WorldWideScience

Sample records for aerial application

  1. Effects of pesticides aerial applications on rice quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aerial application of pesticides has become an important research topic in recent years. This research investigated the effects of two types of commercial pesticides on the rice quality under low volume aerial application. It could provide guidance for the pesticide application and choose the right ...

  2. UNMANNED AERIAL VEHICLE IN CADASTRAL APPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Manyoky

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the investigation of UAVs (Unmanned Aerial Vehicles for use in cadastral surveying. Within the scope of a pilot study UAVs were tested for capturing geodata and compared with conventional data acquisition methods for cadastral surveying. Two study sites were therefore surveyed with a tachymeter-GNSS combination as well as a UAV system. The workflows of both methods were investigated and the resulting data were compared with the requirements of Swiss cadastral surveying. Concerning data acquisition and evaluation, the two systems are found to be comparable in terms of time expenditure, accuracy, and completeness. In conclusion, the UAV image orientation proved to be the limiting factor for the obtained accuracy due to the low- cost camera including camera calibration, image quality, and definition of the ground control points (natural or artificial. However, the required level of accuracy for cadastral surveying was reached. The advantage of UAV systems lies in their high flexibility and efficiency in capturing the surface of an area from a low flight altitude. In addition, further information such as orthoimages, elevation models and 3D objects can easily be gained from UAV images. Altogether, this project endorses the benefit of using UAVs in cadastral applications and the new opportunities they provide for cadastral surveying.

  3. Expansion of the USDA ARS Aerial Application spray atomization models

    Science.gov (United States)

    An effort is underway to update the USDA ARS aerial spray nozzle models using new droplet sizing instrumen-tation and measurement techniques. As part of this effort, the applicable maximum airspeed is being increased from 72 to 80 m/s to provide guidance to applicators when using new high speed air...

  4. Application of Adaptive Autopilot Designs for an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Yoonghyun; Calise, Anthony J.; Motter, Mark A.

    2005-01-01

    This paper summarizes the application of two adaptive approaches to autopilot design, and presents an evaluation and comparison of the two approaches in simulation for an unmanned aerial vehicle. One approach employs two-stage dynamic inversion and the other employs feedback dynamic inversions based on a command augmentation system. Both are augmented with neural network based adaptive elements. The approaches permit adaptation to both parametric uncertainty and unmodeled dynamics, and incorporate a method that permits adaptation during periods of control saturation. Simulation results for an FQM-117B radio controlled miniature aerial vehicle are presented to illustrate the performance of the neural network based adaptation.

  5. Challenges of Integrating Unmanned Aerial Vehicles In Civil Application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) has evolved rapidly over the past decade. There have been an increased number of studies aiming at improving UAV and in its use for different civil applications. This paper highlights the fundamentals of UAV system and examines the challenges related with the major components such as motors, drives, power systems, communication systems and image processing tools and equipment

  6. Risk and safety analysis for Florida commercial aerial application operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, John Michael

    The purpose of this study was to determine self-reported perceptions in the areas of agroterrorism, bioterrorism, chemical exposure and Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) oversight. The aerial application industry has been in existence since the 1920's with a gamut of issues ranging from pesticide drift to counterterrorism. The attacks of September 11th, 2001, caused a paradigm shift in the way the United States views security and, more importantly, the prevention of malicious activity. Through the proper implementation and dissemination of educational materials dealing with industry specific concerns, it is imperative that everyone has the proper level of resources and training to effectively manage terrorist threats. This research study was designed to interpret how aerial applicators view these topics of concern and how they perceive the current threat level of terrorism in the industry. Research results were consistent, indicating that a high number of aerial applicators in the state of Florida are concerned with these topics. As a result, modifications need to be made with respect to certain variables. The aerial application industry works day in and day out to provide a professional service that helps maintain the integrity of the food and commodities that we need to survive. They are a small percentage of the aviation community that we all owe a great deal for the vital and necessary services they provide.

  7. Aerospace toxicology overview: aerial application and cabin air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaturvedi, Arvind K

    2011-01-01

    Aerospace toxicology is a rather recent development and is closely related to aerospace medicine. Aerospace toxicology can be defined as a field of study designed to address the adverse effects of medications, chemicals, and contaminants on humans who fly within or outside the atmosphere in aviation or on space flights. The environment extending above and beyond the surface of the Earth is referred to as aerospace. The term aviation is frequently used interchangeably with aerospace. The focus of the literature review performed to prepare this paper was on aerospace toxicology-related subject matters, aerial application and aircraft cabin air quality. Among the important topics addressed are the following: · Aerial applications of agricultural chemicals, pesticidal toxicity, and exposures to aerially applied mixtures of chemicals and their associated formulating solvents/surfactants The safety of aerially encountered chemicals and the bioanalytical methods used to monitor exposures to some of them · The presence of fumes and smoke, as well as other contaminants that may generally be present in aircraft/space vehicle cabin air · And importantly, the toxic effects of aerially encountered contaminants, with emphasis on the degradation products of oils, fluids, and lubricants used in aircraft, and finally · Analytical methods used for monitoring human exposure to CO and HCN are addressed in the review, as are the signs and symptoms associated with exposures to these combustion gases. Although many agricultural chemical monitoring studies have been published, few have dealt with the occurrence of such chemicals in aircraft cabin air. However, agricultural chemicals do appear in cabin air; indeed, attempts have been made to establish maximum allowable concentrations for several of the more potentially toxic ones that are found in aircraft cabin air. In this article, I emphasize the need for precautionary measures to be taken to minimize exposures to aerially

  8. 75 FR 52713 - Nationwide Aerial Application of Fire Retardant on National Forest System Lands

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-27

    ... Forest Service Nationwide Aerial Application of Fire Retardant on National Forest System Lands AGENCY... aerial application of fire retardant on National Forest System lands. The responsible official for this... Action The Forest Service proposes to continue the aerial application of fire retardant to fight fires...

  9. Use of Unmanned Aerial Systems in Civil Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Toma, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Interest in drones has been exponentially growing in the last ten years and these machines are often presented as the optimal solution in a huge number of civil applications (monitoring, agriculture, emergency management etc). However the promises still do not match the data coming from the consumer market, suggesting that the only big field in which the use of small unmanned aerial vehicles is actually profitable is the video-makers' one. This may be explained partly with the strong limits i...

  10. Aerial Photography and Imagery, Ortho-Corrected, Aerial Photography and Imagery, Ortho-Corrected -, Published in unknown, Not Applicable scale, FREAC.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Aerial Photography and Imagery, Ortho-Corrected dataset, published at Not Applicable scale as of unknown. It is described as 'Aerial Photography and Imagery,...

  11. Application of Artificial Intelligence Techniques in Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufrene, Warren R., Jr.

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes the development of an application of Artificial Intelligence (AI) for Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) control. The project was done as part of the requirements for a class in AI at NOVA Southeastearn University and a beginning project at NASA Wallops Flight Facility for a resilient, robust, and intelligent UAV flight control system. A method is outlined which allows a base level application for applying an Artificial Intelligence method, Fuzzy Logic, to aspects of Control Logic for UAV flight. One element of UAV flight, automated altitude hold, has been implemented and preliminary results displayed.

  12. Application of Artificial Intelligence Techniques in Uninhabitated Aerial Vehicle Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufrene, Warren R., Jr.

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes the development of an application of Artificial Intelligence (AI) for Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) control. The project was done as part of the requirements for a class in AI at NOVA southeastern University and a beginning project at NASA Wallops Flight Facility for a resilient, robust, and intelligent UAV flight control system. A method is outlined which allows a base level application for applying an Artificial Intelligence method, Fuzzy Logic, to aspects of Control Logic for UAV flight. One element of UAV flight, automated altitude hold, has been implemented and preliminary results displayed.

  13. Application of solid state lighting in aerial refueling operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangum, Scott; Singer, Jeffrey; Walker, Richard; Ferguson, Joseph; Kemp, Richard

    2005-09-01

    Operating at altitude and often in turbulent, low visibility conditions, in-flight refueling of aircraft is a challenging endeavor, even for seasoned aviators. The receiving aircraft must approach a large airborne tanker; take position within a "reception window" beneath and/or behind the tanker and, dependent upon the type of receiving aircraft, mate with an extended refueling boom or hose and drogue. Light is used to assist in the approach, alignment and refuel process of the aircraft. Robust solid state light emitting diodes (LEDs) are an appropriate choice for use in the challenging environments that these aircraft operate within. This paper examines how LEDs are incorporated into several unique lighting applications associated with such aerial refueling operations. We will discuss the design requirements, both environmental and photometric that defined the selection of different LED packages for use in state-of-the-art airborne refueling aircraft Formation Lights, Hose Drum/Drogue Unit lights and Pilot Director Lights.

  14. Application of Artificial Intelligence Techniques in Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Frank H. (Technical Monitor); Dufrene, Warren R., Jr.

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes the development of an application of Artificial Intelligence for Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) control. The project was done as part of the requirements for a class in Artificial Intelligence (AI) at Nova southeastern University and as an adjunct to a project at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center's Wallops Flight Facility for a resilient, robust, and intelligent UAV flight control system. A method is outlined which allows a base level application for applying an AI method, Fuzzy Logic, to aspects of Control Logic for UAV flight. One element of UAV flight, automated altitude hold, has been implemented and preliminary results displayed. A low cost approach was taken using freeware, gnu, software, and demo programs. The focus of this research has been to outline some of the AI techniques used for UAV flight control and discuss some of the tools used to apply AI techniques. The intent is to succeed with the implementation of applying AI techniques to actually control different aspects of the flight of an UAV.

  15. An Improved Fast SPIHT Image Compression Algorithm for Aerial Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Zhang

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an improved fast SPIHT algorithm has been presented. SPIHT and NLS (Not List SPIHT are efficient compression algorithms, but the algorithms application is limited by the shortcomings of the poor error resistance and slow compression speed in the aviation areas. In this paper, the error resilience and the compression speed are improved. The remote sensing images are decomposed by Le Gall5/3 wavelet, and wavelet coefficients are indexed, scanned and allocated by the means of family blocks. The bit-plane importance is predicted by bitwise OR, so the N bit-planes can be encoded at the same time. Compared with the SPIHT algorithm, this improved algorithm is easy implemented by hardware, and the compression speed is improved. The PSNR of reconstructed images encoded by fast SPIHT is higher than SPIHT and CCSDS from 0.3 to 0.9db, and the speed is 4-6 times faster than SPIHT encoding process. The algorithm meets the high speed and reliability requirements of aerial applications.

  16. Aerial Photography and Imagery, Ortho-Corrected, Published in 2010, Not Applicable scale, Ashland County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Aerial Photography and Imagery, Ortho-Corrected dataset, published at Not Applicable scale, was produced all or in part from Orthoimagery information as of...

  17. Spray Deposition and Drift Characteristics of a Low Drift Nozzle for Aerial Application at Different Application Altitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    A complex interaction of controllable and uncontrollable factors is involved in aerial application of crop production and protection materials. Although it is difficult to completely characterize spray deposition and drift, these important factors can be estimated with appropriate sampling protocol ...

  18. UAV using the open-source flight-control-system in the application of aerial survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ji-chen; Ru, Chen

    2015-12-01

    The aerial survey as one of the branches of the Space Information Technology system, has an important application in data acquisition of the earth's surface. In recent years, the trend of UVA (unmanned aerial vehicle) to replace traditional survey aircraft has become increasingly obvious with the progress of science and technology. At present, the price of the commercial UAV Flight Control System is higher, limiting the application of UVA. This paper mainly discusses the possibility that the open-source's flight-control-system take the place of the commercial one. Result is that the costs of UVA are reduced, and make the application more widely.

  19. Applicability of New Approaches of Sensor Orientation to Micro Aerial Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehak, M.; Skaloud, J.

    2016-06-01

    This study highlights the benefits of precise aerial position and attitude control in the context of mapping with Micro Aerial Vehicles (MAVs). Accurate mapping with MAVs is gaining importance in applications such as corridor mapping, road and pipeline inspections or mapping of large areas with homogeneous surface structure, e.g. forests or agricultural fields. There, accurate aerial control plays a major role in successful terrain reconstruction and artifact-free ortophoto generation. The presented experiments focus on new approaches of aerial control. We confirm practically that the relative aerial position and attitude control can improve accuracy in difficult mapping scenarios. Indeed, the relative orientation method represents an attractive alternative in the context of MAVs for two reasons. First, the procedure is somewhat simplified, e.g. the angular misalignment, so called boresight, between the camera and the inertial measurement unit (IMU) does not have to be determined and, second, the effect of possible systematic errors in satellite positioning (e.g. due to multipath and/or incorrect recovery of differential carrier-phase ambiguities) is mitigated. First, we present a typical mapping project over an agricultural field and second, we perform a corridor road mapping. We evaluate the proposed methods in scenarios with and without automated image observations. We investigate a recently proposed concept where adjustment is performed using image observations limited to ground control and check points, so called fast aerial triangulation (Fast AT). In this context we show that accurate aerial control (absolute or relative) together with a few image observations can deliver accurate results comparable to classical aerial triangulation with thousands of image measurements. This procedure in turns reduces the demands on processing time and the requirements on the existence of surface texture. Finally, we compare the above mentioned procedures with direct sensor

  20. Application of aerial image based information for coastal habitat research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juel, Anders

    2014-01-01

    and dynamic properties we are however challenged in assessing the state of our coastal habitats while the basic drivers of this complexity are still poorly understood. This thesis provides insight into the possibilities of extracting information from widely available aerial image data for vegetation mapping...... and research in coastal terrestrial habitats. It further presents new insight into the mechanisms determining the spatial patterns of vegetation across coastal landscapes. These topics are investigated by combining fine-scale vegetation information from a comprehensive field programme with object-based image...

  1. Aerial Thermography - Cartographic Presentation Of Thermographic Data For Building Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ljungberg, Sven-Ake

    1989-03-01

    When using aerial thermography to indicate energy-related conditions of buildings in a large investigation area the question arises how to store and present the final product of classified, energy-related data. A full scale study of 7000 buildings demonstrated the need fur computerbased systems and cartographic methods to store, to arrange and to illustrate thermograpic data. A data base was created including aerial thermograpic data, technical data on the buildings and information on energy consumption of each building. The data base consisted of 100 variables. The key-code for the data base was the real estate name and number. The position of each building was given in terms of coordinates of the real estate. The main purpose of the study was to create an energy-related data base to be used for assigning a priority to measurements within the local energy conservation program. The thermographic data was collected with a longwave airborne infrared line-scanner (3-14 um). The technical data on the buildings and their energy consumption were gathered from existing data bases and from field investigations. Thermograpic data, technical data of the buildings and information on energy consumption was classified and different symbols were used to identify the classes presented on thematic maps. Results from this study implies that computerbased cartography is a favorable method to present and illustrate thermographic information on buildings in large investigation areas. The paper deals mainly with the aspect of carthography for presentation of thermographic and energy-related data.

  2. FPGA-Based Real-Time Moving Target Detection System for Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Application

    OpenAIRE

    Jia Wei Tang; Nasir Shaikh-Husin; Usman Ullah Sheikh; M. N. Marsono

    2016-01-01

    Moving target detection is the most common task for Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) to find and track object of interest from a bird’s eye view in mobile aerial surveillance for civilian applications such as search and rescue operation. The complex detection algorithm can be implemented in a real-time embedded system using Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA). This paper presents the development of real-time moving target detection System-on-Chip (SoC) using FPGA for deployment on a UAV. The de...

  3. An Application of Computer Vision Systems to Solve the Problem of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aksenov Alexey Y.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers an approach for application of computer vision systems to solve the problem of unmanned aerial vehicle control. The processing of images obtained through onboard camera is required for absolute positioning of aerial platform (automatic landing and take-off, hovering etc. used image processing on-board camera. The proposed method combines the advantages of existing systems and gives the ability to perform hovering over a given point, the exact take-off and landing. The limitations of implemented methods are determined and the algorithm is proposed to combine them in order to improve the efficiency.

  4. Determination of differences in crop injury from aerial application of glyphosate using vegetation indices and geostatistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Injury to crops caused by off-target drift of glyphosate can seriously reduce growth and yield, and is of great concern to farmers and aerial applicators. Determining an indirect method for assessing the levels and extent of crop injury could support management decisions. The objectives of this stud...

  5. Reducing pesticide drift by considering propeller rotation effects from aerial application and near buffer zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Off-target drift of chemical from agricultural spraying can damage sensitive crops, destroy beneficial insects, and intrude on human and domestic animal habitats, threatening environmental quality. Reduction of drift from aerial application can be facilitated at the edge of a field by offsetting spr...

  6. A Shape Memory Alloy Application for Compact Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore Ameduri

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Shape memory alloys materials, SMA, offer several advantages that designers can rely on such as the possibility of transmitting large forces and deformations, compactness, and the intrinsic capability to absorb loads. Their use as monolithic actuators, moreover, can lead to potential simplifications of the system, through a reduction of number of parts and the removal of many free play gaps among mechanics. For these reasons, technological aerospace research is focusing on this kind of technology more and more, even though fatigue life, performance degradation, and other issues are still open. In the work at hand, landing gear for unmanned aerial vehicles, UAV, is presented, integrated with shape memory alloys springs as actuation devices. A conceptual prototype has been realized to verify the system ability in satisfying specs, in terms of deployment and retraction capability. Starting from the proposed device working principle and the main design parameters identification, the design phase is faced, setting those parameters to meet weight, deployment angle, energy consumption, and available room requirements. Then, system modeling and performance prediction is performed and finally a correlation between numerical and experimental results is presented.

  7. Accurate Optical Target Pose Determination for Applications in Aerial Photogrammetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucci, D. A.

    2016-06-01

    We propose a new design for an optical coded target based on concentric circles and a position and orientation determination algorithm optimized for high distances compared to the target size. If two ellipses are fitted on the edge pixels corresponding to the outer and inner circles, quasi-analytical methods are known to obtain the coordinates of the projection of the circles center. We show the limits of these methods for quasi-frontal target orientations and in presence of noise and we propose an iterative refinement algorithm based on a geometric invariant. Next, we introduce a closed form, computationally inexpensive, solution to obtain the target position and orientation given the projected circle center and the parameters of the outer circle projection. The viability of the approach is demonstrated based on aerial pictures taken by an UAV from elevations between 10 to 100 m. We obtain a distance RMS below 0.25 % under 50 m and below 1 % under 100 m with a target size of 90 cm, part of which is a deterministic bias introduced by image exposure.

  8. Combination ground and aerial adulticide applications against mosquitoes in an Arkansas riceland community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weathersbee, A A; Meisch, M V; Sandoski, C A; Finch, M F; Dame, D A; Olson, J K; Inman, A

    1986-12-01

    Simultaneous ground and aerial adulticide applications were evaluated against riceland mosquitoes in Stuttgart, AR, during July 1985. Naled was aerially applied at 52.6 ml/ha over 10.4 km2 surrounding the city. Ground ULV applications of a mixture of malathion, HAN and resmethrin/PBO (1:1:0.0625) were applied within the city at a rate of 221.8 ml/min at 24 kph. Adult populations of Anopheles quadrimaculatus and Psorophora columbiae were reduced at 24 hr but resurgence of Ps. columbiae was evident at 48 hr posttreatment. Posttreatment data indicated that movement of both mosquitoes occurred along the path of prevailing wind. PMID:2906984

  9. Effects of aerial applications of naled on nontarget insects at Parris Island, South Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breidenbaugh, M S; de Szalay, F A

    2010-04-01

    Testing impacts of large-scale aerial spraying to control public health pests under realistic field conditions are needed to understand impacts on natural populations of nontarget insects. Responses of terrestrial insects to aerial applications of an organophosphate insecticide, naled, used for mosquito and biting midge control were studied on Parris Island Marine Corps Recruit Depot, Parris Island, SC. Aerial applications were made with C-130 aircraft at dusk in 2003 and in 2005. In 2003, we sampled two locations on Parris Island with Malaise traps before and after spraying, and used Before-After analyses to examine changes in terrestrial insect diversity and abundance. In 2005, we sampled insects with yellow pan traps at three locations on Parris Island and at an untreated control site. A Before-After Control-Impact analysis at each location was conducted to compare changes. In 2003, numbers of four of 12 common taxa (Dolichopodidae, Sarcophagidae, Syrphidae, Tachinidae) were lower after sprays. However, there were no significant changes in numbers of common taxa or total numbers in 2005. Shannon diversities (H') were not different in either year indicating that sprays had minimal impact on overall community biodiversity. In contrast, populations of pestiferous biting midges (Culicoides spp.) collected in CDC-style traps were reduced by 94-99% after spraying in both years; mosquito numbers declined by 88.2% in 2003 and 92.5% in 2005, after sprays. PMID:20388292

  10. Accuracy Potential and Applications of MIDAS Aerial Oblique Camera System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madani, M.

    2012-07-01

    Airborne oblique cameras such as Fairchild T-3A were initially used for military reconnaissance in 30s. A modern professional digital oblique camera such as MIDAS (Multi-camera Integrated Digital Acquisition System) is used to generate lifelike three dimensional to the users for visualizations, GIS applications, architectural modeling, city modeling, games, simulators, etc. Oblique imagery provide the best vantage for accessing and reviewing changes to the local government tax base, property valuation assessment, buying & selling of residential/commercial for better decisions in a more timely manner. Oblique imagery is also used for infrastructure monitoring making sure safe operations of transportation, utilities, and facilities. Sanborn Mapping Company acquired one MIDAS from TrackAir in 2011. This system consists of four tilted (45 degrees) cameras and one vertical camera connected to a dedicated data acquisition computer system. The 5 digital cameras are based on the Canon EOS 1DS Mark3 with Zeiss lenses. The CCD size is 5,616 by 3,744 (21 MPixels) with the pixel size of 6.4 microns. Multiple flights using different camera configurations (nadir/oblique (28 mm/50 mm) and (50 mm/50 mm)) were flown over downtown Colorado Springs, Colorado. Boresight fights for 28 mm nadir camera were flown at 600 m and 1,200 m and for 50 mm nadir camera at 750 m and 1500 m. Cameras were calibrated by using a 3D cage and multiple convergent images utilizing Australis model. In this paper, the MIDAS system is described, a number of real data sets collected during the aforementioned flights are presented together with their associated flight configurations, data processing workflow, system calibration and quality control workflows are highlighted and the achievable accuracy is presented in some detail. This study revealed that the expected accuracy of about 1 to 1.5 GSD (Ground Sample Distance) for planimetry and about 2 to 2.5 GSD for vertical can be achieved. Remaining systematic

  11. Aerial Neutron Detection: Neutron Signatures for Nonproliferation and Emergency Response Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maurer, Richard J.; Stampahar, Thomas G.; Smith, Ethan X.; Mukhopadhyay, Sanjoy; Wolff, Ronald S.; Rourke, Timothy J.; LeDonne, Jeffrey P.; Avaro, Emanuele; Butler, D. Andre; Borders, Kevin L.; Stampahar, Jezabel; Schuck, William H.; Selfridge, Thomas L.; McKissack, Thomas M.; Duncan, William W.; Hendricks, Thane J.

    2012-10-17

    From 2007 to the present, the Remote Sensing Laboratory has been conducting a series of studies designed to expand our fundamental understanding of aerial neutron detection with the goal of designing an enhanced sensitivity detection system for long range neutron detection. Over 35 hours of aerial measurements in a helicopter were conducted for a variety of neutron emitters such as neutron point sources, a commercial nuclear power reactor, nuclear reactor spent fuel in dry cask storage, depleted uranium hexafluoride and depleted uranium metal. The goals of the project were to increase the detection sensitivity of our instruments such that a 5.4 × 104 neutron/second source could be detected at 100 feet above ground level at a speed of 70 knots and to enhance the long-range detection sensitivity for larger neutron sources, i.e., detection ranges above 1000 feet. In order to increase the sensitivity of aerial neutron detection instruments, it is important to understand the dynamics of the neutron background as a function of altitude. For aerial neutron detection, studies have shown that the neutron background primarily originates from above the aircraft, being produced in the upper atmosphere by galactic cosmic-ray interactions with air molecules. These interactions produce energetic neutrons and charged particles that cascade to the earth’s surface, producing additional neutrons in secondary collisions. Hence, the neutron background increases as a function of altitude which is an impediment to long-range neutron detection. In order to increase the sensitivity for long range detection, it is necessary to maintain a low neutron background as a function of altitude. Initial investigations show the variation in the neutron background can be decreased with the application of a cosmic-ray shield. The results of the studies along with a representative data set are presented.

  12. Impact of low aerial application rates of Dibrom 14 on potential vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, James R; Rutledge, Cynthia R; Reynolds, William; Dame, David A

    2006-03-01

    Aerial applications designed to assess the impact of low application rates of naled (Dibrom 14) on potential vector species were conducted in 2003 with caged adult Anopheles quadrimaculatus in open grassland at Cecil Airfield in Jacksonville, FL. Offset flight paths of 2,000-6,000 (calculated by the AgDisp aerial application model) and 1,000-ft swath widths were conducted with a Micronair AU4000 rotary atomizer, which provides a several-fold increase in droplets between 7 and 22 microm. Mean volume median diameters of 8.0, 7.8, and 9.4 microm and 290, 506, and 192 droplets per sq cm were observed in the target area with application rates of 0.125, 0.25, and 0.5 fl oz per acre, respectively. The observed mean mortality of caged mosquitoes 12 h posttreatment, corrected for mortality in untreated controls, was 14%, 80%, and 99% at 0.125, 0.25, and 0.5 fl oz per acre, respectively. These results indicate that applications at 0.25 fl oz per acre or less should be avoided and rates greater than 0.5 fl oz may be required for adequate control in canopied habitats and less-than-optimum terrains. PMID:16646327

  13. Semantic Segmentation and Difference Extraction via Time Series Aerial Video Camera and its Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amit, S. N. K.; Saito, S.; Sasaki, S.; Kiyoki, Y.; Aoki, Y.

    2015-04-01

    Google earth with high-resolution imagery basically takes months to process new images before online updates. It is a time consuming and slow process especially for post-disaster application. The objective of this research is to develop a fast and effective method of updating maps by detecting local differences occurred over different time series; where only region with differences will be updated. In our system, aerial images from Massachusetts's road and building open datasets, Saitama district datasets are used as input images. Semantic segmentation is then applied to input images. Semantic segmentation is a pixel-wise classification of images by implementing deep neural network technique. Deep neural network technique is implemented due to being not only efficient in learning highly discriminative image features such as road, buildings etc., but also partially robust to incomplete and poorly registered target maps. Then, aerial images which contain semantic information are stored as database in 5D world map is set as ground truth images. This system is developed to visualise multimedia data in 5 dimensions; 3 dimensions as spatial dimensions, 1 dimension as temporal dimension, and 1 dimension as degenerated dimensions of semantic and colour combination dimension. Next, ground truth images chosen from database in 5D world map and a new aerial image with same spatial information but different time series are compared via difference extraction method. The map will only update where local changes had occurred. Hence, map updating will be cheaper, faster and more effective especially post-disaster application, by leaving unchanged region and only update changed region.

  14. Integrating Spray Plane-Based Remote Sensing and Rapid Image Processing with Variable-Rate Aerial Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    A remote sensing and variable rate application system was configured for agricultural aircraft. This combination system has the potential of providing a completely integrated solution for all aspects of aerial site-specific application and includes remote sensing, image processing and georegistratio...

  15. Post-hurricane Rita mosquito surveillance and the efficacy of Air Force aerial applications for mosquito control in east Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breidenbaugh, Mark S; Haagsma, Karl A; Walker, Wes W; Sanders, David M

    2008-06-01

    Post-Hurricane Rita mosquito surveillance was carried out in 4 east Texas counties to determine mosquito abundance, species composition, and need for mosquito control. Subsequently, aerial applications of naled (Dibrom) for mosquito control were made by the Air Force Aerial Spray Flight, while continued surveillance documented the efficacy of the applications. Psorophora columbiae was the predominant species in landing counts. Twenty-two mosquito species were represented in light trap collections with Aedes atlanitcus/tormentor, Culex nigripalpus, Ae. vexans, and Ps. columbiae making up 91% of the total. A total of 102,001 ha (252,052 acres) were aerially treated based on high mosquito abundance, exposure of first responders and residents to nuisance biting, and local interruption of electric utilities. A significant 90% decline in mosquito abundance was observed posttreatment. PMID:18666545

  16. Aerial photography: Applications in the study of coastal erosion and pollution. (Latest citations from Oceanic abstracts). Published Search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-05-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the applications of aerial photography in the study of coastal shoreline problems such as erosion and pollution. Topics include ocean wave direction and measurement, oil pollution detection and direction forecasting, shoreline change measurements, coastal mapping, and coastal topographic features. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  17. DYNAMIC TESTING OF GPS RECEIVERS ON AGRICULTURAL AIRCRAFT FOR REMOTE SENSING AND VARIABLE-RATE AERIAL APPLICATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers and GPS-based swath guidance systems are used on agricultural aircraft for remote sensing, airplane guidance, and to support variable-rate aerial application of crop inputs such as insecticides, cotton growth regulators, and defoliants. Agricultural aircraf...

  18. Large scale field experiments into oil weathering at sea and aerial application of dispersants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, A.; Crosbie, A.; Davies, L.; Lunel, T. [National Environmental Technology Centre AEA Technology, Culham, Oxfordshire (United Kingdom)

    1998-09-01

    Field studies were conducted to study the effectiveness of aerially applied dispersants on emulsified crude oils and a residual fuel oil. The objective was to determine: (1) the degree to which multiple applications of dispersants can break and disperse the high viscosity emulsions formed by oil that has weathered on the sea surface for several days, and (2) the degree to which heavy fuel oils can be chemically dispersed. Four experimental oil slicks were released into an actual oil spill incident. The sea was relatively calm which limited the rate of oil weathering but provided for moderate wave energy for chemically enhanced dispersion. The two crudes that were used in the experiments were Forties Blend crude oil and Alaska North Slope crude oil. The fuel oil used was IFO-180. The spills were sprayed with Corexit 9500 and Dasic Slickgone NS dispersants. Surface sampling, sub-surface oil concentration monitoring and airborne remote sensing were used to study the effects of dispersant applications. The study showed that the window of opportunity for dispersant use is wider than previously considered, but emulsions with lower water contents are more resistant to the effect of dispersants. 6 refs., 2 tabs., 20 figs.

  19. An Overview of Small Unmanned Aerial Vehicles for Air Quality Measurements: Present Applications and Future Prospectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villa, Tommaso Francesco; Gonzalez, Felipe; Miljievic, Branka; Ristovski, Zoran D; Morawska, Lidia

    2016-01-01

    Assessment of air quality has been traditionally conducted by ground based monitoring, and more recently by manned aircrafts and satellites. However, performing fast, comprehensive data collection near pollution sources is not always feasible due to the complexity of sites, moving sources or physical barriers. Small Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) equipped with different sensors have been introduced for in-situ air quality monitoring, as they can offer new approaches and research opportunities in air pollution and emission monitoring, as well as for studying atmospheric trends, such as climate change, while ensuring urban and industrial air safety. The aims of this review were to: (1) compile information on the use of UAVs for air quality studies; and (2) assess their benefits and range of applications. An extensive literature review was conducted using three bibliographic databases (Scopus, Web of Knowledge, Google Scholar) and a total of 60 papers was found. This relatively small number of papers implies that the field is still in its early stages of development. We concluded that, while the potential of UAVs for air quality research has been established, several challenges still need to be addressed, including: the flight endurance, payload capacity, sensor dimensions/accuracy, and sensitivity. However, the challenges are not simply technological, in fact, policy and regulations, which differ between countries, represent the greatest challenge to facilitating the wider use of UAVs in atmospheric research. PMID:27420065

  20. An Examination of Drag Reduction Mechanisms in Marine Animals, with Potential Applications to Uninhabited Aerial Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musick, John A.; Patterson, Mark R.; Dowd, Wesley W.

    2002-01-01

    Previous engineering research and development has documented the plausibility of applying biomimetic approaches to aerospace engineering. Past cooperation between the Virginia Institute of Marine Science (VIMS) and NASA focused on the drag reduction qualities of the microscale dermal denticles of shark skin. This technology has subsequently been applied to submarines and aircraft. The present study aims to identify and document the three-dimensional geometry of additional macroscale morphologies that potentially confer drag reducing hydrodynamic qualities upon marine animals and which could be applied to enhance the range and endurance of Uninhabited Aerial Vehicles (UAVs). Such morphologies have evolved over eons to maximize organismal energetic efficiency by reducing the energetic input required to maintain cruising speeds in the viscous marine environment. These drag reduction qualities are manifested in several groups of active marine animals commonly encountered by ongoing VIMS research programs: namely sharks, bony fishes such as tunas, and sea turtles. Through spatial data acquired by molding and digital imagery analysis of marine specimens provided by VIMS, NASA aims to construct scale models of these features and to test these potential drag reduction morphologies for application to aircraft design. This report addresses the efforts of VIMS and NASA personnel on this project between January and November 2001.

  1. The application of the unmanned aerial vehicle remote sensing technology in the FAST project construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Boqin

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of using unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) remote sensing application in Five-hundred-meter aperture spherical telescope (FAST) project is to dynamically record the construction process with high resolution image, monitor the environmental impact, and provide services for local environmental protection and the reserve immigrants. This paper introduces the use of UAV remote sensing system and the course design and implementation for the FAST site. Through the analysis of the time series data, we found that: (1) since the year 2012, the project has been widely carried out; (2) till 2013, the internal project begun to take shape;(3) engineering excavation scope was kept stable in 2014, and the initial scale of the FAST engineering construction has emerged as in the meantime, the vegetation recovery went well on the bare soil area; (4) in 2015, none environmental problems caused by engineering construction and other engineering geological disaster were found in the work area through the image interpretation of UAV images. This paper also suggested that the UAV technology need some improvements to fulfill the requirements of surveying and mapping specification., including a new data acquisition and processing measures assigned with the background of highly diverse elevation, usage of telephoto camera, hierarchical photography with different flying height, and adjustment with terrain using the joint empty three settlement method.

  2. The Application of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle to Precision Agriculture: Chlorophyll, Nitrogen, and Evapotranspiration Estimation

    OpenAIRE

    Elarab, Manal

    2016-01-01

    Precision agriculture (PA) is an integration of a set of technologies aiming to improve productivity and profitability while sustaining the quality of the surrounding environment. It is a process that vastly relies on high-resolution information to enable greater precision in the management of inputs to production. This dissertation explored the usage of multispectral high resolution aerial imagery acquired by an unmanned aerial systems (UAS) platform to serve precision agriculture applicatio...

  3. Aerial application of pheromones for mating disruption of an invasive moth as a potential eradication tool.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eckehard G Brockerhoff

    Full Text Available Biological invasions can cause major ecological and economic impacts. During the early stages of invasions, eradication is desirable but tactics are lacking that are both effective and have minimal non-target effects. Mating disruption, which may meet these criteria, was initially chosen to respond to the incursion of light brown apple moth, Epiphyas postvittana (LBAM; Lepidoptera: Tortricidae, in California. The large size and limited accessibility of the infested area favored aerial application. Moth sex pheromone formulations for potential use in California or elsewhere were tested in a pine forest in New Zealand where LBAM is abundant. Formulations were applied by helicopter at a target rate of 40 g pheromone per ha. Trap catch before and after application was used to assess the efficacy and longevity of formulations, in comparison with plots treated with ground-applied pheromone dispensers and untreated control plots. Traps placed at different heights showed LBAM was abundant in the upper canopy of tall trees, which complicates control attempts. A wax formulation and polyethylene dispensers were most effective and provided trap shut-down near ground level for 10 weeks. Only the wax formulation was effective in the upper canopy. As the pheromone blend contained a behavioral antagonist for LBAM, 'false trail following' could be ruled out as a mechanism explaining trap shutdown. Therefore, 'sensory impairment' and 'masking of females' are the main modes of operation. Mating disruption enhances Allee effects which contribute to negative growth of small populations and, therefore, it is highly suitable for area-wide control and eradication of biological invaders.

  4. Accuracy Assessment of Direct Georeferencing for Photogrammetric Applications on Small Unmanned Aerial Platforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mian, O.; Lutes, J.; Lipa, G.; Hutton, J. J.; Gavelle, E.; Borghini, S.

    2016-03-01

    Efficient mapping from unmanned aerial platforms cannot rely on aerial triangulation using known ground control points. The cost and time of setting ground control, added to the need for increased overlap between flight lines, severely limits the ability of small VTOL platforms, in particular, to handle mapping-grade missions of all but the very smallest survey areas. Applanix has brought its experience in manned photogrammetry applications to this challenge, setting out the requirements for increasing the efficiency of mapping operations from small UAVs, using survey-grade GNSS-Inertial technology to accomplish direct georeferencing of the platform and/or the imaging payload. The Direct Mapping Solution for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (DMS-UAV) is a complete and ready-to-integrate OEM solution for Direct Georeferencing (DG) on unmanned aerial platforms. Designed as a solution for systems integrators to create mapping payloads for UAVs of all types and sizes, the DMS produces directly georeferenced products for any imaging payload (visual, LiDAR, infrared, multispectral imaging, even video). Additionally, DMS addresses the airframe's requirements for high-accuracy position and orientation for such tasks as precision RTK landing and Precision Orientation for Air Data Systems (ADS), Guidance and Control. This paper presents results using a DMS comprised of an Applanix APX-15 UAV with a Sony a7R camera to produce highly accurate orthorectified imagery without Ground Control Points on a Microdrones md4-1000 platform conducted by Applanix and Avyon. APX-15 UAV is a single-board, small-form-factor GNSS-Inertial system designed for use on small, lightweight platforms. The Sony a7R is a prosumer digital RGB camera sensor, with a 36MP, 4.9-micron CCD producing images at 7360 columns by 4912 rows. It was configured with a 50mm AF-S Nikkor f/1.8 lens and subsequently with a 35mm Zeiss Sonnar T* FE F2.8 lens. Both the camera/lens combinations and the APX-15 were mounted to a

  5. Research applications of night-time aerial photography, from local to global scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, J.; Sadler, J.

    2012-12-01

    Artificial lighting of the earth's surface is changing at a global scale, with numerous social, economic and environmental implications. In many regions, the extent, brightness and spectral range of lighting is increasing, reflecting economic and technological development, population growth and urbanization. Its benefits include improving the perception of neighbourhood safety and increasing people's options for when activities can take place. Impacts range from the disruption of sleep patterns by a single street lamp to obscured views of the night sky for tens of kilometers surrounding an urban area. There is therefore a need to secure baseline maps of artificial lighting, and to detect changes in their extent and quality over time. Considerable success has been achieved in generating global lighting datasets from Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) Operational Linescan System (OLS) data, which have been used to support a broad range of research and policy applications. However, their coarse spatial and spectral resolution and difficulties in radiance calibration have been recognised as barriers to some potential applications. We present the first multi-spectral radiance calibrated lighting data for cities at a fine spatial resolution (10cm). We then illustrate how these data can be effective for exploring relationships between lighting and urban form, and that they can support the radiance calibration of lighting datasets with much greater spatial extents. Color night photography was collected for two major English cities - Birmingham and London. Ground photometry and radiometry surveys were undertaken, permitting the reclassification of the images to represent incident lux and the identification and classification of individual lamps. Total illuminated area and lamp density both correlated positively with percentage built surface cover, although the strength of these relationships differed between cities. This suggests that artificial lighting may

  6. Small Unmanned Aerial Vehicles in coastal areas: lessons learned from applications in Liguria, NW Mediterranean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovere, A.; Casella, E.; Pedroncini, A.; Mucerino, L.; Casella, M.; Cusati, L. A.; Vacchi, M.; Ferrari, M.; Firpo, M.

    2014-12-01

    In 2013 we started to apply small UAVs to the study of coastal areas in Liguria, NW Mediterranean Sea. In this region monitoring coastal evolution and the impact of sea storms is a primary administrative need, as a large part of the economic income derives from summer tourism. In two years, we accumulated almost 200 hours of flight with two different UAVs, a professional-grade Mikrokopter Okto and a consumer-grade Phantom DJI. We used photogrammetric and orthorectification techniques to obtain Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) and orthophotos of different beaches in the region. Data from UAVs allowed us to answer several questions. What is the accuracy of DEMs obtained from UAVs in low-relief areas such as beaches? What are the problems encountered in the photogrammetric procedure near the shoreline? Are the results obtained with consumer-grade UAVs comparable to those obtained with professional-grade ones? Aside from these technical questions, we used the data obtained from UAVs for different local studies aimed at giving management tools to the local administrations. We used the cloudpoint obtained from DEMs and the orthophotos to set up a runup modelling chain, to detect short-term changes in the coastal zone, and to give a first estimate of the debris deposited on the beach after a major storm. As stated by Watts et al., 2012 (Remote Sensing 4, 1671-1692) the application of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles and photogrammetry techniques in earth sciences is flourishing, and has the potential to revolutionize the study of geomorphology. Surely, UAVs opened new research perspectives for our group, which has been actively working on coastal changes in Liguria for almost 25 years.

  7. Carrier-phase GNSS Attitude Determination and Control System for Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Sabatini, Leopoldo Rodríguez, Anish Kaharkar, Celia Bartel, Tesheen Shaid

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of a research activity performed by Cranfield University to assess the potential of carrierphase Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS for attitude determination and control of small to medium size Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV. Both deterministic and recursive (optimal estimation algorithms are developed for combining multiple attitude measurements obtained from different observation points (i.e., antenna locations, and their efficiencies are tested in various dynamic conditions. The proposed algorithms converge rapidly and produce the required output even during high dynamics manoeuvres. Results of theoretical performance analysis and simulation activities are presented in this paper, with emphasis on the advantages of the GNSS interferometric approach in UAV applications (i.e., low cost, high data-rate, low volume/weight, low signal processing requirements, etc.. Modelling and simulation activities focussed on the AEROSONDE UAV platform and considered the possible augmentation provided by interferometric GNSS techniques to a low-cost and low-weight/volume integrated navigation system recently developed at Cranfield University, which employs a Vision-based Navigation (VBN system, a Micro-Electro-mechanical Sensor (MEMS based Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU and code-range GNSS (i.e., GPS and GALILEO for position and velocity computations. The integrated VBN-IMU-GNSS (VIG system is augmented by using the inteferometric GNSS Attitude Determination(GAD and a comparison of the performance achievable with the VIG and VIG/GAD integrated Navigation and Guidance Systems (NGS is presented. Finally, the data provided by these NGS are used to optimise the design of an hybrid controller employing Fuzzy Logic and Proportional-Integral-Derivative (PID techniques for the AEROSONDE UAV.

  8. The use of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles in monitoring applications and management of natural hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piras, Marco; Aicardi, Irene; Lingua, Andrea; Noardo, Francesca; Chiabrando, Filiberto

    2015-04-01

    In the last years following the damages derived by the climate change (such as flooding and so on) it is growing the necessity to monitor the watercourses with effective and quickly method, where low cost solutions are particularly interested. In some cases, it is essential to have information about the riverbed, the river banks and to analyze the springs and the way in which the water moves. For the terrestrial point of view this knowledge can be acquired through GNSS and topographic methods, but they are still too manually so that they are time-consuming with respect the acquisition of information about the entire area. Another possibility is to perform a laser scanner survey, but the most common instruments (economically sustainable) have some problems to acquire information of sub-water-layer. Moreover, terrestrial surveys from cameras (such as visible, thermic or hyperspectral sensors) can't always offer a useful view of the case study due to the fact that they have a limited range of possible points of acquisition. For these reasons, it can be more effective to have an aerial point of view of the river, for example using UAVs (Unmanned Aerial Vehicles), which have been experimented in these last years for environmental investigations. The proposed studies include photogrammetric and thermographic applications in order to investigate a new post-flooding riverbed arrangement and to identify some sub-riverbed springs inside a stream in order to monitor the behavior of two studied watercourses. The tests have been carried out with a customized low-cost mini-UAV based on the Mikrokopter Hexakopter solution embedded with a navigation system for the autonomous flight (GNSS/IMU) and with the possibility to house different kind of sensors, such as a camera, a GNSS receiver, a LiDAR sensor, a thermographic camera and more other sensors, but with the limitation of a 1.2 Kg payload. The most significant innovation is the possibility to perform quickly and economical

  9. Application of high resolution images from unmanned aerial vehicles for hydrology and range science

    Science.gov (United States)

    A common problem in many natural resource disciplines is the lack of high-enough spatial resolution images that can be used for monitoring and modeling purposes. Advances have been made in the utilization of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) in hydrology and rangeland science. By utilizing low fligh...

  10. Application of high resolution images from unmanned aerial vehicles for hydrology and rangeland science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rango, A.; Vivoni, E. R.; Anderson, C. A.; Perini, N. A.; Saripalli, S.; Laliberte, A.

    2012-12-01

    A common problem in many natural resource disciplines is the lack of high-enough spatial resolution images that can be used for monitoring and modeling purposes. Advances have been made in the utilization of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) in hydrology and rangeland science. By utilizing low flight altitudes and velocities, UAVs are able to produce high resolution (5 cm) images as well as stereo coverage (with 75% forward overlap and 40% sidelap) to extract digital elevation models (DEM). Another advantage of flying at low altitude is that the potential problems of atmospheric haze obscuration are eliminated. Both small fixed-wing and rotary-wing aircraft have been used in our experiments over two rangeland areas in the Jornada Experimental Range in southern New Mexico and the Santa Rita Experimental Range in southern Arizona. The fixed-wing UAV has a digital camera in the wing and six-band multispectral camera in the nose, while the rotary-wing UAV carries a digital camera as payload. Because we have been acquiring imagery for several years, there are now > 31,000 photos at one of the study sites, and 177 mosaics over rangeland areas have been constructed. Using the DEM obtained from the imagery we have determined the actual catchment areas of three watersheds and compared these to previous estimates. At one site, the UAV-derived watershed area is 4.67 ha which is 22% smaller compared to a manual survey using a GPS unit obtained several years ago. This difference can be significant in constructing a watershed model of the site. From a vegetation species classification, we also determined that two of the shrub types in this small watershed(mesquite and creosote with 6.47 % and 5.82% cover, respectively) grow in similar locations(flat upland areas with deep soils), whereas the most predominant shrub(mariola with 11.9% cover) inhabits hillslopes near stream channels(with steep shallow soils). The positioning of these individual shrubs throughout the catchment using

  11. Application of DOAS Instruments for Trace Gas Measurements on Unmanned Aerial Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horbanski, M.; Pöhler, D.; Mahr, T.; Wagner, T.; Platt, U.

    2012-04-01

    Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) are a new powerful tool for observations in the atmospheric boundary layer. Recent developments in measuring technology allow the construction of compact and sensitive active and passive DOAS instruments which can fit the space and weight constraints on Unmanned Aircraft Systems. This opens new possibilities for trace gas measurements in the lower troposphere, especially in areas which are not accessible to manned aviation e.g. volcanic plumes or which should be monitored regularly (e.g. industrial emissions of a stack). Two DOAS instruments for the APAESO platform of the Energy, Environment and Water Research Centre (EEWRC) at the Cyprus Institute are presented. Our first system is a passive DOAS for remote sensing applications which measures scattered sunlight and light reflected by the surface. It is equipped with telescopes for observations in downward (nadir) and horizontal (limb) viewing direction. Thus it allows determining height profiles and the spatial distribution of trace gases. For this the light is analysed by a compact spectrometer which covers the UV-blue range allowing to measure a broad variety of atmospheric trace gases (e.g. NO2, SO2, BrO, IO, H2O ...) and aerosol properties via O4 absorption. Additionally, the nadir direction is equipped with a system for the observation of surface properties. It will be used to measure and analyse reflection of different types of vegetation. The spectra will serve as reference spectra for satellite measurements to create global maps. The instrumental setup and the results of first test flights are shown. The second instrument which is currently under development is a Cavity Enhanced (CE-) DOAS for in situ measurements of NO3. In contrast to the passive DOAS it is able to perform night time measurements as it uses an active LED light source. This is important for studies of NO3 since it plays an important role in night time chemistry while it is rapidly photolysed during daytime

  12. Application of machine learning for the evaluation of turfgrass plots using aerial images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Ke; Raheja, Amar; Bhandari, Subodh; Green, Robert L.

    2016-05-01

    Historically, investigation of turfgrass characteristics have been limited to visual ratings. Although relevant information may result from such evaluations, final inferences may be questionable because of the subjective nature in which the data is collected. Recent advances in computer vision techniques allow researchers to objectively measure turfgrass characteristics such as percent ground cover, turf color, and turf quality from the digital images. This paper focuses on developing a methodology for automated assessment of turfgrass quality from aerial images. Images of several turfgrass plots of varying quality were gathered using a camera mounted on an unmanned aerial vehicle. The quality of these plots were also evaluated based on visual ratings. The goal was to use the aerial images to generate quality evaluations on a regular basis for the optimization of water treatment. Aerial images are used to train a neural network so that appropriate features such as intensity, color, and texture of the turfgrass are extracted from these images. Neural network is a nonlinear classifier commonly used in machine learning. The output of the neural network trained model is the ratings of the grass, which is compared to the visual ratings. Currently, the quality and the color of turfgrass, measured as the greenness of the grass, are evaluated. The textures are calculated using the Gabor filter and co-occurrence matrix. Other classifiers such as support vector machines and simpler linear regression models such as Ridge regression and LARS regression are also used. The performance of each model is compared. The results show encouraging potential for using machine learning techniques for the evaluation of turfgrass quality and color.

  13. Aerial visible-thermal infrared hyperspectral feature extraction technology and its application to object identification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on aerial visible-thermal infrared hyperspectral imaging system (CASI/SASI/TASI) data, field spectrometer data and multi-source geological information, this paper utilizes the hyperspectral data processing and feature extraction technology to identify uranium mineralization factors, the spectral features of typical tetravalent, hexavalent uranium minerals and mineralization factors are established, and hyperspectral logging technology for drill cores and trench also are developed, the relationships between radioactive intensity and spectral characteristics are built. Above methods have been applied to characterize uranium mineralization setting of granite-type and sandstone-type uranium deposits in south and northwest China, the successful outcomes of uranium prospecting have been achieved

  14. Application possibilities of aerial and terrain data evaluation in particulate pollution effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozma-Bognar, V.; Berke, J.; Martin, G.

    2012-04-01

    Recently, remote sensing has become a widely used technology in order to acquire information about our environment. Data collected using remote sensing technology indispensible criteria to recognise and monitor environmental problems caused by contamination from various human activities. According to great technological change and development in the previous decade high spectral and geometric resolution sensors are more often used. The higher resolution technology allows getting more accurate and reliable results in the research processes of the environmental pollution impacts. At University of Pannonia, Georgikon Faculty (Hungary) plant-soil-atmosphere system analyses are carried out for detecting the potential harmful effects of heavy metal pollution originated from vehicle industry. Related to this research at the Department of Meteorology and Water Management, black carbon and cadmium pollution effects are being analysed on maize crops. Testing area is situated at Agro-meteorological Research Station in Keszthely, where the first time in 2011 aerial imaging technology was used in parallel with field analyses. The experiment aims to analyses correlation of the field data with aerial data. During aerial photography were taken in different spectral bands (Visible, Near Infrared, Far Infrared). High intensity, spectral and spatial resolution data was an important part of the multitemporal imagine sensing and evaluating technology, therefore original technical solutions were applied. These resolutions served accurate plot-level evaluation. Fractal structure and intensity measurement evaluation methods were applied to examine black carbon and cadmium polluted and control maize canopy after data pre-processing. Research also focused on the examination of potential negative or positive effects of irrigation so that differences between irrigated and non-irrigated maize was investigated. For the period of growing season of 2011 time-series analyses were carried out in

  15. Low altitude aerial photogrammetry application to braided river systems. Example of the Buech River, Alps, France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jules Fleury, Thomas; Pothin, Virginie; Vella, Claude; Dussouillez, Philippe; Izem, Abdelkoddouss

    2015-04-01

    Low-altitude aerial photogrammetry offers new opportunities for geomorphology and other fields requiring very high-resolution topographic data. It combines the advantages of the reproducibility of GPS topographic surveys with the high accuracy of LIDAR, but at relatively low-cost, easy-to-deploy and with the synaptic advantage of remote sensing. In order to evaluate the potential of photogrammetry on river systems and to assess river-bed changes and erosion-accretion processes, we conducted several surveys over the period of one year on the Buech river, a gravel-bed braided river located in the French Southern Alps. The study area is located directly upstream of a gravel pit and there is an interest in evaluating its effects on the riverbed. Our field protocol was comprised of vertical aerial photographs taken from a microlight aircraft flying approximately 300 ft above the ground. The equipment used was a full-frame DSLR with a wide angle lense, synchronised with a DGPS onboard. Fourty 40cm wide targets were placed on the ground and georeferenced by RTK DGPS with an accuracy of 2cm. In addition, close to one thousand Ground Control Points (GCPs) were measured within the different types of ground surfaces (vegetated, water, gravels) in order to assess the Digital Terrain Model (DTM) accuracy. We operated the production of the 3D model and its derived products: Digital Surface Model (DSM) and orthophotography, with user-friendly Agisoft (c) Photoscan Professional software. The processing of several hundred pictures with 2.5 cm ground resolution resulted in a DSM with a resolution of 10 cm and a vertical accuracy within 5 cm. As is expected, accuracy was best on bare bars and decreased with increasing vegetation density. To complement the DSM in the wetted channels, we used the orthophotos to establish a relationship between water color and flow depth using statistical multivariate regressions. Merging the bathymetric model and the DSM produced a DTM with a vertical

  16. An application of aerial remote sensing to monitor salinization at Xinding Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Yu-Liang

    In this paper, a method to interpret the high, mid, low salinized ploughland and the salinized wasteland using comprehensive aerophoto interpretation principles will be described for Xinding Basin, Shanxi Province. The dynamic change of salinized soil during 7 years from 1980 to 1987 will be compared with the typical Dingxiang County. The map and data obtained, with an accuracy of more than 90%, are provided to the local government as the scientific grounds to instruct agricultural productivity. Soil salinization is a worldwide problem. With the sharp increase in world population and modern industrialisation development, the natural resource consumption is increasing day and day, and bringing about a lack of land resource worldwide. As a kind of back-up land resource, salinized land has not only attracted the concern and study of the agricultural scientists in all countries, but also by the whole society. Shanxi is such a province in China where more than 1/3 of its total area of irrigation land is salinized. The statistics used to monitor this salinized area lack objectivity and accuracy. In 1987, the government of Shanxi Province began to investigate the salinized area of the whole province, using remote sensing technology. We selected the Xinding Basin in central Shanxi as the test district to perform the aerial remote sensing investigation, and, at the same time, studied the salinization dynamic change on the Dingxiang County used as the typical district.

  17. Efficient Forest Fire Detection Index for Application in Unmanned Aerial Systems (UASs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry Cruz

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This article proposes a novel method for detecting forest fires, through the use of a new color index, called the Forest Fire Detection Index (FFDI, developed by the authors. The index is based on methods for vegetation classification and has been adapted to detect the tonalities of flames and smoke; the latter could be included adaptively into the Regions of Interest (RoIs with the help of a variable factor. Multiple tests have been performed upon database imagery and present promising results: a detection precision of 96.82% has been achieved for image sizes of 960 × 540 pixels at a processing time of 0.0447 seconds. This achievement would lead to a performance of 22 f/s, for smaller images, while up to 54 f/s could be reached by maintaining a similar detection precision. Additional tests have been performed on fires in their early stages, achieving a precision rate of p = 96.62%. The method could be used in real-time in Unmanned Aerial Systems (UASs, with the aim of monitoring a wider area than through fixed surveillance systems. Thus, it would result in more cost-effective outcomes than conventional systems implemented in helicopters or satellites. UASs could also reach inaccessible locations without jeopardizing people’s safety. On-going work includes implementation into a commercially available drone.

  18. Development of a new modular aerial spray system and night application capability for the U.S. Air Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. Air Force maintains a capability with the C130 aircraft to conduct aerial spray operations over large areas for controlling insects of medical importance. The current modular aerial spray system (MASS) is custom designed to support a variety of configurations from ultralow volume space spra...

  19. Short communication. First field assessment of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki aerial application on the colony performance of Apis mellifera L. (Hymenoptera: Apidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Maria del Mar Leza Salord; Gregori Llado; Ana Belen Petro; Ana Alemany

    2014-01-01

    Honeybee populations around the world are experiencing a decrease in colony numbers probably due to a combination of different causes, such as diseases, poor nutrition and frequent applications of insecticides to control pests. Previous studies about the effect of pesticide Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki (Btk) on Apis mellifera L. report different results. The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of field aerial applications of Btk on bee colony performance, specifically on the...

  20. The application of unmanned aerial systems (UAS) in geophysical investigations of geothermal systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glen, J. M.; Egger, A. E.; Ippolito, C.; Phelps, G. A.; Berthold, R.; Lee, R.; Spritzer, J. M.; Tchernychev, M.

    2012-12-01

    Investigations of geothermal systems typically involve ground-based geological and geophysical studies in order to map structures that control and facilitate fluid flow. The spatial extent of ground-based investigations can be limited, however, by surficial hot springs, dense foliage, and roadless or private lands. This can result in data gaps in key areas, particularly around active hydrothermal springs. Manned aircraft can provide access to these areas and can yield broad and uniform data coverage, but high-resolution surveys are costly and relatively inflexible to changes in the survey specifications that may arise as data are collected. Unmanned aerial systems (UAS) are well suited for conducting these surveys, but until recently, various factors (scientific instrumentation requirements, platform limitations, and size of the survey area) have required the use of large UAS platforms, rendering unmanned aerial surveys unsuitable for most investigations. We have developed and tested a new cesium magnetometer system to collect magnetic data using two different small-platform UAS that overcomes many of the challenges described above. We are deploying this new system in Surprise Valley, CA, to study the area's active geothermal field. Surprise Valley is ideally suited to testing UAS due to its low population density, accessible airspace, and broad playa that provides ample opportunity to safely land the aircraft. In combination with gravity and topographic data, magnetic data are particularly useful for identifying buried, intra-basin structures, especially in areas such as Surprise Valley where highly magnetic, dense mafic volcanic rocks are interbedded with and faulted against less magnetic, less dense sedimentary rock. While high-resolution gravity data must be collected at point locations on the ground, high-resolution magnetic data can be obtained by UAS that provide continuous coverage. Once acquired, the magnetic data obtained by the UAS will be combined with

  1. A prospective study of the effects of ultralow volume (ULV) aerial application of malathion on epidemic Plasmodium falciparum malaria. III. Ecologic aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, R G; Spillane, J T; Miles, J W

    1975-03-01

    The effects of aerial ultralow volume (ULV) malathion on selected species of nontarget animals in Haiti are reported. Mortality of certain groups of insects such as bees, flies, beetles, and butterflies was observed immediately following spray application. Minor fish mortality occurred only in shallow water exposed to direct spray. The brain acetylcholine esterase levels of living fish, tree lizards, birds and bats collected from treated areas were not significantly reduced. No ill or dead animals, besides the few fish, were seen even when maximum exposure occurred. Only minor changes in the feeding behavior of some insectivorous birds were observed. The relative bird density decreased substantially for only one species during the study, and other factors besides treatment were considered to be the reasons for the decline. Aerial applications of ULV malathion at dosages sufficient to dramatically reduce anopheline populations did not significantly affect nontarget vertebrates in this tropical environment. PMID:1091169

  2. Mirex residues in bobwhite quail after aerial application of bait for fire ant control, South Carolina--1975-76.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendall, R J; Noblet, R; Hair, J D; Jackson, H B

    1977-09-01

    Mirex, the organochlorine compound used for control of the imported fire ant (Solenopsis invicta Buren), was applied aerially under supervision of the South Carolina Plant Pest Regulatory Service in October 1975 to a game management area in Hampton County, S.C. Influenced by recent reports indicating that low levels of mirex were toxic to certain nontarget organisms in laboratory studies, authors initiated a program for monitoring mirex residues in bobwhite quail (Colinus virginianus). Pretreatment residues were recorded on a dry-weight basis in bobwhite quail breast and adipose tissue; conversion factors for determining wet-weight concentrations are approximately as follows: fat, 0.77; and breast, 0.29. Residues ranged from 0.000-0.178 ppm and 0.247-2.763 ppm, respectively. Mirex residues in quail adipose tissue showed up to five-fold increase within the first month after treatment and declined thereafter. A residue peak was noticed the spring following mirex treatment, corresponding with insect emergence. Mirex residues in quail collected in summer 1976 following a fall bait application showed slightly higher residue levels than had birds taken in summer 1975; however, little, if any, human food chain contamination would result in the consumption of birds with residue levels found in this study. PMID:600676

  3. Efficacy of aerial spray applications using fuselage booms on Air Force C-130H aircraft against mosquitoes and biting midges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breidenbaugh, Mark S; Haagsma, Karl A; Wojcik, George M; De Szalay, Ferenc A

    2009-12-01

    The effectiveness of a novel fuselage boom configuration was tested with flat-fan nozzles on U.S. Air Force C-130H aircraft to create ultra-low volume sprays to control mosquitoes (Culicidae) and biting midges (Ceratopogonidae). The mortality of mosquitoes and biting midges in bioassay cages and natural populations, using the organophosphate adulticide, naled, was measured. Mosquitoes in bioassay cages had 100% mortality at 639 m downwind in all single-pass spray trials, and most trials had >90% mortality up to 1491 m downwind. Mosquito mortality was negatively correlated with distance from the spray release point (r2 = 0.38, P 90%). In wide-area operational applications, numbers of mosquitoes from natural populations 1 wk postspray were 83% (range 55%-95%), lower than prespray numbers (P < 0.05). Biting midge numbers were reduced by 86% (range 53%-97%) on average (P = 0.051) after 7 days. The results of these field trials indicate that the fuselage boom configuration on C-130H aircraft are an effective method to conduct large-scale aerial sprays during military operations and public health emergencies. PMID:20099594

  4. Spread of a Gammabaculovirus within Larval Populations of Its Natural Balsam Fir Sawfly (Neodiprion abietis Host Following Its Aerial Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan T. Quiring

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Field trials and assessments of the balsam fir sawfly (Neodiprion abietis nucleopolyhedrovirus (NeabNPV: Baculoviridae, Gammabaculovirus against its natural host were conducted in July and August 2002 near Corner Brook, Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada, in naturally regenerated, precommercially thinned stands dominated by balsam fir (Abies balsamea. Two experimental blocks, each with its own untreated control, were established. The purpose of the Island Pond block was to examine the spread of NeabNPV from a 313-ha aerial treatment block out into adjacent populations of balsam fir sawflies. The purpose of the Old Man’s Pond block (2,093 ha was to determine whether NeabNPV could disperse into populations of balsam fir sawflies within a 200-m zone between spray swaths. NeabNPV was applied to treatment blocks by a Cessna 188B AgTruck aircraft equipped with MicronAir AU4000 rotary atomizers at an application rate equivalent to 1 × 109 NeabNPV occlusion bodies/ha in 2.5 L of 20% aqueous molasses. At Island Pond, NeabNPV infection increased with time following the spray, especially for individuals close to the treatment block, and infection rate decreased to a measured distance of 400 m from the treatment block. At Old Man’s Pond, NeabNPV infection rose higher (80% vs. 15% and sawfly densities declined more (84% vs. 60% in the area between spray swaths than in the control block.

  5. Spread of a Gammabaculovirus within Larval Populations of Its Natural Balsam Fir Sawfly (Neodiprion abietis) Host Following Its Aerial Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graves, Roger; Lucarotti, Christopher J; Quiring, Dan T

    2012-01-01

    Field trials and assessments of the balsam fir sawfly (Neodiprion abietis) nucleopolyhedrovirus (NeabNPV: Baculoviridae, Gammabaculovirus) against its natural host were conducted in July and August 2002 near Corner Brook, Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada, in naturally regenerated, precommercially thinned stands dominated by balsam fir (Abies balsamea). Two experimental blocks, each with its own untreated control, were established. The purpose of the Island Pond block was to examine the spread of NeabNPV from a 313-ha aerial treatment block out into adjacent populations of balsam fir sawflies. The purpose of the Old Man's Pond block (2,093 ha) was to determine whether NeabNPV could disperse into populations of balsam fir sawflies within a 200-m zone between spray swaths. NeabNPV was applied to treatment blocks by a Cessna 188B AgTruck aircraft equipped with MicronAir AU4000 rotary atomizers at an application rate equivalent to 1 × 10⁸ NeabNPV occlusion bodies/ha in 2.5 L of 20% aqueous molasses. At Island Pond, NeabNPV infection increased with time following the spray, especially for individuals close to the treatment block, and infection rate decreased to a measured distance of 400 m from the treatment block. At Old Man's Pond, NeabNPV infection rose higher (80% vs. 15%) and sawfly densities declined more (84% vs. 60%) in the area between spray swaths than in the control block. PMID:26466719

  6. MORPHOLOGICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF AERIAL HYPHAE AND SIMULATION GROWTH OF Fusarium solani UNDER DIFFERENT CARBON SOURCE FOR APPLICATION IN THE HYDROPHOBIC VOCs BIOFILTRATION

    OpenAIRE

    Vergara-Fernández, A.; Hernández, S; J. San Martín-Davison; Revah, S.

    2011-01-01

    This work presents the eect of dierent carbon sources (glycerol, 1-hexanol and n-hexane) over the morphology of the aerial hyphae of the filamentous fungus Fusarium solani for its application in the biofiltration of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). A mathematical model was developed and further verified that combines microscopic and macroscopic parameters describing the mycelial fungal growth. Image analysis of microcultures and culture in agar dishes was performed to determine the morpholo...

  7. Aerial Photography and Imagery, Oblique, This data set was acquired through a federal grant with Pictometry International. The imagery is either 4" or 9" resolution., Published in 2011, Not Applicable scale, Chippewa County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Aerial Photography and Imagery, Oblique dataset, published at Not Applicable scale, was produced all or in part from Field Observation information as of 2011....

  8. Short communication. First field assessment of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki aerial application on the colony performance of Apis mellifera L. (Hymenoptera: Apidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria del Mar Leza Salord

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Honeybee populations around the world are experiencing a decrease in colony numbers probably due to a combination of different causes, such as diseases, poor nutrition and frequent applications of insecticides to control pests. Previous studies about the effect of pesticide Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki (Btk on Apis mellifera L. report different results. The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of field aerial applications of Btk on bee colony performance, specifically on the brood cell percentage evolution, which can be used as an indicator of queen health and brood development breeding rates. To achieve it, the brood cell surface was photographed in every sampling, and data were analyzed using a method based on image treatment software. A total of 480 pictures were examined from two groups of four nucleus hives in two areas, one receiving aerial spraying with Btk and the other without treatment. A mixed factorial design was realized to analyse the data showing no differences in colony performance between the two groups of colonies either before the treatment, during and at the end of the assay. Furthermore, the brood surface ratio of Btk-treated/untreated increased along the experiment. Therefore, the results of the present study suggest that Btk aerial applications did not affect the brood development of honeybees under natural conditions. Nevertheless further field studies are required to ascertain a safe use of Btk in forest pest management.

  9. US Forest Service Aerial Fire Retardant Avoidance Areas: Terrestrial

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — A map service depicting aerial fire retardant avoidance areas delivered as part of the 2011 Nationwide Aerial Application of Fire Retardant on National Forest...

  10. Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) operated spectral camera system for forest and agriculture applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saari, Heikki; Pellikka, Ismo; Pesonen, Liisa; Tuominen, Sakari; Heikkilä, Jan; Holmlund, Christer; Mäkynen, Jussi; Ojala, Kai; Antila, Tapani

    2011-11-01

    VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland has developed a Fabry-Perot Interferometer (FPI) based hyperspectral imager compatible with the light weight UAV platforms. The concept of the hyperspectral imager has been published in the SPIE Proc. 7474 and 7668. In forest and agriculture applications the recording of multispectral images at a few wavelength bands is in most cases adequate. The possibility to calculate a digital elevation model of the forest area and crop fields provides means to estimate the biomass and perform forest inventory. The full UAS multispectral imaging system will consist of a high resolution false color imager and a FPI based hyperspectral imager which can be used at resolutions from VGA (480 x 640 pixels) up to 5 Mpix at wavelength range 500 - 900 nm at user selectable spectral resolutions in the range 10...40 nm @ FWHM. The resolution is determined by the order at which the Fabry- Perot interferometer is used. The overlap between successive images of the false color camera is 70...80% which makes it possible to calculate the digital elevation model of the target area. The field of view of the false color camera is typically 80 degrees and the ground pixel size at 150 m flying altitude is around 5 cm. The field of view of the hyperspectral imager is presently is 26 x 36 degrees and ground pixel size at 150 m flying altitude is around 3.5 cm. The UAS system has been tried in summer 2011 in Southern Finland for the forest and agricultural areas. During the first test campaigns the false color camera and hyperspectral imager were flown over the target areas at separate flights. The design and calibration of the hyperspectral imager will be shortly explained. The test flight campaigns on forest and crop fields and their preliminary results are also presented in this paper.

  11. Fluorescence Lyman-Alpha Stratospheric Hygrometer (FLASH): application on meteorological balloons, long duration balloons and unmanned aerial vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lykov, Alexey; Khaykin, Sergey; Yushkov, Vladimir; Efremov, Denis; Formanyuk, Ivan; Astakhov, Valeriy

    The FLASH instrument is based on the fluorescent method, which uses H2O molecules photodissociation at a wavelength lambda=121.6 nm (Lalpha - hydrogen emission) followed by the measurement of the fluorescence of excited OH radicals. The source of Lyman-alpha radiation is a hydrogen discharge lamp while the detector of OH fluorescence at 308 -316 nm is a photomultiplier run in photon counting mode. The intensity of the fluorescent light as well as the instrument readings is directly proportional to the water vapor mixing ratio under stratospheric conditions with negligible oxygen absorption. Initially designed for rocket-borne application, FLASH has evolved into a light-weight balloon sonde (FLASH-B) for measurements in the upper troposphere and stratosphere on board meteorological and small plastic balloons. This configuration has been used in over 100 soundings at numerous tropical mid-latitude and polar locations within various international field campaigns. An airborne version of FLASH instrument is successfully utilized onboard stratospheric M55-Geophysica aircraft and tropospheric airborne laboratory YAK42-Roshydromet. The hygrometer was modified for application onboard stratospheric long-duration balloons (FLASH-LDB version). This version was successfully used onboard CNES super-pressure balloon launched from SSC Esrange in March 2007 and flown during 10 days. Special design for polar long duration balloon PoGOLite was created for testing work during polar day in June 2013. Installation and measurement peculiarities as well as observational results are presented. Observations of water vapour using FLASH-B instrument, being of high quality are rather costly as the payload recovery is often complicated and most of the time impossible. Following the goal to find a cost-efficient solution, FLASH was adapted for use onboard Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV). This solution was only possible thanks to compactness and light-weight (0.5 kg) of FLASH instrument. The

  12. Fusion of Multi-View and Multi-Scale Aerial Imagery for Real-Time Situation Awareness Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuo, X.; Kurz, F.; Reinartz, P.

    2015-08-01

    Manned aircraft has long been used for capturing large-scale aerial images, yet the high costs and weather dependence restrict its availability in emergency situations. In recent years, MAV (Micro Aerial Vehicle) emerged as a novel modality for aerial image acquisition. Its maneuverability and flexibility enable a rapid awareness of the scene of interest. Since these two platforms deliver scene information from different scale and different view, it makes sense to fuse these two types of complimentary imagery to achieve a quick, accurate and detailed description of the scene, which is the main concern of real-time situation awareness. This paper proposes a method to fuse multi-view and multi-scale aerial imagery by establishing a common reference frame. In particular, common features among MAV images and geo-referenced airplane images can be extracted by a scale invariant feature detector like SIFT. From the tie point of geo-referenced images we derive the coordinate of corresponding ground points, which are then utilized as ground control points in global bundle adjustment of MAV images. In this way, the MAV block is aligned to the reference frame. Experiment results show that this method can achieve fully automatic geo-referencing of MAV images even if GPS/IMU acquisition has dropouts, and the orientation accuracy is improved compared to the GPS/IMU based georeferencing. The concept for a subsequent 3D classification method is also described in this paper.

  13. Three-dimensional imaging applications in Earth Sciences using video data acquired from an unmanned aerial vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, Tara

    For three dimensional (3D) aerial images, unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) are cheaper to operate and easier to fly than the typical manned craft mounted with a laser scanner. This project explores the feasibility of using 2D video images acquired with a UAV and transforming them into 3D point clouds. The Aeryon Scout -- a quad-copter micro UAV -- flew two missions: the first at York University Keele campus and the second at the Canadian Wollastonite Mine Property. Neptec's ViDAR software was used to extract 3D information from the 2D video using structure from motion. The resulting point clouds were sparsely populated, yet captured vegetation well. They were used successfully to measure fracture orientation in rock walls. Any improvement in the video resolution would cascade through the processing and improve the overall results.

  14. Heuristic approach to the development of ratings and tactics applicable to the one-on-one aerial combat (dogfight) encounter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hague, D. S.

    1977-01-01

    Computer simulations of the one-on-one aerial combat encounter are generated under the control of specified guidance laws. Given an initial state, the vehicle and atmospheric characteristics, and the guidance laws, the aerial combat encounter is simulated by forward integration of the two vehicles' motions. The development of a combat guidance law which converts positional advantage into an improved firing opportunity is reported. A combination of lag, line of sight, and lead pursuit steering paths are followed in the guidance law. The law is based on steering error, target angle-off and the relative velocities. It readily is automated either as an onboard aid to manned aircraft pilots or as a combat guidance law for unmanned vehicles.

  15. AMRMS Aerial survey database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — An aerial monitoring program was conducted during the period 1962 - 2003 in cooperation with aerial spotters working for the commercial purse seine fleet. Flights...

  16. Rangeland monitoring with unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) have great potential for rangeland management applications, such as monitoring vegetation change, developing grazing strategies, determining rangeland health, and assessing remediation treatment effectiveness. UAVs have several advantages: they can be deployed quickly...

  17. Joint Terrestrial and Aerial Measurements to Study Ground Deformation: Application to the Sciara Del Fuoco at the Stromboli Volcano (Sicily

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Bonforte

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The 2002–2003 Stromboli eruption triggered the failure of part of the Sciara del Fuoco slope, which generated a tsunami that struck the island and the northern coastline of Sicily. The Sciara del Fuoco is a very steep slope where all lava flows from the craters’ emplacement; most lateral eruptions usually take place from fissures propagating in this sector of the volcano. The eruption went on to produce a lava field that filled the area affected by the landslide. This in turn led to further instability, renewing the threat of another slope failure and a potentially related tsunami. This work describes a new joint approach, combining surveying data and aerial image correlometry methods, to study the motion of this unstable slope. The combination has the advantage of very precise surveying measurements, which can be considered the ground truth to constrain the very-high-resolution aerial photogrammetric data, thereby obtaining highly detailed and accurate ground deformation maps. The joint use of the two methods can be very useful to obtain a more complete image of the deformation field for monitoring dangerous and/or rather inaccessible places. The proposed combined methodology improves our ability to study and assess hazardous processes associated with significant ground deformation.

  18. On ADSSeries Digital Aerial Photographic Camera Features and Its Application in Aerial Photogrammetry%浅谈 ADS 系列数字航摄仪的特点及其在航空摄影测量中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜秀新

    2013-01-01

    Introduced the ADS series principles and characteristics of digital aerial photography instrument in topographic map getting ready for work and application of aerial ADS series aerial aerial Photogrammetry process ADS to subvert traditional instrument box aeri -al photograph features ., eliminating the processes such as washing , scanning and number crunching .ADS means Photogrammetry of the field from the application of processes , software,technologies, processes, equipment, methods, specification of major changes .%介绍了ADS系列数字航摄仪的原理及特点在地形图航摄前的准备工作和应用ADS系列航摄仪进行航空摄影测量的过程ADS颠覆了传统航摄仪框幅的特点,省去了冲洗、扫描及打号等工序。 ADS的应用意味着摄影测量领域从工序、技术、流程、软件、装备、方法、规范的重大变革。

  19. Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Integration into the NAS Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Technological innovations have enabled a wide range of aerial vehicles that can be remotely operated. Viable applications include military missions, law...

  20. Design and Development of a Low-Cost Aerial Mobile Mapping System for Multi-Purpose Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acevedo Pardo, C.; Farjas Abadía, M.; Sternberg, H.

    2015-08-01

    The research project with the working title "Design and development of a low-cost modular Aerial Mobile Mapping System" was formed during the last year as the result from numerous discussions and considerations with colleagues from the HafenCity University Hamburg, Department Geomatics. The aim of the project is to design a sensor platform which can be embedded preferentially on an UAV, but also can be integrated on any adaptable vehicle. The system should perform a direct scanning of surfaces with a laser scanner and supported through sensors for determining the position and attitude of the platform. The modular design allows his extension with other sensors such as multispectral cameras, digital cameras or multiple cameras systems.

  1. DESIGN AND DEVELOPMENT OF A LOW–COST AERIAL MOBILE MAPPING SYSTEM FOR MULTI-PURPOSE APPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Acevedo Pardo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The research project with the working title "Design and development of a low-cost modular Aerial Mobile Mapping System" was formed during the last year as the result from numerous discussions and considerations with colleagues from the HafenCity University Hamburg, Department Geomatics. The aim of the project is to design a sensor platform which can be embedded preferentially on an UAV, but also can be integrated on any adaptable vehicle. The system should perform a direct scanning of surfaces with a laser scanner and supported through sensors for determining the position and attitude of the platform. The modular design allows his extension with other sensors such as multispectral cameras, digital cameras or multiple cameras systems.

  2. Aerial-broadcast application of diphacinone bait for rodent control in Hawai`i: Efficacy and non-target species risk assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foote, David; Spurr, Eric B.; Lindsey, Gerald D.; Forbes Perry, Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    Introduced rats (Rattus rattus, R. exulans, and R. norvegicus) have been implicated in the decline or extinction of numerous species of plants and animals in Hawai‘i. This study investigated the efficacy of aerial-broadcast application of Ramik® Green baits containing 50 ppm (0.005%) diphacinone in reducing rat and mouse populations and the risk to non-target species. The study was undertaken in paired 45.56-ha treatment and non-treatment plots in Hawai‘i Volcanoes National Park. All 21 radio-collared rats in the treatment plot died within nine days of bait application, whereas none of the 18 radio-collared rats in the non-treatment plot died. There was a 99% drop in both the rat capture rate and percentage of non-toxic census bait blocks gnawed by rats in the treatment plot relative to the non-treatment plot three weeks after bait application. The only rat captured in the treatment plot three weeks after bait application was not ear-tagged (i.e., it was not a recapture), whereas 44% of the 52 rats captured in the non-treatment plot were ear-tagged. Most of the bait had disappeared from the forest floor within about one month of application. No birds likely to have eaten bait were found dead, although residues of diphacinone were found in the livers of three species of introduced seed-eating/omnivorous birds captured alive after bait application. No predatory birds were found dead one month or three months after bait application. The remains of a Hawaiian hawk (Buteo solitarius) were found six months after bait application, but it was not possible to determine the cause of death. This study demonstrated the efficacy of aerially broadcast diphacinone bait for control of rats and mice in Hawaiian montane forests, and was part of the dataset submitted to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for the national registration of a diphacinone bait for the control of rat populations in conservation areas.

  3. Application and Progress on Low-altitude Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Remote Sensing%低空无人机遥感的应用及发展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高奋生

    2014-01-01

    Using the advanced unmanned aerial vehicle technology, remote sensing sensor technology, communications technology, GPS differential positioning technology and remote sensing application technology, UAV remote sensing automation realized intelligent, dedicated and rapid access to get space remote sensing information and complete the processing, modeling and application analysis of remote sensing data. In recent years, the Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) has been widely used in geological environment and disaster investigation, dynamic monitoring of land use, map updating and other fields. This paper analyzed the composition of UAV remote sensing systems and summarized the current problems of UAV remote sensing study, presenting the prospects of UAV remote sensing research focus and priorities in the future.%无人机遥感即是利用先进的无人驾驶飞行器技术、遥感传感器技术、通讯技术、GPS差分定位技术和遥感应用技术,实现自动化、智能化、专用化快速获取空间遥感信息,完成遥感数据处理、建模和应用分析的应用技术。近年来,无人机遥感系统已被广泛应用在地质环境与灾害调查、土地利用动态监测、地形图更新等领域。本文分析了无人机遥感系统的组成,归纳了目前无人机遥感研究存在的问题,展望了今后无人机遥感研究的热点和重点。

  4. Aerial Robotics: a Bird's-Eye View

    OpenAIRE

    Morin, P.; Morin, Pascal; Bidaud, P.

    2014-01-01

    International audience A fter manufacturing, ground transportation and medicine, robotics has now made an incursion in the field of aerial applications. Several domains, such as mapping, shooting, monitoring of indoor and outdoor 3D environments, agriculture and traffic monitoring, surveillance of sensitive areas, structure inspection, handling and carrying of heavy loads, and physical interventions now seek to exploit what are commonly called "drones". While these unmanned aerial vehicles...

  5. Aerial Application of Mancozeb and Urinary Ethylene Thiourea (ETU) Concentrations among Pregnant Women in Costa Rica: The Infants’ Environmental Health Study (ISA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora, Ana María; Córdoba, Leonel; Cano, Juan Camilo; Quesada, Rosario; Faniband, Moosa; Wesseling, Catharina; Ruepert, Clemens; Öberg, Mattias; Eskenazi, Brenda; Mergler, Donna; Lindh, Christian H.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Mancozeb and its main metabolite ethylene thiourea (ETU) may alter thyroid function; thyroid hormones are essential for fetal brain development. In Costa Rica, mancozeb is aerially sprayed at large-scale banana plantations on a weekly basis. Objectives: Our goals were to evaluate urinary ETU concentrations in pregnant women living near large-scale banana plantations, compare their estimated daily intake (EDI) with established reference doses (RfDs), and identify factors that predict their urinary ETU concentrations. Methods: We enrolled 451 pregnant women from Matina County, Costa Rica, which has large-scale banana production. We visited 445 women up to three times during pregnancy to obtain urine samples (n = 872) and information on factors that possibly influence exposure. We determined urinary ETU concentrations using liquid chromatography mass spectrometry. Results: Pregnant women’s median urinary ETU concentrations were more than five times higher than those reported for other general populations. Seventy-two percent of the women had EDIs above the RfD. Women who lived closest (1st quartile, < 48 m) to banana plantations on average had a 45% (95% CI: 23, 72%) higher urinary ETU compared with women who lived farthest away (4th quartile, ≥ 565 m). Compared with the other women, ETU was also higher in women who washed agricultural work clothes on the day before sampling (11%; 95% CI: 4.9, 17%), women who worked in agriculture during pregnancy (19%; 95% CI: 9.3, 29%), and immigrant women (6.2%; 95% CI: 1.0, 13%). Conclusions: The pregnant women’s urinary ETU concentrations are of concern, and the principal source of exposure is likely to be aerial spraying of mancozeb. The factors predicting ETU provide insight into possibilities for exposure reduction. Citation: van Wendel de Joode B, Mora AM, Córdoba L, Cano JC, Quesada R, Faniband M, Wesseling C, Ruepert C, Öberg M, Eskenazi B, Mergler D, Lindh CH. 2014. Aerial application of mancozeb and

  6. Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) Dynamic-Tracking Directional Wireless Antennas for Low Powered Applications that Require Reliable Extended Range Operations in Time Critical Scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott G. Bauer; Matthew O. Anderson; James R. Hanneman

    2005-10-01

    The proven value of DOD Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) will ultimately transition to National and Homeland Security missions that require real-time aerial surveillance, situation awareness, force protection, and sensor placement. Public services first responders who routinely risk personal safety to assess and report a situation for emergency actions will likely be the first to benefit from these new unmanned technologies. ‘Packable’ or ‘Portable’ small class UAVs will be particularly useful to the first responder. They require the least amount of training, no fixed infrastructure, and are capable of being launched and recovered from the point of emergency. All UAVs require wireless communication technologies for real- time applications. Typically on a small UAV, a low bandwidth telemetry link is required for command and control (C2), and systems health monitoring. If the UAV is equipped with a real-time Electro-Optical or Infrared (EO/Ir) video camera payload, a dedicated high bandwidth analog/digital link is usually required for reliable high-resolution imagery. In most cases, both the wireless telemetry and real-time video links will be integrated into the UAV with unity gain omni-directional antennas. With limited on-board power and payload capacity, a small UAV will be limited with the amount of radio-frequency (RF) energy it transmits to the users. Therefore, ‘packable’ and ‘portable’ UAVs will have limited useful operational ranges for first responders. This paper will discuss the limitations of small UAV wireless communications. The discussion will present an approach of utilizing a dynamic ground based real-time tracking high gain directional antenna to provide extend range stand-off operation, potential RF channel reuse, and assured telemetry and data communications from low-powered UAV deployed wireless assets.

  7. A Space-Time Network-Based Modeling Framework for Dynamic Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Routing in Traffic Incident Monitoring Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jisheng; Jia, Limin; Niu, Shuyun; Zhang, Fan; Tong, Lu; Zhou, Xuesong

    2015-01-01

    It is essential for transportation management centers to equip and manage a network of fixed and mobile sensors in order to quickly detect traffic incidents and further monitor the related impact areas, especially for high-impact accidents with dramatic traffic congestion propagation. As emerging small Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) start to have a more flexible regulation environment, it is critically important to fully explore the potential for of using UAVs for monitoring recurring and non-recurring traffic conditions and special events on transportation networks. This paper presents a space-time network- based modeling framework for integrated fixed and mobile sensor networks, in order to provide a rapid and systematic road traffic monitoring mechanism. By constructing a discretized space-time network to characterize not only the speed for UAVs but also the time-sensitive impact areas of traffic congestion, we formulate the problem as a linear integer programming model to minimize the detection delay cost and operational cost, subject to feasible flying route constraints. A Lagrangian relaxation solution framework is developed to decompose the original complex problem into a series of computationally efficient time-dependent and least cost path finding sub-problems. Several examples are used to demonstrate the results of proposed models in UAVs’ route planning for small and medium-scale networks. PMID:26076404

  8. A Space-Time Network-Based Modeling Framework for Dynamic Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Routing in Traffic Incident Monitoring Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jisheng Zhang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available It is essential for transportation management centers to equip and manage a network of fixed and mobile sensors in order to quickly detect traffic incidents and further monitor the related impact areas, especially for high-impact accidents with dramatic traffic congestion propagation. As emerging small Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs start to have a more flexible regulation environment, it is critically important to fully explore the potential for of using UAVs for monitoring recurring and non-recurring traffic conditions and special events on transportation networks. This paper presents a space-time network- based modeling framework for integrated fixed and mobile sensor networks, in order to provide a rapid and systematic road traffic monitoring mechanism. By constructing a discretized space-time network to characterize not only the speed for UAVs but also the time-sensitive impact areas of traffic congestion, we formulate the problem as a linear integer programming model to minimize the detection delay cost and operational cost, subject to feasible flying route constraints. A Lagrangian relaxation solution framework is developed to decompose the original complex problem into a series of computationally efficient time-dependent and least cost path finding sub-problems. Several examples are used to demonstrate the results of proposed models in UAVs’ route planning for small and medium-scale networks.

  9. A Space-Time Network-Based Modeling Framework for Dynamic Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Routing in Traffic Incident Monitoring Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jisheng; Jia, Limin; Niu, Shuyun; Zhang, Fan; Tong, Lu; Zhou, Xuesong

    2015-01-01

    It is essential for transportation management centers to equip and manage a network of fixed and mobile sensors in order to quickly detect traffic incidents and further monitor the related impact areas, especially for high-impact accidents with dramatic traffic congestion propagation. As emerging small Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) start to have a more flexible regulation environment, it is critically important to fully explore the potential for of using UAVs for monitoring recurring and non-recurring traffic conditions and special events on transportation networks. This paper presents a space-time network- based modeling framework for integrated fixed and mobile sensor networks, in order to provide a rapid and systematic road traffic monitoring mechanism. By constructing a discretized space-time network to characterize not only the speed for UAVs but also the time-sensitive impact areas of traffic congestion, we formulate the problem as a linear integer programming model to minimize the detection delay cost and operational cost, subject to feasible flying route constraints. A Lagrangian relaxation solution framework is developed to decompose the original complex problem into a series of computationally efficient time-dependent and least cost path finding sub-problems. Several examples are used to demonstrate the results of proposed models in UAVs' route planning for small and medium-scale networks. PMID:26076404

  10. Impact of naled on honey bee Apis mellifera L. survival and productivity: aerial ULV application using a flat-fan nozzle system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, H; Latham, M; Hester, P G; Frommer, R L; Brock, C

    2003-08-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the impact of naled on honey bees as a result of their exposure to aerial ULV applications of this insecticide during three routine mosquito spray missions by Manatee County Mosquito Control District in Florida during the summer of 1999. Naled deposits were collected on filter paper and subsequently analyzed by gas chromatography. Mortality of adult honey bees Apis mellifera L. was estimated based on numbers from dead bee collectors placed in front of the entrance of the beehives. We found that honey bees clustering outside of the beehives were subject to naled exposure. Bee mortality increased when higher naled residues were found around the hives. The highest average naled deposit was 6,227 +/- 696 microg/m2 at the site 1 forest area following the mosquito spray mission on July 15, 1999. The range of naled deposition for this application was 2,818-7,101 microg/m2. The range of dead bees per hive was 0-39 prior to spraying and 9-200 within 24 h following this spray mission. The average yield of honey per hive was significantly lower (p naled-exposed hives compared with unexposed hives. Because reduction of honey yield also may be affected by other factors, such as location of the hives relative to a food source and vigor of the queen bee, the final assessment of honey yield was complicated. PMID:14565579

  11. Assessing crop injury caused by aerially applied glyphosate drift using spray sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crop injury caused by off-target drift of aerially applied glyphosate is of great concern to farmers and aerial applicators. An experiment was conducted in 2009 to determine the extent of injury due to near-field glyphosate drift from aerial application to glyphosate-sensitive cotton, corn and soybe...

  12. Persistence of Bacillus thuringiensis deposits in oak foliage, after aerial application of Foray 48B using rotary and pressure atomizers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A commercial formulation of Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki (Btk), Foray® 48B, was sprayed aerially over blocks selected in a hardwood forest in the USA at the rate of 90 billion international units in 7.0 L/ha, using a helicopter and a fixed‐wing aircraft, each fitted with pressure or rotary cage atomizers. Droplet size spectra were assessed on foliage using two new parameters, viz., droplet‐spot number median diameter (S‐DN.5) and protein mass median diameter (S‐DM.5). The data indicated that when rotary cage atomizers were used, the droplet spectra were narrow with smaller S‐DN.5 and S‐DM.5 values, than when pressure atomizers were used. The protein mass deposits corresponded with the droplet sizes, i.e., the larger the droplet sizes, the greater the deposits. The initial bioactivity did not correspond with the deposits, because the greater the deposits the lower the activity. Persistence of bioactivity also showed irregularities, indicating the role of environmental transformation of formulation ingredients into products of greater toxicity via the dermal route. A controlled laboratory study provided a new methodology to determine oral and dermal toxicity separately, and showed that dermal toxicity of formulation ingredients increased with exposure to sunlight. The field observations were explained on the basis of the laboratory findings that when the applied droplets were too large, the spread area not only became too large to be effective, but also increased the probability of sunlight exposure of the formulation components present in the deposits. The present investigation provided a novel method to develop two new parameters, S‐DN.5 and S‐DM.5, which were related to droplet spread area on target, and not to spherical diameters of the droplets. As a result, these parameters provided a better understanding of the extent of droplet spreading on surfaces, which played a more important role on rain washing and photo‐conversion of the

  13. Development of an unmanned aerial vehicle-based spray system for highly accurate site-specific application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Application of crop production and protection materials is a crucial component in the high productivity of American agriculture. Agricultural chemical application is frequently needed at a specific time and location for accurate site-specific management of crop pests. Piloted aircrafts that carry ...

  14. Applications of unmanned aerial vehicle images on agricultural remote sensing monitoring%基于无人机影像的农情遥感监测应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王利民; 刘佳; 杨玲波; 陈仲新; 王小龙; 欧阳斌

    2013-01-01

    the mean square error of the X axis direction is 1.59 m, the Y direction is 1.8965 m, and the mean square error of the overall plane is 2.32 m. The above figures conform to the 1:10 000 ground plane precision requirements specified in the‘Standard for Aerotriangulation of Digital Aerophotogrammetry’ and can meet the positioning precision requirements of a crop area survey in remote sensing monitoring. After obtaining the ortho-photo map, the four ground objects in the area evaluation areas of spring corn, summer corn, alfalfa, and bare soil were classified by employing two methods of supervised classification and object-oriented classification. By taking the differential GPS survey results as the evaluation criteria, the overall precisions of the four crops reached 88.2% (supervised classification) and 92.0% (object-oriented classification) respectively. The separate classification precisions of the two classification methods of the four ground objects were 88.9%, 86.7%, 93.0%, 86.6%, and 90.35%, as well as 90.35%, 92.61%, 94.93%, and 93.30%respectively. The result showed that remote sensing images of unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV), by acquiring small scale and quadrat sampled crop images, have a prospect of wide application. After promotion, it can meet the demands of nationwide crop ground sampling on high spatial resolution images, and can partially replace the operation model of GPS measurement.%该文以中国农业科学院(万庄)农业高新技术产业园及周边地区4.2×3.1 km的范围为研究区域,利用无人机搭载RICOH GXR A12型相机进行了航拍试验,主要测试了定位定向系统(positioning and orientation system, POS)数据辅助下光束法区域网平差方法平面定位及面积测量精度,以及无人机影像的作物面积识别精度。结果表明,在无控制点约束条件下,直接采用POS数据进行光束法区域网平差后,以中误差表示的平面定位精度为X轴方向(

  15. Environmental Assessment - Proposed Application of Aerially Applied Ultra Low Volume Naled for the Control of Adult Mosquitoes within the Big Branch Marsh National Wildlife Refuge in Lacombe, Louisiana

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document assesses the effects that aerially applied ultra low volume Naled would have on adult mosquito populations. It also offers alternatives.

  16. Aerial ultra-low-volume application of naled: impact on nontarget imperiled butterfly larvae (Cyclargus thomasi bethunebakeri) and efficacy against adult mosquitoes (Aedes taeniorhynchus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, H; Hribar, L J; Daniels, J C; Feken, M A; Brock, C; Trager, M D

    2010-12-01

    We assessed the exposure and acute toxicity of naled, applied aerially as an ultra-low-volume spray for mosquito control, on late instar larvae of the Miami blue (Cyclargus thomasi bethunebakeri) (Comstock and Huntington 1943) (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae), an imperiled South Florida butterfly. We concurrently evaluated the control efficacy against caged adult female salt-marsh mosquitoes (Aedes taeniorhynchus) (Wiedemann 1821) (Diptera: Culicidae). This 3-yr study was conducted in north Key Largo (Monroe County, FL) beginning in 2006. The field trials incorporated 15 sampling stations: nine in the target spray zone, three in the spray drift zone at varying distances from the target zone, and three in the control zone not subjected to naled spray drift. A total of six field spray trials were completed, three at an altitude of 30.5 m (100 feet), and three at 45.7 m (150 feet). For all trials, the ultra-low-volume application of Trumpet EC insecticide (78% naled) at a rate of 54.8 ml/ha (0.75 fl. oz/acre) was effective in killing caged adult mosquitoes in the target zone. Butterfly larvae survival was significantly reduced in the spray zone compared with drift and control zones. Analysis of insecticide residue data revealed that the mortality of the late instar butterfly larvae was a result of exposure to excess residues of naled. Additional research is needed to determine mitigation strategies that can limit exposure of sensitive butterflies to naled while maintaining mosquito control efficacy. PMID:22182563

  17. Minimizing the impact of the mosquito adulticide naled on honey bees, Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae): aerial ultra-low-volume application using a high-pressure nozzle system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, He; Latham, Mark; Payne, Steve; Brock, Cate

    2004-02-01

    The impact of the mosquito adulticide naled on honey bees, Apis mellifera L., was evaluated by exposing test beehives to nighttime aerial ultra-low-volume (ULV) applications using a high-pressure nozzle system. The tests were conducted during routine mosquito control missions at Manatee County, Florida, in summer 2000. Two treatment sites were sprayed a total of four times over a 10-wk period. Honey bees, which clustered outside of the hive entrances, were subjected to naled exposure during these mosquito control sprays. The highest average naled ground deposition was 2,688 microg/m2 at the Port Manatee site, which resulted in statistically significant bee mortality (118) compared with the controls. At the Terra Ceia Road site, an intermediate level of naled deposition was found (1,435 microg/m2). For this spray mission, the range of dead bees per hive at Terra Ceia was 2 to 9 before spraying and 5 to 36 after naled application. Means of all other naled ground depositions were 100 dead bees) resulted when naled residue levels were > 2,000 kg/m2 and honey bees were clustered outside of the hive entrances during mosquito adulticide applications. Compared with the flat-fan nozzle systems currently used by most of Florida's mosquito control programs, the high-pressure nozzle system used in this experiment substantially reduced environmental insecticide contamination and lead to decreased bee mortality. Statistical analysis also showed that average honey yield at the end of the season was not significantly reduced for those hives that were exposed to the insecticide. PMID:14998120

  18. Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Instrumentation for Rapid Aerial Photo System

    CERN Document Server

    Adiprawita, Widyawardana; Semibiring, Jaka

    2008-01-01

    This research will proposed a new kind of relatively low cost autonomous UAV that will enable farmers to make just in time mosaics of aerial photo of their crop. These mosaics of aerial photo should be able to be produced with relatively low cost and within the 24 hours of acquisition constraint. The autonomous UAV will be equipped with payload management system specifically developed for rapid aerial mapping. As mentioned before turn around time is the key factor, so accuracy is not the main focus (not orthorectified aerial mapping). This system will also be equipped with special software to post process the aerial photos to produce the mosaic aerial photo map

  19. Aerial Photography and Imagery, Ortho-Corrected, This imagery was acquired through a Federal Grant with Pictometry International. The resolution is 6" in more densly populated areas and 1' in the other areas., Published in 2011, Not Applicable scale, Chippewa County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Aerial Photography and Imagery, Ortho-Corrected dataset, published at Not Applicable scale, was produced all or in part from Orthoimagery information as of...

  20. Ground-based spectral reflectance measurements for efficacy evaluation of aerially applied glyphosate treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aerial application of herbicides is a common tool in agricultural field management. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of glyphosate herbicide applied aerially with both conventional and emerging aerial nozzle technologies. A Texas A&M University Plantation weed field was set u...

  1. Aerial radiation survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aerial gamma spectrometry surveys are the most effective, comprehensive and preferred tool to delimit the large area surface contamination in a radiological emergency either due to a nuclear accident or following a nuclear strike. The airborne survey apart from providing rapid and economical evaluation of ground contamination over large areas due to larger ground clearance and higher speed, is the only technique to overcome difficulties posed by ground surveys of inaccessible region. The aerial survey technique can also be used for searching of lost radioactive sources, tracking of radioactive plume and generation of background data on the Emergency Planning Zone (EPZ) of nuclear installations

  2. Autonomous Collision avoidance for Unmanned aerial systems

    OpenAIRE

    Melega, Marco

    2014-01-01

    Unmanned Aerial System (UAS) applications are growing day by day and this will lead Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) in the close future to share the same airspace of manned aircraft.This implies the need for UAS to define precise safety standards compatible with operations standards for manned aviation. Among these standards the need for a Sense And Avoid (S&A) system to support and, when necessary, sub¬stitute the pilot in the detection and avoidance of hazardous situations (e.g. midair collis...

  3. The Application Of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV)Photogrammetry in Land Reclamation Measurement%无人机航空摄影测量在土地复垦测量中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘福春; 朱微

    2015-01-01

    介绍了无人机在土地复垦测量中的应用,通过成本、效率、测绘产品多样性几个方面比较,证实了无人机航空摄影测量比传统的数字化测图在土地复垦中应用更为先进.%Introduces the application of Unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV)in land reclamation measurement,through cost, efficiency,several aspects of surveying and mapping product diversity comparison,confirmed the UAV photogrammetry than traditional digital mapping application more advanced in land reclamation.

  4. A Spherical Aerial Terrestrial Robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudley, Christopher J.

    This thesis focuses on the design of a novel, ultra-lightweight spherical aerial terrestrial robot (ATR). The ATR has the ability to fly through the air or roll on the ground, for applications that include search and rescue, mapping, surveillance, environmental sensing, and entertainment. The design centers around a micro-quadcopter encased in a lightweight spherical exoskeleton that can rotate about the quadcopter. The spherical exoskeleton offers agile ground locomotion while maintaining characteristics of a basic aerial robot in flying mode. A model of the system dynamics for both modes of locomotion is presented and utilized in simulations to generate potential trajectories for aerial and terrestrial locomotion. Details of the quadcopter and exoskeleton design and fabrication are discussed, including the robot's turning characteristic over ground and the spring-steel exoskeleton with carbon fiber axle. The capabilities of the ATR are experimentally tested and are in good agreement with model-simulated performance. An energy analysis is presented to validate the overall efficiency of the robot in both modes of locomotion. Experimentally-supported estimates show that the ATR can roll along the ground for over 12 minutes and cover the distance of 1.7 km, or it can fly for 4.82 minutes and travel 469 m, on a single 350 mAh battery. Compared to a traditional flying-only robot, the ATR traveling over the same distance in rolling mode is 2.63-times more efficient, and in flying mode the system is only 39 percent less efficient. Experimental results also demonstrate the ATR's transition from rolling to flying mode.

  5. Aerial radiometric surveys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main characteristics of aerial radiometric surveys in the Argentine Republic concerning to uranium and other radiactive elements search, are described. This paper is divided into three chapters: the first concerns with the fundaments of gammametric surveys; the second, with the data processing and the third with the interpretation of the results. (Author)

  6. Aerial Perspective Artistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Linda

    2010-01-01

    This article presents a lesson centering on aerial perspective artistry of students and offers suggestions on how art teachers should carry this project out. This project serves to develop students' visual perception by studying reproductions by famous artists. This lesson allows one to imagine being lured into a landscape capable of captivating…

  7. Persistent Aerial Tracking

    KAUST Repository

    Mueller, Matthias

    2016-04-13

    In this thesis, we propose a new aerial video dataset and benchmark for low altitude UAV target tracking, as well as, a photo-realistic UAV simulator that can be coupled with tracking methods. Our benchmark provides the rst evaluation of many state of-the-art and popular trackers on 123 new and fully annotated HD video sequences captured from a low-altitude aerial perspective. Among the compared trackers, we determine which ones are the most suitable for UAV tracking both in terms of tracking accuracy and run-time. We also present a simulator that can be used to evaluate tracking algorithms in real-time scenarios before they are deployed on a UAV "in the field", as well as, generate synthetic but photo-realistic tracking datasets with free ground truth annotations to easily extend existing real-world datasets. Both the benchmark and simulator will be made publicly available to the vision community to further research in the area of object tracking from UAVs. Additionally, we propose a persistent, robust and autonomous object tracking system for unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) called Persistent Aerial Tracking (PAT). A computer vision and control strategy is applied to a diverse set of moving objects (e.g. humans, animals, cars, boats, etc.) integrating multiple UAVs with a stabilized RGB camera. A novel strategy is employed to successfully track objects over a long period, by \\'handing over the camera\\' from one UAV to another. We integrate the complete system into an off-the-shelf UAV, and obtain promising results showing the robustness of our solution in real-world aerial scenarios.

  8. Laboratory geometric calibration of areal digital aerial camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Digital aerial camera is non-metric camera. Geometric calibration, including the determination of interior orientation elements and distortion parameters, is the base of high precision photogrammetry. In this paper, a laboratory geometric calibration system of areal digital aerial cameras is developed. This system uses a collimator and a star tester as the target generator. After measurement of the coordinates of targets on the CCD plane and corresponding angles of parallel lights, the geometric calibration of digital aerial camera can be realized according to the geometric calibration model of this paper. Geometric calibration experiments are taken out based on this system using two kinds of mainstream digital aerial cameras, Cannon EOS 5D Mark II and Hasselblad H3D. Experiment results show that this system can satisfy the calibration requirements of aerial photogrammetric application and prove the correctness and the reliability of this calibration method

  9. Primjena bespilotnih letjelica u geodeziji na primjeru aerofotogrametrijskog sistema SenseFly eBee : Application of unmanned aerial vehicles in geodesy on the example of aerial photogrammetric system SenseFly eBee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amel Žilić

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available U posljednjih nekoliko godina razvija se potpuno nova metoda snimanja Zemljine površine u svrhu premjera zemljišta i objekata. Koristeći bespilotne letjelice, omogućeno je snimanje većih površina u vrlo kratkom vremenskom roku s visokom tačnošću. Iako još uvijek postoje mnogobrojne nejasnoće, neminovno je da ova metoda predstavlja budućnost u geodeziji i njenim oblastima. U ovom radu opisana je metoda snimanja bespilotnom letjelicom SenseFly eBee i način dobivanja oblaka tačaka, digitalnog modela reljefa i digitalnog ortofoto plana. Implementiranjem standarda NSSDA za ocjenu prostornih podataka zaključeno je da tačnost rezultata zavisi od rezolucije snimanja, konfiguracije terena i vremenskih uslova. : During the last few years a completely new method for land and object surveying was devloped. Using unmanned aerial vehicle, it is possible to survey a large areas in very short period of time with high accuraccy. Although there are still many uncertainties, it is inevitable that this method represents the future in geodesy and its areas. This paper defines a method for land surveying using SenseFly eBee drone and proccess of creating point cloud, digital model of relief and digital ortofoto map. Using NSSDA standard for spatial data accuraccy on drone products, it was concluded that accuraccy of given results depends on the ground resolution, terrain relief and weather conditions.

  10. AERIAL RADIOLOGICAL SURVEYS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measuring terrestrial gamma radiation from airborne platforms has proved to be a useful method for characterizing radiation levels over large areas. Over 300 aerial radiological surveys have been carried out over the past 25 years including U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites, commercial nuclear power plants, Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program/Uranium Mine Tailing Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP/UMTRAP) sites, nuclear weapons test sites, contaminated industrial areas, and nuclear accident sites. This paper describes the aerial measurement technology currently in use by the Remote Sensing Laboratory (RSL) for routine environmental surveys and emergency response activities. Equipment, data-collection and -analysis methods, and examples of survey results are described

  11. Handbook for aerial radiological monitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This handbook provides technical and operational guidance for conducting aerial radiological surveys. It is used in the training of aerial radiological monitors. Aerial monitors should also review this handbook periodically and use it as a reference in exercises and emergency operations. Detailed descriptions of aerial survey techniques, operational procedures, and the use of specialized survey equipment are given. These three sections provide the essentials. However, the planning and execution of aerial surveys are complex; and for most effective operations, an aerial survey team (pilot and monitor) also needs to be familiar with (a) the overall monitoring system, (b) the unique contributions which aerial survey can provide, and (c) the principles affecting the success of aerial survey operations. The DCPA Handbook for Radiological Monitors provides a brief description of the overall radiological monitoring system and the functions required of it. Section I outlines (a) the relationship of aerial survey to the monitoring system, (b) the major contributions to be expected from aerial survey operations, (c) personnel requirements, and (d) aircraft selection and their organization for use. Technical principles and concepts affecting survey operations are discussed in Section II

  12. CERN: an aerial view

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    On 30th January, when CERN still resembled a winter wonderland, a helicopter with a photographer on board took off on an aerial tour. One sunny morning at the end of January, when the area was waking up to an overnight snowfall, a helicopter took off from the Meyrin site with a CERN photographer on board. CERN has been the subject of aerial photographs ever since its creation. Although its appearance has changed over the years, the Laboratory has aged well. The aerial photographs taken during its fifty-year history bear witness to its expansion, showing how a handful of buildings and a first accelerator have blossomed into an entire machine complex. Let's take to the skies and have a look at some of the photos taken on this crisp January morning: a sight for sore eyes! In the foreground, Building 40 on the Meyrin site is recognisable from its magnet shape.On the right of the Route de Meyrin (crossing the photo diagonally), next to Point 1, the work on the Globe of Innovation, which got underway at the beg...

  13. Agisoft photoscan在无人机航空摄影影像数据处理中的应用%The Application of Agisoft photoscan in UAV Aerial Photographic Image Data Processing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张小宏; 赵生良; 陈丰田

    2013-01-01

      根据航空摄影测量数据处理的实践与经验,对利用Agisoft photoscan软件进行无人机获取的影像数据进行处理,生成数字地表模型(DSM)和正射影像图(DOM)进行了探讨。%According to the practice and experience of the management of aerial photography and survey data processing, this paper discussed the application of Agisoft photoscan in UAV image data processing and the production of digital surface model (DSM) and digital orthophoto map (DOM).

  14. Handbook of unmanned aerial vehicles

    CERN Document Server

    Vachtsevanos, George

    2015-01-01

    The Handbook of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles is a reference text for the academic and research communities, industry, manufacturers, users, practitioners, Federal Government, Federal and State Agencies, the private sector, as well as all organizations that are and will be using unmanned aircraft in a wide spectrum of applications. The Handbook covers all aspects of UAVs, from design to logistics and ethical issues. It is also targeting the young investigator, the future inventor and entrepreneur by providing an overview and detailed information of the state-of-the-art as well as useful new concepts that may lead to innovative research. The contents of the Handbook include material that addresses the needs and ‘know how’ of all of the above sectors targeting a very diverse audience. The Handbook offers a unique and comprehensive treatise of everything one needs to know about unmanned aircrafts, from conception to operation, from technologies to business activities, users, OEMs, reference sources, conferences, ...

  15. Application of extracellular lipopeptide biosurfactant produced by endophytic Bacillus subtilis K1 isolated from aerial roots of banyan (Ficus benghalensis) in microbially enhanced oil recovery (MEOR)

    OpenAIRE

    Pathak, Khyati V.; Keharia, Hareshkumar

    2013-01-01

    Bacillus subtilis K1 isolated from aerial roots of banyan tree secreted mixture of surfactins, iturins and fengycins with high degree of heterogeneity. The extracellular extract consisting of mixture of these cyclic lipopeptides exhibited very good emulsification activity as well as excellent emulsion stability. The culture accumulated maximum surfactant up to 48 h of growth during batch fermentation in Luria broth. The emulsion of hexane, heptane and octane prepared using 48-h-old culture su...

  16. Application of Technical Measures and Software in Constructing Photorealistic 3D Models of Historical Building Using Ground-Based and Aerial (UAV) Digital Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarnowski, Aleksander; Banaszek, Anna; Banaszek, Sebastian

    2015-12-01

    Preparing digital documentation of historical buildings is a form of protecting cultural heritage. Recently there have been several intensive studies using non-metric digital images to construct realistic 3D models of historical buildings. Increasingly often, non-metric digital images are obtained with unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV). Technologies and methods of UAV flights are quite different from traditional photogrammetric approaches. The lack of technical guidelines for using drones inhibits the process of implementing new methods of data acquisition. This paper presents the results of experiments in the use of digital images in the construction of photo-realistic 3D model of a historical building (Raphaelsohns' Sawmill in Olsztyn). The aim of the study at the first stage was to determine the meteorological and technical conditions for the acquisition of aerial and ground-based photographs. At the next stage, the technology of 3D modelling was developed using only ground-based or only aerial non-metric digital images. At the last stage of the study, an experiment was conducted to assess the possibility of 3D modelling with the comprehensive use of aerial (UAV) and ground-based digital photographs in terms of their labour intensity and precision of development. Data integration and automatic photo-realistic 3D construction of the models was done with Pix4Dmapper and Agisoft PhotoScan software Analyses have shown that when certain parameters established in an experiment are kept, the process of developing the stock-taking documentation for a historical building moves from the standards of analogue to digital technology with considerably reduced cost.

  17. Application of Technical Measures and Software in Constructing Photorealistic 3D Models of Historical Building Using Ground-Based and Aerial (UAV Digital Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zarnowski Aleksander

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Preparing digital documentation of historical buildings is a form of protecting cultural heritage. Recently there have been several intensive studies using non-metric digital images to construct realistic 3D models of historical buildings. Increasingly often, non-metric digital images are obtained with unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV. Technologies and methods of UAV flights are quite different from traditional photogrammetric approaches. The lack of technical guidelines for using drones inhibits the process of implementing new methods of data acquisition.

  18. Multi-object Tracking in Aerial Image Sequences using Aerial Tracking Learning and Detection Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vindhya P. Malagi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Vison based tracking in aerial images has its own significance in the areas of both civil and defense applications.  A novel algorithm called aerial tracking learning detection which works on the basis of the popular tracking learning detection algorithm to effectively track single and multiple objects in aerial images is proposed in this study. Tracking learning detection (TLD considers both appearance and motion features for tracking. It can handle occlusion to certain extent, and can work well on long duration video sequences. However, when objects are tracked in aerial images taken from platforms like unmanned air vehicle, the problems of frequent pose change, scale and illumination variations arise adding to low resolution, noise and jitter introduced by motion of the camera.  The proposed algorithm incorporates compensation for the camera movement, algorithmic modifications in combining appearance and motion cues for detection and tracking of multiple objects and enhancements in the form of inter object distance measure for improved performance of the tracker when there are many identical objects in proximity. This algorithm has been tested on a large number of aerial sequences including benchmark videos, TLD dataset and many classified unmanned air vehicle sequences and has shown better performance in comparison to TLD.Defence Science Journal, Vol. 66, No. 2, March 2016, pp. 122-129, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.66.8972

  19. Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Systems for Disaster Relief: Tornado Alley

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBusk, Wesley M.

    2009-01-01

    Unmanned aerial vehicle systems are currently in limited use for public service missions worldwide. Development of civil unmanned technology in the United States currently lags behind military unmanned technology development in part because of unresolved regulatory and technological issues. Civil unmanned aerial vehicle systems have potential to augment disaster relief and emergency response efforts. Optimal design of aerial systems for such applications will lead to unmanned vehicles which provide maximum potentiality for relief and emergency response while accounting for public safety concerns and regulatory requirements. A case study is presented that demonstrates application of a civil unmanned system to a disaster relief mission with the intent on saving lives. The concept utilizes unmanned aircraft to obtain advanced warning and damage assessments for tornados and severe thunderstorms. Overview of a tornado watch mission architecture as well as commentary on risk, cost, need for, and design tradeoffs for unmanned aerial systems are provided.

  20. Application of Aerial Survey by Drone in S urveying of 1∶500 Topographic Map of Tingkou Reservoir%无人机航测在亭口水库1∶500地形测量中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    焦旺; 刘凯

    2016-01-01

    In accordance with features of the aerial survey by drone, landmark point and check point in field are arranged.Through the out-door aerial photo by drone and the joint application of software such as Pix4DMapper, CASS and ArcGIS, etc, precision of plane and eleva-tion of the final topographic map satisfies requirementsof 1∶500 topographic map.This provides application of drone in the survey of compli-cated topography of reservoir with the complete solution.%根据无人机航测技术的特点,布设野外地标点和检核点,通过无人机外业航摄及内业中联合使用Pix4DMapper、CASS和ArcGIS等软件,使最终地形图的平面和高程精度达到了1∶500地形图的要求,为无人机在复杂的水库地形测量中的应用提供了一套完整的解决方案。

  1. The Aeronautics Education, Research, and Industry Alliance (AERIAL) 2002 Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Brent D.; Fink, Mary M.; Nickerson, Jocelyn S.

    2002-01-01

    This report presents and overview of the Aeronautics Education, Research, and Industry Alliance (AERIAL). It covers the University of Nebraska's areas of research, and its outreach to students at Native American schools as part of AERIAL. The report contains three papers: "Airborne Remote Sensing (ARS) for Agricultural Research and Commercialization Application" (White Paper), "Validated Numerical Models for the Convective Extinction of Fuel Droplets (CEFD)", and "The Small Aircraft Transportation System (SATS): Research Collaborations with the NASA Langley Research Center".

  2. Aerial in situ survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 2001 a detailed exploration of soil contamination took place in the mountainous region Hruby Jesenik located in northeastern part of the Czech Republic. This region was selected for the higher contamination of 137Cs after Chernobyl accident. For monitoring of an area about 100km2 aerial monitoring system IRIS (located on board of helicopter MI-17) was used. The parameters of measurement were: flight height above ground 80 m, speed 100 km/h, distance of flight lines 250 m, intervals of spectra recording 1s. For more detailed exploration of ground contamination in this area complementary ground-based mobile group measurements were performed. (author)

  3. Building and road detection from large aerial imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Shunta; Aoki, Yoshimitsu

    2015-02-01

    Building and road detection from aerial imagery has many applications in a wide range of areas including urban design, real-estate management, and disaster relief. The extracting buildings and roads from aerial imagery has been performed by human experts manually, so that it has been very costly and time-consuming process. Our goal is to develop a system for automatically detecting buildings and roads directly from aerial imagery. Many attempts at automatic aerial imagery interpretation have been proposed in remote sensing literature, but much of early works use local features to classify each pixel or segment to an object label, so that these kind of approach needs some prior knowledge on object appearance or class-conditional distribution of pixel values. Furthermore, some works also need a segmentation step as pre-processing. Therefore, we use Convolutional Neural Networks(CNN) to learn mapping from raw pixel values in aerial imagery to three object labels (buildings, roads, and others), in other words, we generate three-channel maps from raw aerial imagery input. We take a patch-based semantic segmentation approach, so we firstly divide large aerial imagery into small patches and then train the CNN with those patches and corresponding three-channel map patches. Finally, we evaluate our system on a large-scale road and building detection datasets that is publicly available.

  4. 低空无人机航摄系统在四川地形测绘中的应用%The Application of Low Altitude Unmanned Aerial Mapping System to Survey and Map of Geography in Sichuan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈玲; 潘伯鸣; 曹黎云

    2011-01-01

    低空无人机航摄系统作为全数字摄影测量的有力补充,目前在应急测绘及小面积高分辨率地理信息数据快速获取等方面已起到越来越重要的作用。本文介绍了无人机低空摄影测量系统的概况,并以四川绵竹旅游规划测绘项目为例,阐述了应用无人机低空摄影测量系统进行地形测绘的流程及方法。%The low altitude Unmanned aerial mapping system as the total amount word photographs measured emollient add,have already had a more and more important function in the aspects of meeting an emergency to survey and map and the small area high resolution geography information data quickly obtaining to wait currently.This text introduced unmanned machine low altitude to photograph the general situation of measuring the system,and with the Mian bamboo tour programming in Sichuan surveys and maps item for example,elaborated that the applied unmanned machine low altitude Unmanned aerial mapping system to carry on the process and method that the geography surveys and maps.The application that photographs to measure system in the aspects of surveying and mapping to the low altitude Unmanned aerial has better expansion meaning.

  5. Application of GPS supported aerial triangulation technology in UAV island topographic mapping%GPS辅助空中三角测量技术在无人机海岛测图中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李英成; 叶冬梅; 薛艳丽; 李团好

    2012-01-01

    本文通过示范区海岛大比例尺测图应用,试验了不同地面控制点数量、有无GPS辅助空三对比实验,测试验证了利用控制航线的GPS辅助空三技术方法,在少量控制情况下可满足海岛大比例尺测图精度要求,能够填补国内低空无入机海岛大比例尺测图空白.%Through large-scale mapping applications in island of demonstration area, experiments with different number of ground control points, aerial triangulation with or without GPS support were carried out in the paper ?The experiments approved that the use of GPS supported aerial triangulation with control strip could meet island large-scale mapping accuracy with few ground control points, which would fill the blank of UAV island topographic large-scale mapping.

  6. Aerial Terrain Mapping Using Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahar, K. N.

    2012-08-01

    This paper looks into the latest achievement in the low-cost Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) technology in their capacity to map the semi-development areas. The objectives of this study are to establish a new methodology or a new algorithm in image registration during interior orientation process and to determine the accuracy of the photogrammetric products by using UAV images. Recently, UAV technology has been used in several applications such as mapping, agriculture and surveillance. The aim of this study is to scrutinize the usage of UAV to map the semi-development areas. The performance of the low cost UAV mapping study was established on a study area with two image processing methods so that the results could be comparable. A non-metric camera was attached at the bottom of UAV and it was used to capture images at both sites after it went through several calibration steps. Calibration processes were carried out to determine focal length, principal distance, radial lens distortion, tangential lens distortion and affinity. A new method in image registration for a non-metric camera is discussed in this paper as a part of new methodology of this study. This method used the UAV Global Positioning System (GPS) onboard to register the UAV image for interior orientation process. Check points were established randomly at both sites using rapid static Global Positioning System. Ground control points are used for exterior orientation process, and check point is used for accuracy assessment of photogrammetric product. All acquired images were processed in a photogrammetric software. Two methods of image registration were applied in this study, namely, GPS onboard registration and ground control point registration. Both registrations were processed by using photogrammetric software and the result is discussed. Two results were produced in this study, which are the digital orthophoto and the digital terrain model. These results were analyzed by using the root mean square

  7. 浅谈航空摄影测量法在1:10000地形图测绘中的应用%A Discussion of the Application of Aerial Photogrammetry in Surveying and Mapping of 1:10 000 Maps

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李津岭; 张鉴; 吴学峰

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce the application of aerial photogrammetry in surveying and mapping of 1:10 000 maps, and dis- cuss three aspects including the development and application of aerial photogrammetry, the methods of obtaining data source in 1:10 000 topographic maps surveying and mapping, and the modem technique and workflow of the aerial photogrammetry.%介绍了航空摄影测量方法在1:10 000地形图测绘生产中的应用,并针对航空摄影测量法的发展应用与目前我国1:10 000地形图测绘数据源获取的方式,以及现代航空摄影测量方法的工艺流程三个方面分别进行了阐述。

  8. Morphing unmanned aerial vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research on aircraft morphing has exploded in recent years. The motivation and driving force behind this has been to find new and novel ways to increase the capabilities of aircraft. Materials advancements have helped to increase possibilities with respect to actuation and, hence, a diversity of concepts and unimagined capabilities. The expanded role of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) has provided an ideal platform for exploring these emergent morphing concepts since at this scale a greater amount of risk can be taken, as well as having more manageable fabrication and cost requirements. This review focuses on presenting the role UAVs have in morphing research by giving an overview of the UAV morphing concepts, designs, and technologies described in the literature. A presentation of quantitative information as well as a discussion of technical issues is given where possible to begin gaining some insight into the overall assessment and performance of these technologies. (topical review)

  9. SURVEYING A LANDSLIDE IN A ROAD EMBANKMENT USING UNMANNED AERIAL VEHICLE PHOTOGRAMMETRY

    OpenAIRE

    F. Carvajal; Agüera, F.; Pérez, M

    2012-01-01

    Most of the works of civil engineering, and some others applications, need to be designed using a basic cartography with a suitable scale to the accuracy and extension of the plot.The Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) Photogrammetry covers the gap between classical manned aerial photogrammetry and hand- made surveying techniques because it works in the close-range domain, combining aerial and terrestrial photogrammetry, but also introduces low-cost alternatives. The aim of this work is developing...

  10. Aerial Photogrammetry by drone in archaeological sites with large structures. Methodological approach and practical application in the medieval castles of Campo de Montiel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Ángel Ruiz Sabina

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available By writing this article we aim to illustrate the interesting combination of two existing techniques, accessible both for research groups and for professionals who want to study archaeological heritage: photogrammetry and aerial photography using a drone. We have applied these techniques to archaeological sites with standing structures, such as medieval castles in “Campo de Montiel” (Ciudad Real. Based on our expertise and experience, we have developed methodology for surface archaeological research, excavation and wall stratigraphy, thus identifying positive and negative aspects of this ethodology. The results obtained are truly positive, as we generated high-quality images offering news opportunities to investigate and show results, saving a considerable amount of time and money compared to traditional methods for graphical documentation.

  11. Mapping bare soil in South West Wales, UK, using high resolution colour infra-red aerial photography for water quality and flood risk management applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sykes, Helena; Neale, Simon; Coe, Sarah

    2016-04-01

    Natural Resources Wales is a UK government body responsible for environmental regulation, among other areas. River walks in Water Framework Directive (WFD) priority catchments in South West Wales, UK, identified soil entering water courses due to poaching and bank erosion, leading to deterioration in the water quality and jeopardising the water quality meeting legal minimum standards. Bare soil has also been shown to cause quicker and higher hydrograph peaks in rural catchments than if those areas were vegetated, which can lead to flooding of domestic properties during peak storm flows. The aim was to target farm visits by operational staff to advise on practices likely to improve water quality and to identify areas where soft engineering solutions such as revegetation could alleviate flood risk in rural areas. High resolution colour-infrared aerial photography, 25cm in the three colour bands and 50cm in the near infrared band, was used to map bare soil in seven catchments using supervised classification of a five band stack including the Normalised Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI). Mapping was combined with agricultural land use and field boundary data to filter out arable fields, which are supposed to bare soil for part of their cycle, and was very successful when compared to ground truthing, with the exception of silage fields which contained sparse, no or unproductive vegetation at the time the imagery was acquired leading to spectral similarity to bare soil. A raindrop trace model was used to show the path sediment from bare soil areas would take when moving through the catchment to a watercourse, with hedgerows inserted as barriers following our observations from ground truthing. The findings have been used to help farmers gain funding for improvements such as fencing to keep animals away from vulnerable river banks. These efficient and automated methods can be rolled out to more catchments in Wales and updated using aerial imagery acquired more recently to

  12. Middleware requirements for collaborative unmanned aerial vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohamed, Nader; Al-Jaroodi, Jameela; Jawhar, Imad;

    2013-01-01

    With the recent advances in the aircraft technologies, software, sensors, and communications; unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) can offer a wide range of applications. Some of these applications may involve multiple UAVs that cooperate and collaborate to achieve a common goal. This kind of...... applications is termed collaborative UAVs applications. One of the main research topics for multiple UAVs is developing an effective framework to enable the development of software systems for collaborative UAVs operations. One possible approach is to rely on middleware technologies to simplify the development...... and operations of such applications. This paper discusses the challenges of developing collaborative UAVs applications and how middleware can help resolve some of these challenges. In addition, the paper studies the utilization of service-oriented middleware infrastructures for implementing and...

  13. Aerial measurements in Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winkelmann, I.; Thomas, M.; Buchroeder, H.; Brummer, C. [Federal Office for Radiation Protection, Berlin (Germany); Carloff, G. [German Federal Border Police, Grenzschutz-Fliegergruppe, Sankt Augustin (Germany)

    1997-12-31

    Aerial measurements were performed to determine the {sup 137}Cs soil contamination in a given region to detect unknown radiation sources and to assess their activity. For these measurements a computerized gamma ray spectrometer, equipped with a high purity Ge-semiconductor detector and a 12 l volume Nal(Tl)-detector was used. HPGe-detector measurements from different altitudes over area I were done to test and re-calibrate the aerial measuring system. The known {sup 137}Cs contamination of (50.7 {+-} 5.2) kBq m{sup -2} could be confirmed by the measured value of (57 {+-} 10) kBq m{sup -2}. the Nal(Tl)-detector was re-calibrated at that site for further {sup 137}Cs measurements over area II. The area II was surveyed from an altitude of about 70 m and at a parallel line distance of 150 m at an flying speed of 100 km h{sup -1} to determine the {sup 137}Cs soil contamination. The measuring time was two seconds for the Nal(Tl)-detector. For the spectra measured with the HPGe-detector, a measuring time of 30 s each was chosen. From the Nal(Tl)-measurements, a mean {sup 137}Cs value of (60 {+-} 20) kBq m{sup -2} was determined with a maximum value of 90 kBq m{sup -2}. The corresponding values measured by HPGe-detector were (70 {+-} 20) kBq m{sup -2} and 120 kBq m{sup -2}, respectively. For the evaluation of the HPGe-spectra a depth distribution parameter {alpha}/{rho} = (0.44 {+-} 0.21) cm{sup 2} g{sup -1} for {sup 137}Cs was used measured from soil samples. From data measured with the Nal(Tl)-detector during flights over area III, three{sup 60}Co-sources and one {sup 137}Cs source could be detected, localized and their activity assessed. By HPGe-detector measurements, only scattered {sup 192}lr radiation was registered. (au).

  14. Modeling aerial refueling operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, Allen B., III

    Aerial Refueling (AR) is the act of offloading fuel from one aircraft (the tanker) to another aircraft (the receiver) in mid flight. Meetings between tanker and receiver aircraft are referred to as AR events and are scheduled to: escort one or more receivers across a large body of water; refuel one or more receivers; or train receiver pilots, tanker pilots, and boom operators. In order to efficiently execute the Aerial Refueling Mission, the Air Mobility Command (AMC) of the United States Air Force (USAF) depends on computer models to help it make tanker basing decisions, plan tanker sorties, schedule aircraft, develop new organizational doctrines, and influence policy. We have worked on three projects that have helped AMC improve its modeling and decision making capabilities. Optimal Flight Planning. Currently Air Mobility simulation and optimization software packages depend on algorithms which iterate over three dimensional fuel flow tables to compute aircraft fuel consumption under changing flight conditions. When a high degree of fidelity is required, these algorithms use a large amount of memory and CPU time. We have modeled the rate of aircraft fuel consumption with respect to AC GrossWeight, Altitude and Airspeed. When implemented, this formula will decrease the amount of memory and CPU time needed to compute sortie fuel costs and cargo capacity values. We have also shown how this formula can be used in optimal control problems to find minimum costs flight plans. Tanker Basing Demand Mismatch Index. Since 1992, AMC has relied on a Tanker Basing/AR Demand Mismatch Index which aggregates tanker capacity and AR demand data into six regions. This index was criticized because there were large gradients along regional boundaries. Meanwhile tankers frequently cross regional boundaries to satisfy the demand for AR support. In response we developed continuous functions to score locations with respect to their proximity to demand for AR support as well as their

  15. Application of Multispectral Sensors Carried on Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV to Trophic State Mapping of Small Reservoirs: A Case Study of Tain-Pu Reservoir in Kinmen, Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tung-Ching Su

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Multispectral, as well as multi-temporal, satellite images, coupled with measurements, in situ, have been widely applied to the water quality monitoring of reservoirs. However, the spatial resolutions of the current multispectral satellite imageries are inadequate for trophic state mapping of small reservoirs which merely cover several hectares. Moreover, the temporal gap between effective satellite imaging and measurements, in situ, is usually a few days or weeks; this time lag hampers the establishment of regression models between band ratios and water quality parameters. In this research, the RGB and NIR sensors carried on an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV were applied to the trophic state mapping of Tain-Pu reservoir, which is one of the small reservoirs in Kinmen, Taiwan. Due to the limited sampling points and the uncertainty of water fluidity, the average method and the matching pixel-by-pixel (MPP method were employed to search for the optimal regression models. The experimental results indicate that the MPP method can lead to better regression models than the average method, and the trophic state maps show that the averages of Chl-a, TP, and SD are 179.7 μg·L−1, 108.4 μg·L−1, and 1.4 m, respectively.

  16. Favourable uranium–phosphate exploration trends guided by the application of statistical factor analysis technique on the aerial gamma spectrometric data in Syrian desert (Area-1), Syria

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    J Asfahani; R Al-Hent; M Aissa

    2016-02-01

    A scored lithological map including 10 radiometric units is established through applying factor analysis approach to aerial spectrometric data of Area-1, Syrian desert, which includes Ur, eU, eTh, K%, eU/eTh, eU/K%, and eTh/K%. A model of four rotated factors F1, F2, F3, and F4 is adapted for representing 234,829 data measured points in Area-1, where 86% of total data variance is interpreted. A geological scored pseudo-section derived from the lithological scored map is established and analyzed in order to show the possible stratigraphic and structural traps for uranium occurrences associated with phosphate deposits in the studied Area-1. These identified traps presented in this paper need detailed investigation and must be necessarily followed and checked by ground validations and subsurface well logging, in order to locate the anomalous uranium occurrences and explore with more confidence and certitude their characteristics as a function of depth.

  17. A methodology for analysing temporal changes of forest surface using aerial photos for the application of Kyoto protocol: a study case in Northern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvadori I

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available According to art. 3.3 of the Kyoto Protocol, Italy, like other Parties included in Annex I, shall report the net changes in greenhouse gas emissions by sources and removals by sinks resulting from afforestation, reforestation and deforestation activities (ARD. To evaluate these activities, Italy has to elaborate methods to estimate the conversion of non-forested to forested land, occurred after 31 December 1989. The aim of this study was to test a methodology to estimate the ARD activities. The approach was experimented in the Comunità Montana del Grappa (about 10500 ha considered as a pilot area in the Prealpine region (NE Italy. The land-use change relative to the forest area was assessed by multitemporal classification of 1131 sampling points on orthocorrected aerial photos relative to 1991, 1996 and 1999. The forest area based on different definitions (minimum land cover equal to 10%, 20% or 30% and minimum surface equal to 2000 m2 or 5000 m2 was also assessed. Between 1991 and 1999, the total increment of the forest area was equal to 224 ha. However, the estimated increment was strongly related to the minimum surface (2000 m2 vs 5000 m2 of the forest definition. The proposed procedure was relatively easy to implement and highlighted the role of ARD and revegetation to attain the goals appointed from the Kyoto Protocol.

  18. Favourable uranium-phosphate exploration trends guided by the application of statistical factor analysis technique on the aerial gamma spectrometric data in Syrian desert (Area-1), Syria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asfahani, J.; Al-Hent, R.; Aissa, M.

    2016-02-01

    A scored lithological map including 10 radiometric units is established through applying factor analysis approach to aerial spectrometric data of Area-1, Syrian desert, which includes Ur, eU, eTh, K%, eU/eTh, eU/K%, and eTh/K%. A model of four rotated factors F1, F2, F3, and F4 is adapted for representing 234,829 data measured points in Area-1, where 86% of total data variance is interpreted. A geological scored pseudo-section derived from the lithological scored map is established and analyzed in order to show the possible stratigraphic and structural traps for uranium occurrences associated with phosphate deposits in the studied Area-1. These identified traps presented in this paper need detailed investigation and must be necessarily followed and checked by ground validations and subsurface well logging, in order to locate the anomalous uranium occurrences and explore with more confidence and certitude their characteristics as a function of depth.

  19. Aplicação aérea e terrestre de fungicida para o controle de doenças do milho Aerial and ground fungicide application to corn for disease control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Paulo Arantes Rodrigues da Cunha

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito da aplicação aérea e terrestre de fungicida no controle de doenças do milho e na deposição de calda sobre a cultura. Realizou-se a semeadura do híbrido AG7010, avaliando-se após a aplicação do fungicida (piraclostrobina + epoxiconazol, no estádio fenológico V8 a V10, a deposição de calda na parte inferior, média e superior do dossel da cultura, a severidade de doenças e a produtividade. A aplicação aérea foi realizada com volumes de calda de 15 e 30 L ha-1, empregando pontas de jato plano, e a aplicação terrestre com 100 L ha-1, empregando pontas de jato plano defletor com indução de ar e pontas de jato plano defletor duplo. Como testemunha foi utilizado um tratamento sem o recebimento de fungicida. O estudo da deposição foi realizado com o emprego de papéis hidrossensíveis. Concluiu-se que os tratamentos terrestres apresentaram maior densidade de gotas no dossel da cultura do milho, mas todos os tratamentos proporcionaram a deposição mínima recomendada para aplicação de fungicida. A aplicação aérea empregando volume de calda de 30 L ha-1 proporcionou produtividade semelhante aos tratamentos terrestres, mostrando ser viável tecnicamente sua utilização.This study aimed to evaluate the effect of the aerial and ground application of fungicide in the control of corn diseases and in the spray deposition on the canopy. The hybrid AG7010 was sown and the spray deposition on the bottom, middle and upper canopy of the crop, disease severity and yield were evaluated after the application of the fungicide (pyraclostrobin + epoxiconazol, at the V8 -V10 stage. The aerial application was accomplished with spray volumes of 15 and 30 L ha-1, using flat-fan spray nozzles, and the ground one with 100 L ha-1, using turbo twin flat-fan and air induction turbo flat-fan spray nozzles. An additional treatment that received no fungicide was also evaluated. The study of the

  20. Aerial camera auto focusing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xuan; Lan, Gongpu; Gao, Xiaodong; Liang, Wei

    2012-10-01

    Before the aerial photographic task, the cameras focusing work should be performed at first to compensate the defocus caused by the changes of the temperature, pressure etc. A new method of aerial camera auto focusing is proposed through traditional photoelectric self-collimation combined with image processing method. Firstly, the basic principles of optical self-collimation and image processing are introduced. Secondly, the limitations of the two are illustrated and the benefits of the new method are detailed. Then the basic principle, the system composition and the implementation of this new method are presented. Finally, the data collection platform is set up reasonably and the focus evaluation function curve is draw. The results showed that: the method can be used in the Aerial camera focusing field, adapt to the aviation equipment trends of miniaturization and lightweight .This paper is helpful to the further work of accurate and automatic focusing.

  1. 1939 Quay County CII Aerial Photo Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial photographs are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The aerial photo inventory contains imagery from various sources that are now archived at the Earth...

  2. 1946 Macho Border DDO Aerial Photo Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial photographs are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The aerial photo inventory contains imagery from various sources that are now archived at the Earth...

  3. 1936 Curry County AG Aerial Photo Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial photographs are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The aerial photo inventory contains imagery from various sources that are now archived at the Earth...

  4. 1954 Lea County DHO Aerial Photo Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial photographs are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The aerial photo inventory contains imagery from various sources that are now archived at the Earth...

  5. 1947 Sierra County DEZ Aerial Photo Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial photographs are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The aerial photo inventory contains imagery from various sources that are now archived at the Earth...

  6. 1955 Lea County DHO Aerial Photo Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial photographs are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The aerial photo inventory contains imagery from various sources that are now archived at the Earth...

  7. 1946 Eddy County DEO Aerial Photo Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial photographs are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The aerial photo inventory contains imagery from various sources that are now archived at the Earth...

  8. 1947 Bernalillo County DFC Aerial Photo Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial photographs are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The aerial photo inventory contains imagery from various sources that are now archived at the Earth...

  9. International Symposium on Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

    CERN Document Server

    Oh, Paul; Piegl, Les

    2009-01-01

    Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) have seen unprecedented levels of growth during the last decade in both military and civilian domains. It is anticipated that civilian applications will be dominant in the future, although there are still barriers to be overcome and technical challenges to be met. Integrating UAS into, for example, civilian space, navigation, autonomy, see-detect-and-avoid systems, smart designs, system integration, vision-based navigation and training, to name but a few areas, will be of prime importance in the near future. This special volume is the outcome of research presented at the International Symposium on Unmanned Aerial Vehicles, held in Orlando, Florida, USA, from June 23-25, 2008, and presents state-of-the-art findings on topics such as: UAS operations and integration into the national airspace system; UAS navigation and control; micro-, mini-, small UAVs; UAS simulation testbeds and frameworks; UAS research platforms and applications; UAS applications. This book aims at serving as ...

  10. A Review of the Characteristics of Modern Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hristov Georgi Valentinov

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this article is to present the modern unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs and the possibilities for real-time remote monitoring of flight parameters and payload data. In the introduction section of the paper we briefly present the characteristics of the UAVs and which are their major application areas. Later, the main parameters and the various data types for remote control and monitoring of the unmanned aerial vehicles are presented and discussed. The paper continues with the methods and the technologies for transmission of these parameters and then presents a general hardware model for data transmission and a software model of a communication system suitable for UAVs.

  11. Biological response of soybean and cotton to aerial glyphosate drift

    Science.gov (United States)

    An aerial application drift study was conducted in 2009 to determine biological effects of glyphosate on cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) and soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.]. Glyphosate at 866 g ae/ha was applied using an Air Tractor 402B agricultural aircraft in an 18.3 m spray swath to crops at the...

  12. Applications of advanced sensors on unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV's) for the protection of high value targets and support of response forces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Fixed imaging systems using visible light cameras typically meet the security needs of conventional facilities that are concerned primarily with asset protection. Facilities where enhanced security needs are both to protect the facility and the theft of valuable assets may choose to use thermal imaging forward looking infrared (FLIR) cameras in addition to visible light cameras. These FLIR cameras provide a 'hot' target in very low light conditions or when camouflaged as well as the heat signatures of people and vehicles. These imagers are usually in fixed points of view and can scan areas of a scene. The cost of thermal cameras often means that a few selected points have this capability and the majority of cameras are visible light only. Non-conventional facilities managing nuclear power, processing, or storage of nuclear materials may find fixed camera systems inadequate. Attackers have evaluated camera locations and often understand the limitations of such systems. In addition using these two imaging options does not provide the command and control structure or the response force with adequate situational awareness of the threats they face. The presence of chemicals not observable using the visible or thermal IR cameras such as nerve agents or other dangerous gases could be used as a mechanism to disable reaction forces and as a force multiplier for the attackers. These same visible, thermal infrared cameras with the addition of a hyperspectral sensor on an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) such as a General Atomics Predator (RQ-1) can provide significant standoff capabilities with an unpredictability of camera view by the attackers and close the gap between visible and thermal imaging systems. Such a system could be flown at a particular altitude to avoid detection by the attackers and conflict with response force aircraft entering the area. This enhanced spectral information will allow better command decisions as well as providing real-time fused

  13. 无人机航摄技术在大比例尺测图中的应用研究%ApplicationR esearch of UAV Aerial Photography Technology in Large Scale Mapping

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕立蕾

    2016-01-01

    The research purpose is the application of UAV aerial photography technology in large scale mapping (1∶1 000, 1∶500). A fixed wing UAV platform was used to carry out the test in Hebei Province which carried a non measurement digital camera .The ex-perimental results showed that the accuracy of 1∶1 000 scale mapping could be satisfied by the strict control of error factors.The accu-racy of 1∶500 scale could not be satisfied.Accuracy evaluation was implemented and the feasibility and reliability of the application were investigated, which will provide priori experiences for large scale topographic mapping using the UAV aerial photography technol-ogy.%以无人机航摄技术在大比例尺(1∶1000、1∶500)地形图测绘中的应用为研究目的,采用固定翼无人机平台,搭载非量测型数码相机,于河北某矿区进行航摄大比例尺地形图制作实验,通过外业实测点位数据对测图高程及平面精度进行评估。实验结果表明:通过严控误差影响因素无人机航摄技术可以满足1∶1000比例尺测图精度要求,1∶500比例尺测图精度无法满足。最后,基于精度评定数据对误差产生的原因进行了深入分析与探讨,为无人机航摄技术测绘大比例尺地形图应用的可行性及可靠性提供了经验。

  14. Spectral anomaly methods for aerial detection using KUT nuisance rejection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work discusses the application and optimization of a spectral anomaly method for the real-time detection of gamma radiation sources from an aerial helicopter platform. Aerial detection presents several key challenges over ground-based detection. For one, larger and more rapid background fluctuations are typical due to higher speeds, larger field of view, and geographically induced background changes. As well, the possible large altitude or stand-off distance variations cause significant steps in background count rate as well as spectral changes due to increased gamma-ray scatter with detection at higher altitudes. The work here details the adaptation and optimization of the PNNL-developed algorithm Nuisance-Rejecting Spectral Comparison Ratios for Anomaly Detection (NSCRAD), a spectral anomaly method previously developed for ground-based applications, for an aerial platform. The algorithm has been optimized for two multi-detector systems; a NaI(Tl)-detector-based system and a CsI detector array. The optimization here details the adaptation of the spectral windows for a particular set of target sources to aerial detection and the tailoring for the specific detectors. As well, the methodology and results for background rejection methods optimized for the aerial gamma-ray detection using Potassium, Uranium and Thorium (KUT) nuisance rejection are shown. Results indicate that use of a realistic KUT nuisance rejection may eliminate metric rises due to background magnitude and spectral steps encountered in aerial detection due to altitude changes and geographically induced steps such as at land–water interfaces

  15. Diagnostics of Aerial Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Milan Simko; Milan Sebok; Milan Chupac

    2003-01-01

    Paper deals with the problem of thermovission and its application i diagnostic od antenna system for radio transmitters. on the bockrand of above mentioned theory laboratory measurements and measurements in the conditions of performance process were performed.

  16. Photogrammetric mapping using unmanned aerial vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graça, N.; Mitishita, E.; Gonçalves, J.

    2014-11-01

    Nowadays Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) technology has attracted attention for aerial photogrammetric mapping. The low cost and the feasibility to automatic flight along commanded waypoints can be considered as the main advantages of this technology in photogrammetric applications. Using GNSS/INS technologies the images are taken at the planned position of the exposure station and the exterior orientation parameters (position Xo, Yo, Zo and attitude ω, φ, χ) of images can be direct determined. However, common UAVs (off-the-shelf) do not replace the traditional aircraft platform. Overall, the main shortcomings are related to: difficulties to obtain the authorization to perform the flight in urban and rural areas, platform stability, safety flight, stability of the image block configuration, high number of the images and inaccuracies of the direct determination of the exterior orientation parameters of the images. In this paper are shown the obtained results from the project photogrammetric mapping using aerial images from the SIMEPAR UAV system. The PIPER J3 UAV Hydro aircraft was used. It has a micro pilot MP2128g. The system is fully integrated with 3-axis gyros/accelerometers, GPS, pressure altimeter, pressure airspeed sensors. A Sony Cyber-shot DSC-W300 was calibrated and used to get the image block. The flight height was close to 400 m, resulting GSD near to 0.10 m. The state of the art of the used technology, methodologies and the obtained results are shown and discussed. Finally advantages/shortcomings found in the study and main conclusions are presented

  17. Application of Aerial Survey Technology by Unmanned Aerial Vehicle in Measurement and Analysis for Slump Steep Sections of Highways%无人机航测技术应用于公路崩滑陡峭地段测量分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李兴华; 罗秀兰; 龚绪才

    2012-01-01

    With rapid development of unmanned aerial vehicle ( UAV ) technology and digital photogrammetry technology in recent years, the aerial survey technology with UAV has become an effective rapid surveying and mapping means. This paper introduces key techniques for data processing by UAV aerial survey, measures embankments and slope slump of highways by means of UAV aerial survey technology and obtain 3D digital products from the measured areas so as to provide timely and valid surveying and mapping data for maintenance and management of highways.%近年来,随着无人机技术和数字摄影测量技术的快速发展,无人机航测技术已经成为一种有效的快速测绘手段.介绍无人机航测数据处理的关键技术,利用无人机航测技术对公路路堤和边坡崩滑进行快速测量,获取测区的3D数字信息,为公路维护管理提供及时有效的测绘资料.

  18. Hybrid Control of Long-Endurance Aerial Robotic Vehicles for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deok-Jin Lee

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an effective hybrid control approach for building stable wireless sensor networks between heterogeneous unmanned vehicles using long‐ endurance aerial robotic vehicles. For optimal deployment of the aerial vehicles in communication networks, a gradient climbing based self‐estimating control algorithm is utilized to locate the aerial platforms to maintain maximum communication throughputs between distributed multiple nodes. The autonomous aerial robots, which function as communication relay nodes, extract and harvest thermal energy from the atmospheric environment to improve their flight endurance within specified communication coverage areas. The rapidly‐deployable sensor networks with the high‐endurance aerial vehicles can be used for various application areas including environment monitoring, surveillance, tracking, and decision‐making support. Flight test and simulation studies are conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed hybrid control technique for robust communication networks.

  19. Unmanned Aerial Vehicles unique cost estimating requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malone, P.; Apgar, H.; Stukes, S.; Sterk, S.

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs), also referred to as drones, are aerial platforms that fly without a human pilot onboard. UAVs are controlled autonomously by a computer in the vehicle or under the remote control of a pilot stationed at a fixed ground location. There are a wide variety of drone shapes, sizes, configurations, complexities, and characteristics. Use of these devices by the Department of Defense (DoD), NASA, civil and commercial organizations continues to grow. UAVs are commonly used for intelligence, surveillance, reconnaissance (ISR). They are also use for combat operations, and civil applications, such as firefighting, non-military security work, surveillance of infrastructure (e.g. pipelines, power lines and country borders). UAVs are often preferred for missions that require sustained persistence (over 4 hours in duration), or are “ too dangerous, dull or dirty” for manned aircraft. Moreover, they can offer significant acquisition and operations cost savings over traditional manned aircraft. Because of these unique characteristics and missions, UAV estimates require some unique estimating methods. This paper describes a framework for estimating UAV systems total ownership cost including hardware components, software design, and operations. The challenge of collecting data, testing the sensitivities of cost drivers, and creating cost estimating relationships (CERs) for each key work breakdown structure (WBS) element is discussed. The autonomous operation of UAVs is especially challenging from a software perspective.

  20. Knowledge-based understanding of aerial surveillance video

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Hui; Butler, Darren

    2006-05-01

    Aerial surveillance has long been used by the military to locate, monitor and track the enemy. Recently, its scope has expanded to include law enforcement activities, disaster management and commercial applications. With the ever-growing amount of aerial surveillance video acquired daily, there is an urgent need for extracting actionable intelligence in a timely manner. Furthermore, to support high-level video understanding, this analysis needs to go beyond current approaches and consider the relationships, motivations and intentions of the objects in the scene. In this paper we propose a system for interpreting aerial surveillance videos that automatically generates a succinct but meaningful description of the observed regions, objects and events. For a given video, the semantics of important regions and objects, and the relationships between them, are summarised into a semantic concept graph. From this, a textual description is derived that provides new search and indexing options for aerial video and enables the fusion of aerial video with other information modalities, such as human intelligence, reports and signal intelligence. Using a Mixture-of-Experts video segmentation algorithm an aerial video is first decomposed into regions and objects with predefined semantic meanings. The objects are then tracked and coerced into a semantic concept graph and the graph is summarized spatially, temporally and semantically using ontology guided sub-graph matching and re-writing. The system exploits domain specific knowledge and uses a reasoning engine to verify and correct the classes, identities and semantic relationships between the objects. This approach is advantageous because misclassifications lead to knowledge contradictions and hence they can be easily detected and intelligently corrected. In addition, the graph representation highlights events and anomalies that a low-level analysis would overlook.

  1. Modeling, Simulation and Control System Design for Civil Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV)

    OpenAIRE

    Bagheri, Shahriar

    2014-01-01

    Unmanned aerial systems have been widely used for variety of civilian applications over the past few years. Some of these applications require accurate guidance and control. Consequently, Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) guidance and control attracted many researchers in both control theory and aerospace engineering. Flying wings, as a particular type of UAV, are considered to have one of the most efficient aerodynamic structures. It is however difficult to design robust controller for such syst...

  2. Performance experiment of rotary hydraulic atomizing nozzle for aerial spraying application%航空施药旋转液力雾化喷头性能试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    茹煜; 金兰; 周宏平; 贾志成

    2014-01-01

    order to realize the low-altitude, low-volume, and high-efficiency spraying demand of an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV), its spray system, which is the key UAV part, must meet the requirements of lightweight, low-volume spraying and uniform spray. Based on the domestic and foreign UAV nebulization technology of agricultural chemical spray nozzles, we tested the performance of rotary hydraulic atomizers, which combined the advantages of both centrifuge atomization and liquid atomization, in this study. A comprehensive performance test system of nozzle atomization was applied to detect the effect of important factors including structure parameters (nozzle diameter), spray parameters (spray flow rate and pressure), and operating parameters (rotational speed) on nozzle atomization efficiency (droplet size), deposition distribution, and spray span. We analyzed the correlation between spray parameters and pump power consumption. Combined with the effect of motor voltage on motor power, the optimum nozzle working parameters were selected. The results showed that the voltage of a nozzle rotary motor had a more significant effect on droplet diameter than nozzle diameter and spray pressure parameters did. Along with the increase of motor voltage, droplets became smaller, giving a better atomization effect. Motor voltage also notably influenced spray span. The more the voltage was, the bigger the spray angle was, and the larger the span became. Droplet deposition presented normal distribution in the spray range. The best working parameters (10 V of motor voltage; 0.35 MPa of spray pressure; 0.7 mm of nozzle diameter) for UAV rotary hydraulic atomizers were determined by the comprehensive test results. When these parameters were applied, the pump power consumption rate was lowest, the average droplet size was 112.35μm, the spray span was 3.88 m, and the motor power consumption was 8.6 W. The nozzle atomization performance test system adopted in the present study has been calibrated

  3. Application of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Photogrammetric in Emergency Surveying and Mapping Support in Sichuan Province%无人机航摄技术在四川省应急测绘保障中的应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周兴霞; 廖小露; 刘嘉

    2014-01-01

    近年来,无人机低空摄影测量技术发展迅速,已广泛应用到多个领域,其灵活机动的特点使其在防灾减灾与应急处置中的应用优势尤其突出。本文结合无人机在四川省应急测绘保障中的应用,研究应急状态下无人机航摄流程及应急影像快速处理技术,并以芦山“4·20”强烈地震应急测绘保障和四川省2013年防汛救灾应急测绘保障为例,探讨无人机航摄技术在重大自然灾害抢险救灾、灾害损失评估及地质灾害防治等领域中的应用。%In recent years, with the rapidly development of low-altitude photogrammetric, the unmanned aerial vehicle ( UAV) tech-nology has been widely used in many fields relying on the advantages of flexibility and mobility, especially in the field of disaster pre-vention and emergency manage.In this paper, authors will study the flow of UAV photogrammetric and the emergency images fast-processing based on the application of emergency surveying and mapping support in Sichuan province.At last, we will take "4.20"Lushan earthquake emergency surveying and mapping and 2013 flood disaster emergency surveying and mapping in Sichuan as an ex-ample, discuss the application of UAV photogrammetric in major natural disaster rescue, disaster damage assessment and geological disaster prevention.

  4. Aerial robotic data acquisition system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A small unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) equipped with sensors for physical and chemical measurements of remote environments, is described. A miniature helicopter airframe is used as a platform for sensor testing and development. The sensor output is integrated with the flight control system for real-time, interactive, data acquisition and analysis. Pre programmed flight missions will be flown with several sensors to demonstrate the cost-effective surveillance capabilities of this new technology. (author) 10 refs

  5. A Cheap Aerial Gas Pipeline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander A. Bolonkin

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: At present time gas pipelines are designed from steel and located on ground surface. That is very expensive and building requests a lot of time. Research and utilization of an old author idea: Design of new cheap aerial pipelines, a large flexible tube deployed at high altitude through neutral seas, for delivery of natural (fuel gas, water and other payload over a long distance is delineated. Approach: A lift force of 1 m3 of methane equals approximately 0.5 kg (1 pound. The lightweight film flexible pipeline can be located in air at high altitude and, as such, did not damage the environment. Using the lift force of this pipeline and wing devices payloads of oil, water, or other fluids, or even solids such as coal, cargo, passengers can be delivered cheaply at long distance. Results: Researcher showed: This aerial pipeline dramatically decreased the cost and time of construction relative to conventional pipelines of steel which saved energy and greatly lowers the capital cost of construction. Article contained a computed project for delivery 24 billion m3 of gas and tens of million tons of oil, water or other payload per year. Conclusion: Design of new cheap aerial pipelines, a large flexible tube deployed at high altitude, for delivery of natural (fuel gas, water and other payload over a long distance (neutral sea was delineated. The offered idea an aerial pipe line was researched. It was shown new pipelines radically decreased pipeline cost and construction time. Using the lift force of this pipeline and wing devices payloads of oil, water, or other fluids, or even solids such as coal, cargo, passengers can be delivered cheaply at long distance. This pipeline and wing devices also allowed to delivery the other goods.

  6. Aerial robotic data acquisition system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hofstetter, K.J.; Hayes, D.W.; Pendergast, M.M. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States); Corban, J.E. [Guided Systems Technologies, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    1993-12-31

    A small, unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV), equipped with sensors for physical and chemical measurements of remote environments, is described. A miniature helicopter airframe is used as a platform for sensor testing and development. The sensor output is integrated with the flight control system for real-time, interactive, data acquisition and analysis. Pre-programmed flight missions will be flown with several sensors to demonstrate the cost-effective surveillance capabilities of this new technology.

  7. Telemetry of Aerial Radiological Measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Telemetry has been added to National Nuclear Security Administration's (NNSA's) Aerial Measuring System (AMS) Incident Response aircraft to accelerate availability of aerial radiological mapping data. Rapid aerial radiological mapping is promptly performed by AMS Incident Response aircraft in the event of a major radiological dispersal. The AMS airplane flies the entire potentially affected area, plus a generous margin, to provide a quick look at the extent and severity of the event. The primary result of the AMS Incident Response over flight is a map of estimated exposure rate on the ground along the flight path. Formerly, it was necessary to wait for the airplane to land before the map could be seen. Now, while the flight is still in progress, data are relayed via satellite directly from the aircraft to an operations center, where they are displayed and disseminated. This permits more timely utilization of results by decision makers and redirection of the mission to optimize its value. The current telemetry capability can cover all of North America. Extension to a global capability is under consideration

  8. USDOE aerial radiation monitoring programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EGandG Energy Measurements, Inc. operates the Remote Sensing Laboratory for the United States Department of Energy (USDOE). The Laboratory maintains eleven twin-engine aircraft, helicopters and fixed-wing, as aerial measurement platforms. It has a $23 million annual budget and 214 personnel operating at major facilities in Las Vegas, Nevada, and Washington, D.C. Remote sensing technologies include: large area radiological mapping, high altitude aerial photography, multispectral photography, multispectral aerial scanning, and airborne gas and particulate sampling. The Laboratory has developed a broad variety of remote sensing equipment; its personnel acquire, analyze, and report data to federal and stage agencies. As a major technical resource of the USDOE, the Laboratory plays a key role in the federal response to a radiological emergency, particularly in the establishment of a Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center (FRMAC). Many sophisticated systems for acquisition and analysis are deployed to a FRMAC, along with an advanced communication system to link the participating local, state, and federal agencies

  9. Aerial Image Series Quality Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the growing demand for geospatial data, the aerial imagery with high spatial, spectral, and temporal resolution achieves great development. It is imperative to evaluate whether the acquired images are qualified enough, since the further image mosaic asks for strict time consistency and a re-flight involves considerable resources. In this paper, we address the problem of quick aerial image series quality assessment. An image series quality analysis system is proposed, which includes single image quality assessment, image series quality assessment based on the image matching, and offering a visual matching result in real time for human validation when the computer achieves dubious results. For two images, the affine matrix is different for different parts of images, especially for images of wide field. Therefore we calculate transfer matrixes by using even-distributed control points from different image parts with the RANSAC technology, and use the image rotation angle for image mosaic for human validation. Extensive experiments conducted on aerial images show that the proposed method can obtain similar results with experts

  10. Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Use for Wood Chips Pile Volume Estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokroš, M.; Tabačák, M.; Lieskovský, M.; Fabrika, M.

    2016-06-01

    The rapid development of unmanned aerial vehicles is a challenge for applied research. Many technologies are developed and then researcher are looking up for their application in different sectors. Therefore, we decided to verify the use of the unmanned aerial vehicle for wood chips pile monitoring. We compared the use of GNSS device and unmanned aerial vehicle for volume estimation of four wood chips piles. We used DJI Phantom 3 Professional with the built-in camera and GNSS device (geoexplorer 6000). We used Agisoft photoscan for processing photos and ArcGIS for processing points. Volumes calculated from pictures were not statistically significantly different from amounts calculated from GNSS data and high correlation between them was found (p = 0.9993). We conclude that the use of unmanned aerial vehicle instead of the GNSS device does not lead to significantly different results. Tthe data collection consumed from almost 12 to 20 times less time with the use of UAV. Additionally, UAV provides documentation trough orthomosaic.

  11. CMOS Imaging Sensor Technology for Aerial Mapping Cameras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Klaus; Welzenbach, Martin; Timm, Martin

    2016-06-01

    In June 2015 Leica Geosystems launched the first large format aerial mapping camera using CMOS sensor technology, the Leica DMC III. This paper describes the motivation to change from CCD sensor technology to CMOS for the development of this new aerial mapping camera. In 2002 the DMC first generation was developed by Z/I Imaging. It was the first large format digital frame sensor designed for mapping applications. In 2009 Z/I Imaging designed the DMC II which was the first digital aerial mapping camera using a single ultra large CCD sensor to avoid stitching of smaller CCDs. The DMC III is now the third generation of large format frame sensor developed by Z/I Imaging and Leica Geosystems for the DMC camera family. It is an evolution of the DMC II using the same system design with one large monolithic PAN sensor and four multi spectral camera heads for R,G, B and NIR. For the first time a 391 Megapixel large CMOS sensor had been used as PAN chromatic sensor, which is an industry record. Along with CMOS technology goes a range of technical benefits. The dynamic range of the CMOS sensor is approx. twice the range of a comparable CCD sensor and the signal to noise ratio is significantly better than with CCDs. Finally results from the first DMC III customer installations and test flights will be presented and compared with other CCD based aerial sensors.

  12. Aerial Photography and Imagery, Uncorrected, historic aerial imagery; 1931-1990, Published in 2006, Washoe County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Aerial Photography and Imagery, Uncorrected dataset, was produced all or in part from Hardcopy Maps information as of 2006. It is described as 'historic aerial...

  13. The US Air Force Aerial Spray Unit: a history of large area disease vector control operations, WWII through Katrina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breidenbaugh, Mark; Haagsma, Karl

    2008-01-01

    The US Air Force has had a long history of aerial applications of pesticides to fulfill a variety of missions, the most important being the protection of troops through the minimization of arthropod vectors capable of disease transmission. Beginning in World War II, aerial application of pesticides by the military has effectively controlled vector and nuisance pest populations in a variety of environments. Currently, the military aerial spray capability resides in the US Air Force Reserve (USAFR), which operates and maintains C-130 airplanes capable of a variety of missions, including ultra low volume applications for vector and nuisance pests, as well as higher volume aerial applications of herbicides and oil-spill dispersants. The USAFR aerial spray assets are the only such fixed-wing aerial spray assets within the Department of Defense. In addition to troop protection, the USAFR Aerial Spray Unit has participated in a number of humanitarian/relief missions, most recently in the response to the 2005 Hurricanes Katrina and Rita, which heavily damaged the Gulf Coasts of Louisiana, Mississippi, and Texas. This article provides historical background on the Air Force Aerial Spray Unit and describes the operations in Louisiana in the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina. PMID:20088030

  14. Dropsonde System for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) are assuming more numerous and increasingly important roles in global environmental and atmospheric research. There is a...

  15. Assessment of Photogrammetric Mapping Accuracy Based on Variation Flying Altitude Using Unmanned Aerial Vehicle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Photogrammetry is the earliest technique used to collect data for topographic mapping. The recent development in aerial photogrammetry is the used of large format digital aerial camera for producing topographic map. The aerial photograph can be in the form of metric or non-metric imagery. The cost of mapping using aerial photogrammetry is very expensive. In certain application, there is a need to map small area with limited budget. Due to the development of technology, small format aerial photogrammetry technology has been introduced and offers many advantages. Currently, digital map can be extracted from digital aerial imagery of small format camera mounted on light weight platform such as unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). This study utilizes UAV system for large scale stream mapping. The first objective of this study is to investigate the use of light weight rotary-wing UAV for stream mapping based on different flying height. Aerial photograph were acquired at 60% forward lap and 30% sidelap specifications. Ground control points and check points were established using Total Station technique. The digital camera attached to the UAV was calibrated and the recovered camera calibration parameters were then used in the digital images processing. The second objective is to determine the accuracy of the photogrammetric output. In this study, the photogrammetric output such as stereomodel in three dimensional (3D), contour lines, digital elevation model (DEM) and orthophoto were produced from a small stream of 200m long and 10m width. The research output is evaluated for planimetry and vertical accuracy using root mean square error (RMSE). Based on the finding, sub-meter accuracy is achieved and the RMSE value decreases as the flying height increases. The difference is relatively small. Finally, this study shows that UAV is very useful platform for obtaining aerial photograph and subsequently used for photogrammetric mapping and other applications

  16. 3D MODELLING AND ACCURACY ASSESSMENT OF GRANITE QUARRY USING UNMMANNED AERIAL VEHICLE

    OpenAIRE

    González-Aguilera; Fernández-Hernández; Mancera-Taboada; Rodríguez-Gonzálvez; Hernández-López; Felipe-García; Gozalo-Sanz; Arias-Perez

    2012-01-01

    The unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) are automated systems whose main characteristic is that can be remotely piloted. This property is especially interesting in those civil engineering works in which the accuracy of the model is not reachable by common aerial or satellite systems, there is a difficult accessibility to the infrastructure due to location and geometry aspects, and the economic resources are limited. This paper aims to show the research, development and application of a U...

  17. Automated Orientation of Aerial Images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høhle, Joachim

    2002-01-01

    Methods for automated orientation of aerial images are presented. They are based on the use of templates, which are derived from existing databases, and area-based matching. The characteristics of available database information and the accuracy requirements for map compilation and orthoimage...... production are discussed on the example of Denmark. Details on the developed methods for interior and exterior orientation are described. Practical examples like the measurement of réseau images, updating of topographic databases and renewal of orthoimages are used to prove the feasibility of the developed...

  18. Combining Constraint Types From Public Data in Aerial Image Segmentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Thomas Stig; Jensen, Jacob Jon; Jensen, Daniel Rune;

    2013-01-01

    We introduce a method for image segmentation that constraints the clustering with map and point data. The method is showcased by applying the spectral clustering algorithm on aerial images for building detection with constraints built from a height map and address point data. We automatically det...... building clusters. Our evaluation show that the combination of constraints have a positive impact on the clustering quality achieved. Finally we argue how the presented constraint types may be used in other applications....

  19. Adaptive planning of emergency aerial photogrammetric mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Fuqiang; Zhu, Qing; Zhang, Junxiao; Miao, Shuangxi; Zhou, Xingxia; Cao, Zhenyu

    2015-12-01

    Aiming at the diversity of emergency aerial photogrammetric mission requirements, complex ground and air environmental constraints make the planning mission time-consuming. This paper presents a fast adaptation for the UAV aerial photogrammetric mission planning. First, Building emergency aerial UAVs mission the unified expression of UAVs model and mechanical model of performance parameters in the semantic space make the integrated expression of mission requirements and low altitude environment. Proposed match assessment method which based on resource and mission efficiency. Made the Adaptive match of UAV aerial resources and mission. According to the emergency aerial resource properties, considering complex air-ground environment and mission requirements constraints. Made accurate design of UAV route. Experimental results show, the method scientific and efficient, greatly enhanced the emergency response rate.

  20. Motion coordination for VTOL unmanned aerial vehicles attitude synchronisation and formation control

    CERN Document Server

    Abdessameud, Abdelkader

    2013-01-01

    Motion Coordination for VTOL Unmanned Aerial Vehicles develops new control design techniques for the distributed coordination of a team of autonomous unmanned aerial vehicles. In particular, it provides new control design approaches for the attitude synchronization of a formation of rigid body systems. In addition, by integrating new control design techniques with some concepts from nonlinear control theory and multi-agent systems, it presents  a new theoretical framework for the formation control of a class of under-actuated aerial vehicles capable of vertical take-off and landing. Several practical problems related to the systems’ inputs, states measurements, and  restrictions on the interconnection  topology  between the aerial vehicles in the team  are addressed. Worked examples with sufficient details and simulation results are provided to illustrate the applicability and effectiveness of the theoretical results discussed in the book. The material presented is primarily intended for researchers an...

  1. Getting Started with PEAs-Based Flapping-Wing Mechanisms for Micro Aerial Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Carlos Durán Hernández

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces recent advances on flapping-wing Micro and Nano Aerial Vehicles (MAVs and NAVs based on Piezoelectric Actuators (PEA. Therefore, this work provides essential information to address the development of such bio-inspired aerial robots. PEA are commonly used in micro-robotics and precise positioning applications (e.g., micro-positioning and micro-manipulation, whereas within the Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs domain, motors are the classical actuators used for rotary or fixed-wing configurations. Therefore, we consider it pertinent to provide essential information regarding the modeling and control of piezoelectric cantilever actuators to accelerate early design and development stages of aerial microrobots based on flapping-wing systems. In addition, the equations describing the aerodynamic behavior of a flapping-wing configuration are presented.

  2. Learning Scene Categories from High Resolution Satellite Image for Aerial Video Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheriyadat, Anil M [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    Automatic scene categorization can benefit various aerial video processing applications. This paper addresses the problem of predicting the scene category from aerial video frames using a prior model learned from satellite imagery. We show that local and global features in the form of line statistics and 2-D power spectrum parameters respectively can characterize the aerial scene well. The line feature statistics and spatial frequency parameters are useful cues to distinguish between different urban scene categories. We learn the scene prediction model from highresolution satellite imagery to test the model on the Columbus Surrogate Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (CSUAV) dataset ollected by high-altitude wide area UAV sensor platform. e compare the proposed features with the popular Scale nvariant Feature Transform (SIFT) features. Our experimental results show that proposed approach outperforms te SIFT model when the training and testing are conducted n disparate data sources.

  3. Application of neural networks in the test for electronic-controlled gasoline engine of unmanned aerial vehicle%神经网络在无人机电控活塞发动机试验中应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭荣化; 吴玉生; 陈庆荣

    2011-01-01

    The characters and difficulties in the test for electronic-controlled gasoline en gine of unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) were analyzed in detail. For mending the traditional liner interpolation methods, which are not completely in conformity with nonlinear charac- teristics of electronic-controlled gasoline engine, a solution was applied in the predication for the manifold air pressure (MAP) of high-altitude calibration of electronic-controlled gasoline engine, by adopting back propagation (BP) neural networks. To avoid the limitation of neural networks in application at present stage, a grouping method of raw data was put forward to control the feedback of the training error in real-time; this method provided a good solution for the problem that the neural network training result easily leads to the situation of "local optimum" and "over-fitting". The prediction results based on BP neural networks have been studied thoroughly; and the results of the training error and the prediction error reveal that the method is feasible and the result is effective.%分析了无人机用电控活塞发动机试验特点以及试验中存在的难点,针对电控发动机高海拔标定试验中进气歧管压力(manifold air pressure,简称MAP)传感器数据的传统线性插值方法不能完全表述电控发动机非线性特性的缺陷,提出采用BP(back propagation)神经网络模型的解决方案.为避免目前应用神经网络方法中所存在的不足,通过采用原始数据分组方法进行网络训练误差的实时反馈和控制,较好地解决了神经网络训练过程中容易陷入"局部最优"和"过拟合"状态,并对BP神经网络预测结果给予了详细研究,训练误差和预测误差分析结果表明了该方法的可行性和计算结果的可信性.

  4. The future of structural fieldwork - UAV assisted aerial photogrammetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollgger, Stefan; Cruden, Alexander

    2015-04-01

    Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), commonly referred to as drones, are opening new and low cost possibilities to acquire high-resolution aerial images and digital surface models (DSM) for applications in structural geology. UAVs can be programmed to fly autonomously along a user defined grid to systematically capture high-resolution photographs, even in difficult to access areas. The photographs are subsequently processed using software that employ SIFT (scale invariant feature transform) and SFM (structure from motion) algorithms. These photogrammetric routines allow the extraction of spatial information (3D point clouds, digital elevation models, 3D meshes, orthophotos) from 2D images. Depending on flight altitude and camera setup, sub-centimeter spatial resolutions can be achieved. By "digitally mapping" georeferenced 3D models and images, orientation data can be extracted directly and used to analyse the structural framework of the mapped object or area. We present UAV assisted aerial mapping results from a coastal platform near Cape Liptrap (Victoria, Australia), where deformed metasediments of the Palaeozoic Lachlan Fold Belt are exposed. We also show how orientation and spatial information of brittle and ductile structures extracted from the photogrammetric model can be linked to the progressive development of folds and faults in the region. Even though there are both technical and legislative limitations, which might prohibit the use of UAVs without prior commercial licensing and training, the benefits that arise from the resulting high-resolution, photorealistic models can substantially contribute to the collection of new data and insights for applications in structural geology.

  5. Evaluation of Selected Features for CAR Detection in Aerial Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuermer, S.; Leitloff, J.; Reinartz, P.; Stilla, U.

    2011-09-01

    The extraction of vehicles from aerial images provides a wide area traffic situation within a short time. Applications for the gathered data are various and reach from smart routing in the case of congestions to usability validation of roads in the case of disasters. The challenge of the vehicle detection task is finding adequate features which are capable to separate cars from other objects; especially those that look similar. We present an experiment where selected features show their ability of car detection. Precisely, Haar-like and HoG features are utilized and passed to the AdaBoost algorithm for calculating the final detector. Afterwards the classifying power of the features is accurately analyzed and evaluated. The tests a carried out on aerial data from the inner city of Munich, Germany and include small inner city roads with rooftops close by which raise the complexity factor.

  6. GIS for mapping waterfowl density and distribution from aerial surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, W.I.; Stehn, R.A.; Balogh, G.R.

    1995-01-01

    We modified standard aerial survey data collection to obtain the geographic location for each waterfowl observation on surveys in Alaska during 1987-1993. Using transect navigation with CPS (global positioning system), data recording on continuously running tapes, and a computer data input program, we located observations with an average deviation along transects of 214 m. The method provided flexibility in survey design and data analysis. Although developed for geese nesting near the coast of the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta, the methods are widely applicable and were used on other waterfowl surveys in Alaska to map distribution and relative abundance of waterfowl. Accurate location data with GIS analysis and display may improve precision and usefulness of data from any aerial transect survey.

  7. COCOA: tracking in aerial imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Saad; Shah, Mubarak

    2006-05-01

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) are becoming a core intelligence asset for reconnaissance, surveillance and target tracking in urban and battlefield settings. In order to achieve the goal of automated tracking of objects in UAV videos we have developed a system called COCOA. It processes the video stream through number of stages. At first stage platform motion compensation is performed. Moving object detection is performed to detect the regions of interest from which object contours are extracted by performing a level set based segmentation. Finally blob based tracking is performed for each detected object. Global tracks are generated which are used for higher level processing. COCOA is customizable to different sensor resolutions and is capable of tracking targets as small as 100 pixels. It works seamlessly for both visible and thermal imaging modes. The system is implemented in Matlab and works in a batch mode.

  8. Sub-aerial tailings deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sub-aerial technique involves the systematic deposition of tailings in thin layers and allowing each layer to settle, drain and partially air dry prior to covering with a further layer. Underdrainage produces densities in excess of those achieved by sub-aqueous deposition and any air-drying serves to preconsolidate each layer with a resulting further increase in density. The low permeability of the tailings surface resulting from this deposition technique results in high runoff coefficients and, by decanting the runoff component of direct precipitation, a net evaporation condition can be achieved even in high rainfall areas. An underdrainage system prevents the build-up of excess pore-pressures within the tailings mass and at decommissioning the tailings are fully consolidated and drained thereby eliminating the possibility of any long term seepage. This paper presents a general description of these design concepts, and details of two projects where the concepts have been applied

  9. 无人机航摄系统在1∶1000地形图测绘中的应用%Application of UAV Aerial System on Surveying and Mapping of Topographic Map at Scale 1∶1 000

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔书珍; 周金国

    2014-01-01

    This paper introduces the composition and production process of the UAV aerial system,and illustrates the production process of topographic maps 1∶1 000 based on UAV aerial systems by an example.Finally,the mapping preci-sion,quality and related notes of topographic maps 1∶1 000 producted by using UAV aerial systems are introduced.The results showed that the maps at scale 1∶1 000 based on UAV could meet the requirements of the relevant mapping specifi-cations,but needed to rely a lot of field revision and correction work.%介绍了无人机航摄系统的构成与生产工艺流程,并通过实例阐述了利用无人机航摄系统制作1∶1000地形图的过程,最后分析了利用无人机航摄系统测制1∶1000大比例尺地形图的成图精度、质量及相关注意事项。实例表明,基于无人机的1∶1000航测成图可以达到相关成图规范要求,但需依赖大量的外业修补与改正工作。

  10. Oblique Aerial Photography Tool for Building Inspection and Damage Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murtiyoso, A.; Remondino, F.; Rupnik, E.; Nex, F.; Grussenmeyer, P.

    2014-11-01

    Aerial photography has a long history of being employed for mapping purposes due to some of its main advantages, including large area imaging from above and minimization of field work. Since few years multi-camera aerial systems are becoming a practical sensor technology across a growing geospatial market, as complementary to the traditional vertical views. Multi-camera aerial systems capture not only the conventional nadir views, but also tilted images at the same time. In this paper, a particular use of such imagery in the field of building inspection as well as disaster assessment is addressed. The main idea is to inspect a building from four cardinal directions by using monoplotting functionalities. The developed application allows to measure building height and distances and to digitize man-made structures, creating 3D surfaces and building models. The realized GUI is capable of identifying a building from several oblique points of views, as well as calculates the approximate height of buildings, ground distances and basic vectorization. The geometric accuracy of the results remains a function of several parameters, namely image resolution, quality of available parameters (DEM, calibration and orientation values), user expertise and measuring capability.

  11. Toward autonomous avian-inspired grasping for micro aerial vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Micro aerial vehicles, particularly quadrotors, have been used in a wide range of applications. However, the literature on aerial manipulation and grasping is limited and the work is based on quasi-static models. In this paper, we draw inspiration from agile, fast-moving birds such as raptors, that are able to capture moving prey on the ground or in water, and develop similar capabilities for quadrotors. We address dynamic grasping, an approach to prehensile grasping in which the dynamics of the robot and its gripper are significant and must be explicitly modeled and controlled for successful execution. Dynamic grasping is relevant for fast pick-and-place operations, transportation and delivery of objects, and placing or retrieving sensors. We show how this capability can be realized (a) using a motion capture system and (b) without external sensors relying only on onboard sensors. In both cases we describe the dynamic model, and trajectory planning and control algorithms. In particular, we present a methodology for flying and grasping a cylindrical object using feedback from a monocular camera and an inertial measurement unit onboard the aerial robot. This is accomplished by mapping the dynamics of the quadrotor to a level virtual image plane, which in turn enables dynamically-feasible trajectory planning for image features in the image space, and a vision-based controller with guaranteed convergence properties. We also present experimental results obtained with a quadrotor equipped with an articulated gripper to illustrate both approaches. (papers)

  12. Toward autonomous avian-inspired grasping for micro aerial vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Justin; Loianno, Giuseppe; Polin, Joseph; Sreenath, Koushil; Kumar, Vijay

    2014-06-01

    Micro aerial vehicles, particularly quadrotors, have been used in a wide range of applications. However, the literature on aerial manipulation and grasping is limited and the work is based on quasi-static models. In this paper, we draw inspiration from agile, fast-moving birds such as raptors, that are able to capture moving prey on the ground or in water, and develop similar capabilities for quadrotors. We address dynamic grasping, an approach to prehensile grasping in which the dynamics of the robot and its gripper are significant and must be explicitly modeled and controlled for successful execution. Dynamic grasping is relevant for fast pick-and-place operations, transportation and delivery of objects, and placing or retrieving sensors. We show how this capability can be realized (a) using a motion capture system and (b) without external sensors relying only on onboard sensors. In both cases we describe the dynamic model, and trajectory planning and control algorithms. In particular, we present a methodology for flying and grasping a cylindrical object using feedback from a monocular camera and an inertial measurement unit onboard the aerial robot. This is accomplished by mapping the dynamics of the quadrotor to a level virtual image plane, which in turn enables dynamically-feasible trajectory planning for image features in the image space, and a vision-based controller with guaranteed convergence properties. We also present experimental results obtained with a quadrotor equipped with an articulated gripper to illustrate both approaches. PMID:24852023

  13. Verification of Potency of Aerial Digital Oblique Cameras for Aerial Photogrammetry in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakada, Ryuji; Takigawa, Masanori; Ohga, Tomowo; Fujii, Noritsuna

    2016-06-01

    Digital oblique aerial camera (hereinafter called "oblique cameras") is an assembly of medium format digital cameras capable of shooting digital aerial photographs in five directions i.e. nadir view and oblique views (forward and backward, left and right views) simultaneously and it is used for shooting digital aerial photographs efficiently for generating 3D models in a wide area. For aerial photogrammetry of public survey in Japan, it is required to use large format cameras, like DMC and UltraCam series, to ensure aerial photogrammetric accuracy. Although oblique cameras are intended to generate 3D models, digital aerial photographs in 5 directions taken with them should not be limited to 3D model production but they may also be allowed for digital mapping and photomaps of required public survey accuracy in Japan. In order to verify the potency of using oblique cameras for aerial photogrammetry (simultaneous adjustment, digital mapping and photomaps), (1) a viewer was developed to interpret digital aerial photographs taken with oblique cameras, (2) digital aerial photographs were shot with an oblique camera owned by us, a Penta DigiCAM of IGI mbH, and (3) accuracy of 3D measurements was verified.

  14. Aerial Gamma-Ray Surveys in Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Data generated by aerial sensing of radiation emanating from the earth's surface in Alaska provides general estimates of the geographic distribution of Uranium,...

  15. Douglas County Historical Rectified Aerial Photos 1954

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — This raster dataset consists of approximately 200 aerial photographs taken in 1954 in Douglas county, Kansas, United States. The Douglas County Public Works...

  16. Douglas County Historical Rectified Aerial Photos 1937

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — This raster dataset consists of approximately 200 aerial photographs taken in 1937 in Douglas county, Kansas, United States. The Douglas County Public Works...

  17. Atlantic Protected Species Assessment Aerial Surveys

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data sets include a compilation of aerial line-transect surveys conducted over continental shelf waters of the southeastern U.S. Surveys have been conducted...

  18. Dropsonde System for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A small, modular dropsonde launcher is being developed for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs). Some critical measurement needs can only be satisfied by in-situ...

  19. Mapping Urban Ecosystem Services Using High Resolution Aerial Photography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilant, A. N.; Neale, A.; Wilhelm, D.

    2010-12-01

    Ecosystem services (ES) are the many life-sustaining benefits we receive from nature: e.g., clean air and water, food and fiber, cultural-aesthetic-recreational benefits, pollination and flood control. The ES concept is emerging as a means of integrating complex environmental and economic information to support informed environmental decision making. The US EPA is developing a web-based National Atlas of Ecosystem Services, with a component for urban ecosystems. Currently, the only wall-to-wall, national scale land cover data suitable for this analysis is the National Land Cover Data (NLCD) at 30 m spatial resolution with 5 and 10 year updates. However, aerial photography is acquired at higher spatial resolution (0.5-3 m) and more frequently (1-5 years, typically) for most urban areas. Land cover was mapped in Raleigh, NC using freely available USDA National Agricultural Imagery Program (NAIP) with 1 m ground sample distance to test the suitability of aerial photography for urban ES analysis. Automated feature extraction techniques were used to extract five land cover classes, and an accuracy assessment was performed using standard techniques. Results will be presented that demonstrate applications to mapping ES in urban environments: greenways, corridors, fragmentation, habitat, impervious surfaces, dark and light pavement (urban heat island). Automated feature extraction results mapped over NAIP color aerial photograph. At this scale, we can look at land cover and related ecosystem services at the 2-10 m scale. Small features such as individual trees and sidewalks are visible and mappable. Classified aerial photo of Downtown Raleigh NC Red: impervious surface Dark Green: trees Light Green: grass Tan: soil

  20. Combining Human Computing and Machine Learning to Make Sense of Big (Aerial) Data for Disaster Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ofli, Ferda; Meier, Patrick; Imran, Muhammad; Castillo, Carlos; Tuia, Devis; Rey, Nicolas; Briant, Julien; Millet, Pauline; Reinhard, Friedrich; Parkan, Matthew; Joost, Stéphane

    2016-03-01

    Aerial imagery captured via unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) is playing an increasingly important role in disaster response. Unlike satellite imagery, aerial imagery can be captured and processed within hours rather than days. In addition, the spatial resolution of aerial imagery is an order of magnitude higher than the imagery produced by the most sophisticated commercial satellites today. Both the United States Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) and the European Commission's Joint Research Center (JRC) have noted that aerial imagery will inevitably present a big data challenge. The purpose of this article is to get ahead of this future challenge by proposing a hybrid crowdsourcing and real-time machine learning solution to rapidly process large volumes of aerial data for disaster response in a time-sensitive manner. Crowdsourcing can be used to annotate features of interest in aerial images (such as damaged shelters and roads blocked by debris). These human-annotated features can then be used to train a supervised machine learning system to learn to recognize such features in new unseen images. In this article, we describe how this hybrid solution for image analysis can be implemented as a module (i.e., Aerial Clicker) to extend an existing platform called Artificial Intelligence for Disaster Response (AIDR), which has already been deployed to classify microblog messages during disasters using its Text Clicker module and in response to Cyclone Pam, a category 5 cyclone that devastated Vanuatu in March 2015. The hybrid solution we present can be applied to both aerial and satellite imagery and has applications beyond disaster response such as wildlife protection, human rights, and archeological exploration. As a proof of concept, we recently piloted this solution using very high-resolution aerial photographs of a wildlife reserve in Namibia to support rangers with their wildlife conservation efforts (SAVMAP project, http://lasig.epfl.ch/savmap ). The

  1. Community aerial mosquito control and naled exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duprey, Zandra; Rivers, Samantha; Luber, George; Becker, Alan; Blackmore, Carina; Barr, Dana; Weerasekera, Gayanga; Kieszak, Stephanie; Flanders, W Dana; Rubin, Carol

    2008-03-01

    In October 2004, the Florida Department of Health (FLDOH) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) assessed human exposure to ultra-low volume (ULV) aerial application of naled. Teams administered activity questionnaires regarding pesticide exposure and obtained baseline urine samples to quantify prespray naled metabolite levels. Following the spray event, participants were asked to collect postspray urine specimens within 12 h of the spray event and at 8-h intervals for up to 40 h. Upon completion, a postspray activity questionnaire was administered to study participants. Two hundred five (87%) participants completed the study. The urine analysis showed that although 67% of prespray urine samples had detectable levels of a naled metabolite, the majority of postspray samples were below the limit of detection ( 40 h) following exposure, the number of samples with detectable levels exceeded 50%. There was a significant decrease in naled metabolites from prespray to postspray (= .02), perhaps associated with a significant reduction (naled does not result in increased levels of naled in humans, provided the naled is used according to label instructions. PMID:18437813

  2. AERICOMP: an aerial photo comparison system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grewe, Lynne L.; Rowe, Neil; Baer, Wolfgang

    2000-08-01

    This paper describes a system, which compares aerial photographs of the same terrain taken at different times and tires to recognize straight-edged cultural features that have changed. This work is intended to be highly robust, handling very different lighting conditions, weather, times of year, camera, and film between the images to be compared. Our system AERICOMP is designed to facilitate battlefield terrain modeling by permitting automatic updates form new images. AERICOMP does coarse registration, image correction, feature detection, automatic refined registration, feature difference detection and reduction, feature difference presentation and operator acceptance, difference identification, and database update. It emphasizes line segments for comparisons because differences in them are more robust for photometric changes between terrain images. In addition, line segment comparisons require less computation than pixel comparisons and are more compatible with identification tasks. For our intended application of battlefield terrain modeling, detecting changes in man-made structures is of much greater importance than changes in vegetation, and line segments are the key to identifying such structures. We show results involving change analysis between color IR and black/white USGS photographs of the same area six years apart. Even a mostly automatic system benefits form user interacting at key points. AERICOMP exploits user judgements at the beginning and end of its processing to assist in coarse registration and to approve the significance of any differences found. AERICOMP is currently under development at the Naval Postgraduate School, and is supported by the TENCAPS project under the US Navy.

  3. Planning and decision making for aerial robots

    CERN Document Server

    Bestaoui Sebbane, Yasmina

    2014-01-01

    This book provides an introduction to the emerging field of planning and decision making for aerial robots. An aerial robot is the ultimate form of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle, an aircraft endowed with built-in intelligence, requiring no direct human control and able to perform a specific task. It must be able to fly within a partially structured environment, to react and adapt to changing environmental conditions and to accommodate for the uncertainty that exists in the physical world. An aerial robot can be termed as a physical agent that exists and flies in the real 3D world, can sense its environment and act on it to achieve specific goals. So throughout this book, an aerial robot will also be termed as an agent.   Fundamental problems in aerial robotics include the tasks of spatial motion, spatial sensing and spatial reasoning. Reasoning in complex environments represents a difficult problem. The issues specific to spatial reasoning are planning and decision making. Planning deals with the trajectory algori...

  4. Technology Research and Application of Video Information Analysis to Aerial Detection Overhead Transmission Line%架空输电线路航检视频信息分析技术研究与应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    关鑫; 毛鹏飞; 丁磊

    2015-01-01

    针对架空输电线路直升机巡检作业过程中航检员出现的塔号记录错误、影像资料不全、防鸟设施未作统计和缺陷遗漏等问题,采用了航检视频信息分析技术,对航检员所录制的高清航检视频进行分析整理,按照固定模式、顺序对线路通道、导线、杆塔连接金具挂点等重点部位进行截图编号分析,对输电线路存在的安全隐患问题进行检查,并建立输电线路航检视频分析数据库。该项技术的应用解决了航检员航检过程中塔号记录错误和一般缺陷遗漏的问题,提高了直升机巡检效率、质量和准确性,实现了对输电线路通道内情况、铁塔防鸟设施、防雷设施等数据统计,为输电线路运行、维护和管理提供依据。%The tower number recording error, the imperfect image data, and the uncluded anti-bird facilities occured during the process of aerial detection overhead transmission line. Use video information analysis technology to sort out high definition video recorded by the infrared video navigation inspectors, make an analysis of screen capture and numbering on the important parts of the fixed mode, order on line channel, wire, and tower connection hardware hanging point, check over the risks existed on the transmission line, and establish the video analysis database of transmission line aerial detection. The technology solves the problems of recording error and the general defect missing during the process of aerial detection, improves the efficiency, the quality and the accuracy of aerial detection, realizes the data statistics of transmission line channel condition, the bird-proof installations on the tower, and lightning protection facilities, which provides the theoretical foundition for the power transmission line operation, maintenance and management.

  5. Analysis of cyberattacks on unmanned aerial systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shull, Andrew M.

    With the increasing power and convenience offered by the use of embedded systems in control applications, such systems will undoubtedly continue to be developed and deployed. Recently, however, a focus on data-centric systems and developing network-enabled control systems has emerged, allowing for greater performance, safety, and resource allocation in systems such as smart power grids and unmanned military aircraft. However, this increase in connectivity also introduces vulnerabilities into these systems, potentially providing access to malicious parties seeking to disrupt the operation of those systems or to cause damage. Given the high potential cost of a failure in these systems in terms of property, sensitive information, and human safety, steps need to be taken to secure these systems. In order to analyze the vulnerabilities of unmanned aerial systems (UASs) specifically, a simulation testbed is developed to perform high-fidelity simulations of UAS operations using both software models and the actual vehicle hardware. Then, potential attacks against the control system and their corresponding intents are identified and introduced into these simulations. Failure conditions are defined, and extensive simulation of attacks in different combinations and magnitudes are performed in both software and hardware in order to identify particularly successful attacks, including attacks that are difficult to detect. From these results, vulnerabilities of the system can be determined so that appropriate remedies can be designed. Additionally, stealthy false data injection attacks against linear feedback systems are considered. The identification of these attacks is formed as an optimization problem constrained by the ability of monitoring systems to detect the attack. The optimal attack input is then determined for an example application so that the worst case system performance can be identified and, if needed, improved.

  6. Fuel cells: a real option for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles propulsion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Espasandín, Óscar; Leo, Teresa J; Navarro-Arévalo, Emilio

    2014-01-01

    The possibility of implementing fuel cell technology in Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) propulsion systems is considered. Potential advantages of the Proton Exchange Membrane or Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEMFC) and Direct Methanol Fuel Cells (DMFC), their fuels (hydrogen and methanol), and their storage systems are revised from technical and environmental standpoints. Some operating commercial applications are described. Main constraints for these kinds of fuel cells are analyzed in order to elucidate the viability of future developments. Since the low power density is the main problem of fuel cells, hybridization with electric batteries, necessary in most cases, is also explored. PMID:24600326

  7. Automatic geolocation of targets tracked by aerial imaging platforms using satellite imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, P. K.; Goel, S.; Singh, P.; Lohani, B.

    2014-11-01

    Tracking of targets from aerial platforms is an important activity in several applications, especially surveillance. Knowled ge of geolocation of these targets adds additional significant and useful information to the application. This paper determines the geolocation of a target being tracked from an aerial platform using the technique of image registration. Current approaches utilize a POS to determine the location of the aerial platform and then use the same for geolocation of the targets using the principle of photogrammetry. The constraints of cost and low-payload restrict the applicability of this approach using UAV platforms. This paper proposes a methodology for determining the geolocation of a target tracked from an aerial platform in a partially GPS devoid environment. The method utilises automatic feature based registration technique of a georeferenced satellite image with an ae rial image which is already stored in UAV's database to retrieve the geolocation of the target. Since it is easier to register subsequent aerial images due to similar viewing parameters, the subsequent overlapping images are registered together sequentially thus resulting in the registration of each of the images with georeferenced satellite image thus leading to geolocation of the target under interest. Using the proposed approach, the target can be tracked in all the frames in which it is visible. The proposed concept is verified experimentally and the results are found satisfactory. Using the proposed method, a user can obtain location of target of interest as well features on ground without requiring any POS on-board the aerial platform. The proposed approach has applications in surveillance for target tracking, target geolocation as well as in disaster management projects like search and rescue operations.

  8. Observing river stages using unmanned aerial vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niedzielski, Tomasz; Witek, Matylda; Spallek, Waldemar

    2016-08-01

    We elaborated a new method for observing water surface areas and river stages using unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). It is based on processing multitemporal five orthophotomaps produced from the UAV-taken visible light images of nine sites of the river, acquired with a sufficient overlap in each part. Water surface areas are calculated in the first place, and subsequently expressed as fractions of total areas of water-covered terrain at a given site of the river recorded on five dates. The logarithms of the fractions are later calculated, producing five samples, each consisted of nine elements. In order to detect statistically significant increments of water surface areas between two orthophotomaps, we apply the asymptotic and bootstrapped versions of the Student's t test, preceded by other tests that aim to check model assumptions. The procedure is applied to five orthophotomaps covering nine sites of the Ścinawka river (south-western (SW) Poland). The data have been acquired during the experimental campaign, at which flight settings were kept unchanged over nearly 3 years (2012-2014). We have found that it is possible to detect transitions between water surface areas associated with all characteristic water levels (low, mean, intermediate and high stages). In addition, we infer that the identified transitions hold for characteristic river stages as well. In the experiment we detected all increments of water level: (1) from low stages to mean, intermediate and high stages; (2) from mean stages to intermediate and high stages; and (3) from intermediate stages to high stages. Potential applications of the elaborated method include verification of hydrodynamic models and the associated predictions of high flows as well as monitoring water levels of rivers in ungauged basins.

  9. Metrically preserving the USGS aerial film archive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moe, Donald; Longhenry, Ryan

    2013-01-01

    Since 1972, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) Center in Sioux Falls, South Dakota, has provided fi lm-based products to the public. EROS is home to an archive of 12 million frames of analog photography ranging from 1937 to the present. The archive contains collections from both aerial and satellite platforms including programs such as the National High Altitude Program (NHAP), National Aerial Photography Program (NAPP), U.S. Antarctic Resource Center (USARC), Declass 1(CORONA, ARGON, and LANYARD), Declass 2 (KH-7 and KH-9), and Landsat (1972 – 1992, Landsat 1–5).

  10. Kite Aerial Photography - Hué

    OpenAIRE

    Brännström, Andreas; Ericsson, Mattias; Lundqvist, Camilla; Norberg, Micael; Willemark, Alva; Österholm, Johan

    2014-01-01

    The Kite Aerial Photography - Hué project started with the intention from Mattias Ericsson and me Micael Norberg to work artistically on a jointly project with students from di erent art schools and from di erent cultures. We had an idea of building bridges both artistically and culturally. We traveled to Hué in Vietnam in order to explore new ways to collaborate and  nd new artistic meth- ods. We wanted to use kites and send our cameras up in the air to make aerial pictures. We tried to  n...

  11. Advanced Image Processing of Aerial Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodell, Glenn; Jobson, Daniel J.; Rahman, Zia-ur; Hines, Glenn

    2006-01-01

    Aerial imagery of the Earth is an invaluable tool for the assessment of ground features, especially during times of disaster. Researchers at the NASA Langley Research Center have developed techniques which have proven to be useful for such imagery. Aerial imagery from various sources, including Langley's Boeing 757 Aries aircraft, has been studied extensively. This paper discusses these studies and demonstrates that better-than-observer imagery can be obtained even when visibility is severely compromised. A real-time, multi-spectral experimental system will be described and numerous examples will be shown.

  12. Ground cover estimated from aerial photographs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerbermann, A. H.; Cuellar, J. A.; Wiegand, C. L.

    1976-01-01

    Estimates of per cent ground cover made by ground observers were compared with independent estimates made on the basis of low-altitude (640-1219 m) aerial photographs of the same fields. Standard statistical simple correlation and linear regression analyses revealed a high correlation between the two estimation methods. In crops such as grain, sorghum, corn, and forage sorghum, in which the broadest part of the leaf canopy is near the top of the plant, there was a tendency to overestimate the per cent ground cover from aerial photographs.

  13. Optimal Path Planning for Unmanned Aerial Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Forsmo, Erik Johannes

    2012-01-01

    This thesis is a contribution to the Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) project at the Department of Engineering Cybernetics, which is a project where contributions from master students and Phd students will result in an autonomous aerial vehicle. The unmanned vehicle laboratory has its own UAV, the Odin Recce D6 delta-wing aircraft which is to be considered in the overall project. When the UAV is in the air on a mission, one important thing is to ensure that the UAV detects obstacles, such as mou...

  14. Diagnostics of Aerial Systems Diagnostics of Aerial Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Milan Chupac; Milan Sebok; Milan Simko

    2003-01-01

    Paper deals with the problem of thermovission and its application i diagnostic od antenna system for radio transmitters. on the bockrand of above mentioned theory laboratory measurements and measurements in the conditions of performance process were performed.
    Paper deals with the problem of thermovission and its application i diagnostic od antenna system for radio transmitters. on the bockrand of above mentioned theory laboratory measurements and measurements in the conditions of ...

  15. Diagnostics of Aerial Systems Diagnostics of Aerial Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Chupac

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Paper deals with the problem of thermovission and its application i diagnostic od antenna system for radio transmitters. on the bockrand of above mentioned theory laboratory measurements and measurements in the conditions of performance process were performed.
    Paper deals with the problem of thermovission and its application i diagnostic od antenna system for radio transmitters. on the bockrand of above mentioned theory laboratory measurements and measurements in the conditions of performance process were performed.

  16. 1935 15' Quad #100 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  17. Aerial Survey Units for Harbor Seals in Coastal Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Aerial surveys of coastal Alaska are the primary method for estimating abundance of harbor seals. A particular challenge associated with aerial surveys of harbor...

  18. 1935 15' Quad #031 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  19. 1935 15' Quad #259 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  20. 1935 15' Quad #098 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  1. 1935 15' Quad #154 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  2. 1935 15' Quad #106 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index - NM

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  3. US Forest Service Aerial Fire Retardant Hydrographic Avoidance Areas: Aquatic

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — A map services on the www depicting aerial retardant avoidance areas for hydrographic feature data. Aerial retardant avoidance area for hydrographic feature data...

  4. 1935 15' Quad #130 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  5. 1935 15' Quad #195 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index - AZ

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  6. Index for SCS 1934-1937 Aerial Photography

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial photographs are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The aerial photo inventory contains imagery from various sources that are now archived at the Earth...

  7. 1935 15' Quad #125 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  8. 1935 15' Quad #081 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  9. 1935 15' Quad #032 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  10. 1935 15' Quad #457 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  11. 1935 15' Quad #373 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  12. 1935 15' Quad #172 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  13. 1935 15' Quad #122 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  14. 1935 15' Quad #244 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  15. 1935 15' Quad #060 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  16. 1935 15' Quad #157 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  17. 1949-50 DIO USFS Aerial Photo Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial photographs are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The aerial photo inventory contains imagery from various sources that are now archived at the Earth...

  18. 1935 15' Quad #227 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  19. 1935 15' Quad #298 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  20. 1935 15' Quad #132 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  1. 1935 15' Quad #082 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  2. 1935 15' Quad #368 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  3. 1935 15' Quad #466 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  4. 1935 15' Quad #153 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  5. 1935 15' Quad #005 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  6. 1935 15' Quad #200 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  7. 1935 15' Quad #133 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  8. 1935 15' Quad #417 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index - NM

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  9. 1935 15' Quad #410 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  10. 1935 15' Quad #271 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  11. 1935 15' Quad #343 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  12. 1935 15' Quad #291 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  13. 1935 15' Quad #128 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  14. 1935 15' Quad #127 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  15. 1935 15' Quad #223 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  16. 1935 15' Quad #490 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  17. 1935 15' Quad #345 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  18. 1935 15' Quad #156 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  19. 1935 15' Quad #173 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index - AZ

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  20. 1935 15' Quad #370 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  1. 1935 15' Quad #129 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index - NM

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  2. 1935 15' Quad #351 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  3. Aerial surveys for beaver in Mackenzie District, Northwest Territories

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Report of the methods, results, and uses of aerial surveys for beaver in a wilderness area. The results of aerial surveys in 1949, 1951 and 1952 have been used to...

  4. 1935 15' Quad #292 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  5. 1935 15' Quad #009 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  6. 1935 15' Quad #249 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  7. 1935 15' Quad #226 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  8. 1935 15' Quad #152 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  9. 1935 15' Quad #243 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  10. 1935 15' Quad #058 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  11. 1935 15' Quad #414 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  12. 1935 15' Quad #033 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  13. 1935 15' Quad #267 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  14. 1935 15' Quad #386 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  15. 1935 15' Quad #037 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  16. 1935 15' Quad #246 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  17. 1935 15' Quad #268 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  18. 1935 15' Quad #078 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  19. 1935 15' Quad #001 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  20. 1935 15' Quad #371 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  1. 1935 15' Quad #221 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  2. 1935 15' Quad #049 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  3. 1935 15' Quad #195 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index - NM

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  4. 1947 Dona Ana County DEY Aerial Photo Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial photographs are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The aerial photo inventory contains imagery from various sources that are now archived at the Earth...

  5. 1935 15' Quad #375 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  6. 1935 15' Quad #076 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  7. 1935 15' Quad #075 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  8. 1935 15' Quad #099 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  9. 无人机航空摄影测量系统在农村土地确权中的应用%The UAV Aerial Photographic Measurement System in the Rural Land Rights Application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王妍; 孔祥仲; 贾世真; 刘辉

    2015-01-01

    介绍了用PPSG UAV对双鸭山市郊区2.5 km2地域(农村土地承包经营权确权双鸭山试点)试验区进行无人机航摄,无人机搭载非量测型相机获取低空遥感数据,计算机安装专业空三解算软件处理具体影像,最终取得数字正射影像图( DOM)、数字表面模型( DSM),通过数据分析了该系统的空中三角测量成果的精度和数字正射影像图( DOM)、数字表面模型( DSM)的精度,都达到了航空摄影测量地理信息数字成果比例尺1∶1000的成图精度。%This paper introduces the outskirts of the city of Shuangyashan 2.5 km2 area on PPSG UAV ( rural land contractual manage-ment right is the right to pilot test area of Shuangyashan) UAV, UAV with non metric camera to obtain low altitude remote sensing da-ta, the installation of computer professional three blank solution specific image processing software, finally achieve the digital or-thophoto map (DOM), digital surface model (DSM), the aerial triangulation results of the system precision and digital orthophoto map with data analysis ( DOM) , digital surface model ( DSM) accuracy, have reached the figure accuracy of aerial photography digital measurement results of geographic information scale 1∶1 000.

  10. Development of Air Force aerial spray night operations: High altitude swath characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Multiple trials were conducted from 2006 to 2014 in an attempt to validate aerial spray efficacy at altitudes conducive to night spray operations using night vision goggles (NVG). Higher altitude application of pesticide (>400 feet above ground level [AGL]) suggested that effective vector control mi...

  11. A practical interpretation and use of the USDA aerial fixed-wing nozzle models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proper selection and operation of spray nozzles associated with aerial applications is critical to insuring efficacy while mitigating off-target movement. Labels for most agrochemical products applied in the U.S. specifically define the droplet size or spray classification that can be used to apply...

  12. Rangeland resource assessment, monitoring, and management using unmanned aerial vehicle-based remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Civilian applications of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) have rapidly been expanding recently. Thanks to military development many civil UAVs come via the defense sector. Although numerous UAVs can perform civilian tasks, the regulations imposed by FAA in the national airspace system and military e...

  13. Beach monitoring using Unmanned Aerial Vehicles: results of a multi-temporal study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casella, Elisa; Rovere, Alessio; Casella, Marco; Pedroncini, Andrea; Ferrari, Marco; Vacchi, Matteo; Firpo, Marco

    2015-04-01

    The application of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles and photogrammetry techniques in earth sciences is flourishing. In this study, we show how we applied small Unmanned Aerial Vehicles to the study of topographic changes of a beach in Italy, NW Mediterranean Sea. We surveyed the same stretch of coastline three times in 5 months, obtaining ortophotos and digital elevation models of the beach using a structure from motion approach. We then calculated the difference in beach topography between each time step, and we related topography changes to both human and natural modifications of the beach morphology that can be inferred from aerial photos or wave data. We conclude that small drones have the potential to open new possibilities for beach monitoring studies, and can be successfully employed for multi-temporal monitoring studies at relatively low cost.

  14. Unmanned Aerial Systems for scientific research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanutti, Leopoldo; MacKenzie, A. Robert; di Donfrancesco, Guido; Amici, Stefania

    2010-05-01

    In the last decade a very wide spectrum of Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) has been developed, essentially for military purposes. They range from very small aircraft, weighing a few kg, to stratospheric aeroplanes with total weight of many tonnes. Endurance also varies very markedly, from a few hours to ≤ 60 hours, and possibly more in the next future. Environmental Research and Services (ERS) Srl., Florence, has carried out a scoping study for the UK Natural Environmental Research Council, to identify key Earth and Environmental Science issues which can best be tackled by means of unmanned aerial platforms. The study focused on issues which could not easily be solved using other platforms, as manned aircraft, airships and satellites. Topics included: · glaciology (including both continental ice-sheets and sea-ice) · volcanology · coastal and ocean observation · Exchange processes between sea and atmosphere · atmospheric turbulence, transport, and chemistry in the planetary boundary layer, in the free troposphere and in the upper troposphere - lower stratosphere (UTLS). Different platforms are best suited to each of these tasks. Platforms range from mini UAS, to Middle Altitude and Long Endurance (MALE) and High Altitude and Long Endurance (HALE) platforms, from electric aircraft to diesel-turbocharged platforms, from solar to turbofan aircraft. Generally long endurance and the capability to fly beyond line of sight are required for most scientific missions. An example is the application of UAS to the measurement of the extension and depth of sea and continental ice. Such measurements are of primary importance in the evaluation of climatic change. While with satellites it is possible to measure the extent of ice, measuring the depth can only be accomplished by using radar operating at relatively low altitudes. A tactical or a MALE UAS could be equipped with VHL radar which can penetrate ice and hence used to measure the depth of ice sheets. A platform which

  15. The Potential of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle for Large Scale Mapping of Coastal Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many countries in the tropical region are covered with cloud for most of the time, hence, it is difficult to get clear images especially from high resolution satellite imagery. Aerial photogrammetry can be used but most of the time the cloud problem still exists. Today, this problem could be solved using a system known as unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) where the aerial images can be acquired at low altitude and the system can fly under the cloud. The UAV system could be used in various applications including mapping coastal area. The UAV system is equipped with an autopilot system and automatic method known as autonomous flying that can be utilized for data acquisition. To achieve high resolution imagery, a compact digital camera of high resolution was used to acquire the aerial images at an altitude. In this study, the UAV system was employed to acquire aerial images of a coastal simulation model at low altitude. From the aerial images, photogrammetric image processing was executed to produce photogrammetric outputs such a digital elevation model (DEM), contour line and orthophoto. In this study, ground control point (GCP) and check point (CP) were established using conventional ground surveying method (i.e total station). The GCP is used for exterior orientation in photogrammetric processes and CP for accuracy assessment based on Root Mean Square Error (RMSE). From this study, it was found that the UAV system can be used for large scale mapping of coastal simulation model with accuracy at millimeter level. It is anticipated that the same system could be used for large scale mapping of real coastal area and produces good accuracy. Finally, the UAV system has great potential to be used for various applications that require accurate results or products at limited time and less man power

  16. The Potential of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle for Large Scale Mapping of Coastal Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darwin, N.; Ahmad, A.; Zainon, O.

    2014-02-01

    Many countries in the tropical region are covered with cloud for most of the time, hence, it is difficult to get clear images especially from high resolution satellite imagery. Aerial photogrammetry can be used but most of the time the cloud problem still exists. Today, this problem could be solved using a system known as unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) where the aerial images can be acquired at low altitude and the system can fly under the cloud. The UAV system could be used in various applications including mapping coastal area. The UAV system is equipped with an autopilot system and automatic method known as autonomous flying that can be utilized for data acquisition. To achieve high resolution imagery, a compact digital camera of high resolution was used to acquire the aerial images at an altitude. In this study, the UAV system was employed to acquire aerial images of a coastal simulation model at low altitude. From the aerial images, photogrammetric image processing was executed to produce photogrammetric outputs such a digital elevation model (DEM), contour line and orthophoto. In this study, ground control point (GCP) and check point (CP) were established using conventional ground surveying method (i.e total station). The GCP is used for exterior orientation in photogrammetric processes and CP for accuracy assessment based on Root Mean Square Error (RMSE). From this study, it was found that the UAV system can be used for large scale mapping of coastal simulation model with accuracy at millimeter level. It is anticipated that the same system could be used for large scale mapping of real coastal area and produces good accuracy. Finally, the UAV system has great potential to be used for various applications that require accurate results or products at limited time and less man power.

  17. Use of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) for urban tree inventories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, Brian A.

    In contrast to standard aerial imagery, unmanned aerial systems (UAS) utilize recent technological advances to provide an affordable alternative for imagery acquisition. Increased value can be realized through clarity and detail providing higher resolution (2-5 cm) over traditional products. Many natural resource disciplines such as urban forestry will benefit from UAS. Tree inventories for risk assessment, biodiversity, planning, and design can be efficiently achieved with the UAS. Recent advances in photogrammetric processing have proved automated methods for three dimensional rendering of aerial imagery. Point clouds can be generated from images providing additional benefits. Association of spatial locational information within the point cloud can be used to produce elevation models i.e. digital elevation, digital terrain and digital surface. Taking advantage of this point cloud data, additional information such as tree heights can be obtained. Several software applications have been developed for LiDAR data which can be adapted to utilize UAS point clouds. This study examines solutions to provide tree inventory and heights from UAS imagery. Imagery taken with a micro-UAS was processed to produce a seamless orthorectified image. This image provided an accurate way to obtain a tree inventory within the study boundary. Utilizing several methods, tree height models were developed with variations in spatial accuracy. Model parameters were modified to offset spatial inconsistencies providing statistical equality of means. Statistical results (p = 0.756) with a level of significance (α = 0.01) between measured and modeled tree height means resulted with 82% of tree species obtaining accurate tree heights. Within this study, the UAS has proven to be an efficient tool for urban forestry providing a cost effective and reliable system to obtain remotely sensed data.

  18. 29 CFR 1926.453 - Aerial lifts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies may be obtained from the American National...) Belting off to an adjacent pole, structure, or equipment while working from an aerial lift shall not be... Qualification Procedure, AWS B3.0-41. (ii) Recommended Practices for Automotive Welding Design, AWS...

  19. Sea Ice Mapping using Unmanned Aerial Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solbø, S.; Storvold, R.

    2011-12-01

    Mapping of sea ice extent and sea ice features is an important task in climate research. Since the arctic coastal and oceanic areas have a high probability of cloud coverage, aerial platforms are superior to satellite measurements for high-resolution optical measurements. However, routine observations of sea ice conditions present a variety of problems using conventional piloted aircrafts. Specially, the availability of suitable aircrafts for lease does not cover the demand in major parts of the arctic. With the recent advances in unmanned aerial systems (UAS), there is a high possibility of establishing routine, cost effective aerial observations of sea ice conditions in the near future. Unmanned aerial systems can carry a wide variety of sensors useful for characterizing sea-ice features. For instance, the CryoWing UAS, a system initially designed for measurements of the cryosphere, can be equipped with digital cameras, surface thermometers and laser altimeters for measuring freeboard of ice flows. In this work we will present results from recent CryoWing sea ice flights on Svalbard, Norway. The emphasis will be on data processing for stitching together images acquired with the non-stabilized camera payload, to form high-resolution mosaics covering large spatial areas. These data are being employed to map ice conditions; including ice and lead features and melt ponds. These high-resolution mosaics are also well suited for sea-ice mechanics, classification studies and for validation of satellite sea-ice products.

  20. Exploring Security Vulnerabilities of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodday, Nils Miro; O. Schmidt, de Ricardo; Pras, Aiko

    2016-01-01

    We are currently observing a significant increase in the popularity of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs), popularly also known by their generic term drones. This is not only the case for recreational UAVs, that one can acquire for a few hundred dollars, but also for more sophisticated ones, namely pro

  1. Aerial spraying of demulsifiers to enhance the natural dispersion of oil slicks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Large-scale sea trials were conducted to investigate the effectiveness of the aerial application of demulsifiers and the potential of this process in oil spill response. Preliminary tests were first conducted to verify the effectiveness of the Shell demulsifier LA 1834 diluted with Shell Surdyne X113 solvent and to determine the range of swath widths and discharge rates of the aerial spraying system. Four trials were carried out in the southern North Sea using either crude oil or medium fuel oil/gas oil mixes to simulate the oil spill. Infrared, ultraviolet, and video sensing data were obtained during all trials with emphasis on direct comparison between control slicks and slicks treated with aerially sprayed demulsifier. Results show that application of demulsifier solution has enhanced the natural dispersion of both fresh and emulsified oil to a greater degree than the adjacent control slicks. The demulsifier appeared to remain with the treated slicks after aerial application, influencing slick behavior for a considerable time. 5 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs

  2. Mapping infectious disease landscapes: unmanned aerial vehicles and epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fornace, Kimberly M; Drakeley, Chris J; William, Timothy; Espino, Fe; Cox, Jonathan

    2014-11-01

    The potential applications of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), or drones, have generated intense interest across many fields. UAVs offer the potential to collect detailed spatial information in real time at relatively low cost and are being used increasingly in conservation and ecological research. Within infectious disease epidemiology and public health research, UAVs can provide spatially and temporally accurate data critical to understanding the linkages between disease transmission and environmental factors. Using UAVs avoids many of the limitations associated with satellite data (e.g., long repeat times, cloud contamination, low spatial resolution). However, the practicalities of using UAVs for field research limit their use to specific applications and settings. UAVs fill a niche but do not replace existing remote-sensing methods. PMID:25443854

  3. Thermal soaring flight of birds and unmanned aerial vehicles

    CERN Document Server

    Ákos, Zsuzsa; Leven, Severin; Vicsek, Tamás; 10.1088/1748-3182/5/4/045003

    2010-01-01

    Thermal soaring saves much energy, but flying large distances in this form represents a great challenge for birds, people and Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs). The solution is to make use of so-called thermals, which are localized, warmer regions in the atmosphere moving upwards with a speed exceeding the descent rate of birds and planes. Saving energy by exploiting the environment more efficiently is an important possibility for autonomous UAVs as well. Successful control strategies have been developed recently for UAVs in simulations and in real applications. This paper first presents an overview of our knowledge of the soaring flight and strategy of birds, followed by a discussion of control strategies that have been developed for soaring UAVs both in simulations and applications on real platforms. To improve the accuracy of simulation of thermal exploitation strategies we propose a method to take into account the effect of turbulence. Finally we propose a new GPS independent control strategy for exploiting...

  4. Mathematical Modelling of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles with Four Rotors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoran Benić

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Mathematical model of an unmanned aerial vehicle with four propulsors (quadcopter is indispensable in quadcopter movement simulation and later modelling of the control algorithm. Mathematical model is, at the same time, the first step in comprehending the mathematical principles and physical laws which are applied to the quadcopter system. The objective is to define the mathematical model which will describe the quadcopter behavior with satisfactory accuracy and which can be, with certain modifications, applicable for the similar configurations of multirotor aerial vehicles. At the beginning of mathematical model derivation, coordinate systems are defined and explained. By using those coordinate systems, relations between parameters defined in the earth coordinate system and in the body coordinate system are defined. Further, the quadcopter kinematic is described which enables setting those relations. Also, quadcopter dynamics is used to introduce forces and torques to the model through usage of Newton-Euler method. Final derived equation is Newton’s second law in the matrix notation. For the sake of model simplification, hybrid coordinate system is defined, and quadcopter dynamic equations derived with the respect to it. Those equations are implemented in the simulation. Results of behavior of quadcopter mathematical model are graphically shown for four cases. For each of the cases the propellers revolutions per minute (RPM are set in a way that results in the occurrence of the controllable variables which causes one of four basic quadcopter movements in space.

  5. Experiences with Light Weight Fixed Wing Aerial Mapping UAVs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Mayr

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available UAVs seem to be the next "cloud" like topic, not only in geomatics. Unmanned Airborne Vehicles are not a wonder-tool, but a complementary approach to resolve some tasks more efficiently than before or at all. Since 2006 we commercially apply fixed wing, light weight UAVs for aerial mapping purposes. In this paper we like to share our experiences with UAVs of less than 5 kg and illuminate some limitations as well as potentials. Whereas multicopters seem to be in use everywhere, fixed wing UAVs more frequently seem to be applied in specific and geospatially oriented applications. Having processed several hundred UAV aerial mapping projects there forms a stable picture of this technology. Our impressions on durability, handling, and reliability of fixed wing UAVs get presented. We report on our day-to-day experiences and point to often simple hurdles to overcome. Various cameras were flown, different approaches of handling their geometries with different software packages were undertaken. Remarks to achieved geometric accuracies as well as the consequences of using dual frequency GPS instead of simple yet great single frequency GPS are discussed. All of this packed into the subsequent paper.

  6. Exterior Orientation Estimation of Oblique Aerial Imagery Using Vanishing Points

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verykokou, Styliani; Ioannidis, Charalabos

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, a methodology for the calculation of rough exterior orientation (EO) parameters of multiple large-scale overlapping oblique aerial images, in the case that GPS/INS information is not available (e.g., for old datasets), is presented. It consists of five main steps; (a) the determination of the overlapping image pairs and the single image in which four ground control points have to be measured; (b) the computation of the transformation parameters from every image to the coordinate reference system; (c) the rough estimation of the camera interior orientation parameters; (d) the estimation of the true horizon line and the nadir point of each image; (e) the calculation of the rough EO parameters of each image. A developed software suite implementing the proposed methodology is tested using a set of UAV multi-perspective oblique aerial images. Several tests are performed for the assessment of the errors and show that the estimated EO parameters can be used either as initial approximations for a bundle adjustment procedure or as rough georeferencing information for several applications, like 3D modelling, even by non-photogrammetrists, because of the minimal user intervention needed. Finally, comparisons with a commercial software are made, in terms of automation and correctness of the computed EO parameters.

  7. 无人机航测系统在应急服务保障中的应用与前景%Unmanned Aerial System Applications and Prospects in the Protection of Emergency Services

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘刚; 许宏健; 马海涛; 朱敏

    2011-01-01

    Unmanned air vehicle aerial photographic system has the advantage of flexible,efficient and rapid,precise and accurate,safe,reliable,money saving,and a rapid response capacity for disaster management to provide timely and accurate data.Emergency services protection in a timely and expeditious access to emergency and disaster information to provide the basis for the development of the program.In the future,,UAV will play an active role in many areas,such as urban planning,road and bridge measurements,the new rural construction,land resources survey,mapping and other carrier of the island.%无人机航测系统具有灵活机动,高效快速,精细准确,安全可靠又省钱节约,应用广泛的优势,具有快速反应能力,为灾害的治理提供了及时、准确的数据。在应急服务保障中,能够及时迅速地获取突发事件及灾害信息,为制订方案提供依据。无人机今后必将在大量城镇规划,道路桥梁测量,新农村建设,国土资源调查,舰载化的海岛测绘等诸多领域发挥积极作用。

  8. Inpho 在无人机应急测绘保障中的应用%Application in Emergency Mapping Safeguard with Unmanned AerialV ehicle Based on Inpho

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李淼淼; 乔振民; 江西善

    2013-01-01

    无人机在应急测绘中起着举足轻重的作用,但是无人机重量轻,抗风性能差,姿态稳定性差,影像像幅小,投影差大等都会给后期处理带来大量的工作量。本文基于Inpho全数字摄影测量系统,针对无人机数据处理中遇到的多种处理难题提出了针对性的解决方案。%Although unmanned Aerial Vehicle ( UAV) plays an important role in the emergency mapping , the disadvantages of the UAV such as light weight , poor wind resistance and postural stability , small size images , and big difference between projections will bring tremendous amount of work to the post processing .Based on Inpho , the full digital photogrammetric system , this paper proposes a specific solution against various problems encountered in the data processing of UAV .

  9. Robust adaptive control for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahveci, Nazli E.

    The objective of meeting higher endurance requirements remains a challenging task for any type and size of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs). According to recent research studies significant energy savings can be realized through utilization of thermal currents. The navigation strategies followed across thermal regions, however, are based on rather intuitive assessments of remote pilots and lack any systematic path planning approaches. Various methods to enhance the autonomy of UAVs in soaring applications are investigated while seeking guarantees for flight performance improvements. The dynamics of the aircraft, small UAVs in particular, are affected by the environmental conditions, whereas unmodeled dynamics possibly become significant during aggressive flight maneuvers. Besides, the demanded control inputs might have a magnitude range beyond the limits dictated by the control surface actuators. The consequences of ignoring these issues can be catastrophic. Supporting this claim NASA Dryden Flight Research Center reports considerable performance degradation and even loss of stability in autonomous soaring flight tests with the subsequent risk of an aircraft crash. The existing control schemes are concluded to suffer from limited performance. Considering the aircraft dynamics and the thermal characteristics we define a vehicle-specific trajectory optimization problem to achieve increased cross-country speed and extended range of flight. In an environment with geographically dispersed set of thermals of possibly limited lifespan, we identify the similarities to the Vehicle Routing Problem (VRP) and provide both exact and approximate guidance algorithms for the navigation of automated UAVs. An additional stochastic approach is used to quantify the performance losses due to incorrect thermal data while dealing with random gust disturbances and onboard sensor measurement inaccuracies. One of the main contributions of this research is a novel adaptive control design with

  10. Design, construction and flight control of a quad tilt-wing unmanned aerial vehicle

    OpenAIRE

    Çetinsoy, Ertuğrul; Cetinsoy, Ertugrul

    2010-01-01

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) are flying robots that are employed both in civilian and military applications with a steeply increasing trend. They are already used extensively in civilian applications such as law enforcement, earth surface mapping and surveillance in disasters, and in military missions such as surveillance, reconnaissance and target acquisition. As the demand on their utilization increases, novel designs with far more advances in autonomy, flight capabilities and payloads f...

  11. Stable Imaging and Accuracy Issues of Low-Altitude Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Photogrammetry Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Yang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Stable imaging of an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV photogrammetry system is an important issue that affects the data processing and application of the system. Compared with traditional aerial images, the large rotation of roll, pitch, and yaw angles of UAV images decrease image quality and result in image deformation, thereby affecting the ground resolution, overlaps, and the consistency of the stereo models. These factors also cause difficulties in automatic tie point matching, image orientation, and accuracy of aerial triangulation (AT. The issues of large-angle photography of UAV photogrammetry system are discussed and analyzed quantitatively in this paper, and a simple and lightweight three-axis stabilization platform that works with a low-precision integrated inertial navigation system and a three-axis mechanical platform is used to reduce this problem. An experiment was carried out with an airship as the flight platform. Another experimental dataset, which was acquired by the same flight platform without a stabilization platform, was utilized for a comparative test. Experimental results show that the system can effectively isolate the swing of the flying platform. To ensure objective and reliable results, another group of experimental datasets, which were acquired using a fixed-wing UAV platform, was also analyzed. Statistical results of the experimental datasets confirm that stable imaging of a UAV platform can help improve the quality of aerial photography imagery and the accuracy of AT, and potentially improve the application of images acquired by a UAV.

  12. Backlash nonlinear modeling and compensation of the inertially stabilized platform system for aerial remote sensing application%航空遥感惯性稳定平台齿隙非线性建模与补偿

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周向阳; 张宏燕

    2013-01-01

    针对航空遥感惯性稳定平台框架伺服系统中齿隙非线性环节造成的系统驱动延时、换向跳变及冲击振荡等问题,对航空遥感惯性稳定平台齿隙非线性进行建模与补偿.在分析齿隙非线性环节结构和传动特点基础上,建立了齿隙非线性死区模型;利用MATLAB仿真分析了齿隙对系统性能的影响;以框架伺服系统为研究对象,应用反步积分法,通过依次选择Lyapunov函数,设计了基于状态反馈的控制器,并进行实验验证.结果表明:齿隙误差补偿可有效提高系统控制精度;与传统PID控制相比,反步积分法显著降低了齿隙非线性对伺服系统性能的影响,在给定框架期望转角情况下,反步积分法比PID控制响应速度提高78.26%、稳态精度提高23.1%.%Aiming at the problems,such as system driving delay,sudden hop in phase changing,shocking vibration,and etc.caused by the backlash nonlinearity in the frame servo system of inertially stabilized platform (ISP) used in aerial remote sensing,the backlash nonlinearity in the frame servo system of ISP used in aerial remote sensing is modeled and compensated.Based on analyzing the characteristics of backlash nonlinearity and transmission,a dead-zone model describing the backlash nonlinearity is established.The influences of backlash impact on system performance are analyzed in simulation using Matlab.Taking the frame servo system as the studying object and using the backstepping integral control method,a controller based on state feedback was designed through successively choosing Lyapunov functions,and experiments were carried out to verify the proposed control method.Experiment results indicate that the system control precision has been effectively improved after compensating the backlash error.Compared with traditional PID control method,the backstepping integral control method obviously deduces the influence of backlash nonlinearity impact on servo system performance

  13. Precision wildlife monitoring using unmanned aerial vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Jarrod C. Hodgson; Shane M. Baylis; Rowan Mott; Ashley Herrod; Rohan H Clarke

    2016-01-01

    Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) represent a new frontier in environmental research. Their use has the potential to revolutionise the field if they prove capable of improving data quality or the ease with which data are collected beyond traditional methods. We apply UAV technology to wildlife monitoring in tropical and polar environments and demonstrate that UAV-derived counts of colony nesting birds are an order of magnitude more precise than traditional ground counts. The increased count pre...

  14. Approximate dynamic programming and aerial refueling

    OpenAIRE

    Panos, Dennis C.

    2007-01-01

    Aerial refueling is an integral part of the United States military's ability to strike targets around the world with an overwhelming and continuous projection of force. However, with an aging fleet of refueling tankers and an indefinite replacement schedule the optimization of tanker usage is vital to national security. Optimizing tanker and receiver refueling operations is a complicated endeavor as it can involve over a thousand of missions during a 24 hour period, as in Operation Iraqi Free...

  15. Vibration analysis and damping system design on an inertially stabilized platform for aerial remote sensing application%航空遥感惯性稳定平台振动特性分析与隔振系统设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周向阳; 刘炜

    2012-01-01

    In order to isolate the high-frequency linear vibration for the aerial remote sensing system, the damping system for a three-axis inertially stabilized platform(ISP) is designed. Based on the analysis of the vibration environment, the 1- and 2-degree-of-freedom damping system dynamic models of inertially stabilized platform with periodic disturbances were simulated by Matlab software, and the vibration characteristics were analyzed. Then the damping system for a light-weight ISP was designed, and the vibration experiments were carried out. The results show that the inertially stabilized platform can perform stably under the 30-500 Hz high-frequency disturbances, and the residual deviation is less than 0.2°, which indicates that the damping system is feasible and effective.%针对航空遥感三轴惯性稳定平台隔离高频线振动的要求,在振动环境分析的基础上,以振动传递率为评价指标,对周期性干扰下惯性稳定平台的一次和二次隔振系统动力学模型进行了Matlab仿真及振动特性分析,进而对某轻小型惯性稳定平台的隔振系统进行了设计,最后为验证隔振系统效果,对惯性稳定平台进行了振动测试实验,实验结果表明:惯性稳定平台在受到30~500 Hz的外界干扰时能够平稳工作,且指向精度保持在0.2°以内,表明隔振系统设计合理有效,

  16. Aerial photography in peat production technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this project, possibilities of using aerial photography in peat technology were studied experimentally, the frequency of self-heating in peat stockpiles was surveyed and the effect of compacting on the inner temperature in a self-heated milled peat stockpile was studied. Air photographs can be used in several sub-fields of the peat production. On the basis of these photos it is possible to draw conclusions from the environmental impacts of peat production, from conditions in the peat field, and from qualitative and moisture differences of surface peat. In addition, aerial photography can be utilised in updating bog maps. On the basis of aerial thermal photography in autumns 1987 - 1993, 29 % of milled peat stockpiles, and 4 % of sod peat stockpiles were found to be self-heated. The susceptibility to self-heating varied at different peatlands. The effect of compacting with a bulldozer was studied at three self-heated test stock-piles, two of which were compacted. The inner temperatures in the test stockpiles decreased significantly over the three-month monitoring period. The falls in the inner temperature of all three stockpiles were identical. Compacting did not have any significant effect on the temperature fall or on the rate of fall. The number of test stockpiles (3) is insufficient to give any statistical reliability. (orig.)

  17. Localization of aerial broadband noise by pinnipeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Marla M.; Schusterman, Ronald J.; Southall, Brandon L.; Kastak, David

    2004-05-01

    Although many pinnipeds (seals, sea lions, and walruses) emit broadband calls on land as part of their communication system, few studies have addressed these animals' ability to localize aerial broadband sounds. In this study, the aerial sound localization acuities of a female northern elephant seal (Mirounga angustirostris), a male harbor seal (Phoca vitulina), and a female California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) were measured in the horizontal plane. The stimulus was broadband white noise that was band pass filtered between 1.2 and 15 kHz. Testing was conducted in a hemi-anechoic chamber using a left/right forced choice procedure to measure the minimum audible angle (MAA) for each subject. MAAs were defined as half the angular separation of two sound sources bisected by a subject's midline that corresponded to 75% correct discrimination. MAAs were 4.7°, 3.6°, and 4.2° for the northern elephant seal, harbor seal, and California sea lion, respectively. These results demonstrate that individuals of these pinniped species have sound localization abilities comparable to the domestic cat and rhesus macaque. The acuity differences between our subjects were small and not predicted by head size. These results likely reflect the relatively acute general abilities of pinnipeds to localize aerial broadband signals.

  18. Survey on the novel hybrid aquatic-aerial amphibious aircraft: Aquatic unmanned aerial vehicle (AquaUAV)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xingbang; Wang, Tianmiao; Liang, Jianhong; Yao, Guocai; Liu, Miao

    2015-04-01

    The aquatic unmanned aerial vehicle (AquaUAV), a kind of vehicle that can operate both in the air and the water, has been regarded as a new breakthrough to broaden the application scenario of UAV. Wide application prospects in military and civil field are more than bright, therefore many institutions have focused on the development of such a vehicle. However, due to the significant difference of the physical properties between the air and the water, it is rather difficult to design a fully-featured AquaUAV. Until now, majority of partially-featured AquaUAVs have been developed and used to verify the feasibility of an aquatic-aerial vehicle. In the present work, we classify the current partially-featured AquaUAV into three categories from the scope of the whole UAV field, i.e., the seaplane UAV, the submarine-launched UAV, and the submersible UAV. Then the recent advancements and common characteristics of the three kinds of AquaUAVs are reviewed in detail respectively. Then the applications of bionics in the design of AquaUAV, the transition mode between the air and the water, the morphing wing structure for air-water adaptation, and the power source and the propulsion type are summarized and discussed. The tradeoff analyses for different transition methods between the air and the water are presented. Furthermore, it indicates that applying the bionics into the design and development of the AquaUAV will be essential and significant. Finally, the significant technical challenges for the AquaUAV to change from a conception to a practical prototype are indicated.

  19. Aerotriangulation accuracy analysis of GPS-assisted aerial photogrammetry based on SWDC%彩色扫描地形图的分色方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈飞; 吴英男; 王红新

    2011-01-01

    As GPS technology continues to mature, GPS-supportod aerial photogrammetry has also made considerable progress.Because GPS-assisted aerial photogrammetry can real-time get the space station coordinates through the GPS receiver on the aerial camera, it saves a lot of manpower, material and financial resources, and greatly reduces the operating cycle of the entire aerial survey.This paper used the GPS-supported aerial photogrammetry measurement method on Beijing Badaling measurement area, by encrypting with PBBA and PATB respectively, to design variety of aerial triangulation program, which verified the aerial triangulation accuracy of SWDC digital aerial camera with GPS-supported aerial photography way, providing precision support for the promotion and application of SWDC aerial camera in the world.%本文提出了一种新的地形图分色方法.首先去除背景像素,然后根据灰度梯度值提取主色像素,利用直方图模糊c-均值(FCM)聚类方法对主色像素进行颜色聚类,对去背景后的图像进行Canny算子的边缘检测.最后,利用加壳变换和障碍距离变换工具对符号周围的过渡像素进行聚类,从而实现黑棕兰绿四个分版图的提取.该方法效率较高,受图纸扫描质量的影响不大,分色效果较理想.

  20. Development of Flight Path Planning for Multirotor Aerial Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Ju Tsai

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This study addresses the flight-path planning problem for multirotor aerial vehicles (AVs. We consider the specific features and requirements of real-time flight-path planning and develop a rapidly-exploring random tree (RRT algorithm to determine a preliminary flight path in three-dimensional space. Since the path obtained by the RRT may not be optimal due to the existence of redundant waypoints. To reduce the cost of energy during AV’s flight, the excessive waypoints need to be refined. We revise the A-star algorithm by adopting the heading of the AV as the key indices while calculating the cost. Bezier curves are finally proposed to smooth the flight path, making it applicable for real-world flight.

  1. Galvanometer control system design of aerial camera motion compensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Mingrui; Cao, Jianzhong; Wang, Huawei; Guo, Yunzeng; Hu, Changchang; Tang, Hong; Niu, Yuefeng

    2015-10-01

    Aerial cameras exist the image motion on the flight. The image motion has seriously affected the image quality, making the image edge blurred and gray scale loss. According to the actual application situation, when high quality and high precision are required, the image motion compensation (IMC) should be adopted. This paper designs galvanometer control system of IMC. The voice coil motor as the actuator has a simple structure, fast dynamic response and high positioning accuracy. Double-loop feedback is also used. PI arithmetic and Hall sensors are used at the current feedback. Fuzzy-PID arithmetic and optical encoder are used at the speed feedback. Compared to conventional PID control arithmetic, the simulation results show that the control system has fast response and high control accuracy.

  2. Acoustic atmospheric tomography using multiple unmanned aerial vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finn, Anthony; Rogers, Kevin; Meade, Joshua; Franklin, Stephen

    2014-10-01

    This paper presents a method for tomographically reconstructing atmospheric temperature profiles and wind velocity fields based on acoustic travel time measurements between two or more Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs). The technique offers mobility and the capacity to monitor hazardous atmospheric environments, otherwise not justifiable on the basis of cost or risk. Simulations, in which the parametric fields of the atmosphere are modelled as a weighted sum of Radial Basis Functions, demonstrate the technique's potential performance envelope. The approach also allows local meteorological measurements made at the UAVs to supplement any time delay observations. This increases the accuracy of the technique, which has potential for practical applications in boundary layer meteorology, the theory of atmospheric turbulence, and wave propagation through a turbulent atmosphere.

  3. Canopy Measurements with a Small Unmanned Aerial System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peschel, J.

    2015-12-01

    This work discusses the use of a small unmanned aerial system (UAS) for the remote placement of wireless environmental sensors in tree canopies. Remote presence applications occur when one or more humans use a robot to project themselves into an environment in order to complete an inaccessible or time-critical mission. The more difficult problem of physical object manipulation goes one step further by incorporating physical-based interaction, in additional to visualization. Forested environments present especially unique challenges for small UAS versus similar domains (e.g., disaster response, inspection of critical infrastructure) due to the navigation and interaction required with dense tree canopies. This work describes two field investigations that inform: i) the type of physical object manipulation and visualization necessary for sensor placement (ventral, frontal, dorsal), ii) the necessary display form (hybrid) for piloting and sensor placement, and iii) visual feedback mechanisms useful for handling human-robot team role conflicts.

  4. Utilization of aerial photography in peat production; Ilmakuvauksien kaeyttoemahdollisuudet turvetuotannon apuvaelineenae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tervo, M.

    1992-12-31

    The technical and economical applicability of different aerial photographic methods for intensification of peat production and production control have been studied in this research. According to the research results, obtained in the aerial photography and ground measurements carried out during the summer 1991, the photographic methods (both panchromatic and near infra-red) are suitable for coarse determination of quality variation of surface peat. Especially, the light poorly humified surfaces are readily observable from the aerial photographs. Additionally, the photographic methods can be used for control of the condition of ditching on production mires, for environmental monitoring, and for determination of the dimensions of the production area and stockpiles (the strip length, the surface area, the volume of the stockpile, the surface levelling, etc.) Especially, the large scale determination of stockpile volumes using aerial photographs seems to be suitable for development. According to the photography in the summer 1991, it is possible to detect areas of different moisture content using thermal photography, so it might be suitable for determination of the basic drainage level of a production field. However, more research is needed for determination of the accuracy of the method. Thermal photography has been videly used for control of self heating of the peat stockpiles during several autumns.

  5. 无人机低空摄影测量在城市测绘保障中的应用前景%Unmanned Aerial System Applications and Prospects in the Urban Survey and Mapping

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王洛飞

    2014-01-01

    Unmanned air vehicle low altitude photographic system has the advantage of high -resolution, large-scale, small area and efficient .It is the indispensable complement to satellite remote sensing and aerial photographic measurement .UAV can provide high-resolution images for large -scale image map production , key areas orthophoto production , high-precision DEM grid and DLG pro-duction .This is to meet the needs of large -scale basis for geospatial data in urban informatization construction , is to provide effective mapping support for urban construction .Multiple aspects are discussed about the prospects for UAV low altitude photographic system in urban construction , such as, high-resolution survey and mapping product support , emergency services protection , three-dimen-sional digital modeling , and dynamic monitoring of key areas .%无人机低空摄影测量具有高清晰、大比例尺、小面积、高现势性的优点,是卫星遥感与普通航空摄影不可缺少的补充。可为大比例尺影像地图生产、重点地区正射影像制作、高精度DEM格网和DLG产品提供高分辨率清晰影像数据源,满足城市信息化建设对大比例尺基础地理空间数据的需求,为城市建设提供有效的测绘保障。通过高分辨率测绘产品支持、应急测绘保障、三维数字建模和重点区域动态监测等多个方面对无人机低空摄影测量在城市测绘保障中的应用前景进行论述展望。

  6. Technical development for automatic aerial triangulation of high resolution satellite imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Zhen

    Because they contain abundant spatial information, high resolution satellite images are widely used in a variety of applications. Aerial triangulation is one of the most important technologies to obtain accurate spatial information from those images. Thus aerial triangulation is always an important research topic in the photogrammetric community and automatic aerial triangulation is a common goal of such PhD research activities. To date, many techniques have been developed to improve the efficiency and accuracy of aerial triangulation. However, for processing high resolution satellite images, automatic aerial triangulation still faces many challenges, including tie point extraction and sensor model refinement. The main purpose of this research is to develop and test new tie point extraction, sensor model refinement and bundle block adjustment methods for improving the automation and accuracy of aerial triangulation. The accuracy of tie points directly determines the success of aerial triangulation. Generally both the corner point and the gravity center point of a rectangular or circular object can be used as tie points, but the resulting outcomes can vary greatly in aerial triangulation. However, this difference has not drawn much attention from researchers yet. Thus, most of the tie point extraction algorithms only extract various corners. In order to quantify the difference between corner and center tie points for image registration, this research analyzed the error introduced by using corner or center tie points in different cases. Through quantitative analysis and experiments, the author reached the conclusion that the 'center' points, when used as tie points, can improve the accuracy of image registration by at least 40 percent over that for the 'corner' points. Extracting a large number of tie points is the prerequisite of automatic aerial triangulation. Interest point matching can extract tie points automatically. To date numerous interest point matching

  7. UNMANNED AERIAL VEHICLE WITH SOLAR ENERGY SYSTEM SYNTHESIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    В.М. Казак

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available  The main scopes of unmanned aerial vehicles are considered. Major current publications analysis on the aircraft development using photovoltaic cell is conducted. Typical unmanned aerial vehicle and his basic parameters are analyzed and defined. The example of power value calculations that provide straightly horizontal flight and steady lifting of typical unmanned aerial vehicle are conducted. Photovoltaic cells and batteries necessary weight and electrical characteristics are defined.

  8. UNMANNED AERIAL VEHICLE WITH SOLAR ENERGY SYSTEM SYNTHESIS

    OpenAIRE

    В.М. Казак; О.К. Горбач

    2012-01-01

     The main scopes of unmanned aerial vehicles are considered. Major current publications analysis on the aircraft development using photovoltaic cell is conducted. Typical unmanned aerial vehicle and his basic parameters are analyzed and defined. The example of power value calculations that provide straightly horizontal flight and steady lifting of typical unmanned aerial vehicle are conducted. Photovoltaic cells and batteries necessary weight and electrical characteristics are defined.

  9. Arctic Oil Spill Mapping and Response Using Unmanned Aerial Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, K. W.

    2011-12-01

    The University of Alaska Fairbanks works extensively with unmanned aerial systems and various sensor payloads used in mapping. Recent projects with Royal Dutch Shell and British Petroleum have demonstrated that unmanned aerial systems, including fixed and rotary winged platforms, can provide quick response to oil spill mapping in a variety of flight conditions, including those not well suited for manned aerial systems. We describe this collaborative research between the University and oil companies exploring and developing oil resources in Alaska and the Arctic.

  10. Intelligent Autonomous Aerial Vehicles in the National Airspace Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Unmanned aerial systems (UAS) and, in particular, intelligent, autonomous aircraft operating in the National Airspace (NAS) have the potential to significantly...

  11. Autonomous aerial vehicles : guidance, control, signal and image processing platform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of unmanned systems is gaining momentum in civil applications after successful use by the armed forces around the globe. Autonomous aerial vehicles are important for providing assistance in monitoring highways, power grid lines, borders, and surveillance of critical infrastructures. It is envisioned that cargo shipping will be completely handled by UAVs by the 2025. Civil use of unmanned autonomous systems brings serious challenges. The need for cost effectiveness, reliability, operation simplicity, safety, and cooperation with human and with other agents are among these challenges. Aerial vehicles operating in the civilian aerospace is the ultimate goal which requires these systems to achieve the reliability of manned aircraft while maintaining their cost effectiveness. In this presentation the development of an autonomous fixed and rotary wing aerial vehicle will be discussed. The architecture of the system from the mission requirements to low level auto pilot control laws will be discussed. Trajectory tracking and path following guidance and control algorithms commonly used and their implementation using of the shelf low cost components will be presented. Autonomous takeo? landing is a key feature that was implemented onboard the vehicle to complete its degree of autonomy. This is implemented based on accurate air-data system designed and fused with sonar measurements, INS/GPS measurements, and vector field method guidance laws. The outcomes of the proposed research is that the AUS-UAV platform named MAZARI is capable of autonomous takeoff and landing based on a pre scheduled flight path using way point navigation and sensor fusion of the inertial navigation system (INS) and global positioning system (GPS). Several technologies need to be mastered when developing a UAV. The navigation task and the need to fuse sensory information to estimate the location of the vehicle is critical to successful autonomous vehicle. Currently extended Kalman filtering is

  12. D Surface Generation from Aerial Thermal Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodaei, B.; Samadzadegan, F.; Dadras Javan, F.; Hasani, H.

    2015-12-01

    Aerial thermal imagery has been recently applied to quantitative analysis of several scenes. For the mapping purpose based on aerial thermal imagery, high accuracy photogrammetric process is necessary. However, due to low geometric resolution and low contrast of thermal imaging sensors, there are some challenges in precise 3D measurement of objects. In this paper the potential of thermal video in 3D surface generation is evaluated. In the pre-processing step, thermal camera is geometrically calibrated using a calibration grid based on emissivity differences between the background and the targets. Then, Digital Surface Model (DSM) generation from thermal video imagery is performed in four steps. Initially, frames are extracted from video, then tie points are generated by Scale-Invariant Feature Transform (SIFT) algorithm. Bundle adjustment is then applied and the camera position and orientation parameters are determined. Finally, multi-resolution dense image matching algorithm is used to create 3D point cloud of the scene. Potential of the proposed method is evaluated based on thermal imaging cover an industrial area. The thermal camera has 640×480 Uncooled Focal Plane Array (UFPA) sensor, equipped with a 25 mm lens which mounted in the Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV). The obtained results show the comparable accuracy of 3D model generated based on thermal images with respect to DSM generated from visible images, however thermal based DSM is somehow smoother with lower level of texture. Comparing the generated DSM with the 9 measured GCPs in the area shows the Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) value is smaller than 5 decimetres in both X and Y directions and 1.6 meters for the Z direction.

  13. An aerial 3D printing test mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, Michael; McGuire, Thomas; Parsons, Michael; Leake, Skye; Straub, Jeremy

    2016-05-01

    This paper provides an overview of an aerial 3D printing technology, its development and its testing. This technology is potentially useful in its own right. In addition, this work advances the development of a related in-space 3D printing technology. A series of aerial 3D printing test missions, used to test the aerial printing technology, are discussed. Through completing these test missions, the design for an in-space 3D printer may be advanced. The current design for the in-space 3D printer involves focusing thermal energy to heat an extrusion head and allow for the extrusion of molten print material. Plastics can be used as well as composites including metal, allowing for the extrusion of conductive material. A variety of experiments will be used to test this initial 3D printer design. High altitude balloons will be used to test the effects of microgravity on 3D printing, as well as parabolic flight tests. Zero pressure balloons can be used to test the effect of long 3D printing missions subjected to low temperatures. Vacuum chambers will be used to test 3D printing in a vacuum environment. The results will be used to adapt a current prototype of an in-space 3D printer. Then, a small scale prototype can be sent into low-Earth orbit as a 3-U cube satellite. With the ability to 3D print in space demonstrated, future missions can launch production hardware through which the sustainability and durability of structures in space will be greatly improved.

  14. Qualidade da aplicação aérea líquida com uma aeronave agrícola experimental na cultura da soja (Glycine Max L. Liquid aerial pesticide application quality with an experimental agricultural aircraft in soybean crop (Glycine Max L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elton F. dos Reis

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Os avanços da tecnologia de aplicação aérea de agroquímicos têm-se dado na direção de redução do volume de calda, o que pode ocasionar má distribuição e consequente deposição irregular. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a qualidade da aplicação de calda de pulverização em aplicação aérea, na cultura da soja (Glycine Max L.. Para a aplicação, foi utilizada uma aeronave agrícola experimental, aplicando um volume de calda de 20 L ha-1 . Para a determinação dos volumes depositados nas folhas do terço superior, médio e inferior das plantas de soja, foi utilizado corante alimentício azul brilhante adicionado à calda de pulverização. Estas folhas foram lavadas, e o volume determinado por espectrofotometria. Para a obtenção do espectro de gotas, foram utilizados alvos artificiais constituídos por papel hidrossensível, distribuídos no terço superior e médio das plantas. Os dados foram submetidos à análise de variância de fator único, considerando as diferentes posições na planta, e cartas de controle foram feitas a partir dos limites inferior e superior de controle. A aplicação aérea de calda de pulverização na cultura da soja apresentou menores valores de diâmetro da mediana volumétrica, amplitude relativa e cobertura no terço médio em relação ao terço superior da cultura da soja. Houve menor deposição da calda de pulverização no terço inferior. Os indicadores de cobertura da calda de pulverização demonstraram que a aplicação aérea com a aeronave agrícola experimental avaliada não se encontra sob controle estatístico de processo, ou seja, fora do padrão de qualidade.Advances in aerial pesticide application technology of chemicals have been given in the direction of reducing the syrup volume, which can cause poor distribution and consequent irregular deposition. This study aimed to evaluate the quality of the syrup spray on aerial application in soybean crop (Glycine Max

  15. Aerial view of Safe Haven roadway

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    This aerial photo captures many of the facilities involved in Space Shuttle processing. At center is the Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB). The curved road is the newly restored crawlerway leading into the VAB high bay 2. The road restoration and high bay 2 are part of KSC's Safe Haven project, enabling the storage of orbiters during severe weather. The road circles around the Orbiter Processing Facility 3 (OPF-3) at left. OPF1 and OPF-2 are on the right below the curving road. East of the VAB, the crawlerway also extends from high bays 1 and 3 to the two Shuttle launch pads.

  16. Aeolic vibration of aerial electricity transmission cables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avila, A.; Rodriguez-Vera, Ramon; Rayas, Juan A.; Barrientos, Bernardino

    2005-02-01

    A feasibility study for amplitude and frequency vibration measurement in aerial electricity transmission cable has been made. This study was carried out incorporating a fringe projection method for the experimental part and horizontal taut string model for theoretical one. However, this kind of model ignores some inherent properties such as cable sag and cable inclination. Then, this work reports advances on aeolic vibration considering real cables. Catenary and sag are considered in our theoretical model in such a way that an optical theodolite for measuring has been used. Preliminary measurements of the catenary as well as numerical simulation of a sagged cable vibration are given.

  17. Delivery of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivancic, William D.; Sullivan, Donald V.

    2011-01-01

    To support much of NASA's Upper Atmosphere Research Program science, NASA has acquired two Global Hawk Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs). Two major missions are currently planned using the Global Hawk: the Global Hawk Pacific (GloPac) and the Genesis and Rapid Intensification Processes (GRIP) missions. This paper briefly describes GloPac and GRIP, the concept of operations and the resulting requirements and communication architectures. Also discussed are requirements for future missions that may use satellite systems and networks owned and operated by third parties.

  18. Parameter identification of friction model on inertially stabilized platform for aerial remote sensing application%航空遥感惯性稳定平台摩擦参数辨识

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周向阳; 刘炜

    2013-01-01

    In order to acquire high control precision of a three-axis inertially stabilized platform (ISP) applied in aerial remote sensing system, a method for friction parameter identification on the LuGre friction model is put forward. First, a LuGre model suitable to a three-axis ISP control system is developed based on the analysis on sine-waveform response. Then, a two-step and dynamic parameter optimization method is used to identify the friction parameters of three different frames of ISP. At last, the identification experiments are carried out to validate the method. The results show that the curves of simulated angular velocity and angular position are significantly agree with those of the experimental measurements, which illuminates that the method can accurately get the parameters of friction model of any ISP gimbals. In addition, the experiments of friction compensation are performed on the yaw-gimbal control system, and the results show that the influences of friction on control precision are significantly reduced, in which the fluctuation range and the root-mean-square(RMS) error of the angular position are decreased by 78.7%and 91.5%respectively.%针对影响航空遥感三轴惯性稳定平台控制精度的非线性摩擦,提出了一种基于LuGre模型的摩擦参数辨识方法。在分析系统正弦响应曲线的基础上,建立了适于惯性稳定平台的LuGre摩擦模型,提出了两步辨识及动态参数优化的摩擦参数辨识方法,针对惯性稳定平台三个框架系统的不同特点分别设计了参数辨识方案,最后通过实验进行了验证。结果表明,各框架角速度、角位置响应仿真曲线与实际曲线基本一致,说明提出的辨识方法能够得到各框架较为准确的摩擦模型。摩擦补偿实验结果表明,可显著降低摩擦对控制系统精度的影响,使方位系统角位置误差波动范围、角位置跟踪均方根误差比未补偿前分别减少了78.7%和91.5%。

  19. 航空遥感惯性稳定平台非线性摩擦建模与补偿%Nonlinear Friction Modeling and Adaptive Compensation on an Inertially Stabilized Platform System for Aerial Remote Sensing Application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘炜; 周向阳

    2013-01-01

    为降低摩擦对航空遥感三轴惯性稳定平台高精度控制的影响,提出基于LuGre模型的惯性稳定平台反步积分自适应摩擦补偿方法.根据系统速度过零多值及位置“平顶”现象建立惯性稳定平台LuGre摩擦模型,利用两步辨识及动态参数优化方法得到系统摩擦模型参数,进而以李雅普诺夫稳定性理论为基础设计反步积分自适应摩擦补偿控制器.通过Matlab仿真分析摩擦对系统精度的影响,并与前馈补偿方法相比较,评价反步积分自适应补偿方法的有效性和鲁棒性.通过试验对某航空遥感惯性稳定平台方位系统进行摩擦模型及补偿方法验证.试验结果表明,反步积分自适应补偿能显著减小摩擦对系统的影响,使方位系统角位置误差波动范围、角位置跟踪方均根误差比未补偿前分别减少78.7%、91.5%,与仿真结果一致,对提高航空遥感三轴惯性稳定平台系统控制精度具有重要意义.%To decrease the influences of friction on control precision of a three-axis inertially stabilized platform (ISP) applied in the aerial remote sensing system,an adaptive backstepping control method based on the LuGre model is put forward.According to the characteristics of variable speed values over zero and flatheaded position,the LuGre model of a three-axis ISP is developed and parameters are identified through two-step and dynamic parameter optimization method.Then an adaptive backstepping controller is designed based on the theory of stability.The influences of friction on the precision of ISP's control system are analyzed by Matlab and compared with those of feedforward controller,the validity and robust of the controller are evaluated.Finally,to vaiidate the proposed model and compensation method,the experiments are carried out to the yaw-gimbal system of an ISP.The results show that the adaptive backstepping method can significantly reduce the influences of friction on control

  20. Modeling and control of a new unmanned aerial vehicle (SUAVİ) with tilt-wing mechanism

    OpenAIRE

    ÖNER, Kaan Taha; Oner, Kaan Taha

    2009-01-01

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) are flying robots that are either controlled by an operator from a remote location or flown autonomously according to the given commands. UAVs are often equipped with cameras, other sensors and communication units and used for missions which are dangerous, tedious or effortful for manned aircrafts. Some applications of these vehicles are surveillance, reconnaissance, traffic monitoring, exploration of disasters (fire, earthquake, flood, etc...) and agricultural ...

  1. Flight optimization algorithms for aerial LiDAR capture for urban infrastructure model generation

    OpenAIRE

    Hinks, Tommy; Carr, Hamish; Laefer, Debra F.

    2009-01-01

    Aerial Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) offers the potential to auto-generate detailed, three-dimensional (3D) models of the built environment in urban settings. Auto-generation is needed as manual generation is not economically feasible for large areas, and yet such models would offer distinct advantages for a wide range of applications from improved noise and pollution prediction to disaster mitigation modeling. Current technology and the dense geometry of urban environments are two m...

  2. High-resolution Brillouin analysis in a carbon-fiber-composite unmanned aerial vehicle model wing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Yonatan; London, Yosef; Preter, Eyal; Antman, Yair; Shlomi, Orel; Silbiger, Maayan; Adler, Gadi; Zadok, Avi

    2016-05-01

    Standard optical fibers are successfully embedded within a model wing of an unmanned aerial vehicle, constructed of carbon fiber and epoxy, during its production. Time-gated Brillouin optical correlation domain analysis along the embedded optical fibers is performed with a spatial resolution of 4 cm. Tests were carried out using a portable measurement setup prototype. The results represent an important step towards applications of high-resolution Brillouin analysis outside the research laboratory.

  3. Investigating the use of the coanda effect to create novel unmanned aerial vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Lewis, Darren; Prior, Stephen D.; Odedra, Sid; Ermil, Mehmet Ali; Karamanoglu, Mehmet

    2009-01-01

    In recent years the demand for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles(UAV's) has increased rapidly across many different industries and they are used for various applications. Such systems have the ability to enter dangerous or inaccessible environments and allow vital information to be collected without human risk. In order to carry out a task, a UAV has to face many different challenges. This has led to the development of novel platforms that move away from traditional aircraft design in order to make th...

  4. Investigating the use of the coanda effect to create novel unmanned aerial vehicles.

    OpenAIRE

    Barlow, Chris; Lewis, Darren; Prior, Stephen D.; Odedra, Sid; Erbil, Mehmet Ali; Karamanoglu, Mehmet; Collins, R.

    2009-01-01

    In recent years the demand for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV's) has increased rapidly across many different industries and they are used for various applications. Such systems have the ability to enter dangerous or inaccessible environments and allow vital information to be collected without human risk. In order to carry out a task, a UAV has to face many different challenges. This has led to the development of novel platforms that move away from traditional aircraft design in order to make...

  5. Human Systems Integration and Automation Issues in Small Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCauley, Michael E.; Matsangas, Panagiotis

    2004-01-01

    The goal of this report is to identify Human System Integration (HSI) and automation issues that contribute to improved effectiveness and efficiency in the operation of U.S. military Small Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (SUAVs). HSI issues relevant to SUAV operations are reviewed and observations from field trials are summarized. Short-term improvements are suggested research issues are identified and an overview is provided of automation technologies applicable to future SUAV design.

  6. Online learning-based robust visual tracking for autonomous landing of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Fu, Changhong; Carrio Fernández, Adrián; Olivares Méndez, Miguel Ángel; Campoy Cervera, Pascual

    2014-01-01

    Autonomous landing is a challenging and important technology for both military and civilian applications of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs). In this paper, we present a novel online adaptive visual tracking algorithm for UAVs to land on an arbitrary field (that can be used as the helipad) autonomously at real-time frame rates of more than twenty frames per second. The integration of low-dimensional subspace representation method, online incremental learning approach and hierarchical tracking ...

  7. Evaluación de las aplicaciones aéreas de abamectin para el control químico del minador de los cítricos en la provincia de Tucumán Evaluation of aerial abamectin applications to control citrus leafminer in Tucumán province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernán Salas

    2008-06-01

    to six applications for citrus leafminer control. With ground applications it is only possible to apply 4 hectares per hour, whereas by plane, 100 hectares can be treated during the same time span. The aim of this work was to evaluate pest control efficiency of a management program that included monitoring and aerial abamectin applications from 2002 to 2006. Six treated commercial orchards and six untreated commercial orchards were selected in two areas of Tucumán province. The applications were carried out with an Air Tractor plane with micronaires using 20 l of water, 5 l of mineral oil and 1.8 g a. i. of abamectin (Vertimec 1.8%® per hectare. Application number per year and area varied according to monitoring results. Weekly samplings were made and the percentage of alive larvae was evaluated. At the end of the experience, foliar damage in previously-identified flushes was estimated. Infestation percentage and foliar damage were significantly lower (from 2 to 8% in orchards treated with aerial abamectin fumigations than in untreated orchards (from 18 to 30%. Pest monitoring allowed farmers to define application number per year and area as part of a rational citrus leafminer management program.

  8. Grab a coffee: your aerial images are already analyzed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garetto, Anthony; Rademacher, Thomas; Schulz, Kristian

    2015-07-01

    For over 2 decades the AIMTM platform has been utilized in mask shops as the standard for actinic review of photomask sites in order to perform defect disposition and repair review. Throughout this time the measurement throughput of the systems has been improved in order to keep pace with the requirements demanded by a manufacturing environment, however the analysis of the sites captured has seen little improvement and remained a manual process. This manual analysis of aerial images is time consuming, subject to error and unreliability and contributes to holding up turn-around time (TAT) and slowing process flow in a manufacturing environment. AutoAnalysis, the first application available for the FAVOR® platform, offers a solution to these problems by providing fully automated data transfer and analysis of AIMTM aerial images. The data is automatically output in a customizable format that can be tailored to your internal needs and the requests of your customers. Savings in terms of operator time arise from the automated analysis which no longer needs to be performed. Reliability is improved as human error is eliminated making sure the most defective region is always and consistently captured. Finally the TAT is shortened and process flow for the back end of the line improved as the analysis is fast and runs in parallel to the measurements. In this paper the concept and approach of AutoAnalysis will be presented as well as an update to the status of the project. A look at the benefits arising from the automation and the customizable approach of the solution will be shown.

  9. Road and Street Centerlines, All data was acquired by GPS observation & manually corrected, where needed, by observing the linework on aerial photography, Published in 2012, Not Applicable scale, Chippewa County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — , published at Not Applicable scale, was produced all or in part from Field Observation information as of 2012. It is described as 'All data was acquired by GPS...

  10. Address Points, This data layer has been compiled by field GPS observation and by placing a dot in GIS programs on aerial photos & then verified in the field., Published in 2013, Not Applicable scale, Chippewa County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Address Points dataset, published at Not Applicable scale, was produced all or in part from Field Observation information as of 2013. It is described as 'This...

  11. Aerial Radioactivity Monitoring Using Atmospheric Dispersion Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since North Korea announced the underground nuclear test on last October 9th, 2006, many countries including South Korea have worried about the atmospheric dispersion and pollution of radioactive material by nuclear test. To verify the existence of nuclear test by detecting radioactive materials such as xenon and krypton at the early stage, to locate the position of test site, and to chase the trajectory of radioactivity have been heavily issued. And radioactivity detection and radiation monitoring technology using an aircraft have been recently examined by an authority concerned in South Korea. Although various techniques of aerial radioactivity monitoring are developed and operated in the world such as United States of America, Japan, Germany, etc., the relevant technical development or research is wholly lacking in our country. In this study, we performed some case studies on North Korea's nuclear test and accidental releases from nuclear power plant (NPP) using HYSPLIT (HYbrid Single Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory) model developed by National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) of U.S. Department of Commerce. We also investigated a feasibility of HYSPLIT to the aerial radioactivity monitoring system in terms of deciding potential measuring location and time

  12. Aerial survey estimates of fallow deer abundance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gogan, Peter J.; Gates, Natalie B.; Lubow, Bruce C.; Pettit, Suzanne

    2012-01-01

    Reliable estimates of the distribution and abundance of an ungulate species is essential prior to establishing and implementing a management program. We used ground surveys to determine distribution and ground and aerial surveys and individually marked deer to estimate the abundance of fallow deer (Dama dama) in north-coastal California. Fallow deer had limited distribution and heterogeneous densities. Estimated post-rut densities across 4 annual surveys ranged from a low of 1.4 (SE=0.2) deer/km2 to a high of 3.3 (se=0.5) deer/km2 in a low density stratum and from 49.0 (SE=8.3) deer/km2 to 111.6 deer/km2 in a high density stratum. Sightability was positively influenced by the presence of white color-phase deer in a group and group size, and varied between airial and ground-based observers and by density strata. Our findings underscore the utility of double-observer surveys and aerial surveys with individually marked deer, both incorporating covariates to model sightability, to estimate deer abundance.

  13. Automated Archiving of Archaeological Aerial Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Doneus

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of any aerial photo archive is to allow quick access to images based on content and location. Therefore, next to a description of technical parameters and depicted content, georeferencing of every image is of vital importance. This can be done either by identifying the main photographed object (georeferencing of the image content or by mapping the center point and/or the outline of the image footprint. The paper proposes a new image archiving workflow. The new pipeline is based on the parameters that are logged by a commercial, but cost-effective GNSS/IMU solution and processed with in-house-developed software. Together, these components allow one to automatically geolocate and rectify the (oblique aerial images (by a simple planar rectification using the exterior orientation parameters and to retrieve their footprints with reasonable accuracy, which is automatically stored as a vector file. The data of three test flights were used to determine the accuracy of the device, which turned out to be better than 1° for roll and pitch (mean between 0.0 and 0.21 with a standard deviation of 0.17–0.46 and better than 2.5° for yaw angles (mean between 0.0 and −0.14 with a standard deviation of 0.58–0.94. This turned out to be sufficient to enable a fast and almost automatic GIS-based archiving of all of the imagery.

  14. 3D Buildings Extraction from Aerial Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnikova, O.; Prandi, F.

    2011-09-01

    This paper introduces a semi-automatic method for buildings extraction through multiple-view aerial image analysis. The advantage of the used semi-automatic approach is that it allows processing of each building individually finding the parameters of buildings features extraction more precisely for each area. On the early stage the presented technique uses an extraction of line segments that is done only inside of areas specified manually. The rooftop hypothesis is used further to determine a subset of quadrangles, which could form building roofs from a set of extracted lines and corners obtained on the previous stage. After collecting of all potential roof shapes in all images overlaps, the epipolar geometry is applied to find matching between images. This allows to make an accurate selection of building roofs removing false-positive ones and to identify their global 3D coordinates given camera internal parameters and coordinates. The last step of the image matching is based on geometrical constraints in contrast to traditional correlation. The correlation is applied only in some highly restricted areas in order to find coordinates more precisely, in such a way significantly reducing processing time of the algorithm. The algorithm has been tested on a set of Milan's aerial images and shows highly accurate results.

  15. 77 FR 36250 - Information Collection Request; Request for Aerial Photography

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-18

    ...In accordance with the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995, the Farm Service Agency (FSA) is seeking comments from all interested individuals and organizations on an extension of a currently approved information collection associated with FSA Aerial Photography Program. The FSA Aerial Photography Field Office (APFO) uses the information from this form to collect the customer and photography......

  16. Kite Aerial Photography (KAP) as a Tool for Field Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sander, Lasse

    2014-01-01

    Kite aerial photography (KAP) is proposed as a creative tool for geography field teaching and as a medium to approach the complexity of readily available geodata. The method can be integrated as field experiment, surveying technique or group activity. The acquired aerial images can instantaneously be integrated in geographic information systems…

  17. 7 CFR 611.21 - Availability of aerial photography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Availability of aerial photography. 611.21 Section 611.21 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CONSERVATION OPERATIONS SOIL SURVEYS Cartographic Operations § 611.21 Availability of aerial photography....

  18. 76 FR 53165 - Certification Related to Aerial Eradication in Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Certification Related to Aerial Eradication in Colombia Pursuant to the authority vested in the Secretary of... for aerial eradication of illicit crops in Colombia is being used in accordance with EPA...

  19. The remote characterization of vegetation using Unmanned Aerial Vehicle photography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) can fly in place of piloted aircraft to gather remote sensing information on vegetation characteristics. The type of sensors flown depends on the instrument payload capacity available, so that, depending on the specific UAV, it is possible to obtain video, aerial phot...

  20. Exploration towards the modeling of gable-roofed buildings using a combination of aerial and street-level imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creusen, Ivo; Hazelhoff, Lykele; de With, Peter H. N.

    2015-03-01

    Extraction of residential building properties is helpful for numerous applications, such as computer-guided feasibility analysis for solar panel placement, determination of real-estate taxes and assessment of real-estate insurance policies. Therefore, this work explores the automated modeling of buildings with a gable roof (the most common roof type within Western Europe), based on a combination of aerial imagery and street-level panoramic images. This is a challenging task, since buildings show large variations in shape, dimensions and building extensions, and may additionally be captured under non-ideal lighting conditions. The aerial images feature a coarse overview of the building due to the large capturing distance. The building footprint and an initial estimate of the building height is extracted based on the analysis of stereo aerial images. The estimated model is then refined using street-level images, which feature higher resolution and enable more accurate measurements, however, displaying a single building side only. Initial experiments indicate that the footprint dimensions of the main building can be accurately extracted from aerial images, while the building height is extracted with slightly less accuracy. By combining aerial and street-level images, we have found that the accuracies of these height measurements are significantly increased, thereby improving the overall quality of the extracted building model, and resulting in an average inaccuracy of the estimated volume below 10%.

  1. 6th Grades Student’s interpreting of Aerial Photographs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adem ÖCAL

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Aerial photographs have started to be used as a teaching-training material parallel to the technological developments of our time. These materials are important to help students gain aerial perspective as a means to improve spatial cognition. In this study the skill of 6th grade students on interpreting aerial photographs have been focused on and examined how the students benefit from it. This study has been carried out with qualitative research techniques and 10 students have been used throughout the study. Aerial photographs of the places which students are familiar with have been utilized. Important outcomes were obtained on the use of aerial photographs in primary education. Findings can be guided for geography and social studies education in point of teaching spatial cognition skills.

  2. Discussion on emergency aerial survey system for practical use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1980, after the occurrence of the TMI-2 accident in the United States, JAERI started the research and development of aerial survey techniques, and completed two prototype aerial survey systems in 1985 for gamma ray survey and for radioactivity monitoring. Following the Chernobyl reactor accident which occured in Soviet Union in 1986, European countries experienced environmental radiological monitoring using their aerial survey systems, and proved the effectiveness of aerial survey in the emergency. This report describes the outline of the prototype survey systems developed at JAERI, and showed the practical survey systems data processing, data analysis and the techniques including data processing, data analysis and the example outputs. Also, this report made some proposals concerning practical construction and the arrangement of the aerial survey equipments and the establishment of organization which takes charge of the practical emergency survey and the routine maintenance, based on our past experience. (author)

  3. A Roll Controlling Approach for a Simple Dual-Actuated Flapping Aerial Vehicle Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Labib Omar El-Farouk E.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aerial vehicles have been investigated recently in different contexts, due to their high potential of utilization in multiple application areas. Different mechanisms can be used for aerial vehicles actuation, such as the rotating multi-blade systems (Multi-Copters and more recently flapping wings. Flapping wing robots have attracted much attention from researchers in recent years. In this study, a simple dual-actuated flapping mechanism is proposed for actuating a flapping wing robot. The mechanism is designed, simulated and validated in both simulation and experiments. A roll controlling approach is proposed to control the roll angle of the robot via controlling the speeds of both motors actuating each of the wings. The results achieved are validated experimentally, and are promising opening the door for further investigation using our proposed system

  4. Fuzzy C-Means Algorithm for Segmentation of Aerial Photography Data Obtained Using Unmanned Aerial Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinin, M. V.; Akinina, N. V.; Klochkov, A. Y.; Nikiforov, M. B.; Sokolova, A. V.

    2015-05-01

    The report reviewed the algorithm fuzzy c-means, performs image segmentation, give an estimate of the quality of his work on the criterion of Xie-Beni, contain the results of experimental studies of the algorithm in the context of solving the problem of drawing up detailed two-dimensional maps with the use of unmanned aerial vehicles. According to the results of the experiment concluded that the possibility of applying the algorithm in problems of decoding images obtained as a result of aerial photography. The considered algorithm can significantly break the original image into a plurality of segments (clusters) in a relatively short period of time, which is achieved by modification of the original k-means algorithm to work in a fuzzy task.

  5. A Primer on Autonomous Aerial Vehicle Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppejans, Hugo H. G.; Myburgh, Herman C.

    2015-01-01

    There is a large amount of research currently being done on autonomous micro-aerial vehicles (MAV), such as quadrotor helicopters or quadcopters. The ability to create a working autonomous MAV depends mainly on integrating a simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM) solution with the rest of the system. This paper provides an introduction for creating an autonomous MAV for enclosed environments, aimed at students and professionals alike. The standard autonomous system and MAV automation are discussed, while we focus on the core concepts of SLAM systems and trajectory planning algorithms. The advantages and disadvantages of using remote processing are evaluated, and recommendations are made regarding the viability of on-board processing. Recommendations are made regarding best practices to serve as a guideline for aspirant MAV designers. PMID:26633410

  6. A Primer on Autonomous Aerial Vehicle Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo H. G. Coppejans

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available There is a large amount of research currently being done on autonomous micro-aerial vehicles (MAV, such as quadrotor helicopters or quadcopters. The ability to create a working autonomous MAV depends mainly on integrating a simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM solution with the rest of the system. This paper provides an introduction for creating an autonomous MAV for enclosed environments, aimed at students and professionals alike. The standard autonomous system and MAV automation are discussed, while we focus on the core concepts of SLAM systems and trajectory planning algorithms. The advantages and disadvantages of using remote processing are evaluated, and recommendations are made regarding the viability of on-board processing. Recommendations are made regarding best practices to serve as a guideline for aspirant MAV designers.

  7. A Primer on Autonomous Aerial Vehicle Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppejans, Hugo H G; Myburgh, Herman C

    2015-01-01

    There is a large amount of research currently being done on autonomous micro-aerial vehicles (MAV), such as quadrotor helicopters or quadcopters. The ability to create a working autonomous MAV depends mainly on integrating a simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM) solution with the rest of the system. This paper provides an introduction for creating an autonomous MAV for enclosed environments, aimed at students and professionals alike. The standard autonomous system and MAV automation are discussed, while we focus on the core concepts of SLAM systems and trajectory planning algorithms. The advantages and disadvantages of using remote processing are evaluated, and recommendations are made regarding the viability of on-board processing. Recommendations are made regarding best practices to serve as a guideline for aspirant MAV designers. PMID:26633410

  8. Pyrotechnic countermeasures: II. Advanced aerial infrared countermeasures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koch, Ernst-Christian [Diehl BGT Defence GmbH and Co. KG, Fischbachstrasse 16, D-90552 Roethenbach a. d. Pegnitz (Germany)

    2006-02-15

    This paper discusses the technology of advanced aerial infrared countermeasures and related work disclosed in the unclassified literature. Missile-seeker head counter-countermeasures include spectral discrimination, kinematical discrimination, rise-time discrimination, UV/VIS discrimination and area temperature matching. Advanced flare payloads designed to counter dual color seekers contain selectively emitting compositions based primarily on high carbon fuels and perchlorates. Other advanced payloads consist of low temperature emitters like pyrophoric metal foils and gasless pyrotechnic compositions like Fe/KClO{sub 4}. The optimization of black body flares, still considered essential to a successful countermeasure solution, make use of new fuels based on e.g. meta-stable alloys and nanometer-sized powders as well as high energetic oxidizers. Kinematic flares today use combined propellant and infrared grains. 116 references from the public domain are given. For part I see Propellants, Explos., Pyrotech. 2001, 26, 3. (Abstract Copyright [2006], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  9. Precision wildlife monitoring using unmanned aerial vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgson, Jarrod C.; Baylis, Shane M.; Mott, Rowan; Herrod, Ashley; Clarke, Rohan H.

    2016-01-01

    Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) represent a new frontier in environmental research. Their use has the potential to revolutionise the field if they prove capable of improving data quality or the ease with which data are collected beyond traditional methods. We apply UAV technology to wildlife monitoring in tropical and polar environments and demonstrate that UAV-derived counts of colony nesting birds are an order of magnitude more precise than traditional ground counts. The increased count precision afforded by UAVs, along with their ability to survey hard-to-reach populations and places, will likely drive many wildlife monitoring projects that rely on population counts to transition from traditional methods to UAV technology. Careful consideration will be required to ensure the coherence of historic data sets with new UAV-derived data and we propose a method for determining the number of duplicated (concurrent UAV and ground counts) sampling points needed to achieve data compatibility. PMID:26986721

  10. DESIGN STEPS OF VTOL UNMANNED AERIAL VEHICLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ÁRVAI, László

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays there are several Unmanned Aerial Vehicle is in use. Most of them however are conventional or rotary wing type. They can be successfully applied for several tasks but sometimes the necessity of the runway for conventional take-off and landing or lack of hovering capability means significant disadvantage. For rotary wings the limited flight parameters might cause similar problems. Therefore the combination of the good flight parameters and vertical take-off and landing capability would be advantageous. Developing of the on-board flight control of such an airplane is a very complex task therefore the first stage of planning and development must be done on a simplified aircraft model. This article explains the configuration procedure of this simplified model aircraft.

  11. Mathematical modelling of unmanned aerial vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    UAVs (Unmanned Aerial Vehicles) UAVs are emerging as requirement of time and it is expected that in next five to ten years, complete air space will be flooded with UAVs, committed in varied assignments ranging from military, scientific and commercial usage. Non availability of human pilot inside UAV necessitates the requirement of an onboard auto pilot in order to maintain desired flight profile against any unexpected disturbance and/or parameter variations. Design of such an auto pilot requires an accurate mathematical model of UAV. The aim of this paper is to present a consolidated picture of UAV model. This paper first consolidates complete 6 DOF Degree of Freedom) equations of motion into a nonlinear mathematical model and its simulation using model parameters of a real UAV. Model is then linearized into longitudinal and lateral modes. State space models of linearized modes are simulated and analyzed for stability parameters. The developed model can be used to design auto pilot for UAV. (author)

  12. Monocular Vision SLAM for Indoor Aerial Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koray Çelik

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel indoor navigation and ranging strategy via monocular camera. By exploiting the architectural orthogonality of the indoor environments, we introduce a new method to estimate range and vehicle states from a monocular camera for vision-based SLAM. The navigation strategy assumes an indoor or indoor-like manmade environment whose layout is previously unknown, GPS-denied, representable via energy based feature points, and straight architectural lines. We experimentally validate the proposed algorithms on a fully self-contained microaerial vehicle (MAV with sophisticated on-board image processing and SLAM capabilities. Building and enabling such a small aerial vehicle to fly in tight corridors is a significant technological challenge, especially in the absence of GPS signals and with limited sensing options. Experimental results show that the system is only limited by the capabilities of the camera and environmental entropy.

  13. Aerial measurements of convection cell elements in heated lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villa-Aleman, E.; Salaymeh, S. R.; Brown, T. B.; Garrett, A. J.; Nichols, L. S.; Pendergast, M. M.

    2008-03-01

    Power plant-heated lakes are characterized by a temperature gradient in the thermal plume originating at the discharge of the power plant and terminating at the water intake. The maximum water temperature discharged by the power plant into the lake depends on the power generated at the facility and environmental regulations on the temperature of the lake. Besides the observed thermal plume, cloud-like thermal cells (convection cell elements) are also observed on the water surface. The size, shape and temperature of the convection cell elements depends on several parameters such as the lake water temperature, wind speed, surfactants and the depth of the thermocline. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) and Clemson University are collaborating to determine the applicability of laboratory empirical correlations between surface heat flux and thermal convection intensity. Laboratory experiments at Clemson University have demonstrated a simple relationship between the surface heat flux and the standard deviation of temperature fluctuations. Similar results were observed in the aerial thermal imagery SRNL collected at different locations along the thermal plume and at different elevations. SRNL will present evidence that the results at Clemson University are applicable to cooling lakes.

  14. Thermal soaring flight of birds and unmanned aerial vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thermal soaring saves much energy, but flying large distances in this form represents a great challenge for birds, people and unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). The solution is to make use of the so-called thermals, which are localized, warmer regions in the atmosphere moving upward with a speed exceeding the descent rate of birds and planes. Saving energy by exploiting the environment more efficiently is an important possibility for autonomous UAVs as well. Successful control strategies have been developed recently for UAVs in simulations and in real applications. This paper first presents an overview of our knowledge of the soaring flight and strategy of birds, followed by a discussion of control strategies that have been developed for soaring UAVs both in simulations and applications on real platforms. To improve the accuracy of the simulation of thermal exploitation strategies we propose a method to take into account the effect of turbulence. Finally, we propose a new GPS-independent control strategy for exploiting thermal updrafts.

  15. Wind-tunnel tests and modeling indicate that aerial dispersant delivery operations are highly accurate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffman, C.; Fritz, B. [United States Dept. of Agriculture, College Station, TX (United States); Nedwed, T. [ExxonMobil Upstream Research Co., Houston, TX (United States); Coolbaugh, T. [ExxonMobil Research and Engineering Co., Fairfax, VA (United States); Huber, C.A. [CAH Inc., Williamsburg, VA (United States)

    2009-07-01

    Oil dispersants are used to accelerate the dispersion of floating oil slicks. This study was conducted to select application equipment that will help to optimize the application oil dispersants from aircraft. Oil spill responders have a broad range of oil dispersants at their disposal because the physical and chemical interaction between the oil and dispersant is critical to successful mitigation. In order to make efficient use of dispersants, it is important to evaluate how each one atomizes once released from an aircraft. The specific goal of this study was to evaluate current spray nozzles used to spray oil dispersants from aircraft. The United States Department of Agriculture's high-speed wind tunnel facility in College Station, Texas was used to determine droplet size distributions generated by dispersant delivery nozzles at wind speeds similar to those used in aerial dispersant applications. Droplet distribution was quantified using a laser particle size analyzer. Wind-tunnel tests were conducted using water, Corexit 9500 and 9527 as well as a new dispersant gel being developed by ExxonMobil. The measured drop-size distributions were then used in an agriculture spray model to predict the delivery efficiency and swath width of dispersant delivered at flight speeds and altitudes commonly used for dispersant application. It was concluded that current practices for aerial application of dispersants lead to very efficient application. 19 refs., 5 tabs., 10 figs.

  16. Wind-tunnel tests and modeling indicate that aerial dispersant delivery operations are highly accurate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oil dispersants are used to accelerate the dispersion of floating oil slicks. This study was conducted to select application equipment that will help to optimize the application oil dispersants from aircraft. Oil spill responders have a broad range of oil dispersants at their disposal because the physical and chemical interaction between the oil and dispersant is critical to successful mitigation. In order to make efficient use of dispersants, it is important to evaluate how each one atomizes once released from an aircraft. The specific goal of this study was to evaluate current spray nozzles used to spray oil dispersants from aircraft. The United States Department of Agriculture's high-speed wind tunnel facility in College Station, Texas was used to determine droplet size distributions generated by dispersant delivery nozzles at wind speeds similar to those used in aerial dispersant applications. Droplet distribution was quantified using a laser particle size analyzer. Wind-tunnel tests were conducted using water, Corexit 9500 and 9527 as well as a new dispersant gel being developed by ExxonMobil. The measured drop-size distributions were then used in an agriculture spray model to predict the delivery efficiency and swath width of dispersant delivered at flight speeds and altitudes commonly used for dispersant application. It was concluded that current practices for aerial application of dispersants lead to very efficient application. 19 refs., 5 tabs., 10 figs

  17. Effect of Aerial Yoga on Human Body%空中瑜伽的人体健身作用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张彪; 刘鸿宇

    2015-01-01

    Aerial Yoga is a new sport, based on traditional Hatha Yoga -postures, breathing, meditation and bandha system- to make practitioners relax in heart and exercise the body. Application of Sling technology and gravity principle highlights the visual effects and the scientific value of the Aerial yoga, which draws attention from China and abroad. This paper describes the development situation, the characteristics of Aerial yoga and effect of Aerial yoga on the human body, offering a more fashionable and effective choice for the practitioners and providing the reference for the development of Aerial yoga.%空中瑜伽(Aerial Yoga)是又叫反重力瑜伽是一种新型的运动方式,以传统的哈他瑜伽——姿势、呼吸、冥想、收束法体系为基础,使练习者的心灵得到清净,身体得到锻炼,并且应用了空中悬吊技术和重力原理,一方面突显了空中瑜伽的视觉效果,另一方面丰富了空中瑜伽的科学健身价值,正逐渐受到国内外健身界的关注。文章主要介绍空中瑜伽的发展概况、构成特色及空中瑜伽对人体的健身作用,以期为广大健身爱好者提供一种更加时尚、有效的健身方法,同时也为空中瑜伽今后的开展提供理论支持。

  18. Distributed Approach for Coverage and Patrolling Missions with a Team of Heterogeneous Aerial Robots Under Communication Constraints

    OpenAIRE

    Jose Joaquin Acevedo; Begoña C. Arrue; Ivan Maza; Anibal Ollero

    2013-01-01

    Using aerial robots in area coverage applications is an emerging topic. These applications need a coverage path planning algorithm and a coordinated patrolling plan. This paper proposes a distributed approach to coordinate a team of heterogeneous UAVs cooperating efficiently in patrolling missions around irregular areas, with low communication ranges and memory storage requirements. Hence it can be used with small‐scale UAVs with limited and different capabilities. The presented system uses a...

  19. L-shaped corner detector for rooftop extraction from satellite/aerial imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Hui Li; Fan, Jiayuan; Lu, Shijian

    2015-10-01

    Rooftop extraction from satellite/aerial imagery is an important geospatial problem with many practical applications. However, rooftop extraction remains a challenging problem due to the diverse characteristics and appearances of the buildings, as well as the quality of the satellite/aerial images. Many existing rooftop extraction methods use rooftop corners as a basic component. Nonetheless, existing rooftop corner detectors either suffer from high missed detection or introduce high false alarm. Based on the observation that rooftop corners are typically of L-shape, we propose an L-shaped corner detector for automatic rooftop extraction from high resolution satellite/aerial imagery. The proposed detector considers information in a spatial circle around each pixel to construct a feature map which captures the probability of L-shaped corner at every pixel. Our experimental results on a rooftop database of over 200 buildings demonstrate its effectiveness for detecting rooftop corners. Furthermore, our proposed detector is complementary to many existing rooftop extraction approaches which require reliable rooftop corners as their inputs. For instance, it can be used in the quadrilateral footprint extraction methods or in driving level-set-based segmentation techniques.

  20. Use of Aerial Photography to Monitor Fall Chinook Salmon Spawning in the Columbia River

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Visser, Richard H.(ASSOC WESTERN UNIVERSITY); Dauble, Dennis D.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Geist, David R.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB))

    2002-11-01

    This paper compares two methods for enumerating salmon redds and their application to monitoring spawning activity. Aerial photographs of fall chinook salmon spawning areas in the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River were digitized and mapped using Geographic Information Systems (GIS) techniques in 1994 and 1995 as part of an annual assessment of the population. The number of visible redds from these photographs were compared to counts obtained from visual surveys with fixed wing aircraft. The proportion of the total redds within each of five general survey areas was similar for the two monitoring techniques. However, the total number of redds based on aerial photographs was 2.2 and 3.0 times higher than those observed during visual surveys for 1994 and 1995, respectively. The divergence in redd counts was most evident near peak spawning activity when the number of redds within individual spawning clusters exceeded 500. Aerial photography improved our ability to monitor numbers of visible salmon redds and to quantify habitat use.

  1. Detection and clustering of features in aerial images by neuron network-based algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vozenilek, Vit

    2015-12-01

    The paper presents the algorithm for detection and clustering of feature in aerial photographs based on artificial neural networks. The presented approach is not focused on the detection of specific topographic features, but on the combination of general features analysis and their use for clustering and backward projection of clusters to aerial image. The basis of the algorithm is a calculation of the total error of the network and a change of weights of the network to minimize the error. A classic bipolar sigmoid was used for the activation function of the neurons and the basic method of backpropagation was used for learning. To verify that a set of features is able to represent the image content from the user's perspective, the web application was compiled (ASP.NET on the Microsoft .NET platform). The main achievements include the knowledge that man-made objects in aerial images can be successfully identified by detection of shapes and anomalies. It was also found that the appropriate combination of comprehensive features that describe the colors and selected shapes of individual areas can be useful for image analysis.

  2. Mapping of a river using close range photogrammetry technique and unmanned aerial vehicle system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Photogrammetry is a technique that can be used to record the information of any feature without direct contact. Nowadays, a combination of photogrammetry and Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) systems is widely used for various applications, especially for large scale mapping. UAV systems offer several advantages in terms of cost and image resolution compared to terrestrial photogrammetry and remote sensing system. Therefore, a combination of photogrammetry and UAV created a new term which is UAV photogrammetry. The aim of this study is to investigate the ability of a UAV system to map a river at very close distance. A digital camera is attached to the Hexacopter UAV and it is flown at 2 m above the ground surface to produce aerial photos. Then, the aerial photos are processed to create two photogrammetric products as output. These are mosaicked orthophoto and digital image. Both products are assessed (RSME). The RSME of X and Y coordinates are ±0.009 m and ±0.033 m respectively. As a conclusion, photogrammetry and the UAV system offer a reliable accuracy for mapping a river model and advantages in term of cost-efficient, high ground resolution and rapid data acquisition

  3. Properties and Performance of a New Compact HF Aerial Design for Multi-Band Operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Telfer

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This work is an extension to that of Telfer and Austin [1] in that here a balanced feed embodiment of an inwardly-inclined folded dual monopole aerial is presented and discussed in terms of its improved performance over the original configuration. This includes greater control of the stability of the far-field (FF lobe pattern with operating frequency, and a considerably extended frequency range (3:1 ratio over which Near Vertical Incidence Skywave (NVIS propagation in the high frequency (HF bands can be exploited. Furthermore, the FF lobe patterns at frequencies >2× the fundamental design frequency are such that advantage can be taken of conventional non-NVIS horizontal propagation at those frequencies using the same aerial. At the fundamental frequency, compactness of design and robustness of its NVIS FF pattern to orientation make the novel balanced aerial design a convenient replacement for a full-length low dipole in cluttered environments. The paper also presents a vehicle-mounted version for medium range operation within HF skip distances. Applications highlighted include stations for remote monitoring of environmental measurements in difficult or hostile terrain. 

  4. Diterpenoids from Roots and Aerial Parts of the Genus Stachys

    OpenAIRE

    Franco Piozzi; Maurizio Bruno

    2011-01-01

    The occurrence of diterpenoids from roots and aerial parts of the species of the genus Stachys (Lamiaceae, Labiatae) is reviewed. The presence of these diterpenoids in other taxa and their biological properties have been also reviewed.

  5. Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Diode Laser Sensor for Methane Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A compact, lightweight, and low power diode laser sensor will be developed for atmospheric methane detection on small unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). The physical...

  6. 2000 Aerial Photo Mosaics - Upper Mississippi River System -- Pool 26

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey's Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center (UMESC) collects aerial photography of the Upper Mississippi River System (UMRS) floodplain...

  7. 2000 Aerial Photo Mosaics - Upper Mississippi River System -- Pool 8

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey's Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center (UMESC) collects aerial photography of the Upper Mississippi River System (UMRS) floodplain...

  8. Ontogeny of aerial righting and wing flapping in juvenile birds

    CERN Document Server

    Evangelista, Dennis; Huynh, Tony; Krivitskiy, Igor; Dudley, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Mechanisms of aerial righting in juvenile Chukar Partridge (Alectoris chukar) were studied from hatching through 14 days post hatching (dph). Asymmetric movements of the wings were used from 1 to 8 dph to effect progressively more successful righting behaviour via body roll. Following 8 dph, wing motions transitioned to bilaterally symmetric flapping that yielded aerial righting via nose down pitch, along with substantial increases in vertical force production during descent. Ontogenetically, the use of such wing motions to effect aerial righting precedes both symmetric flapping and a previously documented behaviour in chukar (i.e., wing assisted incline running) hypothesized to be relevant to incipient flight evolution in birds. These findings highlight the importance of asymmetric wing activation and controlled aerial manoeuvres during bird development, and are potentially relevant to understanding the origins of avian flight.

  9. Estimation and Prediction of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Trajectories Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — There is serious concern about the introduction of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) in the National Air Space (NAS) because of their potential to increase the risk of...

  10. Geochemical prospect ion results of Mariscala aerial photo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report shows the geochemical prospect ion results carried out within the framework of the metalical mining prospect ion in Mariscala aerial photo. Lavalleja district belong to the Mining inventory programme of Uruguay.

  11. Aerial Images of Alaska's Arctic Coastal Plain; 1974-1979

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset is comprised of 10 aerial images of three different study areas on Alaska's Arctic Coastal Plain flown by NASA in 1974, 1977, 1979 and obtained from...

  12. Project Birdseye Aerial Photograph Collection: Digital and Analog Materials

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This collection consists of both analog and digital aerial photographs from Arctic areas in and around Baffin Bay, the Labrador Sea, the Arctic Ocean, the Beaufort...

  13. Aerial Photography and Imagery, Ortho-Corrected - FDOT 2003 Orthophotography

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — These aerials were flown by the Florida Department of Transportation from December 23, 2002 to February 13, 2003 NAD 83 Mosaic format Semi Orthorectified black and...

  14. Gulf of Mexico Marine Mammal Assessment Aerial Surveys - NRDA

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Aerial surveys were conducted during the spring-summer of 2010 and seasonally during 2011-2012 to assess the abundance and spatial distribution of marine mammals...

  15. Mapping the Kathmandu Valley With Aerial Photographs by Erwin Schneider

    OpenAIRE

    Urmi Sengupta

    2015-01-01

    Reviewed: Mapping the Kathmandu Valley With Aerial Photographs by Erwin Schneider By Neils Gutschow and Hermann Kreutzmann. Kathmandu, Nepal: Himal Books, 2013. 216 pp. US $ 48.00. ISBN 978-9937-597-06-7.

  16. Gulf of Mexico Protected Species Assessment Aerial Surveys

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data sets include a compilation of aerial line-transect surveys conducted over continental shelf waters of the Gulf of Mexico since 1992. The majority of...

  17. 2000 Aerial Photo Mosaics - Upper Mississippi River System -- Pool 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey's Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center (UMESC) collects aerial photography of the Upper Mississippi River System (UMRS) floodplain...

  18. 2000 Aerial Photo Mosaics - Upper Mississippi River System -- St Croix

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey's Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center (UMESC) collects aerial photography of the Upper Mississippi River System (UMRS) floodplain...

  19. 2000 Aerial Photo Mosaics - Upper Mississippi River System -- Pool 15

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey's Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center (UMESC) collects aerial photography of the Upper Mississippi River System (UMRS) floodplain...

  20. 2000 Aerial Photo Mosaics - Upper Mississippi River System -- Pool 20

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey's Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center (UMESC) collects aerial photography of the Upper Mississippi River System (UMRS) floodplain...

  1. 2000 Aerial Photo Mosaics - Upper Mississippi River System -- Pool 12

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey's Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center (UMESC) collects aerial photography of the Upper Mississippi River System (UMRS) floodplain...

  2. 2000 Aerial Photo Mosaics - Upper Mississippi River System -- Pool 13

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey's Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center (UMESC) collects aerial photography of the Upper Mississippi River System (UMRS) floodplain...

  3. 2000 Aerial Photo Mosaics - Upper Mississippi River System -- Pool 10

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey's Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center (UMESC) collects aerial photography of the Upper Mississippi River System (UMRS) floodplain...

  4. 2000 Aerial Photo Mosaics - Upper Mississippi River System -- Pool 21

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey's Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center (UMESC) collects aerial photography of the Upper Mississippi River System (UMRS) floodplain...

  5. 2000 Aerial Photo Mosaics - Upper Mississippi River System -- Brandon

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey's Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center (UMESC) collects aerial photography of the Upper Mississippi River System (UMRS) floodplain...

  6. 2000 Aerial Photo Mosaics - Upper Mississippi River System -- Pool 18

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey's Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center (UMESC) collects aerial photography of the Upper Mississippi River System (UMRS) floodplain...

  7. 2000 Aerial Photo Mosaics - Upper Mississippi River System -- Lockport

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey's Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center (UMESC) collects aerial photography of the Upper Mississippi River System (UMRS) floodplain...

  8. 2000 Aerial Photo Mosaics - Upper Mississippi River System -- Pool 24

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey's Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center (UMESC) collects aerial photography of the Upper Mississippi River System (UMRS) floodplain...

  9. 2000 Aerial Photo Mosaics - Upper Mississippi River System -- Alton

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey's Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center (UMESC) collects aerial photography of the Upper Mississippi River System (UMRS) floodplain...

  10. 2000 Aerial Photo Mosaics - Upper Mississippi River System -- Pool 5

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey's Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center (UMESC) collects aerial photography of the Upper Mississippi River System (UMRS) floodplain...

  11. 2000 Aerial Photo Mosaics - Upper Mississippi River System -- Pool 16

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey's Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center (UMESC) collects aerial photography of the Upper Mississippi River System (UMRS) floodplain...

  12. 2000 Aerial Photo Mosaics - Upper Mississippi River System -- Pool 14

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey's Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center (UMESC) collects aerial photography of the Upper Mississippi River System (UMRS) floodplain...

  13. 2000 Aerial Photo Mosaics - Upper Mississippi River System -- Pool 7

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey's Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center (UMESC) collects aerial photography of the Upper Mississippi River System (UMRS) floodplain...

  14. 2000 Aerial Photo Mosaics - Upper Mississippi River System -- Pool 6

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey's Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center (UMESC) collects aerial photography of the Upper Mississippi River System (UMRS) floodplain...

  15. 2000 Aerial Photo Mosaics - Upper Mississippi River System -- Minnesota

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey's Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center (UMESC) collects aerial photography of the Upper Mississippi River System (UMRS) floodplain...

  16. 2000 Aerial Photo Mosaics - Upper Mississippi River System -- Pool 4

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey's Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center (UMESC) collects aerial photography of the Upper Mississippi River System (UMRS) floodplain...

  17. 2000 Aerial Photo Mosaics - Upper Mississippi River System -- Pool 11

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey's Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center (UMESC) collects aerial photography of the Upper Mississippi River System (UMRS) floodplain...

  18. 2000 Aerial Photo Mosaics - Upper Mississippi River System -- Dresden

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey's Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center (UMESC) collects aerial photography of the Upper Mississippi River System (UMRS) floodplain...

  19. 2000 Aerial Photo Mosaics - Upper Mississippi River System -- La Grange

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey's Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center (UMESC) collects aerial photography of the Upper Mississippi River System (UMRS) floodplain...

  20. 2000 Aerial Photo Mosaics - Upper Mississippi River System -- Pool 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey's Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center (UMESC) collects aerial photography of the Upper Mississippi River System (UMRS) floodplain...

  1. 2000 Aerial Photo Mosaics - Upper Mississippi River System -- Pool 19

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey's Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center (UMESC) collects aerial photography of the Upper Mississippi River System (UMRS) floodplain...

  2. 2000 Aerial Photo Mosaics - Upper Mississippi River System -- Pool 22

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey's Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center (UMESC) collects aerial photography of the Upper Mississippi River System (UMRS) floodplain...

  3. 2000 Aerial Photo Mosaics - Upper Mississippi River System -- Pool 3

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey's Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center (UMESC) collects aerial photography of the Upper Mississippi River System (UMRS) floodplain...

  4. 2000 Aerial Photo Mosaics - Upper Mississippi River System -- Pool 17

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey's Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center (UMESC) collects aerial photography of the Upper Mississippi River System (UMRS) floodplain...

  5. 2000 Aerial Photo Mosaics - Upper Mississippi River System -- Pool 9

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey's Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center (UMESC) collects aerial photography of the Upper Mississippi River System (UMRS) floodplain...

  6. 2000 Aerial Photo Mosaics - Upper Mississippi River System -- Pool 25

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey's Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center (UMESC) collects aerial photography of the Upper Mississippi River System (UMRS) floodplain...

  7. Ontogeny of aerial righting and wing flapping in juvenile birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evangelista, Dennis; Cam, Sharlene; Huynh, Tony; Krivitskiy, Igor; Dudley, Robert

    2014-08-01

    Mechanisms of aerial righting in juvenile chukar partridge (Alectoris chukar) were studied from hatching to 14 days-post-hatching (dph). Asymmetric movements of the wings were used from 1 to 8 dph to effect progressively more successful righting behaviour via body roll. Following 8 dph, wing motions transitioned to bilaterally symmetric flapping that yielded aerial righting via nose-down pitch, along with substantial increases in vertical force production during descent. Ontogenetically, the use of such wing motions to effect aerial righting precedes both symmetric flapping and a previously documented behaviour in chukar (i.e. wing-assisted incline running) hypothesized to be relevant to incipient flight evolution in birds. These findings highlight the importance of asymmetric wing activation and controlled aerial manoeuvres during bird development and are potentially relevant to understanding the origins of avian flight. PMID:25165451

  8. An analysis of aerial waterfowl production surveys in Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — In 1961 an effort was launched to conduct a full scale operational aerial brood survey, previous experimental failures notwithstanding. The project was terminated...

  9. Aerial Triangulation Close-range Images with Dual Quaternion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SHENG Qinghong

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A new method for the aerial triangulation of close-range images based on dual quaternion is presented. Using dual quaternion to represent the spiral screw motion of the beam in the space, the real part of dual quaternion represents the angular elements of all the beams in the close-range area networks, the real part and the dual part of dual quaternion represents the line elements corporately. Finally, an aerial triangulation adjustment model based on dual quaternion is established, and the elements of interior orientation and exterior orientation and the object coordinates of the ground points are calculated. Real images and large attitude angle simulated images are selected to run the experiments of aerial triangulation. The experimental results show that the new method for the aerial triangulation of close-range images based on dual quaternion can obtain higher accuracy.

  10. Design and development of a Compact Aerial Radiation Monitoring System (CARMS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Operation of nuclear facilities, increasing usage of radioisotopes in industrial, scientific and medical applications and transport of nuclear and radioactive materials may have impact on the surrounding environment. There is thus a need to periodically monitor the environmental radiation background all over the country and particularly around the nuclear facilities for assessing any possible impact on the environment. Preparedness required for response to emergencies caused due to radiological/nuclear incidents/ accidents or due to radiological/nuclear terrorism also demands state of the art systems and methodology for quick assessment of radiological impact over large affected areas. In order to meet these requirements, a Compact Aerial Radiation Monitoring System (CARMS) has been designed and developed. This system is battery operated, portable and rugged for mobile radiation monitoring and can be placed in aerial platforms like helicopters or Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) for unattended operation. CARMS uses energy compensated multiple GM detectors for enhancing sensitivity and is attached with commercially available Global Positioning System (GPS) for online acquisition of positional coordinates with time. The AT89LV52 microcontroller used in the system tags the dose rate data with time and positional information and stores contiguously in a serial data memory for radiological mapping of the area surveyed using any mobile platform such as aircraft/train/boat/road vehicle. The system consumes ∼150 mA including the GPS at 12 V DC enabling ∼50 hours of continuous monitoring with a 7 Ah battery source. The system has been used in aerial, rail and road based environmental radiation surveys carried out at various places of the country. With PC support, the system can map the radiological status online onto the map of the area being surveyed to help decision-making on countermeasures during the survey. (author)

  11. Aerial Dissemination of Clostridium difficile spores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banfield Kathleen R

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhoea (CDAD is a frequently occurring healthcare-associated infection, which is responsible for significant morbidity and mortality amongst elderly patients in healthcare facilities. Environmental contamination is known to play an important contributory role in the spread of CDAD and it is suspected that contamination might be occurring as a result of aerial dissemination of C. difficile spores. However previous studies have failed to isolate C. difficile from air in hospitals. In an attempt to clarify this issue we undertook a short controlled pilot study in an elderly care ward with the aim of culturing C. difficile from the air. Methods In a survey undertaken during February (two days 2006 and March (two days 2007, air samples were collected using a portable cyclone sampler and surface samples collected using contact plates in a UK hospital. Sampling took place in a six bedded elderly care bay (Study during February 2006 and in March 2007 both the study bay and a four bedded orthopaedic bay (Control. Particulate material from the air was collected in Ringer's solution, alcohol shocked and plated out in triplicate onto Brazier's CCEY agar without egg yolk, but supplemented with 5 mg/L of lysozyme. After incubation, the identity of isolates was confirmed by standard techniques. Ribotyping and REP-PCR fingerprinting were used to further characterise isolates. Results On both days in February 2006, C. difficile was cultured from the air with 23 samples yielding the bacterium (mean counts 53 – 426 cfu/m3 of air. One representative isolate from each of these was characterized further. Of the 23 isolates, 22 were ribotype 001 and were indistinguishable on REP-PCR typing. C. difficile was not cultured from the air or surfaces of either hospital bay during the two days in March 2007. Conclusion This pilot study produced clear evidence of sporadic aerial dissemination of spores of a clone of C

  12. Wageningen UR Unmanned Aerial Remote Sensing Facility - Overview of activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartholomeus, Harm; Keesstra, Saskia; Kooistra, Lammert; Suomalainen, Juha; Mucher, Sander; Kramer, Henk; Franke, Jappe

    2016-04-01

    To support environmental management there is an increasing need for timely, accurate and detailed information on our land. Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) are increasingly used to monitor agricultural crop development, habitat quality or urban heat efficiency. An important reason is that UAS technology is maturing quickly while the flexible capabilities of UAS fill a gap between satellite based and ground based geo-sensing systems. In 2012, different groups within Wageningen University and Research Centre have established an Unmanned Airborne Remote Sensing Facility. The objective of this facility is threefold: a) To develop innovation in the field of remote sensing science by providing a platform for dedicated and high-quality experiments; b) To support high quality UAS services by providing calibration facilities and disseminating processing procedures to the UAS user community; and c) To promote and test the use of UAS in a broad range of application fields like habitat monitoring, precision agriculture and land degradation assessment. The facility is hosted by the Laboratory of Geo-Information Science and Remote Sensing (GRS) and the Department of Soil Physics and Land Management (SLM) of Wageningen University together with the team Earth Informatics (EI) of Alterra. The added value of the Unmanned Aerial Remote Sensing Facility is that compared to for example satellite based remote sensing more dedicated science experiments can be prepared. This includes for example higher frequent observations in time (e.g., diurnal observations), observations of an object under different observation angles for characterization of BRDF and flexibility in use of camera's and sensors types. In this way, laboratory type of set ups can be tested in a field situation and effects of up-scaling can be tested. In the last years we developed and implemented different camera systems (e.g. a hyperspectral pushbroom system, and multispectral frame cameras) which we operated in projects all

  13. a Fast Approach for Stitching of Aerial Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moussa, A.; El-Sheimy, N.

    2016-06-01

    The last few years have witnessed an increasing volume of aerial image data because of the extensive improvements of the Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs). These newly developed UAVs have led to a wide variety of applications. A fast assessment of the achieved coverage and overlap of the acquired images of a UAV flight mission is of great help to save the time and cost of the further steps. A fast automatic stitching of the acquired images can help to visually assess the achieved coverage and overlap during the flight mission. This paper proposes an automatic image stitching approach that creates a single overview stitched image using the acquired images during a UAV flight mission along with a coverage image that represents the count of overlaps between the acquired images. The main challenge of such task is the huge number of images that are typically involved in such scenarios. A short flight mission with image acquisition frequency of one second can capture hundreds to thousands of images. The main focus of the proposed approach is to reduce the processing time of the image stitching procedure by exploiting the initial knowledge about the images positions provided by the navigation sensors. The proposed approach also avoids solving for all the transformation parameters of all the photos together to save the expected long computation time if all the parameters were considered simultaneously. After extracting the points of interest of all the involved images using Scale-Invariant Feature Transform (SIFT) algorithm, the proposed approach uses the initial image's coordinates to build an incremental constrained Delaunay triangulation that represents the neighborhood of each image. This triangulation helps to match only the neighbor images and therefore reduces the time-consuming features matching step. The estimated relative orientation between the matched images is used to find a candidate seed image for the stitching process. The pre-estimated transformation

  14. Coastline Extraction from Aerial Images Based on Edge Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paravolidakis, V.; Moirogiorgou, K.; Ragia, L.; Zervakis, M.; Synolakis, C.

    2016-06-01

    Nowadays coastline extraction and tracking of its changes become of high importance because of the climate change, global warming and rapid growth of human population. Coastal areas play a significant role for the economy of the entire region. In this paper we propose a new methodology for automatic extraction of the coastline using aerial images. A combination of a four step algorithm is used to extract the coastline in a robust and generalizable way. First, noise distortion is reduced in order to ameliorate the input data for the next processing steps. Then, the image is segmented into two regions, land and sea, through the application of a local threshold to create the binary image. The result is further processed by morphological operators with the aim that small objects are being eliminated and only the objects of interest are preserved. Finally, we perform edge detection and active contours fitting in order to extract and model the coastline. These algorithmic steps are illustrated through examples, which demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed methodology.

  15. a New Paradigm for Matching - and Aerial Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, T.; Zhuo, X.; Reinartz, P.; Fraundorfer, F.

    2016-06-01

    This paper investigates the performance of SIFT-based image matching regarding large differences in image scaling and rotation, as this is usually the case when trying to match images captured from UAVs and airplanes. This task represents an essential step for image registration and 3d-reconstruction applications. Various real world examples presented in this paper show that SIFT, as well as A-SIFT perform poorly or even fail in this matching scenario. Even if the scale difference in the images is known and eliminated beforehand, the matching performance suffers from too few feature point detections, ambiguous feature point orientations and rejection of many correct matches when applying the ratio-test afterwards. Therefore, a new feature matching method is provided that overcomes these problems and offers thousands of matches by a novel feature point detection strategy, applying a one-to-many matching scheme and substitute the ratio-test by adding geometric constraints to achieve geometric correct matches at repetitive image regions. This method is designed for matching almost nadir-directed images with low scene depth, as this is typical in UAV and aerial image matching scenarios. We tested the proposed method on different real world image pairs. While standard SIFT failed for most of the datasets, plenty of geometrical correct matches could be found using our approach. Comparing the estimated fundamental matrices and homographies with ground-truth solutions, mean errors of few pixels can be achieved.

  16. Detecting new buildings from aerial stereo pairs at different dates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Franck

    2001-12-01

    The aim of this application is to detect changes in an aerial scene by comparing stereo pairs taken at intervals of several years in order to update a database. The result is a set of image locations that have a high likelihood to contain changes. Each location will be submitted to a human operator who will either validate the given change and update the database or reject it. We are mainly interested in changes occurring for a specific class of objects : buildings. To isolate new construction, we provide an algorithm that works in two steps. First, during a focusing phase, we aim to eliminate a large part of the scene without losing any actual changes. This is achieved with a Digital Elevation Model (DEM) comparison between the two different dates. Then, in the second phase, we classify regions of interest (ROI). Each ROI is described by four images: a stereo pair of the focusing area at the first date and a stereo pair of the focusing area at the second date. To decide whether or not the ROI contains a change, we classify each of the four images as building or non-building. The building vs non-building classifier is a combination of several decision trees induced by learning. Each node of a decision tree is identified with a graph of features which is more likely to describe buildings than background. Finally, the classification results at the two different dates are compared.

  17. An Improved SIFT Algorithm for Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Imagery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) platform has the benefits of low cost and convenience compared with satellites. Recently, UAVs have shown a wide range of applications such as land use change, mineral resources management and local topographic mapping. Because of the instability of the UAV air gesture, an image matching method is necessary to match different images of an object or scene. Scale Invariant Feature Transform (SIFT) features are invariant to image scaling, rotation and translation. However, the main drawback of a SIFT algorithm is its significant memory consumption and low computational speed, particularly in the case of high-resolution imagery. In this study, in order to overcome these drawbacks, we have analysed the construction of the scale-space in the SIFT algorithm and selected new parameters to construct the SIFT scale-space to improve the memory consumption and computational speed for the processing of UAV imagery. Here, we propose a restriction on the number of octaves and levels for Gaussian image pyramids. Our experiment shows that the proposed algorithm effectively reduces memory consumption and significantly improves the operational efficiency of the feature point extraction and matching under the premise of maintaining the precision of the extracted feature points

  18. National aerial photography program as a geographic information system resource

    Science.gov (United States)

    Light, Donald L.

    1991-01-01

    The National Aerial Photography Program (NAPP) is jointly funded by Federal agencies and States that choose to participate in a 50-50 cost sharing cooperative arrangement. The NAPP is designed to acquire black-and-white (B&W) or color infrared (CIR) photography at a scale of 1:40,000. The status of NAPP flying, now going into the first year of its second 5-year cycle, is reviewed to inform the user community of NAPP's coverage. The resolution, geometric quality and flight parameters are used to estimate the system's cartographic potential to produce orthophotoquads, digital elevation models, topographic maps and digital information to meet national map accuracy standards at 1:12,000 and 1:24,000-scale and serve as a geographic information system resource. Also, a technique is presented to compute the optimum scanning spot size (15 ??m) and storage required for converting the B&W or CIR photography to digital, machine-readable pixel form. The resulting digital NAPP data are suitable for a wide variety of new applications, including use in geographic information systems.

  19. Real time target allocation in cooperative unmanned aerial vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudleppanavar, Ganesh

    The prolific development of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV's) in recent years has the potential to provide tremendous advantages in military, commercial and law enforcement applications. While safety and performance take precedence in the development lifecycle, autonomous operations and, in particular, cooperative missions have the ability to significantly enhance the usability of these vehicles. The success of cooperative missions relies on the optimal allocation of targets while taking into consideration the resource limitation of each vehicle. The task allocation process can be centralized or decentralized. This effort presents the development of a real time target allocation algorithm that considers available stored energy in each vehicle while minimizing the communication between each UAV. The algorithm utilizes a nearest neighbor search algorithm to locate new targets with respect to existing targets. Simulations show that this novel algorithm compares favorably to the mixed integer linear programming method, which is computationally more expensive. The implementation of this algorithm on Arduino and Xbee wireless modules shows the capability of the algorithm to execute efficiently on hardware with minimum computation complexity.

  20. Ontogeny of aerial righting and wing flapping in juvenile birds

    OpenAIRE

    Evangelista, Dennis; Cam, Sharlene; Huynh, Tony; Krivitskiy, Igor; Dudley, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Mechanisms of aerial righting in juvenile Chukar Partridge (Alectoris chukar) were studied from hatching through 14 days post hatching (dph). Asymmetric movements of the wings were used from 1 to 8 dph to effect progressively more successful righting behaviour via body roll. Following 8 dph, wing motions transitioned to bilaterally symmetric flapping that yielded aerial righting via nose down pitch, along with substantial increases in vertical force production during descent. Ontogenetically,...

  1. Electrodynamic Stability Computations for Flexible Conductors of the Aerial Lines

    OpenAIRE

    I. I. Sergey; Y. G. Panamarenka; P. I. Klimkovich; A. P. Dolin; Y. V. Potachits

    2015-01-01

    In aerial transmission lines aluminium multiwire conductors are in use. Owing to their flexible design the electrodynamic effect of short circuit currents may lead to intolerable mutual rendezvous and even cross-whipping of the phase conductors. The increasing motion of the conductors caused by effect of the short-circuit electrodynamic force impulse is accompanied by the dynamic load impact affecting the conductors, insulating and supporting constructions of the aerial lines. Intensity of th...

  2. User guide for the USGS aerial camera Report of Calibration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tayman, W.P.

    1984-01-01

    Calibration and testing of aerial mapping cameras includes the measurement of optical constants and the check for proper functioning of a number of complicated mechanical and electrical parts. For this purpose the US Geological Survey performs an operational type photographic calibration. This paper is not strictly a scientific paper but rather a 'user guide' to the USGS Report of Calibration of an aerial mapping camera for compliance with both Federal and State mapping specifications. -Author

  3. Rigorous LiDAR Strip Adjustment with Triangulated Aerial Imagery

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Y. J.; Xiong, X. D.; X. Y. Hu

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposes a POS aided LiDAR strip adjustment method. Firstly, aero-triangulation of the simultaneously obtained aerial images is conducted with a few photogrammetry-specific ground control points. Secondly, LiDAR intensity images are generated from the reflectance signals of laser foot points, and conjugate points are automatically matched between the LiDAR intensity image and the aero-triangulated aerial image. Control points used in LiDAR strip adjustment are derived from...

  4. LOW COST SURVEYING USING AN UNMANNED AERIAL VEHICLE

    OpenAIRE

    M. Pérez; Agüera, F.; F. Carvajal

    2013-01-01

    Traditional manned airborne surveys are usually expensive and the resolution of the acquired images is often limited. The main advantage of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) system acting as a photogrammetric sensor platform over more traditional manned airborne system is the high flexibility that allows image acquisition from unconventional viewpoints, the low cost in comparison with classical aerial photogrammetry and the high resolution images obtained. Nowadays there is a necessity f...

  5. Short range reconnaissance unmanned aerial vehicle / S.J. Kersop.

    OpenAIRE

    Kersop, Stefanus Jacobus

    2009-01-01

    Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) have been used increasingly over the past few years. Special Forces of various countries utilise these systems successfully in war zones such as Afghanistan. The biggest advantage is rapid information gathering without endangering human lives. The South African National Defence Force (SANDF) also identified the need for local short range aerial reconnaissance and information gathering. A detailed literature survey identified various international players inv...

  6. United States Marine Corps aerial refueling requirements analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Gates, William R.; McCarthy, Mitchell J.

    2000-01-01

    The United States Marine Corps (USMC) currently operates a fleet of KC130 aerial refueling tanker aircraft. This paper uses queuing and simulation models to examine the USMC KC130 tanker requirement, contrasts the results and explores the budgetary implications of alternative fleet requirements. This analysis finds that queuing models don't account for some of the complexities of aerial refueling operations. Therefore, queuing models may miscalculate the KC130 requirement. Simulation mode...

  7. Aerial Photography and Imagery, Ortho-Corrected, aerial photo for whole county flown in 2005, Published in 2005, Camden County Board of Commissioners.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Aerial Photography and Imagery, Ortho-Corrected dataset, was produced all or in part from Orthoimagery information as of 2005. It is described as 'aerial photo...

  8. Detection of Aspens Using High Resolution Aerial Laser Scanning Data and Digital Aerial Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalle Eerikäinen

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim was to use high resolution Aerial Laser Scanning (ALS data and aerial images to detect European aspen (Populus tremula L. from among other deciduous trees. The field data consisted of 14 sample plots of 30 m × 30 m size located in the Koli National Park in the North Karelia, Eastern Finland. A Canopy Height Model (CHM was interpolated from the ALS data with a pulse density of 3.86/m2, low-pass filtered using Height-Based Filtering (HBF and binarized to create the mask needed to separate the ground pixels from the canopy pixels within individual areas. Watershed segmentation was applied to the low-pass filtered CHM in order to create preliminary canopy segments, from which the non-canopy elements were extracted to obtain the final canopy segmentation, i.e. the ground mask was analysed against the canopy mask. A manual classification of aerial images was employed to separate the canopy segments of deciduous trees from those of coniferous trees. Finally, linear discriminant analysis was applied to the correctly classified canopy segments of deciduous trees to classify them into segments belonging to aspen and those belonging to other deciduous trees. The independent variables used in the classification were obtained from the first pulse ALS point data. The accuracy of discrimination between aspen and other deciduous trees was 78.6%. The independent variables in the classification function were the proportion of vegetation hits, the standard deviation of in pulse heights, accumulated intensity at the 90th percentile and the proportion of laser points reflected at the 60th height percentile. The accuracy of classification corresponded to the validation results of earlier ALS-based studies on the classification of individual deciduous trees to tree species.

  9. A Vision Based Aerial Robot solution for the Mission 7 of the International Aerial Robotics Competition

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez López, José Luis; Pestana Puerta, Jesús; Collumeau, Jean-Françoise; Suárez Fernández, Ramón; Campoy Cervera, Pascual; Molina, Martin

    2015-01-01

    The International Aerial Robotics Competition (IARC) aims at pulling forward the state of the art in UAV. The Mission's 7 challenge deals mainly with GPS/Laser denied navigation, Robot-Robot interaction and obstacle avoidance in the setting of a ground robot herding problem. We present in this paper our UAV which took part in the 2014 competition, in the China venue. This year, the mission was not completed by any participant but our team at Technical University of Madrid (UPM) were awarded w...

  10. Adapting unmanned aerial vehicles for turbulence measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witte, Brandon; Helvey, Jacob; Mullen, Jon; Thamann, Michael; Bailey, Sean

    2015-11-01

    We describe the approach of using highly instrumented and autonomous unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) to spatially interrogate the atmospheric boundary layer's turbulent flow structure. This approach introduces new capabilities not available in contemporary micro-meteorological measurement techniques such as instrumented towers, balloons, and manned aircraft. A key advantage in utilizing UAVs as an atmospheric turbulence research tool is that it reduces the reliance on assumptions regarding temporal evolution of the turbulence inherent within Taylor's frozen flow hypothesis by facilitating the ability to spatially sample the flow field over a wide range of spatial scales. In addition, UAVs offer the ability to measure in a wide range of boundary conditions and distance from the earth's surface, the ability to gather many boundary layer thicknesses of data during brief periods of statistical quasi-stationarity, and the ability to acquire data where and when it is needed. We describe recent progress made in manufacturing purpose-built airframes and adapting pre-fabricated airframes for these measurements by integrating sensors into those airframes and developing data analysis techniques to isolate the atmospheric turbulence from the measured velocity signal. This research is supported by NSF Award CBET-1351411.

  11. The design of aerial camera focusing mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Changchang; Yang, Hongtao; Niu, Haijun

    2015-10-01

    In order to ensure the imaging resolution of aerial camera and compensating defocusing caused by the changing of atmospheric temperature, pressure, oblique photographing distance and other environmental factor [1,2], and to meeting the overall design requirements of the camera for the lower mass and smaller size , the linear focusing mechanism is designed. Through the target surface support, the target surface component is connected with focusing driving mechanism. Make use of precision ball screws, focusing mechanism transforms the input rotary motion of motor into linear motion of the focal plane assembly. Then combined with the form of linear guide restraint movement, the magnetic encoder is adopted to detect the response of displacement. And the closed loop control is adopted to realize accurate focusing. This paper illustrated the design scheme for a focusing mechanism and analyzed its error sources. It has the advantages of light friction and simple transmission chain and reducing the transmission error effectively. And this paper also analyses the target surface by finite element analysis and lightweight design. Proving that the precision of focusing mechanism can achieve higher than 3um, and the focusing range is +/-2mm.

  12. Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Domain: Areas of Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadir Alpaslan Demir

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs domain has seen rapid developments in recent years. As the number of UAVs increases and as the missions involving UAVs vary, new research issues surface. An overview of the existing research areas in the UAV domain has been presented including the nature of the work categorised under different groups. These research areas are divided into two main streams: Technological and operational research areas. The research areas in technology are divided into onboard and ground technologies. The research areas in operations are divided into organization level, brigade level, user level, standards and certifications, regulations and legal, moral, and ethical issues. This overview is intended to serve as a starting point for fellow researchers new to the domain, to help researchers in positioning their research, identifying related research areas, and focusing on the right issues.Defence Science Journal, Vol. 65, No. 4, July 2015, pp. 319-329, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.65.8631

  13. [Death by explosion of an aerial mine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockhausen, Sarah; Wöllner, Kirsten; Madea, Burkhard; Doberentz, Elke

    2014-01-01

    Civilians are rarely killed by military weapons except in times of war. In early 2014, a 50-year-old man died in an explosion of an aerial mine from the Second World War when he was crushing concrete chunks with an excavator at a recycling plant. In the burned operator's cab, the remains of a body were found on the driver's seat. The thorax and the head were missing. Still sticking in the shoe, the right foot severed at the ankle was found about 7 m from the excavator together with numerous small to tiny body parts. At autopsy, the completely disrupted, strongly charred lower torso of a male connected to the left extremities as well as a large number of small tissue fragments and calcined bones were found. According to calculations performed by the seismographical station on the basis of seismic data, only about 45-60 percent of the charge had detonated. The autopsy results illustrate all the more the massive impact of such an explosion. PMID:26548019

  14. An automatic high precision registration method between large area aerial images and aerial light detection and ranging data

    OpenAIRE

    Du, Q.; Xie, D; Sun, Y.

    2015-01-01

    The integration of digital aerial photogrammetry and Light Detetion And Ranging (LiDAR) is an inevitable trend in Surveying and Mapping field. We calculate the external orientation elements of images which identical with LiDAR coordinate to realize automatic high precision registration between aerial images and LiDAR data. There are two ways to calculate orientation elements. One is single image spatial resection using image matching 3D points that registered to LiDAR. The other o...

  15. Aerotriangulation accuracy analysis of GPS-assisted aerial photogrammetry based on SWDC%基于SWDC的GPS辅助航空摄影空三加密精度分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王成龙

    2011-01-01

    As GPS technology continues to mature, GPS-supported aerial photogrammetry has also made considerable progress.Because GPS-assisted aerial photogrammetry can real-time get the space station coordinates through the GPS receiver on the aerial camera, it saves a lot of manpower, material and financial resources, and greatly reduces the operating cycle of the entire aerial survey.This paper used the GPS-supported aerial photogrammetry measurement method on Beijing Badaling measurement area, by encrypting with PBBA and PATB respectively, to design variety of aerial triangulation program, which verified the aerial triangulation accuracy of SWDC digital aerial camera with GPS-supported aerial photography way, providing precision support for the promotion and application of SWDC aerial camera in the world.%随着GPS技术的不断成熟,GPS辅助航空摄影测量也取得了长足的进展.由于GPS辅助航测只需通过在航摄仪上安置GPS接收机,即能实时获取摄站的空间坐标,从而节省了大量的人力、物力、财力,并且大大缩短了整个航测的作业周期.本文采用GPS辅助航空摄影测量方法,以北京八达岭摄区为例,分别利用PBBA和PATB两种加密软件,设计多种空三加密方案,验证了SWDC数字航摄仪以GPS辅助航空摄影方式在航摄任务中的空三加密精度,为国产SWDC数字航摄仪在全国以及世界范围的推广应用提供了精度支持.

  16. An Aerial-Ground Robotic System for Navigation and Obstacle Mapping in Large Outdoor Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Zapata

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available There are many outdoor robotic applications where a robot must reach a goal position or explore an area without previous knowledge of the environment around it. Additionally, other applications (like path planning require the use of known maps or previous information of the environment. This work presents a system composed by a terrestrial and an aerial robot that cooperate and share sensor information in order to address those requirements. The ground robot is able to navigate in an unknown large environment aided by visual feedback from a camera on board the aerial robot. At the same time, the obstacles are mapped in real-time by putting together the information from the camera and the positioning system of the ground robot. A set of experiments were carried out with the purpose of verifying the system applicability. The experiments were performed in a simulation environment and outdoor with a medium-sized ground robot and a mini quad-rotor. The proposed robotic system shows outstanding results in simultaneous navigation and mapping applications in large outdoor environments.

  17. Unmanned Aerial Vehicle to Estimate Nitrogen Status of Turfgrasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corniglia, Matteo; Gaetani, Monica; Grossi, Nicola; Magni, Simone; Migliazzi, Mauro; Angelini, Luciana; Mazzoncini, Marco; Silvestri, Nicola; Fontanelli, Marco; Raffaelli, Michele; Peruzzi, Andrea; Volterrani, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Spectral reflectance data originating from Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) imagery is a valuable tool to monitor plant nutrition, reduce nitrogen (N) application to real needs, thus producing both economic and environmental benefits. The objectives of the trial were i) to compare the spectral reflectance of 3 turfgrasses acquired via UAV and by a ground-based instrument; ii) to test the sensitivity of the 2 data acquisition sources in detecting induced variation in N levels. N application gradients from 0 to 250 kg ha-1 were created on 3 different turfgrass species: Cynodon dactylon x transvaalensis (Cdxt) ‘Patriot’, Zoysia matrella (Zm) ‘Zeon’ and Paspalum vaginatum (Pv) ‘Salam’. Proximity and remote-sensed reflectance measurements were acquired using a GreenSeeker handheld crop sensor and a UAV with onboard a multispectral sensor, to determine Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI). Proximity-sensed NDVI is highly correlated with data acquired from UAV with r values ranging from 0.83 (Zm) to 0.97 (Cdxt). Relating NDVI-UAV with clippings N, the highest r is for Cdxt (0.95). The most reactive species to N fertilization is Cdxt with a clippings N% ranging from 1.2% to 4.1%. UAV imagery can adequately assess the N status of turfgrasses and its spatial variability within a species, so for large areas, such as golf courses, sod farms or race courses, UAV acquired data can optimize turf management. For relatively small green areas, a hand-held crop sensor can be a less expensive and more practical option. PMID:27341674

  18. Unmanned Aerial Vehicle to Estimate Nitrogen Status of Turfgrasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caturegli, Lisa; Corniglia, Matteo; Gaetani, Monica; Grossi, Nicola; Magni, Simone; Migliazzi, Mauro; Angelini, Luciana; Mazzoncini, Marco; Silvestri, Nicola; Fontanelli, Marco; Raffaelli, Michele; Peruzzi, Andrea; Volterrani, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Spectral reflectance data originating from Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) imagery is a valuable tool to monitor plant nutrition, reduce nitrogen (N) application to real needs, thus producing both economic and environmental benefits. The objectives of the trial were i) to compare the spectral reflectance of 3 turfgrasses acquired via UAV and by a ground-based instrument; ii) to test the sensitivity of the 2 data acquisition sources in detecting induced variation in N levels. N application gradients from 0 to 250 kg ha-1 were created on 3 different turfgrass species: Cynodon dactylon x transvaalensis (Cdxt) 'Patriot', Zoysia matrella (Zm) 'Zeon' and Paspalum vaginatum (Pv) 'Salam'. Proximity and remote-sensed reflectance measurements were acquired using a GreenSeeker handheld crop sensor and a UAV with onboard a multispectral sensor, to determine Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI). Proximity-sensed NDVI is highly correlated with data acquired from UAV with r values ranging from 0.83 (Zm) to 0.97 (Cdxt). Relating NDVI-UAV with clippings N, the highest r is for Cdxt (0.95). The most reactive species to N fertilization is Cdxt with a clippings N% ranging from 1.2% to 4.1%. UAV imagery can adequately assess the N status of turfgrasses and its spatial variability within a species, so for large areas, such as golf courses, sod farms or race courses, UAV acquired data can optimize turf management. For relatively small green areas, a hand-held crop sensor can be a less expensive and more practical option. PMID:27341674

  19. Radiation surveillance using an unmanned aerial vehicle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation surveillance equipment was mounted in a small unmanned aerial vehicle. The equipment consists of a commercial CsI detector for count rate measurement and a specially designed sampling unit for airborne radioactive particles. Field and flight tests were performed for the CsI detector in the area where 137Cs fallout from the Chernobyl accident is 23-45 kBq m-2. A 3-GBq 137Cs point source could be detected at the altitude of 50 m using a flight speed of 70 km h-1 and data acquisition interval of 1 s. Respective response for 192Ir point source is 1 GBq. During the flight, the detector reacts fast to ambient external dose rate rise of 0.1 μSv h-1, which gives for the activity concentration of 131I less than 1 kBq m-3. Operation of the sampler equipped with different type of filters was investigated using wind-tunnel experiments and field tests with the aid of radon progeny. Air flow rate through the sampler is 0.2-0.7 m3 h-1 at a flight speed of 70 km h-1 depending on the filter type in question. The tests showed that the sampler is able to collect airborne radioactive particles. Minimum detectable concentration for transuranium nuclides, such as 239Pu, is of the order of 0.2 Bq m-3 or less when alpha spectrometry with no radiochemical sample processing is used for activity determination immediately after the flight. When a gamma-ray spectrometer is used, minimum detectable concentrations for several fission products such as 137Cs and 131I are of the order of 1 Bq m-3

  20. Radiation surveillance using an unmanned aerial vehicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pöllänen, Roy; Toivonen, Harri; Peräjärvi, Kari; Karhunen, Tero; Ilander, Tarja; Lehtinen, Jukka; Rintala, Kimmo; Katajainen, Tuure; Niemelä, Jarkko; Juusela, Marko

    2009-02-01

    Radiation surveillance equipment was mounted in a small unmanned aerial vehicle. The equipment consists of a commercial CsI detector for count rate measurement and a specially designed sampling unit for airborne radioactive particles. Field and flight tests were performed for the CsI detector in the area where (137)Cs fallout from the Chernobyl accident is 23-45 kBq m(-2). A 3-GBq (137)Cs point source could be detected at the altitude of 50 m using a flight speed of 70 km h(-1) and data acquisition interval of 1s. Respective response for (192)Ir point source is 1 GBq. During the flight, the detector reacts fast to ambient external dose rate rise of 0.1 microSv h(-1), which gives for the activity concentration of (131)I less than 1 kB qm(-3). Operation of the sampler equipped with different type of filters was investigated using wind-tunnel experiments and field tests with the aid of radon progeny. Air flow rate through the sampler is 0.2-0.7 m(3)h(-1) at a flight speed of 70 km h(-1) depending on the filter type in question. The tests showed that the sampler is able to collect airborne radioactive particles. Minimum detectable concentration for transuranium nuclides, such as (239)Pu, is of the order of 0.2 Bq m(-3) or less when alpha spectrometry with no radiochemical sample processing is used for activity determination immediately after the flight. When a gamma-ray spectrometer is used, minimum detectable concentrations for several fission products such as (137)Cs and (131)I are of the order of 1 Bq m(-3). PMID:19046635

  1. Aerodynamic Optimization of Micro Aerial Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siew Ping Yeong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Computational fluid dynamics (CFD study was done on the propeller design of a micro aerial vehicle (quadrotor-typed to optimize its aerodynamic performance via Shear Stress Transport K-Omega (SST k-ω turbulence model. The quadrotor model used was WL-V303 Seeker. The design process started with airfoils selection and followed by the evaluation of drone model in hovering and cruising conditions. To sustain a 400g payload, by Momentum Theory an ideal thrust of 5.4 N should be generated by each rotor of the quadrotor and this resulted in an induced velocity of 7.4 m/s on the propeller during hovering phase, equivalent to Reynolds number of 10403 at 75% of the propeller blade radius. There were 6 propellers investigated at this Reynolds number. Sokolov airfoil which produced the largest lift-to-drag ratio was selected for full drone installation to be compared with the original model (benchmark. The CFD results showed that the Sokolov propeller generated 0.76 N of thrust more than the benchmark propeller at 7750 rpm. Despite generating higher thrust, higher drag was also experienced by the drone installed with Sokolov propellers. This resulted in lower lift-to-drag ratio than the benchmark propellers. It was also discovered that the aerodynamic performance of the drone could be further improved by changing the rotating direction of each rotor. Without making changes on the structural design, the drone performance increased by 39.58% in terms of lift-to-drag ratio by using this method.

  2. Aerocrane: A hybrid LTA aircraft for aerial crane applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, R. G., Jr.; Doolittle, D. B.

    1975-01-01

    The Aerocrane, a hybrid aircraft, combines rotor lift with buoyant lift to offer VTOL load capability greatly in excess of helicopter technology while eliminating the airship problem of ballast transfer. In addition, the Aerocrane concept sharply reduces the mooring problem of airships and provides 360 deg vectorable thrust to supply a relatively large force component for control of gust loads. Designed for use in short range, ultra heavy lift missions, the Aerocrane operates in a performance envelope unsuitable for either helicopters or airships. Basic design considerations and potential problem areas of the concept are addressed.

  3. EROS main image file - A picture perfect database for Landsat imagery and aerial photography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jack, R. F.

    1984-01-01

    The Earth Resources Observation System (EROS) Program was established by the U.S. Department of the Interior in 1966 under the administration of the Geological Survey. It is primarily concerned with the application of remote sensing techniques for the management of natural resources. The retrieval system employed to search the EROS database is called INORAC (Inquiry, Ordering, and Accounting). A description is given of the types of images identified in EROS, taking into account Landsat imagery, Skylab images, Gemini/Apollo photography, and NASA aerial photography. Attention is given to retrieval commands, geographic coordinate searching, refinement techniques, various online functions, and questions regarding the access to the EROS Main Image File.

  4. Brief Communication: The use of an unmanned aerial vehicle in a rockfall emergency scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giordan, D.; Manconi, A.; Facello, A.; Baldo, M.; dell'Anese, F.; Allasia, P.; Dutto, F.

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, the use of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) in civilian/commercial contexts are becoming increasingly common, as well as for applications concerning anthropic and natural disasters. In this paper, we present the first results of a research project aimed at defining a possible methodology for the use of micro-UAVs in emergency scenarios relevant to rockfall phenomena. To develop and support the method presented herein, the results relevant to a rockfall emergency occurred on 7 March 2014 in the San Germano municipality (north-western Italy) are presented and discussed.

  5. OVERVIEW OF UAV ACTIVITIES IN WAGENINGEN UNMANNED AERIAL REMOTE SENSING FACILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Suomalainen

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The WUR Unmanned Aerial Remote Sensing Facility (UARSF (www.wageningenur.nl/uarsf is a co-operation organization of different groups within Wageningen University and Research Centre to use UAVs in remote sensing applications. The facility was founded in 2012. Since then the facility has taken part in numerous of mapping campaigns exploiting UAVs with researchers with in WUR as well as external cooperating partners. In this paper/poster we present the facility, the UAV platforms, the camera systems, and demonstrate some highlights of our results.

  6. Vicarious Radiometric Calibration of a Multispectral Camera on Board an Unmanned Aerial System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Del Pozo

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Combinations of unmanned aerial platforms and multispectral sensors are considered low-cost tools for detailed spatial and temporal studies addressing spectral signatures, opening a broad range of applications in remote sensing. Thus, a key step in this process is knowledge of multi-spectral sensor calibration parameters in order to identify the physical variables collected by the sensor. This paper discusses the radiometric calibration process by means of a vicarious method applied to a high-spatial resolution unmanned flight using low-cost artificial and natural covers as control and check surfaces, respectively.

  7. 3D Modelling of Inaccessible Areas using UAV-based Aerial Photography and Structure from Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obanawa, Hiroyuki; Hayakawa, Yuichi; Gomez, Christopher

    2014-05-01

    In hardly accessible areas, the collection of 3D point-clouds using TLS (Terrestrial Laser Scanner) can be very challenging, while airborne equivalent would not give a correct account of subvertical features and concave geometries like caves. To solve such problem, the authors have experimented an aerial photography based SfM (Structure from Motion) technique on a 'peninsular-rock' surrounded on three sides by the sea at a Pacific coast in eastern Japan. The research was carried out using UAS (Unmanned Aerial System) combined with a commercial small UAV (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle) carrying a compact camera. The UAV is a DJI PHANTOM: the UAV has four rotors (quadcopter), it has a weight of 1000 g, a payload of 400 g and a maximum flight time of 15 minutes. The camera is a GoPro 'HERO3 Black Edition': resolution 12 million pixels; weight 74 g; and 0.5 sec. interval-shot. The 3D model has been constructed by digital photogrammetry using a commercial SfM software, Agisoft PhotoScan Professional®, which can generate sparse and dense point-clouds, from which polygonal models and orthophotographs can be calculated. Using the 'flight-log' and/or GCPs (Ground Control Points), the software can generate digital surface model. As a result, high-resolution aerial orthophotographs and a 3D model were obtained. The results have shown that it was possible to survey the sea cliff and the wave cut-bench, which are unobservable from land side. In details, we could observe the complexity of the sea cliff that is nearly vertical as a whole while slightly overhanging over the thinner base. The wave cut bench is nearly flat and develops extensively at the base of the cliff. Although there are some evidences of small rockfalls at the upper part of the cliff, there is no evidence of very recent activity, because no fallen rock exists on the wave cut bench. This system has several merits: firstly lower cost than the existing measuring methods such as manned-flight survey and aerial laser

  8. Low-altitude aerial color digital photographic survey of the San Andreas Fault

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, David K.; Hudnut, Kenneth W.; Dearborn, David S.P.

    2010-01-01

    Ever since 1858, when Gaspard-Félix Tournachon (pen name Félix Nadar) took the first aerial photograph (Professional Aerial Photographers Association 2009), the scientific value and popular appeal of such pictures have been widely recognized. Indeed, Nadar patented the idea of using aerial photographs in mapmaking and surveying. Since then, aerial imagery has flourished, eventually making the leap to space and to wavelengths outside the visible range. Yet until recently, the availability of such surveys has been limited to technical organizations with significant resources. Geolocation required extensive time and equipment, and distribution was costly and slow. While these situations still plague older surveys, modern digital photography and lidar systems acquire well-calibrated and easily shared imagery, although expensive, platform-specific software is sometimes still needed to manage and analyze the data. With current consumer-level electronics (cameras and computers) and broadband internet access, acquisition and distribution of large imaging data sets are now possible for virtually anyone. In this paper we demonstrate a simple, low-cost means of obtaining useful aerial imagery by reporting two new, high-resolution, low-cost, color digital photographic surveys of selected portions of the San Andreas fault in California. All pictures are in standard jpeg format. The first set of imagery covers a 92-km-long section of the fault in Kern and San Luis Obispo counties and includes the entire Carrizo Plain. The second covers the region from Lake of the Woods to Cajon Pass in Kern, Los Angeles, and San Bernardino counties (151 km) and includes Lone Pine Canyon soon after the ground was largely denuded by the Sheep Fire of October 2009. The first survey produced a total of 1,454 oblique digital photographs (4,288 x 2,848 pixels, average 6 Mb each) and the second produced 3,762 nadir images from an elevation of approximately 150 m above ground level (AGL) on the

  9. International-Aerial Measuring System (I-AMS) Training Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wasiolek, Piotre T. [National Security Technologies, LLC; Malchor, Russell L. [National Security Technologies, LLC; Maurer, Richard J. [National Security Technologies, LLC; Adams, Henry L. [National Security Technologies, LLC

    2015-10-01

    Since the Fukushima reactor accident in 2011, there has been an increased interest worldwide in developing national capabilities to rapidly map and assess ground contamination resulting from nuclear reactor accidents. The capability to rapidly measure the size of the contaminated area, determine the activity level, and identify the radionuclides can aid emergency managers and decision makers in providing timely protective action recommendations to the public and first responders. The development of an aerial detection capability requires interagency coordination to assemble the radiation experts, detection system operators, and aviation aircrews to conduct the aerial measurements, analyze and interpret the data, and provide technical assessments. The Office of International Emergency Management and Cooperation (IEMC) at the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration (DOE/NNSA) sponsors an International - Aerial Measuring System (I-AMS) training program for partner nations to develop and enhance their response to radiological emergencies. An initial series of courses can be conducted in the host country to assist in developing an aerial detection capability. As the capability develops and expands, additional experience can be gained through advanced courses with the opportunity to conduct aerial missions over a broad range of radiation environments.

  10. Photovoltaic electric power applied to Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geis, Jack; Arnold, Jack H.

    1994-01-01

    Photovoltaic electric-powered flight is receiving a great deal of attention in the context of the United States' Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) program. This paper addresses some of the enabling technical areas and their potential solutions. Of particular interest are the long-duration, high-altitude class of UAV's whose mission it is to achieve altitudes between 60,000 and 100,000 feet, and to remain at those altitudes for prolonged periods performing various mapping and surveillance activities. Addressed herein are studies which reveal the need for extremely light-weight and efficient solar cells, high-efficiency electric motor-driven propeller modules, and power management and distribution control elements. Since the potential payloads vary dramatically in their power consumption and duty cycles, a typical load profile has been selected to provide commonality for the propulsion power comparisons. Since missions vary widely with respect to ground coverage requirements, from repeated orbiting over a localized target to long-distance routes over irregular terrain, we have also averaged the power requirements for on-board guidance and control power, as well as ground control and communication link utilization. In the context of the national technology reinvestment program, wherever possible we modeled components and materials which have been qualified for space and defense applications, yet are compatible with civilian UAV activities. These include, but are not limited to, solar cell developments, electric storage technology for diurnal operation, local and ground communications, power management and distribution, and control servo design. And finally, the results of tests conducted by Wright Laboratory on ultralight, highly efficient MOCVD GaAs solar cells purchased from EPI Materials Ltd. (EML) of the UK are presented. These cells were also used for modeling the flight characteristics of UAV aircraft.

  11. Fast mission reliability prediction for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is currently a significant interest in the use of autonomous vehicles in many industrial sectors. One such example is the ever increasing use of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs), particularly in military operations. This enables dangerous missions to be accomplished without risk to a pilot. UAVs also have potential civil applications which would require their certification and the demonstration that they are able to respond safety to any potential circumstances. The aircraft would therefore need to be capable of responding safely to the occurrence of component failures, the emergence of threats such as other aircraft in the neighboring airspace, and changing weather conditions. The likelihood that an aircraft will successfully complete any mission can be predicted using phased mission analysis techniques. The predicted mission unreliability can be updated in response to changing circumstances. In the event that the likelihood of mission failure becomes too high then changes have to be made to the mission plan. If these calculations could be carried out fast enough then the quantification procedure could be used to establish an acceptable response to any new conditions. With a view to using the methodology in the context described above, this paper investigates ways in which phased mission analysis can be improved to reduce the calculation time. The methodology improves the processing capability for a UAV phased mission analysis by taking into account the specific characteristics of the fault tree structures which provide the causes of phase failure for a UAV mission. It also carries out as much of the quantification as possible in advance of the mission plan being formulated

  12. Development of aerial gamma radiation survey system III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An aerial gamma-ray survey system using a helicopter has been developed since 1980 in order to perform quick gamma-ray survey covering a wide area. To form a line in the chain of the development, a series of flight measurements were conducted in Watarase reservoir, Tochigi prefecture, in which artificial gamma-ray fields were realized using 60Co (100 and 400 mCi) and 137Cs (100 and 300 mCi) point sources located on the ground. For the purpose of obtaining gamma-ray pulse height spectra in the field, 6 sets of NaI(Tl) scientillation detectors were prepared. These sets of detectors consist of ones for evaluation with high accuracy as the standard, for intercomparison with other authors' results, and for practical use. Two sets of them were boarded for each flight considering the exposure rate level and detector's sensitivity. The flight measurements were performed in a space of 20 m to 500 m in altitude, and 0 m to 500 m in horizontal distance from the source. The experimental results of the spatial gamma-ray distribution for each gamma-ray field satisfactorily agreed with calculational results by Monte Carlo method. Throughout this experiment, characteristics of this survey system and detectors were clarified, and versatile data processing and analysis code was completed. Also, a method for subtraction of background exposure rate in a field including artificial radiation component was discussed using energy band information, and the coefficients for this method were determined. These data obtained are expected to be used as widely applicable data not only for the interpretation of measured value, but also for analysis of environmental gamma-ray field. (author)

  13. The Necessary Number of Elements in a Directional Ring Aerial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Hans Lottrup

    1951-01-01

    An investigation is made concerning the dependence of the array characteristic of a directional ring aerial on its number of elements. It is shown that an odd number of elements is more favorable than an even number in approximating the array characteristic of a similar ring aerial with infinitely...... many elements. It was previously shown by Page that a similar statement applies to an azimuthly omnidirectional, fading-reducing, concentric ring aerial; this result is contained as a special case in this investigation. The present paper deals especially with the case in which the principal direction...... of the antenna array is horizontal; the theory for this case is illustrated by a numerical example. Journal of Applied Physics is copyrighted by The American Institute of Physics....

  14. Aerial Radiation Detection Vehicle Manned and Unmanned Concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We are developing an Unmanned Aerial Radiation Detection Vehicle that will give new abilities to the Manned Aerial Radiation Detection Vehicle, Air-Ram. A comparison between the two systems will be given, and a report to our first Unmanned Aerial Radiation Detection Vehicle flight. Air-Ram The Air-Ram system, figure 1, has been developed to measure and display online radiation level measurements taken above the radiation area with a chopper. The detected radiation levels are presented on a topographical map with the flight path colored with the radiation intensities. The air crew and controllers on the ground are updated every two seconds. It enables first responders to complete and real time picture of a radiological event which is essential in order to be able to activate and direct ground operations if necessary. The system measures radiation levels and produces a spectrum graph used to identify the isotopes

  15. Aerial contamination agroecosystems following the accident at Chernobyl NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The regularities of the aerial contamination of agricultural ecosystems are described in the early period after the Chernobyl NPP accident. The aerial contamination is shown to be caused by the development of the above-ground biomass of plants and fallout characteristics. A specific coefficient of primary retention varied between 0.7 and 1.89 for 131In and between 0.46 and 1.2 m2 kg-1 for 137Cs. The first half-life period varies from 9.7 to 13.4 days. The second period varies from 46.2 to 52.2 days. It has been found that parameters of aerial contamination from the Chernobyl accident well correlate with the results of observation in the period of global fallout

  16. Digital aerial-triangulation system on personal computers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Yi-Hsing; Chang, Shau-Yen

    1994-08-01

    This paper demonstrates a prototype of a PC-based digital aerial-triangulation system (PC- DATS). The system takes all of the procedures of aerial triangulation and is constructed by five working modules: preparation, interior orientation, tie point measurement, target point measurement, and bundle adjustment. All of the modules are integrated on the platform Microsoft-Windows. A test block containing 15 photos was processed by using the system. The operation was quite smooth, and the adjustment result shows an accuracy of about 0.3 pixel in average. The success of this proto-DATS was quite encouraging.

  17. Towards aerial natural gas leak detection system based on TDLAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shuyang; Zhou, Tao; Jia, Xiaodong

    2014-11-01

    Pipeline leakage is a complex scenario for sensing system due to the traditional high cost, low efficient and labor intensive detection scheme. TDLAS has been widely accepted as industrial trace gas detection method and, thanks to its high accuracy and reasonable size, it has the potential to meet pipeline gas leakage detection requirements if it combines with the aerial platform. Based on literature study, this paper discussed the possibility of applying aerial TDLAS principle in pipeline gas leak detection and the key technical foundation of implementing it. Such system is able to result in a high efficiency and accuracy measurement which will provide sufficient data in time for the pipeline leakage detection.

  18. Aerial Photo Mosaics = Photo Indexes and Map-Line Plots: Pre 1990

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — USGS and Non USGS Agencies Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics inventory contains indexes to aerial photographs. The inventory contains imagery from various government...

  19. 1935 15' Quad #193 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index - 2 of 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  20. 1935 15' Quad #103 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index - 1 of 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  1. 1935 15' Quad #193 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index - 1 of 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  2. 1935 15' Quad #103 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index - 2 of 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  3. 1935 15' Quad #146 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index - 1 of 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  4. Aerial Photomosaic August for Effigy Mounds National Monument Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Color infrared (CIR) aerial photographs were acquired to compliment another set of aerial photos used to produce vegetation spatial database coverages of Effigy...

  5. 1935 15' Quad #169 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index - 1 of 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  6. Mississippi National River and Recreation Area, 2012 True Color Aerial Mosaic

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Digital aerial imagery provides baseline data for mapping vegetation types and other land cover features. Vertical photographs (photographs taken with the aerial...

  7. NAPP = National Aerial Photography Program 1:40,000 Scale: 1987 - 2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The National Aerial Photography Program (NAPP) was coordinated by the USGS as an interagency project to acquire cloud-free aerial photographs at an altitude of...

  8. 1935 15' Quad #194 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index - 2 of 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  9. 1935 15' Quad #194 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index - 1 of 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  10. An automatic high precision registration method between large area aerial images and aerial light detection and ranging data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Q.; Xie, D.; Sun, Y.

    2015-06-01

    The integration of digital aerial photogrammetry and Light Detetion And Ranging (LiDAR) is an inevitable trend in Surveying and Mapping field. We calculate the external orientation elements of images which identical with LiDAR coordinate to realize automatic high precision registration between aerial images and LiDAR data. There are two ways to calculate orientation elements. One is single image spatial resection using image matching 3D points that registered to LiDAR. The other one is Position and Orientation System (POS) data supported aerotriangulation. The high precision registration points are selected as Ground Control Points (GCPs) instead of measuring GCPs manually during aerotriangulation. The registration experiments indicate that the method which registering aerial images and LiDAR points has a great advantage in higher automation and precision compare with manual registration.

  11. The Photo-Mosaic Assistant: Incorporating Historic Aerial Imagery into Modern Research Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flathers, E.

    2013-12-01

    One challenge that researchers face as data organization and analysis shift into the digital realm is the incorporation of 'dirty' data from analog back-catalogs into current projects. Geospatial data collections in university libraries, government data repositories, and private industry contain historic data such as aerial photographs that may be stored as negatives, prints, and as scanned digital image files. A typical aerial imagery series is created by taking photos of the ground from an aircraft along a series of parallel flight lines. The raw photos can be assembled into a mosaic that represents the full geographic area of the collection, but each photo suffers from individual distortion according to the attitude and altitude of the collecting aircraft at the moment of acquisition, so there is a process of orthorectification needed in order to produce a planimetric composite image that can be used to accurately refer to locations on the ground. Historic aerial photo collections often need significant preparation for consumption by a GIS: they may need to be digitized, often lack any explicit spatial coordinates, and may not include information about flight line patterns. Many collections lack even such basic information as index numbers for the photos, so it may be unclear in what order the photos were acquired. When collections contain large areas of, for example, forest or agricultural land, any given photo may have few visual cues to assist in relating it to the other photos or to an area on the ground. The Photo-Mosaic Assistant (PMA) is a collection of tools designed to assist in the organization of historic aerial photo collections and the preparation of collections for orthorectification and use in modern research applications. The first tool is a light table application that allows a user to take advantage of visual cues within photos to organize and explore the collection, potentially building a rough image mosaic by hand. The second tool is a set of

  12. Real-time aerial multispectral imaging solutions using dichroic filter arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandler, Eric V.; Fish, David E.

    2014-06-01

    The next generation of multispectral sensors and cameras needs to deliver significant improvements in size, weight, portability, and spectral band customization to support widespread commercial deployment for a variety of purposebuilt aerial, unmanned, and scientific applications. The benefits of multispectral imaging are well established for applications including machine vision, biomedical, authentication, and remote sensing environments - but many aerial and OEM solutions require more compact, robust, and cost-effective production cameras to realize these benefits. A novel implementation uses micropatterning of dichroic filters into Bayer and custom mosaics, enabling true real-time multispectral imaging with simultaneous multi-band image acquisition. Consistent with color camera image processing, individual spectral channels are de-mosaiced with each channel providing an image of the field of view. We demonstrate recent results of 4-9 band dichroic filter arrays in multispectral cameras using a variety of sensors including linear, area, silicon, and InGaAs. Specific implementations range from hybrid RGB + NIR sensors to custom sensors with applicationspecific VIS, NIR, and SWIR spectral bands. Benefits and tradeoffs of multispectral sensors using dichroic filter arrays are compared with alternative approaches - including their passivity, spectral range, customization options, and development path. Finally, we report on the wafer-level fabrication of dichroic filter arrays on imaging sensors for scalable production of multispectral sensors and cameras.

  13. Hybrid Video Stabilization for Mobile Vehicle Detection on SURF in Aerial Surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao Chunxian

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Detection of moving vehicles in aerial video sequences is of great importance with many promising applications in surveillance, intelligence transportation, or public service applications such as emergency evacuation and policy security. However, vehicle detection is a challenging task due to global camera motion, low resolution of vehicles, and low contrast between vehicles and background. In this paper, we present a hybrid method to efficiently detect moving vehicle in aerial videos. Firstly, local feature extraction and matching were performed to estimate the global motion. It was demonstrated that the Speeded Up Robust Feature (SURF key points were more suitable for the stabilization task. Then, a list of dynamic pixels was obtained and grouped for different moving vehicles by comparing the different optical flow normal. To enhance the precision of detection, some preprocessing methods were applied to the surveillance system, such as road extraction and other features. A quantitative evaluation on real video sequences indicated that the proposed method improved the detection performance significantly.

  14. Combining Human Computing and Machine Learning to Make Sense of Big (Aerial) Data for Disaster Response

    OpenAIRE

    Ofli, Ferda; Meier, Patrick; Imran, Muhammad; Castillo, Carlos; Tuia, Devis; Rey, Nicolas; Briant, Julien; Millet, Pauline; Reinhard, Friedrich; Parkan, Matthew Josef; Joost, Stéphane

    2016-01-01

    Aerial imagery captured via unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) is playing an increasingly important role in disaster response. Unlike satellite imagery, aerial imagery can be captured and processed within hours rather than days. In addition, the spatial resolution of aerial imagery is an order of magnitude higher than the imagery produced by the most sophisticated commercial satellites today. Both the United States Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) and the European Commission’s Joint...

  15. Comparative transcriptome analysis of aerial and subterranean pods development provides insights into seed abortion in peanut

    OpenAIRE

    Wei ZHU; Chen, Xiaoping; Li, Haifen; Zhu, Fanghe; Hong, Yanbin; Rajeev K. Varshney; Liang, Xuanqiang

    2014-01-01

    The peanut is a special plant for its aerial flowering but subterranean fructification. The failure of peg penetration into the soil leads to form aerial pod and finally seed abortion. However, the mechanism of seed abortion during aerial pod development remains obscure. Here, a comparative transcriptome analysis between aerial and subterranean pods at different developmental stages was produced using a customized NimbleGen microarray representing 36,158 unigenes. By comparing 4 consecutive t...

  16. Autonomous Aerial Sensors for Wind Power Meteorology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giebel, Gregor; Schmidt Paulsen, Uwe; Reuder, Joachim; La Cour-Harbo, Anders; Thomsen, Carsten; Bange, Jens; Buschmann, Marco

    2010-05-01

    This poster describes a new approach for measurements in wind power meteorology using small unmanned flying platforms. During a week of flying a lighter-than-air vehicle, two small electrically powered aeroplanes and a larger helicopter at the Risø test station at Høvsøre, we will compare wind speed measurements with fixed mast and LIDAR measurements, investigate optimal flight patterns for each measurement task, and measure other interesting meteorological features like the air-sea boundary in the vicinity of the wind farm. In order to prepare the measurement campaign, a workshop is held, soliciting input from various communities. Large-scale wind farms, especially offshore, need an optimisation between installed wind power density and the losses in the wind farm due to wake effects between the turbines. While the wake structure behind single wind turbines onshore is fairly well understood, there are different problems offshore, thought to be due mainly to the low turbulence. Good measurements of the wake and wake structure are not easy to come by, as the use of a met mast is static and expensive, while the use of remote sensing instruments either needs significant access to the turbine to mount an instrument, or is complicated to use on a ship due to the ship's own movement. In any case, a good LIDAR or SODAR will cost many tens of thousands of euros. Another current problem in wind energy is the coming generation of wind turbines in the 10-12 MW class, with tip heights of over 200 m. Very few measurement masts exist to verify our knowledge of atmospheric physics - all that is known is that the boundary layer description we used so far is not valid any more. Here, automated Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) could be used as either an extension of current high masts or to build a network of very high ‘masts' in a region of complex terrain or coastal flow conditions. In comparison to a multitude of high masts, UAVs could be quite cost-effective. In order to test

  17. Iran the aerial defense facing a preventive attack against the nuclear sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the context of the nuclear uranium enrichment program development facing the international opinion, the author discusses the Iran policy of implementing a defense against an aerial attack. Even with the modernization of its anti-aerial defense, the Iran will cannot support an aerial american campaign, precise and long. (A.L.B.)

  18. Unmanned aerial vehicles for rangeland mapping and monitoring: a comparison of two systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aerial photography from unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) bridges the gap between ground-based observations and remotely sensed imagery from aerial and satellite platforms. UAVs can be deployed quickly and repeatedly, are less costly and safer than piloted aircraft, and can obtain very high-resolution...

  19. Xeroradiograph of the superior aerial structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The tecnical procedures, image characteristics and main indications of the method are discussed and the application of the xeroradiography in the cervical region evaluation, including the pharyngeal and laryngeal structures are presented. (l.M.J.)

  20. Locating chimpanzee nests and identifying fruiting trees with an unmanned aerial vehicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Andel, Alexander C; Wich, Serge A; Boesch, Christophe; Koh, Lian Pin; Robbins, Martha M; Kelly, Joseph; Kuehl, Hjalmar S

    2015-10-01

    Monitoring of animal populations is essential for conservation management. Various techniques are available to assess spatiotemporal patterns of species distribution and abundance. Nest surveys are often used for monitoring great apes. Quickly developing technologies, including unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) can be used to complement these ground-based surveys, especially for covering large areas rapidly. Aerial surveys have been used successfully to detect the nests of orang-utans. It is unknown if such an approach is practical for African apes, which usually build their nests at lower heights, where they might be obscured by forest canopy. In this 2-month study, UAV-derived aerial imagery was used for two distinct purposes: testing the detectability of chimpanzee nests and identifying fruiting trees used by chimpanzees in Loango National Park (Gabon). Chimpanzee nest data were collected through two approaches: we located nests on the ground and then tried to detect them in UAV photos and vice versa. Ground surveys were conducted using line transects, reconnaissance trails, and opportunistic sampling during which we detected 116 individual nests in 28 nest groups. In complementary UAV images we detected 48% of the individual nests (68% of nest groups) in open coastal forests and 8% of individual nests (33% of nest groups) in closed canopy inland forests. The key factor for nest detectability in UAV imagery was canopy openness. Data on fruiting trees were collected from five line transects. In 122 UAV images 14 species of trees (N = 433) were identified, alongside 37 tree species (N = 205) in complementary ground surveys. Relative abundance of common tree species correlated between ground and UAV surveys. We conclude that UAVs have great potential as a rapid assessment tool for detecting chimpanzee presence in forest with open canopy and assessing fruit tree availability. UAVs may have limited applicability for nest detection in closed canopy forest. PMID