plant height data at two weeks prior to flowering and at flowering stage, but high predictability at the later growth stage. Log-log analysis on the temporal data confirmed that these relationships are stable, presenting equal slopes for both crop stages evaluated. Concluding, data collected from low-altitude and with a low-cost sensor could be useful in estimating plant height.

  12. Unmanned Aerial Vehicles for Alien Plant Species Detection and Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dvořák, P.; Müllerová, J.; Bartaloš, T.; Brůna, J.

    2015-08-01

    Invasive species spread rapidly and their eradication is difficult. New methods enabling fast and efficient monitoring are urgently needed for their successful control. Remote sensing can improve early detection of invading plants and make their management more efficient and less expensive. In an ongoing project in the Czech Republic, we aim at developing innovative methods of mapping invasive plant species (semi-automatic detection algorithms) by using purposely designed unmanned aircraft (UAV). We examine possibilities for detection of two tree and two herb invasive species. Our aim is to establish fast, repeatable and efficient computer-assisted method of timely monitoring, reducing the costs of extensive field campaigns. For finding the best detection algorithm we test various classification approaches (object-, pixel-based and hybrid). Thanks to its flexibility and low cost, UAV enables assessing the effect of phenological stage and spatial resolution, and is most suitable for monitoring the efficiency of eradication efforts. However, several challenges exist in UAV application, such as geometrical and radiometric distortions, high amount of data to be processed and legal constrains for the UAV flight missions over urban areas (often highly invaded). The newly proposed UAV approach shall serve invasive species researchers, management practitioners and policy makers.

  13. New fatty acid and acyl glycoside from the aerial parts of Phyllanthus fraternus Webster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Abuzer; Jameel, Mohammad; Ali, Mohammed

    2016-01-01

    Phyllanthus fraternus Webster (Euphorbiaceae) is used to treat dyspepsia, indigestion, jaundice, dysentery, diabetes, influenza, kidney stones, urinary tract diseases, vaginitis, and skin eruptions in traditional systems of medicine. The methanol extract of aerial parts of P. fraternus was obtained by soxhlation method. Isolation of compounds was done by silica gel column chromatography. Analytical thin layer chromatography was used to check the homogeneity of eluted fractions. The structures of isolated compounds were established on the basis of spectral studies and chemical reactions. Phytochemical investigation of a methanolic extract of the aerial parts yielded a new fatty acid characterized as cis-n-octacos-17-enoic acid (5) and a new acyl tetraglycoside formulated as n-dodecanoyl-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(2'→1'')-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(2''→1''')-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(2'''→1'''')-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (7) along with known compounds 1-pentacosanol (1), β-sitosteryl oleate (2), β-sitosteryl linoleate (3), stigmasterol (4) and palmityl glucuronoside (6).

  14. Chemical composition and insecticidal activities of the essential oil of aster ageratoides flowering aerial parts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chu Sha Sha

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Water-distilled essential oil from Aster ageratoides Turcz. (Compositae flowering aerial parts was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS for the first time. Forty-three compounds, accounting for 96.4 % of the oil, were identified. The main compounds found were α- terpineol (10.8 %, β-caryophyllene (10.3 %, linalool (7.2%, D-limonene (6.9%, spathulenol (6.5%, bornyl acetate (5.8%, and bicyclosesquiphellandrene (5.6%. The essential oil of A. ageratoides flowering aerial parts possessed contact toxicity against two grain storage insects Sitophilus zeamais and Tribolium castaneum adults with LD50 values of 27.16 μg adult-1 and 8.09 μg adult-1, respectively. The essential oil also exhibited fumigant toxicity against S. zeamais and T. castaneum adults with LC50 values of 13.73 mg L-1 and 12.14 mg L-1, respectively. The essential oil shows potential to be developed as possible natural fumigant/insecticide for control of stored product insects.

  15. Novel Flavonol Glycosides from the Aerial Parts of Lentil (Lens culinaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy Żuchowski

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available While the phytochemical composition of lentil (Lens culinaris seeds is well described in scientific literature, there is very little available data about secondary metabolites from lentil leaves and stems. Our research reveals that the aerial parts of lentil are a rich source of flavonoids. Six kaempferol and twelve quercetin glycosides were isolated, their structures were elucidated using NMR spectroscopy and chemical methods. This group includes 16 compounds which have not been previously described in the scientific literature: quercetin 3-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl(1→2-β-D-galactopyranoside-7-O-β-D-glucuropyranoside (1, kaempferol 3-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl(1→2-β-D-galacto-pyranoside-7-O-β-D-glucuropyranoside (3, their derivatives 4–10,12–15,17,18 acylated with caffeic, p-coumaric, ferulic, or 3,4,5-trihydroxycinnamic acid and kaempferol 3-O-{[(6-O-E-p-coumaroyl-β-D-glucopyranosyl(1→2]-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl(1→6}-β-D-galactopyranoside-7-O-α-L-rhamnopyranoside (11. Their DPPH scavenging activity was also evaluated. This is probably the first detailed description of flavonoids from the aerial parts of lentil.

  16. Saponins of Trifolium spp. Aerial Parts as Modulators of Candida Albicans Virulence Attributes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Budzyńska

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim was to provide the insight into the biology of C. albicans influenced by undescribed yet properties of saponin-rich (80%–98% fractions (SAPFs, isolated from extracts of Trifolium alexandrinum, T. incarnatum, T. resupinatum var. resupinatum aerial parts. Their concentrations below 0.5 mg/mL were arbitrarily considered as subMICs for C. albicans ATCC 10231 and were further used. SAPFs affected yeast enzymatic activity, lowered tolerance to the oxidative stress, to the osmotic stress and to the action of the cell wall disrupting agent. In their presence, germ tubes formation was significantly and irreversibly inhibited, as well as Candida invasive capacity. The evaluation of SAPFs interactions with anti-mycotics showed synergistic activity, mainly with azoles. Fluconazole MIC was lowered—susceptible C. albicans ATCC 10231 was more susceptible, and resistant C. glabrata (clinical strain become more susceptible (eightfold. Moreover, the tested samples showed no hemolytic activity and at the concentrations up to 0.5 mg/mL did not reduce viability of fibroblasts L929. This study provided the original evidence that SAPFs of Trifolium spp. aerial part exhibit significant antimicrobial activity, by reduce the expression/quantity of important Candida virulence factors and have good potential for the development of novel antifungal products supporting classic drugs.

  17. Red Maple (Acer rubrum) Aerial Parts as a Source of Bioactive Phenolics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Ma, Hang; Yuan, Tao; Seeram, Navindra P

    2015-08-01

    The bark and stems of red maple (Acer rubrum) are reported to contain bioactive phenolics but its aerial parts, namely, flowers and leaves, remain largely unexplored. This is unfortunate considering that various parts of the red maple were used for traditional medicinal purposes by the indigenous peoples of eastern North America, where this species is found. Herein, we report the identification of twenty-five (1-25) phenolics, including two new galloyl derivatives (1 and 2), from red maple flowers and leaves. Of these, ten compounds (1-10), including the new compounds, were isolated and identified by NMR and HRESIMS data while the remaining fifteen compounds (11-25) were identified by HPLC-DAD analyses (by comparison with chemical standards). The isolates (1-10), along with the clinical drug, acarbose, were evaluated for their alpha-glucosidase enzyme inhibitory activities.

  18. Chemical Compositions and Antibacterial Activities of the Essential Oils from Aerial Parts and Corollas of Origanum acutidens (Hand.-Mazz.) Ietswaart, an Endemic Species to Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Cosge, Belgin; Turker, Arzu; Ipek, Arif; Gurbuz, Bilal

    2009-01-01

    Essential oils extracted by hydrodistillation from the aerial parts and corollas of Origanum acutidens (Hand.-Mazz.) Ietswaart, an endemic Turkish flora species, were analyzed by GC-MS. The amounts of essential oil obtained from the aerial parts and the corollas were 0.73% and 0.93%, respectively. Twenty-five components in both the aerial parts oil and the corolla oil, representing 95.11% and 93.88%, respectively, were identified. The aerial parts and corolla oils were characterized by the pr...

  19. The Preventive and Curative Effects of Fresh Garlic Extract And its Aerial Parts on Fibrosarcoma in Balb/c Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Rafieian-kopaei

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Garlic has been demonstrated to have anticancer activity in some studies; however its effect on fibrosarcoma is not evident. This study intends to examine the preventive and curative effects of fresh garlic extract and its aerial parts on the growth of WEHI-164 fibrosarcoma cells in Balb/c mice. Methods: In this preclinical study, 48 female inbred Balb/c mice(6 to 7 weeks old were divided in to 6 groups of 8 each. A single aliquot of WEHI-164 cells(5 × 106 cells/100 μl was injected subcutaneously in the chest of animal. Two weeks before or three weeks after cell injection, 0.2 cc of normal saline or 20 mg/kg extract of garlic or its aerial parts were injected intraperitoneally(IP to the Balb/c mice. The tumors sizes were compared with each other, using ANOVA test. The antioxidant potential and total phenolic compounds of the extracts were also assessed. Results: The mean sizes of tumor growth in groups which received fresh garlic extract or its aerial parts were smaller than that of control group. However this difference was significant on the 21st day only in garlic extract group(p<0.05. The antioxidant power of fresh garlic involved 35.6%, whereas for its aerial parts it was 15.3%. Moreover, the general amount of phenol in fresh garlic was 12.61 mg/g and in its aerial parts was 2.44 mg/g. Conclusion: Garlic consumption might have a crucial role in prevention and control of fibrosarcoma growth. Furthermore, the phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of garlic aerial parts are less in comparison to garlic itself, however, higher doses might have anticancer activity

  20. Aerial radiological survey of the Joseph M. Farley Nuclear Plant and surrounding area, Dothan, Alabama

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maguire, T.C.; Shipman, G.R.

    1982-03-01

    An aerial radiological survey was performed during the period 8 to 19 December 1979 over a 2000 square kilometer area centered on the two unit Joseph M. Farley Nuclear Plant near Dothan, Alabama. Radiological data were collected by flying north-south lines spaced 900 meters apart at an altitude of 150 meters above ground level. Processed data showed that all gamma rays detected within the survey area were those expected from naturally occurring radionuclides. Count rates obtained from the aerial platform were converted to exposure rates at 1 meter above the ground and are presented in the form of a radiation contour map. The observed exposure rates were between 4 and 12 microroentgens per hour (μR/h), with most of the area ranging between 4 and 10 μR/h. These values include an estimated cosmic ray contribution of 4.0 μR/h but do not include any contribution from airborne radionuclides, i.e., radon. Exposure rates obtained from ground measurements taken within the survey area were in close agreement with the aerial data. The data were also in close agreement with those obtained from a similar survey conducted during March 1977. Comparison of the results from both surveys indicated that no detectable change in the radiological characteristics of the survey area has occurred due to the operation of unit number 1 during the intervening period. The same equipment and procedures were utilized for both surveys

  1. Triterpene saponins from the aerial parts of Dianthus caryophyllus var. remontant Hort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olesia Gumnicka

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Triterpene saponins from the aerial parts of carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus var. remontant Hort. have been studied. Three gypsogenic acid glycosides including 3-O-glucopyranoside, 3,28-O-di-glucopyranoside and 3-O-glucopyranosy1,28-0-[glucopyranosyl(1→6glucopyranoside] have been identified by means of LSI mass spectrometry and 1H and 13C NMR. Inhibitory activities of isolated compounds against growth of the fungus Trichoderma viride and the growth of the roots of Lepidium sativum and D. caryophyllus seedlings were measured. None of the isolated compounds showed pronounced activity in T. viride test. Seedling root growth was affected severely at the presence of gypsogenic acid 3-O-glucopyranoside. Bidesmosidic form showed marginal stimulatory activity. The obtained data are discussed in relation to the activity of medicagenic acid 3-O-glucopyranoside, the compound differing just with 2-OH substitution from gypsogenic acid glycosides.

  2. Two New Stilbenoids from the Aerial Parts of Arundina graminifolia (Orchidaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florence Auberon

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Two new phenanthrene derivatives, a phenanthrenequinone named arundiquinone (1 and a 9,10-dihydrophenanthrene named arundigramin (2 together with a known lignin dimer (3 and seven known stilbenoids (4–10 were isolated from the aerial parts of the Asian orchid Arundina graminifolia. The structures of the isolated compounds were elucidated by spectroscopic methods, including extensive 1D, 2D NMR (heteronuclear single quantum coherence (HSQC, heteronuclear multiple-bond correlation spectroscopy (HMBC, and HR-ESI-MS techniques, as well as comparison with respective literature reports. The cytoprotective activity of the isolated compounds were evaluated for their ability to reduce beta amyloid induced toxicity on undifferentiated PC12 cells. Compound 8 showed moderate cytoprotective activity at 0.5 µmol/L (71% of cell viability while the other compounds showed no significant activity at the highest concentration tested.

  3. Chemical Composition of Buddleja polystachya Aerial Parts and its Bioactivity against Aedes aegypti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Gamal, Ali; Al-Massarani, Shaza; Fawzy, Ghada; Ati, Hanan; Al-Rehaily, Adnan; Basudan, Omer; Abdel-Kader, Maged; Tabanca, Nurhayat; Becnel, James

    2017-09-25

    A new acylatediridoid glycoside, 6-O-α-L-(2″-acetyl-4″-O-trans-isoferuloyl) rhamnopyranosyl catalpol (9) together with 18 known compounds belonging to the iridoids, flavonoids, triterpene saponin glycosides and phenylethanoids (1-8, 10-18) were isolated from the aerial parts and the flowers of Buddleja polystachya. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic evidence and comparison with that reported in the literature. Promising adulticidal activity was shown for all extracts when tested for adulticidal and larvicidal activities against Ae. aegypti mosquitoes. Therefore, isolated compounds (1-10, 12-14 and 19) were bioassayed for their adulticidal activity. Compound 1 (phytol) was highly active with an LD 50 value of 1.27 ± 0.08 μg/mosquito against adult female Ae. aegypti.

  4. New Bisabolane-Type Sesquiterpenes from the Aerial Parts of Lippia dulcis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Masateru; Morinaga, Hiroaki; Masuoka, Chikako; Ikeda, Tsuyoshi; Okawa, Masafumi; Kinjo, Junei; Nohara, Toshihiro

    2005-09-01

    Two new bisabolane-type sesquiterpenes, lippidulcine A (3) and epilippidulcine A (4), have been isolated from the aerial parts of Lippia dulcis TREV. along with five known flavonoids, cirsimaritin (5), salvigenin (6), eupatorin (7), 5-hydroxy-6,7,3',4'-tetramethoxyflavone (8) and 5,3'-dihydroxy-6,7,4',5'-tetramethoxyflavone (9), three known phenylethanoid glycosides, decaffeoylverbascoside (10), acteoside (11) and isoacteoside (12), and two known iridoid glucosides, 8-epiloganin (13) and lamiide (14). Their chemical structures have been determined on the basis of spectroscopic data. Among them, 5, 7, and 9 exhibited almost the same activity as that of alpha-tocopherol, and 10-12 were identified as stronger antioxidants than alpha-tocopherol using the ferric thiocyanate method.

  5. Antifungal Amide Alkaloids from the Aerial Parts of Piper flaviflorum and Piper sarmentosum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yan-Ni; Liu, Fang-Fang; Jacob, Melissa R; Li, Xing-Cong; Zhu, Hong-Tao; Wang, Dong; Cheng, Rong-Rong; Yang, Chong-Ren; Xu, Min; Zhang, Ying-Jun

    2017-01-01

    Sixty-three amide alkaloids, including three new, piperflaviflorine A ( 1 ), piperflaviflorine B ( 2 ), and sarmentamide D ( 4 ), and two previously synthesized ones, (1 E ,3 S )-1-cinnamoyl-3- hydroxypyrrolidine ( 3 ) and N -[7'-(4'-methoxyphenyl)ethyl]-2-methoxybenzamide ( 5 ), were isolated from the aerial parts of Piper flaviflorum and Piper sarmentosum. Their structures were elucidated by detailed spectroscopic analysis and, in case of 3 , by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Most of the isolates were tested for their antifungal and antibacterial activities. Ten amides ( 6 - 15 ) showed antifungal activity against Cryptococcus neoformans ATCC 90 113 with IC 50 values in the range between 4.7 and 20.0 µg/mL. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  6. Tornado damage at the Grand Gulf, Mississippi nuclear power plant site: aerial and ground surveys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujita, T.T.; McDonald, J.R.

    1978-05-01

    A tornado struck the Grand Gulf nuclear power generating station, Port Gibson, Mississippi, about 11:30 p.m. on April 17, 1978. Storm damage investigators from the University of Chicago and Texas Tech University were dispatched to survey the damage. The meteorological situation that spawned the Grand Gulf tornado and seven others in the area is discussed. Aerial surveys of the entire damage path and detailed surveys of the plant site are presented. An engineering evaluation of the damage is also presented based primarily on information gained from detailed ground surveys

  7. The remote sensing of aquatic macrophytes Part 1: Color-infrared aerial photography as a tool for identification and mapping of littoral vegetation. Part 2: Aerial photography as a quantitative tool for the investigation of aquatic ecosystems. [Lake Wingra, Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafson, T. D.; Adams, M. S.

    1973-01-01

    Research was initiated to use aerial photography as an investigative tool in studies that are part of an intensive aquatic ecosystem research effort at Lake Wingra, Madison, Wisconsin. It is anticipated that photographic techniques would supply information about the growth and distribution of littoral macrophytes with efficiency and accuracy greater than conventional methods.

  8. Aerial and liquid effluent treatment in BNFL's Thermal Oxide Reprocessing Plant (THORP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hudson, P.I.; Buckley, C.P.

    1996-01-01

    British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL) completed construction of its Thermal Oxide Reprocessing Plant (THORP) at Sellafield in 1992, at a cost of pound 1,850M. After Government and Regulatory approval, active commissioning was initiated in January 1994. Since then, the whole of the plant has been progressively commissioned and moved towards full operational status. From the outset, the need to protect the workforce, the public and the environment in general from the plant's discharges was clearly recognised. The design intent was to limit radiation exposure of members of the general public to 'As Low as Reasonably Practicable' (ALARP). Furthermore no member of the most highly exposed (critical) group should receive an annual dose exceeding 50 microsieverts from either the aerial or marine discharge routes. This paper describes how the design intent has been met, concentrating mainly on aerial discharges. It describes the sub-division of the plant's ventilation system into a number of separate systems, according to the volume and source of the arising and the complexity of the treatment process. The dissolver off-gas, central off-gas, cell and building ventilation systems are described, together with the development programme which was undertaken to address the more demanding aspects of the performance specification. This ranged from small-scale experiments with irradiated fuel to inactive pilot plant trials and full-scale plant measurements. In addition wind tunnel tests were employed to assist dispersion modelling of the gases as they are discharged from the THORP stack. All the resulting information was then used, with the aid of mathematical models, in the design of an off-gas treatment system which could achieve the overall goal. (J.P.N.)

  9. Susceptibility of some clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus to fractions from the aerial parts of Leuzea carthamoides

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Janovská, D.; Klouček, P.; Urban, J.; Vaněk, Tomáš; Rada, V.; Kokoška, L.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 63, č. 5 (2008), s. 607-609 ISSN 0006-3088 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1P04OC926.001 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : Leuzea carthamoides * aerial parts * antimicrobial activity Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 0.406, year: 2008

  10. Composition of the essential oil from the aerial parts of Piper pierrei C.DC. from Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leclercq, P.A.; Genderen, van M.H.P.; Thanh, L.; Khien, P.V.; Dung, N.X.

    1997-01-01

    The oil of Piperpierrei C.DC. (local name Teau nlii, Tieu pierrei - Piper grown on the mountain) was isolated from its aerial parts by hydrodistillation. The oil was analyzed for the first time by high resolution GC, GC/MS and 13C-NMR. It contained more than 80 constituents of which 67 compounds

  11. Anatomy of the aerial parts and chemical composition of the essential oil of Orthodon chinensis Maxim. from Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lo, V.N.; An, N.T.K.; Dung, N.X.; Nam, Vu Viet; Leclercq, P.A.

    1994-01-01

    The aerial parts of Orthodon chinensis Maxim. (syn. Mosla chinensis Maxim.) are used for the treatment of some common diseases (dyspepsia, diarrhoea, epidermophytosis, etc.) and for the production of traditional alcohol yeast. The anatomic structure of the stem and leaves has been studied and is

  12. Open-Source Processing and Analysis of Aerial Imagery Acquired with a Low-Cost Unmanned Aerial System to Support Invasive Plant Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan R. K. Lehmann

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Remote sensing by Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS is a dynamic evolving technology. UAS are particularly useful in environmental monitoring and management because they have the capability to provide data at high temporal and spatial resolutions. Moreover, data acquisition costs are lower than those of conventional methods such as extensive ground sampling, manned airplanes, or satellites. Small fixed-wing UAS in particular offer further potential benefits as they extend the operational coverage of the area under study at lower operator risks and accelerate data deployment times. Taking these aspects into account, UAS might be an effective tool to support management of invasive plant based on early detection and regular monitoring. A straightforward UAS approach to map invasive plant species is presented in this study with the intention of providing ready-to-use field maps essential for action-oriented management. Our UAS utilizes low-cost sensors, free-of-charge software for mission planning and an affordable, commercial aerial platform to reduce operational costs, reducing expenses with personnel while increasing overall efficiency. We illustrate our approach using a real example of invasion by Acacia mangium in a Brazilian Savanna ecosystem. A. mangium was correctly identified with an overall accuracy of 82.7% from the analysis of imagery. This approach provides land management authorities and practitioners with new prospects for environmental restoration in areas where invasive plant species are present.

  13. Chemical composition, antioxidant and antibacterial activities of Tamarix balansae J. Gay aerial parts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benmerache, Abbes; Benteldjoune, Mounira; Alabdul Magid, Abdulmagid; Abedini, Amin; Berrehal, Djemaa; Kabouche, Ahmed; Gangloff, Sophie C; Voutquenne-Nazabadioko, Laurence; Kabouche, Zahia

    2017-12-01

    A previously undescribed phenolic sulphate ester, potassium 34-dihydroxy-3-methoxybenzoic acid methyl ester-5-sulphate (1), along with nine known flavonoids, kaempferol-3-O-potassium sulphate-4',7-dimethyl ether (2), kaempferol-4',7-dimethyl ether (3), rhamnocitrin-3-O-potassium sulphate (4), rhamnocitrin (5), kaempferol (6), quercetin (7), afzelin (8), quercetin-3-O-α-l-rhamnopyranoside (9) and luteolin-3'-O-potassium sulphate (10) were isolated from the aerial parts of Tamarix balansae. Structures elucidation was performed by comprehensive 1D and 2D NMR analyses, mass spectrometry and by comparison with literature data. The antibacterial assay against Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacteria showed a good activity for 2, 3, 7 and 9, with MICs ranging from 62.5 to 250 μg/mL. The abilities of these compounds to scavenge the DPPH were evaluated. Compounds 1, 7, 9 and 10 exhibited a good antiradical activity potential with IC 50 values ranging from 3.0 to 115.5 μg/mL, compared with ascorbic acid (IC 50 7.4 μg/mL) which was used as positive control.

  14. Bioactive diterpenoids and flavonoids from the aerial parts of Scoparia dulcis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qing; Yang, Qi-Ming; Hu, Hai-Jun; Yang, Li; Yang, Ying-Bo; Chou, Gui-Xin; Wang, Zheng-Tao

    2014-07-25

    Six new diterpenoids, 4-epi-7α-O-acetylscoparic acid A (1), 7α-hydroxyscopadiol (2), 7α-O-acetyl-8,17β-epoxyscoparic acid A (3), neo-dulcinol (4), dulcinodal-13-one (5), and 4-epi-7α-hydroxydulcinodal-13-one (6), and a new flavonoid, dillenetin 3-O-(6″-O-p-coumaroyl)-β-D-glucopyranoside (10), along with 12 known compounds, were isolated from the aerial parts of Scoparia dulcis. The 7S absolute configuration of the new diterpenoids 1-4 and 6 was deduced by comparing their NOESY spectra with that of a known compound, (7S)-4-epi-7-hydroxyscoparic acid A (7), which was determined by the modified Mosher's method. The flavonoids scutellarein (11), hispidulin (12), apigenin (15), and luteolin (16) and the terpenoids 4-epi-scopadulcic acid B (9) and betulinic acid (19) showed more potent α-glucosidase inhibitory effects (with IC50 values in the range 13.7-132.5 μM) than the positive control, acarbose. In addition, compounds 1, 11, 12, 15, 16, and acerosin (17) exhibited peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR-γ) agonistic activity, with EC50 values ranging from 0.9 to 24.9 μM.

  15. Phytochemical and biological study of the aerial parts of Lotus Lalambensis growing in Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Youssef, Hanan M.; Murphy, Brian T.; Amer, Masouda E.; Abdel-Kader, Maged S.; Kingston, David J.I.

    2008-01-01

    Phytochemical investigation of the aerial parts of Lotus lalambensis Schwenif resulted in the isolation and identification of 20 known compounds. Liquid-Liquid fractionation of the crude extract followed by chromatographic purification resulted in the isolation of lupeol, b-sitosterol, oleanolic acid, b-sitosterol glucoside and stigmasterol glucoside from petroleum ether fraction. The chloroform fraction afforded heptadecanol, kaempferol (1), kaempferol-3-O-a-L-rhamnoside (2), lotaustralin (3) epilotaaustralin (4), linamarin (5), kaempferol-3, 7-di-O-a-L-rhamnopyranoside (kaempferitin) (6) and ethyl-O-b-glucopyranoside (7). From the ethyl acetate fraction three simple rhamnosyl derivatives; butyl-O-a-L-rhamnopyranoside (8) methyl-O-a-L-rhamnopyranoside (9) and methyl-O-b-rhamnopyranoside (10) were obtained. Kaempferol-3-O-b-D-glucopyranoside-7-O-a-L-rhamnopyranoside (11), kaempferol-3-O-a- [b-D-glucopyranosyl-(1''''-2'''')-L- rhamnopyranoside]-7-O-a-L- rhamnopyranoside (12), kaempferol-3-O-b-D- rhamnopyranoside-7-O-a-[b-D-glucopyranosyl -(1'''-2'')-L- rhamnopyranoside] (13) and the myo-inositol (+) D-pinitol (14) were isolated from the butanol extract. The total extract and the different fractions were evaluated for their possible estrogenic, anti-inflammatory and anti-platelets aggregation activities. The chloroform extract showed the highest estrogenic activity, while the petroleum ether was the best in protection against inflammation induced by carrageenan. The strongest inhibition of platelet aggregations were observed with the aqueous fraction. (author)

  16. Polyphenolic Profile and Bioactivity Study of Oenothera speciosa Nutt. Aerial Parts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siham M. El-Shenawy

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Two new flavonol glycosides, myricetin 4'-O-α-L-rhamnopyranoside (1 and quercetin 3'-O-α-L-rhamnopyranoside (2, together with a novel biflavonol compound, speciin (3, as well as eleven phenolic metabolites, namely myricitrin (4, europetin 3-O-α-L-1C4-rhamnopyranoside (5, quercitrin (6, hyperin (7, rhamnetin 3-O-β-galacto-pyranoside (8, caffeic acid (9, caffeic acid methyl ester (10, chlorogenic acid (11, chlorogenic acid methyl ester (12, gallic acid (13 and gallic acid methyl ester (14, were identified from the 80 % methanol extract of the aerial parts (leaves and stems of Oenothera speciosa Nutt. (Onagraceae. In addition myricetin (15, quercetin (16 and ellagic acid (17 were identified from the chloroform extract. The structures were established depending on their chemical and physical analyses (UV, HR-ESIMS, 1D and 2D NMR. It was found that 80 % aqueous methanol extract of O. speciosa is non-toxic to mice up to 5 g kg-1b.wt. The investigated extract exhibited significant antihyperglycaemic and anti-inflammatory activities in a dose dependant manner. Also, the 80 % methanol extract, myricitrin(4 and hyperin(7 showed potent antioxidant activity in vitro using 1,1-diphenyl 2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH radical assay.

  17. Polyphenolic profile and bioactivity study of Oenothera speciosa Nutt. aerial parts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzouk, Mohamed S; Moharram, Fatma A; El Dib, Rabab A; El-Shenawy, Siham M; Tawfike, Ahmed F

    2009-04-07

    Two new flavonol glycosides, myricetin 4'-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranoside (1) and quercetin 3'-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranoside (2), together with a novel biflavonol compound, speciin (3), as well as eleven phenolic metabolites, namely myricitrin (4), europetin 3-O-alpha-L-(1)C(4)-rhamnopyranoside (5), quercitrin (6), hyperin (7), rhamnetin 3-O-beta-galacto-pyranoside (8), caffeic acid (9), caffeic acid methyl ester (10), chlorogenic acid (11), chlorogenic acid methyl ester (12), gallic acid (13) and gallic acid methyl ester (14), were identified from the 80 % methanol extract of the aerial parts (leaves and stems) of Oenothera speciosa Nutt. (Onagraceae). In addition myricetin (15), quercetin (16) and ellagic acid (17) were identified from the chloroform extract. The structures were established depending on their chemical and physical analyses (UV, HR-ESIMS, 1D and 2D NMR). It was found that 80 % aqueous methanol extract of O. speciosa is non-toxic to mice up to 5 g kg(-1)b wt. The investigated extract exhibited significant antihyperglycaemic and anti-inflammatory activities in a dose dependant manner. Also, the 80 % methanol extract, myricitrin(4) and hyperin(7) showed potent antioxidant activity in vitro using 1,1-diphenyl 2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) radical assay.

  18. In vitro antileishmanial and cytotoxicity activities of essential oils from Haplophyllum tuberculatum A. Juss leaves, stems and aerial parts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdi, Assia; Bero, Joanne; Beaufay, Claire; Flamini, Guido; Marzouk, Zohra; Vander Heyden, Yvan; Quetin-Leclercq, Joelle

    2018-02-14

    Plants used for traditional medicine produce diverse and complex secondary metabolites exhibiting various medicinal properties. The medicinal plant Haplophyllum tuberculatum is used by native people against malaria and parasitic infections. In this study and in order to contribute for the search of new natural drugs for leishmaniasis, the essential oils of H. tuberculatum leaves, stems and aerial parts (leaves+stems) collected in two different periods, 2013 and 2015, and their components by GC/FID and GC/MS analyses were investigated. Those collected in 2013 were also re-analyzed two years later. The extracted oils were screened in vitro for anti-leishmanial activity on Leishmania mexicana mexicana (L.m.m.) promastigotes and cytotoxicity on the Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cell line. Limonene (1.5 - 8%), its isomers (R- (+)-limonene and S-(-)-limonene), linalool and octanol were also tested. Results showed that the chemical composition varied according to the year of collection. Though major compounds remain almost the same, qualitative and quantitative variations in the composition of the EOs can be observed between the two years of collection, with some minor compounds identified only in one type of samples. Variation in the composition were also observed in the re-analyzed volatile oils, showing stability concerns. The essential oils and R-(+)-limonene showed moderate anti-leishmanial activity. Their IC 50 range from 6.48 to 50.28 μg/ml. Cytotoxicity assays for theses volatile extracts, R- (+)-limonene and S- (-)-limonene on CHO cells showed relatively potent cytotoxicity with a selectivity index <10. Their CC 50 range from 27.79 to 82.56 μg/ml. The findings of the present study demonstrated that H. tuberculatum might not be considered as a natural source for production of new anti-leishmanial agents without further analyzing its eventual in vivo toxicity as well as that of major pure compounds.

  19. An aerial radiological survey of the Fort Calhoun Nuclear Power Plant and surrounding area, Fort Calhoun, Nebraska

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-05-01

    An aerial radiological survey was conducted over the Fort Calhoun Nuclear Power Plant in Fort Calhoun, Nebraska, during the period June 19 through June 28, 1993. The survey was conducted at an altitude of 150 feet (46 meters) over a 25-square-mile (65-square-kilometer) area centered on the power station. The purpose of the survey was to document the terrestrial gamma radiation environment of the Fort Calhoun Nuclear Power Plant and surrounding area. The results of the aerial survey are reported as inferred gamma radiation exposure rates at 1 meter above ground level in the form of a contour map. Outside the plant boundary, exposure rates were found to vary between 6 and 12 microroentgens per hour and were attributed to naturally-occurring uranium, thorium, and potassium. The aerial data were compared to ground-based benchmark exposure rate measurements and radionuclide assays of soil samples obtained within the survey boundary. The ground-based measurements were found to be in good agreement with those inferred from the aerial measuring system. A previous survey was conducted on August 9 and 10, 1972, before the plant began operation. Exposure rates measured in both surveys were consistent with normal terrestrial background

  20. In-vitro antioxidant and in-vivo anti-inflammatory activities of aerial parts of Cassia species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jignasu P. Mehta

    2017-05-01

    The antioxidant activity of the extracts was measured using scavenging of 2,2′-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl hydrate (DPPH, bleaching of β-carotene and % inhibition of H2O2. The anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated using carrageenan induced paw edema method on Wistar albino rats. The etahnolic extracts of aerial parts of C. siamea and C. javanica were evaluated for in vivo anti-inflammatory activity against the animal model of female Wistar albino rats. Ethanol extracts showed significant and dose-dependent anti-inflammatory effects. The contents of flavonoids and total phenolic compounds could be correlated with the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities observed for C. siamea and C. javanica. Our findings suggest that aerial parts of C. siamea and C. javanica contain potential antioxidant and anti-inflammatory compounds, which could be tested as drug candidates against oxidative and inflammation-related pathological processes in medicinal chemistry studies.

  1. Gc, gc-ms analysis of lipophilic fractions of aerial parts of fagonia indica burm.f. showing growth inhibitory effect on ht 29 colorectal cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farheen, R.; Mahmood, I.

    2016-01-01

    Fagonia indica Burm.f. is a small genus of herbs and under shrubs. The plant contains potentially active substances and has been used traditionally for the treatment of many illnesses including cancer. Many polar compounds have been reported from this plant but its non-polar constituents have only been rarely studied. In the present studies these constituents of aerial parts of Fagonia indica Burm.f. and its sub fractions showing growth inhibitory effect on HT 29 colorectal cancer cells were analyzed using flame ionization detector (GC-FID) and GC-EIMS analysis. The present studies exhibited the presence of free fatty acids and their esters along with structurally diverse constituents including triterpene, heterocyclic organic compound, aromatics, hydrocarbons, alcohols, lactone and sterols which may be responsible for this activity. The results suggest that the non-polar constituents of F. indica bear a potential of further studies. (author)

  2. 8,12;8,20-Diepoxy-8,14-secopregnane glycosides from the aerial parts of Asclepias tuberosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warashina, Tsutomu; Noro, Tadataka

    2010-02-01

    Further study of constituents from the aerial parts of Asclepias tuberosa afforded twenty-two new steroidal glycosides along with tuberoside B(5) and G(5). These glycosides were confirmed to contain 8,12;8,20-diepoxy-8,14-secopregnanes, tuberogenin and its congeners, as their aglycones. The structure of each of these compounds was elucidated based on the interpretation of NMR and MS measurements and from chemical evidence.

  3. Identification of Repellent and Insecticidal Constituents of the Essential Oil of Artemisia rupestris L. Aerial Parts against Liposcelis bostrychophila Badonnel

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Xin; Li, Yin; Li, He; Deng, Zhi; Zhou, Ligang; Liu, Zhi; Du, Shu

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this research was to determine the chemical composition and insecticidal and repellent activity of the essential oil of Artemisia rupestris L. aerial parts against the booklice Liposcelis bostrychophila Badonnel and isolation of insecticidal and repellent constituents from the essential oil. The essential oil of A. rupestris was obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC-MS. A total of 30 components of the essential oil of A. rupestris was identified and the principal compoun...

  4. Phytochemical screening, total phenolic contents and biological evaluation of aerial parts of nepeta praetervisa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fareed, G.; Afza, N.; Mali, A.; Fareed, N.; Lateef, M.; Iqbal, L.; Mughal, U.R

    2013-01-01

    This study was designed to explore the phytochemical screening, total phenolic contents, radical scavenging potential and urease inhibitory activities in various fractions of the aerial parts of Nepeta praetervisa. Sub-fractions (n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, n-butanol, and aqueous) were prepared from the crude methanolic extract using partition chromatography. Phytochemical tests were performed and revealed the presence of various classes of secondary metabolites in various sub-fractions (Table-1). Total phenolic contents of all the fractions were determined using Folin-Ciocalteu (FC) reagent and the ethyl acetate sub-fraction was found to possess the highest level of phenolic contents (627.25 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/g) as compared to the other fractions. The radical scavenging activity was determined at various concentrations ranging from 2.5 - 0.15 micro g /10 mu L by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH) method. At the lowest concentration level, the ethyl acetate sub-fraction showed maximum level of antioxidant activity (78%) compared to BHA used as standard. The decreasing order of activity was ethyl acetate>chloroform>aqueous>n-butanol>methanol>n-hexane. On the other hand when all these fractions were screened for urease inhibition activity using indophenols method, the ethyl acetate sub-fraction showed significant urease inhibitory activity (68 %) compared with the standard thiourea at the concentration of 50 mu g /10 mu L. The decreasing order of activity of various sub-fractions was ethyl acetate>chloroform>hexane>aqueous, while n-butanol sub- fraction was inactive. (author)

  5. Antimutagenic and antioxidant activity of a protein fraction from aerial parts of Urtica dioica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Sotto, Antonella; Mazzanti, Gabriela; Savickiene, Nijole; Staršelskytė, Rasa; Baksenskaite, Vaida; Di Giacomo, Silvia; Vitalone, Annabella

    2015-06-01

    Urtica dioica L. (Urticaceae), stinging nettle, has been employed as a folklore remedy for a wide spectrum of ailments, including urinary disorders, prostatic hyperplasia, and liver diseases. It has been also used traditionally for cancer treatment. To evaluate the potential chemopreventive properties of a protein fraction from the aerial part of Urtica dioica (namely UDHL30). UDHL30 has been tested for the antimutagenic activity in bacteria (50-800 μg/plate; Ames test by the preincubation method) and for the cytotoxicity on human hepatoma HepG2 cells (0.06-2 mg/mL; 24 and 48 h incubation). Moreover, the antioxidant activity of UDHL30 (0.1-1200 μg/mL; ABTS and superoxide-radical scavenger assays) was evaluated as potential protective mechanisms. UDHL30 was not cytotoxic on HepG2 cells up to 2 mg/mL; conversely, it exhibited a strong antimutagenic activity against the mutagen 2-aminoanthracene (2AA) in all strains tested (maximum inhibition of 56, 78, and 61% in TA98, TA100, and WP2uvrA strains, respectively, at 800 μg/plate). In addition, a remarkable scavenging activity against ABTS radical and superoxide anion (IC50 values of 19.9 ± 1.0 μg/mL and 75.3 ± 0.9 μg/mL, respectively) was produced. UDHL30 possesses antimutagenic and radical scavenging properties. Being 2AA a pro-carcinogenic agent, we hypothesize that the antimutagenicity of UDHL30 can be due to the inhibition of CYP450-isoenzymes, involved in the mutagen bioactivation. The radical scavenger ability could contribute to 2AA-antimutagenicity. These data encourage further studies in order to better define the potential usefulness of UDHL30 in chemoprevention.

  6. PHYTOCHEMICAL STUDY, MICROBIOLOGICAL AND CYTOTOXICITYTY ACTIVITY IN Artemia salina LEACH, AERIAL PARTS OF Petiveria alliacea L. PHYTOLACCACEAE.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darllen Suzanny Barbosa de Oliveira

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to phytochemical study of the aerial parts of Petiveria alliacea L. (young branches and leaves, cytotoxicity evaluation (LC50 of leaves in relation to Artemia salina L. and antimicrobial activity, which were used strains of gram-positive bacterium: Staphylococcus aureus and gram-negative: Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli, these submitted to the methanol crude extract (MCE of leaves, at the following concentrations: 25.50 and 100mg/mL. It was possible to identify in the young branches of P. alliacea L. the presence of organic acids, phenols and tannins in the alkaloids leaves, steroids and triterpenoids, saponins, phenols and tannins, where the activities of these metabolites match with some information alleged by the population. The leaves’ Methanol Crude Extract showed LC50=1709.77μg/mL, being nontoxic at the tested concentrations, whereas for plant extract in relation to A.salina are considered nontoxic when LC50>1000μg/mL. The antimicrobial activity of the Methanol Crude Extract of the leaves showed inhibition only for the bacteria Escherichia coli at 100mg/mL concentration, and this activity may be related to the presence of phenols and tannins in the extract. The obtained results turn the species promising in search of secondary metabolites, but there is the need of further studies to identify its main active ingredients. Palavras-chave: Mucuracaa, Phytochemical Screening, Class of Compounds. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18561/2179-5746/biotaamazonia.v3n3p76-82

  7. Antispasmodic effects of Pycnocycla spinosa seed and aerial part extracts on rat ileum and uterus smooth muscle contractions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Background and the purpose of study: Hydroalcoholic extract of Pycnocycla spinosa has a relaxant effect on ileum and inhibits castor oil induced diarrhoea in mice. However, effects of P. spinosa seed extracts on ileum and uterus hasn't been investigated.  The aim of this study was to investigate effect of P. spinosa seed and extracts of the aerial part on rat ileum and uterus smooth muscle contraction. Methods: A 70% ethanol extract of seed and aerial parts of P. spinosa was prepared by a percolation method. Uterine horns or ileum were dissected from non-pregnant female Wistar rats (200-230g and cut into longitudinal strips and mounted for isotonic recording under 1g tension in Tyrode's solution. Effects of the extracts were examined on tonic contractions induced by KCl (80mM on both tissues and on phasic spasm induced by oxytocin (0.002iu/ml on the uterus. Results: The aerial part extract inhibited rat ileum contractions induced by 80mM KCl (IC50=42±3.4mg/ml in a concentration dependent manner and it also inhibited rat uterus contraction induced by 80 mM KCl. However, its inhibitory effects were observed with higher concentration of the extract (IC50=420±90mg/ml and at concentration of 1.28mg/ml of the extract in the bath the response was 19±7%.  The aerial part extract (40-640mg/ml also reduced the evoked phasic response of uterus by oxytocin (IC50=71±17.3mg/ml. The seed extract reduced the uterus response to oxytocin in a concentration-dependent manner, and inhibited tissue response completely at 160mg/ml (IC50=27±4mg/ml.  Major conclusion: From this study it was concluded that the seed extract of P. spinosa have similar inhibitory properties on rat isolated uterus and ileum contractions, while the extract of the aerial part of P. spinosa is more selective inhibitor of ileum contraction, and at higher concentrations it also inhibits uterus spasm.

  8. Antidepressant and anxiolytic activity of Lavandula officinalis aerial parts hydroalcoholic extract in scopolamine-treated rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmati, Batool; Kiasalari, Zahra; Roghani, Mehrdad; Khalili, Mohsen; Ansari, Fariba

    2017-12-01

    Anxiety and depression are common in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Despite some evidence, it is difficult to confirm Lavandula officinalis Chaix ex Vill (Lamiaceae) as an anxiolytic and antidepressant drug. The effects of L. officinalis extract were studied in scopolamine-induced memory impairment, anxiety and depression-like behaviour. Male NMRI rats were divided into control, scopolamine alone-treated group received scopolamine (0.1 mg/kg) intraperitoneally (i.p.), daily and 30 min prior to performing behavioural testing on test day, for 12 continuous days and extract pretreated groups received aerial parts hydro alcoholic extract (i.p.) (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg), 30 min before each scopolamine injection. Memory impairment was assessed by Y-maze task, while, elevated plus maze and forced swimming test were used to measure anxiolytic and antidepressive-like activity. Spontaneous alternation percentage in Y maze is reduced by scopolamine (36.42 ± 2.60) (p ≤ 0.001), whereas lavender (200 and 400 mg/kg) enhanced it (83.12 ± 5.20 and 95 ± 11.08, respectively) (p ≤ 0.05). Also, lavender pretreatment in 200 and 400 mg/kg enhanced time spent on the open arms (15.4 ± 3.37 and 32.1 ± 3.46, respectively) (p ≤ 0.001). On the contrary, while immobility time was enhanced by scopolamine (296 ± 4.70), 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg lavender reduced it (193.88 ± 22.42, 73.3 ± 8.25 and 35.2 ± 4.22, respectively) in a dose-dependent manner (p ≤ 0.001). Lavender extracts improved scopolamine-induced memory impairment and also reduced anxiety and depression-like behaviour in a dose-dependent manner.

  9. Free radical scavengers from the aerial parts of Grammosciadium platycarpum Boiss. & Hausskn. (Apiaceae and GC-MS analysis of the essential oils from its fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Nazemiyeh

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Grammosciadium platycarpum Boiss. & Hausskn (Apiaceae is one of three endemic Iranian species of the genus Grammosciadium DC. Consumption of the aerial parts of this plant affects renal function and causes diuresis. In the DPPH assay the methanol extract showed the highest level of free radical scavenging activity (RC50 = 1.196 x 10-2 mg/mL among the extracts. Reversed-phase preparative HPLC analyses of the methanol extract yielded nine flavonoids, which were responsible for the free radical scavenging activity of the MeOH extract. The GC-MS analyses of the essential oils led to the identification of 29 terpenoids, mainly monoterpenes (non-oxygenated 3.97% and oxygenated 77.49% accounting for over 96% of the total oils.

  10. Essential oil composition and isolation of freeradical-scavenging phenolic glycosides from the aerial parts of Ajuga chamaepitys growing in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Delazar

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available From the methanolic extract of the aerial parts of Ajuga chamaepitys (L. Schreb., Lamiaceae, one of the Iranian medicinal plants, the phenylethanoid glycoside, acteoside, and two flavone glycosides, chrysoeriol 7-O-glucopyranoside (3'-methoxy-luteolin 7-O-glucopyranoside and apigenin 7-O-rhamnopyranoside, were isolated by a combination of solid-phase extraction (SPE and preparative reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (prep-RP-HPLC methods. Structures of the isolated compounds were elucidated by spectroscopic means. The free-radical-scavenging properties of the extracts, fractions and isolated compounds were determined by the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH assay. While among the extracts, the MeOH extract showed the highest level of free-radical-scavenging activity (RC50 1.15 × 10-1 mg/mL, chrysoeriol 7-O-glucopyranoside was the most active (RC50 3.00 × 10-3 mg/mL among the isolated compounds. The GC-MS and the GC-FID analyses revealed α-pinene (23.66%, β-pinene (9.33%, 1-octen-3-ol (9.72%, β-phellandrene (8.70% and germacrene-D (7.92% as the major components of the essential oils derived from the aerial parts of this plant. The presence of phenolic glycosides and the α- and β-pinene-rich essential oils in A. chamaepitys may provide some rationale for the traditional medicinal uses of this species in Iran.

  11. Essential oil composition and isolation of freeradical-scavenging phenolic glycosides from the aerial parts of Ajuga chamaepitys growing in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Delazar

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available From the methanolic extract of the aerial parts of Ajuga chamaepitys (L. Schreb., Lamiaceae, one of the Iranian medicinal plants, the phenylethanoid glycoside, acteoside, and two flavone glycosides, chrysoeriol 7-O-glucopyranoside (3'-methoxy-luteolin 7-O-glucopyranoside and apigenin 7-O-rhamnopyranoside, were isolated by a combination of solid-phase extraction (SPE and preparative reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (prep-RP-HPLC methods. Structures of the isolated compounds were elucidated by spectroscopic means. The free-radical-scavenging properties of the extracts, fractions and isolated compounds were determined by the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH assay. While among the extracts, the MeOH extract showed the highest level of free-radical-scavenging activity (RC50 1.15 × 10-1 mg/mL, chrysoeriol 7-O-glucopyranoside was the most active (RC50 3.00 × 10-3 mg/mL among the isolated compounds. The GC-MS and the GC-FID analyses revealed α-pinene (23.66%, β-pinene (9.33%, 1-octen-3-ol (9.72%, β-phellandrene (8.70% and germacrene-D (7.92% as the major components of the essential oils derived from the aerial parts of this plant. The presence of phenolic glycosides and the α- and β-pinene-rich essential oils in A. chamaepitys may provide some rationale for the traditional medicinal uses of this species in Iran.

  12. Research on Chemical Composition and Biological Properties Including Antiquorum Sensing Activity of Angelica pancicii Vandas Aerial Parts and Roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mileski, Ksenija S; Trifunović, Snežana S; Ćirić, Ana D; Šakić, Željana M; Ristić, Mihailo S; Todorović, Nina M; Matevski, Vlado S; Marin, Petar D; Tešević, Vele V; Džamić, Ana M

    2017-12-20

    The essential oil, different extracts, and isolated compounds of Angelica pancicii Vandas (Apiaceae) were investigated for the first time. The GC-FID and GC-MS analyses revealed sesquiterpenoids as the main constituents of A. pancicii essential oil of aerial parts with bornyl acetate (8.08%), n-octanol (5.82%), kessane (4.26%), and β-selinene (4.26%) as the main constituents. Analysis of methanol extracts, using an HPLC-DAD/ESI-ToF-MS system, showed a total of 52 compounds in the aerial parts and 53 in the roots, indicating coumarins as the main constituents. In addition, new chromone (1) and six known furanocoumarins (2-7) were isolated from the roots and structurally elucidated by combined spectroscopic methods. The aerial part extracts exhibited higher polyphenolic contents and antioxidant activity evaluated by three radical scavenging assays. Using a microwell dilution method, the strongest antibacterial activity profiles were determined for ethanol and methanol root extracts (minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) = 0.25-3.00 mg/mL), which were comparable to the activity of streptomycin (MBCs = 0.34-1.24 mg/mL), while the strongest antibacterial compound of A. pancicii was oxypeucedanin hydrate (MBCs = 0.50-8.00 mg/mL). Antifungal potential was in moderate extent, and the highest activity was obtained for root methanol extract (minimum fungicidal concentrations (MFCs) = 4.00-14.00 mg/mL). Tested sub-minimum inhibitory concentrations (subMICs) of the extracts and isolated compounds inhibited selected Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 virulence determinants. The most reduced growth of P. aeruginosa colony was in the presence of isolated oxypeucedanin. Ethanol (17.36-46.98%) and methanol (34.54-52.43%) root extracts showed higher anti-biofilm activity compared to streptomycin (49.40-88.36%) and ampicillin (56.46-92.16%).

  13. C-glycosylflavones from the aerial parts of Eleusine indica inhibit LPS-induced mouse lung inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Melo, Giany O; Muzitano, Michelle F; Legora-Machado, Alexandre; Almeida, Thais A; De Oliveira, Daniela B; Kaiser, Carlos R; Koatz, Vera Lucia G; Costa, Sônia S

    2005-04-01

    The infusion of aerial parts (EI) of Eleusine indica Gaertn (Poaceae) is used in Brazil against airway inflammatory processes like influenza and pneumonia. Pre-treatment with 400 mg/kg of crude extract inhibited 98% of lung neutrophil recruitment in mice exposed to aerosols of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from Gram-negative bacteria, in a dose-dependent manner. At 400 microg/kg, schaftoside (6-C-beta-glucopyranosyl-8-C-alpha-arabinopyranosylapigenin) and vitexin (8-C-beta-glucopyranosylapigenin), isolated from EI, inhibited 62% and 80% of lung neutrophil influx, respectively. These results may justify the popular use of E. indica against airway inflammatory processes.

  14. Aerial radiation surveys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jobst, J.

    1980-01-01

    A recent aerial radiation survey of the surroundings of the Vitro mill in Salt Lake City shows that uranium mill tailings have been removed to many locations outside their original boundary. To date, 52 remote sites have been discovered within a 100 square kilometer aerial survey perimeter surrounding the mill; 9 of these were discovered with the recent aerial survey map. Five additional sites, also discovered by aerial survey, contained uranium ore, milling equipment, or radioactive slag. Because of the success of this survey, plans are being made to extend the aerial survey program to other parts of the Salt Lake valley where diversions of Vitro tailings are also known to exist

  15. Aerial radiological survey of the United States Department of Energy's Rocky Flats Plant, Golden, Colorado. Date of survey, August 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-09-01

    An aerial radiological survey of the Rocky Flats Plant was conducted during August 1981. The survey consisted of an airborne measurement of both natural and man-made gamma radiation from the terrain surface in and around the Rocky Flats Plant. These measurements allowed an estimate of the distribution of isotope concentrations in the survey area. Results are reported as exposure rate, man-made, and 241 Am isopleths superimposed on photographs of the area. The survey covered a square area approximately 9.7 km on each side. Gamma ray energy spectra are also presented for the net man-made radionuclides

  16. Chromatographic finger print analysis of anti-inflammatory active extract fractions of aerial parts of Tribulus terrestris by HPTLC technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Mona Salih; Alajmi, Mohamed Fahad; Alam, Perwez; Khalid, Hassan Subki; Mahmoud, Abelkhalig Muddathir; Ahmed, Wadah Jamal

    2014-01-01

    Objective To develop HPTLC fingerprint profile of anti-inflammatory active extract fractions of Tribulus terrestris (family Zygophyllaceae). Methods The anti-inflammatory activity was tested for the methanol and its fractions (chloroform, ethyl acetate, n-butanol and aqueous) and chloroform extract of Tribulus terrestris (aerial parts) by injecting different groups of rats (6 each) with carrageenan in hind paw and measuring the edema volume before and 1, 2 and 3 h after carrageenan injection. Control group received saline i.p. The extracts treatment was injected i.p. in doses of 200 mg/kg 1 h before carrageenan administration. Indomethacin (30 mg/kg) was used as standard. HPTLC studies were carried out using CAMAG HPTLC system equipped with Linomat IV applicator, TLC scanner 3, Reprostar 3, CAMAG ADC 2 and WIN CATS-4 software for the active fractions of chloroform fraction of methanol extract. Results The methanol extract showed good antiedematous effect with percentage of inhibition more than 72%, indicating its ability to inhibit the inflammatory mediators. The methanol extract was re-dissolved in 100 mL of distilled water and fractionated with chloroform, ethyl acetate and n-butanol. The four fractions (chloroform, ethyl acetate, n-butanol and aqueous) were subjected to anti-inflammatory activity. Chloroform fraction showed good anti-inflammatory activity at dose of 200 mg/kg. Chloroform fraction was then subjected to normal phase silica gel column chromatography and eluted with petroleum ether-chloroform, chloroform-ethyl acetate mixtures of increasing polarity which produced 15 fractions (F1-F15). Only fractions F1, F2, F4, F5, F7, F9, F11 and F14 were found to be active, hence these were analyzed with HPTLC to develop their finger print profile. These fractions showed different spots with different Rf values. Conclusions The different chloroform fractions F1, F2, F4, F5, F7, F9, F11 and F14 revealed 4, 7, 7, 8, 9, 7, 7 and 6 major spots, respectively. The

  17. Chromatographic finger print analysis of anti-inflammatory active extract fractions of aerial parts of Tribulus terrestris by HPTLC technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Mona Salih; Alajmi, Mohamed Fahad; Alam, Perwez; Khalid, Hassan Subki; Mahmoud, Abelkhalig Muddathir; Ahmed, Wadah Jamal

    2014-03-01

    To develop HPTLC fingerprint profile of anti-inflammatory active extract fractions of Tribulus terrestris (family Zygophyllaceae). The anti-inflammatory activity was tested for the methanol and its fractions (chloroform, ethyl acetate, n-butanol and aqueous) and chloroform extract of Tribulus terrestris (aerial parts) by injecting different groups of rats (6 each) with carrageenan in hind paw and measuring the edema volume before and 1, 2 and 3 h after carrageenan injection. Control group received saline i.p. The extracts treatment was injected i.p. in doses of 200 mg/kg 1 h before carrageenan administration. Indomethacin (30 mg/kg) was used as standard. HPTLC studies were carried out using CAMAG HPTLC system equipped with Linomat IV applicator, TLC scanner 3, Reprostar 3, CAMAG ADC 2 and WIN CATS-4 software for the active fractions of chloroform fraction of methanol extract. The methanol extract showed good antiedematous effect with percentage of inhibition more than 72%, indicating its ability to inhibit the inflammatory mediators. The methanol extract was re-dissolved in 100 mL of distilled water and fractionated with chloroform, ethyl acetate and n-butanol. The four fractions (chloroform, ethyl acetate, n-butanol and aqueous) were subjected to anti-inflammatory activity. Chloroform fraction showed good anti-inflammatory activity at dose of 200 mg/kg. Chloroform fraction was then subjected to normal phase silica gel column chromatography and eluted with petroleum ether-chloroform, chloroform-ethyl acetate mixtures of increasing polarity which produced 15 fractions (F1-F15). Only fractions F1, F2, F4, F5, F7, F9, F11 and F14 were found to be active, hence these were analyzed with HPTLC to develop their finger print profile. These fractions showed different spots with different Rf values. The different chloroform fractions F1, F2, F4, F5, F7, F9, F11 and F14 revealed 4, 7, 7, 8, 9, 7, 7 and 6 major spots, respectively. The results obtained in this experiment

  18. An aerial radiological survey of the Perry Nuclear Power Plant and surrounding area, North Perry, Ohio: Date of survey: April 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fritzsche, A.E.

    1987-01-01

    An aerial radiological survey was conducted over the Perry Nuclear Power Plant, North Perry, Ohio. The purpose of the 234-square-kilometer (91-square-mile) survey was to document the terrestrial gamma environment of the plant and surrounding area. An exposure rate contour map at 1 meter above ground level was constructed from the gamma data and overlaid on an aerial photograph and map of the area. Exposure rates increased from 0 microroentgens per hour (μR/h) over Lake Erie to 9 μR/h as the distance from Lake Erie increased. Only one anomalous area appears on the map, which is due to an excess of Bi-214 in a landfill area. Ground-based exposure rate measurements and soil samples were obtained to support the aerial data. Oblique aerial photographs of the plant were also acquired during the survey. 6 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab

  19. Chemical Compositions and Antibacterial Activities of the Essential Oils from Aerial Parts and Corollas of Origanum acutidens (Hand.-Mazz. Ietswaart, an Endemic Species to Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belgin Cosge

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Essential oils extracted by hydrodistillation from the aerial parts and corollas of Origanum acutidens (Hand.-Mazz. Ietswaart, an endemic Turkish flora species, were analyzed by GC-MS. The amounts of essential oil obtained from the aerial parts and the corollas were 0.73% and 0.93%, respectively. Twenty-five components in both the aerial parts oil and the corolla oil, representing 95.11% and 93.88%, respectively, were identified. The aerial parts and corolla oils were characterized by the predominance of two components: p-cymene (9.43% and 17.51% and carvacrol (67.51% and 52.33%, respectively. The essential oils were also evaluated for their antimicrobial activity against ten bacteria by the disc diffusion assay. Our findings showed the following order in the sensitivity to the essential oils, as indicated by the corresponding inhibition zones: Proteus vulgaris > Salmonella typhimurium > Enterobacter cloacae > Klebsiella pneumonia > Escherichia coli > Serratia marcescens > Pseudomonas aeruginosa for the aerial parts essential oil, and Salmonella typhimurium > Proteus vulgaris > Enterobacter cloacae > Escherichia coli > Klebsiella pneumoniae > Serratia marcescens > Pseudomonas aeruginosa for the corolla essential oil. The studied essential oils thus exhibited a broad-spectrum of activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, whereas the tested Gram-positive bacteria were more susceptible to the essential oil samples.

  20. Chemical compositions and antibacterial activities of the essential oils from aerial parts and corollas of Origanum acutidens (Hand.-Mazz.) Ietswaart, an endemic species to Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosge, Belgin; Turker, Arzu; Ipek, Arif; Gurbuz, Bilal

    2009-04-30

    Essential oils extracted by hydrodistillation from the aerial parts and corollas of Origanum acutidens (Hand.-Mazz.) Ietswaart, an endemic Turkish flora species, were analyzed by GC-MS. The amounts of essential oil obtained from the aerial parts and the corollas were 0.73% and 0.93%, respectively. Twenty-five components in both the aerial parts oil and the corolla oil, representing 95.11% and 93.88%, respectively, were identified. The aerial parts and corolla oils were characterized by the predominance of two components: p-cymene (9.43% and 17.51%) and carvacrol (67.51% and 52.33%), respectively. The essential oils were also evaluated for their antimicrobial activity against ten bacteria by the disc diffusion assay. Our findings showed the following order in the sensitivity to the essential oils, as indicated by the corresponding inhibition zones: Proteus vulgaris > Salmonella typhimurium > Enterobacter cloacae > Klebsiella pneumonia > Escherichia coli > Serratia marcescens > Pseudomonas aeruginosa for the aerial parts essential oil, and Salmonella typhimurium > Proteus vulgaris > Enterobacter cloacae > Escherichia coli > Klebsiella pneumoniae > Serratia marcescens > Pseudomonas aeruginosa for the corolla essential oil. The studied essential oils thus exhibited a broad-spectrum of activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, whereas the tested Gram-positive bacteria were more susceptible to the essential oil samples.

  1. Chemical fingerprint and simultaneous determination of alkaloids and flavonoids in aerial parts of genus Peganum indigenous to China based on HPLC-UV: application of analysis on secondary metabolites accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Fangfang; Cheng, Xuemei; Liu, Wei; Xuan, Min; Zhang, Lei; Zhao, Xin; Shan, Meng; Li, Yan; Teng, Liang; Wang, Zhengtao; Wang, Changhong

    2014-12-01

    The aerial parts of genus Peganum are officially used in traditional Chinese medicine. The paper aims to establish a high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method for fingerprint analysis and simultaneous determination of three alkaloids and two flavonoids in aerial parts of genus Peganum, and to analyze accumulative difference of secondary metabolites in inter-species, individuals of plants, inter-/intra-population and from different growing seasons. HPLC analysis was performed on a C18 column with gradient elution using 0.1% trifloroacetic acid and acetonitrile as mobile phase and detected at 265 nm, by conventional methodology validation. For fingerprint analysis, the RSDs of relative retention time and relative peak area of the characteristic peaks were within 0.07-0.78 and 0.94-9.09%, respectively. For simultaneous determination of vasicine, harmaline, harmine, deacetylpeganetin and peganetin, all calibration curves showed good linearity (r > 0.9990) within the test range. The relative standard deviations of precision, repeatability and stability test did not exceed 2.37, 2.68 and 2.67%, respectively. The average recoveries for the five analytes were between 96.47 and 101.20%. HPLC fingerprints play a minor role in authenticating and differentiating the herbs of different species of genus Peganum. However, the secondary metabolites levels of alkaloids and flavonoids in aerial parts of genus Peganum rely on species-, habitat-, and growth season-dependent accumulation. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Antifungal Activity of Aqueous Extracts from Ferula Assa foetida Aerial parts on Candida Albicans and its Comparison with Fluconazole in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AA Jafari

    2014-09-01

    Results:Concentrations of 8.75 mg/ml aerial parts of Ferula assafoetida completely inhibited the growth of Candida albicans and killed all viable cells (MFC. Concentrations of 0.273 and 4.4 mg/ml Ferula aqueous extracts were also determined as MIC50 and MIC90. In case of Fluconazole, 128 µg/ml concentrationis determined as MFC and 0.5 µg/ml concentration is also known as MIC50. Conclusion:Results of the current study showed that the aqueous extract of Ferula assafoetida aerial parts has inhibitory and candidacidal effect against Candida albicans and further in vivo studies are suggested.

  3. Separation of antioxidant and α-glucosidase inhibitory flavonoids from the aerial parts of Asterothamnus centrali-asiaticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan-Ming; Zhao, Jian-Qiang; Yang, Jun-Li; Tao, Yan-Duo; Mei, Li-Juan; Shi, Yan-Ping

    2017-06-01

    A new flavonoid, along with 16 known ones, was separated from the aerial parts of Asterothamnus centrali-asiaticus. Their structures were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic methods, including 1D and 2D NMR techniques and HRESIMS. To confirm the structure of the new compound, computational prediction of its 13 C chemical shifts was performed. All of the 17 flavonoids were reported from A. centrali-asiaticus for the first time. In addition, all flavonoids were evaluated for their antioxidant and α-glucosidase inhibitory activities. The results showed that 10 of them exhibited antioxidant activity. Meanwhile, four flavonoids displayed α-glucosidase inhibitory effect with IC 50 values ranging from 38.9 to 299.7 μM.

  4. Chemical Composition of the Essential Oil from Aerial Parts of Javanian Pimpinella pruatjan Molk. and Its Molecular Phylogeny

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustina D. R. Nurcahyanti

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The species-rich and diverse genus Pimpinella is mainly distributed in Europe and Asia; a few species occur in Africa. Yet, the Javanian Pimpinella, P. pruatjan, which has been used as an aphrodisiac in Indonesian traditional medicine, was studied for the first time in the context of chemical composition, as well as phylogeny analysis and antimicrobial activity. We examined the chemical composition of the essential oil (EO from aerial parts of P. pruatjan by gas liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (GLC-MS. The main component of EO was (Z-γ-bisabolene. Several oxygenated monoterpenes, oxygenated sesquiterpenes, and sesquiterpenes were also detected. The genetic relationship of Pimpinella pruatjan Molk. to other Pimpinella species was reconstructed using nucleotide sequences of the nuclear DNA marker ITS (Internal Transcribed Spacer. P. pruatjan clusters as a sister group to the African Pimpinella species. The EO did not exhibit an apparent antimicrobial activity.

  5. Chemical Composition and Toxicity against Sitophilus zeamais and Tribolium castaneum of the Essential Oil of Murraya exotica Aerial Parts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi Long Liu

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available In our screening program for new agrochemicals from Chinese medicinal herbs, Murraya exotica was found to possess insecticidal activity against the maize weevil, Sitophilus zeamais and red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum. The essential oil of aerial parts of M. exotica was obtained by hydrodistillation and investigated by GC and GC-MS. The main components of M. exotica essential oil were spathulenol (17.7%, a-pinene (13.3%, caryophyllene oxide (8.6%, and a-caryophyllene (7.3%. Essential oil of M. exotica possessed fumigant toxicity against S. zeamais and T. castaneum adults with LC50 values of 8.29 and 6.84 mg/L, respectively. The essential oils also show contact toxicity against S. zeamais and T. castaneum adults with LD50 values of 11.41 and 20.94 mg/adult, respectively.

  6. Four New Acylated Iridoid Glycosides from the Aerial Part of Veronicastrum sibiricum and Their Antioxidant Response Element-Inducing Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Myeong Il; Kim, Chul Young

    2018-01-01

    Four new (1 - 4) and one known (5) acylated iridoid glycosides were isolated from the aerial parts of Veronicastrum sibiricum (L.) Pennell. The chemical structures of the isolated compounds were determined to be 3″,4″-dicinnamoyl-6-O-rhamnopyranosyl-10-O-bergaptol-5,7-bisdeoxycynanchoside (1), 3″,4″-dicinnamoyl-6-O-rhamnopyranosylpaulownioside (2), 2″,4″-dicinnamoyl-6-O-rhamnopyranosylcatalpol (3), 3″,4″-dicinnamoyl-6-O-rhamnopyranosylaucubin (4), and 3″,4″-dicinnamoyl-6-O-rhamnopyranosylcatalpol (5) using spectroscopic techniques. Among these compounds, compound 5 increased antioxidant response element (ARE) luciferase activity. © 2018 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zurich, Switzerland.

  7. Safety of dried aerial parts of Hoodia parviflora as a novel food pursuant to Regulation (EC) No 258/97

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjödin, Anders Mikael

    2017-01-01

    provided on the composition, the specifications, the production process, the batch-to-batch variability and the stability of the NF is sufficient and does not raise safety concerns. The applicant intends to use the NF in a number of energy-reduced/sugar-free/no-added-sugar foods in quantities of up to 15......Following a request from the European Commission, the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) was asked to deliver a scientific opinion on the dried aerial parts of Hoodia parviflora as a novel food (NF) submitted pursuant to Regulation (EC) No 258/97. The information...... mg per serving. The applicant also proposes to provide the NF as a food supplement. The target population proposed by the applicant is adults. The highest intake estimates were found in the group of elderly (≥ 65 years) individuals, with a high intake of 1.0 mg/kg body weight (bw) per day. One 90-day...

  8. Neo-clerodane and abietane diterpenoids with neurotrophic activities from the aerial parts of Salvia leucantha Cav.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lai-Wei; Qi, Yan-Yan; Liu, Shi-Xi; Wu, Xing-De; Zhao, Qin-Shi

    2018-04-04

    Four new neoclerodane diterpenoids, leucansalvialins FI (1-4), and one rare 18(4 → 3)-abeo-abietane diterpenoid, leucansalvialin J (5), were isolated from the aerial part of Salvia leucantha Cav., along with 14 known analogues. Leucansalvialin F (1) represents the first rearranged salvigenane type clerodane-17,12:18,6-diolide. Their structures were elucidated by 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic data analysis, and the absolute configurations of 1, 2, 3, and 5 were determinded by X-ray diffraction crystal analysis and the ECD technique. All of the isolated components were evaluated for their neurotrophic activities on PC12 cells and all new compounds were evaluated for their cytotoxicity against five human cancer cell lines (HL-60, A-549, SMMC-7721, MCF-7, and SW480). Compounds 2 and 5 showed moderate neuroprotective effects in an in vitro assay. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Physiological effects induced by the hydroalcoholic extract of Violae tricoloris herba (wild pansy aerial parts on Triticum aestivum L

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    Ruxandra Cretu

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Wild pansy (Viola tricolor hydroalcoholic extract was prepared by extraction of powdered dried – flowering aerial parts with ethanol 70% v/v (1:10, by reflux for two hours. This was diluted with distilled water to give the final concentrations of 0.5, 1.0 and 5% (v/v (VTEx1, VTEx2 and VTEx3. These extracts were tested for their effects on seed germination and seedlings growth of wheat (Triticum aestivum in a laboratory experiment. Distilled water was used as a control (C. After the 10 days of experiment, we evaluated seed germination of wheat and seedlings growth (roots and shoots lengths, their fresh and dry biomass.

  10. In Vitro Anthelmintic Activity of Crude Extracts of Aerial Parts of Cissus quadrangularis L. and Leaves of Schinus molle L. against Haemonchus contortus

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    Selamawit Zenebe

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Haemonchus contortus, the causative agent of Haemonchosis, is the most economically important parasite in small ruminant production. Control with chemotherapy has not been successful due to rapid emergence of drug-resistant strains. There is a continuous search for alternative leads particularly from plants. The study aimed to evaluate the anthelmintic activity of crude methanolic extracts of leaves of Schinus molle and aerial parts of Cissus quadrangularis against H. contortus. Methods. Adult motility test and egg hatching inhibition assay were employed to investigate the in vitro adulticidal and egg hatching inhibitory effects of the extracts. Results. Higher concentrations of the extracts (10 and 5 mg/ml had a significantly superior adulticidal activity (p<0.05 compared to the negative control and lower concentration levels, which was comparable to albendazole. Similarly, the relative egg hatch inhibition efficacy of S. molle and C. quadrangularis extracts indicated a maximum of 96% and 88% egg hatch inhibition, respectively, within the 48 hrs of exposure at 1 mg/ml. Conclusion. The current study evidenced that the crude methanolic extracts of the plants have promising adulticidal and egg hatching inhibitory effects against H. contortus.

  11. In Vitro Anthelmintic Activity of Crude Extracts of Aerial Parts of Cissus quadrangularis L. and Leaves of Schinus molle L. against Haemonchus contortus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zenebe, Selamawit; Feyera, Teka; Assefa, Solomon

    2017-01-01

    Haemonchus contortus, the causative agent of Haemonchosis, is the most economically important parasite in small ruminant production. Control with chemotherapy has not been successful due to rapid emergence of drug-resistant strains. There is a continuous search for alternative leads particularly from plants. The study aimed to evaluate the anthelmintic activity of crude methanolic extracts of leaves of Schinus molle and aerial parts of Cissus quadrangularis against H. contortus. Methods . Adult motility test and egg hatching inhibition assay were employed to investigate the in vitro adulticidal and egg hatching inhibitory effects of the extracts. Higher concentrations of the extracts (10 and 5 mg/ml) had a significantly superior adulticidal activity ( p molle and C. quadrangularis extracts indicated a maximum of 96% and 88% egg hatch inhibition, respectively, within the 48 hrs of exposure at 1 mg/ml. The current study evidenced that the crude methanolic extracts of the plants have promising adulticidal and egg hatching inhibitory effects against H. contortus .

  12. A novel monocyclic triterpenoid and a norsesquaterpenol from the aerial parts of Suaeda monoica Forssk. ex J.F. Gmel with cell proliferative potential

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    Mansour S. Al-Said

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Suaeda monoica Forssk. ex J.F. Gmel (Chenopodiaceae, a mangrove herb, is distributed in tropical Africa, Arabian Peninsula, India, Pakistan, Palestine and Jordan. The plant parts are used to treat sore throat, hepatitis, wounds, rheumatism, paralysis, asthma, snakebites, skin disease and ulcer. Two new phytoconstituents characterized as 13,17-octahydropentalene-4,4,10,23-tetramethyl-17,21-diisopropyl-tetradecahydrocyclo-[a]-phenanthrene-(14, 20(23, 21(30-trien-5α-ol (SMC-3 and [1,4,4-trimethyl-cyclopent-1(5-enyl]-9,10,17,21-tetramethyl-9α-ol-16α (17α-epoxy heptadecan-6,10-dione (SMC-4 belong to the class norsesquaterpenol and monocyclic triterpenoid, respectively, along with two known compounds 3-epi-lupeol (SMC-1 and 4-cyclopentylpyrocatechol (SMC-2 have been isolated from the ethanol extract of aerial parts of S. monoica using normal and reverse phase column as well as planar chromatography. The spectroscopic studies including 1D, 2D NMR (DEPT, COSY, HMBC and HSQC aided by EIMS mass and IR spectra were used to establish their structures. All the four compounds were tested for cytotoxicity on cultured HepG2 cells and for cell proliferation activities. The results revealed no cytotoxicity even at highest (6.25–50 μg/ml dose of all the four compounds. The compound SMC-1 showed prominent cell proliferative activity as compared to other SMC compounds.

  13. High-Throughput Phenotyping of Plant Height: Comparing Unmanned Aerial Vehicles and Ground LiDAR Estimates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madec, Simon; Baret, Fred; de Solan, Benoît; Thomas, Samuel; Dutartre, Dan; Jezequel, Stéphane; Hemmerlé, Matthieu; Colombeau, Gallian; Comar, Alexis

    2017-01-01

    The capacity of LiDAR and Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) to provide plant height estimates as a high-throughput plant phenotyping trait was explored. An experiment over wheat genotypes conducted under well watered and water stress modalities was conducted. Frequent LiDAR measurements were performed along the growth cycle using a phénomobile unmanned ground vehicle. UAV equipped with a high resolution RGB camera was flying the experiment several times to retrieve the digital surface model from structure from motion techniques. Both techniques provide a 3D dense point cloud from which the plant height can be estimated. Plant height first defined as the z -value for which 99.5% of the points of the dense cloud are below. This provides good consistency with manual measurements of plant height (RMSE = 3.5 cm) while minimizing the variability along each microplot. Results show that LiDAR and structure from motion plant height values are always consistent. However, a slight under-estimation is observed for structure from motion techniques, in relation with the coarser spatial resolution of UAV imagery and the limited penetration capacity of structure from motion as compared to LiDAR. Very high heritability values ( H 2 > 0.90) were found for both techniques when lodging was not present. The dynamics of plant height shows that it carries pertinent information regarding the period and magnitude of the plant stress. Further, the date when the maximum plant height is reached was found to be very heritable ( H 2 > 0.88) and a good proxy of the flowering stage. Finally, the capacity of plant height as a proxy for total above ground biomass and yield is discussed.

  14. Aerial radiological survey of the H.B. Robinson steam electric plant and surrounding area, Hartsville, South Carolina. Date of survey: June 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-04-01

    The survey covered a 64-square-kilometer (25-square-mile) area centered on the Plant. The highest radiation exposure rates, up to a maximum of 220 microroentgens per hour (μR/h), were inferred from the data measured directly over the Plant. This detected radiation was due to the presence of cobalt-58, cobalt-60, and cesium-137, which was consistent with normal Plant operations. A single offsite anomaly was detected within the survey area this anomaly, which was approximately 1.3 kilometers (0.8 miles) northwest of the Plant, was the site of the Plant's coal-fired generating station's ash settling pond. This pond, which contained the coal's ash and slag residue, revealed varying concentrations of naturally-occurring radioactive materials. All the radionuclides of the uranium and thorium decay chains and radioactive potassium were found. For the majority of the survey area, the inferred radiation exposure rate levels varied from 4 to 12μR/h. Higher exposure rate levels (12 to 25 μR/h) due to increased concentrations of thorium were prevalent over the southern and northwestern portions of the survey area. The reported exposure rate values included an estimated cosmic ray contribution of 3.7 μR/h. Ground-based measurements, conducted concurrently with the aerial survey, were compared to the inferred aerial results. Pressurized ionization chamber readings and a group of soil samples were acquired at several locations within the survey area and at two of the three ground-based locations used in 1973 for a previous aerial survey. The exposure rate values obtained from those measurements made within the current aerial survey boundaries were in agreement with the corresponding inferred aerial data results. No evidence of any radioactive contamination was inferred from the 1985 aerial survey data

  15. The Development of an Open Hardware and Software System Onboard Unmanned Aerial Vehicles to Monitor Concentrated Solar Power Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesas-Carrascosa, Francisco Javier; Verdú Santano, Daniel; Pérez Porras, Fernando; Meroño-Larriva, José Emilio; García-Ferrer, Alfonso

    2017-06-08

    Concentrated solar power (CSP) plants are increasingly gaining interest as a source of renewable energy. These plants face several technical problems and the inspection of components such as absorber tubes in parabolic trough concentrators (PTC), which are widely deployed, is necessary to guarantee plant efficiency. This article presents a system for real-time industrial inspection of CSP plants using low-cost, open-source components in conjunction with a thermographic sensor and an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). The system, available in open-source hardware and software, is designed to be employed independently of the type of device used for inspection (laptop, smartphone, tablet or smartglasses) and its operating system. Several UAV flight missions were programmed as follows: flight altitudes at 20, 40, 60, 80, 100 and 120 m above ground level; and three cruising speeds: 5, 7 and 10 m/s. These settings were chosen and analyzed in order to optimize inspection time. The results indicate that it is possible to perform inspections by an UAV in real time at CSP plants as a means of detecting anomalous absorber tubes and improving the effectiveness of methodologies currently being utilized. Moreover, aside from thermographic sensors, this contribution can be applied to other sensors and can be used in a broad range of applications where real-time georeferenced data visualization is necessary.

  16. Anti-inflammatory and enzyme inhibitory activities of a crude extract and a pterocarpan isolated from the aerial parts of Vitex agnus-castus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Bashir; Azam, Sadiq; Bashir, Shumaila; Khan, Ibrar; Adhikari, Achyut; Choudhary, Muhammad Iqbal

    2010-11-01

    A new compound, 6a,11a-dihydro-6H-[1] benzofuro [3,2-c][1,3]dioxolo[4,5-g]chromen-9-ol was isolated from the ethyl acetate fraction of Vitex agnus-castus. The structure of this compound was identified with the help of spectroscopic techniques ((13)C NMR, (1)H NMR, HMBC, HMQC, NOESY and COSY). The compound showed low urease- (32.0%) and chymotrypsin- (31.4%) inhibitory activity, and moderate (41.3%) anti-inflammatory activity. The crude extract and various fractions obtained from the aerial parts of the plant were also screened for possible in vitro hemagglutination, antibacterial and phytotoxic activities. No hemagglutination activity against human erythrocytes was observed in crude extracts and fractions of V. agnus-castus. The fractions and crude methanolic extract showed moderate and low antibacterial activity. Exceptions were the CHCl(3) fraction, which showed significant antibacterial activity against Klebsiella pneumonia (81% with MIC(50)=2.19 mg/mL), the n-hexane fraction, which exhibited no activity against Salmonella typhi, and the CHCl(3) and aqueous fractions, which showed no activity against Bacillus pumalis. Moderate phytotoxic activity (62.5%) was observed by n-hexane fraction of V. agnus-castus against Lemna minor L at 1000 μg/mL.

  17. Identification of Repellent and Insecticidal Constituents of the Essential Oil of Artemisia rupestris L. Aerial Parts against Liposcelis bostrychophila Badonnel

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    Zhi Long Liu

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to determine the chemical composition and insecticidal and repellent activity of the essential oil of Artemisia rupestris L. aerial parts against the booklice Liposcelis bostrychophila Badonnel and isolation of insecticidal and repellent constituents from the essential oil. The essential oil of A. rupestris was obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC-MS. A total of 30 components of the essential oil of A. rupestris was identified and the principal compounds in the essential oil were α-terpinyl acetate (37.18%, spathulenol (10.65%, α-terpineol (10.09%, and linalool (7.56%, followed by 4-terpineol (3.92% and patchoulol (3.05%. Based on bioactivity-guided fractionation, the four active constituents were isolated from the essential oil and identified as α-terpineol, α-terpinyl acetate, 4-terpineol and linalool. The essential oil of A. rupestris exhibited contact toxicity against L. bostrychophila with LD50 value of 414.48 µg/cm2. α-Terpinyl acetate (LD50 = 92.59 µg/cm2 exhibited stronger contact toxicity against booklice than α-terpineol (LD50 = 140.30 µg/cm2, 4-terpineol (LD50 = 211.35 µg/cm2, and linalool (LD50 = 393.16 µg/cm2. The essential oil of A. rupestris (LC50 = 6.67 mg/L air also possessed fumigant toxicity against L. bostrychophila while the four constituents, 4-terpineol, α-terpineol, α-terpinyl acetate and linalool had LC50 values of 0.34, 1.12, 1.26 and 1.96 mg/L air, respectively. α-Terpinol and α-terpinyl acetate showed strong repellency against L. bostrychophila, while linalool and 4-terpinol exhibited weak repellency. The results indicate that the essential oil of A. rupestris aerial parts and its constituent compounds have potential for development into natural insecticides or fumigants as well as repellents for control of insects in stored grains.

  18. Cytotoxic and pro-oxidative effects of Imperata cylindrica aerial part ethyl acetate extract in colorectal cancer in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwok, Amy Ho Yan; Wang, Yan; Ho, Wing Shing

    2016-05-15

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cancer. Its global incidence and mortality have been on the rise. Recent strategy of therapies has involved the use of non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs and cyclooxygenase-selective inhibitors. Aerial parts of Imperata cylindrical L. Raeusch (IMP) have been used as an anti-inflammatory agent in traditional Chinese medicine. Asarachidonate acid cascadeis often involved in inflammation-related malignancy and IMP is an anti-inflammatory agent, hence it is hypothesized that IMP aerial part ethyl acetate extract exerts cytotoxic effects on colorectal cancer cells in vitro. The HT-29 adenocarcinoma cell line was used to elucidate its pro-apoptotic activities. Flow cytometry and fluorescent microscopy were performed to assess cell cycle arrest and the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The mRNA and hormone levels of arachidonate acid pathways were studied via quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) and ELISA. The 50% growth inhibitory effect (GI50) of the IMP extract on HT-29 was measured with a value of 14.5 µg/ml. Immuno-blot and caspase-3/7 activity assay showed the pro-apoptotic effect of IMP on the activation of caspase cascade. G2/M arrest was observed via flow cytometry. The ROS activity was modulated by the IMP extraction a concentration-dependent manner in HT-29 cells. The IMP extract increased PGE2 and PGF2α levels qRT-PCR revealed that transcripts of rate-limiting PGE2- and PGF2α-biosynthetic enzymes - COX-1, mPGES1 and AKR1C3 were notably up-regulated. Among the prostanoid receptors, EP1 and FP transcripts were up-regulated while EP4 transcripts decreased. The findings suggest that the proliferative effect of PGE2, which is generally believed to associate with heightened DNA synthesis and cross-talk with MAPK pathways, is likely triggered by the pro-apoptotic or -oxidative effects exerted by IMP extract in HT-29 cells. Concurring with this notion, indomethacin (COX-1/2-inhibitor) was

  19. Aerial radiological survey of the Weldon Spring Chemical Plant (St. Charles, Missouri)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jobst, J.E.

    1975-01-01

    Of the 27 lines flown over the Weldon Spring Chemical Plant drainage basins, five lines directly over the Plant site show uranium and thorium contamination probably due to Plant operations. Because the survey was done at an altitude of 152m, with a 300-meter line spacing, identification of individual radiation sources on the site is not possible from present data. One additional survey line over a quarry south of the Plant shows uranium contamination due to Plant wastes deposited there

  20. Comparison of chemical profiles between the root and aerial parts from three Bupleurum species based on a UHPLC-QTOF-MS metabolomics approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Lin; Liang, Zhi-Tao; Yi, Tao; Ma, Yue; Zhao, Zhong-Zhen; Guo, Bao-Lin; Zhang, Jian-Ye; Chen, Hu-Biao

    2017-06-12

    Bupleuri Radix (Chaihu) represents one of the most successful and widely used herbal medicines in Asia for the treatment of many diseases such as inflammatory disorders and infectious diseases over the past 2000 years. In the Chinese Pharmacopoeia, Chaihu is recorded as the dried roots of Bupleurum chinense DC. and B. scorzonerifolium Willd. (Umbelliferae). However, the widespread demand for the herb has tended to far outstrip the supply. Whether the aerial parts, which account for 70 ~ 85% of the dry weights of Bupleurum species, could be used as an alternative for the root has become an important scientific issue for the sustainable utilization of Bupleurum species. On the other hand, in some areas including the southeast of China as well as in Spain, the aerial parts of Bupleurum species have already been used in the folk medications. Therefore, to clarify whether the root and aerial parts of Bupleurum species are "equivalent" in the types and quantities of chemical constituents which subsequently influence their biological activities and therapeutic effects is of great importance for both the rational and sustainable use of this herb. In the present study, the chemical profiles between the root and aerial parts of Bupleurum species from different species and collected from various locations were analyzed and compared by the ultra-high performance liquid chromatography quadrupole/time of flight-mass spectrometry (UHPLC-QTOF-MS). A total of 56 peaks were identified in the root and/or aerial parts from different batches of Bupleurum species, by comparison of references standards or with those reported in the literature. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was conducted for displaying the differentiating clustering between these two parts. The results disclosed the distinct variations between them, which indicated that the aerial parts could not be used as an alternative of root from a chemodiversity perspective. The differentiating markers resulted from the PCA

  1. Gas Chromatography, GC/Mass Analysis and Bioactivity of Essential Oil from Aerial Parts of Ferulago trifida: Antimicrobial, Antioxidant, AChE Inhibitory, General Toxicity, MTT Assay and Larvicidal Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavakoli, Saeed; Vatandoost, Hassan; Zeidabadinezhad, Reza; Hajiaghaee, Reza; Hadjiakhoondi, Abbas; Abai, Mohammad Reza; Yassa, Narguess

    2017-09-01

    We aimed to investigate different biological properties of aerial parts essential oil of Ferulago trifida Boiss and larvicidal activity of its volatile oils from all parts of plant. Essential oil was prepared by steam distillation and analyzed by Gas chromatography and GC/Mass. Antioxidant, antimicrobial, cytotoxic effects and AChE inhibitory of the oil were investigated using DPPH, disk diffusion method, MTT assay and Ellman methods. Larvicidal activity of F. trifida essential oil against malaria vector Anopheles stephensi was carried out according to the method described by WHO. In GC and GC/MS analysis, 58 compounds were identified in the aerial parts essential oil, of which E-verbenol (9.66%), isobutyl acetate (25.73%) and E-β-caryophyllene (8.68%) were main compounds. The oil showed (IC 50 = 111.2μg/ml) in DPPH and IC 50 = 21.5 mg/ml in the investigation of AChE inhibitory. Furthermore, the oil demonstrated toxicity with (LD 50 = 1.1μg/ml) in brine shrimp lethality test and with (IC 50 = 22.0, 25.0 and 42.55 μg/ml) on three cancerous cell lines (MCF-7, A-549 and HT-29) respectively. LC 50 of stem, root, aerial parts, fruits, and flowers essential oils against larvae of An. stephensi were equal with 10.46, 22.27, 20.50, 31.93 and 79.87ppm respectively. In antimicrobial activities, essential oil was effective on all specimens except Escherichia coli , Aspergillus niger and Candida albicans. The essential oil showed moderate antioxidant activity, strong antimicrobial properties and good toxic effect in brine shrimp test and MTT assay on three cancerous cell lines.

  2. Gas Chromatography, GC/Mass Analysis and Bioactivity of Essential Oil from Aerial Parts of Ferulago trifida: Antimicrobial, Antioxidant, AChE Inhibitory, General Toxicity, MTT assay and Larvicidal Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Tavakoli

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: We aimed to investigate different biological properties of aerial parts essential oil of Ferulago trifida Boiss and larvicidal activity of its volatile oils from all parts of plant.Methods: Essential oil was prepared by steam distillation and analyzed by Gas chromatography and GC/Mass. Anti­oxidant, antimicrobial, cytotoxic effects and AChE inhibitory of the oil were investigated using DPPH, disk diffusion method, MTT assay and Ellman methods. Larvicidal activity of F. trifida essential oil against malaria vector Anoph­eles stephensi was carried out according to the method described by WHO.Results: In GC and GC/MS analysis, 58 compounds were identified in the aerial parts essential oil, of which E-ver­benol (9.66%, isobutyl acetate (25.73% and E-β-caryophyllene (8.68% were main compounds. The oil showed (IC50= 111.2µg/ml in DPPH and IC50= 21.5 mg/ml in the investigation of AChE inhibitory. Furthermore, the oil demonstrated toxicity with (LD50= 1.1µg/ml in brine shrimp lethality test and with (IC50= 22.0, 25.0 and 42.55 µg/ml on three cancerous cell lines (MCF-7, A-549 and HT-29 respectively. LC50 of stem, root, aerial parts, fruits, and flowers essential oils against larvae of An. stephensi were equal with 10.46, 22.27, 20.50, 31.93 and 79.87ppm respectively. In antimicrobial activities, essential oil was effective on all specimens except Escherichia coli, Asper­gillus niger and Candida albicans.Conclusion: The essential oil showed moderate antioxidant activity, strong antimicrobial properties and good toxic effect in brine shrimp test and MTT assay on three cancerous cell lines.

  3. Oxidative stress and apoptosis induction in human thyroid carcinoma cells exposed to the essential oil from Pistacia lentiscus aerial parts.

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    Simona Catalani

    Full Text Available Essential oils from the aerial parts (leaves, twigs and berries of Pistacia lentiscus (PLEO have been well characterized for their antibacterial and anti-inflammatory properties; however, poor information exists on their potential anticancer activity.Increasing concentrations of PLEO (0.01-0.1% v/v, 80-800 μg/ml were administered to a wide variety of cultured cancer cells from breast, cervix, colon, liver, lung, prostate, and thyroid carcinomas. Fibroblasts were also included as healthy control cells. Cell viability was monitored by WST-8 assay up to 72 hours after PLEO administration. The intracellular formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS, the induction of apoptosis, and the enhancement of chemotherapeutic drug cytotoxicity by PLEO were further investigated in the most responsive cancer cell line.A dose-dependent reduction of tumor cell viability was observed upon PLEO exposure; while no cytotoxic effect was revealed in healthy fibroblasts. FTC-133 thyroid cancer cells were found to be the most sensitive cells to PLEO treatment; accordingly, an intracellular accumulation of ROS and an activation of both the extrinsic and intrinsic apoptotic pathways were evidenced in FTC-133 cells after PLEO administration. Furthermore, the cytotoxic effect of the antineoplastic drugs cisplatin, 5-fluorouracil and etoposide was enhanced in PLEO-exposed FTC-133 cells.Taking into account its mode of action, PLEO might be considered as a promising source of natural antitumor agents which might have therapeutic potential in integrated oncology.

  4. Oxidative stress and apoptosis induction in human thyroid carcinoma cells exposed to the essential oil from Pistacia lentiscus aerial parts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalani, Simona; Palma, Francesco; Battistelli, Serafina; Benedetti, Serena

    2017-01-01

    Essential oils from the aerial parts (leaves, twigs and berries) of Pistacia lentiscus (PLEO) have been well characterized for their antibacterial and anti-inflammatory properties; however, poor information exists on their potential anticancer activity. Increasing concentrations of PLEO (0.01-0.1% v/v, 80-800 μg/ml) were administered to a wide variety of cultured cancer cells from breast, cervix, colon, liver, lung, prostate, and thyroid carcinomas. Fibroblasts were also included as healthy control cells. Cell viability was monitored by WST-8 assay up to 72 hours after PLEO administration. The intracellular formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), the induction of apoptosis, and the enhancement of chemotherapeutic drug cytotoxicity by PLEO were further investigated in the most responsive cancer cell line. A dose-dependent reduction of tumor cell viability was observed upon PLEO exposure; while no cytotoxic effect was revealed in healthy fibroblasts. FTC-133 thyroid cancer cells were found to be the most sensitive cells to PLEO treatment; accordingly, an intracellular accumulation of ROS and an activation of both the extrinsic and intrinsic apoptotic pathways were evidenced in FTC-133 cells after PLEO administration. Furthermore, the cytotoxic effect of the antineoplastic drugs cisplatin, 5-fluorouracil and etoposide was enhanced in PLEO-exposed FTC-133 cells. Taking into account its mode of action, PLEO might be considered as a promising source of natural antitumor agents which might have therapeutic potential in integrated oncology.

  5. Particle passage kinetics and neutral detergent fiber degradability of silage of pineapple waste (aerial parts under different packing densities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graciele Araújo de Oliveira Caetano

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the kinetics of in situ degradability parameters of the dry matter (DM and neutral detergent fiber (NDF and the passage of materials originating from the ensilage of the waste from pineapple cultivation (aerial parts. The four treatments utilized were silage of pineapple waste compacted at 600, 700, 900 and 1000 kg/m³. After ensiling the material from the pineapple cultivation, the particle-transit and rumen-degradation kinetics were analyzed. For the analysis of particle transit, chromium was utilized as a marker to mark the fiber. Passage rates were determined by retrieving the markers in the feces of the animals. In the degradation assay, samples were incubated in nylon bags for 0, 6, 18, 48 and 96 hours. The behavior observed in the regression curves of the variables analyzed describes high correlation between them, i.e., the time during which the silage is retained in the rumen influences its digestibility and its degradation rate. Although the silage compacted at 900 kg/m³ shows a larger potentially digestible fraction, it is recommended that it be ensiled at a compaction density of approximately 750 kg/m³ due to the lower cost and shorter mean retention time in the rumen-reticulum and rumen fill, thereby increasing the ruminal degradation and passage dynamics.

  6. An aerial radiological survey of the Oyster Creek Nuclear Power Plant and surrounding area, Forked River, New Jersey. Date of survey: September 18--25, 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hopkins, H.A.; McCall, K.A.

    1994-05-01

    An aerial radiological survey was conducted over the Oyster Creek Nuclear Power Plant in Forked River, New Jersey, during the period September 18 through September 24, 1992. The survey was conducted at an altitude of 150 feet (46 meters) over a 26-square-mile (67-square-kilometer) area centered on the power station. The purpose of the survey was to document the terrestrial gamma radiation environment of the Oyster Creek Nuclear Power plant and surrounding area. The results of the aerial survey are reported as inferred gamma radiation exposure rates at 1 meter above ground level in the form of a contour map. Outside the plant boundary, exposure rates were found to vary between 4 and 10 microroentgens per hour and were attributed to naturally-occurring uranium, thorium, and radioactive potassium gamma emitters. The aerial data were compared to ground-based benchmark exposure rate measurements and radionuclide assays of soil samples obtained within the survey boundary. The ground-based measurements were found to be in good agreement with those inferred from the aerial measuring system. A previous survey of the power plant was conducted in August 1969 during its initial startup phase. Exposure rates and radioactive isotopes revealed in both surveys were consistent and within normal terrestrial background levels

  7. Nematicidal and larvicidal activities of the essential oils from aerial parts of Pectis oligocephala and Pectis apodocephala Baker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Rose Jane R. Albuquerque

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition of the essential oils from aerial parts of Pectis apodocephala and Pectis oligocephala were analyzed by GC-MS. The essential oils of these species were predominantly constituted by monoterpenes. Geranial (42.9-44.5%, neral (32.2-34.2% and alpha-pinene (10.7-11.4% were the main constituents in the oil of P. apodocephala, while p-cymene (50.3-70.9% and thymol (24.4-44.7%, were the prevalent compounds in the oil of P. oligocephala. The essential oils were tested against the root knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita and Aedes aegypti larvae survival. The results obtained show that both essential oils exhibited significant activity and could be considered as potent natural namaticidal and larvicidal agents.A composição química dos óleos essenciais das partes aéreas de Pectis apodocephala e Pectis oligocephala foi analisada por CG-EM. Os óleos essenciais destas espécies foram predominantemente constituídos por monoterpenos. Geranial (42, 9-44, 5%, neral (32, 2-34, 2% e alfa-pineno (10, 7-11, 4% foram os constituintes majoritários no óleo de P. apodocephala, enquanto p-cimeno (50, 3-70, 9% e timol (24, 4-44, 7%, foram os compostos prevalentes no óleo de P. oligocephala. Ambos os óleos foram testados contra o nematóide Meloidogyne incognita e larvas do mosquito Aedes aegypti no terceiro estágio. Os resultados obtidos mostraram que os óleos exibem significante atividade e podem, portanto, ser considerados como potenciais agentes nematicida e larvicida naturais.

  8. Aerial radiological survey of the Savannah River Plant and surrounding area, Aiken, South Carolina. Date of survey: June 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyns, P.K.; Smith, D.B.

    1982-07-01

    An aerial radiological survey of the Savannah River Plant (SRP) was conducted during June 1979 by EG and G Energy Measurements Group for the United States Department of Energy (DOE). The survey consisted of an airborne measurement of both natural and man-made gamma radiation from the terrain surface in and around the plant site. These measurements allowed a determination of the surface terrestrial spatial distribution of isotopic concentrations and equivalent gamma ray exposure rates from 60 Co and 137 Cs contaminants. The results are reported as exposure rate isopleths for the two isotopes and are superimposed on 1:48,000 scale maps of the area. Gamma ray energy spectra are also presented for the net man-made radioelements. This was the second survey of the entire Savannah River Plant site. The first survey was conducted in June 1974. A comparison of the surveys indicates a decrease in the exposure rates due to man-made isotopes. All areas of man-made activity were in the same location as indicated by the results of the first survey. It appears that no detectable new man-made activity has been released in the survey area since the 1974 survey

  9. Evaluation of allelopathic impact of aqueous extract of root and aerial root of Tinospora cordifolia (Willd.) miers on some weed plants

    OpenAIRE

    K. M. Abdul RAOOF; M. Badruzzaman SIDDIQUI

    2012-01-01

    The present laboratory experimental study was conducted to evaluate the allelopathic potential of Tinospora cordifolia (Willd.) Miers on seed germination and seedling growth of weed plants (Chenopodium album L. Chenopodium murale L., Cassia tora L. and Cassia sophera L.). Root and aerial root aqueous extracts of Tinospora at 0.5, 1.0, 2.0 and 4.0% concentrations were applied to determine their effect on seed germination and seedling growth of test plants under laboratory conditions. Germinati...

  10. Dianthosaponins G-I, triterpene saponins, an anthranilic acid amide glucoside and a flavonoid glycoside from the aerial parts of Dianthus japonicus and their cytotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanehira, Yuka; Kawakami, Susumu; Sugimoto, Sachiko; Matsunami, Katsuyoshi; Otsuka, Hideaki

    2016-10-01

    Extensive isolation work on the 1-BuOH-soluble fraction of a MeOH extract of the aerial parts of Dianthus japonicus afforded three further triterpene glycosyl estsers, termed dianthosaponins G-I, an anthranilic acid amide glucoside and a C-glycosyl flavonoid along with one known triterpene saponin. Their structures were elucidated from spectroscopic evidence. The cytotoxicity of the isolated compounds toward A549 cells was evaluated.

  11. Isolation of verbascoside and validation of method to standardize the crude extract of the aerial parts of Buddleja stachyoides Cham. and Schltdl. (Scrophulariaceae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Daniella M.S. de; Miguel, Marilis D.; Kalegari, Milena; Miguel, Obdulio G.; Moreira, Thais F.

    2014-01-01

    Phenylpropanoid glycoside verbascoside was isolated and identified from the ethyl acetate fraction of the aerial parts of Buddleja stachyoides Cham. and Schltdl. by 1 H-NMR. A method using high-performance liquid chromatography has been developed and validated for determination of verbascoside in alcoholic crude extract of the aerial parts of B. stachyoides. Analysis was performed on a Phenomenex® Gemini-NX C18 analytical column (250 mm × 4.6 mm; 5 μm) using a mobile phase (pump A - aqueous solution containing H 2 SO 4 (0.01 M), H 3 PO 4 (0.4%), and (C 2 H 5 ) 2 NH (0.4%); pump B - methanol:aqueous (95:5) solution containing H 2 SO 4 (0.05 M), H 3 PO 4 (2%), and (C 2 H 5 ) 2 NH (0.2%); pump C - acetonitrile:aqueous (90:10) solution containing H 2 SO 4 (0.05 M) and H 3 PO 4 (2%)) and a diode array detector at 325 nm. The method was validated in accordance with ANVISA guidelines and may be applied to quality control of herbal medicine with aerial parts of B. stachyoides. (author)

  12. Aquatic fate of aerially applied hexazinone and terbuthylazine in a New Zealand planted forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenda R. Baillie; Daniel G. Neary; Stefan Gous; Carol A. Rolando

    2015-01-01

    Herbicides are used to control competing vegetation during tree establishment, and are often critical to the productivity and economic viability of a planted forest crop. Despite increasing public concern over herbicide use in planted forests and potential impact on the environment, there is limited information on the aquatic fate of many of these herbicides when...

  13. Bioactivity of the extracts and isolation of lignans and a sesquiterpene from the aerial parts of Centaurea pamphylica (Asteraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoeb M.

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Centaurea pamphylica Boiss. & Heldr. (Family: Asteraceae, commonly known as ‘pamphylia daisy', is a Turkish endemic species of the genus Centaurea that comprises ca. 500 species, many of which have been used as traditional medicines.  The n-hexane, dichloromethane (DCM and methanol (MeOH extracts of the aerial parts of C. pamphylica were assessed for antioxidant activity and general toxicity using, respectively, the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH, and the brine shrimp lethality assays. The reversed-phase preparative HPLC and PTLC were used to isolate compounds from the extracts.  The structures of these compounds [1-4] were elucidated by spectroscopic means, and also by direct comparison with the respective published data.  Both the DCM and the MeOH extract showed significant levels of antioxidant activities with the RC50 values of 72.6 x 10-2 and 47.3 ´ 10-2 mg/mL, respectively. The MeOH extract exhibited low levels of toxicity towards brine shrimps (LD50 = 125.0 ´ 10-2 mg/mL. Three major bioactive components of the MeOH extract were matairesinoside [1], arctiin [2] and matairesinol [3]. An eudesmane-type sesquiterpene, pterodontriol [4], was also isolated from the DCM extract.  Since reactive oxygen species are important contributors to various ailments, the antioxidant properties of the extracts as well as the isolated compounds may be of medicinal significance. This is the first report on the occurrence of 1-4 in C. pamphylica, and 4 in the genus Centaurea.  

  14. Box-Behnken factorial design to obtain a phenolic-rich extract from the aerial parts of Chelidonium majus L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosso, Clara; Ferreres, Federico; Gil-Izquierdo, Angel; Valentão, Patrícia; Sampaio, Maria; Lima, Júlio; Andrade, Paula B

    2014-12-01

    A Box-Behnken design (BBD) was developed to study the influence of four parameters (X1: % methanol; X2: extraction time; X3: extraction temperature; X4: solid/solvent ratio) on two responses, namely extraction yield and phenolics content of the aerial parts of Chelidonium majus L. The model presented a good fit to the experimental results for the extraction yield, being significantly influenced by X1 and X4. On the other hand a parameter reduction was necessary to run the model for phenolics content, showing that only X1 and X2 had great influence on the response. Two best extraction conditions were defined: X1=76.8% MeOH, X2=150.0 min, X3=60.0°C and X4=1:100 and X1=69.2%, X2=150 min, X3=42.5°C and X4=1:100. Moreover, the HPLC-DAD-ESI/MS(n) analysis conducted with the center point sample revealed the presence of 15 alkaloids and 15 phenolic compounds, from which the 9 flavonoids and 3 hydroxycinnamic acids are described for the first time. Only phenolic compounds were quantified by a validated HPLC-DAD method, the pair quercetin-3-O-rutinoside+quercetin-3-O-glucoside dominating all the 29 extracts. This study is of great importance for future works that seek to apply the phenolic profile to the quality control of C. majus samples. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive activities of methanol extract from aerial part of Phlomis younghusbandii Mukerjee.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiu-Shi Wang

    Full Text Available This study was designed to investigate the anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive activity of the methanol extract from the aerial part of Phlomis younghusbandii (MEAP and to explore the possible related mechanisms. Anti-inflammatory effects of MEAP were evaluated by using the ear edema test induced by dimethylbenzene and vascular permeability test induced by acetic acid. Anti-nociceptive activities of MEAP were evaluated by the chemical nociception in models of acetic acid-induced writhing and formalin-induced hind paw licking, and by the thermal nociception in hot plate tests. Mechanisms of MEAP activities also were explored by evaluating expression levels of TNF-α, IL-6 and iNOS induced by LPS using real-time fluorogenic PCR and expression of COX-2 using Western blotting and an open-field test. The results indicated that the MEAP administered orally could significantly decrease ear edema induced by dimethylbenzene and increase vascular permeability induced by acetic acid. Additionally, the nociceptions induced by acetic acid and formalin were significantly inhibited. The anti-nociceptive effect could not be decreased by naloxone in the formalin test, and MEAP did not affect the normal autonomic activities of mice. Expression levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-6, iNOS induced by LPS were decreased obviously by treatment with MEAP. Furthermore, COX-2 expression in the spinal dorsal horns of the pain model mice induced by formalin was significantly down-regulated by MEAP. In conclusion, MEAP has significant anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities, and the mechanisms may be related to the down-regulated expression of TNF-α, IL-6, iNOS and COX-2.

  16. Antioxidant and Cytotoxic Effects of Crude Extract, Fractions and 4-Nerolidylcathecol from Aerial Parts of Pothomorphe umbellata L. (Piperaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey P. Lopes

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The crude ethanolic extract from aerial parts of Pothomorphe umbellata L. (Piperaceae and fractions obtained by partitions sequentially among water-methanol, methylene chloride, and ethyl acetate, as well as the major constituent, 4-nerolidylcatechol, were, respectively, evaluated and evidenced for antioxidant and cytotoxic effects through fluorometric microplate and microculture tetrazolium assays in HL-60 cells. The crude ethanolic extract demonstrated the preeminent antioxidant activity (IC50=1.2 μg/mL against exogenous cytoplasmic reactive oxygen species, followed by the water-methanolic (IC50=4.5 μg/mL, methylene chloride (IC50=5.9 μg/mL, ethyl acetate (IC50=8.0 μg/mL, 4-nerolidylcatechol (IC50=8.6 μg/mL, and the sterol fractions (IC50>12.5 μg/mL. Vitamin C, the positive control used in this assay, presented IC50 value equivalent to 1.7 μg/mL. 4-Nerolidylcatechol (IC50=0.4 μg/mL and methylene chloride fraction (IC50=2.3 μg/mL presented considerable cytotoxicity probably because of the presence of an o-quinone, an auto-oxidation by product of the catechol. Polar compounds, present in the ethanol extract, appear to increase the solubility and stability of the major active constituent, acting synergistically with 4-nerolidylcatechol, improving its pharmacokinetic parameters and increasing significantly its antioxidant activity which, in turn, suggests that the aqueous-ethanolic extract, used in folklore medicine, is safe and effective.

  17. Antibacterial and anti-inflammatory activities of an extract, fractions, and compounds isolated from Gochnatia pulchra aerial parts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucarini, R.; Tozatti, M.G.; Silva, M.L.A.; Gimenez, V.M.M.; Pauletti, P.M.; Groppo, M.; Turatti, I.C.C.; Cunha, W.R.; Martins, C.H.G.

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on the in vitro antibacterial and in vivo anti-inflammatory properties of a hydroethanolic extract of the aerial parts of Gochnatia pulchra (HEGP). It also describes the antibacterial activity of HEGP fractions and of the isolated compounds genkwanin, scutellarin, apigenin, and 3,5-O-dicaffeoylquinic acid, as evaluated by a broth microdilution method. While HEGP and its fractions did not provide promising results, the isolated compounds exhibited pronounced antibacterial activity. The most sensitive microorganism was Streptococcus pyogenes, with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of 100, 50 and 25 µg/mL for genkwanin and the flavonoids apigenin and scutellarin, respectively. Genkwanin produced an MIC value of 25 µg/mL against Enterococcus faecalis. A paw edema model in rats and a pleurisy inflammation model in mice aided investigation of the anti-inflammatory effects of HEGP. This study also evaluated the ability of HEGP to modulate carrageenan-induced interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) production. Orally administered HEGP (250 and 500 mg/kg) inhibited carrageenan-induced paw edema. Regarding carrageenan-induced pleurisy, HEGP at 50, 100, and 250 mg/kg diminished leukocyte migration by 71.43%, 69.24%, and 73.34% (P<0.05), respectively. HEGP suppressed IL-1β and MCP-1 production by 55% and 50% at 50 mg/kg (P<0.05) and 60% and 25% at 100 mg/kg (P<0.05), respectively. HEGP abated TNF-α production by macrophages by 6.6%, 33.3%, and 53.3% at 100, 250, and 500 mg/kg (P<0.05), respectively. HEGP probably exerts anti-inflammatory effects by inhibiting production of the pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-1β, and MCP-1. PMID:26200228

  18. Cytotoxic effects of chloroform and hydroalcoholic extracts of aerial parts of Cuscuta chinensis and Cuscuta epithymum on Hela, HT29 and MDA-MB-468 tumor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafarian, A; Ghannadi, A; Mohebi, B

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have indicated that some species of Cuscuta possess anticancer activity on various cell lines. Due to the lack of detailed researches on the cytotoxic effects of Cuscuta chinensis and Cuscuta epithymum, the aim of the present study was to evaluate cytotoxic effects of chloroform and hydroalcoholic extracts of these plants on the human breast carcinoma cell line (MDA-MB-468), human colorectal adenocarcinoma cell line (HT29) and human uterine cervical carcinoma (Hela). Using maceration method, different extracts of aerial parts of C. chinensis and C. epithymum were prepared. Extraction was performed using chloroform and ethanol/water (70/30). Total phenolic contents of the extracts were determined according to the Folin-Ciocalteu method. Using MTT assay, the cytotoxic activity of the extracts against HT29, Hela and MDA-MB-468 tumor cells was evaluated. Extracts were considered cytotoxic when more than 50% reduction on cell survival was observed. The poly-phenolic content of the hydroalcoholic and chloroform extracts of C. chinensis and C. epithymum were 56.08 ± 4.11, 21.49 ± 2.00, 10.64 ± 0.86 and 4.81 ± 0.38, respectively. Our findings showed that the chloroform extracts of C. chinensis and C. epithyum significantly reduced the viability of Hela, HT-29 and MDA-MB-468 cells. Also, hydroalcoholic extracts of C. chinensis significantly decreased the viability of HT29, Hela and MDA-MB-468 cells. However, in the case of hydroalcoholic extracts of C. epithymum only significant decrease in the viability of MDA-MB-468 cells was observed (IC50 = 340 μg/ml). From these findings it can be concluded that C. chinensis and C. epithymum are good candidates for further study to find new possible cytotoxic agents.

  19. The Effect of Ethanol Extract of Aerial Parts of the Mentha piperita in the Acquisition, Tolerance Expression and Dependence to Morphine in Adult Male Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Khajeh

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: Morphine dependence is a compulsive pattern of drug taking, resulting from the positive reinforcement of the rewarding effects of drug taking and the negative reinforcement of withdrawal syndrome that accompanies the cessation of drug taking. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of ethanol extract of aerial parts of the Mentha piperita in the acquisition, tolerance expression and dependence to morphine in adult male mice Methods: In the present study, 75 NMRI mice were divided into fifiteen groups. The Hot-plate test was used to survey the morphine activity. Morphine was injected (2.5, 5, 10, 20, 40 mg/kg, i.p. twice daily for seven days, except in 8th day in which morphine was administrated at a single dose (50 mg/kg. The extract (50, 75, 100 mg/kg was injected for eight days. The control animals were intact, and sham animals only received morphine. Naloxone was injected (10 mg/kg five hours after the final dose of morphine and the withdrawal signs were recorded during a 30 minute period. The data were expressed as mean values ± SEM and tested, using analysis of one-way ANOVA test. Results: Peppermint extract at doses of 75 and 100 kg significantly improved the tolerance expression and dependence to morphine in animals and significantly reduced the symptoms of withdrawal. Conclusion: Peppermint extract was commuted morphine tolerance and dependence in mice.The plant contained component(s that alleviate morphine withdrawal syndrome. The extract possibly be effective in improving tolerance to morphine.

  20. Plant and Animal Gravitational Biology. Part 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    Session TA2 includes short reports covering: (1) The Interaction of Microgravity and Ethylene on Soybean Growth and Metabolism; (2) Structure and G-Sensitivity of Root Statocytes under Different Mass Acceleration; (3) Extracellular Production of Taxanes on Cell Surfaces in Simulated Microgravity and Hypergravity; (4) Current Problems of Space Cell Phytobiology; (5) Biological Consequences of Microgravity-Induced Alterations in Water Metabolism of Plant Cells; (6) Localization of Calcium Ions in Chlorella Cells Under Clinorotation; (7) Changes of Fatty Acids Content of Plant Cell Plasma Membranes under Altered Gravity; (8) Simulation of Gravity by Non-Symmetrical Vibrations and Ultrasound; and (9) Response to Simulated weightlessness of In Vitro Cultures of Differentiated Epithelial Follicular Cells from Thyroid.

  1. Aerial radiation monitoring around the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant using an unmanned helicopter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanada, Yukihisa; Torii, Tatsuo

    2015-01-01

    The Great East Japan Earthquake on March 11, 2011 generated a series of large tsunami that seriously damaged the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP), which resulted in the release of radioactive materials into the environment. To provide further details regarding the distribution of air dose rate and the distribution of radioactive cesium ((134)Cs and (137)Cs) deposition on the ground within a radius of approximately 5 km from the nuclear power plant, we carried out measurements using an unmanned helicopter equipped with a radiation detection system. The distribution of the air dose rate at a height of 1 m above the ground and the radioactive cesium deposition on the ground was calculated. Accordingly, the footprint of radioactive plumes that extended from the FDNPP was illustrated. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Anti-spasmodic assessment of hydroalcoholic extract and essential oil of aerial part of Pycnocycla caespitosa Boiss. & Hausskn on rat ileum contractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadraei, Hassan; Asghari, Gholamreza; Alipour, Mahdi

    2016-01-01

    Pycnocycla caespitosa is an essential oil-containing plant naturally growing in southwest of Iran. The extract of this plant has been used as remedy in traditional medicine. Another species of Pycnocyla (P. spinosa) possessed antispasmodic activity. The pharmacological objective of this study was to look for relaxant effect of hydroalcoholic extract and essential oil of P. caespitosa on rat isolated ileum contractions for comparison with loperamide. The essential oil and the hydroalcoholic extract were prepared by hydrodistillation and percolation techniques, respectively. For antispasmodic studies a section of rat ileum was suspended in an organ bath containing Tyrode's solution. The tissue was stimulated with electrical field stimulation (EFS), KCl (80 mM) and acetylcholine (ACh 0.5 μM). The tissue was kept under 1 g tension at 37°C and continuously gassed with O2. The essential oil content in the aerial parts of P. caespitosa was found to be 0.16 % ml/g. The essential oil was analyzed by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Seventy constituents, representing 97 % of the oil were identified. The major components of the oil were carvacrol (7.1%), β-eudesmol (6.4 %), ρ-cymene (5.7%), caryophyllene oxide (3.6%), α-pinine (1.4%) and α-phelandrene (1.1%). The hydroalcoholic extract of P. caespitosa inhibited the response to KCl (IC50 = 48 ± 3 μg/ml), ACh (IC50 = 61 ± 14.7 μg/ml) and EFS (IC50 = 77 ± 17 μg/ml) in a concentration-dependent manner. The essential oil of P. caespitosa also inhibited rat ileum contractions. The IC50 values for KCl, ACh and EFS were 9.2 ± 1.2 μg/ml, 7.6 ± 0.8 μg/ml and 6.4 ± 0.8 μg/ml, respectively. The inhibitory effect of both the essential oil and the extract were reversible. This research confirms the anti-spasmodic activity of both the essential oil and the extract of P. caespitosa on smooth muscle contraction of ileum.

  3. Uniformity of environmental conditions and plant growth in a hydroponic culture system for use in a growth room with aerial CO2 control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vessey, J. K.; York, E. K.; Henry, L. T.; Raper, C. D. Jr; Raper CD, J. r. (Principal Investigator)

    1988-01-01

    A portable system of hydroponic culture was developed that maintained temperature, pH, and nutrient concentrations of circulating nutrient solutions. The hydroponic system is used within a controlled-environment room (CER) for control of aerial environment. The CER was equipped with an auto-calibrating system for atmospheric CO2 control. The control systems for the hydroponic chambers were able to maintain acidity within +/- 0.2 pH units and the temperature with +/- 0.5 degree C. Mixing time for the 200-liter volume of solution within a hydroponic chamber was less than 12 min. The CO2 control system was able to maintain aerial concentrations within +/- 10 ppm CO2 during the light period. The only gradient found to occur within the hydroponic chambers or CER was a slight gradient in aerial temperature along the length of hydroponic chambers. Growth of soybeans [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] was characterized during a 3-week period of vegetative development by leaf number and area, plant dry weight, total N content of plants, and N depletion from the nutrient solution. The growth characteristics among populations for three hydroponic chambers within the CER were not significantly different, and the percent standard errors of means of the measurements within populations from each chamber were nearly all less than 10%. Thus, the uniformity of plant growth reflected the uniformity of environmental conditions.

  4. Aerial radiological survey of the area surrounding the Edwin I. Hatch Nuclear Plant, Baxley, Georgia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hilton, L.K.

    1978-11-01

    An airborne radiological survey of a 2146 km 2 area surrounding the Edwin I. Hatch Nuclear Plant was made 28-31 March 1977. Detected radioisotopes, and their associated gamma ray exposure rates, were consistent with that expected from the normal background emitters. Count rates observed at 152 m altitude are converted to equivalent exposure rates at 1 m above the ground, and are presented in the form of an isopleth map. Exposure rates measured with small portable instruments and soil sample analysis showed agreement with the airborne data

  5. Aerial radiological survey of the area surrounding the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Portsmouth, Ohio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-09-01

    An airborne radiological survey was conducted in July 1976. It was centered on the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant. Two areas were surveyed: one 35 km 2 and the other 16 km 2 . Using Nal(Tl) scintillation detectors, measurements were made of the terrestrial gamma radiation over the areas with a series of north-south flight lines. The processed data indicated that on-site radioactivity was due to nuclear matterials currently or previously handled, processed, or stored. Off-site activities were found to be due wholly to the naturally occurring 40 K, the 238 U chain, and thorium chain gamma emitters

  6. Antiproliferative Activity of Some Medicinal Plants on Human Breast ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: The aerial parts of the plants were successively extracted with hexane, dichloromethane, methanol and ... plants by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) while their antiproliferative activity was ... seeds and flavonoid glycosides in the aerial parts. [23]. .... In the present study, quantification of the chosen.

  7. Aerial radiological survey of the area surrounding the St. Lucie Power Plant, Fort Pierce, Florida

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feimster, E.L.

    1979-06-01

    An airborne radiological survey of an 1100 km 2 area surrounding the St. Lucie Power Plant was conducted 1 to 8 March 1977. Detected radioisotopes and their associated gamma ray exposure rates were consistent with that expected from the normal background emitters. Count rates observed at 150 m altitude are converted to equivalent exposure rates at 1 m above the ground and are presented in the form of an isopleth map. Ground exposure rates measured with small portable instruments and soil sample analysis agreed with the airborne data. Geological data are presented in an isopleth map of rock and soil types. Also included is a brief description of the vegetation and terrain surrounding the site

  8. Aerial radiological survey of the United States Department of Energy's Pantex Plant and surrounding area Amarillo, Texas. Date of survey: October 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyns, P.K.

    1981-07-01

    An aerial radiological survey was conducted over the United States Department of Energy's Pantex Plant and Pantex Lake areas in October, 1979. The Pantex Plant survey covered an area of approximately 64 km 2 . The Pantex Lake survey area was approximately 2 km 2 . Both areas were surveyed at an altitude of 46 m (150 feet) with lines spaced at 91 m (300 foot) intervals. Several passes were also made over the shipping areas at the Amarillo International Airport. An array of sodium iodide detectors were mounted in a helicopter to collect gamma ray spectral data. As expected, the spectral data indicated the presence of several areas containing man-made sources

  9. Decommissioning of building part of nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sochor, R.

    1988-01-01

    The characteristics are discussed using literature data of building work during decommissioning or reconstruction of nuclear power plants. The scope of jobs associated with power plant decommissioning is mainly given by the size of contaminated parts, intensity of radioactivity, the volume of radioactive wastes and the possible building processes. Attention is devoted to the cost of such jobs and the effect of the plant design on cost reduction. (Z.M.). 6 refs

  10. Recognition of plant parts with problem-specific algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwanke, Joerg; Brendel, Thorsten; Jensch, Peter F.; Megnet, Roland

    1994-06-01

    Automatic micropropagation is necessary to produce cost-effective high amounts of biomass. Juvenile plants are dissected in clean- room environment on particular points on the stem or the leaves. A vision-system detects possible cutting points and controls a specialized robot. This contribution is directed to the pattern- recognition algorithms to detect structural parts of the plant.

  11. Nutrient leaching when soil is part of plant growth media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soils can serve as sorbents for phosphorus (P) within plant growth media, negating the need for artificial sorbents. The purpose of this study was to compare soils with different properties, as part of plant growth media, for their effect on nutrient levels in effluent. Four soils were mixed with sa...

  12. Phytosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using Artemisia marschalliana Sprengel aerial part extract and assessment of their antioxidant, anticancer, and antibacterial properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salehi S

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Soheil Salehi,1 Seyed Ataollah Sadat Shandiz,2 Farinaz Ghanbar,3 Mohammad Raouf Darvish,4 Mehdi Shafiee Ardestani,5 Amir Mirzaie,2 Mohsen Jafari6 1Department of Phytochemistry and Essential Oils Technology, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Pharmaceutical Sciences Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran (IAUPS, 2Young Researchers and Elite Club, East Tehran Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, 3Department of Biology, Tehran North Branch, 4Department of Chemistry, Shahre-Rey Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, 5Department of Radiopharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, 6Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Ahvaz, Iran Abstract: A rapid phytosynthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs using an extract from the aerial parts of Artemisia marschalliana Sprengel was investigated in this study. The synthesized AgNPs using A. marschalliana extract was analyzed by UV–visible spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and further characterized by transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, zeta potential, and energy-dispersive spectroscopy. Characteristic absorption bands of AgNPs were found near 430 nm in the UV–vis spectrum. Energy-dispersive spectroscopy analysis of AgNPs in the energy range 2–4 keV confirmed the silver signal due to surface plasmon resonance. Scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy results revealed that the AgNPs were mostly spherical with an average size ranging from 5 nm to 50 nm. The zeta potential value of -31 mV confirmed the stability of the AgNPs. AgNPs produced using the aqueous A. marschalliana extract might serve as a potent in vitro antioxidant, as revealed by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl assay. The present study demonstrates the anticancer properties of phytosynthesized AgNPs against human gastric carcinoma AGS cells. AgNPs exerted a dose

  13. Evaluation of Some Heavy Metals in Aerial Parts of Wild Rice Plant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MBI

    2014-11-13

    Nov 13, 2014 ... the concentration of Cd in grain was a little higher than the recommended limit of. WHO/FAO reference ... copper, lead, chromium and mercury are important ... mostly by the birds while the stems and the leaves are eaten by ...

  14. Fermentation and nutritive value of silage and hay made from the aerial part of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz Padrão de fermentação e valor nutritivo das silagens e do feno da parte aérea de mandioca (Manihot esculenta Crantz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Zambello de Pinho

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz, although native to Brazil, is still underutilized, especially when it comes to using its aerial part. In order to study the potential of the cassava plant for use as animal feed, the present work evaluated the characteristics of the aerial part of cassava when submitted to the processes of ensiling and haymaking. Treatments consisted of: aerial part of the plant ensiled without wilting (PAS; aerial part ensiled after wilting (PAE, and aerial part made into hay (PAF. Chemical analyses were run in order to evaluate the traits that determine the nutritional value of silage and hay. Wilting increased dry matter concentration from 25% to 27.7%, without changing the concentration of soluble carbohydrates (33.3 and 35.5% in the PAS and PAE, respectively, as well as buffer capacity (204 mmol kg-1 DM in PAS and 195 mmol kg-1 DM in PAE. Neither pH (3.57 in fresh silage and 3.60 in PAE nor the ADIN concentration (11.32% of total nitrogen in PAS and 9.99% of total nitrogen in PAE differed between the silages, but ADIN concentration was higher in hay (15.39%. Wilting caused an increase in the concentration of ammonia (from 6.5% of total nitrogen in PAS to 13.0 of total nitrogen in PAE. The levels of volatile fatty acids did not change with wilting. The ensiling process reduced the concentrations of free hydrocyanide (HCN, without, however, affecting cyanohydrin.A mandioca, apesar de ser nativa do Brasil, ainda é sub-utilizada principalmente quando a questão é o aproveitamento da sua parte aérea. Com o objetivo de estudar o potencial da mandioca para alimentação animal, o presente trabalho avaliou as características da parte aérea da planta quando submetida os processos de ensilagem e fenação. Os tratamentos consistiram de: parte aérea ensilada sem emurchecimento (PAS; parte aérea ensilada após 24 horas de emurchecimento (PAE e parte aérea fenada (PAF. As análises químicas foram realizadas a fim de avaliar os

  15. Translocation of metal ions from soil to tobacco roots and their concentration in the plant parts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Cleber Pinto; de Almeida, Thiago E; Zittel, Rosimara; de Oliveira Stremel, Tatiana R; Domingues, Cinthia E; Kordiak, Januário; de Campos, Sandro Xavier

    2016-12-01

    This paper presents a study on the translocation factors (TFs) and bioconcentration factors (BCFs) of copper (Cu), manganese (Mn), zinc (Zn), cobalt (Co), chromium (Cr), cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), iron (Fe), nickel (Ni), and arsenic (As) ions in roots, stems, and leaves of tobacco. The results revealed that during the tobacco growth, the roots are able to increase the sensitiveness of the physiological control, reducing the translocation of the metals Ni (0.38) and Pb (0.48) to the leaves. Cd and Zn presented factors TF and BCF >1 in the three tissues under analysis, which indicates the high potential for transportation and accumulation of these metals in all plant tissues. The TF values for Cr (0.65) and As (0.63) revealed low translocation of these ions to the aerial parts, indicating low mobility of ions from the roots. Therefore, tobacco can be considered an efficient accumulator of Ni, Cr, As and Pb in roots and Cd and Zn in all plant parts.

  16. Chemical composition and biological evaluation of the volatile constituents from the aerial parts of Nephrolepis exaltata (L.) and Nephrolepis cordifolia (L.) C. Presl grown in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Tantawy, Mona E; Shams, Manal M; Afifi, Manal S

    2016-01-01

    The essential oil from the aerial parts of Nephrolepis exaltata and Nephrolepis cordifolia obtained by hydro-distillation were analyzed by gas chromatography/ mass spectrometry. The essential oils exhibited potential antibacterial and antifungal activities against a majority of the selected microorganisms. NEA oil showed promising cytotoxicity in breast, colon and lung carcinoma cells. The results presented indicate that NEA oil could be useful alternative for the treatment of dermatophytosis. Comparative investigation of hydro-distilled volatile constituents from aerial parts (A) of Nephrolepis exaltata (NE) and Nephrolepis cordifolia (NC) (Family Nephrolepidaceae) was carried out. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry revealed that oils differ in composition and percentages of components. Oxygenated compounds were dominant in NEA and NCA. 2,4-Hexadien-1-ol (16.1%), nonanal (14.4%), β-Ionone (6.7%) and thymol (2.7%) were predominant in NEA. β-Ionone (8.0%), eugenol (7.2%) and anethol (4.6%) were the main constituents in NCA. Volatile samples were screened for their antibacterial and antifungal activities using agar diffusion method and minimum inhibitory concentrations. The cytotoxic activity was evaluated using viability assay in breast (MCF-7), colon (HCT-116) and lung carcinoma (A-549) cells by the MTT assay. The results revealed that NEA oil exhibited potential antimicrobial activity against most of the tested organisms and showed promising cytotoxicity.

  17. An aerial radiological survey of the Point Beach Nuclear Power Plant and surrounding area. Final report, October 19, 1996 - October 24, 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feimster, E.L.

    1997-12-01

    Radioactivity surrounding the Point Beach Nuclear Power Plant was measured using aerial radiological surveying techniques. The purpose of this survey was to document exposure rates and identify radiation sources within the survey area. The surveyed area included a 25-square-mile (65-square-kilometer) area, which encompasses the plant site. Data were acquired using an airborne detection system that employed sodium iodide, thallium-activated detectors. Exposure rates at 1 meter above ground level were computed from these data and plotted on a U.S. Geological Survey topographic map of the survey area. Several ground-based exposure-rate measurements were made for comparison with the aerial survey results. Exposure rates in areas surrounding the plant site varied (a) from 10-14 microroentgens per hour (μR/h) in cultivated fields, (b) from 8-10 μR/h in adjacent areas and along roadways, and (c) below 6 μR/h over waterways and wetland areas. Man-made radiation (102-202 μR/h) was found at the plant site; cobalt-60 was the primary source of activity found at the Point Beach site. No other detectable sources of man-made radioactivity were found. The exposure rates measured during this survey agreed well with those measured during the 1970 survey even though the survey methodology and parameters were significantly different

  18. Alterations in Rubisco activity and in stomatal behavior induce a daily rhythm in photosynthesis of aerial leaves in the amphibious-plant Nuphar lutea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snir, Ainit; Gurevitz, Michael; Marcus, Yehouda

    2006-12-01

    Nuphar lutea is an amphibious plant with submerged and aerial foliage, which raises the question how do both leaf types perform photosynthetically in two different environments. We found that the aerial leaves function like terrestrial sun-leaves in that their photosynthetic capability was high and saturated under high irradiance (ca. 1,500 mumol photons m(-2) s(-1)). We show that stomatal opening and Rubisco activity in these leaves co-limited photosynthesis at saturating irradiance fluctuating in a daily rhythm. In the morning, sunlight stimulated stomatal opening, Rubisco synthesis, and the neutralization of a night-accumulated Rubisco inhibitor. Consequently, the light-saturated quantum efficiency and rate of photosynthesis increased 10-fold by midday. During the afternoon, gradual closure of the stomata and a decrease in Rubisco content reduced the light-saturated photosynthetic rate. However, at limited irradiance, stomatal behavior and Rubisco content had only a marginal effect on the photosynthetic rate, which did not change during the day. In contrast to the aerial leaves, the photosynthesis rate of the submerged leaves, adapted to a shaded environment, was saturated under lower irradiance. The light-saturated quantum efficiency of these leaves was much lower and did not change during the day. Due to their low photosynthetic affinity for CO(2) (35 muM) and inability to utilize other inorganic carbon species, their photosynthetic rate at air-equilibrated water was CO(2)-limited. These results reveal differences in the photosynthetic performance of the two types of Nuphar leaves and unravel how photosynthetic daily rhythm in the aerial leaves is controlled.

  19. Investigations on the radioactive contamination of crop plants as a result of hydrogen-bomb detonation. Part II. Root and foliage uptake of Bikini ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitsui, S; Aso, S; Tensho, K; Kumazawa, K

    1955-01-01

    Bikini ash (I) was prepared by igniting the heavily contaminated substances on board No. 5 Fukuryu Maru at 650/sup 0/. The I was extracted with H/sub 2/O, concentrated HCl, and 2% citric acid. The acid extracts were neutralized to pH 5.0 to 5.5 with NaOH. Squash-plant leaves were painted with these extracts, after 6 days the plant parts were assayed for radioactivity. Uptake and translocation of radioactive fission products to all plant parts was found, but with the major portion in above ground parts. Wheat seeds grown in natural and synthetic soil mixtures showed a much depressed uptake of fission materials. Most of the radioactivity was found in the roots. About 10% was translocated to aerial portions of plants.

  20. Mapping the Flowering of an Invasive Plant Using Unmanned Aerial Vehicles: Is There Potential for Biocontrol Monitoring?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuno C. de Sá

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Invasion by alien species is a worldwide phenomenon with negative consequences at both natural and production areas. Acacia longifolia is an invasive shrub/small tree well known for its negative ecological impacts in several places around the world. The recent introduction of a biocontrol agent (Trichilogaster acaciaelongifoliae, an Australian bud-galling wasp which decreases flowering of A. longifolia, in Portugal, demands the development of a cost-efficient method to monitor its establishment. We tested how unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV can be used to map A. longifolia flowering. Our core assumption is as the population of the biocontrol agent increases, its impacts on the reduction of A. longifolia flowering will be increasingly visible. Additionally, we tested if there is a simple linear correlation between the number of flowers of A. longifolia counted in field and the area covered by flowers in the UAV imagery. UAV imagery was acquired over seven coastal areas including frontal dunes, interior sand dunes and pine forests considering two phenological stages: peak and off-peak flowering season. The number of flowers of A. longifolia was counted, in a minimum of 60 1 m2 quadrats per study area. For each study area, flower presence/absence maps were obtained using supervised Random Forest. The correlation between the number of flowers and the area covered by flowering plants could then be tested. The flowering of A. longifolia was mapped using UAV mounted with RGB and CIR Cannon IXUS/ELPH cameras (Overall Accuracy > 0.96; Cohen’s Kappa > 0.85 varying according to habitat type and flowering season. The correlation between the number of flowers counted and the area covered by flowering was weak (r2 between 0.0134 and 0.156. This is probably explained, at least partially, by the high variability of A. longifolia in what regards flowering morphology and distribution. The very high accuracy of our approach to map A. longifolia flowering proved to

  1. Aerial photographs as a tool for assessing the regional dynamics of the invasive plant species Heracleum mantegazzianum

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Müllerová, Jana; Pyšek, Petr; Jarošík, Vojtěch; Pergl, Jan

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 42, č. 6 (2005), s. 1042-1053 ISSN 0021-8901 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : rate of invasion * aerial photographs * Heracleum mantegazzianum Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 4.594, year: 2005

  2. Inventory Control of Spare Parts for Operating Nuclear Power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jong-Hyuck; Jang, Se-Jin; Hwang, Eui-Youp; Yoo, Sung-Soo; Yoo, Keun-Bae; Lee, Sang-Guk; Hong, Sung-Yull [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-07-01

    Inventory control of spare parts plays an increasingly important role in operation management. The trade-off is clear: on one hand a large number of spare parts ties up a large amount of capital, while on the other hand too little inventory may result in extremely costly emergency actions. This is why during the last few decades inventory of spare parts control has been the topics of many publications. Recently management systems such as manufacturing resources planning (MRP) and enterprise resource planning (ERP) have been added. However, most of these contributions have similar theoretical background. This means the concepts and techniques are mainly based on mathematical assumptions and modeling inventory of spare parts situations Nuclear utilities in Korea have several problems to manage the optimum level of spare parts though they used MRP System. Because most of items have long lead time and they are imported from United States, Canada, France and so on. In this paper, we will examine the available inventory optimization models which are applicable to nuclear power plant and then select optimum model and assumptions to make inventory of spare parts strategies. Then we develop the computer program to select and determine optimum level of spare parts which should be automatically controlled by KHNP ERP system. The main contribution of this paper is an inventory of spare parts control model development, which can be applied to nuclear power plants in Korea.

  3. Transportation of part supply improvement in agricultural machinery assembly plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saysaman, Anusit; Chutima, Parames

    2018-02-01

    This research focused on the problem caused by the transportation of part supply in agricultural machinery assembly plant in Thailand, which is one of the processes that are critical to the whole production process. If poorly managed, it will affect transportation of part supply, the emergence of sink cost, quality problems, and the ability to respond to the needs of the customers in time. Since the competition in the agricultural machinery market is more intense, the efficiency of part transportation process has to be improved. In this study, the process of transporting parts of the plant was studied and it was found that the efficiency of the process of transporting parts from the sub assembly line to its main assembly line was 83%. The approach to the performance improvement is done by using the Lean tool to limit wastes based on the ECRS principle and applying pull production system by changing the transportation method to operate as milkrun for transportation of parts to synchronize with the part demands of the main assembly line. After the transportation of parts from sub-assembly line to the main assembly line was improved, the efficiency raised to 98% and transportation process cost was saved to 540,000 Baht per year.

  4. Strategic provisioning of replacement parts for CANDU power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizuno, G.; Tume, P.; Prentice, J.

    2000-01-01

    Provisioning of replacement parts and management of critical spares are key factors in optimizing maintenance programs for CANDU power plants. With a view to supply assurance, Atomic Energy Canada Limited (AECL) has created a Spare Parts Branch (SPB) to provide a clear pipeline from the client to the delivered replacement part(s). SPB provides the client with assured access to a qualified supplier database, computer aided design, engineering and manufacturing services and material upgrades and design registration through the authorized inspection agency. The AECL spare parts strategic provisioning service plan that has four thrusts: 1) the efficient delivery of cost-effective replacement parts; 2) obsolete parts resolution; 3) a website that will provide our clients with real-time access to replacement part data; and 4) inventory recovery opportunities. Thrusts one and two are actively ensuring plant maintenance for on-shore and off-shore CANDU clients. Thrusts three and four are longer-term commitments. This paper will explore these thrusts in the context of our CANDU business practices. (author)

  5. Inventory Control of Spare Parts for Operating Nuclear Power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jong-Hyuck; Jang, Se-Jin; Hwang, Eui-Youp; Yoo, Sung-Soo; Yoo, Keun-Bae; Lee, Sang-Guk; Hong, Sung-Yull

    2006-01-01

    Inventory control of spare parts plays an increasingly important role in operation management. The trade-off is clear: on one hand a large number of spare parts ties up a large amount of capital, while on the other hand too little inventory may result in extremely costly emergency actions. This is why during the last few decades inventory of spare parts control has been the topics of many publications. Recently management systems such as manufacturing resources planning (MRP) and enterprise resource planning (ERP) have been added. However, most of these contributions have similar theoretical background. This means the concepts and techniques are mainly based on mathematical assumptions and modeling inventory of spare parts situations Nuclear utilities in Korea have several problems to manage the optimum level of spare parts though they used MRP System. Because most of items have long lead time and they are imported from United States, Canada, France and so on. In this paper, we will examine the available inventory optimization models which are applicable to nuclear power plant and then select optimum model and assumptions to make inventory of spare parts strategies. Then we develop the computer program to select and determine optimum level of spare parts which should be automatically controlled by KHNP ERP system. The main contribution of this paper is an inventory of spare parts control model development, which can be applied to nuclear power plants in Korea

  6. The simulation of transients in thermal plant. Part II: Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morini, G.L.; Piva, S.

    2008-01-01

    This paper deals with the simulation of the transients of thermal plant with control systems. In the companion paper forming part I of this article [G.L. Morini, S. Piva, The simulation of transients in thermal plant. Part I: Mathematical model, Applied Thermal Engineering 27 (2007) 2138-2144] it has been described how a 'thermal-library' of customised blocks can be built and used, in an intuitive way, to study the transients of any kind of thermal plant. Each component of plant such as valves, boilers, and pumps, is represented by a single block. In this paper, the 'thermal-library' approach is demonstrated by the analysis of the dynamic behaviour of a central heating plant of a typical apartment house during a sinusoidal variation of the external temperature. A comparison of the behaviour of such a plant with three way valve working either in flow rate or in temperature control, is presented and discussed. Finally, the results show the delaying effect of the thermal capacity of the building on the performance of the control system

  7. GC-MS characterization of n-hexane soluble fraction from dandelion (Taraxacum officinale Weber ex F.H. Wigg.) aerial parts and its antioxidant and antimicrobial properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, Ivan; Petkova, Nadezhda; Tumbarski, Julian; Dincheva, Ivayla; Badjakov, Ilian; Denev, Panteley; Pavlov, Atanas

    2018-01-26

    A comparative investigation of n-hexane soluble compounds from aerial parts of dandelion (Taraxacum officinale Weber ex F.H. Wigg.) collected during different vegetative stages was carried out. The GC-MS analysis of the n-hexane (unpolar) fraction showed the presence of 30 biologically active compounds. Phytol [14.7% of total ion current (TIC)], lupeol (14.5% of TIC), taraxasteryl acetate (11.4% of TIC), β-sitosterol (10.3% of TIC), α-amyrin (9.0% of TIC), β-amyrin (8.3% of TIC), and cycloartenol acetate (5.8% of TIC) were identified as the major components in n-hexane fraction. The unpolar fraction exhibited promising antioxidant activity - 46.7 mmol Trolox equivalents/g extract (determined by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl method). This fraction demonstrated insignificant antimicrobial activity and can be used in cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries.

  8. Nuclear power plant simulators for operator licensing and training. Part I. The need for plant-reference simulators. Part II. The use of plant-reference simulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rankin, W.L.; Bolton, P.A.; Shikiar, R.; Saari, L.M.

    1984-05-01

    Part I of this report presents technical justification for the use of plant-reference simulators in the licensing and training of nuclear power plant operators and examines alternatives to the use of plant-reference simulators. The technical rationale is based on research on the use of simulators in other industries, psychological learning and testing principles, expert opinion and user opinion. Part II discusses the central considerations in using plant-reference simulators for licensing examination of nuclear power plant operators and for incorporating simulators into nuclear power plant training programs. Recommendations are presented for the administration of simulator examinations in operator licensing that reflect the goal of maximizing both reliability and validity in the examination process. A series of organizational tasks that promote the acceptance, use, and effectiveness of simulator training as part of the onsite training program is delineated

  9. Chemical Composition and Biological Studies of the Essential Oil from Aerial Parts of Beta vulgaris subsp. maritima (L.) Arcang. Growing in Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zardi-Bergaoui, Afifa; Ben Nejma, Aymen; Harzallah-Skhiri, Fethia; Flamini, Guido; Ascrizzi, Roberta; Ben Jannet, Hichem

    2017-10-01

    The chemical composition, antioxidant, cytotoxic, anticholinesterase and anti-tyrosinase activities of the hydrodistilled essential oil of the aerial parts of Beta vulgaris subsp. maritime (L.) Arcang. from Tunisia have been evaluated. The chemical composition of the oil (yield 0.037% [w/w]), determined by GC-FID and GC/MS is reported for the first time. Twenty five components, accounting for 98.1% of the total oil have been identified. The oil was characterized by a high proportion of oxygenated sesquiterpenes (39.2%), followed by sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (30.3%) and one apocarotenoids (26.3%). The main compounds were γ-irone (26.3%), α-cadinol (12.1%), T-cadinol (10.6%), bicyclogermacrene (10.4%) and δ-cadinene (6.0%). The isolated oil was tested for its antioxidant activity using the DPPH · , ABTS +· , catalase, and paraoxonase assays and also for its cytotoxic, anticholinesterase, and anti-tyrosinase activities. The essential oil exhibited high antioxidant activity (IC 50  = 0.055 ± 0.006 mg/ml) and important result oncatalase (524.447 ± 2.58 Units/mg protein). Furthermore, it exerted a significant cytotoxic effect against A549 cell line, with IC 50  = 42.44 ± 1.40 μg/ml. The results indicate that the essential oil of B. vulgaris subsp. maritima (L.) Arcang. aerial parts may be used in future as an alternative to synthetic antioxidant agents, with potential application in the food and pharmaceutical industries. © 2017 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zurich, Switzerland.

  10. An aerial radiological survey of the Trojan Nuclear Plant and surrounding area, Prescott, Oregon: Date of survey: July--August 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahlstrom, T.S.

    1988-02-01

    An aerial radiological survey was conducted during the period 24 July through 2 August 1986 over a 124-square-kilometer (48-square-mile) area surrounding the Trojan Nuclear Plant located on the Columbia River at Prescott, Oregon. The survey was conducted at a nominal altitude of 46 meters (150 feet) with line spacings of 76 meters (250 feet). Count rates were converted to exposure rates at 1 meter above the ground. A contour map of the terrestrial gamma exposure rate was prepared and overlaid on a USGS topographic map of the area. The exposure rates varied from 8 to 10 microroentgens per hour (μRh) in the southern and northernmost regions of the survey area with somewhat lesser rates of 6.5 to 8.0 μRh in the immediate vicinity of LongviewKelso, Washington. The highest area of increased activity was directly attributed to the main units of the plant and indicated the presence of 60 Co and 58 Co. Soil samples and ion chamber measurements were obtained at four locations to support the aerial data. An additional 11 soil samples were collected along the shoreline of the Columbia River. 6 refs., 11 figs., 4 tabs

  11. Reanalysis of multi-temporal aerial images of Storglaciären, Sweden (1959–99 – Part 1: Determination of length, area, and volume changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Haeberli

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Storglaciären, located in the Kebnekaise massif in northern Sweden, has a long history of glaciological research. Early photo documentations date back to the late 19th century. Measurements of front position variations and distributed mass balance have been carried out since 1910 and 1945/46, respectively. In addition to these in-situ measurements, aerial photographs have been taken at decadal intervals since the beginning of the mass balance monitoring program and were used to produce topographic glacier maps. Inaccuracies in the maps were a challenge to early attempts to derive glacier volume changes and resulted in major differences when compared to the direct glaciological mass balances. In this study, we reanalyzed dia-positives of the original aerial photographs of 1959, -69, -80, -90 and -99 based on consistent photogrammetric processing. From the resulting digital elevation models and orthophotos, changes in length, area, and volume of Storglaciären were computed between the survey years, including an assessment of related errors. Between 1959 and 1999, Storglaciären lost an ice volume of 19×106 m3, which corresponds to a cumulative ice thickness loss of 5.69 m and a mean annual loss of 0.14 m. This ice loss resulted largely from a strong volume loss during the period 1959–80 and was partly compensated during the period 1980–99. As a consequence, the glacier shows a strong retreat in the 1960s, a slowing in the 1970s, and pseudo-stationary conditions in the 1980s and 1990s.

  12. Protein concentrate obtainment from leaves and aerial part cassava (ManihotesculentaCrantzObtenção de concentrado protéico de folhas e parte aérea da mandioca (ManihotesculentaCrantz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janaina Lima da Silva

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aerial parts of cassava, constituted by leaves, stalk sand stems, are considered as agro-industrial waste, so, they are thrown away during roots crop. This material has content of protein, vitamin and mineral; therefore, it can be used as a dietary supplement for food industries. Thus, alternatives have come to extract protein from leaves and remove toxic agent sand anti-nutrients that make part of their composition. In this context, this study aimed at evaluating yield, mineral composition and functional properties of protein concentrates from leaves and aerial part of cassava. During the extraction of proteins, the following tested methods were:(1 isoelectric precipitation; (2 natural fermentation for five days; (3 fermentation for 48 hours and (4 fermentation for 48 hours, followed by pH adjustment. A 2 x 4 factorial design was used, the studied factors were the products (leaves and shoots and the method of protein extraction (four methods, with three replications. From the results, it was observed that Method1 provided the highest yields of protein concentrate and protein extraction for cassava leaves, however, there was no significant difference among the extraction methods for the aerial part of cassava. The values of Fe, Mn and Zn increased in protein concentrates obtained both in leaves and the aerial part of cassava, especially for Method 3. The capacities of absorbing water and oil from protein concentrates were considered high for the four studied methods, thus, indicating a good application in food products.As partes aéreas da mandioca, representadas pelas folhas, hastes e caules, constituem-se como resíduos agroindustriais por serem desperdiçadas na colheita das raízes. Esse material possui valor protéico, vitaminas e mineiras, propiciando sua utilização como suplemento alimentar nas indústrias alimentícias. Alternativas neste sentido surgem para extrair a proteína das folhas e eliminar os agentes tóxicos e

  13. Chromatographic finger print analysis of anti–inflammatory active extract fractions of aerial parts of Tribulus terrestris by HPTLC technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona Salih Mohammed

    2014-03-01

    Conclusions: The different chloroform fractions F1, F2, F4, F5, F7, F9, F11 and F14 revealed 4, 7, 7, 8, 9, 7, 7 and 6 major spots, respectively. The results obtained in this experiment strongly support and validate the traditional uses of this Sudanese medicinal plant.

  14. AERIAL RADIOLOGICAL SURVEYS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proctor, A.E.

    1997-01-01

    Measuring terrestrial gamma radiation from airborne platforms has proved to be a useful method for characterizing radiation levels over large areas. Over 300 aerial radiological surveys have been carried out over the past 25 years including U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites, commercial nuclear power plants, Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program/Uranium Mine Tailing Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP/UMTRAP) sites, nuclear weapons test sites, contaminated industrial areas, and nuclear accident sites. This paper describes the aerial measurement technology currently in use by the Remote Sensing Laboratory (RSL) for routine environmental surveys and emergency response activities. Equipment, data-collection and -analysis methods, and examples of survey results are described

  15. Essential Oils Extracted Using Microwave-Assisted Hydrodistillation from Aerial Parts of Eleven Artemisia Species: Chemical Compositions and Diversities in Different Geographical Regions of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Mohammadhosseini

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to assess the chemical compositions of essential oils (EOs extracted through microwave-assisted hydrodistillation from aerial parts of 11 Artemisia species growing wild in different regions in Northern, Eastern, Western, and Central parts of Iran. The EOs were subsequently analyzed via GC and GC-MS. The percentage yields of the EOs varied over the range of 0.21-0.50 (w/w%. On the basis of these characterizations and spectral assignments, natural compounds including camphor, 1,8-cineole, camphene, α-pinene, β-pinene, β-thujone, and sabinene were the most abundant and frequent constituents among all studied chemical profiles. Accordingly, oxygenated monoterpenes, monoterpene hydrocarbons, and non-terpene hydrocarbons were the dominant groups of natural compounds in the chemical profiles of 13, 4, and 2 samples, respectively. Moreover, five chemotypes were identified using statistical analyses: camphene, α-pinene and β-pinene; 1,8-cineole; camphore and 1,8-cineole; camphore and camphore and β-thujone.

  16. Control of tomato bacterial wilt through the incorporation of aerial part of pigeon pea and crotalaria to soil Controle da murcha bacteriana do tomateiro pela incorporação da parte aérea de guandu e crotalária no solo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suane C. Cardoso

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The use of organic matter that improves the physical, chemical and biological soil properties has been studied as an inducer of suppressiveness to soilborne plant pathogens. The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of different sources and concentrations of organic matter on tomato bacterial wilt control. Two commercially available organic composts and freshly cut aerial parts of pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan and crotalaria (Crotalaria juncea were incorporated, in concentrations of 10, 20 and 30 % (v/v, into soil infested with Ralstonia solanacearum. The soil with the fresh organic matter of pigeon pea and crotalaria was incubated for 30 and 60 days before planting. Tomato seedlings of cv. Santa Clara were transplanted into polyethylene bags with 3 kg of the planting substrate (infested soil + organic matter. The wilting symptoms and percentage of flowering plants were evaluated for 45 days. All evaluated concentrations with incorporation and incubation for 30 days of aerial parts of pigeon pea and crotalaria controlled 100% tomato bacterial wilt. With 60 days of incubation, only the 10 % concentration of pigeon pea and crotalaria did not control the disease. These results suggest that soil incorporation of fresh aerial parts of pigeon pea and crotalaria is an effective method for bacterial wilt control.A utilização de materiais orgânicos que melhoram as características físicas, químicas e biológicas do solo vem sendo estudada como indutora de supressividade a fitopatógenos habitantes do solo. Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito de diferentes fontes e concentrações de matéria orgânica no controle da murcha bacteriana do tomateiro. Foram avaliados dois compostos orgânicos comerciais e a matéria fresca cortada da parte aérea de guandu (Cajanus cajan e de crotalária (Crotalaria juncea, nas concentrações 10, 20 e 30 % (v/v, incorporados no solo infestado com Ralstonia solanacearum. O solo que recebeu a parte

  17. Multitemporal field-based plant height estimation using 3D point clouds generated from small unmanned aerial systems high-resolution imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malambo, L.; Popescu, S. C.; Murray, S. C.; Putman, E.; Pugh, N. A.; Horne, D. W.; Richardson, G.; Sheridan, R.; Rooney, W. L.; Avant, R.; Vidrine, M.; McCutchen, B.; Baltensperger, D.; Bishop, M.

    2018-02-01

    Plant breeders and agronomists are increasingly interested in repeated plant height measurements over large experimental fields to study critical aspects of plant physiology, genetics and environmental conditions during plant growth. However, collecting such measurements using commonly used manual field measurements is inefficient. 3D point clouds generated from unmanned aerial systems (UAS) images using Structure from Motion (SfM) techniques offer a new option for efficiently deriving in-field crop height data. This study evaluated UAS/SfM for multitemporal 3D crop modelling and developed and assessed a methodology for estimating plant height data from point clouds generated using SfM. High-resolution images in visible spectrum were collected weekly across 12 dates from April (planting) to July (harvest) 2016 over 288 maize (Zea mays L.) and 460 sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.) plots using a DJI Phantom 3 Professional UAS. The study compared SfM point clouds with terrestrial lidar (TLS) at two dates to evaluate the ability of SfM point clouds to accurately capture ground surfaces and crop canopies, both of which are critical for plant height estimation. Extended plant height comparisons were carried out between SfM plant height (the 90th, 95th, 99th percentiles and maximum height) per plot and field plant height measurements at six dates throughout the growing season to test the repeatability and consistency of SfM estimates. High correlations were observed between SfM and TLS data (R2 = 0.88-0.97, RMSE = 0.01-0.02 m and R2 = 0.60-0.77 RMSE = 0.12-0.16 m for the ground surface and canopy comparison, respectively). Extended height comparisons also showed strong correlations (R2 = 0.42-0.91, RMSE = 0.11-0.19 m for maize and R2 = 0.61-0.85, RMSE = 0.12-0.24 m for sorghum). In general, the 90th, 95th and 99th percentile height metrics had higher correlations to field measurements than the maximum metric though differences among them were not statistically significant. The

  18. Aerial radiological survey of the Diablo Canyon Nuclear Power Plant and surrounding area, Diablo Canyon, California. Date of survey: September-October 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-03-01

    An aerial radiological survey was conducted over the area surrounding the Diablo Canyon Nuclear Power Plant in Diablo Canyon, California. The survey was conducted between 20 September and 3 October 1984. A series of flight lines parallel to the coastline were flown at an altitude of 91 meters (300 feet) and were spaced 152 meters (500 feet) apart. The survey covered an area of 250 square kilometers (100 square miles). The resulting background exposure rates over the survey area ranged from 5 to 21 microroentgens per hour (μR/h). The reported exposure rate values include an estimated cosmics ray contribution of 3.6 μR/h. Soil samples were also collected at several locations within the survey areas and analyzed in the laboratory for isotopic composition. The results of the survey showed only the presence of naturally occurring background radiation. No man-made radioactivity was detected. 4 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs

  19. Protective effects of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Portulaca oleracea L. aerial parts on H2O2-induced DNA damage in lymphocytes by comet assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behravan, Javad; Mosafa, Fatemeh; Soudmand, Negar; Taghiabadi, Elahe; Razavi, Bibi Marjan; Karimi, Gholamreza

    2011-09-01

    The comet assay is a standard method for measuring DNA damage. In this study, the protective effects of ethanolic and aqueous extracts of Portulaca oleracea L. (P. oleracea) on human lymphocyte DNA lesions were evaluated with the comet assay. Lymphocytes were isolated from blood samples taken from healthy volunteers. Human lymphocytes were incubated in H(2)O(2) (50,100, and 200 μM), aqueous extract (0.05, 0.1, 0.5, 1, and 2.5mg/ml), and ethanolic extracts (0.05, 0.1, 0.5, 1, and 2.5mg/ml) of P. oleraceae aerial parts alone with a combination of H(2)O(2) (100 μM) with either 1 or 2.5mg/ml of both extracts at 4°C for 30 minutes. The extent of DNA migration was measured using the alkaline single cell gel electrophoresis approach assay, and DNA damage was expressed as percentage tail DNA. We found that the aqueous extract of P. oleracea significantly inhibited DNA damage, while there was no effect of the ethanolic extract. These data suggest that the aqueous extract of P. oleracea can prevent oxidative DNA damage to human lymphocytes, which is likely due to antioxidant constituents in the extract. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. The Effect of the Aerial Part of Lindera akoensis on Lipopolysaccharides (LPS-Induced Nitric Oxide Production in RAW264.7 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yen-Hsueh Tseng

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Four new secondary metabolites, 3α-((E-Dodec-1-enyl-4β-hydroxy-5β-methyldihydrofuran-2-one (1, linderinol (6, 4'-O-methylkaempferol 3-O-α-L-(4''-E-p-coumaroylrhamnoside (11 and kaempferol 3-O-α-L-(4''-Z-p-coumaroylrhamnoside (12 with eleven known compounds—3-epilistenolide D1 (2, 3-epilistenolide D2 (3, (3Z,4α,5β-3-(dodec-11-ynylidene-4-hydroxy-5-methylbutanolide (4, (3E,4β,5β-3-(dodec-11-ynylidene-4-hydroxy-5-methylbutanolide (5, matairesinol (7, syringaresinol (8, (+-pinoresinol (9, salicifoliol (10, 4''-p-coumaroylafzelin (13, catechin (14 and epicatechin (15—were first isolated from the aerial part of Lindera akoensis. Their structures were determined by detailed analysis of 1D- and 2D-NMR spectroscopic data. All of the compounds isolated from Lindera akoensis showed that in vitro anti-inflammatory activity decreases the LPS-stimulated production of nitric oxide (NO in RAW 264.7 cell, with IC50 values of 4.1–413.8 µM.

  1. Chemical composition, antioxidative and anti-inflammatory activity of extracts prepared from aerial parts of Oenothera biennis L. and Oenothera paradoxa Hudziok obtained after seeds cultivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granica, Sebastian; Czerwińska, Monika E; Piwowarski, Jakub P; Ziaja, Maria; Kiss, Anna K

    2013-01-30

    In the present study we investigated the chemical composition of extracts prepared from aerial parts of Oenothera paradoxa Hudziok and Oenothera biennis L. and their antioxidative and anti-inflammatory activities. Ultra high pressure liquid chromatography (UHPLC)-DAD-MS/MS studies showed that both extracts contain a wide variety of polyphenols (39 identified constituents) among which macrocyclic ellagitannin turned out to be the main constituent. During the in vitro studies, using noncellular models, both extracts scavenged reactive oxygen species (ROS) in a concentration-dependent manner, and the lowest SC(50) values were obtained for O(2)(-) and H(2)O(2). Both extracts inhibited ROS production by stimulated human neutrophils. The stronger activity in the case of formyl-met-leu-phenylalanine stimulation suggests that both extracts may act through the receptor-dependent pathway. O. paradoxa extract and O. biennis extract exhibited anti-inflammatory activity by the inhibition of hyaluronidase and lipoxygenase in a concentration-dependent manner. The stronger activity of O.biennis extract toward lipoxygenase may be explained by its higher oenothein B content.

  2. Pseudohypericin and Hyperforin in Hypericum perforatum from Northern Turkey: Variation among Populations, Plant Parts and Phenological Stages

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cüneyt ?irak; Jolita Radusiene; Valdimaras Janulis; Liudas Ivanauskas

    2008-01-01

    Hypericum perforatum is a perennial medicinal plant known as "St. John's wort" in Western Europe and has been used in the treatment of several diseases for centuries. In the present study, morphologic, phenologic and population variability in pseudohypericin and hyperforin concentrations among H. perforatum populations from Northern Turkey was investigated for the first time. The aerial parts of H. perforatum plants representing a total of 30 individuals were collected at full flowering from 10 sites of Northern Turkey to search the regional variation in the secondary metabolits concentrations. For morphologic and phenologic sampling, plants from one site were gathered in five phenological stages: vegetative,floral budding, full flowering, fresh fruiting and mature fruiting. The plant materials were air-dried at room temperature and subsequently assayed for chemical concentrations by high performance liquid chromatography. Secondary metabolite concentrations ranged from traces to 2.94mg/g dry weight (DW) for pseudohypedcin and traces -6.29mg/g DW for hyperforin. The differences in the secondary metabolite concentrations among populations of H. perforatum were found to be significant. The populations varied greatly in hyperforin concentrations, whereas they produced a similar amount of pseudohypericin. Concentrations of both secondary metabolites in all tissues increased with advancing of plant development and higher accumulation levels were reached at flowering. Among different tissues, full opened flowers were found to be superior to stems, leaves and the other reproductive parts with regard to pseudohypericin and hyperforin accumulations. The present findings might be useful to optimize the processing methodology of wild-harvested plant material and obtain Increased concentrations of these secondary metabolites.

  3. Effect of Aerial Parts Extract of Echinophora Platyloba.L on Liver and Kidney Function Tests in Obese Hypercholesterolaemia Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Aqababa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Obesity and its complications such as hypertension, fatty liver, type 2 diabetes and kidney failure, can be mentioned as the main life-threating elements. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the effect of air parts extract of Echinophora platyloba.L (EP on changes in body weight as well as liver and kidney function tests in hypercholesterolaemia obese rats. Methods: In this experimental study, 40 male Wistar rats were divided in to five groups (n =8 including a control group with normal control diet, control hyperlipidemia group with fatty food diet and hypertriglyceridemia treatment groups which recieved the minimum dose (100 mg/kg, average dose (200 mg/kg maximum dose (300 mg/kg of EP extract via a gavage. At the end of this period (42 days, to measure cholesterol, creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, bilirubin, albumin, total protein, alanine Aminotransferase (ALT and aspartate Aminotransferase (AST and alkaline phosphatase (ALP, the blood samples were collected and the study data were analyzed. Results: Cholesterol, ALT, AST and ALP were reported to significantly decrease (in the minimum and maximum dose groups compared to the control group (P≤0.05. Albumin and total protein in the maximum dose extract group significantly increased compared to the control group (P≤0.05. Moreover, body weight in the group receiving the minimum dose of extract showed a significant decrease compared to the control group (P≤0.05. Conclusion: EP extract, specifically in the minimal doses, in addition to protecting liver, could be recommended as a good candidate in regard with the treatment of blood lipids, and body extra weight.

  4. Anti-epileptogenic and antioxidant effect of Lavandula officinalis aerial part extract against pentylenetetrazol-induced kindling in male mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmati, Batool; Khalili, Mohsen; Roghani, Mehrdad; Ahghari, Parisa

    2013-06-21

    Repeated application of Lavandula officinalis (L. officinalis) has been recommended for a long time in Iranian traditional medicine for some of nervous disorders like epilepsy and dementia. However, there is no available report for the effect of chronic administration of Lavandula extract in development (acquisition) of epilepsy. Therefore, this study was designed to investigate the anti-epileptogenic and antioxidant activity of repeated administration of Lavandula officinalis extract on pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) kindling seizures in mice model. Lavandula officinalis was tested for its ability (i) to suppress the seizure intensity and lethal effects of PTZ in kindled mice (anti-epileptogenic effect), (ii) to attenuate the PTZ-induced oxidative injury in the brain tissue (antioxidant effect) when given as a pretreatment prior to each PTZ injection during kindling development. Valproate (Val), a major antiepileptic drug, was also tested for comparison. Val and Lavandula officinalis extract showed anti-epileptogenic properties as they reduced seizure score of kindled mice and PTZ-induced mortality. In this regard, Lavandula officinalis was more effective than Val. Both Lavandula officinalis and Val suppressed brain nitric oxide (NO) level of kindled mice in comparison with the control and PTZ group. Meanwhile, Lavandula officinalis suppressed NO level more than Val and Lavandula officinalis also decreased brain MDA level relative to PTZ group. This is the first report to demonstrate NO suppressing and anti-epileptogenic effect of chronic administration of Lavandula officinalis extract on acquisition of epilepsy in PTZ kindling mice model. In this regard, Lavandula officinalis extract was more effective than Val, possibly and in part via brain NO suppression. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Perfil de fermentação e perdas na ensilagem de diferentes frações da parte aérea de quatro variedades de mandioca Fermentation profile and losses in the ensilage of different fractions of the aerial part from four cassava varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro Diego Soares Mota

    2011-07-01

    (Amarelinha, Olho Roxo, Periquita and Sabará and three aerial part fractions (entire plant, surpluses of the planting and superior third. In the study of dry matter loss by gases and effluents, it was used a 4 × 3 × 7 factorial arrangement, with four replicates, composed of four cassava varieties, three aerial section fractions and seven silo opening dates (1, 3, 5, 7, 14, 28 and 56 days after ensilage. Ensilage was done in laboratory silos made of PVC pipes. The obtained data were submitted to analysis of variance and for average comparison effect, the test of Scott-Knott was performed at the 5% level of significance. There was no significant difference among pH values, organic acid and silage densities of the different varieties but pH, ammonia nitrogen and silage densities of aerial section fractions differed among varieties. Ammonia nitrogen of silages also differed among varieties. Although fresh forage had presented dry matter values lower than 30%, values of pH were satisfactory. Silages of superior-third fractions and plant remains present great fermentative quality. Silages of this study present low dry matter loss.

  6. Lower parts of Temelin nuclear power plant cooling towers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sebek, J.

    1988-01-01

    The progress of work is described in detail on the foundations and lower parts of the cooling towers of the Temelin nuclear power plant. The cooling tower is placed on a reinforced concrete footing of a circular layout. Support pillars are erected on the reinforced concrete continuous footing. They consists of oblique shell stanchions. Inside, the footing joins up to monolithic wall and slab structures of the cooling tower tub. The tub bottom forms a foundation plate supporting prefab structures of the cooling tower inner structural systems. The framed support of the chimney shell consists of 56 pairs of prefabricated oblique stanchions. Following their erection into the final position and anchoring in the continuous footing, the concreting of the casing can start of the reinforced conrete chimney. (Z.M.). 3 figs

  7. Evaluation of Inhibitory and Lethal Effects of Aqueous, Ethanolic and Hydroalcoholic Extracts of Aerial Parts of Salvia chorassanica against Some Gram-negative and Gram-positive Bacteria in Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azam Mehraban

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and Objectives: Development of bacterial resistance to antibiotics has led to an increased tendency to development of new more effective and non-toxic antimicrobial compounds. In this study, the inhibitory and lethal effects of aqueous, ethanolic, and hydroalcoholic extracts of aerial parts of Salvia chorassanica were evaluated against Listeria monocytogenes, Bacillus cereus, Salmonella typhi, and Escherichia coli O:157. Methods: In this study, Kirby–Bauer disk diffusion method was used to evaluate antimicrobial activity. In this method, bacteria were cultivated as grass culture in Mueller Hinton Agar (MHA media. To determine the minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration, micro-dilution method with ELISA and addition of phenyl tetrazolium chloride reagent, were used. Data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA and Duncan’s test at the significance level of p<0.05. Results: The highest diameter of inhibition in agar diffusion method was related to hydroalcoholic extract of aerial parts of Salvia chorassanica against Gram-positive bacteria Bacillus cereus. The amount of calculated MIC of hydro-alcoholic extract for Gram-positive bacteria was 30mg/ml. This amount was the lowest among other measured MIC. Conclusion: Based on the results of this study, Gram-negative bacteria showed more resistance to different extracts of aerial parts of Salvia chorassanica as compared to Gram-positive bacteria, so that Salmonella typhi was found to be the most resistant bacterium among the tested bacteria.

  8. Determination of OB Emission Factors Using an Unmanned Aerial System (“drone”) at ?Radford Army Ammunition Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    A description of the emission sampling via UAV at the Radford Army Ammunition Plant including number of samples, waste composition, UAV flight data. No emissions data presented; only qualitative description.

  9. Evaluation of Antioxidant Activity from Different Plant Parts of Senduduk Herb: Extraction Conditions Optimization of Selected Plant Part

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamaludin Nor Helya Iman

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This work reports a study on evaluation of antioxidant properties from flower of Senduduk herb. Natural occurring antioxidant was mostly preferred due to their little or no toxicity compared to the synthetic antioxidants which posses carcinogenic effects. Extraction was done on selected plant parts of Sendududk herb including leaves, stem, flower and berry parts to evaluate their antioxidant potentiality. Flower part of Sendudk herb extracted using acetonic solvent promotes highest antioxidant activity which is 93.97 ± 1.38 % as compared to leaves (92.20 ± 0.20 %, stem (47.94 ± 1.42% and berry (92.88 ± 0.63% using the same extracting solvent. Thus, Senduduk flower was chosen to be continued with screening and optimization process. Single factor experiment using the one factor at a time (OFAT method was done to study the effect of each extraction parameter that was solid to solvent ratio, temperature and solvent concentration. The extraction condition in each parametric study which results in highest antioxidant activity was used as the middle level of optimization process using Response Surface Methodology (RSM coupled with Central Composite Design (CCD. The optimum condition was at 1:20 solid to solvent ratio, 64.61°C temperature and 80.24% acetone concentration which result in antioxidant activity of 96.53%. The verification of RSM showed that the model used to predict the antioxidant activity was valid and adequate with the experimental parameters.

  10. Aerial in situ survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cespirova, I.

    2004-01-01

    In 2001 a detailed exploration of soil contamination took place in the mountainous region Hruby Jesenik located in northeastern part of the Czech Republic. This region was selected for the higher contamination of 137 Cs after Chernobyl accident. For monitoring of an area about 100km 2 aerial monitoring system IRIS (located on board of helicopter MI-17) was used. The parameters of measurement were: flight height above ground 80 m, speed 100 km/h, distance of flight lines 250 m, intervals of spectra recording 1s. For more detailed exploration of ground contamination in this area complementary ground-based mobile group measurements were performed. (author)

  11. Heavy metal concentrations in plants and different harvestable parts: A soil-plant equilibrium model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guala, Sebastian D.; Vega, Flora A.; Covelo, Emma F.

    2010-01-01

    A mathematical interaction model, validated by experimental results, was developed to modeling the metal uptake by plants and induced growth decrease, by knowing metal in soils. The model relates the dynamics of the uptake of metals from soil to plants. Also, two types of relationships are tested: total and available metal content. The model successfully fitted the experimental data and made it possible to predict the threshold values of total mortality with a satisfactory approach. Data are taken from soils treated with Cd and Ni for ryegrass (Lolium perenne, L.) and oats (Avena sativa L.), respectively. Concentrations are measured in the aboveground biomass of plants. In the latter case, the concentration of metals in different parts of the plants (tillering, shooting and earing) is also modeled. At low concentrations, the effects of metals are moderate, and the dynamics appear to be linear. However, increasing concentrations show nonlinear behaviors. - The model proposed in this study makes possible to characterize the nonlinear behavior of the soil-plant interaction with metal pollution.

  12. Heavy metal concentrations in plants and different harvestable parts: A soil-plant equilibrium model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guala, Sebastian D. [Instituto de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional de General Sarmiento, Gutierrez 1150, Los Polvorines, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Vega, Flora A. [Departamento de Bioloxia Vexetal e Ciencia do Solo, Facultade de Bioloxia, Universidade de Vigo, Lagoas, Marcosende, 36310 Vigo, Pontevedra (Spain); Covelo, Emma F., E-mail: emmaf@uvigo.e [Departamento de Bioloxia Vexetal e Ciencia do Solo, Facultade de Bioloxia, Universidade de Vigo, Lagoas, Marcosende, 36310 Vigo, Pontevedra (Spain)

    2010-08-15

    A mathematical interaction model, validated by experimental results, was developed to modeling the metal uptake by plants and induced growth decrease, by knowing metal in soils. The model relates the dynamics of the uptake of metals from soil to plants. Also, two types of relationships are tested: total and available metal content. The model successfully fitted the experimental data and made it possible to predict the threshold values of total mortality with a satisfactory approach. Data are taken from soils treated with Cd and Ni for ryegrass (Lolium perenne, L.) and oats (Avena sativa L.), respectively. Concentrations are measured in the aboveground biomass of plants. In the latter case, the concentration of metals in different parts of the plants (tillering, shooting and earing) is also modeled. At low concentrations, the effects of metals are moderate, and the dynamics appear to be linear. However, increasing concentrations show nonlinear behaviors. - The model proposed in this study makes possible to characterize the nonlinear behavior of the soil-plant interaction with metal pollution.

  13. Quality assurance program description: Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant, Part 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This document describes the Department of Energy's Richland Field Office (DOE-RL) quality assurance (QA) program for the processing of high-level waste as well as the Vitrification Project Quality Assurance Program for the design and construction of the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP). It also identifies and describes the planned activities that constitute the required quality assurance program for the HWVP. This program applies to the broad scope of quality-affecting activities associated with the overall HWVP Facility. Quality-affecting activities include designing, purchasing, fabricating, handling, shipping, storing, cleaning, erecting, installing, inspecting, testing, maintaining, repairing, and modifying. Also included are the development, qualification, and production of waste forms which may be safely used to dispose of high-level radioactive waste resulting from national defense activities. The HWVP QA program is made up of many constituent programs that are being implemented by the participating organizations. This Quality Assurance program description is intended to outline and define the scope and application of the major programs that make up the HWVP QA program. It provides a means by which the overall program can be managed and directed to achieve its objectives. Subsequent parts of this description will identify the program's objectives, its scope, application, and structure

  14. AMRMS Aerial survey database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — An aerial monitoring program was conducted during the period 1962 - 2003 in cooperation with aerial spotters working for the commercial purse seine fleet. Flights...

  15. Persistent Aerial Tracking

    KAUST Repository

    Mueller, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    persistent, robust and autonomous object tracking system for unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) called Persistent Aerial Tracking (PAT). A computer vision and control strategy is applied to a diverse set of moving objects (e.g. humans, animals, cars, boats, etc

  16. Fractionation of stigmasterol derivative and study of the effects of Celsia coromandelina aerial parts petroleum ether extract on appearance of puberty and ovarian steroidogenesis in immature mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Dilipkumar; Mazumder, Upal Kanti; Gupta, Malaya

    2012-06-01

    Celsia coromandelina Vahl (Scrophulariaceae) is a shrub found throughout Bangladesh and India, and it is distributed widely in the plains of West Bengal. It is used by the tribal people to treat diarrhea, dysentery, insomnia, skin eruption, fever, syphilis, helminthes infection, and to control fertility. The objective of this study was to fractionate stigmasterol derivative and to investigate the effects of petroleum ether extract of C. coromandelina (PECC) aerial parts on the onset of reproductive maturity and the ovarian steroidogenesis in immature female mice. PECC was prepared by hot extraction process and one compound was isolated by preparative TLC from it. PECC was completely freed from solvent and administered in immature female mice intraperitoneally once on every alternate day for nine doses. The sexual maturity was observed by means of vaginal opening, first estrus (days), rate of body growth, changes in weight of ovary, uterus and pituitary. The content of ascorbic acid, cholesterol, Δ⁵-3β-hydroxy steroid dehydrogenase (Δ⁵-3β-HSD) and glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G 6-PDH) activities in ovaries and carbonic anhydrase activity in uterus were measured by means of biochemical technique in control and treated mice. The activity of PECC was compared with standard marker compound ethinyl estradiol. The isolated compound was characterized as stigmasterol derivative. PECC treatment caused a remarkable delay (30.27 and 18.56%, respectively, by low dose) in sexual maturity compared to vehicle control as evidenced by the age of vaginal opening and appearance of first estrus (cornified smear). PECC treatment also caused a significant fall (58.6 and 50.0%, respectively, by low dose) in Δ⁵-3β-HSD and G 6-PDH activities involved in ovarian steroidogenesis compared to vehicle control. Total cholesterol and ascorbic acid content in ovaries and carbonic anhydrase activity in uterus were increased significantly (low dose by 49.3, 424.6 and 82

  17. Aerial radiological survey of the Savannah River Plant (Aiken, South Carolina). Date of survey: 2--25 June 1974

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyns, P.K.

    1975-01-01

    The survey consisted of an airborne measurement of both natural and man-made gamma radiation from the terrain surface in and around the plant site. These measurements allowed a determination of the surface terrestrial spatial distribution of isotope concentrations and equivalent gamma ray exposure rates from 60 Co and 137 Cs contaminants. Results are reported as exposure rate isopleths for the two isotopes and are superimposed on 1:48,000 scale maps of the area. Gamma ray energy spectra are also presented for the net man-made radioelements

  18. Chemical composition of buckwheat plant parts and selected buckwheat products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Vojtíšková

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Chemical composition plant parts (roots, stalks, leaves, blossoms of common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench and selected products made from its seeds (peels, whole seed, wholemeal flour, broken seeds, crunchy products Natural and Cocoa, flour, and pasta was determined. Samples were dried and ground to a fine powder. All analyses were performed according to the Commission Regulation no. 152/2009, while rutin concentration was determined by the modified HPLC method. The lowest content of moisture was found in roots (4.3% and in peels (almost 8% and the highest moisture (nearly 11% was discovered in seeds. The lowest amount of crude protein (3.5% was found in peels, the highest crude protein amount (>13% in both flours and leaves (23%. The starch content (>50% in dry matter differs from one sample to another. Only in peels the content of starch was about 3.5%. From all examined samples, the lowest content of fat was found in crunchy products Cocoa, 1.7%. The lowest amount of histidine was determined in all studied samples, except peels, the highest content of glutamic acid was determined in almost all samples, except peels. Whole-meal flour is very rich source of Ca and Fe. The content of these elements was 1172 mg.kg-1 and 45.9 mg.kg-1, respectively. On the other hand, the highest content of Pb (>1 mg.kg-1 was found in broken seeds. The greatest concentration of rutin was determined in blossoms and leaves (83.6 and 69.9 mg.g-1, respectively. On the other hand, the lowest concentrations of rutin were found in buckwheat products (generally less then 1 mg.g-1, i.e. in wholemeal flour, 702 μg.kg-1, the lowest almost 10 μg.kg-1 in pasta.

  19. Melt pond fraction and spectral sea ice albedo retrieval from MERIS data – Part 1: Validation against in situ, aerial, and ship cruise data

    OpenAIRE

    Istomina, L.; Heygster, G.; Huntemann, M.; Schwarz, P.; Birnbaum, G.; Scharien, R.; Polashenski, C.; Perovich, D.; Zege, E.; Malinka, A.; Prikhach, A.; Katsev, I.

    2015-01-01

    The presence of melt ponds on the Arctic sea ice strongly affects the energy balance of the Arctic Ocean in summer. It affects albedo as well as transmittance through the sea ice, which has consequences for the heat balance and mass balance of sea ice. An algorithm to retrieve melt pond fraction and sea ice albedo from Medium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MERIS) data is validated against aerial, shipborne and in situ campaign data. The results show the best correlation fo...

  20. Monitoring viable cells of the biological control agent Lactobacillus plantarum PM411 in aerial plant surfaces by means of a strain-specific viability quantitative PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daranas, Núria; Bonaterra, Anna; Francés, Jesús; Cabrefiga, Jordi; Montesinos, Emilio; Badosa, Esther

    2018-03-09

    A viability qPCR (v-qPCR) assay was developed for the unambiguous detection and quantification of Lactobacillus plantarum PM411 viable cells in aerial plant surfaces. A 972 bp region of a PM411 predicted prophage with mosaic architecture enabled the identification of a PM411 strain-specific molecular marker. Three primer sets, with different amplicon lengths (92, 188, and 317 bp), and one TaqMan probe were designed. All the qPCR assays showed good linearity over a 4-log range and good efficiencies, but differed in sensitivity. The nucleic acid-binding dye PEMAX was used for selectively detecting and enumerating viable bacteria by v-qPCR. The primer set amplifying a 188 bp DNA fragment was selected as the most suitable for v-qPCR. The performance of the method was assessed on apple blossoms, pear, strawberry and kiwifruit leaves in potted plants under controlled environmental conditions, and pear and apple blossoms under field conditions, by comparing v-qPCR population estimation to those obtained by qPCR and specific plate counting on MRS-rifampicin. The population estimation did not differ significantly between methods when conditions were conducive to bacterial survival. However, under stressful conditions, differences between methods were observed due to cell death or viable but non-culturable state induction. While qPCR overestimated the population level, plate counting underestimated this value in comparison to v-qPCR. PM411 attained stable population levels of viable cells on flower environment under high relative humidity. However, the unfavourable conditions onto the leaf surface and the relatively dryness in the field caused an important decrease of viable population. IMPORTANCE The v-qPCR method in combination with plate counting and qPCR is a powerful tool for studies of colonization and survival in field conditions, to improve formulations and delivery strategies of PM411, or to optimize the dose and timing of spray schedules. It is expected that PEMAX

  1. Part 2: Conserving and Planting Trees at Development Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karen Cappiella; Tom Schueler; Tiffany Wright

    2006-01-01

    This manual presents specific ways to enable developers, engineers or landscape architects to incorporate more trees into a development site. The proposed approach focuses on protecting existing trees, planting trees in storm water treatment practices, and planting trees in other open spaces at the development site. This manual introduces conceptual designs for storm...

  2. Extracellular Synthesis and Characterization of Gold Nanoparticles Using Mycobacterium sp. BRS2A-AR2 Isolated from the Aerial Roots of the Ghanaian Mangrove Plant, Rhizophora racemosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camas, Mustafa; Sazak Camas, Anil; Kyeremeh, Kwaku

    2018-06-01

    Through the use of genomes that have undergone millions of years of evolution, marine Actinobacteria are known to have adapted to rapidly changing environmental pressures. The result is a huge chemical and biological diversity among marine Actinobacteria . It is gradually becoming a known fact that, marine Actinobacteria have the capability to produce nanoparticles which have reasonable sizes and structures with possible applications in biotechnology and pharmacology. Mycobacterium sp. BRS2A-AR2 was isolated from the aerial roots of the mangrove plant Rhizophora racemosa . The Mycobacterium was demonstrated for the first time ever to produce AuNPs with sizes that range between 5 and 55 nm. The highest level absorbance of the biosynthesized AuNPs was typical for actinobacterial strains (2.881 at 545 nm). The polydispersity index was measured as 0.207 in DLS and the zeta potential was negatively charged (- 28.3 mV). Significant vibration stretches were seen at 3314, 2358, 1635 and 667 cm -1 in FT-IR spectra. This demonstrated the possible use of small aliphatic compounds containing -COOH, -OH, -Cl and -NH 2 functional groups in the stabilization of the AuNPs. The effect of the biosynthesized AuNPs on HUVEC and HeLA cell lines was measured at 48 h. IC 50 values were determined at 3500 µg/ml concentration for HUVEC and HeLA cell lines at 45.25 and 53.41% respectively.

  3. Integration of new nuclear power plants into transmission grids part I: Transmission system issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abi-Samra, N.

    2008-01-01

    Integration of new nuclear plants into a transmission system is a two sided problem. On one side, adding the nuclear plant into an existing grid will change the attributes of that grid: e.g., loading of certain transmission lines will increase; voltages will be affected, etc. On the other side, the grid itself will affect the plant, and the plant needs to be designed to accommodate the specifics of the grid. Based on that, this paper is divided into two parts. Part I addresses the grid issues with the integration of the new plant, with emphasis on the electrical aspects of these issues. Part II of this paper, concentrates on the vulnerability of the plant from grid disturbances. Part II reintroduces a relatively new concept by this author called the Zone of Vulnerability (ZoV) for the new nuclear plants. (authors)

  4. Advanced loose parts detection system for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Por, G.; Szappanos, G.

    2000-01-01

    The importance of loose part detection is discussed. The consequences of a relatively big (7.7 kg) loose part found in a WWER-440 NPP are discussed. A portable loose part monitoring system is presented, which is based on sequential probability ratio test. (author)

  5. Plant injury due to air pollution - similar symptoms. Part I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuoka, Y

    1976-01-01

    Many plant diseases cause injuries to leaves which mimic the damage inflicted by air pollution. The relationship between air pollution injuries and those caused by meteorological conditions are discussed. Rice plants often contract akagare which causes reddish-brown spots on leaves similar to the symptoms caused by photochemical oxidants. Spider mites produce leaf damage in kidney beans which mimics the spotting caused by photochemical oxidants. Lace bugs produce minute white spots on azaleas similar to those caused by photochemical oxidants.

  6. 10 CFR Appendix S to Part 50 - Earthquake Engineering Criteria for Nuclear Power Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Earthquake Engineering Criteria for Nuclear Power Plants S... FACILITIES Pt. 50, App. S Appendix S to Part 50—Earthquake Engineering Criteria for Nuclear Power Plants... nuclear power plant structures, systems, and components important to safety to withstand the effects of...

  7. 40 CFR 63.1562 - What parts of my plant are covered by this subpart?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true What parts of my plant are covered by... What parts of my plant are covered by this subpart? (a) This subpart applies to each new, reconstructed...-regenerative, cyclic, or continuous processes) that are associated with regeneration of the catalyst used in...

  8. All part of the process[3D plant modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snieckus, D.

    2002-12-01

    The second coming of EPIC contracts, a renewed emphasis on life-of-field costs for offshore developments, and the deepwater FPSO market's fast approaching construction boom are together demanding fresh thinking - and software systems - from 3D plant modelling and information specialists. Based on its own calculations, Intergraph's Process, Power and Offshore (PPO) division states that it holds down some 35-40% of the market for 3D plant modelling and information management in the offshore oil and gas industry. This article reviews their success, how they have to preserve their hard won share of the market, due to the changeable nature of that market, marked recently by the fundamental shifts in EPIC contract structure, life-of-field costs focuses, and, not least, the rise of FPSO-driven production concepts. Intergraph PPO's integrated product portfolio, which brings together plant design modelling systems and plant information management systems, was founded on its SmartPlant Foundation data warehouse hub. It has maintained its project data integrity o some of the largest and most complex offshore developments, including Phillips Petroleum's Bayu-Undan and Statoil Asgard fields. Some 70% of Intergraph PPO's clients have been contractors, and while the company aims to continue to build on the strength of these relationships, it also recognises that growing its client base of owner-operators will create some 'real synergies' in the process.

  9. VALIDATION AND THERAPEUTIC USE OF SUCCULENT PLANT PARTS - OPENING OF A NEW HORIZON OF ALTERNATIVE MEDICINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shibabrata Pattanayak

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The history of use of plants for medicinal purposes is very old. In the ancient civilizations, the crude plant parts were mostly used in such purposes. In the ongoing research, solvent extracted parts of the plants are validated for their reported efficacy with an intention to identify the active principles for production of those at a large scale to use them commercially as medicines. This contemporary method may be added with validation of reported medicinal plants at their fresh, succulent form with all the available principles within them. The validated medicinal plants may be used in many purposes after performing studies related with toxicity, dose etc. Organic animal farms may be created by using fresh inputs of the added medicinal plant garden, replacing the inorganic medicines. Commercialization of succulent medicinal plant part extracts may be performed by export oriented agro-medicine business with the assistance of different cooling systems.

  10. Free radical scavengers from the aerial parts of Grammosciadium platycarpum Boiss. & Hausskn. (Apiaceae and GC-MS analysis of the essential oils from its fruits Substâncias eliminadoras de radicais livres das partes aéreas de Grammosciadium platycarpum Boiss. & Hausskn. (Apiaceae e análise por CG-MS dos óleos essenciais de seus frutos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Nazemiyeh

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Grammosciadium platycarpum Boiss. & Hausskn (Apiaceae is one of three endemic Iranian species of the genus Grammosciadium DC. Consumption of the aerial parts of this plant affects renal function and causes diuresis. In the DPPH assay the methanol extract showed the highest level of free radical scavenging activity (RC50 = 1.196 x 10-2 mg/mL among the extracts. Reversed-phase preparative HPLC analyses of the methanol extract yielded nine flavonoids, which were responsible for the free radical scavenging activity of the MeOH extract. The GC-MS analyses of the essential oils led to the identification of 29 terpenoids, mainly monoterpenes (non-oxygenated 3.97% and oxygenated 77.49% accounting for over 96% of the total oils.Grammosciadium platycarpum Boiss. & Hausskn (Apiaceae é uma das três espécies endémicas no Irã do gênero Grammosciadium DC. Consumo da parte aérea da planta afeta a função renal e causa diurese. No ensaio por DPPH o extrato metanólico apresentou o maior nível de atividade de antioxidante por radicais livres (RC50 = 1,196 x 10-2 mg/mL entre os extratos. Análises por HPLC preparativa de fase reversa do extrato metanólico resultou no isolamento de nove flavonóides, os quais foram responsáveis pela atividade de antioxidante do extrato metanólico. A análises por CG-EM dos óleos essenciais levou à identificação de 29 terpenóides, principalmente monoterpenos (não-oxigenados 3,97% e oxigenados, 77,49%, os quais representam mais de 96% do total de óleos.

  11. Distributions of vascular plants in the Czech Republic. Part 3

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kaplan, Zdeněk; Danihelka, Jiří; Lepší, M.; Lepší, P.; Ekrt, L.; Chrtek, Jindřich; Kocián, J.; Prančl, Jan; Kobrlová, L.; Hroneš, M.; Šulc, Václav

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 88, č. 4 (2016), s. 459-544 ISSN 0032-7786 R&D Projects: GA ČR GB14-36079G Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : distribution * vascular plants * Czech Republic Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 3.000, year: 2016

  12. Distributions of vascular plants in the Czech Republic. Part 4

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kaplan, Zdeněk; Danihelka, Jiří; Koutecký, P.; Šumberová, Kateřina; Ekrt, L.; Grulich, V.; Řepka, R.; Hroudová, Zdenka; Štěpánková, Jitka; Dvořák, V.; Dančák, M.; Dřevojan, P.; Wild, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 89, č. 2 (2017), s. 115-201 ISSN 0032-7786 R&D Projects: GA ČR GB14-36079G Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : distribution * maps * phytogeography Subject RIV: EF - Botanics OBOR OECD: Plant sciences, botany Impact factor: 3.000, year: 2016

  13. Distributions of vascular plants in the Czech Republic. Part 5

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kaplan, Zdeněk; Danihelka, Jiří; Šumberová, Kateřina; Chrtek, Jindřich; Rotreklová, O.; Ekrt, L.; Štěpánková, Jitka; Taraška, V.; Trávníček, B.; Prančl, Jan; Ducháček, M.; Hroneš, M.; Kobrlová, L.; Horák, D.; Wild, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 89, č. 4 (2017), s. 333-439 ISSN 0032-7786 R&D Projects: GA ČR GB14-36079G Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : distribution * maps * phytogeography Subject RIV: EF - Botanics OBOR OECD: Plant sciences, botany Impact factor: 3.000, year: 2016

  14. Community patterns of tropical tree phenology derived from Unmanned Aerial Vehicle images: intra- and interspecific variation, association with species plant traits, and response to interannual climate variation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohlman, Stephanie; Rifai, Sami; Park, John; Dandois, Jonathan; Muller-Landau, Helene

    2017-04-01

    Phenology is a key life history trait of plant species and critical driver of ecosystem processes. There is strong evidence that phenology is shifting in temperate ecosystems in response to climate change, but tropical forest phenology remains poorly quantified and understood. A key challenge is that tropical forests contain hundreds of plant species with a wide variety of phenological patterns, which makes it difficult to collect sufficient ground-based field data to characterize individual tropical tree species phenologies. Satellite-based observations, an important source of phenology data in northern latitudes, are hindered by frequent cloud cover in the tropics. To quantify phenology over a large number of individuals and species, we collected bi-weekly images from unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) in the well-studied 50-ha forest inventory plot on Barro Colorado Island, Panama. The objective of this study is to quantify inter- and intra-specific responses of tropical tree leaf phenology to environmental variation over large spatial scales and identify key environmental variables and physiological mechanisms underpinning phenological variation. Between October 2014 and December 2015 and again in May 2015, we collected a total of 35 sets of UAV images, each with continuous coverage of the 50-ha plot, where every tree ≥ 1 cm DBH is mapped. UAV imagery was corrected for exposure, orthorectified, and then processed to extract spectral, texture, and image information for individual tree crowns, which was then used as inputs for a machine learning algorithm that successfully predicted the percentages of leaf, branch, and flower cover for each tree crown (r2=0.76 between observed and predicted percent branch cover for individual tree crowns). We then quantified cumulative annual deciduousness for each crown by fitting a non-parametric curve of flexible shape to its predicted percent branch time series and calculated the area under the curve. We obtained the species

  15. Experimental study on RCCV of ABWR plant-Part 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saita, H.; Kikuchi, R.; Muramatsu, Y.; Hiramoto, M.; Oyamada, O.; Furukawa, H.; Sasagawa, K.; Ohmori, N.; Suzuki, S.; Suoita, M.; Kobayashi, I.; Yamaguchi, I.

    1989-01-01

    Steel containment vessels have generally been used for BWR (Boiling Water Reactor)-type nuclear power plants in Japan. However, in accordance with the development of the advanced-type BWR (ABWR), the introduction of a reinforced concrete containment vessel (RCCV) has been proposed because it enables greater freedom in flexibility of configuration. The study presented here accumulates basic data on RCCV's and verifies the integrity and ultimate strength of a trial-designed RCCV and the validity of its design method

  16. Isolation of verbascoside and validation of method to standardize the crude extract of the aerial parts of Buddleja stachyoides Cham. and Schltdl. (Scrophulariaceae); Isolamento do verbacosideo e validacao de metodo analitico para padronizacao do extrato bruto das partes aereas de Buddleja stachyoides Cham. and Schltdl. (Scrophulariaceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Daniella M.S. de; Miguel, Marilis D.; Kalegari, Milena; Miguel, Obdulio G.; Moreira, Thais F., E-mail: dani_mso@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Departamento de Farmacia

    2014-04-15

    Phenylpropanoid glycoside verbascoside was isolated and identified from the ethyl acetate fraction of the aerial parts of Buddleja stachyoides Cham. and Schltdl. by {sup 1}H-NMR. A method using high-performance liquid chromatography has been developed and validated for determination of verbascoside in alcoholic crude extract of the aerial parts of B. stachyoides. Analysis was performed on a Phenomenex® Gemini-NX C18 analytical column (250 mm × 4.6 mm; 5 μm) using a mobile phase (pump A - aqueous solution containing H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} (0.01 M), H{sub 3}PO{sub 4} (0.4%), and (C{sub 2}H{sub 5}){sub 2}NH (0.4%); pump B - methanol:aqueous (95:5) solution containing H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} (0.05 M), H{sub 3}PO{sub 4} (2%), and (C{sub 2}H{sub 5}){sub 2}NH (0.2%); pump C - acetonitrile:aqueous (90:10) solution containing H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} (0.05 M) and H{sub 3}PO{sub 4} (2%)) and a diode array detector at 325 nm. The method was validated in accordance with ANVISA guidelines and may be applied to quality control of herbal medicine with aerial parts of B. stachyoides. (author)

  17. Melt pond fraction and spectral sea ice albedo retrieval from MERIS data - Part 1: Validation against in situ, aerial, and ship cruise data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Istomina, L.; Heygster, G.; Huntemann, M.; Schwarz, P.; Birnbaum, G.; Scharien, R.; Polashenski, C.; Perovich, D.; Zege, E.; Malinka, A.; Prikhach, A.; Katsev, I.

    2015-08-01

    The presence of melt ponds on the Arctic sea ice strongly affects the energy balance of the Arctic Ocean in summer. It affects albedo as well as transmittance through the sea ice, which has consequences for the heat balance and mass balance of sea ice. An algorithm to retrieve melt pond fraction and sea ice albedo from Medium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MERIS) data is validated against aerial, shipborne and in situ campaign data. The results show the best correlation for landfast and multiyear ice of high ice concentrations. For broadband albedo, R2 is equal to 0.85, with the RMS (root mean square) being equal to 0.068; for the melt pond fraction, R2 is equal to 0.36, with the RMS being equal to 0.065. The correlation for lower ice concentrations, subpixel ice floes, blue ice and wet ice is lower due to ice drift and challenging for the retrieval surface conditions. Combining all aerial observations gives a mean albedo RMS of 0.089 and a mean melt pond fraction RMS of 0.22. The in situ melt pond fraction correlation is R2 = 0.52 with an RMS = 0.14. Ship cruise data might be affected by documentation of varying accuracy within the Antarctic Sea Ice Processes and Climate (ASPeCt) protocol, which may contribute to the discrepancy between the satellite value and the observed value: mean R2 = 0.044, mean RMS = 0.16. An additional dynamic spatial cloud filter for MERIS over snow and ice has been developed to assist with the validation on swath data.

  18. Early prediction of 90Sr and 137Cs content in edible parts of crops and selection of plants with high uptake ability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Wenhu; Xu Shiming; Hou Lanxin; Shang Zhaorong

    1995-10-01

    The uptake characteristics to 90 Sr and 137 Cs of nine kinds of crops, including spring wheat, rice, soybean, vegetables etc., were studied from seedling to maturity. The change of 90 Sr content per unit of dry weight can be classified into two types--the 90 Sr content kept in the same level during the whole growing season and kept increasing with the growing period until it came to the maximum point at the time of maturity. 90 Sr and 137 Cs in the aerial part of plants were mainly distributed in leaves, but the amounts in seeds and fruits were less. The content of 90 Sr decreased but the content of 137 Cs increased from young to old leaves. So it could be concluded that early prediction of the radioactive content of edible parts according to the content of young leaves was possible. Selection of 169 species in 18 families of plants with high uptake ability of 90 Sr and 137 Cs, which grow in Qinshan region near a nuclear power plant and in Beijing region, is also reported. (8 refs., 6 figs., 16 tabs.)

  19. Nutrient Leaching When Soil Is Part of Plant Growth Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sally D. Logsdon

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Soils can serve as sorbents for phosphorus (P, negating the need for artificial sorbents. The purpose of this study was to compare soils with different properties for their effect on nutrient levels in effluent. Four soils were mixed with sand and packed into columns 0.5 m long, with or without compost on the surface. Infiltration and effluent concentrations were measured before and after growing plants [Buffalograss (Buchloe dactyloides (Nutt. Engelm. and bluegrama grasses (Bouteloua gracilis H.B.K. and red clover (Trifolium pratense L.]. The growth media with compost at the surface had higher nutrient levels than the media without the compost, but the final effluent nitrate concentrations post-harvest were significantly lower for columns with the compost blanket (59 vs. 86 mg L−1. All of the nitrate concentrations were high (many >100 mg L−1 due to mineralization and nitrogen fixation. The final effluent P concentrations before planting were significantly higher in the soil with the most sand (0.71 mg L−1, and after harvest in the mixture that contained the high soil P levels (0.58 mg L−1. Some soils (high in aluminum or calcium were adequate sorbents for P without additions of other sorbents, but soils often generated too much nitrate in effluent.

  20. Biological screening of some Turkish medicinal plant extracts for antimicrobial and toxicity activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turker, A U; Usta, C

    2008-01-20

    Screening of antibacterial activity and toxicity of 22 aqueous plant extracts from 17 Turkish plants was conducted. Antibacterial activity was performed with six bacteria including Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Streptococcus pyogenes, Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis. Extracts of Tussilago farfara leaves, Helichyrsum plicatum flowers, Solanum dulcamara aerial parts and Urtica dioica leaves gave the best inhibitory activity against S. pyogenes, S. aureus and S. epidermidis. Of the 22 plant extracts, 20 extracts displayed toxicity (LC50 was plant extracts. Also, the most inhibitive plant extract for seed germination was obtained with S. dulcamara aerial parts.

  1. Improved Management of Part Safety Classification System for Nuclear Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jin Young; Park, Youn Won; Park, Heung Gyu; Park, Hyo Chan [BEES Inc., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    As, in recent years, many quality assurance (QA) related incidents, such as falsely-certified parts and forged documentation, etc., were reported in association with the supply of structures, systems, components and parts to nuclear power plants, a need for a better management of safety classification system was addressed so that it would be based more on the level of parts . Presently, the Korean nuclear power plants do not develop and apply relevant procedures for safety classifications, but rather the safety classes of parts are determined solely based on the experience of equipment designers. So proposed in this paper is a better management plan for safety equipment classification system with an aim to strengthen the quality management for parts. The plan was developed through the analysis of newly introduced technical criteria to be applied to parts of nuclear power plant.

  2. Anticancer Properties and Phenolic Contents of Sequentially Prepared Extracts from Different Parts of Selected Medicinal Plants Indigenous to Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadiza Altine Adamu

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Different parts of four edible medicinal plants (Casearia capitellata, Baccaurea motleyana, Phyllanthus pulcher and Strobilanthus crispus, indigenous to Malaysia, were extracted in different solvents, sequentially. The obtained 28 extracts were evaluated for their in vitro anticancer properties, using the MTS assay, on four human cancer cell lines: colon (HT-29, breast (MCF-7, prostate (DU-145 and lung (H460 cancers. The best anticancer activity was observed for the ethyl acetate (EA extract of Casearia capitellata leaves on MCF-7 cell lines with IC50 2.0 μg/mL and its methanolic (MeOH extract showed an outstanding activity against lung cancer cell lines. Dichloromethane (DCM extract of Phyllanthus pulcher aerial parts showed the highest anticancer activity against DU-145 cell lines, while significant activity was exhibited by DCM extract of Phyllanthus pulcher roots on colon cancer cell lines with IC50 value of 8.1 μg/mL. Total phenolic content (TPC ranged over 1–40 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE/g. For all the samples, highest yields of phenolics were obtained for MeOH extracts. Among all the extracts analyzed, the MeOH extracts of Strobilanthus crispus leaves exhibited the highest TPC than other samples (p < 0.05. This study shows that the nature of phenol determines its anticaner activity and not the number of phenols present.

  3. Preliminary Design of Aerial Spraying System for Microlight Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omar, Zamri; Idris, Nurfazliawati; Rahim, M. Zulafif

    2017-10-01

    Undoubtedly agricultural is an important sector because it provides essential nutrients for human, and consequently is among the biggest sector for economic growth worldwide. It is crucial to ensure crops production is protected from any plant diseases and pests. Thus aerial spraying system on crops is developed to facilitate farmers to for crops pests control and it is very effective spraying method especially for large and hilly crop areas. However, the use of large aircraft for aerial spaying has a relatively high operational cost. Therefore, microlight aircraft is proposed to be used for crops aerial spraying works for several good reasons. In this paper, a preliminary design of aerial spraying system for microlight aircraft is proposed. Engineering design methodology is adopted in the development of the aerial sprayer and steps involved design are discussed thoroughly. A preliminary design for the microlight to be attached with an aerial spraying system is proposed.

  4. Part-task simulator for a WWER-440 nuclear power plant subsystem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szabo, B.K.

    1988-07-01

    PC-based part-task simulators for simulating subsystems of nuclear power plants are low cost tools for operator training. In the Central Research Institute for Physics, Budapest, a simulator system has been developed to facilitate fast development of such simulators. The first application simulates the Neutron Flux Monitoring System of WWER-440 nuclear power plants. (author) 9 refs.; 2 figs

  5. Individual plant examination program: Perspectives on reactor safety and plant performance. Parts 2--5: Final report; Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-12-01

    This report provides perspectives gained by reviewing 75 Individual Plant Examination (IPE) submittals pertaining to 108 nuclear power plant units. IPEs are probabilistic analyses that estimate the core damage frequency (CDF) and containment performance for accidents initiated by internal events. The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) reviewed the IPE submittals with the objective of gaining perspectives in three major areas: (1) improvements made to individual plants as a result of their IPEs and the collective results of the IPE program, (2) plant-specific design and operational features and modeling assumptions that significantly affect the estimates of CDF and containment performance, and (3) strengths and weaknesses of the models and methods used in the IPEs. These perspectives are gained by assessing the core damage and containment performance results, including overall CDF, accident sequences, dominant contributions to component failure and human error, and containment failure modes. Methods, data, boundary conditions, and assumptions used in the IPEs are considered in understanding the differences and similarities observed among the various types of plants. This report is divided into three volumes containing six parts. Part 1 is a summary report of the key perspectives gained in each of the areas identified above, with a discussion of the NRC's overall conclusions and observations. Part 2 discusses key perspectives regarding the impact of the IPE Program on reactor safety. Part 3 discusses perspectives gained from the IPE results regarding CDF, containment performance, and human actions. Part 4 discusses perspectives regarding the IPE models and methods. Part 5 discusses additional IPE perspectives. Part 6 contains Appendices A, B and C which provide the references of the information from the IPEs, updated PRA results, and public comments on draft NUREG-1560 respectively

  6. Individual plant examination program: Perspectives on reactor safety and plant performance. Part 1: Final summary report; Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-12-01

    This report provides perspectives gained by reviewing 75 Individual Plant Examination (IPE) submittals pertaining to 108 nuclear power plant units. IPEs are probabilistic analyses that estimate the core damage frequency (CDF) and containment performance for accidents initiated by internal events. The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) reviewed the IPE submittals with the objective of gaining perspectives in three major areas: (1) improvements made to individual plants as a result of their IPEs and the collective results of the IPE program, (2) plant-specific design and operational features and modeling assumptions that significantly affect the estimates of CDF and containment performance, and (3) strengths and weaknesses of the models and methods used in the IPEs. These perspectives are gained by assessing the core damage and containment performance results, including overall CDF, accident sequences, dominant contributions to component failure and human error, and containment failure modes. Methods, data, boundary conditions, and assumptions used in the IPEs are considered in understanding the differences and similarities observed among the various types of plants. This report is divided into three volumes containing six parts. Part 1 is a summary report of the key perspectives gained in each of the areas identified above, with a discussion of the NRC's overall conclusions and observations. Part 2 discusses key perspectives regarding the impact of the IPE Program on reactor safety. Part 3 discusses perspectives gained from the IPE results regarding CDF, containment performance, and human actions. Part 4 discusses perspectives regarding the IPE models and methods. Part 5 discusses additional IPE perspectives. Part 6 contains Appendices A, B and C which provide the references of the information from the IPEs, updated PRA results, and public comments on draft NUREG-1560 respectively

  7. Individual plant examination program: Perspectives on reactor safety and plant performance. Parts 2--5: Final report; Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    This report provides perspectives gained by reviewing 75 Individual Plant Examination (IPE) submittals pertaining to 108 nuclear power plant units. IPEs are probabilistic analyses that estimate the core damage frequency (CDF) and containment performance for accidents initiated by internal events. The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) reviewed the IPE submittals with the objective of gaining perspectives in three major areas: (1) improvements made to individual plants as a result of their IPEs and the collective results of the IPE program, (2) plant-specific design and operational features and modeling assumptions that significantly affect the estimates of CDF and containment performance, and (3) strengths and weaknesses of the models and methods used in the IPEs. These perspectives are gained by assessing the core damage and containment performance results, including overall CDF, accident sequences, dominant contributions to component failure and human error, and containment failure modes. Methods, data, boundary conditions, and assumptions used in the IPEs are considered in understanding the differences and similarities observed among the various types of plants. This report is divided into three volumes containing six parts. Part 1 is a summary report of the key perspectives gained in each of the areas identified above, with a discussion of the NRC`s overall conclusions and observations. Part 2 discusses key perspectives regarding the impact of the IPE Program on reactor safety. Part 3 discusses perspectives gained from the IPE results regarding CDF, containment performance, and human actions. Part 4 discusses perspectives regarding the IPE models and methods. Part 5 discusses additional IPE perspectives. Part 6 contains Appendices A, B and C which provide the references of the information from the IPEs, updated PRA results, and public comments on draft NUREG-1560 respectively.

  8. New knowledge for yield, composition and insecticidal activity ofessential oils obtained from the aerial parts or seeds of fennel(Foeniculum vulgare Mill.)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pavela, R.; Žabka, M.; Bednář, Jan; Tříska, Jan; Vrchotová, Naděžda

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 83, may (2016), s. 275-282 ISSN 0926-6690 R&D Projects: GA MZe(CZ) QJ1510160 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : foeniculum vulgare * botanical insecticides * essential oils * medicinal plants * aromatic plants Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 3.181, year: 2016

  9. Insecticidal activity against Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) of metabolites isolated from the aerial part of Piper septuplinervium (Miq.) c. dc. and inflorescences of Piper subtomentosum Trel. and Yunck. (Piperaceae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murillo, Monica Constanza Avila; Suarez, Luis Enrique Cuca; Salamanca, Jairo Alonso Ceron

    2014-01-01

    The bioassay-guided purification of ethanolic extracts from inflorescences of Piper subtomentosum Trel. and Yunck and aerial part of Piper septuplinervium (Miq. ) C. DC. led to isolation of five flavonoids, uvangoletin (1), galangin (2), chrysin (5), 5-hydroxy-4',7-dimethoxy-flavone (6), pinostrobin (7); one amide, N-p-coumaroil-tyramine (4); one acylglycerol, monopalmitin (3); one derivative of acid, protocatechuic acid (8); and glycosydated sterol, daucosterol (9). Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopy and spectrometry data and by comparison with data reported in the literature. The isolated compounds were tested against Spodoptera frugiperda. The results showed galangin and protocatechuic acid to be the most active (LC 50 13.63 and 17.16 ppm, respectively). (author)

  10. Accumulation of Cs-137 by vegetative and reproductive parts of superior water plants in Kanev water reservoir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan'kov, I.V.; Prityka, T.P.; Ivanova, I.Yu.; Zarubin, O.L.

    1998-01-01

    The generative part of superior water plants of some ecological groups cumulates Cs-137 in such quantity than considerably exceeds its contain in others parts of the plant, that leads to the dose increase in the reproductive organs

  11. Use of unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) for the detection and surveillance of marine oil spills in the Belgian part of the North Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donnay, E.

    2009-01-01

    This paper discussed the use of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) deployed by the Belgian Army in order to detect oil spills as well as for intelligence, reconnaissance and surveillance missions. The UAV are fitted with a dual sensor gyro-stabilized turret which combines a daylight camera and a thermal infrared camera. Live images of the sensors are transmitted in real time to control stations. All Belgian marine pollution surveillance platforms are coordinated by the Maritime Security Center of the Belgian Coast Guard. Satellite surveillance services provide real time information related to potential oil spills and other anomalies on the sea surface. Stand-by helicopters are also used for the rapid assessment of reported spills. The B-Hunter system is undetectable due to its small size and low noise signature, and can be used for the continuous monitoring of specific areas or for the tracking of suspect vessels. The system will also be used to monitor the progress of oil spill response operations as well as to provide information and guidance to response vessels. 6 refs., 2 figs

  12. Use of unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) for the detection and surveillance of marine oil spills in the Belgian part of the North Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donnay, E. [Federal Public Service Health, Food Chain Safety and Environment, Brussels (Belgium)

    2009-07-01

    This paper discussed the use of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) deployed by the Belgian Army in order to detect oil spills as well as for intelligence, reconnaissance and surveillance missions. The UAV are fitted with a dual sensor gyro-stabilized turret which combines a daylight camera and a thermal infrared camera. Live images of the sensors are transmitted in real time to control stations. All Belgian marine pollution surveillance platforms are coordinated by the Maritime Security Center of the Belgian Coast Guard. Satellite surveillance services provide real time information related to potential oil spills and other anomalies on the sea surface. Stand-by helicopters are also used for the rapid assessment of reported spills. The B-Hunter system is undetectable due to its small size and low noise signature, and can be used for the continuous monitoring of specific areas or for the tracking of suspect vessels. The system will also be used to monitor the progress of oil spill response operations as well as to provide information and guidance to response vessels. 6 refs., 2 figs.

  13. Health and environmental impacts of a fertilizer plant - Part I: Assessment of radioactive pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Righi, Serena [Interdepartment Centre for Research in Environmental Science, University of Bologna, via dell' Agricoltura 5, 48100 Ravenna (Italy)]. E-mail: serena.righi2@unibo.it; Lucialli, Patrizia [ARPA, Emilia-Romagna Regional Agency for Prevention and Environment, Department of Ravenna, via Alberoni 17/19, 48100 Ravenna (Italy); Bruzzi, Luigi [Interdepartment Centre for Research in Environmental Science, University of Bologna, via dell' Agricoltura 5, 48100 Ravenna (Italy)

    2005-07-01

    The aim of the first part of this investigation is to assess the radioactive pollution caused by a production plant of complex fertilizers (that is to say containing nitrogen, phosphorus and, in some cases, potassium). Firstly, the authors determine the concentrations of natural radioactivity present in raw materials, end products and wastes of the industrial plant. Then, they carry out an assessment of radioactive releases into the atmosphere, hydrosphere and lithosphere as well as of their significance from the environmental point of view. The second part of the investigation will be aimed at assessing the annual effective doses to plant workers and to members of the population surrounding the industrial site.

  14. Health and environmental impacts of a fertilizer plant - Part I: Assessment of radioactive pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Righi, Serena; Lucialli, Patrizia; Bruzzi, Luigi

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the first part of this investigation is to assess the radioactive pollution caused by a production plant of complex fertilizers (that is to say containing nitrogen, phosphorus and, in some cases, potassium). Firstly, the authors determine the concentrations of natural radioactivity present in raw materials, end products and wastes of the industrial plant. Then, they carry out an assessment of radioactive releases into the atmosphere, hydrosphere and lithosphere as well as of their significance from the environmental point of view. The second part of the investigation will be aimed at assessing the annual effective doses to plant workers and to members of the population surrounding the industrial site

  15. Influence of seasons, different plant parts, and plant growth stages on saponin quantity and distribution in Bacopa monnieri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Watoo Phrompittayarat

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Brahmi or Bacopa monnieri (L. Wettst. is becoming popular as a food supplement due to its enhancing effect onmemory and intellect. Previous studies showed that a group of saponins are active compounds in this plant. However, untilnow little evidence has been obtained to indicate whether saponins are consistently present throughout the plant growthstages or the compounds are affected by the seasons. In order to answer those questions, we cultivated Brahmi under thenet house in three seasons. Influence of plant growth stages on saponin quantity and distribution was also investigated.In each season, treatments were plant ages with different plant parts having a factorial completely randomized design with 3replications. Five saponins, i.e. bacoside A3, bacopaside II, bacopaside X, bacopasaponin C and bacopaside I, were analyzedusing HPLC and reported as total saponins.The results showed that total saponin contents in Brahmi were the highest in rainy season while the weight yield ofBrahmi was the highest in summer. Ages of Brahmi (1-4 months slightly affected total saponin content. High level of totalsaponins (1.91±0.48% w/w was detected at the shoot of Brahmi. These findings indicate that the saponin quantity is affectedby seasons and the distribution of the saponins is different in each part of the plant. This information will be beneficial tothe production of Brahmi for both household and industry

  16. Selected element contents formation in linseed plants (Linum usitatissimum L. depending on the phase of development and plant part

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadeusz Zając

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A single factor (variety strict field experiment was carried out in 1999-2000 at the experimental station of the Department of Plant Production, Agricultural University of Krakow located at Prusy near Cracow to study the changes in selected macro-and microelement concentrations in the top parts of linseed and the uptake of these elements during vegetation at the characteristic phases of development, including also the plant parts, i.e. leaves, stems, seeds and straw. On the basis of obtained results it was demonstrated that microelement contents in the linseed top parts changed considerably with the plant growth. The levels of Cr, Zn,Cd, Fe and Mn were highest at budding, while Cr, Pb, Fe and Mn levels were lowest at full maturity phase. Linseed grown in the area unpolluted with trace elements did not reveal the ability to accumulate excessive amounts of Cr, Zn, Pb, Cu, Ni, Fe and Mn, undesired from the usefulness for consumption point of view. Cadmium, irrespective of the examined stage of plant development, revealed high capacity for an excessive accumulation in the top parts. The contents and reciprocal ratios of macroelements in plants changed variously with their growth. The highest Na and K contents were noticed at budding phase, Ca at vegetative stage (arborescent and Mg at the initial budding. The widest Ca:P ratio and K:(Ca+Mg ratio occurred at budding, whereas K:Na ratio at full maturity phase. Linseed accumulated macro- and microele ments in the yield at various rates. Among the analysed elements Cd, Zn and Ni were taken up proportionally to increasing yields of linseed top part biomass.

  17. Essential oil of Croton flavens L. (Welensali), a medicinal plant from Curacao

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woerdenbag, HJ; Bos, R; van Meeteren, HE; Baarslag, JJJ; de Jong-van den Berg, LTW; Pras, N; do Rego Kuster, G; Petronia, RRL

    2000-01-01

    The volatile constituents from aerial and underground parts of Croton flavens L., a medicinal plant from Curacao, were investigated by GC and GC/MS (EI) analysis. The various plant parts yielded 0.27-0.50%, (v/w) essential oil on a dry weight basis. There were only small differences in the

  18. Antioxidant activity and concentration of secondary metabolites in the plant parts of Euphorbia cyparissias L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanković Milan S.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of a screening of nine different extracts from the plant parts (leaves, flowers and stems of Euphorbia cyparissias for total phenolic content, concentration of flavonoids and in vitro antioxidant activity. Main reason for this study is the determination of these parameters and their variability among plant parts and plant extracts obtained by different solvents, respectively. Obtained amounts for total phenolic content ranged from 10.76 to 40.72 mg GA/g. The concentration of flavonoids varied from 34.32 to 134.34 mg Ru/g. The IC50 values of antioxidant activity varied from 88.48 to 2891.08 μg/ml. Results obtained from the different plant parts were of uneven value. Great variability of the studied parameters was observed when comparing the effectiveness of the used solvents. The acetone extracts from stems contain the greatest concentrations of phenolic compounds, especially flavonoids, and showed high antioxidant activity. According to our research, plant parts from E. cyparissias can be regarded as promising candidates for natural plant sources with high value of biological compounds.

  19. Potencial alelopático da parte aérea de Senna occidentalis (L. Link (Fabaceae, Caesalpinioideae: bioensaios em laboratório Allelopathic potential of aerial parts of Senna occidentalis (L. Link (Fabaceae, Caesalpinioideae: Laboratory bioassays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carina da Silva Cândido

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available A bioatividade das frações semipurificadas (hexânica, acetato de etila e etanol-água do extrato etanólico das partes aérea de S. occidentalis foi avaliada através de ensaios de germinação e de crescimento de Lactuca sativa (alface, Lycopersicon esculentum (tomate, Allium cepa (cebola e Triticum aestivum (trigo, em laboratório. Foram utilizadas três concentrações (250, 500, 1000 mg L-1 de cada fração e um controle não tratado, com quatro repetições de 50 sementes. Os bioensaios de germinação revelaram que todas as frações atrasaram a germinação de alface, tomate e cebola, e as frações hexânica e acetato de etila reduziram a germinabilidade de tomate e cebola. Nos bioensaios de crescimento, a fração hexânica estimulou o crescimento da raiz e inibiu o crescimento do hipocótilo das eudicotiledôneas. A mesma fração inibiu o crescimento da raiz e do coleóptilo das monocotiledôneas. A fração acetato de etila inibiu o crescimento da raiz das plântulas-alvo e o hipocótilo/coleóptilo de tomate e cebola. A fração etanol-água estimulou o crescimento da raiz de tomate e do hipocótilo de alface e inibiu o crescimento da raiz de cebola e trigo e, também, do coleóptilo de cebola, na concentração de 1000 mg L-1. Nos bioensaios com herbicidas comerciais foram observados efeitos semelhantes àqueles obtidos na germinação pelas frações e no crescimento pelas frações hexânica e acetato de etila. Na cromatografia em camada delgada, foram detectados terpenos na fração hexânica, compostos fenólicos e alcalóides na fração acetato de etila. A análise espectrofotométrica revelou que a fração acetato de etila possui o maior conteúdo de compostos fenólicos e flavonóides.The bioactivity of semipurified fractions (hexane, ethyl acetate and ethanol-water obtained from S. occidentalis aerial-part ethanol extract was evaluated by germination and growth bioassays using Lactuca sativa (lettuce, Lycopersicon

  20. Antioxidant and free radical scavenging activities of plant extracts ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Twenty-two species of medicinal plants collected in the Mexican state of Morelos were selected to evaluate their free radical scavenging and antioxidant activities. The extracts from the aerial parts of the plants were obtained using hexane, acetone and methanol (66 extracts). The initial qualitative screening of antioxidants ...

  1. Effect of Nitrogen Fertilizer on Variations in Composition in Protein and Non-Protein Compounds in the Aerial Parts of Dactylis Glomerata L; Influence de la Fertilisation Azotee sur les Variations de la Composition en Composes Proteiques et Non Proteiques des Parties Aeriennes de Dactylis Glomerata L.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lefebvre, J. M. [Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique, Station d' Agronomie, Dijon (France)

    1968-07-01

    A knowledge of the effects of nitrogen fertilizer on plant quality would appear to be of prime importance in the study of plant-animal relations. Th e author examined, at a test facility in the east-central part of France, variations in the composition of the aerial parts of ''Floreal'' cocksfoot treated with nitrogen fertilizer at different supply rates. Enrichment in soluble organic nitrogen, amino acids, amides, simple peptides and protein compounds is fairly proportional to the nitrogen dose supplied at different vegetative cycles. Free mineral nitrogen, consisting almost exclusively of nitrates, shows elevated values, particularly during the first vegetative cycles which take place at a time when low temperatures are not favourable to a rapid reduction. The values found increase with the amounts of nitrogen supplied to the plants. If the fertilizer is applied to the grass 15 days after ablation of the aerial parts and not immediately, as in common farming practice, a complete modification of the various phenomena accompanying protein synthesis will be noted. In this case nitrate production is very swift and metabolization into soluble organic compounds and condensates is extensive. As a result, temporarily large accumulations of nitrates are not observed in the summer and autumn vegetative cycles. In addition, and of great importance for the nutritional quality of the harvested produce, the gross protein contents are much higher (around 50%) at the end of the cycle for an equal quantity of nitrogen supplied during fertilization. Soluble organic nitrogen compounds, amino acids and amides, are also found in greater quantities. (author) [French] La connaissance des repercussions de la fertilisation azotee sur la qualite vegetale semble primordiale dans l'etude des liaisons plante-animal. L'auteur a examine sur un dispositif experimental situe dans le Centre-Est de la France les variations de la composition des parties aeriennes d'un Dactyle Floreal soumis a des

  2. Process and device for remote inspection of parts of a nuclear plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmalfuss, H.

    1987-01-01

    The process is suitable for remote position inspection of the parts of the plant in a large hot cell, for example of a reprocessing plant. A device with a TV camera was selected as the inspection system, where pictures obtained by photography are compared (photogrammetry). The possible resolution is considerably increased by using two spatially movable separate picture systems with the associated drawing media. (DG) [de

  3. Fast Aerial Video Stitching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Li

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The highly efficient and robust stitching of aerial video captured by unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs is a challenging problem in the field of robot vision. Existing commercial image stitching systems have seen success with offline stitching tasks, but they cannot guarantee high-speed performance when dealing with online aerial video sequences. In this paper, we present a novel system which has an unique ability to stitch high-frame rate aerial video at a speed of 150 frames per second (FPS. In addition, rather than using a high-speed vision platform such as FPGA or CUDA, our system is running on a normal personal computer. To achieve this, after the careful comparison of the existing invariant features, we choose the FAST corner and binary descriptor for efficient feature extraction and representation, and present a spatial and temporal coherent filter to fuse the UAV motion information into the feature matching. The proposed filter can remove the majority of feature correspondence outliers and significantly increase the speed of robust feature matching by up to 20 times. To achieve a balance between robustness and efficiency, a dynamic key frame-based stitching framework is used to reduce the accumulation errors. Extensive experiments on challenging UAV datasets demonstrate that our approach can break through the speed limitation and generate an accurate stitching image for aerial video stitching tasks.

  4. Mass estimation of loose parts in nuclear power plant based on multiple regression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Yuanfeng; Cao, Yanlong; Yang, Jiangxin; Gan, Chunbiao

    2012-01-01

    According to the application of the Hilbert–Huang transform to the non-stationary signal and the relation between the mass of loose parts in nuclear power plant and corresponding frequency content, a new method for loose part mass estimation based on the marginal Hilbert–Huang spectrum (MHS) and multiple regression is proposed in this paper. The frequency spectrum of a loose part in a nuclear power plant can be expressed by the MHS. The multiple regression model that is constructed by the MHS feature of the impact signals for mass estimation is used to predict the unknown masses of a loose part. A simulated experiment verified that the method is feasible and the errors of the results are acceptable. (paper)

  5. Aerial radiation survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pradeep Kumar, K.S.

    1998-01-01

    Aerial gamma spectrometry surveys are the most effective, comprehensive and preferred tool to delimit the large area surface contamination in a radiological emergency either due to a nuclear accident or following a nuclear strike. The airborne survey apart from providing rapid and economical evaluation of ground contamination over large areas due to larger ground clearance and higher speed, is the only technique to overcome difficulties posed by ground surveys of inaccessible region. The aerial survey technique can also be used for searching of lost radioactive sources, tracking of radioactive plume and generation of background data on the Emergency Planning Zone (EPZ) of nuclear installations

  6. Spare-parts and perpetuity of equipment in French PWR plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Briolat, R.

    1993-01-01

    Supply of plants with new or repaired parts in strict quality conditions aids maintaining safety in operation and energy availability. Taking into account their expected life-time, a process of perpetuity in partnership with suppliers is necessary to ensure operation for the medium and long term. At EDF, the method involves a classification of mechanical and electrical spare parts in two levels of quality, responding to safety and availability imperatives and current available industrial practices. A diagram is presented to define optimal strategy for each equipment component, which gives choice between spare part storage, longevity agreement with the supplier, or a technology transfer agreement. 1 tab

  7. [Death by explosion of an aerial mine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockhausen, Sarah; Wöllner, Kirsten; Madea, Burkhard; Doberentz, Elke

    2014-01-01

    Civilians are rarely killed by military weapons except in times of war. In early 2014, a 50-year-old man died in an explosion of an aerial mine from the Second World War when he was crushing concrete chunks with an excavator at a recycling plant. In the burned operator's cab, the remains of a body were found on the driver's seat. The thorax and the head were missing. Still sticking in the shoe, the right foot severed at the ankle was found about 7 m from the excavator together with numerous small to tiny body parts. At autopsy, the completely disrupted, strongly charred lower torso of a male connected to the left extremities as well as a large number of small tissue fragments and calcined bones were found. According to calculations performed by the seismographical station on the basis of seismic data, only about 45-60 percent of the charge had detonated. The autopsy results illustrate all the more the massive impact of such an explosion.

  8. Thermodynamic and exergoeconomic analysis of a cement plant: Part I – Methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atmaca, Adem; Yumrutaş, Recep

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Energy, exergy and exergoeconomic analysis of a complete cement plant have been investigated. • The first and second law efficiencies based on the energy and exergy analysis are defined for the entire cement plant. • The specific energy consumption of the whole sections of the cement plant have been analyzed. • The specific manufacturing costs of farine, clinker and cement have been determined by the cost analysis. - Abstract: The energy, exergy and exergoeconomic analysis of a cement factory has been studied within two parts. This paper is the first part of the study which includes the thermodynamic and exergoeconomic methodology and formulations developed for such a comprehensive and detailed analysis. The second part of this study is about the application of the developed formulation which considers an actual cement plant located in Gaziantep, Turkey. The energy consumption by the cement industry is about 5% of the total global industrial energy consumption. It is also one of the world’s largest industrial sources of CO 2 emissions. In this paper, a cement plant is considered with all main manufacturing units. Mass, energy, and exergy balances are applied to each system. The first and second law efficiencies based on the energy and exergy analysis and performance assessment parameters are defined for the entire cement plant. The formulations for the cost of products, and cost formation and allocation within the system are developed based on exergoeconomic analysis. In order to obtain the optimal marketing price of cement and to decrease specific energy consumption of the whole plant, the cost analysis formulated here have substantial importance

  9. Distribution of the horticultural plants in togo according to decorative parts and medical value

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radji, R.; Kokou, K

    2014-01-01

    In Togo, more than six hundred species of horticultural plants were identified belonging to approximately 59% of Dicotyledons (49 families, 145 genera and 315 species) and 37.37% were monocotyledons. Pteridophytes and gymnosperms accounted for less than 6%. The spectrum of morphological types indicated that herbs accounted for 55%, while trees and shrubs were 15%. More than 50% of the species of this flora were exotic. The species distributions were made according to their decorative parts and their place of use. Across the country, 55 plantings were recorded and unevenly distributed in cities. Apart from their ornamental use, these plants were used for feeding, traditional and industrial cosmetics in psychotherapy, horticultural therapy and in traditional and conventional medicine preparation. In this study, 79 species from 39 families are reported as medicinal plants. The Apocynaceae and Fabaceae (6 species), the Euphorbiaceae and Liliaceae (5 species), the Arecaceae and Verbenaceae (4 species) were the best represented families. (author)

  10. Polysaccharides, total flavonoids content and antioxidant activities in different parts of Silybum marianum L. plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jing; Li, Xinhua; Yu, Xiaolei

    2017-01-01

    Silybum marianum L. is used for the production of silymarin, a flavonoid utilized for regenerating damaged hepatic tissues. Herein, the total flavonoid content (TFC) and polysaccharides content (PC) in the roots, main stems, leaves, fruit receptacles, and pappi of Silybum marianum were determined. The antioxidant activities of plant ethanol extracts were assessed to validate the medicinal potential of the various plant parts. The pappi exhibited the highest TFC (17.10 mg rutin/g of dry plant material), followed by the fruit receptacles (15.34 mg/g). The PC varied from 3.57±0.23 to 11.02±0.35 mg glucose /g dry plant material; the highest PC was obtained from the roots. At 50 ug/mL, the pappi ethanol extract showed the highest 1, 1-Diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity (69.68%), followed by the roots (66.02%).

  11. Thermodynamic and exergoeconomic analysis of a cement plant: Part II – Application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atmaca, Adem; Yumrutaş, Recep

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The overall energy and exergy efficiencies of the plant is found to be 59.37% and 38.99% respectively. • Performance assessment of a cement plant indicates that the calcination process involves the highest portion of energy losses. • The specific exergetic cost cement produced by the cement plant is calculated to be 180.5 USD/GJ. • The specific cement manufacturing cost is found to be 41.84 USD/ton. - Abstract: This paper is Part 2 of the study on the thermodynamic and exergoeconomic analysis of a cement plant. In Part 1, thermodynamic and exergoeconomic formulations and procedure for such a comprehensive analysis are provided while this paper provides an application of the developed formulation that considers an actual cement plant located in Gaziantep, Turkey. The overall energy and exergy efficiencies of the plant is found to be 59.37% and 38.99% respectively. The exergy destructions, exergetic cost allocations, and various exergoeconomic performance parameters are determined by using the exergoeconomic analysis based on specific exergy costing method (SPECO) for the entire plant and its components. The specific unit exergetic cost of the farine, clinker and cement produced by the cement plant are calculated to be 43.77 USD/GJ, 133.72 USD/GJ and 180.5 USD/GJ respectively. The specific manufacturing costs of farine, clinker and cement are found to be 3.8 USD/ton, 33.11 USD/ton and 41.84 USD/ton respectively

  12. Profiles of gamma-ray and magnetic data for aerial surveys over parts of the Western United States from longitude 108 to 126 degrees W. and from latitude 34 to 49 degrees N.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duval, Joseph S.

    1995-01-01

    This CD-ROM contains images generated from geophysical data, software for displaying and analyzing the images and software for displaying and examining profile data from aerial surveys flown as part of the National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) Program of the U.S. Department of Energy. The images included are of gamma-ray data (uranium, thorium, and potassium channels), Bouguer gravity data, isostatic residual gravity data, aeromagnetic anomalies, topography, and topography with bathymetry. This publication contains image data for the conterminous United States and profile data for the conterminous United States within the area longitude 108 to 126 degrees W. and latitude 34 to 49 degrees N. The profile data include apparent surface concentrations of potassium, uranium, and thorium, the residual magnetic field, and the height above the ground. The images on this CD-ROM include graytone and color images of each data set, color shaded-relief images of the potential-field and topographic data, and color composite images of the gamma-ray data. The image display and analysis software can register images with geographic and geologic overlays. The profile display software permits the user to view the profiles as well as obtain data listings and export ASCII versions of data for selected flight lines.

  13. Chemical Composition and Antimicrobial Activity of Essential Oils from the Aerial Parts of Asteriscus graveolens (Forssk.) Less. and Pulicaria incisa (Lam.) DC.: Two Asteraceae Herbs Growing Wild in the Hoggar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaib, Faiza; Allali, Hocine; Bennaceur, Malika; Flamini, Guido

    2017-08-01

    In recent years, antimicrobial activities of essential oils have been intensively explored, mainly in researching and developing new antimicrobial agents to overcome microbial resistance. The present study investigates the chemical composition and antimicrobial activities of essential oils obtained from two Asteraceae: Asteriscus graveolens (Forssk.) Less. and Pulicaria incisa (Lam.) DC. Chemical analysis was performed using a combination of capillary GC-FID and GC/MS analytical techniques. The major component of Asteriscus graveolens were cis-chrysanthenyl acetate (31.1%), myrtenyl acetate (15.1%), and kessane (11.5%), while for Pulicaria incisa the main components were chrysanthenone (45.3%) and 2,6-dimethylphenol (12.6%). The oils obtained from the aerial parts were tested against sixteen microbial strains by agar well diffusion technique and dilution methods and showed minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) in the range of 19 - 1250 μg/ml. A good antibacterial activity against a common nosocomial pathogen, Acinetobacter baumanniiATCC 19606 was observed, especially from Pulicaria incisa essential oil, with a MIC value up to 19 μg/ml. These results give significant information about the pharmacological activity of these essential oils, which suggest their benefits to human health, having the potential to be used for medical purposes. © 2017 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zurich, Switzerland.

  14. Persistent Aerial Tracking

    KAUST Repository

    Mueller, Matthias

    2016-04-13

    In this thesis, we propose a new aerial video dataset and benchmark for low altitude UAV target tracking, as well as, a photo-realistic UAV simulator that can be coupled with tracking methods. Our benchmark provides the rst evaluation of many state of-the-art and popular trackers on 123 new and fully annotated HD video sequences captured from a low-altitude aerial perspective. Among the compared trackers, we determine which ones are the most suitable for UAV tracking both in terms of tracking accuracy and run-time. We also present a simulator that can be used to evaluate tracking algorithms in real-time scenarios before they are deployed on a UAV "in the field", as well as, generate synthetic but photo-realistic tracking datasets with free ground truth annotations to easily extend existing real-world datasets. Both the benchmark and simulator will be made publicly available to the vision community to further research in the area of object tracking from UAVs. Additionally, we propose a persistent, robust and autonomous object tracking system for unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) called Persistent Aerial Tracking (PAT). A computer vision and control strategy is applied to a diverse set of moving objects (e.g. humans, animals, cars, boats, etc.) integrating multiple UAVs with a stabilized RGB camera. A novel strategy is employed to successfully track objects over a long period, by \\'handing over the camera\\' from one UAV to another. We integrate the complete system into an off-the-shelf UAV, and obtain promising results showing the robustness of our solution in real-world aerial scenarios.

  15. Aerial release of Rhinoncomimus latipes (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) to control Persicaria perfoliata (Polygonaceae) using an unmanned aerial system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yong-Lak; Gururajan, Srikanth; Thistle, Harold; Chandran, Rakesh; Reardon, Richard

    2018-01-01

    Rhinoncomimus latipes (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is a major biological control agent against the invasive plant Persicaria perfoliata. Release of R. latipes is challenging with the current visit-and-hand release approach because P. perfoliata shows a high degree of patchiness in the landscape, possesses recurved barbs on its stems, and often spreads into hard-to-access areas. This 3-year study developed and evaluated unmanned aerial systems (UAS) for precise aerial release of R. latipes to control P. perfoliata. We have developed two UAS (i.e. quad-rotor and tri-rotor) and an aerial release system to disseminate R. latipes. These include pods containing R. latipes and a dispenser to accommodate eight pods. Results of field tests to evaluate the systems showed no significant (P > 0.05) effects on survivorship and feeding ability of R. latipes after aerial release. Our study demonstrates the potential of UAS for precision aerial release of biological control agents to control invasive plants. The aerial deployment systems we have developed, including both pods and a dispenser, are low cost, logistically practical, and effective with no negative effects on aerially released R. latipes. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. An ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants in western part of central Taurus Mountains: Aladaglar (Nigde - Turkey).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özdemir, Ebru; Alpınar, Kerim

    2015-05-26

    With this study, we aimed to document traditional uses of medicinal plants in the western part of Aladaglar/Nigde. This study was conducted between 2003 and 2005. The research area was in the western part of the Aladaglar mountains. The settlements in Aladaglar (5 towns and 10 villages) were visited during the field work. The plants collected by the help of medicinal plant users. The plants were identified and voucher specimens prepared. These voucher specimens were kept at the Herbarium of Istanbul University Faculty of Pharmacy (ISTE). We collected the information by means of semi-structured interviews with 170 informants (90 men and 80 women). In addition, the relative importance value of the species was determined and the informant consensus factor (FIC) was calculated for the medicinal plants researched in the study. According to the results of the identification, among 126 plants were used by the inhabitants and 110 species belonging to 40 families were used for medicinal purposes. Most of the medicinal plants used in Aladaglar/Nigde belong to the families Lamiaceae (25 species), Asteraceae (16 species), Apiaceae (7 species), Fabaceae (6 species) and Brassicaceae (5 species). The most commonly used plant species were Hypericum perforatumThymus sipyleus var. sipyleus, Rosa canina, Urtica dioica, Malva neglecta, Thymus leucotrichus, Salix alba, Mentha longifolia, Berberis crataegina, Juniperus oxycedrus, Viscum album subsp. abietis, Allium rotundum and Taraxacum stevenii. The most common preparations were infusion and decoction. The traditional medicinal plants have been mostly used for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases (86%), hemorrhoids (79%), urinary diseases (69%), diabetes (68%) and respiratory diseases (61%). The use of traditional medicine was still widespread among the inhabitants of Aladaglar mountains/Nigde region. Due to the lack of medical facilities in the villages of Aladaglar mountains, local people prefer herbal treatment rather than

  17. Aerial Triangulation Close-range Images with Dual Quaternion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SHENG Qinghong

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A new method for the aerial triangulation of close-range images based on dual quaternion is presented. Using dual quaternion to represent the spiral screw motion of the beam in the space, the real part of dual quaternion represents the angular elements of all the beams in the close-range area networks, the real part and the dual part of dual quaternion represents the line elements corporately. Finally, an aerial triangulation adjustment model based on dual quaternion is established, and the elements of interior orientation and exterior orientation and the object coordinates of the ground points are calculated. Real images and large attitude angle simulated images are selected to run the experiments of aerial triangulation. The experimental results show that the new method for the aerial triangulation of close-range images based on dual quaternion can obtain higher accuracy.

  18. The Aboriginal Australian cosmic landscape. Part 2: Plant connections with the skyworld

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Philip A.

    2015-03-01

    In the recorded mythology of Aboriginal Australia there is frequent mention of the Skyworld as the upper part of a total landscape that possessed topography linked with that of Earth and the Underworld. The heavens were perceived as a country with the same species of plants and animals that existed below. In Aboriginal tradition, large trees were seen as connecting terrestrial space with the sky above, while the movements of celestial bodies were linked to seasonal changes observed with plants on Earth. This paper describes the links between the floras of Earth and the Skyworld.

  19. The simulation of transients in thermal plant. Part I: Mathematical model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morini, G.L.; Piva, S.

    2007-01-01

    This paper deals with the simulation of the transient behaviour of thermal plant with control systems. It is always more difficult for a designer to predict the effects on the plant of the control processes because of the increasing complexity of plants and control systems. The easiest way to obtain information about the dynamic behaviour of a thermal plant at the design-stage involves assessing the suitability of specific computer codes. To this end, the present work demonstrates that nowadays it is possible, by using the opportunities offered by some general purpose calculation systems, to obtain such significant information. It is described how a 'thermal-library' of customized blocks (one for each component of a thermal plant such as valves, boilers, and pumps) can be built and used, in an intuitive way, to study any kind of plant. As an example, the dynamic behaviour of a residential heating system will be shown in a companion paper, forming part II of the present article

  20. Method for increasing the resistance of a plant or a part thereof to a pathogen, method for screening the resistance of a plant or part thereof to a pathogen, and use thereof

    OpenAIRE

    Wit, de, P.; Stergiopoulos, I.; Kema, G.H.J.

    2011-01-01

    (EN)The present invention relates to the field of plant biotechnology. More in particular, the present invention relates to methods for increasing the resistance of a plant or part thereof that is susceptible to infection with a pathogen comprising an ortholog of the Avr4 protein of Cladosporium fulvum, wherein said plant is not a tomato or tobacco plant. The invention also relates to methods for screening the resistance of a plant or a part thereof to at least one pathogen, wherein said path...

  1. Fuzzy logic utilization for the diagnosis of metallic loose part impact in nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Y.-G.; Hong, H.-P.; Han, S.-J.; Chun, C.S.; Kim, B.-K.

    1996-01-01

    In consideration of the fuzzy nature of impact signals detected from the complex mechanical structures in a nuclear power plant under operation. Loose Part Monitoring System with a signal processing technique utilizing fuzzy logic is proposed. In the proposed Fuzzy Loose Part Monitoring System design, comprehensive relations among the impact signal features are taken into account in the fuzzy rule bases for the alarm discrimination and impact event diagnosis. Through the performance test with a mock-up facility, the proposed approach for the loose parts monitoring and diagnosis has been revealed to be effective not only in suppressing the false alarm generation but also in characterizing the metallic loose-part impact event, from the points of Possible Impacted-Area and Degree of Impact Magnitude

  2. Part-task simulator of a WWER-440 type nuclear power plant unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palecek, P.

    1990-01-01

    In the present paper the design of a part-task simulator for WWER-440 type nuclear power plant units by the CEZ (Czech Power Works) Concern is reported. This part-task simulator has been designed for the training of NPP operating personnel. It includes a central computer that is coupled with the training work places and the trainer place. Interchange of information is performed by functional keyboards and semigraphical colour displays. The process is simulated, also in real time scale, on the basis of dynamic models. In addition to the precision of the models used, great importance has primarily been attached to plasticity of information presentation. The part-task simulator may be applied to simulation and demonstration as well as to teaching purposes. The paper presents the achieved state of implementation of the part-task simulator and points out some further stage of evolution. (author)

  3. Identifying Plant Part Composition of Forest Logging Residue Using Infrared Spectral Data and Linear Discriminant Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gifty E. Acquah

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available As new markets, technologies and economies evolve in the low carbon bioeconomy, forest logging residue, a largely untapped renewable resource will play a vital role. The feedstock can however be variable depending on plant species and plant part component. This heterogeneity can influence the physical, chemical and thermochemical properties of the material, and thus the final yield and quality of products. Although it is challenging to control compositional variability of a batch of feedstock, it is feasible to monitor this heterogeneity and make the necessary changes in process parameters. Such a system will be a first step towards optimization, quality assurance and cost-effectiveness of processes in the emerging biofuel/chemical industry. The objective of this study was therefore to qualitatively classify forest logging residue made up of different plant parts using both near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIRS together with linear discriminant analysis (LDA. Forest logging residue harvested from several Pinus taeda (loblolly pine plantations in Alabama, USA, were classified into three plant part components: clean wood, wood and bark and slash (i.e., limbs and foliage. Five-fold cross-validated linear discriminant functions had classification accuracies of over 96% for both NIRS and FTIRS based models. An extra factor/principal component (PC was however needed to achieve this in FTIRS modeling. Analysis of factor loadings of both NIR and FTIR spectra showed that, the statistically different amount of cellulose in the three plant part components of logging residue contributed to their initial separation. This study demonstrated that NIR or FTIR spectroscopy coupled with PCA and LDA has the potential to be used as a high throughput tool in classifying the plant part makeup of a batch of forest logging residue feedstock. Thus, NIR/FTIR could be employed as a tool to rapidly probe/monitor the variability

  4. Plant parts of the apple tree (Malus spp.) as possible indicators of heavy metal pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tošić, Snežana; Alagić, Slađana; Dimitrijević, Mile; Pavlović, Aleksandra; Nujkić, Maja

    2016-05-01

    The content of Cu, Zn, Pb, As, Cd, and Ni was determined by ICP-OES in spatial soil and parts (root, branches, leaves, and fruit) of the apple tree (Malus spp.) from polluted sites near The Mining and Smelting Complex Bor (Serbia). The aim of this study was to examine if the obtained results can be used for biomonitoring purposes. Data recorded in plant parts, especially leaves, gave very useful information about the environmental state of the Bor region. Conveniently, these data described well the capability of investigated plant species to assimilate and tolerate severely high concentrations of heavy metals in its tissues, which may further allow the possibility for utilization of the apple tree for phytostabilization.

  5. Spatial Variation of Arsenic in Soil, Irrigation Water, and Plant Parts: A Microlevel Study

    OpenAIRE

    Kabir, M. S.; Salam, M. A.; Paul, D. N. R.; Hossain, M. I.; Rahman, N. M. F.; Aziz, Abdullah; Latif, M. A.

    2016-01-01

    Arsenic pollution became a great problem in the recent past in different countries including Bangladesh. The microlevel studies were conducted to see the spatial variation of arsenic in soils and plant parts contaminated through ground water irrigation. The study was performed in shallow tube well command areas in Sadar Upazila (subdistrict), Faridpur, Bangladesh, where both soil and irrigation water arsenic are high. Semivariogram models were computed to determine the spatial dependency of s...

  6. Plant-based medicines for anxiety disorders, Part 1: a review of preclinical studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarris, Jerome; McIntyre, Erica; Camfield, David A

    2013-03-01

    Research in the area of herbal psychopharmacology has revealed a variety of promising medicines that may provide benefit in the treatment of general anxiety and specific anxiety disorders. However, a comprehensive review of plant-based anxiolytics has been absent to date. This article (part 1) reviews herbal medicines for which only preclinical investigations for anxiolytic activity have been performed. In part 2, we review herbal medicines for which there have been clinical investigations for anxiolytic activity. An open-ended, language-restricted (English) search of MEDLINE (PubMed), CINAHL, Scopus and the Cochrane Library databases was conducted (up to 28 October 2012) using specific search criteria to identify herbal medicines that have been investigated for anxiolytic activity. This search of the literature revealed 1,525 papers, from which 53 herbal medicines were included in the full review (having at least one study using the whole plant extract). Of these plants, 21 had human clinical trial evidence (reviewed in part 2), with another 32 having solely preclinical studies (reviewed here in part 1). Preclinical evidence of anxiolytic activity (without human clinical trials) was found for Albizia julibrissin, Sonchus oleraceus, Uncaria rhynchophylla, Stachys lavandulifolia, Cecropia glazioui, Magnolia spp., Eschscholzia californica, Erythrina spp., Annona spp., Rubus brasiliensis, Apocynum venetum, Nauclea latifolia, Equisetum arvense, Tilia spp., Securidaca longepedunculata, Achillea millefolium, Leea indica, Juncus effusus, Coriandrum sativum, Eurycoma longifolia, Turnera diffusa, Euphorbia hirta, Justicia spp., Crocus sativus, Aloysia polystachya, Albies pindrow, Casimiroa edulis, Davilla rugosa, Gastrodia elata, Sphaerathus indicus, Zizyphus jujuba and Panax ginseng. Common mechanisms of action for the majority of botanicals reviewed primarily involve GABA, either via direct receptor binding or ionic channel or cell membrane modulation; GABA transaminase

  7. 10 CFR Appendix N to Part 52 - Standardization of Nuclear Power Plant Designs: Combined Licenses To Construct and Operate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Standardization of Nuclear Power Plant Designs: Combined Licenses To Construct and Operate Nuclear Power Reactors of Identical Design at Multiple Sites N Appendix N... FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Pt. 52, App. N Appendix N to Part 52—Standardization of Nuclear Power Plant...

  8. 10 CFR Appendix N to Part 110 - Illustrative List of Lithium Isotope Separation Facilities, Plants and Equipment Under NRC's...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., Plants and Equipment Under NRC's Export Licensing Authority N Appendix N to Part 110 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) EXPORT AND IMPORT OF NUCLEAR EQUIPMENT AND MATERIAL Pt. 110, App. N Appendix N to Part 110—Illustrative List of Lithium Isotope Separation Facilities, Plants and Equipment...

  9. CERN: an aerial view

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    On 30th January, when CERN still resembled a winter wonderland, a helicopter with a photographer on board took off on an aerial tour. One sunny morning at the end of January, when the area was waking up to an overnight snowfall, a helicopter took off from the Meyrin site with a CERN photographer on board. CERN has been the subject of aerial photographs ever since its creation. Although its appearance has changed over the years, the Laboratory has aged well. The aerial photographs taken during its fifty-year history bear witness to its expansion, showing how a handful of buildings and a first accelerator have blossomed into an entire machine complex. Let's take to the skies and have a look at some of the photos taken on this crisp January morning: a sight for sore eyes! In the foreground, Building 40 on the Meyrin site is recognisable from its magnet shape.On the right of the Route de Meyrin (crossing the photo diagonally), next to Point 1, the work on the Globe of Innovation, which got underway at the beg...

  10. Insecticidal activity against Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) of metabolites isolated from the aerial part of Piper septuplinervium (Miq.) c. dc. and inflorescences of Piper subtomentosum Trel. and Yunck. (Piperaceae); Actividad insecticida sobre Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) de los compuestos aislados de la parte aerea de Piper septuplinervium (Miq.) c. dc. y las inflorescencias de Piper subtomentosum Trel. and Yunck. (Piperaceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murillo, Monica Constanza Avila; Suarez, Luis Enrique Cuca, E-mail: mcavilam@unal.edu.co [Laboratorio de Productos Naturales Vegetales, Departamento de Quimica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogota (Colombia); Salamanca, Jairo Alonso Ceron [Laboratorio de Biopesticidas, Instituto de Biotecnologia, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogota (Colombia)

    2014-05-15

    The bioassay-guided purification of ethanolic extracts from inflorescences of Piper subtomentosum Trel. and Yunck and aerial part of Piper septuplinervium (Miq. ) C. DC. led to isolation of five flavonoids, uvangoletin (1), galangin (2), chrysin (5), 5-hydroxy-4',7-dimethoxy-flavone (6), pinostrobin (7); one amide, N-p-coumaroil-tyramine (4); one acylglycerol, monopalmitin (3); one derivative of acid, protocatechuic acid (8); and glycosydated sterol, daucosterol (9). Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopy and spectrometry data and by comparison with data reported in the literature. The isolated compounds were tested against Spodoptera frugiperda. The results showed galangin and protocatechuic acid to be the most active (LC{sub 50} 13.63 and 17.16 ppm, respectively). (author)

  11. Aerial photographic interpretation of lineaments and faults in late Cenozoic deposits in the eastern parts of the Saline Valley 1:100, 000 quadrangle, Nevada and California, and the Darwin Hills 1:100, 000 quadrangle, California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reheis, M.C.

    1991-01-01

    Faults and fault-related lineaments in Quaternary and late Tertiary deposits in the southern part of the Walker Lane are potentially active and form patterns that are anomalous compared to those in most other areas of the Great Basin. Two maps at a scale of 1:100,000 summarize information about lineaments and faults in the area around and southwest of the Death Valley-Furnace Creek fault system based on extensive aerial-photo interpretation, limited field interpretation, limited field investigations, and published geologic maps. There are three major fault zones and two principal faults in the Saline Valley and Darwin Hills 1:100,000 quadrangles. (1) The Death Valley-Furnace Creek fault system and (2) the Hunter Mountain fault zone are northwest-trending right-lateral strike-slip fault zones. (3) The Panamint Valley fault zone and associated Towne Pass and Emigrant faults are north-trending normal faults. The intersection of the Hunter Mountain and Panamint Valley fault zones is marked by a large complex of faults and lineaments on the floor of Panamint Valley. Additional major faults include (4) the north-northwest-trending Ash Hill fault on the west side of Panamint Valley, and (5) the north-trending range-front Tin Mountain fault on the west side of the northern Cottonwood Mountains. The most active faults at present include those along the Death Valley-Furnace Creek fault system, the Tin Mountain fault, the northwest and southeast ends of the Hunter Mountain fault zone, the Ash Hill fault, and the fault bounding the west side of the Panamint Range south of Hall Canyon. Several large Quaternary landslides on the west sides of the Cottonwood Mountains and the Panamint Range apparently reflect slope instability due chiefly to rapid uplift of these ranges. 16 refs

  12. LOAC: a small aerosol optical counter/sizer for ground-based and balloon measurements of the size distribution and nature of atmospheric particles - Part 2: First results from balloon and unmanned aerial vehicle flights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renard, Jean-Baptiste; Dulac, François; Berthet, Gwenaël; Lurton, Thibaut; Vignelles, Damien; Jégou, Fabrice; Tonnelier, Thierry; Jeannot, Matthieu; Couté, Benoit; Akiki, Rony; Verdier, Nicolas; Mallet, Marc; Gensdarmes, François; Charpentier, Patrick; Mesmin, Samuel; Duverger, Vincent; Dupont, Jean-Charles; Elias, Thierry; Crenn, Vincent; Sciare, Jean; Zieger, Paul; Salter, Matthew; Roberts, Tjarda; Giacomoni, Jérôme; Gobbi, Matthieu; Hamonou, Eric; Olafsson, Haraldur; Dagsson-Waldhauserova, Pavla; Camy-Peyret, Claude; Mazel, Christophe; Décamps, Thierry; Piringer, Martin; Surcin, Jérémy; Daugeron, Daniel

    2016-08-01

    In the companion (Part I) paper, we have described and evaluated a new versatile optical particle counter/sizer named LOAC (Light Optical Aerosol Counter), based on scattering measurements at angles of 12 and 60°. That allows for some typology identification of particles (droplets, carbonaceous, salts, and mineral dust) in addition to size-segregated counting in a large diameter range from 0.2 µm up to possibly more than 100 µm depending on sampling conditions (Renard et al., 2016). Its capabilities overpass those of preceding optical particle counters (OPCs) allowing the characterization of all kind of aerosols from submicronic-sized absorbing carbonaceous particles in polluted air to very coarse particles (> 10-20 µm in diameter) in desert dust plumes or fog and clouds. LOAC's light and compact design allows measurements under all kinds of balloons, on-board unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) and at ground level. We illustrate here the first LOAC airborne results obtained from a UAV and a variety of scientific balloons. The UAV was deployed in a peri-urban environment near Bordeaux in France. Balloon operations include (i) tethered balloons deployed in urban environments in Vienna (Austria) and Paris (France), (ii) pressurized balloons drifting in the lower troposphere over the western Mediterranean (during the Chemistry-Aerosol Mediterranean Experiment - ChArMEx campaigns), (iii) meteorological sounding balloons launched in the western Mediterranean region (ChArMEx) and from Aire-sur-l'Adour in south-western France (VOLTAIRE-LOAC campaign). More focus is put on measurements performed in the Mediterranean during (ChArMEx) and especially during African dust transport events to illustrate the original capability of balloon-borne LOAC to monitor in situ coarse mineral dust particles. In particular, LOAC has detected unexpected large particles in desert sand plumes.

  13. On-line acoustic monitoring of EDF nuclear plants in operation and loose-part diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morel, J.L.; Puyal, C.

    1991-05-01

    In order to detect incipient failures in nuclear power plant components, EDF has now put into operation more than 50 loose-part monitoring systems, on its 900 MW and 1 300 MW units. This paper first reviews the experience gained on the 900 MW reactors in recent years. It then focuses on the 1 300 MW loose part monitoring system (IDEAL) and to the tools developed for the diagnosis off site within a specific Expertise Laboratory at the Research and Development Division. New studies have been undertaken within the Monitoring and Aid to Diagnosis Station (PSAD) in order to extend the capabilities of loose part diagnosis on site. The new tools here presented integrate the recent progress in acquisition technology (SMART system) and in artificial intelligence (MIGRE expert system)

  14. The Aeronautics Education, Research, and Industry Alliance (AERIAL) 2002 Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Brent D.; Fink, Mary M.; Nickerson, Jocelyn S.

    2002-01-01

    This report presents and overview of the Aeronautics Education, Research, and Industry Alliance (AERIAL). It covers the University of Nebraska's areas of research, and its outreach to students at Native American schools as part of AERIAL. The report contains three papers: "Airborne Remote Sensing (ARS) for Agricultural Research and Commercialization Application" (White Paper), "Validated Numerical Models for the Convective Extinction of Fuel Droplets (CEFD)", and "The Small Aircraft Transportation System (SATS): Research Collaborations with the NASA Langley Research Center".

  15. The Use of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle for Geothermal Exploitation Monitoring: Khankala Field Example

    OpenAIRE

    Sergey V. Cherkasov; Anvar M. Farkhutdinov; Dmitriy P. Rykovanov; Arbi A. Shaipov

    2018-01-01

    The article is devoted to the use of unmanned aerial vehicle for geothermal waters exploitation monitoring. Development of a geothermal reservoir usually requires a system of wells, pipelines and pumping equipment and control of such a system is quite complicated. In this regard, use of unmanned aerial vehicle is relevant. Two test unmanned aerial vehicle based infrared surveys have been conducted at the Khankala field (Chechen Republic) with the Khankala geothermal plant operating at differe...

  16. The European Hare (Lepus europaeus: A Picky Herbivore Searching for Plant Parts Rich in Fat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphanie C Schai-Braun

    Full Text Available European hares of both sexes rely on fat reserves, particularly during the reproduc-tive season. Therefore, hares should select dietary plants rich in fat and energy. However, hares also require essential polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA such as linoleic acid (LA and alpha-linolenic acid (ALA to reproduce and survive. Although hares are able to absorb PUFA selectively in their gastrointestinal tract, it is unknown whether this mechanism is sufficient to guarantee PUFA supply. Thus, diet selection may involve a trade-off between a preference for energy versus a preference for crucial nutrients, namely PUFA. We compared plant and nutrient availability and use by hares in an arable landscape in Austria over three years. We found that European hares selected their diet for high energy content (crude fat and crude protein, and avoided crude fibre. There was no evidence of a preference for plants rich in LA and ALA. We conclude that fat is the limiting resource for this herbivorous mammal, whereas levels of LA and ALA in forage are sufficiently high to meet daily requirements, especially since their uptake is enhanced by physiological mechanisms. Animals selected several plant taxa all year round, and preferences did not simply correlate with crude fat content. Hence, European hares might not only select for plant taxa rich in fat, but also for high-fat parts of preferred plant taxa. As hares preferred weeds/grasses and various crop types while avoiding cereals, we suggest that promoting heterogeneous habitats with high crop diversity and set-asides may help stop the decline of European hares throughout Europe.

  17. In vitro antioxidant and antiproliferative activities of methanolic plant part extracts of Theobroma cacao.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baharum, Zainal; Akim, Abdah Md; Taufiq-Yap, Yun Hin; Hamid, Roslida Abdul; Kasran, Rosmin

    2014-11-10

    The aims of this study were to determine the antioxidant and antiproliferative activity of the following Theobroma cacao plant part methanolic extracts: leaf, bark, husk, fermented and unfermented shell, pith, root, and cherelle. Antioxidant activity was determined using 2,2-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS), and Folin-Ciocalteu assays; the 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium (MTT) assay was used to determine antiproliferative activity. The root extract had the highest antioxidant activity; its median effective dose (EC50) was 358.3±7.0 µg/mL and total phenolic content was 22.0±1.1 g GAE/100 g extract as compared to the other methanolic plant part extracts. Only the cherelle extract demonstrated 10.4%±1.1% inhibition activity in the lipid peroxidation assay. The MTT assay revealed that the leaf extract had the highest antiproliferative activity against MCF-7 cells [median inhibitory concentration (IC50)=41.4±3.3 µg/mL]. Given the overall high IC50 for the normal liver cell line WRL-68, this study indicates that T. cacao methanolic extracts have a cytotoxic effect in cancer cells, but not in normal cells. Planned future investigations will involve the purification, identification, determination of the mechanisms of action, and molecular assay of T. cacao plant extracts.

  18. In Vitro Antioxidant and Antiproliferative Activities of Methanolic Plant Part Extracts of Theobroma cacao

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zainal Baharum

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to determine the antioxidant and antiproliferative activity of the following Theobroma cacao plant part methanolic extracts: leaf, bark, husk, fermented and unfermented shell, pith, root, and cherelle. Antioxidant activity was determined using 2,2-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS, and Folin-Ciocalteu assays; the 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium (MTT assay was used to determine antiproliferative activity. The root extract had the highest antioxidant activity; its median effective dose (EC50 was 358.3 ± 7.0 µg/mL and total phenolic content was 22.0 ± 1.1 g GAE/100 g extract as compared to the other methanolic plant part extracts. Only the cherelle extract demonstrated 10.4% ± 1.1% inhibition activity in the lipid peroxidation assay. The MTT assay revealed that the leaf extract had the highest antiproliferative activity against MCF-7 cells [median inhibitory concentration (IC50 = 41.4 ± 3.3 µg/mL]. Given the overall high IC50 for the normal liver cell line WRL-68, this study indicates that T. cacao methanolic extracts have a cytotoxic effect in cancer cells, but not in normal cells. Planned future investigations will involve the purification, identification, determination of the mechanisms of action, and molecular assay of T. cacao plant extracts.

  19. Speciation analysis of aluminium in plant parts of Betula pendula and in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zioła-Frankowska, Anetta; Frankowski, Marcin

    2018-03-01

    The research presents the first results of aluminium speciation analysis in aqueous extracts of individual plant parts of Betula pendula and soil samples, using High Performance Ion Chromatography with Diode Array Detection (HPIC-DAD). The applied method allowed us to carry out a full speciation analysis of aluminium in the form of predominant aluminium-fluoride complexes: AlF (x=2,3,4) (3-x) (first analytical signal), AlF 2+ (second analytical signal) and Al 3+ (third analytical signal) in samples of lateral roots, tap roots, twigs, stem, leaf and soil collected under roots of B. pendula. Concentrations of aluminium and its complexes were determined for two types of environment characterised by different degree of human impact: contaminated site of the Chemical Plant in Luboń and protected area of the Wielkopolski National Park. For all the analysed samples of B. pendula and soil, AlF (x=2,3,4) (3-x) had the largest contribution, followed by Al 3+ and AlF 2+ . Significant differences in concentration and contribution of Al-F complexes and Al 3+ form, depending on the place of sampling (different anthropogenic pressure) and plant part of B. pendula were observed. Based on the obtained results, it was found that transport of aluminium is "blocked" by lateral roots, and is closely related to Al content of soil. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Marker Detection in Aerial Images

    KAUST Repository

    Alharbi, Yazeed

    2017-04-09

    The problem that the thesis is trying to solve is the detection of small markers in high-resolution aerial images. Given a high-resolution image, the goal is to return the pixel coordinates corresponding to the center of the marker in the image. The marker has the shape of two triangles sharing a vertex in the middle, and it occupies no more than 0.01% of the image size. An improvement on the Histogram of Oriented Gradients (HOG) is proposed, eliminating the majority of baseline HOG false positives for marker detection. The improvement is guided by the observation that standard HOG description struggles to separate markers from negatives patches containing an X shape. The proposed method alters intensities with the aim of altering gradients. The intensity-dependent gradient alteration leads to more separation between filled and unfilled shapes. The improvement is used in a two-stage algorithm to achieve high recall and high precision in detection of markers in aerial images. In the first stage, two classifiers are used: one to quickly eliminate most of the uninteresting parts of the image, and one to carefully select the marker among the remaining interesting regions. Interesting regions are selected by scanning the image with a fast classifier trained on the HOG features of markers in all rotations and scales. The next classifier is more precise and uses our method to eliminate the majority of the false positives of standard HOG. In the second stage, detected markers are tracked forward and backward in time. Tracking is needed to detect extremely blurred or distorted markers that are missed by the previous stage. The algorithm achieves 94% recall with minimal user guidance. An average of 30 guesses are given per image; the user verifies for each whether it is a marker or not. The brute force approach would return 100,000 guesses per image.

  1. Update on impact effects in nuclear plants Part I--overview and need for integrated approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sliter, G.E.; Ravindra, M.K.

    1984-01-01

    In this paper, an ASCE working group on impact effects in nuclear plants updates the review of this technology contained in a five-yearold ASCE report. In Part I, an overview is given of the impact conditions addressed in nuclear plant design against missiles generated by such postulated extreme events as tornados, turbine failures, pipe ruptures, aircraft crashes, and drops of heavy objects from lifting devices. The conclusion of a brief evaluation of the state of the art in predicting structural response for the various missile impact types is that two of them--pipe whip and heavy object drop--would benefit most by further development of design and analysis methods. Parts II and III of this paper review current practice and identify its limitations for these two impact types. Part I continues with a discussion of the general characteristics of impacts and the structural response they produce and concludes with a recommendation for and brief description of an ''integrated approach'' for treating impact effects. The adoption of this systematic approach in future development of impact technology would guide engineers in the use of the most appropriate and accurate available techniques for designing against a particular impact event

  2. Plant life management. An integral part of operation and maintenance policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faidy, C.; Hutin, J.-P.

    2002-01-01

    Electricite de France is now operating 58 PWR nuclear power plants that produce 75% of electricity in France. Besides maintaining safety and availability on a routine basis, it is outmost important to protect the investment. That is the reason why EDF is devoting important resources to implement ageing management concern as an integral part of operation and maintenance programs (for example through appropriate data collection and analysis, specific repair and replacement projects and important anticipation efforts, taking in account the high level of standardisation of the units). A particular organisation has been set up to continuously observe and analyse all activities so as to make sure that ageing concern is correctly taken in account in strategies and that no decisions are susceptible to impair plant lifetime. This 'lifetime program' is paying attention to technical issues associated with main components but is also dealing with issues related to economics and industry situation. (orig.)

  3. Modelling and dynamics of an air separation rectification column as part of an IGCC power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seliger, B.; Hanke-Rauschenbach, R.; Hannemann, F.; Sundmacher, K. [Otto Von Guericke University, Magdeburg (Germany)

    2006-04-15

    An Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle plant (IGCC) opens the well-proven and highly efficient combined cycle process to fossil fuels, like coal or heavy refinery residues. Such a plant thereby possesses a novel linkage of typical energy engineering related units, e.g. a gas turbine and typical process engineering parts, which in the present case is an air separation plant. Different responses from the connected components can cause undesired mass flow fluctuations within the system especially during changing load demands. The cryogenic rectification column, as the core of the air separation plant, strongly affects the system's transient behaviour. The upper part of such a heat-integrated double column, a packed column with structured packing, has therefore been more closely investigated in the present paper. For this purpose, a dynamic model of such a column has been developed which is also able to describe the pressure dynamics supposedly responsible for these mass flow fluctuations. The transient behaviour of the uncontrolled column is analysed and discussed with special regard to pressure dynamics. The column pressure responds to disturbances on two different time scales. The short-term response, which is in the range of 100-200 s, is governed by the transient behaviour of the fluid dynamics and is discussed in detail. The long-term response is dominated by the nonlinear dynamics of the concentration profiles. The time constant of this response depends strongly on the direction and intensity of the disturbance and takes from 10,000 up to several 100,000 s.

  4. Renewable energy in pakistan: part-II mini/micro hydropower plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maher, M.J.

    2005-01-01

    Part-1 of this series dealt with Wind-Energy Prospects in Pakistan. This second part gives a brief account Mini/Micro Hydro-Power Plants in Pakistan. Hydropower is well-known throughout the world and currently contributes 6-7% of total world energy-production and 20% of total world electricity generation. Most of the hydro-plants are usually designed for higher generation capacity than that which could be needed to utilize the average water-flows. Small hydro-plants are another potential source of energy among the non-conventional energy sources, which can reduce the load on conventional-energy production. Small hydropower technology is today a mature and proven technology. Civil works and installation of equipment involve simple process, which offer good opportunity to local people for employment and use locally available materials Nevertheless a small decentralized hydel plant, based on natural waterfalls is a very desirable option for geographically remote, but naturally suitable locations which are otherwise far from the national physical infrastructure. The development of Mini/Micro hydel stations in these areas, with isolated, thinly clustered, population, is a very appropriate solution to meet power-needs of such areas for lighting as well as cottage industry. The unique feature of these installations is the participation of local community to the optimum extent. The entire civil works, the intake system, power channel, forebay, penstock and power house building, as well as labour is provided by the inhabitants voluntarily. While maximum use is made of stone, with minimum use of cement, the generator, distribution wires, etc., need to be arranged from the market. The turbine is manufactured using indigenous materials. The installation-cost per KW is relatively low i.e. Rs. 25,000/- as compared to large-scale installations. There could of course be variations, in the installation-cost, depending on the market prices of the material. (author)

  5. Systematic review of biological effects of exposure to static electric fields. Part II: Invertebrates and plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmiedchen, Kristina; Petri, Anne-Kathrin; Driessen, Sarah; Bailey, William H

    2018-01-01

    The construction of high-voltage direct current (HVDC) lines for the long-distance transport of energy is becoming increasingly popular. This has raised public concern about potential environmental impacts of the static electric fields (EF) produced under and near HVDC power lines. As the second part of a comprehensive literature analysis, the aim of this systematic review was to assess the effects of static EF exposure on biological functions in invertebrates and plants and to provide the basis for an environmental impact assessment of such exposures. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) was used to guide the methodological conduct and reporting. Thirty-three studies - 14 invertebrate and 19 plant studies - met the eligibility criteria and were included in this review. The reported behavioral responses of insects and planarians upon exposure strongly suggest that invertebrates are able to perceive the presence of a static EF. Many other studies reported effects on physiological functions that were expressed as, for example, altered metabolic activity or delayed reproductive and developmental stages in invertebrates. In plants, leaf damage, alterations in germination rates, growth and yield, or variations in the concentration of essential elements, for example, have been reported. However, these physiological responses and changes in plant morphology appear to be secondary to surface stimulation by the static EF or caused by concomitant parameters of the electrostatic environment. Furthermore, all of the included studies suffered from methodological flaws, which lowered credibility in the results. At field levels encountered from natural sources or HVDC lines (plants. At far higher field levels (> 35kV/m), adverse effects on physiology and morphology, presumably caused by corona-action, appear to be more likely. Higher quality studies are needed to unravel the role of air ions, ozone, nitric oxide and corona current on

  6. Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Systems for Disaster Relief: Tornado Alley

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBusk, Wesley M.

    2009-01-01

    Unmanned aerial vehicle systems are currently in limited use for public service missions worldwide. Development of civil unmanned technology in the United States currently lags behind military unmanned technology development in part because of unresolved regulatory and technological issues. Civil unmanned aerial vehicle systems have potential to augment disaster relief and emergency response efforts. Optimal design of aerial systems for such applications will lead to unmanned vehicles which provide maximum potentiality for relief and emergency response while accounting for public safety concerns and regulatory requirements. A case study is presented that demonstrates application of a civil unmanned system to a disaster relief mission with the intent on saving lives. The concept utilizes unmanned aircraft to obtain advanced warning and damage assessments for tornados and severe thunderstorms. Overview of a tornado watch mission architecture as well as commentary on risk, cost, need for, and design tradeoffs for unmanned aerial systems are provided.

  7. Method for increasing the resistance of a plant or a part thereof to a pathogen, method for screening the resistance of a plant or part thereof to a pathogen, and use thereof

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wit, de P.; Stergiopoulos, I.; Kema, G.H.J.

    2011-01-01

    (EN)The present invention relates to the field of plant biotechnology. More in particular, the present invention relates to methods for increasing the resistance of a plant or part thereof that is susceptible to infection with a pathogen comprising an ortholog of the Avr4 protein of Cladosporium

  8. Peach Flower Monitoring Using Aerial Multispectral Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan Horton

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the tools for optimal crop production is regular monitoring and assessment of crops. During the growing season of fruit trees, the bloom period has increased photosynthetic rates that correlate with the fruiting process. This paper presents the development of an image processing algorithm to detect peach blossoms on trees. Aerial images of peach (Prunus persica trees were acquired from both experimental and commercial peach orchards in the southwestern part of Idaho using an off-the-shelf unmanned aerial system (UAS, equipped with a multispectral camera (near-infrared, green, blue. The image processing algorithm included contrast stretching of the three bands to enhance the image and thresholding segmentation method to detect the peach blossoms. Initial results showed that the image processing algorithm could detect peach blossoms with an average detection rate of 84.3% and demonstrated good potential as a monitoring tool for orchard management.

  9. Information system design of inventory control spare parts maintenance (valuation class 5000) (case study: plant kw)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitriana, Rina; Moengin, Parwadi; Riana, Mega

    2016-02-01

    Plat KW hadn't using optimal inventory level planning yet and hadn't have an information system that well computerized. The research objective is to be able to design an information system related inventory control of spare parts maintenance. The study focused on five types of spare parts with the highest application rate during February 2013- March 2015 and included in the classification of fast on FSN analysis Grinding stones Cut 4". Cable Tie 15". Welding RB 26-32MM. Ring Plat ½" and Ring Plate 5/8 ". Inventory calculation used Economic Order Quantity (EOQ). Safety Stock (SS) and Reorder Point (ROP) methods. System analysis conducted using the framework PIECES with the proposed inventory control system. the performance of the plant KW relating to the supply of spare parts maintenance needs can be more efficient as well as problems at the company can be answered and can perform inventory cost savings amounting Rp.267.066. A computerized information system of inventory control spare parts maintenance provides a menu that can be accessed by each departments as the user needed.

  10. Volatile Constituents of Different Plant Parts and Populations of Malabaila aurea Boiss. from Montenegro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Vučković

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The volatile constituents of different plant parts and populations of Malabaila aurea Boiss. from Montenegro were obtained by simultaneous distillation-extraction and analyzed by GC-FID and GC-MS. A total of 12 samples were examined and 45 compounds were identified. The volatile content of different M. aurea populations was very similar, while the volatile fractions obtained from different plant parts showed significant qualitative and quantitative differences. The most abundant compounds found in stems & leaves were apiole (51.0-56.3%, myristicin (16.3-25.4%, and falcarinol (4.1-10.7%. The roots showed the same major components, but with different relative abundances: 30.9-49.1% of apiole, 12.9-34.7% of falcarinol, and 9.9-31.1% of myristicin. The volatile constituents of fruits & flowers were remarkably different, containing up to 71.2-80.5% octyl butyrate, 11.4-18.0% octanol, and 2.7-6.8% octyl hexanoate. The results were discussed as possible indication of relatedness of Malabaila aurea and Pastinacasativa (parsnip .

  11. 10 CFR Appendix N to Part 50 - Standardization of Nuclear Power Plant Designs: Permits To Construct and Licenses To Operate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Standardization of Nuclear Power Plant Designs: Permits To Construct and Licenses To Operate Nuclear Power Reactors of Identical Design at Multiple Sites N Appendix N... FACILITIES Pt. 50, App.N Appendix N to Part 50—Standardization of Nuclear Power Plant Designs: Permits To...

  12. Morphing unmanned aerial vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez, Juan Carlos; Garcia, Ephrahim

    2011-01-01

    Research on aircraft morphing has exploded in recent years. The motivation and driving force behind this has been to find new and novel ways to increase the capabilities of aircraft. Materials advancements have helped to increase possibilities with respect to actuation and, hence, a diversity of concepts and unimagined capabilities. The expanded role of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) has provided an ideal platform for exploring these emergent morphing concepts since at this scale a greater amount of risk can be taken, as well as having more manageable fabrication and cost requirements. This review focuses on presenting the role UAVs have in morphing research by giving an overview of the UAV morphing concepts, designs, and technologies described in the literature. A presentation of quantitative information as well as a discussion of technical issues is given where possible to begin gaining some insight into the overall assessment and performance of these technologies. (topical review)

  13. Compliant Aerial Manipulators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartelds, T.; Capra, A.; Hamaza, S.

    2016-01-01

    joints. The approach aims at limiting the influence of impacts on the controlled attitude dynamics in order to allow the aerial manipulator to remain stable during and after impact. The developed concept is intended to convert kinetic energy into potential energy, which is permanently stored into elastic...... elements by means of directional locking mechanisms. The proposed approach has been tested on a 2 d.o.f. manipulator mounted on a quadrotor UAV. The manipulation system has one active rotational d.o.f. compensating for pitch movements of the UAV and one passive linear joint which is in charge of absorbing...... the impact energy. The device has been used to validate the method through experiments, in comparison with a rigid manipulator. The results show that the proposed approach and the developed mechanical system achieve stable impact absorption without bouncing away from the interacting environment. Our work has...

  14. Airborne remote sensing assessment of the damage to cotton caused by spray drift from aerially applied glyphosate through spray deposition measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Off-target drift of aerially applied glyphosate can cause plant injury, which is of great concern to farmers and aerial applicators. To determine the extent of crop injury due to near-field drift, an experiment was conducted with a single aerial application of glyphosate. For identification of the d...

  15. AERIAL TERRAIN MAPPING USING UNMANNED AERIAL VEHICLE APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. N. Tahar

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper looks into the latest achievement in the low-cost Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV technology in their capacity to map the semi-development areas. The objectives of this study are to establish a new methodology or a new algorithm in image registration during interior orientation process and to determine the accuracy of the photogrammetric products by using UAV images. Recently, UAV technology has been used in several applications such as mapping, agriculture and surveillance. The aim of this study is to scrutinize the usage of UAV to map the semi-development areas. The performance of the low cost UAV mapping study was established on a study area with two image processing methods so that the results could be comparable. A non-metric camera was attached at the bottom of UAV and it was used to capture images at both sites after it went through several calibration steps. Calibration processes were carried out to determine focal length, principal distance, radial lens distortion, tangential lens distortion and affinity. A new method in image registration for a non-metric camera is discussed in this paper as a part of new methodology of this study. This method used the UAV Global Positioning System (GPS onboard to register the UAV image for interior orientation process. Check points were established randomly at both sites using rapid static Global Positioning System. Ground control points are used for exterior orientation process, and check point is used for accuracy assessment of photogrammetric product. All acquired images were processed in a photogrammetric software. Two methods of image registration were applied in this study, namely, GPS onboard registration and ground control point registration. Both registrations were processed by using photogrammetric software and the result is discussed. Two results were produced in this study, which are the digital orthophoto and the digital terrain model. These results were analyzed by using the root

  16. 10 CFR Appendix H to Part 110 - Illustrative List of Electromagnetic Enrichment Plant Equipment and Components Under NRC Export...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Equipment and Components Under NRC Export Licensing Authority H Appendix H to Part 110 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) EXPORT AND IMPORT OF NUCLEAR EQUIPMENT AND MATERIAL Pt. 110, App. H Appendix H to Part 110—Illustrative List of Electromagnetic Enrichment Plant Equipment and Components Under...

  17. Radiation preservation of foods of plant origin. Part 1. Potatoes and other tuber crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, P.

    1984-01-01

    In Part 1 of a planned series of articles on preservation of foods of plant origin by gamma irradiation, the current state of research on the technological, nutritional, and biochemical aspects of sprout inhibition of potatoes and other tuber crops are reviewed. These include varietal responses, dose effects, time of irradiation, pre- and postirradiation storage, and handling requirements; postirradiation changes in carbohydrates, ascorbic acid, amino acids, and other nutrients; respiration; biochemical mechanisms involved in sprout inhibition; wound healing and microbial infection during storage; formation of wound and light-induced glycoalkaloids and identification of irradiated potatoes. The culinary and processing qualities with particular reference to darkening of boiled and processed potatoes are discussed. The prospects of irradiation on an industrial scale as an alternative to chemical sprout inhibitors or mechanical refrigeration are considered

  18. Literature study regarding fire protection in nuclear power plants. Part 2: Fire detection and -extinguishing systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isaksson, S.

    1996-01-01

    This literature study has been made on behalf of the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate. The aim is to describe different aspects of fire protection in nuclear power plants. Detection and extinguishing systems in Swedish nuclear power plants have only to a limited extent been designed after functional demands, such as a maximum acceptable damage or a maximum time to detect a fire. The availability of detection systems is difficult to assess, partly because of lack of statistics. The user interface is very important in complex systems as nuclear plants. An extinguishing system designed according to the insurance companies' regulations will only fulfill the basic demands. It should be noted that normal sprinkler design does not aim for extinguishing fires, the objective is to control fire until manual extinguishment is possible. There is a great amount of statistics on wet and dry pipe sprinkler systems, while statistics are more scarce for deluge systems. The statistics on the reliability of gaseous extinguishing systems have been found very scarce. A drawback of these systems is that they are normally designed for one shot only. There are both traditional and more recent extinguishing systems that can replace halons. From now on there will be a greater need for a thorough examination of the properties needed for the individual application and a quantification of the acceptable damage. There are several indications on the importance of a high quality maintenance program as well as carefully developed routines for testing and surveillance to ensure the reliability of detection and extinguishing systems. 78 refs, 8 figs, 10 tabs

  19. Polychlorinated biphenyls in alfalfa: Accumulation, sorption and speciation in different plant parts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Ying; Sun, Xianghui; Zhu, Lingjia; Christie, Peter; Luo, Yongming

    2017-08-03

    The accumulation, chemical speciation and distribution of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were investigated in various parts of alfalfa. Moreover, the adsorption characteristics for PCB 28 by alfalfa and the influencing factors of the adsorption characteristics were studied. There were different degrees of PCB accumulation in alfalfa roots, root nodules and shoots. The decreasing order of the accumulation of PCBs in plant tissues was root nodules > roots > shoots, and the decreasing order of the total PCB contents was roots > shoots > root nodules, indicating that the roots were the main sink for PCB accumulation. There were three modes of PCB speciation in alfalfa roots and root nodules, comprising strong sorption (78%) and weak sorption (19%) on tissue surfaces and absorption within tissues (2%). The adsorption isotherms of PCB 28 indicate that the adsorption capacities of root nodules and shoots were both significantly higher than that of the roots. Both lipids and carbohydrates, and especially lipids, affected the PCB adsorption capacities of the tissues. These results may help in the elucidation of the mechanisms of sorption and accumulation of PCBs in the plants and their main influencing factors and thus contribute to the development of phytoremediation technologies for PCB-contaminated soils.

  20. Transcuticular translocation of radionuclides on plant leaf surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, Ken-ichi; Watanabe, Tadakazu; Ambe, Shizuko; Yamaguchi, Isamu

    1996-01-01

    The cuticle covering all the outermost surfaces of the aerial parts of plants could play a selective role in uptake and translocation of radionuclides from air into plants. In this study, we investigated the transcuticular uptake and translocation behavior via water droplets of various radionuclides in red clover, orchard grass, Japanese radish and mung bean. Ten μl of an aqueous solution of the multitracer generated from Au was applied to the upper surface of the 2nd leaf of the plants at the 5th leaf stage. The plants were then grown for 14 days at 25degC and 70% RH under illumination of artificial solar lights. The transcuticular uptake and translocation throughout the plant were periodically assayed by determining the radioactivity in the surface residue, the cuticle layer beneath the applied site, the leaf area outside the applied site, the other aerial parts and the root of the plant, using an HPGe detector. The applied radionuclides were absorbed into, in turn, the cuticle layer beneath the applied site and then translocated through the cuticle to the inner tissue and eventually to the other aerial parts and finally to the roots, of the plant. The distribution and accumulation in the plant seems to depend upon the characteristics of each radionuclide and plant species. Ca * and Te * tended to remain on leaf surfaces without being absorbed into the cuticle. On the other hand, Sc * , Co * , Zn * , Se * , Rb * , and Eu * were easily absorbed and translocated to every part of the plant including the root. The other radionuclides such as Be * , Mn * , Sr * , Y * , Ba * , Ce * , Pm * , Gd * , Hf * , Yb * , Lu * , Os * , Ir * , and Pt * remained in the region close to the site of their application. The above results possibly indicate the existence of mechanisms common to these plants for selective transcuticular uptake and translocation of radionuclides within plant tissues, though their translocation was considerably influenced by the plant species. (author)

  1. Aerial measurements in Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winkelmann, I.; Thomas, M.; Buchroeder, H.; Brummer, C. [Federal Office for Radiation Protection, Berlin (Germany); Carloff, G. [German Federal Border Police, Grenzschutz-Fliegergruppe, Sankt Augustin (Germany)

    1997-12-31

    Aerial measurements were performed to determine the {sup 137}Cs soil contamination in a given region to detect unknown radiation sources and to assess their activity. For these measurements a computerized gamma ray spectrometer, equipped with a high purity Ge-semiconductor detector and a 12 l volume Nal(Tl)-detector was used. HPGe-detector measurements from different altitudes over area I were done to test and re-calibrate the aerial measuring system. The known {sup 137}Cs contamination of (50.7 {+-} 5.2) kBq m{sup -2} could be confirmed by the measured value of (57 {+-} 10) kBq m{sup -2}. the Nal(Tl)-detector was re-calibrated at that site for further {sup 137}Cs measurements over area II. The area II was surveyed from an altitude of about 70 m and at a parallel line distance of 150 m at an flying speed of 100 km h{sup -1} to determine the {sup 137}Cs soil contamination. The measuring time was two seconds for the Nal(Tl)-detector. For the spectra measured with the HPGe-detector, a measuring time of 30 s each was chosen. From the Nal(Tl)-measurements, a mean {sup 137}Cs value of (60 {+-} 20) kBq m{sup -2} was determined with a maximum value of 90 kBq m{sup -2}. The corresponding values measured by HPGe-detector were (70 {+-} 20) kBq m{sup -2} and 120 kBq m{sup -2}, respectively. For the evaluation of the HPGe-spectra a depth distribution parameter {alpha}/{rho} = (0.44 {+-} 0.21) cm{sup 2} g{sup -1} for {sup 137}Cs was used measured from soil samples. From data measured with the Nal(Tl)-detector during flights over area III, three{sup 60}Co-sources and one {sup 137}Cs source could be detected, localized and their activity assessed. By HPGe-detector measurements, only scattered {sup 192}lr radiation was registered. (au).

  2. Aerial measurements in Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winkelmann, I; Thomas, M; Buchroeder, H; Brummer, C [Federal Office for Radiation Protection, Berlin (Germany); Carloff, G [German Federal Border Police, Grenzschutz-Fliegergruppe, Sankt Augustin (Germany)

    1998-12-31

    Aerial measurements were performed to determine the {sup 137}Cs soil contamination in a given region to detect unknown radiation sources and to assess their activity. For these measurements a computerized gamma ray spectrometer, equipped with a high purity Ge-semiconductor detector and a 12 l volume Nal(Tl)-detector was used. HPGe-detector measurements from different altitudes over area I were done to test and re-calibrate the aerial measuring system. The known {sup 137}Cs contamination of (50.7 {+-} 5.2) kBq m{sup -2} could be confirmed by the measured value of (57 {+-} 10) kBq m{sup -2}. the Nal(Tl)-detector was re-calibrated at that site for further {sup 137}Cs measurements over area II. The area II was surveyed from an altitude of about 70 m and at a parallel line distance of 150 m at an flying speed of 100 km h{sup -1} to determine the {sup 137}Cs soil contamination. The measuring time was two seconds for the Nal(Tl)-detector. For the spectra measured with the HPGe-detector, a measuring time of 30 s each was chosen. From the Nal(Tl)-measurements, a mean {sup 137}Cs value of (60 {+-} 20) kBq m{sup -2} was determined with a maximum value of 90 kBq m{sup -2}. The corresponding values measured by HPGe-detector were (70 {+-} 20) kBq m{sup -2} and 120 kBq m{sup -2}, respectively. For the evaluation of the HPGe-spectra a depth distribution parameter {alpha}/{rho} = (0.44 {+-} 0.21) cm{sup 2} g{sup -1} for {sup 137}Cs was used measured from soil samples. From data measured with the Nal(Tl)-detector during flights over area III, three{sup 60}Co-sources and one {sup 137}Cs source could be detected, localized and their activity assessed. By HPGe-detector measurements, only scattered {sup 192}lr radiation was registered. (au).

  3. The Aeronautics Education, Research, and Industry Alliance (AERIAL) 2002 Report. UNO Aviation Monograph Series. UNOAI Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Brent D.; Box, Richard C.; Fink, Mary M.; Gogos, George; Lehrer, Henry R.; Narayanan, Ram M.; Nickerson, Jocelyn S.; O'Neil, Patrick D.; Tarry, Scott E.; Vlasek, Karisa D.

    This document contains four papers on aeronautics education, research, and partnerships that partly supported through the Aeronautics Education, Research, and Industry Alliance (AERIAL). The paper "2002 AERIAL Monograph" (Brent D. Bowen, Jocelyn S. Nickerson, Mary M. Fink, et al.) presents an overview of research and development in the…

  4. Performance of Generating Plant: Managing the Changes. Part 1: International availability data exchange for thermal generating plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stallard, G.S.; Deschaine, R. [Black and Veatch (United States)

    2008-05-15

    The WEC Committee on the Performance of Generating Plant (PGP) has been collecting and analysing power plant performance statistics worldwide for more than 30 years and has produced regular reports, which include examples of advanced techniques and methods for improving power plant performance through benchmarking. A series of reports from the various working groups was issued in 2008. This reference presents the results of Working Group 1 (WG1). WG1's primary focus is to analyse the best ways to measure, evaluate, and apply power plant performance and availability data to promote plant performance improvements worldwide. The paper explores the specific work activities of 2004-2007 to extend traditional analysis and benchmarking frameworks. It is divided into two major topics: Overview of current electric supply industry issues/trends; and, Technical Methods/Tools to evaluate performance in today's ESI.

  5. Operational readiness decisions at nuclear power plants - part 2. Which factors influence the decisions?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kecklund, Lena; Petterson, Sara

    2008-04-01

    The first report contained a summary of relevant research of decision making, a case study at Ringhals power plant and an analysis of some real cases of operational readiness decisions. In this report two case studies in the Swedish power plants, OKG and Forsmark are presented. The case study description consists of three parts; a description of the support from the management system for the decision making process, interviews with decision makers and an analysis of real cases of operational readiness decisions. The purpose of the project has been to increase the understanding of the decision process in operational readiness decisions as well as the support given from the management system and what factors influence the decisions. From a general point of view the circumstances where the decision must be taken varies, but situations and events that lead to questioning of the operational readiness are often easy to identify. There are often support documents such as procedures, rules and technical documents which specify operational limitations which give explicit decision criteria. These decisions are easy. When needed colleagues can be consulted for support. In unclear situations and/or when the technical criteria is not clear, e.g. when the rules and regulations are vague or even in conflict or when it is not evident that you need to question the operational readiness, the decision is more difficult to make. The results from the study shows that such decisions in general are not made by the shift crew manager but handed over to the next management level. The decision making process differs between the power plants. At one of the power plants the decision process is organised in specific meetings where decision made are reviewed by the next higher management level. At another plant the decisions are often made in groups or in consultation with colleagues. The management system makes a distinction between decisions made in consultation and when decisions already

  6. Performance of Generating Plant: Managing the Changes. Part 3: Renewable energy plant: reports on wind, photovoltaics and biomas energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manoha, Bruno; Cohen, Martin [Electricite de France (France)

    2008-05-15

    The WEC Committee on the Performance of Generating Plant (PGP) has been collecting and analysing power plant performance statistics worldwide for more than 30 years and has produced regular reports, which include examples of advanced techniques and methods for improving power plant performance through benchmarking. A series of reports from the various working groups was issued in 2008. This reference presents the results of Working Group 3 (WG3). WG3 will promote the introduction of performance indicators for renewable energy generating plant (wind, geothermal, solar and biomass) developed by the Committee. It will also assess selected transitional technology issues and environmental factors related to non-conventional technologies. The WG3 report includes sections on Wind Energy Today, Photovoltaics Energy Today, Biomass Electricity Today and appendices.

  7. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) conceptual design report. Part I: executive summary. Part II: facilities and system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-06-01

    The pilot plant is developed for ERDA low-level contact-handled transuranic waste, ERDA remote-handled intermediate-level transuranic waste, and for high-level waste experiments. All wastes placed in the WIPP arrive at the site processed and packaged; no waste processing is done at the WIPP. All wastes placed into the WIPP are retrievable. The proposed site for WIPP lies 26 miles east of Carlsbad, New Mexico. This document includes the executive summary and a detailed description of the facilities and systems

  8. USE OF FRESH PARTS OF MEDICINAL PLANTS FOR HEALTH AND PRODUCTION IN LIVESTOCK – A NEW CONCEPT OF FARMING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shibabrata Pattanayak

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Farm animals are reared for production to meet up the demand for animal protein in human. Various modern medicines are extensively used for production as well as treatment and prevention of diseases of animals, which can ultimately reach us through food chain. Herbs are now considered as an important source of alternative medicines. The Ayurvedic medicines prepared by manufacturers contain processed plant parts and added with preservative and other chemicals in many cases. The present way of research on herbal medicine follows the path of identification of active principles from the extracts of preserved parts of medicinal plants after testing of their efficacy in laboratory. This concept of research have the limitation of loss of many aromatic and other phytochemicals present in the living plant, which may have very important role when used together. Animals maintained in modern farm may be given relief from modern medicines in minor and moderate ailments, cure of problems related with their production with the validated fresh plant medicine available from the plants cultivated adjacent to the farm area. Consulting the reports of ethno-botanical study, a preliminary list of medicinal plant is prepared which are having antipyretic, analgesic, wound healing, immunostimulant, hepato-protective, fertility enhancing, pregnancy assisting, lactation assisting, anthelmintic, astringent, expectorant, purgative and anti-flatulent, nutriceutical, antiseptic, anti-dermatitis, anti-dysenteric and anti-enteric, hematenic, stomachic, diuretic and kidney stone removing effects and insecticidal or insect repelling effects. This list may be enriched further and plants may be selected for a farm from these groups according to the agro-climatic condition of the area, disease prevalence, problems encountered during farming practice and other requirements of the farm. Validation of reported effects of the plants is to be performed in fresh condition, so that parts

  9. The Distributions of the Radionuclides Ra-226, Th-232 and K-40 in Various Parts of The Alfalfa Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salahel Din, K.; Harb, S.; Abbady, A.; Saad, N.

    2011-01-01

    The distribution of naturally occurring Ra-226, Th-232 and K-40 in different part of alfalfa plant from two different soils of Qena (South Valley University and Qena governorate farms) was studied under natural field conditions. Sixty two samples (alfalfa plant and its soil) were taken from nine sites inside farms. The samples were analyzed for their Ra-226, Th-232 and K-40 activity concentrations using gamma ray spectrometer consists of 3 x 3 NaI (Tl). The daily intakes of these radioisotopes by calves, milking cattle and sheep were calculated by multiplying concentrations in alfalfa and the daily consumption rates of these plants.

  10. Publishing WWII aerial photographs in geographical and library information systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhelst, E.C.H.; Missel, L.; Vanmeulebrouk, B.; Rip, F.I.

    2012-01-01

    The Library of the Dutch Wageningen University and Research centre houses a collection of aerial photographs taken by the Allied Air Forces. The collection is part of a project that aims to publish these images in a user friendly way so that they are accessible to a wide audience. This paper

  11. Performance of Generating Plant: Managing the Changes. Part 2: Thermal Generating Plant Unavailability Factors and Availability Statistics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curley, G. Michael [North American Electric Reliability Corporation (United States); Mandula, Jiri [International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)

    2008-05-15

    The WEC Committee on the Performance of Generating Plant (PGP) has been collecting and analysing power plant performance statistics worldwide for more than 30 years and has produced regular reports, which include examples of advanced techniques and methods for improving power plant performance through benchmarking. A series of reports from the various working groups was issued in 2008. This reference presents the results of Working Group 2 (WG2). WG2's main task is to facilitate the collection and input on an annual basis of power plant performance data (unit-by-unit and aggregated data) into the WEC PGP database. The statistics will be collected for steam, nuclear, gas turbine and combined cycle, hydro and pump storage plant. WG2 will also oversee the ongoing development of the availability statistics database, including the contents, the required software, security issues and other important information. The report is divided into two sections: Thermal generating, combined cycle/co-generation, combustion turbine, hydro and pumped storage unavailability factors and availability statistics; and nuclear power generating units.

  12. Individual plant examination program: Perspectives on reactor safety and plant performance. Part 6, appendices A, B, and C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-12-01

    This report provides perspectives gained by reviewing 75 Individual Plant Examination (IPE) submittals pertaining to 108 nuclear power plant units. IPEs are probabilistic analyses that estimate the core damage frequency (CDF) and containment performance for accidents initiated by internal events (including internal flooding, but excluding internal fire). The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research, reviewed the WE submittals with the objective of gaining perspectives in three major areas: (1) improvements made to individual plants as a result of their IPEs and the collective results of the IPE program, (2) plant-specific design and operational features and modeling assumptions that significantly affect the estimates of CDF and containment performance, and (3) strengths and weaknesses of the models and methods used in the IPEs. These perspectives are gained by assessing the core damage and containment performance results, including overall CDF, accident sequences, dominant contributions to component failure and human error, and containment failure modes. In particular, these results are assessed in relation to the design and operational characteristics of the various reactor and containment types, and by comparing the IPEs to probabilistic risk assessment characteristics. Methods, data, boundary conditions, and assumptions used in the IPEs are considered in understanding the differences and similarities observed among the various types of plants

  13. Application of risk based inspection as a part of life management of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinod, Gopika; Babar, A.K.; Saraf, R.K.; Kushwaha, H.S.; Venkat Raj, V.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Risk Informed approach is a systematic effort to improve plant safety in a more efficient manner by distributing the available safety resources depending on the importance to plant safety. This approach has found immense application in various aspects associated with Nuclear Power Plants, including design, manufacturing, operation and regulation. Typical applications of Risk Informed approach are in Technical Specification, In-Service Inspection (ISI) requirements, Motor Operated Valve testing, Configuration Control etc. In order to cater to such variety of Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) based Risk Informed requirements, a software package, 'Risk Monitor' has been developed by the authors. An important application of Risk informed approach that has been undertaken for Indian Pressurised Heavy Water Reactor (IPHWR) is towards Risk Informed In-Service Inspection (RI-ISI). Studies are being conducted to evolve an inspection plan that is optimised to provide effective inspections at the right location with a proper inspection frequency. Using risk informed approach, the identification of system / component for inspection resource allocation is based on the results from Level 1 PSA of a NPP. Even though this methodology can be employed on any of the nuclear components/systems such as mechanical systems, instrumentation, etc., as a starting point, piping has been considered for employing Risk Informed Inspection. Plant risk assessment is modelled through the analysis of Core Damage Frequency (CDF) using PSA models. Risk Informed Inspection program of piping involves the estimation of failure probability or frequency of a piping segment and estimation of consequences of piping failures. ISI program changes could affect the failure probability values of piping and can introduce a change in CDF. These effects can be brought out through the implementation of Risk Informed inspection strategy. Various importance measures like Fussel-Vesely, Birnbaum

  14. INITIAL DEVELOPMENT OF AÇAÍ PLANTS UNDER SHADE GRADATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ELEANDRO CANDIDO DAPONT

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In order to evaluate the effect of different levels of shading on açai (Euterpe oleracea Mart. plants development, an experiment was conducted at the nursery of Floresta, Rio Branco, AC. The experiment was arranged in a completely randomized design with six treatments and four replications of 25 plants, set as full sunlight and 18%, 35%, 50%, 70%, and 80% shading. The evaluation occurred 125 days after transplantation and the variables were stem diameter, root length, length of the aerial part, total length, dry matter of root, dry matter of aerial part, and total dry matter. With exception of root length, there was significant difference between treatments for all variables. The production of açai plants should be performed using 40% shading.

  15. A technical and financial analysis of two recuperated, reciprocating engine driven power plants. Part 2: Financial analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orbaiz, Pedro Jose; Brear, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The financial performance of two hybrid power plants is analyzed. • Biomass and solar thermal energy are used as the renewable energy inputs. • The LCOE of both power plants is estimated using reference data. • The proposed power plants are of comparable LCOE to natural gas combined cycle. • Hybrid cycles resulted in cost-effective renewable energy generation. - Abstract: This paper is the second of a two part study that analyses the technical and financial performance of particular, recuperated engine systems. This second paper examines the financial performance of two hybrid (renewable/fossil), chemically recuperated power plants. One of these plants uses the combustion of biomass as the renewable energy input. The other assumes that solar thermal energy is used. This financial analysis estimates the so-called Levelized Cost of Electricity (LCOE) of both hybrids using reference data from several sources. Using consistent financial inputs, the LCOE of both hybrid plants is found to be comparable to the LCOE of natural gas combined cycle (NGCC) power generation. Further, the LCOE of the renewable portion of the hybrid plants’ total power output is significantly cheaper than that of all the renewable plants examined in the EPRI report, and is competitive with the fossil plants. As a result, the proposed hybrids appear to be a cost-effective form of greenhouse gas mitigation

  16. Integration of hydrothermal carbonization and a CHP plant: Part 2 –operational and economic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saari, Jussi; Sermyagina, Ekaterina; Kaikko, Juha; Vakkilainen, Esa; Sergeev, Vitaly

    2016-01-01

    Wood-fired combined heat and power (CHP) plants are a proven technology for producing domestic, carbon-neutral heat and power in Nordic countries. One drawback of CHP plants is the low capacity factors due to varying heat loads. In the current economic environment, uncertainty over energy prices creates also uncertainty over investment profitability. Hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) is a promising thermochemical conversion technology for producing an improved, more versatile wood-based fuel. Integrating HTC with a CHP plant allows simplifying the HTC process and extending the CHP plant operating time. An integrated polygeneration plant producing three energy products is also less sensitive to price changes in any one product. This study compares three integration cases chosen from the previous paper, and the case of separate stand-alone plants. The best economic performance is obtained using pressurized hot water from the CHP plant boiler drum as HTC process water. This has the poorest efficiency, but allows the greatest cost reduction in the HTC process and longest CHP plant operating time. The result demonstrates the suitability of CHP plants for integration with a HTC process, and the importance of economic and operational analysis considering annual load variations in sufficient detail. - Highlights: • Integration of wood hydrothermal carbonization with a small CHP plant studied. • Operation and economics of three concepts and stand-alone plants are compared. • Sensitivity analysis is performed. • Results show technical and thermodynamic analysis inadequate and misleading alone. • Minimizing HTC investment, extending CHP operating time important for profitability.

  17. 50 CFR 23.92 - Are any wildlife or plants, and their parts, products, or derivatives, exempt?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Are any wildlife or plants, and their parts, products, or derivatives, exempt? 23.92 Section 23.92 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) TAKING, POSSESSION, TRANSPORTATION, SALE...

  18. 33 CFR Appendix C to Part 273 - Information Requirements for Aquatic Plant Control Program Environmental Impact Statements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Aquatic Plant Control Program Environmental Impact Statements C Appendix C to Part 273 Navigation and... Environmental Impact Statements 1. Description of the problem. a. Pests. Identify the pest to be controlled by.... Relationship to environmental situation. Non-target organisms and integrated pest management programs. 2...

  19. 1954 Lea County DHO Aerial Photo Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial photographs are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The aerial photo inventory contains imagery from various sources that are now archived at the Earth...

  20. 1944 AAF 661 Aerial Photo Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial photographs are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The aerial photo inventory contains imagery from various sources that are now archived at the Earth...

  1. 1943 AAF 332 Aerial Photo Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial photographs are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The aerial photo inventory contains imagery from various sources that are now archived at the Earth...

  2. 1941 Otero County CTF Aerial Photo Idnex

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial photographs are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The aerial photo inventory contains imagery from various sources that are now archived at the Earth...

  3. 1947 Sandoval County DFD Aerial Photo Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial photographs are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The aerial photo inventory contains imagery from various sources that are now archived at the Earth...

  4. 1946 Eddy County DEO Aerial Photo Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial photographs are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The aerial photo inventory contains imagery from various sources that are now archived at the Earth...

  5. 1936 Curry County AG Aerial Photo Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial photographs are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The aerial photo inventory contains imagery from various sources that are now archived at the Earth...

  6. 1944 AAF 649 Aerial Photo Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial photographs are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The aerial photo inventory contains imagery from various sources that are now archived at the Earth...

  7. 1944 AAF 547 Aerial Photo Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial photographs are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The aerial photo inventory contains imagery from various sources that are now archived at the Earth...

  8. MANAGING SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF MEAT PROCESSING PLANTS AS PART OF THE MECHANISM OF STRATEGIC PLANNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. S. Gusev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies have proven that, at present one of the priority research areas as part of the Development Strategy of the Food Processing Industry of the Russian Federation until 2020 is to develop effective mechanisms for sustainable socio-economic development of industrial enterprises. This article investigated the logic of strategic planning within the framework of sustainable economic growth, analyzed the structure of strategic planning, study the subject of strategic planning in the management of sustainable development of enterprises, justified the basic principles of strategic planning for the effective management of sustainable development of industrial enterprises, as well as the complex of organizational tactical activities of operational management strategy for sustainable development of the enterprise. The observation revealed that currently there was a high need for the framework of the branch, departmental and state programs implemented in industrial management of scientific and methodological approaches of strategic planning. Studies have shown that these approaches in its conceptual entity should be based on the growth potential of the sustainable development of meat processing plants in space and time in order to achieve high competitive advantages. Conducted a systematic analysis of industry conditions proved that the problem of sustainable operation and development of meat processing enterprises as a problem of management and control is relatively new, unexplored and highly relevant. On the contrary, it is the basis of modern management strategy and management is a concept and methodology of the so-called adaptive enterprise development under the action of various external and internal factors, risks that may threaten its economic stability and sustainability.

  9. Conceptual design of a laser fusion power plant. Part I. An integrated facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-07-01

    This study is a new preliminary conceptual design and economic analysis of an inertial confinement fusion (ICF) power plant performed by Bechtel under the direction of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The purpose of a new conceptual design is to examine alternatives to the LLNL HYLIFE power plant and to incorporate information from the recent liquid metal cooled power plant conceptual design study (CDS) into the reactor system and balance of plant design. A key issue in the design of a laser fusion power plant is the degree of symmetry in the illumination of the target that will be required for a proper burn. Because this matter is expected to remain unresolved for some time, another purpose of this study is to determine the effect of symmetry requirements on the total plant size, layout, and cost

  10. Selected problems of minimization and management of radioactive wastes from nuclear power plant decommissioning. Part 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kyrs, M.; Moravec, A.

    1988-06-01

    The processing prior to storage of radioactive wastes produced in nuclear power plant decommissioning is described as are the types of containers employed for waste transport and/or disposal. Data are summarized on exposure of personnel to radioactivity resulting from nuclear power plant decommissioning activities, and accessible data are collected on the costs of nuclear power plant decommissioning and of waste management. Potential directions of research in this field under Czechoslovak conditions are specified. (author)

  11. Nuclear power and heating plants in the electric power system. Part I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalincik, L.

    1975-01-01

    Procedures used and results obtained in the following works are described: Incorporation of the nuclear power plants in the power system in the long term perspective; physical limitations on the WWER 440 reactor power changes during fuel campaigns; evaluation of the consumption and start-up characteristics of WWER type nuclear power plants (2x440 MWe); evaluation of refuelling campaigns distribution of nuclear power plant units with regard to comprehensive control properties of nuclear power plants; the possibilities are investigated of the utilization of the WWER type reactor for heat supply in Czechoslovakia. (author)

  12. Aerial Measuring System Sensor Modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Detwiler, R.S.

    2002-01-01

    This project deals with the modeling the Aerial Measuring System (AMS) fixed-wing and rotary-wing sensor systems, which are critical U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) Consequence Management assets. The fixed-wing system is critical in detecting lost or stolen radiography or medical sources, or mixed fission products as from a commercial power plant release at high flying altitudes. The helicopter is typically used at lower altitudes to determine ground contamination, such as in measuring americium from a plutonium ground dispersal during a cleanup. Since the sensitivity of these instruments as a function of altitude is crucial in estimating detection limits of various ground contaminations and necessary count times, a characterization of their sensitivity as a function of altitude and energy is needed. Experimental data at altitude as well as laboratory benchmarks is important to insure that the strong effects of air attenuation are modeled correctly. The modeling presented here is the first attempt at such a characterization of the equipment for flying altitudes. The sodium iodide (NaI) sensors utilized with these systems were characterized using the Monte Carlo N-Particle code (MCNP) developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory. For the fixed wing system, calculations modeled the spectral response for the 3-element NaI detector pod and High-Purity Germanium (HPGe) detector, in the relevant energy range of 50 keV to 3 MeV. NaI detector responses were simulated for both point and distributed surface sources as a function of gamma energy and flying altitude. For point sources, photopeak efficiencies were calculated for a zero radial distance and an offset equal to the altitude. For distributed sources approximating an infinite plane, gross count efficiencies were calculated and normalized to a uniform surface deposition of 1 microCi/m 2 . The helicopter calculations modeled the transport of americium-241 ( 241 Am) as this is

  13. Comparison of Shell, Texaco, BGL and KRW gasifiers as part of IGCC plant computer simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, L.; Furimsky, E. [Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). CANMET Energy Technology Centre

    2005-07-01

    The performances of four IGCC plants employing Shell, Texaco, BGL and KRW gasifiers were simulated using ASPEN Plus software for three different feeds. Performance analyses and comparisons of all four IGCC plants were performed based on the established data bank from the simulation. Discussions were focused on gas compositions, gasifier selection and overall performance.

  14. Plant Parts Snack--A Way to Family Involvement, Science Learning, and Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matt, Megan Mason

    2008-01-01

    As a teacher who loves to bring botany into her preschool classroom of 4- and 5-year-olds, the author makes edible plants a regular, popular feature of her students' environment. The author is fascinated when her students become increasingly adventurous in their tastes for vegetables the more they handle and understand plants. The author decided…

  15. Aerial Radiation Detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quam, W. M.

    1999-01-01

    An airborne system designed for the detection of radioactive sources on the soil surface from an aircraft normally senses gamma rays emitted by the source. Gamma rays have the longest path length (least attenuation) through the air of any of the common radioactive emissions and will thus permit source detection at large distances. A secondary benefit from gamma rays detection if that nearly all radioactive isotopes can be identified by the spectrum of gammas emitted. Major gaseous emissions from fuel processing plants emit gammas that may be detected and identified. Some types of special nuclear material also emit neutrons which are also useful for detection at a distance

  16. Loose parts, vibration and leakage monitoring methods and systems to increase availability, transparency and lifetime of power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Streicher, V.; Jax, P.; Ruthrof, K.

    1987-01-01

    This paper deals with three stand-alone-systems as an aid to check the mechanical integrity of the primary circuit of nuclear power plants. The main goals of these systems are early detection of faults and malfunctions, the facilitation of fault clearance, the avoidance of sequential damage and reduction of inspection time and cost. Obviously the proper application of the systems as well as the measures they induce and make possible increase the availability of the plant and contribute to lifetime extension. In order to detect, identify and pinpoint the changes in component structure such as loosened connections, broken parts or components, loose or loosened particles, fatigued materials, cracks and leaks, specialized monitoring systems were developed by KWU (Kraftwerk Union AG) during the last ten years. Requirements concerning vibration, loose parts and leakage monitoring are part of German guidelines and safety standards. Therefore systems for these applications are implemented in most of the nuclear power plants in Western Germany. This paper presents newly developed, microprocessor-based systems for loose parts monitoring, vibration monitoring and leakage monitoring and also includes specific case histories for the different topics

  17. Remotely handled and remotely operated valve, particularly for the hot part of radioactive plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radovan, G.; Sandling, M.J.; Davidson, J.W.; Blaseck, K.; Hoffmeister, L.; Westendorf, H.

    1988-01-01

    The valve consists of a valve whose valve housing is built into a pipeline. The wear parts of the valve to be replaced, such as the valve body and valve seat, are combined into a replacement part. The replacement part and a clamp act together so that the replacement part is interlocked with the valve housing in the closed operating position. The exchange can be made by undoing a single central screw. (DG) [de

  18. Absorption of /sup 45/Ca during the immersion of the aerial organs of Salicornia stricta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langlois, J.; Vilquin, A.

    1971-04-01

    Immersion of the aerial organs of Salicornia stricta in a nutrient solution with added radioactive /sup 45/Ca resulted in the accumulation of /sup 45/Ca in the aerial organs. There was no accumulation when the roots were immersed in the nutrient solution. Absorption of minerals by the stems and leaves of Salicornia during periodic submersions in the brackish water surrounding the plants, is therefore possible. 17 references, 1 figure, 1 table.

  19. Nutritional Value and Bioactive Compounds Characterization of Plant Parts From Cynara cardunculus L. (Asteraceae Cultivated in Central Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spyridon A. Petropoulos

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the nutritional value of the edible parts (immature capitula of cardoon plants was evaluated, while further analyses were carried out in order to assess antioxidant properties and phenolic compounds composition of the various plant parts and seed oils. Cardoon capitula (heads were a rich source of carbohydrates, with the main detected free sugar being sucrose, as well as of macro- and micro-minerals (K, Ca, Mg, and Fe. Heads were also abundant in saturated fatty acids (palmitic, behenic, linoleic, stearic, caproic, and oleic acid, whereas seed oils in unsaturated fatty acids (linoleic, oleic, palmitic, and stearic acid. Total phenolic compounds (TPC content and phenolics composition differed between the various plant parts, with heads and leaf blades having higher TPC than midribs and petioles. Moreover, heads and leaf midribs and petioles consisted mainly of phenolic acids (5-O-caffeoylquinic and 3,5-O-dicaffeoylquinic acid, with flavonoids being detected in lower amounts. In contrast, the composition of polyphenols in leaf blades consisted mostly of flavonoids (Luteolin-7-O-glucoside and luteolin-7-O-malonylhexoside, whereas phenolic acids were also detected in considerable amounts (5-O-feruloylquinic and 3-O-caffeoylquinic acid. Regarding antioxidant properties, leaf blades and seeds exhibited the highest potency for all the tested assays which could be partly attributed to the synergistic effects of the phenolic compounds present in each sample. In conclusion, cardoon plant parts may find various uses in the food and pharmaceutical industry, since they contain considerable amounts of bioactive molecules, while seed oils can be considered as alternative vegetable oils for human consumption.

  20. Natural concentrations of Pb/sup 210/ and Po/sup 210/ in plants of steppe phytocoenoses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ladinskaya, L A; Parfenov, Yu D; Arutyunov, P S; Popov, D K [Leningradskij Inst. Radiatsionnoj Gigieny (USSR)

    1976-01-01

    Data are presented on the concentration of /sup 210/Pb and /sup 210/Po in summer vegetation in the aerial and root parts of sown fodder crops from steppes, saline meadows and marshy meadows and also in the leaves and branches of trees and bushes. The average concentrations of /sup 110/Pb and /sup 210/Po in the plants of individual communities have been evaluated, together with the /sup 210/Po//sup 210/Pb ratios in the aerial parts and roots and the accumulation coefficients. The variation distribution of the /sup 210/Po and /sup 210/Pb concentrations follows a log-normal law.

  1. Aerial radiological survey of the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory (Livermore, California)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tipton, W.J.

    1977-10-01

    An airborne radiological survey was conducted during August 1975 over several selected sites in the vicinity of Livermore, California. These sites included the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, Sandia Livermore Laboratories, LLL Site 300, the Livermore Municipal Golf Course, and the City of Livermore's sewage treatment plant. The radiation results were processed specifically for man-made gamma ray activity. All elevated man-made activity observed during the aerial survey was contained within the site boundaries of the three DOE facilities

  2. Evaluating Bioaerosol Emissions form in different parts of a Sanitary Wastewater Treatment Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Jahangiri

    2014-02-01

    .Conclusion: Wastewater treatment processes can contaminate the air surrounding the plant, particularly with bacteria bioaerosols. Therefore, it is necessary to control the emissions and protect the health of workers against risks arising from exposure to bioaerosols.

  3. The quality and safety of nuclear plants: the part played by the administrative authorities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Queniart, Daniel

    1976-01-01

    After specifying the notions of 'safety' and 'quality', the terms and conditions governing the intervention of the public authorities in the matter of safety of nuclear plants are described: individual permits, the establishing and application of technical rules of a general character, surveillance of the plants. The criteria and regulations guiding the evaluation of safety and quality and, in conclusion, insisting on the necessity for permanent discussions among the various organizations concerned are presented [fr

  4. Dynamic simulation of a low-temperature rectification Column as part of an IGCC power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanke, R. [Leipzig University of Applied Sciences, Department of Mechanical and Energy Engineering, P.O. Box 300066, D-04251 Leipzig (Germany); Hannemann, F. [Siemens AG - Power Generation, PG CTET, P.O. Box 3220, D-91050 Erlangen (Germany); Sundmacher, K. [Max Planck Institute of Dynamics of Complex Technical Systems, Sandtorstrasse 1, D-39106 Magdeburg (Germany); Otto-von-Guericke University Magdeburg, Faculty of Process and Systems Engineering, P.O. Box 4120, D-39106 Magdeburg (Germany)

    2003-11-01

    IGCC plants offer the opportunity to utilize fossil energy sources, like coal or heavy refinery residues, to satisfy increasing energy demand while considering strict environmental constraints. Such a plant consists of a combined power cycle, a fuel gasifier with downstream fuel gas conditioning and an air separation unit (ASU), where the oxygen required for gasification is produced. The low-temperature rectification column as the core of the ASU strongly affects the transient behavior of the system. (Abstract Copyright [2003], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  5. Accumulation of contaminants of emerging concern in food crops-part 2: Plant distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyland, Katherine C; Blaine, Andrea C; Higgins, Christopher P

    2015-10-01

    Arid agricultural regions often turn to using treated wastewater (reclaimed water) to irrigate food crops. Concerns arise, however, when considering the potential for persistent contaminants of emerging concern to accumulate into plants intended for human consumption. The present study examined the accumulation of a suite of 9 contaminants of emerging concern into 2 representative food crops, lettuce and strawberry, following uptake via the roots and subsequent distribution to other plant tissues. Calculating accumulation metrics (concentration factors) allowed for comparison of the compartmental affinity of each chemical for each plant tissue compartment. The root concentration factor was found to exhibit a positive linear correlation with the pH-adjusted octanol-water partition coefficient (DOW ) for the target contaminants of emerging concern. Coupled with the concentration-dependent accumulation observed in the roots, this result implies that accumulation of these contaminants of emerging concern into plant roots is driven by passive partitioning. Of the contaminants of emerging concern examined, nonionizable contaminants, such as triclocarban, carbamazepine, and organophosphate flame retardants displayed the greatest potential for translocation from the roots to above-ground plant compartments. In particular, the organophosphate flame retardants displayed increasing affinity for shoots and fruits with decreasing size/octanol-water partition coefficient (KOW ). Cationic diphenhydramine and anionic sulfamethoxazole, once transported to the shoots of the strawberry plant, demonstrated the greatest potential of the contaminants examined to be then carried to the edible fruit portion. © 2015 SETAC.

  6. Evaluation of methods for seismic analysis of nuclear fuel reprocessing plants, part 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokarz, F.J.; Murray, R.C.; Arthur, D.F.; Feng, W.W.; Wight, L.H.; Zaslawsky, M.

    1975-01-01

    Currently, no guidelines exist for choosing methods of structural analysis to evaluate the seismic hazard of nuclear fuel reprocessing plants. This study examines available methods and their applicability to fuel reprocessing plant structures. The results of this study should provide a basis for establishing guidelines recommending methods of seismic analysis for evaluating future fuel reprocessing plants. The approach taken is: (1) to identify critical plant structures and place them in four categories (structures at or near grade; deeply embedded structures; fully buried structures; equipment/vessels/attachments/piping), (2) to select a representative structure in each of the first three categories and perform static and dynamic analysis on each, and (3) to evaluate and recommend method(s) of analysis for structures within each category. The Barnwell Nuclear Fuel Plant is selected as representative of future commercial reprocessing plants. The effect of site characteristics on the structural response is also examined. The response spectra method of analysis combined with the finite element model for each category is recommended. For structures founded near or at grade, the lumped mass model could also be used. If a time history response is required, a time-history analysis is necessary. (U.S.)

  7. Delayed degradation in soil of foliar herbicides glyphosate and sulcotrione previously absorbed by plants: Consequences on herbicide fate and risk assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Doublet, Jeremy; Mamy, Laure; Barriuso Benito, Enrique

    2009-01-01

    Following application, pesticides can be intercepted and absorbed by weeds and/or crops. Plants containing pesticides residues may then reach the soil during the crop cycle or after harvest. However, the fate in soil of pesticides residues in plants is unknown. Two commonly used foliar herbicides, glyphosate and sulcotrione, 14C-labeled, were applied on leaves of oilseed rape and/or maize, translocation was studied, and then soil incubations of aerial parts of plants containing herbicides res...

  8. Who's on first? Part I: Influence of plant growth on C association with fresh soil minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neurath, R.; Whitman, T.; Nico, P. S.; Pett-Ridge, J.; Firestone, M. K.

    2015-12-01

    Mineral surfaces provide sites for carbon stabilization in soils, protecting soil organic matter (SOM) from microbial degradation. SOM distributed across mineral surfaces is expected to be patchy and certain minerals undergo re-mineralization under dynamic soil conditions, such that soil minerals surfaces can range from fresh to thickly-coated with SOM. Our research investigates the intersection of microbiology and geochemistry, and aims to build a mechanistic understanding of plant-derived carbon (C) association with mineral surfaces and the factors that determine SOM fate in soil. Plants are the primary source of C in soil, with roots exuding low-molecular weight compounds during growth and contributing more complex litter compounds at senescence. We grew the annual grass, Avena barbata, (wild oat) in a 99 atom% 13CO2 atmosphere in soil microcosms incubated with three mineral types representing a spectrum of reactivity and surface area: quartz, kaolinite, and ferrihydrite. These minerals, isolated in mesh bags to exclude roots but not microorganisms, were extracted and analyzed for total C and 13C at multiple plant growth stages. At plant senescence, the quartz had the least mineral-bound C (0.40 mg-g-1) and ferrihydrite the most (0.78 mg-g-1). Ferrihydrite and kaolinite also accumulated more plant-derived C (3.0 and 3.1% 13C, respectively). The experiment was repeated with partially digested 13C-labled root litter to simulate litter decomposition during plant senescence. Thus, we are able evaluate contributions derived from living and dead root materials on soil minerals using FTIR and 13C-NMR. We find that mineral-associated C bears a distinct microbial signature, with soil microbes not only transforming SOM prior to mineral association, but also populating mineral surfaces over time. Our research shows that both soil mineralogy and the chemical character of plant-derived compounds are important controls of mineral protection of SOM.

  9. Ethnomedicine of the Kagera Region, north western Tanzania. Part 2: The medicinal plants used in Katoro Ward, Bukoba District

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mbabazi Pamela K

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Kagera region of north western Tanzania has a rich culture of traditional medicine use and practices. The dynamic inter-ethnic interactions of different people from the surrounding countries constitute a rich reservoir of herbal based healing practices. This study, the second on an ongoing series, reports on the medicinal plant species used in Katoro ward, Bukoba District, and tries to use the literature to establish proof of the therapeutic claims. Methodology Ethnomedical information was collected using Semi-structured interviews in Kyamlaile and Kashaba villages of Katoro, and in roadside bushes on the way from Katoro to Bukoba through Kyaka. Data collected included the common/local names of the plants, parts used, the diseases treated, methods of preparation, dosage, frequency and duration of treatments. Information on toxicity and antidote were also collected. Literature was consulted to get corroborative information on similar ethnomedical claims and proven biological activities of the plants. Results Thirty three (33 plant species for treatement of 13 different disease categories were documented. The most frequently treated diseases were those categorized as specific diseases/conditions (23.8% of all remedies while eye diseases were the least treated using medicinal plants (1.5% of all remedies. Literature reports support 47% of the claims including proven anti-malarial, anti-microbial and anti-inflammatory activity or similar ethnomedical uses. Leaves were the most frequently used plant part (20 species followed by roots (13 species while making of decoctions, pounding, squeezing, making infusions, burning and grinding to powder were the most common methods used to prepare a majority of the therapies. Conclusion Therapeutic claims made on plants used in traditional medicine in Katoro ward of Bukoba district are well supported by literature, with 47% of the claims having already been reported. This study further

  10. Seed priming with extracts of Acacia nilotica (L.) Willd. ex Delile and Sapindus mukorossi (L.) plant parts in the control of root rot fungi and growth of plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rafi, H.; Dawar, S.; Zaki, M.J.

    2015-01-01

    Seed priming with plant extracts and chemicals has been used as an important growth enhancement tool in crop plants. In this research, an attempt was made to understand the mechanism of various seed priming treatments on greenhouse-grown okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench.), sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.), peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) and chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) for the control of root infecting fungi like Rhizoctonia solani (Kn), Fusarium spp. and Macrophomina phaseolina (Tassi) Goid by plant parts extracts (stem, leaves and seeds) of Acacia nilotica (L.) Willd. ex Delile and Sapindus mukorossi (L) at different time intervals (5, 10, 20, 40 minutes). Results showed significant suppression of root rot fungi and significantly enhanced the growth parameters like shoot length, root length, shoot weight and root weight. Seed-priming with A. nilotica and S. mukorossi leaves extract for 10 minutes time interval was found to be effective for the control of root rot fungi and growth of all tested leguminous and non-leguminous plants. (author)

  11. Performance of Generating Plant: Managing the Changes. Part 4: Markets and Risk Management Strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moss, Terry; Loedolff, Gerhard; Griffin, Rob; Kydd, Robert; Micali, Vince [Eskom (South Africa)

    2008-05-15

    The WEC Committee on the Performance of Generating Plant (PGP) has been collecting and analysing power plant performance statistics worldwide for more than 30 years and has produced regular reports, which include examples of advanced techniques and methods for improving power plant performance through benchmarking. A series of reports from the various working groups was issued in 2008. This reference presents the results of Working Group 4 (WG4). WG4 will monitor the development of power markets, in particular from the market risk management point of view, including operational risks. It will assess various risk management strategies used by market players around the world and develop recommendations for a wider deployment of successful strategies. The report covers the project approach and outcomes.

  12. Health and environmental impacts of a fertilizer plant - Part II: Assessment of radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Righi, Serena; Lucialli, Patrizia; Bruzzi, Luigi

    2005-01-01

    In the previous paper the authors have studied the radioactive pollution caused by a complex fertilizers production plant. In this paper, the effective doses to the plant workers and to members of the population surrounding the industrial site are estimated. The authors have considered external irradiation, inhalation and ingestion of dust and inhalation of radon and radon daughters as the main occupational exposure routes. After estimating the single contributions, the total effective dose has been calculated as the sum of said contributions. Calculations have been differentiated according to the different tasks of the company employees. The estimated annual effective doses range from 0.6 to 1.4 mSv y -1 . Annual individual effective doses to local residents, resulting from internal and external irradiation caused by particulate matter emitted into the atmosphere by the plant have been estimated. The maximum individual dose rate is estimated to be about 4 μSv y -1

  13. The part played by applied geology in nuclear power plant site studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giafferi, J.L.

    1994-01-01

    Site-related geological problems are one of the constraints affecting the environment of nuclear power plants. The natural features (soil and subsoil) at the nuclear power plant site affect numerous factors in the design, construction and operation of the civil engineering structures. The site geological criteria are not solely restricted to the soil as a static support for the structures. Earth tremors in France are of moderate intensity but the likelihood of their occurrence must nevertheless be taken into account for each site. Studies must concern the geological and seismic features of the region as well as the soil and subsoil configurations and composition in the immediate vicinity of the site in order to determine the physical characteristics of the earthquakes so that the safety of the plant can be guaranteed; in many cases, water tables have also to be taken into consideration. Geologic survey techniques are discussed. 13 figs., 7 refs

  14. Kelp as a bioindicator: does it matter which part of 5 m long plant is used for metal analysis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Joanna; Gochfeld, Michael; Jeitner, Christian; Gray, Matt; Shukla, Tara; Shukla, Sheila; Burke, Sean

    2007-05-01

    Kelp may be useful as a bioindicator because they are primary producers that are eaten by higher trophic level organisms, including people and livestock. Often when kelp or other algae species are used as bioindicators, the whole organism is homogenized. However, some kelp can be over 25 m long from their holdfast to the tip of the blade, making it important to understand how contaminant levels vary throughout the plant. We compared the levels of arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, manganese, mercury and selenium in five different parts of the kelp Alaria nana to examine the variability of metal distribution. To be useful as a bioindicator, it is critical to know whether levels are constant throughout the kelp, or which part is the highest accumulator. Kelp were collected on Adak Island in the Aleutian Chain of Alaska from the Adak Harbor and Clam Cove, which opens onto the Bering Sea. In addition to determining if the levels differ in different parts of the kelp, we wanted to determine whether there were locational or size-related differences. Regression models indicated that between 14% and 43% of the variation in the levels of arsenic, cadmium, chromium, manganese, mercury, and selenium was explained by total length, part of the plant, and location (but not for lead). The main contributors to variability were length (for arsenic and selenium), location (mercury), and part of the plant (for arsenic, cadmium, chromium and manganese). The higher levels of selenium occurred at Clam Cove, while mercury was higher at the harbor. Where there was a significant difference among parts, the holdfast had the highest levels, although the differences were not great. These data indicate that consistency should be applied in selecting the part of kelp (and the length) to be used as a bioindicator. While any part of Alaria could be collected for some metals, for arsenic, cadmium, chromium, and manganese a conversion should be made among parts. In the Aleutians the holdfast can be

  15. Aerial radiological survey of the Three Mile Island Nuclear Station and surrounding area, Middletown, Pennsylvania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colton, D.P.

    1983-08-01

    An aerial radiological survey was performed over the area surrounding the Three Mile Island Nuclear Station during October 26 to 30, 1982. The survey covered an 82-square-kilometer area centered on the nuclear plant and encompassed the communities of Middletown, York Haven, Goldsboro and Royalton, Pennsylvania. The highest radiation exposure rates, up to a maximum of 200 microroentgens per hour (μR/h), were inferred from data measured directly over the TMI facilities. This detected radiation was due to the presence of cobalt-58, cobalt-60 and cesium-137, which was consistent with normal plant operations. Similar activity is routinely observed in aerial surveys over nuclear power plants which have been or are presently in an operational mode. For the remainder of the survey area, the inferred radiation exposure rates varied from 6 to 14 μR/h. The reported exposure rate values include an estimated cosmic ray contribution of 3.7 μR/h. Ground-based measurements, conducted during the time of the aerial survey, were compared to the aerial results. Pressurized ionization chamber readings and a group of soil samples were acquired at several locations within the survey area, along the river banks upstream and downstream of the survey area, and at the ground-based locations used for a previous aerial survey which was conducted in 1976. The exposure rate values obtained from these measurements were in agreement with the corresponding aerial data. With the exception of the activity observed within the TMI facilities, no evidence of any contamination which might have occurred as a result of past reactor operations or the 1979 TMI Unit 2 accident was detected from the aerial survey data. This was further supported by the results of the soil sample analyses and the comparison with the 1976 aerial survey data. 7 references, 12 figures, 4 tables

  16. Simulated drift effect of glyphosate in different parts of Eucalyptus grandis plantsEfeito da deriva simulada de glyphosate em diferentes partes da planta de Eucalyptus grandis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Renata Rocha Pereira

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The present work aimed to evaluate the effects of simulated drift of glyphoste on Eucalyptus grandis, through the application of low doses in different parts of the plant. The experimental design was a randomized block design with five replications. The treatments were glyphosate application at 0; 30; 60; 90 e 120 g a.e. ha-1 of the commercial formulation Scout®. Three forms of application were used: applying on leaf, on stem, and on the entire plant (leaf + stem. For leaf application, stems were covered with plastic ribbons to protect them from the solution; the same was made with plants that were sprayed on stems, covering leaf with plastic bag. The application was carried out in an armed stationary spray tips XR 11002 VS, with 183 KPa pressure in volume of 200 L ha-1. The eucalyptus plants receiving applications in leaves and whole plant (leaves + stem showing effects of intoxication are more intense about the plants that received the stem applications only. However, there may be increases in height growth and total dry mass of eucalyptus plants in applications of 30 g a.e. ha-1 glyphosate.No presente trabalho objetivou-se avaliar os efeitos da deriva simulada de glyphoste em plantas de Eucalyptus grandis, por meio da aplicação de doses reduzidas em diferentes partes da planta. Utilizouse o delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com cinco repetições. Os tratamentos foram constituídos da aplicação de 0; 30; 60; 90 e 120 g e.a.ha-1 de glyphosate, da formulação comercial Scout®. A aplicação foi realizada de três formas: aplicação sobre as folhas, no caule e na planta inteira (folha + caule. Para a aplicação nas folhas o caule foi coberto com fitas plásticas para evitar que fosse atingido pela solução, e o mesmo foi feito com as plantas que receberam pulverização no caule, cobrindo as folhas com saco plástico. A aplicação foi realizada em um pulverizador estacionário, munido de pontas XR 11002 VS, com pressão de 183

  17. Aerial robotic data acquisition system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofstetter, K.J.; Hayes, D.W.; Pendergast, M.M.

    1995-01-01

    A small unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) equipped with sensors for physical and chemical measurements of remote environments, is described. A miniature helicopter airframe is used as a platform for sensor testing and development. The sensor output is integrated with the flight control system for real-time, interactive, data acquisition and analysis. Pre programmed flight missions will be flown with several sensors to demonstrate the cost-effective surveillance capabilities of this new technology. (author) 10 refs

  18. Pyrotechnic countermeasures: II. Advanced aerial infrared countermeasures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koch, Ernst-Christian [Diehl BGT Defence GmbH and Co. KG, Fischbachstrasse 16, D-90552 Roethenbach a. d. Pegnitz (Germany)

    2006-02-15

    This paper discusses the technology of advanced aerial infrared countermeasures and related work disclosed in the unclassified literature. Missile-seeker head counter-countermeasures include spectral discrimination, kinematical discrimination, rise-time discrimination, UV/VIS discrimination and area temperature matching. Advanced flare payloads designed to counter dual color seekers contain selectively emitting compositions based primarily on high carbon fuels and perchlorates. Other advanced payloads consist of low temperature emitters like pyrophoric metal foils and gasless pyrotechnic compositions like Fe/KClO{sub 4}. The optimization of black body flares, still considered essential to a successful countermeasure solution, make use of new fuels based on e.g. meta-stable alloys and nanometer-sized powders as well as high energetic oxidizers. Kinematic flares today use combined propellant and infrared grains. 116 references from the public domain are given. For part I see Propellants, Explos., Pyrotech. 2001, 26, 3. (Abstract Copyright [2006], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  19. Fire protection for nuclear power plants. Part 1. Fundamental approaches. Version 6/99

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-06-01

    The KTA nuclear safety code sets out the fundamental approaches and principles for the prevention of fires in nuclear power plants, addressing aspects such as initiation, spreading, and effects of a fire: (a) Fire load and ignition sources, (b) structural and plant engineering conditions, (c) ways and means relating to fire call and fire fighting. Relevant technical and organisational measures are defined. Scope and quality of fire prevention measures to be taken, as well the relevant in-service inspection activities are determined according to the protective goals pursued in each case. (orig./CB) [de

  20. An endothermic chemical process facility coupled to a high temperature reactor. Part I: Proposed accident scenarios within the chemical plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, Nicholas R.; Seker, Volkan; Revankar, Shripad T.; Downar, Thomas J.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► The paper identifies possible transient and accident scenarios in a coupled PBMR and thermochemical sulfur cycle based hydrogen plant. ► Key accidents scenarios were investigated through qualitative reasoning. ► The accidents were found to constitute loss of heat sink event for the nuclear reactor. - Abstract: Hydrogen generation using a high temperature nuclear reactor as a thermal driving vector is a promising future option for energy carrier production. In this scheme, the heat from the nuclear reactor drives an endothermic water-splitting plant, via coupling, through an intermediate heat exchanger. Quantitative study of the possible operational or accident events within the coupled plant is largely absent from the literature. In this paper, seven unique case studies are proposed based on a thorough review of possible events. The case studies are: (1) feed flow failure from one section of the chemical plant to another with an accompanying parametric study of the temperature in an individual reaction chamber, (2) product flow failure (recycle) within the chemical plant, (3) rupture or explosion within the chemical plant, (4) nuclear reactor helium inlet overcooling due to a process holding tank failure, (5) helium inlet overcooling as an anticipated transient without emergency nuclear reactor shutdown, (6) total failure of the chemical plant, (7) control rod insertion in the nuclear reactor. The qualitative parameters of each case study are outlined as well as the basis in literature. A previously published modeling scheme is described and adapted for application as a simulation platform for these transient events. The results of the quantitative case studies are described within part II of this paper.

  1. Telemetry of Aerial Radiological Measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, H. W. Jr.

    2002-01-01

    Telemetry has been added to National Nuclear Security Administration's (NNSA's) Aerial Measuring System (AMS) Incident Response aircraft to accelerate availability of aerial radiological mapping data. Rapid aerial radiological mapping is promptly performed by AMS Incident Response aircraft in the event of a major radiological dispersal. The AMS airplane flies the entire potentially affected area, plus a generous margin, to provide a quick look at the extent and severity of the event. The primary result of the AMS Incident Response over flight is a map of estimated exposure rate on the ground along the flight path. Formerly, it was necessary to wait for the airplane to land before the map could be seen. Now, while the flight is still in progress, data are relayed via satellite directly from the aircraft to an operations center, where they are displayed and disseminated. This permits more timely utilization of results by decision makers and redirection of the mission to optimize its value. The current telemetry capability can cover all of North America. Extension to a global capability is under consideration

  2. Accounting Issues: An Essay Series Part IV--Property, Plant, & Equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laux, Judy

    2007-01-01

    This fourth article in a series of theoretical essays intended to supplement the introductory financial accounting course is dedicated to the topic of property, plant, and equipment (PP&E), including both the accounting treatment and its related conceptual connections. The paper also addresses the measurement dilemmas, scandalous accounting…

  3. Particulars in design of the electrical part of the Kiev Pumped-Storage Electric Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brimerberg, V P

    1976-01-01

    The Kiev Pumped-Storage Electric Power Plant is the first such installation in the Soviet Union. The power capacity of the plant is 225 MW. There are six vertical hydraulic generators: three are connected to vertical pump-turbines and operate as motor-generators; the other three are connected to vertical radial-axial hydraulic turbines and operate as generators only. Each generator is a type SVO 733/130-36 with power of 45.6 MVA. The active power load is 83.5 MW, reactive--75.1, and total--112.5 MVA. The installation can be used for 500 h/yr at maximum power, producing 110 million kWh. During the high-water period, the plant is used daily for about 100 days, covering the peak of the load schedule of the southern power system. During the low-water period the plant is used as needed. During the slack hours at night the system operates in the pump mode for about 1400 h/yr, using 160 million kWh. During the remainder of the day the generators work as synchronous compensators with a total load on each of 36,500 kvar. Electrical circuits and a cross section of the generator are given. An explanation is also given of the grounding precautions taken to ensure an equipotential field at all points of the installation where personnel may be located.

  4. Evaluation of energy efficiency opportunities of a typical Moroccan cement plant: Part I. Energy analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fellaou, S.; Bounahmidi, T.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • We have analyzed the degree of freedom of the overall system. • We validated the redundant measurements by the Lagrange multipliers technique. • We have analyzed the mass and the energy balances by two approaches. • We identified the factors that penalize the energetic performance of the whole plant. • We assessed options to improve energy efficiency of the entire cement plant. - Abstract: The cement industry is one of Morocco’s most highly energy intensive economic sectors. It suffers from abnormally high cost of energy supplies, representing more than two thirds of the cost of cement; the first item of expenditure is electricity and fuel with 40% and 30% respectively. Herefor, much more effort is needed to make the cement sector reach energy saving targets set by the Moroccan energy efficiency strategy. The present work aims to evaluate energy performance of an existing Moroccan cement plant based on a detailed mass and energy balances analysis. Redundant measurements were validated by the Lagrange multipliers technique before being used for the calculation of unmeasured variables. The values for energy consumption and related losses through the whole production line are reported, and the results obtained have been used to assess the energy performance of the process. The evaluation was completed by both an analysis of possible energy loss sources and important solutions described in the international literature to improve the energy efficiency of the entire cement plant.

  5. Effects of gamma irradiation on fresh and dry weights of plant parts in Physalis L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raghava, R.P.; Raghava, Nisha

    1989-01-01

    20 KR irradiations on Physalis peruviana L. and P. angulta L. seem to be the best dose for plant growth. 40 and 50 KR doses were inhibitory to both, and 50 KR was found to be almost lethal (LD 50 ). (author). 14 refs

  6. Metal/metalloid content in plant parts and soils of Corylus spp. influenced by mining-metallurgical production of copper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radojevic, Ana A; Serbula, Snezana M; Kalinovic, Tanja S; Kalinovic, Jelena V; Steharnik, Mirjana M; Petrovic, Jelena V; Milosavljevic, Jelena S

    2017-04-01

    The town of Bor and its surroundings (Serbia) have been under environmental pollution for more than a century, due to exploitation of large copper deposits. Naturally present Corylus spp. were sampled in the surroundings of the mine and flotation tailings at 12 sites distributed in six zones with different pollution loads, under the assumption that all the zones were endangered except for the background. As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb and Zn inputs from soil and the air were evaluated in plant parts, in terms of absorption, accumulation and indication abilities of Corylus spp. The obtained results showed that As and Cu were the most enriched elements in soil, and their concentration exceeded the limit and remediation values proposed by the regulation. Plant parts (root, branch, leaf and catkin) also showed enrichment of most studied elements in wide ranges. According to the enrichment factor for plant, metal/metalloid inputs, particularly in leaves, were from anthropogenic origin. Plant absorption which occurred at the soil-root interface was low, based on the bioaccumulation factor, which could be indicative of resistance mechanisms of root to abiotic stress induced by a high content of elements in soil substrate. The values of bioaccumulation coefficient suggested weak and intermediate absorption and exclusion abilities of Corylus spp. to the studied elements. Element concentrations differ in unwashed and washed leaves, as well as pollution loads in plant and soil samples from the background, traffic and the sites with clear mining-metallurgical influence. Therefore, Corylus spp. could be promising in biomonitoring studies.

  7. Ground control station software design for micro aerial vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walendziuk, Wojciech; Oldziej, Daniel; Binczyk, Dawid Przemyslaw; Slowik, Maciej

    2017-08-01

    This article describes the process of designing the equipment part and the software of a ground control station used for configuring and operating micro unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV). All the works were conducted on a quadrocopter model being a commonly accessible commercial construction. This article contains a characteristics of the research object, the basics of operating the micro aerial vehicles (MAV) and presents components of the ground control station model. It also describes the communication standards for the purpose of building a model of the station. Further part of the work concerns the software of the product - the GIMSO application (Generally Interactive Station for Mobile Objects), which enables the user to manage the actions and communication and control processes from the UAV. The process of creating the software and the field tests of a station model are also presented in the article.

  8. Further improvement in ABWR (part-4) open distributed plant process computer system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makino, Shigenori; Hatori, Yoshinori

    1999-01-01

    In the nuclear industry of Japan, the electric power companies have promoted the plant process computer (PPC) technology of nuclear power plant (NPP). When PPC was introduced to NPP for the first time, because of very tight requirement such as high reliability, high speed processing, the large-scale customized computer was applied. As for recent computer field, the large market of computer contributes to the remarkable progress of engineering work station (EWS) and personal computer (PC) technology. Moreover because the data transmission technology has been progressing at the same time, world wide computer network has been established. Thanks to progress of both technologies, the distributed computer system has been established at reasonable price. So Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO) is trying to apply it for PPC of NPP. (author)

  9. Weather-induced variability of cesium 137 content in overground part of automorphic soil plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eliashevich, H.V.

    2000-01-01

    Daily variability of specific cesium 137 content in plants (12 species) from 30-km zone of Chernobyl NPP in summer time under the influence of climatic factors is shown. The rise of residual solar radiation (exceeding 2 MJ/m 2 in a day) and average diurnal temperature over 10 - 15 degrees centigrade (for different species) induced decrease in activity of overground phyto mass while precipitation takes opposite effect. A threshold and non-threshold type of cesium 137 accumulation in plants was recorded at higher daily fall-out. Critical sum of diurnal precipitation for the latter case in 5 species (Agropyron repens (L.) P.B., Bromus inermis Leyss., Origanum vulgare L., Festuca arundinacea Shreb., Acer plata noides L.) is in the range of 20 - 25 mm

  10. Ethnopharmacological Approaches for Therapy of Jaundice: Part II. Highly Used Plant Species from Acanthaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Asteraceae, Combretaceae, and Fabaceae Families

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devesh Tewari

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In many developing countries, jaundice is the common symptom of hepatic diseases which are a major cause of mortality. The use of natural product-based therapies is very popular for such hepatic disorders. A great number of medicinal plants have been utilized for this purpose and some facilitated the discovery of active compounds which helped the development of new synthetic drugs against jaundice. However, more epidemiological studies and clinical trials are required for the practical implementation of the plant pharmacotherapy of jaundice. The focus of this second part of our review is on several of the most prominent plants used against jaundice identified in the analysis performed in the first part of the review viz. Andrographis paniculata (Burm.f. Nees, Silybum marianum (L. Gaertn., Terminalia chebula Retz., Glycyrrhiza glabra L. and some species of genus Phyllanthus. Furthermore, we discuss their physiological effects, biologically active ingredients, and the potential mechanisms of action. Some of the most important active ingredients were silybin (also recommended by German commission, phyllanthin and andrographolide, whose action leads to bilirubin reduction and normalization of the levels of relevant serum enzymes indicative for the pathophysiological status of the liver.

  11. A resistance representation of schemes for evaporation from bare and partly plant-covered surfaces for use in atmospheric models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mihailovic, D.T.; Pielke, R.A.; Rajkovic, B.; Lee, T.J.; Jeftic, M. (Novi Sad Univ. (Yugoslavia) Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins (United States) Belgrade Univ. (Yugoslavia))

    1993-06-01

    In the parameterization of land surface processes, attention must be devoted to surface evaporation, one of the main processes in the air-land energy exchange. One of the most used approaches is the resistance representation which requires the calculation of aerodynamic resistances. These resistances are calculated using K theory for different morphologies of plant communities; then, the performance of the evaporation schemes within the alpha, beta, and their combination approaches that parameterize evaporation from bare and partly plant-covered soil surfaces are discussed. Additionally, a new alpha scheme is proposed based on an assumed power dependence alpha on volumetric soil moisture content and its saturated value. Finally, the performance of the considered and the proposed schemes is tested based on time integrations using real data. The first set was for 4 June 1982, and the second for 3 June 1981 at the experimental site in Rimski Sancevi, Yugoslavia, on chernozem soil, as representative for a bare, and partly plant-covered surface, respectively. 63 refs.

  12. Estimation of metal uptake in plant parts of roadside grown maize at selected growth stages

    OpenAIRE

    Anongo, M'ember C.; Uyovbisere, Edward O.; Ekong, Nsima J.

    2015-01-01

    Health risk assessment of heavy metals in roadside grown foodcrops consumed by humans is a very good technique because such assessment would provide information about any threat regarding heavy metal contamination. Plant and corresponding soil samples were collected for trace metal analysis to ascertain potential health risks. The non-significant differences of lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) levels among the selected growth stages shows that the levels of Pb and Cd in the foodcrops were not influ...

  13. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Part B permit application [for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This volume contains Appendix D2, engineering design basis reports. Contents include: Design considerations for the waste hoist of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP); A site-specific study of wind and tornado probabilities at the WIPP Site in southeast New Mexico; Seismic evaluation report of underground facilities; and calculations for analysis of wind loads and tornado loads for WHB, seismic calculations, calculations for VOC-10 monitoring system, and for shaft at station A

  14. Devising an energy saving technology for a biogas plant as a part of the cogeneration system

    OpenAIRE

    Чайковська, Євгенія Євстафіївна

    2015-01-01

    The paper suggests an operation technology for a biogas plant that allows setting a heating medium temperature at the inlet to the heat exchanger built in a digester and measuring the heating medium temperature at the outlet. An integrated system for assessing the varied temperature of digestion (that is based on mathematical and logical modeling within the cogeneration system) secures a continuous gas outlet, a timely unloading of fermented mash and loading of a fresh matter. For this purpos...

  15. Experimental studies on SO/sub 2/ injuries in higher plants. Part 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, H; Takanashi, T; Yatazawa, M

    1970-01-01

    The effect of sulfur dioxide on aminoacid metabolism was examined. Wheat seedlings one month old (20 cm) were exposed to 0.5 ppm SO/sub 2/ at 22/sup 0/C, and 40% humidity for four days, only during the day. A Beckman 1200 aminoacid analyzer revealed only slight effects, but it was conjectured that the plant had some separate amino acid in its body prior to the test, and that the effect of SO/sub 2/ was relatively low. A similar wheat seedling was placed in a closed glass container and was exposed to 300 ppm carbon dioxide (14) and 100 ppm SO/sub 2/ for 30 min under 4000 lux. The first paper chromatography of 80% ethanol solubles from the leaves revealed that Ala. value had increased but sir. had decreased in half. The second paper chromatography revealed that in both test and control plants, four kinds of material in amino acid had taken in C(14), and two of the four were Ser. Ala. The total C(14) taken in by the test material under SO/sub 2/ exposure showed a noted decrease. The experiment proved that exposure of a plant to a high concentration of SO/sub 2/ produced hydroxysulfonate in metabolism and impaired its glycol acid function.

  16. Fuzzy-4D/RCS for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Olivares Mendez, Miguel Angel; Campoy, Pascual; Mondragon, Ivan F.; Martinez, Carol

    2010-01-01

    Abstract This paper presents an improvement of the cognitive architecture, 4D/RCS, developed by the NIST. This improvement consist of the insertion of Fuzzy Logic cells (FLCs), in different parts and hierarchy levels of the architecture, and the adaptation of this architecture for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs). This advance provides an improvement in the functionality of the system based on the uses of the Miguel Olivares’ Fuzzy Software for the definition of the FLCs and its...

  17. Aerial infrared monitoring for nuclear fuel cycle facilities in Ukraine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stankevich, S.A.; Dudar, T.V.; Kovalenko, G.D.; Kartashov, V.V.

    2015-01-01

    The scientific research overall objective is rapid express detection and preliminary identification of pre-accidental conditions at nuclear fuel cycle facilities. We consider development of a miniature unmanned aerial vehicle equipped with high-precision infrared spectroradiometer able to detect remotely internal warming up of hazardous facilities by its thermal infrared radiation. The possibility of remote monitoring using unmanned aerial vehicle is considered at the example of the dry spent fuel storage facility of the Zaporizhzhya Nuclear Power Plant. Infrared remote monitoring is supposed to present additional information on the monitored facilities based on different physical principles rather than those currently in use. Models and specifications towards up-to-date samples of infrared surveying equipment and its small-sized unmanned vehicles are presented in the paper.

  18. Air-to-Air UAV Aerial Refueling

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Armstrong researchers, in cooperation with Northrop Grumman Corporation and the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) demonstrated autonomous aerial...

  19. Cast Steels for Creep-Resistant Parts Used in Heat Treatment Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drotlew A.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Creep-resistant parts of heat treatment furnaces are in most cases made from high-alloyed chromium-nickel and nickel-chromium iron alloys, both cast and wrought. This paper presents the types of casting alloys used for this particular purpose, since the majority of furnace components are made by the casting process. Standards were cited which give symbols of alloy grades used in technical specifications by the domestic industry. It has been indicated that castings made currently are based on a wider spectrum of the creep-resistant alloy grades than the number of alloys covered by the standards. Alloy grades recommended by the technical literature for individual parts of the furnace equipment were given. The recommendations reflect both the type of the technological process used and the technical tasks performed by individual parts of the furnace equipment. Comments were also made on the role of individual alloying elements in shaping the performance properties of castings.

  20. Cast Steels for Creep-resistant Parts Used in Heat Treatment Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Drotlew

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Creep-resistant parts of heat treatment furnaces are in most cases made from high-alloyed chromium-nickel and nickel-chromium ironalloys, both cast and wrought. This paper presents the types of casting alloys used for this particular purpose, since the majority of furnace components are made by the casting process. Standards were cited which give symbols of alloy grades used in technical specifications by the domestic industry. It has been indicated that castings made currently are based on a wider spectrum of the creep-resistant alloy grades than the number of alloys covered by the standards. Alloy grades recommended by the technical literature for individual parts of the furnace equipment were given. The recommendations reflect both the type of the technological process used and the technical tasks performed by individual parts of the furnace equipment. Comments were also made on the role of individual alloying elements in shaping the performance properties of castings.

  1. Y-12 Plant remedial action Technology Logic Diagram: Volume 3, Technology evaluation data sheets: Part A, Remedial action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-09-01

    The Y-12 Plant Remedial Action Technology Logic Diagram (TLD) was developed to provide a decision-support tool that relates environmental restoration (ER) problems at the Y-12 Plant to potential technologies that can remediate these problems. The TLD identifies the research, development, demonstration, testing, and evaluation needed for sufficient development of these technologies to allow for technology transfer and application to remedial action (RA) activities. The TLD consists of three volumes. Volume 1 contains an overview of the TLD, an explanation of the program-specific responsibilities, a review of identified technologies, and the rankings of remedial technologies. Volume 2 contains the logic linkages among environmental management goals, environmental problems and the various technologies that have the potential to solve these problems. Volume 3 contains the TLD data sheets. This report is Part A of Volume 3 and contains the Remedial Action section

  2. Y-12 Plant remedial action Technology Logic Diagram: Volume 3, Technology evaluation data sheets: Part B, Characterization; robotics/automation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-09-01

    The Y-12 Plant Remedial Action Technology Logic Diagram (TLD) was developed to provide a decision-support tool that relates environmental restoration (ER) problems at the Y-12 Plant to potential technologies that can remediate theses problems. The TLD identifies the research, development, demonstration, testing, and evaluation needed for sufficient development of these technologies to allow for technology transfer and application to remedial action (RA) activities. The TLD consists of three volumes. Volume 1 contains an overview of the TLD, an explanation of the program-specific responsibilities, a review of identified technologies, and the rankings of remedial technologies. Volume 2 contains the logic linkages among environmental management goals, environmental problems, and the various technologies that have the potential to solve these problems. Volume 3 contains the TLD data sheets. This report is Part B of Volume 3 and contains the Characterization and Robotics/Automation sections

  3. Nuclear power plant safety, their a social acceptance and the part played by the Administration in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso Santos, A.

    1980-01-01

    The safety of nuclear power plants is introduced as the complement of risk, which is futhermore explained as the proximity of damage, therefore as frequency of accidents times damage. The reduced risk and, as a consequence, the high standards of safety of nuclear power plants are explained with reference to the American Reactor Safety Study and the German Risikostudie; the situation in less industrial countries is also analyzed. The social rejection of nuclear energy is studied with reference to the concept of risk and explanations are given of the present situation. Within this context, and making reference to Spain, the part played by the Administration is safeguarding the health and safety of the public is discussed. Specific reference is made to the newly published law regulating Nuclear Safety. (author)

  4. Y-12 Plant remedial action Technology Logic Diagram: Volume 3, Technology evaluation data sheets: Part A, Remedial action

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-09-01

    The Y-12 Plant Remedial Action Technology Logic Diagram (TLD) was developed to provide a decision-support tool that relates environmental restoration (ER) problems at the Y-12 Plant to potential technologies that can remediate these problems. The TLD identifies the research, development, demonstration, testing, and evaluation needed for sufficient development of these technologies to allow for technology transfer and application to remedial action (RA) activities. The TLD consists of three volumes. Volume 1 contains an overview of the TLD, an explanation of the program-specific responsibilities, a review of identified technologies, and the rankings of remedial technologies. Volume 2 contains the logic linkages among environmental management goals, environmental problems and the various technologies that have the potential to solve these problems. Volume 3 contains the TLD data sheets. This report is Part A of Volume 3 and contains the Remedial Action section.

  5. Aerial Images and Convolutional Neural Network for Cotton Bloom Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Rui; Li, Changying; Paterson, Andrew H; Jiang, Yu; Sun, Shangpeng; Robertson, Jon S

    2017-01-01

    Monitoring flower development can provide useful information for production management, estimating yield and selecting specific genotypes of crops. The main goal of this study was to develop a methodology to detect and count cotton flowers, or blooms, using color images acquired by an unmanned aerial system. The aerial images were collected from two test fields in 4 days. A convolutional neural network (CNN) was designed and trained to detect cotton blooms in raw images, and their 3D locations were calculated using the dense point cloud constructed from the aerial images with the structure from motion method. The quality of the dense point cloud was analyzed and plots with poor quality were excluded from data analysis. A constrained clustering algorithm was developed to register the same bloom detected from different images based on the 3D location of the bloom. The accuracy and incompleteness of the dense point cloud were analyzed because they affected the accuracy of the 3D location of the blooms and thus the accuracy of the bloom registration result. The constrained clustering algorithm was validated using simulated data, showing good efficiency and accuracy. The bloom count from the proposed method was comparable with the number counted manually with an error of -4 to 3 blooms for the field with a single plant per plot. However, more plots were underestimated in the field with multiple plants per plot due to hidden blooms that were not captured by the aerial images. The proposed methodology provides a high-throughput method to continuously monitor the flowering progress of cotton.

  6. Power plant site evaluation - Douglas Point site. Volume 1, part 2. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-11-01

    This is part of a series of reports containing an evaluation of the proposed Douglas Point nuclear generating station site located on the Potomac River in Maryland 30 miles south of Washington, DC. This report contains sections on cooling tower air emissions, noise impacts, transmission line effects, radiation from normal releases, site features affecting radiological accidents, and meteorology

  7. Criticality analysis for weapon disassembly at the Pantex Plant - part I: Bare pits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knief, R.A. [Ogden Environmental & Energy Services, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1997-06-01

    This paper briefly describes criticality investigations for weapon assembly and dismantlement at the Pantex Plant. Results are summarized for calculations performed for safety analyses, radiological hazards assessments, and a study to justify the criticality alarm exemption. Pits and pits in containers were modeled in their most reactive configuration. Criticality calculations were performed with the KENO and MCNP code packages. Configurations involving bare pits were subcritical by a substantial amount even with very conservative model assumptions. Thus, it is concluded that a critical configuration involving the bare pits is not credible.

  8. Corrosion investigations at Masnedoe combined heat and power plant. Part VI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montgomery, M. [Danmarks Tekniske Univ., Dept. for Manufacturing Engineering, Kgs Lyngby (Denmark); Karlsson, A. [ENERGI E2, Power Company, Copenhagen (Denmark); Hede Larsen, O. [Elsam - Fynsvaerket, Fredericia (Denmark)

    2001-02-01

    In Denmark, straw and other types of biomass are used for generating energy in power plats. Straw is considered a carbon dioxide neutral fuel and is therefore environmentally acceptable. Masnedoe CHP Plant is a straw-fired power plant on Sjaelland, Denmark. Corrosion tests were undertaken at Masnedoe CHP Plant by building a test superheater loop and subject it to higher steam temperatures than those of the actual plant. In addition a test section welded into superheater was investigated. The conclusions from the project are as follows: 1. The corrosion rates of the steels investigated are very close to one another and differences are small. 2. For the lower steam of 450 deg. C, a parabolic kinetic of oxide growth is not seen but more a paralinear corrosion rate for TP347H and a linear corrosion rate for the 12% Cr steel. 3. At temperatures above approx. 520 deg. C metal temperature for the austenitic steels, grain boundary attack is seen as a precursor for corrosion within the metal grains. For HCM12, attack of individual metal grains is also seen. The corrosion attack leads to depletion of chromium and manganese from the surface of the alloy. It is at these temperatures general corrosion changes to grain boundary corrosion attack. 4. Over one of the test superheater loops, varying corrosion rates could be measured that could not be explained by the change in steam temperature. This was related to the flue gas direction giving a higher surface metal temperature, however, there may be other factors giving localised high heat flux and therefore a higher metal temperature. The corrosion rate was lower this year (1999-2000) than the previous year and this is attributed to the lower flue gas temperatures or other factors such as a change in fuel or combustion characteristics. It must be noted that where the flue gas temperature is assumed to be highest similar corrosion rates are observed for both 1998-1999 and 1999-2000. There is much evidence to indicate that after

  9. Preoperational radiation measurements at the Angra-I nuclear power plant. Part 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leao, J.L.B.; Barbosa, W.P.; Oberhofer, M.

    1991-01-01

    During December 10 and 11, 1980, γ-background measurements were performed at the Angra-I nuclear power plant within the reactor containment, within and outside the adjacent building complexes. The dose-rates within the containment averaged around 10,6 μR/h, within the auxiliary building around 14,4 μR/h. The lowest values, 6 μR/h, were measured within the reactor coolant pump and steam generator compartments, the highest value, 25 μR/h, in the charging pump valve operation room, elevation 8,65, close to area monitor No. 4. (author)

  10. Criticality analysis for weapon disassembly at the Pantex-Plant part II: Staging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knief, R.A.

    1997-01-01

    This paper very briefly describes criticality investigations for nuclear weapon dismantlement at the Pantex Plant. The investigations performed were for pit staging, and build on previous criticality calculations for single pits. The KENO and MCNP computer models were used for pit and container combinations. Scenarios were based on administrative limits and actual or potential physical conditions in the facilities. Essentially all of the pit configurations modeled were subcritical by a substantial amount. It was concluded that a critical configuration involving pit/container combinations is not credible

  11. Development of advanced concept for shortening construction period of ABWR plant (part 2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujita, Tomohiro; Satoh, Takashi

    2003-01-01

    The construction of the first building fully applying SC structure, which is indispensable for shortening construction period of ABWR plants (21.5 months from the first concrete work to fuel loading), has been started since August 2002 in Japan. Before the construction start, a pre-construction test with some actual size SC panels was carried out to confirm the SC modular construction method. The outline of the design and the construction of the first full-SC building and the results of the pre-construction test are reported. (author)

  12. Volatile oils from the plant and hairy root cultures of Ageratum conyzoides L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelkader, Mohamed Salaheldin A; Lockwood, George B

    2011-05-01

    Two lines of hairy root culture of Ageratum conyzoides L. induced by Agrobacterium rhizogenes ATCC 15834 were established under either complete darkness or 16 h light/8 h dark photoperiod conditions. The volatile oil yields from aerial parts and roots of the parent plant, the hairy root culture photoperiod line and the hairy root culture dark line were 0.2%, 0.08%, 0.03% and 0.02%, (w/w), respectively. The compositions of the volatiles from the hairy roots, plant roots and aerial parts were analysed by GC and GC-MS. The main components of the volatiles from the hairy root cultures were β-farnesene, precocene I and β-caryophyllene, in different amounts, depending on light conditions and also on the age of cultures. Precocene I, β-farnesene, precocene II and β-caryophyllene were the main constituents of the volatile oils from the parent plant roots, whereas precocene I, germacrene D, β-caryophyllene and precocene II were the main constituents of the aerial parts of the parent plant. Growth and time-course studies of volatile constituents of the two hairy root lines were compared. Qualitative and quantitative differences were found between the volatile oils from the roots of the parent plant and those from the hairy roots.

  13. A Spherical Aerial Terrestrial Robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudley, Christopher J.

    This thesis focuses on the design of a novel, ultra-lightweight spherical aerial terrestrial robot (ATR). The ATR has the ability to fly through the air or roll on the ground, for applications that include search and rescue, mapping, surveillance, environmental sensing, and entertainment. The design centers around a micro-quadcopter encased in a lightweight spherical exoskeleton that can rotate about the quadcopter. The spherical exoskeleton offers agile ground locomotion while maintaining characteristics of a basic aerial robot in flying mode. A model of the system dynamics for both modes of locomotion is presented and utilized in simulations to generate potential trajectories for aerial and terrestrial locomotion. Details of the quadcopter and exoskeleton design and fabrication are discussed, including the robot's turning characteristic over ground and the spring-steel exoskeleton with carbon fiber axle. The capabilities of the ATR are experimentally tested and are in good agreement with model-simulated performance. An energy analysis is presented to validate the overall efficiency of the robot in both modes of locomotion. Experimentally-supported estimates show that the ATR can roll along the ground for over 12 minutes and cover the distance of 1.7 km, or it can fly for 4.82 minutes and travel 469 m, on a single 350 mAh battery. Compared to a traditional flying-only robot, the ATR traveling over the same distance in rolling mode is 2.63-times more efficient, and in flying mode the system is only 39 percent less efficient. Experimental results also demonstrate the ATR's transition from rolling to flying mode.

  14. Co-60 uptake in some young cereal plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dumitru, R.O.

    1998-01-01

    The measure of Co-60 uptake by young cereal plants is dependent on the type of soil, plant and growth conditions. Depending on the size of the uptake, a plant can be used for industrial purposes, fodder, foodstuff or for possible decontamination of the soil. Although the requirement for cobalt in higher plants is little, their contamination with Co-60 can be of interest because this radionuclide belongs to the class of the radionuclides with a great radiotoxicity. The soil-to-plant transfer factor (TF) is a measure of the radionuclide uptake in the plant. In this paper the soil-to-plant TFs for Co-60 were determined for the whole aerial part of some young plants in the cereal class that, in this stage of the development, may be used as fodder. To determine soil-to-plant TFs, plants cultivated in pots in laboratory conditions were used. The method used is similar with the plantlet method of Neubauer and Schneider. We have determined some physical, chemical and mineralogical properties of the studied soil, a brown-reddish forest type soil. The soil-to-plant TFs were calculated on the basis of the Co-60 activities determined in plant and soil dried samples. For the vegetal samples the whole aerial part of the plants was measured in millet, wheat, barley and triticale. At harvest, only a few millet plants where flowered. The results of the measurements of soil-to-plant TFs of Co-60 are the following: 0.0315±0.0017 for millet, 0.0260±0.0014 for barley, 0.0140±0.0008 for wheat and 0.0491±0.0022 for triticale. These TFs were corrected for standard conditions and were compared with data from literature. The soil-to-plant TFs for Co-60 found in the aerial part of young cereals are close to those recommended for the fodder. The obtained values prove the strong dependence of the soil-to-plant TFs for Co-60 on the type of soil and plant. (author)

  15. Influence of shock waves as a result of assumed vessel failure on parts of the plant relevant to safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danisch, R.; Graubner, U.

    1981-01-01

    The shock wave induced rupture is of subordinate importance for the laying out of the parts of the plant relevant to safety. It is covered by the precautions for maximum potential earthquakes, aircraft crashes and chemical explosions. The failure of vessels in the power house (WAZUe, SPWB) as the result of a maximum potential earthquake is extremely improbable. If a combination of the stresses resulting from maximum potential earthquakes with the hypothetical stresses resulting from vessel failure is undertaken, it can be seen that the total stresses are only increased by a minimal amount, due to the quadratic averaging of less than 3%. (orig./DG) [de

  16. Full scale vibration test on nuclear power plant auxiliary building: Part I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langer, V.; Tinic, S.; Berger, E.; Zwicky, P.; Prater, E.G.

    1987-01-01

    In connection with the construction of the reinforced concrete auxiliary building housing the two boric water tanks (so-called BOTA building) of the Beznau Nuclear Power Plant in Switzerland the opportunity was given to carry out full scale vibration tests in November 1985. The overall aim of the tests was to validate computational models and parameters widely used in the seismic analysis of the structures and critical components of nuclear power plants. The scope of the experimental investigation was the determination of the eigenfrequencies and damping values for the fundamental soil-structure interaction (SSI) modes. The excitation level was aimed to be as high as feasibly possible. A working group was formed of representatives of the owner, NOK, the consulting firm Basler and Hofmann and the ETH to supervise the project. The project's main phases were the planning and execution of the tests, the evaluation of recorded data, numerical simulation of the tests using different computer models and finally the comparison and interpretation of measured and computed results

  17. Evaluation of antinociceptive and antimicrobial activities of galbanum plant (Ferula gumosa Boiss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. S. Fazly Bazzaz

    1997-08-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the antinociceptive and antimicrobial activities of galbanum plant (Ferula gumosa, various parts of the plant were collected at specific seasons. Aerial parts and root of the plant were dried in shady place and grinded to desirable. Unnatural and natural gum resins did not have the drying and grinding stages. The alcohol-aqueous (33%extract was obtained by masuration and the solvent was removed by rotary evaporator at low temperature and vaccum condition. The essential oil was extracted by water and steam distillation. Its antinociceptive effect was investigated in mice using hot plate method. Antibacterial effect was determined using paper disk method. The results suggest that the maximum antinociceptive effect (efficacy of root and aerial parts extract was higher than morphine and maximum effect of unnatural and natural gum resins extract was equal to morphine. The maximum effect of essential oil and unnatural gum resin was less than morphine but potency of these preparations were less than morphine. The amount of microbial growth inhibition of all extracts was less than chloramphenicol (30 ;ug on gram positive bacteria, but these extracts have not any growth inhibitory effect on gram negative baceria. These extracts inhibited fungus growth equal to nystatin (100units. "nThese results in conjunction with economic considerations suggest the usefulness of aerial parts of plant for medical treatment.

  18. Biogeochemistry of uranium in plants associated to phosphatic rocks in the coastal region of Syria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jubeli, Y.; Al-Oudat, M.; Al-Rayes, A.; El-Sharabi, N.A.

    2000-07-01

    Investigation studies in general, demonstrate that background levels of U in plant ash are less than 2 ppm and plant materials which contain more in excess of this amount are indicative either of local uranium mineralization, or the presence of high background levels of uranium in the substrate. Uranium concentrations in different plant parts grown on decomposite phosphate rocks in the mountain coast region of Syria was investigated. Mean uranium concentrations in the soil ranged between 0.44 - 3.91 ppm in the reference area and 22 - 92 ppm in the area of outcrop in phosphate rocks. The results showed that low-order plant forms (Fuaria, Lycopodium, and Pteridium) readily accumulate uranium, whereas high-order forms accumulate uranium in certain parts only. The greatest amount of uranium in flowering parts is concentrated in the plant roots, followed by leaves, twigs and fruits. In addition, results showed that there is a good correlation between uranium in soil and uranium in plant roots. the study demonstrate that Galium Canum could be considered as a good uranium indicator plant for two reason: It was distributed on decomposite phosphate rocks only, and the high concentration of uranium in aerial part similar to the concentration in soil (89.9 ppm). Lagurus Ovatus may be considered as uranium indicator plant, because it was highly dense on the outcrop phosphate rocks, and has a high uranium concentration in its roots (up to 93 ppm) and aerial parts (up to 33 ppm) compared to concentrations in roots and aerial parts in the reference area (10.2 and 0.37 ppm) respectively. (Author)

  19. Export Control Guide: Loose Parts Monitoring Systems for Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langenberg, Donald W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2012-12-01

    This report describes a typical LPMS, emphasizing its application to the RCS of a modern NPP. The report also examines the versatility of AE monitoring technology by describing several nuclear applications other than loose parts monitoring, as well as some non-nuclear applications. In addition, LPMS implementation requirements are outlined, and LPMS suppliers are identified. Finally, U.S. export controls applicable to LPMSs are discussed.

  20. Mercury in plants and soils of the French-speaking part of Switzerland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quinche, J P; Dvorak, V

    1975-01-01

    Samples of plants and soils from an agricultural (Changins/Nyon), industrial (Monthey) and urban (Le Vallon/Lausanne) area as well as samples from regions remote from the sources of atmospheric pollution have been analyzed for mercury. A contamination by the mercury of samples from the Monthey area could be ascertained. However, the average mercury content of 37 samples of leaves of trees and shrubs collected during fall 1974 in the Monthey area was lower by 53.2% as compared to the average value obtained in 1973;, this fact can be explained by the improved anti-pollution action taken by the chemical industry. No methyl mercury was found in the few samples from Monthey area analyzed for methyl mercury (4 samples of vegetables and one sample of tobacco leaves). On the other hand, all mushrooms, were they gathered in an area close or remote from the sources of mercury pollution, contained traces of methyl mercury (ranging between 1.9 and 28% of the total mercury content). Likewise, 4 samples of lichens gathered in Arolla (Valais) and La Fretaz/Bullet (Jura vaudois), both being remote mountain regions, did contain traces of methyl mercury (between 4.8 and 6.5% of total mercury content). Soils from Changins into which every other year, since 11 years, wheat treated with organomercury fungicides was sown, did not contain more mercury than soil from forests or mountain meadows. Samples of foliage of trees and shrubs from the vicinity of the municipal garbage combustion plant at Vallon (Lausanne) were clearly polluted by mercury. 18 references, 9 tables.

  1. Aerial service robotics: the AIRobots perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marconi, L.; Basile, F.; Caprari, G.; Carloni, Raffaella; Chiacchio, P.; Hurzeler, C.; Lippiello, V.; Naldi, R.; Siciliano, B.; Stramigioli, Stefano; Zwicker, E.

    This paper presents the main vision and research activities of the ongoing European project AIRobots (Innova- tive Aerial Service Robot for Remote Inspection by Contact, www.airobots.eu). The goal of AIRobots is to develop a new generation of aerial service robots capable of supporting human beings

  2. Demonstration of an automated electromanometer for measurement of solution in accountability vessels in the Tokai Reprocessing Plant (part II)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamonouchi, T.; Fukuari, Y.; Hayashi, M.; Komatsu, M.; Suyama, N.; Uchida, T.

    1982-01-01

    This report describes the results of an operational field test of the automated electromanometer system installed at the input accountability vessel (251V10) and the plutonium product accountability vessel (266V23) in the Tokai Reprocessing Plant. This system has been in use since September 1979 when it was installed in the PNC plant by BNL as part of Task-E, one of the thirteen tasks, in the Tokai Advanced Safeguards Technology Exercise (TASTEX) program. The first report on the progress of this task was published by S. Suda, et al., in the Proceedings of the INMM 22nd Annual Meeting. In this paper, further results of measurement and data analysis are shown. Also, the reliability and applicability of this instrument for accountability, safeguards, and process control purposes are investigated using the data of 106 batches for 251V10 and 40 batches for 266V23 obtained during two campaigns in 1981. There were small but significant differences relative to the plant's measurements for both vessels of 251V10 and 266V23; however, the difference for 251V10 was slightly decreased in the latest vessel calibration. Initially, there were many spurious signals originating with the raw data caused by a software error in the system. However, almost normal conditions were obtained after corrections of the program were made

  3. Development of Intelligent Database Program for PSI/ISI Data Management of Nuclear Power Plant (Part II)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Un Su; Park, Ik Keun; Um, Byong Guk; Lee, Jong Po; Han, Chi Hyun

    2000-01-01

    In a previous paper, we have discussed the intelligent Windows 95-based data management program(IDPIN) which was developed for effective and efficient management of large amounts of pre-/in-service inspection(PSI/ISI) data of Kori nuclear power plants. The IDPIN program enables the prompt extraction of previously conducted PSI/ISI conditions and results so that the time-consuming data management, painstaking data processing and analysis of the past are avoided. In this study, the intelligent Windows based data management program(WS-IDPIN) has been developed as an effective data management of PSI/ISI data for the Wolsong nuclear power plants. The WS-IDPIN program includes the modules of comprehensive management and analysis of PSI/ISI results, statistical reliability assessment program of PSI/ISI results(depth and length sizing performance etc), standardization of UT report form and computerization of UT results. In addition, the program can be further developed as a unique PSI/ISI data management expert system which can be part of the PSI/ISI total support system for Korean nuclear power plants

  4. Identification of Flavonoids (Quercetin, Gallic acid and Rutin from Catharanthus roseus Plant Parts using Deep Eutectic Solvent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asma Nisar

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Green technology is the most important topic in the pharmaceutical field because it reduces the cost of medicines and minimizes the environmental impact of the field and is better for human health and safety. Green chemistry emphasizes that the solvent should be nontoxic, safe, cheap, green, readily available, recyclable, and biodegradable. Deep eutectic solvents, a new type of green solvent, have some renowned properties—for instance, high thermal stability, low vapor pressure, low cost, biodegradability, and high viscosity. In this study, deep eutectic solvents made up of choline chloride-glycerol (1:2 were used for the extraction and isolation of flavonoid (rutin, gallic acid, and quercetin from Catharanthus roseus plant parts, flower petal, leaves, stem, and root. The amounts of rutin and quercetin in flower petal are 29.46 and 6.51%, respectively, whereas, rutin, gallic acid, and quercetin amounts in leaves are 25.16, 8.57, and 10.47%, respectively. In stem the amounts of rutin, gallic acid, and quercetin are 13.02, 5.89, and 7.47%, respectively. In root, only quercetin has been obtained that is 13.49%. The HPLC is an analytical method, which was found to be an excellent technique for determination of rutin, gallic acid, and quercetin using deep eutectic solvent extraction from plant parts of Catharanthus roseus.

  5. How tests of lubricating and transformer oils became part of power plant chemistry in Denmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moeller, H [I/S Nordjyllandsvaerket, Vodskov (Denmark)

    1996-12-01

    Lubricating, hydraulic and transformer oils based on refined crude oil are used in nearly all power station components, such as gear, turbines, hydraulic stations, feed pumps and transformers. The function of these components totally depends on the condition of the oils and their properties. Seen from this point one may wonder why examination and evaluation of oils did not become part of the power station chemistry within the ELSAM utility area until during the middle of the eighties. We started to examine the properties of lubricating oils at the time when several steam turbines experienced serious problems with formation of deposits in their hydraulic control circuits. This work was intensified in connection with the significant number of CHPs and wind turbines erected within the Danish electricity sector during the past 10 years or so. The majority of the CHPs are natural gas fired turbines or motors, equipment which severely stresses the lubricating oil. In collaboration with KEMA, the Netherlands, we have carried through with a large examination of lubricating oils in gas turbines and we have found suitable oil types. The objectives of our work with lubricating and transformer oils have been to link together the laboratory measurements with operational experience. Only by doing this is it possible to utilize the laboratory measurements in a correct way. It must be remembered that the main part of all oil specifications concerns the properties of new oils. Only very little is published about the requirements concerning used oils. (EG)

  6. In vitro cytotoxicity of nonpolar constituents from different parts of kava plant (Piper methysticum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jhoo, Jin-Woo; Freeman, James P; Heinze, Thomas M; Moody, Joanna D; Schnackenberg, Laura K; Beger, Richard D; Dragull, Klaus; Tang, Chung-Shih; Ang, Catharina Y W

    2006-04-19

    Kava (Piper methysticum), a perennial shrub native to the South Pacific islands, has been used to relieve anxiety. Recently, several cases of severe hepatotoxicity have been reported from the consumption of dietary supplements containing kava. It is unclear whether the kava constituents, kavalactones, are responsible for the associated hepatotoxicity. To investigate the key components responsible for the liver toxicity, bioassay-guided fractionation was carried out in this study. Kava roots, leaves, and stem peelings were extracted with methanol, and the resulting residues were subjected to partition with a different polarity of solvents (hexane, ethyl acetate, n-butanol, and water) for evaluation of their cytotoxicity on HepG2 cells based on the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay and lactate dehydrogenase and aspartate aminotransferase enzyme leakage assays. Organic solvent fractions displayed a much stronger cytotoxicity than water fractions for all parts of kava. The hexane fraction of the root exhibited stronger cytotoxic effects than fractions of root extracted with other solvents or extracts from the other parts of kava. Further investigations using bioassay-directed isolation and analysis of the hexane fraction indicated that the compound responsible for the cytotoxicity was flavokavain B. The identity of the compound was confirmed by (1)H and (13) C NMR and MS techniques.

  7. AFSC/NMML: North Pacific right whale aerial surveys in the southeastern Bering Sea, 2008-2009.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — As part of an inter-agency agreement between the National Marine Mammal Laboratory and the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, aerial surveys of the North Aleutian...

  8. Aerial robot intelligent control method based on back-stepping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jian; Xue, Qian

    2018-05-01

    The aerial robot is characterized as strong nonlinearity, high coupling and parameter uncertainty, a self-adaptive back-stepping control method based on neural network is proposed in this paper. The uncertain part of the aerial robot model is compensated online by the neural network of Cerebellum Model Articulation Controller and robust control items are designed to overcome the uncertainty error of the system during online learning. At the same time, particle swarm algorithm is used to optimize and fix parameters so as to improve the dynamic performance, and control law is obtained by the recursion of back-stepping regression. Simulation results show that the designed control law has desired attitude tracking performance and good robustness in case of uncertainties and large errors in the model parameters.

  9. Complex Odor from Plants under Attack: Herbivore's Enemies React to the Whole, Not Its Parts

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wijk, Michiel; de Bruijn, Paulien J. A.; Sabelis, Maurice W.

    2011-01-01

    Background Insect herbivory induces plant odors that attract herbivores' natural enemies. Assuming this attraction emerges from individual compounds, genetic control over odor emission of crops may provide a rationale for manipulating the distribution of predators used for pest control. However, studies on odor perception in vertebrates and invertebrates suggest that olfactory information processing of mixtures results in odor percepts that are a synthetic whole and not a set of components that could function as recognizable individual attractants. Here, we ask if predators respond to herbivore-induced attractants in odor mixtures or to odor mixture as a whole. Methodology/Principal Findings We studied a system consisting of Lima bean, the herbivorous mite Tetranychus urticae and the predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis. We found that four herbivore-induced bean volatiles are not attractive in pure form while a fifth, methyl salicylate (MeSA), is. Several reduced mixtures deficient in one component compared to the full spider-mite induced blend were not attractive despite the presence of MeSA indicating that the predators cannot detect this component in these odor mixtures. A mixture of all five HIPV is most attractive, when offered together with the non-induced odor of Lima bean. Odors that elicit no response in their pure form were essential components of the attractive mixture. Conclusions/Significance We conclude that the predatory mites perceive odors as a synthetic whole and that the hypothesis that predatory mites recognize attractive HIPV in odor mixtures is unsupported. PMID:21765908

  10. Complex odor from plants under attack: herbivore's enemies react to the whole, not its parts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michiel van Wijk

    Full Text Available Insect herbivory induces plant odors that attract herbivores' natural enemies. Assuming this attraction emerges from individual compounds, genetic control over odor emission of crops may provide a rationale for manipulating the distribution of predators used for pest control. However, studies on odor perception in vertebrates and invertebrates suggest that olfactory information processing of mixtures results in odor percepts that are a synthetic whole and not a set of components that could function as recognizable individual attractants. Here, we ask if predators respond to herbivore-induced attractants in odor mixtures or to odor mixture as a whole.We studied a system consisting of Lima bean, the herbivorous mite Tetranychus urticae and the predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis. We found that four herbivore-induced bean volatiles are not attractive in pure form while a fifth, methyl salicylate (MeSA, is. Several reduced mixtures deficient in one component compared to the full spider-mite induced blend were not attractive despite the presence of MeSA indicating that the predators cannot detect this component in these odor mixtures. A mixture of all five HIPV is most attractive, when offered together with the non-induced odor of Lima bean. Odors that elicit no response in their pure form were essential components of the attractive mixture.We conclude that the predatory mites perceive odors as a synthetic whole and that the hypothesis that predatory mites recognize attractive HIPV in odor mixtures is unsupported.

  11. Nuclear security and challenges at nuclear power plants. Part 1. Basis of nuclear security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demachi, Kazuyuki

    2017-01-01

    The tsunami that occurred in March 2011 associated with the 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku Earthquake hit TEPCO Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station (1F). The 1F got into station blackout situation, and fell into reactor core meltdown due to inability of cooling down the reactor, eventually leading to the emission accident of radioactive substances over a wide range into the atmosphere, soil, seawater and the like. Through various media such as newspapers, TVs, and the Internet after the accident, important facilities for safety were explained with illustrations. Some of them included the contents that can suggest the causes that trigger the same accident as the 1F accident. It is an urgent task to strengthen security against the terrorism aimed at nuclear power facilities including nuclear power plants, and its realization is a serious problem in each country. This paper summarized nuclear security issues and solutions including explanation on the circumstances of the threat increase of nuclear terrorism that had begun before the 1F accident. The recent nuclear security summit reaffirmed that nuclear security is the basic responsibility of each country, and also reaffirmed the responsibility and importance of IAEA for international cooperation. This paper explains the definition of nuclear security, threat of terrorism, and the contents of the IAEA Nuclear Security Series (NSS), and points out that NSS is considered as the basis among basis that all the countries should share. (A.O.)

  12. A technical and financial analysis of two recuperated, reciprocating engine driven power plants. Part 1: Thermodynamic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orbaiz, Pedro Jose; Brear, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A thermodynamic analysis of two recuperated ICE plants is undertaken. • The overall plant efficiency and CO 2 emissions are analysed. • Chemical recuperation without a secondary heat source is unlikely. • Using a renewable secondary heat source reduces the CO 2 emission of the plant. - Abstract: This paper is the first of a two part study that analyses the technical and financial performance of particular, recuperated engine systems. This first paper presents a thermodynamic study of two systems. The first system involves the chemical recuperation of a reciprocating, spark ignited, internal combustion engine using only the waste heat of the engine to power a steam–methane reformer. The performance of this system is evaluated for different coolant loads and steam–methane ratios. The second system is a so-called ’hybrid’ in which not only the waste heat of the engine is used, but also a secondary heat source – the combustion of biomass. The effects of the reformer’s temperature and the steam–methane ratio on the system performance are analysed. These analyses show that the potential efficiency improvement obtained when using only the engine waste heat to power the recuperation is marginal. However, results for the hybrid show that although the overall efficiency of the plant, defined in terms of the energy from both the methane and biomass, is similar to that of the conventional, methane fuelled engine, the efficiency of the conversion of the biomass fuel energy to work output appears to be higher than for other biomass fuelled technologies currently in use. Further, in the ideal limit of a fully renewable biomass fuel, the burning of biomass does not contribute to the net CO 2 emissions, and the CO 2 emission reduction for this second plant can be considerable. Indeed, its implementation on larger internal combustion engine power plants, which have efficiencies of around 45–50%, could result in CO 2 emissions that are as much as

  13. Behaviour of the RBMK-1000 plant during reactivity disturbances under part load reduction - completing investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clemente, M.; Langenbuch, S.

    1989-01-01

    This report describes investigations of the behavior of a RBMK-1000 reactor core during reactivity initiated accidents and completes earlier studies of the Chernobyl accident. Special questions related to this accident are studied, e.g. the effect of Xenon dynamics during the delayed load reduction and the coarse of the experiment as planned with the coast-down of four main recirculaton pumps at nominal part load conditions. The main interest is the detailed analysis of reactivity initiated accidents in the low power range till 25% during start-up. In the calculations no reactor trip is taken into account. The results confirm the unfavourable effects of the positive void coefficient, which are amplified in the low power range. Finally the results are discussed in comparison to other positive reactivity effects. (orig.) [de

  14. The use of color infrared aerial photography in determining salt marsh vegetation and delimiting man-made structures of Lynnhaven Bay, Virginia. M.S. Thesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holman, R. E., III

    1974-01-01

    Color infrared aerial photography was found to be superior to color aerial photography in an ecological study of Lynnhaven Bay, Virginia. The research was divided into three phases: (1) Determination of the feasibility of correlating color infrared aerial photography with saline wetland species composition and zonation patterns, (2) determination of the accuracy of the aerial interpretation and problems related to the aerial method used; and (3) comparison of developed with undeveloped areas along Lynnhaven Bay's shoreline. Wetland species composition and plant community zonation bands were compared with aerial infrared photography and resulted in a high degree of correlation. Problems existed with changing physical conditions; time of day, aircraft angle and sun angle, making it necessary to use several different characteristics in wetland species identification. The main characteristics used were known zonation patterns, textural signatures and color tones. Lynnhaven Bay's shoreline was 61.5 percent developed.

  15. Determination of element distributions between symplasm and apoplasm of cucumber plant parts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varga, A.; Zaray, G.; Fodor, F.

    2000-01-01

    Total reflection x-ray fluorescence analysis (TXRF) is a suitable method for determination of trace elements in biological samples due to its low detection limits, small sample demand, simple quantification and the absence of memory effects. In the present work the concentration of Pb, Cd, Ni, Mn and Fe was determined inside the cells (symplasm) and in the space among the cells (apoplasm) of cucumber plants. The cucumber seeds were grown in different nutrient solutions containing iron as Fe(III)-EDTA or Fe(III)-citrate, as well as Pb, Cd or Ni as contaminants in concentration of 10 -5 M. After growing period and the appropriate pretreatment (infiltration, leaching, washing and drying) the roots and the leaves were prepared for the analysis using a microwave assisted digestion system. The solutions obtained were spiked with Ni (in the case of the experiments with Pb) or Ga as internal standard. It was established that in the root the relative amount of lead in the symplasm related to the total absorbed amount (symplasm + apoplasm) is 2.5 % in presence of EDTA and 24% in presence of citrate. Studying its transport to the shoots, the amount of lead shows a decreasing tendency towards the young leaves and the symplasm/apoplasm ratio also changes: the ratio increased up to 66 % and 50 % in case of EDTA and citrate, respectively. Investigating of iron content similar phenomenon could be observed, however the presence of lead and complex forming agents did not result in any significant changes of the manganese distribution between symplasm and apoplasm. The results of experiments with Ni and Cd contaminants will be presented and discussed in the lecture. (author)

  16. Literature study regarding fire protection in nuclear power plants. Part I: Fire rated separations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isaksson, S.

    1995-06-01

    This literature study has been made on behalf of the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate. The aim is to describe different aspects of fire protection in nuclear power plants. Conventional building codes can not give guidance on where to make fire rated separations in order to separate redundant trains of safety systems. The separation must originate in functional demands from the authorities on what functions are essential during and after a fire, and under what circumstances these functions shall be retained, i.e. the number of independent faults and initiating events. As a basic demand it is suggested to rate the strength of separations according to conventional building code, based on fire load. The whole separating construction shall have the same fire rating, including the ventilation system. Deviations from the basic demand can de done in case it can be proven that it is possible to compensate some or all of the fire rating with other measures. There is a general lack of statistical information regarding the reliability of fire separating constructions such as walls, fire doors, penetration seals and fire dampers. The amount of cables penetrating a seal is in many cases much higher in real installations than what has been tested for type approval. It would therefore be valuable to perform a furnace test with a more representative amount of cables passing through a penetration seal. Tests have shown that the 20 foot horizontal separation distance stipulated by NRC is not a guarantee against fire damage. Spatial separations based on general requirements shall not be allowed, but considered from case to case based on actual circumstances. For fire protection by isolation or coatings, it is of great importance to choose the method of protection carefully, to be compatible with the material it shall be applied on, and the environment and types of fire that may occur. 48 refs, 2 figs, 5 tabs

  17. Land Survey from Unmaned Aerial Veichle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterman, V.; Mesarič, M.

    2012-07-01

    In this paper we present, how we use a quadrocopter unmanned aerial vehicle with a camera attached to it, to do low altitude photogrammetric land survey. We use the quadrocopter to take highly overlapping photos of the area of interest. A "structure from motion" algorithm is implemented to get parameters of camera orientations and to generate a sparse point cloud representation of objects in photos. Than a patch based multi view stereo algorithm is applied to generate a dense point cloud. Ground control points are used to georeference the data. Further processing is applied to generate digital orthophoto maps, digital surface models, digital terrain models and assess volumes of various types of material. Practical examples of land survey from a UAV are presented in the paper. We explain how we used our system to monitor the reconstruction of commercial building, then how our UAV was used to assess the volume of coal supply for Ljubljana heating plant. Further example shows the usefulness of low altitude photogrammetry for documentation of archaeological excavations. In the final example we present how we used our UAV to prepare an underlay map for natural gas pipeline's route planning. In the final analysis we conclude that low altitude photogrammetry can help bridge the gap between laser scanning and classic tachymetric survey, since it offers advantages of both techniques.

  18. An aerial radiological survey of the South Texas Project Electric Generating Station and surrounding area, Bay City, Texas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, J.M.

    1988-12-01

    An aerial radiological survey was conducted over the South Texas Project Electric Generating Station (STPEGS) near Bay City, Texas, during the period 25 March to 4 April 1988. The purpose of the 259-square-kilometer (100-square-mile) survey was to document the terrestrial gamma environment of the plant and surrounding area. An exposure rate contour map at 1 meter above ground level (AGL) was constructed from the gamma data and overlaid on an aerial photograph and map of the area. Exposure rates were observed up to 10μR/h over land. No areas of enhanced exposure rates were observed. Ground-based exposure rate measurements and soil samples were obtained to support the aerial data. Oblique aerial photographs of the plant were also acquired during the survey. 9 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  19. Aerial photographic interpretation of lineaments and faults in late cenozoic deposits in the Eastern part of the Benton Range 1:100,000 quadrangle and the Goldfield, Last Chance Range, Beatty, and Death Valley Junction 1:100,000 quadrangles, Nevada and California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reheis, M.C.; Noller, J.S.

    1991-01-01

    Lineaments and faults in Quaternary and late Tertiary deposits in the southern part of the Walker Lane are potentially active and form patterns that are anomalous with respect to the typical fault patterns in most of the Great Basin. Little work has been done to identify and characterize these faults, with the exception of those in the Death Valley-Furnace Creek (DVFCFZ) fault system and those in and near the Nevada Test Site. Four maps at a scale of 1:100,000 summarize the existing knowledge about these lineaments and faults based on extensive aerial-photo interpretation, limited field investigations, and published geologic maps. The lineaments and faults in all four maps can be divided geographically into two groups. The first group includes west- to north-trending lineaments and faults associated with the DVFCFZ and with the Pahrump fault zone in the Death Valley Junction quadrangle. The second group consists of north- to east-northeast-trending lineaments and faults in a broad area that lies east of the DVFCFZ and north of the Pahrump fault zone. Preliminary observations of the orientations and sense of slip of the lineaments and faults suggest that the least principle stress direction is west-east in the area of the first group and northwest-southeast in the area of the second group. The DVFCFZ appears to be part of a regional right-lateral strike-slip system. The DVFCFZ steps right, accompanied by normal faulting in an extensional zone, to the northern part of the Walker Lane a the northern end of Fish Lake Valley (Goldfield quadrangle), and appears to step left, accompanied by faulting and folding in a compressional zone, to the Pahrump fault zone in the area of Ash Meadows (Death Valley Junction quadrangle). 25 refs

  20. Safety assessment in plant layout design using indexing approach: implementing inherent safety perspective. Part 1 - guideword applicability and method description.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tugnoli, Alessandro; Khan, Faisal; Amyotte, Paul; Cozzani, Valerio

    2008-12-15

    Layout planning plays a key role in the inherent safety performance of process plants since this design feature controls the possibility of accidental chain-events and the magnitude of possible consequences. A lack of suitable methods to promote the effective implementation of inherent safety in layout design calls for the development of new techniques and methods. In the present paper, a safety assessment approach suitable for layout design in the critical early phase is proposed. The concept of inherent safety is implemented within this safety assessment; the approach is based on an integrated assessment of inherent safety guideword applicability within the constraints typically present in layout design. Application of these guidewords is evaluated along with unit hazards and control devices to quantitatively map the safety performance of different layout options. Moreover, the economic aspects related to safety and inherent safety are evaluated by the method. Specific sub-indices are developed within the integrated safety assessment system to analyze and quantify the hazard related to domino effects. The proposed approach is quick in application, auditable and shares a common framework applicable in other phases of the design lifecycle (e.g. process design). The present work is divided in two parts: Part 1 (current paper) presents the application of inherent safety guidelines in layout design and the index method for safety assessment; Part 2 (accompanying paper) describes the domino hazard sub-index and demonstrates the proposed approach with a case study, thus evidencing the introduction of inherent safety features in layout design.

  1. Failure analysis of leakage on titanium tubes within heat exchangers in a nuclear power plant. Part II: Mechanical degradation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gong, Y.; Yang, Z.G. [Department of Materials Science, Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Yuan, J.Z. [Third Qinshan Nuclear Power Co. Ltd., Haiyan, Zhejiang Province (China)

    2012-01-15

    Serious failure incidents like clogging, quick thinning, and leakage frequently occurred on lots of titanium tubes of heat exchangers in a nuclear power plant in China. In the Part I of the whole failure analysis study with totally two parts, factors mainly involving three kinds of electrochemical corrosions were investigated, including galvanic corrosion, crevice corrosion, and hydrogen-assisted corrosion. In the current Part II, through microscopically analyzing the ruptures on the leaked tubes by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS), another four causes dominantly lying in the aspect of mechanical degradation were determined - clogging, erosion, mechanical damaging, and fretting. Among them, the erosion effect was the primary one, thus the stresses it exerted on the tube wall were also supplementarily evaluated by finite element method (FEM). Based on the analysis results, the different degradation extents and morphologies by erosion on the tubes when they were clogged by different substances such as seashell, rubber debris, and sediments were compared, and relevant mechanisms were discussed. Finally, countermeasures were put forward as well. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  2. The Use of Adsorbent Materials of Improving the Characteristics of Polluted Soils, Part 2 the Bioaccumulation of Metals in Plants Used in Phytoremediation Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florica Morariu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The study covers the advantages of phytoremediation processes of soils heavily polluted with total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH with the use of Linum usitatissimum (flax. To increase the potential development of technical crops on TPH soils polluted with 74.12 ± 3.5 g·kg-1 D.M., the contaminated soils were amended with fly ash; the ratio of polluted soil: fly ash 12:1 wt. / wt. and fertilized with sewage sludge. The degree of accumulation of Fe in the stems was 21 - 33 % higher than in the control sample and 6 - 27 % in the seeds; the accumulation of Mn in the stems was 13.5 - 30 % higher than in the control sample and 8 - 17 % in the seeds; the accumulation of Cu in stems was 17 - 6 % higher than in the control sample and for seeds 20 - 60 %; the accumulation of Zn in stems was 13 - 27 % higher than in the control sample with 49 - 63 % in the seeds. In the harvested plant tissues from the studied variants the content of heavy metals Cd, Cr, Pb and Ni was less than the detection limit. Monitoring bioaccumulation of heavy metals in aerial plant tissue was needed to decide the sector where the biomass harvested from TPH polluted soil covered with vegetation.

  3. Handbook of unmanned aerial vehicles

    CERN Document Server

    Vachtsevanos, George

    2015-01-01

    The Handbook of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles is a reference text for the academic and research communities, industry, manufacturers, users, practitioners, Federal Government, Federal and State Agencies, the private sector, as well as all organizations that are and will be using unmanned aircraft in a wide spectrum of applications. The Handbook covers all aspects of UAVs, from design to logistics and ethical issues. It is also targeting the young investigator, the future inventor and entrepreneur by providing an overview and detailed information of the state-of-the-art as well as useful new concepts that may lead to innovative research. The contents of the Handbook include material that addresses the needs and ‘know how’ of all of the above sectors targeting a very diverse audience. The Handbook offers a unique and comprehensive treatise of everything one needs to know about unmanned aircrafts, from conception to operation, from technologies to business activities, users, OEMs, reference sources, conferences, ...

  4. Bespilotne letjelice : Unmanned aerial vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlado Jurić

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Bespilotne letjelice imaju širok spektar uporabe, i svrha im svakim danom sve više dobiva na značaju. Konstrukcija im se poboljšava, pronalaze se materijali koji su optimalniji za obavljanje funkcija s kojima se trebaju suočiti. Pravna regulativa za bespilotne letjelice do 150 kg težine na polijetanju (MTOW se razlikuje od države do države. : Unmanned aerial vehicles have a wide range of applications, and their purpose is every day more important. Construction has been improving, finding the materials that are optimal for carrying out the functions which need to be cope with. Legal regulations for unmanned aircrafts up to 150 kg take-off weight (MTOW varies from country to country.

  5. Sub-aerial tailings deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knight, R.B.; Haile, J.P.

    1984-01-01

    The sub-aerial technique involves the systematic deposition of tailings in thin layers and allowing each layer to settle, drain and partially air dry prior to covering with a further layer. Underdrainage produces densities in excess of those achieved by sub-aqueous deposition and any air-drying serves to preconsolidate each layer with a resulting further increase in density. The low permeability of the tailings surface resulting from this deposition technique results in high runoff coefficients and, by decanting the runoff component of direct precipitation, a net evaporation condition can be achieved even in high rainfall areas. An underdrainage system prevents the build-up of excess pore-pressures within the tailings mass and at decommissioning the tailings are fully consolidated and drained thereby eliminating the possibility of any long term seepage. This paper presents a general description of these design concepts, and details of two projects where the concepts have been applied

  6. Aerial shaking performance of wet Anna's hummingbirds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega-Jimenez, Victor Manuel; Dudley, Robert

    2012-01-01

    External wetting poses problems of immediate heat loss and long-term pathogen growth for vertebrates. Beyond these risks, the locomotor ability of smaller animals, and particularly of fliers, may be impaired by water adhering to the body. Here, we report on the remarkable ability of hummingbirds to perform rapid shakes in order to expel water from their plumage even while in flight. Kinematic performance of aerial versus non-aerial shakes (i.e. those performed while perching) was compared. Oscillation frequencies of the head, body and tail were lower in aerial shakes. Tangential speeds and accelerations of the trunk and tail were roughly similar in aerial and non-aerial shakes, but values for head motions in air were twice as high when compared with shakes while perching. Azimuthal angular amplitudes for both aerial and non-aerial shakes reached values greater than 180° for the head, greater than 45° for the body trunk and slightly greater than 90° for the tail and wings. Using a feather on an oscillating disc to mimic shaking motions, we found that bending increased average speeds by up to 36 per cent and accelerations of the feather tip up to fourfold relative to a hypothetical rigid feather. Feather flexibility may help to enhance shedding of water and reduce body oscillations during shaking. PMID:22072447

  7. Chemical Composition and Antioxidant Activity of Tánara Ótó (Dracocephalum palmatum Stephan), a Medicinal Plant Used by the North-Yakutian Nomads

    OpenAIRE

    Olennikov, Daniil; Chirikova, Nadezhda; Okhlopkova, Zhanna; Zulfugarov, Ismayl

    2013-01-01

    Dracocephalum palmatum Stephan (Lamiaceae) is a medicinal plant used by the North-Yakutian nomads. From the crude ethanolic extract of the aerial parts of this plant, 23 compounds (phenylpropanoids, coumarins, flavonoids, and triterpenes) were isolated. Among these, eight compounds (salvianolic acid B, caftaric acid, cichoric acid, umbelliferone, aesculetin, apigenin-7-O-β-d-glucuronopyranoside, isorhoifolin, and luteolin-4'-O-β-d-glucopyranoside) were detected for the first time in the ...

  8. The Use of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle for Geothermal Exploitation Monitoring: Khankala Field Example

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey V. Cherkasov

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the use of unmanned aerial vehicle for geothermal waters exploitation monitoring. Development of a geothermal reservoir usually requires a system of wells, pipelines and pumping equipment and control of such a system is quite complicated. In this regard, use of unmanned aerial vehicle is relevant. Two test unmanned aerial vehicle based infrared surveys have been conducted at the Khankala field (Chechen Republic with the Khankala geothermal plant operating at different regimes: during the first survey – with, and the second – without reinjection of used geothermal fluid. Unmanned aerial vehicle Geoscan 201 equipped with digital (Sony DSX-RX1 and thermal imaging (Thermoframe-MX-TTX cameras was used. Besides different images of the geothermal plant obtained by the surveys, 13 thermal anomalies have been identified. Analysis of the shape and temperature facilitated determination of their different sources: fire, heating systems, etc., which was confirmed by a ground reconnaissance. Results of the study demonstrate a high potential of unmanned aerial vehicle based thermal imagery use for environmental and technological monitoring of geothermal fields under operation.

  9. Non-destructive NIR-FT-Raman analyses in practice. Part I. Analyses of plants and historic textiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreev, G N; Schrader, B; Schulz, H; Fuchs, R; Popov, S; Handjieva, N

    2001-12-01

    Non-destructive analysis of natural substances in plants as well as of old dyed textiles by Raman spectroscopy has not been possible using conventional techniques. Exciting lines from the visible part of the spectrum produced photochemical and thermal decomposition of the objects as well as strong fluorescence. Using Nd:YAG laser excitation at 1,064 nm together with a special sample arrangement and interferometric recording, various polyacetylenes in Aethusa cynapium and in chamomile (Chamomilla recutita) and the main valuable substances in gentian species (Gentiana lutea and G. punctata), curcuma roots (Curcuma longa), cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum), fennel (Foeniculum vulgare), clove (Caryophyllus aromaticus), and ginger (Zingiber officinale) were analyzed non-destructively and discussed in comparison with the corresponding pure standard compounds. We further analyzed non-destructively the FT Raman spectra of collections of historical textiles and lakes used for dyeing. It is possible to distinguish the main dye component non-destructively by using Raman bands.

  10. A tsunami wave propagation analysis for the Ulchin Nuclear Power Plant considering the tsunami sources of western part of Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhee, Hyun Me; Kim, Min Kyu; Sheen, Dong Hoon; Choi, In Kil

    2013-01-01

    The accident which was caused by a tsunami and the Great East-Japan earthquake in 2011 occurred at the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) site. It is obvious that the NPP accident could be incurred by the tsunami. Therefore a Probabilistic Tsunami Hazard Analysis (PTHA) for an NPP site should be required in Korea. The PTHA methodology is developed on the PSHA (Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Analysis) method which is performed by using various tsunami sources and their weights. In this study, the fault sources of northwestern part of Japan were used to analyze as the tsunami sources. These fault sources were suggested by the Atomic Energy Society of Japan (AESJ). To perform the PTHA, the calculations of maximum and minimum wave elevations from the result of tsunami simulations are required. Thus, in this study, tsunami wave propagation analysis were performed for developing the future study of the PTHA

  11. An improved parameterization of the allocation of assimilated carbon to plant parts in vegetation dynamics for Noah-MP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gim, Hyeon-Ju; Park, Seon Ki; Kang, Minseok; Thakuri, Bindu Malla; Kim, Joon; Ho, Chang-Hoi

    2017-08-01

    In the land surface models predicting vegetation growth and decay, representation of the seasonality of land surface energy and mass fluxes largely depends on how to describe the vegetation dynamics. In this study, we developed a new parameterization scheme to characterize allocation of the assimilated carbon to plant parts, including leaves and fine roots. The amount of carbon allocation in this scheme depends on the climatological net primary production (NPP) of the plants. The newly developed scheme is implemented in the augmented Noah land surface model with multiple parameterization options (Noah-MP) along with other biophysical processes related to variations in photosynthetic capacity. The scheme and the augmented biophysical processes are evaluated against tower measurements of vegetation from four forest sites in various regions—two for the deciduous broadleaf and two for the needleleaf evergreen forest. Results from the augmented Noah-MP showed good agreement with the observations and demonstrated improvements in representing the seasonality of leaf area index (LAI), gross primary production (GPP), ecosystem respiration (ER), and latent heat flux. In particular, significant improvements are found in simulating amplitudes and phase shift timing in the LAI seasonal cycle, and the amount of GPP and ER in the growing season. Furthermore, the augmented Noah-MP performed reasonably well in simulating the spatial distributions of LAI, GPP, and NPP in East Asia, consistent with the satellite observations.

  12. ARM Aerial Facility ArcticShark Unmanned Aerial System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, B.; Hubbell, M.; Mei, F.; Carroll, P.; Mendoza, A.; Ireland, C.; Lewko, K.

    2017-12-01

    The TigerShark Block 3 XP-AR "ArcticShark" Unmanned Aerial System (UAS), developed and manufactured by Navmar Applied Sciences Corporation (NASC), is a single-prop, 60 hp rotary-engine platform with a wingspan of 6.5 m and Maximum Gross Takeoff Weight of 295 Kg. The ArcticShark is owned by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and has been operated by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) since March 2017. The UAS will serve as an airborne atmospheric research observatory for DOE ARM, and, once fully operational, can be requested through ARM's annual call for proposals. The Arctic Shark is anticipated to measure a wide range of radiative, aerosol, and cloud properties using a variable instrument payload weighing up to 46 Kg. SATCOM-equipped, it is capable of taking measurements up to altitudes of 5.5 Km over ranges of up to 500 Km. The ArcticShark operates at airspeeds of 30 to 40 m/s, making it capable of slow sampling. With a full fuel load, its endurance exceeds 8 hours. The aircraft and its Mobile Operations Center (MOC) have been hardened specifically for operations in colder temperatures.ArcticShark's design facilitates rapid integration of various types of payloads. 2500 W of its 4000 W electrical systems is dedicated to payload servicing. It has an interior payload volume of almost 85 L and four wing-mounted pylons capable of carrying external probes. Its payload bay volume, electrical power, payload capacity, and flight characteristics enable the ArcticShark to accommodate multiple combinations of payloads in numerous configurations. Many instruments will be provided by the ARM Aerial Facility (AAF), but other organizations may eventually propose instrumentation for specific campaigns. AAF-provided measurement capabilities will include the following atmospheric state and thermodynamics: temperature, pressure, winds; gases: H2O and CO2; up- and down-welling broadband infrared and visible radiation; surface temperature; aerosol number concentration

  13. Transcuticular translocation of radionuclides on plant leaf surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsumoto, Ken-ichi; Watanabe, Tadakazu; Ambe, Shizuko; Yamaguchi, Isamu [Institute of Physical and Chemical Research, Wako, Saitama (Japan)

    1996-12-31

    The cuticle covering all the outermost surfaces of the aerial parts of plants could play a selective role in uptake and translocation of radionuclides from air into plants. In this study, we investigated the transcuticular uptake and translocation behavior via water droplets of various radionuclides in red clover, orchard grass, Japanese radish and mung bean. Ten {mu}l of an aqueous solution of the multitracer generated from Au was applied to the upper surface of the 2nd leaf of the plants at the 5th leaf stage. The plants were then grown for 14 days at 25degC and 70% RH under illumination of artificial solar lights. The transcuticular uptake and translocation throughout the plant were periodically assayed by determining the radioactivity in the surface residue, the cuticle layer beneath the applied site, the leaf area outside the applied site, the other aerial parts and the root of the plant, using an HPGe detector. The applied radionuclides were absorbed into, in turn, the cuticle layer beneath the applied site and then translocated through the cuticle to the inner tissue and eventually to the other aerial parts and finally to the roots, of the plant. The distribution and accumulation in the plant seems to depend upon the characteristics of each radionuclide and plant species. Ca{sup *} and Te{sup *} tended to remain on leaf surfaces without being absorbed into the cuticle. On the other hand, Sc{sup *}, Co{sup *}, Zn{sup *}, Se{sup *}, Rb{sup *}, and Eu{sup *} were easily absorbed and translocated to every part of the plant including the root. The other radionuclides such as Be{sup *}, Mn{sup *}, Sr{sup *}, Y{sup *}, Ba{sup *}, Ce{sup *}, Pm{sup *}, Gd{sup *}, Hf{sup *}, Yb{sup *}, Lu{sup *}, Os{sup *}, Ir{sup *}, and Pt{sup *} remained in the region close to the site of their application. The above results possibly indicate the existence of mechanisms common to these plants for selective transcuticular uptake and translocation of radionuclides within plant

  14. CADASTRAL AUDIT AND ASSESSMENTS USING UNMANNED AERIAL SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Cunningham

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Ground surveys and remote sensing are integral to establishing fair and equitable property valuations necessary for real property taxation. The International Association of Assessing Officers (IAAO has embraced aerial and street-view imaging as part of its standards related to property tax assessments and audits. New technologies, including unmanned aerial systems (UAS paired with imaging sensors, will become more common as local governments work to ensure their cadastre and tax rolls are both accurate and complete. Trends in mapping technology have seen an evolution in platforms from large, expensive manned aircraft to very small, inexpensive UAS. Traditional methods of photogrammetry have also given way to new equipment and sensors: digital cameras, infrared imagers, light detection and ranging (LiDAR laser scanners, and now synthetic aperture radar (SAR. At the University of Alaska Fairbanks (UAF, we work extensively with unmanned aerial systems equipped with each of these newer sensors. UAF has significant experience flying unmanned systems in the US National Airspace, having begun in 1969 with scientific rockets and expanded to unmanned aircraft in 2003. Ongoing field experience allows UAF to partner effectively with outside organizations to test and develop leading-edge research in UAS and remote sensing. This presentation will discuss our research related to various sensors and payloads for mapping. We will also share our experience with UAS and optical systems for creating some of the first cadastral surveys in rural Alaska.

  15. Health effects models for nuclear power plant accident consequence analysis. Part 1, Introduction, integration, and summary: Revision 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, J.S. [Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA (United States); Abrahmson, S. [Wisconsin Univ., Madison, WI (United States); Bender, M.A. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Boecker, B.B.; Scott, B.R. [Inhalation Toxicology Research Inst., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Gilbert, E.S. [Battelle Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1993-10-01

    This report is a revision of NUREG/CR-4214, Rev. 1, Part 1 (1990), Health Effects Models for Nuclear Power Plant Accident Consequence Analysis. This revision has been made to incorporate changes to the Health Effects Models recommended in two addenda to the NUREG/CR-4214, Rev. 1, Part 11, 1989 report. The first of these addenda provided recommended changes to the health effects models for low-LET radiations based on recent reports from UNSCEAR, ICRP and NAS/NRC (BEIR V). The second addendum presented changes needed to incorporate alpha-emitting radionuclides into the accident exposure source term. As in the earlier version of this report, models are provided for early and continuing effects, cancers and thyroid nodules, and genetic effects. Weibull dose-response functions are recommended for evaluating the risks of early and continuing health effects. Three potentially lethal early effects -- the hematopoietic, pulmonary, and gastrointestinal syndromes are considered. Linear and linear-quadratic models are recommended for estimating the risks of seven types of cancer in adults - leukemia, bone, lung, breast, gastrointestinal, thyroid, and ``other``. For most cancers, both incidence and mortality are addressed. Five classes of genetic diseases -- dominant, x-linked, aneuploidy, unbalanced translocations, and multifactorial diseases are also considered. Data are provided that should enable analysts to consider the timing and severity of each type of health risk.

  16. Aeromagnetic and aerial photographic survey in the South Shetland Islands,Antarctica, conducted by a small unmanned aerial vehicle (Ant-Plane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minoru Funaki

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Two small unmanned aerial vehicles, Ant-Plane 6 and Ant-Plane 3, were assembled using parts and technologies developed for model airplanes. The aerial vehicles were scheduled to conduct aero magnetic and photographic surveys of the Brans?eld Basin, from a takeoff runway at Marsh Air?eld on the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica, during January 2011. However, the scheduled surveys were not conducted on account of poor weather. Research was later conducted on a glacier, using a takeoff runway at St. Kliment Ohridski Base, Livingston Island, during December 2011. A ?ight from St. Kliment Ohridski Base to Deception Island yielded satisfactory results; the total distance of 302.4 km was traversed in 3 h 7 min (3:07. On this ?ight, aeromagnetic and aerial photographic data were obtained from an altitude of 780 m for a 9×18 km area on the northern half of Deception Island. Aerial photographs of Deception Island and South Bay showed the distributions of glaciers and their crevasses. The Ant-Plane ?ew over the Antarctic horizon and surveyed above Deception Island. That was the successful venture of this kind, demonstrating that airborne surveys by Ant-Planes are useful for Antarctic research investigations. Airborne surveys provide a safe and economical approach to data acquisition as compared with manned aerial operations.

  17. Long-term performance of structures comprising nuclear power plants PART 1: Deterioration assessment of nuclear power station buildings PART 2: Long-term stability and the leak-tightness of reactor containments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pocock, D.C.; Worthington, J.C.; Oberpichler, R.; Van Exel, H.; Beukelmann, D.; Huth, R.; Rose, B.

    1990-01-01

    The objective of this research was to study the long-term performance of structures comprising nuclear power plants. The time period of interest for this study is 140 years (this figure is based on maximum periods of 40 years for operation and 100 years of storage). It was divided in two parts: - the first based on four UK nuclear power plants examine the principle deterioration mechanism of reinforced structure which is chloride ingress and carbonation penetration - the second based on 2 German nuclear power plants examine the long term behaviour of reinforced and prestressed concrete and also the corrosion of steel containments with particular reference on plastic seals and potential risk areas

  18. Atlantic Protected Species Assessment Aerial Surveys

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data sets include a compilation of aerial line-transect surveys conducted over continental shelf waters of the southeastern U.S. Surveys have been conducted...

  19. Persistent Aerial Tracking system for UAVs

    KAUST Repository

    Mueller, Matthias

    2016-12-19

    In this paper, we propose a persistent, robust and autonomous object tracking system for unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) called Persistent Aerial Tracking (PAT). A computer vision and control strategy is applied to a diverse set of moving objects (e.g. humans, animals, cars, boats, etc.) integrating multiple UAVs with a stabilized RGB camera. A novel strategy is employed to successfully track objects over a long period, by ‘handing over the camera’ from one UAV to another. We evaluate several state-of-the-art trackers on the VIVID aerial video dataset and additional sequences that are specifically tailored to low altitude UAV target tracking. Based on the evaluation, we select the leading tracker and improve upon it by optimizing for both speed and performance, integrate the complete system into an off-the-shelf UAV, and obtain promising results showing the robustness of our solution in real-world aerial scenarios.

  20. Persistent Aerial Tracking system for UAVs

    KAUST Repository

    Mueller, Matthias; Sharma, Gopal; Smith, Neil; Ghanem, Bernard

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a persistent, robust and autonomous object tracking system for unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) called Persistent Aerial Tracking (PAT). A computer vision and control strategy is applied to a diverse set of moving objects (e.g. humans, animals, cars, boats, etc.) integrating multiple UAVs with a stabilized RGB camera. A novel strategy is employed to successfully track objects over a long period, by ‘handing over the camera’ from one UAV to another. We evaluate several state-of-the-art trackers on the VIVID aerial video dataset and additional sequences that are specifically tailored to low altitude UAV target tracking. Based on the evaluation, we select the leading tracker and improve upon it by optimizing for both speed and performance, integrate the complete system into an off-the-shelf UAV, and obtain promising results showing the robustness of our solution in real-world aerial scenarios.

  1. Coverage for SCS Pre-1941 Aerial Photography

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This shapefile was generated by the U.S. Bureau of Land Management (BLM) at the New Mexico State Office to show the coverage for the Pre-1941 aerial photography...

  2. Douglas County Historical Rectified Aerial Photos 1937

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — This raster dataset consists of approximately 200 aerial photographs taken in 1937 in Douglas county, Kansas, United States. The Douglas County Public Works...

  3. Douglas County Historical Rectified Aerial Photos 1954

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — This raster dataset consists of approximately 200 aerial photographs taken in 1954 in Douglas county, Kansas, United States. The Douglas County Public Works...

  4. FACTS REGARDING THE PHARMACOGNOSTIC AND PHYTOCHEMICAL STUDY OF THE PLANT Parietaria Lusitanica L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Arcuş

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Specialized literature studies show that the species from the gender Parietaria have therapeutic usage in traditional medicine, which have diuretic, depurative, emollient, antitussive, antirheumatic, cholagogue, pectoral and laxative properties. In human medicine the aerial part of the plant is used externally for treating hemorrhoids and anal fissures. In this respect a pharmacognostic and phytochemical study of the species Parietaria lusitanica L. was initiated, species frequently used by the inhabitants from around Toulouse, France.

  5. Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) data analysis for fertilization dose assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavvadias, Antonis; Psomiadis, Emmanouil; Chanioti, Maroulio; Tsitouras, Alexandros; Toulios, Leonidas; Dercas, Nicholas

    2017-10-01

    The growth rate monitoring of crops throughout their biological cycle is very important as it contributes to the achievement of a uniformly optimum production, a proper harvest planning, and reliable yield estimation. Fertilizer application often dramatically increases crop yields, but it is necessary to find out which is the ideal amount that has to be applied in the field. Remote sensing collects spatially dense information that may contribute to, or provide feedback about, fertilization management decisions. There is a potential goal to accurately predict the amount of fertilizer needed so as to attain an ideal crop yield without excessive use of fertilizers cause financial loss and negative environmental impacts. The comparison of the reflectance values at different wavelengths, utilizing suitable vegetation indices, is commonly used to determine plant vigor and growth. Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) have several advantages; because they can be deployed quickly and repeatedly, they are flexible regarding flying height and timing of missions, and they can obtain very high-resolution imagery. In an experimental crop field in Eleftherio Larissa, Greece, different dose of pre-plant and in-season fertilization was applied in 27 plots. A total of 102 aerial photos in two flights were taken using an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle based on the scheduled fertilization. Α correlation of experimental fertilization with the change of vegetation indices values and with the increase of the vegetation cover rate during those days was made. The results of the analysis provide useful information regarding the vigor and crop growth rate performance of various doses of fertilization.

  6. Aerial Object Following Using Visual Fuzzy Servoing

    OpenAIRE

    Olivares Méndez, Miguel Ángel; Mondragon Bernal, Ivan Fernando; Campoy Cervera, Pascual; Mejias Alvarez, Luis; Martínez Luna, Carol Viviana

    2011-01-01

    This article presents a visual servoing system to follow a 3D moving object by a Micro Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (MUAV). The presented control strategy is based only on the visual information given by an adaptive tracking method based on the color information. A visual fuzzy system has been developed for servoing the camera situated on a rotary wing MAUV, that also considers its own dynamics. This system is focused on continuously following of an aerial moving target object, maintai...

  7. Aerial Logistics Management for Carrier Onboard Delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA THESIS AERIAL LOGISTICS MANAGEMENT FOR CARRIER ONBOARD DELIVERY by Samuel L. Chen September 2016...AND SUBTITLE AERIAL LOGISTICS MANAGEMENT FOR CARRIER ONBOARD DELIVERY 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR(S) Samuel L. Chen 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S...delivery (COD) is the use of aircraft to transport people and cargo from a forward logistics site (FLS) to a carrier strike group (CSG). The goal of

  8. Planning and decision making for aerial robots

    CERN Document Server

    Bestaoui Sebbane, Yasmina

    2014-01-01

    This book provides an introduction to the emerging field of planning and decision making for aerial robots. An aerial robot is the ultimate form of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle, an aircraft endowed with built-in intelligence, requiring no direct human control and able to perform a specific task. It must be able to fly within a partially structured environment, to react and adapt to changing environmental conditions and to accommodate for the uncertainty that exists in the physical world. An aerial robot can be termed as a physical agent that exists and flies in the real 3D world, can sense its environment and act on it to achieve specific goals. So throughout this book, an aerial robot will also be termed as an agent.   Fundamental problems in aerial robotics include the tasks of spatial motion, spatial sensing and spatial reasoning. Reasoning in complex environments represents a difficult problem. The issues specific to spatial reasoning are planning and decision making. Planning deals with the trajectory algori...

  9. An aerial radiological survey of the Millstone Nuclear Power Station and surrounding area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vojtech, R.J.

    1994-03-01

    An aerial radiological survey was conducted during the period of September 10 to 18, 1990, over a 40-square-mile (104-square-kilometer) area surrounding the Millstone Nuclear Power Station (MNPS). The MNPS is located on the Long Island Sound shoreline, three kilometers south of Waterford, Connecticut. The purpose of the survey was to measure and document the terrestrial gamma ray environment of the plant and surrounding areas. A contour map showing radiation exposure rates at 1 meter above ground level was constructed from the aerial data and overlaid on an aerial photograph and a United States Geological Survey map of the area. The exposure rates within the survey region are quite uniform. The area is characterized by an exposure rate of 10-12 microroentgens per hour including an estimated cosmic ray contribution of 3.6 μR/h. This is typical of natural background. The only exception to the natural background readings is the Millstone station itself, which is characterized by an exposure rate consistent with the standard operation of the reactor units. Radionuclide assays of soil samples and pressurized-ion-chamber gamma ray measurements were obtained at five locations within the survey boundaries. These measurements were taken in support of, and are in agreement with, the aerial data. The radiological environment near the plant is consistent with normal plant operation

  10. An aerial radiological survey of the Millstone Nuclear Power Station and surrounding area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vojtech, R.J.

    1994-03-01

    An aerial radiological survey was conducted during the period of September 10 to 18, 1990, over a 40-square-mile (104-square-kilometer) area surrounding the Millstone Nuclear Power Station (MNPS). The MNPS is located on the Long Island Sound shoreline, three kilometers south of Waterford, Connecticut. The purpose of the survey was to measure and document the terrestrial gamma ray environment of the plant and surrounding areas. A contour map showing radiation exposure rates at 1 meter above ground level was constructed from the aerial data and overlaid on an aerial photograph and a United States Geological Survey map of the area. The exposure rates within the survey region are quite uniform. The area is characterized by an exposure rate of 10-12 microroentgens per hour including an estimated cosmic ray contribution of 3.6 {mu}R/h. This is typical of natural background. The only exception to the natural background readings is the Millstone station itself, which is characterized by an exposure rate consistent with the standard operation of the reactor units. Radionuclide assays of soil samples and pressurized-ion-chamber gamma ray measurements were obtained at five locations within the survey boundaries. These measurements were taken in support of, and are in agreement with, the aerial data. The radiological environment near the plant is consistent with normal plant operation.

  11. Application of Artificial Intelligence Techniques in Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufrene, Warren R., Jr.

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes the development of an application of Artificial Intelligence (AI) for Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) control. The project was done as part of the requirements for a class in AI at NOVA Southeastearn University and a beginning project at NASA Wallops Flight Facility for a resilient, robust, and intelligent UAV flight control system. A method is outlined which allows a base level application for applying an Artificial Intelligence method, Fuzzy Logic, to aspects of Control Logic for UAV flight. One element of UAV flight, automated altitude hold, has been implemented and preliminary results displayed.

  12. Application of Artificial Intelligence Techniques in Uninhabitated Aerial Vehicle Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufrene, Warren R., Jr.

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes the development of an application of Artificial Intelligence (AI) for Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) control. The project was done as part of the requirements for a class in AI at NOVA southeastern University and a beginning project at NASA Wallops Flight Facility for a resilient, robust, and intelligent UAV flight control system. A method is outlined which allows a base level application for applying an Artificial Intelligence method, Fuzzy Logic, to aspects of Control Logic for UAV flight. One element of UAV flight, automated altitude hold, has been implemented and preliminary results displayed.

  13. Validation of landfill methane measurements from an unmanned aerial system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Allen, Grant; Williams, Paul; Ricketts, hugo

    Landfill gas is made up of roughly equal amounts of methane and carbon dioxide. Modern UK landfills capture and use much of the methane gas as a fuel. But some methane escapes and is emitted to the atmosphere. Methane is an important greenhouse gas and controls on methane emissions are a part...... of international and national strategies to limit climate change. Better estimates of methane emissions from landfills and other similar sources would allow the UK to improve the quantification and control of greenhouse gas emissions. This project tested the accuracy of methane measurement using an unmanned aerial...

  14. Draft forecast of the final report for the comparison to 40 CFR Part 191, Subpart B, for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertram-Howery, S.G.; Marietta, M.G.; Anderson, D.R.; Gomez, L.S.; Rechard, R.P. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (USA)); Brinster, K.F.; Guzowski, R.V. (Science Applications International Corp., Albuquerque, NM (USA))

    1989-12-01

    The United States Department of Energy is planning to dispose of transuranic wastes, which have been generated by defense programs, at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. The WIPP Project will assess compliance with the requirements of the United States Environmental Protection Agency. This report forecasts the planned 1992 document, Comparison to 40 CFR, Part 191, Subpart B, for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). 130 refs., 36 figs., 11 tabs.

  15. A Three-Part Electricity Price Mechanism for Photovoltaic-Battery Energy Storage Power Plants Considering the Power Quality and Ancillary Service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yajing Gao

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available To solve the problem of solar abandoning, which is accompanied by the rapid development of photovoltaic (PV power generation, a demonstration of a photovoltaic-battery energy storage system (PV-BESS power plant has been constructed in Qinghai province in China. However, it is difficult for the PV-BESS power plant to survive and develop with the current electricity price mechanism and subsidy policy. In this paper, a three-part electricity price mechanism is proposed based on a deep analysis of the construction and operation costs and economic income. The on-grid electricity price is divided into three parts: the capacity price, graded electricity price, and ancillary service price. First, to ensure that the investment of the PV-BESS power plant would achieve the industry benchmark income, the capacity price and benchmark electricity price are calculated using the discounted cash flow method. Then, the graded electricity price is calculated according to the grade of the quality of grid-connected power. Finally, the ancillary service price is calculated based on the graded electricity price and ancillary service compensation. The case studies verify the validity of the three-part electricity price mechanism. The verification shows that the three-part electricity price mechanism can help PV-BESS power plants to obtain good economic returns, which can promote the development of PV-BESS power plants.

  16. Integration of aerial imaging and variable-rate technology for site-specific aerial herbicide application

    Science.gov (United States)

    As remote sensing and variable rate technology are becoming more available for aerial applicators, practical methodologies on effective integration of these technologies are needed for site-specific aerial applications of crop production and protection materials. The objectives of this study were to...

  17. Chemistry of plants which accumulate metals. [Hybanthus floribundus; Polycarpia glabra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farago, M E; Clark, A J; Pitt, M J

    1975-01-01

    Information on the accumulation of metals in plants is reviewed. The authors report some of their investigations of the metal accumulating plants Hybanthus floribundus and Polycarpia glabra. In general, nickel levels in the aerial parts of plants are quite low, however a number of plants have been cited as nickel tolerant. The leaves of the Hybanthus plant have large epidermal cells and ridges of large cells which continue along the leaf stem and on to the main stem of the bush. It was found that nickel could be located in these large cells. The presence of nickel in the ridge cells was confirmed by an electron probe technique using a scanning electron microscope. These same areas showed high concentration of pectins. In studying the Polycarpia species, two zinc complexes were found to accumulate in the flowers and stems. 22 references.

  18. Aerial radiological survey of the Feed Materials Production Center and surrounding area, Fernald, Ohio. Date of survey: April 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-10-01

    An aerial radiological survey was performed over the area surrounding the Feed Materials Production Center, located near Fernald, Ohio, during the period April 24 to 27, 1985. The survey covered a 70-square-kilometer (27-square-mile) area centered on the plant. The highest exposure rates, in excess of 0.35 milliroentgens per hour (mR/h), were inferred from the data measured directly over the plant. This radiation was due to the presence of nuclides which were consistent with normal plant operations. For the remainder of the survey area, the inferred radiation exposure rates, varying from 6 to 12 microroentgens per hour (μR/h), were due to naturally-occurring potassium, uranium, thorium, and daughter products. The reported exposure rate values include an estimated cosmic ray contribution of 3.7μR/h. Ground-based measurements, conducted during the time of the aerial survey, were compared to the aerial results. Pressurized ionization chamber readings and a group of soil samples were acquired at several locations within the survey area. The exposure rate values obtained from these measurements were in agreement with the inferred aerial results. Soil sample results showed several areas just outside the site boundary with slightly elevated amounts of U-238. The levels, however, were well below the detection limit of the aerial system. The only off-site area that showed apparent above background activity in the aerial data was directly west of the storage silos. The symmetric shape of the contours, however, suggests that these elevated levels are due to ''shine'' from material stored on-site in the silos and not to actual off-site contamination. Detailed comparison of the 1985 aerial survey data with a previous survey conducted in 1976 showed no significant change in any area outside the plant boundary. 6 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs

  19. Fiscal 1995 achievement report. Development of entrained bed coal gasification power plant (Part 5 - Surveys and studies of demonstration plant); 1995 nendo seika hokokusho. Funryusho sekitan gaska hatsuden plant kaihatsu - Sono 5. Jissho plant ni kansuru chosa kenkyu hen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    Surveys and studies were conducted concerning a demonstration plant for establishing the technology of integrated coal gasification combined cycle, and the fiscal 1995 results are compiled. In this fiscal year, a demonstration plant conceptual design was prepared for assuring smooth transition from a pilot plant to a commercial plant. The design followed the system employed at the Nakoso pilot plant for its gasification power generation. It was decided that the gasification furnace be of the air-blown (oxygen enriched) 2-stage entrained bed type, that the desulfurization system be of the dry type 2-stage fluidized bed type, the dedusting system be of the dry type granular bed type (moving bed type), that the combined cycle power facility be derived from the commercialized gas turbine, and that the cycle of the steam system agree with the integrated coal gasification combined cycle system now under discussion. Studies were made, which covered heat efficiency (generating end/sending end), heat/matter balance, process flow, gas turbine/steam system optimization, comparison in performance with a pilot plant with its dimensions increased, estimation of the performance of each of the facilities, estimation of the construction cost, calculation of the generation cost, environmental friendliness, operating characteristics, acceptable coal types, and the like. (NEDO)

  20. Antioxidant potential of ethanolic extract of aerial parts of Coleus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2011-09-26

    Sep 26, 2011 ... The IC50 values of the ethanolic extract of C. spicatus and ascorbate were found to be 380 µg/ml and 410 ... cancer, Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, etc. (Mensor et al., 2001; Parejo et al., 2002; Hou ... biological properties and mechanisms of actions. Natural antioxidants tend to be safer and also ...