WorldWideScience

Sample records for aerial application

  1. Converting aerial imagery to application maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Over the last couple of years in Agricultural Aviation and at the 2014 and 2015 NAAA conventions, we have written about and presented both single-camera and two-camera imaging systems for use on agricultural aircraft. Many aerial applicators have shown a great deal of interest in the imaging systems...

  2. Integration of aerial imaging and variable-rate technology for site-specific aerial herbicide application

    Science.gov (United States)

    As remote sensing and variable rate technology are becoming more available for aerial applicators, practical methodologies on effective integration of these technologies are needed for site-specific aerial applications of crop production and protection materials. The objectives of this study were to...

  3. On autonomous and teleoperated aerial service robots: theory and application

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mersha, Abeye Yenehun

    2014-01-01

    Traditionally, aerial robots have been used in applications that do not require physical interaction with the environment. Recently, however, there is a growing interest in using aerial robots for applications that involve active but nondestructive interaction with the environment, especially in the

  4. UNMANNED AERIAL VEHICLE IN CADASTRAL APPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Manyoky

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the investigation of UAVs (Unmanned Aerial Vehicles for use in cadastral surveying. Within the scope of a pilot study UAVs were tested for capturing geodata and compared with conventional data acquisition methods for cadastral surveying. Two study sites were therefore surveyed with a tachymeter-GNSS combination as well as a UAV system. The workflows of both methods were investigated and the resulting data were compared with the requirements of Swiss cadastral surveying. Concerning data acquisition and evaluation, the two systems are found to be comparable in terms of time expenditure, accuracy, and completeness. In conclusion, the UAV image orientation proved to be the limiting factor for the obtained accuracy due to the low- cost camera including camera calibration, image quality, and definition of the ground control points (natural or artificial. However, the required level of accuracy for cadastral surveying was reached. The advantage of UAV systems lies in their high flexibility and efficiency in capturing the surface of an area from a low flight altitude. In addition, further information such as orthoimages, elevation models and 3D objects can easily be gained from UAV images. Altogether, this project endorses the benefit of using UAVs in cadastral applications and the new opportunities they provide for cadastral surveying.

  5. Aerial thermography in archaeological prospection: Applications & processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cool, Autumn Chrysantha

    Aerial thermography is one of the least utilized archaeological prospection methods, yet it has great potential for detecting anthropogenic anomalies. Thermal infrared radiation is absorbed and reemitted at varying rates by all objects on and within the ground depending upon their density, composition, and moisture content. If an area containing archaeological features is recorded at the moment when their thermal signatures most strongly contrast with that of the surrounding matrix, they can be visually identified in thermal images. Research conducted in the 1960s and 1970s established a few basic rules for conducting thermal survey, but the expense associated with the method deterred most archaeologists from using this technology. Subsequent research was infrequent and almost exclusively appeared in the form of case studies. However, as the current proliferation of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) and compact thermal cameras draws renewed attention to aerial thermography as an attractive and exciting form of survey, it is appropriate and necessary to reevaluate our approach. In this thesis I have taken a two-pronged approach. First, I built upon the groundwork of earlier researchers and created an experiment to explore the impact that different environmental and climatic conditions have on the success or failure of thermal imaging. I constructed a test site designed to mimic a range of archaeological features and imaged it under a variety of conditions to compare and contrast the results. Second, I explored a new method for processing thermal data that I hope will lead to a means of reducing noise and increasing the clarity of thermal images. This step was done as part of a case study so that the effectiveness of the processing method could be evaluated by comparison with the results of other geophysical surveys.

  6. Challenges of Integrating Unmanned Aerial Vehicles In Civil Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eid, B. M.; Chebil, J.; Albatsh, F.; Faris, W. F.

    2013-12-01

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) has evolved rapidly over the past decade. There have been an increased number of studies aiming at improving UAV and in its use for different civil applications. This paper highlights the fundamentals of UAV system and examines the challenges related with the major components such as motors, drives, power systems, communication systems and image processing tools and equipment.

  7. Application of Adaptive Autopilot Designs for an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Yoonghyun; Calise, Anthony J.; Motter, Mark A.

    2005-01-01

    This paper summarizes the application of two adaptive approaches to autopilot design, and presents an evaluation and comparison of the two approaches in simulation for an unmanned aerial vehicle. One approach employs two-stage dynamic inversion and the other employs feedback dynamic inversions based on a command augmentation system. Both are augmented with neural network based adaptive elements. The approaches permit adaptation to both parametric uncertainty and unmodeled dynamics, and incorporate a method that permits adaptation during periods of control saturation. Simulation results for an FQM-117B radio controlled miniature aerial vehicle are presented to illustrate the performance of the neural network based adaptation.

  8. Aerospace toxicology overview: aerial application and cabin air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaturvedi, Arvind K

    2011-01-01

    Aerospace toxicology is a rather recent development and is closely related to aerospace medicine. Aerospace toxicology can be defined as a field of study designed to address the adverse effects of medications, chemicals, and contaminants on humans who fly within or outside the atmosphere in aviation or on space flights. The environment extending above and beyond the surface of the Earth is referred to as aerospace. The term aviation is frequently used interchangeably with aerospace. The focus of the literature review performed to prepare this paper was on aerospace toxicology-related subject matters, aerial application and aircraft cabin air quality. Among the important topics addressed are the following: · Aerial applications of agricultural chemicals, pesticidal toxicity, and exposures to aerially applied mixtures of chemicals and their associated formulating solvents/surfactants The safety of aerially encountered chemicals and the bioanalytical methods used to monitor exposures to some of them · The presence of fumes and smoke, as well as other contaminants that may generally be present in aircraft/space vehicle cabin air · And importantly, the toxic effects of aerially encountered contaminants, with emphasis on the degradation products of oils, fluids, and lubricants used in aircraft, and finally · Analytical methods used for monitoring human exposure to CO and HCN are addressed in the review, as are the signs and symptoms associated with exposures to these combustion gases. Although many agricultural chemical monitoring studies have been published, few have dealt with the occurrence of such chemicals in aircraft cabin air. However, agricultural chemicals do appear in cabin air; indeed, attempts have been made to establish maximum allowable concentrations for several of the more potentially toxic ones that are found in aircraft cabin air. In this article, I emphasize the need for precautionary measures to be taken to minimize exposures to aerially

  9. Aerial Photography and Imagery, Ortho-Corrected, Aerial Photography and Imagery, Ortho-Corrected -, Published in unknown, Not Applicable scale, FREAC.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Aerial Photography and Imagery, Ortho-Corrected dataset, published at Not Applicable scale as of unknown. It is described as 'Aerial Photography and Imagery,...

  10. Evaluation of foam-skin cables for aerial applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuelson, G. R.

    Since the introduction of foam-skin filled cables, there has been considerable discussion within the Industry, both pro and con, regarding the acceptability of foam-skin filled cables for aerial application. This paper reports on results obtained from a study undertaken to evaluate the changes in transmission properties of such cables in a simulated aerial environment. Cable samples produced by six cable manufacturers using conventional, high-temperature drip-resistant filling compounds with a petrolatum base were subjected to temperature cycling from -40 F to 140 F. Transmission parameters were measured at 1, 150 and 772 kHz and compared to initial values. A solid polypropylene insulated filled cable was included for reference. The results show that foam-skin petrolatum based filled cables exhibit stable electrical characteristics when exposed to cycled temperature extremes.

  11. Environmental application of aerial reconnaissance to search for open dumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getz, Thomas J.; Randolph, J. C.; Echelberger, Wayne F.

    1983-11-01

    Three approaches to using aerial photography are evaluated for searching for open dumps in the state of Indiana. Photography with hand-held cameras from a small airplane proved more effective and flexible than either photo-interpretation of existing air photos or subcontracting to a federal agency for new aerial photography. The rationale for our choice of aerial reconnaissance, other uses of low-level aerial surveillance, the utility of small-format camera aerial photography for environmental analysis, and methods used for locating open dumps are discussed.

  12. Applicability of Unmanned Aerial Systems to Homeland Defense Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-12-01

    criticism after bungled and untimely responses to Hurricane Hugo in 1988 and the Loma Prieta earthquake in 1989. However, a 1991 GAO study...1 A. EFFECTIVE USE OF UNMANNED AERIAL SYSTEMS ........................1 B. HISTORY OF UNMANNED AERIAL SYSTEMS AND...assistance was invaluable. xiv THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK 1 I. INTRODUCTION A. EFFECTIVE USE OF

  13. Application of Artificial Intelligence Techniques in Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Frank H. (Technical Monitor); Dufrene, Warren R., Jr.

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes the development of an application of Artificial Intelligence for Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) control. The project was done as part of the requirements for a class in Artificial Intelligence (AI) at Nova southeastern University and as an adjunct to a project at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center's Wallops Flight Facility for a resilient, robust, and intelligent UAV flight control system. A method is outlined which allows a base level application for applying an AI method, Fuzzy Logic, to aspects of Control Logic for UAV flight. One element of UAV flight, automated altitude hold, has been implemented and preliminary results displayed. A low cost approach was taken using freeware, gnu, software, and demo programs. The focus of this research has been to outline some of the AI techniques used for UAV flight control and discuss some of the tools used to apply AI techniques. The intent is to succeed with the implementation of applying AI techniques to actually control different aspects of the flight of an UAV.

  14. An Improved Fast SPIHT Image Compression Algorithm for Aerial Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Zhang

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an improved fast SPIHT algorithm has been presented. SPIHT and NLS (Not List SPIHT are efficient compression algorithms, but the algorithms application is limited by the shortcomings of the poor error resistance and slow compression speed in the aviation areas. In this paper, the error resilience and the compression speed are improved. The remote sensing images are decomposed by Le Gall5/3 wavelet, and wavelet coefficients are indexed, scanned and allocated by the means of family blocks. The bit-plane importance is predicted by bitwise OR, so the N bit-planes can be encoded at the same time. Compared with the SPIHT algorithm, this improved algorithm is easy implemented by hardware, and the compression speed is improved. The PSNR of reconstructed images encoded by fast SPIHT is higher than SPIHT and CCSDS from 0.3 to 0.9db, and the speed is 4-6 times faster than SPIHT encoding process. The algorithm meets the high speed and reliability requirements of aerial applications.

  15. A Review on Current and Emerging Application Possibilities for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Beloev Ivan H.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a review on current and emerging application possibilities for unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). The introduction section of the paper briefly describes some of the application areas in which drones are currently being used. The next chapters of the paper describe more detailly the use of UAVs for aerial photography, filming, security and logistics, GIS, land and water surveys. The main focus of the last chapters is on the advantages and the disadvantages of the drones usag...

  16. Wind Tunnel and Field Evaluation of Drift from Aerial Spray Applications with Multiple Spray Formulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    movement of sprays from aerial sprays continues to be a major concern. Ongoing research and edu- cation efforts, new product developments , and adaption...emulsifiable con- centrate, a liquid flowable, and a water dispersable granule ), with and without a non-ionic surfactant and a crop oil, sprayed in a 52 m/s... Development of the Spray Drift Task Force Database for Aerial Applications,” Envir. Toxic. Chem., Vol. 21, No. 3, 2002, pp. 648–658. [14] Spanoghe, P

  17. Application of aerial image based information for coastal habitat research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juel, Anders

    2014-01-01

    The coastal ecosystems constitute the most cohesive, and some of the most pristine, nature in Denmark and their conservation must be considered as one of the country’s most important obligations in the field of nature and biodiversity. With their vast extent, combined with their high complexity a...... analysis of very-high resolution aerial orthophotos and digital elevation model data....

  18. APPLICABILITY EVALUATION OF OBJECT DETECTION METHOD TO SATELLITE AND AERIAL IMAGERIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Kamiya

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Since satellite and aerial imageries are recently widely spread and frequently observed, combination of them are expected to complement spatial and temporal resolution each other. One of the prospective applications is traffic monitoring, where objects of interest, or vehicles, need to be recognized automatically. Techniques that employ object detection before object recognition can save a computational time and cost, and thus take a significant role. However, there is not enough knowledge whether object detection method can perform well on satellite and aerial imageries. In addition, it also has to be studied how characteristics of satellite and aerial imageries affect the object detection performance. This study employ binarized normed gradients (BING method that runs significantly fast and is robust to rotation and noise. For our experiments, 11-bits BGR-IR satellite imageries from WorldView-3, and BGR-color aerial imageries are used respectively, and we create thousands of ground truth samples. We conducted several experiments to compare the performances with different images, to verify whether combination of different resolution images improved the performance, and to analyze the applicability of mixing satellite and aerial imageries. The results showed that infrared band had little effect on the detection rate, that 11-bit images performed less than 8-bit images and that the better spatial resolution brought the better performance. Another result might imply that mixing higher and lower resolution images for training dataset could help detection performance. Furthermore, we found that aerial images improved the detection performance on satellite images.

  19. Applicability Evaluation of Object Detection Method to Satellite and Aerial Imageries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamiya, K.; Fuse, T.; Takahashi, M.

    2016-06-01

    Since satellite and aerial imageries are recently widely spread and frequently observed, combination of them are expected to complement spatial and temporal resolution each other. One of the prospective applications is traffic monitoring, where objects of interest, or vehicles, need to be recognized automatically. Techniques that employ object detection before object recognition can save a computational time and cost, and thus take a significant role. However, there is not enough knowledge whether object detection method can perform well on satellite and aerial imageries. In addition, it also has to be studied how characteristics of satellite and aerial imageries affect the object detection performance. This study employ binarized normed gradients (BING) method that runs significantly fast and is robust to rotation and noise. For our experiments, 11-bits BGR-IR satellite imageries from WorldView-3, and BGR-color aerial imageries are used respectively, and we create thousands of ground truth samples. We conducted several experiments to compare the performances with different images, to verify whether combination of different resolution images improved the performance, and to analyze the applicability of mixing satellite and aerial imageries. The results showed that infrared band had little effect on the detection rate, that 11-bit images performed less than 8-bit images and that the better spatial resolution brought the better performance. Another result might imply that mixing higher and lower resolution images for training dataset could help detection performance. Furthermore, we found that aerial images improved the detection performance on satellite images.

  20. Unmanned aerial vehicles: a study of gas turbine application

    OpenAIRE

    Lobik, David P.

    1995-01-01

    A survey of commercially-available gas turbine, spark and compression ignition engines was conducted to evaluate their current and future relative suitability for the DoD's unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) short and close range program. The effects on performance associated with reducing gas turbine engine size from full scale to UAV dimensions were examined. A small turbo-jet engine (produced in France for remotely piloted vehicles) was procured in order to evaluate what levels of performance, ...

  1. Applicability of New Approaches of Sensor Orientation to Micro Aerial Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehak, M.; Skaloud, J.

    2016-06-01

    This study highlights the benefits of precise aerial position and attitude control in the context of mapping with Micro Aerial Vehicles (MAVs). Accurate mapping with MAVs is gaining importance in applications such as corridor mapping, road and pipeline inspections or mapping of large areas with homogeneous surface structure, e.g. forests or agricultural fields. There, accurate aerial control plays a major role in successful terrain reconstruction and artifact-free ortophoto generation. The presented experiments focus on new approaches of aerial control. We confirm practically that the relative aerial position and attitude control can improve accuracy in difficult mapping scenarios. Indeed, the relative orientation method represents an attractive alternative in the context of MAVs for two reasons. First, the procedure is somewhat simplified, e.g. the angular misalignment, so called boresight, between the camera and the inertial measurement unit (IMU) does not have to be determined and, second, the effect of possible systematic errors in satellite positioning (e.g. due to multipath and/or incorrect recovery of differential carrier-phase ambiguities) is mitigated. First, we present a typical mapping project over an agricultural field and second, we perform a corridor road mapping. We evaluate the proposed methods in scenarios with and without automated image observations. We investigate a recently proposed concept where adjustment is performed using image observations limited to ground control and check points, so called fast aerial triangulation (Fast AT). In this context we show that accurate aerial control (absolute or relative) together with a few image observations can deliver accurate results comparable to classical aerial triangulation with thousands of image measurements. This procedure in turns reduces the demands on processing time and the requirements on the existence of surface texture. Finally, we compare the above mentioned procedures with direct sensor

  2. Aerial ULV application of Dibrom against Aedes aegypti in simulated urban and rural residences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reaching endophilic Aedes aegypti mosquito vectors of dengue located in human residences with aerial ULV pesticide applications is a prominent complication in operational wide area public health mosquito control activities. We conducted separate trials with a military C-130 fixed wing aircraft fitte...

  3. Determination of differences in crop injury from aerial application of glyphosate using vegetation indices and geostatistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Injury to crops caused by off-target drift of glyphosate can seriously reduce growth and yield, and is of great concern to farmers and aerial applicators. Determining an indirect method for assessing the levels and extent of crop injury could support management decisions. The objectives of this stud...

  4. Reducing pesticide drift by considering propeller rotation effects from aerial application and near buffer zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Off-target drift of chemical from agricultural spraying can damage sensitive crops, destroy beneficial insects, and intrude on human and domestic animal habitats, threatening environmental quality. Reduction of drift from aerial application can be facilitated at the edge of a field by offsetting spr...

  5. A two-camera imaging system for pest detection and aerial application

    Science.gov (United States)

    This presentation reports on the design and testing of an airborne two-camera imaging system for pest detection and aerial application assessment. The system consists of two digital cameras with 5616 x 3744 effective pixels. One camera captures normal color images with blue, green and red bands, whi...

  6. A low-cost single-camera imaging system for aerial applicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agricultural aircraft provide a readily available and versatile platform for airborne remote sensing. Although various airborne imaging systems are available, most of these systems are either too expensive or too complex to be of practical use for aerial applicators. The objective of this study was ...

  7. An Application of Computer Vision Systems to Solve the Problem of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aksenov Alexey Y.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers an approach for application of computer vision systems to solve the problem of unmanned aerial vehicle control. The processing of images obtained through onboard camera is required for absolute positioning of aerial platform (automatic landing and take-off, hovering etc. used image processing on-board camera. The proposed method combines the advantages of existing systems and gives the ability to perform hovering over a given point, the exact take-off and landing. The limitations of implemented methods are determined and the algorithm is proposed to combine them in order to improve the efficiency.

  8. Airspeed and orifice size affect spray droplet spectra from an aerial electrostatic nozzle for rotary-wing applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    The aerial electrostatic spraying system patented by the USDA-ARS is a unique aerial application system which inductively charges spray droplets for the purpose of increasing deposition and efficacy. While this system has many potential benefits, no published data exits which describe how changes i...

  9. Airspeed and orifice size affect spray droplet spectrum from an aerial electrostatic nozzle for fixed-wing applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    The aerial electrostatic spraying system patented by the USDA ARS is a unique aerial application system which inductively charges spray particles for the purpose of increasing deposition and efficacy. While this system has many potential benefits, very little is known about how changes in airspeed o...

  10. Effects of Spray Mixtures on Droplet Size Under Aerial Application Conditions and Implications on Drift

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Keywords. Aerial application, Glyphosate , Spray adjuvant, Droplet size, Spray drift, AGDISP. pray drift, which the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA...environmental and human health protection through drift reduction by accelerating the acceptance and use of improved and cost‐effective application...Louis, Mo.) EPA Reg. No. 524‐549, Active ingredient: Glyphosate : N‐(phosphonomethyl) glycine, in the form of its potassium salt: 1 quart/acre rate

  11. A comparative study of four change detection methods for aerial photography applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramovich, Gil; Brooksby, Glen; Bush, Stephen F.; Manickam, Swaminathan; Ozcanli, Ozge; Garrett, Benjamin D.

    2010-04-01

    We present four new change detection methods that create an automated change map from a probability map. In this case, the probability map was derived from a 3D model. The primary application of interest is aerial photographic applications, where the appearance, disappearance or change in position of small objects of a selectable class (e.g., cars) must be detected at a high success rate in spite of variations in magnification, lighting and background across the image. The methods rely on an earlier derivation of a probability map. We describe the theory of the four methods, namely Bernoulli variables, Markov Random Fields, connected change, and relaxation-based segmentation, evaluate and compare their performance experimentally on a set probability maps derived from aerial photographs.

  12. Final Environmental Assessment of aerial application of glyphosate for control of phragmites on Bear River Migratory Bird Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Environmental Assessment (EA) addresses the aerial application of glyphosate to control Phragmites (Phragmites australis) on Bear River Migratory Bird Refuge....

  13. Aerial Neutron Detection: Neutron Signatures for Nonproliferation and Emergency Response Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maurer, Richard J.; Stampahar, Thomas G.; Smith, Ethan X.; Mukhopadhyay, Sanjoy; Wolff, Ronald S.; Rourke, Timothy J.; LeDonne, Jeffrey P.; Avaro, Emanuele; Butler, D. Andre; Borders, Kevin L.; Stampahar, Jezabel; Schuck, William H.; Selfridge, Thomas L.; McKissack, Thomas M.; Duncan, William W.; Hendricks, Thane J.

    2012-10-17

    From 2007 to the present, the Remote Sensing Laboratory has been conducting a series of studies designed to expand our fundamental understanding of aerial neutron detection with the goal of designing an enhanced sensitivity detection system for long range neutron detection. Over 35 hours of aerial measurements in a helicopter were conducted for a variety of neutron emitters such as neutron point sources, a commercial nuclear power reactor, nuclear reactor spent fuel in dry cask storage, depleted uranium hexafluoride and depleted uranium metal. The goals of the project were to increase the detection sensitivity of our instruments such that a 5.4 × 104 neutron/second source could be detected at 100 feet above ground level at a speed of 70 knots and to enhance the long-range detection sensitivity for larger neutron sources, i.e., detection ranges above 1000 feet. In order to increase the sensitivity of aerial neutron detection instruments, it is important to understand the dynamics of the neutron background as a function of altitude. For aerial neutron detection, studies have shown that the neutron background primarily originates from above the aircraft, being produced in the upper atmosphere by galactic cosmic-ray interactions with air molecules. These interactions produce energetic neutrons and charged particles that cascade to the earth’s surface, producing additional neutrons in secondary collisions. Hence, the neutron background increases as a function of altitude which is an impediment to long-range neutron detection. In order to increase the sensitivity for long range detection, it is necessary to maintain a low neutron background as a function of altitude. Initial investigations show the variation in the neutron background can be decreased with the application of a cosmic-ray shield. The results of the studies along with a representative data set are presented.

  14. Accuracy Potential and Applications of MIDAS Aerial Oblique Camera System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madani, M.

    2012-07-01

    Airborne oblique cameras such as Fairchild T-3A were initially used for military reconnaissance in 30s. A modern professional digital oblique camera such as MIDAS (Multi-camera Integrated Digital Acquisition System) is used to generate lifelike three dimensional to the users for visualizations, GIS applications, architectural modeling, city modeling, games, simulators, etc. Oblique imagery provide the best vantage for accessing and reviewing changes to the local government tax base, property valuation assessment, buying & selling of residential/commercial for better decisions in a more timely manner. Oblique imagery is also used for infrastructure monitoring making sure safe operations of transportation, utilities, and facilities. Sanborn Mapping Company acquired one MIDAS from TrackAir in 2011. This system consists of four tilted (45 degrees) cameras and one vertical camera connected to a dedicated data acquisition computer system. The 5 digital cameras are based on the Canon EOS 1DS Mark3 with Zeiss lenses. The CCD size is 5,616 by 3,744 (21 MPixels) with the pixel size of 6.4 microns. Multiple flights using different camera configurations (nadir/oblique (28 mm/50 mm) and (50 mm/50 mm)) were flown over downtown Colorado Springs, Colorado. Boresight fights for 28 mm nadir camera were flown at 600 m and 1,200 m and for 50 mm nadir camera at 750 m and 1500 m. Cameras were calibrated by using a 3D cage and multiple convergent images utilizing Australis model. In this paper, the MIDAS system is described, a number of real data sets collected during the aforementioned flights are presented together with their associated flight configurations, data processing workflow, system calibration and quality control workflows are highlighted and the achievable accuracy is presented in some detail. This study revealed that the expected accuracy of about 1 to 1.5 GSD (Ground Sample Distance) for planimetry and about 2 to 2.5 GSD for vertical can be achieved. Remaining systematic

  15. A Review on Current and Emerging Application Possibilities for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beloev Ivan H.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a review on current and emerging application possibilities for unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs. The introduction section of the paper briefly describes some of the application areas in which drones are currently being used. The next chapters of the paper describe more detailly the use of UAVs for aerial photography, filming, security and logistics, GIS, land and water surveys. The main focus of the last chapters is on the advantages and the disadvantages of the drones usage in precision agriculture, wildlife and nature observations and archaeology. The last chapters also provide information on how the advanced information technology solutions can be implemented in order to provide means for fighting invasive species, to increase the yield of certain crops, to monitor and predict flooding, wildfires and other disasters, etc. This paper provides only overview of the most interesting and widely available applications of the UAVs, but there are also many other more specific and dedicated solutions for implementation of the drones for different purposes.

  16. Integrating Spray Plane-Based Remote Sensing and Rapid Image Processing with Variable-Rate Aerial Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    A remote sensing and variable rate application system was configured for agricultural aircraft. This combination system has the potential of providing a completely integrated solution for all aspects of aerial site-specific application and includes remote sensing, image processing and georegistratio...

  17. FPGA-Based Real-Time Moving Target Detection System for Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Wei Tang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Moving target detection is the most common task for Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV to find and track object of interest from a bird’s eye view in mobile aerial surveillance for civilian applications such as search and rescue operation. The complex detection algorithm can be implemented in a real-time embedded system using Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA. This paper presents the development of real-time moving target detection System-on-Chip (SoC using FPGA for deployment on a UAV. The detection algorithm utilizes area-based image registration technique which includes motion estimation and object segmentation processes. The moving target detection system has been prototyped on a low-cost Terasic DE2-115 board mounted with TRDB-D5M camera. The system consists of Nios II processor and stream-oriented dedicated hardware accelerators running at 100 MHz clock rate, achieving 30-frame per second processing speed for 640 × 480 pixels’ resolution greyscale videos.

  18. An Overview of Small Unmanned Aerial Vehicles for Air Quality Measurements: Present Applications and Future Prospectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villa, Tommaso Francesco; Gonzalez, Felipe; Miljievic, Branka; Ristovski, Zoran D; Morawska, Lidia

    2016-07-12

    Assessment of air quality has been traditionally conducted by ground based monitoring, and more recently by manned aircrafts and satellites. However, performing fast, comprehensive data collection near pollution sources is not always feasible due to the complexity of sites, moving sources or physical barriers. Small Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) equipped with different sensors have been introduced for in-situ air quality monitoring, as they can offer new approaches and research opportunities in air pollution and emission monitoring, as well as for studying atmospheric trends, such as climate change, while ensuring urban and industrial air safety. The aims of this review were to: (1) compile information on the use of UAVs for air quality studies; and (2) assess their benefits and range of applications. An extensive literature review was conducted using three bibliographic databases (Scopus, Web of Knowledge, Google Scholar) and a total of 60 papers was found. This relatively small number of papers implies that the field is still in its early stages of development. We concluded that, while the potential of UAVs for air quality research has been established, several challenges still need to be addressed, including: the flight endurance, payload capacity, sensor dimensions/accuracy, and sensitivity. However, the challenges are not simply technological, in fact, policy and regulations, which differ between countries, represent the greatest challenge to facilitating the wider use of UAVs in atmospheric research.

  19. An Overview of Small Unmanned Aerial Vehicles for Air Quality Measurements: Present Applications and Future Prospectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villa, Tommaso Francesco; Gonzalez, Felipe; Miljievic, Branka; Ristovski, Zoran D.; Morawska, Lidia

    2016-01-01

    Assessment of air quality has been traditionally conducted by ground based monitoring, and more recently by manned aircrafts and satellites. However, performing fast, comprehensive data collection near pollution sources is not always feasible due to the complexity of sites, moving sources or physical barriers. Small Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) equipped with different sensors have been introduced for in-situ air quality monitoring, as they can offer new approaches and research opportunities in air pollution and emission monitoring, as well as for studying atmospheric trends, such as climate change, while ensuring urban and industrial air safety. The aims of this review were to: (1) compile information on the use of UAVs for air quality studies; and (2) assess their benefits and range of applications. An extensive literature review was conducted using three bibliographic databases (Scopus, Web of Knowledge, Google Scholar) and a total of 60 papers was found. This relatively small number of papers implies that the field is still in its early stages of development. We concluded that, while the potential of UAVs for air quality research has been established, several challenges still need to be addressed, including: the flight endurance, payload capacity, sensor dimensions/accuracy, and sensitivity. However, the challenges are not simply technological, in fact, policy and regulations, which differ between countries, represent the greatest challenge to facilitating the wider use of UAVs in atmospheric research. PMID:27420065

  20. Aerial application of pheromones for mating disruption of an invasive moth as a potential eradication tool.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eckehard G Brockerhoff

    Full Text Available Biological invasions can cause major ecological and economic impacts. During the early stages of invasions, eradication is desirable but tactics are lacking that are both effective and have minimal non-target effects. Mating disruption, which may meet these criteria, was initially chosen to respond to the incursion of light brown apple moth, Epiphyas postvittana (LBAM; Lepidoptera: Tortricidae, in California. The large size and limited accessibility of the infested area favored aerial application. Moth sex pheromone formulations for potential use in California or elsewhere were tested in a pine forest in New Zealand where LBAM is abundant. Formulations were applied by helicopter at a target rate of 40 g pheromone per ha. Trap catch before and after application was used to assess the efficacy and longevity of formulations, in comparison with plots treated with ground-applied pheromone dispensers and untreated control plots. Traps placed at different heights showed LBAM was abundant in the upper canopy of tall trees, which complicates control attempts. A wax formulation and polyethylene dispensers were most effective and provided trap shut-down near ground level for 10 weeks. Only the wax formulation was effective in the upper canopy. As the pheromone blend contained a behavioral antagonist for LBAM, 'false trail following' could be ruled out as a mechanism explaining trap shutdown. Therefore, 'sensory impairment' and 'masking of females' are the main modes of operation. Mating disruption enhances Allee effects which contribute to negative growth of small populations and, therefore, it is highly suitable for area-wide control and eradication of biological invaders.

  1. Accuracy Assessment of Direct Georeferencing for Photogrammetric Applications on Small Unmanned Aerial Platforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mian, O.; Lutes, J.; Lipa, G.; Hutton, J. J.; Gavelle, E.; Borghini, S.

    2016-03-01

    Efficient mapping from unmanned aerial platforms cannot rely on aerial triangulation using known ground control points. The cost and time of setting ground control, added to the need for increased overlap between flight lines, severely limits the ability of small VTOL platforms, in particular, to handle mapping-grade missions of all but the very smallest survey areas. Applanix has brought its experience in manned photogrammetry applications to this challenge, setting out the requirements for increasing the efficiency of mapping operations from small UAVs, using survey-grade GNSS-Inertial technology to accomplish direct georeferencing of the platform and/or the imaging payload. The Direct Mapping Solution for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (DMS-UAV) is a complete and ready-to-integrate OEM solution for Direct Georeferencing (DG) on unmanned aerial platforms. Designed as a solution for systems integrators to create mapping payloads for UAVs of all types and sizes, the DMS produces directly georeferenced products for any imaging payload (visual, LiDAR, infrared, multispectral imaging, even video). Additionally, DMS addresses the airframe's requirements for high-accuracy position and orientation for such tasks as precision RTK landing and Precision Orientation for Air Data Systems (ADS), Guidance and Control. This paper presents results using a DMS comprised of an Applanix APX-15 UAV with a Sony a7R camera to produce highly accurate orthorectified imagery without Ground Control Points on a Microdrones md4-1000 platform conducted by Applanix and Avyon. APX-15 UAV is a single-board, small-form-factor GNSS-Inertial system designed for use on small, lightweight platforms. The Sony a7R is a prosumer digital RGB camera sensor, with a 36MP, 4.9-micron CCD producing images at 7360 columns by 4912 rows. It was configured with a 50mm AF-S Nikkor f/1.8 lens and subsequently with a 35mm Zeiss Sonnar T* FE F2.8 lens. Both the camera/lens combinations and the APX-15 were mounted to a

  2. Small Unmanned Aerial Vehicles in coastal areas: lessons learned from applications in Liguria, NW Mediterranean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovere, A.; Casella, E.; Pedroncini, A.; Mucerino, L.; Casella, M.; Cusati, L. A.; Vacchi, M.; Ferrari, M.; Firpo, M.

    2014-12-01

    In 2013 we started to apply small UAVs to the study of coastal areas in Liguria, NW Mediterranean Sea. In this region monitoring coastal evolution and the impact of sea storms is a primary administrative need, as a large part of the economic income derives from summer tourism. In two years, we accumulated almost 200 hours of flight with two different UAVs, a professional-grade Mikrokopter Okto and a consumer-grade Phantom DJI. We used photogrammetric and orthorectification techniques to obtain Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) and orthophotos of different beaches in the region. Data from UAVs allowed us to answer several questions. What is the accuracy of DEMs obtained from UAVs in low-relief areas such as beaches? What are the problems encountered in the photogrammetric procedure near the shoreline? Are the results obtained with consumer-grade UAVs comparable to those obtained with professional-grade ones? Aside from these technical questions, we used the data obtained from UAVs for different local studies aimed at giving management tools to the local administrations. We used the cloudpoint obtained from DEMs and the orthophotos to set up a runup modelling chain, to detect short-term changes in the coastal zone, and to give a first estimate of the debris deposited on the beach after a major storm. As stated by Watts et al., 2012 (Remote Sensing 4, 1671-1692) the application of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles and photogrammetry techniques in earth sciences is flourishing, and has the potential to revolutionize the study of geomorphology. Surely, UAVs opened new research perspectives for our group, which has been actively working on coastal changes in Liguria for almost 25 years.

  3. Data Acquisition (DAQ) system dedicated for remote sensing applications on Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keleshis, C.; Ioannou, S.; Vrekoussis, M.; Levin, Z.; Lange, M. A.

    2014-08-01

    Continuous advances in unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) and the increased complexity of their applications raise the demand for improved data acquisition systems (DAQ). These improvements may comprise low power consumption, low volume and weight, robustness, modularity and capability to interface with various sensors and peripherals while maintaining the high sampling rates and processing speeds. Such a system has been designed and developed and is currently integrated on the Autonomous Flying Platforms for Atmospheric and Earth Surface Observations (APAESO/NEA-YΠOΔOMH/NEKΠ/0308/09) however, it can be easily adapted to any UAV or any other mobile vehicle. The system consists of a single-board computer with a dual-core processor, rugged surface-mount memory and storage device, analog and digital input-output ports and many other peripherals that enhance its connectivity with various sensors, imagers and on-board devices. The system is powered by a high efficiency power supply board. Additional boards such as frame-grabbers, differential global positioning system (DGPS) satellite receivers, general packet radio service (3G-4G-GPRS) modems for communication redundancy have been interfaced to the core system and are used whenever there is a mission need. The onboard DAQ system can be preprogrammed for automatic data acquisition or it can be remotely operated during the flight from the ground control station (GCS) using a graphical user interface (GUI) which has been developed and will also be presented in this paper. The unique design of the GUI and the DAQ system enables the synchronized acquisition of a variety of scientific and UAV flight data in a single core location. The new DAQ system and the GUI have been successfully utilized in several scientific UAV missions. In conclusion, the novel DAQ system provides the UAV and the remote-sensing community with a new tool capable of reliably acquiring, processing, storing and transmitting data from any sensor integrated

  4. Application of high resolution images from unmanned aerial vehicles for hydrology and range science

    Science.gov (United States)

    A common problem in many natural resource disciplines is the lack of high-enough spatial resolution images that can be used for monitoring and modeling purposes. Advances have been made in the utilization of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) in hydrology and rangeland science. By utilizing low fligh...

  5. A low-cost dual-camera imaging system for aerial applicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agricultural aircraft provide a readily available remote sensing platform as low-cost and easy-to-use consumer-grade cameras are being increasingly used for aerial imaging. In this article, we report on a dual-camera imaging system we recently assembled that can capture RGB and near-infrared (NIR) i...

  6. Application of high resolution images from unmanned aerial vehicles for hydrology and rangeland science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rango, A.; Vivoni, E. R.; Anderson, C. A.; Perini, N. A.; Saripalli, S.; Laliberte, A.

    2012-12-01

    A common problem in many natural resource disciplines is the lack of high-enough spatial resolution images that can be used for monitoring and modeling purposes. Advances have been made in the utilization of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) in hydrology and rangeland science. By utilizing low flight altitudes and velocities, UAVs are able to produce high resolution (5 cm) images as well as stereo coverage (with 75% forward overlap and 40% sidelap) to extract digital elevation models (DEM). Another advantage of flying at low altitude is that the potential problems of atmospheric haze obscuration are eliminated. Both small fixed-wing and rotary-wing aircraft have been used in our experiments over two rangeland areas in the Jornada Experimental Range in southern New Mexico and the Santa Rita Experimental Range in southern Arizona. The fixed-wing UAV has a digital camera in the wing and six-band multispectral camera in the nose, while the rotary-wing UAV carries a digital camera as payload. Because we have been acquiring imagery for several years, there are now > 31,000 photos at one of the study sites, and 177 mosaics over rangeland areas have been constructed. Using the DEM obtained from the imagery we have determined the actual catchment areas of three watersheds and compared these to previous estimates. At one site, the UAV-derived watershed area is 4.67 ha which is 22% smaller compared to a manual survey using a GPS unit obtained several years ago. This difference can be significant in constructing a watershed model of the site. From a vegetation species classification, we also determined that two of the shrub types in this small watershed(mesquite and creosote with 6.47 % and 5.82% cover, respectively) grow in similar locations(flat upland areas with deep soils), whereas the most predominant shrub(mariola with 11.9% cover) inhabits hillslopes near stream channels(with steep shallow soils). The positioning of these individual shrubs throughout the catchment using

  7. Application of machine learning for the evaluation of turfgrass plots using aerial images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Ke; Raheja, Amar; Bhandari, Subodh; Green, Robert L.

    2016-05-01

    Historically, investigation of turfgrass characteristics have been limited to visual ratings. Although relevant information may result from such evaluations, final inferences may be questionable because of the subjective nature in which the data is collected. Recent advances in computer vision techniques allow researchers to objectively measure turfgrass characteristics such as percent ground cover, turf color, and turf quality from the digital images. This paper focuses on developing a methodology for automated assessment of turfgrass quality from aerial images. Images of several turfgrass plots of varying quality were gathered using a camera mounted on an unmanned aerial vehicle. The quality of these plots were also evaluated based on visual ratings. The goal was to use the aerial images to generate quality evaluations on a regular basis for the optimization of water treatment. Aerial images are used to train a neural network so that appropriate features such as intensity, color, and texture of the turfgrass are extracted from these images. Neural network is a nonlinear classifier commonly used in machine learning. The output of the neural network trained model is the ratings of the grass, which is compared to the visual ratings. Currently, the quality and the color of turfgrass, measured as the greenness of the grass, are evaluated. The textures are calculated using the Gabor filter and co-occurrence matrix. Other classifiers such as support vector machines and simpler linear regression models such as Ridge regression and LARS regression are also used. The performance of each model is compared. The results show encouraging potential for using machine learning techniques for the evaluation of turfgrass quality and color.

  8. Effects of Formulated Glyphosate and Adjuvant Tank Mixes on Atomization from Aerial Application Flat Fan Nozzles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    and Siddiqui, H. A., “Measurement of Drop Spectra from Rotary Cage Aerial Atomizers,” Crop Protect., Vol. 9, No. 1, 1990, pp. 33–38. [9] Teske , M. E...piled from Wind Tunnel Tests,” Report No. FPM 90-9, USDA Forest Service, Washington, D.C., 1991. [20] Teske , M. E., Skyler, P. J., and Barry, J. W., “A...International Conference, NIST Special Publication 813, National Institute of Standard and Tech- nology, Gaithersburg, MD, 1991, pp. 325–332. [21] Teske , M. E

  9. Aerial visible-thermal infrared hyperspectral feature extraction technology and its application to object identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jie-lin, Zhang; Jun-hu, Wang; Mi, Zhou; Yan-ju, Huang; Ding, Wu

    2014-03-01

    Based on aerial visible-thermal infrared hyperspectral imaging system (CASI/SASI/TASI) data, field spectrometer data and multi-source geological information, this paper utilizes the hyperspectral data processing and feature extraction technology to identify uranium mineralization factors, the spectral features of typical tetravalent, hexavalent uranium minerals and mineralization factors are established, and hyperspectral logging technology for drill cores and trench also are developed, the relationships between radioactive intensity and spectral characteristics are built. Above methods have been applied to characterize uranium mineralization setting of granite-type and sandstone-type uranium deposits in south and northwest China, the successful outcomes of uranium prospecting have been achieved.

  10. Application of close-range aerial infrared thermography to detect landfill gas emissions: a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanda, G.; Migliazzi, M.; Chiarabini, V.; Cinquetti, P.

    2017-01-01

    Monitoring waste disposal sites is important to check that the produced biogas, potentially explosive, is properly collected by the biogas extraction system of the landfill site and to evaluate the residual biogas flow escaping from upper surface of the landfill. As the biogas migrates to the surface, the soil through which it flows is expected to reach a higher temperature than the surrounding environment; thus, measuring the thermal footprint of the landfill soil surface could allow the detection of biogas leakages and spots suitable for the gas extraction. Close-range aerial infrared thermography is an innovative approach able to identify thermal anomalies with a good resolution over a large region of the landfill surface. A simple procedure to deduce the biogas flow rate emerging from the soil into the atmosphere, based on infrared thermography measurements, is presented. The approach has been applied to a case study concerning a large landfill located in Genoa (Italy). Aerial infrared photographs taken during different days and seasons showed the presence of thermal anomalies over regions along the peripheral boundary of the landfill still not interested in biogas extraction.

  11. Control and Optimization of UAV Trajectory for Aerial Coverage in Photogrammetry Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    POPESCU, D.

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Photogrammetry is a well-studied and much-used analysis tool. Typical use cases include area surveillance, flood monitoring and related tasks. Usually, an Unmanned Aerial System (UAS is used as support for image acquisition from an a priori delimited region in a semi-automated manner (via a mix of ground control and autonomous trajectory tracking. This in turn has led to various algorithms which handle path trajectory generation under realistic constraints but still many avenues remain open. In this paper, we consider typical costs and constraints (UAS dynamics, total-path length, line inter-distance, turn points, etc. in order to obtain, via optimization procedures, an optimal trajectory. To this end we make use of polyhedral set operations, flat trajectory generation and other similar tools. Additional work includes the study of non-convex regions and estimation of the number of photographs taken via Ehrhart polynomial computations.

  12. Low altitude aerial photogrammetry application to braided river systems. Example of the Buech River, Alps, France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jules Fleury, Thomas; Pothin, Virginie; Vella, Claude; Dussouillez, Philippe; Izem, Abdelkoddouss

    2015-04-01

    Low-altitude aerial photogrammetry offers new opportunities for geomorphology and other fields requiring very high-resolution topographic data. It combines the advantages of the reproducibility of GPS topographic surveys with the high accuracy of LIDAR, but at relatively low-cost, easy-to-deploy and with the synaptic advantage of remote sensing. In order to evaluate the potential of photogrammetry on river systems and to assess river-bed changes and erosion-accretion processes, we conducted several surveys over the period of one year on the Buech river, a gravel-bed braided river located in the French Southern Alps. The study area is located directly upstream of a gravel pit and there is an interest in evaluating its effects on the riverbed. Our field protocol was comprised of vertical aerial photographs taken from a microlight aircraft flying approximately 300 ft above the ground. The equipment used was a full-frame DSLR with a wide angle lense, synchronised with a DGPS onboard. Fourty 40cm wide targets were placed on the ground and georeferenced by RTK DGPS with an accuracy of 2cm. In addition, close to one thousand Ground Control Points (GCPs) were measured within the different types of ground surfaces (vegetated, water, gravels) in order to assess the Digital Terrain Model (DTM) accuracy. We operated the production of the 3D model and its derived products: Digital Surface Model (DSM) and orthophotography, with user-friendly Agisoft (c) Photoscan Professional software. The processing of several hundred pictures with 2.5 cm ground resolution resulted in a DSM with a resolution of 10 cm and a vertical accuracy within 5 cm. As is expected, accuracy was best on bare bars and decreased with increasing vegetation density. To complement the DSM in the wetted channels, we used the orthophotos to establish a relationship between water color and flow depth using statistical multivariate regressions. Merging the bathymetric model and the DSM produced a DTM with a vertical

  13. Applicability of Aerial Green LiDAR to a Large River in the Western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conner, J. T.; Welcker, C. W.; Cooper, C.; Faux, R.; Butler, M.; Nayegandhi, A.

    2013-12-01

    In October 2012, aerial green LiDAR data were collected in the Snake River (within Idaho and Oregon) to test this emerging technology in a large river with poor water clarity. Six study areas (total of 30 river miles spread out over 250 river miles) were chosen to represent a variety of depths, channel types, and surface conditions to test the accuracy, depth penetration, data density of aerial green LiDAR. These characteristics along with cost and speed of acquisition were compared to other bathymetric survey techniques including rod surveys (total station and RTK-GPS), single-beam sonar, and multibeam echosounder (MBES). The green LiDAR system typically measured returns from the riverbed through 1-2 meters of water, which was less than one Secchi depth. However, in areas with steep banks or aquatic macrophytes, LiDAR returns from the riverbed were less frequent or non-existent. In areas of good return density, depths measured from green LiDAR data corresponded well with previously collected data sets from traditional bathymetric survey techniques. In such areas, the green LiDAR point density was much higher than both rod and single beam sonar surveys, yet lower than MBES. The green LiDAR survey was also collected more efficiently than all other methods. In the Snake River, green LiDAR does not provide a method to map the entire riverbed as it only receives bottom returns in shallow water, typically at the channel margins. However, green LiDAR does provide survey data that is an excellent complement to MBES, which is more effective at surveying the deeper portions of the channel. In some cases, the green LiDAR was able to provide data in areas that the MBES could not, often due to issues with navigating the survey boat in shallow water. Even where both MBES and green LiDAR mapped the river bottom, green LiDAR often provides more accurate data through a better angle of incidence and less shadowing than the MBES survey. For one MBES survey in 2013, the green Li

  14. Efficient Forest Fire Detection Index for Application in Unmanned Aerial Systems (UASs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry Cruz

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This article proposes a novel method for detecting forest fires, through the use of a new color index, called the Forest Fire Detection Index (FFDI, developed by the authors. The index is based on methods for vegetation classification and has been adapted to detect the tonalities of flames and smoke; the latter could be included adaptively into the Regions of Interest (RoIs with the help of a variable factor. Multiple tests have been performed upon database imagery and present promising results: a detection precision of 96.82% has been achieved for image sizes of 960 × 540 pixels at a processing time of 0.0447 seconds. This achievement would lead to a performance of 22 f/s, for smaller images, while up to 54 f/s could be reached by maintaining a similar detection precision. Additional tests have been performed on fires in their early stages, achieving a precision rate of p = 96.62%. The method could be used in real-time in Unmanned Aerial Systems (UASs, with the aim of monitoring a wider area than through fixed surveillance systems. Thus, it would result in more cost-effective outcomes than conventional systems implemented in helicopters or satellites. UASs could also reach inaccessible locations without jeopardizing people’s safety. On-going work includes implementation into a commercially available drone.

  15. Efficient Forest Fire Detection Index for Application in Unmanned Aerial Systems (UASs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Henry; Eckert, Martina; Meneses, Juan; Martínez, José-Fernán

    2016-06-16

    This article proposes a novel method for detecting forest fires, through the use of a new color index, called the Forest Fire Detection Index (FFDI), developed by the authors. The index is based on methods for vegetation classification and has been adapted to detect the tonalities of flames and smoke; the latter could be included adaptively into the Regions of Interest (RoIs) with the help of a variable factor. Multiple tests have been performed upon database imagery and present promising results: a detection precision of 96.82% has been achieved for image sizes of 960 × 540 pixels at a processing time of 0.0447 seconds. This achievement would lead to a performance of 22 f/s, for smaller images, while up to 54 f/s could be reached by maintaining a similar detection precision. Additional tests have been performed on fires in their early stages, achieving a precision rate of p = 96.62%. The method could be used in real-time in Unmanned Aerial Systems (UASs), with the aim of monitoring a wider area than through fixed surveillance systems. Thus, it would result in more cost-effective outcomes than conventional systems implemented in helicopters or satellites. UASs could also reach inaccessible locations without jeopardizing people's safety. On-going work includes implementation into a commercially available drone.

  16. Efficient Forest Fire Detection Index for Application in Unmanned Aerial Systems (UASs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Henry; Eckert, Martina; Meneses, Juan; Martínez, José-Fernán

    2016-01-01

    This article proposes a novel method for detecting forest fires, through the use of a new color index, called the Forest Fire Detection Index (FFDI), developed by the authors. The index is based on methods for vegetation classification and has been adapted to detect the tonalities of flames and smoke; the latter could be included adaptively into the Regions of Interest (RoIs) with the help of a variable factor. Multiple tests have been performed upon database imagery and present promising results: a detection precision of 96.82% has been achieved for image sizes of 960 × 540 pixels at a processing time of 0.0447 seconds. This achievement would lead to a performance of 22 f/s, for smaller images, while up to 54 f/s could be reached by maintaining a similar detection precision. Additional tests have been performed on fires in their early stages, achieving a precision rate of p = 96.62%. The method could be used in real-time in Unmanned Aerial Systems (UASs), with the aim of monitoring a wider area than through fixed surveillance systems. Thus, it would result in more cost-effective outcomes than conventional systems implemented in helicopters or satellites. UASs could also reach inaccessible locations without jeopardizing people’s safety. On-going work includes implementation into a commercially available drone. PMID:27322264

  17. Application of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle in Navy%无人机在海军作战领域应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王勤; 叶蕴青

    2012-01-01

    The developing process of the unmanned aerial vehicle(UAV) is introduced.The typical application of the U.S.UAV in the combat is studied.Key UAV technologies in the general field and the specific navy field are analyzed.The application and the development trend of the UAV in the naval battlefield with the navy combat features are summarized.The reference and inspiration for the development of our navy UAV presented by the related technologies of the U.S.UAV are proposed.%介绍了无人机的发展历程,解读了美军无人机的典型作战应用,分析了无人机在通用和海军专用领域的关键技术,并结合海军作战特点,总结了无人机在海军作战领域中的应用以及发展趋势,提出了美军无人机技术对我国海军无人机的借鉴和启示。

  18. Aerial Photography and Imagery, Oblique, Digital photos taken of PA's Lake Erie shoreline and Presque Isle at an oblique angle at about 1,500-2,000' altitude., Published in 2017, Not Applicable scale, Pennsylvania Coastal Resources Management Program.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Aerial Photography and Imagery, Oblique dataset, published at Not Applicable scale, was produced all or in part from Uncorrected Imagery information as of 2017....

  19. Aerial Photography and Imagery, Oblique, Digital photos taken of PA's Lake Erie shoreline and Presque Isle at an oblique angle at about 1,500-2,000' altitude., Published in 2015, Not Applicable scale, Pennsylvania Coastal Resources Management Program.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Aerial Photography and Imagery, Oblique dataset, published at Not Applicable scale, was produced all or in part from Uncorrected Imagery information as of 2015....

  20. Short communication. First field assessment of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki aerial application on the colony performance of Apis mellifera L. (Hymenoptera: Apidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria del Mar Leza Salord

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Honeybee populations around the world are experiencing a decrease in colony numbers probably due to a combination of different causes, such as diseases, poor nutrition and frequent applications of insecticides to control pests. Previous studies about the effect of pesticide Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki (Btk on Apis mellifera L. report different results. The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of field aerial applications of Btk on bee colony performance, specifically on the brood cell percentage evolution, which can be used as an indicator of queen health and brood development breeding rates. To achieve it, the brood cell surface was photographed in every sampling, and data were analyzed using a method based on image treatment software. A total of 480 pictures were examined from two groups of four nucleus hives in two areas, one receiving aerial spraying with Btk and the other without treatment. A mixed factorial design was realized to analyse the data showing no differences in colony performance between the two groups of colonies either before the treatment, during and at the end of the assay. Furthermore, the brood surface ratio of Btk-treated/untreated increased along the experiment. Therefore, the results of the present study suggest that Btk aerial applications did not affect the brood development of honeybees under natural conditions. Nevertheless further field studies are required to ascertain a safe use of Btk in forest pest management.

  1. US Forest Service Aerial Fire Retardant Avoidance Areas: Terrestrial

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — A map service depicting aerial fire retardant avoidance areas delivered as part of the 2011 Nationwide Aerial Application of Fire Retardant on National Forest System...

  2. Effects on wildlife of aerial applications of strobane, DDT, and BHC to tidal marshes in Delaware

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, J.L.; Darsie, R.F.; Springer, P.F.

    1957-01-01

    The principal purpose of this study was to ascertain what effect on wildlife, if any, would result from the use of the new insecticide, Strobane, for mosquito control on tideland areas. Comparisons were made with DDT and BHC (43 per cent gamma isomer) commonly used in control operations. The investigation was carried out on the tidal marshes of Bombay Hook National Wildlife Refuge near Smyrna, Delaware. Four areas, all similar in habitat, were chosen-three as test plots for Strobane, BHC, and DDT, respectively, and the fourth as an untreated check. The insecticides in oil solution were applied by airplane at the rates of 0.1, 0.2, and 0.3 pound per acre for gamma isomer of BHC, DDT, and Strobane, respectively. The first application was made on the morning of July 27; and the second, on the evening of August 23, 1955. To assay the results of spraying, 14 testing devices were set up in each area. They consisted of cages, traps, and microscope slides placed in the streams and ponds. The estuarine fishes, Fundulus heteroclitus, Cyprinodon variegatus, Leiostornus xanthurus, and Ailugil curemu; blue crabs, Callinectes sapidus; fiddler crabs, Uca pugnux, Uca minux, and Sesarma reticulaturn; and certain sessile organisms were included in the tests. Analyses of variance on fish and blue crabs showed no significant difference between deaths occurring in treated and control plots, nor among the three treatments. Differential mortalities were suffered by fish caged in streams and ponds. Greater numbers died in the BHC-treated streams and in the DDT-treated ponds. Local concentrations of insecticide appeared to be the cause, although the magnitude of kill was not significantly greater than in control areas. Field observations and crab-pot counts showed that both the fish and blue crabs avoided the sites of high insecticide concentration. Certainly the majority of the free-living individuals in the treated areas were able to survive the sprays, and at the level tested showed no

  3. Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) operated spectral camera system for forest and agriculture applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saari, Heikki; Pellikka, Ismo; Pesonen, Liisa; Tuominen, Sakari; Heikkilä, Jan; Holmlund, Christer; Mäkynen, Jussi; Ojala, Kai; Antila, Tapani

    2011-11-01

    VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland has developed a Fabry-Perot Interferometer (FPI) based hyperspectral imager compatible with the light weight UAV platforms. The concept of the hyperspectral imager has been published in the SPIE Proc. 7474 and 7668. In forest and agriculture applications the recording of multispectral images at a few wavelength bands is in most cases adequate. The possibility to calculate a digital elevation model of the forest area and crop fields provides means to estimate the biomass and perform forest inventory. The full UAS multispectral imaging system will consist of a high resolution false color imager and a FPI based hyperspectral imager which can be used at resolutions from VGA (480 x 640 pixels) up to 5 Mpix at wavelength range 500 - 900 nm at user selectable spectral resolutions in the range 10...40 nm @ FWHM. The resolution is determined by the order at which the Fabry- Perot interferometer is used. The overlap between successive images of the false color camera is 70...80% which makes it possible to calculate the digital elevation model of the target area. The field of view of the false color camera is typically 80 degrees and the ground pixel size at 150 m flying altitude is around 5 cm. The field of view of the hyperspectral imager is presently is 26 x 36 degrees and ground pixel size at 150 m flying altitude is around 3.5 cm. The UAS system has been tried in summer 2011 in Southern Finland for the forest and agricultural areas. During the first test campaigns the false color camera and hyperspectral imager were flown over the target areas at separate flights. The design and calibration of the hyperspectral imager will be shortly explained. The test flight campaigns on forest and crop fields and their preliminary results are also presented in this paper.

  4. Mechatronic design of a robotic manipulator for unmanned aerial vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fumagalli, M.; Stramigioli, S.; Carloni, R.

    2016-01-01

    The paper focuses on the mechatronic design of a robotic manipulator that is meant to be mounted on an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) and to be used in industrial applications, for both aerial inspection by contact and aerial manipulation. The combination of an UAV and the robotic manipulator realize

  5. Dynamics of aerial target pursuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, S.

    2015-12-01

    During pursuit and predation, aerial species engage in multitasking behavior that involve simultaneous target detection, tracking, decision-making, approach and capture. The mobility of the pursuer and the target in a three dimensional environment during predation makes the capture task highly complex. Many researchers have studied and analyzed prey capture dynamics in different aerial species such as insects and bats. This article focuses on reviewing the capture strategies adopted by these species while relying on different sensory variables (vision and acoustics) for navigation. In conclusion, the neural basis of these capture strategies and some applications of these strategies in bio-inspired navigation and control of engineered systems are discussed.

  6. AMRMS Aerial survey database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — An aerial monitoring program was conducted during the period 1962 - 2003 in cooperation with aerial spotters working for the commercial purse seine fleet. Flights...

  7. Three-dimensional imaging applications in Earth Sciences using video data acquired from an unmanned aerial vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, Tara

    For three dimensional (3D) aerial images, unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) are cheaper to operate and easier to fly than the typical manned craft mounted with a laser scanner. This project explores the feasibility of using 2D video images acquired with a UAV and transforming them into 3D point clouds. The Aeryon Scout -- a quad-copter micro UAV -- flew two missions: the first at York University Keele campus and the second at the Canadian Wollastonite Mine Property. Neptec's ViDAR software was used to extract 3D information from the 2D video using structure from motion. The resulting point clouds were sparsely populated, yet captured vegetation well. They were used successfully to measure fracture orientation in rock walls. Any improvement in the video resolution would cascade through the processing and improve the overall results.

  8. A Space-Time Network-Based Modeling Framework for Dynamic Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Routing in Traffic Incident Monitoring Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Jisheng Zhang; Limin Jia; Shuyun Niu; Fan Zhang; Lu Tong; Xuesong Zhou

    2015-01-01

    It is essential for transportation management centers to equip and manage a network of fixed and mobile sensors in order to quickly detect traffic incidents and further monitor the related impact areas, especially for high-impact accidents with dramatic traffic congestion propagation. As emerging small Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) start to have a more flexible regulation environment, it is critically important to fully explore the potential for of using UAVs for monitoring recurring and no...

  9. Rangeland monitoring with unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) have great potential for rangeland management applications, such as monitoring vegetation change, developing grazing strategies, determining rangeland health, and assessing remediation treatment effectiveness. UAVs have several advantages: they can be deployed quickly...

  10. Modeling vegetation heights from high resolution stereo aerial photography: an application for broad-scale rangeland monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillan, Jeffrey K; Karl, Jason W; Duniway, Michael; Elaksher, Ahmed

    2014-11-01

    Vertical vegetation structure in rangeland ecosystems can be a valuable indicator for assessing rangeland health and monitoring riparian areas, post-fire recovery, available forage for livestock, and wildlife habitat. Federal land management agencies are directed to monitor and manage rangelands at landscapes scales, but traditional field methods for measuring vegetation heights are often too costly and time consuming to apply at these broad scales. Most emerging remote sensing techniques capable of measuring surface and vegetation height (e.g., LiDAR or synthetic aperture radar) are often too expensive, and require specialized sensors. An alternative remote sensing approach that is potentially more practical for managers is to measure vegetation heights from digital stereo aerial photographs. As aerial photography is already commonly used for rangeland monitoring, acquiring it in stereo enables three-dimensional modeling and estimation of vegetation height. The purpose of this study was to test the feasibility and accuracy of estimating shrub heights from high-resolution (HR, 3-cm ground sampling distance) digital stereo-pair aerial images. Overlapping HR imagery was taken in March 2009 near Lake Mead, Nevada and 5-cm resolution digital surface models (DSMs) were created by photogrammetric methods (aerial triangulation, digital image matching) for twenty-six test plots. We compared the heights of individual shrubs and plot averages derived from the DSMs to field measurements. We found strong positive correlations between field and image measurements for several metrics. Individual shrub heights tended to be underestimated in the imagery, however, accuracy was higher for dense, compact shrubs compared with shrubs with thin branches. Plot averages of shrub height from DSMs were also strongly correlated to field measurements but consistently underestimated. Grasses and forbs were generally too small to be detected with the resolution of the DSMs. Estimates of

  11. Integration Technique of Multi-source Information Dominated by Aerial Radiometric Measure-ment and Its Application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘德长; 孙茂荣; 朱德龄; 张静波; 何建国

    1994-01-01

    This paper aims at exploring a digital image integration technique for multi-geoscience in formation dominated by airborne gamma-ray data, especially deeply discussing the method to secondly develop those aerial data by combining digital image processing system with the colored mapping system. Utilizing this technique , we have analyzed the geologic environment of uranium mineralization of Lianshanguan area > Liaoning Province, provided some important background information for further seeking of minerals. Meanwhile , experimental studies have been made to predict uranium mineralization , and evident results aquired. Practise shows that this new technique offers prospecting significance for mineral seeking and great practical value in survey of uranium resources.

  12. Effects of aerial applications of esfenvalerate on small mammals and birds in Douglas-fir seed orchards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blus, L.J.; Henny, C.J.; Rice, C.P.; Grove, R.A.

    1992-01-01

    Although no adverse effects were documented, this study did not provide data sufficient to adequately test for effects of aerial spraying of esfenvalerate on small mammal populations or nesting of birds in Douglas-fir seed orchards. Small mammal trapping data were too sparse to provide statistical testing with reasonable power. Residues of the R and S forms of fenvalerate were low with maxima of 0.56 and 1.72 ?g/g, respectively in pelage of a deer mouse. No diagnostic residue data are available to interpret our results.

  13. Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Integration into the NAS Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Technological innovations have enabled a wide range of aerial vehicles that can be remotely operated. Viable applications include military missions, law enforcement,...

  14. Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Integration into the NAS Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Technological innovations have enabled a wide range of aerial vehicles that can be remotely operated. Viable applications include military missions, law...

  15. On ADSSeries Digital Aerial Photographic Camera Features and Its Application in Aerial Photogrammetry%浅谈 ADS 系列数字航摄仪的特点及其在航空摄影测量中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜秀新

    2013-01-01

    Introduced the ADS series principles and characteristics of digital aerial photography instrument in topographic map getting ready for work and application of aerial ADS series aerial aerial Photogrammetry process ADS to subvert traditional instrument box aeri -al photograph features ., eliminating the processes such as washing , scanning and number crunching .ADS means Photogrammetry of the field from the application of processes , software,technologies, processes, equipment, methods, specification of major changes .%介绍了ADS系列数字航摄仪的原理及特点在地形图航摄前的准备工作和应用ADS系列航摄仪进行航空摄影测量的过程ADS颠覆了传统航摄仪框幅的特点,省去了冲洗、扫描及打号等工序。 ADS的应用意味着摄影测量领域从工序、技术、流程、软件、装备、方法、规范的重大变革。

  16. Vision-Based Corrosion Detection Assisted by a Micro-Aerial Vehicle in a Vessel Inspection Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Alberto; Bonnin-Pascual, Francisco; Garcia-Fidalgo, Emilio; Company-Corcoles, Joan P

    2016-12-14

    Vessel maintenance requires periodic visual inspection of the hull in order to detect typical defective situations of steel structures such as, among others, coating breakdown and corrosion. These inspections are typically performed by well-trained surveyors at great cost because of the need for providing access means (e.g., scaffolding and/or cherry pickers) that allow the inspector to be at arm's reach from the structure under inspection. This paper describes a defect detection approach comprising a micro-aerial vehicle which is used to collect images from the surfaces under inspection, particularly focusing on remote areas where the surveyor has no visual access, and a coating breakdown/corrosion detector based on a three-layer feed-forward artificial neural network. As it is discussed in the paper, the success of the inspection process depends not only on the defect detection software but also on a number of assistance functions provided by the control architecture of the aerial platform, whose aim is to improve picture quality. Both aspects of the work are described along the different sections of the paper, as well as the classification performance attained.

  17. Joint Terrestrial and Aerial Measurements to Study Ground Deformation: Application to the Sciara Del Fuoco at the Stromboli Volcano (Sicily

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Bonforte

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The 2002–2003 Stromboli eruption triggered the failure of part of the Sciara del Fuoco slope, which generated a tsunami that struck the island and the northern coastline of Sicily. The Sciara del Fuoco is a very steep slope where all lava flows from the craters’ emplacement; most lateral eruptions usually take place from fissures propagating in this sector of the volcano. The eruption went on to produce a lava field that filled the area affected by the landslide. This in turn led to further instability, renewing the threat of another slope failure and a potentially related tsunami. This work describes a new joint approach, combining surveying data and aerial image correlometry methods, to study the motion of this unstable slope. The combination has the advantage of very precise surveying measurements, which can be considered the ground truth to constrain the very-high-resolution aerial photogrammetric data, thereby obtaining highly detailed and accurate ground deformation maps. The joint use of the two methods can be very useful to obtain a more complete image of the deformation field for monitoring dangerous and/or rather inaccessible places. The proposed combined methodology improves our ability to study and assess hazardous processes associated with significant ground deformation.

  18. Vision-Based Corrosion Detection Assisted by a Micro-Aerial Vehicle in a Vessel Inspection Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Ortiz

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Vessel maintenance requires periodic visual inspection of the hull in order to detect typical defective situations of steel structures such as, among others, coating breakdown and corrosion. These inspections are typically performed by well-trained surveyors at great cost because of the need for providing access means (e.g., scaffolding and/or cherry pickers that allow the inspector to be at arm’s reach from the structure under inspection. This paper describes a defect detection approach comprising a micro-aerial vehicle which is used to collect images from the surfaces under inspection, particularly focusing on remote areas where the surveyor has no visual access, and a coating breakdown/corrosion detector based on a three-layer feed-forward artificial neural network. As it is discussed in the paper, the success of the inspection process depends not only on the defect detection software but also on a number of assistance functions provided by the control architecture of the aerial platform, whose aim is to improve picture quality. Both aspects of the work are described along the different sections of the paper, as well as the classification performance attained.

  19. DESIGN AND DEVELOPMENT OF A LOW–COST AERIAL MOBILE MAPPING SYSTEM FOR MULTI-PURPOSE APPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Acevedo Pardo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The research project with the working title "Design and development of a low-cost modular Aerial Mobile Mapping System" was formed during the last year as the result from numerous discussions and considerations with colleagues from the HafenCity University Hamburg, Department Geomatics. The aim of the project is to design a sensor platform which can be embedded preferentially on an UAV, but also can be integrated on any adaptable vehicle. The system should perform a direct scanning of surfaces with a laser scanner and supported through sensors for determining the position and attitude of the platform. The modular design allows his extension with other sensors such as multispectral cameras, digital cameras or multiple cameras systems.

  20. Aerial Robotics: a Bird's-Eye View

    OpenAIRE

    MORIN, Pascal; Bidaud, P.

    2014-01-01

    International audience; A fter manufacturing, ground transportation and medicine, robotics has now made an incursion in the field of aerial applications. Several domains, such as mapping, shooting, monitoring of indoor and outdoor 3D environments, agriculture and traffic monitoring, surveillance of sensitive areas, structure inspection, handling and carrying of heavy loads, and physical interventions now seek to exploit what are commonly called "drones". While these unmanned aerial vehicles (...

  1. Application and Progress on Low-altitude Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Remote Sensing%低空无人机遥感的应用及发展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高奋生

    2014-01-01

    Using the advanced unmanned aerial vehicle technology, remote sensing sensor technology, communications technology, GPS differential positioning technology and remote sensing application technology, UAV remote sensing automation realized intelligent, dedicated and rapid access to get space remote sensing information and complete the processing, modeling and application analysis of remote sensing data. In recent years, the Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) has been widely used in geological environment and disaster investigation, dynamic monitoring of land use, map updating and other fields. This paper analyzed the composition of UAV remote sensing systems and summarized the current problems of UAV remote sensing study, presenting the prospects of UAV remote sensing research focus and priorities in the future.%无人机遥感即是利用先进的无人驾驶飞行器技术、遥感传感器技术、通讯技术、GPS差分定位技术和遥感应用技术,实现自动化、智能化、专用化快速获取空间遥感信息,完成遥感数据处理、建模和应用分析的应用技术。近年来,无人机遥感系统已被广泛应用在地质环境与灾害调查、土地利用动态监测、地形图更新等领域。本文分析了无人机遥感系统的组成,归纳了目前无人机遥感研究存在的问题,展望了今后无人机遥感研究的热点和重点。

  2. Groupwise registration of aerial images

    OpenAIRE

    Arandjelovic, Ognjen; Pham, Duc-Son; Venkatesh, Svetha

    2015-01-01

    This paper addresses the task of time separated aerial image registration. The ability to solve this problem accurately and reliably is important for a variety of subsequent image understanding applications. The principal challenge lies in the extent and nature of transient appearance variation that a land area can undergo, such as that caused by the change in illumination conditions, seasonal variations, or the occlusion by non-persistent objects (people, cars). Our work introduces several n...

  3. Aerial Refueling Clearance Initiation Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-14

    8. Material Tiiie 6. E-mail Address derek.feiwerda@uavy.mil Aerial Refueling Clearance Initiation Request 9. List all contributing organizations...and obtain Public Retease Authorization from the commnnd(s) contributing to this material. I have reviewed all the applicable security classification...AUTHOR(S) Hewitt, Keith; Graham, Jessica; Swiderek, Thomas; Kalt, Dexter; ARSAG Working Group 5 Participants 5d. PROJECT NUMBER N/A 5e. TASK NUMBER N

  4. Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) Dynamic-Tracking Directional Wireless Antennas for Low Powered Applications that Require Reliable Extended Range Operations in Time Critical Scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott G. Bauer; Matthew O. Anderson; James R. Hanneman

    2005-10-01

    The proven value of DOD Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) will ultimately transition to National and Homeland Security missions that require real-time aerial surveillance, situation awareness, force protection, and sensor placement. Public services first responders who routinely risk personal safety to assess and report a situation for emergency actions will likely be the first to benefit from these new unmanned technologies. ‘Packable’ or ‘Portable’ small class UAVs will be particularly useful to the first responder. They require the least amount of training, no fixed infrastructure, and are capable of being launched and recovered from the point of emergency. All UAVs require wireless communication technologies for real- time applications. Typically on a small UAV, a low bandwidth telemetry link is required for command and control (C2), and systems health monitoring. If the UAV is equipped with a real-time Electro-Optical or Infrared (EO/Ir) video camera payload, a dedicated high bandwidth analog/digital link is usually required for reliable high-resolution imagery. In most cases, both the wireless telemetry and real-time video links will be integrated into the UAV with unity gain omni-directional antennas. With limited on-board power and payload capacity, a small UAV will be limited with the amount of radio-frequency (RF) energy it transmits to the users. Therefore, ‘packable’ and ‘portable’ UAVs will have limited useful operational ranges for first responders. This paper will discuss the limitations of small UAV wireless communications. The discussion will present an approach of utilizing a dynamic ground based real-time tracking high gain directional antenna to provide extend range stand-off operation, potential RF channel reuse, and assured telemetry and data communications from low-powered UAV deployed wireless assets.

  5. A Space-Time Network-Based Modeling Framework for Dynamic Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Routing in Traffic Incident Monitoring Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jisheng; Jia, Limin; Niu, Shuyun; Zhang, Fan; Tong, Lu; Zhou, Xuesong

    2015-06-12

    It is essential for transportation management centers to equip and manage a network of fixed and mobile sensors in order to quickly detect traffic incidents and further monitor the related impact areas, especially for high-impact accidents with dramatic traffic congestion propagation. As emerging small Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) start to have a more flexible regulation environment, it is critically important to fully explore the potential for of using UAVs for monitoring recurring and non-recurring traffic conditions and special events on transportation networks. This paper presents a space-time network- based modeling framework for integrated fixed and mobile sensor networks, in order to provide a rapid and systematic road traffic monitoring mechanism. By constructing a discretized space-time network to characterize not only the speed for UAVs but also the time-sensitive impact areas of traffic congestion, we formulate the problem as a linear integer programming model to minimize the detection delay cost and operational cost, subject to feasible flying route constraints. A Lagrangian relaxation solution framework is developed to decompose the original complex problem into a series of computationally efficient time-dependent and least cost path finding sub-problems. Several examples are used to demonstrate the results of proposed models in UAVs' route planning for small and medium-scale networks.

  6. A Space-Time Network-Based Modeling Framework for Dynamic Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Routing in Traffic Incident Monitoring Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jisheng Zhang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available It is essential for transportation management centers to equip and manage a network of fixed and mobile sensors in order to quickly detect traffic incidents and further monitor the related impact areas, especially for high-impact accidents with dramatic traffic congestion propagation. As emerging small Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs start to have a more flexible regulation environment, it is critically important to fully explore the potential for of using UAVs for monitoring recurring and non-recurring traffic conditions and special events on transportation networks. This paper presents a space-time network- based modeling framework for integrated fixed and mobile sensor networks, in order to provide a rapid and systematic road traffic monitoring mechanism. By constructing a discretized space-time network to characterize not only the speed for UAVs but also the time-sensitive impact areas of traffic congestion, we formulate the problem as a linear integer programming model to minimize the detection delay cost and operational cost, subject to feasible flying route constraints. A Lagrangian relaxation solution framework is developed to decompose the original complex problem into a series of computationally efficient time-dependent and least cost path finding sub-problems. Several examples are used to demonstrate the results of proposed models in UAVs’ route planning for small and medium-scale networks.

  7. A Space-Time Network-Based Modeling Framework for Dynamic Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Routing in Traffic Incident Monitoring Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jisheng; Jia, Limin; Niu, Shuyun; Zhang, Fan; Tong, Lu; Zhou, Xuesong

    2015-01-01

    It is essential for transportation management centers to equip and manage a network of fixed and mobile sensors in order to quickly detect traffic incidents and further monitor the related impact areas, especially for high-impact accidents with dramatic traffic congestion propagation. As emerging small Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) start to have a more flexible regulation environment, it is critically important to fully explore the potential for of using UAVs for monitoring recurring and non-recurring traffic conditions and special events on transportation networks. This paper presents a space-time network- based modeling framework for integrated fixed and mobile sensor networks, in order to provide a rapid and systematic road traffic monitoring mechanism. By constructing a discretized space-time network to characterize not only the speed for UAVs but also the time-sensitive impact areas of traffic congestion, we formulate the problem as a linear integer programming model to minimize the detection delay cost and operational cost, subject to feasible flying route constraints. A Lagrangian relaxation solution framework is developed to decompose the original complex problem into a series of computationally efficient time-dependent and least cost path finding sub-problems. Several examples are used to demonstrate the results of proposed models in UAVs’ route planning for small and medium-scale networks. PMID:26076404

  8. High-Throughput Phenotyping of Sorghum Plant Height Using an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle and Its Application to Genomic Prediction Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Kakeru; Guo, Wei; Arai, Keigo; Takanashi, Hideki; Kajiya-Kanegae, Hiromi; Kobayashi, Masaaki; Yano, Kentaro; Tokunaga, Tsuyoshi; Fujiwara, Toru; Tsutsumi, Nobuhiro; Iwata, Hiroyoshi

    2017-01-01

    Genomics-assisted breeding methods have been rapidly developed with novel technologies such as next-generation sequencing, genomic selection and genome-wide association study. However, phenotyping is still time consuming and is a serious bottleneck in genomics-assisted breeding. In this study, we established a high-throughput phenotyping system for sorghum plant height and its response to nitrogen availability; this system relies on the use of unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) remote sensing with either an RGB or near-infrared, green and blue (NIR-GB) camera. We evaluated the potential of remote sensing to provide phenotype training data in a genomic prediction model. UAV remote sensing with the NIR-GB camera and the 50th percentile of digital surface model, which is an indicator of height, performed well. The correlation coefficient between plant height measured by UAV remote sensing (PHUAV) and plant height measured with a ruler (PHR) was 0.523. Because PHUAV was overestimated (probably because of the presence of taller plants on adjacent plots), the correlation coefficient between PHUAV and PHR was increased to 0.678 by using one of the two replications (that with the lower PHUAV value). Genomic prediction modeling performed well under the low-fertilization condition, probably because PHUAV overestimation was smaller under this condition due to a lower plant height. The predicted values of PHUAV and PHR were highly correlated with each other (r = 0.842). This result suggests that the genomic prediction models generated with PHUAV were almost identical and that the performance of UAV remote sensing was similar to that of traditional measurements in genomic prediction modeling. UAV remote sensing has a high potential to increase the throughput of phenotyping and decrease its cost. UAV remote sensing will be an important and indispensable tool for high-throughput genomics-assisted plant breeding.

  9. Middleware requirements for collaborative unmanned aerial vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohamed, Nader; Al-Jaroodi, Jameela; Jawhar, Imad

    2013-01-01

    With the recent advances in the aircraft technologies, software, sensors, and communications; unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) can offer a wide range of applications. Some of these applications may involve multiple UAVs that cooperate and collaborate to achieve a common goal. This kind...

  10. Development of an unmanned aerial vehicle-based spray system for highly accurate site-specific application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Application of crop production and protection materials is a crucial component in the high productivity of American agriculture. Agricultural chemical application is frequently needed at a specific time and location for accurate site-specific management of crop pests. Piloted aircrafts that carry ...

  11. Applications of unmanned aerial vehicle images on agricultural remote sensing monitoring%基于无人机影像的农情遥感监测应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王利民; 刘佳; 杨玲波; 陈仲新; 王小龙; 欧阳斌

    2013-01-01

    the mean square error of the X axis direction is 1.59 m, the Y direction is 1.8965 m, and the mean square error of the overall plane is 2.32 m. The above figures conform to the 1:10 000 ground plane precision requirements specified in the‘Standard for Aerotriangulation of Digital Aerophotogrammetry’ and can meet the positioning precision requirements of a crop area survey in remote sensing monitoring. After obtaining the ortho-photo map, the four ground objects in the area evaluation areas of spring corn, summer corn, alfalfa, and bare soil were classified by employing two methods of supervised classification and object-oriented classification. By taking the differential GPS survey results as the evaluation criteria, the overall precisions of the four crops reached 88.2% (supervised classification) and 92.0% (object-oriented classification) respectively. The separate classification precisions of the two classification methods of the four ground objects were 88.9%, 86.7%, 93.0%, 86.6%, and 90.35%, as well as 90.35%, 92.61%, 94.93%, and 93.30%respectively. The result showed that remote sensing images of unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV), by acquiring small scale and quadrat sampled crop images, have a prospect of wide application. After promotion, it can meet the demands of nationwide crop ground sampling on high spatial resolution images, and can partially replace the operation model of GPS measurement.%该文以中国农业科学院(万庄)农业高新技术产业园及周边地区4.2×3.1 km的范围为研究区域,利用无人机搭载RICOH GXR A12型相机进行了航拍试验,主要测试了定位定向系统(positioning and orientation system, POS)数据辅助下光束法区域网平差方法平面定位及面积测量精度,以及无人机影像的作物面积识别精度。结果表明,在无控制点约束条件下,直接采用POS数据进行光束法区域网平差后,以中误差表示的平面定位精度为X轴方向(

  12. Environmental Assessment - Proposed Application of Aerially Applied Ultra Low Volume Naled for the Control of Adult Mosquitoes within the Big Branch Marsh National Wildlife Refuge in Lacombe, Louisiana

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document assesses the effects that aerially applied ultra low volume Naled would have on adult mosquito populations. It also offers alternatives.

  13. Aerial Photography and Imagery, Oblique, Digital photos taken of PA's Delaware River shoreline, Little Tinicum Island, and tidal Schuylkill River at an oblique angle at about 1,500-2,000' altitude., Published in 2016, Not Applicable scale, Pennsylvania Coastal Resources Management Program.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Aerial Photography and Imagery, Oblique dataset, published at Not Applicable scale, was produced all or in part from Uncorrected Imagery information as of 2016....

  14. 无人机在电力线路巡视中的应用%Application of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle in Inspecting Transmission Lines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汤明文; 戴礼豪; 林朝辉; 王芳东; 宋福根

    2013-01-01

    With the rapid development of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV), the UAV has made important breakthroughs in remote control, cruising time and flying quality, which provides a very good prospect for UAV' s application in transmission line maintenance. The UAV' s application in inspecting power transmission lines was discussed in detail in this paper in terms of the model selection principle, the patrol mode, the application features of the unmanned helicopter and the fixed-wing UAVs, the flight type and the relay model of the communication link system.%随着无人机技术的飞速发展,无人机在远程遥控、续航时间、飞行品质上有了明显的突破,从而为其在电力作业中的应用提供了良好的发展前景.探讨了无人机在电力线路巡视中的选型原则、巡检模式,概括了电力线路巡检作业中无人直升机和固定翼机应用特点,同时对无人机飞行方式、通信链路系统中继模式、无人机巡检模式进行了深入探讨.对无人机巡检模式的讨论侧重各种不同巡检模式的应用特点及应用特性分析,为不同情况下无人机巡检中继方式的选择提供指导.

  15. Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Instrumentation for Rapid Aerial Photo System

    CERN Document Server

    Adiprawita, Widyawardana; Semibiring, Jaka

    2008-01-01

    This research will proposed a new kind of relatively low cost autonomous UAV that will enable farmers to make just in time mosaics of aerial photo of their crop. These mosaics of aerial photo should be able to be produced with relatively low cost and within the 24 hours of acquisition constraint. The autonomous UAV will be equipped with payload management system specifically developed for rapid aerial mapping. As mentioned before turn around time is the key factor, so accuracy is not the main focus (not orthorectified aerial mapping). This system will also be equipped with special software to post process the aerial photos to produce the mosaic aerial photo map

  16. Off-the-Wall Project Brings Aerial Mapping down to Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidhazy, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    The technology of aerial photography, photogrametry, has widespread applications in mapping and aerial surveying. A multi-billion-dollar industry, aerial surveying and mapping is "big business" in both civilian and military sectors. While the industry has grown increasingly automated, employment opportunities still exist for people with a basic…

  17. Fast Aerial Video Stitching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Li

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The highly efficient and robust stitching of aerial video captured by unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs is a challenging problem in the field of robot vision. Existing commercial image stitching systems have seen success with offline stitching tasks, but they cannot guarantee high-speed performance when dealing with online aerial video sequences.In this paper, we present a novel system which has an unique ability to stitch high-frame rate aerial video at a speed of 150 frames per second (FPS. In addition, rather than using a high-speed vision platform such as FPGA or CUDA, our system is running on a normal personal computer. To achieve this, after the careful comparison of the existing invariant features, we choose the FAST corner and binary descriptor for efficient feature extraction and representation, and present a spatial and temporal coherent filter to fuse the UAV motion information into the feature matching. The proposed filter can remove the majority of feature correspondence outliers and significantly increase the speed of robust feature matching by up to 20 times. To achieve a balance between robustness and efficiency, a dynamic key frame-based stitching framework is used to reduce the accumulation errors.Extensive experiments on challenging UAV datasets demonstrate that our approach can break through the speed limitation and generate an accurate stitching image for aerial video stitching tasks.

  18. 航空武器装备生产与使用最佳费用评估%Optimal Cost Evaluation of the Production and Application of Aerial Weaponry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    华玉光; 孙金标; 徐浩军

    2011-01-01

    航空武器装备生产与使用是全寿命周期中最重要的组成部分,这部分的最优费用研究和分析对航空武器装备发展规划和国家国防预算决策具有很重要的意义.通过对局部和总体评估指标的分析,提出了航空武器装备生产阶段、使用阶段和保障阶段的费用评估准则,最后提出了能够获得生产和使用最佳费用的措施.%The production and application of aerial weaponry are the most important component of all life cycle. The research and analysis on the optimal cost in these two phases has a very important significance for the development plan of aerial weaponry and the national defense budget polices. The cost evaluation criterion of the production and application of aerial weaponry are given, and some measures are proposed to achieve the optimal cost.

  19. Aerial Delivery Systems and Technologies (Review Paper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balraj Gupta

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Aerial Delivery Research & Development Establishment (ADRDE was started at Kanpur during latter part of 1950's consisting of two Aerial Delivery Sections primarily for the indigenisation of Parachutes and related equipment for Para-dropping of men and materials. Today, the charter of ADRDE includes design & development of parachutes, Aerostat Systems, Aircraft Arrester Barrier Systems and Heavy-Drop Systems for both military and civilian applications. The technological competence built in Aeronautical, Textile, Mechanical and Electronics engineering has imparted ADRDE, a unique combination of know-how and capabilities to evolve new solutions in these fields, with emphasis on quality assurance. This paper highlights the design and development of technologies developed by ADRDE to stengthen the India's aerial delivery system and its future plans.Defence Science Journal, 2010, 60(2, pp.124-136, DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.60.326

  20. The Application Of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV)Photogrammetry in Land Reclamation Measurement%无人机航空摄影测量在土地复垦测量中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘福春; 朱微

    2015-01-01

    介绍了无人机在土地复垦测量中的应用,通过成本、效率、测绘产品多样性几个方面比较,证实了无人机航空摄影测量比传统的数字化测图在土地复垦中应用更为先进.%Introduces the application of Unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV)in land reclamation measurement,through cost, efficiency,several aspects of surveying and mapping product diversity comparison,confirmed the UAV photogrammetry than traditional digital mapping application more advanced in land reclamation.

  1. Unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) system in the application and development of forest fire prevention%无人机系统在森林防火方面的应用及其发展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李滨; 王宏宇; 杨笑天

    2015-01-01

    根据我国林业环境的特点,对在森林防火中无人机系统的优势做出简要概述。阐述了无人机系统的组成部分。国内外无人机在各个领域的应用和现状。国内针对森林防火无人机系统的研发起步较晚,与发达国家有一定差距。但随着无人机系统的快速发展,未来我国无人机系统会对林业经济发展做出巨大贡献。%According to the characteristics of forestry environment in China, the advantage of the unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) in forest fire prevention system to make a brief overview. Part of the UAV system is expounded. Unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) at home and abroad in various fields of application and the status quo. For domestic research and development of forest fire prevention UAV system starts relatively late, have a certain gap with the developed countries. But with the rapid development of the UAV system, the future of our country unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) system will be made great contributions to the forestry economic development.

  2. Persistent Aerial Tracking

    KAUST Repository

    Mueller, Matthias

    2016-04-13

    In this thesis, we propose a new aerial video dataset and benchmark for low altitude UAV target tracking, as well as, a photo-realistic UAV simulator that can be coupled with tracking methods. Our benchmark provides the rst evaluation of many state of-the-art and popular trackers on 123 new and fully annotated HD video sequences captured from a low-altitude aerial perspective. Among the compared trackers, we determine which ones are the most suitable for UAV tracking both in terms of tracking accuracy and run-time. We also present a simulator that can be used to evaluate tracking algorithms in real-time scenarios before they are deployed on a UAV "in the field", as well as, generate synthetic but photo-realistic tracking datasets with free ground truth annotations to easily extend existing real-world datasets. Both the benchmark and simulator will be made publicly available to the vision community to further research in the area of object tracking from UAVs. Additionally, we propose a persistent, robust and autonomous object tracking system for unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) called Persistent Aerial Tracking (PAT). A computer vision and control strategy is applied to a diverse set of moving objects (e.g. humans, animals, cars, boats, etc.) integrating multiple UAVs with a stabilized RGB camera. A novel strategy is employed to successfully track objects over a long period, by \\'handing over the camera\\' from one UAV to another. We integrate the complete system into an off-the-shelf UAV, and obtain promising results showing the robustness of our solution in real-world aerial scenarios.

  3. 无人机航摄在城市规划建设中的应用%Unmanned aerial Vehicle Survey Application in Urban Planning and Construction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张涛

    2014-01-01

    无人机航拍摄影是新兴的航空遥感技术,本文主要从其优于传统航空摄影测量的特点说明使用无人机进行城市规划建设,在实践中取得的明显成效和经验。以无人机平台的微型航空遥感技术,为中小城市特别是镇、县、乡等地区经济和文化建设提供了有效的遥感技术服务手段,适应国家经济和文化建设发展的需要。%The UAV aerial photography aerial remote sensing technology is emerging,this paper mainly from the superior to the traditional aerial photogram metric characteristic description of the use of drones to city planning and construction,and achieved remarkable results and experience in practice.A miniature aerial remote sensing technique of UAV platform for small and medium-sized city,especially the remote sensing technology provides an effective means of service economy and culture town,county,township and other areas,to meet the needs of national economic and cultural development.

  4. Aerial infrared surveys in the investigation of geothermal and volcanic heat sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    1995-01-01

    This factsheet briefly summarizes and clarifies the application of aerial infrared surveys in geophysical exploration for geothermal energy sources and environmental monitoring for potential volcanic hazards.

  5. Primjena bespilotnih letjelica u geodeziji na primjeru aerofotogrametrijskog sistema SenseFly eBee : Application of unmanned aerial vehicles in geodesy on the example of aerial photogrammetric system SenseFly eBee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amel Žilić

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available U posljednjih nekoliko godina razvija se potpuno nova metoda snimanja Zemljine površine u svrhu premjera zemljišta i objekata. Koristeći bespilotne letjelice, omogućeno je snimanje većih površina u vrlo kratkom vremenskom roku s visokom tačnošću. Iako još uvijek postoje mnogobrojne nejasnoće, neminovno je da ova metoda predstavlja budućnost u geodeziji i njenim oblastima. U ovom radu opisana je metoda snimanja bespilotnom letjelicom SenseFly eBee i način dobivanja oblaka tačaka, digitalnog modela reljefa i digitalnog ortofoto plana. Implementiranjem standarda NSSDA za ocjenu prostornih podataka zaključeno je da tačnost rezultata zavisi od rezolucije snimanja, konfiguracije terena i vremenskih uslova. : During the last few years a completely new method for land and object surveying was devloped. Using unmanned aerial vehicle, it is possible to survey a large areas in very short period of time with high accuraccy. Although there are still many uncertainties, it is inevitable that this method represents the future in geodesy and its areas. This paper defines a method for land surveying using SenseFly eBee drone and proccess of creating point cloud, digital model of relief and digital ortofoto map. Using NSSDA standard for spatial data accuraccy on drone products, it was concluded that accuraccy of given results depends on the ground resolution, terrain relief and weather conditions.

  6. CERN: an aerial view

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    On 30th January, when CERN still resembled a winter wonderland, a helicopter with a photographer on board took off on an aerial tour. One sunny morning at the end of January, when the area was waking up to an overnight snowfall, a helicopter took off from the Meyrin site with a CERN photographer on board. CERN has been the subject of aerial photographs ever since its creation. Although its appearance has changed over the years, the Laboratory has aged well. The aerial photographs taken during its fifty-year history bear witness to its expansion, showing how a handful of buildings and a first accelerator have blossomed into an entire machine complex. Let's take to the skies and have a look at some of the photos taken on this crisp January morning: a sight for sore eyes! In the foreground, Building 40 on the Meyrin site is recognisable from its magnet shape.On the right of the Route de Meyrin (crossing the photo diagonally), next to Point 1, the work on the Globe of Innovation, which got underway at the beg...

  7. Bespilotne letjelice : Unmanned aerial vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlado Jurić

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Bespilotne letjelice imaju širok spektar uporabe, i svrha im svakim danom sve više dobiva na značaju. Konstrukcija im se poboljšava, pronalaze se materijali koji su optimalniji za obavljanje funkcija s kojima se trebaju suočiti. Pravna regulativa za bespilotne letjelice do 150 kg težine na polijetanju (MTOW se razlikuje od države do države. : Unmanned aerial vehicles have a wide range of applications, and their purpose is every day more important. Construction has been improving, finding the materials that are optimal for carrying out the functions which need to be cope with. Legal regulations for unmanned aircrafts up to 150 kg take-off weight (MTOW varies from country to country.

  8. Handbook of unmanned aerial vehicles

    CERN Document Server

    Vachtsevanos, George

    2015-01-01

    The Handbook of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles is a reference text for the academic and research communities, industry, manufacturers, users, practitioners, Federal Government, Federal and State Agencies, the private sector, as well as all organizations that are and will be using unmanned aircraft in a wide spectrum of applications. The Handbook covers all aspects of UAVs, from design to logistics and ethical issues. It is also targeting the young investigator, the future inventor and entrepreneur by providing an overview and detailed information of the state-of-the-art as well as useful new concepts that may lead to innovative research. The contents of the Handbook include material that addresses the needs and ‘know how’ of all of the above sectors targeting a very diverse audience. The Handbook offers a unique and comprehensive treatise of everything one needs to know about unmanned aircrafts, from conception to operation, from technologies to business activities, users, OEMs, reference sources, conferences, ...

  9. MEMS Based Micro Aerial Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Niranjan; Köhler, Elof; Enoksson, Peter

    2016-10-01

    Designing a flapping wing insect robot requires understanding of insect flight mechanisms, wing kinematics and aerodynamic forces. These subsystems are interconnected and their dependence on one another affects the overall performance. Additionally it requires an artificial muscle like actuator and transmission to power the wings. Several kinds of actuators and mechanisms are candidates for this application with their own strengths and weaknesses. This article provides an overview of the insect scaled flight mechanism along with discussion of various methods to achieve the Micro Aerial Vehicle (MAV) flight. Ongoing projects in Chalmers is aimed at developing a low cost and low manufacturing time MAV. The MAV design considerations and design specifications are mentioned. The wings are manufactured using 3D printed carbon fiber and are under experimental study.

  10. Application of Technical Measures and Software in Constructing Photorealistic 3D Models of Historical Building Using Ground-Based and Aerial (UAV Digital Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zarnowski Aleksander

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Preparing digital documentation of historical buildings is a form of protecting cultural heritage. Recently there have been several intensive studies using non-metric digital images to construct realistic 3D models of historical buildings. Increasingly often, non-metric digital images are obtained with unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV. Technologies and methods of UAV flights are quite different from traditional photogrammetric approaches. The lack of technical guidelines for using drones inhibits the process of implementing new methods of data acquisition.

  11. Application of Technical Measures and Software in Constructing Photorealistic 3D Models of Historical Building Using Ground-Based and Aerial (UAV) Digital Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarnowski, Aleksander; Banaszek, Anna; Banaszek, Sebastian

    2015-12-01

    Preparing digital documentation of historical buildings is a form of protecting cultural heritage. Recently there have been several intensive studies using non-metric digital images to construct realistic 3D models of historical buildings. Increasingly often, non-metric digital images are obtained with unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV). Technologies and methods of UAV flights are quite different from traditional photogrammetric approaches. The lack of technical guidelines for using drones inhibits the process of implementing new methods of data acquisition. This paper presents the results of experiments in the use of digital images in the construction of photo-realistic 3D model of a historical building (Raphaelsohns' Sawmill in Olsztyn). The aim of the study at the first stage was to determine the meteorological and technical conditions for the acquisition of aerial and ground-based photographs. At the next stage, the technology of 3D modelling was developed using only ground-based or only aerial non-metric digital images. At the last stage of the study, an experiment was conducted to assess the possibility of 3D modelling with the comprehensive use of aerial (UAV) and ground-based digital photographs in terms of their labour intensity and precision of development. Data integration and automatic photo-realistic 3D construction of the models was done with Pix4Dmapper and Agisoft PhotoScan software Analyses have shown that when certain parameters established in an experiment are kept, the process of developing the stock-taking documentation for a historical building moves from the standards of analogue to digital technology with considerably reduced cost.

  12. Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Systems for Disaster Relief: Tornado Alley

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBusk, Wesley M.

    2009-01-01

    Unmanned aerial vehicle systems are currently in limited use for public service missions worldwide. Development of civil unmanned technology in the United States currently lags behind military unmanned technology development in part because of unresolved regulatory and technological issues. Civil unmanned aerial vehicle systems have potential to augment disaster relief and emergency response efforts. Optimal design of aerial systems for such applications will lead to unmanned vehicles which provide maximum potentiality for relief and emergency response while accounting for public safety concerns and regulatory requirements. A case study is presented that demonstrates application of a civil unmanned system to a disaster relief mission with the intent on saving lives. The concept utilizes unmanned aircraft to obtain advanced warning and damage assessments for tornados and severe thunderstorms. Overview of a tornado watch mission architecture as well as commentary on risk, cost, need for, and design tradeoffs for unmanned aerial systems are provided.

  13. Automatic geolocation of targets tracked by aerial imaging platforms using satellite imagery

    OpenAIRE

    Shukla, P. K.; Goel, S.; Singh, P.; B. Lohani

    2014-01-01

    Tracking of targets from aerial platforms is an important activity in several applications, especially surveillance. Knowled ge of geolocation of these targets adds additional significant and useful information to the application. This paper determines the geolocation of a target being tracked from an aerial platform using the technique of image registration. Current approaches utilize a POS to determine the location of the aerial platform and then use the same for geolocation of the...

  14. Application of Aerial Survey by Drone in S urveying of 1∶500 Topographic Map of Tingkou Reservoir%无人机航测在亭口水库1∶500地形测量中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    焦旺; 刘凯

    2016-01-01

    In accordance with features of the aerial survey by drone, landmark point and check point in field are arranged.Through the out-door aerial photo by drone and the joint application of software such as Pix4DMapper, CASS and ArcGIS, etc, precision of plane and eleva-tion of the final topographic map satisfies requirementsof 1∶500 topographic map.This provides application of drone in the survey of compli-cated topography of reservoir with the complete solution.%根据无人机航测技术的特点,布设野外地标点和检核点,通过无人机外业航摄及内业中联合使用Pix4DMapper、CASS和ArcGIS等软件,使最终地形图的平面和高程精度达到了1∶500地形图的要求,为无人机在复杂的水库地形测量中的应用提供了一套完整的解决方案。

  15. 小型无人机在输电线路巡视及检修中的应用%Application of Transmission Line Patroling and Maintenance with Smal Unmanned Aerial Vehicle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖重金; 孙双学

    2015-01-01

    in view of the transmission line complex geographical environment,the line work high labor intensity,low efficiency, small unmanned aerial vehicle for its convenient and flexible control performance,gradually in the overhead line patrol and inspection application promotion.This paper introduces the small unmanned aerial vehicle is mainly used in power transmission line inspection scope, through relevant engineering examples of its application status in this paper,and put forward the corresponding training system form.%针对输电线路地理环境复杂,线路高空作业劳动强度大、效率低等问题,小型无人机以其方便灵活的操控性能,在架空线路巡视与检修中得到逐步应用推广.本文介绍了小型无人机在输电线路巡检中的主要应用范围,通过相关工程实例对其应用现状做出了阐述,并针对性提出相应培训体系的构成.

  16. 浅谈航空摄影测量法在1:10000地形图测绘中的应用%A Discussion of the Application of Aerial Photogrammetry in Surveying and Mapping of 1:10 000 Maps

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李津岭; 张鉴; 吴学峰

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce the application of aerial photogrammetry in surveying and mapping of 1:10 000 maps, and dis- cuss three aspects including the development and application of aerial photogrammetry, the methods of obtaining data source in 1:10 000 topographic maps surveying and mapping, and the modem technique and workflow of the aerial photogrammetry.%介绍了航空摄影测量方法在1:10 000地形图测绘生产中的应用,并针对航空摄影测量法的发展应用与目前我国1:10 000地形图测绘数据源获取的方式,以及现代航空摄影测量方法的工艺流程三个方面分别进行了阐述。

  17. Flapping wing micro-aerial-vehicle: Kinematics, membranes, and flapping mechanisms of ornithopter and insect flight

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    The application of biomimetics in the development of unmanned-aerial-vehicles (UAV) has advanced to an exceptionally small scale of nano-aerial-vehicles (NAV), which has surpassed its immediate predecessor of micro-aerial-vehicles (MAV), leaving a vast range of development possibilities that MAVs have to offer. Because of the prompt advancement into the NAV research development, the true potential and challenges presented by MAV development were never solved, understood, and truly uncovered, ...

  18. Aerial Photogrammetry by drone in archaeological sites with large structures. Methodological approach and practical application in the medieval castles of Campo de Montiel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Ángel Ruiz Sabina

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available By writing this article we aim to illustrate the interesting combination of two existing techniques, accessible both for research groups and for professionals who want to study archaeological heritage: photogrammetry and aerial photography using a drone. We have applied these techniques to archaeological sites with standing structures, such as medieval castles in “Campo de Montiel” (Ciudad Real. Based on our expertise and experience, we have developed methodology for surface archaeological research, excavation and wall stratigraphy, thus identifying positive and negative aspects of this ethodology. The results obtained are truly positive, as we generated high-quality images offering news opportunities to investigate and show results, saving a considerable amount of time and money compared to traditional methods for graphical documentation.

  19. Orientation Strategies for Aerial Oblique Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiedemann, A.; Moré, J.

    2012-07-01

    Oblique aerial images become more and more distributed to fill the gap between vertical aerial images and mobile mapping systems. Different systems are on the market. For some applications, like texture mapping, precise orientation data are required. One point is the stable interior orientation, which can be achieved by stable camera systems, the other a precise exterior orientation. A sufficient exterior orientation can be achieved by a large effort in direct sensor orientation, whereas minor errors in the angles have a larger effect than in vertical imagery. The more appropriate approach is by determine the precise orientation parameters by photogrammetric methods using an adapted aerial triangulation. Due to the different points of view towards the object the traditional aerotriangulation matching tools fail, as they produce a bunch of blunders and require a lot of manual work to achieve a sufficient solution. In this paper some approaches are discussed and results are presented for the most promising approaches. We describe a single step approach with an aerotriangulation using all available images; a two step approach with an aerotriangulation only of the vertical images plus a mathematical transformation of the oblique images using the oblique cameras excentricity; and finally the extended functional model for a bundle block adjustment considering the mechanical connection between vertical and oblique images. Beside accuracy also other aspects like efficiency and required manual work have to be considered.

  20. Mapping bare soil in South West Wales, UK, using high resolution colour infra-red aerial photography for water quality and flood risk management applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sykes, Helena; Neale, Simon; Coe, Sarah

    2016-04-01

    Natural Resources Wales is a UK government body responsible for environmental regulation, among other areas. River walks in Water Framework Directive (WFD) priority catchments in South West Wales, UK, identified soil entering water courses due to poaching and bank erosion, leading to deterioration in the water quality and jeopardising the water quality meeting legal minimum standards. Bare soil has also been shown to cause quicker and higher hydrograph peaks in rural catchments than if those areas were vegetated, which can lead to flooding of domestic properties during peak storm flows. The aim was to target farm visits by operational staff to advise on practices likely to improve water quality and to identify areas where soft engineering solutions such as revegetation could alleviate flood risk in rural areas. High resolution colour-infrared aerial photography, 25cm in the three colour bands and 50cm in the near infrared band, was used to map bare soil in seven catchments using supervised classification of a five band stack including the Normalised Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI). Mapping was combined with agricultural land use and field boundary data to filter out arable fields, which are supposed to bare soil for part of their cycle, and was very successful when compared to ground truthing, with the exception of silage fields which contained sparse, no or unproductive vegetation at the time the imagery was acquired leading to spectral similarity to bare soil. A raindrop trace model was used to show the path sediment from bare soil areas would take when moving through the catchment to a watercourse, with hedgerows inserted as barriers following our observations from ground truthing. The findings have been used to help farmers gain funding for improvements such as fencing to keep animals away from vulnerable river banks. These efficient and automated methods can be rolled out to more catchments in Wales and updated using aerial imagery acquired more recently to

  1. The Problem of Mini-Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Non-Segregated Flight Operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tone Magister

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper first illustrates the future civil application opportunitiesfor unmanned aerial vehicles and their unique operationalcapabilities. The expectations of the main stakeholdersare summarized and the main concerns and problem areas ofnon-segregated civil unmanned aerial vehicles flight operationsare identified considering relevant aviation regulatory aspects.The key technologies necessary for a safe unmanned aerial vehiclesoperation are explained. The intention of the paper is tocontribute to finding the optimal approach to the developmentstrategies and safe solution for the integration of today 's and futurecivil unmanned aerial vehicles into the non-segregated airspace.

  2. Aerial measurements in Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winkelmann, I.; Thomas, M.; Buchroeder, H.; Brummer, C. [Federal Office for Radiation Protection, Berlin (Germany); Carloff, G. [German Federal Border Police, Grenzschutz-Fliegergruppe, Sankt Augustin (Germany)

    1997-12-31

    Aerial measurements were performed to determine the {sup 137}Cs soil contamination in a given region to detect unknown radiation sources and to assess their activity. For these measurements a computerized gamma ray spectrometer, equipped with a high purity Ge-semiconductor detector and a 12 l volume Nal(Tl)-detector was used. HPGe-detector measurements from different altitudes over area I were done to test and re-calibrate the aerial measuring system. The known {sup 137}Cs contamination of (50.7 {+-} 5.2) kBq m{sup -2} could be confirmed by the measured value of (57 {+-} 10) kBq m{sup -2}. the Nal(Tl)-detector was re-calibrated at that site for further {sup 137}Cs measurements over area II. The area II was surveyed from an altitude of about 70 m and at a parallel line distance of 150 m at an flying speed of 100 km h{sup -1} to determine the {sup 137}Cs soil contamination. The measuring time was two seconds for the Nal(Tl)-detector. For the spectra measured with the HPGe-detector, a measuring time of 30 s each was chosen. From the Nal(Tl)-measurements, a mean {sup 137}Cs value of (60 {+-} 20) kBq m{sup -2} was determined with a maximum value of 90 kBq m{sup -2}. The corresponding values measured by HPGe-detector were (70 {+-} 20) kBq m{sup -2} and 120 kBq m{sup -2}, respectively. For the evaluation of the HPGe-spectra a depth distribution parameter {alpha}/{rho} = (0.44 {+-} 0.21) cm{sup 2} g{sup -1} for {sup 137}Cs was used measured from soil samples. From data measured with the Nal(Tl)-detector during flights over area III, three{sup 60}Co-sources and one {sup 137}Cs source could be detected, localized and their activity assessed. By HPGe-detector measurements, only scattered {sup 192}lr radiation was registered. (au).

  3. Favourable uranium-phosphate exploration trends guided by the application of statistical factor analysis technique on the aerial gamma spectrometric data in Syrian desert (Area-1), Syria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asfahani, J.; Al-Hent, R.; Aissa, M.

    2016-02-01

    A scored lithological map including 10 radiometric units is established through applying factor analysis approach to aerial spectrometric data of Area-1, Syrian desert, which includes Ur, eU, eTh, K%, eU/eTh, eU/K%, and eTh/K%. A model of four rotated factors F1, F2, F3, and F4 is adapted for representing 234,829 data measured points in Area-1, where 86% of total data variance is interpreted. A geological scored pseudo-section derived from the lithological scored map is established and analyzed in order to show the possible stratigraphic and structural traps for uranium occurrences associated with phosphate deposits in the studied Area-1. These identified traps presented in this paper need detailed investigation and must be necessarily followed and checked by ground validations and subsurface well logging, in order to locate the anomalous uranium occurrences and explore with more confidence and certitude their characteristics as a function of depth.

  4. Favourable uranium–phosphate exploration trends guided by the application of statistical factor analysis technique on the aerial gamma spectrometric data in Syrian desert (Area-1), Syria

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    J Asfahani; R Al-Hent; M Aissa

    2016-02-01

    A scored lithological map including 10 radiometric units is established through applying factor analysis approach to aerial spectrometric data of Area-1, Syrian desert, which includes Ur, eU, eTh, K%, eU/eTh, eU/K%, and eTh/K%. A model of four rotated factors F1, F2, F3, and F4 is adapted for representing 234,829 data measured points in Area-1, where 86% of total data variance is interpreted. A geological scored pseudo-section derived from the lithological scored map is established and analyzed in order to show the possible stratigraphic and structural traps for uranium occurrences associated with phosphate deposits in the studied Area-1. These identified traps presented in this paper need detailed investigation and must be necessarily followed and checked by ground validations and subsurface well logging, in order to locate the anomalous uranium occurrences and explore with more confidence and certitude their characteristics as a function of depth.

  5. A methodology for analysing temporal changes of forest surface using aerial photos for the application of Kyoto protocol: a study case in Northern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvadori I

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available According to art. 3.3 of the Kyoto Protocol, Italy, like other Parties included in Annex I, shall report the net changes in greenhouse gas emissions by sources and removals by sinks resulting from afforestation, reforestation and deforestation activities (ARD. To evaluate these activities, Italy has to elaborate methods to estimate the conversion of non-forested to forested land, occurred after 31 December 1989. The aim of this study was to test a methodology to estimate the ARD activities. The approach was experimented in the Comunità Montana del Grappa (about 10500 ha considered as a pilot area in the Prealpine region (NE Italy. The land-use change relative to the forest area was assessed by multitemporal classification of 1131 sampling points on orthocorrected aerial photos relative to 1991, 1996 and 1999. The forest area based on different definitions (minimum land cover equal to 10%, 20% or 30% and minimum surface equal to 2000 m2 or 5000 m2 was also assessed. Between 1991 and 1999, the total increment of the forest area was equal to 224 ha. However, the estimated increment was strongly related to the minimum surface (2000 m2 vs 5000 m2 of the forest definition. The proposed procedure was relatively easy to implement and highlighted the role of ARD and revegetation to attain the goals appointed from the Kyoto Protocol.

  6. Aplicação aérea e terrestre de fungicida para o controle de doenças do milho Aerial and ground fungicide application to corn for disease control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Paulo Arantes Rodrigues da Cunha

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito da aplicação aérea e terrestre de fungicida no controle de doenças do milho e na deposição de calda sobre a cultura. Realizou-se a semeadura do híbrido AG7010, avaliando-se após a aplicação do fungicida (piraclostrobina + epoxiconazol, no estádio fenológico V8 a V10, a deposição de calda na parte inferior, média e superior do dossel da cultura, a severidade de doenças e a produtividade. A aplicação aérea foi realizada com volumes de calda de 15 e 30 L ha-1, empregando pontas de jato plano, e a aplicação terrestre com 100 L ha-1, empregando pontas de jato plano defletor com indução de ar e pontas de jato plano defletor duplo. Como testemunha foi utilizado um tratamento sem o recebimento de fungicida. O estudo da deposição foi realizado com o emprego de papéis hidrossensíveis. Concluiu-se que os tratamentos terrestres apresentaram maior densidade de gotas no dossel da cultura do milho, mas todos os tratamentos proporcionaram a deposição mínima recomendada para aplicação de fungicida. A aplicação aérea empregando volume de calda de 30 L ha-1 proporcionou produtividade semelhante aos tratamentos terrestres, mostrando ser viável tecnicamente sua utilização.This study aimed to evaluate the effect of the aerial and ground application of fungicide in the control of corn diseases and in the spray deposition on the canopy. The hybrid AG7010 was sown and the spray deposition on the bottom, middle and upper canopy of the crop, disease severity and yield were evaluated after the application of the fungicide (pyraclostrobin + epoxiconazol, at the V8 -V10 stage. The aerial application was accomplished with spray volumes of 15 and 30 L ha-1, using flat-fan spray nozzles, and the ground one with 100 L ha-1, using turbo twin flat-fan and air induction turbo flat-fan spray nozzles. An additional treatment that received no fungicide was also evaluated. The study of the

  7. Large-Scale Aerial Image Categorization Using a Multitask Topological Codebook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Luming; Wang, Meng; Hong, Richang; Yin, Bao-Cai; Li, Xuelong

    2016-02-01

    Fast and accurately categorizing the millions of aerial images on Google Maps is a useful technique in pattern recognition. Existing methods cannot handle this task successfully due to two reasons: 1) the aerial images' topologies are the key feature to distinguish their categories, but they cannot be effectively encoded by a conventional visual codebook and 2) it is challenging to build a realtime image categorization system, as some geo-aware Apps update over 20 aerial images per second. To solve these problems, we propose an efficient aerial image categorization algorithm. It focuses on learning a discriminative topological codebook of aerial images under a multitask learning framework. The pipeline can be summarized as follows. We first construct a region adjacency graph (RAG) that describes the topology of each aerial image. Naturally, aerial image categorization can be formulated as RAG-to-RAG matching. According to graph theory, RAG-to-RAG matching is conducted by enumeratively comparing all their respective graphlets (i.e., small subgraphs). To alleviate the high time consumption, we propose to learn a codebook containing topologies jointly discriminative to multiple categories. The learned topological codebook guides the extraction of the discriminative graphlets. Finally, these graphlets are integrated into an AdaBoost model for predicting aerial image categories. Experimental results show that our approach is competitive to several existing recognition models. Furthermore, over 24 aerial images are processed per second, demonstrating that our approach is ready for real-world applications.

  8. Location and Routing of the Defense Courier Service Aerial Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-03-01

    The Vehicle Routing Problem ................ 8 Vehicle Routing Problem Modifications ...... .0 Multiple Depot Problems...several specific formulations are applicable to the DCS aerial network. Those addressed in this review include: 1) the Vehicle Routing Problem (VRP); 2...methodologies show great promise for adaptation to the DCS network. The Vehicle Routing Problem The Travelling Salesman Problem seeks the shortest route which

  9. A Review of the Characteristics of Modern Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hristov Georgi Valentinov

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this article is to present the modern unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs and the possibilities for real-time remote monitoring of flight parameters and payload data. In the introduction section of the paper we briefly present the characteristics of the UAVs and which are their major application areas. Later, the main parameters and the various data types for remote control and monitoring of the unmanned aerial vehicles are presented and discussed. The paper continues with the methods and the technologies for transmission of these parameters and then presents a general hardware model for data transmission and a software model of a communication system suitable for UAVs.

  10. International Symposium on Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

    CERN Document Server

    Oh, Paul; Piegl, Les

    2009-01-01

    Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) have seen unprecedented levels of growth during the last decade in both military and civilian domains. It is anticipated that civilian applications will be dominant in the future, although there are still barriers to be overcome and technical challenges to be met. Integrating UAS into, for example, civilian space, navigation, autonomy, see-detect-and-avoid systems, smart designs, system integration, vision-based navigation and training, to name but a few areas, will be of prime importance in the near future. This special volume is the outcome of research presented at the International Symposium on Unmanned Aerial Vehicles, held in Orlando, Florida, USA, from June 23-25, 2008, and presents state-of-the-art findings on topics such as: UAS operations and integration into the national airspace system; UAS navigation and control; micro-, mini-, small UAVs; UAS simulation testbeds and frameworks; UAS research platforms and applications; UAS applications. This book aims at serving as ...

  11. Application of Aerial Video Surveillance in Urban Anti-terrorism Based on Tethered Balloon%基于系留气球的空中视频监控在城市反恐中的应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄伟良; 李琦

    2016-01-01

    系留气球是依靠浮力升空执行任务的一类飞行器,其搭载摄像机升空,可从空中实现对地面的视频监控,可成为城市反恐的重要技术手段。分析了系留气球空中视频监控的原理及特点,并对其在城市反恐作战中的应用进行了初步的研究,可为系留气球在该领域的推广应用提供一定的参考。%Tethered balloon is a kind of aircraft that rises with buoyancy to perform a task .It can be e‐quipped with cameras to achieve video surveillance on the ground from the sky ,w hich will be an important technology used for urban anti‐terrorism .T he principle and characteristic of aerial video surveillance based on tethered balloon was given .A preliminary analysis of the application prospect in urban anti‐terrorism was carried out .It can provide some reference for the application of tethered balloon in urban anti‐terror‐ism .

  12. 1936 Harding County AG Aerial Photo Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial photographs are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The aerial photo inventory contains imagery from various sources that are now archived at the Earth...

  13. 1947 Bernalillo County DFC Aerial Photo Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial photographs are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The aerial photo inventory contains imagery from various sources that are now archived at the Earth...

  14. 1949 Roosevelt County CIK Aerial Photo Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial photographs are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The aerial photo inventory contains imagery from various sources that are now archived at the Earth...

  15. Officials: Aerial Spraying Working Against Miami Mosquitoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 160274.html Officials: Aerial Spraying Working Against Miami Mosquitoes The insects are to blame for first cases ... 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Aerial spraying is killing many mosquitoes in a part of Miami where the insects ...

  16. 1950 Pecos River CIII Aerial Photo Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial photographs are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The aerial photo inventory contains imagery from various sources that are now archived at the Earth...

  17. 1947 Sandoval County DFD Aerial Photo Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial photographs are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The aerial photo inventory contains imagery from various sources that are now archived at the Earth...

  18. 1955 Lea County DHO Aerial Photo Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial photographs are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The aerial photo inventory contains imagery from various sources that are now archived at the Earth...

  19. 1947 Sierra County DEZ Aerial Photo Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial photographs are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The aerial photo inventory contains imagery from various sources that are now archived at the Earth...

  20. 1944 AAF 661 Aerial Photo Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial photographs are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The aerial photo inventory contains imagery from various sources that are now archived at the Earth...

  1. 1946 Penasco DDQ Aerial Photo Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial photographs are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The aerial photo inventory contains imagery from various sources that are now archived at the Earth...

  2. 1943 AAF 394 Aerial Photo Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial photographs are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The aerial photo inventory contains imagery from various sources that are now archived at the Earth...

  3. 1954 Lea County DHO Aerial Photo Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial photographs are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The aerial photo inventory contains imagery from various sources that are now archived at the Earth...

  4. 1944 AAF 649 Aerial Photo Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial photographs are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The aerial photo inventory contains imagery from various sources that are now archived at the Earth...

  5. 1936 Curry County AG Aerial Photo Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial photographs are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The aerial photo inventory contains imagery from various sources that are now archived at the Earth...

  6. 1946 Macho Border DDO Aerial Photo Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial photographs are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The aerial photo inventory contains imagery from various sources that are now archived at the Earth...

  7. 47 CFR 32.2421 - Aerial cable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Aerial cable. 32.2421 Section 32.2421... FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Balance Sheet Accounts § 32.2421 Aerial cable. (a) This account shall include the original cost of aerial cable and of drop and block wires served by...

  8. 无人机技术在长江海事监管中的应用%The Application of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Technology in the Yangtze River Maritime Supervision

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈俊; 王茹军; 熊辉; 曹阳; 翟平

    2015-01-01

    为了打造长江干线全方位覆盖、全天候运行、具备快速反应能力的现代化水上安全监管和应急救助体系,将无人机技术引入海事监管过程当中。分析无人机应用于海事监管的优势,并研究其应用于海事监管的可行性。拓展无人机在海事监管业务中的应用,提出长江海事无人机系统建设思路。系统的建设分为实验阶段、大规模实施阶段和网络建设和应用阶段,目标是建成水-岸-空海事立体监管系统,提升长江海事监管水平。%In order to build modern water safety regulation and emergency rescue system that contains the Yangtze trunk full coverage,all-weather operation,and rapid response ability is necessary.This paper applies unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV)technology into maritime regulatory process,the advan-tages of application of the maritime supervision UAVs is analyzed in detail;the feasibility of the appli-cation of the maritime supervision is carried on.Finally,the applications for UAV are introduced in maritime supervision business,the idea of Yangtze River maritime UAV system construction is sys-tematically introduced,which is divided into the experimental stage,large-scale implementation stage and the network construction and application stage,the proposal aims to build water-Coast-Marine Stereo regulatory system and enhance the level of the Yangtze River maritime supervision.

  9. Automated Orientation of Aerial Images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høhle, Joachim

    2002-01-01

    Methods for automated orientation of aerial images are presented. They are based on the use of templates, which are derived from existing databases, and area-based matching. The characteristics of available database information and the accuracy requirements for map compilation and orthoimage...

  10. Hybrid Control of Long-Endurance Aerial Robotic Vehicles for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deok-Jin Lee

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an effective hybrid control approach for building stable wireless sensor networks between heterogeneous unmanned vehicles using long‐ endurance aerial robotic vehicles. For optimal deployment of the aerial vehicles in communication networks, a gradient climbing based self‐estimating control algorithm is utilized to locate the aerial platforms to maintain maximum communication throughputs between distributed multiple nodes. The autonomous aerial robots, which function as communication relay nodes, extract and harvest thermal energy from the atmospheric environment to improve their flight endurance within specified communication coverage areas. The rapidly‐deployable sensor networks with the high‐endurance aerial vehicles can be used for various application areas including environment monitoring, surveillance, tracking, and decision‐making support. Flight test and simulation studies are conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed hybrid control technique for robust communication networks.

  11. Application of Aerial Surveying Technology by Small Drone in Water Resources Engineering%小型无人机航测技术在水利工程中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔺全奎; 李伟哲

    2016-01-01

    The field work procedures of the 4-rotor-wing drone are described. Through distribution of field image control points, aerial shooting by drone, indoor data preparation and image data processed by Pix4Dmapper, multiple surveying and mapping products can be pro-duced. They can be further processed by application of special software, producing 3D models which are more visual.%阐述了四旋翼无人机MD4-1000外业作业流程。通过野外像控点的布设、无人机外业航摄及内业数据准备、使用Pix4Dmapper处理影像数据,最终可以生成多种测绘产品,可以导入多种类型的专业软件完成进一步的分析处理,生成的三维模型,更加直观。

  12. Application and Exploration of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle in Major Natural Disasters%无人机在重大自然灾害中的应用与探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆博迪; 孟迪文; 陆鸣; 赵京轶; 谢周敏; 杨建军

    2011-01-01

    Major natural disasters often cause the interruption of communication and the damage of roads and transportation in the disaster-stricken area. The interruption of disaster information transmission may lead to blindness of the emergency rescue measures, and even cause more damage and secondary disasters. Therefore, it is the primary problem to acquire the information of natural disaster area. Unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) is a kind of new instrument, which can fly over the obstacles of rivers and mountains, and get disaster information by shooting and filming. The authors' UAV group carried out the practice activity of flying and shooting in the Beichuan County , Wenchuan earthquake intensity epicenter area. After the Yushu M7. 1 earthquake, the UAV group gained the plateau flight and photography first in the disaster area. Through a series of the exploration and practice, the authors introduce the influence factors of UAV flight and photography, such as weather condition, flight path, air strips, altitude, air photos, overlapping coefficient, photos split joint, and show the resolutions relationship between air and land photos. In addition, this paper summaries the basic identification methodology of collapsed building.%重大自然灾害往往会造成重灾区信息通讯中断和道路交通破坏,灾情传递受阻将导致抢险救灾盲目部署,继而造成更大的损失和次生灾害.因此,获取灾情成为重大自然灾害抢险救灾的首要问题.无人驾驶飞机(简称无人机)是一种新工具,能够越过山川河流阻隔,通过摄影、摄像或其他遥感手段获取灾情.通过在北川县曲山镇等地震灾区进行无人机获取灾害信息实验,在2010年玉树地震抢险救灾工作中实现了高原灾区无人机首次航拍,获取的高清图片为划分灾区范围提供了重要依据.鉴于上述实践和探索,介绍了无人机性能和影响无人机摄影的诸多因素,如天气条

  13. VideoQuest: an advanced aerial video exploitation and management system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Hui; Butler, Darren; Meng, Chris; Kover, Thomas; Padmanabhan, Gopi; Krakower, Ron

    2007-10-01

    Today, a large number of videos are collected using aerial platforms. These videos are used for various applications from agriculture surveys to disaster response, from surveillance and security to intelligence gathering. As the amount of aerial video increases, there is a need for systematic exploitation and effective management of the large aerial videos database. In this paper, we will introduce VideoQuest, an advanced aerial video exploitation and management system that provides real-time aerial video enhancement, archiving, indexing and analysis capabilities such as sensor metadata enhancement, moving target detection and tracking and event detection. To effectively and efficiently utilize archived aerial videos, VideoQuest also provides spatial, temporal and content based indexing. To quickly retrieve videos in a large-scale video database, the system summarizes aerial video hierarchically and based on content, such as objects, tracks and events extracted from videos. Additionally, VideoQuest allows user to interactively search and browse A large aerial video database through a "virtual fly control" GUI that dynamically assembles visual information according to user's needs. Using the VideoQeust system, a user can search and retrieve mission-relevant information several magnitudes faster than without using our system.

  14. Efficient pedestrian detection from aerial vehicles with object proposals and deep convolutional neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minnehan, Breton; Savakis, Andreas

    2016-05-01

    As Unmanned Aerial Systems grow in numbers, pedestrian detection from aerial platforms is becoming a topic of increasing importance. By providing greater contextual information and a reduced potential for occlusion, the aerial vantage point provided by Unmanned Aerial Systems is highly advantageous for many surveillance applications, such as target detection, tracking, and action recognition. However, due to the greater distance between the camera and scene, targets of interest in aerial imagery are generally smaller and have less detail. Deep Convolutional Neural Networks (CNN's) have demonstrated excellent object classification performance and in this paper we adopt them to the problem of pedestrian detection from aerial platforms. We train a CNN with five layers consisting of three convolution-pooling layers and two fully connected layers. We also address the computational inefficiencies of the sliding window method for object detection. In the sliding window configuration, a very large number of candidate patches are generated from each frame, while only a small number of them contain pedestrians. We utilize the Edge Box object proposal generation method to screen candidate patches based on an "objectness" criterion, so that only regions that are likely to contain objects are processed. This method significantly reduces the number of image patches processed by the neural network and makes our classification method very efficient. The resulting two-stage system is a good candidate for real-time implementation onboard modern aerial vehicles. Furthermore, testing on three datasets confirmed that our system offers high detection accuracy for terrestrial pedestrian detection in aerial imagery.

  15. Application of Aerial Survey Technology by Unmanned Aerial Vehicle in Measurement and Analysis for Slump Steep Sections of Highways%无人机航测技术应用于公路崩滑陡峭地段测量分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李兴华; 罗秀兰; 龚绪才

    2012-01-01

    With rapid development of unmanned aerial vehicle ( UAV ) technology and digital photogrammetry technology in recent years, the aerial survey technology with UAV has become an effective rapid surveying and mapping means. This paper introduces key techniques for data processing by UAV aerial survey, measures embankments and slope slump of highways by means of UAV aerial survey technology and obtain 3D digital products from the measured areas so as to provide timely and valid surveying and mapping data for maintenance and management of highways.%近年来,随着无人机技术和数字摄影测量技术的快速发展,无人机航测技术已经成为一种有效的快速测绘手段.介绍无人机航测数据处理的关键技术,利用无人机航测技术对公路路堤和边坡崩滑进行快速测量,获取测区的3D数字信息,为公路维护管理提供及时有效的测绘资料.

  16. Research of aerial imaging spectrometer data acquisition technology based on USB 3.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Junze; Wang, Yueming; He, Daogang; Yu, Yanan

    2016-11-01

    With the emergence of UAV (unmanned aerial vehicle) platform for aerial imaging spectrometer, research of aerial imaging spectrometer DAS(data acquisition system) faces new challenges. Due to the limitation of platform and other factors, the aerial imaging spectrometer DAS requires small-light, low-cost and universal. Traditional aerial imaging spectrometer DAS system is expensive, bulky, non-universal and unsupported plug-and-play based on PCIe. So that has been unable to meet promotion and application of the aerial imaging spectrometer. In order to solve these problems, the new data acquisition scheme bases on USB3.0 interface.USB3.0 can provide guarantee of small-light, low-cost and universal relying on the forward-looking technology advantage. USB3.0 transmission theory is up to 5Gbps.And the GPIF programming interface achieves 3.2Gbps of the effective theoretical data bandwidth.USB3.0 can fully meet the needs of the aerial imaging spectrometer data transmission rate. The scheme uses the slave FIFO asynchronous data transmission mode between FPGA and USB3014 interface chip. Firstly system collects spectral data from TLK2711 of high-speed serial interface chip. Then FPGA receives data in DDR2 cache after ping-pong data processing. Finally USB3014 interface chip transmits data via automatic-dma approach and uploads to PC by USB3.0 cable. During the manufacture of aerial imaging spectrometer, the DAS can achieve image acquisition, transmission, storage and display. All functions can provide the necessary test detection for aerial imaging spectrometer. The test shows that system performs stable and no data lose. Average transmission speed and storage speed of writing SSD can stabilize at 1.28Gbps. Consequently ,this data acquisition system can meet application requirements for aerial imaging spectrometer.

  17. Unmanned Aerial Vehicles unique cost estimating requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malone, P.; Apgar, H.; Stukes, S.; Sterk, S.

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs), also referred to as drones, are aerial platforms that fly without a human pilot onboard. UAVs are controlled autonomously by a computer in the vehicle or under the remote control of a pilot stationed at a fixed ground location. There are a wide variety of drone shapes, sizes, configurations, complexities, and characteristics. Use of these devices by the Department of Defense (DoD), NASA, civil and commercial organizations continues to grow. UAVs are commonly used for intelligence, surveillance, reconnaissance (ISR). They are also use for combat operations, and civil applications, such as firefighting, non-military security work, surveillance of infrastructure (e.g. pipelines, power lines and country borders). UAVs are often preferred for missions that require sustained persistence (over 4 hours in duration), or are “ too dangerous, dull or dirty” for manned aircraft. Moreover, they can offer significant acquisition and operations cost savings over traditional manned aircraft. Because of these unique characteristics and missions, UAV estimates require some unique estimating methods. This paper describes a framework for estimating UAV systems total ownership cost including hardware components, software design, and operations. The challenge of collecting data, testing the sensitivities of cost drivers, and creating cost estimating relationships (CERs) for each key work breakdown structure (WBS) element is discussed. The autonomous operation of UAVs is especially challenging from a software perspective.

  18. Performance experiment of rotary hydraulic atomizing nozzle for aerial spraying application%航空施药旋转液力雾化喷头性能试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    茹煜; 金兰; 周宏平; 贾志成

    2014-01-01

    order to realize the low-altitude, low-volume, and high-efficiency spraying demand of an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV), its spray system, which is the key UAV part, must meet the requirements of lightweight, low-volume spraying and uniform spray. Based on the domestic and foreign UAV nebulization technology of agricultural chemical spray nozzles, we tested the performance of rotary hydraulic atomizers, which combined the advantages of both centrifuge atomization and liquid atomization, in this study. A comprehensive performance test system of nozzle atomization was applied to detect the effect of important factors including structure parameters (nozzle diameter), spray parameters (spray flow rate and pressure), and operating parameters (rotational speed) on nozzle atomization efficiency (droplet size), deposition distribution, and spray span. We analyzed the correlation between spray parameters and pump power consumption. Combined with the effect of motor voltage on motor power, the optimum nozzle working parameters were selected. The results showed that the voltage of a nozzle rotary motor had a more significant effect on droplet diameter than nozzle diameter and spray pressure parameters did. Along with the increase of motor voltage, droplets became smaller, giving a better atomization effect. Motor voltage also notably influenced spray span. The more the voltage was, the bigger the spray angle was, and the larger the span became. Droplet deposition presented normal distribution in the spray range. The best working parameters (10 V of motor voltage; 0.35 MPa of spray pressure; 0.7 mm of nozzle diameter) for UAV rotary hydraulic atomizers were determined by the comprehensive test results. When these parameters were applied, the pump power consumption rate was lowest, the average droplet size was 112.35μm, the spray span was 3.88 m, and the motor power consumption was 8.6 W. The nozzle atomization performance test system adopted in the present study has been calibrated

  19. Application of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Photogrammetric in Emergency Surveying and Mapping Support in Sichuan Province%无人机航摄技术在四川省应急测绘保障中的应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周兴霞; 廖小露; 刘嘉

    2014-01-01

    近年来,无人机低空摄影测量技术发展迅速,已广泛应用到多个领域,其灵活机动的特点使其在防灾减灾与应急处置中的应用优势尤其突出。本文结合无人机在四川省应急测绘保障中的应用,研究应急状态下无人机航摄流程及应急影像快速处理技术,并以芦山“4·20”强烈地震应急测绘保障和四川省2013年防汛救灾应急测绘保障为例,探讨无人机航摄技术在重大自然灾害抢险救灾、灾害损失评估及地质灾害防治等领域中的应用。%In recent years, with the rapidly development of low-altitude photogrammetric, the unmanned aerial vehicle ( UAV) tech-nology has been widely used in many fields relying on the advantages of flexibility and mobility, especially in the field of disaster pre-vention and emergency manage.In this paper, authors will study the flow of UAV photogrammetric and the emergency images fast-processing based on the application of emergency surveying and mapping support in Sichuan province.At last, we will take "4.20"Lushan earthquake emergency surveying and mapping and 2013 flood disaster emergency surveying and mapping in Sichuan as an ex-ample, discuss the application of UAV photogrammetric in major natural disaster rescue, disaster damage assessment and geological disaster prevention.

  20. Telemetry of Aerial Radiological Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    H. W. Clark, Jr.

    2002-10-01

    Telemetry has been added to National Nuclear Security Administration's (NNSA's) Aerial Measuring System (AMS) Incident Response aircraft to accelerate availability of aerial radiological mapping data. Rapid aerial radiological mapping is promptly performed by AMS Incident Response aircraft in the event of a major radiological dispersal. The AMS airplane flies the entire potentially affected area, plus a generous margin, to provide a quick look at the extent and severity of the event. The primary result of the AMS Incident Response over flight is a map of estimated exposure rate on the ground along the flight path. Formerly, it was necessary to wait for the airplane to land before the map could be seen. Now, while the flight is still in progress, data are relayed via satellite directly from the aircraft to an operations center, where they are displayed and disseminated. This permits more timely utilization of results by decision makers and redirection of the mission to optimize its value. The current telemetry capability can cover all of North America. Extension to a global capability is under consideration.

  1. The US Air Force Aerial Spray Unit: a history of large area disease vector control operations, WWII through Katrina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breidenbaugh, Mark; Haagsma, Karl

    2008-01-01

    The US Air Force has had a long history of aerial applications of pesticides to fulfill a variety of missions, the most important being the protection of troops through the minimization of arthropod vectors capable of disease transmission. Beginning in World War II, aerial application of pesticides by the military has effectively controlled vector and nuisance pest populations in a variety of environments. Currently, the military aerial spray capability resides in the US Air Force Reserve (USAFR), which operates and maintains C-130 airplanes capable of a variety of missions, including ultra low volume applications for vector and nuisance pests, as well as higher volume aerial applications of herbicides and oil-spill dispersants. The USAFR aerial spray assets are the only such fixed-wing aerial spray assets within the Department of Defense. In addition to troop protection, the USAFR Aerial Spray Unit has participated in a number of humanitarian/relief missions, most recently in the response to the 2005 Hurricanes Katrina and Rita, which heavily damaged the Gulf Coasts of Louisiana, Mississippi, and Texas. This article provides historical background on the Air Force Aerial Spray Unit and describes the operations in Louisiana in the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina.

  2. CMOS Imaging Sensor Technology for Aerial Mapping Cameras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Klaus; Welzenbach, Martin; Timm, Martin

    2016-06-01

    In June 2015 Leica Geosystems launched the first large format aerial mapping camera using CMOS sensor technology, the Leica DMC III. This paper describes the motivation to change from CCD sensor technology to CMOS for the development of this new aerial mapping camera. In 2002 the DMC first generation was developed by Z/I Imaging. It was the first large format digital frame sensor designed for mapping applications. In 2009 Z/I Imaging designed the DMC II which was the first digital aerial mapping camera using a single ultra large CCD sensor to avoid stitching of smaller CCDs. The DMC III is now the third generation of large format frame sensor developed by Z/I Imaging and Leica Geosystems for the DMC camera family. It is an evolution of the DMC II using the same system design with one large monolithic PAN sensor and four multi spectral camera heads for R,G, B and NIR. For the first time a 391 Megapixel large CMOS sensor had been used as PAN chromatic sensor, which is an industry record. Along with CMOS technology goes a range of technical benefits. The dynamic range of the CMOS sensor is approx. twice the range of a comparable CCD sensor and the signal to noise ratio is significantly better than with CCDs. Finally results from the first DMC III customer installations and test flights will be presented and compared with other CCD based aerial sensors.

  3. UNMANNED AERIAL VEHICLE USE FOR WOOD CHIPS PILE VOLUME ESTIMATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mokroš

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The rapid development of unmanned aerial vehicles is a challenge for applied research. Many technologies are developed and then researcher are looking up for their application in different sectors. Therefore, we decided to verify the use of the unmanned aerial vehicle for wood chips pile monitoring. We compared the use of GNSS device and unmanned aerial vehicle for volume estimation of four wood chips piles. We used DJI Phantom 3 Professional with the built-in camera and GNSS device (geoexplorer 6000. We used Agisoft photoscan for processing photos and ArcGIS for processing points. Volumes calculated from pictures were not statistically significantly different from amounts calculated from GNSS data and high correlation between them was found (p = 0.9993. We conclude that the use of unmanned aerial vehicle instead of the GNSS device does not lead to significantly different results. Tthe data collection consumed from almost 12 to 20 times less time with the use of UAV. Additionally, UAV provides documentation trough orthomosaic.

  4. Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Use for Wood Chips Pile Volume Estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokroš, M.; Tabačák, M.; Lieskovský, M.; Fabrika, M.

    2016-06-01

    The rapid development of unmanned aerial vehicles is a challenge for applied research. Many technologies are developed and then researcher are looking up for their application in different sectors. Therefore, we decided to verify the use of the unmanned aerial vehicle for wood chips pile monitoring. We compared the use of GNSS device and unmanned aerial vehicle for volume estimation of four wood chips piles. We used DJI Phantom 3 Professional with the built-in camera and GNSS device (geoexplorer 6000). We used Agisoft photoscan for processing photos and ArcGIS for processing points. Volumes calculated from pictures were not statistically significantly different from amounts calculated from GNSS data and high correlation between them was found (p = 0.9993). We conclude that the use of unmanned aerial vehicle instead of the GNSS device does not lead to significantly different results. Tthe data collection consumed from almost 12 to 20 times less time with the use of UAV. Additionally, UAV provides documentation trough orthomosaic.

  5. Practical risk estimation method and applications of aerial photographs for preventing slope disasters in railways; Tetsudo ni okeru shamen saigai to sono taiosaku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugiyama, T.; Noguchi, T. [Railway Technical Research Institute, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-12-01

    This paper, upon describing the actual states of slope disasters in railways, indicates the current status of measures taken to prevent these disasters. It also describes the measures to prevent slope disasters occurring currently and the future prospect thereof, focusing on the following two points: (1) a recently developed method for evaluating risks in banking and excavation slopes, and (2) an information control technology to prevent disasters of slope collapses by using remote sensing system and attempts on a method to estimate locations with risks of collapse occurrence by using the former information control technology. Development has been made of a method to evaluate rain disaster risks, which can identify quantitatively rain resisting strength of slopes, reflect the rain resisting strength on the operation rules, and estimate disasters on the real time basis. The method has been developed by using a statistic method to estimate the collapse critical rain amount as an exciting cause from predisposing cause of banking and excavation slopes, based on the record of nationwide disasters. Discussions were given on application of latest remote sensing technologies to slopes along railroads. Furthermore, an attempt was implemented on estimating collapse risks along railroad lines, utilizing slope information extracted from the above application of the remote sensing technologies. 13 refs., 12 figs., 7 tabs.

  6. Aerial Photography and Imagery, Uncorrected, historic aerial imagery; 1931-1990, Published in 2006, Washoe County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Aerial Photography and Imagery, Uncorrected dataset, was produced all or in part from Hardcopy Maps information as of 2006. It is described as 'historic aerial...

  7. Assessment of Photogrammetric Mapping Accuracy Based on Variation Flying Altitude Using Unmanned Aerial Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udin, W. S.; Ahmad, A.

    2014-02-01

    Photogrammetry is the earliest technique used to collect data for topographic mapping. The recent development in aerial photogrammetry is the used of large format digital aerial camera for producing topographic map. The aerial photograph can be in the form of metric or non-metric imagery. The cost of mapping using aerial photogrammetry is very expensive. In certain application, there is a need to map small area with limited budget. Due to the development of technology, small format aerial photogrammetry technology has been introduced and offers many advantages. Currently, digital map can be extracted from digital aerial imagery of small format camera mounted on light weight platform such as unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). This study utilizes UAV system for large scale stream mapping. The first objective of this study is to investigate the use of light weight rotary-wing UAV for stream mapping based on different flying height. Aerial photograph were acquired at 60% forward lap and 30% sidelap specifications. Ground control points and check points were established using Total Station technique. The digital camera attached to the UAV was calibrated and the recovered camera calibration parameters were then used in the digital images processing. The second objective is to determine the accuracy of the photogrammetric output. In this study, the photogrammetric output such as stereomodel in three dimensional (3D), contour lines, digital elevation model (DEM) and orthophoto were produced from a small stream of 200m long and 10m width. The research output is evaluated for planimetry and vertical accuracy using root mean square error (RMSE). Based on the finding, sub-meter accuracy is achieved and the RMSE value decreases as the flying height increases. The difference is relatively small. Finally, this study shows that UAV is very useful platform for obtaining aerial photograph and subsequently used for photogrammetric mapping and other applications.

  8. THE DRONES ARE COMING. WHAT TO CHOOSE? LOW AND MEDIUM ALTITUDE AERIAL ARCHAEOLOGY ON LIMES TRANSALUTANUS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Ștefan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Aerial archaeology has more than one century of tradition as a valuable research method. Like archaeology, the aerial reconnaissance is undergoing dynamic changes. The field must face the profound conceptual challenges raised by the evolving demands of archaeologists. In addition, aerial archaeology has to adapt its own methods in order to constantly incorporate new technologies such as: thermal vision, LiDAR and also advanced photogrammetry processing techniques. One of the greatest challenges and promising perspectives for evolution of the field is the arriving and rapidly spreading of small remote controlled aerial vehicles (UAVs – Unmanned Aerial Vehicles, known also as drones. However, a real development of the UAVs based aerial archaeology’s branch is conditioned by the availability of special tailored aerial vehicles for archaeologist’s needs. Unfortunately, the time has not yet come for this, while the major efforts in drones development is spent for aerial videography applications, surveillance and general entertainment. The implementation of a research project, dedicated to the longest built sector of the Roman limes in Dacia – Limes Transalutanus, represented for the authors a suitable occasion to assess the possibilities and limits of the large scale aerial archaeology based on UAVs. On the occasion there were tested two custom flying platforms and one commercial, multiple flight strategies and several processing algorithms. The linear nature and the extent of the site (basically a corridor of 157 km in length called for distinct augmentation of equipment and survey workflows, with applicability in ‘corridor’ archaeological projects like those for highways and utilities networks.

  9. Based on the Color Aerial Images of Water Body Extraction and Application Implementation%基于彩色航空影像的水体提取与应用实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈香; 袁景

    2015-01-01

    天津市第一次全国地理国情普查领导小组办公室综合考虑天津市在三维数字建模、城市水淹分析实际应用情况,编写了《天津市第一次全国地理国情普查实施方案》,方案中明确地形地貌是此次普查的重要内容之一.根据天然水体在彩色航空影像上的表现特征,利用每个像素颜色的差别选取水体,将影像做栅格化和转换SHP面的数据处理,从而提取水体的矢量范围线,再经过滤除与分割,水体矢量线可直接应用于数字影像匹配DEM精细化处理和地理国情普查地表水系要素覆盖.%Tianjin First National Geographic circumstances leading group office in Tianjin in considering the three-dimensional digital modeling, urban flooding analysis of the actual application, the preparation of the"Tianjin First National Geographic situation Census plan", the program clearly Terrain topography is an important part of the census.According to the features of natural water body on the color aerial images, using the difference of each pixel color to select water bodies, to process the image data of raster conversion and SHP conversion, so as to extract the vector range line of the water body, then through filtering and segmentation, water vector line can be directly applied to digital image matching DEM rmeticulous treatment and drainage elements coverage of geographic national condition survey.

  10. Dropsonde System for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) are assuming more numerous and increasingly important roles in global environmental and atmospheric research. There is a...

  11. Application Analysis of Airborne SAR Aerial Triangulation in the Western Mapping Project%西部测图工程机载SAR影像空三加密应用分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    穆利娜

    2013-01-01

    This paper systematically expounds airborne SAR image aerial triangulation principle and methods based on deep analysis of the western mapping project airborne SAR image data. The paper makes the in - depth analysis and summarizes the key technical problems of aerial triangulation.%在对西部测图工程机载SAR影像资料情况深入分析的基础上,对机载SAR影像空三加密原理方法进行了系统的阐述,对空三加密关键技术问题进行了较为深入的分析总结.

  12. Small unmanned aerial vehicles (micro-UAVs, drones) in plant ecology1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruzan, Mitchell B.; Weinstein, Ben G.; Grasty, Monica R.; Kohrn, Brendan F.; Hendrickson, Elizabeth C.; Arredondo, Tina M.; Thompson, Pamela G.

    2016-01-01

    Premise of the study: Low-elevation surveys with small aerial drones (micro–unmanned aerial vehicles [UAVs]) may be used for a wide variety of applications in plant ecology, including mapping vegetation over small- to medium-sized regions. We provide an overview of methods and procedures for conducting surveys and illustrate some of these applications. Methods: Aerial images were obtained by flying a small drone along transects over the area of interest. Images were used to create a composite image (orthomosaic) and a digital surface model (DSM). Vegetation classification was conducted manually and using an automated routine. Coverage of an individual species was estimated from aerial images. Results: We created a vegetation map for the entire region from the orthomosaic and DSM, and mapped the density of one species. Comparison of our manual and automated habitat classification confirmed that our mapping methods were accurate. A species with high contrast to the background matrix allowed adequate estimate of its coverage. Discussion: The example surveys demonstrate that small aerial drones are capable of gathering large amounts of information on the distribution of vegetation and individual species with minimal impact to sensitive habitats. Low-elevation aerial surveys have potential for a wide range of applications in plant ecology. PMID:27672518

  13. The Art of Aerial Warfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-03-01

    the  Strait  of  Gibraltar   from  North  Africa  during  the Spanish Civil War. 11 FAIRCHILD PAPER A Comparison of Aerial Warfare to Land... Hitler , for example, the United States cannot assume that Nazi aggression would have  evaporated  instantly. Although  Hitler himself profoundly affected

  14. Unmanned aerial vehicles in astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biondi, Federico; Magrin, Demetrio; Ragazzoni, Roberto; Farinato, Jacopo; Greggio, Davide; Dima, Marco; Gullieuszik, Marco; Bergomi, Maria; Carolo, Elena; Marafatto, Luca; Portaluri, Elisa

    2016-07-01

    In this work we discuss some options for using Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) for daylight alignment activities and maintenance of optical telescopes, relating them to a small numbers of parameters, and tracing which could be the schemes, requirements and benefits for employing them both at the stage of erection and maintenance. UAVs can easily reach the auto-collimation points of optical components of the next class of Extremely Large Telescopes. They can be equipped with tools for the measurement of the co-phasing, scattering, and reflectivity of segmented mirrors or environmental parameters like C2n and C2T to characterize the seeing during both the day and the night.

  15. The stack induced draft aerial cooler (SIDAC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hircock, N.C. [NC Hircock Process Consulting Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)]|[Patching Associates Acoustical Engineering Ltd. Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2007-07-01

    The oil and gas industry uses stack induced draft aerial coolers (SIDAC) for process cooling in noise sensitive areas or in areas where no electrical power is available. The technology produces zero noise, zero operating costs and zero emissions. This paper examined the use, operation and economics of fanless, noiseless aerial coolers. Although retrofitting to convert from fin-fan to SIDAC is not viable, this paper illustrated one common application where the installation of a tapered stack over a cooler could work together with variable speed fan drives to enhance the noise suppression achieved by variable speed fan drives. A stack assisted draft air cooler (SADAC) was installed over a conventional engine cooler enclosing the engine exhaust and muffler. The exhaust stack was also acoustically lined to augment the noise suppression of the engine silencer itself. The waste heat of the engine exhaust, combined with the heat from the cooler discharge, was used to create a negative pressure behind the cooler fan. Therefore, at night the fan could back off in speed. Since fan noise is proportional to speed to the exponent 5, even a 20 per cent reduction of fan speed generates a noticeable noise reduction. The noise directive of the Alberta Energy and Utilities Board is for lower noise levels at night rather than daytime. Therefore, this innovation allows plant operators to run coolers at full capacity in the day while backing off fan speed at night. It was concluded that substantial benefits can be achieved by SIDAC and SADAC technology in the areas of noise control, process improvements and emission reductions. The capital costs of using these devices are comparable with conventional systems, and operating costs are reduced.

  16. Image Compression Algorithm of High-Speed SPIHT for Aerial Applications%适于航天应用的高速SPIHT图像压缩算法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张宁; 吴银花; 金龙旭; 陶宏江

    2011-01-01

    SPIHT and NLS (Not List SPIHT) are efficient image compression algorithms, but the algorithms application is litnited by the shortcomings of the poor error resistance and slow compression speed in the aviation areas. In this paper, the error resilience and the compression speed were improved. The remote sensing images were decomposed by Le Gall5/3 wavelet, and wavelet coefficients were indexed, scanned and allocated by the means of family blocks. The bit-plane importance was predicted by bitwise OR, so the N bit-planes can be encoded at the same time. Compared with the SPIHT algorithm, this modified algorithm is easy implemented by hardware. The experiments results show that the PSNR of reconstructed images was increased about 0. 2 to 0. 6 db and the speed was 4 ~ 6 times faster than the SPIHT encoding process. The speed can be further improved via virtue of the parallelism and pipelining, when it is implemented by the hardware.%SPIHT和无链表SPIHT(Not List SPIHT)是高效的图像压缩算法,但是抗误码性差、压缩速度慢等缺点限制了其在航天领域的应用.文章针对上述两个缺点对算法进行了改进,采用Le Gall5/3小波对遥感图像进行小波分解,将小波域系数分家族块进行索引、扫描和码率分配,按照比特平面或运算进行重要性预测,实现了N个位平面同时编码.改进算法与SPIHT相比易于硬件编程实现,仿真结果显示,解压后图像峰值信噪比(PSNR)提高了0.2~0.6 db,压缩速度提高了4~6倍.用硬件实现时如果采用并行和流水线操作,速度还可以进一步提高.

  17. Aerial service robotics: the AIRobots perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marconi, L.; Basile, F.; Caprari, G.; Carloni, R.; Chiacchio, P.; Hurzeler, C.; Lippiello, V.; Naldi, R.; Siciliano, B.; Stramigioli, S.; Zwicker, E.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the main vision and research activities of the ongoing European project AIRobots (Innova- tive Aerial Service Robot for Remote Inspection by Contact, www.airobots.eu). The goal of AIRobots is to develop a new generation of aerial service robots capable of supporting human beings

  18. Approximate Dynamic Programming and Aerial Refueling

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-06-01

    were values derived from “AFPAM 10-1403, AIR MOBILITY PLANNING FACTORS” used by the US Air Force when making gross calculations of aerial refueling...Aerial Refueling. U.S. Centennial of Flight Commision. centennialofflight.gov/essay/EvolutionofT echnology /refueling?Tech22.htm. 20003. 5 [6] DOD Needs

  19. Motion coordination for VTOL unmanned aerial vehicles attitude synchronisation and formation control

    CERN Document Server

    Abdessameud, Abdelkader

    2013-01-01

    Motion Coordination for VTOL Unmanned Aerial Vehicles develops new control design techniques for the distributed coordination of a team of autonomous unmanned aerial vehicles. In particular, it provides new control design approaches for the attitude synchronization of a formation of rigid body systems. In addition, by integrating new control design techniques with some concepts from nonlinear control theory and multi-agent systems, it presents  a new theoretical framework for the formation control of a class of under-actuated aerial vehicles capable of vertical take-off and landing. Several practical problems related to the systems’ inputs, states measurements, and  restrictions on the interconnection  topology  between the aerial vehicles in the team  are addressed. Worked examples with sufficient details and simulation results are provided to illustrate the applicability and effectiveness of the theoretical results discussed in the book. The material presented is primarily intended for researchers an...

  20. Getting Started with PEAs-Based Flapping-Wing Mechanisms for Micro Aerial Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Carlos Durán Hernández

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces recent advances on flapping-wing Micro and Nano Aerial Vehicles (MAVs and NAVs based on Piezoelectric Actuators (PEA. Therefore, this work provides essential information to address the development of such bio-inspired aerial robots. PEA are commonly used in micro-robotics and precise positioning applications (e.g., micro-positioning and micro-manipulation, whereas within the Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs domain, motors are the classical actuators used for rotary or fixed-wing configurations. Therefore, we consider it pertinent to provide essential information regarding the modeling and control of piezoelectric cantilever actuators to accelerate early design and development stages of aerial microrobots based on flapping-wing systems. In addition, the equations describing the aerodynamic behavior of a flapping-wing configuration are presented.

  1. The future of structural fieldwork - UAV assisted aerial photogrammetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollgger, Stefan; Cruden, Alexander

    2015-04-01

    Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), commonly referred to as drones, are opening new and low cost possibilities to acquire high-resolution aerial images and digital surface models (DSM) for applications in structural geology. UAVs can be programmed to fly autonomously along a user defined grid to systematically capture high-resolution photographs, even in difficult to access areas. The photographs are subsequently processed using software that employ SIFT (scale invariant feature transform) and SFM (structure from motion) algorithms. These photogrammetric routines allow the extraction of spatial information (3D point clouds, digital elevation models, 3D meshes, orthophotos) from 2D images. Depending on flight altitude and camera setup, sub-centimeter spatial resolutions can be achieved. By "digitally mapping" georeferenced 3D models and images, orientation data can be extracted directly and used to analyse the structural framework of the mapped object or area. We present UAV assisted aerial mapping results from a coastal platform near Cape Liptrap (Victoria, Australia), where deformed metasediments of the Palaeozoic Lachlan Fold Belt are exposed. We also show how orientation and spatial information of brittle and ductile structures extracted from the photogrammetric model can be linked to the progressive development of folds and faults in the region. Even though there are both technical and legislative limitations, which might prohibit the use of UAVs without prior commercial licensing and training, the benefits that arise from the resulting high-resolution, photorealistic models can substantially contribute to the collection of new data and insights for applications in structural geology.

  2. Análise das deposições da pulverização aérea simulando a aplicação de Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch na cultura da cana-de-açúcar Aerial spraying analysis for Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch application in sugarcane crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermes Geraldo Corrêa

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available Aplicações de inseticida biológico constituído de esporos do fungo Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch têm controlado satisfatoriamente a cigarrinha-da-cana, Mahanarva posticata (Stal, importante praga da cana-de-açúcar, em Alagoas. Este trabalho analisa as deposições da aplicação aérea na cultura da cana-de-açúcar, utilizando traçantes químicos e corantes. Foram determinados os depósitos do magnésio em fitas de papel acetinado colocadas transversalmente à linha de vôo e mediante análises de gotas recolhidas em cartões kromekote dispostos paralelamente às fitas. Nas condições em que as aplicações foram realizadas, verificou-se que nas faixas sobrepostas de 20 m, a recuperação foi de 44,5%,60% da qual se perde no solo de modo que, no final, apenas 18% do que foi aplicado efetivamente se deposita sobre a massa vegetal da cana. Portanto, se for realizada uma aplicação do entomopatógeno nas condições do ensaio, ela deverá apresentar uma deposição efetiva de aproximadamente 1/5 do total dos esporos aplicados por unidade de área.Biological control of spitthebug, Mahanarva posticata (Stal in sugarcane crop has been demonstrated possible and effective. Particular conditions in Northeastern of Brazil, where this pest causes severe damage, contribute to make aerial spraying suitable. Nevertheless, some good results in pest control are alternated with unsatisfactory ones. Some doubts on aerial spray application technology used have arisen, since technical information obtained in this Field are scarce. This trial was carried out in Alagoas State, Brazil, in 30-7-1985 with the aim of improving the efficiency of aerial application of the above biological pesticide mentioned. This paper presents some spray deposit patterns obtained with the Brazilian aircraft, namely IPANEMA EMB 201-A. The aerial spray application using this Brazilian aircraft and lane separations of 20 m, gave recovery of 44.5%, while 60% of it was lost in the

  3. Unmanned aerial survey of elephants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeulen, Cédric; Lejeune, Philippe; Lisein, Jonathan; Sawadogo, Prosper; Bouché, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    The use of a UAS (Unmanned Aircraft System) was tested to survey large mammals in the Nazinga Game Ranch in the south of Burkina Faso. The Gatewing ×100™ equipped with a Ricoh GR III camera was used to test animal reaction as the UAS passed, and visibility on the images. No reaction was recorded as the UAS passed at a height of 100 m. Observations, made on a set of more than 7000 images, revealed that only elephants (Loxodonta africana) were easily visible while medium and small sized mammals were not. The easy observation of elephants allows experts to enumerate them on images acquired at a height of 100 m. We, therefore, implemented an aerial strip sample count along transects used for the annual wildlife foot count. A total of 34 elephants were recorded on 4 transects, each overflown twice. The elephant density was estimated at 2.47 elephants/km(2) with a coefficient of variation (CV%) of 36.10%. The main drawback of our UAS was its low autonomy (45 min). Increased endurance of small UAS is required to replace manned aircraft survey of large areas (about 1000 km of transect per day vs 40 km for our UAS). The monitoring strategy should be adapted according to the sampling plan. Also, the UAS is as expensive as a second-hand light aircraft. However the logistic and flight implementation are easier, the running costs are lower and its use is safer. Technological evolution will make civil UAS more efficient, allowing them to compete with light aircraft for aerial wildlife surveys.

  4. Unmanned aerial survey of elephants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cédric Vermeulen

    Full Text Available The use of a UAS (Unmanned Aircraft System was tested to survey large mammals in the Nazinga Game Ranch in the south of Burkina Faso. The Gatewing ×100™ equipped with a Ricoh GR III camera was used to test animal reaction as the UAS passed, and visibility on the images. No reaction was recorded as the UAS passed at a height of 100 m. Observations, made on a set of more than 7000 images, revealed that only elephants (Loxodonta africana were easily visible while medium and small sized mammals were not. The easy observation of elephants allows experts to enumerate them on images acquired at a height of 100 m. We, therefore, implemented an aerial strip sample count along transects used for the annual wildlife foot count. A total of 34 elephants were recorded on 4 transects, each overflown twice. The elephant density was estimated at 2.47 elephants/km(2 with a coefficient of variation (CV% of 36.10%. The main drawback of our UAS was its low autonomy (45 min. Increased endurance of small UAS is required to replace manned aircraft survey of large areas (about 1000 km of transect per day vs 40 km for our UAS. The monitoring strategy should be adapted according to the sampling plan. Also, the UAS is as expensive as a second-hand light aircraft. However the logistic and flight implementation are easier, the running costs are lower and its use is safer. Technological evolution will make civil UAS more efficient, allowing them to compete with light aircraft for aerial wildlife surveys.

  5. Marker Detection in Aerial Images

    KAUST Repository

    Alharbi, Yazeed

    2017-04-09

    The problem that the thesis is trying to solve is the detection of small markers in high-resolution aerial images. Given a high-resolution image, the goal is to return the pixel coordinates corresponding to the center of the marker in the image. The marker has the shape of two triangles sharing a vertex in the middle, and it occupies no more than 0.01% of the image size. An improvement on the Histogram of Oriented Gradients (HOG) is proposed, eliminating the majority of baseline HOG false positives for marker detection. The improvement is guided by the observation that standard HOG description struggles to separate markers from negatives patches containing an X shape. The proposed method alters intensities with the aim of altering gradients. The intensity-dependent gradient alteration leads to more separation between filled and unfilled shapes. The improvement is used in a two-stage algorithm to achieve high recall and high precision in detection of markers in aerial images. In the first stage, two classifiers are used: one to quickly eliminate most of the uninteresting parts of the image, and one to carefully select the marker among the remaining interesting regions. Interesting regions are selected by scanning the image with a fast classifier trained on the HOG features of markers in all rotations and scales. The next classifier is more precise and uses our method to eliminate the majority of the false positives of standard HOG. In the second stage, detected markers are tracked forward and backward in time. Tracking is needed to detect extremely blurred or distorted markers that are missed by the previous stage. The algorithm achieves 94% recall with minimal user guidance. An average of 30 guesses are given per image; the user verifies for each whether it is a marker or not. The brute force approach would return 100,000 guesses per image.

  6. The DOE ARM Aerial Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmid, Beat; Tomlinson, Jason M.; Hubbe, John M.; Comstock, Jennifer M.; Mei, Fan; Chand, Duli; Pekour, Mikhail S.; Kluzek, Celine D.; Andrews, Elisabeth; Biraud, S.; McFarquhar, Greg

    2014-05-01

    The Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program is a climate research user facility operating stationary ground sites that provide long-term measurements of climate relevant properties, mobile ground- and ship-based facilities to conduct shorter field campaigns (6-12 months), and the ARM Aerial Facility (AAF). The airborne observations acquired by the AAF enhance the surface-based ARM measurements by providing high-resolution in-situ measurements for process understanding, retrieval-algorithm development, and model evaluation that are not possible using ground- or satellite-based techniques. Several ARM aerial efforts were consolidated into the AAF in 2006. With the exception of a small aircraft used for routine measurements of aerosols and carbon cycle gases, AAF at the time had no dedicated aircraft and only a small number of instruments at its disposal. In this "virtual hangar" mode, AAF successfully carried out several missions contracting with organizations and investigators who provided their research aircraft and instrumentation. In 2009, AAF started managing operations of the Battelle-owned Gulfstream I (G-1) large twin-turboprop research aircraft. Furthermore, the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 provided funding for the procurement of over twenty new instruments to be used aboard the G-1 and other AAF virtual-hangar aircraft. AAF now executes missions in the virtual- and real-hangar mode producing freely available datasets for studying aerosol, cloud, and radiative processes in the atmosphere. AAF is also engaged in the maturation and testing of newly developed airborne sensors to help foster the next generation of airborne instruments.

  7. 优于0.2m分辨率航空影像在农村地籍调查中的应用研究%Application Research of 0 .2 m Resolution Aerial Image in Rural Cadastral Survey

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶海全

    2015-01-01

    基于福建省开展农村地籍调查与不动产登记的需求,使用优于0.2 m分辨率航空影像,探讨航测技术应用于农村地籍调查中的适宜性与可靠性。通过选取4个具有代表我省地形地貌特点的区域,分别采用航测法与图解法对农村地籍要素进行量测,统计分析量测的界址点所能达到的数学精度,阐述航测技术中精度控制的关键技术。通过实验研究,最后对我省开展农村地籍调查合理的施测方案进行总结。%Based on Fujian province to carry out the rural cadastral survey and the demand of the real estate registration, use better than 0.2 m resolution aerial images, research aerial technology applied in the rural cadastral survey of the suitability and reliability. By choosing four representative area of landform characteristics of Fujian province, respectively, using the method of aerial survey and graphic survey method for the rural cadastral elements measurement, statistical analysis the results of measurement can achieve mathe-matical precision, expound accuracy control of key technologies in the aerial technology.Through experimental research, Summarized our province carry out the rural cadastral survey reasonable measuring scheme.

  8. 7 CFR 611.21 - Availability of aerial photography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Availability of aerial photography. 611.21 Section 611... § 611.21 Availability of aerial photography. The National Cartography and Geospatial Center obtains necessary clearance for all aerial photography for NRCS. New aerial photography of designated areas in...

  9. 7 CFR 1755.506 - Aerial wire services

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... ft (76 m). (f) To reduce vibration and galloping, aerial service wire shall be twisted one complete... than four aerial service wires shall be distributed from any one 7/16 in. (10 mm) drive hook, or more than two aerial service wires from any one 5/16 in. (8 mm) drive hook. Aerial service wires and...

  10. Chemical fingerprint and simultaneous determination of alkaloids and flavonoids in aerial parts of genus Peganum indigenous to China based on HPLC-UV: application of analysis on secondary metabolites accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Fangfang; Cheng, Xuemei; Liu, Wei; Xuan, Min; Zhang, Lei; Zhao, Xin; Shan, Meng; Li, Yan; Teng, Liang; Wang, Zhengtao; Wang, Changhong

    2014-12-01

    The aerial parts of genus Peganum are officially used in traditional Chinese medicine. The paper aims to establish a high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method for fingerprint analysis and simultaneous determination of three alkaloids and two flavonoids in aerial parts of genus Peganum, and to analyze accumulative difference of secondary metabolites in inter-species, individuals of plants, inter-/intra-population and from different growing seasons. HPLC analysis was performed on a C18 column with gradient elution using 0.1% trifloroacetic acid and acetonitrile as mobile phase and detected at 265 nm, by conventional methodology validation. For fingerprint analysis, the RSDs of relative retention time and relative peak area of the characteristic peaks were within 0.07-0.78 and 0.94-9.09%, respectively. For simultaneous determination of vasicine, harmaline, harmine, deacetylpeganetin and peganetin, all calibration curves showed good linearity (r > 0.9990) within the test range. The relative standard deviations of precision, repeatability and stability test did not exceed 2.37, 2.68 and 2.67%, respectively. The average recoveries for the five analytes were between 96.47 and 101.20%. HPLC fingerprints play a minor role in authenticating and differentiating the herbs of different species of genus Peganum. However, the secondary metabolites levels of alkaloids and flavonoids in aerial parts of genus Peganum rely on species-, habitat-, and growth season-dependent accumulation.

  11. Oblique Aerial Imagery for NMA - Some best Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remondino, F.; Toschi, I.; Gerke, M.; Nex, F.; Holland, D.; McGill, A.; Talaya Lopez, J.; Magarinos, A.

    2016-06-01

    Oblique airborne photogrammetry is rapidly maturing and being offered by service providers as a good alternative or replacement of the more traditional vertical imagery and for very different applications (Fig.1). EuroSDR, representing European National Mapping Agencies (NMAs) and research organizations of most EU states, is following the development of oblique aerial cameras since 2013, when an ongoing activity was created to continuously update its members on the developments in this technology. Nowadays most European NMAs still rely on the traditional workflow based on vertical photography but changes are slowly taking place also at production level. Some NMAs have already run some tests internally to understand the potential for their needs whereas other agencies are discussing on the future role of this technology and how to possibly adapt their production pipelines. At the same time, some research institutions and academia demonstrated the potentialities of oblique aerial datasets to generate textured 3D city models or large building block models. The paper provides an overview of tests, best practices and considerations coming from the R&D community and from three European NMAs concerning the use of oblique aerial imagery.

  12. Automatic Sea Bird Detection from High Resolution Aerial Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mader, S.; Grenzdörffer, G. J.

    2016-06-01

    Great efforts are presently taken in the scientific community to develop computerized and (fully) automated image processing methods allowing for an efficient and automatic monitoring of sea birds and marine mammals in ever-growing amounts of aerial imagery. Currently the major part of the processing, however, is still conducted by especially trained professionals, visually examining the images and detecting and classifying the requested subjects. This is a very tedious task, particularly when the rate of void images regularly exceeds the mark of 90%. In the content of this contribution we will present our work aiming to support the processing of aerial images by modern methods from the field of image processing. We will especially focus on the combination of local, region-based feature detection and piecewise global image segmentation for automatic detection of different sea bird species. Large image dimensions resulting from the use of medium and large-format digital cameras in aerial surveys inhibit the applicability of image processing methods based on global operations. In order to efficiently handle those image sizes and to nevertheless take advantage of globally operating segmentation algorithms, we will describe the combined usage of a simple performant feature detector based on local operations on the original image with a complex global segmentation algorithm operating on extracted sub-images. The resulting exact segmentation of possible candidates then serves as a basis for the determination of feature vectors for subsequent elimination of false candidates and for classification tasks.

  13. Time synchronization of consumer cameras on Micro Aerial Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehak, M.; Skaloud, J.

    2017-01-01

    This article discusses the problem of time registration between navigation and imaging components on Micro Aerial Vehicles (MAVs). Accurate mapping with MAVs is gaining importance in applications such as corridor mapping, road and pipeline inspections or mapping of large areas with homogeneous surface structure, e.g. forests or agricultural fields. Therefore, accurate aerial control plays a major role in efficient reconstruction of the terrain and artifact-free ortophoto generation. A key prerequisite is correct time stamping of images in global time frame as the sensor exterior orientation changes rapidly and its determination by navigation sensors influence the mapping accuracy on the ground. A majority of MAVs is equipped with consumer-grade, non-metric cameras for which the precise time registration with navigation components is not trivial to realize and its performance not easy to assess. In this paper, we study the problematic of synchronization by implementing and evaluating spatio-temporal observation models of aerial control to estimate residual delay of the imaging sensor. Such modeling is possible through inclusion of additional velocity and angular rate observations into the adjustment. This moves the optimization problem from 3D to 4D. The benefit of this approach is verified on real mapping projects using a custom build MAV and an off-the-shelf camera.

  14. Toward autonomous avian-inspired grasping for micro aerial vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Justin; Loianno, Giuseppe; Polin, Joseph; Sreenath, Koushil; Kumar, Vijay

    2014-06-01

    Micro aerial vehicles, particularly quadrotors, have been used in a wide range of applications. However, the literature on aerial manipulation and grasping is limited and the work is based on quasi-static models. In this paper, we draw inspiration from agile, fast-moving birds such as raptors, that are able to capture moving prey on the ground or in water, and develop similar capabilities for quadrotors. We address dynamic grasping, an approach to prehensile grasping in which the dynamics of the robot and its gripper are significant and must be explicitly modeled and controlled for successful execution. Dynamic grasping is relevant for fast pick-and-place operations, transportation and delivery of objects, and placing or retrieving sensors. We show how this capability can be realized (a) using a motion capture system and (b) without external sensors relying only on onboard sensors. In both cases we describe the dynamic model, and trajectory planning and control algorithms. In particular, we present a methodology for flying and grasping a cylindrical object using feedback from a monocular camera and an inertial measurement unit onboard the aerial robot. This is accomplished by mapping the dynamics of the quadrotor to a level virtual image plane, which in turn enables dynamically-feasible trajectory planning for image features in the image space, and a vision-based controller with guaranteed convergence properties. We also present experimental results obtained with a quadrotor equipped with an articulated gripper to illustrate both approaches.

  15. Oblique Aerial Photography Tool for Building Inspection and Damage Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murtiyoso, A.; Remondino, F.; Rupnik, E.; Nex, F.; Grussenmeyer, P.

    2014-11-01

    Aerial photography has a long history of being employed for mapping purposes due to some of its main advantages, including large area imaging from above and minimization of field work. Since few years multi-camera aerial systems are becoming a practical sensor technology across a growing geospatial market, as complementary to the traditional vertical views. Multi-camera aerial systems capture not only the conventional nadir views, but also tilted images at the same time. In this paper, a particular use of such imagery in the field of building inspection as well as disaster assessment is addressed. The main idea is to inspect a building from four cardinal directions by using monoplotting functionalities. The developed application allows to measure building height and distances and to digitize man-made structures, creating 3D surfaces and building models. The realized GUI is capable of identifying a building from several oblique points of views, as well as calculates the approximate height of buildings, ground distances and basic vectorization. The geometric accuracy of the results remains a function of several parameters, namely image resolution, quality of available parameters (DEM, calibration and orientation values), user expertise and measuring capability.

  16. Aerial monitoring in active mud volcano by UAV technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisciotta, Antonino; Capasso, Giorgio; Madonia, Paolo

    2016-04-01

    UAV photogrammetry opens various new applications in the close range domain, combining aerial and terrestrial photogrammetry, but also introduces low-cost alternatives to the classical manned aerial photogrammetry. Between 2014 and 2015 tree aerial surveys have been carried out. Using a quadrotor drone, equipped with a compact camera, it was possible to generate high resolution elevation models and orthoimages of The "Salinelle", an active mud volcanoes area, located in territory of Paternò (South Italy). The main risks are related to the damages produced by paroxysmal events. Mud volcanoes show different cyclic phases of activity, including catastrophic events and periods of relative quiescence characterized by moderate activity. Ejected materials often are a mud slurry of fine solids suspended in liquids which may include water and hydrocarbon fluids, the bulk of released gases are carbon dioxide, with some methane and nitrogen, usually pond-shaped of variable dimension (from centimeters to meters in diameter). The scope of the presented work is the performance evaluation of a UAV system that was built to rapidly and autonomously acquire mobile three-dimensional (3D) mapping data in a volcanic monitoring scenario.

  17. Combining Human Computing and Machine Learning to Make Sense of Big (Aerial) Data for Disaster Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ofli, Ferda; Meier, Patrick; Imran, Muhammad; Castillo, Carlos; Tuia, Devis; Rey, Nicolas; Briant, Julien; Millet, Pauline; Reinhard, Friedrich; Parkan, Matthew; Joost, Stéphane

    2016-03-01

    Aerial imagery captured via unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) is playing an increasingly important role in disaster response. Unlike satellite imagery, aerial imagery can be captured and processed within hours rather than days. In addition, the spatial resolution of aerial imagery is an order of magnitude higher than the imagery produced by the most sophisticated commercial satellites today. Both the United States Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) and the European Commission's Joint Research Center (JRC) have noted that aerial imagery will inevitably present a big data challenge. The purpose of this article is to get ahead of this future challenge by proposing a hybrid crowdsourcing and real-time machine learning solution to rapidly process large volumes of aerial data for disaster response in a time-sensitive manner. Crowdsourcing can be used to annotate features of interest in aerial images (such as damaged shelters and roads blocked by debris). These human-annotated features can then be used to train a supervised machine learning system to learn to recognize such features in new unseen images. In this article, we describe how this hybrid solution for image analysis can be implemented as a module (i.e., Aerial Clicker) to extend an existing platform called Artificial Intelligence for Disaster Response (AIDR), which has already been deployed to classify microblog messages during disasters using its Text Clicker module and in response to Cyclone Pam, a category 5 cyclone that devastated Vanuatu in March 2015. The hybrid solution we present can be applied to both aerial and satellite imagery and has applications beyond disaster response such as wildlife protection, human rights, and archeological exploration. As a proof of concept, we recently piloted this solution using very high-resolution aerial photographs of a wildlife reserve in Namibia to support rangers with their wildlife conservation efforts (SAVMAP project, http://lasig.epfl.ch/savmap ). The

  18. Application of the UAV aerial technique in evaluation of flash flood disasters%无人机航测技术在山洪灾害调查评价中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘昌军; 郭良; 岳冲

    2014-01-01

    利用无人机航测技术获取影像分辨率高、机动灵活、不受天气和复杂地形影响的技术特点,提出将无人机低空航测技术应用于获取复杂山丘区小流域基础地理信息资料。以陕西商洛某小流域调查评价应用为例,系统地介绍了应用无人机航测技术获取调查评价所需的高清晰航片、高精度DEM、河道断面、居民沿高程展布以及地表植被和土地利用分类信息的流程与方法,提出了各个环节关键技术的解决方案,编制了基于无人机航测技术的数据处理软件。应用案例表明,该方法可以快速获取山丘区小流域内的高清晰航片,数据处理速度快,精度高,能够满足山洪灾害调查评价工作要求,获取的数据可大大提高洪水预报的精度。该技术在即将开展的全国山洪灾害调查评价工作中将发挥巨大作用,具有较大的应用前景。%Taking advantage of the UAV aerial technology’s characteristics of high resolution images, flexibility, and suitable for wide weather and topographic conditions , low-altitude UAV aerial system is built for obtaining basic geographic information data in smal watersheds of complicate hil y terrain. Taking a smal watershed in Shangluo of Shanxi province as an example, the procedures and methods of using UVA aerial techniques are systematical y introduced to obtain high-resolution aerial photos, high-precision DEM, river cross-sections, residential housing distribution along hil sides, as wel as the ground vegetation and land use classification. The solutions of the key technology issues in al aspects are proposed, data processing software is developed based on UAV aerial technology. The case study show that the system can be used to quickly obtain high-resolution aerial photographs in smal watershed of hil y region to meet the data requirements of rapid processing and high precision for investigation and evaluation of flash flood

  19. Atlantic Protected Species Assessment Aerial Surveys

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data sets include a compilation of aerial line-transect surveys conducted over continental shelf waters of the southeastern U.S. Surveys have been conducted...

  20. Aerial Gamma-Ray Surveys in Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Data generated by aerial sensing of radiation emanating from the earth's surface in Alaska provides general estimates of the geographic distribution of Uranium,...

  1. Dropsonde System for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A small, modular dropsonde launcher is being developed for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs). Some critical measurement needs can only be satisfied by in-situ...

  2. Douglas County Historical Rectified Aerial Photos 1954

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — This raster dataset consists of approximately 200 aerial photographs taken in 1954 in Douglas county, Kansas, United States. The Douglas County Public Works...

  3. Douglas County Historical Rectified Aerial Photos 1937

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — This raster dataset consists of approximately 200 aerial photographs taken in 1937 in Douglas county, Kansas, United States. The Douglas County Public Works...

  4. Coverage for SCS Pre-1941 Aerial Photography

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This shapefile was generated by the U.S. Bureau of Land Management (BLM) at the New Mexico State Office to show the coverage for the Pre-1941 aerial photography...

  5. Persistent Aerial Tracking system for UAVs

    KAUST Repository

    Mueller, Matthias

    2016-12-19

    In this paper, we propose a persistent, robust and autonomous object tracking system for unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) called Persistent Aerial Tracking (PAT). A computer vision and control strategy is applied to a diverse set of moving objects (e.g. humans, animals, cars, boats, etc.) integrating multiple UAVs with a stabilized RGB camera. A novel strategy is employed to successfully track objects over a long period, by ‘handing over the camera’ from one UAV to another. We evaluate several state-of-the-art trackers on the VIVID aerial video dataset and additional sequences that are specifically tailored to low altitude UAV target tracking. Based on the evaluation, we select the leading tracker and improve upon it by optimizing for both speed and performance, integrate the complete system into an off-the-shelf UAV, and obtain promising results showing the robustness of our solution in real-world aerial scenarios.

  6. Planning and decision making for aerial robots

    CERN Document Server

    Bestaoui Sebbane, Yasmina

    2014-01-01

    This book provides an introduction to the emerging field of planning and decision making for aerial robots. An aerial robot is the ultimate form of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle, an aircraft endowed with built-in intelligence, requiring no direct human control and able to perform a specific task. It must be able to fly within a partially structured environment, to react and adapt to changing environmental conditions and to accommodate for the uncertainty that exists in the physical world. An aerial robot can be termed as a physical agent that exists and flies in the real 3D world, can sense its environment and act on it to achieve specific goals. So throughout this book, an aerial robot will also be termed as an agent.   Fundamental problems in aerial robotics include the tasks of spatial motion, spatial sensing and spatial reasoning. Reasoning in complex environments represents a difficult problem. The issues specific to spatial reasoning are planning and decision making. Planning deals with the trajectory algori...

  7. Endurance bounds of aerial systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, Aaron M.; Kroninger, Christopher M.

    2014-06-01

    Within the past few years micro aerial vehicles (MAVs) have received much more attention and are starting to proliferate into military as well as civilian roles. However, one of the major drawbacks for this technology currently, has been their poor endurance, usually below 10 minutes. This is a direct result of the inefficiencies inherent in their design. Often times, designers do not consider the various components in the vehicle design and match their performance to the desired mission for the vehicle. These vehicles lack a prescribed set of design guidelines or empirically derived design equations which often limits their design to selection of commercial off-the-shelf components without proper consideration of their affect on vehicle performance. In the current study, the design space for different vehicle configurations has been examined including insect flapping, avian flapping, rotary wing, and fixed wing, and their performance bounds are established. The propulsion system typical of a rotary wing vehicle is analyzed to establish current baselines for efficiency of vehicles at this scale. The power draw from communications is analyzed to determine its impact on vehicle performance. Finally, a representative fixed wing MAV is examined and the effects of adaptive structures as a means for increasing vehicle endurance and range are examined. This paper seeks to establish the performance bounds for micro air vehicles and establish a path forward for future designs so that efficiency may be maximized.

  8. Aplicação aérea de fungicidas na cultura do arroz irrigado com diferentes bicos de pulverização Aerial fungicide application on irrigated lowland rice with varying spraying nozzles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tânia Bayer

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Na safra agrícola 2007/2008, foi realizado um estudo com o objetivo de avaliar a deposição e penetração de gotas através de cartões hidrossensíveis e análise cromatográfica. Para isso, utilizaram-se o bico eletrostático, bico hidráulico e atomizadores rotativos de discos com diferentes volumes de calda. As pulverizações foram realizadas no estádio R3 da cultura, com aeronave Ipanema EMB-202, aplicando-se fungicida trifloxistrobina + propiconazole. Através da leitura de cartões hidrossensíveis, determinou-se a densidade de gotas, o diâmetro médio numérico, diâmetro médio volumétrico, amplitude relativa e a penetração de gotas no dossel (%. Também foi utilizada a análise cromatográfica para determinar a penetração do produto no alvo biológico. O bico hidráulico, com taxa de aplicação de 20L ha-1 e 30L ha-1, e o bico eletrostático, com taxa de aplicação de 10L ha-1, obtiveram maior densidade de gotas no terço superior. O uso de atomizadores rotativos de disco com volume de calda de 15L ha-1 apresentou maior densidade de gotas no terço médio e inferior. Para diâmetro médio volumétrico, os bicos eletrostáticos juntamente com os atomizadores rotativos de discos apresentaram os menores valores. A maior homogeneidade de gotas no terço superior foi obtida com atomizadores rotativos de disco com taxa de aplicação de 6L ha-1 e 10L ha-¹. A análise cromatográfica mostrou que a maior quantidade de produto foi retida com bicos eletrostáticos com taxa de aplicação de 10L ha- ¹ no extrato inferior da planta.In the harvest year of 2007/2008 a study was carried to evaluate the droplets deposition and penetration throughout water sensible cards and gas chromatographic analysis. Were used the hydraulic nozzle, electrostatic nozzle and rotary-disk atomizer spraying systems, with different volumes of spray solution. Aerial applications were performed at R3 stage using the aircraft Ipanema EMB-202 and the fungicide

  9. Unmanned Aerial Vehicles Based Hyperspectral Remote Sensing Techniques For Agricultural Applications%基于旋翼无人机的农业低空高光谱遥感技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高辉; 王秋平; 赵新刚; 潘从元

    2016-01-01

    方法,用于微型成像光谱仪;(4)提出并实施了无人机悬停状态时通过反射镜旋转,实现光谱数据的采集和矫正;(5)建立基于低空高光谱遥感信息的应用模型,得到农作物不同生育期的成像光谱仪遥感反演模型和相应灾害遥感反演模型,为精准农业的实际应用提供依据。同时还开发了计算机软件进行快速数据获取和存储,并可在短时间内完成测得光谱的拼接和数据处理。本报告研究成果还可以应用于环境、食品等科研和企业单位,可以为农业科研、生产管理、农产品质量检测、食品检测及环境生态检测等提供更好的技术手段。%Modern agriculture needs the crop spectral information in a large area in time. The spatial resolved spectral information will give the status of crop growth, nutrient and water, which is the basic information for field management as fertilization, irrigation and spraying.So imaging spectral information is the base of digital agriculture. To exploit the spectral information, a spectral information processing model is established that is based on corps’ reflect spectrum, to find out the leaf area index, nitrogen, moisture and disease Several research results are obtained based on the model. At present, above data processing model is based on the ground spectral information and satellite remote-sensing spectral information, the accuracy of the model is limited by the specific experiment conditions (different time, different height and different spatial resolution). To improve the accuracy of the data model. The low attitude hyperspectal remote sensing platform based on unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) is proposed. The platform employs the unmanned aerial vehicle and the image spectrometer, which can be used to get high spatial resolution image and high spectral resolution information for a large area.Combined the UAV based hyperspectral information and the satellite based

  10. Preservation potential of subtle glacial landforms based on detailed mapping of recently exposed proglacial areas: application of unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) and structure-from-motion (SfM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewertowski, Marek; Evans, David; Roberts, David; Tomczyk, Aleksandra; Ewertowski, Wojciech

    2016-04-01

    Ongoing glacier retreat results in the continuous exposure of proglacial areas. Such areas contain invaluable information about glacial process-form relationships manifest in specific landform assemblages. However, preservation potential of freshly exposed glacial landforms is very low, as proglacial terrains are one of the most dynamic parts of the landscape. Therefore, rapid mapping and geomorphological characterisation of such areas is important from a glaciological and geomorphological point of view for proper understanding and reconstruction of glacier-landform dynamics and chronology of glacial events. Annual patterns of recession and relatively small areas exposed every year, mean that the performing of regular aerial or satellite survey is expensive and therefore impractical. Recent advances in technology enables the development of low-cost alternatives for traditional aerial surveys. Small unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) can be used to acquire high-resolution (several cm) low-altitude photographs. The UAV-based photographs can be subsequently processed through the structure-from-motion process to generate detailed orthophotomaps and digital elevation models. In this study we present case studies from the forelands of various glaciers on Iceland and Svalbard representing different types of proglacial landscapes: Fláajökull (annual push moraines); Hofellsjökul (bedrock bedforms and push moraines); Fjallsjökull (marginal drainage network); Rieperbreen (crevasse squeeze ridges and longitudinal debris stripes); Ayerbreen (transverse debris ridges); Foxfonna (longitudinal debris stripes);Hørbyebreen (geometric ridge network); Nordenskiöldbreen (fluted till surface); Ebbabreen (controlled moraine complex). UAV campaigns were conducted using a low-cost quadcopter platform. Resultant orthophotos and DEMs enabled mapping and assessment of recent glacial landscape development in different types of glacial landsystems. Results of our study indicate that

  11. Application of WLAN and unmanned aerial vehicle in emergency rescue of natural hazards%WLAN技术及无人机在灾害应急救援中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋玉付; 韦丽娜

    2015-01-01

    The conventional communication network could be damaged seriously in natural hazards , which will cause communi-cation interruption and bring significant difficulties to the rescue work .The quick and efficient establishment of air base station by combination of WLAN and unmanned aerial vehicle can provide reliable communication guarantee for the troops in implementing the emergency rescue .The development and characteristics of WLAN and unmanned aerial vehicle are introduced .The feasibility of establishing the air base station by combination of WLAN and unmanned aerial vehicle is analyzed and discussed technically . This method can provide reference for the troop's communication in their complicated rescue work .%自然灾害发生时,传统通信网络将会受到严重损毁,造成通信中断,给应急救援带来极大困难。采用WLAN技术与无人机技术相结合,快速高效搭建空中基站,为应急救援提供可靠通信保障。简要阐述了WLAN技术、无人机技术的发展历程及特点,对使用WLAN技术和无人机结合搭建空中基站可用性进行了技术性分析,此保障方式可为部队参与复杂应急救援行动中的通信保障提供借鉴。

  12. Delayed Monocular SLAM Approach Applied to Unmanned Aerial Vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munguia, Rodrigo; Urzua, Sarquis; Grau, Antoni

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, many researchers have addressed the issue of making Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) more and more autonomous. In this context, the state estimation of the vehicle position is a fundamental necessity for any application involving autonomy. However, the problem of position estimation could not be solved in some scenarios, even when a GPS signal is available, for instance, an application requiring performing precision manoeuvres in a complex environment. Therefore, some additional sensory information should be integrated into the system in order to improve accuracy and robustness. In this work, a novel vision-based simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM) method with application to unmanned aerial vehicles is proposed. One of the contributions of this work is to design and develop a novel technique for estimating features depth which is based on a stochastic technique of triangulation. In the proposed method the camera is mounted over a servo-controlled gimbal that counteracts the changes in attitude of the quadcopter. Due to the above assumption, the overall problem is simplified and it is focused on the position estimation of the aerial vehicle. Also, the tracking process of visual features is made easier due to the stabilized video. Another contribution of this work is to demonstrate that the integration of very noisy GPS measurements into the system for an initial short period of time is enough to initialize the metric scale. The performance of this proposed method is validated by means of experiments with real data carried out in unstructured outdoor environments. A comparative study shows that, when compared with related methods, the proposed approach performs better in terms of accuracy and computational time.

  13. D City Transformations by Time Series of Aerial Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adami, A.

    2015-02-01

    Recent photogrammetric applications, based on dense image matching algorithms, allow to use not only images acquired by digital cameras, amateur or not, but also to recover the vast heritage of analogue photographs. This possibility opens up many possibilities in the use and enhancement of existing photos heritage. The research of the original figuration of old buildings, the virtual reconstruction of disappeared architectures and the study of urban development are some of the application areas that exploit the great cultural heritage of photography. Nevertheless there are some restrictions in the use of historical images for automatic reconstruction of buildings such as image quality, availability of camera parameters and ineffective geometry of image acquisition. These constrains are very hard to solve and it is difficult to discover good dataset in the case of terrestrial close range photogrammetry for the above reasons. Even the photographic archives of museums and superintendence, while retaining a wealth of documentation, have no dataset for a dense image matching approach. Compared to the vast collection of historical photos, the class of aerial photos meets both criteria stated above. In this paper historical aerial photographs are used with dense image matching algorithms to realize 3d models of a city in different years. The models can be used to study the urban development of the city and its changes through time. The application relates to the city centre of Verona, for which some time series of aerial photographs have been retrieved. The models obtained in this way allowed, right away, to observe the urban development of the city, the places of expansion and new urban areas. But a more interesting aspect emerged from the analytical comparison between models. The difference, as the Euclidean distance, between two models gives information about new buildings or demolitions. As considering accuracy it is necessary point out that the quality of final

  14. Technology Research and Application of Video Information Analysis to Aerial Detection Overhead Transmission Line%架空输电线路航检视频信息分析技术研究与应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    关鑫; 毛鹏飞; 丁磊

    2015-01-01

    针对架空输电线路直升机巡检作业过程中航检员出现的塔号记录错误、影像资料不全、防鸟设施未作统计和缺陷遗漏等问题,采用了航检视频信息分析技术,对航检员所录制的高清航检视频进行分析整理,按照固定模式、顺序对线路通道、导线、杆塔连接金具挂点等重点部位进行截图编号分析,对输电线路存在的安全隐患问题进行检查,并建立输电线路航检视频分析数据库。该项技术的应用解决了航检员航检过程中塔号记录错误和一般缺陷遗漏的问题,提高了直升机巡检效率、质量和准确性,实现了对输电线路通道内情况、铁塔防鸟设施、防雷设施等数据统计,为输电线路运行、维护和管理提供依据。%The tower number recording error, the imperfect image data, and the uncluded anti-bird facilities occured during the process of aerial detection overhead transmission line. Use video information analysis technology to sort out high definition video recorded by the infrared video navigation inspectors, make an analysis of screen capture and numbering on the important parts of the fixed mode, order on line channel, wire, and tower connection hardware hanging point, check over the risks existed on the transmission line, and establish the video analysis database of transmission line aerial detection. The technology solves the problems of recording error and the general defect missing during the process of aerial detection, improves the efficiency, the quality and the accuracy of aerial detection, realizes the data statistics of transmission line channel condition, the bird-proof installations on the tower, and lightning protection facilities, which provides the theoretical foundition for the power transmission line operation, maintenance and management.

  15. Fuel cells: a real option for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles propulsion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Espasandín, Óscar; Leo, Teresa J; Navarro-Arévalo, Emilio

    2014-01-01

    The possibility of implementing fuel cell technology in Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) propulsion systems is considered. Potential advantages of the Proton Exchange Membrane or Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEMFC) and Direct Methanol Fuel Cells (DMFC), their fuels (hydrogen and methanol), and their storage systems are revised from technical and environmental standpoints. Some operating commercial applications are described. Main constraints for these kinds of fuel cells are analyzed in order to elucidate the viability of future developments. Since the low power density is the main problem of fuel cells, hybridization with electric batteries, necessary in most cases, is also explored.

  16. Fuel Cells: A Real Option for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles Propulsion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Óscar González-Espasandín

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The possibility of implementing fuel cell technology in Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV propulsion systems is considered. Potential advantages of the Proton Exchange Membrane or Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEMFC and Direct Methanol Fuel Cells (DMFC, their fuels (hydrogen and methanol, and their storage systems are revised from technical and environmental standpoints. Some operating commercial applications are described. Main constraints for these kinds of fuel cells are analyzed in order to elucidate the viability of future developments. Since the low power density is the main problem of fuel cells, hybridization with electric batteries, necessary in most cases, is also explored.

  17. Automatic geolocation of targets tracked by aerial imaging platforms using satellite imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, P. K.; Goel, S.; Singh, P.; Lohani, B.

    2014-11-01

    Tracking of targets from aerial platforms is an important activity in several applications, especially surveillance. Knowled ge of geolocation of these targets adds additional significant and useful information to the application. This paper determines the geolocation of a target being tracked from an aerial platform using the technique of image registration. Current approaches utilize a POS to determine the location of the aerial platform and then use the same for geolocation of the targets using the principle of photogrammetry. The constraints of cost and low-payload restrict the applicability of this approach using UAV platforms. This paper proposes a methodology for determining the geolocation of a target tracked from an aerial platform in a partially GPS devoid environment. The method utilises automatic feature based registration technique of a georeferenced satellite image with an ae rial image which is already stored in UAV's database to retrieve the geolocation of the target. Since it is easier to register subsequent aerial images due to similar viewing parameters, the subsequent overlapping images are registered together sequentially thus resulting in the registration of each of the images with georeferenced satellite image thus leading to geolocation of the target under interest. Using the proposed approach, the target can be tracked in all the frames in which it is visible. The proposed concept is verified experimentally and the results are found satisfactory. Using the proposed method, a user can obtain location of target of interest as well features on ground without requiring any POS on-board the aerial platform. The proposed approach has applications in surveillance for target tracking, target geolocation as well as in disaster management projects like search and rescue operations.

  18. Application of unmanned aerial vehicle remote sensing in greenbelt research of Yanchi County%无人机遥感在宁夏盐池县城区绿地调查中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫军; 张允

    2011-01-01

    Unmanned aerial vehicle remote sensing is one of the important tools in remote sensing data acquisition.It has many advantages,such as high resolution,good data acquisition flexibility,and so on.We utilized unmanned aerial vehicle for taking photos of the town of Yanchi County.High resolution photos were acquired.The greenbelt distribution of Yanchi town was interpreted with eyes.The data was analyzed and better efforts were realized.%无人机遥感具有成像分辨率高、数据获取灵活等优点,是遥感数据获取的重要工具之一.通过对宁夏盐池县城区进行无人机航拍,获得高分辨率影像数据,并对盐池县城区的绿地分布进行遥感目视解译,对数据进行统计分析.调查结果可以为盐池县创建国家园林县城工作提供重要的参考依据.

  19. Gibberellin-induced inhibition and promotion of sprouting in aerial tubers of Begonia evansiana Andr. in relation to photoperiodic treatment and tuber stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okagami, N; Esashi, Y; Nagao, M

    1977-01-01

    Gibberellic-acid (GA3) treatment, when applied within a period ranging from the start of short-day (SD) treatment until about 10 SD, GA3 strongly inhibited formation of aerial tubers in response to SD and brought about sprouting of developing aerial tubers. In contrast, when applied after about 10 SD or more, GA3 hastened the completion of the dormant state in the tubers and prolonged their dormancy. The dormancy-promoting effect of GA3 on detached tubers increased with their degree of maturation. Application of growth retardants N-dimethylaminosuccinamic acid (B-9), 2-isopropyl-4-dimethylamino-5-methylphenyl-1-piperidine carboxylate methyl chloride (AMO-1618) and 2-chloroethyltrimethylammonium chloride (CCC) to the cuttings delayed the onset of dormancy in the aerial tuber. When the retardants were applied to detached aerial tubers, however, such a delay of dormancy was not observed, and GA3 application did not inhibit sprouting in aerial tubers detached from CCC-treated cuttings.

  20. Observing river stages using unmanned aerial vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niedzielski, Tomasz; Witek, Matylda; Spallek, Waldemar

    2016-08-01

    We elaborated a new method for observing water surface areas and river stages using unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). It is based on processing multitemporal five orthophotomaps produced from the UAV-taken visible light images of nine sites of the river, acquired with a sufficient overlap in each part. Water surface areas are calculated in the first place, and subsequently expressed as fractions of total areas of water-covered terrain at a given site of the river recorded on five dates. The logarithms of the fractions are later calculated, producing five samples, each consisted of nine elements. In order to detect statistically significant increments of water surface areas between two orthophotomaps, we apply the asymptotic and bootstrapped versions of the Student's t test, preceded by other tests that aim to check model assumptions. The procedure is applied to five orthophotomaps covering nine sites of the Ścinawka river (south-western (SW) Poland). The data have been acquired during the experimental campaign, at which flight settings were kept unchanged over nearly 3 years (2012-2014). We have found that it is possible to detect transitions between water surface areas associated with all characteristic water levels (low, mean, intermediate and high stages). In addition, we infer that the identified transitions hold for characteristic river stages as well. In the experiment we detected all increments of water level: (1) from low stages to mean, intermediate and high stages; (2) from mean stages to intermediate and high stages; and (3) from intermediate stages to high stages. Potential applications of the elaborated method include verification of hydrodynamic models and the associated predictions of high flows as well as monitoring water levels of rivers in ungauged basins.

  1. Rangeland resource assessment, monitoring, and management using unmanned aerial vehicle-based remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Civilian applications of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) have rapidly been expanding recently. Thanks to military development many civil UAVs come via the defense sector. Although numerous UAVs can perform civilian tasks, the regulations imposed by FAA in the national airspace system and military e...

  2. Development of Air Force aerial spray night operations: High altitude swath characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Multiple trials were conducted from 2006 to 2014 in an attempt to validate aerial spray efficacy at altitudes conducive to night spray operations using night vision goggles (NVG). Higher altitude application of pesticide (>400 feet above ground level [AGL]) suggested that effective vector control mi...

  3. Modeling and Control of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles: A Port-Hamiltonian Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mersha, Abeye Y.; Carloni, Raffaella; Stramigioli, Stefano

    2011-01-01

    Recently, in robotics there is an increasing interest in the field of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) due to the existence of diverse potential applications in the civilian sector. UAVs are characterized by their under-actuatedness and highly nonlinear and inherently coupled dynamics, which makes the

  4. 1935 15' Quad #315 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  5. 1935 15' Quad #290 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  6. 1935 15' Quad #248 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  7. 1935 15' Quad #223 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  8. 1935 15' Quad #035 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  9. 1935 15' Quad #059 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  10. 1935 15' Quad #129 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index - NM

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  11. 1935 15' Quad #177 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  12. 1935 15' Quad #411 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  13. 1935 15' Quad #367 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  14. 1935 15' Quad #099 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  15. 1935 15' Quad #410 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  16. 1935 15' Quad #265 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  17. 1935 15' Quad #250 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  18. 1935 15' Quad #028 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  19. 1935 15' Quad #078 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  20. 1935 15' Quad #031 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  1. 1935 15' Quad #081 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  2. 1935 15' Quad #012 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  3. 1935 15' Quad #203 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  4. 1935 15' Quad #238 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  5. 1935 15' Quad #224 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  6. 1935 15' Quad #201 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  7. 1935 15' Quad #275 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  8. 1935 15' Quad #054 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  9. 1935 15' Quad #369 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  10. 1935 15' Quad #266 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  11. 1935 15' Quad #227 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  12. 1935 15' Quad #339 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  13. 1935 15' Quad #344 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  14. 1935 15' Quad #294 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  15. 1935 15' Quad #001 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  16. 1935 15' Quad #292 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  17. 1935 15' Quad #221 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  18. 1935 15' Quad #131 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  19. 1935 15' Quad #015 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  20. 1935 15' Quad #084 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  1. 1935 15' Quad #077 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  2. 1935 15' Quad #153 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  3. 1935 15' Quad #268 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  4. 1935 15' Quad #259 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  5. 1935 15' Quad #010 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  6. 1935 15' Quad #375 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  7. 1935 15' Quad #108 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  8. 1935 15' Quad #362 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  9. 1935 15' Quad #123 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  10. 1935 15' Quad #370 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  11. 1935 15' Quad #316 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  12. 1935 15' Quad #132 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  13. 1935 15' Quad #148 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  14. 1935 15' Quad #343 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  15. 1935 15' Quad #415 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  16. 1935 15' Quad #076 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  17. 1935 15' Quad #245 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  18. 1935 15' Quad #154 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  19. 1935 15' Quad #086 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  20. 1935 15' Quad #098 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  1. 1935 15' Quad #368 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  2. 1935 15' Quad #249 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  3. 1935 15' Quad #217 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index - AZ

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  4. 1935 15' Quad #247 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  5. 1935 15' Quad #412 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  6. 1935 15' Quad #085 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  7. 1935 15' Quad #390 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  8. 1935 15' Quad #361 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  9. 1935 15' Quad #050 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  10. 1935 15' Quad #097 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  11. 1935 15' Quad #075 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  12. 1935 15' Quad #351 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  13. 1935 15' Quad #180 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  14. 1935 15' Quad #150 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  15. 1935 15' Quad #314 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  16. 1935 15' Quad #393 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  17. 1935 15' Quad #149 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  18. 1935 15' Quad #181 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  19. 1935 15' Quad #204 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  20. 1935 15' Quad #002 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  1. 1935 15' Quad #004 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  2. 1935 15' Quad #437 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  3. 1935 15' Quad #295 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  4. 1935 15' Quad #155 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  5. 1935 15' Quad #454 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  6. 1935 15' Quad #106 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index - AZ

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  7. 1935 15' Quad #222 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  8. 1935 15' Quad #392 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  9. 1935 15' Quad #366 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  10. 1935 15' Quad #374 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  11. 1935 15' Quad #281 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  12. 1935 15' Quad #033 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  13. 1935 15' Quad #173 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index - AZ

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  14. 1935 15' Quad #319 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  15. 1935 15' Quad #157 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  16. 1935 15' Quad #105 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  17. 1935 15' Quad #014 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  18. 1935 15' Quad #394 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  19. 1935 15' Quad #057 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  20. 1935 15' Quad #058 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  1. 1935 15' Quad #125 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  2. 1935 15' Quad #197 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  3. 1935 15' Quad #151 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index - NM

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  4. 1935 15' Quad #056 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  5. 1935 15' Quad #100 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  6. 1935 15' Quad #034 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  7. 1935 15' Quad #371 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  8. 1935 15' Quad #349 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  9. 1935 15' Quad #195 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index - AZ

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  10. 1935 15' Quad #363 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  11. 1947 Dona Ana County DEY Aerial Photo Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial photographs are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The aerial photo inventory contains imagery from various sources that are now archived at the Earth...

  12. 1935 15' Quad #417 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index - NM

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  13. 1935 15' Quad #465 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  14. 1935 15' Quad #391 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  15. 1935 15' Quad #313 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  16. 1935 15' Quad #029 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  17. 1935 15' Quad #244 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  18. 1935 15' Quad #151 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index - AZ

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  19. 1935 15' Quad #063 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  20. 1935 15' Quad #441 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  1. 1935 15' Quad #172 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  2. 1935 15' Quad #039 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  3. 1936 Quay County AG Index Aerial Photo Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial photographs are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The aerial photo inventory contains imagery from various sources that are now archived at the Earth...

  4. 1935 15' Quad #026 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  5. 1935 15' Quad #198 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  6. 1935 15' Quad #271 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  7. 1935 15' Quad #127 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  8. 1935 15' Quad #109 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  9. 1935 15' Quad #038 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  10. 1935 15' Quad #009 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  11. 1935 15' Quad #052 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  12. 1946 Whitewater-Animas DDR Aerial Photo Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial photographs are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The aerial photo inventory contains imagery from various sources that are now archived at the Earth...

  13. 1935 15' Quad #008 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  14. 1935 15' Quad #073 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  15. 1935 15' Quad #246 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  16. 1935 15' Quad #006 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  17. 1935 15' Quad #005 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  18. 1935 15' Quad #350 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  19. 1935 15' Quad #373 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  20. 1935 15' Quad #364 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  1. 1935 15' Quad #267 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  2. 1935 15' Quad #386 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  3. 1935 15' Quad #087 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  4. 1935 15' Quad #273 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  5. 1935 15' Quad #322 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  6. Aerial Survey Units for Harbor Seals in Coastal Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Aerial surveys of coastal Alaska are the primary method for estimating abundance of harbor seals. A particular challenge associated with aerial surveys of harbor...

  7. 1935 15' Quad #274 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  8. 1935 15' Quad #121 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  9. 1935 15' Quad #388 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  10. 1935 15' Quad #145 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  11. 1935 15' Quad #457 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  12. 1935 15' Quad #225 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  13. 1949-50 DIO USFS Aerial Photo Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial photographs are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The aerial photo inventory contains imagery from various sources that are now archived at the Earth...

  14. 1946-49 Northeast New Mexico DCE Aerial Photo Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial photographs are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The aerial photo inventory contains imagery from various sources that are now archived at the Earth...

  15. 1935 15' Quad #174 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  16. 1935 15' Quad #243 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  17. Index for SCS 1934-1937 Aerial Photography

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial photographs are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The aerial photo inventory contains imagery from various sources that are now archived at the Earth...

  18. 1936 Roosevelt County AG Index Aerial Photo Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial photographs are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The aerial photo inventory contains imagery from various sources that are now archived at the Earth...

  19. 1935 15' Quad #272 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  20. 1935 15' Quad #202 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  1. 1935 15' Quad #218 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  2. 1935 15' Quad #345 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  3. 1935 15' Quad #152 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  4. 1935 15' Quad #226 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  5. US Forest Service Aerial Fire Retardant Hydrographic Avoidance Areas: Aquatic

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — A map services on the www depicting aerial retardant avoidance areas for hydrographic feature data. Aerial retardant avoidance area for hydrographic feature data are...

  6. 1935 15' Quad #299 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  7. 1935 15' Quad #337 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  8. 1935 15' Quad #122 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  9. 1935 15' Quad #082 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  10. 1935 15' Quad #298 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  11. 1935 15' Quad #318 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  12. 1935 15' Quad #297 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  13. 1935 15' Quad #060 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  14. 1935 15' Quad #270 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  15. 1935 15' Quad #466 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  16. 1935 15' Quad #032 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  17. 1935 15' Quad #178 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  18. 1935 15' Quad #104 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  19. 1935 15' Quad #490 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  20. 1935 15' Quad #442 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  1. 1935 15' Quad #126 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  2. 1935 15' Quad #171 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  3. 1935 15' Quad #242 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  4. 1935 15' Quad #346 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  5. 1935 15' Quad #251 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  6. 1935 15' Quad #049 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  7. 1935 15' Quad #342 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  8. 1935 15' Quad #080 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  9. 1935 15' Quad #413 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  10. 1935 15' Quad #341 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  11. 1935 15' Quad #414 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  12. 1935 15' Quad #156 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  13. 1935 15' Quad #124 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  14. 1935 15' Quad #200 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  15. 1935 15' Quad #007 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  16. 1935 15' Quad #199 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  17. 1935 15' Quad #129 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index - AZ

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  18. 1935 15' Quad #176 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  19. A perspective on the state of the art of photographic interpretation. [aerial photography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estes, J. E.

    1977-01-01

    Aerial photography and photographic interpretation are the cornerstone of remote sensing. Many interpretative techniques used on data from these more advanced or unconventional imaging systems are essentially extensions of techniques originally developed for the analysis of aerial photographic data. As research on the analysis and application of data from other than photographic imaging systems progresses, the role of the interpretation of aerial photography becomes more important. Any individual who wishes to practice the art of remote sensing data analysis must gain a thorough knowledge of the activities, elements and techniques of manual photographic/image interpretation. While the activities and elements of photo interpretation have remained essentially the same, technique development has continued to progress. Additional studies are proposed dealing with the basics of interactive processes.

  20. Beach monitoring using Unmanned Aerial Vehicles: results of a multi-temporal study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casella, Elisa; Rovere, Alessio; Casella, Marco; Pedroncini, Andrea; Ferrari, Marco; Vacchi, Matteo; Firpo, Marco

    2015-04-01

    The application of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles and photogrammetry techniques in earth sciences is flourishing. In this study, we show how we applied small Unmanned Aerial Vehicles to the study of topographic changes of a beach in Italy, NW Mediterranean Sea. We surveyed the same stretch of coastline three times in 5 months, obtaining ortophotos and digital elevation models of the beach using a structure from motion approach. We then calculated the difference in beach topography between each time step, and we related topography changes to both human and natural modifications of the beach morphology that can be inferred from aerial photos or wave data. We conclude that small drones have the potential to open new possibilities for beach monitoring studies, and can be successfully employed for multi-temporal monitoring studies at relatively low cost.

  1. Advanced Image Processing of Aerial Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodell, Glenn; Jobson, Daniel J.; Rahman, Zia-ur; Hines, Glenn

    2006-01-01

    Aerial imagery of the Earth is an invaluable tool for the assessment of ground features, especially during times of disaster. Researchers at the NASA Langley Research Center have developed techniques which have proven to be useful for such imagery. Aerial imagery from various sources, including Langley's Boeing 757 Aries aircraft, has been studied extensively. This paper discusses these studies and demonstrates that better-than-observer imagery can be obtained even when visibility is severely compromised. A real-time, multi-spectral experimental system will be described and numerous examples will be shown.

  2. The Alfred Nobel rocket camera. An early aerial photography attempt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingemar Skoog, A.

    2010-02-01

    Alfred Nobel (1833-1896), mainly known for his invention of dynamite and the creation of the Nobel Prices, was an engineer and inventor active in many fields of science and engineering, e.g. chemistry, medicine, mechanics, metallurgy, optics, armoury and rocketry. Amongst his inventions in rocketry was the smokeless solid propellant ballistite (i.e. cordite) patented for the first time in 1887. As a very wealthy person he actively supported many Swedish inventors in their work. One of them was W.T. Unge, who was devoted to the development of rockets and their applications. Nobel and Unge had several rocket patents together and also jointly worked on various rocket applications. In mid-1896 Nobel applied for patents in England and France for "An Improved Mode of Obtaining Photographic Maps and Earth or Ground Measurements" using a photographic camera carried by a "…balloon, rocket or missile…". During the remaining of 1896 the mechanical design of the camera mechanism was pursued and cameras manufactured. In April 1897 (after the death of Alfred Nobel) the first aerial photos were taken by these cameras. These photos might be the first documented aerial photos taken by a rocket borne camera. Cameras and photos from 1897 have been preserved. Nobel did not only develop the rocket borne camera but also proposed methods on how to use the photographs taken for ground measurements and preparing maps.

  3. Aerial networking communication solutions using Micro Air Vehicle (MAV)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasubramanian, Shyam; de Graaf, Maurits; Hoekstra, Gerard; Corporaal, Henk; Wijtvliet, Mark; Cuadros Linde, Javier

    2014-10-01

    The application of a Micro Air Vehicle (MAV) for wireless networking is slowly gaining significance in the field of network robotics. Aerial transport of data requires efficient network protocols along with accurate positional adjustment of the MAV to minimize transaction times. In our proof of concept, we develop an Aerial networking protocol for data transfer using the technology of Disruption Tolerant Networks (DTN), a store-and-forward approach for environments that deals with disrupted connectivity. Our results show that close interaction between networking and flight behavior helps in efficient data exchange. Potential applications are in areas where network infrastructure is minimal or unavailable and distances may be large. For example, forwarding video recordings during search and rescue, agriculture, swarm communication, among several others. A practical implementation and validation, as described in this paper, presents the complex dynamics of wireless environments and poses new challenges that are not addressed in earlier work on this topic. Several tests are evaluated in a practical setup to display the networking MAV behavior during such an operation.

  4. Comparison of analysis techniques for aerial image metrology on advanced photomask

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Seolchong; Woo, Sungha; Jang, Heeyeon; Lee, Youngmo; Kim, Sangpyo; Yang, Hyunjo; Schulz, Kristian; Garetto, Anthony

    2016-05-01

    The standard method for defect disposition and verification of repair success in the mask shop is through the utilization of the aerial imaging platform, AIMSTM. The CD (Critical Dimension) deviation of the defective or repaired region as well as the pattern shift can be calculated by comparing the measured aerial images of this region to that of a reference. Through this analysis it can be determined if the defect or repaired region will be printed on the wafer under the illumination conditions of the scanner. The analysis of the measured aerial images from the AIMSTM are commonly performed manually using the analysis software available on the system or with the help of an analysis software called RV (Repair Verification). Because the process is manual, it is not standardized and is subject to operator variations. This method of manual aerial image analysis is time consuming, dependent on the skill level of the operator and significantly contributes to the overall mask manufacturing process flow. AutoAnalysis (AA), the first application available for the FAVOR® platform, provides fully automated analysis of AIMSTM aerial images [1] and runs in parallel to the measurement of the aerial images. In this paper, we investigate the initial AutoAnalysis performance compared to the conventional method using RV and its application to a production environment. The evaluation is based on the defect CD of three pattern types: contact holes, dense line and spaces and peripheral structure. The defect analysis results for different patterns and illumination conditions will be correlated and challenges in transitioning to the new approach will be discussed.

  5. 77 FR 36250 - Information Collection Request; Request for Aerial Photography

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-18

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Farm Service Agency Information Collection Request; Request for Aerial Photography... FSA Aerial Photography Program. The FSA Aerial Photography Field Office (APFO) uses the information from this form to collect the customer and photography information needed to produce and ship...

  6. 47 CFR 32.6421 - Aerial cable expense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Aerial cable expense. 32.6421 Section 32.6421... FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Expense Accounts § 32.6421 Aerial cable expense. (a) This account shall include expenses associated with aerial cable. (b) Subsidiary record...

  7. Sea Ice Mapping using Unmanned Aerial Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solbø, S.; Storvold, R.

    2011-12-01

    Mapping of sea ice extent and sea ice features is an important task in climate research. Since the arctic coastal and oceanic areas have a high probability of cloud coverage, aerial platforms are superior to satellite measurements for high-resolution optical measurements. However, routine observations of sea ice conditions present a variety of problems using conventional piloted aircrafts. Specially, the availability of suitable aircrafts for lease does not cover the demand in major parts of the arctic. With the recent advances in unmanned aerial systems (UAS), there is a high possibility of establishing routine, cost effective aerial observations of sea ice conditions in the near future. Unmanned aerial systems can carry a wide variety of sensors useful for characterizing sea-ice features. For instance, the CryoWing UAS, a system initially designed for measurements of the cryosphere, can be equipped with digital cameras, surface thermometers and laser altimeters for measuring freeboard of ice flows. In this work we will present results from recent CryoWing sea ice flights on Svalbard, Norway. The emphasis will be on data processing for stitching together images acquired with the non-stabilized camera payload, to form high-resolution mosaics covering large spatial areas. These data are being employed to map ice conditions; including ice and lead features and melt ponds. These high-resolution mosaics are also well suited for sea-ice mechanics, classification studies and for validation of satellite sea-ice products.

  8. Exploring Security Vulnerabilities of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodday, Nils Miro; O. Schmidt, de Ricardo; Pras, Aiko

    2016-01-01

    We are currently observing a significant increase in the popularity of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs), popularly also known by their generic term drones. This is not only the case for recreational UAVs, that one can acquire for a few hundred dollars, but also for more sophisticated ones, namely pro

  9. Mapping infectious disease landscapes: unmanned aerial vehicles and epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fornace, Kimberly M; Drakeley, Chris J; William, Timothy; Espino, Fe; Cox, Jonathan

    2014-11-01

    The potential applications of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), or drones, have generated intense interest across many fields. UAVs offer the potential to collect detailed spatial information in real time at relatively low cost and are being used increasingly in conservation and ecological research. Within infectious disease epidemiology and public health research, UAVs can provide spatially and temporally accurate data critical to understanding the linkages between disease transmission and environmental factors. Using UAVs avoids many of the limitations associated with satellite data (e.g., long repeat times, cloud contamination, low spatial resolution). However, the practicalities of using UAVs for field research limit their use to specific applications and settings. UAVs fill a niche but do not replace existing remote-sensing methods.

  10. Thermal soaring flight of birds and unmanned aerial vehicles

    CERN Document Server

    Ákos, Zsuzsa; Leven, Severin; Vicsek, Tamás; 10.1088/1748-3182/5/4/045003

    2010-01-01

    Thermal soaring saves much energy, but flying large distances in this form represents a great challenge for birds, people and Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs). The solution is to make use of so-called thermals, which are localized, warmer regions in the atmosphere moving upwards with a speed exceeding the descent rate of birds and planes. Saving energy by exploiting the environment more efficiently is an important possibility for autonomous UAVs as well. Successful control strategies have been developed recently for UAVs in simulations and in real applications. This paper first presents an overview of our knowledge of the soaring flight and strategy of birds, followed by a discussion of control strategies that have been developed for soaring UAVs both in simulations and applications on real platforms. To improve the accuracy of simulation of thermal exploitation strategies we propose a method to take into account the effect of turbulence. Finally we propose a new GPS independent control strategy for exploiting...

  11. Exterior Orientation Estimation of Oblique Aerial Imagery Using Vanishing Points

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verykokou, Styliani; Ioannidis, Charalabos

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, a methodology for the calculation of rough exterior orientation (EO) parameters of multiple large-scale overlapping oblique aerial images, in the case that GPS/INS information is not available (e.g., for old datasets), is presented. It consists of five main steps; (a) the determination of the overlapping image pairs and the single image in which four ground control points have to be measured; (b) the computation of the transformation parameters from every image to the coordinate reference system; (c) the rough estimation of the camera interior orientation parameters; (d) the estimation of the true horizon line and the nadir point of each image; (e) the calculation of the rough EO parameters of each image. A developed software suite implementing the proposed methodology is tested using a set of UAV multi-perspective oblique aerial images. Several tests are performed for the assessment of the errors and show that the estimated EO parameters can be used either as initial approximations for a bundle adjustment procedure or as rough georeferencing information for several applications, like 3D modelling, even by non-photogrammetrists, because of the minimal user intervention needed. Finally, comparisons with a commercial software are made, in terms of automation and correctness of the computed EO parameters.

  12. Experiences with Light Weight Fixed Wing Aerial Mapping UAVs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Mayr

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available UAVs seem to be the next "cloud" like topic, not only in geomatics. Unmanned Airborne Vehicles are not a wonder-tool, but a complementary approach to resolve some tasks more efficiently than before or at all. Since 2006 we commercially apply fixed wing, light weight UAVs for aerial mapping purposes. In this paper we like to share our experiences with UAVs of less than 5 kg and illuminate some limitations as well as potentials. Whereas multicopters seem to be in use everywhere, fixed wing UAVs more frequently seem to be applied in specific and geospatially oriented applications. Having processed several hundred UAV aerial mapping projects there forms a stable picture of this technology. Our impressions on durability, handling, and reliability of fixed wing UAVs get presented. We report on our day-to-day experiences and point to often simple hurdles to overcome. Various cameras were flown, different approaches of handling their geometries with different software packages were undertaken. Remarks to achieved geometric accuracies as well as the consequences of using dual frequency GPS instead of simple yet great single frequency GPS are discussed. All of this packed into the subsequent paper.

  13. Mathematical Modelling of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles with Four Rotors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoran Benić

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Mathematical model of an unmanned aerial vehicle with four propulsors (quadcopter is indispensable in quadcopter movement simulation and later modelling of the control algorithm. Mathematical model is, at the same time, the first step in comprehending the mathematical principles and physical laws which are applied to the quadcopter system. The objective is to define the mathematical model which will describe the quadcopter behavior with satisfactory accuracy and which can be, with certain modifications, applicable for the similar configurations of multirotor aerial vehicles. At the beginning of mathematical model derivation, coordinate systems are defined and explained. By using those coordinate systems, relations between parameters defined in the earth coordinate system and in the body coordinate system are defined. Further, the quadcopter kinematic is described which enables setting those relations. Also, quadcopter dynamics is used to introduce forces and torques to the model through usage of Newton-Euler method. Final derived equation is Newton’s second law in the matrix notation. For the sake of model simplification, hybrid coordinate system is defined, and quadcopter dynamic equations derived with the respect to it. Those equations are implemented in the simulation. Results of behavior of quadcopter mathematical model are graphically shown for four cases. For each of the cases the propellers revolutions per minute (RPM are set in a way that results in the occurrence of the controllable variables which causes one of four basic quadcopter movements in space.

  14. Stable Imaging and Accuracy Issues of Low-Altitude Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Photogrammetry Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Yang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Stable imaging of an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV photogrammetry system is an important issue that affects the data processing and application of the system. Compared with traditional aerial images, the large rotation of roll, pitch, and yaw angles of UAV images decrease image quality and result in image deformation, thereby affecting the ground resolution, overlaps, and the consistency of the stereo models. These factors also cause difficulties in automatic tie point matching, image orientation, and accuracy of aerial triangulation (AT. The issues of large-angle photography of UAV photogrammetry system are discussed and analyzed quantitatively in this paper, and a simple and lightweight three-axis stabilization platform that works with a low-precision integrated inertial navigation system and a three-axis mechanical platform is used to reduce this problem. An experiment was carried out with an airship as the flight platform. Another experimental dataset, which was acquired by the same flight platform without a stabilization platform, was utilized for a comparative test. Experimental results show that the system can effectively isolate the swing of the flying platform. To ensure objective and reliable results, another group of experimental datasets, which were acquired using a fixed-wing UAV platform, was also analyzed. Statistical results of the experimental datasets confirm that stable imaging of a UAV platform can help improve the quality of aerial photography imagery and the accuracy of AT, and potentially improve the application of images acquired by a UAV.

  15. Precision wildlife monitoring using unmanned aerial vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Jarrod C. Hodgson; Baylis, Shane M.; Rowan Mott; Ashley Herrod; Clarke, Rohan H.

    2016-01-01

    Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) represent a new frontier in environmental research. Their use has the potential to revolutionise the field if they prove capable of improving data quality or the ease with which data are collected beyond traditional methods. We apply UAV technology to wildlife monitoring in tropical and polar environments and demonstrate that UAV-derived counts of colony nesting birds are an order of magnitude more precise than traditional ground counts. The increased count pre...

  16. Autonomous Aerial Payload Delivery System Blizzard

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-01

    awareness SUV = sport utility vehicle UAV = unmanned aerial vehicle YPG = U.S. Army Yuma Proving Ground I. Introduction MROVED accuracy of...15 miles) allows non-line-of-sign operations inside canyons , around the hills and tall buildings (urban operations). Therefore, there are almost no...ship. To date, two drops have been performed with a standard sport utility vehicle (SUV) being a moving target and broadcasting its GPS position to a

  17. The Aerodynamics of High Speed Aerial Weapons

    OpenAIRE

    Prince, Simon A.

    1999-01-01

    The focus of this work is the investigation of the complex compressible flow phenomena associated with high speed aerial weapons. A three dimen- sional multiblock finite volume flow solver was developed with the aim of studying the aerodynamics of missile configurations and their component structures. The first component of the study involved the aerodynamic investigation of the isolated components used in the design of conventional missile config- urations. The computati...

  18. Modeling of Sub-Mini Aerial Vehicles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘亮; 邓寅喆; 翟宇毅; 龚振邦

    2004-01-01

    AbsProblems in modeling of sub-mini aerial vehicles(SMAV) are discussed in this paper. Contraposing properties of SMAV,various factors affecting dynamic performances and the airplane control are analyzed. Based on experiments, simulations, and computations, a corrected result for dynamic characteristics of fixed-wing SMAV and several instances of simulation are given, and the model of control and multi-stage PD control law are given too.

  19. Scheduling and routing Tactical Aerial Reconnaissance Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    1990-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution unlimited. In this thesis we study the Marine Corps Tactical Aerial Reconnaissance Vehicle routing and scheduling problem. the present method of routing and scheduling is presented, along with possible implications for routing and scheduling when future expansion of vehicle assets becomes available. A review of current literature is given and comparisons are drawn between our problem and recent work. A model for the problem, which we call the Multi...

  20. Aerial insecticide treatments for management of Dectes stem borer, Dectes texanus, in soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloderbeck, P E; Buschman, L L

    2011-01-01

    The Dectes stem borer, Dectes texanus LeConte (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae), is an increasingly important pest of soybean and sunflower in central North America. Nine large-scale field trials were conducted over a 3-year period to determine if Dectes stem borer could be managed with insecticide treatments. Aerial applications of lambda on July 6, 12 and 15 were successful in significantly reducing adults, but applications on July 1, 20 and 24 were less successful. These data suggest that for central Kansas two aerial applications may be required to control Dectes stem borers in soybean. Based on our experience the first application should be made at the peak of adult flight about July 5(th) and the second application 10 days later. The local treatment schedule should be developed to follow the local Dectes stem borer adult emergence pattern. Treated aerial strips 59 m (195 ft) wide were not large enough to prevent reinfestation, but treated half-circles (24 ha or 60 acres) were successful in reducing in Dectes stem borer infestation of soybean. Sweep net samples of adults were not successful in identifying a treatment threshold, so treatment decisions will need to be based on field history of infestation. Further studies are needed to identify better sampling methods that can be used to establish treatment thresholds and to refine the best timing for treatments.

  1. Aerotriangulation accuracy analysis of GPS-assisted aerial photogrammetry based on SWDC%彩色扫描地形图的分色方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈飞; 吴英男; 王红新

    2011-01-01

    As GPS technology continues to mature, GPS-supportod aerial photogrammetry has also made considerable progress.Because GPS-assisted aerial photogrammetry can real-time get the space station coordinates through the GPS receiver on the aerial camera, it saves a lot of manpower, material and financial resources, and greatly reduces the operating cycle of the entire aerial survey.This paper used the GPS-supported aerial photogrammetry measurement method on Beijing Badaling measurement area, by encrypting with PBBA and PATB respectively, to design variety of aerial triangulation program, which verified the aerial triangulation accuracy of SWDC digital aerial camera with GPS-supported aerial photography way, providing precision support for the promotion and application of SWDC aerial camera in the world.%本文提出了一种新的地形图分色方法.首先去除背景像素,然后根据灰度梯度值提取主色像素,利用直方图模糊c-均值(FCM)聚类方法对主色像素进行颜色聚类,对去背景后的图像进行Canny算子的边缘检测.最后,利用加壳变换和障碍距离变换工具对符号周围的过渡像素进行聚类,从而实现黑棕兰绿四个分版图的提取.该方法效率较高,受图纸扫描质量的影响不大,分色效果较理想.

  2. Inertial instrument system for aerial surveying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, R.H.; Chapman, W.H.; Hanna, W.F.; Mongan, C.E.; Hursh, J.W.

    1985-01-01

    An inertial guidance system for aerial surveying has been developed under contract to the U.S. Geological Survey. This prototype system, known as the aerial profiling of terrain (APT) system, is designed to determine continuously the positions of points along an aircraft flight path, or the underlying terrain profile, to an accuracy of + or - 0.5 ft (15 cm) vertically and + or - 2 ft (61 cm) horizontally. The system 's objective thus is to accomplish, from a fixed-wing aircraft, what would traditionally be accomplished from ground-based topographic surveys combined with aerial photography and photogrammetry. The two-part strategy for measuring the terrain profile entails: (1) use of an inertial navigator for continuous determination of the three-coordinate position of the aircraft, and (2) use of an eye-safe pulsed laser profiler for continuous measurement of the vertical distance from aircraft to land surface, so that the desired terrain profile can then be directly computed. The APT system, installed in a DeHavilland Twin Otter aircraft, is typically flown at a speed of 115 mph (105 knots) at an altitude of 2,000 ft (610 m) above the terrain. Performance-evaluation flights have shown that the vertical and horizontal accuracy specifications are met. (USGS)

  3. Mask degradation monitoring with aerial mask inspector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Wen-Jui; Fu, Yung-Ying; Lu, Shih-Ping; Jiang, Ming-Sian; Lin, Jeffrey; Wu, Clare; Lifschitz, Sivan; Tam, Aviram

    2013-06-01

    As design rule continues to shrink, microlithography is becoming more challenging and the photomasks need to comply with high scanner laser energy, low CDU, and ever more aggressive RETs. This give rise to numerous challenges in the semiconductor wafer fabrication plants. Some of these challenges being contamination (mainly haze and particles), mask pattern degradation (MoSi oxidation, chrome migration, etc.) and pellicle degradation. Fabs are constantly working to establish an efficient methodology to manage these challenges mainly using mask inspection, wafer inspection, SEM review and CD SEMs. Aerial technology offers a unique opportunity to address the above mask related challenges using one tool. The Applied Materials Aera3TM system has the inherent ability to inspect for defects (haze, particles, etc.), and track mask degradation (e.g. CDU). This paper focuses on haze monitoring, which is still a significant challenge in semiconductor manufacturing, and mask degradation effects that are starting to emerge as the next challenge for high volume semiconductor manufacturers. The paper describes Aerial inspector (Aera3) early haze methodology and mask degradation tracking related to high volume manufacturing. These will be demonstrated on memory products. At the end of the paper we take a brief look on subsequent work currently conducted on the more general issue of photo mask degradation monitoring by means of an Aerial inspector.

  4. Aerial vehicles collision avoidance using monocular vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balashov, Oleg; Muraviev, Vadim; Strotov, Valery

    2016-10-01

    In this paper image-based collision avoidance algorithm that provides detection of nearby aircraft and distance estimation is presented. The approach requires a vision system with a single moving camera and additional information about carrier's speed and orientation from onboard sensors. The main idea is to create a multi-step approach based on a preliminary detection, regions of interest (ROI) selection, contour segmentation, object matching and localization. The proposed algorithm is able to detect small targets but unlike many other approaches is designed to work with large-scale objects as well. To localize aerial vehicle position the system of equations relating object coordinates in space and observed image is solved. The system solution gives the current position and speed of the detected object in space. Using this information distance and time to collision can be estimated. Experimental research on real video sequences and modeled data is performed. Video database contained different types of aerial vehicles: aircrafts, helicopters, and UAVs. The presented algorithm is able to detect aerial vehicles from several kilometers under regular daylight conditions.

  5. Application of Particle Genetic Algorithm to Path Planning of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle%基于遗传算法的无人机航路规划优化研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑锐; 冯振明; 陆明泉

    2011-01-01

    研究无人机航路规划优化问题,为了提高无人机航路规划效率和精度,传统的遗传算法易陷入局部最优、收敛速度慢导致无人机航路规划效率低、寻优精度较差等问题.为解决上述问题,提出了一种基于改进遗传算法的无人机航路规划方法.改进算法前期采用了保优选择策略和改进编码方案对无人机航路进行优化,加快了搜索速度、提高规划效率,使之适应大规模威胁问题求解;后期结合无人机特点,改进交叉和变异算子,通过改进使得每轮搜索后每-软的最优航路能更好地反映求解的质量,有效地加快了收敛,保持了稳定性.最后用改进的遗传算法对无人机航路规划进行了仿真.实验结果表明,方法避免了陷入局部最优、收敛速度加快、寻优精度提高,并缩短了搜索时间,航路规划效率明显提高.提出的算法可以引申应用于类似情况下的路线规划问题,具有-定的推广意义.%Research on route planning of unmanned aerial vehicle(uav).The problems to be solved include that the basic genetic algorithm may fall in local optimum, slow convergence speed leads low efficiency of route planning of unmanned aerial vehicle, and optimum is poor.In order to improve the accuracy and efficiency of uav route planning, this paper puts forward a modified genetic algorithm based on the uav route planning method.The improved algorithm adopted the optimal selection strategy and improvement of uavs coding scheme optimization route, speeding up the search speed, improving efficiency of planning, adapting problem and solving large - scale threats.Later,combining uavs improved crossover with mutation operators, through the improvement for each wheel search after each soft optimal route to better reflect the quality of solving, effectively avoid the local optimal, accelerate the convergence, and maintain the stability.Finally, the improved genetic algorithm for uav task route is

  6. Application of remote sensing system of unmanned aerial vehicle in Yingjiang, Yunnan earthquake%无人机遥感系统在云南盈江地震中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    温奇; 陈世荣; 和海霞; 李珊珊; 白瑞杰; 赵星涛

    2012-01-01

    无人机系统具有机动灵活、快速响应的优点,很适合自然灾害灾情监测和评估工作。首先介绍了无人机遥感系统的组成,以及在云南盈江地震灾害中的应急过程和数据处理流程。然后,利用获取的无人机遥感影像,对比灾前的高分辨率卫星影像,对盈江县城的房屋损毁、救灾帐篷和道路损毁及交通拥堵情况进行了监测评估,取得了较好效果。但无人机遥感系统还需要在数据处理效率、三维信息获取方面做进一步改善。%Unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) system has the advantage of flexible, rapid response. It is suitable for natural disaster monitoring and assessment. This paper introduced the composition of UAV remote sensing system, the emergency process and data process flow in Yingjiang, Yunnan earthquake disaster. Then, the UAV remote sensing image and pre-disaster high resolution satellite image were compared, housing damage, disaster relief tents, roads damage and traffic jam were monitored and assessed. It turned out that results are good. However, the data processing efficiency and the acquisition capability of three dimension information for UAV remote sensing system need to be further improved.

  7. Galvanometer control system design of aerial camera motion compensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Mingrui; Cao, Jianzhong; Wang, Huawei; Guo, Yunzeng; Hu, Changchang; Tang, Hong; Niu, Yuefeng

    2015-10-01

    Aerial cameras exist the image motion on the flight. The image motion has seriously affected the image quality, making the image edge blurred and gray scale loss. According to the actual application situation, when high quality and high precision are required, the image motion compensation (IMC) should be adopted. This paper designs galvanometer control system of IMC. The voice coil motor as the actuator has a simple structure, fast dynamic response and high positioning accuracy. Double-loop feedback is also used. PI arithmetic and Hall sensors are used at the current feedback. Fuzzy-PID arithmetic and optical encoder are used at the speed feedback. Compared to conventional PID control arithmetic, the simulation results show that the control system has fast response and high control accuracy.

  8. Flight envelope protection system for unmanned aerial vehicles

    KAUST Repository

    Claudel, Christian G.

    2016-04-28

    Systems and methods to protect the flight envelope in both manual flight and flight by a commercial autopilot are provided. A system can comprise: an inertial measurement unit (IMU); a computing device in data communication with the IMU; an application executable by the computing device comprising: logic that estimates an angle of attack; a slip angle; and a speed of an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) based at least in part on data received from the UAV. A method can comprise estimating, via a computing device, flight data of a UAV based at least in part on data received from an IMU; comparing the estimated flight data with measured flight data; and triggering an error indication in response to a determination that the measured flight data exceeds a predefined deviation of the estimated flight data. The estimated speed can comprise an estimated airspeed, vertical speed and/or ground velocity.

  9. Canopy Measurements with a Small Unmanned Aerial System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peschel, J.

    2015-12-01

    This work discusses the use of a small unmanned aerial system (UAS) for the remote placement of wireless environmental sensors in tree canopies. Remote presence applications occur when one or more humans use a robot to project themselves into an environment in order to complete an inaccessible or time-critical mission. The more difficult problem of physical object manipulation goes one step further by incorporating physical-based interaction, in additional to visualization. Forested environments present especially unique challenges for small UAS versus similar domains (e.g., disaster response, inspection of critical infrastructure) due to the navigation and interaction required with dense tree canopies. This work describes two field investigations that inform: i) the type of physical object manipulation and visualization necessary for sensor placement (ventral, frontal, dorsal), ii) the necessary display form (hybrid) for piloting and sensor placement, and iii) visual feedback mechanisms useful for handling human-robot team role conflicts.

  10. Low Cost Surveying Using AN Unmanned Aerial Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, M.; Agüera, F.; Carvajal, F.

    2013-08-01

    Traditional manned airborne surveys are usually expensive and the resolution of the acquired images is often limited. The main advantage of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) system acting as a photogrammetric sensor platform over more traditional manned airborne system is the high flexibility that allows image acquisition from unconventional viewpoints, the low cost in comparison with classical aerial photogrammetry and the high resolution images obtained. Nowadays there is a necessity for surveying small areas and in these cases, it is not economical the use of normal large format aerial or metric cameras to acquire aerial photos, therefore, the use of UAV platforms can be very suitable. Also the large availability of digital cameras has strongly enhanced the capabilities of UAVs. The use of digital non metric cameras together with the UAV could be used for multiple applications such as aerial surveys, GIS, wildfire mapping, stability of landslides, crop monitoring, etc. The aim of this work was to develop a low cost and accurate methodology in the production of orthophotos and Digital Elevation Models (DEM). The study was conducted in the province of Almeria, south of Spain. The photogrammetric flight had an altitude of 50 m over ground, covering an area of 5.000 m2 approximately. The UAV used in this work was the md4-200, which is an electronic battery powered quadrocopter UAV developed by Microdrones GmbH, Germany. It had on-board a Pextax Optio A40 digital non metric camera with 12 Megapixels. It features a 3x optical zoom lens with a focal range covering angles of view equivalent to those of 37-111 mm lens in 35 mm format. The quadrocopter can be programmed to follow a route defined by several waypoints and actions and it has the ability for vertical take off and landing. Proper flight geometry during image acquisition is essential in order to minimize the number of photographs, avoid areas without a good coverage and make the overlaps homogeneous. The flight

  11. Agricultural aviation application in the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    The United States has the most advanced equipment and applications in agricultural aviation. It also has a complete service system in agricultural aviation. This article introduces the current status of aerial application including service, equipment, and aerial application techniques. It has a c...

  12. Intelligent Autonomous Aerial Vehicles in the National Airspace Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Unmanned aerial systems (UAS) and, in particular, intelligent, autonomous aircraft operating in the National Airspace (NAS) have the potential to significantly...

  13. AERIAL IMAGES AND LIDAR DATA FUSION FOR DISASTER CHANGE DETECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. C. Trinder

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Potential applications of airborne LiDAR for disaster monitoring include flood prediction and assessment, monitoring of the growth of volcanoes and assistance in the prediction of eruptions, assessment of crustal elevation changes due to earthquakes, and monitoring of structural damage after earthquakes. Change detection in buildings is an important task in the context of disaster monitoring, especially after earthquakes. Traditionally, change detection is usually done by using multi-temporal images through spectral analyses. This provides two-dimensional spectral information without including heights. This paper will describe the capability of aerial images and LiDAR data fusion for rapid change detection in elevations, and methods of assessment of damage in made-made structures. In order to detect and evaluate changes in buildings, LiDAR-derived DEMs and aerial images from two epochs were used, showing changes in urban buildings due to construction and demolition. The proposed modelling scheme comprises three steps, namely, data pre-processing, change detection, and validation. In the first step for data pre-processing, data registration was carried out based on the multi-source data. In the second step, changes were detected by combining change detection techniques such as image differencing (ID, principal components analysis (PCA, minimum noise fraction (MNF and post-classification comparison (P-C based on support vector machines (SVM, each of which performs differently, based on simple majority vote. In the third step and to meet the objectives, the detected changes were compared against reference data that was generated manually. The comparison is based on two criteria: overall accuracy; and commission and omission errors. The results showed that the average detection accuracies were: 78.9%, 81.4%, 82.7% and 82.8% for post-classification, image differencing, PCA and MNF respectively. On the other hand, the commission and omission errors of

  14. Modeling and control of a new unmanned aerial vehicle (SUAVİ) with tilt-wing mechanism

    OpenAIRE

    Öner, Kaan Taha; Oner, Kaan Taha

    2009-01-01

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) are flying robots that are either controlled by an operator from a remote location or flown autonomously according to the given commands. UAVs are often equipped with cameras, other sensors and communication units and used for missions which are dangerous, tedious or effortful for manned aircrafts. Some applications of these vehicles are surveillance, reconnaissance, traffic monitoring, exploration of disasters (fire, earthquake, flood, etc...) and agricultural ...

  15. Optimized Routing of Unmanned Aerial Systems for the Interdiction of Improvised Explosive Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-09-01

    74 14. SUBJECT TERMS IEDs, IED Detection, IED Interdiction, Vehicle Routing Problem , Integer Program 16. PRICE CODE 17. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION...Special Operations Command VBA Visual Basic for Applications VMU-2 Marine Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Squadron 2 VRP Vehicle Routing Problem WCA Wind...bb/middle_east/jan-june07/ied_06-21.html. Toth, P. and Vigo, D. (2002). “The Vehicle Routing Problem .” Philadelphia, PA: Society for Industrial and

  16. Human Systems Integration and Automation Issues in Small Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCauley, Michael E.; Matsangas, Panagiotis

    2004-01-01

    The goal of this report is to identify Human System Integration (HSI) and automation issues that contribute to improved effectiveness and efficiency in the operation of U.S. military Small Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (SUAVs). HSI issues relevant to SUAV operations are reviewed and observations from field trials are summarized. Short-term improvements are suggested research issues are identified and an overview is provided of automation technologies applicable to future SUAV design.

  17. Path Planning of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles With Terrestrial Wireless Network Tracking

    OpenAIRE

    Bekhti, Mustapha; Abdennebi, Marwen; Achir, Nadjib; Boussetta, Khaled

    2016-01-01

    International audience; The UAVs (Unmanned Aerial Vehicles) market is projected to grow, sustained by the technological progress in different domains related to UAVs and by the emergence of new civilian applications. However, this economical development might be held back due to increased regulation constraints. A major concern of public authorities is to ensure a safe sharing of the airspace, especially over populated areas. To reach this aim, a fundamental mechanism is to provide a permanen...

  18. Examination of aerial diatom flushing across watersheds in Luxembourg, Oregon and Slovakia for tracing episodic hydrological connectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pfister Laurent

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Hydrological processes research remains a field that is severely measurement limited. While conventional tracers (geochemicals, isotopes have brought extremely valuable insights into water source and flowpaths, they nonetheless have limitations that clearly constrain their range of application. Integrating hydrology and ecology in catchment science has been repeatedly advocated as offering potential for interdisciplinary studies that are eventually to provide a holistic view of catchment functioning. In this context, aerial diatoms have been shown to have the potential for detecting of the onset/cessation of rapid water flowpaths within the hillslope-riparian zone-stream continuum. However, many open questions prevail as to aerial diatom reservoir size, depletion and recovery, as well as to their mobilisation and transport processes. Moreover, aerial diatoms remain poorly known compared to freshwater species and new species are still being discovered. Here, we ask whether aerial diatom flushing can be observed in three catchments with contrasting physiographic characteristics in Luxembourg, Oregon (USA and Slovakia. This is a prerequisite for qualifying aerial diatoms as a robust indicator of the onset/cessation of rapid water flowpaths across a wider range of physiographical contexts. One species in particular, (Hantzschia amphioxys (Ehr. Grunow, was found to be common to the three investigated catchments. Aerial diatom species were flushed, in different relative proportions, to the river network during rainfall-runoff events in all three catchments. Our take-away message from this preliminary examination is that aerial diatoms appear to have a potential for tracing episodic hydrological connectivity through a wider range of physiographic contexts and therefore serve as a complementary tool to conventional hydrological tracers.

  19. Qualidade da aplicação aérea líquida com uma aeronave agrícola experimental na cultura da soja (Glycine Max L. Liquid aerial pesticide application quality with an experimental agricultural aircraft in soybean crop (Glycine Max L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elton F. dos Reis

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Os avanços da tecnologia de aplicação aérea de agroquímicos têm-se dado na direção de redução do volume de calda, o que pode ocasionar má distribuição e consequente deposição irregular. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a qualidade da aplicação de calda de pulverização em aplicação aérea, na cultura da soja (Glycine Max L.. Para a aplicação, foi utilizada uma aeronave agrícola experimental, aplicando um volume de calda de 20 L ha-1 . Para a determinação dos volumes depositados nas folhas do terço superior, médio e inferior das plantas de soja, foi utilizado corante alimentício azul brilhante adicionado à calda de pulverização. Estas folhas foram lavadas, e o volume determinado por espectrofotometria. Para a obtenção do espectro de gotas, foram utilizados alvos artificiais constituídos por papel hidrossensível, distribuídos no terço superior e médio das plantas. Os dados foram submetidos à análise de variância de fator único, considerando as diferentes posições na planta, e cartas de controle foram feitas a partir dos limites inferior e superior de controle. A aplicação aérea de calda de pulverização na cultura da soja apresentou menores valores de diâmetro da mediana volumétrica, amplitude relativa e cobertura no terço médio em relação ao terço superior da cultura da soja. Houve menor deposição da calda de pulverização no terço inferior. Os indicadores de cobertura da calda de pulverização demonstraram que a aplicação aérea com a aeronave agrícola experimental avaliada não se encontra sob controle estatístico de processo, ou seja, fora do padrão de qualidade.Advances in aerial pesticide application technology of chemicals have been given in the direction of reducing the syrup volume, which can cause poor distribution and consequent irregular deposition. This study aimed to evaluate the quality of the syrup spray on aerial application in soybean crop (Glycine Max

  20. Use of low-altitude aerial photography to identify submersed aquatic macrophytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schloesser, Donald W.; Manny, Bruce A.; Brown, Charles L.; Jaworski, Eugene

    1987-01-01

    The feasibility of using low-altitude aerial photography to identify beds of submersed macrophytes is demonstrated. True color aerial photos and collateral ground survey information for submersed aquatic macrophyte beds at 10 sites in the St.Clair-Detroit River system were obtained in September 1978. Using the photos and collateral ground survey information, a dichotomous key was developed for the identification of six classes - beds of five genera of macrophytes and one substrate type. A test was prepared to determine how accurately photo interpreters could identify the six classes. The test required an interpreter to examine an unlabeled, outlined area on photographs and identify it using the key. Six interpreters were tested. One pair of interpreters was trained in the interpretation of a variety of aerial photos, a second pair had field experience in the collection and identification of submersed macrophytes in the river system, and a third pair had neither training in the interpretation of aerial photos nor field experience. The criteria that we developed were applied equally well by the interpretors, regardless of their training or experience. Overall accuracy (i.e., omission errors) of all six classes combined was 68% correct, whereas, overall accuracy of individual classes ranged from 50 to 100% correct. Mapping accuracy (i.e. omission and commission errors) of individual classes ranged from 36 to 75%. Although the key developed for this study has only limited application outside the context of the data and sites examined in this study, it is concluded that low-altitude aerial photography, together with limited amounts of collateral ground survey information, can be used to economically identify beds of submersed macrophytes in the St. Clair-Detroit River system and other similar water bodies.

  1. D Surface Generation from Aerial Thermal Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodaei, B.; Samadzadegan, F.; Dadras Javan, F.; Hasani, H.

    2015-12-01

    Aerial thermal imagery has been recently applied to quantitative analysis of several scenes. For the mapping purpose based on aerial thermal imagery, high accuracy photogrammetric process is necessary. However, due to low geometric resolution and low contrast of thermal imaging sensors, there are some challenges in precise 3D measurement of objects. In this paper the potential of thermal video in 3D surface generation is evaluated. In the pre-processing step, thermal camera is geometrically calibrated using a calibration grid based on emissivity differences between the background and the targets. Then, Digital Surface Model (DSM) generation from thermal video imagery is performed in four steps. Initially, frames are extracted from video, then tie points are generated by Scale-Invariant Feature Transform (SIFT) algorithm. Bundle adjustment is then applied and the camera position and orientation parameters are determined. Finally, multi-resolution dense image matching algorithm is used to create 3D point cloud of the scene. Potential of the proposed method is evaluated based on thermal imaging cover an industrial area. The thermal camera has 640×480 Uncooled Focal Plane Array (UFPA) sensor, equipped with a 25 mm lens which mounted in the Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV). The obtained results show the comparable accuracy of 3D model generated based on thermal images with respect to DSM generated from visible images, however thermal based DSM is somehow smoother with lower level of texture. Comparing the generated DSM with the 9 measured GCPs in the area shows the Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) value is smaller than 5 decimetres in both X and Y directions and 1.6 meters for the Z direction.

  2. An aerial 3D printing test mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, Michael; McGuire, Thomas; Parsons, Michael; Leake, Skye; Straub, Jeremy

    2016-05-01

    This paper provides an overview of an aerial 3D printing technology, its development and its testing. This technology is potentially useful in its own right. In addition, this work advances the development of a related in-space 3D printing technology. A series of aerial 3D printing test missions, used to test the aerial printing technology, are discussed. Through completing these test missions, the design for an in-space 3D printer may be advanced. The current design for the in-space 3D printer involves focusing thermal energy to heat an extrusion head and allow for the extrusion of molten print material. Plastics can be used as well as composites including metal, allowing for the extrusion of conductive material. A variety of experiments will be used to test this initial 3D printer design. High altitude balloons will be used to test the effects of microgravity on 3D printing, as well as parabolic flight tests. Zero pressure balloons can be used to test the effect of long 3D printing missions subjected to low temperatures. Vacuum chambers will be used to test 3D printing in a vacuum environment. The results will be used to adapt a current prototype of an in-space 3D printer. Then, a small scale prototype can be sent into low-Earth orbit as a 3-U cube satellite. With the ability to 3D print in space demonstrated, future missions can launch production hardware through which the sustainability and durability of structures in space will be greatly improved.

  3. Evaluación de las aplicaciones aéreas de abamectin para el control químico del minador de los cítricos en la provincia de Tucumán Evaluation of aerial abamectin applications to control citrus leafminer in Tucumán province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernán Salas

    2008-06-01

    to six applications for citrus leafminer control. With ground applications it is only possible to apply 4 hectares per hour, whereas by plane, 100 hectares can be treated during the same time span. The aim of this work was to evaluate pest control efficiency of a management program that included monitoring and aerial abamectin applications from 2002 to 2006. Six treated commercial orchards and six untreated commercial orchards were selected in two areas of Tucumán province. The applications were carried out with an Air Tractor plane with micronaires using 20 l of water, 5 l of mineral oil and 1.8 g a. i. of abamectin (Vertimec 1.8%® per hectare. Application number per year and area varied according to monitoring results. Weekly samplings were made and the percentage of alive larvae was evaluated. At the end of the experience, foliar damage in previously-identified flushes was estimated. Infestation percentage and foliar damage were significantly lower (from 2 to 8% in orchards treated with aerial abamectin fumigations than in untreated orchards (from 18 to 30%. Pest monitoring allowed farmers to define application number per year and area as part of a rational citrus leafminer management program.

  4. Cooperative path planning of unmanned aerial vehicles

    CERN Document Server

    Tsourdos, Antonios; Shanmugavel, Madhavan

    2010-01-01

    An invaluable addition to the literature on UAV guidance and cooperative control, Cooperative Path Planning of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles is a dedicated, practical guide to computational path planning for UAVs. One of the key issues facing future development of UAVs is path planning: it is vital that swarm UAVs/ MAVs can cooperate together in a coordinated manner, obeying a pre-planned course but able to react to their environment by communicating and cooperating. An optimized path is necessary in order to ensure a UAV completes its mission efficiently, safely, and successfully.

  5. Adaptive control of an unmanned aerial vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguen, V. F.; Putov, A. V.; Nguen, T. T.

    2017-01-01

    The paper deals with design and comparison of adaptive control systems based on plant state vector and output for unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) with nonlinearity and uncertainty of parameters of the aircraft incomplete measurability of its state and presence of wind disturbances. The results of computer simulations of flight stabilization processes on the example of the experimental model UAV-70V (Aerospace Academy, Hanoi) with presence of periodic and non-periodic vertical wind disturbances with designed adaptive control systems based on plant state vector with state observer and plant output.

  6. Delivery of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivancic, William D.; Sullivan, Donald V.

    2011-01-01

    To support much of NASA's Upper Atmosphere Research Program science, NASA has acquired two Global Hawk Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs). Two major missions are currently planned using the Global Hawk: the Global Hawk Pacific (GloPac) and the Genesis and Rapid Intensification Processes (GRIP) missions. This paper briefly describes GloPac and GRIP, the concept of operations and the resulting requirements and communication architectures. Also discussed are requirements for future missions that may use satellite systems and networks owned and operated by third parties.

  7. Grab a coffee: your aerial images are already analyzed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garetto, Anthony; Rademacher, Thomas; Schulz, Kristian

    2015-07-01

    For over 2 decades the AIMTM platform has been utilized in mask shops as the standard for actinic review of photomask sites in order to perform defect disposition and repair review. Throughout this time the measurement throughput of the systems has been improved in order to keep pace with the requirements demanded by a manufacturing environment, however the analysis of the sites captured has seen little improvement and remained a manual process. This manual analysis of aerial images is time consuming, subject to error and unreliability and contributes to holding up turn-around time (TAT) and slowing process flow in a manufacturing environment. AutoAnalysis, the first application available for the FAVOR® platform, offers a solution to these problems by providing fully automated data transfer and analysis of AIMTM aerial images. The data is automatically output in a customizable format that can be tailored to your internal needs and the requests of your customers. Savings in terms of operator time arise from the automated analysis which no longer needs to be performed. Reliability is improved as human error is eliminated making sure the most defective region is always and consistently captured. Finally the TAT is shortened and process flow for the back end of the line improved as the analysis is fast and runs in parallel to the measurements. In this paper the concept and approach of AutoAnalysis will be presented as well as an update to the status of the project. A look at the benefits arising from the automation and the customizable approach of the solution will be shown.

  8. Road and Street Centerlines, All data was acquired by GPS observation & manually corrected, where needed, by observing the linework on aerial photography, Published in 2012, Not Applicable scale, Chippewa County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — , published at Not Applicable scale, was produced all or in part from Field Observation information as of 2012. It is described as 'All data was acquired by GPS...

  9. Anoxic or aerial survival of bivalves and other euryoxic invertebrates as a useful response to environmental stress - A comprehensive review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Zwaan, A.; Eertman, R.H.M.

    1996-01-01

    Laboratory and field studies have demonstrated the applicability of anoxic/aerial survival as an early warning indicator of contaminant induced stress. The effects of xenobiotics, including heavy metals, organometals and organics as well as contaminated field sediments have been investigated. The us

  10. Development and Testing of a Laboratory Spray Table Methodology to Bioassay Simulated Levels of Aerial Spray Drift

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-01

    3 Teske , M. E., and Thistle, H. W., “A Simulation of Release Height and Wind Speed Effects for Drift Minimization,” Trans. ASAE, Vol. 42, 1999, pp...and Teske , M. E., “Evaluation of the AgDISP Aerial Spray Algorithms in the AgDRIFT Model,” Envir. Toxicol. Chem., Vol. 21, 2002, pp. 672–681. 14... Teske , M. E., Vanner, A. L., and Coker, G. W. R., “Validation of SpraySafe Manager, an Aerial Herbicide Application Decision Support System,” Can. J

  11. Change in morphological properties of root and aerial parts of chickpea under drought stress, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and rhizobium treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Morad

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the effect of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM fungi (Glomus mosseae and Glomus intraradices and Mesorhizobium Ciceri bacteria at three soil moisture levels [28% (field capacity, FC, 15% (-5 bar suction and 9% (-10 bar tension by weight] on morphological properties of root and aerial parts of chickpea, a greenhouse factorial experiment, arranged as a complete randomized design, was conducted in a sterilized soil. Results showed that moisture treatment had significance effect on number of pods, number of seeds, fresh and dry weight of root and aerial parts, plant height and root length and volume. Application of Mesorhizobium was effective on number of nodes, number of pods, number of seeds, fresh and dry weight of root and aerial parts, plant height, root length and volume. Glomus mosseae had significant effect on plant height. Interaction of moisture and AM fungi was significant on fresh and dry weight of root and aerial parts. Interaction effect of Mesorhizobium and soil moisture was only significant on number of nodes. In general, the highest fresh and dry weight of aerial parts (44.6 and 10.53 grams, respectively was obtained by inoculation of chickpea by rhizobium bacteria and Glomus mosseae at FC moisture level, and AM fungi Glomus mosseae was more efficient compared to Glomus intraradices in both drought stress and without stress conditions.

  12. Exploration towards the modeling of gable-roofed buildings using a combination of aerial and street-level imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creusen, Ivo; Hazelhoff, Lykele; de With, Peter H. N.

    2015-03-01

    Extraction of residential building properties is helpful for numerous applications, such as computer-guided feasibility analysis for solar panel placement, determination of real-estate taxes and assessment of real-estate insurance policies. Therefore, this work explores the automated modeling of buildings with a gable roof (the most common roof type within Western Europe), based on a combination of aerial imagery and street-level panoramic images. This is a challenging task, since buildings show large variations in shape, dimensions and building extensions, and may additionally be captured under non-ideal lighting conditions. The aerial images feature a coarse overview of the building due to the large capturing distance. The building footprint and an initial estimate of the building height is extracted based on the analysis of stereo aerial images. The estimated model is then refined using street-level images, which feature higher resolution and enable more accurate measurements, however, displaying a single building side only. Initial experiments indicate that the footprint dimensions of the main building can be accurately extracted from aerial images, while the building height is extracted with slightly less accuracy. By combining aerial and street-level images, we have found that the accuracies of these height measurements are significantly increased, thereby improving the overall quality of the extracted building model, and resulting in an average inaccuracy of the estimated volume below 10%.

  13. The remote characterization of vegetation using Unmanned Aerial Vehicle photography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) can fly in place of piloted aircraft to gather remote sensing information on vegetation characteristics. The type of sensors flown depends on the instrument payload capacity available, so that, depending on the specific UAV, it is possible to obtain video, aerial phot...

  14. Kite Aerial Photography (KAP) as a Tool for Field Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sander, Lasse

    2014-01-01

    Kite aerial photography (KAP) is proposed as a creative tool for geography field teaching and as a medium to approach the complexity of readily available geodata. The method can be integrated as field experiment, surveying technique or group activity. The acquired aerial images can instantaneously be integrated in geographic information systems…

  15. Aerial service robots: an overview of the AIRobots activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marconi, L.; Naldi, R.; Torre, A.; Nikolic, J.; Huerzeler, C.; Caprari, G.; Zwicker, E.; Siciliano, B.; Lippiello, V.; Carloni, R.; Stramigioli, S.

    2012-01-01

    This video paper outlines some of the results achieved during the first two years of the ongoing European project AIRobots (Innovative Aerial Service Robots for Remote Inspection by Contact, www.airobots.eu). Goal of AIRobots is to develop a new generation of aerial service robots capable of support

  16. 76 FR 53165 - Certification Related to Aerial Eradication in Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Certification Related to Aerial Eradication in Colombia Pursuant to the authority vested in the Secretary of... for aerial eradication of illicit crops in Colombia is being used in accordance with EPA...

  17. An algorithm for approximate rectification of digital aerial images

    Science.gov (United States)

    High-resolution aerial photography is one of the most valuable tools available for managing extensive landscapes. With recent advances in digital camera technology, computer hardware, and software, aerial photography is easier to collect, store, and transfer than ever before. Images can be automa...

  18. Blending zone determination for aerial orthimage mosaicking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chao-Hung; Chen, Bo-Heng; Lin, Bo-Yi; Chou, Han-Szu

    2016-09-01

    Creating a composed image from a set of aerial images is a fundamental step in orthomosaic generation. One of the processes involved in this technique is determining an optimal seamline in an overlapping region to stitch image patches seamlessly. Most previous studies have solved this optimization problem by searching for a one-pixel-wide seamline with an objective function. This strategy significantly reduced pixel mismatches on the seamline caused by geometric distortions of images but did not fully consider color discontinuity and mismatch problems that occur around the seamline, which sometimes cause mosaicking artifacts. This study proposes a blending zone determination scheme with a novel path finding algorithm to reduce the occurrence of unwanted artifacts. Instead of searching for a one-pixel-wide seamline, a blending zone, which is a k-pixel-wide seamline that passes through high-similarity pixels in the overlapping region, is determined using a hierarchical structure. This strategy allows for not only seamless stitching but also smooth color blending of neighboring image patches. Moreover, the proposed method searches for a blending zone without the pre-process of highly mismatched pixel removal and additional geographic data of road vectors and digital surface/elevation models, which increases the usability of the approach. Qualitative and quantitative analyses of aerial images demonstrate the superiority of the proposed method to related methods in terms of avoidance of passing highly mismatched pixels.

  19. Automated Archiving of Archaeological Aerial Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Doneus

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of any aerial photo archive is to allow quick access to images based on content and location. Therefore, next to a description of technical parameters and depicted content, georeferencing of every image is of vital importance. This can be done either by identifying the main photographed object (georeferencing of the image content or by mapping the center point and/or the outline of the image footprint. The paper proposes a new image archiving workflow. The new pipeline is based on the parameters that are logged by a commercial, but cost-effective GNSS/IMU solution and processed with in-house-developed software. Together, these components allow one to automatically geolocate and rectify the (oblique aerial images (by a simple planar rectification using the exterior orientation parameters and to retrieve their footprints with reasonable accuracy, which is automatically stored as a vector file. The data of three test flights were used to determine the accuracy of the device, which turned out to be better than 1° for roll and pitch (mean between 0.0 and 0.21 with a standard deviation of 0.17–0.46 and better than 2.5° for yaw angles (mean between 0.0 and −0.14 with a standard deviation of 0.58–0.94. This turned out to be sufficient to enable a fast and almost automatic GIS-based archiving of all of the imagery.

  20. Learning Control of Fixed-Wing Unmanned Aerial Vehicles Using Fuzzy Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erdal Kayacan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A learning control strategy is preferred for the control and guidance of a fixed-wing unmanned aerial vehicle to deal with lack of modeling and flight uncertainties. For learning the plant model as well as changing working conditions online, a fuzzy neural network (FNN is used in parallel with a conventional P (proportional controller. Among the learning algorithms in the literature, a derivative-free one, sliding mode control (SMC theory-based learning algorithm, is preferred as it has been proved to be computationally efficient in real-time applications. Its proven robustness and finite time converging nature make the learning algorithm appropriate for controlling an unmanned aerial vehicle as the computational power is always limited in unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs. The parameter update rules and stability conditions of the learning are derived, and the proof of the stability of the learning algorithm is shown by using a candidate Lyapunov function. Intensive simulations are performed to illustrate the applicability of the proposed controller which includes the tracking of a three-dimensional trajectory by the UAV subject to time-varying wind conditions. The simulation results show the efficiency of the proposed control algorithm, especially in real-time control systems because of its computational efficiency.

  1. Literature Review of Dynamic Unmanned Aerial System Routing Problems and Proposals For Future Studies of UASs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cihan Ercan

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Outwith the technological developments made with Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV; other important issues for the users like effective planning and re-planning; providing the clear, concise and timely information to the decision makers is part of the Network Enabled Capability. Significant improvements to the Communication and Information systems have made it possible to find dynamic solutions for Vehicle Routing Problems. In this context, "Vehicle Routing" applications for UAVs in reconnaissance missions are increasing exponentially. This study investigates the literature in "dynamic route planning", defining the scope and identifying shortcomings for future studies in Unmanned Aerial Systems. Using this approach not only reduces stagnant travel time to target time but increases the usable times spent on targets.

  2. Effective delineation of urban flooded areas based on aerial ortho-photo imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying; Guindon, Bert; Raymond, Don; Hong, Gang

    2016-10-01

    The combination of rapid global urban growth and climate change has resulted in increased occurrence of major urban flood events across the globe. The distribution of flooded area is one of the key information layers for applications of emergency planning and response management. While SAR systems and technologies have been widely used for flood area delineation, radar images suffer from range ambiguities arising from corner reflection effects and shadowing in dense urban settings. A new mapping framework is proposed for the extraction and quantification of flood extent based on aerial optical multi-spectral imagery and ancillary data. This involves first mapping of flood areas directly visible to the sensor. Subsequently, the complete area of submergence is estimated from this initial mapping and inference techniques based on baseline data such as land cover and GIS information such as available digital elevation models. The methodology has been tested and proven effective using aerial photography for the case of the 2013 flood in Calgary, Canada.

  3. A Roll Controlling Approach for a Simple Dual-Actuated Flapping Aerial Vehicle Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Labib Omar El-Farouk E.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aerial vehicles have been investigated recently in different contexts, due to their high potential of utilization in multiple application areas. Different mechanisms can be used for aerial vehicles actuation, such as the rotating multi-blade systems (Multi-Copters and more recently flapping wings. Flapping wing robots have attracted much attention from researchers in recent years. In this study, a simple dual-actuated flapping mechanism is proposed for actuating a flapping wing robot. The mechanism is designed, simulated and validated in both simulation and experiments. A roll controlling approach is proposed to control the roll angle of the robot via controlling the speeds of both motors actuating each of the wings. The results achieved are validated experimentally, and are promising opening the door for further investigation using our proposed system

  4. Observing snow cover using unmanned aerial vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spallek, Waldemar; Witek, Matylda; Niedzielski, Tomasz

    2016-04-01

    Snow cover is a key environmental variable that influences high flow events driven by snow-melt episodes. Estimates of snow extent (SE), snow depth (SD) and snow water equivalent (SWE) allow to approximate runoff caused by snow-melt episodes. These variables are purely spatial characteristics, and hence their pointwise measurements using terrestrial monitoring systems do not offer the comprehensive and fully-spatial information on water storage in snow. Existing satellite observations of snow reveal moderate spatial resolution which, not uncommonly, is not fine enough to estimate the above-mentioned snow-related variables for small catchments. High-resolution aerial photographs and the resulting orthophotomaps and digital surface models (DSMs), obtained using unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), may offer spatial resolution of 3 cm/px. The UAV-based observation of snow cover may be done using the near-infrared (NIR) cameras and visible-light cameras. Since the beginning of 2015, in frame of the research project no. LIDER/012/223/L-5/13/NCBR/2014 financed by the National Centre for Research and Development of Poland, we have performed a series of the UAV flights targeted at four sites in the Kwisa catchment in the Izerskie Mts. (part of the Sudetes, SW Poland). Observations are carried out with the ultralight UAV swinglet CAM (produced by senseFly, lightweight 0.5 kg, wingspan 80 cm) which enables on-demand sampling at low costs. The aim of the field work is to acquire aerial photographs taken using the visible-light and NIR cameras for a purpose of producing time series of DSMs and orthophotomaps with snow cover for all sites. The DSMs are used to calculate SD as difference between observational (with snow) and reference (without snow) models. In order to verify such an approach to compute SD we apply several procedures, one of which is the estimation of SE using the corresponding orthophotomaps generated on a basis of visual-light and NIR images. The objective of this

  5. Thermal soaring flight of birds and unmanned aerial vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akos, Zsuzsa; Nagy, Mate; Vicsek, Tamas [Department of Biological Physics, Eoetvoes University, Pazmany Peter setany 1A, H-1117, Budapest (Hungary); Leven, Severin, E-mail: vicsek@hal.elte.h [Laboratory of Intelligent Systems, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2010-12-15

    Thermal soaring saves much energy, but flying large distances in this form represents a great challenge for birds, people and unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). The solution is to make use of the so-called thermals, which are localized, warmer regions in the atmosphere moving upward with a speed exceeding the descent rate of birds and planes. Saving energy by exploiting the environment more efficiently is an important possibility for autonomous UAVs as well. Successful control strategies have been developed recently for UAVs in simulations and in real applications. This paper first presents an overview of our knowledge of the soaring flight and strategy of birds, followed by a discussion of control strategies that have been developed for soaring UAVs both in simulations and applications on real platforms. To improve the accuracy of the simulation of thermal exploitation strategies we propose a method to take into account the effect of turbulence. Finally, we propose a new GPS-independent control strategy for exploiting thermal updrafts.

  6. Precision wildlife monitoring using unmanned aerial vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgson, Jarrod C.; Baylis, Shane M.; Mott, Rowan; Herrod, Ashley; Clarke, Rohan H.

    2016-03-01

    Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) represent a new frontier in environmental research. Their use has the potential to revolutionise the field if they prove capable of improving data quality or the ease with which data are collected beyond traditional methods. We apply UAV technology to wildlife monitoring in tropical and polar environments and demonstrate that UAV-derived counts of colony nesting birds are an order of magnitude more precise than traditional ground counts. The increased count precision afforded by UAVs, along with their ability to survey hard-to-reach populations and places, will likely drive many wildlife monitoring projects that rely on population counts to transition from traditional methods to UAV technology. Careful consideration will be required to ensure the coherence of historic data sets with new UAV-derived data and we propose a method for determining the number of duplicated (concurrent UAV and ground counts) sampling points needed to achieve data compatibility.

  7. Sesquiterpenes from aerial parts of Ferula vesceritensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oughlissi-Dehak, Karima; Lawton, Philippe; Michalet, Serge; Bayet, Christine; Darbour, Nicole; Hadj-Mahammed, Mahfoud; Badjah-Hadj-Ahmed, Yacine A; Dijoux-Franca, Marie-Geneviève; Guilet, David

    2008-06-01

    From the dichloromethane extract of aerial parts of Ferula vesceritensis (Apiaceae), 11 sesquiterpene derivatives were isolated. Among them five were compounds designated as 10-hydroxylancerodiol-6-anisate, 2,10-diacetyl-8-hydroxyferutriol-6-anisate, 10-hydroxylancerodiol-6-benzoate, vesceritenone and epoxy-vesceritenol. The six known compounds were identified as feselol, farnesiferol A, lapidol, 2-acetyl-jaeschkeanadiol-6-anisate, lasidiol-10-anisate and 10-oxo-jaesckeanadiol-6-anisate. All the structures were determined by extensive spectroscopic studies including 1D and 2D NMR experiments and mass spectroscopy analysis. Two of the compounds, the sesquiterpene coumarins farnesiferol A and feselol, bound to the model recombinant nucleotide-binding site of an MDR-like efflux pump from the enteropathogenic protozoan Cryptosporidium parvum.

  8. Monocular Vision SLAM for Indoor Aerial Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koray Çelik

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel indoor navigation and ranging strategy via monocular camera. By exploiting the architectural orthogonality of the indoor environments, we introduce a new method to estimate range and vehicle states from a monocular camera for vision-based SLAM. The navigation strategy assumes an indoor or indoor-like manmade environment whose layout is previously unknown, GPS-denied, representable via energy based feature points, and straight architectural lines. We experimentally validate the proposed algorithms on a fully self-contained microaerial vehicle (MAV with sophisticated on-board image processing and SLAM capabilities. Building and enabling such a small aerial vehicle to fly in tight corridors is a significant technological challenge, especially in the absence of GPS signals and with limited sensing options. Experimental results show that the system is only limited by the capabilities of the camera and environmental entropy.

  9. Weather effects on aerial snow measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tollan, O.

    1979-01-01

    When aerial snow measurements are carried out, various weather phenomena have influence on the survey operations and the registered gamma radiation values. Among these phenomena are low visibility and wind causing problems to aircraft operations, and temperature inversions which may trap radioactive gases and particles in the air layer near the ground. The pressure and temperature of the air and its humidity influence the gamma radiation field above the ground, and this should be taken into consideration. As some types of weather may cause delays and errors in the snow measurement, it is important for the operators to have a reliable account of the weather situation prior to and during the survey flights. This will reduce the cost of the measurement operation and improve the quality of the collected data.

  10. A Primer on Autonomous Aerial Vehicle Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo H. G. Coppejans

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available There is a large amount of research currently being done on autonomous micro-aerial vehicles (MAV, such as quadrotor helicopters or quadcopters. The ability to create a working autonomous MAV depends mainly on integrating a simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM solution with the rest of the system. This paper provides an introduction for creating an autonomous MAV for enclosed environments, aimed at students and professionals alike. The standard autonomous system and MAV automation are discussed, while we focus on the core concepts of SLAM systems and trajectory planning algorithms. The advantages and disadvantages of using remote processing are evaluated, and recommendations are made regarding the viability of on-board processing. Recommendations are made regarding best practices to serve as a guideline for aspirant MAV designers.

  11. A Primer on Autonomous Aerial Vehicle Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppejans, Hugo H G; Myburgh, Herman C

    2015-12-02

    There is a large amount of research currently being done on autonomous micro-aerial vehicles (MAV), such as quadrotor helicopters or quadcopters. The ability to create a working autonomous MAV depends mainly on integrating a simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM) solution with the rest of the system. This paper provides an introduction for creating an autonomous MAV for enclosed environments, aimed at students and professionals alike. The standard autonomous system and MAV automation are discussed, while we focus on the core concepts of SLAM systems and trajectory planning algorithms. The advantages and disadvantages of using remote processing are evaluated, and recommendations are made regarding the viability of on-board processing. Recommendations are made regarding best practices to serve as a guideline for aspirant MAV designers.

  12. Precision wildlife monitoring using unmanned aerial vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgson, Jarrod C; Baylis, Shane M; Mott, Rowan; Herrod, Ashley; Clarke, Rohan H

    2016-03-17

    Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) represent a new frontier in environmental research. Their use has the potential to revolutionise the field if they prove capable of improving data quality or the ease with which data are collected beyond traditional methods. We apply UAV technology to wildlife monitoring in tropical and polar environments and demonstrate that UAV-derived counts of colony nesting birds are an order of magnitude more precise than traditional ground counts. The increased count precision afforded by UAVs, along with their ability to survey hard-to-reach populations and places, will likely drive many wildlife monitoring projects that rely on population counts to transition from traditional methods to UAV technology. Careful consideration will be required to ensure the coherence of historic data sets with new UAV-derived data and we propose a method for determining the number of duplicated (concurrent UAV and ground counts) sampling points needed to achieve data compatibility.

  13. Bioinspired optical sensors for unmanned aerial systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chahl, Javaan; Rosser, Kent; Mizutani, Akiko

    2011-04-01

    Insects are dependant on the spatial, spectral and temporal distributions of light in the environment for flight control and navigation. This paper reports on flight trials of implementations of insect inspired behaviors on unmanned aerial vehicles. Optical flow methods for maintaining a constant height above ground and a constant course have been demonstrated to provide navigation capabilities that are impossible using conventional avionics sensors. Precision control of height above ground and ground course were achieved over long distances. Other vision based techniques demonstrated include a biomimetic stabilization sensor that uses the ultraviolet and green bands of the spectrum, and a sky polarization compass. Both of these sensors were tested over long trajectories in different directions, in each case showing performance similar to low cost inertial heading and attitude systems. The behaviors demonstrate some of the core functionality found in the lower levels of the sensorimotor system of flying insects and shows promise for more integrated solutions in the future.

  14. Development of a spherical aerial vehicle for urban search

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Kang; Sun, Hanxu; Jia, Qingxuan; Zhang, Yanheng

    2014-06-01

    With the ability to provide close surveillance in narrow space or urban areas, spherical aerial vehicles have been of great interest to many scholars and researchers. The spherical aerial vehicle offers substantial design advantages over the conventional small aerial vehicles. As a kind of small aerial vehicles, spherical aerial vehicle is presented in this paper. Firstly, the unique structure of spherical aerial vehicle is presented in detail. And then as the key component of the spherical aerial vehicle, the meshed spherical shell is analyzed. The shell is made of carbon fiber and is used to protect the inner devices, so the deformation of the shell is analyzed and simulated. Then the experimental results verify the above analysis and the composite carbon fiber material makes the mesh spherical shell small deformation. Considering the whole vehicle has a shell outside, the lift affect of the meshed spherical shell is analyzed. The simulation and experiment results are basically consistent with theoretical analysis, and the impact of the meshed shell has small resistance for the airflow through the sphere.

  15. Large Aerial Bursts: An Important Class of Terrestrial Accretionary Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasson, John T.

    2003-01-01

    Large aerial bursts similar to the 1908 Tunguska bolide but much larger in magnitude have surely been responsible for many catastrophic events in the history of the Earth. Because aerial bursts produce shallow (or even negligible) craters, their existence is difficult to document in the geological record. Even aerial bursts as small as Tunguska deposit enough energy to melt ~1mm of dry soil. Silica-rich glass formed in such melts has the potential to survive in the soil for many Ma, thus a potential indicator of large aerial bursts is glass that was formed as thick regions within silicate melt sheets. The layered tektites from Southeast Asia and the Libyan desert glass may have formed by a combination of sedimentation and downslope flow of silicate melt heated by radiation from large aerial bursts. The alternative, formation of layered tektites as crater ejecta, cannot account for observations such as uniformly high 10Be contents, the orientation of the magnetic remanence field, and the absence of splash-form (e.g., teardrop or dumbbell) tektites in regions where layered tektites are common. The largest asteroids or comets make craters no matter what their strength. Recent reviews suggest that, for events in the energy range up to 1019-1020 J (about two orders of magnitude larger than the Meteor Crater impact), aerial bursts are more likely than cratering events, and the layered tektites of Southeast Asia imply the existence of aerial bursts one to two orders of magnitude larger still.

  16. Effect of Aerial Yoga on Human Body%空中瑜伽的人体健身作用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张彪; 刘鸿宇

    2015-01-01

    空中瑜伽(Aerial Yoga)是又叫反重力瑜伽是一种新型的运动方式,以传统的哈他瑜伽——姿势、呼吸、冥想、收束法体系为基础,使练习者的心灵得到清净,身体得到锻炼,并且应用了空中悬吊技术和重力原理,一方面突显了空中瑜伽的视觉效果,另一方面丰富了空中瑜伽的科学健身价值,正逐渐受到国内外健身界的关注。文章主要介绍空中瑜伽的发展概况、构成特色及空中瑜伽对人体的健身作用,以期为广大健身爱好者提供一种更加时尚、有效的健身方法,同时也为空中瑜伽今后的开展提供理论支持。%Aerial Yoga is a new sport, based on traditional Hatha Yoga -postures, breathing, meditation and bandha system- to make practitioners relax in heart and exercise the body. Application of Sling technology and gravity principle highlights the visual effects and the scientific value of the Aerial yoga, which draws attention from China and abroad. This paper describes the development situation, the characteristics of Aerial yoga and effect of Aerial yoga on the human body, offering a more fashionable and effective choice for the practitioners and providing the reference for the development of Aerial yoga.

  17. Remote sensing and aerial photography for coastal geomorphology

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Wagle, B.G.

    -Type text/plain; charset=UTF-8 :;. RmOTE 5mBIN(; AND AERIAL PHOTOGRAPHY FOR COASTAL GIDMORPHOLOGY By B. G. Wagle National Institute of Oceanography Dona Paula, Goa -~o:;DOL,. • : " In this lecture I will discuss the use ofRemote~. Sensing data... between the dates of photographs. Considering the rapid development of Remote Sensing Seismic the need was felt to use the aerial photographs and LANDSAT imageries for coastal and nearshore studies. Use of aerial photographs has increased the effi ciency...

  18. Concept options for the aerial survey of Titan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorrington, G. E.

    2011-01-01

    Various aerial platforms intended for long endurance survey of the Titan surface are presented. A few novel concepts are introduced, including a heated methane balloon and a balloon with a tethered wind turbine. All the concept options are predicted to have lower scientific payload fractions than the Huygens probe. It is concluded that the selection of the best aerial platform option depends on more accurate mass estimates and a clear decision on whether, or not, in situ surface composition measurements are required in conjunction with aerial remote sensing.

  19. Flapping wing micro-aerial-vehicle: Kinematics, membranes, and flapping mechanisms of ornithopter and insect flight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Firdaus Bin Abas

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The application of biomimetics in the development of unmanned-aerial-vehicles (UAV has advanced to an exceptionally small scale of nano-aerial-vehicles (NAV, which has surpassed its immediate predecessor of micro-aerial-vehicles (MAV, leaving a vast range of development possibilities that MAVs have to offer. Because of the prompt advancement into the NAV research development, the true potential and challenges presented by MAV development were never solved, understood, and truly uncovered, especially under the influence of transition and low Reynolds number flow characteristics. This paper reviews a part of previous MAV research developments which are deemed important of notification; kinematics, membranes, and flapping mechanisms ranges from small birds to big insects, which resides within the transition and low Reynolds number regimes. This paper also reviews the possibility of applying a piezoelectric transmission used to produce NAV flapping wing motion and mounted on a MAV, replacing the conventional motorized flapping wing transmission. Findings suggest that limited work has been done for MAVs matching these criteria. The preferred research approach has seen bias towards numerical analysis as compared to experimental analysis.

  20. SURVEYING A LANDSLIDE IN A ROAD EMBANKMENT USING UNMANNED AERIAL VEHICLE PHOTOGRAMMETRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Carvajal

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Most of the works of civil engineering, and some others applications, need to be designed using a basic cartography with a suitable scale to the accuracy and extension of the plot.The Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV Photogrammetry covers the gap between classical manned aerial photogrammetry and hand- made surveying techniques because it works in the close-range domain, combining aerial and terrestrial photogrammetry, but also introduces low-cost alternatives. The aim of this work is developing of an accurate and low-cost method to characterize landslides located on the size of a road. It was applied at the kilometric point 339 belonging to the A92 dual carriageway, in the Abla municipal term, province of Almeria, Spain. A photogrammetric project was carried out from a set of images taken from an md4-200 Microdrones with an on-board calibrated camera 12 Megapixels Pentax Optio A40. The flight was previously planned to cover the whole extension of the embankment with three passes composed of 18 photos each one. All the images were taken with the vertical axe and it was registered 85% and 60% longitudinal and transversal overlaps respectively. The accuracy of the products, with planimetric and altimetric errors of 0.049 and 0.108m repectively, lets to take measurements of the landslide and projecting preventive and palliative actuations.