WorldWideScience

Sample records for aerial dispersant delivery

  1. Wind-tunnel tests and modeling indicate that aerial dispersant delivery operations are highly accurate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffman, C.; Fritz, B. [United States Dept. of Agriculture, College Station, TX (United States); Nedwed, T. [ExxonMobil Upstream Research Co., Houston, TX (United States); Coolbaugh, T. [ExxonMobil Research and Engineering Co., Fairfax, VA (United States); Huber, C.A. [CAH Inc., Williamsburg, VA (United States)

    2009-07-01

    Oil dispersants are used to accelerate the dispersion of floating oil slicks. This study was conducted to select application equipment that will help to optimize the application oil dispersants from aircraft. Oil spill responders have a broad range of oil dispersants at their disposal because the physical and chemical interaction between the oil and dispersant is critical to successful mitigation. In order to make efficient use of dispersants, it is important to evaluate how each one atomizes once released from an aircraft. The specific goal of this study was to evaluate current spray nozzles used to spray oil dispersants from aircraft. The United States Department of Agriculture's high-speed wind tunnel facility in College Station, Texas was used to determine droplet size distributions generated by dispersant delivery nozzles at wind speeds similar to those used in aerial dispersant applications. Droplet distribution was quantified using a laser particle size analyzer. Wind-tunnel tests were conducted using water, Corexit 9500 and 9527 as well as a new dispersant gel being developed by ExxonMobil. The measured drop-size distributions were then used in an agriculture spray model to predict the delivery efficiency and swath width of dispersant delivered at flight speeds and altitudes commonly used for dispersant application. It was concluded that current practices for aerial application of dispersants lead to very efficient application. 19 refs., 5 tabs., 10 figs.

  2. Aerial Delivery Systems and Technologies (Review Paper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balraj Gupta

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Aerial Delivery Research & Development Establishment (ADRDE was started at Kanpur during latter part of 1950's consisting of two Aerial Delivery Sections primarily for the indigenisation of Parachutes and related equipment for Para-dropping of men and materials. Today, the charter of ADRDE includes design & development of parachutes, Aerostat Systems, Aircraft Arrester Barrier Systems and Heavy-Drop Systems for both military and civilian applications. The technological competence built in Aeronautical, Textile, Mechanical and Electronics engineering has imparted ADRDE, a unique combination of know-how and capabilities to evolve new solutions in these fields, with emphasis on quality assurance. This paper highlights the design and development of technologies developed by ADRDE to stengthen the India's aerial delivery system and its future plans.Defence Science Journal, 2010, 60(2, pp.124-136, DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.60.326

  3. Modeling and Simulation of Aerial Dispersion on Piston Dispersal Mechanism%Modeling and Simulation of Aerial Dispersion on Piston Dispersal Mechanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶如意; 王浩; 黄蓓

    2011-01-01

    For the aerial dispersing interior ballistic process and submunition exterior ballistic initial conditions of cluster munition with piston maximum travel limit, a novel model is established, and the numerical simulation is performed. The piston maximum travel limit and the effect of reaction force on carrier body are researched using the internal ballistic model. Guide tube, cluster munition rotating and submunition assembly are analyzed using the submunition initial external ballistic model. The computational results are consistent with the practical process and the experimental data, and prove the rationality of this model. The theoretical methods are presented for the construction design and dispersion analysis of piston dispersal mechanism.

  4. Delivery of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivancic, William D.; Sullivan, Donald V.

    2011-01-01

    To support much of NASA's Upper Atmosphere Research Program science, NASA has acquired two Global Hawk Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs). Two major missions are currently planned using the Global Hawk: the Global Hawk Pacific (GloPac) and the Genesis and Rapid Intensification Processes (GRIP) missions. This paper briefly describes GloPac and GRIP, the concept of operations and the resulting requirements and communication architectures. Also discussed are requirements for future missions that may use satellite systems and networks owned and operated by third parties.

  5. Behaviour of Coconut Mites Preceding Take-off to Passive Aerial Dispersal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.W.S. Melo; D.B. Lima; M.W. Sabelis; A. Pallini; M.G.C. Gondim Jr.

    2014-01-01

    For more than three decades the coconut mite Aceria guerreronis Keifer is one of the most important pests of coconut palms and has recently spread to many coconut production areas worldwide. Colonization of coconut palms is thought to arise from mites dispersing aerially after take-off from other pl

  6. The effect of dispersion mechanisms on aroma delivery

    OpenAIRE

    Pearson, Kris S.K.

    2005-01-01

    Dispersion of aroma compounds in food matrices is a common process in the production of many food products. However, the degrees of dispersion on the distribution and subsequent release of these compounds during consumption may have considerable consequences for perception of these flavours. This thesis investigates the effects of a range of dispersion techniques on the delivery and release of aroma compounds from several solid and semi-solid matrices which commonly contain added flavouri...

  7. Large scale field experiments into oil weathering at sea and aerial application of dispersants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, A.; Crosbie, A.; Davies, L.; Lunel, T. [National Environmental Technology Centre AEA Technology, Culham, Oxfordshire (United Kingdom)

    1998-09-01

    Field studies were conducted to study the effectiveness of aerially applied dispersants on emulsified crude oils and a residual fuel oil. The objective was to determine: (1) the degree to which multiple applications of dispersants can break and disperse the high viscosity emulsions formed by oil that has weathered on the sea surface for several days, and (2) the degree to which heavy fuel oils can be chemically dispersed. Four experimental oil slicks were released into an actual oil spill incident. The sea was relatively calm which limited the rate of oil weathering but provided for moderate wave energy for chemically enhanced dispersion. The two crudes that were used in the experiments were Forties Blend crude oil and Alaska North Slope crude oil. The fuel oil used was IFO-180. The spills were sprayed with Corexit 9500 and Dasic Slickgone NS dispersants. Surface sampling, sub-surface oil concentration monitoring and airborne remote sensing were used to study the effects of dispersant applications. The study showed that the window of opportunity for dispersant use is wider than previously considered, but emulsions with lower water contents are more resistant to the effect of dispersants. 6 refs., 2 tabs., 20 figs.

  8. Measurements of polarization mode dispersion on aerial optical cables: Theory and experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haro, Justino; Horche, Paloma R.

    2013-10-01

    Higher bit-rate transmission is attractive for improving network resource efficiency and reducing the complexity of network management in future transmission systems. However, chromatic dispersion and Polarization Mode Dispersion (PMD) are one of the most serious impairments. In particular, PMD changes rapidly according to environmental variations such as temperature change and mechanical vibration. This study presents PMD measurements in a mixed aerial and buried optical longhaul network. PMD was measured as a part of a thorough analysis, in order to assess the possibility of deploying, in this actual route, a DWDM network based on 10 Gb/s and 40 Gb/s carriers long haul network based on DWDM technology PMD was measured as a part of the previous analysis, in order to assess the possibility of deploying routes based on 10 Gb/s carriers and on 40 Gb/s carriers. Changes of PMD were mainly introduced by external factors (such as temperature), but also by changes in the wind speed that significantly contributed to changes in Differential Group Delay (DGD), causing side-effects such as bending, transverse pressure or twists on the fiber hauls. In this study we will focus on the effects over PMD caused by the wind speed and its relevant impact on the aerial hauls, where the influence is significant. A quantitative comparison between data obtained from real measurements and data obtained from analytical approaches will be established.

  9. Dispersant field monitoring procedures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hillman, S. O.; Hood, S. D. [Alyeska Pipeline Service Co. (United States); Bronson, M. T.; Shufelt, G. [EMCON, Alaska,Inc., Anchorage, AK (United States)

    1997-10-01

    Alyeska Pipeline Service Company`s (APSC) dispersant response capability in the Port of Valdez, Prince William Sound, and in the Gulf of Alaska was described. APSC provides dispersal equipment, aerial spray delivery systems, helibucket delivery systems, vessel delivery systems, along with a minimum of 600,000 gallon stockpile of the dispersant Corexit 9527. Effectiveness and effects are monitored by visual observation. In addition, fluorometer and water sample analysis are also used to provide field analytical data indicative of the environmental effects of dispersant applications. The field monitoring plan was field tested in December 1996. Details of the monitoring procedures are outlined in this paper. 18 refs., 5 tabs.

  10. Colloidal dispersions for the delivery of acyclovir: A comparative study

    OpenAIRE

    Rita Cortesi; Laura Ravani; Enea Menegatti; Drechsler, M.; Elisabetta Esposito

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes a comparative study on the performances of ethosomes and solid lipid nanoparticle as delivery systems for acyclovir. Ethosomes were spontaneously produced by dissolution of phosphatidylcholine and acyclovir in ethanol followed by addition of an aqueous buffer while solid lipid nanoparticle were produced by homogenization and ultrasonication. Both colloidal systems were morphologically characterized by cryo-transmission electron microscopy. The encapsulation efficiency was...

  11. Radiotherapy service delivery models for a dispersed patient population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunscombe, P; Roberts, G

    2001-01-01

    Access to health care interventions can be impeded when significant patient travel is required. In this economic evaluation we compare, from a societal perspective, three scenarios for the delivery of radiation treatment to an idealized population of 1,600 patients distributed between two urban nodes (1,200 + 400 patients each) separated by up to 500 km. As it is implicitly assumed that the clinical outcome for those patients who access the system is independent of the service delivery model, this study constitutes a cost minimization analysis from a societal perspective. The costs to the health care system are based on an activity costing model developed by us and consistent with recent Canadian studies. The costs to the patient are approximated by a formula that includes direct costs (travel and accommodation) and indirect (time) costs, with the latter based on a human capital approach. A sensitivity analysis has been performed to confirm the robustness of our conclusions both to uncertainties in the input data and to the inclusion of time costs, the estimation of which remains controversial. From a societal cost perspective only, we show that outreach radiotherapy (central comprehensive facility and satellite) is the economically superior service delivery model for separations between 30 km and 170 km. Beyond 170 km, a fully decentralized service would be warranted if the only consideration were societal economic advantage. PMID:11292133

  12. Phylogeography of a successful aerial disperser: the golden orb spider Nephila on Indian Ocean islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuntner Matjaž

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The origin and diversification patterns of lineages across the Indian Ocean islands are varied due to the interplay of the complex geographic and geologic island histories, the varying dispersal abilities of biotas, and the proximity to major continental landmasses. Our aim was to reconstruct phylogeographic history of the giant orbweaving spider (Nephila on western Indian Ocean islands (Madagascar, Mayotte, Réunion, Mauritius, Rodrigues, to test its origin and route of dispersal, and to examine the consequences of good dispersal abilities for colonization and diversification, in comparison with related spiders (Nephilengys inhabiting the same islands, and with other organisms known for over water dispersal. We used mitochondrial (COI and nuclear (ITS2 markers to examine phylogenetic and population genetic patterns in Nephila populations and species. We employed Bayesian and parsimony methods to reconstruct phylogenies and haplotype networks, respectively, and calculated genetic distances, fixation indices, and estimated clade ages under a relaxed clock model. Results Our results suggest an African origin of Madagascar Nephila inaurata populations via Cenozoic dispersal, and the colonization of the Mascarene islands from Madagascar. We find evidence of gene flow across Madagascar and Comoros. The Mascarene islands share a common 'ancestral' COI haplotype closely related to those found on Madagascar, but itself absent, or as yet unsampled, from Madagascar. Each island has one or more unique haplotypes related to the ancestral Mascarene haplotype. The Indian Ocean N. inaurata are genetically distinct from the African populations. Conclusions Nephila spiders colonized Madagascar from Africa about 2.5 (0.6-5.3 Ma. Our results are consistent with subsequent, recent and rapid, colonization of all three Mascarene islands. On each island, however, we detected unique haplotypes, consistent with a limited gene flow among the islands

  13. Aerial Mobile Radiation Survey Following Detonation of a Radiological Dispersal Device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, Laurel E; Fortin, Richard; Buckle, John L; Coyle, Maurice J; Van Brabant, Reid A; Harvey, Bradley J A; Seywerd, Henry C J; McCurdy, Martin W

    2016-05-01

    A series of experiments was conducted in 2012 at the Defence Research and Development Canada's Suffield Research Centre in Alberta, Canada, during which three radiological dispersal devices were detonated. The detonations released radioactive (140)La into the air, which was then carried by winds and detectable over distances of up to 2 km. The Nuclear Emergency Response group of Natural Resources Canada conducted airborne radiometric surveys shortly following the explosions to map the pattern of radioactivity deposited on the ground. The survey instrument suite was based on large volume NaI(Tl) scintillation gamma radiation detectors, which were situated in a basket mounted exterior to the helicopter and oriented end-to-end to maximize the sensitivity. A standard geophysical data treatment was used to subtract backgrounds and to correct the data to produce counts due to (140)La at the nominal altitude. Sensitivity conversion factors obtained from Monte Carlo simulations were then applied to express the measurements in terms of surface activity concentration in kBq m(-2). Integrated over the survey area, the results indicate that only 20 to 25% of the bomb's original inventory of radioactive material is deposited within a 1.5-km radius of ground zero. These results can be accommodated with a simple model for the RDD behavior and atmospheric dispersion. PMID:27023033

  14. Colloidal dispersions for the delivery of acyclovir: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortesi, Rita; Ravani, Laura; Menegatti, Enea; Drechsler, M; Esposito, Elisabetta

    2011-11-01

    This paper describes a comparative study on the performances of ethosomes and solid lipid nanoparticle as delivery systems for acyclovir. Ethosomes were spontaneously produced by dissolution of phosphatidylcholine and acyclovir in ethanol followed by addition of an aqueous buffer while solid lipid nanoparticle were produced by homogenization and ultrasonication. Both colloidal systems were morphologically characterized by cryo-transmission electron microscopy. The encapsulation efficiency was 94.2±2.8% for ethosomes and 53.2±0.2% for solid lipid nanoparticle. Concerning Z potential, both formulations are close to neutrality. The diffusion coefficients of the drug from ethosomes and solid lipid nanoparticle, determined by a Franz cell method, were 9.4 and 1.2-fold lower as compared to the free acyclovir in solution, thus evidencing the ability of both colloidal systems in enhancing the diffusion of the drug. The antiviral activity against HSV-1 of both systems was tested by plaque reduction assay in monolayer cultures of Vero cells. Data showed that no significant differences in the antiviral activity were observed by acyclovir in the free or loaded forms. Taken together these results, colloidal systems could be interesting to mediate the penetration of acyclovir within Vero cells. PMID:23112407

  15. Colloidal dispersions for the delivery of acyclovir: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortesi, Rita; Ravani, Laura; Menegatti, Enea; Drechsler, M; Esposito, Elisabetta

    2011-11-01

    This paper describes a comparative study on the performances of ethosomes and solid lipid nanoparticle as delivery systems for acyclovir. Ethosomes were spontaneously produced by dissolution of phosphatidylcholine and acyclovir in ethanol followed by addition of an aqueous buffer while solid lipid nanoparticle were produced by homogenization and ultrasonication. Both colloidal systems were morphologically characterized by cryo-transmission electron microscopy. The encapsulation efficiency was 94.2±2.8% for ethosomes and 53.2±0.2% for solid lipid nanoparticle. Concerning Z potential, both formulations are close to neutrality. The diffusion coefficients of the drug from ethosomes and solid lipid nanoparticle, determined by a Franz cell method, were 9.4 and 1.2-fold lower as compared to the free acyclovir in solution, thus evidencing the ability of both colloidal systems in enhancing the diffusion of the drug. The antiviral activity against HSV-1 of both systems was tested by plaque reduction assay in monolayer cultures of Vero cells. Data showed that no significant differences in the antiviral activity were observed by acyclovir in the free or loaded forms. Taken together these results, colloidal systems could be interesting to mediate the penetration of acyclovir within Vero cells.

  16. Colloidal dispersions for the delivery of acyclovir: A comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Cortesi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a comparative study on the performances of ethosomes and solid lipid nanoparticle as delivery systems for acyclovir. Ethosomes were spontaneously produced by dissolution of phosphatidylcholine and acyclovir in ethanol followed by addition of an aqueous buffer while solid lipid nanoparticle were produced by homogenization and ultrasonication. Both colloidal systems were morphologically characterized by cryo-transmission electron microscopy. The encapsulation efficiency was 94.2±2.8% for ethosomes and 53.2±0.2% for solid lipid nanoparticle. Concerning Z potential, both formulations are close to neutrality. The diffusion coefficients of the drug from ethosomes and solid lipid nanoparticle, determined by a Franz cell method, were 9.4 and 1.2-fold lower as compared to the free acyclovir in solution, thus evidencing the ability of both colloidal systems in enhancing the diffusion of the drug. The antiviral activity against HSV-1 of both systems was tested by plaque reduction assay in monolayer cultures of Vero cells. Data showed that no significant differences in the antiviral activity were observed by acyclovir in the free or loaded forms. Taken together these results, colloidal systems could be interesting to mediate the penetration of acyclovir within Vero cells.

  17. Current advances in the use of cryogenics and aerial navigation technologies for sterile insect delivery systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The many problems inherent in using existing sterile fly release systems prompted the Moscamed Program to seek better options using technologies currently available. A company in the private sector, International Flymasters, was enlisted to provide technologies that could be adopted and adapted to better serve the needs of the release activity. Previously mechanical systems, compressors and high load electrical motors, were used to provide cooling for the release machine. Under heavy usage this equipment has proven to be very problematic and requires substantial maintenance to keep it operating. In addition, the actual mechanical deliver system that consists partly of moving augers, has been shown to damage the flies. The overall impact of the antiquated system on fly quality is exacerbated by the presence of excess humidity in the 'columns' of flies. High humidity is directly linked with the inability to hold the flies, without excessive damage, in a dormant state for extended periods of time and 'wet' flies exit the machine in clumps rather than in a continuous stream. The new system was designed to facilitate greater control over temperature and humidity, minimise insect damage, eliminate the high electrical load on the aircraft, make the system more compatible with smaller aircraft, allow the release of multiple insect species at the same time, and utilise computer software and satellite guidance to aid the pilot manage the release activity. The use of liquid CO2 to make dry ice pellets provides the cooling component for the new unit. An onboard drying wheel or dessicant cannister can be used to manage the high humidity within the columns of flies. The aerial GPS navigation system is programmed to turn the machine on and off when working within the release blocks and is calibrated to deliver the recommended dose of sterile flies. All compartments within the fly containers can be used to release one species and/or in a combination with other insect

  18. Flexible Wing Base Micro Aerial Vehicles: Micro Air Vehicles (MAVs) for Surveillance and Remote Sensor Delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ifju, Peter

    2002-01-01

    Micro Air Vehicles (MAVs) will be developed for tracking individuals, locating terrorist threats, and delivering remote sensors, for surveillance and chemical/biological agent detection. The tasks are: (1) Develop robust MAV platform capable of carrying sensor payload. (2) Develop fully autonomous capabilities for delivery of sensors to remote and distant locations. The current capabilities and accomplishments are: (1) Operational electric (inaudible) 6-inch MAVs with novel flexible wing, providing superior aerodynamic efficiency and control. (2) Vision-based flight stability and control (from on-board cameras).

  19. Super-cooled and amorphous lipid-based colloidal dispersions for the delivery of phytosterols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, H S; Gupta, R; Smith, K W; van Malssen, K F; Popp, A K; Velikov, K P

    2016-07-01

    Super-cooled and amorphous lipid-based colloids are highly desirable delivery systems because of their ability to encapsulate compounds in a soluble or in a non-crystalline state. In this study, we demonstrate the preparation and characterization of super-cooled and amorphous lipid-based nanoscale colloidal dispersions containing high concentrations of phytosterols (PSs). PSs are highly hydrophobic natural bioactive compounds that are known to significantly reduce blood cholesterol levels in humans, but are insoluble in water and are poorly soluble in common lipids such as triacylglycerols (TAGs). Using the ultrahigh pressure homogenization of pre-heated dispersions, followed by temperature quenching, colloidal dispersions with varying concentrations of PSs in the lipid phase are prepared. Long and medium chain TAGs in combination with a non-ionic surfactant are used. The particle size, morphology and stability are analysed by dynamic and static light scattering, electron microscopy, and X-ray diffraction. Rapid temperature quenching enables the formation of stable colloidal dispersions of 10 wt% PSs, more than five times the equilibrium solubility at room temperature. Super-cooled emulsions are formed using liquid TAG, whereas amorphous particles are formed in the case of solid TAG. In both cases, the complete suppression of the crystallization of both PSs and lipids is observed due to the nanoscale confinement. The colloidal dispersions are stable for at least four months. The insights of this work will help understand the colloid formation and particle morphology control in the development of delivery systems for hydrophobic bio-actives such as drugs, cosmeceuticals, nutraceuticals, nutritional and agricultural nanoscale formulations. PMID:27174457

  20. Transdermal delivery of propranolol hydrochloride through chitosan nanoparticles dispersed in mucoadhesive gel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Kassas, Raida; Wen, Jingyuan; Cheng, Angel En-Miao; Kim, Amy Moon-Jung; Liu, Stephanie Sze Mei; Yu, Joohee

    2016-11-20

    This study aimed at improving the systemic bioavailability of propranolol-HCl by the design of transdermal drug delivery system based on chitosan nanoparticles dispersed into gels. Chitosan nanoparticles were prepared by ionic gelation technique using tripolyphosphate (TPP) as a cross-linking agent. Characterization of the nanoparticles was focused on particle size, zeta potential, surface texture and morphology, and drug encapsulation efficiency. The prepared freeze dried chitosan nanoparticles were dispersed into gels made of poloxamer and carbopol and the rheological behaviour and the adhesiveness of the gels were investigated. The results showed that smallest propranolol loaded chitosan nanoparticles were achieved with 0.2% chitosan and 0.05% TPP. Nanoparticles were stable in suspension with a zeta potential (ZP) above ±30mV to prevent aggregation of the colloid. Zeta potential was found to increase with increasing chitosan concentration due to its cationic nature. At least 70% of entrapment efficiency and drug loading were achieved for all prepared nanoparticles. When chitosan nanoparticles dispersed into gel consisting of poloxamer and carbopol, the resultant formulation exhibited thixotropic behaviour with a prolonged drug release properties as shown by the permeation studies through pig ear skin. Our study demonstrated that the designed nanoparticles-gel transdermal delivery system has a potential to improve the systemic bioavailability and the therapeutic efficacy of propranolol-HCl. PMID:27561485

  1. Development and Optimization of Osmotically Controlled Asymmetric Membrane Capsules for Delivery of Solid Dispersion of Lycopene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitin Jain

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present investigation is to develop and statistically optimize the osmotically controlled asymmetric membrane capsules of solid dispersion of lycopene. Solid dispersions of lycopene with β-cyclodextrin in different ratios were prepared using solvent evaporation method. Solubility studies showed that the solid dispersion with 1 : 5 (lycopene : β-cyclodextrin exhibited optimum solubility (56.25 mg/mL for osmotic controlled delivery. Asymmetric membrane capsules (AMCs were prepared on glass mold pins via dip coating method. Membrane characterization by scanning electron microscopy showed inner porous region and outer dense region. Central composite design response surface methodology was applied for the optimization of AMCs. The independent variables were ethyl cellulose (X1, glycerol (X2, and NaCl (X3 which were varied at different levels to analyze the effect on dependent variables (percentage of cumulative drug release (Y1 and correlation coefficient of drug release (Y2. The effect of independent variables on the response was significantly influential. The F18 was selected as optimized formulation based on percentage of CDR (cumulative drug release of 85.63% and correlation coefficient of 0.9994. The optimized formulation was subjected to analyze the effect of osmotic pressure and agitational intensity on percentage of CDR. The drug release was independent of agitational intensity but was dependent on osmotic pressure of dissolution medium.

  2. Pharmacia and biological functionalities of nutrient broth dispersed multi-walled carbon nanotubes:A novel drug delivery system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    A new drug delivery system was developed using the interaction of nutrient broth treated multi-walled carbon nanotubes(NBT-MWCNTs) and cefotaxime sodium(CTX) as a model.Investigated factors of the drug delivery system include dispersion effect,biocompatibility of NBT-MWCNTs,pharmacodynamic effect and delivery efficiency in vitro.It was found that MWCNTs can be well dispersed in the nutrient broth and stable at least for one week at 4 °C.The formed NBT-MWCNTs suspension scarcely exhibits toxicity to E.coli at concentrations lower than 10.24 μg/mL,but displays enhanced pharmacodynamic effect of CTX via its bridge effect and targeted transport.Compared with general acid treated MWCNTs(AT-MWCNTs),our present NBT-MWCNTs show good biocompatibility,enhanced pharmacodynamic effect,and high delivery efficiency.

  3. Novel aqueous chitosan-based dispersions as efficient drug delivery systems for topical use. Rheological, textural and release studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucero, M J; Ferris, C; Sánchez-Gutiérrez, C A; Jiménez-Castellanos, M R; de-Paz, M-V

    2016-10-20

    The use of a novel cross-linked thiolated chitosan (CTS) was investigated as the main component of aqueous dispersions (at 1% and 3% w/v) for topical drug delivery systems. The nonionic theophiline (Th) and the cationic diltiazem(.)HCl (Dt) (at 0.5% w/v concentration) were used as model drugs. All aqueous dispersions behaved as viscoelastic fluids. The CTS 1% dispersions showed predominance of viscous component and low viscosity. However, in the CTS 3% dispersions, both the elastic component and high viscosities prevailed. So, texture parameters improved from CTS 1% to 3% dispersions and CTS 3%-Dt showed greater cohesion and adhesion than CTS 3%-Th, but always below CTS alone. All dispersions showed a Fickian diffusion mechanism. Despite release profiles of both drugs almost fully overlapped at 1% CTS, diffusion coefficients confirmed Dt released faster than Th at 3% CTS. The rheological behavior and the chemical nature of the drugs explained these results. PMID:27474615

  4. 做好航空应急投送保障基地规划建设的思考%Reflection on Planning and Construction of Aerial Emergency Delivery Support

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    海军

    2012-01-01

    加强航空应急投送保障基地建设,对于增强我军航空战略投送能力、构建完善现代军事物流体系、有效应对多种安全威胁、完成多样化军事任务具有十分重要的地位和作用。通过阐述建设航空应急投送保障基地的重大意义,分析航空应急投送保障基地的任务需求,探讨航空应急投送保障基地的功能定位、建设模式和建设内容等,为航空应急投送保障基地规划建设提供理论参考。%To strengthen construction of aerial emergency delivery bases has a very important position and role to enhance military aviation strategic delivery capabilities,build a sound modern military logistics system, respond effectively to many kinds of security threats and accomplish diverse military tasks. This paper expounds the great significance to build the emergency delivery support base, analyzes the mission requirements of the aerial emergency delivery support base, discusses the functional location, the building model and construction contents of emergency delivery guarantee base, etc. It provides theoretical references for planning and construction of aerial emergency delivery support base.

  5. Comparative study on solid self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery and solid dispersion system for enhanced solubility and bioavailability of ezetimibe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashid R

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Rehmana Rashid,1 Dong Wuk Kim,1 Abid Mehmood Yousaf,1 Omer Mustapha,1 Fakhar ud Din,1 Jong Hyuck Park,1 Chul Soon Yong,2 Yu-Kyoung Oh,3 Yu Seok Youn,4 Jong Oh Kim,2 Han-Gon Choi11College of Pharmacy and Institute of Pharmaceutical Science and Technology, Hanyang University, Ansan, South Korea; 2College of Pharmacy, Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan, South Korea; 3College of Pharmacy, Seoul National University, Seoul, South Korea; 4School of Pharmacy, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon, South KoreaBackground: The objective of this study was to compare the physicochemical characteristics, solubility, dissolution, and oral bioavailability of an ezetimibe-loaded solid self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery system (SNEDDS, surface modified solid dispersion (SMSD, and solvent evaporated solid dispersion (SESD to identify the best drug delivery system with the highest oral bioavailability.Methods: For the liquid SNEDDS formulation, Capryol 90, Cremophor EL, and Tween 80 were selected as the oil, surfactant, and cosurfactant, respectively. The nanoemulsion-forming region was sketched using a pseudoternary phase diagram on the basis of reduced emulsion size. The optimized liquid SNEDDS was converted to solid SNEDDS by spray drying with silicon dioxide. Furthermore, SMSDs were prepared using the spray drying technique with various amounts of hydroxypropylcellulose and Tween 80, optimized on the basis of their drug solubility. The SESD formulation was prepared with the same composition of optimized SMSD. The aqueous solubility, dissolution, physicochemical properties, and pharmacokinetics of all of the formulations were investigated and compared with the drug powder.Results: The drug existed in the crystalline form in SMSD, but was changed into an amorphous form in SNEDDS and SESD, giving particle sizes of approximately 24, 6, and 11 µm, respectively. All of these formulations significantly improved the aqueous solubility and dissolution in the order of solid

  6. Hardware and software package for search, detection and first aid means delivery in rough terrain on basis of a three rotor unmanned aerial vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergii FIRSOV

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The unmanned aerial vehicles are used for dangerous tasks solution. The search and detection of injured in rough terrain is one of them. Thus, vertical take-off unmanned aerial vehicles are of a special interest. A hardware and software package for the task solving is proposed in the article.

  7. Novel controlled release solid dispersion for the delivery of diclofenac sodium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giri, Tapan Kumar; Kumar, Kulesh; Alexander, Amit; Ajazuddin; Badwaik, Hemant; Tripathy, Minaketan; Tripathi, Dulal Krishna

    2013-08-01

    This study presents development and evaluation of novel sustained release system of diclofenac sodium (DS) prepared by solid dispersion (SD) technique using Eudragit E 100 (EE 100) and/or Eudragit S 100 (ES 100) as carriers. Compatibility of the drug and its crystalline nature in the SD were examined using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The drug was relatively stable, amorphous in the SD. The greater amount of EE100 or ES 100 in the SD slowed down the release rates with smaller dissolution efficiency and hence the mean dissolution time was enhanced. Moreover, combined carriers of EE 100-ES 100 exhibited more dissolution retarding effect than any of the carriers. The release of drug followed anomalous transport in artificial intestinal juice (pH 6.8). PMID:23517623

  8. Design, Characterization, and Aerosol Dispersion Performance Modeling of Advanced Spray-Dried Microparticulate/Nanoparticulate Mannitol Powders for Targeted Pulmonary Delivery as Dry Powder Inhalers

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Xiaojian; Vogt, Frederick G; Hayes, Don; Mansour, Heidi M

    2014-01-01

    Background: The purpose was to design and characterize inhalable microparticulate/nanoparticulate dry powders of mannitol with essential particle properties for targeted dry powder delivery for cystic fibrosis mucolytic treatment by dilute organic solution spray drying, and, in addition, to tailor and correlate aerosol dispersion performance delivered as dry powder inhalers based on spray-drying conditions and solid-state physicochemical properties.

  9. Pharmacokinetics of a novel submicron budesonide dispersion for nebulized delivery in asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrewsbury, Stephen B; Bosco, Andrew P; Uster, Paul S

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the safety and pharmacokinetics of unit dose budesonide (UDB), an aqueous dispersion of submicron-sized budesonide particles, and a commercially available budesonide suspension formulation. This was a randomized, double-blind, active-controlled, 4-period, 4-way crossover trial in 16 healthy, adult volunteers. Subjects received UDB 0.24, 0.12, and 0.06 mg or commercial budesonide 0.25 mg via a jet nebulizer. T(max) was significantly (p<0.05) earlier for UDB 0.06, 0.12, and 0.24 mg (4.5+/-3.3, 3.1+/-1.5, 3.7+/-1.5 min) vs. commercial budesonide (9.1+/-7.1 min). C(max) was significantly (p<0.05) higher for UDB 0.24 mg vs. commercial budesonide 0.25 mg (434.5+/-246.9 pg/mL vs. 303.5+/-177.4 pg/mL) but not between UDB 0.12 mg (239.9+/-140 pg/mL) and commercial budesonide 0.25 mg (p=0.448). AUC(0-infinity) was marginally, but significantly lower for UDB 0.24 mg than commercial budesonide 0.25 mg. AUCs for UDB 0.12 mg were lower than commercial budesonide 0.25 mg. UDB 0.24 mg was absorbed more rapidly and achieved higher peak concentrations than commercial budesonide 0.25 mg, but had a lower AUC(0-infinity). UDB 0.12 mg also was absorbed more rapidly but had lower C(max) and AUCs than commercial budesonide 0.25 mg.

  10. In vitro dispersion test that could serve as a predictive method for assessing performance of lipid-based drug delivery systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hetal N. Prajapati

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A relatively simple in vitro dispersion test using the USP Dissolution Apparatus II filled with 250 ml of dispersion fluid (0.01M HCl at 37°C and a rotation speed of 50 RPM was used to assess the performance of lipid-based formulations. Solutions of probucol in mixtures with the surfactant Cremophor® EL with four different medium chain lipids (glyceryl monocaprylocaprate, Capmul® MCM EP; glyceryl dicaprylate; glyceryl tricaprylate, Captex® 8000 EP/NF; caprylic/capric triglyceride, Captex® 355 EP/NF were formulated and filled into Size 00 hard gelatin capsules (~1 g/capsule for dispersion testing. Drug concentration in the dispersion fluid and the particle size of the dispersed phase as a function of time were measured with, and without, filtration through 0.45 micron filters. All the lipid/surfactant mixtures dispersed in 80%, indicating suitability for their use in immediate-release formulations. The particle size of the unfiltered samples confirmed whether a microemulsion (1000 nm was formed. The dispersion test developed here could be used to screen different lipid-based formulations for in vitro performance. Justification for using an in vitro dispersion test to predict in vivo performance of lipid-based drug delivery systems has been provided.

  11. Inhalable PEGylated Phospholipid Nanocarriers and PEGylated Therapeutics for Respiratory Delivery as Aerosolized Colloidal Dispersions and Dry Powder Inhalers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priya Muralidharan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Nanomedicine is making groundbreaking achievements in drug delivery. The versatility of nanoparticles has given rise to its use in respiratory delivery that includes inhalation aerosol delivery by the nasal route and the pulmonary route. Due to the unique features of the respiratory route, research in exploring the respiratory route for delivery of poorly absorbed and systemically unstable drugs has been increasing. The respiratory route has been successfully used for the delivery of macromolecules like proteins, peptides, and vaccines, and continues to be examined for use with small molecules, DNA, siRNA, and gene therapy. Phospholipid nanocarriers are an attractive drug delivery system for inhalation aerosol delivery in particular. Protecting these phospholipid nanocarriers from pulmonary immune system attack by surface modification by polyethylene glycol (PEGylation, enhancing mucopenetration by PEGylation, and sustaining drug release for controlled drug delivery are some of the advantages of PEGylated liposomal and proliposomal inhalation aerosol delivery. This review discusses the advantages of using PEGylated phospholipid nanocarriers and PEGylated therapeutics for respiratory delivery through the nasal and pulmonary routes as inhalation aerosols.

  12. Fabrication of Functional Nano-objects through RAFT Dispersion Polymerization and Influences of Morphology on Drug Delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Liang; Xu, Chao-Ran; Zhong, Feng; Hong, Chun-Yan; Pan, Cai-Yuan

    2016-07-20

    To study the influence of self-assembled morphologies on drug delivery, four different nano-objects, spheres, nanorods, nanowires, and vesicles having aldehdye-based polymer as core, were successfully prepared via alcoholic RAFT dispersion polymerization of p-(methacryloxyethoxy)benzaldehyde (MAEBA) using poly((N,N'-dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate) (PDMAEMA) as a macro chain transfer agent (macro-CTA) for the first time. The morphologies and sizes of the four nano-objects were characterized by TEM and DLS, and the spheres with average diameter (D) of 70 nm, the nanorods with D of 19 nm and length of 140 nm, and the vesicles with D of 137 nm were used in the subsequent cellular internalization, in vitro release, and intracellular release of the drug. The anticancer drug doxorubicin (DOX) was conjugated onto the core polymers of nano-objects through condensation reaction between aldehyde groups of the PMAEBA with primary amine groups in the DOX. Because the aromatic imine is stable under neutral conditions, but is decomposed in a weakly acidic solution, in vitro release of the DOX from the DOX-loaded nano-objects was investigated in the different acidic solutions. All of the block copolymer nano-objects show very low cytotoxicity to HeLa cells up to the concentration of 1.2 mg/mL, but the DOX-loaded nano-objects reveal different cell viability and their IC50s increase as the following order: nanorods-DOX nano-objects owing to their too large size to be internalized. Endocytosis tests demonstrate that the internalization of vesicles-DOX by the HeLa cells is faster than that of the nanorods-DOX, and the spheres-DOX are the slowest to internalize among the studied nano-objects. Relatively more nanorods localized in the acidic organelles of the HeLa cells lead to faster intracellular release of the DOX, so the IC50 of nanorods is lower than that of the vesicles-DOX.

  13. Studies on the formation of polymeric nano-emulsions obtained via low-energy emulsification and their use as templates for drug delivery nanoparticle dispersions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderó, G; Montes, R; Llinàs, M; García-Celma, M J; Porras, M; Solans, C

    2016-09-01

    Ethylcellulose nanoparticles have been obtained from O/W nano-emulsions of the water/polyoxyethylene 10 oleyl ether/[ethyl acetate+4wt% ethylcellulose] system by low energy-energy emulsification at 25°C. Nano-emulsions with droplet sizes below 200nm and high kinetic stability were chosen for solubilising dexamethasone (DXM). Phase behaviour, conductivity and optical analysis studies of the system have evidenced for the first time that both, the polymer and the drug play a role on the structure of the aggregates formed along the emulsification path. Nano-emulsion formation may take place by both, phase inversion and self-emulsification. Spherical polymeric nanoparticles containing surfactant, showing sizes below 160nm have been obtained from the nano-emulsions by organic solvent evaporation. DXM loading in the nanoparticles was high (>90%). The release kinetics of nanoparticle dispersions with similar particle size and encapsulated DXM but different polymer to surfactant ratio were studied and compared to an aqueous DXM solution. Drug release from the nanoparticle dispersions was slower than from the aqueous solution. While the DXM solution showed a Fickian release pattern, the release behaviour from the nanoparticle dispersions was faster than that expected from a pure Fickian release. A coupled diffusion/relaxation model fitted the results very well, suggesting that polymer chains undergo conformational changes enhancing drug release. The contribution of diffusion and relaxation to drug transport in the nanoparticle dispersions depended on their composition and release time. Surfactant micelles present in the nanoparticle dispersion may exert a mild reservoir effect. The small particle size and the prolonged DXM release provided by the ethylcellulose nanoparticle dispersions make them suitable vehicles for controlled drug delivery applications. PMID:27341306

  14. A novel osmotic pump-based controlled delivery system consisting of pH-modulated solid dispersion for poorly soluble drug flurbiprofen: in vitro and in vivo evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shujuan; Wang, Xiaoyu; Wang, Yingying; Zhao, Qianqian; Zhang, Lina; Yang, Xinggang; Liu, Dandan; Pan, Weisan

    2015-01-01

    In this study, a novel controlled release osmotic pump capsule consisting of pH-modulated solid dispersion for poorly soluble drug flurbiprofen (FP) was developed to improve the solubility and oral bioavailability of FP and to minimize the fluctuation of plasma concentration. The pH-modulated solid dispersion containing FP, Kollidon® 12 PF and Na2CO3 at a weight ratio of 1/4.5/0.02 was prepared using the solvent evaporation method. The osmotic pump capsule was assembled by semi-permeable capsule shell of cellulose acetate (CA) prepared by the perfusion method. Then, the solid dispersion, penetration enhancer, and suspending agents were tableted and filled into the capsule. Central composite design-response surface methodology was used to evaluate the influence of factors on the responses. A second-order polynomial model and a multiple linear model were fitted to correlation coefficient of drug release profile and ultimate cumulative release in 12 h, respectively. The actual response values were in good accordance with the predicted ones. The optimized formulation showed a complete drug delivery and zero-order release rate. Beagle dogs were used to be conducted in the pharmacokinetic study. The in vivo study indicated that the relative bioavailability of the novel osmotic pump system was 133.99% compared with the commercial preparation. The novel controlled delivery system with combination of pH-modulated solid dispersion and osmotic pump system is not only a promising strategy to improve the solubility and oral bioavailability of poorly soluble ionizable drugs but also an effective way to reduce dosing frequency and minimize the plasma fluctuation.

  15. Development of megestrol acetate solid dispersion nanoparticles for enhanced oral delivery by using a supercritical antisolvent process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ha ES

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Eun-Sol Ha,1 Jeong-Soo Kim,2 In-hwan Baek,3 Jin-Wook Yoo,1 Yunjin Jung,1 Hyung Ryong Moon,1 Min-Soo Kim1 1College of Pharmacy, Pusan National University, 2Dong-A ST Co Ltd, Yongin, 3College of Pharmacy, Kyungsung University, Busan, South Korea Abstract: In the present study, solid dispersion nanoparticles with a hydrophilic polymer and surfactant were developed using the supercritical antisolvent (SAS process to improve the dissolution and oral absorption of megestrol acetate. The physicochemical properties of the megestrol acetate solid dispersion nanoparticles were characterized using scanning electron microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, powder X-ray diffraction, and a particle-size analyzer. The dissolution and oral bioavailability of the nanoparticles were also evaluated in rats. The mean particle size of all solid dispersion nanoparticles that were prepared was <500 nm. Powder X-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry measurements showed that megestrol acetate was present in an amorphous or molecular dispersion state within the solid dispersion nanoparticles. Hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose (HPMC solid dispersion nanoparticles significantly increased the maximum dissolution when compared with polyvinylpyrrolidone K30 solid dispersion nanoparticles. The extent and rate of dissolution of megestrol acetate increased after the addition of a surfactant into the HPMC solid dispersion nanoparticles. The most effective surfactant was Ryoto sugar ester L1695, followed by d-a-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate. In this study, the solid dispersion nanoparticles with a drug:HPMC:Ryoto sugar ester L1695 ratio of 1:2:1 showed >95% rapid dissolution within 30 minutes, in addition to good oral bioavailability, with approximately 4.0- and 5.5-fold higher area under the curve (0–24 hours and maximum concentration, respectively, than raw megestrol acetate powder. These results suggest that the preparation of megestrol

  16. Melt dispersion granules: formulation and evaluation to improve oral delivery of poorly soluble drugs - a case study with valsartan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chella, Naveen; Tadikonda, Ramarao

    2015-06-01

    Solid dispersion (SD) technique is a promising strategy to improve the solubility and dissolution of BCS class II drugs. However, only few products are marketed till today based on SD technology due to poor flow properties and stability. The present work was intended to solve these problems by using combination approach, melt dispersion and surface adsorption technologies. The main aim of the present work is to improve the absorption in the stomach (at lower pH) where the absorption window exists for the drug by improving the dissolution, resulting in the enhancement of oral bioavailability of poorly soluble, weakly acidic drug with pH dependant solubility, i.e. valsartan. Melt dispersion granules were prepared in different ratios using different carriers (Gelucire 50/13, PEG 8000 and Pluronic F-68) and lactose as an adsorbent. Similarly, physical mixtures were also prepared at corresponding ratios. The prepared dispersion granules and physical mixtures were characterized by FTIR, DSC and in vitro dissolution studies. DSC studies revealed reduction in the crystallinity with a possibility of presence of amorphous character of drug in the dispersion granules. From dissolution studies, valsartan Gelucire dispersion (GSD4; 1:4 ratio) showed complete drug release in 30 min against the plain drug which showed only 11.31% of drug release in 30 min. Pharmacokinetic studies of optimized formulation in male Wistar rats showed 2.65-fold higher bioavailability and 1.47-fold higher Cmax compared to pure drug. The melt dispersion technology has the potential to improve dissolution and the bioavailability of BCS class II drugs. PMID:24796274

  17. Ocular delivery of flurbiprofen based on Eudragit(®) E-flurbiprofen complex dispersed in aqueous solution: preparation, characterization, in vitro corneal penetration, and ocular irritation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinteros, Daniela Alejandra; Tártara, Luis Ignacio; Palma, Santiago Daniel; Manzo, Ruben Hilario; Allemandi, Daniel Alberto

    2014-12-01

    A novel ophthalmic formulation based on the ionic complexation between Eudragit E 100 (EU) and flurbiprofen (FB) is proposed. The selected complex composition, named EU-FBH50 Cl50 , had the basic groups of EU completely neutralized with equal molar amounts of FB and HCl. This complex, obtained in the solid state, exhibited a high aqueous compatibility producing a colloidal dispersion with a high positive electrokinetic potential, in which more than 99% of FB was ionically condensed with EU. In bicompartimental Franz cells, FB diffusion from the complex was very slow. However, dispersion in 0.9% NaCl increased the FB release through an ionic exchange, providing an optimal constant rate of delivery. Corneal FB permeation from 0.1% EU-FBH50 -Cl50 dispersed in 0.9% NaCl solution was substantially more effective compared with 0.1% FB solution, EU-FBH50 -Cl50 (Dex), or Tolerane(®) (a marketed formulation). This complex formulation was shown to be innocuous for rabbit ocular tissues because no irritant effects were evidenced.

  18. AMRMS Aerial survey database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — An aerial monitoring program was conducted during the period 1962 - 2003 in cooperation with aerial spotters working for the commercial purse seine fleet. Flights...

  19. A novel asymmetric membrane osmotic pump capsule with in situ formed delivery orifices for controlled release of gliclazide solid dispersion system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yue; Zhao, Zhinan; Wang, Yongfei; Yang, Lu; Liu, Dandan; Yang, Xinggang; Pan, Weisan

    2016-06-15

    In this study, a novel asymmetric membrane osmotic pump capsule of gliclazide (GLC) solid dispersion was developed to achieve a controlled drug release. The capsule shells were obtained by wet phase inversion process using cellulose acetate as semi-permeable membrane, glycerol and kolliphor P188 as pore formers, then filled with the mixture of GLC solid dispersion and pH modifiers. Differentiate from the conventional formulations, sodium carbonate was chosen as the osmotic agent and effervescent agent simultaneously to control the drug release, instead of the polymer materials. The ternary solid dispersion of GLC, with polyethylene glycol 6000 and kolliphor P188 as carriers, was prepared by solvent-evaporation method, realizing a 2.09-fold increment in solubility and dissolution rate in comparison with unprocessed GLC. Influence of the composition of the coating solution and pH modifiers on the drug release from the asymmetric membrane capsule (AMC) was investigated. The ultimate cumulative release of the optimal formulation reached 91.32% in an approximately zero-order manner. The osmotic pressure test and dye test were conducted to validate the drug release mechanism from the AMC. The in vivo pharmacokinetic study of the AMC indicated a 102.66±10.95% relative bioavailability compared with the commercial tablet, suggesting the bioequivalence between the two formulations. Consequently, the novel controlled delivery system with combination of solid dispersion and AMC system is capable of providing a satisfactory alternative to release the water-insoluble drugs in a controlled manner. PMID:27132166

  20. Design, Characterization, and Aerosol Dispersion Performance Modeling of Advanced Spray-Dried Microparticulate/Nanoparticulate Mannitol Powders for Targeted Pulmonary Delivery as Dry Powder Inhalers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaojian; Vogt, Frederick G.; Hayes, Don

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background: The purpose was to design and characterize inhalable microparticulate/nanoparticulate dry powders of mannitol with essential particle properties for targeted dry powder delivery for cystic fibrosis mucolytic treatment by dilute organic solution spray drying, and, in addition, to tailor and correlate aerosol dispersion performance delivered as dry powder inhalers based on spray-drying conditions and solid-state physicochemical properties. Methods: Organic solution advanced spray drying from dilute solution followed by comprehensive solid-state physicochemical characterization and in vitro dry powder aerosolization were used. Results: The particle size distribution of the spray-dried (SD) powders was narrow, unimodal, and in the range of ∼500 nm to 2.0 μm. The particles possessed spherical particle morphology, relatively smooth surface morphology, low water content and vapor sorption (crystallization occurred at exposure above 65% relative humidity), and retention of crystallinity by polymorphic interconversion. The emitted dose, fine particle fraction (FPF), and respirable fraction (RF) were all relatively high. The mass median aerodynamic diameters were below 4 μm for all SD mannitol aerosols. Conclusion: The in vitro aerosol deposition stage patterns could be tailored based on spray-drying pump rate. Positive linear correlation was observed between both FPF and RF values with spray-drying pump rates. The interplay between various spray-drying conditions, particle physicochemical properties, and aerosol dispersion performance was observed and examined, which enabled tailoring and modeling of high aerosol deposition patterns. PMID:24502451

  1. Physicochemical characterization and aerosol dispersion performance of organic solution advanced spray-dried cyclosporine A multifunctional particles for dry powder inhalation aerosol delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu X

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Xiao Wu,1 Weifen Zhang,1,2 Don Hayes Jr,3–5 Heidi M Mansour1,61Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences – Drug Development Division, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY, USA; 2College of Pharmacy and Biological Science, Weifang Medical University, Weifang, People's Republic of China; 3Department of Pediatrics, 4Department of Internal Medicine, The Ohio State University College of Medicine, Nationwide Children's Hospital Lung and Heart-Lung Transplant Program, 5Davis Heart and Lung Research Institute, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, 6Center of Membrane Sciences, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY, USAAbstract: In this systematic and comprehensive study, inhalation powders of the polypeptide immunosuppressant drug – cyclosporine A – for lung delivery as dry powder inhalers (DPIs were successfully designed, developed, and optimized. Several spray drying pump rates were rationally chosen. Comprehensive physicochemical characterization and imaging was carried out using scanning electron microscopy, hot-stage microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, powder X-ray diffraction, Karl Fischer titration, laser size diffraction, and gravimetric vapor sorption. Aerosol dispersion performance was conducted using a next generation impactor with a Food and Drug Administration-approved DPI device. These DPIs displayed excellent aerosol dispersion performance with high values in emitted dose, respirable fraction, and fine particle fraction. In addition, novel multifunctional inhalation aerosol powder formulations of cyclosporine A with lung surfactant-mimic phospholipids were also successfully designed and developed by advanced organic solution cospray drying in closed mode. The lung surfactant-mimic phospholipids were 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine and 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-(phosphor-rac-1-glycerol. These cyclosporine A lung surfactant-mimic aerosol powder formulations were comprehensively characterized. Powder X

  2. Taylor dispersion technique as a tool for measuring multicomponent diffusion in drug delivery systems at physiological temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Diffusion of the systems containing potassium chloride, xantine and cyclodextrin. • Influence of potassium chloride in the diffusion of theophylline. • Coupled diffusion as indicated by cross-diffusion coefficients. - Abstract: The Taylor dispersion technique was used to measure quaternary diffusion coefficients, 123D11, 123D22, 123D33, 123D12, 123D13, 123D21, 123D23, 123D31, and 123D32, in aqueous solutions of 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HP-βCD) + KCl + caffeine (CAF) + water, and 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HP-βCD) + KCl + theophylline (THP) + water at T = 310.15 K at different carrier concentrations of 0.002, 0.005 and 0.010 mol · dm−3, for each solute. The behaviour diffusion of these multicomponent systems and the coupled flows occurring in the solution can be explained on the basis of salting-out effects, as well as the possible interactions between both (cyclodextrin + xantine) or (cyclodextrin + metal ion) interactions, lead us in this way to obtain a better understanding of the structure of these systems

  3. AERIAL DELIVERY DESIGN AND FABRICATION FACILITY

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Skilled personnel are equipped to design and develop various prototype airdrop items. This facility has all classes of sewing machines, ranging from lightweight to...

  4. Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Instrumentation for Rapid Aerial Photo System

    CERN Document Server

    Adiprawita, Widyawardana; Semibiring, Jaka

    2008-01-01

    This research will proposed a new kind of relatively low cost autonomous UAV that will enable farmers to make just in time mosaics of aerial photo of their crop. These mosaics of aerial photo should be able to be produced with relatively low cost and within the 24 hours of acquisition constraint. The autonomous UAV will be equipped with payload management system specifically developed for rapid aerial mapping. As mentioned before turn around time is the key factor, so accuracy is not the main focus (not orthorectified aerial mapping). This system will also be equipped with special software to post process the aerial photos to produce the mosaic aerial photo map

  5. Fast Aerial Video Stitching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Li

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The highly efficient and robust stitching of aerial video captured by unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs is a challenging problem in the field of robot vision. Existing commercial image stitching systems have seen success with offline stitching tasks, but they cannot guarantee high-speed performance when dealing with online aerial video sequences.In this paper, we present a novel system which has an unique ability to stitch high-frame rate aerial video at a speed of 150 frames per second (FPS. In addition, rather than using a high-speed vision platform such as FPGA or CUDA, our system is running on a normal personal computer. To achieve this, after the careful comparison of the existing invariant features, we choose the FAST corner and binary descriptor for efficient feature extraction and representation, and present a spatial and temporal coherent filter to fuse the UAV motion information into the feature matching. The proposed filter can remove the majority of feature correspondence outliers and significantly increase the speed of robust feature matching by up to 20 times. To achieve a balance between robustness and efficiency, a dynamic key frame-based stitching framework is used to reduce the accumulation errors.Extensive experiments on challenging UAV datasets demonstrate that our approach can break through the speed limitation and generate an accurate stitching image for aerial video stitching tasks.

  6. Aerial radiation survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aerial gamma spectrometry surveys are the most effective, comprehensive and preferred tool to delimit the large area surface contamination in a radiological emergency either due to a nuclear accident or following a nuclear strike. The airborne survey apart from providing rapid and economical evaluation of ground contamination over large areas due to larger ground clearance and higher speed, is the only technique to overcome difficulties posed by ground surveys of inaccessible region. The aerial survey technique can also be used for searching of lost radioactive sources, tracking of radioactive plume and generation of background data on the Emergency Planning Zone (EPZ) of nuclear installations

  7. Stability and recovery of DIFICID(®) (Fidaxomicin) 200-mg crushed tablet preparations from three delivery vehicles, and administration of an aqueous dispersion via nasogastric tube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tousseeva, Anna; Jackson, J Derek; Redell, Mark; Henry, Teresa; Hui, Michael; Capurso, Shelley; DeRyke, C Andrew

    2014-12-01

    Fidaxomicin is approved for the treatment of adults with Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea, many of whom have difficulty swallowing an intact tablet. The study objective was to evaluate the stability and recovery of crushed DIFICID(®) (fidaxomicin) 200-mg tablets dispersed in water, applesauce, or Ensure(®) brand liquid nutritional supplement, and to determine the recovery of fidaxomicin from the administration of an aqueous dispersion of a crushed DIFICID(®) tablet through a nasogastric (NG) tube. DIFICID(®) tablets were crushed and dispersed in water, applesauce, or Ensure(®). The stability and recovery of fidaxomicin were evaluated over 24 h in these vehicles. In a separate experiment, the ability to recover a full dose of fidaxomicin when administering as an aqueous dispersion through an NG tube was assessed. When DIFICID(®) tablets were crushed and dispersed in water, the active ingredient, fidaxomicin, was stable for up to 2 h at room temperature. Additionally, it was stable for up to 24 h in dispersions with applesauce or Ensure(®). Recovery of fidaxomicin after crushing and dispersing in any of the three vehicles studied ranged from 95 to 108 %, which is within the normal range of individual tablet variability. When crushed, dispersed in water, and administered through an NG tube, the average recovery of fidaxomicin was 96 %. Stability and recovery of fidaxomicin were confirmed when DIFICID(®) tablets were crushed and dispersed in water, applesauce, or Ensure(®). In addition, administration of an aqueous dispersion of a crushed tablet through an NG tube is supported by acceptable recovery of fidaxomicin.

  8. Aerial Perspective Artistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Linda

    2010-01-01

    This article presents a lesson centering on aerial perspective artistry of students and offers suggestions on how art teachers should carry this project out. This project serves to develop students' visual perception by studying reproductions by famous artists. This lesson allows one to imagine being lured into a landscape capable of captivating…

  9. Persistent Aerial Tracking

    KAUST Repository

    Mueller, Matthias

    2016-04-13

    In this thesis, we propose a new aerial video dataset and benchmark for low altitude UAV target tracking, as well as, a photo-realistic UAV simulator that can be coupled with tracking methods. Our benchmark provides the rst evaluation of many state of-the-art and popular trackers on 123 new and fully annotated HD video sequences captured from a low-altitude aerial perspective. Among the compared trackers, we determine which ones are the most suitable for UAV tracking both in terms of tracking accuracy and run-time. We also present a simulator that can be used to evaluate tracking algorithms in real-time scenarios before they are deployed on a UAV "in the field", as well as, generate synthetic but photo-realistic tracking datasets with free ground truth annotations to easily extend existing real-world datasets. Both the benchmark and simulator will be made publicly available to the vision community to further research in the area of object tracking from UAVs. Additionally, we propose a persistent, robust and autonomous object tracking system for unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) called Persistent Aerial Tracking (PAT). A computer vision and control strategy is applied to a diverse set of moving objects (e.g. humans, animals, cars, boats, etc.) integrating multiple UAVs with a stabilized RGB camera. A novel strategy is employed to successfully track objects over a long period, by \\'handing over the camera\\' from one UAV to another. We integrate the complete system into an off-the-shelf UAV, and obtain promising results showing the robustness of our solution in real-world aerial scenarios.

  10. Apply Pesticides Correctly, A Guide for Commercial Applicators: Aerial Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wamsley, Mary Ann, Ed.; Vermeire, Donna M., Ed.

    This guide contains basic information to meet specific standards for pesticide applicators. The text is concerned with the calibration of dry and liquid pesticide systems for aerial application. Additionally, dispersal equipment is discussed with considerations for environmental and safety factors. (CS)

  11. Stability and Recovery of DIFICID® (Fidaxomicin) 200-mg Crushed Tablet Preparations from Three Delivery Vehicles, and Administration of an Aqueous Dispersion via Nasogastric Tube

    OpenAIRE

    Tousseeva, Anna; Jackson, J. Derek; Redell, Mark; Henry, Teresa; Hui, Michael; Capurso, Shelley; DeRyke, C. Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Fidaxomicin is approved for the treatment of adults with Clostridium difficile–associated diarrhea, many of whom have difficulty swallowing an intact tablet. The study objective was to evaluate the stability and recovery of crushed DIFICID® (fidaxomicin) 200-mg tablets dispersed in water, applesauce, or Ensure® brand liquid nutritional supplement, and to determine the recovery of fidaxomicin from the administration of an aqueous dispersion of a crushed DIFICID® tablet through a nasogastric (N...

  12. NEW DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarkar Biresh K

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Incorporating an existing medicine into a new drug delivery system can significantly improve its performance in terms of efficacy, safety, and improved patient compliance. The need for delivering drugs to patients efficiently and with fewer side effects has prompted pharmaceutical companies to engage in the development of new drug delivery systems. Today, drug delivery companies are engaged in the development of multiple platform technologies for controlled release, delivery of large molecules, liposome, taste-masking, oral fast- dispersing dosage forms, technology for in- soluble drugs, and delivery of drugs through intranasal, pulmonary, transdermal, vaginal, colon, and transmucosal routes.

  13. AERIAL RADIOLOGICAL SURVEYS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measuring terrestrial gamma radiation from airborne platforms has proved to be a useful method for characterizing radiation levels over large areas. Over 300 aerial radiological surveys have been carried out over the past 25 years including U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites, commercial nuclear power plants, Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program/Uranium Mine Tailing Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP/UMTRAP) sites, nuclear weapons test sites, contaminated industrial areas, and nuclear accident sites. This paper describes the aerial measurement technology currently in use by the Remote Sensing Laboratory (RSL) for routine environmental surveys and emergency response activities. Equipment, data-collection and -analysis methods, and examples of survey results are described

  14. CERN: an aerial view

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    On 30th January, when CERN still resembled a winter wonderland, a helicopter with a photographer on board took off on an aerial tour. One sunny morning at the end of January, when the area was waking up to an overnight snowfall, a helicopter took off from the Meyrin site with a CERN photographer on board. CERN has been the subject of aerial photographs ever since its creation. Although its appearance has changed over the years, the Laboratory has aged well. The aerial photographs taken during its fifty-year history bear witness to its expansion, showing how a handful of buildings and a first accelerator have blossomed into an entire machine complex. Let's take to the skies and have a look at some of the photos taken on this crisp January morning: a sight for sore eyes! In the foreground, Building 40 on the Meyrin site is recognisable from its magnet shape.On the right of the Route de Meyrin (crossing the photo diagonally), next to Point 1, the work on the Globe of Innovation, which got underway at the beg...

  15. Enteric-coated capsules filled with mono-disperse micro-particles containing PLGA-lipid-PEG nanoparticles for oral delivery of insulin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Fei; Li, Yang; Liu, Chang Sheng; Chen, Qin; Wang, Gui Huan; Guo, Wei; Wu, Xue E; Li, Dong Hui; Wu, Winston Duo; Chen, Xiao Dong

    2015-04-30

    The success of the oral delivery of insulin (INS) as a therapeutic protein drug would significantly improve the quality of life of diabetic patients who would otherwise receive multiple daily INS injections. The oral delivery of INS, however, is still limited in its delivery efficiency, which could be due to the chemical, enzymatic, and adsorption barriers. In this work, in an attempt to improve the delivery efficiency, the INS-loaded polymer-lipid hybrid nanoparticles (INS-PLGA-lipid-PEG NPs) were designed and constructed through a double-emulsion solvent evaporation technique, followed by formulation of the spherical micro-particles using a spray freeze dryer (SFD). This kind of dryers has a uniquely designed microfluidic aerosol nozzle (MFAN), ensuring the formation of uniform particles. The resulted particles of ∼212 μm could easily be reverted to discrete INS-PLGA-lipid-PEG NPs in an aqueous solution. The INS-PLGA-lipid-PEG NPs created in this work showed a highly negative surface charge, excellent entrapment efficiency (92.3%) and a sustained drug release (∼24 h). Confocal laser scanning microscopy and flow cytometer were used to show that the cellular uptake efficiency for the INS-PLGA-lipid-PEG NPs was more effective than the INS in Caco-2 cells. More importantly, the in vivo pharmacodynamics demonstrated that the orally delivered system induced a prolonged decrease in blood glucose levels among diabetic rats. The relative bioavailability of INS compared with subcutaneous injection in diabetic rats was found to be approximately 12%. These results suggested that the encapsulated INS-PLGA-lipid-PEG NPs are promising and should be investigated further in the near future as an effective INS oral delivery system. PMID:25724135

  16. Infrared film for aerial photography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, William H.

    1979-01-01

    Considerable interest has developed recently in the use of aerial photographs for agricultural management. Even the simplest hand-held aerial photographs, especially those taken with color infrared film, often provide information not ordinarily available through routine ground observation. When fields are viewed from above, patterns and variations become more apparent, often allowing problems to be spotted which otherwise may go undetected.

  17. Solid Phospholipid Dispersions for Oral Delivery of Poorly Soluble Drugs: Investigation Into Celecoxib Incorporation and Solubility-In Vitro Permeability Enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Sophia Yui Kau; Martins, Susana M; Brandl, Martin; Bauer-Brandl, Annette

    2016-03-01

    Celecoxib (CXB) is a Biopharmaceutical Classification System class II drug in which its oral bioavailability is limited by poor aqueous solubility. Although a range of formulations aiming to increase the solubility of CXB have been developed, it is not completely understood, whether (1) an increase in CXB solubility leads to a subsequent increase in permeability across intestinal barrier and (2) the presence of bile salts affects the solubility and permeability behavior of CXB formulations. By formulating CXB solid phospholipid (PL) dispersions with various PL-to-drug ratios using freeze drying, the present study illustrated that the enhancement of CXB solubility was not proportionally translated into enhanced permeability; both parameters were highly dependent on the PL-to-drug ratios as well as the dispersion media (i.e., the presence of 3-mM sodium taurocholate). This study highlights the importance of evaluating both, solubility and permeability, and the use of biorelevant medium for testing the candidate-enabling performance of liposomal formulations. Mechanisms at molecular level that may explain the effect of PL formulations on the permeability of CXB are also discussed. PMID:26886329

  18. Morphing unmanned aerial vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research on aircraft morphing has exploded in recent years. The motivation and driving force behind this has been to find new and novel ways to increase the capabilities of aircraft. Materials advancements have helped to increase possibilities with respect to actuation and, hence, a diversity of concepts and unimagined capabilities. The expanded role of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) has provided an ideal platform for exploring these emergent morphing concepts since at this scale a greater amount of risk can be taken, as well as having more manageable fabrication and cost requirements. This review focuses on presenting the role UAVs have in morphing research by giving an overview of the UAV morphing concepts, designs, and technologies described in the literature. A presentation of quantitative information as well as a discussion of technical issues is given where possible to begin gaining some insight into the overall assessment and performance of these technologies. (topical review)

  19. Lysine-functionalized nanodiamonds as gene carriers: development of stable colloidal dispersion for in vitro cellular uptake studies and siRNA delivery application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alwani S

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Saniya Alwani,1 Randeep Kaur,1 Deborah Michel,1 Jackson M Chitanda,2 Ronald E Verrall,3 Chithra Karunakaran,4 Ildiko Badea1 1Drug Design and Discovery Research Group, College of Pharmacy and Nutrition, 2Department of Chemical & Biological Engineering, 3Department of Chemistry, University of Saskatchewan, 4Canadian Light Source, Saskatoon, SK, Canada Purpose: Nanodiamonds (NDs are emerging as an attractive tool for gene therapeutics. To reach their full potential for biological application, NDs should maintain their colloidal stability in biological milieu. This study describes the behavior of lysine-functionalized ND (lys-ND in various dispersion media, with an aim to limit aggregation and improve the colloidal stability of ND-gene complexes called diamoplexes. Furthermore, cellular and macromolecular interactions of lys-NDs are also analyzed in vitro to establish the understanding of ND-mediated gene transfer in cells. Methods: lys-NDs were synthesized earlier through covalent conjugation of lysine amino acid to carboxylated NDs surface generated through re-oxidation in strong oxidizing acids. In this study, dispersions of lys-NDs were prepared in various media, and the degree of sedimentation was monitored for 72 hours. Particle size distributions and zeta potential measurements were performed for a period of 25 days to characterize the physicochemical stability of lys-NDs in the medium. The interaction profile of lys-NDs with fetal bovine serum showed formation of a protein corona, which was evaluated by size and charge distribution measurements. Uptake of lys-NDs in cervical cancer cells was analyzed by scanning transmission X-ray microscopy, flow cytometry, and confocal microscopy. Cellular uptake of diamoplexes (complex of lys-NDs with small interfering RNA was also analyzed using flow cytometry. Results: Aqueous dispersion of lys-NDs showed minimum sedimentation and remained stable over a period of 25 days. Size distributions showed

  20. The Smart Aerial Release Machine, a Universal System for Applying the Sterile Insect Technique

    OpenAIRE

    Ruben Leal Mubarqui; Rene Cano Perez; Roberto Angulo Kladt; Jose Luis Zavala Lopez; Andrew Parker; Momar Talla Seck; Baba Sall; Jérémy Bouyer

    2014-01-01

    Background: Beyond insecticides, alternative methods to control insect pests for agriculture and vectors of diseases are needed. Management strategies involving the mass-release of living control agents have been developed, including genetic control with sterile insects and biological control with parasitoids, for which aerial release of insects is often required. Aerial release in genetic control programmes often involves the use of chilled sterile insects, which can improve dispersal, survi...

  1. Predator foraging altitudes reveal the structure of aerial insect communities

    OpenAIRE

    Helms, Jackson A.; Aaron P. Godfrey; Tayna Ames; Bridge, Eli S.

    2016-01-01

    The atmosphere is populated by a diverse array of dispersing insects and their predators. We studied aerial insect communities by tracking the foraging altitudes of an avian insectivore, the Purple Martin (Progne subis). By attaching altitude loggers to nesting Purple Martins and collecting prey delivered to their nestlings, we determined the flight altitudes of ants and other insects. We then tested hypotheses relating ant body size and reproductive ecology to flight altitude. Purple Martins...

  2. Aerial measurements in Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winkelmann, I.; Thomas, M.; Buchroeder, H.; Brummer, C. [Federal Office for Radiation Protection, Berlin (Germany); Carloff, G. [German Federal Border Police, Grenzschutz-Fliegergruppe, Sankt Augustin (Germany)

    1997-12-31

    Aerial measurements were performed to determine the {sup 137}Cs soil contamination in a given region to detect unknown radiation sources and to assess their activity. For these measurements a computerized gamma ray spectrometer, equipped with a high purity Ge-semiconductor detector and a 12 l volume Nal(Tl)-detector was used. HPGe-detector measurements from different altitudes over area I were done to test and re-calibrate the aerial measuring system. The known {sup 137}Cs contamination of (50.7 {+-} 5.2) kBq m{sup -2} could be confirmed by the measured value of (57 {+-} 10) kBq m{sup -2}. the Nal(Tl)-detector was re-calibrated at that site for further {sup 137}Cs measurements over area II. The area II was surveyed from an altitude of about 70 m and at a parallel line distance of 150 m at an flying speed of 100 km h{sup -1} to determine the {sup 137}Cs soil contamination. The measuring time was two seconds for the Nal(Tl)-detector. For the spectra measured with the HPGe-detector, a measuring time of 30 s each was chosen. From the Nal(Tl)-measurements, a mean {sup 137}Cs value of (60 {+-} 20) kBq m{sup -2} was determined with a maximum value of 90 kBq m{sup -2}. The corresponding values measured by HPGe-detector were (70 {+-} 20) kBq m{sup -2} and 120 kBq m{sup -2}, respectively. For the evaluation of the HPGe-spectra a depth distribution parameter {alpha}/{rho} = (0.44 {+-} 0.21) cm{sup 2} g{sup -1} for {sup 137}Cs was used measured from soil samples. From data measured with the Nal(Tl)-detector during flights over area III, three{sup 60}Co-sources and one {sup 137}Cs source could be detected, localized and their activity assessed. By HPGe-detector measurements, only scattered {sup 192}lr radiation was registered. (au).

  3. Development and characterization of biocompatible isotropic and anisotropic oil-in-water colloidal dispersions as a new delivery system for methyl dihydrojasmonate antitumor drug

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva GBRF

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Gisela Bevilacqua Rolfsen Ferreira da Silva,1 Maria Virginia Scarpa,1 Gustavo Rossanezi,1 Eryvaldo Socrates Tabosa do Egito,2 Anselmo Gomes de Oliveira1 1Departamento de Fármacos e Medicamentos, Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP, Araraquara, SP, Brazil; 2Laboratório de Sistemas Dispersos, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN Natal, RN, Brazil Abstract: Microemulsions (MEs are colloidal systems that can be used for drug-delivery and drug-targeting purposes. These systems are able to incorporate drugs modifying bioavailability and stability and reducing toxic effects. The jasmonate compounds belong to a group of plant stress hormones, and the jasmonic acid and its methyl ester derivative have been described as having anticancer activity. However, these compounds are very poorly water-soluble, not allowing administration by an intravenous route without an efficient nanostructured carrier system. In this work, biocompatible MEs of appropriate diameter size for intravenous route administration, loaded and unloaded with methyl dihydrojasmonate (MJ, were developed and described in a pseudo-ternary phase diagram. The compositions of the MEs were carefully selected from their own regions in the pseudo-ternary phase diagram. The formulations were analyzed by light scattering, polarized light microscopy, and X-ray diffraction. Also, a study on rheological profile was performed. The results showed that the droplet size decreased with both MJ incorporation and oil phase/surfactant ratio. All compositions of the studied MEs showed rheological behavior of pseudoplastic fluid and amorphous structures. In the absence of MJ, most of the studied MEs had thixotropic characteristics, which became antithixotropic in the presence of the drug. Almost all MJ-unloaded MEs presented anisotropic characteristics, but some formulations became isotropic, especially in the presence of MJ. The results of this study support the conclusion that the studied

  4. Predator foraging altitudes reveal the structure of aerial insect communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helms, Jackson A; Godfrey, Aaron P; Ames, Tayna; Bridge, Eli S

    2016-01-01

    The atmosphere is populated by a diverse array of dispersing insects and their predators. We studied aerial insect communities by tracking the foraging altitudes of an avian insectivore, the Purple Martin (Progne subis). By attaching altitude loggers to nesting Purple Martins and collecting prey delivered to their nestlings, we determined the flight altitudes of ants and other insects. We then tested hypotheses relating ant body size and reproductive ecology to flight altitude. Purple Martins flew up to 1,889 meters above ground, and nestling provisioning trips ranged up to 922 meters. Insect communities were structured by body size such that species of all sizes flew near the ground but only light insects flew to the highest altitudes. Ant maximum flight altitudes decreased by 60% from the lightest to the heaviest species. Winged sexuals of social insects (ants, honey bees, and termites) dominated the Purple Martin diet, making up 88% of prey individuals and 45% of prey biomass. By transferring energy from terrestrial to aerial food webs, mating swarms of social insects play a substantial role in aerial ecosystems. Although we focus on Purple Martins and ants, our combined logger and diet method could be applied to a range of aerial organisms. PMID:27352817

  5. The presence of root-feeding nematodes - Not AMF - Affects an herbivore dispersal strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Roissart, Annelies; Peña, Eduardo de la; Van Oyen, Lien; Van Leeuwen, Thomas; Ballhorn, Daniel J.; Bonte, Dries

    2013-10-01

    Plant quality and aboveground herbivore performance are influenced either directly or indirectly by the soil community. As herbivore dispersal is a conditional strategy relative to plant quality, we examined whether belowground biotic interactions (the presence of root-feeding nematodes or arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi) affect aerial dispersal of a phytophagous mite (Tetranychus urticae) through changes in performance of their host plant (Phaseolus vulgaris). Aerial dispersal strategies of mites were analyzed in wind-tunnel experiments, in which a unique mite pre-dispersal behavior (rearing) was assessed in relation to the presence of belowground biota on the host plant on which mites developed. Spider mite pre-dispersal behavior significantly increased with the experienced mite density on the host during development. Additionally, plants infected with root-feeding nematodes induced an increase of spider mite aerial dispersal behavior. The results highlight that belowground herbivores can affect population dynamics of aboveground herbivores by altering dispersal strategies.

  6. Dynamics of aerial target pursuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, S.

    2015-12-01

    During pursuit and predation, aerial species engage in multitasking behavior that involve simultaneous target detection, tracking, decision-making, approach and capture. The mobility of the pursuer and the target in a three dimensional environment during predation makes the capture task highly complex. Many researchers have studied and analyzed prey capture dynamics in different aerial species such as insects and bats. This article focuses on reviewing the capture strategies adopted by these species while relying on different sensory variables (vision and acoustics) for navigation. In conclusion, the neural basis of these capture strategies and some applications of these strategies in bio-inspired navigation and control of engineered systems are discussed.

  7. 1939 Quay County CII Aerial Photo Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial photographs are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The aerial photo inventory contains imagery from various sources that are now archived at the Earth...

  8. 1946 Eddy County DEO Aerial Photo Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial photographs are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The aerial photo inventory contains imagery from various sources that are now archived at the Earth...

  9. 1947 Bernalillo County DFC Aerial Photo Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial photographs are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The aerial photo inventory contains imagery from various sources that are now archived at the Earth...

  10. Officials: Aerial Spraying Working Against Miami Mosquitoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 160274.html Officials: Aerial Spraying Working Against Miami Mosquitoes The insects are to blame for first cases ... 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Aerial spraying is killing many mosquitoes in a part of Miami where the insects ...

  11. 1946 Macho Border DDO Aerial Photo Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial photographs are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The aerial photo inventory contains imagery from various sources that are now archived at the Earth...

  12. 1955 Lea County DHO Aerial Photo Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial photographs are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The aerial photo inventory contains imagery from various sources that are now archived at the Earth...

  13. 1936 Curry County AG Aerial Photo Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial photographs are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The aerial photo inventory contains imagery from various sources that are now archived at the Earth...

  14. 1936 Harding County AG Aerial Photo Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial photographs are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The aerial photo inventory contains imagery from various sources that are now archived at the Earth...

  15. 1949 Roosevelt County CIK Aerial Photo Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial photographs are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The aerial photo inventory contains imagery from various sources that are now archived at the Earth...

  16. AVIATR—Aerial Vehicle for In-situ and Airborne Titan Reconnaissance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barnes, Jason W.; Lemke, Lawrence; Foch, Rick;

    2012-01-01

    We describe a mission concept for a stand-alone Titan airplane mission: Aerial Vehicle for In-situ and Airborne Titan Reconnaissance (AVIATR). With independent delivery and direct-to-Earth communications, AVIATR could contribute to Titan science either alone or as part of a sustained Titan Explor...

  17. 47 CFR 32.2421 - Aerial cable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Aerial cable. 32.2421 Section 32.2421... FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Balance Sheet Accounts § 32.2421 Aerial cable. (a) This account shall include the original cost of aerial cable and of drop and block wires served by...

  18. Toward autonomous avian-inspired grasping for micro aerial vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Micro aerial vehicles, particularly quadrotors, have been used in a wide range of applications. However, the literature on aerial manipulation and grasping is limited and the work is based on quasi-static models. In this paper, we draw inspiration from agile, fast-moving birds such as raptors, that are able to capture moving prey on the ground or in water, and develop similar capabilities for quadrotors. We address dynamic grasping, an approach to prehensile grasping in which the dynamics of the robot and its gripper are significant and must be explicitly modeled and controlled for successful execution. Dynamic grasping is relevant for fast pick-and-place operations, transportation and delivery of objects, and placing or retrieving sensors. We show how this capability can be realized (a) using a motion capture system and (b) without external sensors relying only on onboard sensors. In both cases we describe the dynamic model, and trajectory planning and control algorithms. In particular, we present a methodology for flying and grasping a cylindrical object using feedback from a monocular camera and an inertial measurement unit onboard the aerial robot. This is accomplished by mapping the dynamics of the quadrotor to a level virtual image plane, which in turn enables dynamically-feasible trajectory planning for image features in the image space, and a vision-based controller with guaranteed convergence properties. We also present experimental results obtained with a quadrotor equipped with an articulated gripper to illustrate both approaches. (papers)

  19. Toward autonomous avian-inspired grasping for micro aerial vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Justin; Loianno, Giuseppe; Polin, Joseph; Sreenath, Koushil; Kumar, Vijay

    2014-06-01

    Micro aerial vehicles, particularly quadrotors, have been used in a wide range of applications. However, the literature on aerial manipulation and grasping is limited and the work is based on quasi-static models. In this paper, we draw inspiration from agile, fast-moving birds such as raptors, that are able to capture moving prey on the ground or in water, and develop similar capabilities for quadrotors. We address dynamic grasping, an approach to prehensile grasping in which the dynamics of the robot and its gripper are significant and must be explicitly modeled and controlled for successful execution. Dynamic grasping is relevant for fast pick-and-place operations, transportation and delivery of objects, and placing or retrieving sensors. We show how this capability can be realized (a) using a motion capture system and (b) without external sensors relying only on onboard sensors. In both cases we describe the dynamic model, and trajectory planning and control algorithms. In particular, we present a methodology for flying and grasping a cylindrical object using feedback from a monocular camera and an inertial measurement unit onboard the aerial robot. This is accomplished by mapping the dynamics of the quadrotor to a level virtual image plane, which in turn enables dynamically-feasible trajectory planning for image features in the image space, and a vision-based controller with guaranteed convergence properties. We also present experimental results obtained with a quadrotor equipped with an articulated gripper to illustrate both approaches. PMID:24852023

  20. Toward autonomous avian-inspired grasping for micro aerial vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Justin; Loianno, Giuseppe; Polin, Joseph; Sreenath, Koushil; Kumar, Vijay

    2014-06-01

    Micro aerial vehicles, particularly quadrotors, have been used in a wide range of applications. However, the literature on aerial manipulation and grasping is limited and the work is based on quasi-static models. In this paper, we draw inspiration from agile, fast-moving birds such as raptors, that are able to capture moving prey on the ground or in water, and develop similar capabilities for quadrotors. We address dynamic grasping, an approach to prehensile grasping in which the dynamics of the robot and its gripper are significant and must be explicitly modeled and controlled for successful execution. Dynamic grasping is relevant for fast pick-and-place operations, transportation and delivery of objects, and placing or retrieving sensors. We show how this capability can be realized (a) using a motion capture system and (b) without external sensors relying only on onboard sensors. In both cases we describe the dynamic model, and trajectory planning and control algorithms. In particular, we present a methodology for flying and grasping a cylindrical object using feedback from a monocular camera and an inertial measurement unit onboard the aerial robot. This is accomplished by mapping the dynamics of the quadrotor to a level virtual image plane, which in turn enables dynamically-feasible trajectory planning for image features in the image space, and a vision-based controller with guaranteed convergence properties. We also present experimental results obtained with a quadrotor equipped with an articulated gripper to illustrate both approaches.

  1. A comparative analysis of dispersal syndromes in terrestrial and semi-terrestrial animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Virginie M; Whitmee, Sarah; Le Galliard, Jean-François; Clobert, Jean; Böhning-Gaese, Katrin; Bonte, Dries; Brändle, Martin; Matthias Dehling, D; Hof, Christian; Trochet, Audrey; Baguette, Michel

    2014-08-01

    Dispersal, the behaviour ensuring gene flow, tends to covary with a number of morphological, ecological and behavioural traits. While species-specific dispersal behaviours are the product of each species' unique evolutionary history, there may be distinct interspecific patterns of covariation between dispersal and other traits ('dispersal syndromes') due to their shared evolutionary history or shared environments. Using dispersal, phylogeny and trait data for 15 terrestrial and semi-terrestrial animal Orders (> 700 species), we tested for the existence and consistency of dispersal syndromes across species. At this taxonomic scale, dispersal increased linearly with body size in omnivores, but decreased above a critical length in herbivores and carnivores. Species life history and ecology significantly influenced patterns of covariation, with higher phylogenetic signal of dispersal in aerial dispersers compared with ground dwellers and stronger evidence for dispersal syndromes in aerial dispersers and ectotherms, compared with ground dwellers and endotherms. Our results highlight the complex role of dispersal in the evolution of species life-history strategies: good dispersal ability was consistently associated with high fecundity and survival, and in aerial dispersers it was associated with early maturation. We discuss the consequences of these findings for species evolution and range shifts in response to future climate change.

  2. Measured Noise from Small Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabell, Randolph; McSwain, Robert; Grosveld, Ferdinand

    2016-01-01

    Proposed uses of small unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), including home package delivery, have the potential to expose large portions of communities to a new noise source. This paper discusses results of flyover noise measurements of four small UAVs, including an internal combustion-powered model airplane and three battery-powered multicopters. Basic noise characteristics of these vehicles are discussed, including spectral properties and sound level metrics such as sound pressure level, effective perceived noise level, and sound exposure level. The size and aerodynamic characteristics of the multicopters in particular make their flight path susceptible to atmospheric disturbances such as wind gusts. These gusts, coupled with a flight control system that varies rotor speed to maintain vehicle stability, create an unsteady acoustic signature. The spectral variations resulting from this unsteadiness are explored, in both hover and flyover conditions for the multicopters. The time varying noise, which differs from the relatively steady noise generated by large transport aircraft, may complicate the prediction of human annoyance using conventional sound level metrics.

  3. Aerial robotic data acquisition system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A small unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) equipped with sensors for physical and chemical measurements of remote environments, is described. A miniature helicopter airframe is used as a platform for sensor testing and development. The sensor output is integrated with the flight control system for real-time, interactive, data acquisition and analysis. Pre programmed flight missions will be flown with several sensors to demonstrate the cost-effective surveillance capabilities of this new technology. (author) 10 refs

  4. Aerial robotic data acquisition system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hofstetter, K.J.; Hayes, D.W.; Pendergast, M.M. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States); Corban, J.E. [Guided Systems Technologies, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    1993-12-31

    A small, unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV), equipped with sensors for physical and chemical measurements of remote environments, is described. A miniature helicopter airframe is used as a platform for sensor testing and development. The sensor output is integrated with the flight control system for real-time, interactive, data acquisition and analysis. Pre-programmed flight missions will be flown with several sensors to demonstrate the cost-effective surveillance capabilities of this new technology.

  5. The US Air Force Aerial Spray Unit: a history of large area disease vector control operations, WWII through Katrina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breidenbaugh, Mark; Haagsma, Karl

    2008-01-01

    The US Air Force has had a long history of aerial applications of pesticides to fulfill a variety of missions, the most important being the protection of troops through the minimization of arthropod vectors capable of disease transmission. Beginning in World War II, aerial application of pesticides by the military has effectively controlled vector and nuisance pest populations in a variety of environments. Currently, the military aerial spray capability resides in the US Air Force Reserve (USAFR), which operates and maintains C-130 airplanes capable of a variety of missions, including ultra low volume applications for vector and nuisance pests, as well as higher volume aerial applications of herbicides and oil-spill dispersants. The USAFR aerial spray assets are the only such fixed-wing aerial spray assets within the Department of Defense. In addition to troop protection, the USAFR Aerial Spray Unit has participated in a number of humanitarian/relief missions, most recently in the response to the 2005 Hurricanes Katrina and Rita, which heavily damaged the Gulf Coasts of Louisiana, Mississippi, and Texas. This article provides historical background on the Air Force Aerial Spray Unit and describes the operations in Louisiana in the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina. PMID:20088030

  6. The US Air Force Aerial Spray Unit: a history of large area disease vector control operations, WWII through Katrina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breidenbaugh, Mark; Haagsma, Karl

    2008-01-01

    The US Air Force has had a long history of aerial applications of pesticides to fulfill a variety of missions, the most important being the protection of troops through the minimization of arthropod vectors capable of disease transmission. Beginning in World War II, aerial application of pesticides by the military has effectively controlled vector and nuisance pest populations in a variety of environments. Currently, the military aerial spray capability resides in the US Air Force Reserve (USAFR), which operates and maintains C-130 airplanes capable of a variety of missions, including ultra low volume applications for vector and nuisance pests, as well as higher volume aerial applications of herbicides and oil-spill dispersants. The USAFR aerial spray assets are the only such fixed-wing aerial spray assets within the Department of Defense. In addition to troop protection, the USAFR Aerial Spray Unit has participated in a number of humanitarian/relief missions, most recently in the response to the 2005 Hurricanes Katrina and Rita, which heavily damaged the Gulf Coasts of Louisiana, Mississippi, and Texas. This article provides historical background on the Air Force Aerial Spray Unit and describes the operations in Louisiana in the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina.

  7. Aerial Image Series Quality Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the growing demand for geospatial data, the aerial imagery with high spatial, spectral, and temporal resolution achieves great development. It is imperative to evaluate whether the acquired images are qualified enough, since the further image mosaic asks for strict time consistency and a re-flight involves considerable resources. In this paper, we address the problem of quick aerial image series quality assessment. An image series quality analysis system is proposed, which includes single image quality assessment, image series quality assessment based on the image matching, and offering a visual matching result in real time for human validation when the computer achieves dubious results. For two images, the affine matrix is different for different parts of images, especially for images of wide field. Therefore we calculate transfer matrixes by using even-distributed control points from different image parts with the RANSAC technology, and use the image rotation angle for image mosaic for human validation. Extensive experiments conducted on aerial images show that the proposed method can obtain similar results with experts

  8. Aerial Photography and Imagery, Uncorrected, historic aerial imagery; 1931-1990, Published in 2006, Washoe County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Aerial Photography and Imagery, Uncorrected dataset, was produced all or in part from Hardcopy Maps information as of 2006. It is described as 'historic aerial...

  9. Dropsonde System for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) are assuming more numerous and increasingly important roles in global environmental and atmospheric research. There is a...

  10. Automated Orientation of Aerial Images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høhle, Joachim

    2002-01-01

    Methods for automated orientation of aerial images are presented. They are based on the use of templates, which are derived from existing databases, and area-based matching. The characteristics of available database information and the accuracy requirements for map compilation and orthoimage...... production are discussed on the example of Denmark. Details on the developed methods for interior and exterior orientation are described. Practical examples like the measurement of réseau images, updating of topographic databases and renewal of orthoimages are used to prove the feasibility of the developed...

  11. Chemical dispersants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rahsepar, Shokouhalsadat; Smit, Martijn P.J.; Murk, Albertinka J.; Rijnaarts, Huub H.M.; Langenhoff, Alette A.M.

    2016-01-01

    Chemical dispersants were used in response to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico, both at the sea surface and the wellhead. Their effect on oil biodegradation is unclear, as studies showed both inhibition and enhancement. This study addresses the effect of Corexit on oil biodeg

  12. BOREAS Level-0 ER-2 Aerial Photography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newcomer, Jeffrey A.; Dominquez, Roseanne; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor)

    2000-01-01

    For BOReal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study (BOREAS), the ER-2 and other aerial photography was collected to provide finely detailed and spatially extensive documentation of the condition of the primary study sites. The ER-2 aerial photography consists of color-IR transparencies collected during flights in 1994 and 1996 over the study areas.

  13. Aerial service robotics: the AIRobots perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marconi, L.; Basile, F.; Caprari, G.; Carloni, R.; Chiacchio, P.; Hurzeler, C.; Lippiello, V.; Naldi, R.; Siciliano, B.; Stramigioli, S.; Zwicker, E.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the main vision and research activities of the ongoing European project AIRobots (Innova- tive Aerial Service Robot for Remote Inspection by Contact, www.airobots.eu). The goal of AIRobots is to develop a new generation of aerial service robots capable of supporting human beings

  14. COCOA: tracking in aerial imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Saad; Shah, Mubarak

    2006-05-01

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) are becoming a core intelligence asset for reconnaissance, surveillance and target tracking in urban and battlefield settings. In order to achieve the goal of automated tracking of objects in UAV videos we have developed a system called COCOA. It processes the video stream through number of stages. At first stage platform motion compensation is performed. Moving object detection is performed to detect the regions of interest from which object contours are extracted by performing a level set based segmentation. Finally blob based tracking is performed for each detected object. Global tracks are generated which are used for higher level processing. COCOA is customizable to different sensor resolutions and is capable of tracking targets as small as 100 pixels. It works seamlessly for both visible and thermal imaging modes. The system is implemented in Matlab and works in a batch mode.

  15. Handbook of unmanned aerial vehicles

    CERN Document Server

    Vachtsevanos, George

    2015-01-01

    The Handbook of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles is a reference text for the academic and research communities, industry, manufacturers, users, practitioners, Federal Government, Federal and State Agencies, the private sector, as well as all organizations that are and will be using unmanned aircraft in a wide spectrum of applications. The Handbook covers all aspects of UAVs, from design to logistics and ethical issues. It is also targeting the young investigator, the future inventor and entrepreneur by providing an overview and detailed information of the state-of-the-art as well as useful new concepts that may lead to innovative research. The contents of the Handbook include material that addresses the needs and ‘know how’ of all of the above sectors targeting a very diverse audience. The Handbook offers a unique and comprehensive treatise of everything one needs to know about unmanned aircrafts, from conception to operation, from technologies to business activities, users, OEMs, reference sources, conferences, ...

  16. Sub-aerial tailings deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sub-aerial technique involves the systematic deposition of tailings in thin layers and allowing each layer to settle, drain and partially air dry prior to covering with a further layer. Underdrainage produces densities in excess of those achieved by sub-aqueous deposition and any air-drying serves to preconsolidate each layer with a resulting further increase in density. The low permeability of the tailings surface resulting from this deposition technique results in high runoff coefficients and, by decanting the runoff component of direct precipitation, a net evaporation condition can be achieved even in high rainfall areas. An underdrainage system prevents the build-up of excess pore-pressures within the tailings mass and at decommissioning the tailings are fully consolidated and drained thereby eliminating the possibility of any long term seepage. This paper presents a general description of these design concepts, and details of two projects where the concepts have been applied

  17. Instruction for evaluating deposit of bacillus thuringiensis formulas during aerial treatments. Information report No. LAU-X-54

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smirnoff, W.A.

    1982-01-01

    Studies carried out form many years revealed that the methods used for deposit assessment of chemical insecticides could not be used with Bacillus thuringiensis. A new method was developed giving the quantity of viable spores dispersed per surface unit. Details of this method are concisely described in this document. It specifically provides instructions for evaluating deposit of Bacillus thuringiensis formulas during aerial treatments.

  18. Aerial Terrain Mapping Using Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahar, K. N.

    2012-08-01

    This paper looks into the latest achievement in the low-cost Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) technology in their capacity to map the semi-development areas. The objectives of this study are to establish a new methodology or a new algorithm in image registration during interior orientation process and to determine the accuracy of the photogrammetric products by using UAV images. Recently, UAV technology has been used in several applications such as mapping, agriculture and surveillance. The aim of this study is to scrutinize the usage of UAV to map the semi-development areas. The performance of the low cost UAV mapping study was established on a study area with two image processing methods so that the results could be comparable. A non-metric camera was attached at the bottom of UAV and it was used to capture images at both sites after it went through several calibration steps. Calibration processes were carried out to determine focal length, principal distance, radial lens distortion, tangential lens distortion and affinity. A new method in image registration for a non-metric camera is discussed in this paper as a part of new methodology of this study. This method used the UAV Global Positioning System (GPS) onboard to register the UAV image for interior orientation process. Check points were established randomly at both sites using rapid static Global Positioning System. Ground control points are used for exterior orientation process, and check point is used for accuracy assessment of photogrammetric product. All acquired images were processed in a photogrammetric software. Two methods of image registration were applied in this study, namely, GPS onboard registration and ground control point registration. Both registrations were processed by using photogrammetric software and the result is discussed. Two results were produced in this study, which are the digital orthophoto and the digital terrain model. These results were analyzed by using the root mean square

  19. A Low-Cost Natural Gas/Freshwater Aerial Pipeline

    CERN Document Server

    Bolonkin, A; Bolonkin, Alexander; Cathcart, Richard

    2007-01-01

    Offered is a new type of low-cost aerial pipeline for delivery of natural gas, an important industrial and residential fuel, and freshwater as well as other payloads over long distances. The offered pipeline dramatically decreases the construction and operation costs and the time necessary for pipeline construction. A dual-use type of freight pipeline can improve an arid rural environment landscape and provide a reliable energy supply for cities. Our aerial pipeline is a large, self-lofting flexible tube disposed at high altitude. Presently, the term "natural gas" lacks a precise technical definition, but the main components of natural gas are methane, which has a specific weight less than air. A lift force of one cubic meter of methane equals approximately 0.5 kg. The lightweight film flexible pipeline can be located in the Earth-atmosphere at high altitude and poses no threat to airplanes or the local environment. The authors also suggest using lift force of this pipeline in tandem with wing devices for che...

  20. 7 CFR 611.21 - Availability of aerial photography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Availability of aerial photography. 611.21 Section 611... § 611.21 Availability of aerial photography. The National Cartography and Geospatial Center obtains necessary clearance for all aerial photography for NRCS. New aerial photography of designated areas in...

  1. Verification of Potency of Aerial Digital Oblique Cameras for Aerial Photogrammetry in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakada, Ryuji; Takigawa, Masanori; Ohga, Tomowo; Fujii, Noritsuna

    2016-06-01

    Digital oblique aerial camera (hereinafter called "oblique cameras") is an assembly of medium format digital cameras capable of shooting digital aerial photographs in five directions i.e. nadir view and oblique views (forward and backward, left and right views) simultaneously and it is used for shooting digital aerial photographs efficiently for generating 3D models in a wide area. For aerial photogrammetry of public survey in Japan, it is required to use large format cameras, like DMC and UltraCam series, to ensure aerial photogrammetric accuracy. Although oblique cameras are intended to generate 3D models, digital aerial photographs in 5 directions taken with them should not be limited to 3D model production but they may also be allowed for digital mapping and photomaps of required public survey accuracy in Japan. In order to verify the potency of using oblique cameras for aerial photogrammetry (simultaneous adjustment, digital mapping and photomaps), (1) a viewer was developed to interpret digital aerial photographs taken with oblique cameras, (2) digital aerial photographs were shot with an oblique camera owned by us, a Penta DigiCAM of IGI mbH, and (3) accuracy of 3D measurements was verified.

  2. Atlantic Protected Species Assessment Aerial Surveys

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data sets include a compilation of aerial line-transect surveys conducted over continental shelf waters of the southeastern U.S. Surveys have been conducted...

  3. Douglas County Historical Rectified Aerial Photos 1954

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — This raster dataset consists of approximately 200 aerial photographs taken in 1954 in Douglas county, Kansas, United States. The Douglas County Public Works...

  4. Douglas County Historical Rectified Aerial Photos 1937

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — This raster dataset consists of approximately 200 aerial photographs taken in 1937 in Douglas county, Kansas, United States. The Douglas County Public Works...

  5. Dropsonde System for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A small, modular dropsonde launcher is being developed for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs). Some critical measurement needs can only be satisfied by in-situ...

  6. Aerial Gamma-Ray Surveys in Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Data generated by aerial sensing of radiation emanating from the earth's surface in Alaska provides general estimates of the geographic distribution of Uranium,...

  7. Aerial Robotics: a Bird's-Eye View

    OpenAIRE

    Morin, P.; Morin, Pascal; Bidaud, P.

    2014-01-01

    International audience A fter manufacturing, ground transportation and medicine, robotics has now made an incursion in the field of aerial applications. Several domains, such as mapping, shooting, monitoring of indoor and outdoor 3D environments, agriculture and traffic monitoring, surveillance of sensitive areas, structure inspection, handling and carrying of heavy loads, and physical interventions now seek to exploit what are commonly called "drones". While these unmanned aerial vehicles...

  8. Planning and decision making for aerial robots

    CERN Document Server

    Bestaoui Sebbane, Yasmina

    2014-01-01

    This book provides an introduction to the emerging field of planning and decision making for aerial robots. An aerial robot is the ultimate form of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle, an aircraft endowed with built-in intelligence, requiring no direct human control and able to perform a specific task. It must be able to fly within a partially structured environment, to react and adapt to changing environmental conditions and to accommodate for the uncertainty that exists in the physical world. An aerial robot can be termed as a physical agent that exists and flies in the real 3D world, can sense its environment and act on it to achieve specific goals. So throughout this book, an aerial robot will also be termed as an agent.   Fundamental problems in aerial robotics include the tasks of spatial motion, spatial sensing and spatial reasoning. Reasoning in complex environments represents a difficult problem. The issues specific to spatial reasoning are planning and decision making. Planning deals with the trajectory algori...

  9. The smart aerial release machine, a universal system for applying the sterile insect technique.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruben Leal Mubarqui

    Full Text Available Beyond insecticides, alternative methods to control insect pests for agriculture and vectors of diseases are needed. Management strategies involving the mass-release of living control agents have been developed, including genetic control with sterile insects and biological control with parasitoids, for which aerial release of insects is often required. Aerial release in genetic control programmes often involves the use of chilled sterile insects, which can improve dispersal, survival and competitiveness of sterile males. Currently available means of aerially releasing chilled fruit flies are however insufficiently precise to ensure homogeneous distribution at low release rates and no device is available for tsetse.Here we present the smart aerial release machine, a new design by the Mubarqui Company, based on the use of vibrating conveyors. The machine is controlled through Bluetooth by a tablet with Android Operating System including a completely automatic guidance and navigation system (MaxNav software. The tablet is also connected to an online relational database facilitating the preparation of flight schedules and automatic storage of flight reports. The new machine was compared with a conveyor release machine in Mexico using two fruit flies species (Anastrepha ludens and Ceratitis capitata and we obtained better dispersal homogeneity (% of positive traps, p<0.001 for both species and better recapture rates for Anastrepha ludens (p<0.001, especially at low release densities (<1500 per ha. We also demonstrated that the machine can replace paper boxes for aerial release of tsetse in Senegal.This technology limits damages to insects and allows a large range of release rates from 10 flies/km2 for tsetse flies up to 600,000 flies/km2 for fruit flies. The potential of this machine to release other species like mosquitoes is discussed. Plans and operating of the machine are provided to allow its use worldwide.

  10. Dispersed Indeterminacy

    CERN Document Server

    Fayngold, Moses

    2013-01-01

    A state of a single particle can be represented by a quantum blob in the corresponding phase space, or a patch (granule) in its 2-D subspace. Its area is frequently stated to be no less than, implying that such a granule is an indivisible quantum of the 2-D phase space. But this is generally not true, as is evident, for instance, from representation of some states in the basis of innately discrete observables like angular momentum. Here we consider some dispersed states involving the evanescent waves different from that in the total internal reflection. Such states are represented by a set of separated granules with individual areas, but with the total indeterminacy . An idealized model has a discrete Wigner function and is described by a superposition of eigenstates with eigenvalues and forming an infinite periodic array of dots on the phase plane. The question about the total indeterminacy in such state is discussed. We argue that the eigenstates corresponding to the considered EW cannot be singled out by a...

  11. Unmanned Aerial System (UAS) Traffic Management (UTM): Enabling Low-Altitude Airspace and UAS Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopardekar, Parimal H.

    2014-01-01

    Many civilian applications of Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) have been imagined ranging from remote to congested urban areas, including goods delivery, infrastructure surveillance, agricultural support, and medical services delivery. Further, these UAS will have different equipage and capabilities based on considerations such as affordability, and mission needs applications. Such heterogeneous UAS mix, along with operations such as general aviation, helicopters, gliders must be safely accommodated at lower altitudes. However, key infrastructure to enable and safely manage widespread use of low-altitude airspace and UAS operations therein does not exist. Therefore, NASA is exploring functional design, concept and technology development, and a prototype UAS Traffic Management (UTM) system. UTM will support safe and efficient UAS operations for the delivery of goods and services

  12. Resource understanding: a challenge to aerial methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udall, Stewart L.

    1965-01-01

    Aerial survey methods are speeding acquisition of survey data needed to provide and manage the nation's resources. These methods have been applied to topographic mapping for a number of years and the record clearly shows their advantages in terms of cost and speed in contrast to the ground methods that have been historically employed. Limited use is now being made of aerial methods to assist cadastral surveys, in location, acquisition and development of National Parks, in mapping the geology of the nation, in locating and developing water resources, and in surveys of the oceans. It is the purpose of this paper to call attention to these uses and to encourage the scientific community to further refine aerial methods so that their use may be increased and the veracity of data improved.

  13. Aerial jumping in the Trinidadian guppy (Poecilia reticulata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Daphne; Bierman, Hilary S

    2013-01-01

    Many fishes are able to jump out of the water and launch themselves into the air. Such behavior has been connected with prey capture, migration and predator avoidance. We found that jumping behavior of the guppy Poecilia reticulata is not associated with any of the above. The fish jump spontaneously, without being triggered by overt sensory cues, is not migratory and does not attempt to capture aerial food items. Here, we use high speed video imaging to analyze the kinematics of the jumping behavior P. reticulata. Fish jump from a still position by slowly backing up while using its pectoral fins, followed by strong body trusts which lead to launching into the air several body lengths. The liftoff phase of the jump is fast and fish will continue with whole body thrusts and tail beats, even when out of the water. This behavior occurs when fish are in a group or in isolation. Geography has had substantial effects on guppy evolution, with waterfalls reducing gene flow and constraining dispersal. We suggest that jumping has evolved in guppies as a behavioral phenotype for dispersal.

  14. Aerial jumping in the Trinidadian guppy (Poecilia reticulata.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daphne Soares

    Full Text Available Many fishes are able to jump out of the water and launch themselves into the air. Such behavior has been connected with prey capture, migration and predator avoidance. We found that jumping behavior of the guppy Poecilia reticulata is not associated with any of the above. The fish jump spontaneously, without being triggered by overt sensory cues, is not migratory and does not attempt to capture aerial food items. Here, we use high speed video imaging to analyze the kinematics of the jumping behavior P. reticulata. Fish jump from a still position by slowly backing up while using its pectoral fins, followed by strong body trusts which lead to launching into the air several body lengths. The liftoff phase of the jump is fast and fish will continue with whole body thrusts and tail beats, even when out of the water. This behavior occurs when fish are in a group or in isolation. Geography has had substantial effects on guppy evolution, with waterfalls reducing gene flow and constraining dispersal. We suggest that jumping has evolved in guppies as a behavioral phenotype for dispersal.

  15. Optimisation of Lagrangian Flash Flood Microsensors Dropped by Unmanned Aerial Vehicle

    KAUST Repository

    Abdulaal, Mohammed

    2014-05-01

    Abstract Physical Sciences and Engineering Division Mechanical Engineering Department Master of Science Optimisation of Lagrangian Flash Flood Microsensors Dropped by Unmanned Aerial Vehicle by Mohammed Abdulaal Floods are the most common natural disasters, causing thousands of casualties every year in the world. In particular, ash ood events are particularly deadly because of the short timescales on which they occur. Classical sensing solutions such as xed wireless sensor networks or satellite imagery are either too expensive or too inaccurate. Nevertheless, Unmanned Aerial Vehicles equipped with mobile microsensors could be capable of sensing ash oods in real time for a low overall cost, saving lives and greatly improving the e ciency of the emergency response. Using ood simulation data, we show that this system could be used to detect ash oods. We also present an ongoing implementation of this system using 3D printed sensors and sensor delivery systems on a UAV testbed as well as some preliminary results.

  16. Ground cover estimated from aerial photographs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerbermann, A. H.; Cuellar, J. A.; Wiegand, C. L.

    1976-01-01

    Estimates of per cent ground cover made by ground observers were compared with independent estimates made on the basis of low-altitude (640-1219 m) aerial photographs of the same fields. Standard statistical simple correlation and linear regression analyses revealed a high correlation between the two estimation methods. In crops such as grain, sorghum, corn, and forage sorghum, in which the broadest part of the leaf canopy is near the top of the plant, there was a tendency to overestimate the per cent ground cover from aerial photographs.

  17. Advanced Image Processing of Aerial Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodell, Glenn; Jobson, Daniel J.; Rahman, Zia-ur; Hines, Glenn

    2006-01-01

    Aerial imagery of the Earth is an invaluable tool for the assessment of ground features, especially during times of disaster. Researchers at the NASA Langley Research Center have developed techniques which have proven to be useful for such imagery. Aerial imagery from various sources, including Langley's Boeing 757 Aries aircraft, has been studied extensively. This paper discusses these studies and demonstrates that better-than-observer imagery can be obtained even when visibility is severely compromised. A real-time, multi-spectral experimental system will be described and numerous examples will be shown.

  18. Optimal Path Planning for Unmanned Aerial Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Forsmo, Erik Johannes

    2012-01-01

    This thesis is a contribution to the Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) project at the Department of Engineering Cybernetics, which is a project where contributions from master students and Phd students will result in an autonomous aerial vehicle. The unmanned vehicle laboratory has its own UAV, the Odin Recce D6 delta-wing aircraft which is to be considered in the overall project. When the UAV is in the air on a mission, one important thing is to ensure that the UAV detects obstacles, such as mou...

  19. Metrically preserving the USGS aerial film archive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moe, Donald; Longhenry, Ryan

    2013-01-01

    Since 1972, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) Center in Sioux Falls, South Dakota, has provided fi lm-based products to the public. EROS is home to an archive of 12 million frames of analog photography ranging from 1937 to the present. The archive contains collections from both aerial and satellite platforms including programs such as the National High Altitude Program (NHAP), National Aerial Photography Program (NAPP), U.S. Antarctic Resource Center (USARC), Declass 1(CORONA, ARGON, and LANYARD), Declass 2 (KH-7 and KH-9), and Landsat (1972 – 1992, Landsat 1–5).

  20. 1935 15' Quad #373 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  1. 1935 15' Quad #032 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  2. 1935 15' Quad #129 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index - NM

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  3. 1935 15' Quad #059 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  4. 1935 15' Quad #391 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  5. 1935 15' Quad #057 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  6. 1935 15' Quad #003 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  7. 1935 15' Quad #364 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  8. 1935 15' Quad #273 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  9. 1935 15' Quad #124 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  10. 1935 15' Quad #109 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  11. 1935 15' Quad #154 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  12. 1935 15' Quad #130 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  13. 1935 15' Quad #009 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  14. 1935 15' Quad #292 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  15. 1935 15' Quad #221 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  16. 1935 15' Quad #243 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  17. 1935 15' Quad #414 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  18. 1935 15' Quad #267 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  19. 1935 15' Quad #386 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  20. 1935 15' Quad #199 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  1. 1935 15' Quad #361 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  2. 1935 15' Quad #197 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  3. 1935 15' Quad #245 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  4. 1935 15' Quad #227 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  5. 1935 15' Quad #132 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  6. 1935 15' Quad #298 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  7. 1935 15' Quad #200 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  8. 1935 15' Quad #005 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  9. 1935 15' Quad #393 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  10. 1935 15' Quad #217 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index - AZ

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  11. 1935 15' Quad #195 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index - AZ

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  12. 1935 15' Quad #014 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  13. 1935 15' Quad #442 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  14. 1935 15' Quad #006 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  15. 1935 15' Quad #129 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index - AZ

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  16. 1935 15' Quad #031 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  17. 1935 15' Quad #394 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  18. 1935 15' Quad #060 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  19. 1935 15' Quad #002 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  20. 1935 15' Quad #297 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  1. 1935 15' Quad #004 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  2. 1935 15' Quad #223 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  3. 1935 15' Quad #362 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  4. 1935 15' Quad #056 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  5. 1935 15' Quad #368 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  6. 1935 15' Quad #074 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  7. 1935 15' Quad #075 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  8. 1935 15' Quad #073 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  9. 1935 15' Quad #375 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  10. 1935 15' Quad #363 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  11. 1935 15' Quad #153 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  12. 1935 15' Quad #270 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  13. Index for SCS 1934-1937 Aerial Photography

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial photographs are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The aerial photo inventory contains imagery from various sources that are now archived at the Earth...

  14. 1935 15' Quad #049 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  15. 1935 15' Quad #371 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  16. 1935 15' Quad #087 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  17. 1935 15' Quad #100 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  18. 1935 15' Quad #172 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  19. 1935 15' Quad #244 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  20. 1935 15' Quad #392 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  1. 1935 15' Quad #259 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  2. 1935 15' Quad #173 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index - AZ

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  3. 1935 15' Quad #366 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  4. 1935 15' Quad #374 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  5. 1935 15' Quad #238 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  6. 1935 15' Quad #281 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  7. 1935 15' Quad #106 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index - AZ

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  8. 1935 15' Quad #033 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  9. 1935 15' Quad #151 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index - AZ

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  10. 1949-50 DIO USFS Aerial Photo Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial photographs are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The aerial photo inventory contains imagery from various sources that are now archived at the Earth...

  11. 1935 15' Quad #157 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  12. 1935 15' Quad #265 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  13. 1935 15' Quad #345 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  14. 1935 15' Quad #319 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  15. 1935 15' Quad #082 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  16. 1935 15' Quad #105 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  17. 1935 15' Quad #176 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  18. 1935 15' Quad #034 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  19. US Forest Service Aerial Fire Retardant Hydrographic Avoidance Areas: Aquatic

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — A map services on the www depicting aerial retardant avoidance areas for hydrographic feature data. Aerial retardant avoidance area for hydrographic feature data...

  20. US Forest Service Aerial Fire Retardant Avoidance Areas: Terrestrial

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — A map service depicting aerial fire retardant avoidance areas delivered as part of the 2011 Nationwide Aerial Application of Fire Retardant on National Forest...

  1. 1935 15' Quad #246 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  2. 1935 15' Quad #202 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  3. 1936 Roosevelt County AG Index Aerial Photo Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial photographs are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The aerial photo inventory contains imagery from various sources that are now archived at the Earth...

  4. 1935 15' Quad #274 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  5. 1935 15' Quad #466 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  6. 1935 15' Quad #272 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  7. 1935 15' Quad #106 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index - NM

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  8. 1935 15' Quad #152 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  9. 1935 15' Quad #226 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  10. Aerial surveys for beaver in Mackenzie District, Northwest Territories

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Report of the methods, results, and uses of aerial surveys for beaver in a wilderness area. The results of aerial surveys in 1949, 1951 and 1952 have been used to...

  11. 1935 15' Quad #250 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  12. 1935 15' Quad #337 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  13. 1935 15' Quad #007 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  14. 1935 15' Quad #122 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  15. 1935 15' Quad #457 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  16. 1935 15' Quad #344 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  17. 1935 15' Quad #370 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  18. Aerial Survey Units for Harbor Seals in Coastal Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Aerial surveys of coastal Alaska are the primary method for estimating abundance of harbor seals. A particular challenge associated with aerial surveys of harbor...

  19. 1935 15' Quad #178 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  20. 1935 15' Quad #081 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  1. 1935 15' Quad #351 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  2. 1935 15' Quad #248 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  3. 1935 15' Quad #125 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  4. 1935 15' Quad #098 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  5. 1935 15' Quad #177 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  6. 1935 15' Quad #251 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  7. 1935 15' Quad #099 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  8. Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) in pest management: Progress in the development of a UAV-deployed mating disruption system for Wisconsin cranberries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) represent a powerful new tool for agriculture. Currently, UAVs are used almost exclusively as crop reconnaissance devices (“eyes in the sky”), not as pest control delivery systems. Research in Wisconsin cranberries is taking UAVs in a new direction. The Steffan and Lu...

  9. 77 FR 36250 - Information Collection Request; Request for Aerial Photography

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-18

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Farm Service Agency Information Collection Request; Request for Aerial Photography... FSA Aerial Photography Program. The FSA Aerial Photography Field Office (APFO) uses the information from this form to collect the customer and photography information needed to produce and ship...

  10. 47 CFR 32.6421 - Aerial cable expense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Aerial cable expense. 32.6421 Section 32.6421... FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Expense Accounts § 32.6421 Aerial cable expense. (a) This account shall include expenses associated with aerial cable. (b) Subsidiary record...

  11. Exploring Security Vulnerabilities of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodday, Nils Miro; O. Schmidt, de Ricardo; Pras, Aiko

    2016-01-01

    We are currently observing a significant increase in the popularity of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs), popularly also known by their generic term drones. This is not only the case for recreational UAVs, that one can acquire for a few hundred dollars, but also for more sophisticated ones, namely pro

  12. 29 CFR 1926.453 - Aerial lifts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies may be obtained from the American National...) Belting off to an adjacent pole, structure, or equipment while working from an aerial lift shall not be... Qualification Procedure, AWS B3.0-41. (ii) Recommended Practices for Automotive Welding Design, AWS...

  13. Sea Ice Mapping using Unmanned Aerial Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solbø, S.; Storvold, R.

    2011-12-01

    Mapping of sea ice extent and sea ice features is an important task in climate research. Since the arctic coastal and oceanic areas have a high probability of cloud coverage, aerial platforms are superior to satellite measurements for high-resolution optical measurements. However, routine observations of sea ice conditions present a variety of problems using conventional piloted aircrafts. Specially, the availability of suitable aircrafts for lease does not cover the demand in major parts of the arctic. With the recent advances in unmanned aerial systems (UAS), there is a high possibility of establishing routine, cost effective aerial observations of sea ice conditions in the near future. Unmanned aerial systems can carry a wide variety of sensors useful for characterizing sea-ice features. For instance, the CryoWing UAS, a system initially designed for measurements of the cryosphere, can be equipped with digital cameras, surface thermometers and laser altimeters for measuring freeboard of ice flows. In this work we will present results from recent CryoWing sea ice flights on Svalbard, Norway. The emphasis will be on data processing for stitching together images acquired with the non-stabilized camera payload, to form high-resolution mosaics covering large spatial areas. These data are being employed to map ice conditions; including ice and lead features and melt ponds. These high-resolution mosaics are also well suited for sea-ice mechanics, classification studies and for validation of satellite sea-ice products.

  14. Environmental application of aerial reconnaissance to search for open dumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getz, Thomas J.; Randolph, J. C.; Echelberger, Wayne F.

    1983-11-01

    Three approaches to using aerial photography are evaluated for searching for open dumps in the state of Indiana. Photography with hand-held cameras from a small airplane proved more effective and flexible than either photo-interpretation of existing air photos or subcontracting to a federal agency for new aerial photography. The rationale for our choice of aerial reconnaissance, other uses of low-level aerial surveillance, the utility of small-format camera aerial photography for environmental analysis, and methods used for locating open dumps are discussed.

  15. Atmospheric Dispersion Model Validation in Low Wind Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sawyer, Patrick

    2007-11-01

    Atmospheric plume dispersion models are used for a variety of purposes including emergency planning and response to hazardous material releases, determining force protection actions in the event of a Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD) attack and for locating sources of pollution. This study provides a review of previous studies that examine the accuracy of atmospheric plume dispersion models for chemical releases. It considers the principles used to derive air dispersion plume models and looks at three specific models currently in use: Aerial Location of Hazardous Atmospheres (ALOHA), Emergency Prediction Information Code (EPIcode) and Second Order Closure Integrated Puff (SCIPUFF). Results from this study indicate over-prediction bias by the EPIcode and SCIPUFF models and under-prediction bias by the ALOHA model. The experiment parameters were for near field dispersion (less than 100 meters) in low wind speed conditions (less than 2 meters per second).

  16. Premature delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardita Donoso Bernales

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Preterm delivery is the single most important cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality. In Chile, preterm births have increased in the past decade, although neonatal morbidity and mortality attributable to it shows a downward trend, thanks to improvements in neonatal care of premature babies, rather than the success of obstetric preventive and therapeutic strategies. This article describes clinical entities, disease processes and conditions that constitute predisposing factors of preterm birth, as well as an outline for the prevention and clinical management of women at risk of preterm birth.

  17. Cytocompatibility of Highly Dispersed Nano Hydroxyapatite Sol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MAOXuan; WUPei-zhu; TANGShun-qing; YANYan-ling; DAIYun

    2004-01-01

    Nano hydroxyapatite (HA) crystals were prepared and dispersed in water to form HA sol by simple methods. The cytotoxicity of the sols were tested by MTT assay and lymphocytotoxicity test. Results show that the average secondary particle size of the sol containing uncalcined HA crystals is around 750 nm, within micrograde; while the sol of calcined HA contains over 88% nanoparticles with the size between 65~86 nm, in which nano HA crystals are highly dispersed. Both the HA sols have no toxicity on the proliferation of 3T3 cells and lymphocytes. It demonstrates that the nano sol is safe for the application of drug delivery.

  18. Precision wildlife monitoring using unmanned aerial vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Jarrod C. Hodgson; Shane M. Baylis; Rowan Mott; Ashley Herrod; Rohan H Clarke

    2016-01-01

    Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) represent a new frontier in environmental research. Their use has the potential to revolutionise the field if they prove capable of improving data quality or the ease with which data are collected beyond traditional methods. We apply UAV technology to wildlife monitoring in tropical and polar environments and demonstrate that UAV-derived counts of colony nesting birds are an order of magnitude more precise than traditional ground counts. The increased count pre...

  19. Approximate dynamic programming and aerial refueling

    OpenAIRE

    Panos, Dennis C.

    2007-01-01

    Aerial refueling is an integral part of the United States military's ability to strike targets around the world with an overwhelming and continuous projection of force. However, with an aging fleet of refueling tankers and an indefinite replacement schedule the optimization of tanker usage is vital to national security. Optimizing tanker and receiver refueling operations is a complicated endeavor as it can involve over a thousand of missions during a 24 hour period, as in Operation Iraqi Free...

  20. Modeling of Sub-Mini Aerial Vehicles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘亮; 邓寅喆; 翟宇毅; 龚振邦

    2004-01-01

    AbsProblems in modeling of sub-mini aerial vehicles(SMAV) are discussed in this paper. Contraposing properties of SMAV,various factors affecting dynamic performances and the airplane control are analyzed. Based on experiments, simulations, and computations, a corrected result for dynamic characteristics of fixed-wing SMAV and several instances of simulation are given, and the model of control and multi-stage PD control law are given too.

  1. Localization of aerial broadband noise by pinnipeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Marla M.; Schusterman, Ronald J.; Southall, Brandon L.; Kastak, David

    2004-05-01

    Although many pinnipeds (seals, sea lions, and walruses) emit broadband calls on land as part of their communication system, few studies have addressed these animals' ability to localize aerial broadband sounds. In this study, the aerial sound localization acuities of a female northern elephant seal (Mirounga angustirostris), a male harbor seal (Phoca vitulina), and a female California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) were measured in the horizontal plane. The stimulus was broadband white noise that was band pass filtered between 1.2 and 15 kHz. Testing was conducted in a hemi-anechoic chamber using a left/right forced choice procedure to measure the minimum audible angle (MAA) for each subject. MAAs were defined as half the angular separation of two sound sources bisected by a subject's midline that corresponded to 75% correct discrimination. MAAs were 4.7°, 3.6°, and 4.2° for the northern elephant seal, harbor seal, and California sea lion, respectively. These results demonstrate that individuals of these pinniped species have sound localization abilities comparable to the domestic cat and rhesus macaque. The acuity differences between our subjects were small and not predicted by head size. These results likely reflect the relatively acute general abilities of pinnipeds to localize aerial broadband signals.

  2. Mask degradation monitoring with aerial mask inspector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Wen-Jui; Fu, Yung-Ying; Lu, Shih-Ping; Jiang, Ming-Sian; Lin, Jeffrey; Wu, Clare; Lifschitz, Sivan; Tam, Aviram

    2013-06-01

    As design rule continues to shrink, microlithography is becoming more challenging and the photomasks need to comply with high scanner laser energy, low CDU, and ever more aggressive RETs. This give rise to numerous challenges in the semiconductor wafer fabrication plants. Some of these challenges being contamination (mainly haze and particles), mask pattern degradation (MoSi oxidation, chrome migration, etc.) and pellicle degradation. Fabs are constantly working to establish an efficient methodology to manage these challenges mainly using mask inspection, wafer inspection, SEM review and CD SEMs. Aerial technology offers a unique opportunity to address the above mask related challenges using one tool. The Applied Materials Aera3TM system has the inherent ability to inspect for defects (haze, particles, etc.), and track mask degradation (e.g. CDU). This paper focuses on haze monitoring, which is still a significant challenge in semiconductor manufacturing, and mask degradation effects that are starting to emerge as the next challenge for high volume semiconductor manufacturers. The paper describes Aerial inspector (Aera3) early haze methodology and mask degradation tracking related to high volume manufacturing. These will be demonstrated on memory products. At the end of the paper we take a brief look on subsequent work currently conducted on the more general issue of photo mask degradation monitoring by means of an Aerial inspector.

  3. Inertial instrument system for aerial surveying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, R.H.; Chapman, W.H.; Hanna, W.F.; Mongan, C.E.; Hursh, J.W.

    1985-01-01

    An inertial guidance system for aerial surveying has been developed under contract to the U.S. Geological Survey. This prototype system, known as the aerial profiling of terrain (APT) system, is designed to determine continuously the positions of points along an aircraft flight path, or the underlying terrain profile, to an accuracy of + or - 0.5 ft (15 cm) vertically and + or - 2 ft (61 cm) horizontally. The system 's objective thus is to accomplish, from a fixed-wing aircraft, what would traditionally be accomplished from ground-based topographic surveys combined with aerial photography and photogrammetry. The two-part strategy for measuring the terrain profile entails: (1) use of an inertial navigator for continuous determination of the three-coordinate position of the aircraft, and (2) use of an eye-safe pulsed laser profiler for continuous measurement of the vertical distance from aircraft to land surface, so that the desired terrain profile can then be directly computed. The APT system, installed in a DeHavilland Twin Otter aircraft, is typically flown at a speed of 115 mph (105 knots) at an altitude of 2,000 ft (610 m) above the terrain. Performance-evaluation flights have shown that the vertical and horizontal accuracy specifications are met. (USGS)

  4. Dispersing powders in liquids

    CERN Document Server

    Nelson, RD

    1988-01-01

    This book provides powder technologists with laboratory procedures for selecting dispersing agents and preparing stable dispersions that can then be used in particle size characterization instruments. Its broader goal is to introduce industrial chemists and engineers to the phenomena, terminology, physical principles, and chemical considerations involved in preparing and handling dispersions on a commercial scale. The book introduces novices to: - industrial problems due to improper degree of dispersion; - the nomenclature used in describing particles; - the basic physica

  5. Dynamics of Aerial Tower Formation in Bacillus subtilis Biofilms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Naveen; Seminara, Agnese; Wilking, James; Brenner, Michael; Weitz, Dave

    2012-02-01

    Biofilms are highly-organized colonies of bacteria that form on surfaces. These colonies form sophisticated structures which make them robust and difficult to remove from environments such as catheters, where they pose serious infection problems. Previous work has shown that sub-mm sized aerial towers form on the surface of Bacillus subtilis colony biofilms. Spore-formation is located preferentially at the tops of these towers, known as fruiting bodies, which aid in the dispersal and propagation of the colony to new sites. The formation of towers is strongly affected by the quorum-sensing molecule surfactin and the cannibalism pathway of the bacteria. In the present work, we use confocal fluorescence microscopy to study the development of individual fruiting bodies, allowing us to visualize the time-dependent spatial distribution of matrix-forming and sporulating bacteria within the towers. With this information, we investigate the physical mechanisms, such as surface tension and polymer concentration gradients, that drive the formation of these structures.

  6. Dispersion y dinamica poblacional

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dispersal behavior of fruit flies is appetitive. Measures of dispersion involve two different parameter: the maximum distance and the standard distance. Standard distance is a parameter that describes the probalility of dispersion and is mathematically equivalent to the standard deviation around ...

  7. Intelligent Autonomous Aerial Vehicles in the National Airspace Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Unmanned aerial systems (UAS) and, in particular, intelligent, autonomous aircraft operating in the National Airspace (NAS) have the potential to significantly...

  8. Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Integration into the NAS Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Technological innovations have enabled a wide range of aerial vehicles that can be remotely operated. Viable applications include military missions, law...

  9. An aerial 3D printing test mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, Michael; McGuire, Thomas; Parsons, Michael; Leake, Skye; Straub, Jeremy

    2016-05-01

    This paper provides an overview of an aerial 3D printing technology, its development and its testing. This technology is potentially useful in its own right. In addition, this work advances the development of a related in-space 3D printing technology. A series of aerial 3D printing test missions, used to test the aerial printing technology, are discussed. Through completing these test missions, the design for an in-space 3D printer may be advanced. The current design for the in-space 3D printer involves focusing thermal energy to heat an extrusion head and allow for the extrusion of molten print material. Plastics can be used as well as composites including metal, allowing for the extrusion of conductive material. A variety of experiments will be used to test this initial 3D printer design. High altitude balloons will be used to test the effects of microgravity on 3D printing, as well as parabolic flight tests. Zero pressure balloons can be used to test the effect of long 3D printing missions subjected to low temperatures. Vacuum chambers will be used to test 3D printing in a vacuum environment. The results will be used to adapt a current prototype of an in-space 3D printer. Then, a small scale prototype can be sent into low-Earth orbit as a 3-U cube satellite. With the ability to 3D print in space demonstrated, future missions can launch production hardware through which the sustainability and durability of structures in space will be greatly improved.

  10. BOREAS Level-0 C-130 Aerial Photography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newcomer, Jeffrey A.; Dominguez, Roseanne; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor)

    2000-01-01

    For BOReal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study (BOREAS), C-130 and other aerial photography was collected to provide finely detailed and spatially extensive documentation of the condition of the primary study sites. The NASA C-130 Earth Resources aircraft can accommodate two mapping cameras during flight, each of which can be fitted with 6- or 12-inch focal-length lenses and black-and-white, natural-color, or color-IR film, depending upon requirements. Both cameras were often in operation simultaneously, although sometimes only the lower resolution camera was deployed. When both cameras were in operation, the higher resolution camera was often used in a more limited fashion. The acquired photography covers the period of April to September 1994. The aerial photography was delivered as rolls of large format (9 x 9 inch) color transparency prints, with imagery from multiple missions (hundreds of prints) often contained within a single roll. A total of 1533 frames were collected from the C-130 platform for BOREAS in 1994. Note that the level-0 C-130 transparencies are not contained on the BOREAS CD-ROM set. An inventory file is supplied on the CD-ROM to inform users of all the data that were collected. Some photographic prints were made from the transparencies. In addition, BORIS staff digitized a subset of the tranparencies and stored the images in JPEG format. The CD-ROM set contains a small subset of the collected aerial photography that were the digitally scanned and stored as JPEG files for most tower and auxiliary sites in the NSA and SSA. See Section 15 for information about how to acquire additional imagery.

  11. D Surface Generation from Aerial Thermal Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodaei, B.; Samadzadegan, F.; Dadras Javan, F.; Hasani, H.

    2015-12-01

    Aerial thermal imagery has been recently applied to quantitative analysis of several scenes. For the mapping purpose based on aerial thermal imagery, high accuracy photogrammetric process is necessary. However, due to low geometric resolution and low contrast of thermal imaging sensors, there are some challenges in precise 3D measurement of objects. In this paper the potential of thermal video in 3D surface generation is evaluated. In the pre-processing step, thermal camera is geometrically calibrated using a calibration grid based on emissivity differences between the background and the targets. Then, Digital Surface Model (DSM) generation from thermal video imagery is performed in four steps. Initially, frames are extracted from video, then tie points are generated by Scale-Invariant Feature Transform (SIFT) algorithm. Bundle adjustment is then applied and the camera position and orientation parameters are determined. Finally, multi-resolution dense image matching algorithm is used to create 3D point cloud of the scene. Potential of the proposed method is evaluated based on thermal imaging cover an industrial area. The thermal camera has 640×480 Uncooled Focal Plane Array (UFPA) sensor, equipped with a 25 mm lens which mounted in the Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV). The obtained results show the comparable accuracy of 3D model generated based on thermal images with respect to DSM generated from visible images, however thermal based DSM is somehow smoother with lower level of texture. Comparing the generated DSM with the 9 measured GCPs in the area shows the Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) value is smaller than 5 decimetres in both X and Y directions and 1.6 meters for the Z direction.

  12. Cooperative path planning of unmanned aerial vehicles

    CERN Document Server

    Tsourdos, Antonios; Shanmugavel, Madhavan

    2010-01-01

    An invaluable addition to the literature on UAV guidance and cooperative control, Cooperative Path Planning of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles is a dedicated, practical guide to computational path planning for UAVs. One of the key issues facing future development of UAVs is path planning: it is vital that swarm UAVs/ MAVs can cooperate together in a coordinated manner, obeying a pre-planned course but able to react to their environment by communicating and cooperating. An optimized path is necessary in order to ensure a UAV completes its mission efficiently, safely, and successfully.

  13. Aeolic vibration of aerial electricity transmission cables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avila, A.; Rodriguez-Vera, Ramon; Rayas, Juan A.; Barrientos, Bernardino

    2005-02-01

    A feasibility study for amplitude and frequency vibration measurement in aerial electricity transmission cable has been made. This study was carried out incorporating a fringe projection method for the experimental part and horizontal taut string model for theoretical one. However, this kind of model ignores some inherent properties such as cable sag and cable inclination. Then, this work reports advances on aeolic vibration considering real cables. Catenary and sag are considered in our theoretical model in such a way that an optical theodolite for measuring has been used. Preliminary measurements of the catenary as well as numerical simulation of a sagged cable vibration are given.

  14. Unmanned Aerial Vehicles unique cost estimating requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malone, P.; Apgar, H.; Stukes, S.; Sterk, S.

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs), also referred to as drones, are aerial platforms that fly without a human pilot onboard. UAVs are controlled autonomously by a computer in the vehicle or under the remote control of a pilot stationed at a fixed ground location. There are a wide variety of drone shapes, sizes, configurations, complexities, and characteristics. Use of these devices by the Department of Defense (DoD), NASA, civil and commercial organizations continues to grow. UAVs are commonly used for intelligence, surveillance, reconnaissance (ISR). They are also use for combat operations, and civil applications, such as firefighting, non-military security work, surveillance of infrastructure (e.g. pipelines, power lines and country borders). UAVs are often preferred for missions that require sustained persistence (over 4 hours in duration), or are “ too dangerous, dull or dirty” for manned aircraft. Moreover, they can offer significant acquisition and operations cost savings over traditional manned aircraft. Because of these unique characteristics and missions, UAV estimates require some unique estimating methods. This paper describes a framework for estimating UAV systems total ownership cost including hardware components, software design, and operations. The challenge of collecting data, testing the sensitivities of cost drivers, and creating cost estimating relationships (CERs) for each key work breakdown structure (WBS) element is discussed. The autonomous operation of UAVs is especially challenging from a software perspective.

  15. Blending zone determination for aerial orthimage mosaicking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chao-Hung; Chen, Bo-Heng; Lin, Bo-Yi; Chou, Han-Szu

    2016-09-01

    Creating a composed image from a set of aerial images is a fundamental step in orthomosaic generation. One of the processes involved in this technique is determining an optimal seamline in an overlapping region to stitch image patches seamlessly. Most previous studies have solved this optimization problem by searching for a one-pixel-wide seamline with an objective function. This strategy significantly reduced pixel mismatches on the seamline caused by geometric distortions of images but did not fully consider color discontinuity and mismatch problems that occur around the seamline, which sometimes cause mosaicking artifacts. This study proposes a blending zone determination scheme with a novel path finding algorithm to reduce the occurrence of unwanted artifacts. Instead of searching for a one-pixel-wide seamline, a blending zone, which is a k-pixel-wide seamline that passes through high-similarity pixels in the overlapping region, is determined using a hierarchical structure. This strategy allows for not only seamless stitching but also smooth color blending of neighboring image patches. Moreover, the proposed method searches for a blending zone without the pre-process of highly mismatched pixel removal and additional geographic data of road vectors and digital surface/elevation models, which increases the usability of the approach. Qualitative and quantitative analyses of aerial images demonstrate the superiority of the proposed method to related methods in terms of avoidance of passing highly mismatched pixels.

  16. Aerial survey estimates of fallow deer abundance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gogan, Peter J.; Gates, Natalie B.; Lubow, Bruce C.; Pettit, Suzanne

    2012-01-01

    Reliable estimates of the distribution and abundance of an ungulate species is essential prior to establishing and implementing a management program. We used ground surveys to determine distribution and ground and aerial surveys and individually marked deer to estimate the abundance of fallow deer (Dama dama) in north-coastal California. Fallow deer had limited distribution and heterogeneous densities. Estimated post-rut densities across 4 annual surveys ranged from a low of 1.4 (SE=0.2) deer/km2 to a high of 3.3 (se=0.5) deer/km2 in a low density stratum and from 49.0 (SE=8.3) deer/km2 to 111.6 deer/km2 in a high density stratum. Sightability was positively influenced by the presence of white color-phase deer in a group and group size, and varied between airial and ground-based observers and by density strata. Our findings underscore the utility of double-observer surveys and aerial surveys with individually marked deer, both incorporating covariates to model sightability, to estimate deer abundance.

  17. On autonomous and teleoperated aerial service robots: theory and application

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mersha, Abeye Yenehun

    2014-01-01

    Traditionally, aerial robots have been used in applications that do not require physical interaction with the environment. Recently, however, there is a growing interest in using aerial robots for applications that involve active but nondestructive interaction with the environment, especially in the

  18. Kite Aerial Photography (KAP) as a Tool for Field Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sander, Lasse

    2014-01-01

    Kite aerial photography (KAP) is proposed as a creative tool for geography field teaching and as a medium to approach the complexity of readily available geodata. The method can be integrated as field experiment, surveying technique or group activity. The acquired aerial images can instantaneously be integrated in geographic information systems…

  19. Kite aerial photography (KAP) as a tool for field teaching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sander, Lasse

    2014-01-01

    Kite aerial photography (KAP) is proposed as a creative tool for geography field teaching and as a medium to approach the complexity of readily available geodata. The method can be integrated as field experiment, surveying technique or group activity. The acquired aerial images can instantaneously...

  20. An algorithm for approximate rectification of digital aerial images

    Science.gov (United States)

    High-resolution aerial photography is one of the most valuable tools available for managing extensive landscapes. With recent advances in digital camera technology, computer hardware, and software, aerial photography is easier to collect, store, and transfer than ever before. Images can be automa...

  1. 76 FR 53165 - Certification Related to Aerial Eradication in Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Certification Related to Aerial Eradication in Colombia Pursuant to the authority vested in the Secretary of... for aerial eradication of illicit crops in Colombia is being used in accordance with EPA...

  2. Effects of pesticides aerial applications on rice quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aerial application of pesticides has become an important research topic in recent years. This research investigated the effects of two types of commercial pesticides on the rice quality under low volume aerial application. It could provide guidance for the pesticide application and choose the right ...

  3. Solid Phospholipid Dispersions for Oral Delivery of Poorly Soluble Drugs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fong, Sophia Yui Kau; Martins, Susana M; Brandl, Martin;

    2016-01-01

    Celecoxib (CXB) is a Biopharmaceutical Classification System class II drug in which its oral bioavailability is limited by poor aqueous solubility. Although a range of formulations aiming to increase the solubility of CXB have been developed, it is not completely understood, whether (1) an increase...

  4. 6th Grades Student’s interpreting of Aerial Photographs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adem ÖCAL

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Aerial photographs have started to be used as a teaching-training material parallel to the technological developments of our time. These materials are important to help students gain aerial perspective as a means to improve spatial cognition. In this study the skill of 6th grade students on interpreting aerial photographs have been focused on and examined how the students benefit from it. This study has been carried out with qualitative research techniques and 10 students have been used throughout the study. Aerial photographs of the places which students are familiar with have been utilized. Important outcomes were obtained on the use of aerial photographs in primary education. Findings can be guided for geography and social studies education in point of teaching spatial cognition skills.

  5. Visualizing Dispersion Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottschalk, Elinor; Venkataraman, Bhawani

    2014-01-01

    An animation and accompanying activity has been developed to help students visualize how dispersion interactions arise. The animation uses the gecko's ability to walk on vertical surfaces to illustrate how dispersion interactions play a role in macroscale outcomes. Assessment of student learning reveals that students were able to develop…

  6. Dispersal from Microbial Biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barraud, Nicolas; Kjelleberg, Staffan; Rice, Scott A

    2015-12-01

    One common feature of biofilm development is the active dispersal of cells from the mature biofilm, which completes the biofilm life cycle and allows for the subsequent colonization of new habitats. Dispersal is likely to be critical for species survival and appears to be a precisely regulated process that involves a complex network of genes and signal transduction systems. Sophisticated molecular mechanisms control the transition of sessile biofilm cells into dispersal cells and their coordinated detachment and release in the bulk liquid. Dispersal cells appear to be specialized and exhibit a unique phenotype different from biofilm or planktonic bacteria. Further, the dispersal population is characterized by a high level of heterogeneity, reminiscent of, but distinct from, that in the biofilm, which could potentially allow for improved colonization under various environmental conditions. Here we review recent advances in characterizing the molecular mechanisms that regulate biofilm dispersal events and the impact of dispersal in a broader ecological context. Several strategies that exploit the mechanisms controlling biofilm dispersal to develop as applications for biofilm control are also presented. PMID:27337281

  7. Observing snow cover using unmanned aerial vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spallek, Waldemar; Witek, Matylda; Niedzielski, Tomasz

    2016-04-01

    Snow cover is a key environmental variable that influences high flow events driven by snow-melt episodes. Estimates of snow extent (SE), snow depth (SD) and snow water equivalent (SWE) allow to approximate runoff caused by snow-melt episodes. These variables are purely spatial characteristics, and hence their pointwise measurements using terrestrial monitoring systems do not offer the comprehensive and fully-spatial information on water storage in snow. Existing satellite observations of snow reveal moderate spatial resolution which, not uncommonly, is not fine enough to estimate the above-mentioned snow-related variables for small catchments. High-resolution aerial photographs and the resulting orthophotomaps and digital surface models (DSMs), obtained using unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), may offer spatial resolution of 3 cm/px. The UAV-based observation of snow cover may be done using the near-infrared (NIR) cameras and visible-light cameras. Since the beginning of 2015, in frame of the research project no. LIDER/012/223/L-5/13/NCBR/2014 financed by the National Centre for Research and Development of Poland, we have performed a series of the UAV flights targeted at four sites in the Kwisa catchment in the Izerskie Mts. (part of the Sudetes, SW Poland). Observations are carried out with the ultralight UAV swinglet CAM (produced by senseFly, lightweight 0.5 kg, wingspan 80 cm) which enables on-demand sampling at low costs. The aim of the field work is to acquire aerial photographs taken using the visible-light and NIR cameras for a purpose of producing time series of DSMs and orthophotomaps with snow cover for all sites. The DSMs are used to calculate SD as difference between observational (with snow) and reference (without snow) models. In order to verify such an approach to compute SD we apply several procedures, one of which is the estimation of SE using the corresponding orthophotomaps generated on a basis of visual-light and NIR images. The objective of this

  8. Evaluation of Pulmonary and Systemic Toxicity of Oil Dispersant (COREXIT EC9500A®) Following Acute Repeated Inhalation Exposure

    OpenAIRE

    Roberts, Jenny R; Anderson, Stacey E; Hong Kan; Kristine Krajnak; Thompson, Janet A.; Allison Kenyon; Goldsmith, William T; Walter McKinney; Frazer, David G.; Mark Jackson; Jeffrey S. Fedan

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Oil spill cleanup workers come into contact with numerous potentially hazardous chemicals derived from the oil spills, as well as chemicals applied for mitigation of the spill, including oil dispersants. In response to the Deepwater Horizon Macondo well oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico in 2010, a record volume of the oil dispersant, COREXIT EC9500A, was delivered via aerial applications, raising concern regarding potential health effects that may result from pulmonary exposure to ...

  9. Evolution of dispersal distance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durrett, Rick; Remenik, Daniel

    2012-03-01

    The problem of how often to disperse in a randomly fluctuating environment has long been investigated, primarily using patch models with uniform dispersal. Here, we consider the problem of choice of seed size for plants in a stable environment when there is a trade off between survivability and dispersal range. Ezoe (J Theor Biol 190:287-293, 1998) and Levin and Muller-Landau (Evol Ecol Res 2:409-435, 2000) approached this problem using models that were essentially deterministic, and used calculus to find optimal dispersal parameters. Here we follow Hiebeler (Theor Pop Biol 66:205-218, 2004) and use a stochastic spatial model to study the competition of different dispersal strategies. Most work on such systems is done by simulation or nonrigorous methods such as pair approximation. Here, we use machinery developed by Cox et al. (Voter model perturbations and reaction diffusion equations 2011) to rigorously and explicitly compute evolutionarily stable strategies.

  10. Perfect Dispersive Medium

    CERN Document Server

    Gupta, Shulabh

    2015-01-01

    Dispersion is at the heart of all ultrafast real-time signal processing systems across the entire electromagnetic spectrum ranging from radio-frequencies to optics. However, following Kramer-Kronig relations, these signal processing systems have been plagued with the parasitic amplitude distortions due to frequency dependent, and non-flat amplitude transmission of naturally dispersive media. This issue puts a serious limitation on the applicability and performance of these signal processing systems. To solve the above mentioned issue, a perfect dispersive medium is proposed in this work, which artificially violates the Kramer-Kronig relations, while satisfying all causality requirements. The proposed dispersive metamaterial is based on loss-gain metasurface pairs and exhibit a perfectly flat transmission response along with arbitrary dispersion in a broad bandwidth, thereby solving a seemingly unavoidable issue in all ultrafast signal processing systems. Such a metamaterial is further shown using sub-waveleng...

  11. Aerial monitoring and environmental protection: aerial photography as an instrument for checking landscape damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tartara, Patrizia

    2009-09-01

    C.N.R. and University of Salento have realized a Geographical Information System for heritage management of the national territory (landscape) and historical urban settlements. Informations come from bibliography, archives, direct and systematic field survey, different kind of aerial photographs analysis, with the primary aim of knowledge for the establishment of an in existence Cultural Heritage Cadastre, focused to legal protection and exploitation of the sites, not last the correct territory planning.

  12. A Primer on Autonomous Aerial Vehicle Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppejans, Hugo H. G.; Myburgh, Herman C.

    2015-01-01

    There is a large amount of research currently being done on autonomous micro-aerial vehicles (MAV), such as quadrotor helicopters or quadcopters. The ability to create a working autonomous MAV depends mainly on integrating a simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM) solution with the rest of the system. This paper provides an introduction for creating an autonomous MAV for enclosed environments, aimed at students and professionals alike. The standard autonomous system and MAV automation are discussed, while we focus on the core concepts of SLAM systems and trajectory planning algorithms. The advantages and disadvantages of using remote processing are evaluated, and recommendations are made regarding the viability of on-board processing. Recommendations are made regarding best practices to serve as a guideline for aspirant MAV designers. PMID:26633410

  13. International Symposium on Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

    CERN Document Server

    Oh, Paul; Piegl, Les

    2009-01-01

    Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) have seen unprecedented levels of growth during the last decade in both military and civilian domains. It is anticipated that civilian applications will be dominant in the future, although there are still barriers to be overcome and technical challenges to be met. Integrating UAS into, for example, civilian space, navigation, autonomy, see-detect-and-avoid systems, smart designs, system integration, vision-based navigation and training, to name but a few areas, will be of prime importance in the near future. This special volume is the outcome of research presented at the International Symposium on Unmanned Aerial Vehicles, held in Orlando, Florida, USA, from June 23-25, 2008, and presents state-of-the-art findings on topics such as: UAS operations and integration into the national airspace system; UAS navigation and control; micro-, mini-, small UAVs; UAS simulation testbeds and frameworks; UAS research platforms and applications; UAS applications. This book aims at serving as ...

  14. A Primer on Autonomous Aerial Vehicle Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppejans, Hugo H G; Myburgh, Herman C

    2015-01-01

    There is a large amount of research currently being done on autonomous micro-aerial vehicles (MAV), such as quadrotor helicopters or quadcopters. The ability to create a working autonomous MAV depends mainly on integrating a simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM) solution with the rest of the system. This paper provides an introduction for creating an autonomous MAV for enclosed environments, aimed at students and professionals alike. The standard autonomous system and MAV automation are discussed, while we focus on the core concepts of SLAM systems and trajectory planning algorithms. The advantages and disadvantages of using remote processing are evaluated, and recommendations are made regarding the viability of on-board processing. Recommendations are made regarding best practices to serve as a guideline for aspirant MAV designers. PMID:26633410

  15. Autonomous Aerial Sensors for Wind Power Meteorology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giebel, Gregor; la Cour-Harbo, Anders; Bange, Jens

    2011-01-01

    of them are situated in quite homogeneous and gentle terrain. Here, automated Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) could be used as either an extension of current masts or to build a network of very high 'masts' in a region of complex terrain or coastal flow conditions. In comparison to a multitude of masts......This paper describes a new approach for measurements in wind power meteorology using small unmanned flying platforms. Large-scale wind farms, especially offshore, need an optimisation between installed wind power density and the losses in the wind farm due to wake effects between the turbines. Good......, UAVs could be quite cost-effective. In order to test this assumption and to test the limits of UAVs for wind power meteorology, this project assembles four different UAVs from four participating groups. Risø has built a lighter-than-air kite with a long tether, Bergen University flies a derivative...

  16. Monocular Vision SLAM for Indoor Aerial Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koray Çelik

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel indoor navigation and ranging strategy via monocular camera. By exploiting the architectural orthogonality of the indoor environments, we introduce a new method to estimate range and vehicle states from a monocular camera for vision-based SLAM. The navigation strategy assumes an indoor or indoor-like manmade environment whose layout is previously unknown, GPS-denied, representable via energy based feature points, and straight architectural lines. We experimentally validate the proposed algorithms on a fully self-contained microaerial vehicle (MAV with sophisticated on-board image processing and SLAM capabilities. Building and enabling such a small aerial vehicle to fly in tight corridors is a significant technological challenge, especially in the absence of GPS signals and with limited sensing options. Experimental results show that the system is only limited by the capabilities of the camera and environmental entropy.

  17. Middleware requirements for collaborative unmanned aerial vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohamed, Nader; Al-Jaroodi, Jameela; Jawhar, Imad;

    2013-01-01

    With the recent advances in the aircraft technologies, software, sensors, and communications; unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) can offer a wide range of applications. Some of these applications may involve multiple UAVs that cooperate and collaborate to achieve a common goal. This kind...... of applications is termed collaborative UAVs applications. One of the main research topics for multiple UAVs is developing an effective framework to enable the development of software systems for collaborative UAVs operations. One possible approach is to rely on middleware technologies to simplify the development...... and operations of such applications. This paper discusses the challenges of developing collaborative UAVs applications and how middleware can help resolve some of these challenges. In addition, the paper studies the utilization of service-oriented middleware infrastructures for implementing and operating...

  18. Autonomous Aerial Sensors for Wind Power Meteorology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giebel, Gregor; la Cour-Harbo, Anders; Bange, Jens;

    2012-01-01

    measurements of the wake and wake structure are not easy to come by, especially offshore. Very few measurement masts exist to verify our knowledge of atmospheric physics, and most of them are situated in quite homogeneous and gentle terrain. Here, automated Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) could be used......This paper describes a new approach for measurements in wind power meteorology using small unmanned flying platforms. Large-scale wind farms, especially offshore, need an optimisation between installed wind power density and the losses in the wind farm due to wake effects between the turbines. Good...... as either an extension of current masts or to build a network of very high 'masts' in a region of complex terrain or coastal flow conditions. In order to test the potential and limits of UAVs for wind power meteorology, this project assembles four different UAVs from four participating groups. Risø has...

  19. Precision wildlife monitoring using unmanned aerial vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgson, Jarrod C; Baylis, Shane M; Mott, Rowan; Herrod, Ashley; Clarke, Rohan H

    2016-03-17

    Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) represent a new frontier in environmental research. Their use has the potential to revolutionise the field if they prove capable of improving data quality or the ease with which data are collected beyond traditional methods. We apply UAV technology to wildlife monitoring in tropical and polar environments and demonstrate that UAV-derived counts of colony nesting birds are an order of magnitude more precise than traditional ground counts. The increased count precision afforded by UAVs, along with their ability to survey hard-to-reach populations and places, will likely drive many wildlife monitoring projects that rely on population counts to transition from traditional methods to UAV technology. Careful consideration will be required to ensure the coherence of historic data sets with new UAV-derived data and we propose a method for determining the number of duplicated (concurrent UAV and ground counts) sampling points needed to achieve data compatibility.

  20. A Primer on Autonomous Aerial Vehicle Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo H. G. Coppejans

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available There is a large amount of research currently being done on autonomous micro-aerial vehicles (MAV, such as quadrotor helicopters or quadcopters. The ability to create a working autonomous MAV depends mainly on integrating a simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM solution with the rest of the system. This paper provides an introduction for creating an autonomous MAV for enclosed environments, aimed at students and professionals alike. The standard autonomous system and MAV automation are discussed, while we focus on the core concepts of SLAM systems and trajectory planning algorithms. The advantages and disadvantages of using remote processing are evaluated, and recommendations are made regarding the viability of on-board processing. Recommendations are made regarding best practices to serve as a guideline for aspirant MAV designers.

  1. Mathematical modelling of unmanned aerial vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    UAVs (Unmanned Aerial Vehicles) UAVs are emerging as requirement of time and it is expected that in next five to ten years, complete air space will be flooded with UAVs, committed in varied assignments ranging from military, scientific and commercial usage. Non availability of human pilot inside UAV necessitates the requirement of an onboard auto pilot in order to maintain desired flight profile against any unexpected disturbance and/or parameter variations. Design of such an auto pilot requires an accurate mathematical model of UAV. The aim of this paper is to present a consolidated picture of UAV model. This paper first consolidates complete 6 DOF Degree of Freedom) equations of motion into a nonlinear mathematical model and its simulation using model parameters of a real UAV. Model is then linearized into longitudinal and lateral modes. State space models of linearized modes are simulated and analyzed for stability parameters. The developed model can be used to design auto pilot for UAV. (author)

  2. Weather effects on aerial snow measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tollan, O.

    1979-01-01

    When aerial snow measurements are carried out, various weather phenomena have influence on the survey operations and the registered gamma radiation values. Among these phenomena are low visibility and wind causing problems to aircraft operations, and temperature inversions which may trap radioactive gases and particles in the air layer near the ground. The pressure and temperature of the air and its humidity influence the gamma radiation field above the ground, and this should be taken into consideration. As some types of weather may cause delays and errors in the snow measurement, it is important for the operators to have a reliable account of the weather situation prior to and during the survey flights. This will reduce the cost of the measurement operation and improve the quality of the collected data.

  3. Bioinspired optical sensors for unmanned aerial systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chahl, Javaan; Rosser, Kent; Mizutani, Akiko

    2011-04-01

    Insects are dependant on the spatial, spectral and temporal distributions of light in the environment for flight control and navigation. This paper reports on flight trials of implementations of insect inspired behaviors on unmanned aerial vehicles. Optical flow methods for maintaining a constant height above ground and a constant course have been demonstrated to provide navigation capabilities that are impossible using conventional avionics sensors. Precision control of height above ground and ground course were achieved over long distances. Other vision based techniques demonstrated include a biomimetic stabilization sensor that uses the ultraviolet and green bands of the spectrum, and a sky polarization compass. Both of these sensors were tested over long trajectories in different directions, in each case showing performance similar to low cost inertial heading and attitude systems. The behaviors demonstrate some of the core functionality found in the lower levels of the sensorimotor system of flying insects and shows promise for more integrated solutions in the future.

  4. Large Aerial Bursts: An Important Class of Terrestrial Accretionary Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasson, John T.

    2003-01-01

    Large aerial bursts similar to the 1908 Tunguska bolide but much larger in magnitude have surely been responsible for many catastrophic events in the history of the Earth. Because aerial bursts produce shallow (or even negligible) craters, their existence is difficult to document in the geological record. Even aerial bursts as small as Tunguska deposit enough energy to melt ~1mm of dry soil. Silica-rich glass formed in such melts has the potential to survive in the soil for many Ma, thus a potential indicator of large aerial bursts is glass that was formed as thick regions within silicate melt sheets. The layered tektites from Southeast Asia and the Libyan desert glass may have formed by a combination of sedimentation and downslope flow of silicate melt heated by radiation from large aerial bursts. The alternative, formation of layered tektites as crater ejecta, cannot account for observations such as uniformly high 10Be contents, the orientation of the magnetic remanence field, and the absence of splash-form (e.g., teardrop or dumbbell) tektites in regions where layered tektites are common. The largest asteroids or comets make craters no matter what their strength. Recent reviews suggest that, for events in the energy range up to 1019-1020 J (about two orders of magnitude larger than the Meteor Crater impact), aerial bursts are more likely than cratering events, and the layered tektites of Southeast Asia imply the existence of aerial bursts one to two orders of magnitude larger still.

  5. Dispersive hydrodynamics: Preface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biondini, G.; El, G. A.; Hoefer, M. A.; Miller, P. D.

    2016-10-01

    This Special Issue on Dispersive Hydrodynamics is dedicated to the memory and work of G.B. Whitham who was one of the pioneers in this field of physical applied mathematics. Some of the papers appearing here are related to work reported on at the workshop "Dispersive Hydrodynamics: The Mathematics of Dispersive Shock Waves and Applications" held in May 2015 at the Banff International Research Station. This Preface provides a broad overview of the field and summaries of the various contributions to the Special Issue, placing them in a unified context.

  6. Nanoparticles - A paradigm for topical drug delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yogesh S Chaudhari

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Topical drug delivery is still a challenge due to the difficulties in controlling the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API fate within the skin. Due to the safety of the component material and controlled release abilities, nanoparticles offer an excellent opportunity for the rational delivery of drugs to the desired target site and hence these carrier systems are effectively used for topical delivery of variety of active principles for both pharmaceutical as well as cosmetic purposes. Recently, solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs have shown a great potential as carriers for topical administration of active substances, principally owing to the possible targeting effect and controlled release in different skin strata. Also, nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs are a new type of topical delivery system offering improved performance in terms of drug loading and long-term stability with the ability to form highly concentrated dispersions. Another invention in the field of topical drug delivery is the use of micellar nanoparticles (MNPs that offer a potentially fast and inexpensive pharmaceutical development model by using drugs already proven safe and effective to create new proprietary formulations. These novel drug delivery systems have gained much interest as they combine both the technology of lipid sciences and nanosciences, and hence may be better alternative carriers.

  7. Concept options for the aerial survey of Titan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorrington, G. E.

    2011-01-01

    Various aerial platforms intended for long endurance survey of the Titan surface are presented. A few novel concepts are introduced, including a heated methane balloon and a balloon with a tethered wind turbine. All the concept options are predicted to have lower scientific payload fractions than the Huygens probe. It is concluded that the selection of the best aerial platform option depends on more accurate mass estimates and a clear decision on whether, or not, in situ surface composition measurements are required in conjunction with aerial remote sensing.

  8. eDelivery

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — eDelivery provides the electronic packaging and delivery of closed and complete OPM investigation files to government agencies, including USAID, in a secure manner....

  9. NEW DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    Sarkar Biresh K; Jain Devananda; Banerjee Angshu

    2011-01-01

    Incorporating an existing medicine into a new drug delivery system can significantly improve its performance in terms of efficacy, safety, and improved patient compliance. The need for delivering drugs to patients efficiently and with fewer side effects has prompted pharmaceutical companies to engage in the development of new drug delivery systems. Today, drug delivery companies are engaged in the development of multiple platform technologies for controlled release, delivery of large molecule...

  10. Microemulsion: As Excellent Drug Delivery System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pathan Maksud

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Today though the oral drug delivery system is dominant still it is found to be need of ideal transdermal drug delivery system. “A micro emulsion is a system of water, oil and an amphiphile which is a single optically isotropic and thermodynamically stable liquid solution”. Microemulsions offer several advantages as drug delivery systems as these are thermodynamically stable and stability allows for self emulsification of the system with microemulsion acting as supersolvent of the drugs which are poorly or insoluble in water. They are preferred more as compared to conventional emulsions due stability. The dispersed phase mainly acts as the solvent for the water insoluble drug. Microemulsions have been proved to increase the cutaneous absorption of both lipophilic and hydrophilic API’s when compared to conventional vehicles.

  11. Perfect Dispersive Medium

    OpenAIRE

    Gupta, Shulabh; Caloz, Christophe

    2015-01-01

    Dispersion lies at the heart of real-time signal processing systems across the entire electromagnetic spectrum from radio to optics. However, the performance and applicability of such systems have been severely plagued by distortions due to the frequency dependent nature of the amplitude response of the dispersive media used for processing. This frequency dependence is a fundamental consequence of the causality constraint, incarnated by Kramers-Kronig relations or, equivalently, by the Bode r...

  12. Acoustic dispersive prism

    OpenAIRE

    Hussein Esfahlani; Sami Karkar; Herve Lissek; Mosig, Juan R.

    2016-01-01

    The optical dispersive prism is a well-studied element, which allows separating white light into its constituent spectral colors, and stands in nature as water droplets. In analogy to this definition, the acoustic dispersive prism should be an acoustic device with capability of splitting a broadband acoustic wave into its constituent Fourier components. However, due to the acoustical nature of materials as well as the design and fabrication difficulties, there is neither any natural acoustic ...

  13. Dry powder platform for pulmonary drug delivery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Derek Ivan Daniher; Jesse Zhu

    2008-01-01

    The phenomenon of particle interaction involved in pulmonary drug delivery belongs to a wide variety of disciplines of particle technology, in particular, fluidization. This paper reviews the basic concepts of pulmonary drug delivery with references to fluidization research, in particular, studies on Geldart group C powders. Dry powder inhaler device-formulation combination has been shown to be an effective method for delivering drugs to the lung for treatment of asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and cystic fibrosis. Even with advanced designs, however, delivery efficiency is still poor mainly due to powder dispersion problems which cause poor lung deposition and high dose variability. Drug particles used in current inhalers must be 1-5 μm in diameter for effective deposition in small-diameter airways and alveoli. These powders are very cohesive, have poor flowability, and are difficult to disperse into aerosol due to cohesion arising from van tier Waals attraction. These problems are well known in fluidization research, much of which is highly relevant to pulmonary drug delivery.

  14. Hierarchical mechanisms of spatially contagious seed dispersal in complex seed-disperser networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedriani, José M; Wiegand, Thorsten

    2014-02-01

    Intra- and interspecific spatially contagious seed dispersal has far-reaching implications for plant recruitment, distribution, and community assemblage. However, logistical and analytical limitations have curtailed our understanding concerning the mechanisms and resulting spatial patterns of contagious seed dispersal in most systems and, especially, in complex seed-disperser networks. We investigated mechanisms of seed aggregation using techniques of spatial point pattern analysis and extensive data sets on mutispecific endozoochorous seed rain generated by five frugivorous mammals in three Mediterranean shrublands over two seasons. Our novel analytical approach revealed three hierarchical and complementary mechanisms of seed aggregation acting at different levels (fecal samples, seeds, pairs of seed species) and spatial scales. First, the three local guilds of frugivores tended to deliver their feces highly aggregated at small and intermediate spatial scales, and the overall pattern of fecal delivery could be described well by a nested double-cluster Thomas process. Second, once the strong observed fecal aggregation was accounted for, the distribution of mammal feces containing seeds was clustered within the pattern of all feces (i.e., with and without seeds), and the density of fecal samples containing seeds was higher than expected around other feces containing seeds in two out of the three studied seed-disperser networks. Finally, at a finer level, mark correlation analyses revealed that for some plant species pairs, the number of dispersed seeds was positively associated either at small or large spatial scales. Despite the relatively invariant patterning of nested double-clustering, some attributes of endozoochorous seed rain (e.g., intensity, scales of aggregation) were variable among study sites due to changes in the ecological context in which seeds and their dispersers interact. Our investigation disentangles for the first time the hierarchy of synergic

  15. Fickian dispersion is anomalous

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cushman, John H.; O'Malley, Dan

    2015-12-01

    The thesis put forward here is that the occurrence of Fickian dispersion in geophysical settings is a rare event and consequently should be labeled as anomalous. What people classically call anomalous is really the norm. In a Lagrangian setting, a process with mean square displacement which is proportional to time is generally labeled as Fickian dispersion. With a number of counter examples we show why this definition is fraught with difficulty. In a related discussion, we show an infinite second moment does not necessarily imply the process is super dispersive. By employing a rigorous mathematical definition of Fickian dispersion we illustrate why it is so hard to find a Fickian process. We go on to employ a number of renormalization group approaches to classify non-Fickian dispersive behavior. Scaling laws for the probability density function for a dispersive process, the distribution for the first passage times, the mean first passage time, and the finite-size Lyapunov exponent are presented for fixed points of both deterministic and stochastic renormalization group operators. The fixed points of the renormalization group operators are p-self-similar processes. A generalized renormalization group operator is introduced whose fixed points form a set of generalized self-similar processes. Power-law clocks are introduced to examine multi-scaling behavior. Several examples of these ideas are presented and discussed.

  16. 2000 Aerial Photo Mosaics - Upper Mississippi River System -- Pool 16

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey's Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center (UMESC) collects aerial photography of the Upper Mississippi River System (UMRS) floodplain...

  17. Aerial Photography and Imagery, Ortho-Corrected - FDOT 2003 Orthophotography

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — These aerials were flown by the Florida Department of Transportation from December 23, 2002 to February 13, 2003 NAD 83 Mosaic format Semi Orthorectified black and...

  18. Project Birdseye Aerial Photograph Collection: Digital and Analog Materials

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This collection consists of both analog and digital aerial photographs from Arctic areas in and around Baffin Bay, the Labrador Sea, the Arctic Ocean, the Beaufort...

  19. 2000 Aerial Photo Mosaics - Upper Mississippi River System -- Pool 26

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey's Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center (UMESC) collects aerial photography of the Upper Mississippi River System (UMRS) floodplain...

  20. 2000 Aerial Photo Mosaics - Upper Mississippi River System -- Pool 8

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey's Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center (UMESC) collects aerial photography of the Upper Mississippi River System (UMRS) floodplain...

  1. Aerial Triangulation Close-range Images with Dual Quaternion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SHENG Qinghong

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A new method for the aerial triangulation of close-range images based on dual quaternion is presented. Using dual quaternion to represent the spiral screw motion of the beam in the space, the real part of dual quaternion represents the angular elements of all the beams in the close-range area networks, the real part and the dual part of dual quaternion represents the line elements corporately. Finally, an aerial triangulation adjustment model based on dual quaternion is established, and the elements of interior orientation and exterior orientation and the object coordinates of the ground points are calculated. Real images and large attitude angle simulated images are selected to run the experiments of aerial triangulation. The experimental results show that the new method for the aerial triangulation of close-range images based on dual quaternion can obtain higher accuracy.

  2. Estimation and Prediction of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Trajectories Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — There is serious concern about the introduction of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) in the National Air Space (NAS) because of their potential to increase the risk of...

  3. Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Diode Laser Sensor for Methane Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A compact, lightweight, and low power diode laser sensor will be developed for atmospheric methane detection on small unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). The physical...

  4. An analysis of aerial waterfowl production surveys in Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — In 1961 an effort was launched to conduct a full scale operational aerial brood survey, previous experimental failures notwithstanding. The project was terminated...

  5. Mapping the Kathmandu Valley With Aerial Photographs by Erwin Schneider

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urmi Sengupta

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Reviewed: Mapping the Kathmandu Valley With Aerial Photographs by Erwin Schneider By Neils Gutschow and Hermann Kreutzmann. Kathmandu, Nepal: Himal Books, 2013. 216 pp. US $ 48.00. ISBN 978-9937-597-06-7.

  6. Geochemical prospect ion results of Mariscala aerial photo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report shows the geochemical prospect ion results carried out within the framework of the metalical mining prospect ion in Mariscala aerial photo. Lavalleja district belong to the Mining inventory programme of Uruguay.

  7. Mapping the Kathmandu Valley With Aerial Photographs by Erwin Schneider

    OpenAIRE

    Urmi Sengupta

    2015-01-01

    Reviewed: Mapping the Kathmandu Valley With Aerial Photographs by Erwin Schneider By Neils Gutschow and Hermann Kreutzmann. Kathmandu, Nepal: Himal Books, 2013. 216 pp. US $ 48.00. ISBN 978-9937-597-06-7.

  8. Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Systems for Disaster Relief: Tornado Alley

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBusk, Wesley M.

    2009-01-01

    Unmanned aerial vehicle systems are currently in limited use for public service missions worldwide. Development of civil unmanned technology in the United States currently lags behind military unmanned technology development in part because of unresolved regulatory and technological issues. Civil unmanned aerial vehicle systems have potential to augment disaster relief and emergency response efforts. Optimal design of aerial systems for such applications will lead to unmanned vehicles which provide maximum potentiality for relief and emergency response while accounting for public safety concerns and regulatory requirements. A case study is presented that demonstrates application of a civil unmanned system to a disaster relief mission with the intent on saving lives. The concept utilizes unmanned aircraft to obtain advanced warning and damage assessments for tornados and severe thunderstorms. Overview of a tornado watch mission architecture as well as commentary on risk, cost, need for, and design tradeoffs for unmanned aerial systems are provided.

  9. Aerial Images of Alaska's Arctic Coastal Plain; 1974-1979

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset is comprised of 10 aerial images of three different study areas on Alaska's Arctic Coastal Plain flown by NASA in 1974, 1977, 1979 and obtained from...

  10. Diterpenoids from Roots and Aerial Parts of the Genus Stachys

    OpenAIRE

    Franco Piozzi; Maurizio Bruno

    2011-01-01

    The occurrence of diterpenoids from roots and aerial parts of the species of the genus Stachys (Lamiaceae, Labiatae) is reviewed. The presence of these diterpenoids in other taxa and their biological properties have been also reviewed.

  11. 2000 Aerial Photo Mosaics - Upper Mississippi River System -- Pool 9

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey's Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center (UMESC) collects aerial photography of the Upper Mississippi River System (UMRS) floodplain...

  12. 2000 Aerial Photo Mosaics - Upper Mississippi River System -- Pool 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey's Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center (UMESC) collects aerial photography of the Upper Mississippi River System (UMRS) floodplain...

  13. 2000 Aerial Photo Mosaics - Upper Mississippi River System -- St Croix

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey's Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center (UMESC) collects aerial photography of the Upper Mississippi River System (UMRS) floodplain...

  14. 2000 Aerial Photo Mosaics - Upper Mississippi River System -- Pool 15

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey's Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center (UMESC) collects aerial photography of the Upper Mississippi River System (UMRS) floodplain...

  15. 2000 Aerial Photo Mosaics - Upper Mississippi River System -- Pool 20

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey's Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center (UMESC) collects aerial photography of the Upper Mississippi River System (UMRS) floodplain...

  16. 2000 Aerial Photo Mosaics - Upper Mississippi River System -- Pool 12

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey's Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center (UMESC) collects aerial photography of the Upper Mississippi River System (UMRS) floodplain...

  17. 2000 Aerial Photo Mosaics - Upper Mississippi River System -- Pool 13

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey's Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center (UMESC) collects aerial photography of the Upper Mississippi River System (UMRS) floodplain...

  18. 2000 Aerial Photo Mosaics - Upper Mississippi River System -- Pool 10

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey's Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center (UMESC) collects aerial photography of the Upper Mississippi River System (UMRS) floodplain...

  19. 2000 Aerial Photo Mosaics - Upper Mississippi River System -- Pool 21

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey's Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center (UMESC) collects aerial photography of the Upper Mississippi River System (UMRS) floodplain...

  20. 2000 Aerial Photo Mosaics - Upper Mississippi River System -- Brandon

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey's Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center (UMESC) collects aerial photography of the Upper Mississippi River System (UMRS) floodplain...

  1. 2000 Aerial Photo Mosaics - Upper Mississippi River System -- Pool 18

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey's Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center (UMESC) collects aerial photography of the Upper Mississippi River System (UMRS) floodplain...

  2. 2000 Aerial Photo Mosaics - Upper Mississippi River System -- Lockport

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey's Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center (UMESC) collects aerial photography of the Upper Mississippi River System (UMRS) floodplain...

  3. 2000 Aerial Photo Mosaics - Upper Mississippi River System -- Pool 24

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey's Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center (UMESC) collects aerial photography of the Upper Mississippi River System (UMRS) floodplain...

  4. 2000 Aerial Photo Mosaics - Upper Mississippi River System -- Alton

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey's Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center (UMESC) collects aerial photography of the Upper Mississippi River System (UMRS) floodplain...

  5. 2000 Aerial Photo Mosaics - Upper Mississippi River System -- Pool 5

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey's Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center (UMESC) collects aerial photography of the Upper Mississippi River System (UMRS) floodplain...

  6. 2000 Aerial Photo Mosaics - Upper Mississippi River System -- Pool 14

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey's Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center (UMESC) collects aerial photography of the Upper Mississippi River System (UMRS) floodplain...

  7. 2000 Aerial Photo Mosaics - Upper Mississippi River System -- Pool 7

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey's Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center (UMESC) collects aerial photography of the Upper Mississippi River System (UMRS) floodplain...

  8. 2000 Aerial Photo Mosaics - Upper Mississippi River System -- Pool 6

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey's Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center (UMESC) collects aerial photography of the Upper Mississippi River System (UMRS) floodplain...

  9. 2000 Aerial Photo Mosaics - Upper Mississippi River System -- Minnesota

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey's Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center (UMESC) collects aerial photography of the Upper Mississippi River System (UMRS) floodplain...

  10. 2000 Aerial Photo Mosaics - Upper Mississippi River System -- Pool 4

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey's Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center (UMESC) collects aerial photography of the Upper Mississippi River System (UMRS) floodplain...

  11. 2000 Aerial Photo Mosaics - Upper Mississippi River System -- Dresden

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey's Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center (UMESC) collects aerial photography of the Upper Mississippi River System (UMRS) floodplain...

  12. 2000 Aerial Photo Mosaics - Upper Mississippi River System -- La Grange

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey's Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center (UMESC) collects aerial photography of the Upper Mississippi River System (UMRS) floodplain...

  13. 2000 Aerial Photo Mosaics - Upper Mississippi River System -- Pool 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey's Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center (UMESC) collects aerial photography of the Upper Mississippi River System (UMRS) floodplain...

  14. 2000 Aerial Photo Mosaics - Upper Mississippi River System -- Pool 19

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey's Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center (UMESC) collects aerial photography of the Upper Mississippi River System (UMRS) floodplain...

  15. 2000 Aerial Photo Mosaics - Upper Mississippi River System -- Pool 22

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey's Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center (UMESC) collects aerial photography of the Upper Mississippi River System (UMRS) floodplain...

  16. 2000 Aerial Photo Mosaics - Upper Mississippi River System -- Pool 3

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey's Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center (UMESC) collects aerial photography of the Upper Mississippi River System (UMRS) floodplain...

  17. 2000 Aerial Photo Mosaics - Upper Mississippi River System -- Pool 17

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey's Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center (UMESC) collects aerial photography of the Upper Mississippi River System (UMRS) floodplain...

  18. 2000 Aerial Photo Mosaics - Upper Mississippi River System -- Pool 25

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey's Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center (UMESC) collects aerial photography of the Upper Mississippi River System (UMRS) floodplain...

  19. 2000 Aerial Photo Mosaics - Upper Mississippi River System -- Pool 11

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey's Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center (UMESC) collects aerial photography of the Upper Mississippi River System (UMRS) floodplain...

  20. Gulf of Mexico Protected Species Assessment Aerial Surveys

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data sets include a compilation of aerial line-transect surveys conducted over continental shelf waters of the Gulf of Mexico since 1992. The majority of...

  1. Ontogeny of aerial righting and wing flapping in juvenile birds

    CERN Document Server

    Evangelista, Dennis; Huynh, Tony; Krivitskiy, Igor; Dudley, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Mechanisms of aerial righting in juvenile Chukar Partridge (Alectoris chukar) were studied from hatching through 14 days post hatching (dph). Asymmetric movements of the wings were used from 1 to 8 dph to effect progressively more successful righting behaviour via body roll. Following 8 dph, wing motions transitioned to bilaterally symmetric flapping that yielded aerial righting via nose down pitch, along with substantial increases in vertical force production during descent. Ontogenetically, the use of such wing motions to effect aerial righting precedes both symmetric flapping and a previously documented behaviour in chukar (i.e., wing assisted incline running) hypothesized to be relevant to incipient flight evolution in birds. These findings highlight the importance of asymmetric wing activation and controlled aerial manoeuvres during bird development, and are potentially relevant to understanding the origins of avian flight.

  2. Ontogeny of aerial righting and wing flapping in juvenile birds

    OpenAIRE

    Evangelista, Dennis; Cam, Sharlene; Huynh, Tony; Krivitskiy, Igor; Dudley, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Mechanisms of aerial righting in juvenile Chukar Partridge (Alectoris chukar) were studied from hatching through 14 days post hatching (dph). Asymmetric movements of the wings were used from 1 to 8 dph to effect progressively more successful righting behaviour via body roll. Following 8 dph, wing motions transitioned to bilaterally symmetric flapping that yielded aerial righting via nose down pitch, along with substantial increases in vertical force production during descent. Ontogenetically,...

  3. Rigorous LiDAR Strip Adjustment with Triangulated Aerial Imagery

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Y. J.; Xiong, X. D.; Hu, X Y

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposes a POS aided LiDAR strip adjustment method. Firstly, aero-triangulation of the simultaneously obtained aerial images is conducted with a few photogrammetry-specific ground control points. Secondly, LiDAR intensity images are generated from the reflectance signals of laser foot points, and conjugate points are automatically matched between the LiDAR intensity image and the aero-triangulated aerial image. Control points used in LiDAR strip adjustment are derived from...

  4. The Necessary Number of Elements in a Directional Ring Aerial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Hans Lottrup

    1951-01-01

    An investigation is made concerning the dependence of the array characteristic of a directional ring aerial on its number of elements. It is shown that an odd number of elements is more favorable than an even number in approximating the array characteristic of a similar ring aerial with infinitely...... of the antenna array is horizontal; the theory for this case is illustrated by a numerical example. Journal of Applied Physics is copyrighted by The American Institute of Physics....

  5. Ecological energetics of an abundant aerial insectivore, the Purple Martin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey F Kelly

    Full Text Available The atmospheric boundary layer and lower free atmosphere, or aerosphere, is increasingly important for human transportation, communication, environmental monitoring, and energy production. The impacts of anthropogenic encroachment into aerial habitats are not well understood. Insectivorous birds and bats are inherently valuable components of biodiversity and play an integral role in aerial trophic dynamics. Many of these insectivores are experiencing range-wide population declines. As a first step toward gaging the potential impacts of these declines on the aerosphere's trophic system, estimates of the biomass and energy consumed by aerial insectivores are needed. We developed a suite of energetics models for one of the largest and most common avian aerial insectivores in North America, the Purple Martin (Prognesubis. The base model estimated that Purple Martins consumed 412 (± 104 billion insects*y⁻¹ with a biomass of 115,860 (± 29,192 metric tonnes*y⁻¹. During the breeding season Purple Martins consume 10.3 (+ 3.0 kg of prey biomass per km³ of aerial habitat, equal to about 36,000 individual insects*km⁻³. Based on these calculations, the cumulative seasonal consumption of insects*km⁻³ is greater in North America during the breeding season than during other phases of the annual cycle, however the maximum daily insect consumption*km⁻³ occurs during fall migration. This analysis provides the first range-wide quantitative estimate of the magnitude of the trophic impact of this large and common aerial insectivore. Future studies could use a similar modeling approach to estimate impacts of the entire guild of aerial insectivores at a variety of temporal and spatial scales. These analyses would inform our understanding of the impact of population declines among aerial insectivores on the aerosphere's trophic dynamics.

  6. The Aeronautics Education, Research, and Industry Alliance (AERIAL) 2002 Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Brent D.; Fink, Mary M.; Nickerson, Jocelyn S.

    2002-01-01

    This report presents and overview of the Aeronautics Education, Research, and Industry Alliance (AERIAL). It covers the University of Nebraska's areas of research, and its outreach to students at Native American schools as part of AERIAL. The report contains three papers: "Airborne Remote Sensing (ARS) for Agricultural Research and Commercialization Application" (White Paper), "Validated Numerical Models for the Convective Extinction of Fuel Droplets (CEFD)", and "The Small Aircraft Transportation System (SATS): Research Collaborations with the NASA Langley Research Center".

  7. Electrodynamic Stability Computations for Flexible Conductors of the Aerial Lines

    OpenAIRE

    I. I. Sergey; Y. G. Panamarenka; P. I. Klimkovich; A. P. Dolin; Y. V. Potachits

    2015-01-01

    In aerial transmission lines aluminium multiwire conductors are in use. Owing to their flexible design the electrodynamic effect of short circuit currents may lead to intolerable mutual rendezvous and even cross-whipping of the phase conductors. The increasing motion of the conductors caused by effect of the short-circuit electrodynamic force impulse is accompanied by the dynamic load impact affecting the conductors, insulating and supporting constructions of the aerial lines. Intensity of th...

  8. Optimization and application of Retinex algorithm in aerial image processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Bo; He, Jun; Li, Hongyu

    2008-04-01

    In this paper, we provide a segmentation based Retinex for improving the visual quality of aerial images obtained under complex weather conditions. With the method, an aerial image will be segmented into different regions, and then an adaptive Gaussian based on the segmentations will be used to process it. The method addresses the problems existing in previously developed Retinex algorithms, such as halo artifacts and graying-out artifacts. The experimental result also shows evidence of its better effect.

  9. Short range reconnaissance unmanned aerial vehicle / S.J. Kersop.

    OpenAIRE

    Kersop, Stefanus Jacobus

    2009-01-01

    Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) have been used increasingly over the past few years. Special Forces of various countries utilise these systems successfully in war zones such as Afghanistan. The biggest advantage is rapid information gathering without endangering human lives. The South African National Defence Force (SANDF) also identified the need for local short range aerial reconnaissance and information gathering. A detailed literature survey identified various international players inv...

  10. LOW COST SURVEYING USING AN UNMANNED AERIAL VEHICLE

    OpenAIRE

    M. Pérez; Agüera, F.; F. Carvajal

    2013-01-01

    Traditional manned airborne surveys are usually expensive and the resolution of the acquired images is often limited. The main advantage of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) system acting as a photogrammetric sensor platform over more traditional manned airborne system is the high flexibility that allows image acquisition from unconventional viewpoints, the low cost in comparison with classical aerial photogrammetry and the high resolution images obtained. Nowadays there is a necessity f...

  11. Detection of Aspens Using High Resolution Aerial Laser Scanning Data and Digital Aerial Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalle Eerikäinen

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim was to use high resolution Aerial Laser Scanning (ALS data and aerial images to detect European aspen (Populus tremula L. from among other deciduous trees. The field data consisted of 14 sample plots of 30 m × 30 m size located in the Koli National Park in the North Karelia, Eastern Finland. A Canopy Height Model (CHM was interpolated from the ALS data with a pulse density of 3.86/m2, low-pass filtered using Height-Based Filtering (HBF and binarized to create the mask needed to separate the ground pixels from the canopy pixels within individual areas. Watershed segmentation was applied to the low-pass filtered CHM in order to create preliminary canopy segments, from which the non-canopy elements were extracted to obtain the final canopy segmentation, i.e. the ground mask was analysed against the canopy mask. A manual classification of aerial images was employed to separate the canopy segments of deciduous trees from those of coniferous trees. Finally, linear discriminant analysis was applied to the correctly classified canopy segments of deciduous trees to classify them into segments belonging to aspen and those belonging to other deciduous trees. The independent variables used in the classification were obtained from the first pulse ALS point data. The accuracy of discrimination between aspen and other deciduous trees was 78.6%. The independent variables in the classification function were the proportion of vegetation hits, the standard deviation of in pulse heights, accumulated intensity at the 90th percentile and the proportion of laser points reflected at the 60th height percentile. The accuracy of classification corresponded to the validation results of earlier ALS-based studies on the classification of individual deciduous trees to tree species.

  12. A Vision Based Aerial Robot solution for the Mission 7 of the International Aerial Robotics Competition

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez López, José Luis; Pestana Puerta, Jesús; Collumeau, Jean-Françoise; Suárez Fernández, Ramón; Campoy Cervera, Pascual; Molina, Martin

    2015-01-01

    The International Aerial Robotics Competition (IARC) aims at pulling forward the state of the art in UAV. The Mission's 7 challenge deals mainly with GPS/Laser denied navigation, Robot-Robot interaction and obstacle avoidance in the setting of a ground robot herding problem. We present in this paper our UAV which took part in the 2014 competition, in the China venue. This year, the mission was not completed by any participant but our team at Technical University of Madrid (UPM) were awarded w...

  13. Experimental Investigations of a Drifting Cloud of Droplets Dispersed from Aircraft

    OpenAIRE

    Seredyn Tomasz; Rowiński Robert

    2014-01-01

    With widespread use of pesticides in modern agriculture, the impacts of spray drift have become a topic of considerable interest. The drifting of sprays is a highly complex process influenced by many factors. The paper presents results of experimental research on a drifting cloud of droplets dispersing from aircraft. Experiments were conducted to quantify spray drift from aerial applications of pesticide. Parallel to the blowing wind, the measurement line 800 m long was disposed. The relation...

  14. Aerial Photography and Imagery, Ortho-Corrected, Aerial Photography and Imagery, Ortho-Corrected -, Published in unknown, Not Applicable scale, FREAC.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Aerial Photography and Imagery, Ortho-Corrected dataset, published at Not Applicable scale as of unknown. It is described as 'Aerial Photography and Imagery,...

  15. Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Domain: Areas of Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadir Alpaslan Demir

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs domain has seen rapid developments in recent years. As the number of UAVs increases and as the missions involving UAVs vary, new research issues surface. An overview of the existing research areas in the UAV domain has been presented including the nature of the work categorised under different groups. These research areas are divided into two main streams: Technological and operational research areas. The research areas in technology are divided into onboard and ground technologies. The research areas in operations are divided into organization level, brigade level, user level, standards and certifications, regulations and legal, moral, and ethical issues. This overview is intended to serve as a starting point for fellow researchers new to the domain, to help researchers in positioning their research, identifying related research areas, and focusing on the right issues.Defence Science Journal, Vol. 65, No. 4, July 2015, pp. 319-329, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.65.8631

  16. UNMANNED AERIAL VEHICLE IN CADASTRAL APPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Manyoky

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the investigation of UAVs (Unmanned Aerial Vehicles for use in cadastral surveying. Within the scope of a pilot study UAVs were tested for capturing geodata and compared with conventional data acquisition methods for cadastral surveying. Two study sites were therefore surveyed with a tachymeter-GNSS combination as well as a UAV system. The workflows of both methods were investigated and the resulting data were compared with the requirements of Swiss cadastral surveying. Concerning data acquisition and evaluation, the two systems are found to be comparable in terms of time expenditure, accuracy, and completeness. In conclusion, the UAV image orientation proved to be the limiting factor for the obtained accuracy due to the low- cost camera including camera calibration, image quality, and definition of the ground control points (natural or artificial. However, the required level of accuracy for cadastral surveying was reached. The advantage of UAV systems lies in their high flexibility and efficiency in capturing the surface of an area from a low flight altitude. In addition, further information such as orthoimages, elevation models and 3D objects can easily be gained from UAV images. Altogether, this project endorses the benefit of using UAVs in cadastral applications and the new opportunities they provide for cadastral surveying.

  17. The design of aerial camera focusing mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Changchang; Yang, Hongtao; Niu, Haijun

    2015-10-01

    In order to ensure the imaging resolution of aerial camera and compensating defocusing caused by the changing of atmospheric temperature, pressure, oblique photographing distance and other environmental factor [1,2], and to meeting the overall design requirements of the camera for the lower mass and smaller size , the linear focusing mechanism is designed. Through the target surface support, the target surface component is connected with focusing driving mechanism. Make use of precision ball screws, focusing mechanism transforms the input rotary motion of motor into linear motion of the focal plane assembly. Then combined with the form of linear guide restraint movement, the magnetic encoder is adopted to detect the response of displacement. And the closed loop control is adopted to realize accurate focusing. This paper illustrated the design scheme for a focusing mechanism and analyzed its error sources. It has the advantages of light friction and simple transmission chain and reducing the transmission error effectively. And this paper also analyses the target surface by finite element analysis and lightweight design. Proving that the precision of focusing mechanism can achieve higher than 3um, and the focusing range is +/-2mm.

  18. Community aerial mosquito control and naled exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duprey, Zandra; Rivers, Samantha; Luber, George; Becker, Alan; Blackmore, Carina; Barr, Dana; Weerasekera, Gayanga; Kieszak, Stephanie; Flanders, W Dana; Rubin, Carol

    2008-03-01

    In October 2004, the Florida Department of Health (FLDOH) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) assessed human exposure to ultra-low volume (ULV) aerial application of naled. Teams administered activity questionnaires regarding pesticide exposure and obtained baseline urine samples to quantify prespray naled metabolite levels. Following the spray event, participants were asked to collect postspray urine specimens within 12 h of the spray event and at 8-h intervals for up to 40 h. Upon completion, a postspray activity questionnaire was administered to study participants. Two hundred five (87%) participants completed the study. The urine analysis showed that although 67% of prespray urine samples had detectable levels of a naled metabolite, the majority of postspray samples were below the limit of detection ( 40 h) following exposure, the number of samples with detectable levels exceeded 50%. There was a significant decrease in naled metabolites from prespray to postspray (= .02), perhaps associated with a significant reduction (naled does not result in increased levels of naled in humans, provided the naled is used according to label instructions. PMID:18437813

  19. [Death by explosion of an aerial mine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockhausen, Sarah; Wöllner, Kirsten; Madea, Burkhard; Doberentz, Elke

    2014-01-01

    Civilians are rarely killed by military weapons except in times of war. In early 2014, a 50-year-old man died in an explosion of an aerial mine from the Second World War when he was crushing concrete chunks with an excavator at a recycling plant. In the burned operator's cab, the remains of a body were found on the driver's seat. The thorax and the head were missing. Still sticking in the shoe, the right foot severed at the ankle was found about 7 m from the excavator together with numerous small to tiny body parts. At autopsy, the completely disrupted, strongly charred lower torso of a male connected to the left extremities as well as a large number of small tissue fragments and calcined bones were found. According to calculations performed by the seismographical station on the basis of seismic data, only about 45-60 percent of the charge had detonated. The autopsy results illustrate all the more the massive impact of such an explosion. PMID:26548019

  20. When is dispersal for dispersal? Unifying marine and terrestrial perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, Scott C; Baskett, Marissa L; Grosberg, Richard K; Morgan, Steven G; Strathmann, Richard R

    2016-08-01

    Recent syntheses on the evolutionary causes of dispersal have focused on dispersal as a direct adaptation, but many traits that influence dispersal have other functions, raising the question: when is dispersal 'for' dispersal? We review and critically evaluate the ecological causes of selection on traits that give rise to dispersal in marine and terrestrial organisms. In the sea, passive dispersal is relatively easy and specific morphological, behavioural, and physiological adaptations for dispersal are rare. Instead, there may often be selection to limit dispersal. On land, dispersal is relatively difficult without specific adaptations, which are relatively common. Although selection for dispersal is expected in both systems and traits leading to dispersal are often linked to fitness, systems may differ in the extent to which dispersal in nature arises from direct selection for dispersal or as a by-product of selection on traits with other functions. Our analysis highlights incompleteness of theories that assume a simple and direct relationship between dispersal and fitness, not just insofar as they ignore a vast array of taxa in the marine realm, but also because they may be missing critically important effects of traits influencing dispersal in all realms. PMID:26118564

  1. SOLID DISPERSIONS: A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Praveen Kumar

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The solubility behaviour of drugs remains one of the most challenging aspects in formulation development. Currently only 8% of the new drug molecules have high solubility and permeability. The solubility behaviour of a drug is key determinant to its oral bioavailability and it is the rate limiting step to absorption of drugs from the gastrointestinal tract. This results in important products not reaching the market or not achieving their full potential. Solid dispersions have attracted considerable interest as an efficient means of improving the dissolution rate and bioavailability of a range of hydrophobic drugs. This article reviews the various preparation techniques for solid dispersion, types of solid dispersions based on molecular arrangement and other aspects such as selection of carriers and methods of characterization and their applications have been discussed.

  2. Dual Transport Process for Targeted Delivery in Porous Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, W.; Fan, J.

    2015-12-01

    The targeted delivery in porous media is a promising technology to encapsulate the solute (i.e., the cargo) in colloid-like microcapsules (i.e., the carriers), transport the microcapsules in the targeted location in porous media, and then release the solute. While extensive literatures and applications about the drug delivery in human and animal bodies exist, the targeted delivery using similar delivery carriers in subsurface porous media is not well understood. The dual transport process study is an explorative study for the targeted delivery in porous media. While the colloid transport is dominated by the advection process and the solute transport is dominated by the advection-dispersion, the dual transport process is the process with the first step of carrier transport, which is dominated by advection, and then after the release of cargo, the transport of cargo is dominated by advection-dispersion. By applying the random walk particle tracking (RWPT) approach, we investigate how the carriers transport in porous media and how the cargo release mechanisms affect the cargo distribution for the targeted delivery in various patterns of porous media. The RWPT numerical model will be verified against the experimental results of dual transport process in packed-disk 2D micromodels. The understanding of the mechanism of dual transport process is crucial to achieve the potential applications of targeted delivery in improved oil and gas recovery, CO2 sequestration, environmental remediation, and soil biomediation.

  3. About measuring velocity dispersions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fellhauer, M.

    A lot of our knowledge about the dynamics and total masses of pressure dominated stellar systems relies on measuring the internal velocity disper- sion of the system. We assume virial equilibrium and that we are able to measure only the bound stars of the system without any contamination. This article shows how likely it is to measure the correct velocity dispersion in reality. It will show that as long as we have small samples of velocity mea- surements the distribution of possible outcomes can be very large and as soon as we have a source of error the velocity dispersion can wrong by several standard deviations especially in large samples.

  4. Coping with power dispersion?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    how the actors involved cope with the new configurations. In this introduction, we discuss the conceptualization of power dispersion and highlight the ways in which the contributions add to this research agenda. We then outline some general conclusions and end by indicating future avenues of research....... Taken together, the collection contributes some answers to the challenge of defining and measuring – in a comparative way – the control and co-ordination mechanisms which power dispersion generates. It also explores the tension between political actors' quest for autonomy and the acknowledgement of...

  5. A higher-order-mode fiber delivery for Ti:Sapphire femtosecond lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Kim Giessmann; Le, Tuan; Grüner-Nielsen, Lars Erik;

    2010-01-01

    We report the first higher-order-mode fiber with anomalous dispersion at 800nm and demonstrate its potential in femtosecond pulse delivery for Ti:Sapphire femtosecond lasers. We obtain 125fs pulses after propagating a distance of 3.6 meters in solid-silica fiber. The pulses could be further...... compressed in a quartz rod to nearly chirp-free 110fs pulses. Femtosecond pulse delivery is achieved by launching the laser output directly into the delivery fiber without any pre-chirping of the input pulse. The demonstrated pulse delivery scheme suggests scaling to >20meters for pulse delivery in harsh...

  6. Transport and Dispersion of Nanoparticles in Periodic Nanopost Arrays

    KAUST Repository

    He, Kai

    2014-05-27

    Nanoparticles transported through highly confined porous media exhibit faster breakthrough than small molecule tracers. Despite important technological applications in advanced materials, human health, energy, and environment, the microscale mechanisms leading to early breakthrough have not been identified. Here, we measure dispersion of nanoparticles at the single-particle scale in regular arrays of nanoposts and show that for highly confined flows of dilute suspensions of nanoparticles the longitudinal and transverse velocities exhibit distinct scaling behaviors. The distributions of transverse particle velocities become narrower and more non-Gaussian when the particles are strongly confined. As a result, the transverse dispersion of highly confined nanoparticles at low Péclet numbers is significantly less important than longitudinal dispersion, leading to early breakthrough. This finding suggests a fundamental mechanism by which to control dispersion and thereby improve efficacy of nanoparticles applied for advanced polymer nanocomposites, drug delivery, hydrocarbon production, and environmental remediation. © 2014 American Chemical Society.

  7. Unmanned Aerial Systems for scientific research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanutti, Leopoldo; MacKenzie, A. Robert; di Donfrancesco, Guido; Amici, Stefania

    2010-05-01

    In the last decade a very wide spectrum of Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) has been developed, essentially for military purposes. They range from very small aircraft, weighing a few kg, to stratospheric aeroplanes with total weight of many tonnes. Endurance also varies very markedly, from a few hours to ≤ 60 hours, and possibly more in the next future. Environmental Research and Services (ERS) Srl., Florence, has carried out a scoping study for the UK Natural Environmental Research Council, to identify key Earth and Environmental Science issues which can best be tackled by means of unmanned aerial platforms. The study focused on issues which could not easily be solved using other platforms, as manned aircraft, airships and satellites. Topics included: · glaciology (including both continental ice-sheets and sea-ice) · volcanology · coastal and ocean observation · Exchange processes between sea and atmosphere · atmospheric turbulence, transport, and chemistry in the planetary boundary layer, in the free troposphere and in the upper troposphere - lower stratosphere (UTLS). Different platforms are best suited to each of these tasks. Platforms range from mini UAS, to Middle Altitude and Long Endurance (MALE) and High Altitude and Long Endurance (HALE) platforms, from electric aircraft to diesel-turbocharged platforms, from solar to turbofan aircraft. Generally long endurance and the capability to fly beyond line of sight are required for most scientific missions. An example is the application of UAS to the measurement of the extension and depth of sea and continental ice. Such measurements are of primary importance in the evaluation of climatic change. While with satellites it is possible to measure the extent of ice, measuring the depth can only be accomplished by using radar operating at relatively low altitudes. A tactical or a MALE UAS could be equipped with VHL radar which can penetrate ice and hence used to measure the depth of ice sheets. A platform which

  8. Observing river stages using unmanned aerial vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niedzielski, Tomasz; Witek, Matylda; Spallek, Waldemar

    2016-08-01

    We elaborated a new method for observing water surface areas and river stages using unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). It is based on processing multitemporal five orthophotomaps produced from the UAV-taken visible light images of nine sites of the river, acquired with a sufficient overlap in each part. Water surface areas are calculated in the first place, and subsequently expressed as fractions of total areas of water-covered terrain at a given site of the river recorded on five dates. The logarithms of the fractions are later calculated, producing five samples, each consisted of nine elements. In order to detect statistically significant increments of water surface areas between two orthophotomaps, we apply the asymptotic and bootstrapped versions of the Student's t test, preceded by other tests that aim to check model assumptions. The procedure is applied to five orthophotomaps covering nine sites of the Ścinawka river (south-western (SW) Poland). The data have been acquired during the experimental campaign, at which flight settings were kept unchanged over nearly 3 years (2012-2014). We have found that it is possible to detect transitions between water surface areas associated with all characteristic water levels (low, mean, intermediate and high stages). In addition, we infer that the identified transitions hold for characteristic river stages as well. In the experiment we detected all increments of water level: (1) from low stages to mean, intermediate and high stages; (2) from mean stages to intermediate and high stages; and (3) from intermediate stages to high stages. Potential applications of the elaborated method include verification of hydrodynamic models and the associated predictions of high flows as well as monitoring water levels of rivers in ungauged basins.

  9. Aerodynamic Optimization of Micro Aerial Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siew Ping Yeong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Computational fluid dynamics (CFD study was done on the propeller design of a micro aerial vehicle (quadrotor-typed to optimize its aerodynamic performance via Shear Stress Transport K-Omega (SST k-ω turbulence model. The quadrotor model used was WL-V303 Seeker. The design process started with airfoils selection and followed by the evaluation of drone model in hovering and cruising conditions. To sustain a 400g payload, by Momentum Theory an ideal thrust of 5.4 N should be generated by each rotor of the quadrotor and this resulted in an induced velocity of 7.4 m/s on the propeller during hovering phase, equivalent to Reynolds number of 10403 at 75% of the propeller blade radius. There were 6 propellers investigated at this Reynolds number. Sokolov airfoil which produced the largest lift-to-drag ratio was selected for full drone installation to be compared with the original model (benchmark. The CFD results showed that the Sokolov propeller generated 0.76 N of thrust more than the benchmark propeller at 7750 rpm. Despite generating higher thrust, higher drag was also experienced by the drone installed with Sokolov propellers. This resulted in lower lift-to-drag ratio than the benchmark propellers. It was also discovered that the aerodynamic performance of the drone could be further improved by changing the rotating direction of each rotor. Without making changes on the structural design, the drone performance increased by 39.58% in terms of lift-to-drag ratio by using this method.

  10. Radiation surveillance using an unmanned aerial vehicle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poellaenen, Roy [STUK-Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, P.O. Box 14, FI-00881 (Finland)], E-mail: roy.pollanen@stuk.fi; Toivonen, Harri; Peraejaervi, Kari; Karhunen, Tero; Ilander, Tarja [STUK-Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, P.O. Box 14, FI-00881 (Finland); Lehtinen, Jukka [Senya Ltd. Rekitie 7A, 00950 Helsinki (Finland); Rintala, Kimmo; Katajainen, Tuure; Niemelae, Jarkko; Juusela, Marko [Patria Systems Oy, Naulakatu 3, FI-33100 (Finland)

    2009-02-15

    Radiation surveillance equipment was mounted in a small unmanned aerial vehicle. The equipment consists of a commercial CsI detector for count rate measurement and a specially designed sampling unit for airborne radioactive particles. Field and flight tests were performed for the CsI detector in the area where {sup 137}Cs fallout from the Chernobyl accident is 23-45 kBq m{sup -2}. A 3-GBq {sup 137}Cs point source could be detected at the altitude of 50 m using a flight speed of 70 km h{sup -1} and data acquisition interval of 1 s. Respective response for {sup 192}Ir point source is 1 GBq. During the flight, the detector reacts fast to ambient external dose rate rise of 0.1 {mu}Sv h{sup -1}, which gives for the activity concentration of {sup 131}I less than 1 kBq m{sup -3}. Operation of the sampler equipped with different type of filters was investigated using wind-tunnel experiments and field tests with the aid of radon progeny. Air flow rate through the sampler is 0.2-0.7 m{sup 3} h{sup -1} at a flight speed of 70 km h{sup -1} depending on the filter type in question. The tests showed that the sampler is able to collect airborne radioactive particles. Minimum detectable concentration for transuranium nuclides, such as {sup 239}Pu, is of the order of 0.2 Bq m{sup -3} or less when alpha spectrometry with no radiochemical sample processing is used for activity determination immediately after the flight. When a gamma-ray spectrometer is used, minimum detectable concentrations for several fission products such as {sup 137}Cs and {sup 131}I are of the order of 1 Bq m{sup -3}.

  11. Analysis of cyberattacks on unmanned aerial systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shull, Andrew M.

    With the increasing power and convenience offered by the use of embedded systems in control applications, such systems will undoubtedly continue to be developed and deployed. Recently, however, a focus on data-centric systems and developing network-enabled control systems has emerged, allowing for greater performance, safety, and resource allocation in systems such as smart power grids and unmanned military aircraft. However, this increase in connectivity also introduces vulnerabilities into these systems, potentially providing access to malicious parties seeking to disrupt the operation of those systems or to cause damage. Given the high potential cost of a failure in these systems in terms of property, sensitive information, and human safety, steps need to be taken to secure these systems. In order to analyze the vulnerabilities of unmanned aerial systems (UASs) specifically, a simulation testbed is developed to perform high-fidelity simulations of UAS operations using both software models and the actual vehicle hardware. Then, potential attacks against the control system and their corresponding intents are identified and introduced into these simulations. Failure conditions are defined, and extensive simulation of attacks in different combinations and magnitudes are performed in both software and hardware in order to identify particularly successful attacks, including attacks that are difficult to detect. From these results, vulnerabilities of the system can be determined so that appropriate remedies can be designed. Additionally, stealthy false data injection attacks against linear feedback systems are considered. The identification of these attacks is formed as an optimization problem constrained by the ability of monitoring systems to detect the attack. The optimal attack input is then determined for an example application so that the worst case system performance can be identified and, if needed, improved.

  12. Radiation surveillance using an unmanned aerial vehicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pöllänen, Roy; Toivonen, Harri; Peräjärvi, Kari; Karhunen, Tero; Ilander, Tarja; Lehtinen, Jukka; Rintala, Kimmo; Katajainen, Tuure; Niemelä, Jarkko; Juusela, Marko

    2009-02-01

    Radiation surveillance equipment was mounted in a small unmanned aerial vehicle. The equipment consists of a commercial CsI detector for count rate measurement and a specially designed sampling unit for airborne radioactive particles. Field and flight tests were performed for the CsI detector in the area where (137)Cs fallout from the Chernobyl accident is 23-45 kBq m(-2). A 3-GBq (137)Cs point source could be detected at the altitude of 50 m using a flight speed of 70 km h(-1) and data acquisition interval of 1s. Respective response for (192)Ir point source is 1 GBq. During the flight, the detector reacts fast to ambient external dose rate rise of 0.1 microSv h(-1), which gives for the activity concentration of (131)I less than 1 kB qm(-3). Operation of the sampler equipped with different type of filters was investigated using wind-tunnel experiments and field tests with the aid of radon progeny. Air flow rate through the sampler is 0.2-0.7 m(3)h(-1) at a flight speed of 70 km h(-1) depending on the filter type in question. The tests showed that the sampler is able to collect airborne radioactive particles. Minimum detectable concentration for transuranium nuclides, such as (239)Pu, is of the order of 0.2 Bq m(-3) or less when alpha spectrometry with no radiochemical sample processing is used for activity determination immediately after the flight. When a gamma-ray spectrometer is used, minimum detectable concentrations for several fission products such as (137)Cs and (131)I are of the order of 1 Bq m(-3). PMID:19046635

  13. Importance of novel drug delivery systems in herbal medicines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V Kusum Devi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Novel drug delivery system is a novel approach to drug delivery that addresses the limitations of the traditional drug delivery systems. Our country has a vast knowledge base of Ayurveda whose potential is only being realized in the recent years. However, the drug delivery system used for administering the herbal medicine to the patient is traditional and out-of-date, resulting in reduced efficacy of the drug. If the novel drug delivery technology is applied in herbal medicine, it may help in increasing the efficacy and reducing the side effects of various herbal compounds and herbs. This is the basic idea behind incorporating novel method of drug delivery in herbal medicines. Thus it is important to integrate novel drug delivery system and Indian Ayurvedic medicines to combat more serious diseases. For a long time herbal medicines were not considered for development as novel formulations owing to lack of scientific justification and processing difficulties, such as standardization, extraction and identification of individual drug components in complex polyherbal systems. However, modern phytopharmaceutical research can solve the scientific needs (such as determination of pharmacokinetics, mechanism of action, site of action, accurate dose required etc. of herbal medicines to be incorporated in novel drug delivery system, such as nanoparticles, microemulsions, matrix systems, solid dispersions, liposomes, solid lipid nanoparticles and so on. This article summarizes various drug delivery technologies, which can be used for herbal actives together with some examples.

  14. Health care delivery systems.

    OpenAIRE

    Stevens, F; Zee, J. van der

    2007-01-01

    A health care delivery system is the organized response of a society to the health problems of its inhabitants. Societies choose from alternative health care delivery models and, in doing so, they organize and set goals and priorities in such a way that the actions of different actors are effective, meaningful, and socially accepted. From a sociological point of view, the analysis of health care delivery systems implies recognition of their distinct history over time, their specific values an...

  15. Project delivery system (PDS)

    CERN Document Server

    2001-01-01

    As business environments become increasingly competitive, companies seek more comprehensive solutions to the delivery of their projects. "Project Delivery System: Fourth Edition" describes the process-driven project delivery systems which incorporates the best practices from Total Quality and is aligned with the Project Management Institute and ISO Quality Standards is the means by which projects are consistently and efficiently planned, executed and completed to the satisfaction of clients and customers.

  16. RECENT ADVANCES IN NOVEL DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manivannan Rangasamy

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Drug delivered can have significant effect on its efficacy. Some drugs have an optimum concentration range with in which maximum benefit is derived and concentrations above (or below the range can be toxic or produce no therapeutic effect. Various drug delivery and drug targeting systems are currently under development. The main goal for developing such delivery systems is to minimize drug degradation and loss, to prevent harmful side effects and to increase bioavailability. Targeting is the ability to direct the drug loaded system to the site of interest. Among drug carrier one can name soluble polymers, microparticles made of insoluble (or biodegradable natural and synthetic polymers, microcapsules, cells, cell ghosts, lipoproteins, liposomes and micelles. Two major mechanisms can be distinguished for addressing the desired sites for drug release, (a Passive and (b Active targeting. Controlled drug carrier systems such as micellar solutions, vescicles and liquid crystal dispersions, as well as nanoparticle dispersions consisting of small particles of 10 – 400 nm show great promise as drug delivery systems. Hydrogels are three dimensional, hydrophilic, polymer networks capable of imbibing large amounts of water or biological fluids. Buckyballs, a novel delivery system with 60 carbon atoms formed in the shape of hollow ball. They are other type’s namely bucky babies, fuzzy balls, gadofullereness, and giant fullerenes. Nanoparticles can be classified as nano tubes, nano wires, nano cantilever, nanoshells, quantum dots, nano pores. Researchers at north western university using gold particles to develop ultra sensitive detection systems for DNA and protein markers associated with many forms of cancer, including breast and prostrate cancer. Drug loaded erythrocytes is one of the growing and potential systems for delivery of drugs and enzymes.

  17. Octave spanning wedge dispersive mirrors with low dispersion oscillations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habel, Florian; Shirvanyan, Vage; Trubetskov, Michael; Burger, Christian; Sommer, Annkatrin; Kling, Matthias F; Schultze, Martin; Pervak, Vladimir

    2016-05-01

    A novel concept for octave spanning dispersive mirrors with low spectral dispersion oscillations is presented. The key element of the so-called wedge dispersive mirror is a slightly wedged layer which is coated on a specially optimized dispersive multilayer stack by a common sputter coating process. The group delay dispersion (GDD) of a pulse reflected on a wedge dispersive mirror is nearly free of oscillations. Fabricated mirrors with negative GDD demonstrate the compression of a pulse down to 3.8 fs as good as double angled mirrors optimized for the same bandwidth. PMID:27137538

  18. A Novel delivery Method for Ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) toxicants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Described here is a new delivery method for ant toxicants consisting of an inert carrier, an attractant, and a toxicant. Unlike baits, this system does not contain a food source, but uses ant to ant contact rather than trophallaxis as the mechanism for horizontal dispersal of the toxicant through th...

  19. International-Aerial Measuring System (I-AMS) Training Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wasiolek, Piotre T. [National Security Technologies, LLC; Malchor, Russell L. [National Security Technologies, LLC; Maurer, Richard J. [National Security Technologies, LLC; Adams, Henry L. [National Security Technologies, LLC

    2015-10-01

    Since the Fukushima reactor accident in 2011, there has been an increased interest worldwide in developing national capabilities to rapidly map and assess ground contamination resulting from nuclear reactor accidents. The capability to rapidly measure the size of the contaminated area, determine the activity level, and identify the radionuclides can aid emergency managers and decision makers in providing timely protective action recommendations to the public and first responders. The development of an aerial detection capability requires interagency coordination to assemble the radiation experts, detection system operators, and aviation aircrews to conduct the aerial measurements, analyze and interpret the data, and provide technical assessments. The Office of International Emergency Management and Cooperation (IEMC) at the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration (DOE/NNSA) sponsors an International - Aerial Measuring System (I-AMS) training program for partner nations to develop and enhance their response to radiological emergencies. An initial series of courses can be conducted in the host country to assist in developing an aerial detection capability. As the capability develops and expands, additional experience can be gained through advanced courses with the opportunity to conduct aerial missions over a broad range of radiation environments.

  20. Prediction of preterm delivery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.F. Wilms

    2014-01-01

    Preterm delivery is in quantity and in severity an important issue in the obstetric care in the Western world. There is considerable knowledge on maternal and obstetric risk factors of preterm delivery. Of the women presenting with preterm labor, the majority is pregnant with a male fetus and in Cau

  1. Health care delivery systems.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stevens, F.; Zee, J. van der

    2007-01-01

    A health care delivery system is the organized response of a society to the health problems of its inhabitants. Societies choose from alternative health care delivery models and, in doing so, they organize and set goals and priorities in such a way that the actions of different actors are effective,

  2. Aerial Observation Needs Workshop, May 13-14

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nasiri, Shaima [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Serbin, Shawn [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Lesmes, David [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Petty, Rick [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Schmid, Beat [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Vogelmann, Andrew [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); de Boer, Gijs [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Dafflon, Baptiste [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Guenther, Alex [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Moore, David [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2015-10-01

    The mission of the Climate and Environmental Sciences Division (CESD) of the Office of Biological and Environmental Research (BER) within the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Science is "to advance a robust, predictive understanding of Earth's climate and environmental systems and to inform the development of sustainable solutions to the nation's energy and environmental challenges." Accomplishing this mission requires aerial observations of the atmospheric and terrestrial components of the climate system. CESD is assessing its current and future aerial observation needs to develop a strategy and roadmap of capability requirements for the next decade. To facilitate this process, a workshop was convened that consisted of invited experts in the atmospheric and terrestrial sciences, airborne observations, and modeling. This workshop report summarizes the community input prior to and during the workshop on research challenges and opportunities, as well as specific science questions and observational needs that require aerial observations to address.

  3. Aerial Observation Needs Workshop, May 13-14, 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nasiri, Shaima [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Serbin, Shawn [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Lesmes, David [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Petty, Rick [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Schmid, Beat [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Vogelmann, Andrew [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); de Boer, Gijs [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Dafflon, Baptiste [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Guenther, Alex [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Moore, David [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2015-10-01

    The mission of the Climate and Environmental Sciences Division (CESD) of the Office of Biological and Environmental Research (BER) within the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Science is "to advance a robust, predictive understanding of Earth's climate and environmental systems and to inform the development of sustainable solutions to the nation's energy and environmental challenges." Accomplishing this mission requires aerial observations of the atmospheric and terrestrial components of the climate system. CESD is assessing its current and future aerial observation needs to develop a strategy and roadmap of capability requirements for the next decade. To facilitate this process, a workshop was convened that consisted of invited experts in the atmospheric and terrestrial sciences, airborne observations, and modeling. This workshop report summarizes the community input prior to and during the workshop on research challenges and opportunities, as well as specific science questions and observational needs that require aerial observations to address.

  4. Aerospace toxicology overview: aerial application and cabin air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaturvedi, Arvind K

    2011-01-01

    Aerospace toxicology is a rather recent development and is closely related to aerospace medicine. Aerospace toxicology can be defined as a field of study designed to address the adverse effects of medications, chemicals, and contaminants on humans who fly within or outside the atmosphere in aviation or on space flights. The environment extending above and beyond the surface of the Earth is referred to as aerospace. The term aviation is frequently used interchangeably with aerospace. The focus of the literature review performed to prepare this paper was on aerospace toxicology-related subject matters, aerial application and aircraft cabin air quality. Among the important topics addressed are the following: · Aerial applications of agricultural chemicals, pesticidal toxicity, and exposures to aerially applied mixtures of chemicals and their associated formulating solvents/surfactants The safety of aerially encountered chemicals and the bioanalytical methods used to monitor exposures to some of them · The presence of fumes and smoke, as well as other contaminants that may generally be present in aircraft/space vehicle cabin air · And importantly, the toxic effects of aerially encountered contaminants, with emphasis on the degradation products of oils, fluids, and lubricants used in aircraft, and finally · Analytical methods used for monitoring human exposure to CO and HCN are addressed in the review, as are the signs and symptoms associated with exposures to these combustion gases. Although many agricultural chemical monitoring studies have been published, few have dealt with the occurrence of such chemicals in aircraft cabin air. However, agricultural chemicals do appear in cabin air; indeed, attempts have been made to establish maximum allowable concentrations for several of the more potentially toxic ones that are found in aircraft cabin air. In this article, I emphasize the need for precautionary measures to be taken to minimize exposures to aerially

  5. Wafer weak point detection based on aerial images or WLCD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Guoxiang; Philipp, Peter; Litt, Lloyd C.; Ackmann, Paul; Crell, Christian; Chen, Norman

    2015-10-01

    Aerial image measurement is a key technique for model based optical proximity correction (OPC) verification. Actual aerial images obtained by AIMS (aerial image measurement system) or WLCD (wafer level critical dimension) can detect printed wafer weak point structures in advance of wafer exposure and defect inspection. Normally, the potential wafer weak points are determined based on optical rule check (ORC) simulation in advance. However, the correlation to real wafer weak points is often not perfect due to the contribution of mask three dimension (M3D) effects, actual mask errors, and scanner lens effects. If the design weak points can accurately be detected in advance, it will reduce the wafer fab cost and improve cycle time. WLCD or AIMS tools are able to measure the aerial images CD and bossung curve through focus window. However, it is difficult to detect the wafer weak point in advance without defining selection criteria. In this study, wafer weak points sensitive to mask mean-to-nominal values are characterized for a process with very high MEEF (normally more than 4). Aerial image CD uses fixed threshold to detect the wafer weak points. By using WLCD through threshold and focus window, the efficiency of wafer weak point detection is also demonstrated. A novel method using contrast range evaluation is shown in the paper. Use of the slope of aerial images for more accurate detection of the wafer weak points using WLCD is also discussed. The contrast range can also be used to detect the wafer weak points in advance. Further, since the mean to nominal of the reticle contributes to the effective contrast range in a high MEEF area this work shows that control of the mask error is critical for high MEEF layers such as poly, active and metal layers. Wafer process based weak points that cannot be detected by wafer lithography CD or WLCD will be discussed.

  6. Aerospace toxicology overview: aerial application and cabin air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaturvedi, Arvind K

    2011-01-01

    Aerospace toxicology is a rather recent development and is closely related to aerospace medicine. Aerospace toxicology can be defined as a field of study designed to address the adverse effects of medications, chemicals, and contaminants on humans who fly within or outside the atmosphere in aviation or on space flights. The environment extending above and beyond the surface of the Earth is referred to as aerospace. The term aviation is frequently used interchangeably with aerospace. The focus of the literature review performed to prepare this paper was on aerospace toxicology-related subject matters, aerial application and aircraft cabin air quality. Among the important topics addressed are the following: · Aerial applications of agricultural chemicals, pesticidal toxicity, and exposures to aerially applied mixtures of chemicals and their associated formulating solvents/surfactants The safety of aerially encountered chemicals and the bioanalytical methods used to monitor exposures to some of them · The presence of fumes and smoke, as well as other contaminants that may generally be present in aircraft/space vehicle cabin air · And importantly, the toxic effects of aerially encountered contaminants, with emphasis on the degradation products of oils, fluids, and lubricants used in aircraft, and finally · Analytical methods used for monitoring human exposure to CO and HCN are addressed in the review, as are the signs and symptoms associated with exposures to these combustion gases. Although many agricultural chemical monitoring studies have been published, few have dealt with the occurrence of such chemicals in aircraft cabin air. However, agricultural chemicals do appear in cabin air; indeed, attempts have been made to establish maximum allowable concentrations for several of the more potentially toxic ones that are found in aircraft cabin air. In this article, I emphasize the need for precautionary measures to be taken to minimize exposures to aerially

  7. Dispersion in Alluvial River

    OpenAIRE

    Ferdousi, Amena

    2014-01-01

    River pollution is the contamination of river water by pollutant being discharged directly or indirectly on it. Depending on the degree of pollutant concentration, subsequent negative environmental effects such as oxygen depletion and severe reductions in water quality may occur which affect the whole environment. River pollution can then cause a serious threat for fresh water and as well as the entire living creatures. Dispersion in natural stream is the ability of a stream to dilute soluble...

  8. SOLID DISPERSIONS: A REVIEW

    OpenAIRE

    D. Praveen Kumar; Arora Vandana

    2012-01-01

    The solubility behaviour of drugs remains one of the most challenging aspects in formulation development. Currently only 8% of the new drug molecules have high solubility and permeability. The solubility behaviour of a drug is key determinant to its oral bioavailability and it is the rate limiting step to absorption of drugs from the gastrointestinal tract. This results in important products not reaching the market or not achieving their full potential. Solid dispersions have attracted consid...

  9. Disabling Radiological Dispersal Terror

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hart, M

    2002-11-08

    Terror resulting from the use of a radiological dispersal device (RDD) relies upon an individual's lack of knowledge and understanding regarding its significance. Disabling this terror will depend upon realistic reviews of the current conservative radiation protection regulatory standards. It will also depend upon individuals being able to make their own informed decisions merging perceived risks with reality. Preparation in these areas will reduce the effectiveness of the RDD and may even reduce the possibility of its use.

  10. A Review of the Characteristics of Modern Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hristov Georgi Valentinov

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this article is to present the modern unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs and the possibilities for real-time remote monitoring of flight parameters and payload data. In the introduction section of the paper we briefly present the characteristics of the UAVs and which are their major application areas. Later, the main parameters and the various data types for remote control and monitoring of the unmanned aerial vehicles are presented and discussed. The paper continues with the methods and the technologies for transmission of these parameters and then presents a general hardware model for data transmission and a software model of a communication system suitable for UAVs.

  11. Towards aerial natural gas leak detection system based on TDLAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shuyang; Zhou, Tao; Jia, Xiaodong

    2014-11-01

    Pipeline leakage is a complex scenario for sensing system due to the traditional high cost, low efficient and labor intensive detection scheme. TDLAS has been widely accepted as industrial trace gas detection method and, thanks to its high accuracy and reasonable size, it has the potential to meet pipeline gas leakage detection requirements if it combines with the aerial platform. Based on literature study, this paper discussed the possibility of applying aerial TDLAS principle in pipeline gas leak detection and the key technical foundation of implementing it. Such system is able to result in a high efficiency and accuracy measurement which will provide sufficient data in time for the pipeline leakage detection.

  12. The Role of Unmanned Aerial Systems-Sensors in Air Quality Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    The use of unmanned aerial systems (UASs) and miniaturized sensors for a variety of scientific and security purposes has rapidly increased. UASs include aerostats (tethered balloons) and remotely controlled, unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) including lighter-than-air vessels, fix...

  13. Aerial Photo Mosaics = Photo Indexes and Map-Line Plots: Pre 1990

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — USGS and Non USGS Agencies Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics inventory contains indexes to aerial photographs. The inventory contains imagery from various government...

  14. Mississippi National River and Recreation Area, 2012 True Color Aerial Mosaic

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Digital aerial imagery provides baseline data for mapping vegetation types and other land cover features. Vertical photographs (photographs taken with the aerial...

  15. 1935 15' Quad #193 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index - 2 of 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  16. 1935 15' Quad #103 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index - 1 of 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  17. 1935 15' Quad #193 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index - 1 of 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  18. 1935 15' Quad #103 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index - 2 of 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  19. NAPP = National Aerial Photography Program 1:40,000 Scale: 1987 - 2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The National Aerial Photography Program (NAPP) was coordinated by the USGS as an interagency project to acquire cloud-free aerial photographs at an altitude of...

  20. 1935 15' Quad #169 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index - 1 of 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  1. Aerial Photomosaic August for Effigy Mounds National Monument Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Color infrared (CIR) aerial photographs were acquired to compliment another set of aerial photos used to produce vegetation spatial database coverages of Effigy...

  2. TRANSDERMAL DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM: REVIEW

    OpenAIRE

    Vishvakarama Prabhakar; Agarwal Shivendra; Sharma Ritika; Saurabh Sharma

    2012-01-01

    Various new technologies have been developed for the transdermal delivery of some important drugs. Today about 74% of drugs are taken orally and are found not to be as effective as desired. To improve such characters transdermal drug delivery system was emerged. Drug delivery through the skin to achieve a systemic effect of a drug is commonly known as transdermal drug delivery and differs from traditional topical drug delivery. Transdermal drug delivery systems (TDDS) are dosage forms involve...

  3. Ultra-dispersive adaptive prism

    OpenAIRE

    Sautenkov, Vladimir A.; Li, Hebin; Rostovtsev, Yuri V.; Scully, Marlan O.

    2007-01-01

    We have experimentally demonstrated an ultra-dispersive optical prism made from coherently driven Rb atomic vapor. The prism possesses spectral angular dispersion that is six orders of magnitude higher than that of a prism made of optical glass; it is the highest spectral angular dispersion that has ever been shown (such angular dispersion allows one to spatially resolve light beams with different frequencies separated by a few kHz). The prism operates near the resonant frequency of atomic va...

  4. Development of a Fixed Wing Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV for Disaster Area Monitoring and Mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gesang Nugroho

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The development of remote sensing technology offers the ability to perform real-time delivery of aerial video and images. A precise disaster map allows a disaster management to be done quickly and accurately. This paper discusses how a fixed wing UAV can perform aerial monitoring and mapping of disaster area to produce a disaster map. This research was conducted using a flying wing, autopilot, digital camera, and data processing software. The research starts with determining the airframe and the avionic system then determine waypoints. The UAV flies according to the given waypoints while taking video and photo. The video is transmitted to the Ground Control Station (GCS so that an operator in the ground can monitor the area condition in real time. After obtaining data, then it is processed to obtain a disaster map. The results of this research are: a fixed wing UAV that can monitor disaster area and send real-time video and photos, a GCS equipped with image processing software, and a mosaic map. This UAV used a flying wing that has 3 kg empty weight, 2.2 m wingspan, and can fly for 12-15 minutes. This UAV was also used for a mission at Parangtritis coast in the southern part of Yogyakarta with flight altitude of 150 m, average speed of 15 m/s, and length of way point of around 5 km in around 6 minutes. A mosaic map with area of around 300 m x 1500 m was also obtained. Interpretation of the mosaic led to some conclusions including: lack of evacuation routes, residential area which faces high risk of tsunami, and lack of green zone around the shore line.

  5. A wireless actuating drug delivery system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Won-Jun; Baek, Seung-Ki; Park, Jung-Hwan

    2015-04-01

    A wireless actuating drug delivery system was devised. The system is based on induction heating for drug delivery. In this study, thermally generated nitrogen gas produced by induction heating of azobisisobutyronitrile (AIBN) was utilized for pressure-driven release of the drug. The delivery device consists of an actuator chamber, a drug reservoir, and a microchannel. A semicircular copper disc (5 and 6 mm in diameter and 100 µm thick), and thermal conductive tape were integrated as the heating element in the actuator chamber. The final device was 2.7 mm thick. 28 µl of drug solution were placed in the reservoir and the device released the drug quickly at the rate of 6 µl s-1 by induction heating at 160 µT of magnetic intensity. The entire drug solution was released and dispersed after subcutaneous implantation under identical experimental condition. This study demonstrates that the device was simply prepared and drug delivery could be achieved by wireless actuation of a thin, pressure-driven actuator.

  6. A wireless actuating drug delivery system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A wireless actuating drug delivery system was devised. The system is based on induction heating for drug delivery. In this study, thermally generated nitrogen gas produced by induction heating of azobisisobutyronitrile (AIBN) was utilized for pressure-driven release of the drug. The delivery device consists of an actuator chamber, a drug reservoir, and a microchannel. A semicircular copper disc (5 and 6 mm in diameter and 100 µm thick), and thermal conductive tape were integrated as the heating element in the actuator chamber. The final device was 2.7 mm thick. 28 µl of drug solution were placed in the reservoir and the device released the drug quickly at the rate of 6 µl s−1 by induction heating at 160 µT of magnetic intensity. The entire drug solution was released and dispersed after subcutaneous implantation under identical experimental condition. This study demonstrates that the device was simply prepared and drug delivery could be achieved by wireless actuation of a thin, pressure-driven actuator. (paper)

  7. Combining Human Computing and Machine Learning to Make Sense of Big (Aerial) Data for Disaster Response

    OpenAIRE

    Ofli, Ferda; Meier, Patrick; Imran, Muhammad; Castillo, Carlos; Tuia, Devis; Rey, Nicolas; Briant, Julien; Millet, Pauline; Reinhard, Friedrich; Parkan, Matthew Josef; Joost, Stéphane

    2016-01-01

    Aerial imagery captured via unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) is playing an increasingly important role in disaster response. Unlike satellite imagery, aerial imagery can be captured and processed within hours rather than days. In addition, the spatial resolution of aerial imagery is an order of magnitude higher than the imagery produced by the most sophisticated commercial satellites today. Both the United States Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) and the European Commission’s Joint...

  8. Solid self-microemulsifying dispersible tablets of celastrol: formulation development, charaterization and bioavailability evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Xiaole; Qin, Jiayi; Ma, Ning; Chou, Xiaohua; Wu, Zhenghong

    2014-09-10

    The aims of this study were to choose a suitable adsorbent of self-microemulsion and to develop a fine solid self-microemulsifying dispersible tablets for promoting the dissolution and oral bioavailability of celastrol. Solubility test, self-emulsifying grading test, droplet size analysis and ternary phase diagrams test were performed to screen and optimize the composition of liquid celastrol self-microemulsifying drug delivery system (SMEDDS). Then microcrystalline cellulose KG 802 was added as a suitable adsorbent into the optimized liquid celastrol-SMEDDS formulation to prepare the dispersible tablets by wet granulation compression method. The optimized formulation of celastrol-SMEDDS dispersible tablets was finally determinated by the feasibility of the preparing process and redispersibility. The in vitro study showed that the dispersible tablets could disperse in the dispersion medium within 3 min with the average particle size of 25.32 ± 3.26 nm. In vivo pharmacokinetic experiments of rats, the relative bioavailability of celastrol SMEDDS and SMEDDS dispersible tablets compared to the 0.4% CMC-Na suspension was 569 ± 7.07% and 558 ± 6.77%, respectively, while there were no significant difference between the SMEDDS and SMEDDS dispersible tablets. The results suggest the potential use of SMEDDS dispersible tablets for the oral delivery of poorly water-soluble terpenes drugs, such as celastrol. PMID:24929011

  9. Global Delivery Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manning, Stephan; Møller Larsen, Marcus; Bharati, Pratyush

    We investigate antecedents and contingencies of location configurations supporting global delivery models (GDMs) in global outsourcing. GDMs are a new form of IT-enabled client-specific investment promoting services provision integration with clients by exploiting client proximity and time......-zone spread allowing for 24/7 service delivery and access to resources. Based on comprehensive data we show that providers are likely to establish GDM configurations when clients value access to globally distributed talent pools and speed of service delivery, and in particular when services are highly...

  10. Global Delivery Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manning, Stephan; Larsen, Marcus M.; Bharati, Pratyush

    2013-01-01

    This article examines antecedents and performance implications of global delivery models (GDMs) in global business services. GDMs require geographically distributed operations to exploit both proximity to clients and time-zone spread for efficient service delivery. We propose and empirically show...... that service providers who differentiate based on speed of service delivery are likely to set up GDM structures, and that these structures positively affect deal renewal rates if speed is important for clients in selecting vendors. Findings imply that, as co-location becomes less necessary for providing...... digitalized services, time zones increasingly affect....

  11. Validity condition of separating dispersion of PCFs into material dispersion and geometrical dispersion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Wang; Lantian Hou; Zhaolun Liu; Guiyao Zhou

    2009-01-01

    When using normalized dispersion method for the dispersion design of photonic crystal fibers(PCFs),it is vital that the group velocity dispersion of PCF can be seen as the sum of geometrical dispersion and material dispersion.However,the error induced by this way of calculation will deteriorate the final results.Taking 5 ps/(km·nm)and 5% as absolute error and relative error limits,respectively,the structure parameter boundaries of PCFs about when separating total dispersion into geometrical and material components is valid are provided for wavelength shorter than 1700 nm.By using these two criteria together,it is adequate to evaluate the simulatcd dispersion of PCFs when normalized dispersion method is employed.

  12. Assessing crop injury caused by aerially applied glyphosate drift using spray sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crop injury caused by off-target drift of aerially applied glyphosate is of great concern to farmers and aerial applicators. An experiment was conducted in 2009 to determine the extent of injury due to near-field glyphosate drift from aerial application to glyphosate-sensitive cotton, corn and soybe...

  13. Ground-based spectral reflectance measurements for efficacy evaluation of aerially applied glyphosate treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aerial application of herbicides is a common tool in agricultural field management. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of glyphosate herbicide applied aerially with both conventional and emerging aerial nozzle technologies. A Texas A&M University Plantation weed field was set u...

  14. Off-the-Wall Project Brings Aerial Mapping down to Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidhazy, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    The technology of aerial photography, photogrametry, has widespread applications in mapping and aerial surveying. A multi-billion-dollar industry, aerial surveying and mapping is "big business" in both civilian and military sectors. While the industry has grown increasingly automated, employment opportunities still exist for people with a basic…

  15. A new chalcone from the aerial roots of Ficus microcarpa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hui Xu; Xiang Min Wang; Xing Wei; Jing Yuan Li; Ke Liu

    2009-01-01

    A new flavonoid with chalcone skeleton was isolated from the dried aerial roots of Ficus microcarpa.The structure of the compound was elucidated on the basis of spectral methods including ID and 2D NMR.The new compound showed weak inhibitory effect on nitric oxide production and cytotoxicity against K562 and PC3 ceils.

  16. Surfzone monitoring using rotary wing unmanned aerial vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, R.L.; De Schipper, M.A.; Rynne, P.F.; Graham, F.J.; Reniers, A.J.H.M.; Macmahan, J.H.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the potential of rotary wing unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) to monitor the surfzone. This paper shows that these UAVs are extremely flexible surveying platforms that can gather nearcontinuous moderate spatial resolution and high temporal resolution imagery from a fixed posit

  17. Biological response of soybean and cotton to aerial glyphosate drift

    Science.gov (United States)

    An aerial application drift study was conducted in 2009 to determine biological effects of glyphosate on cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) and soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.]. Glyphosate at 866 g ae/ha was applied using an Air Tractor 402B agricultural aircraft in an 18.3 m spray swath to crops at the...

  18. Aerial Images of Alaska's Arctic Coastal Plain; 1948, 1949

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset is comprised of 36 black and white 9x9 inch aerial images of four different study areas on Alaska's Arctic Coastal Plain taken between 1948-1949 and...

  19. Expansion of the USDA ARS Aerial Application spray atomization models

    Science.gov (United States)

    An effort is underway to update the USDA ARS aerial spray nozzle models using new droplet sizing instrumen-tation and measurement techniques. As part of this effort, the applicable maximum airspeed is being increased from 72 to 80 m/s to provide guidance to applicators when using new high speed air...

  20. A Spreadsheet-based GIS tool for planning aerial photography

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S.EPA's Pacific Coastal Ecology Branch has developed a tool which facilitates planning aerial photography missions. This tool is an Excel spreadsheet which accepts various input parameters such as desired photo-scale and boundary coordinates of the study area and compiles ...

  1. Volatile Constituents of the Aerial Parts of Salvia apiana Jepson

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volatile constituents of the aerial parts of fresh white sage (Salvia apiana) were isolated by extraction with diethyl ether followed by high vacuum distillation with a solvent assisted flavor evaporation (SAFE) apparatus. The isolated volatiles were analyzed by GC and GC/MS. A total of 84 constit...

  2. U. S. Department of Energy Aerial Measuring Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Aerial Measuring Systems (AMS) is an aerial surveillance system. This system consists of remote sensing equipment to include radiation detectors; multispectral, thermal, radar, and laser scanners; precision cameras; and electronic imaging and still video systems. This equipment, in varying combinations, is mounted in an airplane or helicopter and flown at different heights in specific patterns to gather various types of data. This system is a key element in the US Department of Energy's (DOE) national emergency response assets. The mission of the AMS program is twofold--first, to respond to emergencies involving radioactive materials by conducting aerial surveys to rapidly track and map the contamination that may exist over a large ground area and second, to conduct routinely scheduled, aerial surveys for environmental monitoring and compliance purposes through the use of credible science and technology. The AMS program evolved from an early program, begun by a predecessor to the DOE--the Atomic Energy Commission--to map the radiation that may have existed within and around the terrestrial environments of DOE facilities, which produced, used, or stored radioactive materials

  3. Data Collection using Miniature Aerial Vehicles in Wireless Sensor Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathur, Prateek; Nielsen, Rasmus Hjorth; Prasad, Neeli R.;

    2016-01-01

    of mobile nodes capable of relocating within the network has been widely explored for energy saving. In this paper, we propose a novel method for using miniature aerial vehicles (MAVs) for data collection instead of actively sensing from a deployed network. The proposed mechanism is referred as Data...

  4. Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Use for Wood Chips Pile Volume Estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokroš, M.; Tabačák, M.; Lieskovský, M.; Fabrika, M.

    2016-06-01

    The rapid development of unmanned aerial vehicles is a challenge for applied research. Many technologies are developed and then researcher are looking up for their application in different sectors. Therefore, we decided to verify the use of the unmanned aerial vehicle for wood chips pile monitoring. We compared the use of GNSS device and unmanned aerial vehicle for volume estimation of four wood chips piles. We used DJI Phantom 3 Professional with the built-in camera and GNSS device (geoexplorer 6000). We used Agisoft photoscan for processing photos and ArcGIS for processing points. Volumes calculated from pictures were not statistically significantly different from amounts calculated from GNSS data and high correlation between them was found (p = 0.9993). We conclude that the use of unmanned aerial vehicle instead of the GNSS device does not lead to significantly different results. Tthe data collection consumed from almost 12 to 20 times less time with the use of UAV. Additionally, UAV provides documentation trough orthomosaic.

  5. Strengthening Security during Sporting Events by Unmannde Aerial Vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evers, L.

    2012-01-01

    This paper shows how Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) can improve security in major sporting events. Given the increase in violence among sports fans it is important to timely monitor possible conflict locations. A UAV can patrol and remotely monitor the activity at these locations. Such a patrol tou

  6. UNMANNED AERIAL VEHICLE USE FOR WOOD CHIPS PILE VOLUME ESTIMATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mokroš

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The rapid development of unmanned aerial vehicles is a challenge for applied research. Many technologies are developed and then researcher are looking up for their application in different sectors. Therefore, we decided to verify the use of the unmanned aerial vehicle for wood chips pile monitoring. We compared the use of GNSS device and unmanned aerial vehicle for volume estimation of four wood chips piles. We used DJI Phantom 3 Professional with the built-in camera and GNSS device (geoexplorer 6000. We used Agisoft photoscan for processing photos and ArcGIS for processing points. Volumes calculated from pictures were not statistically significantly different from amounts calculated from GNSS data and high correlation between them was found (p = 0.9993. We conclude that the use of unmanned aerial vehicle instead of the GNSS device does not lead to significantly different results. Tthe data collection consumed from almost 12 to 20 times less time with the use of UAV. Additionally, UAV provides documentation trough orthomosaic.

  7. Diagnosis of airspeed measurement faults for unmanned aerial vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Søren; Blanke, Mogens

    2014-01-01

    Airspeed sensor faults are common causes for incidents with unmanned aerial vehicles with pitot tube clogging or icing being the most common causes. Timely diagnosis of such faults or other artifacts in signals from airspeed sensing systems could potentially prevent crashes. This paper employs...

  8. Robot vision: obstacle-avoidance techniques for unmanned aerial vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carloni, Raffaella; Lippiello, Vincenzo; D'auria, Massimo; Fumagalli, Matteo; Mersha, Abeje Y.; Stramigioli, Stefano; Sicilano, Bruno

    2013-01-01

    In this article, a vision-based technique for obstacle avoidance and target identification is combined with haptic feedback to develop a new teleoperated navigation system for underactuated aerial vehicles in unknown environments. A three-dimensional (3-D) map of the surrounding environment is built

  9. Flexible vision-based navigation system for unmanned aerial vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasch, Erik P.

    1995-01-01

    A critical component of unmanned aerial vehicles in the navigation system which provides position and velocity feedback for autonomous control. The Georgia Tech Aerial Robotics navigational system (NavSys) consists of four DVTStinger70C Integrated Vision Units (IVUs) with CCD-based panning platforms, software, and a fiducial onboard the vehicle. The IVUs independently scan for the retro-reflective bar-code fiducial while the NavSys image processing software performs a gradient threshold followed by a image search localization of three vertical bar-code lines. Using the (x,y) image coordinate and CCD angle, the NavSys triangulates the fiducial's (x,y) position, differentiates for velocity, and relays the information to the helicopter controller, which independently determines the z direction with an onboard altimeter. System flexibility is demonstrated by recognition of different fiducial shapes, night and day time operation, and is being extended to on-board and off-board navigation of aerial and ground vehicles. The navigation design provides a real-time, inexpensive, and effective system for determining the (x,y) position of the aerial vehicle with updates generated every 51 ms (19.6 Hz) at an accuracy of approximately +/- 2.8 in.

  10. CMOS Imaging Sensor Technology for Aerial Mapping Cameras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Klaus; Welzenbach, Martin; Timm, Martin

    2016-06-01

    In June 2015 Leica Geosystems launched the first large format aerial mapping camera using CMOS sensor technology, the Leica DMC III. This paper describes the motivation to change from CCD sensor technology to CMOS for the development of this new aerial mapping camera. In 2002 the DMC first generation was developed by Z/I Imaging. It was the first large format digital frame sensor designed for mapping applications. In 2009 Z/I Imaging designed the DMC II which was the first digital aerial mapping camera using a single ultra large CCD sensor to avoid stitching of smaller CCDs. The DMC III is now the third generation of large format frame sensor developed by Z/I Imaging and Leica Geosystems for the DMC camera family. It is an evolution of the DMC II using the same system design with one large monolithic PAN sensor and four multi spectral camera heads for R,G, B and NIR. For the first time a 391 Megapixel large CMOS sensor had been used as PAN chromatic sensor, which is an industry record. Along with CMOS technology goes a range of technical benefits. The dynamic range of the CMOS sensor is approx. twice the range of a comparable CCD sensor and the signal to noise ratio is significantly better than with CCDs. Finally results from the first DMC III customer installations and test flights will be presented and compared with other CCD based aerial sensors.

  11. U. S. Department of Energy Aerial Measuring Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. J. Lease

    1998-10-01

    The Aerial Measuring Systems (AMS) is an aerial surveillance system. This system consists of remote sensing equipment to include radiation detectors; multispectral, thermal, radar, and laser scanners; precision cameras; and electronic imaging and still video systems. This equipment, in varying combinations, is mounted in an airplane or helicopter and flown at different heights in specific patterns to gather various types of data. This system is a key element in the US Department of Energy's (DOE) national emergency response assets. The mission of the AMS program is twofold--first, to respond to emergencies involving radioactive materials by conducting aerial surveys to rapidly track and map the contamination that may exist over a large ground area and second, to conduct routinely scheduled, aerial surveys for environmental monitoring and compliance purposes through the use of credible science and technology. The AMS program evolved from an early program, begun by a predecessor to the DOE--the Atomic Energy Commission--to map the radiation that may have existed within and around the terrestrial environments of DOE facilities, which produced, used, or stored radioactive materials.

  12. An aerial radiological survey of Maralinga and EMU, South Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An aerial radiological survey was conducted over the former British nuclear test ranges at Maralinga and Emu in South Australia from May through July 1987. The survey covered an area of approximately 1,550 square kilometers which included the nine major trial sites, where a nuclear yield occurred, and all the minor trial sites, where physics experiments were conducted. Flight lines were flown at an altitude of 30 meters with line spacings of 50, 100, and 200 meters depending on the area and whether man-made contamination was present. Results of the aerial survey were processed for americium-241 (used to determine plutonium contamination), cesium-137, cobalt-60, and uranium-238. The aerial survey also detected the presence of europium-152, a soil activation product, in the immediate vicinity of the major trial ground zeros. Ground measurements were also made at approximately 120 locations using a high-resolution germanium detector to provide supplemental data for the aerial survey. This survey was conducted as part of a series of studies being conducted over a two to three-year timeframe to obtain information from which options and associated costs can be formulated about the decontamination and possible rehabilitation of the former nuclear test sites

  13. An aerial radiological survey of Maralinga and EMU, South Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tipton, W J; Berry, H A; Fritzsche, A E

    1988-10-01

    An aerial radiological survey was conducted over the former British nuclear test ranges at Maralinga and Emu in South Australia from May through July 1987. The survey covered an area of approximately 1,550 square kilometers which included the nine major trial sites, where a nuclear yield occurred, and all the minor trial sites, where physics experiments were conducted. Flight lines were flown at an altitude of 30 meters with line spacings of 50, 100, and 200 meters depending on the area and whether man-made contamination was present. Results of the aerial survey were processed for americium-241 (used to determine plutonium contamination), cesium-137, cobalt-60, and uranium-238. The aerial survey also detected the presence of europium-152, a soil activation product, in the immediate vicinity of the major trial ground zeros. Ground measurements were also made at approximately 120 locations using a high-resolution germanium detector to provide supplemental data for the aerial survey. This survey was conducted as part of a series of studies being conducted over a two to three-year timeframe to obtain information from which options and associated costs can be formulated about the decontamination and possible rehabilitation of the former nuclear test sites.

  14. New clerodane diterpenoids from the aerial parts of Pulicaria wightiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Biswanath; Ramu, Ravirala; Venkateswarlu, Katta; Rao, Yerra Koteswara; Reddy, Majjigapu Ravinder; Ramakrishna, Kallaganti Venkata Siva; Harakishore, Kankipati; Murty, Upadhayula Suryanarayana

    2006-02-01

    Two new ent-clerodane-type diterpenoids, compounds 1 and 2, were isolated from the aerial parts of Pulicaria wightiana, together with three known constituents. Their structures were established based on spectroscopic data, and their antibacterial activities were evaluated (Table 2).

  15. AIRobots: Innovative aerial service robots for remote inspection by contact

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huerzeler, Christoph; Naldi, Roberto; Lippiello, Vincenzo; Carloni, Raffaella; Nikolic, Janosch; Alexis, Kostas; Marconi, Lorenzo; Siegwart, Ronald

    2013-01-01

    This video presents experiments conducted within the final review meeting demonstration session of the AIRobots project. AIRobots started at 2010 and the final review meeting took place on 22 of March, 2013. The presented experiments cover a wide area of the challenges related with aerial industrial

  16. Aerial Image of Alaska's Arctic Coastal Plain; 1955

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset is comprised of a single aerial image of a single area on Alaska's Arctic Coastal Plain taken on 21 June 1955 by the U.S. Air Force and obtained from...

  17. Structural proteins involved in emergence of microbial aerial hyphae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wosten, HAB; Willey, JM

    1999-01-01

    Filamentous fungi and filamentous bacteria (i.e., the streptomycetes) belong to different kingdoms that diverged early in evolution, Yet, they adopted similar lifestyles, After a submerged feeding mycelium has been established, hyphae grow into the air and form aerial structures from which (a)sexual

  18. High throughput phenotyping using an unmanned aerial vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field trials are expensive and labor-intensive to carry out. Strategies to maximize data collection from these trials will improve research efficiencies. We have purchased a small unmanned aerial vehicle (AEV) to collect digital images from field plots. The AEV is remote-controlled and can be guided...

  19. Augmenting camera images for operators of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veltman, J.A.; Oving, A.B.

    2003-01-01

    The manual control of the camera of an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) can be difficult due to several factors such as 1) time delays between steering input and changes of the monitor content, 2) low update rates of the camera images and 3) lack of situation awareness due to the remote position of the

  20. 3-Dimensional Building Details from Aerial Photography for Internet Maps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp Meixner

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces the automated characterization of real estate (real property for Internet mapping. It proposes a processing framework to achieve this task from vertical aerial photography and associated property information. A demonstration of the feasibility of an automated solution builds on test data from the Austrian City of Graz. Information is extracted from vertical aerial photography and various data products derived from that photography in the form of a true orthophoto, a dense digital surface model and digital terrain model, and a classification of land cover. Maps of cadastral property boundaries aid in defining real properties. Our goal is to develop a table for each property with descriptive numbers about the buildings, their dimensions, number of floors, number of windows, roof shapes, impervious surfaces, garages, sheds, vegetation, presence of a basement floor, and other descriptors of interest for each and every property of a city. From aerial sources, at a pixel size of 10 cm, we show that we have obtained positional accuracies in the range of a single pixel, an accuracy of areas in the 10% range, floor counts at an accuracy of 93% and window counts at 86% accuracy. We also introduce 3D point clouds of facades and their creation from vertical aerial photography, and how these point clouds can support the definition of complex facades.

  1. Publishing WWII aerial photographs in geographical and library information systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhelst, E.C.H.; Missel, L.; Vanmeulebrouk, B.; Rip, F.I.

    2012-01-01

    The Library of the Dutch Wageningen University and Research centre houses a collection of aerial photographs taken by the Allied Air Forces. The collection is part of a project that aims to publish these images in a user friendly way so that they are accessible to a wide audience. This paper describ

  2. Risk and safety analysis for Florida commercial aerial application operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, John Michael

    The purpose of this study was to determine self-reported perceptions in the areas of agroterrorism, bioterrorism, chemical exposure and Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) oversight. The aerial application industry has been in existence since the 1920's with a gamut of issues ranging from pesticide drift to counterterrorism. The attacks of September 11th, 2001, caused a paradigm shift in the way the United States views security and, more importantly, the prevention of malicious activity. Through the proper implementation and dissemination of educational materials dealing with industry specific concerns, it is imperative that everyone has the proper level of resources and training to effectively manage terrorist threats. This research study was designed to interpret how aerial applicators view these topics of concern and how they perceive the current threat level of terrorism in the industry. Research results were consistent, indicating that a high number of aerial applicators in the state of Florida are concerned with these topics. As a result, modifications need to be made with respect to certain variables. The aerial application industry works day in and day out to provide a professional service that helps maintain the integrity of the food and commodities that we need to survive. They are a small percentage of the aviation community that we all owe a great deal for the vital and necessary services they provide.

  3. Combining Constraint Types From Public Data in Aerial Image Segmentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Thomas Stig; Jensen, Jacob Jon; Jensen, Daniel Rune;

    2013-01-01

    We introduce a method for image segmentation that constraints the clustering with map and point data. The method is showcased by applying the spectral clustering algorithm on aerial images for building detection with constraints built from a height map and address point data. We automatically det...

  4. A Texture Thesaurus for Browsing Large Aerial Photographs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Wei-Ying; Manjunath, B. S.

    1998-01-01

    Presents a texture-based image-retrieval system for browsing large-scale aerial photographs. System components include texture-feature extraction, image segmentation and grouping, learning-similarity measure, and a texture-thesaurus model for fast search and indexing. Testing has demonstrated the system's effectiveness in searching and selecting…

  5. Challenges of Integrating Unmanned Aerial Vehicles In Civil Application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) has evolved rapidly over the past decade. There have been an increased number of studies aiming at improving UAV and in its use for different civil applications. This paper highlights the fundamentals of UAV system and examines the challenges related with the major components such as motors, drives, power systems, communication systems and image processing tools and equipment

  6. Developing a dispersant spraying capability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gill, S.D.

    1979-01-01

    In developing a national dispersant spraying capability, the Canadian Coast Guard (CCG) has undertaken a modification program to enable the conventional offshore spraying gear to be mounted on almost any vessel of convenience. Smaller, more versatile inshore spraying vessels and pumps have been designed and built. With the popularization of concentrated dispersants, the inshore pumping equipment can be used aboard hovercraft for special application situations. A program of acquiring mobile dispersant storage tanks has been undertaken with auxiliary equipment that will facilitate the shipment of dispersants in bulk by air freight. Work also has commenced on extending the dispersant application program to include the CCG fleet of helicopters.

  7. Project Delivery Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolan, Thomas G.

    2003-01-01

    Describes project delivery methods that are replacing the traditional Design/Bid/Build linear approach to the management, design, and construction of new facilities. These variations can enhance construction management and teamwork. (SLD)

  8. How Fast Should Polymer/Drug Nanocrystal Dispersions Be Frozen?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jonghwi; Park, Chul Ho

    2006-03-01

    Recent advances in nanoparticle technologies have significantly enhanced the oral and parenteral delivery of poorly water-soluble active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs). However, reports have been limited on the various drying procedures to convert a liquid nanocrystal dispersions into solid dosage forms. The solid dosage form should consist of nanocrystals that can readily reconstitute into their original size upon dissolution in water. Herein, the freeze drying process of nanocrystal dispersions was examined at varying freezing rates (speed of freezing interface). As freezing rate decreases, more particle-particle aggregation developed. A critical freezing rate, below which the dried nanocrystals cannot be re-dispersed, was identified based on the plot of the particle size of reconstituted nanocrystals versus freezing rate. Freeze drying at a freezing rate near the critical value produces dry powders of bimodal particle size distribution after re-dispersion. In addition, API concentration was found to significantly affect the critical freezing rate and therefore the re-dispersibility of dry powders. The concept of critical freezing rate is critical for the development of solid dosage forms of liquid nanocrystal dispersions. [1] J. Lee, Drug nano- and microparticles processed into solid dosage forms: physical properties, J. Pharm. Sci., 92(10) (2003) 2057-2068.

  9. Spurious dispersion effects at FLASH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prat, Eduard

    2009-07-15

    The performance of the Free-Electron Laser (FEL) process imposes stringent demands on the transverse trajectory and size of the electron beam. Since transverse dispersion changes off-energy particle trajectories and increases the effective beam size, dispersion must be controlled. This thesis treats the concept of dispersion in linacs, and analyses the impact of dispersion on the electron beam and on the FEL process. It presents generation mechanisms for spurious dispersion, quantifying its importance for FLASH (Free-electron Laser in Hamburg) and the XFEL (European X-ray Free-Electron Laser). A method for measuring and correcting dispersion and its implementation in FLASH is described. Experiments of dispersion e ects on the transverse beam quality and on the FEL performance are presented. (orig.)

  10. Spurious dispersion effects at FLASH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The performance of the Free-Electron Laser (FEL) process imposes stringent demands on the transverse trajectory and size of the electron beam. Since transverse dispersion changes off-energy particle trajectories and increases the effective beam size, dispersion must be controlled. This thesis treats the concept of dispersion in linacs, and analyses the impact of dispersion on the electron beam and on the FEL process. It presents generation mechanisms for spurious dispersion, quantifying its importance for FLASH (Free-electron Laser in Hamburg) and the XFEL (European X-ray Free-Electron Laser). A method for measuring and correcting dispersion and its implementation in FLASH is described. Experiments of dispersion e ects on the transverse beam quality and on the FEL performance are presented. (orig.)

  11. [Transdermal Delivery of NSAIDs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Takehisa; Makino, Kimiko

    2015-11-01

    Skin has been studied as administration site of drug for its systemic effects, since systemic therapeutic agents can be delivered for long time with a controlled ratio, escaping from the first pass effect by liver by the transdermal delivery, which can decrease the dosage form. The low permeability of drug molecules through stratum corneum has been the limiting factor for developing transdermal delivery system of therapeutic agents. To enhance the permeability of drug molecules, many studies have been reported. PMID:26689064

  12. Effects of chemical dispersants on oil physical properties and dispersion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khelifa, A.; Fingas, M.; Hollebone, B.P.; Brown, C.E. [Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). ; Pjontek, D. [Ottawa Univ., ON (Canada). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2007-07-01

    Laboratory and field testing have shown that the dispersion of oil spilled in water is influenced by chemical dispersants via the modification of the interfacial properties of the oil, such as oil-brine interfacial tension (IFT). This study focused on new laboratory experiments that measured the effects on the physical properties and dispersion of oil, with particular reference to the effects of chemical dispersants on IFT and oil viscosity and the subsequent effects on oil droplet formation. Experiments were conducted at 15 degrees C using Arabian Medium, Alaska North Slope and South Louisiana crude and Corexit 9500 and Corexit 9527 chemical dispersants. The dispersants were denser than the 3 oils. The effect of IFT reduction on oil dispersion was measured and showed substantial reduction in the size and enhancement of the concentration of oil droplets in the water column. It was shown that the brine-oil IFT associated with the 3 crudes reduced to less than 3.6 mN/m with the application of the chemical dispersants, even at a low dispersant-to-oil ratio (DOR) value of 1:200. The use of chemical dispersants increased the viscosity of the dispersant-oil mixture up to 40 per cent over the neat crude oil. It was shown that for each mixing condition, an optimum value of DOR exists that provides for maximal dispersant effectiveness. The IFT reaches maximum reduction at optimum DOR. It was suggested that oil spill modelling can be improved with further study of IFT reduction with DOR and variations of critical micelle concentration with the type and solubility of chemical dispersant, oil type and oil to water ratio. 13 refs., 3 tabs., 7 figs.

  13. An aerial radiological survey of the Nevada Test Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendricks, T J; Riedhauser, S R

    1999-12-01

    A team from the Remote Sensing Laboratory conducted an aerial radiological survey of the US Department of Energy's Nevada Test Site including three neighboring areas during August and September 1994. The survey team measured the terrestrial gamma radiation at the Nevada Test Site to determine the levels of natural and man-made radiation. This survey included the areas covered by previous surveys conducted from 1962 through 1993. The results of the aerial survey showed a terrestrial background exposure rate that varied from less than 6 microroentgens per hour (mR/h) to 50 mR/h plus a cosmic-ray contribution that varied from 4.5 mR/h at an elevation of 900 meters (3,000 feet) to 8.5 mR/h at 2,400 meters (8,000 feet). In addition to the principal gamma-emitting, naturally occurring isotopes (potassium-40, thallium-208, bismuth-214, and actinium-228), the man-made radioactive isotopes found in this survey were cobalt-60, cesium-137, europium-152, protactinium-234m an indicator of depleted uranium, and americium-241, which are due to human actions in the survey area. Individual, site-wide plots of gross terrestrial exposure rate, man-made exposure rate, and americium-241 activity (approximating the distribution of all transuranic material) are presented. In addition, expanded plots of individual areas exhibiting these man-made contaminations are given. A comparison is made between the data from this survey and previous aerial radiological surveys of the Nevada Test Site. Some previous ground-based measurements are discussed and related to the aerial data. In regions away from man-made activity, the exposure rates inferred from the gamma-ray measurements collected during this survey agreed very well with the exposure rates inferred from previous aerial surveys.

  14. Automated recognition of forest patterns using aerial photographs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbezat, Vincent; Kreiss, Philippe; Sulzmann, Armin; Jacot, Jacques

    1996-12-01

    In Switzerland, aerial photos are indispensable tools for research into ecosystems and their management. Every six years since 1950, the whole of Switzerland has been systematically surveyed by aerial photos. In the forestry field, these documents not only provide invaluable information but also give support to field activities such as the drawing up of tree population maps, intervention planning, precise positioning of the upper forest limit, evaluation of forest damage and rates of tree growth. Up to now, the analysis of aerial photos has been carried out by specialists who painstakingly examine every photograph, which makes it a very long, exacting and expensive job. The IMT-DMT of the EPFL and Antenne romande of FNP, aware of the special interest involved and the necessity of automated classification of aerial photos, have pooled their resources to develop a software program capable of differentiating between single trees, copses and dense forests. The developed algorithms detect the crowns of the trees and the surface of the orthogonal projection. Form the shadow of each tree they calculate its height. They also determine the position of the tree in the Swiss national coordinate thanks to the implementation of a numeric altitude model. For the future, we have the prospect of many new and better uses of aerial photos being available to us, particularly where isolated stands are concerned and also when evolutions based on a diachronic series of photos have to be assessed: from timberline monitoring in the research on global change to the exploitation of wooded pastures on small surface areas.

  15. An aerial radiological survey of the Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A team from the Remote Sensing Laboratory conducted an aerial radiological survey of the US Department of Energy's Nevada Test Site including three neighboring areas during August and September 1994. The survey team measured the terrestrial gamma radiation at the Nevada Test Site to determine the levels of natural and man-made radiation. This survey included the areas covered by previous surveys conducted from 1962 through 1993. The results of the aerial survey showed a terrestrial background exposure rate that varied from less than 6 microroentgens per hour (mR/h) to 50 mR/h plus a cosmic-ray contribution that varied from 4.5 mR/h at an elevation of 900 meters (3,000 feet) to 8.5 mR/h at 2,400 meters (8,000 feet). In addition to the principal gamma-emitting, naturally occurring isotopes (potassium-40, thallium-208, bismuth-214, and actinium-228), the man-made radioactive isotopes found in this survey were cobalt-60, cesium-137, europium-152, protactinium-234m an indicator of depleted uranium, and americium-241, which are due to human actions in the survey area. Individual, site-wide plots of gross terrestrial exposure rate, man-made exposure rate, and americium-241 activity (approximating the distribution of all transuranic material) are presented. In addition, expanded plots of individual areas exhibiting these man-made contaminations are given. A comparison is made between the data from this survey and previous aerial radiological surveys of the Nevada Test Site. Some previous ground-based measurements are discussed and related to the aerial data. In regions away from man-made activity, the exposure rates inferred from the gamma-ray measurements collected during this survey agreed very well with the exposure rates inferred from previous aerial surveys

  16. Dispersion and current measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A model for the simulation of particle movements in water should incorporate the mutual distance dependent correlation. As long as reliable data are given accessible a model can be created of the dispersion in a given area from a statistical description of turbulence. Current measurements have been performed in an area north of the Swedish nuclear power plant Barsebaeck, and statistical time series analysis have made it possible to estimate multivariate autoregressive moving-average (ARMA) models for these data using the Box-Jenkins method. The correlation structure for the area has been investigated in detail. Transport and dispersion models for the marine environment are used in estimating doses to the population from the aquatic food chain. Some of these models are described with special emphasis on the time and length scales they cover. Furthermore, to illustrate the background of the simulation model, short introductuions are given to health physics, time series analysis, and turbulence theory. Analysis of the simulation model shows the relative importance of the different parameters. The model can be expanded to conditional simulation, where the current measurements are used directly to simulate the movement of one of the particles. Results from the model are also compared to results from a sampling of bioindicators (Fucus vesiculosus) along the Danish coast. The reliability of bioindicators in this kind of experiment is discussed. (author)

  17. Quantum optical rotatory dispersion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tischler, Nora; Krenn, Mario; Fickler, Robert; Vidal, Xavier; Zeilinger, Anton; Molina-Terriza, Gabriel

    2016-01-01

    The phenomenon of molecular optical activity manifests itself as the rotation of the plane of linear polarization when light passes through chiral media. Measurements of optical activity and its wavelength dependence, that is, optical rotatory dispersion, can reveal information about intricate properties of molecules, such as the three-dimensional arrangement of atoms comprising a molecule. Given a limited probe power, quantum metrology offers the possibility of outperforming classical measurements. This has particular appeal when samples may be damaged by high power, which is a potential concern for chiroptical studies. We present the first experiment in which multiwavelength polarization-entangled photon pairs are used to measure the optical activity and optical rotatory dispersion exhibited by a solution of chiral molecules. Our work paves the way for quantum-enhanced measurements of chirality, with potential applications in chemistry, biology, materials science, and the pharmaceutical industry. The scheme that we use for probing wavelength dependence not only allows one to surpass the information extracted per photon in a classical measurement but also can be used for more general differential measurements. PMID:27713928

  18. SMED - Sulphur MEditerranean Dispersion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salerno, Giuseppe G.; Sellitto, Pasquale; Corradini, Stefano; Di Sarra, Alcide Giorgio; Merucci, Luca; Caltabiano, Tommaso; La Spina, Alessandro

    2016-04-01

    Emissions of volcanic gases and particles can have profound impacts on terrestrial environment, atmospheric composition, climate forcing, and then on human health at various temporal and spatial scales. Volcanic emissions have been identified as one of the largest sources of uncertainty in our understanding of recent climate change trends. In particular, a primary role is acted by sulphur dioxide emission due to its conversion to volcanic sulphate aerosol via atmospheric oxidation. Aerosols may play a key role in the radiative budget and then in photochemistry and tropospheric composition. Mt. Etna is one of the most prodigious and persistent emitters of gasses and particles on Earth, accounting for about 10% of global average volcanic emission of CO2 and SO2. Its sulphur emissions stand for 0.7 × 106 t S/yr9 and then about 10 times bigger than anthropogenic sulphur emissions in the Mediterranean area. Centrepiece of the SMED project is to advance the understanding of volcanogenic sulphur dioxide and sulphate aerosol particles dispersion and radiative impact on the downwind Mediterranean region by an integrated approach between ground- and space-based observations and modelling. Research is addressed by exploring the potential relationship between proximal SO2 flux and aerosol measured remotely in the volcanic plume of Mt. Etna between 2000 and 2014 and distal aerosol ground-based measurements in Lampedusa, Greece, and Malta from AERONET network. Ground data are combined with satellite multispectral polar and geostationary imagers able to detect and retrieve volcanic ash and SO2. The high repetition time of SEVIRI (15 minutes) will ensure the potential opportunity to follow the entire evolution of the volcanic cloud, while, the higher spatial resolution of MODIS (1x1 km2), are exploited for investigating the probability to retrieve volcanic SO2 abundances from passive degassing. Ground and space observations are complemented with atmospheric Lagrangian model

  19. Dispersive transport across interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkowitz, Brian; Adler, Pierre

    2015-04-01

    Experiments demonstrating asymmetrical dispersive transport of a conservative tracer across interfaces between different porous materials have recently been performed. Here, this phenomenon is studied numerically on the pore scale. The flow field is derived by solving the Stokes equation. The dispersive transport is simulated by a large number of particles undergoing random walks under the simultaneous action of convection and diffusion. Two main two-dimensional configurations are studied; each consists of two segments (called coarse and fine) with the same structure, porosity, and length along the main flow, but different characteristic solid/pore sizes. One structure consists of two channels containing cavities of different sizes, and the second of square "grains" of different sizes. At time t=0, a large number of particles is injected (as a pulse) around a given cross-section. The corresponding breakthrough curves (BTCs) are registered as functions of time at six different cross sections. Calculations are made twice; in the first case (CtoF), particles are injected in the coarse side and are transported towards the fine one; in the second one (FtoC), the opposite case is studied. These calculations are performed for various Péclet numbers (Pe). Comparison of the resulting BTCs shows features that are similar to experimental observations, but with qualitative and quantitative differences. The influences of the medium, of the injection and observation planes, and of Pe are detailed and discussed. A BTC for pulse injection can be characterized by its maximum M(t_M) and the time tM at which it occurs. The observed differences for channels bounded by cavities are very small. However for the granular structures, M(t_M) is always larger for FtoC than for CtoF ; tM depends on all the parameters, namely Pe, the size ratio between the large and small grains, the injection and the observation planes. The numerical results are systematically compared with solutions of one

  20. EXAFS in dispersive mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The new method of collecting EXAFS data in dispersive mode will be recalled. Polychromatic radiation is used so that data over the entire EXAFS spectrum can be recorded simultaneously. The improved efficiency in data collection opens up the possibility of kinetic studies in material science, chemistry and biophysics. The first data obtained with a self-scanned photodiode array manufactured by EGandG Reticon (RC 256 EC/17) working at room temperature show that XANES study at a few ms time-scale can be expected since only 1.3 ms were required to collect the XANES plot of elemental Ni, the D.C.I. storage ring running at a 1.72 GeV, 250 mA positron energy and current. (orig.)

  1. Amplified Dispersive Optical Tomography

    CERN Document Server

    Goda, Keisuke; Jalali, Bahram

    2008-01-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) has proven to be a powerful technique for studying tissue morphology in ophthalmology, cardiology, and endomicroscopy. Its performance is limited by the fundamental trade-off between the imaging sensitivity and acquisition speed -- a predicament common in virtually all imaging systems. In this paper, we circumvent this limit by using distributed Raman post-amplification of the reflection from the sample. We combine the amplification with simultaneously performed dispersive Fourier transformation, a process that maps the optical spectrum into an easily measured time-domain waveform. The Raman amplification enables measurement of weak signals which are otherwise buried in noise. It extends the depth range without sacrificing the acquisition speed or causing damage to the sample. As proof of concept, single-shot imaging with 15 dB improvement in sensitivity at an axial scan rate of 36.6 MHz is demonstrated.

  2. Polarization Mode Dispersion

    CERN Document Server

    Galtarossa, Andrea

    2005-01-01

    This book contains a series of tutorial essays on polarization mode dispersion (PMD) by the leading experts in the field. It starts with an introductory review of the basic concepts and continues with more advanced topics, including a thorough review of PMD mitigation techniques. Topics covered include mathematical representation of PMD, how to properly model PMD in numerical simulations, how to accurately measure PMD and other related polarization effects, and how to infer fiber properties from polarization measurements. It includes discussions of other polarization effects such as polarization-dependent loss and the interaction of PMD with fiber nonlinearity. It additionally covers systems issues like the impact of PMD on wavelength division multiplexed systems. This book is intended for research scientists or engineers who wish to become familiar with PMD and its system impacts.

  3. Nasal administration of ondansetron using a novel microspheres delivery system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahajan, Hitendra S; Gattani, Surendra G

    2009-01-01

    Gellan gum microspheres of ondansetron hydrochloride, for intranasal delivery, were prepared to avoid the first pass metabolism as an alternative therapy to parentral, and to improve therapeutic efficiency in treatment of nausea and vomiting. The microspheres were prepared using conventional spray-drying method. The microspheres were evaluated for characteristics like particle size, incorporation efficiency, swelling ability, zeta potential, in-vitro mucoadhesion, thermal analysis, XRD study and in-vitro drug release. Treatment of in-vitro data to different kinetic equations indicated diffusion controlled drug delivery from gellan gum microspheres. The results of DSC and XRD studies revealed molecular amorphous dispersion of ondansetron into the gellan gum microspheres. PMID:19519195

  4. Origin of conical dispersion relations

    OpenAIRE

    Hojman, Sergio A.

    2013-01-01

    A mechanism that produces conical dispersion relations is presented. A Kronig Penney one dimensional array with two different strengths delta function potentials gives rise to both the gap closure and the dispersion relation observed in graphene and other materials. The Schr\\''odinger eigenvalue problem is locally invariant under the infinite dimensional Virasoro algebra near conical dispersion points in reciprocal space, thus suggesting a possible relation to string theory.

  5. Acoustic Rectification in Dispersive Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantrell, John H.

    2008-01-01

    It is shown that the shapes of acoustic radiation-induced static strain and displacement pulses (rectified acoustic pulses) are defined locally by the energy density of the generating waveform. Dispersive properties are introduced analytically by assuming that the rectified pulses are functionally dependent on a phase factor that includes both dispersive and nonlinear terms. The dispersion causes an evolutionary change in the shape of the energy density profile that leads to the generation of solitons experimentally observed in fused silica.

  6. Statistical Thermodynamics of Disperse Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shapiro, Alexander

    1996-01-01

    Principles of statistical physics are applied for the description of thermodynamic equilibrium in disperse systems. The cells of disperse systems are shown to possess a number of non-standard thermodynamic parameters. A random distribution of these parameters in the system is determined....... On the basis of this distribution, it is established that the disperse system has an additional degree of freedom called the macro-entropy. A large set of bounded ideal disperse systems allows exact evaluation of thermodynamic characteristics. The theory developed is applied to the description of equilibrium...

  7. Development and Integration of a Solar Powered Unmanned Aerial Vehicle and a Wireless Sensor Network to Monitor Greenhouse Gases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Malaver

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Measuring gases for environmental monitoring is a demanding task that requires long periods of observation and large numbers of sensors. Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs and Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs currently represent the best alternative to monitor large, remote, and difficult access areas, as these technologies have the possibility of carrying specialized gas sensing systems. This paper presents the development and integration of a WSN and an UAV powered by solar energy in order to enhance their functionality and broader their applications. A gas sensing system implementing nanostructured metal oxide (MOX and non-dispersive infrared sensors was developed to measure concentrations of CH4 and CO2. Laboratory, bench and field testing results demonstrate the capability of UAV to capture, analyze and geo-locate a gas sample during flight operations. The field testing integrated ground sensor nodes and the UAV to measure CO2 concentration at ground and low aerial altitudes, simultaneously. Data collected during the mission was transmitted in real time to a central node for analysis and 3D mapping of the target gas. The results highlights the accomplishment of the first flight mission of a solar powered UAV equipped with a CO2 sensing system integrated with a WSN. The system provides an effective 3D monitoring and can be used in a wide range of environmental applications such as agriculture, bushfires, mining studies, zoology and botanical studies using a ubiquitous low cost technology.

  8. Development and integration of a solar powered unmanned aerial vehicle and a wireless sensor network to monitor greenhouse gases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malaver, Alexander; Motta, Nunzio; Corke, Peter; Gonzalez, Felipe

    2015-01-01

    Measuring gases for environmental monitoring is a demanding task that requires long periods of observation and large numbers of sensors. Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) and Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) currently represent the best alternative to monitor large, remote, and difficult access areas, as these technologies have the possibility of carrying specialized gas sensing systems. This paper presents the development and integration of a WSN and an UAV powered by solar energy in order to enhance their functionality and broader their applications. A gas sensing system implementing nanostructured metal oxide (MOX) and non-dispersive infrared sensors was developed to measure concentrations of CH4 and CO2. Laboratory, bench and field testing results demonstrate the capability of UAV to capture, analyze and geo-locate a gas sample during flight operations. The field testing integrated ground sensor nodes and the UAV to measure CO2 concentration at ground and low aerial altitudes, simultaneously. Data collected during the mission was transmitted in real time to a central node for analysis and 3D mapping of the target gas. The results highlights the accomplishment of the first flight mission of a solar powered UAV equipped with a CO2 sensing system integrated with a WSN. The system provides an effective 3D monitoring and can be used in a wide range of environmental applications such as agriculture, bushfires, mining studies, zoology and botanical studies using a ubiquitous low cost technology. PMID:25679312

  9. Optical transfer function measurment facility for aerial survey cameras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bewsher, A; Powell, I

    1994-10-01

    The optical transfer function measurement facility developed at the National Research Council of Canada primarily for testing aerial survey cameras has been upgraded to perform the task in an appreciably more convenient manner. Modifications made to the facility, which is based on the line spread function technique, include the replacement of the cumbersome physical scanning mechanism and detector unit with a detector assembly comprising a relay lens and a linear photodiode array. While eliminating the need for physically scanning the line spread function, it did require a change of light source, a daylight filter, and a new computer software package. The new setup is described in this paper. Several aerial survey cameras have been evaluated with the system, and results are given for a fairly standard Zeiss camera. PMID:20941194

  10. Evaluation of foam-skin cables for aerial applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuelson, G. R.

    Since the introduction of foam-skin filled cables, there has been considerable discussion within the Industry, both pro and con, regarding the acceptability of foam-skin filled cables for aerial application. This paper reports on results obtained from a study undertaken to evaluate the changes in transmission properties of such cables in a simulated aerial environment. Cable samples produced by six cable manufacturers using conventional, high-temperature drip-resistant filling compounds with a petrolatum base were subjected to temperature cycling from -40 F to 140 F. Transmission parameters were measured at 1, 150 and 772 kHz and compared to initial values. A solid polypropylene insulated filled cable was included for reference. The results show that foam-skin petrolatum based filled cables exhibit stable electrical characteristics when exposed to cycled temperature extremes.

  11. Pharmacognostic Standardization Parameters of Roylea elegans Wall (Aerial Parts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neeru

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the pharmacognostical study of Roylea elegans (aerial parts. The qualitative and quantitative microscopy, physicochemical evaluation, phytochemical screening and fluorescence analysis of the plant were done by the standard procedure recommended in the WHO guidelines. Macroscopic study shows that leaves were dark green with lemon like odor and bitter taste, 2-8 cm length and 1-8 cm wide, shape: ovate, hairy upper and lower surface, apex: acute and having reticulate veination, Stems: were light green Microscopic evaluation of the leaves powder shows the presence of trichomes (unicellular covering and glandular, upper epidermis, vessels, xylem fibres, wavy trichomes. The transverse section of the leaf shows the presence of epidermis layer followed by cuticle layer, lignified vascular bundles, trichomes, collenchyma, and palisade cells. Various pharmacognostical parameters help to evaluate the identification and standardization of Roylea elegans (aerial part.

  12. Texture mapping based on multiple aerial imageries in urban areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Guoqing; Ye, Siqi; Wang, Yuefeng; Han, Caiyun; Wang, Chenxi

    2015-12-01

    In the realistic 3D model reconstruction, the requirement of the texture is very high. Texture is one of the key factors that affecting realistic of the model and using texture mapping technology to realize. In this paper we present a practical approach of texture mapping based on photogrammetry theory from multiple aerial imageries in urban areas. By collinearity equation to matching the model and imageries, and in order to improving the quality of texture, we describe an automatic approach for select the optimal texture to realized 3D building from the aerial imageries of many strip. The texture of buildings can be automatically matching by the algorithm. The experimental results show that the platform of texture mapping process has a high degree of automation and improve the efficiency of the 3D modeling reconstruction.

  13. Fixed-Wing Micro Aerial Vehicle for Accurate Corridor Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehak, M.; Skaloud, J.

    2015-08-01

    In this study we present a Micro Aerial Vehicle (MAV) equipped with precise position and attitude sensors that together with a pre-calibrated camera enables accurate corridor mapping. The design of the platform is based on widely available model components to which we integrate an open-source autopilot, customized mass-market camera and navigation sensors. We adapt the concepts of system calibration from larger mapping platforms to MAV and evaluate them practically for their achievable accuracy. We present case studies for accurate mapping without ground control points: first for a block configuration, later for a narrow corridor. We evaluate the mapping accuracy with respect to checkpoints and digital terrain model. We show that while it is possible to achieve pixel (3-5 cm) mapping accuracy in both cases, precise aerial position control is sufficient for block configuration, the precise position and attitude control is required for corridor mapping.

  14. Bio-inspired computation in unmanned aerial vehicles

    CERN Document Server

    Duan, Haibin

    2014-01-01

    Bio-inspired Computation in Unmanned Aerial Vehicles focuses on the aspects of path planning, formation control, heterogeneous cooperative control and vision-based surveillance and navigation in Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) from the perspective of bio-inspired computation. It helps readers to gain a comprehensive understanding of control-related problems in UAVs, presenting the latest advances in bio-inspired computation. By combining bio-inspired computation and UAV control problems, key questions are explored in depth, and each piece is content-rich while remaining accessible. With abundant illustrations of simulation work, this book links theory, algorithms and implementation procedures, demonstrating the simulation results with graphics that are intuitive without sacrificing academic rigor. Further, it pays due attention to both the conceptual framework and the implementation procedures. The book offers a valuable resource for scientists, researchers and graduate students in the field of Control, Aeros...

  15. Orientation-selective building detection in aerial images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manno-Kovacs, Andrea; Sziranyi, Tamas

    2015-10-01

    This paper introduces a novel aerial building detection method based on region orientation as a new feature, which is used in various steps throughout the presented framework. As building objects are expected to be connected with each other on a regional level, exploiting the main orientation obtained from the local gradient analysis provides further information for detection purposes. The orientation information is applied for an improved edge map design, which is integrated with classical features like shadow and color. Moreover, an orthogonality check is introduced for finding building candidates, and their final shapes defined by the Chan-Vese active contour algorithm are refined based on the orientation information, resulting in smooth and accurate building outlines. The proposed framework is evaluated on multiple data sets, including aerial and high resolution optical satellite images, and compared to six state-of-the-art methods in both object and pixel level evaluation, proving the algorithm's efficiency.

  16. INFLUENCE OF CHROMATIC DISPERSION, DISPERSION SLOPE, DISPERSION CURVATURE ON MICROWAVE GENERATION USING TWO CASCADE MODULATORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandeep Singh

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a theoretical study of harmonic generation of microwave signals after detection of a modulated optical carrier in cascaded two electro-optic modulators. Dispersion is one of the major limiting factors for microwave generation in microwave photonics. In this paper, we analyze influence of chromatic dispersion, dispersion slope, dispersion curvature on microwave generation using two cascaded MZMs and it has been found that output intensity of photodetector reduces when dispersion term up to fifth order are added. We have used the two cascaded Mach-Zehnder Modulators for our proposed model and tried to show the dispersion effect with the help of modulation depth factor of MZM, which have been not discussed earlier.

  17. Design of a reconfigurable liquid hydrogen fuel tank for use in the Genii unmanned aerial vehicle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adam, Patrick; Leachman, Jacob [HYdrogen Properties for Energy Research (HYPER) Laboratory, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164-2920 (United States)

    2014-01-29

    Long endurance flight, on the order of days, is a leading flight performance characteristic for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs). Liquid hydrogen (LH2) is well suited to providing multi-day flight times with a specific energy 2.8 times that of conventional kerosene based fuels. However, no such system of LH2 storage, delivery, and use is currently available for commercial UAVs. In this paper, we develop a light weight LH2 dewar for integration and testing in the proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell powered, student designed and constructed, Genii UAV. The fuel tank design is general for scaling to suit various UAV platforms. A cylindrical vacuum-jacketed design with removable end caps was chosen to incorporate various fuel level gauging, pressurizing, and slosh mitigation systems. Heat and mechanical loadings were modeled to compare with experimental results. Mass performance of the fuel tank is characterized by the fraction of liquid hydrogen to full tank mass, and the insulation performance was characterized by effective thermal conductivity and boil-off rate.

  18. Design of a reconfigurable liquid hydrogen fuel tank for use in the Genii unmanned aerial vehicle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long endurance flight, on the order of days, is a leading flight performance characteristic for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs). Liquid hydrogen (LH2) is well suited to providing multi-day flight times with a specific energy 2.8 times that of conventional kerosene based fuels. However, no such system of LH2 storage, delivery, and use is currently available for commercial UAVs. In this paper, we develop a light weight LH2 dewar for integration and testing in the proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell powered, student designed and constructed, Genii UAV. The fuel tank design is general for scaling to suit various UAV platforms. A cylindrical vacuum-jacketed design with removable end caps was chosen to incorporate various fuel level gauging, pressurizing, and slosh mitigation systems. Heat and mechanical loadings were modeled to compare with experimental results. Mass performance of the fuel tank is characterized by the fraction of liquid hydrogen to full tank mass, and the insulation performance was characterized by effective thermal conductivity and boil-off rate

  19. Global Delivery Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manning, Stephan; Møller Larsen, Marcus; Bharati, Pratyush M.

    2015-01-01

    Global delivery models (GDMs) are transforming the global IT and business process outsourcing industry. GDMs are a new form of client-specific investment promoting service integration with clients by combining client proximity with time-zone spread for 24/7 service operations. We investigate...... antecedents and contingencies of setting up GDM structures. Based on comprehensive data we show that providers are likely to establish GDM location configurations when clients value access to globally distributed talent and speed of service delivery, in particular when services are highly commoditized...

  20. Vision-Based SLAM System for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigo Munguía; Sarquis Urzua; Yolanda Bolea; Antoni Grau

    2016-01-01

    The present paper describes a vision-based simultaneous localization and mapping system to be applied to Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs). The main contribution of this work is to propose a novel estimator relying on an Extended Kalman Filter. The estimator is designed in order to fuse the measurements obtained from: (i) an orientation sensor (AHRS); (ii) a position sensor (GPS); and (iii) a monocular camera. The estimated state consists of the full state of the vehicle: position and orientati...

  1. Use of Unmanned Aerial Systems in Civil Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Toma, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Interest in drones has been exponentially growing in the last ten years and these machines are often presented as the optimal solution in a huge number of civil applications (monitoring, agriculture, emergency management etc). However the promises still do not match the data coming from the consumer market, suggesting that the only big field in which the use of small unmanned aerial vehicles is actually profitable is the video-makers' one. This may be explained partly with the strong limits i...

  2. Inventory of small forest areas using an unmanned aerial system

    OpenAIRE

    Stefano Puliti; Hans Ole Ørka; Terje Gobakken; Erik Næsset

    2015-01-01

    Acquiring high spatial and temporal resolution imagery from small unmanned aerial systems (sUAS) provides new opportunities for inventorying forests at small scales. Only a few studies have investigated the use of UASs in forest inventories, and the results are inconsistent and incomplete. The present study used three-dimensional (3D) variables derived from UAS imagery in combination with ground reference data to fit linear models for Lorey’s mean height (hL), dominant height (hdom), stem num...

  3. Fuzzy-4D/RCS for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Olivares Mendez, Miguel Angel; Campoy, Pascual; Mondragon, Ivan F.; Martinez, Carol

    2010-01-01

    Abstract This paper presents an improvement of the cognitive architecture, 4D/RCS, developed by the NIST. This improvement consist of the insertion of Fuzzy Logic cells (FLCs), in different parts and hierarchy levels of the architecture, and the adaptation of this architecture for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs). This advance provides an improvement in the functionality of the system based on the uses of the Miguel Olivares’ Fuzzy Software for the definition of the FLCs and its...

  4. Aerial SLAM with a Single Camera using Visual Expectation

    OpenAIRE

    Milford, Michael J.; Schill, Felix Stephan; Corke, Peter; Mahony, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Micro aerial vehicles (MAVs) are a rapidly growing area of research and development in robotics. For autonomous robot operations, localization has typically been calculated using GPS, external camera arrays, or onboard range or vision sensing. In cluttered indoor or outdoor environments, onboard sensing is the only viable option. In this paper we present an appearance-based approach to visual SLAM on a flying MAV using only low quality vision. Our approach consists of a visual place recogniti...

  5. The Role of Vision Algorithms for Micro Aerial Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Loianno, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    This work investigates the research topics related to visual aerial navigation in loosely structured and cluttered environments. During the inspection of the desired infrastructure the robot is required to fly in an environment which is uncertain and only partially structured because, usually, no reliable layouts and drawings of the surroundings are available. To support these features, advanced cognitive capabilities are required, and in particular the role played by vision is of param...

  6. Vision Based Fuzzy Control Approaches for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Olivares Mendez, Miguel Angel; Campoy, Pascual

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposed the use of vision based Fuzzy control approaches for autonomous navigation tasks with Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs). It is shown the advantages of using RGB cameras as the sensor onboard UAVs and the advantages of using Fuzzy logic controllers. It is explained how to set a vision based system and how to define a Fuzzy controller for a general control approach. A specific software was design and used to develop and tune general Fuzzy control app...

  7. Mapping Urban Ecosystem Services Using High Resolution Aerial Photography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilant, A. N.; Neale, A.; Wilhelm, D.

    2010-12-01

    Ecosystem services (ES) are the many life-sustaining benefits we receive from nature: e.g., clean air and water, food and fiber, cultural-aesthetic-recreational benefits, pollination and flood control. The ES concept is emerging as a means of integrating complex environmental and economic information to support informed environmental decision making. The US EPA is developing a web-based National Atlas of Ecosystem Services, with a component for urban ecosystems. Currently, the only wall-to-wall, national scale land cover data suitable for this analysis is the National Land Cover Data (NLCD) at 30 m spatial resolution with 5 and 10 year updates. However, aerial photography is acquired at higher spatial resolution (0.5-3 m) and more frequently (1-5 years, typically) for most urban areas. Land cover was mapped in Raleigh, NC using freely available USDA National Agricultural Imagery Program (NAIP) with 1 m ground sample distance to test the suitability of aerial photography for urban ES analysis. Automated feature extraction techniques were used to extract five land cover classes, and an accuracy assessment was performed using standard techniques. Results will be presented that demonstrate applications to mapping ES in urban environments: greenways, corridors, fragmentation, habitat, impervious surfaces, dark and light pavement (urban heat island). Automated feature extraction results mapped over NAIP color aerial photograph. At this scale, we can look at land cover and related ecosystem services at the 2-10 m scale. Small features such as individual trees and sidewalks are visible and mappable. Classified aerial photo of Downtown Raleigh NC Red: impervious surface Dark Green: trees Light Green: grass Tan: soil

  8. The unmanned aerial vehicles in international trade and their regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Iveta Cerna

    2016-01-01

    Objective to review the current situation in production and distribution of unmanned aerial vehicles further ndash UAVs in developed countries as well as the legal regulation issues. Methods abstractlogic summarizing and observation comparative analysis. Results The analysis of international trade in UAVs revealed the leading countries dominating the market Israel the USA and Canada. The leading importers are India UK and France. China and Russian Federation are important ...

  9. Experimental evaluation of shark detection rates by aerial observers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, William D; Peddemors, Victor M; Kennelly, Steven J; Ives, Matthew C

    2014-01-01

    Aerial surveys are a recognised technique to identify the presence and abundance of marine animals. However, the capability of aerial observers to reliably sight coastal sharks has not been previously assessed, nor have differences in sighting rates between aircraft types been examined. In this study we investigated the ability of observers in fixed-wing and helicopter aircraft to sight 2.5 m artificial shark analogues placed at known depths and positions. Initial tests revealed that the shark analogues could only be detected at shallow depths, averaging only 2.5 m and 2.7 m below the water surface for observers in fixed-wing and helicopter aircraft, respectively. We then deployed analogues at shallower depths along a 5 km-long grid, and assessed their sightability to aircraft observers through a series of transects flown within 500 m. Analogues were seen infrequently from all distances, with overall sighting rates of only 12.5% and 17.1% for fixed-wing and helicopter observers, respectively. Although helicopter observers had consistently higher success rates of sighting analogues within 250 m of their flight path, neither aircraft observers sighted more than 9% of analogues deployed over 300 m from their flight paths. Modelling of sighting rates against environmental and experimental variables indicated that observations were affected by distance, aircraft type, sun glare and sea conditions, while the range of water turbidities observed had no effect. We conclude that aerial observers have limited ability to detect the presence of submerged animals such as sharks, particularly when the sharks are deeper than ∼ 2.6 m, or over 300 m distant from the aircraft's flight path, especially during sunny or windy days. The low rates of detections found in this study cast serious doubts on the use of aerial beach patrols as an effective early-warning system to prevent shark attacks.

  10. Experimental evaluation of shark detection rates by aerial observers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William D Robbins

    Full Text Available Aerial surveys are a recognised technique to identify the presence and abundance of marine animals. However, the capability of aerial observers to reliably sight coastal sharks has not been previously assessed, nor have differences in sighting rates between aircraft types been examined. In this study we investigated the ability of observers in fixed-wing and helicopter aircraft to sight 2.5 m artificial shark analogues placed at known depths and positions. Initial tests revealed that the shark analogues could only be detected at shallow depths, averaging only 2.5 m and 2.7 m below the water surface for observers in fixed-wing and helicopter aircraft, respectively. We then deployed analogues at shallower depths along a 5 km-long grid, and assessed their sightability to aircraft observers through a series of transects flown within 500 m. Analogues were seen infrequently from all distances, with overall sighting rates of only 12.5% and 17.1% for fixed-wing and helicopter observers, respectively. Although helicopter observers had consistently higher success rates of sighting analogues within 250 m of their flight path, neither aircraft observers sighted more than 9% of analogues deployed over 300 m from their flight paths. Modelling of sighting rates against environmental and experimental variables indicated that observations were affected by distance, aircraft type, sun glare and sea conditions, while the range of water turbidities observed had no effect. We conclude that aerial observers have limited ability to detect the presence of submerged animals such as sharks, particularly when the sharks are deeper than ∼ 2.6 m, or over 300 m distant from the aircraft's flight path, especially during sunny or windy days. The low rates of detections found in this study cast serious doubts on the use of aerial beach patrols as an effective early-warning system to prevent shark attacks.

  11. Chemical Constituents and Bioactivities of Clinacanthus nutans Aerial Parts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Fen Tu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Four new sulfur-containing compounds, named clinamides A-C (1–3, and 2-cis-entadamide A (4, were isolated together with three known compounds from the bioactive ethanol extract of the aerial parts of Clinacanthus nutans. These secondary metabolites possess sulfur atoms and acrylamide functionalities. The structures of the isolated components were established by interpretation of their spectroscopic data, especially 1D and 2D NMR.

  12. Chemical Constituents and Bioactivities of Clinacanthus nutans Aerial Parts

    OpenAIRE

    Shu-Fen Tu; Rosa Huang Liu; Yuan-Bin Cheng; Yu-Ming Hsu; Ying-Chi Du; Mohamed El-Shazly; Yang-Chang Wu; Fang-Rong Chang

    2014-01-01

    Four new sulfur-containing compounds, named clinamides A-C (1–3), and 2-cis-entadamide A (4), were isolated together with three known compounds from the bioactive ethanol extract of the aerial parts of Clinacanthus nutans. These secondary metabolites possess sulfur atoms and acrylamide functionalities. The structures of the isolated components were established by interpretation of their spectroscopic data, especially 1D and 2D NMR.

  13. Chemical constituents and bioactivities of Clinacanthus nutans aerial parts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Shu-Fen; Liu, Rosa Huang; Cheng, Yuan-Bin; Hsu, Yu-Ming; Du, Ying-Chi; El-Shazly, Mohamed; Wu, Yang-Chang; Chang, Fang-Rong

    2014-01-01

    Four new sulfur-containing compounds, named clinamides A-C (1-3), and 2-cis-entadamide A (4), were isolated together with three known compounds from the bioactive ethanol extract of the aerial parts of Clinacanthus nutans. These secondary metabolites possess sulfur atoms and acrylamide functionalities. The structures of the isolated components were established by interpretation of their spectroscopic data, especially 1D and 2D NMR. PMID:25490430

  14. Rancang Bangun Prototype Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) dengan Tiga Rotor

    OpenAIRE

    Darmawan Rasyid Hadi Saputra; Bambang Pramujati

    2013-01-01

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicle atau yang biasa dikenal dengan istilah UAV  merupakan sebuah sistem penerbangan/ pesawat tanpa pilot yang berada di dalam pesawat tersebut. UAV dapat dikendalikan dengan menggunakan remote dari jarak jauh, diprogram dengan perintah tertentu, atau bahkan dengan sistem pengendalian otomatis yang lebih kompleks. Aplikasi dari teknologi UAV pun beragam mulai dari tugas militer hingga pengamatan udara. Dalam penelitian ini, sebuah UAV akan dikembangkan dengan tiga buah roto...

  15. Computer simulation of an unmanned aerial vehicle electric propulsion system

    OpenAIRE

    Yourkowski, Joel.

    1996-01-01

    There has been a substantial increase in the use of electric propulsion systems in Unmannned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs). However, this area of engineering has lacked the benefits of a dynamic model that could be used to optimize the design. configurations and flight profiles. The Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) has accurate models for the aerodynamics associated with UAVs. Therefore the proposed electric propulsion model would use the torque and RPM requirements generated by the aerodynamic model...

  16. A hybrid double-observer sightability model for aerial surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Paul C.; Lubow, Bruce C.; Jenkins, Kurt J.; Vales, David J.; Moeller, Barbara J.; Reid, Mason; Happe, Patricia J.; Mccorquodale, Scott M.; Tirhi, Michelle J.; Schaberi, Jim P.; Beirne, Katherine

    2013-01-01

    Raw counts from aerial surveys make no correction for undetected animals and provide no estimate of precision with which to judge the utility of the counts. Sightability modeling and double-observer (DO) modeling are 2 commonly used approaches to account for detection bias and to estimate precision in aerial surveys. We developed a hybrid DO sightability model (model MH) that uses the strength of each approach to overcome the weakness in the other, for aerial surveys of elk (Cervus elaphus). The hybrid approach uses detection patterns of 2 independent observer pairs in a helicopter and telemetry-based detections of collared elk groups. Candidate MH models reflected hypotheses about effects of recorded covariates and unmodeled heterogeneity on the separate front-seat observer pair and back-seat observer pair detection probabilities. Group size and concealing vegetation cover strongly influenced detection probabilities. The pilot's previous experience participating in aerial surveys influenced detection by the front pair of observers if the elk group was on the pilot's side of the helicopter flight path. In 9 surveys in Mount Rainier National Park, the raw number of elk counted was approximately 80–93% of the abundance estimated by model MH. Uncorrected ratios of bulls per 100 cows generally were low compared to estimates adjusted for detection bias, but ratios of calves per 100 cows were comparable whether based on raw survey counts or adjusted estimates. The hybrid method was an improvement over commonly used alternatives, with improved precision compared to sightability modeling and reduced bias compared to DO modeling.

  17. COASTLINE EXTRACTION FROM AERIAL IMAGES BASED ON EDGE DETECTION

    OpenAIRE

    Paravolidakis, V.; Moirogiorgou, K.; Ragia, L.; Zervakis, M.; Synolakis, C.

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays coastline extraction and tracking of its changes become of high importance because of the climate change, global warming and rapid growth of human population. Coastal areas play a significant role for the economy of the entire region. In this paper we propose a new methodology for automatic extraction of the coastline using aerial images. A combination of a four step algorithm is used to extract the coastline in a robust and generalizable way. First, noise distortion is reduced in or...

  18. Aerial strip surveys of polar bears in the Barents Sea

    OpenAIRE

    Wiig, Øystein; Bakken, Vidar

    1990-01-01

    Aerial strip surveys of polar bears in the Barents Sea were performed by helicopter in winter 1987. The number of bears within 100 m on each side of the helicopter was counted. A total of 263.6 km2 was surveyed and 21 bears were counted. Most of the bears were found in the southern part of the area, which indicates that the southwestern ice edge area in the Barents Sea is a very important winter habitat for polar bears.

  19. [A new benzaldehyde from aerial part of Rehmannia glutinosa].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Yan; Zhang, Lei; Xu, Jie-kun; Cheng, Qian; Ye, Xian-sheng; Li, Ping; Zhang, Wei-ku; Li, Yong-ji

    2015-04-01

    A new benzaldehyde, 3-hydroxy-4-(4-(2-hydroxyethyl) phenoxy) henzaldehyde(1), together with six known compounds, including isovanillic acid(2), pyrocatechol(3), glutinosalactone A(4), chrysoeriol(5), apigenin(6) and luteolin(7) were isolated from aerial part of Rehmannia glutinosa. The compounds were isolated by macroporous resin, silica gel, Sephadex LH-20 and HPLC chromatographies. The chemical structures of 1-7 were elucidated on the basis of spectral analysis (MS, 1D NMR and 2D NMR).

  20. Drug-polymer filled micro-containers for oral delivery loaded using supercritical CO2 aided-impregnation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marizza, Paolo; Keller, Stephan Sylvest; Rades, T.;

    2013-01-01

    In this work we present an effective loading technique of micro-containers for oral drug delivery of a poorly water soluble drug in a solid dispersion with polymer. By combining inkjet printing and supercritical CO2 impregnation we load ketoprofen in a solid dispersion with poly...