WorldWideScience

Sample records for aere

  1. AER image filtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Rodríguez, F.; Linares-Barranco, A.; Paz, R.; Miró-Amarante, L.; Jiménez, G.; Civit, A.

    2007-05-01

    Address Event Representation (AER) is an emergent neuromorphic interchip communication protocol that allows real-time virtual massive connectivity among huge number of neurons located on different chips.[1] By exploiting high speed digital communication circuits (with nano-seconds timing), synaptic neural connections can be time multiplexed, while neural activity signals (with mili-seconds timings) are sampled at low frequencies. Neurons generate "events" according to their activity levels. That is, more active neurons generate more events per unit time and access the interchip communication channel more frequently than neurons with low activity. In Neuromorphic system development, AER brings some advantages to develop real-time image processing system: (1) AER represents the information like time continuous stream not like a frame; (2) AER sends the most important information first (although this depends on the sender); (3) AER allows to process information as soon as it is received. When AER is used in artificial vision field, each pixel is considered like a neuron, so pixel's intensity is represented like a sequence of events; modifying the number and the frequency of these events, it is possible to make some image filtering. In this paper we present four image filters using AER: (a) Noise addition and suppression, (b) brightness modification, (c) single moving object tracking and (d) geometrical transformations (rotation, translation, reduction and magnification). For testing and debugging, we use USB-AER board developed by Robotic and Technology of Computers Applied to Rehabilitation (RTCAR) research group. This board is based on an FPGA, devoted to manage the AER functionality. This board also includes a micro-controlled for USB communication, 2 Mbytes RAM and 2 AER ports (one for input and one for output).

  2. Adverse Event Reporting System (AERS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Adverse Event Reporting System (AERS) is a computerized information database designed to support the FDA's post-marketing safety surveillance program for all...

  3. AER Working Group B activities in 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Review of AER Working Group B Meeting in Czech Republic - Plzen is given. Regular meeting of Core Design Group was organized by SKODA JS, Inc. and held at Plzen-Bolevec, Czech Republic, May 21+22, 2001, together with Working Group A (Authors)

  4. AER working group E meeting in 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The thirteenth meeting of the AER Working Group E 'Physical Problems on Spent Fuel, Radwaste and Decommissioning of Nuclear Power Plants' organized by NRI Rez was held in Rez, Czech Republic, on 3-4 April, 2008. The meeting was focused on the following topics: depletion and criticality calculations (ETE cask, CB5 benchmark,...), experience with SCALE 5.1 depletion sequence TRITON, spent fuel disposal, PIE (Post Irradiations Experiments), uncertainties in criticality safety, boron credit implementation, burnup credit implementation. Total number of participants was 14 from 6 countries. (authors)

  5. SMART- Small Motor AerRospace Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balucani, M.; Crescenzi, R.; Ferrari, A.; Guarrea, G.; Pontetti, G.; Orsini, F.; Quattrino, L.; Viola, F.

    2004-11-01

    This paper presents the "SMART" (Small Motor AerRospace Tecnology) propulsion system, constituted of microthrusters array realised by semiconductor technology on silicon wafers. SMART system is obtained gluing three main modules: combustion chambers, igniters and nozzles. The module was then filled with propellant and closed by gluing a piece of silicon wafer in the back side of the combustion chambers. The complete assembled module composed of 25 micro- thrusters with a 3 x 5 nozzle is presented. The measurement showed a thrust of 129 mN and impulse of 56,8 mNs burning about 70mg of propellant for the micro-thruster with nozzle and a thrust of 21 mN and impulse of 8,4 mNs for the micro-thruster without nozzle.

  6. AER working group D on WWER safety analysis - report of the 2008 meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The AER Working Group D on WWER reactor safety analysis held its seventeenth meeting in Garching, Germany during the period 31 March-01 April 2008. The meeting was hosted by the GRS Garching. Altogether 19 participants attend the meeting of the working group D, 16 from AER member organizations and 3 guests from non-member organizations. (Author)

  7. Signal detection in FDA AERS database using Dirichlet process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Na; Huang, Lan; Tiwari, Ram C

    2015-08-30

    In the recent two decades, data mining methods for signal detection have been developed for drug safety surveillance, using large post-market safety data. Several of these methods assume that the number of reports for each drug-adverse event combination is a Poisson random variable with mean proportional to the unknown reporting rate of the drug-adverse event pair. Here, a Bayesian method based on the Poisson-Dirichlet process (DP) model is proposed for signal detection from large databases, such as the Food and Drug Administration's Adverse Event Reporting System (AERS) database. Instead of using a parametric distribution as a common prior for the reporting rates, as is the case with existing Bayesian or empirical Bayesian methods, a nonparametric prior, namely, the DP, is used. The precision parameter and the baseline distribution of the DP, which characterize the process, are modeled hierarchically. The performance of the Poisson-DP model is compared with some other models, through an intensive simulation study using a Bayesian model selection and frequentist performance characteristics such as type-I error, false discovery rate, sensitivity, and power. For illustration, the proposed model and its extension to address a large amount of zero counts are used to analyze statin drugs for signals using the 2006-2011 AERS data. PMID:25924820

  8. Vitamin B12 regulates photosystem gene expression via the CrtJ antirepressor AerR in Rhodobacter capsulatus

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng, Zhuo; Li, Keran; Hammad, Loubna A.; Karty, Jonathan A.; Bauer, Carl E.

    2014-01-01

    The tetrapyrroles heme, bacteriochlorophyll and cobalamin (B12) exhibit a complex interrelationship regarding their synthesis. In this study, we demonstrate that AerR functions as an antirepressor of the tetrapyrrole regulator CrtJ. We show that purified AerR contains B12 that is bound to a conserved histidine (His145) in AerR. The interaction of AerR to CrtJ was further demonstrated in vitro by pull down experiments using AerR as bait and quantified using microscale thermophoresis. DNase I D...

  9. Discussion forum on electron beam instruments AERE Harwell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this catalogue is to provide a source of information on the equipment available at AERE Harwell, to the nuclear and non-nuclear scientist. The original aim, that is, is to provide data on electron/proton beam instruments has been revised to include optical devices and ancillary preparatory equipment. The intention is to enable prospective users to have a contact who can provide further detailed information, although it must be recognised that work on certain projects completely fills the time available. This publication has been updated, first catalogue published in January 1975, to August 1980 and it is the intention that it should form part of a similar publication which incorporates details of similar equipment available throughout the UKAEA. (author)

  10. Estudio de impacto ambiental de un aeródromo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gómez Orea, Domingo

    1996-04-01

    Full Text Available Airports and aerodromes are transport infrastructures which, apart from contributing to the mobility of people and goods, favor social development, since they promote new activities, stimulate local initiatives and reassess bordering areas. This article presents a synthesis of the Environmental Impact Study of a future aerodrome, whose design project is way at present. The aerodrome is submitted to the EIA administrative procedure due to the currently applicable specific legislation: R.D. 1302/86. The technical document submitted for study is the special plan of the aerodrome. One of the basic criteria in the conception of airports and private airfields is the compatibility with the habitability of the environment as well as with the ecological and landscape conditions. This criteria should play a part in the orientation of the runways, trajectory of the taking off and landing maneuvers..., even in the location and design og the parking spaces, hangars and other facilities. This idea suggests the design be conceived with environmental-friendly sensibility, right from the initial stages, without leaving the responsibility of this issue to the environmental study impact. The present study has its own style of approaching the dissemination, consisting of the idea that the reader will find the methodological aspects more useful than the technical data which are of consequence only in the handling of the different project stages. The aspects which are also considered important for the reader are those which allowed the team of editors to form their criteria on the issues of expenses, environmental benefits of the design, its acceptability, etc. The methodology applied is a classical one, in accordance with the requirements of the EIA regulations.

    Los aeropuertos y aeródromos son infraestructuras de transporte que, además de contribuir a la movilidad de las personas y mercancías, fomentan el desarrollo porque promocionan nuevas

  11. AerChemMIP: Quantifying the effects of chemistry and aerosols in CMIP6

    OpenAIRE

    Collins, William J; Lamarque, Jean-François; Schulz, Michael; Boucher, Olivier; Eyring, Veronika; Hegglin, Michaela I.; Maycock, Amanda; Myhre, Gunnar; Prather, Michael; Shindell, Drew; Smith, Steven J.

    2016-01-01

    The Aerosol Chemistry Model Intercomparison Project (AerChemMIP) is endorsed by the Coupled-Model Intercomparison Project 6 (CMIP6) and is designed to quantify the climate and air quality impacts of aerosols and chemically-reactive gases. These are specifically near-term climate forcers (NTCFs: tropospheric ozone and aerosols, and their precursors), methane, nitrous oxide and ozone-depleting halocarbons. The aim of AerChemMIP is to answer four scientific questions: 1. How have anthropogeni...

  12. Fusion Welding of AerMet 100 Alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ENGLEHART, DAVID A.; MICHAEL, JOSEPH R.; NOVOTNY, PAUL M.; ROBINO, CHARLES V.

    1999-08-01

    A database of mechanical properties for weldment fusion and heat-affected zones was established for AerMet{reg_sign}100 alloy, and a study of the welding metallurgy of the alloy was conducted. The properties database was developed for a matrix of weld processes (electron beam and gas-tungsten arc) welding parameters (heat inputs) and post-weld heat treatment (PWHT) conditions. In order to insure commercial utility and acceptance, the matrix was commensurate with commercial welding technology and practice. Second, the mechanical properties were correlated with fundamental understanding of microstructure and microstructural evolution in this alloy. Finally, assessments of optimal weld process/PWHT combinations for cotildent application of the alloy in probable service conditions were made. The database of weldment mechanical properties demonstrated that a wide range of properties can be obtained in welds in this alloy. In addition, it was demonstrated that acceptable welds, some with near base metal properties, could be produced from several different initial heat treatments. This capability provides a means for defining process parameters and PWHT's to achieve appropriate properties for different applications, and provides useful flexibility in design and manufacturing. The database also indicated that an important region in welds is the softened region which develops in the heat-affected zone (HAZ) and analysis within the welding metallurgy studies indicated that the development of this region is governed by a complex interaction of precipitate overaging and austenite formation. Models and experimental data were therefore developed to describe overaging and austenite formation during thermal cycling. These models and experimental data can be applied to essentially any thermal cycle, and provide a basis for predicting the evolution of microstructure and properties during thermal processing.

  13. Hydrogen transport and embrittlement in 300 M and AerMet100 ultra high strength steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes how hydrogen transport affects the severity of hydrogen embrittlement in 300 M and AerMet100 ultra high strength steels. Slow strain rate tests were carried out on specimens coated with electrodeposited cadmium and aluminium-based SermeTel 1140/962. Hydrogen diffusivities were measured using two-cell permeation and galvanostatic charging methods and values of 8.0 x 10-8 and 1.0 x 10-9 cm2 s-1 were obtained for 300 M and AerMet100, respectively. A two-dimensional diffusion model was used to predict the hydrogen distributions in the SSR specimens at the time of failure. The superior embrittlement resistance of AerMet100 was attributed to reverted austenite forming around martensite laths during tempering.

  14. Dynamic Yield Strength and Spall Strength Determination for AerMet 100 Steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Well-controlled impact studies have been conducted on ''as-received'' and heat-treated AerMet 100 steel alloy samples to determine their dynamic material properties. In particular, gas gun and time-resolved laser interferometer have been used to measure the fine structure in the particle velocity profiles resulting from symmetric plate impact. Impact velocities ranged from 0.40 km/s to 0.90 km/s. These experiments have allowed us to estimate the dynamic yield and span strengths of the ''as-received'' and heat-treated AerMet 100 steel

  15. Hydrogen transport and embrittlement in 300 M and AerMet100 ultra high strength steels

    OpenAIRE

    Figueroa-Gordon, Douglas J.; Robinson, M. J.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes how hydrogen transport affects the severity of hydrogen embrittlement in 300 M and AerMet100 ultra high strength steels. Slow strain rate tests were carried out on specimens coated with electrodeposited cadmium and aluminium-based SermeTel 1140/962. Hydrogen diffusivities were measured using two-cell permeation and galvanostatic charging methods and values of 8.0 × 10−8 and 1.0 × 10−9 cm2 s−1 were obtained for 300 M and AerMet100, respectively. A two-dim...

  16. A massa gorda de risco afeta a capacidade aeróbia de jovens adolescentes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Massuça

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Estudar o comportamento do sexo e os efeitos da idade e da massa gorda sobre a capacidade aeróbia de jovens adolescentes. MÉTODOS: Os 621 estudantes do ensino secundário participantes no estudo (14 aos 17 anos; feminino: n = 329, idade, 15,84 ± 0,92 anos; masculino: n = 292, idade, 15,82 ± 0,87 anos foram avaliados em duas categorias: morfologia (altura, peso e % massa gorda - %MG e aptidão física (capacidade aeróbia. As medições antropométricas foram realizadas de acordo com o protocolo descrito por Marfell-Jones e a %MG foi calculada por bioimpedância. A avaliação da capacidade aeróbia foi realizada com o teste aeróbio de corrida - PACER, e VO2máx relativo foi calculado utilizando a equação de Léger. Os resultados das avaliações foram classificados de acordo com os valores normativos das tabelas de referência da bateria de testes FITNESSGRAM® As técnicas estatísticas utilizadas foram: 1 cálculo de frequências; 2 teste t de Student para amostras independentes; e 3 ANOVA two-way seguida do teste post-hoc HSD de Bonferroni. RESULTADOS: 1 existem diferenças significativas entre sexos no que se refere à %MG e ao VO2máx; 2 durante a adolescência, o VO2máx estabiliza nos rapazes e sofre um declínio nas moças; 3 independentemente do sexo, a classe de %MG e a idade cronológica têm um efeito significativo sobre a capacidade aeróbia; e 4 em jovens adolescentes, com %MG de risco, a redução da %MG para níveis saudáveis parece resultar na melhoria da capacidade aeróbia. CONCLUSÃO: O impacto da %MG na capacidade aeróbia, reforça a importância da educação física escolar na promoção da saúde cardiovascular.

  17. AER Working Group D on VVER safety analysis - report of the 2009 meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The AER Working Group D on VVER reactor safety analysis held its 18-th meeting in Rez, Czech Republic, during the period 18-19 May, 2009. The meeting was hosted by the Nuclear Research Institute Rez. Altogether 17 participants attended the meeting of the working group D, 16 from AER member organizations and 1 guest from a non-member organization. The co-ordinator of the working group, S. Kliem, served as chairman of the meeting. The meeting started with a general information exchange about the recent activities in the participating organizations. The given presentations and the discussions can be attributed to the following topics: 1) Code validation and benchmarking; 2) Safety analysis and code developments; 3) Reactor pressure vessel thermal hydraulics; 4) Future activities including discussion on the participation in the OECD/NEA Benchmark for the Kalinin-3 NPP

  18. Articulated Entity Relationship (AER) Diagram for Complete Automation of Relational Database Normalization

    OpenAIRE

    P. S. Dhabe; M. S. Patwardhan; Asavari A. Deshpande; M.L. Dhore; B.V. Barbadekar; H. K. Abhyankar

    2010-01-01

    In this paper an Articulated Entity Relationship (AER) diagram is proposed, which is an extension of EntityRelationship (ER) diagram to accommodate the Functional Dependency (FD) information as its integral partfor complete automation of normalization. In current relational databases (RDBMS) automation ofnormalization by top down approach is possible using ER diagram as an input, provided the FD informationis available independently, meanwhile, through user interaction. Such automation we cal...

  19. Articulated Entity Relationship (AER Diagram for Complete Automation of Relational Database Normalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. S. Dhabe

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper an Articulated Entity Relationship (AER diagram is proposed, which is an extension of EntityRelationship (ER diagram to accommodate the Functional Dependency (FD information as its integral partfor complete automation of normalization. In current relational databases (RDBMS automation ofnormalization by top down approach is possible using ER diagram as an input, provided the FD informationis available independently, meanwhile, through user interaction. Such automation we call partial andconditional automation. To avoid this user interaction, there is a strong need to accommodate FDinformation as an element of ER diagram itself. Moreover, ER diagrams are not designed by taking intoaccount the requirements of normalization. However, for better automation of normalization it must be anintegral part of conceptual design (ER Diagram. The prime motivation behind this paper to design a systemthat need only proposed AER diagram as a sole input and normalize the database up to a given normal formin one go. This would allow more amount of automation than the current approach. Such automation we callas total and unconditional automation, which is better and complete in true sense. As the proposed AERdiagram is designed by taking in to account the normalization process, normalization up to Boyce CoddNormal Form (BCNF becomes an integral part of conceptual design. Additional advantage of AER diagramis that any modifications (addition, deletion or updation of attributes made to the AER diagram willautomatically be reflected in its FD information. Thus description of schema and FD information isguaranteed to be consistent. This cannot be assured in current approach using ER diagrams, as schema andFD information are provided to the system at two different times, separately.

  20. On real-time AER 2-D convolutions hardware for neuromorphic spike-based cortical processing

    OpenAIRE

    Serrano-Gotarredona, Rafael; Serrano-Gotarredona, Teresa; Acosta, Antonio José; Serrano-Gotarredona, Clara; Perez-Carrasco, J. A.; Linares-Barranco, Bernabé; Linares-Barranco, Alejandro; Jimenez-Moreno, Gabriel; Civit-Balcells, Antón

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, a chip that performs real-time image convolutions with programmable kernels of arbitrary shape is presented. The chip is a first experimental prototype of reduced size to validate the implemented circuits and system level techniques. The convolution processing is based on the address-event-representation (AER) technique, which is a spike-based biologically inspired image and video representation technique that favors communication bandwidth for pixels with more information. As ...

  1. Solution of the fifth AER benchmark with code package ATHLET/BIPR8KN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The fifth three-dimensional hexagonal benchmark problem continues a series of the international benchmark problems defined during 1992-1996 in the international VVER cooperation forum AER. The initial event of the fifth AER benchmark is a symmetrical break in the middle part of the main steam header at the end of the first fuel cycle and under the hot shutdown condition with one stuck control rod group. The main difference from previous benchmark is that the system works of the primary and secondary sides are considered in this benchmark. The main aim of the benchmark is a calculation of the transient after the recriticality had achieved. The solution of the fifth three-dimensional hexagonal dynamic AER benchmark problem obtained by code package ATHLET/BIPR8KN is presented. The used reactor scheme is described including the description of the core, primary and secondary side. The amount of necessary tuning and tools of tuning to achieve a requested in the definition of the problem reference values are considered. Comparative analysis of the results obtained by using a different detalization schemes are carried out. (author)

  2. A polishing hybrid AER/UF membrane process for the treatment of a high DOC content surface water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humbert, H; Gallard, H; Croué, J-P

    2012-03-15

    The efficacy of a combined AER/UF (Anion Exchange Resin/Ultrafiltration) process for the polishing treatment of a high DOC (Dissolved Organic Carbon) content (>8 mgC/L) surface water was investigated at lab-scale using a strong base AER. Both resin dose and bead size had a significant impact on the kinetic removal of DOC for short contact times (i.e. treatment conditions were applied in combination with UF membrane filtration on water previously treated by coagulation-flocculation (i.e. 3 mgC/L). A more severe fouling was observed for each filtration run in the presence of AER. This fouling was shown to be mainly reversible and caused by the progressive attrition of the AER through the centrifugal pump leading to the production of resin particles below 50 μm in diameter. More important, the presence of AER significantly lowered the irreversible fouling (loss of permeability recorded after backwash) and reduced the DOC content of the clarified water to l.8 mgC/L (40% removal rate), concentration that remained almost constant throughout the experiment. PMID:22200260

  3. Microbiota aeróbia conjuntival nas conjuntivites adenovirais Ocular flora in adenoviral conjunctivitis

    OpenAIRE

    Eliane Mayumi Nakano; Denise de Freitas; Maria Cecília Zorat Yu; Lênio Souza Alvarenga; Ana Luisa Hofling- Lima

    2002-01-01

    Objetivos: Estudar a microbiota aeróbica conjuntival em pacientes com quadro clínico de conjuntivite viral aguda. Método: Trinta pacientes entre 18 e 40 anos portadores de conjuntivite adenoviral e 30 pacientes sem a doença foram submetidos à colheita de material da conjuntiva para cultura. Os portadores de conjuntivite adenoviral foram submetidos ao exame até 3 dias após o início dos sintomas. As culturas foram realizadas utilizando-se os meios de ágar-sangue e ágar-chocolate. Pacientes em u...

  4. Sistema bio - inspirado basado en AER aplicado a automoción

    OpenAIRE

    González Blanco, Manuel

    2012-01-01

    VULCANO (Ref: TEC2009-10639-C04-04) En este proyecto se ha trabajado en el diseño e implementación de un sistema bio-inspirado basado en eventos y su adaptación a cámaras comerciales, evitando unos de los principales problemas de este tipo de sistemas. Por otro lado, se ha aplicado el sistema a un entorno de automoción mediante la utilización de un simulador altamente inmersivo. De este modo se ha evaluado el rendimiento y adecuación de los sistemas basados en AER para la medición de la...

  5. AERE contracts with DoE on the treatment and disposal of intermediate level wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document reports work carried out in 1983/84 under 10 contracts between DoE and AERE on the treatment and disposal of intermediate level wastes. Individual summaries are provided for each contract report within the document, under the headings: comparative evaluation of α and βγ irradiated medium level waste forms; modelling and characterisation of intermediate level waste forms based on polymers; optimisation of processing parameters for polymer and bitumen modified cements; ceramic waste forms; radionuclide release during leaching; ion exchange processes; electrical processes for the treatment of medium active liquid wastes; fast reactor fuel element cladding; dissolver residues; flowsheeting/systems study. (U.K.)

  6. AER working group D on WWER safety analysis. Report of the meeting in Garching, Germany, 6-7 April 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AER working group D on WWER reactor safety analysis held its fourteenth meeting in the offices of GRS in Garching near Munich during the period 6-7 April 2005. The meeting followed the third workshop on the OECD/DOE/CEA WWER 1000 Coolant Transient Benchmark (V1000-CT) held at the same location on 4-5 April. Altogether 18 participant attended the Working Group D meeting, 12 from AER member organizations and a6 guests from non-member organizations. The coordinator for the working group, Mr. P. Siltanen (FNS) served as chairman. In addition to general information exchange on recent activities in the participating organizations, the topics of the meeting included: a) Code development and benchmarking for reactor dynamics applications; b) Safety analysis methodology and results; c) Dynamic benchmarks and solutions for the AER Bench;mark Book; d) Future activities (Authors)

  7. Capacidad aeróbica, felicidad y satisfacción con la vida en adolescentes españoles

    OpenAIRE

    Juan A. Jim\\u00E9nez-Moral; Mar\\u00EDa L. Zagalaz S\\u00E1nchez; David Molero; Manuel Pulido-Martos; Ruiz, Jonatan R.

    2013-01-01

    Objetivos: Analizar la asociación entre capacidad aeróbica, felicidad subjetiva y satisfacción con la vida en adolescentes. Método: Participaron 388 adolescentes (207 mujeres) de 12-18 años de edad. La capacidad aeróbica se evaluó mediante el test de 20 metros de ida y vuelta. La felicidad subjetiva y la satisfacción con la vida se evaluaron mediante las escalas Subjective Happiness Scale y Satisfaction With Life Scale, respectivamente. Se midió el peso y la talla de los adolescentes y se cal...

  8. Dose assessment for CEGB users of the Kodak type 2 film used in the NRPB/AERE holder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some work, complementary to that of the National Radiological Protection Board (NRPB) and the Atomic Energy Research Establishment (AERE), has been done at Berkeley Nuclear Laboratories (BNL) on the response of the Kodak Type 2 film in the NRPB/AERE holder. Initial results indicate that the combination forms a satisfactory dosemeter. Comparison between the BNL and NRPB results shows differences which appear to be due to the fact that the angle of incidence was 900 for the former and 350 for the latter. Some conclusions are drawn on dosimetry but in general, for CEGB users, no substantial changes from existing procedures are required. (author)

  9. Solution of the fifth AER benchmark with code package ATHLET/BIPR8KN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The fifth three-dimensional hexagonal benchmark problem continues a series of the international benchmark problems defined during 1992-1996 in the international WWER cooperation forum atomic energy research. The initial event of the fifth AER benchmark is a symmetrical break in the middle part of the main steam header at the end of the first fuel cycle and under the hot shutdown condition with one stuck control rod group. The main difference from previous benchmark is that the system works of the primary and secondary sides are considered in this benchmark. The main aim of the benchmark is a calculation of the transient after the recriticality had achieved. The solution of the fifth three-dimensional hexagonal dynamic AER benchmark problem obtained by code package ATHLET/BIPR8KN is presented. The report contains the description of the used reactor scheme including the description of the core, primary and secondary side. The amount of necessary tuning and tools of tuning to achieve a requested in the definition of the problem reference values are considered. Comparative analysis of the results obtained by using a different detalization schemes are carried out.(Authors)

  10. Standard Procedure for Dose Assessment using the film holder NRPB/AERE and the film AGFA Monitoring 2/10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the calculation method to assess dose and energy using the film holder from NRPB/AERE and the film Agfa Monitoring 2/10. Also includes all the steps since preparing the standard curve, fitting of calibration curve, dose assesment, description of filtration of the film holder and the form of the calibration curve

  11. Hypersensitivity reactions to anticancer agents: Data mining of the public version of the FDA adverse event reporting system, AERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakaeda Toshiyuki

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previously, adverse event reports (AERs submitted to the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA database were reviewed to confirm platinum agent-associated hypersensitivity reactions. The present study was performed to confirm whether the database could suggest the hypersensitivity reactions caused by anticancer agents, paclitaxel, docetaxel, procarbazine, asparaginase, teniposide, and etoposide. Methods After a revision of arbitrary drug names and the deletion of duplicated submissions, AERs involving candidate agents were analyzed. The National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 4.0 was applied to evaluate the susceptibility to hypersensitivity reactions, and standardized official pharmacovigilance tools were used for quantitative detection of signals, i.e., drug-associated adverse events, including the proportional reporting ratio, the reporting odds ratio, the information component given by a Bayesian confidence propagation neural network, and the empirical Bayes geometric mean. Results Based on 1,644,220 AERs from 2004 to 2009, the signals were detected for paclitaxel-associated mild, severe, and lethal hypersensitivity reactions, and docetaxel-associated lethal reactions. However, the total number of adverse events occurring with procarbazine, asparaginase, teniposide, or etoposide was not large enough to detect signals. Conclusions The FDA's adverse event reporting system, AERS, and the data mining methods used herein are useful for confirming drug-associated adverse events, but the number of co-occurrences is an important factor in signal detection.

  12. Sp6 and Sp8 transcription factors control AER formation and dorsal-ventral patterning in limb development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endika Haro

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The formation and maintenance of the apical ectodermal ridge (AER is critical for the outgrowth and patterning of the vertebrate limb. The induction of the AER is a complex process that relies on integrated interactions among the Fgf, Wnt, and Bmp signaling pathways that operate within the ectoderm and between the ectoderm and the mesoderm of the early limb bud. The transcription factors Sp6 and Sp8 are expressed in the limb ectoderm and AER during limb development. Sp6 mutant mice display a mild syndactyly phenotype while Sp8 mutants exhibit severe limb truncations. Both mutants show defects in AER maturation and in dorsal-ventral patterning. To gain further insights into the role Sp6 and Sp8 play in limb development, we have produced mice lacking both Sp6 and Sp8 activity in the limb ectoderm. Remarkably, the elimination or significant reduction in Sp6;Sp8 gene dosage leads to tetra-amelia; initial budding occurs, but neither Fgf8 nor En1 are activated. Mutants bearing a single functional allele of Sp8 (Sp6-/-;Sp8+/- exhibit a split-hand/foot malformation phenotype with double dorsal digit tips probably due to an irregular and immature AER that is not maintained in the center of the bud and on the abnormal expansion of Wnt7a expression to the ventral ectoderm. Our data are compatible with Sp6 and Sp8 working together and in a dose-dependent manner as indispensable mediators of Wnt/βcatenin and Bmp signaling in the limb ectoderm. We suggest that the function of these factors links proximal-distal and dorsal-ventral patterning.

  13. Solution of the AER6 benchmark problem by KIKO3D/ATHLET code system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The realistic analysis of accident conditions requires the extension of thermohydraulic plant system codes with 3D neutronics models. Recently many activities have been performed to develop, verify and validate such coupled codes. During the last years the thermohydraulic system code ATHLET developed by GRS was coupled to the 3D neutronic code KIKO3D developed by KFKI AEKI in order to simulate time dependent behavior of the VVER NPP. The 6-loop ATHLET input model worked out by AEKI assures the more precise characterization of the primary system. As an example of application, results are presented for the AER6 Benchmark, which is a VVER specific Main Steam Line Break (MSLB) transient. Emphasis is given to one of the basic problems of coupled codes, namely the effect of the slightly different nodalization in the core vessel.(author)

  14. Analysis of the WWER-440 AER2 rod ejection benchmark by the SKETCH-N code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The neutron kinetics code SKETCH-N has been recently extended to treat hexagonal geometry using a polynomial nodal method based on the conformal mapping of a hexagon into a rectangle. Basic features of the code are outlined. Results of the steady-state benchmark calculations demonstrate excellent accuracy of the nodal method. To test a neutron kinetics module for WWER applications, the second AER rod ejection benchmark is computed and the results are compared with the results of the production WWER codes: BIPR8, DYN3D, HEXTRAN and KIKO3D. The steady-state results show that the SKETCH-N code gives an ejected control rod worth close to that of BIPR8 and HEXTRAN. The assembly power distribution is compared with the DYN3D results. Maximum discrepancies of about 5% are found in the power of peripheral assemblies and assemblies with partially inserted control rods (Authors)

  15. An ecological and economic assessment of absorption-enhanced-reforming (AER) biomass gasification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Analysis of biomass gasification with new absorption enhanced reforming technology. • Energy- and mass balances for three different process configurations to produce heat, SNG and/or hydrogen. • Ecological (based on LCA) and economic (based on production costs) assessment of the technology. • Comparison of results with existing operational plants producing similar products. - Abstract: Biomass gasification with absorption enhanced reforming (AER) is a promising technology to produce a hydrogen-rich product gas that can be used to generate electricity, heat, substitute natural gas (SNG) and hydrogen (5.0 quality). To evaluate the production of the four products from an ecological and economic point of view, three different process configurations are considered. The plant setup involves two coupled fluidized beds: the steam gasifier and the regenerator. Subsequently the product gas can be used to operate a CHP plant (configuration one), be methanised (configuration two) or used to produce high-quality hydrogen (configuration three). Regarding ecological criteria, the global warming potential, the acidification potential and the cumulative energy demand of the processes are calculated, based on a life-cycle assessment approach. The economic analysis is based on the levelized costs of energy generation (LCOE). The AER-based processes are compared to conventional and renewable reference processes, which they might stand to substitute. The results show that the AER processes are beneficial from an ecological point of view as they are less carbon intensive (mitigating up to 800gCO2-eq.kW-1hel-1), require less fossil energy input (only about 0.5kWhfossilkW-1hel-1) and have a comparable acidification potential (300–900mgSO2-eq.kW-1hel-1) to most reference processes. But the results depend heavily on the extent to which excess heat can be used to replace conventional heating processes, and hence on the exact location of the plant. The economic results

  16. A Bio-Inspired AER Temporal Tri-Color Differentiator Pixel Array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farian, Łukasz; Leñero-Bardallo, Juan Antonio; Häfliger, Philipp

    2015-10-01

    This article investigates the potential of a bio-inspired vision sensor with pixels that detect transients between three primary colors. The in-pixel color processing is inspired by the retinal color opponency that are found in mammalian retinas. Color transitions in a pixel are represented by voltage spikes, which are akin to a neuron's action potential. These spikes are conveyed off-chip by the Address Event Representation (AER) protocol. To achieve sensitivity to three different color spectra within the visual spectrum, each pixel has three stacked photodiodes at different depths in the silicon substrate. The sensor has been fabricated in the standard TSMC 90 nm CMOS technology. A post-processing method to decode events into color transitions has been proposed and implemented as a custom interface to display real-time color changes in the visual scene. Experimental results are provided. Color transitions can be detected at high speed (up to 2.7 kHz). The sensor has a dynamic range of 58 dB and a power consumption of 22.5 mW. This type of sensor can be of use in industrial, robotics, automotive and other applications where essential information is contained in transient emissions shifts within the visual spectrum. PMID:26540694

  17. CAVIAR: A 45k neuron, 5M synapse, 12G connects/s AER hardware sensory-processing-learning-actuating system for high-speed visual object recognition and tracking

    OpenAIRE

    Linares-Barranco, Alejandro; Paz-Vicente, R.; Camuñas-Mesa, L.; Delbruck, Tobi; Jimenez-Moreno, Gabriel; Civit-Balcells, Antón; Serrano-Gotarredona, Teresa; Acosta, Antonio José; Linares-Barranco, Bernabé

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes CAVIAR, a massively parallel hardware implementation of a spike-based sensing-processing-learning-actuating system inspired by the physiology of the nervous system. CAVIAR uses the asychronous address-event representation (AER) communication framework and was developed in the context of a European Union funded project. It has four custom mixed-signal AER chips, five custom digital AER interface components, 45k neurons (spiking cells), up to 5M synapses, performs 12G synap...

  18. Adverse Event Profiles of 5-Fluorouracil and Capecitabine: Data Mining of the Public Version of the FDA Adverse Event Reporting System, AERS, and Reproducibility of Clinical Observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaori Kadoyama, Ikuya Miki, Takao Tamura, JB Brown, Toshiyuki Sakaeda, Yasushi Okuno

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The safety profiles of oral fluoropyrimidines were compared with 5-fluorouracil (5-FU using adverse event reports (AERs submitted to the Adverse Event Reporting System, AERS, of the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA.Methods: After a revision of arbitrary drug names and the deletion of duplicated submissions, AERs involving 5-FU and oral fluoropyrimidines were analyzed. Standardized official pharmacovigilance tools were used for the quantitative detection of signals, i.e., drug-associated adverse events, including the proportional reporting ratio, the reporting odds ratio, the information component given by a Bayesian confidence propagation neural network, and the empirical Bayes geometric mean.Results: Based on 22,017,956 co-occurrences, i.e., drug-adverse event pairs, found in 1,644,220 AERs from 2004 to 2009, it was suggested that leukopenia, neutropenia, and thrombocytopenia were more frequently accompanied by the use of 5-FU than capecitabine, whereas diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, and hand-foot syndrome were more frequently associated with capecitabine. The total number of co-occurrences was not large enough to compare tegafur, tegafur-uracil (UFT, tegafur-gimeracil-oteracil potassium (S-1, or doxifluridine to 5-FU.Conclusion: The results obtained herein were consistent with clinical observations, suggesting the usefulness of the FDA's AERS database and data mining methods used, but the number of co-occurrences is an important factor in signal detection.

  19. Extraction of pure thermal neutron beam for the proposed PGNAA facility at the TRIGA research reactor of AERE, Savar, Bangladesh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alam, S. (Physics Dept., Jahangirnagar Univ., Savar, Dhaka (Bangladesh)); Zaman, M.A. (Physics Dept., Jahangirnagar Univ., Savar, Dhaka (Bangladesh)); Islam, S.M.A. (Physics Dept., Jahangirnagar Univ., Savar, Dhaka (Bangladesh)); Ahsan, M.H. (Inst. of Nuclear Science and Technology (INST), AERE, Savar, Dhaka (Bangladesh))

    1993-10-01

    A study on collimators and filters for the design of a spectrometer for prompt gamma neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) at one of the radial beamports of the TRIGA Mark II reactor at AERE, Savar has been carried out. On the basis of this study a collimator and a filter have been designed for the proposed PGNAA facility. Calculations have been done for measuring neutron flux at various positions of the core of the reactor using the computer code TRIGAP. Gamma dose in the core of the reactor has also been measured experimentally using TLD technique in the present work. (orig.)

  20. Extraction of pure thermal neutron beam for the proposed PGNAA facility at the TRIGA research reactor of AERE, Savar, Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study on collimators and filters for the design of a spectrometer for prompt gamma neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) at one of the radial beamports of the TRIGA Mark II reactor at AERE, Savar has been carried out. On the basis of this study a collimator and a filter have been designed for the proposed PGNAA facility. Calculations have been done for measuring neutron flux at various positions of the core of the reactor using the computer code TRIGAP. Gamma dose in the core of the reactor has also been measured experimentally using TLD technique in the present work. (orig.)

  1. Extraction of pure thermal neutron beam for the proposed PGNAA facility at the TRIGA research reactor of AERE, Savar, Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Sabina; Zaman, M. A.; Islam, S. M. A.; Ahsan, M. H.

    1993-10-01

    A study on collimators and filters for the design of a spectrometer for prompt gamma neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) at one of the radial beamports of the TRIGA Mark II reactor at AERE, Savar has been carried out. On the basis of this study a collimator and a filter have been designed for the proposed PGNAA facility. Calculations have been done for measuring neutron flux at various positions of the core of the reactor using the computer code TRIGAP. Gamma dose in the core of the reactor has also been measured experimentally using TLD technique in the present work.

  2. Summary on the activity of AERs Working Group on core monitoring (flux reconstruction, in-core measurements)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Working Group C had a joint meeting with Group G in Balatonfuered, Hungary, 31 May-1 June, 2010. At the joint meeting 21 people from 10 AER member organisations of 4 countries - such as Russia, Czech Republic, Slovakia and Hungary - participated. In the 2 days of the program 15 papers were presented, 10 from these connected to the topic of working group C. The title of papers and the list of participants are attached. At the meeting the following topics were discussed:1-Gd fuel introduction and experiences;2-Reactor physical measurement and evaluation problems; 3-Code development and testing;4-In-core surveillance system developments. (Author)

  3. Efeitos do treinamento aeróbio sobre o perfil lipídico de ratos com hipertireoidismo

    OpenAIRE

    Renata Valle Pedroso; Alexandre Konig Garcia Prado; Luiza Hermínia Gallo; Marcelo Costa Junior; Natália Oliveira Betolini; Rodrigo Augusto Dalia; Maria Alice Rostom de Mello; Eliete Luciano

    2012-01-01

    Há poucos estudos analisando a importante relação entre o exercício físico, agudo e crônico, e alterações metabólicas decorrentes do hipertireoidismo. O objetivo do presente estudo foi analisar o efeito de quatro semanas de treinamento aeróbio sobre o perfil lipídico de ratos com hipertireoidismo experimental. Foram utilizados 45 ratos da linhagem Wistar, divididos aleatoriamente em quatro grupos: Controle Sedentário (CS) - administrados com salina durante o período experimental, não praticar...

  4. Aves y aeropuertos: control no letal de chimangos (milvago chimango) en un aeródromo militar de argentina

    OpenAIRE

    MARATEO GERMÁN; GRILLI PABLO G.; SOAVE GUILLERMO E.; FERRETTI VANINA; BOUZAS NANCY M.; ALMAGRO RAMIRO

    2012-01-01

    La concentración de aves cerca de pistas de aviación ha aumentado el riesgo de accidentes aéreos. En varios países se llevan a cabo programas de monitoreo y control de aves en aeropuertos. En Argentina, existen antecedentes aislados en esta temática, aunque se han registrado algunos incidentes. Dos de ellos fueron en el aeródromo de Campo de Mayo, donde se realizó este trabajo. Allí, la especie potencialmente más riesgosa es el Chimango (Milvago chimango). Nuestro objetivo fue evaluar la efec...

  5. Building a knowledge base of severe adverse drug events based on AERS reporting data using semantic web technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Guoqian; Wang, Liwei; Liu, Hongfang; Solbrig, Harold R; Chute, Christopher G

    2013-01-01

    A semantically coded knowledge base of adverse drug events (ADEs) with severity information is critical for clinical decision support systems and translational research applications. However it remains challenging to measure and identify the severity information of ADEs. The objective of the study is to develop and evaluate a semantic web based approach for building a knowledge base of severe ADEs based on the FDA Adverse Event Reporting System (AERS) reporting data. We utilized a normalized AERS reporting dataset and extracted putative drug-ADE pairs and their associated outcome codes in the domain of cardiac disorders. We validated the drug-ADE associations using ADE datasets from SIDe Effect Resource (SIDER) and the UMLS. We leveraged the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Event (CTCAE) grading system and classified the ADEs into the CTCAE in the Web Ontology Language (OWL). We identified and validated 2,444 unique Drug-ADE pairs in the domain of cardiac disorders, of which 760 pairs are in Grade 5, 775 pairs in Grade 4 and 2,196 pairs in Grade 3. PMID:23920604

  6. Uncertainties in modelling Mt. Pinatubo eruption with 2-D AER model and CCM SOCOL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenzelmann, P.; Weisenstein, D.; Peter, T.; Luo, B. P.; Rozanov, E.; Fueglistaler, S.; Thomason, L. W.

    2009-04-01

    Large volcanic eruptions may introduce a strong forcing on climate. They challenge the skills of climate models. In addition to the short time attenuation of solar light by ashes the formation of stratospheric sulphate aerosols, due to volcanic sulphur dioxide injection into the lower stratosphere, may lead to a significant enhancement of the global albedo. The sulphate aerosols have a residence time of about 2 years. As a consequence of the enhanced sulphate aerosol concentration both the stratospheric chemistry and dynamics are strongly affected. Due to absorption of longwave and near infrared radiation the temperature in the lower stratosphere increases. So far chemistry climate models overestimate this warming [Eyring et al. 2006]. We present an extensive validation of extinction measurements and model runs of the eruption of Mt. Pinatubo in 1991. Even if Mt. Pinatubo eruption has been the best quantified volcanic eruption of this magnitude, the measurements show considerable uncertainties. For instance the total amount of sulphur emitted to the stratosphere ranges from 5-12 Mt sulphur [e.g. Guo et al. 2004, McCormick, 1992]. The largest uncertainties are in the specification of the main aerosol cloud. SAGE II, for instance, could not measure the peak of the aerosol extinction for about 1.5 years, because optical termination was reached. The gap-filling of the SAGE II [Thomason and Peter, 2006] using lidar measurements underestimates the total extinctions in the tropics for the first half year after the eruption by 30% compared to AVHRR [Rusell et. al 1992]. The same applies to the optical dataset described by Stenchikov et al. [1998]. We compare these extinction data derived from measurements with extinctions derived from AER 2D aerosol model calculations [Weisenstein et al., 2007]. Full microphysical calculations with injections of 14, 17, 20 and 26 Mt SO2 in the lower stratosphere were performed. The optical aerosol properties derived from SAGE II

  7. Microbiota aeróbia conjuntival nas conjuntivites adenovirais Ocular flora in adenoviral conjunctivitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane Mayumi Nakano

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: Estudar a microbiota aeróbica conjuntival em pacientes com quadro clínico de conjuntivite viral aguda. Método: Trinta pacientes entre 18 e 40 anos portadores de conjuntivite adenoviral e 30 pacientes sem a doença foram submetidos à colheita de material da conjuntiva para cultura. Os portadores de conjuntivite adenoviral foram submetidos ao exame até 3 dias após o início dos sintomas. As culturas foram realizadas utilizando-se os meios de ágar-sangue e ágar-chocolate. Pacientes em uso de medicação tópica ou sistêmica, usuários de lentes de contato e aqueles com doença ocular prévia ou doença sistêmica foram excluídos. Resultados: Houve positividade significantemente maior das culturas de conjuntiva nos pacientes com conjuntivite adenoviral (33,3%, sendo Haemophylus influenzae em 50% e Streptococcus pneumoniae em 50% quando comparados ao grupo controle (6,6% - Staphylococcus coagulase negativo. O grupo de pacientes com conjuntivite e que apresentaram culturas positivas, não diferiu em nenhum dos critérios clínicos analisados do grupo com culturas negativas. Conclusão: Pacientes com conjuntivite adenoviral apresentaram maior freqüência de exames de cultura de amostra de conjuntiva positivas quando comparados aos controles normais. Os pacientes com conjuntivite adenoviral com cultura positiva apresentaram evolução clínica semelhante aos pacientes com cultura negativa. Os agentes isolados na microbiota conjuntival no grupo com conjuntivite foram diferentes do observado no grupo normal. Porém o resultado das culturas não apresentou correlação com a evolução clínica.Purpose: To study the aerobic bacterial conjunctival flora in patients with clinical diagnosis of acute viral conjunctivitis. Method: Thirty patients between 18 and 30 years with acute adenoviral conjunctivitis and 30 normal subjects underwent conjunctival culture examination. Material from the conjunc-tiva of patients with conjunctivitis was

  8. Information about AER working group A on improvement, extension and validation of parametrized few-group libraries for WWER-440 and WWER-1000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joint AER WG A and WG B held their seventeenth meeting in Modra-Harmonia (near NPP Jaslovske Bohunice), Slovak Republic, during the period of 14-15 April 2008. The objectives of the meeting content of presentations and future activities are shortly described in this paper. (Author)

  9. Effect of Doppler Radial Velocity Data Assimilation on the Simulation of a Typhoon Approaching Taiwan: A Case Study of Typhoon Aere (2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsin-Hung Lin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Compared to conventional data, radar observations have an advantage of high spatial and temporal resolutions, and Doppler radars are capable of capturing detailed characteristics of flow fields, including typhoon circulation. In this study, the possible improvement of short-term typhoon predictions near Taiwan, particularly with regard to related rainfall forecasts over the mountainous island, using Doppler radial wind observations is explored. The case of Typhoon Aere (2004 was chosen for study, and a series of experiments were carried out using the Penn State University/National Center for Atmospheric Research (PSU/NCAR Mesoscale Model Version 5 (MM5 with its three-dimensional variational (3D-VAR data assimilation system. The results show that once the Doppler radial velocities were assimilated into the model, the _ circulation intensified within one hour. However, when Typhoon Aere approached from the east and only the western half of its core area could be observed by the radar, the assimilation caused the typhoon to deflect southward due to the incomplete and uneven data coverage. In another experiment in which Doppler radar data assimilation did not start until Typhoon Aere moved closer, such that its entire core region could be observed. A similar track deflection was avoided. Overall, the assimilation of Doppler radial velocity data reduced the intensity error (in wind speed by about 25%. Furthermore, the improvements in location, intensity, and circulation structure of Typhoon Aere lead to better rainfall prediction over the island of Taiwan.

  10. 75 FR 27332 - AER NY-Gen, LLC; Eagle Creek Hydro Power, LLC; Eagle Creek Water Resources, LLC; Eagle Creek Land...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-14

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission AER NY-Gen, LLC; Eagle Creek Hydro Power, LLC; Eagle Creek Water Resources... Creek Hydro Power, LLC, Eagle Creek Water Resources, LLC, and Eagle Creek Land Resources, LLC.... For the transferee: Mr. Paul Ho, Eagle Creek Hydro Power, LLC, Eagle Creek Water Resources, LLC,...

  11. 77 FR 13592 - AER NY-Gen, LLC; Eagle Creek Hydro Power, LLC, Eagle Creek Water Resources, LLC, Eagle Creek Land...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-07

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission AER NY-Gen, LLC; Eagle Creek Hydro Power, LLC, Eagle Creek Water Resources... Power, LLC, Eagle Creek Water Resources, LLC, and Eagle Creek Land Resources, LLC (transferees) filed an...) 805-1469. Transferees: Mr. Bernard H. Cherry, Eagle Creek Hydro Power, LLC, Eagle Creek...

  12. Nova proposta de teste incremental de remada na avaliação aeróbia de surfistas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Bercht CANOZZI

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available ResumoOs objetivos desse estudo foram: 1 verificar as respostas do lactato sanguíneo e da frequência cardíaca (FC durante um protocolo de campo específico de remada no surfe; 2 correlacionar os índices de capacidade e potência aeróbia determinados nesse protocolo específico com o tempo de prática da modalidade e variáveis antropométricas. Participaram deste estudo nove sujeitos (24 ± 4,5 anos; 72,2 ± 6,7 kg; 178,4 ± 4,8 cm que foram submetidos a um teste progressivo intermitente de remada sobre a sua própria prancha de surfe, do tipo vai e vêm, com velocidades iniciais entre 1-1,1 m/s e incrementos de 0,05 m/s a cada 3 min até a exaustão voluntária. Uma resposta linear e exponencial foram observadas para a FC e o lactato sanguíneo, respectivamente, durante o protocolo incremental. Este comportamento foi semelhante ao demonstrado durante protocolos incrementais com objetivo de avaliar a capacidade e a potência aeróbia realizados em outras modalidades cíclicas. Além disso, foram encontradas correlações significantes entre o pico de velocidade (PV e a velocidade correspondente ao início do acúmulo de lactato no sangue (vOBLA (r = 0,87, p = 0,005 e do PV com tempo de prática de surfe (r = 0,70, p = 0,03. No entanto, não foram encontradas correlações significativas entre PV e vOBLA com nenhuma das variáveis antropométricas mensuradas. Assim, podemos concluir que o protocolo incremental específico de remada no surfe utilizado no presente estudo poderia ser uma ferramenta útil na determinação de índices relacionados à capacidade (vOBLA e potência (PV aeróbia de surfistas.

  13. Isolamento de bactérias aeróbias e sua sensibilidade a antimicrobianos em processos de osteomielite canina

    OpenAIRE

    Simionato A.C.; Ramos M.C.C.; Coutinho S.D.A.

    2003-01-01

    O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar a presença de bactérias aeróbias em 20 cães com osteomielite, decorrente de exposição óssea. Na identificação das bactérias utilizou-se o sistema API-Bio Mérieux e testou-se a sensibilidade dos microrganismos in vitro, pelo método de difusão em ágar, frente a 14 diferentes antibacterianos. O osso mais acometido pela infecção foi a tíbia (35%). Isolaram-se 68,3% de bactérias Gram positivas e 31,7% de Gram negativas. Staphylococcus spp, Streptococcus spp e ...

  14. HEXTRAN-SMABRE calculation of the 6th AER Benchmark, main steam line break in a WWER-440 NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sixth AER benchmark is the second AER benchmark for couplings of the thermal hydraulic codes and three dimensional neutron kinetic core models. It concerns a double end break of one main steam line in a WWER-440 plant. The core is at the end of its first cycle in full power conditions. In VTT HEXTRAN2.9 is used for the core kinetics and dynamics and SMABRE4.8 as a thermal hydraulic model for the primary and secondary loop. The plant model for SMABRE consists mainly of two input models, Loviisa model and a standard WWER-440/213 plant model. The primary loop includes six separate loops, the pressure vessel is divided into six parallel channels in SMABRE and the whole core calculation is performed in the core with HEXTRAN. The horizontal steam generators are modelled with heat transfer tubes in five levels and vertically with two parts, riser and downcomer. With this kind of detailed modelling of steam generators there occurs strong flashing after break opening. As a sequence of the main steam line break at nominal power level, the reactor trip is followed quite soon. The liquid temperature continues to decrease in one core inlet sector which may lead to recriticality and neuron power increase. The situation is very sensitive to small changes in the steam generator and break flow modelling and therefore several sensitivity calculations have been done. Also two stucked control rods have been assumed. Due to boric acid concentration in the high pressure safety injection subcriticality is finally guaranteed in the transient (Authors)

  15. CAVIAR: a 45k neuron, 5M synapse, 12G connects/s AER hardware sensory-processing- learning-actuating system for high-speed visual object recognition and tracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano-Gotarredona, Rafael; Oster, Matthias; Lichtsteiner, Patrick; Linares-Barranco, Alejandro; Paz-Vicente, Rafael; Gomez-Rodriguez, Francisco; Camunas-Mesa, Luis; Berner, Raphael; Rivas-Perez, Manuel; Delbruck, Tobi; Liu, Shih-Chii; Douglas, Rodney; Hafliger, Philipp; Jimenez-Moreno, Gabriel; Civit Ballcels, Anton; Serrano-Gotarredona, Teresa; Acosta-Jimenez, Antonio J; Linares-Barranco, Bernabé

    2009-09-01

    This paper describes CAVIAR, a massively parallel hardware implementation of a spike-based sensing-processing-learning-actuating system inspired by the physiology of the nervous system. CAVIAR uses the asychronous address-event representation (AER) communication framework and was developed in the context of a European Union funded project. It has four custom mixed-signal AER chips, five custom digital AER interface components, 45k neurons (spiking cells), up to 5M synapses, performs 12G synaptic operations per second, and achieves millisecond object recognition and tracking latencies. PMID:19635693

  16. Niveles de intensidad de la música durante un torneo de resistencia aeróbica en Costa Rica Music intensity levels during an aerobics endurance tournament in Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Yamileth Chacón Araya; José Moncada Jiménez

    2008-01-01

    El propósito del presente artículo es describir los niveles de ruido generados en una competencia de resistencia aeróbica y se analizan las posibles implicaciones para la salud de la contaminación por ruido. La danza aeróbica es un modo de ejercicio que se ha extendido por todo el mundo, con el fin de posibilitar la práctica de una actividad física que combina música y movimiento. Al incluir el elemento musical en las clases de danza aeróbica, se expone a las personas que practican esta modal...

  17. AER Working Group D on VVER safety analysis minutes of the meeting in Rez, Czech Republic 18-20 May 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AER Working Group D on VVER reactor safety analysis held its seventh meeting in Hotel Vltava in Rez near Prague during the period 18-20 May 1998. There were altogether 11 participants from 8 member organisations. The coordinator for the working group, Mr. P. Siltanen (IVO) served as chairman. In addition to the general information exchange on recent activities, the topics of the meeting included: First review of solutions to the 3-dimensional AER Dynamic Benchmark Problem No. 5 on a steam line break accident. This benchmark involves a break of the main steam header. Safety analysis of reactivity events. Recent code development work and fuel behaviour. Coolant mixing calculations and experiments related to diluted slugs. A list of participants and a list of handouts distributed at the meeting are attached to the minutes. (author)

  18. Aptidão aeróbia e amplitude dos domínios de intensidade de exercício no ciclismo

    OpenAIRE

    Renato Aparecido Corrêa Caritá; Fabrizio Caputo; Camila Coelho Greco; Benedito Sérgio Denadai

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUÇÃO: A determinação dos domínios de intensidade de exercício tem importantes implicações na prescrição do treino aeróbio e na elaboração de delineamentos experimentais. OBJETIVO: Analisar os efeitos do nível de aptidão aeróbia sobre a amplitude dos domínios de intensidade de exercício durante o ciclismo. MÉTODOS: Doze ciclistas (CIC), 11 corredores (COR) e oito indivíduos não treinados (NT) foram submetidos aos seguintes protocolos em diferentes dias: 1) teste progressivo para determin...

  19. Measurement of Natural and Artificial Radioactivity in Soil at Some Selected Thanas around the TRIGA Mark-II Research Reactor at AERE, Savar, Dhaka

    OpenAIRE

    Shawpan C. Sarkar; Idris Ali; Debasish Paul; Mahbubur R. Bhuiyan; Sheikh M. A. Islam

    2011-01-01

    The activity concentration of natural and fallout radionuclides in the soil at some selected Thanas around the TRIGA Mark-II Research Reactor at Atomic Energy Research Establishment (AERE), Savar, Dhaka were measured by using a high purity germanium detector (HPGe). The study revealed that only natural radionuclides were present in the samples and no trace of any artificial radionuclide was found. The average activity concentration of 238U, 232Th ...

  20. Etileno e peróxido de hidrogênio na formação de aerênquima em milho tolerante a alagamento intermitente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinês Ferreira Pires

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Resumo:O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o papel do etileno e do peróxido de hidrogênio (H2O2 na formação do aerênquima em ciclos de seleção genética da cultivar de milho BRS 4154, sob alagamento. Plantas dos ciclos C1 e C18 foram submetidas a alagamento por 7 dias, com coleta das raízes aos 0 (controle, sem alagamento, 1 e 7 dias. Foram analisados: a expressão gênica das enzimas ACC sintase (ACS, ACC oxidase (ACO, dismutase do superóxido (SOD e peroxidase do ascorbato (APX; a produção de etileno e o conteúdo de H2O2; a atividade da enzima ACO; e a proporção de aerênquima no córtex. Não houve expressão de ACS e ACO. Houve variação na atividade de ACO e na produção de etileno. A expressão da SOD foi maior em plantas C1 e a da APX, em C18, com redução aos 7 dias. O conteúdo de H2O2 não diferiu entre os tratamentos. A proporção de aerênquima aumentou com o tempo, tendo sido maior em plantas C18 e relacionada à taxa de formação do aerênquima. O tempo de alagamento e o nível de tolerância do ciclo de seleção influenciam a produção do etileno. A expressão da APX indica maior produção de H2O2 no início do alagamento.

  1. Final results of the sixth three-dimensional AER dynamic Benchmark problem calculation. Solution of problem with DYN3D and RELAP5-3D codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper gives a brief survey of the 6th three-dimensional AER dynamic benchmark calculation results received with the codes DYN3D and RELAP5-3D at NRI Rez. This benchmark was defined at the 10th AER Symposium. Its initiating event is a double ended break in the steam line of steam generator No. 1 in a WWER-440/213 plant at the end of the first fuel cycle and in hot full power conditions. Stationary and burnup calculations as well as tuning of initial state before the transient were performed with the code DYN3D. Transient calculations were made with the system code RELAP5-3D. The KASSETA library was used for the generation of reactor core neutronic parameters. The detailed six loops model of NPP Dukovany was adopted for the 6th AER dynamic benchmark purposes. The RELAP5-3D full core neutronic model was connected with 37 coolant channels thermal-hydraulic model of the core, 6-sector nodalization of reactor downcomer, lower and upper plenum was used. Mixing in lower and upper plenum was simulated. The first part of paper contains a brief characteristic of RELAP5 -3D system code and a short description of NPP input deck and reactor core model. The second part shows the time dependencies of important global and local parameters (Authors)

  2. Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of AerMet 100 Ultra-high Strength Steel Joints by Laser Welding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Fencheng; YU Xiaobin; HUANG Chunping; HE Lihua; CHEN Yuhua; BU Wende

    2015-01-01

    AerMet100 ultra-high strength steel plates with a thickness of 2 mm were welded using a CO2 laser welding system. The inlfuences of the welding process parameters on the morphology and microstructure of the welding joints were investigated, and the mechanical property of the welding joints was analyzed. The experimental results showed that the fusion zone of welding joint mainly consisted of columnar grains and a ifne dendrite substructure grew epitaxially from the matrix. With the other conditions remaining unchanged, a finer weld microstructure was along with the scanning speed increase. The solidification microstructure gradually transformed from cellular crystal into dendrite crystal and the spaces of dendrite secondary arms rose from the fusion line to the center of the fusion zone. In the fusion zone of the weld, the rapid cooling caused the formation of martensite, which led the microhardness of the fusion zone higher than that of the matrix and the heat affected zone. The tensile strength of the welding joints was tested as 1 700 MPa, which was about 87% of the matrix. However, the tensile strength of the welding joints without defects existed was tested as 1832 MPa, which was about 94% of the matrix.

  3. VLSI implementation of a 2.8 Gevent/s packet based AER interface with routing and event sorting functionality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan eScholze

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available State-of-the-art large scale neuromorphic systems require sophisticated spike event communication between units of the neural network. We present a high-speed communication infrastructure for a waferscale neuromorphic system, based on application-specific neuromorphic communication ICs in an FPGA-maintained environment. The ICs implement configurable axonal delays, as required for certain types of dynamic processing or for emulating spike based learning among distant cortical areas. Measurements are presented which show the efficacy of these delays in influencing behaviour of neuromorphic benchmarks. The specialized, dedicated AER communication in most current systems requires separate, low-bandwidth configuration channels. In contrast, the configuration of the waferscale neuromorphic system is also handled by the digital packet-based pulse channel, which transmits configuration data at the full bandwidth otherwise used for pulse transmission. The overall so-called pulse communication subgroup (ICs and FPGA delivers a factor 25-50 more event transmission rate than other current neuromorphic communication infrastructures.

  4. Mejora de defensas antioxidantes mediante ejercicio aeróbico en mujeres con síndrome metabólico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Rosety-Rodríguez

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available En la actualidad se acepta que el daño oxidativo juega un papel esencial en la patogénesis del síndrome metabólico. Estudios recientes proponen al daño oxidativo como diana terapéutica frente al síndrome metabólico. Precisamente nuestro objetivo fue mejorar el estatus total antioxidante (TAS de mujeres con síndrome metabólico mediante ejercicio aeróbico. Participaron voluntariamente 100 mujeres con síndrome metabólico de acuerdo con los criterios del National Cholesterol Educational Program (Adult-Treatment-Panel-III distribuidas aleatoriamente en grupo experimental (n = 60 y control (n = 40. El grupo experimental desarrolló un programa de entrenamiento aeróbico sobre tapiz rodante de intensidad ligera/moderada de 12 semanas (5 sesiones/semana. La determinación del TAS plasmático se realizó mediante espectrofotometría utilizando kits comercializados por Randox Lab. Este protocolo fue aprobado por un Comité de Etica Institucional. Tras completar el programa de entrenamiento se incrementó significativamente el TAS (0.79 ± 0.05 vs.1.01 ± 0.03 mmol/l; p = 0.027. No hubo cambios en grupo control. El ejercicio aeróbico de intensidad ligera/moderada aumenta las defensas antioxidantes en mujeres con síndrome metabólico. Son necesarios futuros estudios longitudinales para conocer su impacto en la evolución clínica.

  5. Influencia del ritmo circadiano sobre el rendimiento físico en ejercicios aeróbicos y anaeróbicos. Una revisión

    OpenAIRE

    Bueno Pérez, Ángel Javier

    2015-01-01

    La cronobiología es la ciencia que se encarga del estudio de los cambios fisiológicos dependientes de los ritmos circadianos, estos se refieren a las variaciones internas que se repetirán cada 24 horas. El objetivo del presente estudio fue realizar una revisión sistemática sobre la influencia provocada por la variabilidad circadiana en el rendimiento cardiorrespiratorio y motor tanto aeróbico como anaeróbico. Los resultados de esta revisión indican que el rendimiento deportivo se ve afectado ...

  6. Efecto del ejercicio físico aeróbico sobre los niveles séricos de adiponectina y leptina en mujeres posmenopáusicas

    OpenAIRE

    Aranzález, Luz Helena; Mockus Sivickas, Ismena; Ramírez, Doris; Mancera, Erica; García, Óscar

    2011-01-01

    Antecedentes. Las variaciones de peso corporal se acompañan de modificaciones en los niveles circulantes de adipocinas como la adiponectina y la leptina.  Durante la posmenopausia se presenta una tendencia al incremento de peso. Se recomienda ejercicio físico, que tiene efectos sobre tejido adiposo y los factores de riesgo cardiovascular, como parte del tratamiento del sobrepeso y obesidad. Objetivo. Determinar los efectos del ejercicio físico aeróbico controlado sobre los niveles séricos de ...

  7. Desarrollo de la potencia aeróbica con dos diferentes métodos de entrenamiento en alumnos del polimodal

    OpenAIRE

    Díaz, Miguel Ángel

    2009-01-01

    El propósito del trabajo es determinar si dos estímulos semanales durante 6 semanas, utilizando 2 diferentes métodos de entrenamiento de resistencia, desarrollan la potencia aeróbica en jóvenes varones de 16 y 17 años que cursan el polimodal. Los Criterios de exclusión fueron, edad, practicar deporte (cíclicos o acíclicos) de manera federada o padecer alguna enfermedad cardiovascular, diabetes o asma. Se dividió la muestra en dos grupos experimentales de 30 sujetos y un grupo control de 20. C...

  8. Mejora de defensas antioxidantes mediante ejercicio aeróbico en mujeres con síndrome metabólico

    OpenAIRE

    Manuel Rosety-Rodríguez; Antonio Díaz-Ordoñez; Ignacio Rosety; Gabriel Fornieles; Alejandra Camacho-Molina; Natalia García; Miguel Angel Rosety; Francisco J. Ordoñez

    2012-01-01

    En la actualidad se acepta que el daño oxidativo juega un papel esencial en la patogénesis del síndrome metabólico. Estudios recientes proponen al daño oxidativo como diana terapéutica frente al síndrome metabólico. Precisamente nuestro objetivo fue mejorar el estatus total antioxidante (TAS) de mujeres con síndrome metabólico mediante ejercicio aeróbico. Participaron voluntariamente 100 mujeres con síndrome metabólico de acuerdo con los criterios del National Cholesterol Educational Program ...

  9. El funcionamiento de un pulso político : discurso, endeudamiento y política en el "de aere alieno, de vi et de ambitu" de Clodio

    OpenAIRE

    Rosilló López, Cristina

    2007-01-01

    El discurso de Cicerón, De aere alieno Milonis, fue pronunciado en respuesta a un fuerte ataque contra Milón de parte de Clodio. Una de las acusaciones, basada en la distorsión deliberada del montante de sus deudas, no tiene paralelo en la política romana de la época. Este artículo analiza cómo esta imputación, lejos de ser inocua, contenía una potente ofensiva contra Milón que podría conllevar su condena antes de las elecciones. Al mismo tiempo, se muestran l...

  10. Entrenamiento de la capacidad aeróbica por medio de la terapia acuática en niños con parálisis cerebral tipo diplejía espástica

    OpenAIRE

    Nandy Fajardo-López; Fabiola Moscoso-Alvarado

    2013-01-01

    Antecedentes. La parálisis cerebral tipo diplejía espática genera cambios en el sistema cardiovascular que afectan la capacidad aeróbica. La terapia acuática es una estrategia terapéutica óptima tanto para el manejo de la población como para el entrenamiento de la capacidad aeróbica, por las respuestas fisiológicas que genera y porque brinda la facilidad de generar mayores cargas al sistema cardiovascular con menores riesgos que en tierra. Objetivo. Identificar las características que debe te...

  11. Efectos de la distribución y secuencia en la organización de distintas tareas de entrenamiento para la mejora de la resistencia aeróbica

    OpenAIRE

    Clemente Suárez, Vicente Javier

    2010-01-01

    Numerosos autores han investigado el efecto de diferentes entrenamientos en el rendimiento de deportistas de resistencia, pero poco se ha estudiado sobre el efecto de la distribución y la secuenciación de las tareas de entrenamiento en la mejora de la resistencia aeróbica tanto en el rendimiento aeróbico, como en variables espirométricas, parámetros de fuerza explosiva e isocinética de piernas, recuperación y fatiga del sistema nervioso central. Por ello, esta tesis doctoral pretende analizar...

  12. Efecto del ejercicio físico aeróbico sobre el consumo de oxígeno de mujeres primigestantes saludables: Estudio clínico aleatorizado

    OpenAIRE

    Robinson Ramírez-Vélez; Ana C. Aguilar de Plata; Mildrey Mosquera-Escudero; José G Ortega; Blanca Salazar; Isabella Echeverri; Wilmar Saldarriaga-Gil

    2011-01-01

    Objetivo: evaluar, en mujeres primigestantes saludables, el efecto del ejercicio aeróbico sobre el consumo de oxígeno. Materiales y métodos: estudio clínico aleatorizado en 64 mujeres saludables, primigestantes, entre 16 y 20 semanas de gestación. Grupo de intervención: ejercicio aeróbico entre el 50% y 65% de la frecuencia cardíaca máxima, durante 45 min, 3 veces por semana durante 16 semanas. Grupo control: actividad física habitual. Mediciones: consumo de oxígeno VO2max por prueba de camin...

  13. Resistance and uptake of cadmium by yeast, Pichia hampshirensis 4Aer, isolated from industrial effluent and its potential use in decontamination of wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Zaman; Rehman, Abdul; Hussain, Syed Z

    2016-09-01

    Pichia hampshirensis 4Aer is first ever used yeast for the bioremediation of environmental cadmium (Cd(+2)) which could maximally remove 22 mM/g and 28 mM/g Cd(+2) from aqueous medium at lab and large scales, respectively. The biosorption was found to be the function of temperature, pH of solution, initial Cd(+2) concentration and biomass dosage. Competitive biosorption was investigated in binary and multi-metal system which indicated the decrease in Cd(+2) biosorption with increasing the competitive metal ions attributed to their higher electronegativity and larger radius. FTIR analysis revealed the active participation of amide and carbonyl moieties in Cd(+2) adsorption confirmed by EDX analysis. Electron micrographs summoned further surface adsorption and increased cell size due to intracellular Cd(+2) accumulation. Cd(+2) was the causative agent of some metal binding proteins as well as prodigious increase in glutathione and other non-protein thiols levels which is the crucial for the yeast to thrive oxidative stress generated by Cd(+2). Our experimental data were consistent with Langmuir as well as Freundlich isotherm models. The yeast obeyed pseudo second order kinetic model which makes it an effective biosorbent for Cd(+2). High bioremediation potential and spontaneity and feasibility of the process make P. hampshirensis 4Aer an impending foundation for green chemistry to exterminate environmental Cd(+2). PMID:27268792

  14. Comparison of the updated solutions of the 6th dynamic AER Benchmark - main steam line break in a NPP with WWER-440

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 6th dynamic AER Benchmark is used for the systematic validation of coupled 3D neutron kinetic/thermal hydraulic system codes. It was defined at The 10th AER-Symposium. In this benchmark, a hypothetical double ended break of one main steam line at full power in a WWER-440 plant is investigated. The main thermal hydraulic features are the consideration of incomplete coolant mixing in the lower and upper plenum of the reactor pressure vessel and an asymmetric operation of the feed water system. For the tuning of the different nuclear cross section data used by the participants, an isothermal re-criticality temperature was defined. The paper gives an overview on the behaviour of the main thermal hydraulic and neutron kinetic parameters in the provided solutions. The differences in the updated solution in comparison to the previous ones are described. Improvements in the modelling of the transient led to a better agreement of a part of the results while for another part the deviations rose up. The sensitivity of the core power behaviour on the secondary side modelling is discussed in detail (Authors)

  15. Avaliação da biotratabilidade do efluentede branqueamento de polpa celulósicapor processos aeróbios e anaeróbios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Míriam Cristina Santos Amaral

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Os efluentes da planta de branqueamento da produção de pasta celulósica apresentam, além de elevadas concentrações de matéria orgânica em termos de Demanda Química de Oxigênio (DQO e Demanda Bioquímica de Oxigênio (DBO e cor, compostos com elevada toxicidade, o que torna o tratamento destes efluentes problemático. O objetivo do presente artigo é avaliar a biotratabilidade dos efluentes de branqueamento ácido e alcalino de polpa celulósica kraft por processos aeróbios e anaeróbios por meio da caracterização, utilizando parâmetros convencionais e coletivos. Os resultados de DQO inerte, biodegradabilidade aeróbia e anaeróbia, distribuição de massas molares, produtos microbianos solúveis e substâncias poliméricas extracelulares indicaram a baixa biotratabilidade dos efluentes

  16. Information about AER WG a on improvement, extension and validation of parametrized few-group libraries for VVER 440 and VVER 1000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joint AER Working Group A on 'Improvement, extension and validation of parameterized few-group libraries for VVER-440 and VVER-1000' and AER Working group B on 'Core design' eighteenth meeting was hosted by Skoda JS a.s. in Plzen (Czech Republic) during the period of 4 to 6 May 2009. There were present altogether 16 participants from 6 member organizations and 13 presentations were read. Objectives of the meeting of WG A are: Issues connected with spectral calculations and few-groups libraries preparation, their accuracy and validation. Presentations were devoted to some aspects of few group libraries preparations and to the benchmark dealing with VVER-440 follower modeling in calculations. Gy. Hegyi gave some new information about NURESIM-NURISP EU project (ZR-6), R. Zajac spoke about the development of data libraries for codes BIPR-7 and PERMAK, P. Darilek compared FA's with Gd during burning process and Yu. Bilodid described further development of plutonium-based burnup history modeling in DYN3D burnup calculations. G. Hordosy presented results of control rod follower induced local power peaking computational benchmark and J. Svarny described Monte Carlo VVER-440 control rod follower benchmark computations. Future activities are also shortly described in the end of the paper. (author)

  17. Information about AER WG A on improvement, extension and validation of parametrized few-group libraries for VVER 440 and VVER 1000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joint AER Working Group A on 'Improvement, extension and validation of parameterized few-group libraries for WWER-440 and WWER-1000' and AER Working Group B on 'Core design' nineteenth meeting was hosted by VUJE a. s. in Modra - Harmonia (Slovakia) during the period of 20. to 22. April 2010. There were present altogether 12 participants from 8 member organizations and 9 papers were presented (8 of them in written form). Objectives of the meeting of WG A are: Issues connected with spectral calculations and few-groups libraries preparation, their accuracy and validation. Presentations were devoted to some aspects of transport and diffusion calculations and to the benchmark dealing with WWER-1000 core periphery power tilt. Tamas Parko (co-authors Istvan Pos and Sandor Patai Szabo) described in his presentation 'Application of Discontinuity factors in C-PORCA 7 code', Radoslav Zajac (co-authors Petr Darilek and Vladimir Necas) spoke about 'Fast Reactor Nodalisation in HELIOS Code', Gabriel Farkas presented 'Calculation of Spatial Weighting Functions of Ex-Core Neutron Detectors for WWER-440 Using Monte Carlo Approach' and Daniel Sprinzl (co-authors Vaclav Krysl, Pavel Mikolas and Jiri Svarny) provided a definition of a benchmark in ' 'MIDICORE' WWER-1000 core periphery power tilt benchmark proposal'. (Author)

  18. Big Data in AER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kregenow, Julia M.

    2016-01-01

    Penn State University teaches Introductory Astronomy to more undergraduates than any other institution in the U.S. Using a standardized assessment instrument, we have pre-/post- tested over 20,000 students in the last 8 years in both resident and online instruction. This gives us a rare opportunity to look for long term trends in the performance of our students during a period in which online instruction has burgeoned.

  19. Summary of twelfth session of the AER Working Group F - 'Spent Fuel Transmutations' and third meeting of INPRO Project RMI - 'Meeting energy needs in the period of raw materials insufficiency during the twenty first century'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Information about the development in the problems spent fuel transmutation and future nuclear reactors development during the last years 2009-2010. Some critical views on the coming works tendencies are given by the coordinator of works within AER cooperation. (Author)

  20. Exercício aeróbico agudo restaura a concentração de triptofano em cérebro de ratos com hiperfenilalaninemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila Nicolao Mazzola

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: A fenilcetonúria (PKU é caracterizada pela deficiência da enzima fenilalanina hidroxilase, causando acúmulo de fenilalanina. O diagnóstico precoce e a subordinação à dieta pobre em fenilalanina são importantes para prevenir os efeitos prejudiciais da hiperfenilalaninemia. Não aderir estritamente à dieta provoca, entre outros efeitos, um desequilíbrio entre os aminoácidos neutros que usam o mesmo transportador da fenilalanina na barreira hematoencefálica, causando, então, a diminuição da entrada de triptofano, o precursor de serotonina no cérebro. Esse neurotransmissor tem sido implicado na regulação dos estados de humor, sendo sua alta produção ligada à fadiga central em indivíduos submetidos a exercício prolongado. O exercício físico aumenta os níveis de triptofano livre no sangue, o que facilita seu influxo no cérebro, podendo, portanto, ser útil nos estados hiperfenilalaninêmicos. OBJETIVO: Avaliar se o exercício aeróbico é capaz de normalizar as concentrações de triptofano no cérebro de ratos com hiperfenilalaninemia. MÉTODOS: Trinta e dois ratos foram separados nos grupos sedentário (Sed e exercício (Exe, e cada um deles subdividido em controle (SAL e hiperfenilalaninemia (PKU. A hiperfenilalaninemia foi induzida pela administração de alfa-metilfenilalanina e fenilalanina durante três dias, enquanto os grupos SAL receberam salina. Os grupos Exe realizaram uma sessão de exercício aeróbico com duração de 60min e velocidade de 12m.min-1. RESULTADOS: A concentração de triptofano no cérebro nos grupos PKU foi significativamente menor que nos grupos SAL, tanto Sed como Exe, compatível com a condição hiperfenilalaninêmica. O exercício aumentou a concentração cerebral de triptofano comparada aos animais sedentários. O achado mais interessante foi que a concentração cerebral de triptofano no grupo ExePKU não foi diferente do SedSAL. CONCLUSÃO: Os resultados indicam um

  1. Aptidão aeróbia e amplitude dos domínios de intensidade de exercício no ciclismo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Aparecido Corrêa Caritá

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: A determinação dos domínios de intensidade de exercício tem importantes implicações na prescrição do treino aeróbio e na elaboração de delineamentos experimentais. OBJETIVO: Analisar os efeitos do nível de aptidão aeróbia sobre a amplitude dos domínios de intensidade de exercício durante o ciclismo. MÉTODOS: Doze ciclistas (CIC, 11 corredores (COR e oito indivíduos não treinados (NT foram submetidos aos seguintes protocolos em diferentes dias: 1 teste progressivo para determinação do limiar de lactato (LL, consumo máximo de oxigênio (VO2máx e sua respectiva intensidade (IVO2máx; 2 três testes de carga constante até a exaustão a 95, 100 e 110% IVO2máx para a determinação da potência crítica (PC; 3 testes até a exaustão para determinar a intensidade superior do domínio severo (Isup. As amplitudes dos domínios (moderado pesado severo < Isup foram expressas como percentual da Isup (VO2. RESULTADOS: A amplitude do domínio moderado foi similar entre CIC (52 ± 8% e COR (47 ± 4% e significantemente maior no CIC em relação ao NT (41 ± 7%. O domínio pesado foi significantemente menor no CIC (17 ± 6% em relação ao COR (27 ± 6% e NT (27 ± 9%. Em relação ao domínio severo não foram encontradas diferenças significantes entre os CIC (31 ± 7%, COR (26 ± 5% e NT (31 ± 7%. CONCLUSÃO: O domínio pesado de exercício é mais sensível a mudanças determinadas pelo nível de aptidão aeróbia, existindo a necessidade de que se atenda ao princípio da especificidade do movimento, quando se pretende obter um elevado grau de adaptação fisiológica.

  2. Treinamento aeróbico prévio à compressão nervosa: análise da morfometria muscular de ratos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisangela Lourdes Artifon

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Ciatalgia origina-se da compressão do nervo isquiático e implica em dor, parestesia, diminuição da força muscular e hipotrofia. O exercício físico é reconhecido na prevenção e reabilitação de lesões, porém quando em sobrecargas pode aumentar o risco de lesões e consequente déficit funcional. OBJETIVO: Avaliar efeitos de treinamento aeróbico prévio a modelo experimental de ciatalgia em relação a parâmetros morfométricos dos músculos sóleos de ratos. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: 18 ratos divididos em três grupos: simulacro (mergulho, 30 segundos; exercício regular (natação, dez minutos diários; e treinamento aeróbico progressivo (natação em tempos progressivos de dez a 60 minutos diários. Ao final de seis semanas de exercício, os ratos foram submetidos ao modelo experimental da ciatalgia. No terceiro dia após a lesão, foram eutanasiados e tiveram seus músculos sóleos dissecados, pesados e preparados para análise histológica. Variáveis analisadas: peso muscular, área de secção transversa e diâmetro médio das fibras musculares. RESULTADOS: Observou-se diferença estatisticamente significativa para todos os grupos quando se comparou músculo controle e aquele submetido à lesão isquiática. A análise intergrupos não apresentou diferença estatisticamente significativa para nenhuma das variáveis analisadas. CONCLUSÃO: Tanto o exercício físico regular quanto o treinamento aeróbico não produziram efeitos preventivos ou agravantes às consequências musculares da inatividade funcional após ciatalgia.

  3. Atividade do sistema antioxidante e desenvolvimento de aerênquima em raízes de milho 'Saracura' Antioxidant system activity and aerenchyma formation in 'Saracura' maize roots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabricio José Pereira

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a influência de sucessivos ciclos de seleção do milho 'Saracura' na atividade das enzimas do sistema antioxidante, e a relação dessas enzimas com a capacidade dessa variedade em desenvolver aerênquima. Sementes de 18 ciclos de seleção intercalados do milho 'Saracura' e da cultivar BR 107, sensível à hipoxia, foram semeadas em vasos e em casa de vegetação. As plantas foram submetidas ao alagamento intermitente de dois em dois dias. As amostras de raízes foram coletadas após 60 dias e analisaram-se as atividades das enzimas peroxidase do guaiacol, peroxidase do ascorbato e catalase, além da capacidade das plantas de cada ciclo desenvolverem aerênquima. Ao longo dos ciclos, as plantas apresentaram modificações na atividade das enzimas, com aumento na de peroxidase do ascorbato e diminuição na de catalase e de peroxidase do guaiacol. Observou-se, ainda, maior capacidade de desenvolver aerênquima nos últimos ciclos de seleção. A redução na atividade das enzimas do sistema antioxidante parece estar relacionada a um desbalanço na decomposição de H2O2.This work aimed to assess the influence of successive selection cycles in 'Saracura' maize on the enzyme activity of the antioxidant system and the relationship of these enzymes with the aerenchyma development capacity of this variety. Seeds of 18 intercalated selection cycles of the 'Saracura' maize and of the cultivar BR 107, sensitive to hipoxia, were sown in pots in the greenhouse. Plants were submitted to intermittent soil flooding each two days. After 60 days, the roots were sampled and analysis were done for the guaiacol peroxidase, ascorbate peroxidase, and catalase activities and for the capacity of the plants of each cycle to develop aerenchyma. The plants showed modifications in enzyme activity along the cycles, increasing the ascorbate peroxidase activity and decreasing the catalase and guaiacol peroxidase ones. A greater

  4. Efecto de una intervención ACT sobre la resistencia aeróbica y evitación experiencial en marchistas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Clara Rodríguez Salazar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available El presente estudio tuvo como propósito identificar el efecto de la intervención en Terapia de Aceptación y Compromiso (ACT sobre la resistencia aeróbica y conducta de evitación experiencial en un grupo de marchistas de Bogotá. Se utilizó un diseño pretest-postest con grupo control. La muestra estuvo compuesta por diez marchistas de ambos sexos, con un promedio de edad de 16.70 y un rango entre los 15 y 20 años de edad, pertenecientes a la Liga de Atletismo de Bogotá. Se eligieron por conveniencia. Se emplearon como instrumentos de medición el test de los 3000 m y el Cuestionario de Aceptación Acción (AAQ. La intervención en ACT se realizó en cuatro sesiones en las que se desarrollaron los contenidos definidos por los autores de la intervención (Wilson y Luciano, 2002. Para el análisis de los datos, se empleó estadística no paramétrica a través de la prueba U de Mann-Whitney. Los resultados señalan una mayor resistencia aeróbica en la prueba de los 3000 m en el postest del grupo experimental con respecto al grupo control, así como una mayoraceptación de los eventos internos negativos.

  5. Efeitos do treinamento de corrida em diferentes intensidades sobre a capacidade aeróbia e produção de lactato pelo músculo de ratos Wistar Running training effects in different intensities on the aerobic capacity and lactate production by the muscle of Wistar rats

    OpenAIRE

    Michel Barbosa de Araújo; Fúlvia de Barros Manchado-Gobatto; Fabrício Azevedo Voltarelli; Carla Ribeiro; Clécia Soares de Alencar Mota; Claudio Alexandre Gobatto; Maria Alice Rostom de Mello

    2009-01-01

    São raros os estudos que associam indicadores de capacidade aeróbia e os substratos produzidos pelo metabolismo muscular em ratos. Dessa forma, o objetivo do presente estudo foi verificar o efeito do treinamento de corrida em duas diferentes intensidades sobre a capacidade aeróbia e a produção de lactato pelo músculo sóleo isolado de ratos. Ratos Wistar (90 dias) tiveram a transição metabólica aeróbio-anaeróbia determinada pelo teste de máxima fase estável de lactato (MFEL). Em seguida, os ra...

  6. Efeitos de uma única sessão de atividade motora na atenção visual de pessoas idosas: comparação entre atividade aeróbica e neuromotora

    OpenAIRE

    Canelas, Dora Cristina Calção

    2014-01-01

    Efeitos de uma única sessão de exercício na atenção visual de pessoas idosas: comparação entre exercício aeróbico e neuromotora Resumo Objetivo: O principal objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar os efeitos agudos de uma única sessão de exercício aeróbico e uma única sessão de exercício neuromotor sobre a atenção visual de pessoas idosas. Métodos: Participaram 87 indivíduos de ambos os sexos, com idades acima dos 55 anos (65,65 ± 6,64 anos), residentes no distrito de Évora, in...

  7. Exercício aeróbio reduz a hipertensão arterial de mulheres com Doença de Chagas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wania da Silva Lopes

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Os portadores de doença de Chagas frequentemente apresentam a hipertensão arterial sistêmica (HAS como a principal comorbidade. Em indivíduos hipertensos com e sem doença de Chagas, o controle de HAS geralmente é medicamentoso. Medidas alternativas de intervenção como o exercício físico aeróbio têm sido preconizadas como a maneira mais efetiva para reduzir os níveis de pressão arterial. OBJETIVO: Avaliar a influência do exercício físico sobre a pressão arterial de mulheres hipertensas com e sem doença de Chagas. MÉTODOS: Dezenove voluntárias divididas nos grupos G1 (nove com doença de Chagas e G2 (dez sem doença de Chagas foram submetidas a um programa de treinamento de 12 semanas, com duração de 30 a 60 minutos duas vezes por semana. A pressão arterial sistólica (PAS, diastólica (PAD e a frequência cardíaca (FC foram avaliadas no pré e pós-esforço no início (T0, após seis (T6 e 12 (T12 semanas. RESULTADOS: Em T6, melhora significativa foi observada na PAS pré e pós-esforço e na PAD pós-esforço, para ambos os grupos. No T12, G1 apresentou melhora significativa para todas as variáveis, exceto FC pós-esforço e G2 para PAS pré e pós-esforço e FC pós-esforço. Não houve diferença significativa entre G1 e G2 para as variáveis estudadas. CONCLUSÃO: O exercício físico aeróbio de baixa intensidade reduz significativamente a pressão arterial de mulheres com doença de Chagas, pode ser realizado com segurança, e insere os pacientes com esta enfermidade na prática rotineira de exercícios.

  8. Treinamento Físico Aeróbico como Tratamento não Farmacológico da Síncope Neurocardiogênica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Cristina Miranda Takahagi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Fundamento: Caracterizada por perda súbita e transitória da consciência e do tônus postural, com recuperação rápida e espontânea, a síncope é causada por uma redução aguda da pressão arterial sistêmica e, por conseguinte, do fluxo sanguíneo cerebral. Os resultados insatisfatórios com o uso de fármacos permitiu que o tratamento não farmacológico da síncope neurocardiogênica fosse contemplado como primeira opção terapêutica. Objetivos: Comparar, em pacientes com síncope neurocardiogênica, o impacto do Treinamento Físico Aeróbico (TFA de moderada intensidade e de uma intervenção controle, na positividade do Teste de Inclinação Passiva (TIP e no tempo de tolerância ortostática. Métodos: Foram estudados 21 pacientes com história de síncope neurocardiogênica recorrente e TIP positivo. Esses foram aleatorizados em: Grupo Treinado (GT, n = 11, e Grupo Controle (GC, n = 10. O GT foi submetido a 12 semanas de TFA supervisionado, em cicloergômetro, e o GC, a um procedimento controle que consistia na realização de 15 minutos de alongamentos e 15 minutos de caminhada leve. Resultados: O GT apresentou efeito positivo ao treinamento físico, com aumento significativo do consumo de oxigênio-pico. Já o GC não apresentou nenhuma mudança estatisticamente significante, antes e após a intervenção. Após o período de intervenção, 72,7% da amostra do GT apresentou resultado negativo ao TIP, não apresentando síncope na reavaliação. Conclusão: O programa de treinamento físico aeróbico supervisionado por 12 semanas foi capaz de reduzir o número de TIP positivos, assim como foi capaz de aumentar o tempo de tolerância na posição ortostática durante o teste após o período de intervenção.

  9. Measurements and ALE3D Simulations for Violence in a Scaled Thermal Explosion Experiment with LX-10 and AerMet 100 Steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McClelland, M A; Maienschein, J L; Yoh, J J; deHaven, M R; Strand, O T

    2005-06-03

    We completed a Scaled Thermal Explosion Experiment (STEX) and performed ALE3D simulations for the HMX-based explosive, LX-10, confined in an AerMet 100 (iron-cobalt-nickel alloy) vessel. The explosive was heated at 1 C/h until cookoff at 182 C using a controlled temperature profile. During the explosion, the expansion of the tube and fragment velocities were measured with strain gauges, Photonic-Doppler-Velocimeters (PDVs), and micropower radar units. These results were combined to produce a single curve describing 15 cm of tube wall motion. A majority of the metal fragments were captured and cataloged. A fragment size distribution was constructed, and a typical fragment had a length scale of 2 cm. Based on these results, the explosion was considered to be a violent deflagration. ALE3D models for chemical, thermal, and mechanical behavior were developed for the heating and explosive processes. A four-step chemical kinetics model is employed for the HMX while a one-step model is used for the Viton. A pressure-dependent deflagration model is employed during the expansion. The mechanical behavior of the solid constituents is represented by a Steinberg-Guinan model while polynomial and gamma-law expressions are used for the equation of state of the solid and gas species, respectively. A gamma-law model is employed for the air in gaps, and a mixed material model is used for the interface between air and explosive. A Johnson-Cook model with an empirical rule for failure strain is used to describe fracture behavior. Parameters for the kinetics model were specified using measurements of the One-Dimensional-Time-to-Explosion (ODTX), while measurements for burn rate were employed to determine parameters in the burn front model. The ALE3D models provide good predictions for the thermal behavior and time to explosion, but the predicted wall expansion curve is higher than the measured curve. Possible contributions to this discrepancy include inaccuracies in the chemical models

  10. Seleção de substratos padrões para ensaios respirométricos aeróbios com biomassa de sistemas de lodo ativado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heraldo Antunes Silva Filho

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Nesta pesquisa investigou-se a influência de diferentes substratos na determinação da taxa específica de consumo de oxigênio de biomassa com cultura mista heterotrófica e autotrófica nitrificante, visando à caracterização do substrato mais adequado no desenvolvimento de ensaios respirométricos aeróbios. Foram utilizadas diferentes biomassas derivadas de quatro variantes de sistemas de lodo ativado. Os grupos heterotróficos e autotróficos nitrificantes foram avaliados em relação à sua velocidade de consumo dos substratos testados, sendo utilizada a técnica da respirometria aeróbia aberta semi-contínua de distintos pulsos, descrita em Van Haandel e Catunda (1982. Um respirometro automático acoplado a um computador foi utilizado em todos os testes respirométricos. Para identificar a taxa de consumo dos organismos heterotróficos, os substratos de fonte de carbono selecionados foram acetato de sódio (C2H3NaO2, acetato de etila (C4H8O2, etanol (C2H6O, glicose (C6H12O6 e fenol (C6H6O. Para o grupo autotrófico nitrificante foram utilizados bicarbonato de amônio (NH4HCO3, cloreto de amônio (NH4Cl e nitrito de sódio (NaNO2. Os resultados referentes ao grupo heterotrófico indicaram significativa diferença da taxa metabólica desses organismos na utilização dos substratos avaliados, exercendo maiores taxas de consumo de oxigênio para o acetato de sódio, enquanto para o grupo nitrificante o bicarbonato de amônio mostrou-se mais adequado. Comparando todos os sistemas estudados, observa-se a mesma tendência de maior biodegradabilidade ou afinidade aos substratos acetato de sódio e bicarbonato de amônio.

  11. Comparison of the results of the fifth dynamic AER benchmark-a benchmark for coupled thermohydraulic system/three-dimensional hexagonal kinetic core models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The fifth dynamic benchmark was defined at seventh AER-Symposium, held in Hoernitz, Germany in 1997. It is the first benchmark for coupled thermohydraulic system/three-dimensional hexagonal neutron kinetic core models. In this benchmark the interaction between the components of a WWER-440 NPP with the reactor core has been investigated. The initiating event is a symmetrical break of the main steam header at the end of the first fuel cycle and hot shutdown conditions with one control rod group stucking. This break causes an overcooling of the primary circuit. During this overcooling the scram reactivity is compensated and the scrammed reactor becomes re critical. The calculation was continued until the highly-borated water from the high pressure injection system terminated the power excursion. Each participant used own best-estimate nuclear cross section data. Only the initial subcriticality at the beginning of the transient was given. Solutions were received from Kurchatov Institute Russia with the code BIPR8/ATHLET, VTT Energy Finland with HEXTRAN/SMABRE, NRI Rez Czech Republic with DYN3/ATHLET, KFKI Budapest Hungary with KIKO3D/ATHLET and from FZR Germany with the code DYN3D/ATHLET.In this paper the results are compared. Beside the comparison of global results, the behaviour of several thermohydraulic and neutron kinetic parameters is presented to discuss the revealed differences between the solutions.(Authors)

  12. Efeito de três periodizações do treinamento aeróbio sobre o limiar ventilatório

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sauer Deborah

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se comparar o efeito do treinamento aeróbio com diferentes progressões da intensidade sobre o limiar ventilatório (VO2LV e VO2pico. Quarenta e oito homens foram distribuídos nos grupos crescente (GCRES, ondulatório (GOND e escalonado (GESC, e avaliados antes e após treze semanas de treinamento, realizado três vezes por semana por trinta minutos. Os limites inferior e superior da intensidade foram iguais nos três grupos (65-90% da FCmáx., porém a progressão foi estruturada diferentemente, fazendo com que as cargas de treinamento fossem distintas. Houve aumento do LV (GOND 29 ± 4 vs. 32 ± 4; GCRES 30 ± 4,6 vs. 34 ± 5,7; GESC 32,8 ± 4,6 vs. 35,7 ± 5. mL.kg-1.min-1 e VO2pico (GOND 52,6 ± 7 vs. 57,8 ± 10; GCRES 53 ± 10 vs. 57,7 ± 10; GESC 54 ± 8 vs. 61,5 ± 9 mL.kg-1.min-1 dos três grupos, sem diferenças entre eles. Os três protocolos foram eficazes no aumento do LV e VO2pico apesar das diferenças nas cargas de treinamento.

  13. Elaboración de cartas aeronáuticas OACI: planos de obstáculos de aeródromo, a partir de imágenes aéreas digitales de pequeño formato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Prado Molina

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Las cartas aeronáuticas y los planos de obstáculos de aeródromo proporcionan información sobre las obstrucciones alrededor del aeropuerto, para que el controlador aéreo y los pilotos cumplan con los procedimientos y limitaciones de su utilización. La seguridad en aviación exige la producción de cartas aeronáuticas actualizadas y precisas, adoptando los estándares de la Organización de Aviación Civil Internacional (OACI. En este artículo se describe la metodología utilizada para generar los planos de obstáculos de cinco aeródromos en México, a partir de imágenes aéreas digitales, obtenidas con cámaras de formato pequeño. A través de dos levantamientos aéreos en cada aeropuerto, a 10 000 y 5 000 pies de altura sobre el nivel del terreno, se generaron dos ortomosaicos cubriendo la zona de influencia de la terminal aérea, el aeródromo y las superficies de aproximación, de ascenso en el despegue, de transición, horizontal interna y cónica. A través de la fotointerpretación de estéreopares se identificó la mayoría de los obstáculos, y con los ortomosaicos se generaron los planos de aeródromo y de obstáculos de aeródromo tipos A, B y C. Mediante receptores satelitales geodésicos se obtuvieron 18 puntos en cada pista, para obtener sus dimensiones y establecer puntos de control terrestre para la formación de los ortomosaicos. A través de detallado trabajo de campo se comprobó la localización y altura de los obstáculos y, finalmente, después de varios procedimientos de revisión por las autoridades aeronáuticas, se concluyó la generación de las cartas OACI al integrar todos los mapas de los aeropuertos, en un sistema de información geográfica (SIG.

  14. Efeitos agudos de diferentes intensidades e volumes de exercício aeróbio sobre as concentrações de triptofano e serotonina em mulheres idosas fisicamente ativas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jônatas de França Barros

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available O envelhecimento provoca uma diminuição na concentração de serotonina, que por sua vez, pode produzir anormalidades de comportamento como: agressividade, insônia, comportamento suicida ou criminal e perda do desejo sexual. Entretanto, estudos demonstram que o exercício aeróbio parece aumentar agudamente as concentrações de triptofano e serotonina. Por outro lado, não há relatos na literatura de estudos que tenham investigado os efeitos de diferentes intensidades e volumes de exercício aeróbio sobre as concentrações de triptofano e serotonina em mulheres idosas. O objetivo do presente estudo foi verificar os efeitos agudos de diferentes intensidades e volumes de exercício aeróbio sobre as concentrações de triptofano e serotonina em mulheres idosas fisicamente ativas. Para tanto, 49 mulheres idosas (idade entre 60 e 75 anos, fisicamente ativas, foram distribuídas em seis grupos: controle (GC; n = 8 e cinco experimentais: 1 exercício aeróbio realizado a 90% do limiar ventilatório (LV90; n = 8; 2 exercício realizado em intensidade de limiar ventilatório (LV; n = 8, 3 exercício realizado em intensidade relativa a 90% do ponto de compensação respiratório (PCR90; n = 8, todos com duração de 20 min; 4 teste de esforço máximo (Gmáx; n = 8; e 5 exercício realizado em intensidade de limiar ventilatório com duração de 60 min (LV60min; n = 9. Antes e após a realização das sessões de exercícios foram realizadas coletas de sangue venoso para quantificação das concentrações de triptofano e serotonina. Não foram identificadas diferenças significativas (p > 0,05 entre (GC, LV90, LV, PCR90, Gmáx e LV60min e intragrupos (pré e pós nas concentrações de serotonina e triptofano. Em conclusão, sessões agudas de exercício aeróbio realizado em diferentes intensidades e volumes não resultaram em alterações significativas nas concentrações de serotonina e tripotofano em mulheres idosas.

  15. Cálcio e o desenvolvimento de aerênquimas e atividade de celulase em plântulas de milho submetidas a hipoxia Calcium and the development of aerenchyma and celulase activity in corn seedlings subjected to hypoxia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bárbara França Dantas

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available A formação de aerênquimas é conhecida como uma das mais importantes adaptações anatômicas pelas quais as plantas passam quando são submetidas à deficiência de oxigênio. Esse tecido se desenvolve pela ação de enzimas de degradação ou afrouxamento da parede celular. Este trabalho foi conduzido com o objetivo de verificar o desenvolvimento de aerênquima em plântulas de milho cv. Saracura- BRS 4154, submetidas à hipoxia. Associou-se, ao desenvolvimento dessa estrutura, a atividade da celulase. Para tanto, plântulas com 4 dias de idade foram submetidas aos tratamentos de hipoxia, pela imersão em tampão de alagamento, na ausência e presença de cálcio. Após 0, 1, 2, 3 e 4 dias da aplicação dos tratamentos, foram feitos cortes anatômicos na região apical dos coleóptiles e na região intermediária da raiz para a avaliação da formação de aerênquimas, e coletado o material para os ensaios enzimáticos de celulase. A atividade celulase foi medida através de método viscosimétrico. Nas raízes, a formação de aerênquima aumentou logo após a hipoxia e atingiu 50% do total do córtex ao quarto dia de hipoxia. Este órgão apresentou uma área cortical com aerênquima em média sete vezes maior que nos coleóptiles, onde a área de espaços intercelulares atingiu 15% do córtex. A atividade da celulase em coleóptiles e raízes sofreu, inicialmente, um decréscimo devido ao estresse, aumentando em seguida, acompanhando os resultados de aerênquima. Na presença de cálcio o desenvolvimento de aerênquima foi inibido; no entanto, a atividade enzimática foi induzida.Aerenchyma formation is known as one of the most important anatomical adaptations of plants submitted to oxygen shortage. This tissue develops by action of degrading enzymes and resulting in cell wall loosening. This work was conducted with the objective of verifying aerenchyma development in corn seedlings cv. Saracura - BRS 4154, submitted to hypoxia. The

  16. Análise da potência aeróbia de futebolistas por meio de teste de campo e teste laboratorial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Javier Ramirez Lizana

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introdução: Há métodos diretos e indiretos que são utilizados pelos clubes de futebol para avaliar, acompanhar e determinar o VO2max dos jogadores, sendo este muito importante para o rendimento e a recuperação dos atletas durante uma partida. Objetivo: Avaliar o nível de correlação entre as medidas de VO2max por meio da análise direta de gases e do teste de campo Yo-Yo Intermitente Recovery Level 1 (Yo-YoIR1. Métodos: Participaram do estudo 24 jogadores de futebol da categoria SUB-20 de um clube do estado de São Paulo, Brasil, com estatura 1,72±0,08 m e massa corporal 61,17±9,18 kg, com no mínimo cinco anos de prática na modalidade. Os atletas realizaram o teste de análise direta dos gases em esteira ergométrica e após 48 horas foi realizado o Yo-Yo IR1. Resultados: Os resultados apontaram uma correlação significante entre os testes (r=0,524; p<0,01, porém o Yo-Yo IR1 subestimou as medidas de análise direta dos gases em laboratório (44,98ml/kg/min e 48,14ml/kg/min, respectivamente. Conclusão: Os resultados apontaram uma correlação moderada entre as medidas de VO2max, dessa forma pode-se utilizar ambos os testes para análise da potência aeróbia dos jogadores de futebol, desde que seja repetido o mesmo protocolo nas avaliações subsequentes.

  17. Valoraci??n de la resistencia aer??bica de los nadadores a trav??s del Test de Velocidad Cr??tica de nado = Assessment aerobic endurance of swimmers through critical speed Test swimming.

    OpenAIRE

    S??nchez Garc??a, Andr??s

    2016-01-01

    En el presente estudio se ha llevado a cabo el Test de Velocidad Cr??tica de dos distancias en las diferentes fases de un macrociclo convencional, se ha realizado en el Club Nataci??n Le??n de la provincia de Le??n, mediante el test se estiman los tiempos a realizar durante el entrenamiento aer??bico por zonas y as?? podemos ver c??mo evolucionan en el tiempo, se han analizado distintas variables para poder mejorar el rendimiento de los nadadores. La muestra estaba compuesta por 17 sujetos de...

  18. Estabilidade aeróbica de silagens de capim-elefante (Pennisetum purpureum, Schum) emurchecido e tratado com inoculante microbiano Aerobic stability of wilted grass silages (Pennisetum Purpureum, Schum.) treated with microbial inoculant

    OpenAIRE

    Adriana Guim; Pedro Andrade; Ruben Pablo Iturrino-Schocken; Gumercindo Loriano Franco; Ana Cláudia Ruggieri; Euclides Braga Malheiros

    2002-01-01

    Para avaliar o efeito de um inoculante microbiano sobre a estabilidade aeróbica de silagens de capim-elefante (Pennisetum purpureum, Schum) pré-seco, foi conduzido um experimento na UNESP, Campus de Jaboticabal. O capim foi cortado com 96 dias de crescimento, permanecendo sob ação do sol, por aproximadamente 5 horas para o emurchecimento. Foram confeccionados silagens, em barricas plásticas de 200 L de capacidade, que receberam (CI) ou não (SI) o inoculante no momento da ensilagem. Para o est...

  19. Efeitos do treinamento aeróbio sobre o broncoespasmo induzido pelo execicio, parâmetros metabólicos e inflamatórios em adoslescentes com excesso de peso

    OpenAIRE

    Cieslak, Fabrício

    2013-01-01

    Resumo: Estudos têm avaliado a relação entre asma e obesidade em crianças e adolescentes, entretanto, investigações sobre os efeitos do exercício físico nos parâmetros inflamatórios e o impacto sobre o broncoespasmo induzido pelo exercício (BIE) são limitadas. O objetivo desse estudo foi avaliar os efeitos de 12 semanas de treinamento aeróbio sobre o BIE, parâmetros metabólicos e inflamatórios em adolescentes com excesso de peso. Estudo longitudinal, experimental, comparativo e correlacional ...

  20. Influência do exercício aeróbio na renina de portadores de hipertensão arterial com sobrepeso Influencia del ejercicio aeróbico en la renina de portadores de hipertensión arterial con sobrepeso Effect of aerobic exercise on plasma renin in overweight patients with hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Martinelli

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: A atividade do sistema renina-angiotensina-aldosterona tem relação direta com sobrepeso e sedentarismo, e essas variáveis se associam à hipertensão arterial (HA. O exercício aeróbio propicia melhor controle da pressão arterial (PA por agir nos mecanismos da regulação pressórica, dentre eles, a atividade de renina plasmática (ARP. OBJETIVO: Avaliar a influência do exercício aeróbio sobre ARP em portadores de HA com sobrepeso. MÉTODOS: Foram avaliados níveis pressóricos, bioquímicos e antropométricos pré e pós-treinamento de 16 semanas, três vezes por semana, a 60%-80% da frequência cardíaca máxima. Os dados foram expressos em média ± desvio padrão ou mediana e intervalo interquartílico, e analisados pelo teste "t", Mann-Withney e ANOVA (p FUNDAMENTO: La actividad del sistema renina-angiotensina-aldosterona tiene relación directa con sobrepeso y sedentarismo, y esas variables se asocian a la hipertensión arterial (HA. El ejercicio aeróbico propicia mejor control de la presión arterial (PA por actuar en los mecanismos de la regulación presórica, entre ellos, la actividad de renina plasmática (ARP. OBJETIVO: Evaluar la influencia del ejercicio aeróbico sobre ARP en portadores de HA con sobrepeso. MÉTODOS: Fueron evaluados niveles presóricos, bioquímicos y antropométricos pre y post-entrenamiento de 16 semanas, tres veces por semana, a 60%-80% da frecuencia cardíaca máxima. Los datos fueron expresados en media ± desvío estándar o media e intervalo intercuartílico, y analizados por el teste "t", Mann-Withney y ANOVA (p BACKGROUND: The activity of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS is directly related to overweight and sedentary lifestyles, both of which are associated with hypertension. Aerobic exercise helps control blood pressure (BP by acting on mechanisms of blood pressure regulation, such as plasma renin activity (PRA. OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of aerobic exercise on

  1. Capacidade aeróbia de ratos alimentados com dieta rica em frutose Aerobic capacity of rats fed with fructose rich diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Ferreira de Moura

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Evidências apontam que a ingestão exacerbada de frutose pode desencadear distúrbios característicos da síndrome metabólica. OBJETIVOS: Analisar os efeitos da ingestão de dieta rica em frutose sobre aspectos metabólicos de ratos da linhagem Wistar. Adicionalmente, verificar a capacidade aeróbia através da identificação da máxima fase estável de lactato (MFEL. MÉTODOS: Dezesseis ratos foram separados em dois grupos de oito animais: a controle, alimentados com dieta balanceada, e b frutose, alimentados com dieta rica em frutose. Foram analisadas a tolerância à glicose (área sob a curva de glicose durante teste de tolerância à glicose, sensibilidade à insulina (taxa de remoção da glicose sérica após sobrecarga exógena de insulina, perfil lipídico sérico e concentração de lactato sanguíneo [lac]s durante exercício na intensidade da MFEL. RESULTADOS: Teste t não pareado (p INTRODUCTION: Evidence points that exacerbated ingestion of fructose may trigger disturbs characteristic of the metabolic syndrome. OBJECTIVES: To analyze the effects of a fructose rich diet on metabolic aspects of Wistar lineage rats. Additionally, to verify the aerobic capacity, through the identification of the maximal lactate steady state (MSSL. PROCEDURES: Sixteen rats were separated in two groups of eight animals: a Control, fed a balanced diet, and b fructose, fed a fructose-rich diet. The glucose tolerance, (area under serum glucose during a glucose tolerance test, insulin sensibility (glucose disappearance rate after exogenous insulin administration, serum lipid profile and blood lactate concentration [lac]b during exercise at MSSL intensity, have been analyzed. RESULTS: Non-paired t test (p<0.05 revealed difference between groups in the area under the curve of glucose and serum triglycerides, no difference in insulin sensibility or in [lac]b was detected, though. One-way ANOVA with Newman Keuls post hoc revealed difference in

  2. Efecto del ejercicio físico aeróbico sobre el consumo de oxígeno de mujeres primigestantes saludables: Estudio clínico aleatorizado The effect of aerobic exercise on oxygen consumption in healthy first-pregnancy females: a randomized clinical trial

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    Robinson Ramírez-Vélez; Ana C. Aguilar de Plata; Mildrey Mosquera-Escudero; José G Ortega; Blanca Salazar; Isabella Echeverri; Wilmar Saldarriaga-Gil

    2011-01-01

    Objetivo: evaluar, en mujeres primigestantes saludables, el efecto del ejercicio aeróbico sobre el consumo de oxígeno. Materiales y métodos: estudio clínico aleatorizado en 64 mujeres saludables, primigestantes, entre 16 y 20 semanas de gestación. Grupo de intervención: ejercicio aeróbico entre el 50% y 65% de la frecuencia cardíaca máxima, durante 45 min, 3 veces por semana durante 16 semanas. Grupo control: actividad física habitual. Mediciones: consumo de oxígeno VO2max por prueba de camin...

  3. El ejercicio físico aeróbico incrementa la vasodilatación dependiente del endotelio y el consumo de oxígeno de mujeres primigestantes saludables. Ensayo clínico controlado, aleatorizado. NCT00741312 Aerobic physical exercise increases endothelium-dependent vasodilation and oxygen consumption in healthy primigravida. Controlled randomized clinical trial. NCT00741312

    OpenAIRE

    Róbinson Ramírez-Vélez; Mildrey Mosquera; José G Ortega; Isabella Echeverri; Blanca Salazar; Patricio López-Jaramillo; Ana C. Aguilar de Plata

    2010-01-01

    OBJETIVO: evaluar el efecto del ejercicio aeróbico en la función dependiente del endotelio (VDE) y en el consumo de oxígeno en mujeres primigestantes. MÉTODOS: ensayo clínico controlado, enmascarado y aleatorizado, llevado a cabo en 67 mujeres saludables, primigestantes, entre 16 a 20 semanas de gestación. Grupo de intervención: ejercicio aeróbico entre 50% y 65% de la frecuencia cardiaca máxima, durante 45 minutos, tres veces por semana, durante dieciséis semanas. Grupo control: actividad fí...

  4. Efeitos de diferentes modelos de periodização do treinamento aeróbio sobre parâmetros cardiovasculares, metabólicos e composição corporal de bombeiros militares

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    Anselmo José Perez

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do estudo foi analisar o efeito de programa de treinamento aeróbio sobre parâmetros cardiovasculares, metabólicos e de composição corporal comparando diferentes periodizações. Sessenta e cinco bombeiros militares/ES (25,9 ± 0,6 anos foram divididos em quatro grupos: controle (Gcon, n = 15 sem tratamento; ondulatório (Gond, n = 18, escalonado (Ges, n = 17, e crescente (Gcres, n = 15, e treinaram 13 semanas, três sessões semanais de 30 minutos e intensidades de 60% a 90% FCmáx. A frequência cardíaca (FC foi controlada em todas as sessões . Antes e após o programa foram realizadas avaliações antropométricas e teste cardiopulmonar (Aerosport TEEM-100. Houve redução no percentual de gordura, bradicardia em repouso e da FC submáxima com aumento do consumo de oxigênio, e redução do duplo produto, da PAD em repouso para os três grupos treinados, sem vantagens adicionais para o Gcres. Esses resultados sugerem que programas de treinamento aeróbio com distribuição de intensidade ao longo das semanas de forma escalonada e/ou ondulatória podem ser mais apropriados para indivíduos não atletas.

  5. Aerobic bacteria, Chlamydia trachomatis, Pneumocystis carinii and Cytomegalovirus as agents of severe peneumonia in small infants Bactérias aeróbias, Chlamydia trachomatis, Pneumocystis carinii e Cytomegalovirus: agentes causadores de pneumonia grave em pequenos lactentes

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    Bernardo Ejzenberg

    1996-02-01

    Full Text Available The authors studied 58 infants hospitalized for pneumonia in a semi-intensive care unit. Age ranged from 1 complete to 6 incomplete months. The infants were sent from another hospital in 20 cases and from home in a further 38. Pulmonary involvement, which was alveolar in 46 cases and interstitial in 12, was bilateral in 31 children. The investigation was carried out prospectively on the etiological agents associated with respiratory infection to look for evidence of aerobic bacteria (blood cultures, Chlamydia trachomatis and Cytomegalovirus (serology, and Pneumocystis carinii (direct microscopy of tracheal aspirated material. The following infectious agents were diagnosed in 21 children (36.2%: Aerobic bacteria (8, Chlamydia trachomatis (5, Pneumocystis carinii (3, Cytomegalovirus (3, Cytomegalovirus and Chlamydia trachomatis (1, Aerobic bacteria and Cytomegalovirus (1. Seven cases of infection by Chlamydia trachomatis and/or Cytomegalovirus were diagnosed out of the 12 cases with pulmonary interstitial involvement.Os autores estudaram prospectivamente 58 lactentes internados por pneumonia em unidade semi-intensiva. A idade foi limitada entre 1 mês completo e 6 meses incompletos. A procedência das crianças foi de outro hospital em 20 casos e domiciliar em 38. O acometimento pulmonar era alveolar em 46 casos, intersticial em 12 e bilateral em 31 crianças. Foram pesquisados agentes etiológicos associados à infecção respiratória dos lactentes jovens: Bactérias aeróbias (Hemoculturas, Chlamydia trachomatis e Cytomegalovirus (sorologia, e Pneumocystis carinii (microscopia direta do aspirado traqueal. Foram diagnosticadas infecções em 21 crianças (36,2%: Bactérias aeróbias (8, Chlamydia trachomatis (5, Cytomegalovirus (3, Pneumocystis carinii (3, Cytomegalovirus e Chlamydia trachomatis (1, Bactéria aeróbia e Cytomegalovirus (1. Foram diagnosticadas 7 infecções por Chlamydia trachomatis e/ou Cytomegalovirus entre as 12 crianças com

  6. Efectos del ejercicio aeróbico en los niveles de ansiedad y depresión en las personas seropositivas para la infección por el Virus de Inmunodeficiencia Humana (VIH

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    Adriana Carvajal Sancho

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Se ha sugerido que existe una relación entre el estrés psicológico, la progresión de la infección por el Virus de Inmunodeficiencia Humana (VIH y la calidad de vida de estas personas. Algunos de los factores psicosociales que podrían afectar la progresión de la infección son la presencia de depresión y niveles altos de ansiedad. Los factores psicosociales y de comportamiento son modificables, y aparentemente es posible mejorar la calidad de vida y prolongar la sobrevida de las personas seropositivas para el VIH o con Sida por medio de una intervención psicosocial. La progresión de la infección está acompañada con el aumento de los niveles de ansiedad y depresión en esta población. La depresión y ansiedad no solo son capaces de alterar factores psicosociales (ej. apatía, autoestima, deseos de suicidio, sino que podrían estar directamente relacionados con síntomas 'de la infección, la fatiga y discapacidades físicas. Una de las terapias sugeridas para disminuir la presencia de ansiedad y depresión en la población seropositiva al VIH ha sido el ejercicio aeróbico. En la población general, el ejercicio aeróbico de intensidad moderada tiene el potencial de aliviar la ansiedad, depresión, estado de ánimo y restaurar la función inmune. Los estudios en los que se ha investigado el efecto del ejercicio aeróbico en personas con el VIH en parámetros como la ansiedad y depresión aún no son consistentes. Sin embargo, existe suficiente información experimental que indica que el ejercicio podría ser un tratamiento alternativo para mejorar la calidad de vida de esta población.

  7. O grau de melhora na função das células progenitoras endoteliais derivadas da medula óssea é dependente do volume de treinamento físico aeróbio

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    Tiago Fernandes

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: A angiogênese muscular esquelética induzida pelo treinamento físico aeróbio (TF é determinante na melhora da capacidade aeróbia. Entre os fatores envolvidos, as células progenitoras endoteliais (CPE derivadas da medula óssea são descritas por promoverem o reparo vascular e a angiogênese. Embora o papel do TF sobre os parâmetros das CPE tenha sido investigado, pouco se conhece sobre os efeitos de diferentes volumes de TF sobre a função das CPE da medula óssea, alterações metabólicas e capilarização muscular. OBJETIVO: Testar a hipótese de que o TF melhore a função das CPE da medula óssea, acompanhada por maior capilarização e capacidade oxidativa muscular dependentes do aumento de volume de TF. MÉTODOS: Vinte e uma ratas Wistar foram divididas em três grupos: sedentário controle (SC, treinado protocolo 1 (P1, treinado protocolo 2 (P2. P1: o treinamento de natação consistiu de 60 min, 1x/dia, cinco dias/semana/10 semanas, com 5% de sobrecarga corporal. P2: o mesmo de P1 até a oitava semana, na nona semana os animais treinaram 2x/dia e na 10ª semana 3x/dia. RESULTADOS: O TF promoveu bradicardia de repouso, aumento da tolerância ao esforço, do consumo de oxigênio de pico e da atividade da enzima citrato sintase muscular no grupo P1, sendo estas adaptações mais exacerbadas no grupo P2, indicando que a condição aeróbia foi mais proeminente com este TF. O TF melhorou a função das CPE da medula óssea em P1, sendo ainda maior esta resposta no grupo P2. Em paralelo, observa-se também um aumento no número de capilares dependentes do volume de TF. CONCLUSÃO: Estes resultados sugerem que a medula óssea como o principal reservatório de CPE é influenciada por diferentes volumes de TF, sendo possivelmente responsável pelo maior rendimento físico observado mediante uma maior mobilização endógena de CPE, participantes ativas no processo de angiogênese muscular induzido pelo TF.

  8. Efeitos do exercício aeróbio durante a hemodiálise em pacientes com doença renal crônica: uma revisão da literatura

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    Joseane Böhm

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Pacientes com doença renal crônica (DRC têm capacidade física e funcional reduzida quando comparados à população geral. O tratamento hemodialítico torna as atividades desses pacientes restritas, favorecendo o estilo de vida sedentário e a limitação funcional. Pacientes em hemodiálise (HD são menos ativos, apresentam baixa tolerância ao exercício e alto descondicionamento físico. Em virtude dessas alterações, têm sido propostos programas de exercício físico que visam não somente ao tratamento dos sinais clínicos da doença, mas de suas repercussões na função e na qualidade de vida. OBJETIVOS: Realizar uma revisão da literatura sobre os efeitos do exercício físico em pacientes portadores de DRC submetidos a programas de exercício aeróbio em cicloergômetro para membros inferiores durante a HD. MÉTODOS: Foram realizadas consultas às bases de dados Medline, PubMed, Scielo, Embase e ScienceDirect. RESULTADOS: Analisaram-se 14 estudos experimentais randomizados controlados, considerando o período de realização da intervenção na HD, a intensidade e a frequência do exercício, a duração da intervenção e os principais resultados. CONCLUSÃO: Os estudos demonstraram que exercícios aeróbios realizados durante a HD promovem a melhora da capacidade aeróbia e o condicionamento físico, além de redução da fadiga e ansiedade, melhora da capilarização muscular e pressão arterial de repouso, aumento no tempo de duração dos exercícios e melhora na depuração da ureia.

  9. Isolamento de bactérias aeróbias e sua sensibilidade a antimicrobianos em processos de osteomielite canina Aerobic bacterial isolates and susceptibility to antimicrobial agents in canine osteomyelitis

    OpenAIRE

    A.C. Simionato; M.C.C. Ramos; S.D.A. Coutinho

    2003-01-01

    O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar a presença de bactérias aeróbias em 20 cães com osteomielite, decorrente de exposição óssea. Na identificação das bactérias utilizou-se o sistema API-Bio Mérieux e testou-se a sensibilidade dos microrganismos in vitro, pelo método de difusão em ágar, frente a 14 diferentes antibacterianos. O osso mais acometido pela infecção foi a tíbia (35%). Isolaram-se 68,3% de bactérias Gram positivas e 31,7% de Gram negativas. Staphylococcus spp, Streptococcus spp e ...

  10. Efectos neurobiológicos de la actividad física aeróbica sobre la depresión: propuesta de un modelo experimental en roedores

    OpenAIRE

    González Bauer, Natalia

    2013-01-01

    El proyecto de investigación que proponemos tiene como objetivo indagar los efectos neurobiológicos de la actividad física aeróbica en la disminución de los síntomas depresivos. Para ello, adherimos a los supuestos de la Psiconeuroinmunoendocrinología y a la hipótesis neurogénica de la depresión. Dicha hipótesis supone que la neurogénesis, “formación de nuevas neuronas en el cerebro” (Fernández, S., Trejo Pérez, Fernández, & Torres Aleman, 2009, pp. 84), se halla inhibida en el hipocampo ...

  11. Treinamento aeróbico prévio à compressão nervosa: análise da morfometria muscular de ratos Aerobic training previous to nerve compression: morphometry analysis of muscle in rats

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    Elisangela Lourdes Artifon; Lígia Inêz Silva; Lucinéia de Fátima Chasko Ribeiro; Rose Meire Costa Brancalhão; Gladson Ricardo Flor Bertolini

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUÇÃO: Ciatalgia origina-se da compressão do nervo isquiático e implica em dor, parestesia, diminuição da força muscular e hipotrofia. O exercício físico é reconhecido na prevenção e reabilitação de lesões, porém quando em sobrecargas pode aumentar o risco de lesões e consequente déficit funcional. OBJETIVO: Avaliar efeitos de treinamento aeróbico prévio a modelo experimental de ciatalgia em relação a parâmetros morfométricos dos músculos sóleos de ratos. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: 18 ratos di...

  12. Avaliação dos níveis de atividade física e capacidade aeróbia estimada em estudantes universitários

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    Trzan, Abel Góes

    2013-01-01

    Mestrado em Fisioterapia O Ingresso na Universidade proporciona uma grande alteração nos hábitos de vida dos estudantes. Os estudantes de Medicina são duas vezes mais inativos tendo alto nível de estresse acadêmico. Este projeto visa avaliar o nível de atividade física e capacidade aeróbia de estudantes universitários. A população alvo foram estudantes do 1º e 5º ano do curso de medicina entre os 18 e 30 anos. Foi teita a amostragem aleatória e estratificada, com afetação proporcional (n=8...

  13. Efeitos de 24 semanas de treinamento resistido sobre índices da aptidão aeróbia de mulheres idosas Effects of 24 weeks of resistance training on aerobic fitness indexes of older women

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    Marcelo Guido

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO E OBJETIVO: O consumo de oxigênio pico (VO2pico e o limiar anaeróbio (LA são amplamente aceitos como importantes medidas da aptidão aeróbia. Tradicionalmente, o treinamento aeróbio é visto como o principal meio de se aumentar esses índices. Em contrapartida, o treinamento resistido (TR não é tipicamente prescrito para este fim. Em indivíduos idosos, tem sido sugerido que o TR é capaz de aprimorar a capacidade aeróbia; entretanto, a temática é controversa. O objetivo do presente estudo foi verificar os efeitos do treinamento resistido sobre índices da capacidade aeróbia de mulheres idosas. METODOLOGIA: Participaram voluntariamente 50 idosas, as quais foram distribuídas em dois possíveis grupos: grupo controle (GC - n = 25; idade média 68,00 ± 6,38 e grupo treinamento (GT - n = 25; idade média 68,04 ± 6,78 anos. Todas as participantes realizaram teste ergoespirométrico em esteira conduzido até a exaustão voluntária antes e após a intervenção. O GT foi submetido a um programa de TR para os principais grupos musculares três vezes por semana durante um período de 24 semanas. Ao GC foi solicitado que mantivessem suas rotinas habituais. Split plot Anova foi utilizada para verificar possíveis diferenças intra e intergrupos. RESULTADOS: Foi observado que o GT apresentou aumento significativo nas variáveis tempo de teste e VO2, tanto no momento do LA como no momento da exaustão. No GC nenhuma das variáveis dependentes sofreu alteração significativa. CONCLUSÃO: Conclui-se que 24 semanas de TR é capaz de promover melhora no desempenho durante teste de esforço cardiopulmonar em uma amostra de mulheres idosas. Futuros estudos serão importantes para elucidar os mecanismos responsáveis por tais adaptações.INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: Peak oxygen uptake (VO2 peak and anaerobic threshold (AT have been widely accepted as important predictors of aerobic fitness. Traditionally, aerobic training is viewed as

  14. Niveles de intensidad de la música durante un torneo de resistencia aeróbica en Costa Rica Music intensity levels during an aerobics endurance tournament in Costa Rica

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    Yamileth Chacón Araya

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available El propósito del presente artículo es describir los niveles de ruido generados en una competencia de resistencia aeróbica y se analizan las posibles implicaciones para la salud de la contaminación por ruido. La danza aeróbica es un modo de ejercicio que se ha extendido por todo el mundo, con el fin de posibilitar la práctica de una actividad física que combina música y movimiento. Al incluir el elemento musical en las clases de danza aeróbica, se expone a las personas que practican esta modalidad, al ruido que provoca un alto volumen. Hay investigadores que se han dedicado a estudiar la incidencia del ruido, a indicar los rangos permitidos en lugares de entretenimiento y los gimnasios e informar sobre el peligro de perder momentánea o permanentemente el sentido auditivo al exponerse continuamente a ambientes ruidosos. La presente investigación se realizó en las instalaciones deportivas de la Universidad de Costa Rica, durante un torneo de resistencia aeróbica. Se utilizó un medidor del nivel de sonido marca RadioShack® (cat. N° 33-2055. Se encontró que los niveles de sonido utilizados para esta competencia excedieron los 90dB permitidos, ya que oscilaron entre 101 y 119 dB, durante los 120 minutos de duración de la actividad. Se requiere de mayor investigación en esta área en Costa Rica y ejercer un sistema de vigilancia para la contaminación sónica en los gimnasios.The purpose of the study was to describe noise levels during an aerobics tournament and the potential health implications of noise contamination. Aerobic dance is a worldwide known exercise mode that allows people to practice a physical activity that combines both, music and movement. When music is used in aerobic dance classes people are constantly exposed to the noise produced by high volume of the music. Researchers have studied the incidence of noise to indicate the range of noise permitted in entertainment facilities and fitness centers, and to inform to

  15. Compostagem aeróbia conjugada de lodo de tanque séptico e resíduos sólidos vegetais Conjugated aerobic composting of septic tank sludge and vegetable solid waste

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    André Gustavo da Silva

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available O lodo sanitário, principal subproduto do tratamento de esgotos, constitui um dos maiores problemas ambientais urbanos da atualidade. Em meio a este contexto, objetivou-se nesse estudo avaliar o processo da compostagem conjugada de lodo de tanque séptico (LS e resíduos sólidos vegetais (RV e determinar a importância da temperatura para o processo de sanitização do substrato tratado. O experimento, inteiramente casualizado com três tratamentos e três repetições, consistiu de nove reatores aeróbios com 100 litros de capacidade. Os resíduos foram utilizados nas seguintes proporções - T1: 100% RV; T2: 5% LS + 95% RV; T3: 10% LS + 90% RV. A compostagem aeróbia conjugada mostrou ser uma alternativa viável para destruição de ovos de helminto e estabilização dos resíduos, sendo fundamentais para tal, a temperatura, o pH e as relações ecológicas presentes nos reatores.The sanitary sludge, principal byproduct of sewage treatment, constitutes one of the major municipal environmental problems of the present time. The present study was aimed to evaluate the composting of septic tank sludge (SS and vegetable solid waste (VW and to determine the importance of the temperature for the process of sanitization of the treated substrate. The experiment, entirely randomized with three treatments and three repetitions, constituted of nine aerobic reactors with 100 L capacity. The proportions of the wastes utilized were T1: 100%VW; T2: 5%SS + 95%VW; T3: 10%SS + 90%VW. The conjugated composting showed to be a feasible alternative for destruction of helminth eggs and stabilization of the wastes. The temperature, pH and ecological relations present in the reactors were fundamental for this purpose.

  16. Perfil lipídico e glicêmico de ratos treinados em exercício aeróbio ou anaeróbio e suplementados com maltodextrina Los lípidos y los niveles de glucosa de las ratas entrenadas en condiciones aeróbicas o anaeróbicas y se complementa con maltodextrina Lipids and glucose levels of trained rats in aerobic or anaerobic conditions and supplemented with maltodextrin

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    Cátia Fernandes Leite

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: verificar as alterações no perfil lipídico e glicêmico de ratos treinados, suplementados com maltodextrina. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: o protocolo de treinamento consistiu de 8 semanas de natação em padrão contínuo (60min.dia-1 ou intermitente (2 períodos de 30min, com intervalo de 10min, com sobrecargas correspondentes a 5% e 10% do peso corporal, respectivamente. Durante 37 dias os animais foram suplementados com uma dose diária de 0,48g.kg-1 de maltodextrina dissolvida em água ou receberam água pura. RESULTADOS: o exercício aeróbio ocasionou aumento significativo no nível glicêmico. Os exercícios e a maltodextrina não causaram alterações no perfil lipídico. CONCLUSÃO: o exercício aeróbio proporcionou elevação no nível glicêmico, não causando hipoglicemia.El objetivo fue comprobar los cambios en los lípidos y los niveles de glucosa de las ratas entrenadas complementados con maltodextrina. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: El protocolo consistió en 8 semanas de patrón de natación continua (60min.dia-1 o intermitente (2 períodos de 30 min, con un intervalo de 10 min, con sobrecargas que corresponden al 5% y el 10% del peso corporal. Durante 37 días los animales fueron suplementados con una dosis diaria de 0,48 g.kg-1 maltodextrina disuelta en agua o agua pura. RESULTADOS: El ejercicio aeróbico provocó un aumento significativo en los niveles de glucosa en la sangre. Los ejercicios y la maltodextrina no causó cambios en el perfil lipídico. CONCLUSIONES: El ejercicio aeróbico dio lugar en los niveles de glucosa en la sangre, sin causar hipoglucemia.The objective was to verify changes in lipids and glucose levels of trained rats supplemented with maltodextrin. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The training protocol consisted of 8 weeks of continuous swimming pattern (60min.dia-1 or intermittent (2 periods of 30 minutes, with an interval of 10 minutes, with overloads corresponding to 5% and 10% of body weight, respectively. For

  17. Respostas cardiovasculares a mudança postural e capacidade aeróbia em homens e mulheres de meia-idade antes e após treinamento físico aeróbio Cardiovascular responses to postural change and aerobic capacity among middle-aged men and women before and after aerobic physical training

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    ST Leite

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Comparar respostas cardiovasculares a Manobra Postural Passiva (Tilt Test e capacidade cardiorrespiratória em homens e mulheres de meia-idade antes e após treinamento físico aeróbio. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: Sete homens - GH (44,6±2,1 anos e sete mulheres - GM (51,7±4,8 anos, participaram de treinamento físico aeróbio por 12 semanas. Foi realizado protocolo de Tilt Test (cinco minutos supino, dez minutos inclinado 70º, cinco minutos supino, com monitoração da pressão arterial e freqüência cardíaca. Para mensuração da capacidade cardiorrespiratória foi realizado protocolo em cicloergômetro. RESULTADOS: Na condição sedentária, GH mostrou maior influência parassimpática no controle da freqüência cardíaca evidenciada por maior intervalo RR (iRR durante Tilt Test. Na condição treinada, os valores de iRR de ambos os grupos se assemelham, tendo as mulheres iRR maior em supino, mas na inclinação os homens mantêm iRR mais elevado. Para pressão arterial, as mulheres permanecem com valores superiores após treino, mas a freqüência cardíaca tende a se assemelhar em ambos. Já na capacidade cardiorrespiratória, homens e mulheres têm um padrão de comportamento semelhante após treino. Com exceção dos valores absolutos da freqüência cardíaca, sem diferenças entre os grupos, para todas as outras variáveis os homens obtiveram valores superiores aos das mulheres. Observa-se ainda que, após o treinamento, houve redução significativa dos valores de pressão arterial no GM, mesmo continuando superiores aos dos homens. CONCLUSÃO: O treinamento parece ter reduzido os níveis pressóricos nas mulheres, além de serem observadas melhorias na capacidade cardiorrespiratória de ambos os grupos, permanecendo os homens com melhor desempenho do que as mulheres.OBJECTIVE: To compare the cardiovascular responses to passive postural maneuvers (tilt test and the cardiorespiratory capacity in middle-aged men and women

  18. Reator compartimentado anaeróbio/aeróbio: sistema de baixo custo para tratamento de esgotos de pequenas comunidades Anaerobic/aerobic baffled reactor: low cost system for sewage treatment in small communities

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    Gustavo H. R. da Silva

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available No Brasil são conhecidas e usadas várias técnicas de tratamento de esgoto, desde os mais sofisticados sistemas de tratamento aos mais simples processos. Uma alternativa economicamente viável aos sistemas de tratamento de esgotos sanitários é o processo anaeróbio, o qual tem recebido especial atenção nas pesquisas desenvolvidas no País, notadamente os reatores anaeróbios de alta taxa, unidades compactas e com boa eficiência de tratamento. Dentre as alternativas tecnológicas capazes de proporcionar as referidas variações das condições ambientais necessárias à ocorrência dos processos, está o uso de reatores compartimentados anaeróbio/aeróbio. Este trabalho apresenta, como alternativa, um reator compartimentado anaeróbio/aeróbio, tratando esgoto sanitário, como possibilidade de ser utilizado em pequenas comunidades urbanas e rurais. O desempenho do sistema foi avaliado em diversos tempos de detenção hidráulica (TDH, nos quais os melhores valores de Demanda Química de Oxigênio Total (DQOtotal - 73,7% e Sólidos em Suspensão Totais (SST - 78,8%, foram obtidos com TDHtotal de 8 horas (4 horas para a fase anaeróbia e 4 horas para a fase aeróbia. O reator compartimentado apresentou a característica de estabilidade operacional necessária aos sistemas de baixo custo.Several techniques of sewage treatment, from the most sophisticated to the simplest processes, are known in Brazil. An economically viable alternative for the systems of treatment of sanitary sewage is the anaerobic process, which has been given special attention in Brazilian research programs, mainly in the field of high rate anaerobic reactors as they are compact units and have high efficiency. The use of baffled anaerobic/aerobic reactors is one technological solution to provide the necessary variations in environmental conditions to foster the processes mentioned. In this paper an alternative is presented in the form of a baffled anaerobic

  19. Treinamento aeróbico prévio à compressão nervosa: análise da morfometria muscular de ratos Aerobic training previous to nerve compression: morphometry analysis of muscle in rats

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    Elisangela Lourdes Artifon

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Ciatalgia origina-se da compressão do nervo isquiático e implica em dor, parestesia, diminuição da força muscular e hipotrofia. O exercício físico é reconhecido na prevenção e reabilitação de lesões, porém quando em sobrecargas pode aumentar o risco de lesões e consequente déficit funcional. OBJETIVO: Avaliar efeitos de treinamento aeróbico prévio a modelo experimental de ciatalgia em relação a parâmetros morfométricos dos músculos sóleos de ratos. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: 18 ratos divididos em três grupos: simulacro (mergulho, 30 segundos; exercício regular (natação, dez minutos diários; e treinamento aeróbico progressivo (natação em tempos progressivos de dez a 60 minutos diários. Ao final de seis semanas de exercício, os ratos foram submetidos ao modelo experimental da ciatalgia. No terceiro dia após a lesão, foram eutanasiados e tiveram seus músculos sóleos dissecados, pesados e preparados para análise histológica. Variáveis analisadas: peso muscular, área de secção transversa e diâmetro médio das fibras musculares. RESULTADOS: Observou-se diferença estatisticamente significativa para todos os grupos quando se comparou músculo controle e aquele submetido à lesão isquiática. A análise intergrupos não apresentou diferença estatisticamente significativa para nenhuma das variáveis analisadas. CONCLUSÃO: Tanto o exercício físico regular quanto o treinamento aeróbico não produziram efeitos preventivos ou agravantes às consequências musculares da inatividade funcional após ciatalgia.INTRODUCTION: Sciatica stems from compression of the sciatic nerve and results in pain, paresthesia, decreased muscle strength and hypertrophy. Exercise is recognized in the prevention and rehabilitation of injuries, but when performed in overload, it may increase the risk of injury and subsequent functional deficit. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate effects of aerobic training prior to an experimental model

  20. Estabilidade aeróbica de silagens de capim-elefante (Pennisetum purpureum, Schum emurchecido e tratado com inoculante microbiano Aerobic stability of wilted grass silages (Pennisetum Purpureum, Schum. treated with microbial inoculant

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    Adriana Guim

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available Para avaliar o efeito de um inoculante microbiano sobre a estabilidade aeróbica de silagens de capim-elefante (Pennisetum purpureum, Schum pré-seco, foi conduzido um experimento na UNESP, Campus de Jaboticabal. O capim foi cortado com 96 dias de crescimento, permanecendo sob ação do sol, por aproximadamente 5 horas para o emurchecimento. Foram confeccionados silagens, em barricas plásticas de 200 L de capacidade, que receberam (CI ou não (SI o inoculante no momento da ensilagem. Para o estudo da deterioração aeróbica, na abertura dos silos (T0, cada barrica foi subdividida em três profundidades e as silagens expostas ao ar em um sistema, usado para a determinação de CO2, por 2 (T2, 4 (T4, 6 (T6 e 8 (T8 dias. A silagem da camada superficial não apresentou diferenças no valor de pH e contagem de leveduras, em relação à da camada intermediária, porém ambas apresentaram valores superiores à camada mais profunda. O teor de N-NH3 da camada superior foi menor que o da intermediária e profunda, que não diferiram entre si. A interação significativa entre inóculo e tempo de exposição mostrou que nos primeiros tempos de aeração (T0; T2 e T4 as silagens inoculadas não diferiram das controle em termos de pH, teor de N-NH3 e contagem de bolores, mas com avanço do tempo (T6 e T8 passaram a apresentar menor valor de pH, menor contagem de fungos e tendência a menor produção de CO2, indicando menor velocidade de deterioração após seis dias de exposição aeróbica.An experiment was carried out at UNESP, Jaboticabal Campus to evaluate the effect of a microbial inoculant on aerobic stability of wilted grass silage (Pennisetum purpureum, Schum. The grass was cut with 96 days of growing, remaining under sun action 5 hours to wilt. Silages were made in plastic silos, 0.2m³ capacity, that received (CI or not (SI inoculant at the ensilage time. For the study of aerobic deterioration, each silo was subdivided in three levels and the

  1. Mejora de defensas antioxidantes mediante ejercicio aeróbico en mujeres con síndrome metabólico Aerobic training improves antioxidant defense system in women with metabolic syndrome

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    Manuel Rosety-Rodríguez

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available En la actualidad se acepta que el daño oxidativo juega un papel esencial en la patogénesis del síndrome metabólico. Estudios recientes proponen al daño oxidativo como diana terapéutica frente al síndrome metabólico. Precisamente nuestro objetivo fue mejorar el estatus total antioxidante (TAS de mujeres con síndrome metabólico mediante ejercicio aeróbico. Participaron voluntariamente 100 mujeres con síndrome metabólico de acuerdo con los criterios del National Cholesterol Educational Program (Adult-Treatment-Panel-III distribuidas aleatoriamente en grupo experimental (n = 60 y control (n = 40. El grupo experimental desarrolló un programa de entrenamiento aeróbico sobre tapiz rodante de intensidad ligera/moderada de 12 semanas (5 sesiones/semana. La determinación del TAS plasmático se realizó mediante espectrofotometría utilizando kits comercializados por Randox Lab. Este protocolo fue aprobado por un Comité de Etica Institucional. Tras completar el programa de entrenamiento se incrementó significativamente el TAS (0.79 ± 0.05 vs.1.01 ± 0.03 mmol/l; p = 0.027. No hubo cambios en grupo control. El ejercicio aeróbico de intensidad ligera/moderada aumenta las defensas antioxidantes en mujeres con síndrome metabólico. Son necesarios futuros estudios longitudinales para conocer su impacto en la evolución clínica.A 12-week training protocol increased antioxidant defense system in young adult women with metabolic syndrome. It is generally accepted that oxidative stress is implicated in the pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome. Furthermore, recent studies have reported that stress may be acting as a therapeutic target in metabolic syndrome. Consequently, this study was designed to explore whether aerobic training may increase plasmatic total antioxidant status in women with metabolic syndrome. A total of 100 young adult women with metabolic syndrome according to the criteria reported by the National Cholesterol Education Program

  2. Aerobic stability of triticale silage in single culture or in mixtures with oat and/or legumes Estabilidade aeróbia de silagens de triticale em cultivo exclusivo ou em misturas com aveia e/ou leguminosas

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    Valter Harry Bumbieris Junior

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to evaluate the aerobic stability and losses during the fermentation process of triticale silages in single crop or in mixtures with oats and/or legumes. The following crops were used for silage production: triticale (X. Triticosecale Wittimack, triticale intercropped with forage pea (Pisum arvense and triticale intercropped with oats (Avena strigosa Schreb, forage pea and vetch (Vicia sativa. The dry matter content and its recovery did not differ among the silages. Buffer capacity was higher for tricale silage intercropped with oats, forage pea and vetch(88.67 m eq. NaOH/100 g DM followed by triticale intercropped with forage pea (80.80 m eq. NaOH/100 g DM. Electric conductivity values were higher in the intercropped triticale silages. Triticale silage presented the lowest temperatures observed in the silos, and the silages of intercropped triticale silages presented higher heat retention and higher pH values. Silage of triticale intercropped with oats and legumes presented lower aerobic stability but it did not reduce the aerobic stability of the total feed. Dry matter recovery during storage and in stability evaluations in aerobiosis is similar among the silages.O objetivo neste trabalho foi avaliar a estabilidade aeróbia e as perdas durante o processo de fermentação de silagens de triticale em cultivo exclusivo ou em misturas com aveia e/ou leguminosas. As culturas utilizadas para produção das silagens foram: triticale (X. Triticosecale Wittimack; triticale em consórcio com ervilha-forrageira (Pisum arvense; e triticale em consórcio com aveia (Avena strigosa Schreb, ervilha-forrageira e ervilhaca (Vicia sativa. O teor de matéria seca e a recuperação de matéria seca não diferiram entre as silagens. A capacidade tampão foi maior para a silagem de triticale cultivado em consórcio com aveia, ervilha-forrageira e ervilhaca (88,67 m eq. NaOH/100 g de MS, seguida da silagem de triticale cultivado

  3. Treinamento aeróbico melhora a capacidade funcional de pacientes em hemodiálise crônica Aerobic exercise improves physical capacity in patients under chronic hemodialysis

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    Diane Michela Nery Henrique

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: Na população geral, a prática regular de exercícios físicos se associa à melhora da capacidade funcional e à redução de eventos cardiovasculares. Já em portadores de doença renal crônica, uma população com significativo comprometimento da capacidade funcional e elevadas taxas de mortalidade cardiovascular, poucos estudos avaliam os efeitos da atividade física. OBJETIVO: Avaliar o efeito do treinamento aeróbico durante as sessões de hemodiálise, sobre a capacidade funcional e a pressão arterial de pacientes renais crônicos. MÉTODOS: Foram avaliados 14 pacientes portadores de doença renal crônica sob tratamento hemodialítico, antes e depois de 12 semanas de treinamento aeróbico realizado durante as sessões de hemodiálise. Os pacientes foram submetidos a monitorização ambulatorial da pressão arterial de 24 horas, teste de caminhada de 6 minutos e teste cardiopulmonar de exercício antes e depois do período de treinamento. RESULTADOS: Após o treinamento, observou-se aumento significativo da distância percorrida no teste de caminhada de 6 minutos de 509 ± 91,9 m para 555 ± 105,8 m, além de redução significativa da pressão arterial sistólica de 151 ± 18,4 mmHg para 143 ± 14,7 mmHg, da pressão arterial diastólica de 94 ± 10,5 mmHg para 91 ± 9,6 mmHg e da pressão arterial média de 114 ± 13,0 mmHg para 109 ± 11,4 mmHg. CONCLUSÃO: O treinamento aeróbico realizado durante as sessões de hemodiálise contribuiu para a melhora da capacidade funcional e para o controle da hipertensão arterial dos pacientes portadores de doença renal crônica.BACKGROUND: In the general population, regular practice of physical exercises is associated with improved physical capacity and reduction of cardiovascular events. Concerning patients with chronic kidney disease, a population with significant impairment of physical capacity and high rates of cardiovascular mortality, few studies have evaluated the effects

  4. O papel do esteroide anabolizante sobre a hipertrofia e força muscular em treinamentos de resistência aeróbia e de força

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    Everton Crivoi do Carmo

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Os efeitos dos esteroides anabolizantes (EA sobre a massa muscular e força são controversos e dependentes do treinamento realizado e das fibras musculares recrutadas. Com isso, o objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar os efeitos da associação de EA ao treinamento de força ou aeróbio sobre a hipertrofia e força muscular. MÉTODOS: Ratos Wistar (42 foram divididos em seis grupos: sedentário (SC, n = 7, sedentário anabolizante (SA, n = 7, treinado natação controle (TNC, n = 7, treinado natação anabolizante (TNA, n = 7, treinado força controle (TFC, n = 7 e treinado força anabolizante (TFA, n = 7. O EA foi administrado duas vezes por semana (10mg/kg/semana. Os protocolos de treinamento foram realizados durante 10 semanas, cinco sessões semanais. Foram avaliadas a hipertrofia dos músculos sóleo, plantar e gastrocnêmio (massa muscular corrigida pelo comprimento da tíbia, a proteína total muscular (Bradford e a força muscular em patas traseiras (testes de resistência à inclinação. RESULTADOS: Não foram observadas diferenças significantes na hipertrofia do músculo sóleo. Os grupos TFC e TFA apresentaram, respectivamente, hipertrofia de 18% e 31% no músculo plantar comparado ao grupo SC. A hipertrofia foi 13% maior no grupo TFA em relação ao grupo TFC. Resultados semelhantes foram encontrados no músculo gastrocnêmio. Os grupos TFC e TFA apresentaram significantes aumentos na quantidade total de proteína nos músculos plantares, sendo essa mais pronunciada no grupo TFA e positivamente correlaciona a hipertrofia muscular. Observamos aumento de força nas patas traseiras nos grupos TCF e TAF. CONCLUSÃO: A administração de EA ou sua associação ao treinamento aeróbio não aumenta a massa muscular e força. Porém, à associação ao treinamento de força leva a maior hipertrofia muscular em fibras glicolíticas. Portanto, o tipo de treinamento físico, recrutamento muscular e características das fibras

  5. Effect of aerobic physical exercise in pinealectomized animals submitted to the pilocarpine model of epilepsy Efeito do exercício físico aeróbio em animais pinealectomizados submetidos ao modelo de epilepsia induzida por pilocarpina

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    Marcelo Reina Siliano

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To better clarify the positive effects of physical exercise in the epilepsy, we analyzed the effect of the pinealectomy in animals with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE induced by pilocarpine submitted to an aerobic physical program. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Forty adults Wistar rats were used: 1 PX + CHRONIC - Pinealectomized animals (PX with TLE (CHRONIC without exercise (n = 9; 2 PX + CHRONIC + EXERCISE - submitted to an aerobic physical exercise program (n = 5; 3 CHRONIC - without exercise (n = 8; 4 CHRONIC + EXERCISE (n = 8; 5 CTRL - control without exercise (n = 5; 6 CTRL + EXERCISE (n = 5. The physical exercise program consisted of 1 hour of treadmill, 5 days/week, during 30 days, at 60% VO2max. The Nissl and neo-Timm methods were used. RESULTS: The pinealectomy increased the frequency of seizures in animals with epilepsy. It was observed a reduction of the neuronal death and mossy fiber sprouting in the animals with epilepsy submitted to an aerobic physical exercise program. However, the physical exercise program did not modify the frequency of the seizures in the pinealectomized animals.OBJETIVO: Buscando elucidar os efeitos positivos do exercício físico aeróbio na epilepsia, analisamos a influên-cia da pinealectomia em animais com epilepsia do lobo temporal (ELT induzida por pilocarpina e submetidos a um programa de exercício físico. MATERIAL E MÉTODOS: Quarenta ratos Wistar adultos foram usados: 1 PX + CRÔNICO - pinealectomizados (PX com ELT (CRÔNICO sem exercício (n = 9; 2 PX + CRÔNICO + EXERCÍCIO - submetidos a um programa de exercício físico aeróbio (n = 5; 3 CRÔNICO - sem exercício (n = 8; 4 CRÔNICO + EXERCÍCIO (n = 8; 5 CTRL - controle sem epilepsia, sem exercício (n = 5; 6 CTRL + EXERCÍCIO (n = 5. O programa de exercício físico consistiu de corrida em esteira, 5 dias/semana (30 dias a 60% VO2max. Os métodos de Nissl e neo-Timm foram utilizados. RESULTADOS: A pinealectomia aumentou a freqüência de

  6. Relação entre a administração de esteróide anabólico androgênico, treinamento físico aeróbio e supercompensação do glicogênio Relación entre la administración de un esteroide anabólico androgénico, el tratamiento físico aeróbico y la supercompensación del glucógeno Relation between anabolic androgenic steroid administration, aerobic physical training and glycogen supercompensation

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    Tatiana S Cunha

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available A supercompensação do glicogênio é uma das adaptações induzidas pelo treinamento físico. Visando potencializar este fenômeno, muitos atletas utilizam doses suprafisiológicas de esteróides anabólicos androgênicos (EAA. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar em ratos os efeitos da nandrolona e do exercício aeróbio sobre o peso corporal, triglicerídeos, glicose e reservas de glicogênio. Ratos Wistar machos foram aleatoriamente divididos em quatro grupos: sedentário + veículo (SV, treinado + veículo (TV, sedentário + EAA (SEAA e treinado + EAA (TEAA, n = 7-14/grupo. Receberam injeção i.m. de nandrolona ou veículo durante nove semanas e durante o mesmo período os animais treinados foram submetidos a exercício aeróbio. Os dados foram analisados por ANOVA bifatorial e Tukey (p (SV: 0,2 ± 0,02 = SEAA: 0,21 ± 0,02mg/100mg]. A glicemia e as reservas de glicogênio do sóleo permaneceram inalteradas. O uso de doses suprafisiológicas de nandrolona não potencializou nenhum dos efeitos obtidos em resposta ao treinamento aeróbio.La supercompensación de glucógeno es una de las adaptaciones inducidas por el entrenamiento físico. Visualizando potencializar este fenómeno, muchos atletas utilizan dosis suprafisiológicas de estos esteroides anabólicos androgénicos (EAA. El objetivo de este estudio fue el de evaluar en ratas los efectos de nandrolona y del ejercicio aeróbico sobre el peso corporal, los triglicéridos, la gluclosa y las reservas de glucógeno. Ratas Wistar machos fueron aleatóriamente divididas en 4 grupos: sedentarios + vehículo (SV, entrenada + vehículo (EV, sedentario + EAA (SEAA y entrenada + EAA (EEAA, n = 7-14/grupo. Recibieron una inyección intramuscular de nandrolona en vehículo durante dos semanas y durante este mismo período los animales entrenados fueron sometidos a ejercicio aeróbico. Los datos fueron analizados usando las pruebas estadísticas ANOVA bifactorial y Tukey (p (SV: 0,2 ± 0,02 = SEAA

  7. Leptina e exercício físico aeróbio: implicações da adiposidade corporal e insulina Leptin and endurance exercise: implications of adiposity and insulin

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    Fabiana Braga Benatti

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Atualmente, a obesidade pode ser classificada como uma pandemia e suas conseqüências vão desde o diabetes mellitus até a doença cardíaca. Tanto fatores genéticos como ambientais contribuem para isso, porém, em humanos, o componente genético ainda é pouco definido. Com a clonagem do gene ob de ratos e do seu receptor, foi descoberta a leptina, o "hormônio da saciedade". A leptina é secretada, principalmente, pelo tecido adiposo e reflete a quantidade de gordura depositada no tecido adiposo de um indivíduo. Entretanto, diversos fatores influenciam sua expressão e síntese, tais como jejum, atividade simpática, exercício físico e alterações no balanço energético. Os efeitos da atividade física aeróbia sobre esse hormônio ainda não estão muito claros, visto que existem muitas contradições na literatura sobre sua possível ação na regulação da leptina. Estudos transversais sugerem que as concentrações plasmáticas de leptina não são alteradas após uma sessão de exercício aeróbio. Entretanto, se o esforço físico for extremo, como em uma ultramaratona, na qual há um balanço energético negativo, induzido pela atividade física extenuante, ocorre diminuição dessas concentrações. Além disso, exercícios de longa duração (> 60 min parecem estar associados à diminuição tardia das concentrações de leptina, aproximadamente 48h após a atividade, provavelmente em função de um possível desequilíbrio energético. Em relação aos estudos longitudinais, após o treinamento aeróbio, alguns autores não observam alterações na leptina plasmática, outros encontram alterações em função apenas das alterações da adiposidade e, por fim, alguns estudos observam diminuição da concentração plasmática e/ou expressão de leptina, independentemente de alterações da massa gorda. Tal fato sugere que haja outro, ou outros, fatores, além do conteúdo de gordura corporal, que modulam a diminuição das

  8. Long-term creatine supplementation improves the aerobic capacity of horses Suplementação prolongada com creatina melhora a capacidade aeróbica de eqüinos

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    Guilherme de Camargo Ferraz

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of long-term oral supplementation of creatine on the physiological responses to aerobic training. Twelve purebred Arabian horses were submitted to aerobic training for 90 days, with and without creatine supplementation which consisted of the daily administration of 75g of creatine monohydrate mixed into the ration for 90 days of training. Physical conditioning was conducted on a high performance treadmill and training intensity was stipulated by calculating the V4 (velocity at which blood lactate reaches 4mmol L-1 determined monthly for each animal. The individual intensity of physical force at 80% of aerobic threshold was established. An incremental exercise test was used to set the individual V4. After a warm up period of 4 min at 4m s-1, the speed was increased at 2min intervals to 6, 8 and 10m s-1. The blood samples were collected 15s before the end of each step to determine the concentration of lactate, packed cell volume, hemoglobin and red cell values. The results demonstrated a significant increase (PO objetivo do presente estudo foi investigar os efeitos da suplementação oral com creatina sobre respostas fisiológicas ao treinamento aeróbico. Doze cavalos da raça Puro Sangue Árabe foram submetidos a treinamento aeróbico por 90 dias, com ou sem suplementação com creatina, que consistia da administração diária de 75g de monoidrato de creatina misturada à ração durante os 90 dias de treinamento. O treinamento físico foi conduzido exclusivamente em esteira rolante de alto desempenho sendo a intensidade do treinamento estabelecida em 80% da velocidade obtida através da V4 (velocidade na qual a concentração sangüínea de lactato atinge 4mmol L-1 determinada mensalmente para cada animal. Para o estabelecimento da V4 individual foi empregado um teste físico de esforço crescente em que, após um período de aquecimento de 4min a 4m s-1, a velocidade era aumentada

  9. Influencia del ejercicio físico aeróbico durante el embarazo en los niveles de hemoglobina y de hierro maternos. (Influence of the physical aerobic exercise during pregnancy in the maternal haemoglobin and iron levels.

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    James Stirling

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Resumen Son bien conocidos los efectos beneficiosos que el ejercicio físico tiene sobre la salud en general, aunque no se cuenta con la misma información cuando se desarrolla durante el embarazo. La mayor incertidumbre es saber si pueden coexistir ambos procesos, ejercicio y embarazo, sin conflictos materno-fetales y sin resultados del embarazo alterados. Especialmente cuando día a día, son más las mujeres que desean continuar ejercitándose de alguna forma, durante su embarazo. El objetivo de este trabajo es conocer la influencia del ejercicio físico aeróbico moderado desarrollado durante el segundo y tercer trimestres en los niveles de hemoglobina y de hierro maternos. Material y métodos: Se llevó acabo un estudio experimental que incluyó un total de 142 gestantes. Grupo casos: integrado por 72 mujeres. Grupo control: integrado por 70 mujeres. Los parámetros maternos estudiados fueron: niveles de hierro, nivel de hemoglobina previo al parto, edad gestacional, tipo de parto. Fetales: Peso de nacimiento, talla, perímetro craneal, test de Apgar (1´y 5´. Resultados: No se encontraron diferencias significativas a nivel estadístico entre ambos grupos (p menor que 0,05, el grupo de casos (ejercicio presento medias similares en los niveles de hemoglobina: 12.1 ± 0.8 y de hierro: 65.90 ± 7.1; que el grupo de control: hemoglobina: 12.3 ± 0.8 y hierro: 66.42 ± 8.4. El peso de nacimiento fue inferior en el grupo de casos dentro de valores normales (-142.1 grs.. Conclusión: El ejercicio aeróbico moderado desarrollado durante el segundo y tercer trimestre de embarazo parece no alterar los niveles de hierro y hemoglobina maternos. Abstract They are very well-known the beneficial effects that the physical exercise has about the health in general, although it is not had the same information when it refers to a pro- cess of remarkable importance: the pregnancy. The biggest uncertainty is to know if both processes, exercise and pregnancy can

  10. Muscle Response to the Association of Statin and Physical Exercise in Rats Respuestas Musculares de la Asociación de Estatina y Ejercicio Físico Aeróbico en Ratas

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    Mariana Rotta Bonfim

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Physical exercise and statins, which are recommended for the treatment of dyslipidemia, are independently associated to the occurrence of muscle injury. The objective is analyze the effect of aerobic exercise associated to the use of simvastatin on the morphology of the gastrocnemius muscle. Thirty Wistar rats were divided into six groups, two of which received a standard diet (1 sedentary and 1 exercised and four (1 sedentary with medication, 1 sedentary without medication, 1 exercised with medication, 1 exercised without medication received a hypercholesterolemic diet (standard diet with the addition of cholesterol and coconut oil. Simvastatin (20 mg/Kg was administered five days a week for eight weeks, together with aerobic training on a treadmill (9.75 m/min for 60 minutes a day. The gastrocnemius muscle was removed, sliced, stained with Hematoxylin-Eosin and submitted to a histochemical reaction to determine mitochondrial activity. The data were analyzed using a paired t-test, analysis of variance and Scheffé's post hoc test (pEl ejercicio físico y las estatinas, son intervenciones recomendadas para el tratamiento de la dislipidemia y están independientemente asociadas con la ocurrencia de lesiones musculares. El objetivo fue analizar el efecto del ejercicio aeróbico asociado al uso de la sinvastatina en la morfología del músculo gastrocnemio. 30 ratas macho Wistar fueron divididos en 6 grupos, de los cuales 2 recibieron ración padrón, sedentarios, ejercitados y 4 recibieron dieta con alto nivel de colesterol, sedentarios con y sin medicamento, ejercitados con y sin medicamentos. La dieta fue elaborada a partir de una dieta padrón aumentada de colesterol y aceite de coco. La Sinvastatina (20 mg fue administrada por 5 días por semana durante 8 semanas (20 mg/kg, junto al entrenamiento aeróbico en la estera (9,75 m/min por 60 minutos por día. El músculo gastrocnemio colectado fue cortado y colorido por el método Hematoxilina

  11. Estudos sobre a oxidação aeróbia do metano na cobertura de três aterros sanitários no Brasil Studies on the aerobic methane oxidation at three sanitary landfills covers in Brazil

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    Cláudia Echevenguá Teixeira

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available A oxidação biológica e aeróbia do metano em materiais de cobertura de aterros de resíduos sólidos urbanos é uma das alternativas para se minimizarem as emissões dos gases de efeito estufa. Este artigo tem como objetivo avaliar a oxidação biológica do metano em material de cobertura de três aterros brasileiros (dois municipais e uma célula experimental. O trabalho consistiu na coleta de amostras dos solos, as quais foram caracterizadas através de ensaios geotécnicos e microbiológicos. Em laboratório, avaliou-se o consumo de metano de uma amostra de cada aterro. Os resultados revelaram a presença de bactérias metanotróficas e consumo de metano em laboratório, o que sugere que exista uma relação inversa entre o grau de saturação no momento da coleta e o número de bactérias metanotróficas.The biological and aerobic oxidation of methane within the soil cover of municipal solid waste landfills is one an alternative to minimize emissions of greenhouse effect gases. This study aims at assess the biological oxidation of methane within the final cover of three landfills in Brazil (two municipal ones and one experimental cell. The soil samples obtained from the landfill cover were characterized by geotechnical and microbiological tests. In the laboratory the consumption of methane from each sample were evaluated. The results revealed the presence of methanotrophic bacteria and consumption of methane in the laboratory was observed, which also suggest that there is an inverse relation between the degree of saturation at the time of sampling and the number of methanotrophic bacteria.

  12. Avaliação da produção de óxido nítrico em ratos, submetidos aos exercícios aeróbio e anaeróbio Evaluation of the production of nitric oxide in mice, submitted to aerobic and anaerobic exercises

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    Vanessa Guimarães de Freitas Cruvelo D'Ávila

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Óxido nítrico (NO exerce influências muito importantes em vários processos fisiológicos. Neste trabalho avaliamos a produção de NO sanguíneo em ratos Wistar, submetidos ao nado aeróbio e anaeróbio agudos. A formação do óxido nítrico foi verificada através da dosagem dos produtos de oxidação estáveis do metabolismo do óxido nítrico (nitratos. Para isso utilizamos o método colorimétrico de Griess. Verificamos a existência de uma diferença significativa (p = 0,000261 na produção de óxido nítrico entre a realização do nado aeróbio e o anaeróbio, na qual o aeróbio mostrou-se mais eficiente na promoção de níveis mais elevados. O exercício aeróbio agudo com duração de no mínimo 10 minutos mostrou-se mais eficaz no quesito produção de NO em relação ao exercício de 5 minutos. A positiva relação observada entre o exercício aeróbio e a formação de NO pode ajudar a explicar os efeitos benéficos do exercício na saúde cardiovascular. Sabemos que a prática de exercício aeróbio e sua duração aumentam a biodisponibilidade de NO, o qual é considerado importante regulador fisiológico da pressão arterial.Nitric Oxide (NO exerts important influences in several physiological processes. In this work we evaluated the production of sanguine NO in Wistar rats, submitted to the acute aerobic and anaerobic exercises. The formation of nitric oxide was verified through the dosage of the end products of oxidation of the metabolism of nitric oxide (nitrates. For this we used the colorimetric Griess method. We verified the existence of a significant difference (p = 0.000261 in the production of NO among the accomplishment of the aerobic swimming and the anaerobic, where the aerobic was shown more efficient in the promotion of higher levels. The acute aerobic exercise with duration of at least 10 minutes was shown more effective in the requirement production of NO in relation to the 5 minutes exercise. The positive

  13. Treinamento aeróbio não altera pressão arterial de mulheres menopausadas e com síndrome metabólica Aerobic training does not alter blood pressure in menopausal women with metabolic syndrome

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    Aluísio Henrique Rodrigues de Andrade Lima

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: A Hipertensão arterial (HA é uma condição tanto agravante quanto agravada pela Síndrome Metabólica (SM. A menopausa pode tornar o tratamento da hipertensão mais difícil porque é uma condição que favorece a piora nos componentes da SM. Embora existam evidências de que o treinamento com exercícios físicos reduza a pressão arterial, se as condições da menopausa e da SM afetam os benefícios induzidos pelo exercício é algo ainda não evidenciado. OBJETIVO: Comparar os efeitos do treinamento aeróbio na pressão arterial entre mulheres com SM não menopausadas e menopausadas. MÉTODOS: Foram recrutadas 44 mulheres divididas em quatro grupos experimentais: controle não menopausada (CNM: 39,5 ± 1,1 anos, n = 11; controle menopausada (CM: 54,9 ± 1,7 anos, n = 12; aeróbio não menopausada (ANM: 43,1 ± 2,1 anos, n = 11 e aeróbio menopausada (AM: 52,1 ± 1,6 anos, n = 10. Os grupos de exercício realizaram treinamento aeróbio durante três meses, cinco vezes por semana, com intensidade entre 60% e 70% da frequência cardíaca de reserva. A pressão arterial de repouso e a resposta pressórica clínica após 60 minutos de exercício foram medidas antes e após o período treinamento. O teste de ANOVA de dois fatores foi usado, considerando p 0,05. CONCLUSÃO: Três meses de treinamento aeróbio melhora componentes da SM, mas não altera a pressão arterial de repouso, nem a resposta pressórica aguda após uma sessão de exercício aeróbio em mulheres com SM.BACKGROUND: Arterial Hypertension (AH is an aggravating condition for Metabolic Syndrome (MS, as well as being aggravated by it. Menopause can make hypertension treatment more difficult, as it favors the worsening of MS components. Although there is evidence that exercise training reduces blood pressure, whether menopause and SM affect the exercise-induced benefits is yet to be elucidated. OBJECTIVE: To compare the effects of aerobic training on blood pressure in

  14. Qualidade de vida e síndrome metabólica em mulheres brasileiras: análise da correlação com a aptidão aeróbia e a força muscular

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    Tatiane Gomes Teixeira

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A síndrome metabólica (SM é definida pela presença de, ao menos três, dentre cinco fatores de risco cardiovascular: hiperglicemia, resistência à insulina, obesidade, dislipidemia e pressão arterial elevada. Embora portadores de SM apresentem baixa aptidão física e pior qualidade de vida (QV, quando comparado aos indivíduos sem SM, ainda não foram investigadas as correlações entre a aptidão física e a QV em mulheres com SM. O objetivo do presente estudo foi comparar a QV, força muscular e aptdião aeróbia, bem como analisar a correlação entre a QV e a aptidão física de mulheres com e sem SM. Participaram do estudo 49 mulheres, 21 com SM (33.5 ± 9.1 anos e 28 sem SM (32.3 ± 7.9 anos. Para avaliação da QV, aptidão aeróbia e força muscular foram utilizados, respectivamente, o questionário Short Form Health Survey 36 (SF-36, o teste de caminhada de 6 minutos (6-C e o teste de preensão manual. As mulheres com SM apresentaram pior QV, percorreram menor distância no 6-C e obtiveram menor força muscular relativa. Foi observada correlação positiva entre a aptidão aeróbia e quatro domínios da QV: capacidade funcional, limitação por aspectos físicos, dor e aspectos sociais da funcionalidade. Mulheres com SM apresentam menor de força muscular e aptidão aeróbia, bem como piores escores de QV no estado de saúde geral, capacidade funcional, dor no corpo, limitação por aspectos emocionais, aspectos sociais da funcionalidade e limitação por aspectos físicos quando comparado com mulheres sem SM.

  15. Influência do treinamento aeróbio sobre o cortisol e glicose plasmáticos em equinos Influence of the aerobic training on cortisol and glucose levels in horses

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    G.C. Ferraz

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se a resposta do cortisol e da glicemia em 12 equinos da raça Puro Sangue Árabe destreinados (T0 por oito meses e submetidos a um período de 90 dias de treinamento aeróbio (T90. Para avaliação dos efeitos do treinamento, empregou-se teste ergométrico constituído de exercício progressivo em esteira rolante, acompanhado por colheitas de sangue 15 segundos antes do término de cada etapa de esforço. A velocidade (intensidade do treino foi definida como sendo 80% da V4 (velocidade na qual a lactacidemia atinge 4mmol/L. Adicionalmente, no último mês de treinamento, foi instituído, uma vez por semana, exercício com velocidades variáveis, chamado "fartlek". Após 90 dias de treinamento, a concentração plasmática de cortisol elevou-se e após o teste de esforço (20min, houve aumento da glicemia. Este resultado reflete a possibilidade de adaptação ao treinamento. Conclui-se que o cortisol plasmático pode ser utilizado como ferramenta na avaliação de um programa de treinamento em equinos.Cortisol and glucose responses were evaluated in 12 Arabian (PSA horses submitted to a detraining period of eight months (T0 and to 90 days of aerobic training (T90. For the evaluation of the effect of training, a standardized incremental exercise test in a treadmill was used. Fifteen seconds before the ending of each effort step, blood samples were collected. The speed (intensity of the training was defined as being 80% of the V4 (speed at which the blood lactate concentration reaches 4mmol/L. Additionally, in the last month of training, velocity play, a type of exercise with varying velocities called "fartlek" was instituted, once a week. Results showed that after 90 days of training, the plasmatic concentrations of cortisol and glucose increased when compared to the untrained horses. This result reflects the possibility of adaptation to the training. The blood cortisol levels may be used as a tool for the evaluation of a training program

  16. Treinamento aeróbio de natação aumenta a atividade de enzimas antioxidantes e o conteúdo de glicogênio no musculoesquelético de ratos

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    Roberto Carlos Vieira Junior

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: São escassos os estudos os quais verificaram os efeitos do exercício físico sobre os biomarcadores de estresse oxidativo e sua relação com o glicogênio muscular. OBJETIVO: O presente estudo verificou o efeito do treinamento aeróbio de natação (TAN sobre os biomarcadores de estresse oxidativo, conteúdo de glicogênio e crescimento celular no músculo esquelético de ratos. MÉTODOS: Dezoito ratos Wistar macho (60 dias foram divididos em dois grupos: Grupo Sedentário (SG; n = 10: ratos sedentários; e Grupo Treinado (TG; n = 8: ratos submetidos ao TAN (5,0 % do peso corporal, 1h/dia, 5X/semana, durante oito semanas. A atividade das enzimas antioxidantes (AEA superóxido dismutase (SOD; U/ml, catalase (CAT; µmol/min/100 mg e glutationa peroxidase (GPx; nmol/min/100 mg, bem como a concentração das substâncias que reagem ao ácido tiobarbitúrico (TBARs; nmolMDA/mg proteína foram determinadas no músculo gastrocnêmio direito. Os conteúdos de glicogênio (mg/100 mg, proteína (g/100 g e DNA (g/100 g foram mensurados no músculo gastrocnêmio esquerdo. RESULTADOS: A AEA foi maior no TG (CAT: 0,87 ± 0,04; SOD: 6,49 ± 0,045; GPX: 6,49 ± 0,52 quando comparados com SG (CAT: 0,52 ± 0,03; SOD: 4,1 ± 0,37; GPx: 2,94 ± 0,56. Os níveis de TBARs foram menores em TG (TG: 2,35 ± 0,41; SG: 8,90 ± 0,47. O conteúdo de glicogênio muscular (SG: 0,108 ± 0,013; TG: 0,320 ± 0,012 e a razão proteína/DNA (SG: 24,94 ± 3,25; TG: 41,68 ± 4,02 foram maiores no TG. CONCLUSÃO: Em conjunto, estes dados confirmam que o TAN melhorou a defesa antioxidante, a qual pode estar associada ao aumento do conteúdo de glicogênio no músculo esquelético dos animais.

  17. Gasto energético aeróbico y anaeróbico en un circuito con cargas a seis intensidades diferentes. (Aerobic and anaerobic energy expenditure during at circuit weight training through six different intensities.

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    Rocío Cupeiro Coto

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available ResumenEl entrenamiento con cargas es una actividad anaeróbica glucolítica intensa y se ha comprobado que el error en las estimaciones del gasto energético en esta actividad varía entre un 13 y un 30%. El principal objetivo de este trabajo es describir la contribución anaeróbica de energía en un circuito con cargas. Doce hombres (20-26 años y diecisiete mujeres (18-29 años estudiantes de Ciencias de la Actividad Física y del Deporte realizaron un entrenamiento en circuito de cargas a 6 intensidades diferentes (entre el 30% y 80% de su 15RM. Durante la totalidad de los circuitos se registró el gasto energético aeróbico por calorimetría indirecta, la frecuencia cardiaca con pulsómetro Polar® y la concentración de lactato en sangre capilar para medir la contribución anaeróbica. El incremento que produjo la energía anaeróbica se situó entre el 5,1% y un máximo del 13,5%, lo que hace evidente que medir o no la contribución anaeróbica en el entrenamiento en circuito puede provocar un error medio del 9,65%. Existen diferencias significativas (PAbstractResistance training is an intense anaerobic glycolytic activity and has been shown that estimates of energy expenditure in this activity turn out into an error that varies between 13 and 30%. The main aim of this paper is to describe the anaerobic energy contribution in circuit weight training. Twelve men (20-26 years and seventeen women (18-29 years students in Science of Physical Activity and Sport performed circuit training at six different intensities (between 30% and 80% of 15RM. During all the circuits aerobic energy expenditure was registered by indirect calorimetry, heart rate with Polar® monitors and lactate concentration in capillary blood to measure the anaerobic contribution. The increased due to anaerobic energy was between 5,1% and a maximum of 13,5%, which clearly means that to measure or not the anaerobic contribution in circuit training can lead to an average

  18. Efeito da atividade física associada à orientação alimentar em adolescentes obesos: comparação entre o exercício aeróbio e anaeróbio Efecto de la actividad física asociada a la orientación alimentar en adolescentes obesos: comparación entre el ejercicio aeróbico y anaeróbico Effect of physical activity associated with nutritional orientation for obese adolescents: comparison between aerobic and anaerobic exercise

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    Renata Viccari Sabia; José Ernesto dos Santos; Rosane Pilot Pessa Ribeiro

    2004-01-01

    A obesidade na adolescência é uma doença universal de prevalência mundial crescente, assumindo caráter epidemiológico como problema de saúde pública na sociedade moderna. Este trabalho teve como objetivo comparar o efeito do exercício físico aeróbio contínuo e anaeróbio intermitente associado à orientação alimentar sobre a composição corporal, as medidas bioquímicas e a capacidade física de adolescentes obesos. Foram investigados 28 adolescentes (média de idade = 13 anos), com índice de massa...

  19. Redução da pressão arterial, da IMC e da glicose após treinamento aeróbico em idosas com diabete tipo 2 Decrease in blood pressure, body mass index and glycemia after aerobic training in elderly women with type 2 diabetes

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    Luciana Zaranza Monteiro

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: O processo de envelhecimento associa-se ao desenvolvimento de várias doenças, que podem ser amenizadas pela prática de atividades físicas. O treinamento aeróbico é um meio efetivo para manter e melhorar as funções cardiovasculares. Além disso, desempenha um papel fundamental na prevenção e tratamento de diversas doenças crônico-degenerativas, em especial o diabete melito. OBJETIVO: Verificar os efeitos de 13 semanas de treinamento aeróbico sobre a pressão arterial, o índice de massa corpórea e a glicemia em idosas com diabete tipo 2. MÉTODOS: Onze mulheres idosas diabéticas (61,0 ± 9,1 anos de idade, sedentárias, realizaram 13 semanas de treinamento aeróbico, compondo o grupo G2. Onze idosas (60,2 ± 6,8 anos de idade controladas não realizaram exercícios físicos durante a pesquisa, constituindo o grupo-controle (G1. O grupo G1 foi submetido somente a orientações educativas uma vez na semana, e o grupo G2, a caminhadas três vezes na semana. RESULTADOS: Houve redução significativa da glicemia e da pressão arterial diastólica nos dois grupos. Não foram encontradas reduções significativas no IMC após o treinamento aeróbico em ambos os grupos. CONCLUSÃO: Treze semanas de treinamento aeróbico foi suficiente para promover reduções significativas na pressão arterial diastólica e glicemia, portanto, esse tipo de exercício reduz os fatores de risco para doenças cardiovasculares e metabólicas.BACKGROUND: The aging process is associated with the development of several diseases, which can be attenuated by the practice of physical activities. Aerobic training is an effective method to maintain and improve cardiovascular function. Additionally, it has a crucial role in the prevention and treatment of several chronic-degenerative diseases, especially diabetes mellitus. }OBJECTIVE: To verify the effect of a 13-week aerobic training program on blood pressure (BP, body mass index (BMI and glycemia levels

  20. Comparação entre métodos invasivos e não invasivo de determinação da capacidade aeróbia em futebolistas profissionais Comparación entre métodos invasivos y no invasivos de determinación de la capacidad aeróbica en futbolistas profesionales Comparison between invasive and non-invasive methods for the determination of the aerobic capacity of professional soccer players

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    Adelino Sanchez Ramos da Silva

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available O Limiar Anaeróbio (Lan pode ser determinado por protocolos que utilizam concentrações fixas de lactato sanguíneo como o OBLA (Onset of Blood Lactate Accumulation e os que utilizam procedimentos mais individualizados, como o Lactato Mínimo (Lacmin. Independente do método, a mensuração da capacidade aeróbia através do Lan nesses casos exige a utilização de equipamentos sofisticados, além do elevado custo por atleta, o que torna sua aplicação limitada. Como alternativa, um dos testes não invasivos mais empregados no meio esportivo é o de 12 minutos proposto por Cooper. O objetivo principal do presente estudo foi comparar a intensidade de exercício obtida pelo teste de 12min com as intensidades correspondentes ao Lan obtido pelo protocolo adaptado ao de Tegtbur et al. (1993 (Lac minat e pelo OBLA em futebolistas profissionais. Para tanto participaram 16 atletas pertencentes a uma equipe profissional filiada à série A3 do futebol paulista. Cada atleta foi avaliado nos três protocolos, com intervalo mínimo de 48 e máximo de 72 horas. Os resultados mostraram diferença (p El umbral anaeróbico (Lan puede ser determinado por protocolos que utilizan concentraciones fijas de lactato sanguíneo como el OBLA (Onset of Blood Lactate Accumulation y los que utilizan procedimientos mas individualizados como el Lactato Mínimo (Lacmin. Independiente del método, la medida de la capacidad aeróbica a traves del Lan en esos casos exige una utilización de equipamientos sofisticados, además del elevado costo por atleta lo que torna su aplicación limitada. Como alternativa, uno de los tests no invasivos mas empleados en el medio deportivo es el de 12 minutos propuesto por Cooper. El objetivo principal de este estudio fue el de comparar la intensidad de ejercicio obtenida por el test de 12 minutos con las intensidades obtenidas correspondientes al Lan obtenido por el protocolo adaptado al de Tegtbur et al. (1993 (Lac minat y por el OBLA en

  1. Sincronização não-fótica: o efeito do exercício físico aeróbio Non-photic synchronization: the effect of aerobic physical exercise

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    Flávio Augustino Back

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available As principais alterações, agudas e crônicas, provocadas pelo exercício físico aeróbio (EF sobre o organismo são, de maneira geral, bem conhecidas. No entanto, existe um efeito em particular do EF que começou a ser elucidado no começo da década de 90, em humanos, que tem a capacidade de alterar a relação temporal do organismo com o meio. A modificação da expressão dos ritmos circadianos, causada pelo EF, qualifica-o como sincronizador dos osciladores biológicos. O principal sincronizador da ritmicidade biológica é o ciclo geofísico claro/escuro. A alternância do dia e da noite, através de diferenças nos níveis de luminosidade, é percebida por meio de vias fóticas pelo sistema de temporização circadiana (STC. Esses estímulos, chamados fóticos, fornecem informações temporais para o STC sincronizando os osciladores biológicos com esse ciclo ambiental. Outros estímulos também são capazes de sincronizá-los e são chamados de sincronizadores não-fóticos. Esta revisão aborda o efeito do EF sobre o sistema de temporização e, ao mesmo tempo, discute as possíveis e prováveis aplicações cronobiológicas dos conhecimentos abordados. O EF pode afetar o STC através de vias não-fóticas, podendo beneficiar a saúde de indivíduos em diversas situações, tais como vôos transmeridianos, trabalhos noturnos e distúrbios do sono. Ressalta-se, também, que devem ser realizados mais estudos no cotidiano das pessoas para compreender melhor a relação entre, e a contribuição dos, diferentes sincronizadores em um contexto real.The main alterations, either acute or chronic, caused by aerobic physical exercise (PE over the body are generally well-known. However, there is a particular effect of PE which started to be elucidated in the beginning of the 90's in humans which has the capacity to alter the temporal relationship of the body with the environment. The modification of the expression of the circadian rhythms caused

  2. Moderate aerobic exercise during pregnancy, its relation to the behavior of the maternal blood El ejercicio aeróbico moderado durante el embarazo su relación con el comportamiento de la tensión arterial materna

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    R. Barakat

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available

    A case-control design was used. Between May 1 of 2000 and September 30, 2001, a total of 480 women were interviewed at the first medical prenatal visit obtaining data on social, medical, employment, daily physical activity circumstances and consent. Participants were recruited from the Hospital Severo Ochoa in Leganés, Madrid.A total of 72 pregnant women with uncomplicated pregnancies (singleton gestations randomly assigned to an exercise group (case and 70 pregnant women randomly assigned to a control group. The exercise program consisted of a series of 35 minute sessions, three times per week during the second and third trimester of pregnancy, conducted by a qualified instructor following the ACOG guidelines. Moderate exercise was defined as ≤1000 Kcal/wk of energy expenditure. For a statistical treatment, SPSS program was used.Multiple potential confounding variables were also assessed for a possible association with or influence on pregnancy outcome (age, parity, smoking, employment, standing posture, etc.Our results did not show any associations of the exercise during pregnancy with adverse or negative blood pressure outcome.
    KEY WORDS: Exercise, pregnancy, blood pressure

     

    A pesar de los innegables avances de la ciencia, cuando se habla de la relación entre la actividad física y el embarazo, existen aún una gran cantidad de cuestiones sin resolver. Un ejemplo de ello es saber qué sucede con el funcionamiento de ciertos órganos y sistemas cuando la mujer embarazada realiza ejercicio, más aún cuando hablamos de parámetros, como los cardiovasculares, que se modifican de manera importante durante la gestación. Este trabajo de investigación pretende conocer la influencia del ejercicio físico de carácter aeróbico, desarrollado durante el segundo y tercer trimestre de embarazo sobre el comportamiento de la Tensi

  3. Perfil fermentativo, estabilidade aeróbia e valor nutritivo de silagens de capim-marandu ensilado com aditivos Fermentative profile, aerobic stability, and nutritive value of marandu grass silages using additives at ensiling

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    Thiago Fernandes Bernardes

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar as perdas em silagem de capim-marandu produzidas com aditivos foram desenvolvidos dois experimentos. No experimento 1, objetivou-se conhecer o perfil de fermentação e a estabilidade aeróbia de quatro silagens: 1 forragem não tratada (Controle; 2 tratada com Lactobacillus plantarum e Propionibacterium; 3 tratada com Lactobacillus buchneri; e 4 tratada com 0,1% de benzoato de sódio. No experimento 2, foram utilizados nove novilhos castrados Nelore (PC de 350 ± 38,9 kg, alocados em três quadrados latinos 3 x 3 para avaliação do consumo e da digestibilidade das rações contendo 85,4% das seguintes silagens de capim-marandu: 1 controle; 2 controle com L. plantarum, Pediococcus acidilactici + enzimas fibrolíticas; e 3 tratamento 2 + L. buchneri. No experimento 1, as silagens apresentaram baixas recuperações de MS durante a fermentação (média de 86% e os coeficientes de digestibilidade in vitro da matéria seca reduziram de 65,5% (momento da ensilagem para 50,0% no 60º dia após o fechamento dos silos. No experimento 2, o valor médio de consumo das rações foi de 5,7 kg MS/dia (1,6% PC e a digestibilidade de 51,6% e não diferiram entre as rações. As silagens apresentaram perdas acentuadas na fase fermentativa e o uso de aditivos não alterou essas perdas. A inoculação com bactérias não influenciou o consumo ou a digestibilidade das rações.Two trials were conducted to evaluate losses of Marandu grass silages using different additives. The fermentation profile and aerobic stability of the silages were evaluated on the first trial. The followings silages were evaluated: 1 - Marandu grass (Control, 2 - Marandu grass plus L. plantarum and Propionibacterium, 3 - Marandu grass plus L. buchneri, 4 - Marandu grass plus 0.1% of sodium benzoate. On the second experiment, it was utilized nine castrated Nellore steers (Body weight 350 ± 38.9 kg allocated in three Latin squares (3 x 3 to evaluate the intake and

  4. Percentile values for aerobic performance running/walking field tests in children aged 6 to 17 years: influence of weight status Valores de percentiles de los tests de campo de capacidad aeróbica en niños de 6 a 17 años: influencia del peso corporal

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    J. Castro-Piñero

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to provide percentiles values for four different aerobic performance tests in 2752 (1,261 girls Spanish children aged 6 to 17.9 years. Aerobic performance was assessed by the shuttle run test (20mSRT, 1-mile, 1/2-mile and 1/4-mile run/walk tests. Height and weight were measured, and body mass index was calculated. Boys had significantly better score than girls in the studied tests in all age groups, except in 1/4-mile test in 6-7 year old children. Underweight children had similar performance than their normalweight counterparts, and underweight boys had better performance than their obese counterparts. Overweight and obese children had lower performance than their normalweight counterparts. Having percentile values of the most used field tests to measure aerobic performance in youth may help to identify children and adolescents at risk for the major chronic diseases, as well as to evaluate the effects of alternative interventions.El propósito de este estudio fue proporcionar los valores de percentiles para cuatro pruebas de rendimiento aeróbico en 2752 (1261 chicas niños españoles con edades de 6 a 17,9 años. El rendimiento aeróbico se evalúo mediante la carrera durante 20 minutos (20mSRT, y las pruebas de correr / caminar 1 milla, ½ milla y ¼ de milla. Se midieron el peso y la talla y se calculó el índice de masa corporal. Los chicos tuvieron puntuaciones significativamente mejores que las chicas en las pruebas evaluadas y para todos los grupos de edad, excepto en la prueba de ¼ de milla en el grupo de 6-7 años. Los niños con peso bajo mostraron un rendimiento similar a sus homólogos con peso normal y los primeros tuvieron un rendimiento mejor que sus homólogos obesos. Los niños obesos y con sobrepeso tuvieron un menor rendimiento que sus homólogos con peso normal. El disponer de valores de percentiles para las pruebas empleadas más habitualmente para evaluar el rendimiento aeróbico en los j

  5. Comparação entre protocolos diretos e indiretos de avaliação da aptidão aeróbia em indivíduos fisicamente ativos Comparacion entre protocolos directos e indirectos de evaluación de la aptitud aeróbica en indivíduos fisicamente activos Comparison between direct and indirect protocols of aerobic fitness evaluation in physically active individuals

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    Luiz Gustavo da Matta Silva

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available O limiar anaeróbio individual (IAT, o limiar glicêmico individual (IGT, a velocidade associada ao VO2max (Vmax, a velocidade média em corrida de 3.000m (Vm3km e a velocidade crítica (VC têm sido utilizados na avaliação aeróbia e prescrição de exercício para atletas-corredores. No entanto, estudos comparando estes parâmetros e sua possível aplicação para indivíduos não atletas ainda não foram realizados. Os objetivos do presente estudo foram comparar e estabelecer as relações entre IAT, IGT, Vmax, Vm3km e VC em indivíduos fisicamente ativos não atletas. Onze indivíduos fisicamente ativos e saudáveis (20,7 ± 1,8 anos; 74,2 ± 14,5kg; 48,9 ± 5,8mlO2.kg.min-1 realizaram randomicamente os seguintes testes de corrida em dias distintos: 1 determinação da Vm3km a partir do desempenho em corrida de 3.000m; 2 desempenho em corrida de 500m e 3 teste incremental em esteira ergométrica para determinação do IAT, IGT, VO2max e Vmax. A VC foi determinada por regressão linear (relação distância-tempo a partir dos testes de 3km e 500m. Não foram verificadas diferenças entre as velocidades do IAT e IGT (184,8 ± 27,7 e 182,8 ± 27,9m.min-1; P > 0,05, e entre Vmax e Vm3km (211,1 ± 30 e 213,4 ± 32,2m.min-1; P > 0,05. Apesar da alta correlação entre as variáveis estudadas, a VC (199,8 ± 30,4m.min-1 superestimou o IAT e o IGT (P El umbral anaeróbico individual (IAT, el umbral glucémico individual (IGT, la velocidad asociada al VO2max (Vmax, la velocidad media de carrera de 3.000m (Vm3km y la velocidad crítica (VC estan estudiados junto con la evaluación aeróbica y la prescripción del ejercicio para atletas corredores. Sin embargo, los estudios que comparan estos parámetros y su posible aplicación para personas no atletas no ha sido realizados aún. Los objetivos del presente estudio fueron el de comparar y establecer las relaciones entre IAT, IGT, Vmax, Vm3km y VC en individuos físicamente activos no atletas. Once

  6. Efectos del entrenamiento físico en piscina climatizada sobre la capacidad aeróbica de un grupo de niños asmáticos. (Effects of the physical training in a warm-water pool on the aerobic power of a group of asthmatic children.)

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    Juan David Fernández Villada; Elkin Eduardo Roldán Aguilar; María Helena Lopera Zapata

    2009-01-01

    ResumenObjetivo: Observar cambios en la capacidad aeróbica de un grupo de niños asmáticos después de un entrenamiento físico en piscina climatizada (EFPC). Método: 22 niños asmáticos, se dividieron en grupo experimental (GE) y grupo control (GC) de 11 cada uno. El GE se sometió a un EFPC durante 18 semanas de manera controlada, mientras el GC solo hacía sus actividades cotidianas. A ambos grupos se les realizó pruebas de esfuerzo en banda rodante para determinar el máximo consumo de oxígeno e...

  7. Índices fisiológicos associados com a performance aeróbia de corredores nas distâncias de 1,5 km, 3 km e 5 km Physiological indices associated with aerobic performance in the distances of 1,5 km, 3 km and 5 km

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    Luiz Guilherme Antonacci Guglielmo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do estudo foi analisar a associação entre os índices fisiológicos de potência aeróbia e capacidade aeróbia performance nas distâncias de 1,5 km, 3 km e 5 km. Nove corredores de endurance realizaram os seguintes protocolos: a teste para determinação do VO2max, vVO2max e OBLA; b 2-5 testes em dias alternados de 30 min com velocidade constante para determinar a vMLSS e c determinação da performances. Foram empregadas correlação linear de Pearson ou Spearman e regressão múltipla para determinar as relações entre os índices e a performance nas corridas. Observou-se uma correlação significante somente da vVO2max com o tempo nas distâncias de 1,5 km (r = - 0,78 e 3 km (r = - 0,81. Dessa forma, pode-se sugerir a inclusão de sessões de treinamento em intensidade próxima ou superior à vVO2max na periodização semanal dos corredores. Com base nesses achados, foi possível concluir que a predição da performance por meio de índices de potência aeróbia e da capacidade aeróbia depende da distância e duração da prova.The aim of this study was to analyze the association between physiological indices of aerobic power and aerobic capacity with the performance in the distances of 1.5 km, 3 km and 5 km. Nine endurance runners performed the following protocols: a test to determine the VO2max, vVO2max and OBLA; b 2-5 tests in alternate days of 30 minutes with constant speed to determine the vMLSS; and c performances (P. The linear correlation of Pearson or Spearman and multiple regression were applied to determine the relationships among the indices and the performance. It was found a significant correlation only of the vVO2max with the performance of 1.5 km (r = 0.78 and 3 km (r =0.81. Thus, it can be suggested the inclusion of training sessions at or near vVO2max on weekly periodization. Based on the present findings, it can be concluded that the performance prediction through the indices of power and aerobic capacity

  8. Avaliação da produção de óxido nítrico em ratos, submetidos aos exercícios aeróbio e anaeróbio Evaluation of the production of nitric oxide in mice, submitted to aerobic and anaerobic exercises

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    Vanessa Guimarães de Freitas Cruvelo D'Ávila; Nozelmar Borges de Sousa Júnior; Fábio Borges de Sousa; Lídia Andreu Guillo

    2008-01-01

    Óxido nítrico (NO) exerce influências muito importantes em vários processos fisiológicos. Neste trabalho avaliamos a produção de NO sanguíneo em ratos Wistar, submetidos ao nado aeróbio e anaeróbio agudos. A formação do óxido nítrico foi verificada através da dosagem dos produtos de oxidação estáveis do metabolismo do óxido nítrico (nitratos). Para isso utilizamos o método colorimétrico de Griess. Verificamos a existência de uma diferença significativa (p = 0,000261) na produção de óxido nítr...

  9. Efeitos do estado e especificidade do treinamento aeróbio na relação %VO2max versus %FCmax durante o ciclismo Effects of the state and specificity of aerobic training on the %VO2max versus %HRmax ratio during cycling

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    Fabrizio Caputo; Camila Coelho Greco; Benedito Sérgio Denadai

    2005-01-01

    OBJETIVO: Determinar os efeitos do estado e especificidade de treinamento aeróbio na relação entre o percentual do consumo máximo de oxigênio (%VO2max) e o percentual da frequência cardíaca máxima (%FCmax) durante o exercício incremental realizado no cicloergômetro. MÉTODOS: Sete corredores, 9 ciclistas, 11 triatletas e 12 sedentários, todos do sexo masculino e aparentemente saudáveis, foram submetidos a um teste incremental até a exaustão no cicloergômetro. Regressões lineares entre %VO2max ...

  10. Aerobic and anaerobic mineralization of Salvinia molesta and Myriophyllum aquaticum leachates from a tropical reservoir (Brazil Mineralização aeróbia e anaeróbia dos lixiviados de Salvinia molesta e Myriophyllum aquaticum de um reservatório tropical (Brasil

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    Renato Henriques da Silva

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available AIM: This study aimed at describing and discussing the leachates mineralization (aerobic and anaerobic of two species of aquatic macrophytes (Salvinia molesta and Myriophyllum aquaticum from a tropical reservoir (22° 00' S and 47° 54' W; METHODS: The incubations were prepared with plant leachates and reservoir water sample and were maintained during 45 days in the dark (at 20 °C. The organic carbon and the oxygen consumption kinetics were evaluated; RESULTS: Irrespective of to the experimental condition, the leachates were mainly utilized for catabolic processes (i.e., respiration, mineralization was slightly faster in an aerobic environment (1.22 fold and in this condition, the yield of refractory products was smaller (2.3%; the O/C stoichiometric ratios values (oxygen consumed per atom of carbon from mineralization of the 2 types of leachates were similar (ca. 1.12; CONCLUSIONS: According to these results we conclude that the leachate from selected macrophytes is rapidly decomposed and subsidize primariy the microbial catabolism (aerobic or anaerobic; in addition, we propose that S. molesta contributes more to the input of dissolved organic matter within the reservoir.OBJETIVO: Nesse estudo foram descritas as mineralizações (aeróbias e anaeróbias dos lixiviados de 2 espécies de macrófitas aquáticas (Salvinia molesta e Myriophyllum aquaticum que ocorrem em um reservatório tropical (22° 00' S e 47° 54' O; MÉTODOS: As incubações, preparadas com os lixiviados das plantas e amostra de água do reservatório, foram mantidas no escuro e a 20 °C, por 45 dias. Foram avaliadas as cinéticas de perda de massa do carbono orgânico e de consumo de oxigênio; RESULTADOS: Independente da condição experimental, os lixiviados foram principalmente utilizados na respiração; as mineralizações foram ligeiramente mais rápidas em meio aeróbio (1,22 vezes e nessa condição, os rendimentos dos produtos refratários foram menores (2,3%; as

  11. O efeito de um programa de exercício físico aeróbio combinado com exercícios de resistência muscular localizada na melhora da circulação sistêmica e local: um estudo de caso El efecto de un programa de ejercício físico aeróbico combinado con los ejercicios de resistencia muscular localizada en la mejora de la circulacion sistemica y local. Estudio de un caso The effect of a program of combined aerobic physical exercise with exercises of localized muscular resistance in the improvement of systemic and local circulation: a case study

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    Ricardo Bosco

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: A trombofilia, estado que predispõe à ocorrência de trombose, decorre da existência de alterações da hemostasia, podendo ser congênita ou adquirida. A deficiência de proteína S, que ocorre pela falta do co-fator para a proteína C, é uma alteração congênita que pode resultar em trombofilia. A reabilitação física, considerada uma terapêutica eficaz, tem seu papel definido na prevenção e tratamento de doenças cardiovasculares. OBJETIVO: Este estudo se propôs a verificar a influência do exercício físico aeróbio associado aos exercícios de resistência muscular localizada na circulação sistêmica e colateral do membro superior e inferior direito e na redução das conseqüências causadas pelas retrações decorrentes das cirurgias. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: A amostra foi composta por uma paciente do sexo feminino, 19 anos, portadora da síndrome de hipercoagulabilidade (trombofilia congênita por deficiência da proteína S, com obstrução total na artéria axilar direita e parcial na artéria femoral superficial direita. O programa de exercícios foi dividido em duas fases. Fase I: Atividades para aumento da amplitude de movimentos, em que se realizavam aplicação de calor, alongamentos passivos manuais mantidos, drenagem linfática e manipulações Effleurage. Fase II: Constituída de exercício aeróbio (45 minutos de caminhada, três vezes por semana, intensidade de 60% a 85% da freqüência cardíaca máxima e exercícios de resistência muscular localizada (contrações dinâmicas, três séries com o máximo de repetições possíveis, baixa intensidade, favorecendo fatores aeróbios. RESULTADOS: 1. Melhora da circulação colateral à artéria axilar, constatada pelo aumento na velocidade de pulso sistólico (verificado através do exame doppler pulsado - na artéria radial, passou de 3,4cm/s para 16,8cm/s; na artéria braquial, de 8,7cm/s para 45,9cm/s. 2. Melhor tolerância ao exercício aeróbio. 3

  12. Efeito do exercício aeróbico e resistido no controle autonômico e nas variáveis hemodinâmicas de jovens saudáveis Effect of resistance and aerobic exercise on the autonomic control and hemodynamic variables in health young individuals

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    César Cavinato Cal Abad

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A prática de exercícios aeróbicos e resistidos provoca ajustes agudos e crônicos distintos. Já foram documentadas diferenças hemodinâmicas e musculares entre os exercícios; todavia, quanto aos ajustes autonômicos, os estudos são escassos e controversos. O objetivo deste estudo foi analisar as adaptações hemodinâmicas e autonômicas após uma sessão de exercício aeróbico (30 minutos, bicicleta ergométrica e resistido (três séries de 12 repetições para os principais grupamentos musculares, em indivíduos jovens e saudáveis. Para tanto, utilizamos medidas da pressão arterial (PA, frequência cardíaca (FC, cálculo do duplo produto e análise da variabilidade da FC (VFC nos domínios do tempo e da frequência e a Plotagem de Poincaré. Neste protocolo, a FC durante o exercício aeróbico foi maior do que no resistido (153,32 ± 2,76 vs. 143,10 ± 3,38 bpm, respectivamente. O exercício aeróbico gerou aumento da PA sistólica durante o exercício (7,25 ± 1,97 mmHg. Já o exercício resistido provocou aumento tanto da PA sistólica quanto da diastólica durante sua execução (14,83 ± 1,53; 11,92 ± 1,69 mmHg, respectivamente. Não foi observada hipotensão pós-exercício para nenhuma das sessões. Ao comparar o exercício aeróbico com o resistido na fase de recuperação, verificamos diminuição na VFC no resistido nas variáveis: RMSSD (37,74 ± 5,30 vs. 19,50 ± 2,32, NN50 (94,13 ± 23,65 vs. 27,63 ± 6,68, PNN50 (16,10 ± 4,72 vs. 3,53 ± 0,89, SD1 (26,65 ± 3,85 vs. 13,73 ± 1,66, SD2 (88,98 ± 10,71 vs. 61,88 ± 5,49 e HF (257,25 ± 45,08 vs. 102,75 ± 18,75 ms². Concluiu-se que, para os protocolos investigados, o trabalho cardiovascular durante o exercício foi semelhante, resultando principalmente do aumento da FC no exercício aeróbico e do aumento da PAS no resistido. No período de recuperação, o exercício resistido promoveu maior alteração autonômica, compatível com manutenção do balan

  13. O condicionamento aeróbico e sua influência na resposta ao estresse mental em oficiais do Exército Aerobic fitness and its influence in the mental stress response in army personnel

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    André Valentim Siqueira Rodrigues

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available O estresse, ao mesmo tempo em que promove a adaptação do ser humano a diferentes situações, em níveis elevados ou se mantidos por longos períodos pode produzir conseqüências para o organismo, acarretando diversos problemas à saúde do indivíduo. A prática de exercício físico e elevada capacidade cardiorrespiratória parecem gerar proteção contra os efeitos indesejados do estresse. O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar o efeito do condicionamento físico aeróbico na resposta psicofisiológica a estressores laboratoriais em oficiais do Exército Brasileiro. Para tal, 438 militares realizaram o teste de 12 minutos de Cooper, a fim de avaliar a sua condição cardiorrespiratória. Depois, entre os que percorreram mais de 3.200m (VO2max estimado de 63,01 ± 2,73ml.kg¹.min¹ e menos do que 2.400m (VO2max estimado de 38,7 ± 1,68ml.kg¹.min¹, foram selecionados 28 militares, divididos igualmente em dois grupos denominados, respectivamente, de condicionamento superior (GSUP e de condicionamento inferior (GINF. Após uma medida inicial em repouso, foram aplicados nos sujeitos dois estressores laboratoriais consecutivos, cold stressor e estressor matemático, enquanto se mensurava o nível de condutibilidade da pele (NCP dos mesmos. Anteriormente ao início dos estressores, os grupos não apresentavam diferença entre si e, quando da aplicação destes, o GSUP apresentou menores valores de NCP que o GINF durante o cold stressor (9,29 ± 0,06µS e 9,40 ± 0,04µS; p = 0,009, respectivamente e durante o estressor matemático (9,29 ± 0,07µS e 9,39 ± 0,07µS; p = 0,012, respectivamente. Os resultados sugerem que indivíduos com melhor condição cardiorrespiratória tendem a apresentar padrões reduzidos na resposta autonômica ao estresse, como indicado pelo comportamento dos níveis de condutibilidade na pele.Stress promotes human adaptation to different situations in high levels or, if kept for long periods, may produce consequences

  14. A dinâmica de populações microbiológicas na estabilização aeróbia de resíduos orgânicos de fecularias de mandioca

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    Samuel Murgel Branco

    1967-12-01

    Full Text Available No presente trabalho foi estudada a biologia da estabilização aeróbia de resíduos da extração industrial de amido e farinhas, das raízes de «mandioca brava» (Manihot esculenta, planta nativa do Brasil e de grande importância econômica dado seu alto valor nutritivo. Os resíduos líquidos dessa extração apresentam elevado teor de matéria orgânica proteica e possuem ácido cianídrico, sendo inconveniente, por essas razões, seu lançamento aos rios sem prévia estabilização. Essa estabilização tem sido obtida, satisfatoriamente, por intermédio de instalações de valos de oxidação. Os objetivos almejados com o estudo da biologia do sistema eram, principalmente: 1. Conhecer a composição biológica e a estrutura microscópica dos flocos formados por aeração; 2. Determinar as causas e, eventualmente, o processo de correção do fenômeno do intumescimento do lôdo («bulking» que freqüentemente ocorre nessas instalações; 3. Determinar a seqüência de populações microbiológicas que se desenvolvem no decorrer do processo de estabilização, de modo a possibilitar o controle microscópico da eficiência do sistema de tratamento. Através da aeração do resíduo, em laboratório e comparando os resultados da análise microscópica com os dados que permitiam verificar a evolução do processo de estabilização, foi possível obter-se os seguintes resultados: 1. Os flocos são constituídos de uma massa biológica em que predominam fungos filamentosos (Fig. 2. 2. Êsses flocos, sendo pouco compactos, originam o fenômeno do intumescimento. 3. A adição de fósforo ao sistema produz modificação radical na biologia e na estrutura dos flocos, determinando predominância de bactérias, formação de flocos compactos e desaparecimento do fenômeno de intumescimento (Fig. 1; Fig. 2c. 4. Foi estabelecida a seqüência de microrganismos bem como as suas relações de natureza ecológica com as distintas etapas na evolu

  15. Efeitos do treinamento de corrida em diferentes intensidades sobre a capacidade aeróbia e produção de lactato pelo músculo de ratos Wistar Running training effects in different intensities on the aerobic capacity and lactate production by the muscle of Wistar rats

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    Michel Barbosa de Araújo

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available São raros os estudos que associam indicadores de capacidade aeróbia e os substratos produzidos pelo metabolismo muscular em ratos. Dessa forma, o objetivo do presente estudo foi verificar o efeito do treinamento de corrida em duas diferentes intensidades sobre a capacidade aeróbia e a produção de lactato pelo músculo sóleo isolado de ratos. Ratos Wistar (90 dias tiveram a transição metabólica aeróbio-anaeróbia determinada pelo teste de máxima fase estável de lactato (MFEL. Em seguida, os ratos foram treinados 40 minutos/dia, cinco dias/semana, na velocidade equivalente à MFEL (TT ou 5% superior a essa (TS, por oito semanas. Como controles foram usados ratos mantidos sedentários (S. Ao final, todos os animais foram sacrificados para análise da produção de lactato pelo músculo sóleo isolado. No inicio do experimento, a maior parte dos animais obteve a MFEL na velocidade de 25m/min à concentração de 4,38 ± 0,22mmol/L sanguínea de lactato. Ao final do experimento, a maior parte dos ratos treinados na TT apresentou MFEL na velocidade de 25m/min, à concentração sanguínea de lactato 3,10 ± 0,27mmol/L. A maioria dos treinados TS teve MFEL na velocidade de 25m/min à concentração sanguínea de lactado de 3,36 ± 0,62mmol/L. Os sedentários mostraram a MFEL na velocidade de 20m/min à concentração sanguínea de lactato de 4,83 ± 0,67mmol/L. A produção de lactato (μmol/g.h pelo músculo sóleo isolado foi menor no grupo TS (3,83 ± 0,62 do que nos demais (S 4,31 ± 0,58 e TT 4,71 ± 0,39. A partir dos resultados obtidos no presente estudo, pode-se concluir que o treinamento aeróbio evitou a deterioração do condicionamento aeróbio imposta pelo avanço da idade e que o treinamento físico na intensidade superior à MFEL reduziu a produção muscular de lactato.There are few studies that associate indicators of aerobic capacity and the substrates produced by the muscular metabolism in rats. The aim of the present

  16. Monitorização ambulatorial da pressão arterial em indivíduos normotensos submetidos a duas sessões únicas de exercícios: resistido e aeróbio Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring in normotensive individuals undergoing two single exercise sessions: resistive exercise training and aerobic exercise training

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    Ambrosina Maria Lignani de Miranda Bermudes

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Investigar a influência de duas sessões únicas de exercício resistido (circuito com pesos e aeróbio sobre as alterações pressóricas, em indivíduos sedentários e normotensos. MÉTODOS: Foram avaliados pela monitorização numa situação controle, sem realização de exercícios (MAPA 1 25 indivíduos, após exercício resistido (MAPA 2 e após exercício aeróbio (MAPA 3. Os exercícios resistidos foram realizados sob forma de circuito com pesos, com intensidade de 40% da força máxima individual e os exercícios aeróbicos em cicloergômetro, com intensidade entre 60% e 70% da freqüência cardíaca (FC máxima alcançada no teste ergométrico. RESULTADOS: A pressão arterial sistólica (PAS de 24h e sub-períodos vigília e sono não apresentaram variações estatisticamente significantes quando comparada à MAPA2 e MAPA3 e MAPA2 e MAPA3 entre si. A pressão arterial diastólica (PAD de 24h e diurna apresentaram reduções significantes (POBJECTIVE: To assess the influence of 2 single exercise sessions on blood pressure in sedentary normotensive individuals: one of resistive exercise training (circuit weight training and the other of aerobic exercise training. METHODS: Using ambulatory blood pressure monitoring, this study assessed 25 individuals as follows: in a controlled situation at rest (ABPM 1; after resistive exercise training (ABPM 2; and after aerobic exercise training (ABPM 3. Resistive exercise training was performed as circuit weight training with an intensity of 40% of each individual's maximum strength. The aerobic exercise training was performed on a cycloergometer with intensity between 60% and 70% of the maximum heart rate (HR reached during previous exercise testing. RESULTS: Systolic blood pressure (SBP values during 24 hours and during subperiods of wakefulness and sleep showed no statistically significant variations when the results obtained at rest were compared with those of ABPM2 and ABPM3, and when

  17. Fermentation, losses, and aerobic stability of sugarcane silages treated with chemical or bacterial additives Fermentação, perdas e estabilidade aeróbia de silagens de cana-de-açúcar tratadas com aditivos químicos ou bacterianos

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    André de Faria Pedroso

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Utilization of sugarcane Saccharum officinarum L. silage is increasing in Brazil but intensive ethanol production during fermentation reduces forage quality. This experiment aimed to evaluate the effects of additives on fermentation and aerobic stability of sugarcane silages produced in minisilos. Treatments were (fresh basis: untreated silage (control, urea (5.0 g kg-1, sodium benzoate (1.0 g kg-1, potassium sorbate (0.3 g kg-1, Lactobacillus plantarum (1 x 10(6 cfu g-1, and Lactobacillus buchneri (3.64 x 10(5 cfu g-1. At the 94th day after ensilage, ethanol concentration was lower in urea, benzoate, sorbate and L. buchneri supplemented silages and higher in L. plantarum inoculated silage, as compared to control. Urea and benzoate treated silages showed the highest and L. plantarum treated silage the lowest in vitro dry matter digestibility. Effluent production was higher in the urea treated silage. Inoculation with L. buchneri reduced 50% ethanol production as compared to control. Urea and L. buchneri reduced yeast count. Aerobic stability was enhanced by L. buchneri and benzoate. Sodium benzoate and L. buchneri were the most promising additives, improving both silage fermentation and aerobic stability; inoculants containing L. plantarum can be deleterious to fermentation and conservation of sugarcane silages.A utilização de silagem de cana-de-açúcar (Saccharum officinarum L. está aumentando no Brasil, mas a intensa produção de etanol durante a fermentação reduz a qualidade da forragem. Este experimento visou avaliar os efeitos de aditivos na fermentação e estabilidade aeróbia de silagens de cana-de-açúcar produzidas em minisilos. Os tratamentos foram (base matéria verde: silagem sem tratamento (controle, uréia (5,0 g kg-1, benzoato de sódio (1,0 g kg-1, sorbato de potássio (0,3 g kg-1, Lactobacillus plantarum (1 x 10(6 ufc g-1 e Lactobacillus buchneri (3,64 x 10(5 ufc g-1. Aos 94 dias após a ensilagem, a concentração de

  18. Estabilidade aeróbia, pH e dinâmica de desenvolvimento de microrganismos da cana-de-açúcar in natura hidrolisada com cal virgem Aerobic stability, pH and development dynamic of microorganisms on fresh sugarcane hydrolyzed with whitewash

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    F.N. Domingues

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar o efeito da adição de cal virgem e dos tempos após a aplicação sobre a estabilidade aeróbia e o crescimento de microrganismos (leveduras e fungos na cana-de-açúcar in natura. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado, com quatro repetições. Avaliaram-se a estabilidade aeróbia (temperatura, a dinâmica de desenvolvimento de leveduras e fungos e o pH, em um esquema de parcelas subdivididas, com cinco doses de cal (0; 0,5; 1,0; 1,5 e 2,0% e cinco tempos após aplicação (0, 24, 48, 72, 96 horas. Houve efeito significativo das doses de cal para todos os parâmetros avaliados. A cana que não foi tratada com cal (0% apresentou quebra da estabilidade no menor intervalo de tempo. Os valores de pH aumentaram gradativamente de acordo com a dose de cal aplicada e diminuíram com o tempo após aplicação. Houve aumento numérico na contagem de leveduras até as 72 horas após a aplicação da cal, independentemente da dose, e os valores tenderam a estabilizar no tempo de 96 horas pós-tratamento. Não houve efeito significativo das doses de cal sobre o desenvolvimento dos fungos. A aplicação de cal virgem é eficaz no controle do crescimento de leveduras e aumenta a estabilidade aeróbia da cana-de-açúcar in natura.The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of whitewash addition and the times after application on aerobic stability and growth of microorganisms (fungi and yeasts in fresh sugarcane. It was used a completely randomized experimental design, with four replications. Aerobic stability (temperature and the concentrations of yeast and fungus and pH were evaluated in a split-splot scheme with five doses of whitewash (0; 0.5; 1.0; 1.5 and 2.0% and five times after treatment (0, 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours. There was a significant effect of doses of whitewash for all evaluated parameters. The sugarcane which was not treated with whitewash (0.0% showed a break in

  19. Efeito do treinamento físico de membros superiores aeróbio de curta duração no deficiente físico com hipertensão leve The effect of short term Aerobic physical training using upper limbs in paraplegic persons with mild to moderate hypertension

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    Sandra Haddad

    1997-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Verificar as alterações provocadas pelo treinamento físico (TF, com membros superiores (MMSS, em condição aeróbia de curta duração, sobre variáveis dos sistemas cardiovascular e metabólico. MÉTODOS: Foram estudados 11 deficientes físicos (DF paraplégicos, com média de idade de 59 anos, sendo 7 homens e 4 mulheres, com lesão de T9 a T11 e grau leve de hipertensão arterial sistêmica (HAS. Os DF foram avaliados antes e após 12 semanas de um programa de TF supervisionado de MMSS, por meio de teste ergométrico (TE em cicloergômetro mecânico adaptado para MMSS, utilizando-se protocolo intermitente com incremento de carga de 125kgm/min (20w para mulheres e 140kgm/min (25w para homens a cada 3min., em velocidade que variou de 83 a 95rpm. O consumo de oxigênio (VO2 foi calculado de acordo com a equação para MMSS do American College of Sports Medicine. A intensidade do exercício durante o programa de TF foi estabelecida pela reserva de freqüência cardíaca (RFC de Karvonen, com variação de 65% a 85% e escala de percepção subjetiva ao esforço de Borg obtida pelo TE. RESULTADOS: A capacidade aeróbia máxima estimada aumentou 22% (930±349 vs 1138±290mL/min; p=0,003; a pressão arterial sistólica (PAS e diastólica (PAD em repouso e no exercício submáximo diminuíram em 4%, 15% e 5%, 5%, respectivamente. CONCLUSÃO: O TF aeróbio de intensidade leve a moderada com MMSS, além de melhorar a aptidão funcional exerce também papel importante como modelo terapêutico não medicamentoso na resposta hipertensiva observada em DF paraplégicos.PURPOSE: To study the modifications induced by physical training (PT using upper limbs in aerobic condition of short duration on cardiovascular and metabolic variables. METHODS: Eleven paraplegic persons, with a mean age of 59 years, 7 men and 4 women with lesions at T9 through T11 and mild hypertension (HAS were studied. The patients were studied before and after 12 weeks of a

  20. Efeito do exercício aeróbio e resistido no perfil antropométrico e respostas cardiovasculares de idosos portadores de hipertensão = Aerobic exercise and resistance effect on the anthropometric profile and cardiovascular responses in elderly people with high blood pressure

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    Kleverton Krinski

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo teve por objetivo analisar os efeitos do exercício aeróbio e resistido no perfil antropométrico e respostas cardiovasculares de idosos portadores de hipertensão arterial (HA. A amostra foi composta de 53 voluntários de ambos os sexos, todos sedentários, com idade de 64,28±4,7 anos, cor branca, portadores de HA. Foram analisados os níveis de pressão arterial (PA, freqüência cardíaca (FC peso corporal (Kg, IMC e percentual de gordura corporal (%GC, antes, durante e após seis meses de exercícios. O protocolo de treinamento foi composto por uma sessão de exercícios, dividida em 20 minutos de atividade aeróbia e 40 minutos de exercícios resistidos dinâmicos, com freqüência semanal de três vezes e duração de seis meses. Como principais resultados apresentaram-se diferenças significativas em relação ao %GC, acompanhado de umaredução linear na pressão arterial média (PAM e FC, indicando uma melhora em importantes parâmetros morfofuncionais.The present study aimed to analyze the aerobic and resistance exercise effects on the anthropometric profile and cardiovascular responses in elderly people with High Blood Pressure (HBP. The sample consisted of 53 volunteers of both genders who were allsedentary, at the age of 64.28±4.7 years old, fair skin, with HBP. The blood pressure levels, cardiac frequency (CF, body weight (Kg, BMI and body fat percentage (BF% were analyzed before, during and after the period of exercises. The training protocol consisted ofexercise sessions divided into 20 minutes of aerobic activity and 40 minutes of dynamic resistance exercises, three times a week, during a period of six months. Results showed a significant difference in relation to the BF%, followed by a linear reduction in the AverageBlood Pressure (ABP and CF, as well as an improvement in important morphofunctional parameters.

  1. Perdas fermentativas e estabilidade aeróbia de silagens de cana-de-açúcar tratadas com cal virgem e cloreto de sódio Fermentation losses and aerobic stability of sugarcane silages treated with whitewash and sodium chlorite

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    A.V. Rezende

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Esta pesquisa foi realizada com o objetivo de determinar o efeito da inclusão de cal virgem e cloreto de sódio sobre as perdas fermentativas e a estabilidade aeróbia de silagens de cana-de-açúcar. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o totalmente ao acaso em esquema de parcelas subdivididas com quatro repetições, de modo que os aditivos foram avaliados nas parcelas (silagem sem aditivo; silagens contendo 0,5; 1,0 e 2,0% de cloreto de sódio; e silagens contendo 0,5; 1,0 e 1,5% de cal virgem na matéria natural e os tempos de exposição ao oxigênio nas subparcelas. Após 75 dias da ensilagem, os silos foram abertos para determinação dos teores de matéria seca (MS e da perda de MS por efluente e gases e aferição da temperatura e do pH da silagem. A inclusão de cal nas silagens, independentemente da dose utilizada, proporcionou maior teor de MS e menor perda de MS. As menores temperaturas foram observadas nas silagens tratadas com cloreto de sódio. Os aditivos utilizados, sobretudo o cloreto de sódio, foram eficientes em manter a estabilidade aeróbia da silagem de cana.The objective of this work was to determine the inclusion of whitewash and sodium chloride on the fermentative losses and aerobic stability of sugarcane silages. It was used a completely randomized experimental design in split plot scheme with four replicates, so the additives were evaluated in the plots (silage without additive, silages containing 0.5; 1.0 and 2.0% of sodium chloride; and silages containing 0.5; 1.0 and 1.5% of whitewash, on the basis of natural matter and the time of exposition to oxygen was evaluated in the subplots. After 75 days from ensilage, silos were opened for determination of the contents of dry matter (DM and the loss of dry matter by effluent and gases and checking of temperature and pH of the silage. The addition of whitewash into silages, regardless to the dose utilized, provides greater DM content and smaller loss of DM. The

  2. Efeitos do estado e especificidade do treinamento aeróbio na relação %VO2max versus %FCmax durante o ciclismo Effects of the state and specificity of aerobic training on the %VO2max versus %HRmax ratio during cycling

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    Fabrizio Caputo

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Determinar os efeitos do estado e especificidade de treinamento aeróbio na relação entre o percentual do consumo máximo de oxigênio (%VO2max e o percentual da frequência cardíaca máxima (%FCmax durante o exercício incremental realizado no cicloergômetro. MÉTODOS: Sete corredores, 9 ciclistas, 11 triatletas e 12 sedentários, todos do sexo masculino e aparentemente saudáveis, foram submetidos a um teste incremental até a exaustão no cicloergômetro. Regressões lineares entre %VO2max e %FCmax foram determinadas para cada indivíduo. Com base nessas regressões, foram calculados %FCmax correspondentes a determinados %VO2max (50, 60, 70, 80 e 90% de cada participante. RESULTADOS: Não foram encontradas diferenças significantes entre todos os grupos nos %FCmax para cada um dos %VO2max avaliados. Analisando-se os voluntários como um único grupo, as médias dos %FCmax correspondentes a 50, 60, 70, 80 e 90% %VO2max foram 67, 73, 80, 87, e 93%, respectivamente. CONCLUSÃO: Nos grupos analisados, a relação entre o %VO2max e %FCmax durante o exercício incremental no ciclismo não é dependente do estado e especificidade do treinamento aeróbio.OBJECTIVE: To determine the effects of the status and specificity of exercise training in the ratio between maximum oxygen consumption (%VO2max and the percentage of maximal heart rate (%HRmax during incremental exercise on a cycle ergometer. METHODS: Seven runners, 9 cyclists, 11 triathletes, and 12 sedentary individuals, all male and apparently healthy, underwent exhaustive incremental exercise on cycle ergometers. Linear regressions between %VO2max x %HRmax were determined for each individual. Based on these regressions, %HRmax was assessed corresponding to a determined %VO2max (50, 60, 70, 80, and 90% from each participant. RESULTS: Significant differences were not found between the groups in %HRmax for each of the %VO2max assessed. Analyzing the volunteers as a single group, the

  3. Exercício aeróbico, treinamento de força muscular e testes de aptidão física para adolescentes com fibrose cística: revisão da literatura Exercise testing, aerobic and strength training for adolescents with cystic fibrosis: a literature review

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    Celia Regina Moutinho de Miranda Chaves

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available São reconhecidos os benefícios da prática do exercício físico regular para pacientes com fibrose cística. Entretanto, poucos estudos envolvem pacientes adolescentes. O objetivo deste artigo foi revisar os efeitos da prática regular de exercícios aeróbicos e de força e resistência muscular para adolescentes com fibrose cística. Os principais testes de aptidão física para esta faixa etária e a importância deles para melhora do prognóstico e tratamento da doença também foram avaliados. As informações foram coletadas a partir de livro-texto e artigos publicados na literatura nacional e estrangeira nas seguintes bases de dados: LILACS, MEDLINE/PubMed, Biblioteca Cochrane e SciELO, abrangendo o período de 1994 a 2004. Foram utilizados os termos "exercise" e "cystic fibrosis" para seleção dos artigos. Esta pesquisa demonstrou que a prática de exercício aeróbico e treinamento de força muscular melhoram a desobstrução da árvore brônquica, diminuem a queda progressiva da função pulmonar, aumentam a massa muscular e a resistência ao exercício, promovem o desenvolvimento ósseo e melhoram a auto-estima e a qualidade de vida. Os melhores resultados foram obtidos com os programas de treinamento assistido, devido a sua maior regularidade.The benefits of regular physical exercises for cystic fibrosis patients are well known. Nevertheless, few studies involve adolescent patients. The objective of this article was to review the effects of regular practice of aerobic exercises, strength exercises and muscular exercises in adolescents with cystic fibrosis. The main physical fitness tests for this age bracket and their value in improving prognosis and treatment were assessed as well. Information was collected from text books and articles published in the national and foreign literature in the following databases: LILACS, MEDLINE/PubMed, Cochrane Library and SciELO, comprising the period of 1994 to 2004. The terms "exercise" and

  4. Composição química e estabilidade aeróbia em silagens de milho preparadas com inoculantes bacteriano e/ou enzimático = Chemical composition and aerobic stability of corn silages made with bacterials and/or enzymatic inoculants

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    Agda Luzia de Godoy Gimenes

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho avaliou o efeito de inoculantes bacterianos e/ou enzimáticos na composição química e na estabilidade aeróbia da silagem de milho confeccionada em minisilos. Os tratamentos foram: SC (silagem controle, SIB (silagem com inoculante bacteriano, SIBE (silagem com inoculante bacteriano e enzimático e SIE (silagem com inoculante enzimático. A adição de inoculante não alterou os teores de matéria orgânica (87,43%, proteína bruta (7,99%, fibra em detergente neutro (55,43% e fibra em detergente ácido (27,67%. Os tratamentos SIE e SC apresentaram, na abertura, o menor (3,28 e maior (3,42 pH, e, após o período de exposição ao ar, o menor (3,87 e maior (6,64 pH, respectivamente. O uso de inoculantes não influenciou os teores de N-amoniacal das silagens. Os tratamentoscom inoculantes apresentaram menor pico de temperatura, maior tempo para atingir o pico de temperatura e maior estabilidade aeróbia.This work evaluated the effect of bacterial and/or enzymatic inoculants on chemical composition and aerobic stability in corn silage, made in mini-silos. The treatments were: CS (control silage, SBI (silage with bacterial inoculant, SBEI (silage with bacterial and enzymatic inoculant and SEI (silage with enzymatic inoculant. The use of inoculants did not affect the organic matter (87,43%, crude protein (7,99%, neutral detergent fiber (55,43% and acid detergent fiber (27,67% contents. The SEI and CS treatments showed the lowest (3,28 and the highest (3,42 pH values in the beginningand after an air exposure period, showed again the lowest (3,87 and the highest (6,64 pH values, respectively. The inoculants used did not affect N-amonniacal contents of the silages. The treatments with inoculants presented the lowest temperature peak, more time to reach this temperature and the highest aerobics stability.

  5. Efeito da atividade física associada à orientação alimentar em adolescentes obesos: comparação entre o exercício aeróbio e anaeróbio Efecto de la actividad física asociada a la orientación alimentar en adolescentes obesos: comparación entre el ejercicio aeróbico y anaeróbico Effect of physical activity associated with nutritional orientation for obese adolescents: comparison between aerobic and anaerobic exercise

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    Renata Viccari Sabia

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available A obesidade na adolescência é uma doença universal de prevalência mundial crescente, assumindo caráter epidemiológico como problema de saúde pública na sociedade moderna. Este trabalho teve como objetivo comparar o efeito do exercício físico aeróbio contínuo e anaeróbio intermitente associado à orientação alimentar sobre a composição corporal, as medidas bioquímicas e a capacidade física de adolescentes obesos. Foram investigados 28 adolescentes (média de idade = 13 anos, com índice de massa corporal (IMC acima do percentil 95 para a idade e sexo, distribuídos em dois grupos de forma aleatória: exercício de caminhada contínua (GEC; n = 13 e exercício de corrida intermitente (GEI; n = 15 e submetidos a um programa de treinamento físico três vezes por semana durante 16 semanas por 20 a 40 minutos. A atividade de orientação nutricional ocorreu uma vez por semana, em grupo, por 60 minutos, durante todo o experimento. Foram realizadas, no período inicial e final, medidas de peso e altura, pregas subcutâneas, circunferências do braço (CB e muscular do braço (CMB, composição corporal por bioimpedância elétrica, análises bioquímicas séricas (glicemia e lipídios e determinação direta de consumo máximo de oxigênio (VO2max e limiar anaeróbio (LAn. Como resultados antropométricos, observamos diminuição do IMC e das pregas cutâneas com diferença significativa nos dois grupos (GEC e GEI. Na avaliação bioquímica, houve diminuição significativa nos níveis séricos de HDL e LDL, colesterol total, e aumento do triglicérides e glicemia no GEC, embora mantendo-se dentro dos valores de normalidade. No GEI, o HDL e triglicérides tiveram diminuição significativa. O VO2max aumentou estatisticamente nos dois grupos. Concluímos que a atividade física proposta e a orientação alimentar, tanto para o GEC quanto para GEI, foi suficiente e satisfatória, promovendo diminuição ponderal, melhora da composi

  6. Comparação entre os métodos rápidos SimplateR TPC- CI e PetrifilmR AC e os métodos convencionais de contagem em placas para a enumeração de aeróbios mesófilos em sorvetes Comparasion of SimplateR test and Petrifilm with plate count agar method for detection and enumeration of bacteria in ice cream

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    Anderson de Souza Sant'ana; Caetano da Conceição; Denise Rosane Perdomo Azeredo

    2002-01-01

    A contagem de aeróbios mesófilos ou contagem padrão em placas em um produto alimentício reflete a qualidade da matéria-prima, bem como as condições de processamento, manuseio e estocagem. O método de contagem em placas tradicionais requer 48h de incubação para a posterior leitura dos resultados. Comparou-se dois métodos que parecem ser uma boa alternativa para a contagem padrão em placas: SimplateR TPC-CI e PetrifilmR AC. Também avaliou-se a capacidade inibitória do 2, 3, 5 cloreto de trifeni...

  7. Treinamento aeróbio em natação melhora a resposta de parâmetros metabólicos de ratos durante teste de esforço Aerobic swimming training improves metabolic parameters response during exertion test in rats

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    Juliana Silveira Freitas

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Foram investigados os efeitos do treinamento aeróbio em natação com baixa intensidade sobre as respostas do lactato e da glicose sanguíneos de ratos durante teste de esforço. Ratos Wistar adultos foram distribuídos aleatoriamente em dois grupos: sedentário (n = 6 e treinado (n = 6. Todos receberam água e ração ad libitum e foram mantidos em ambiente com temperatura de 22 ± 2ºC e ciclo claro/escuro de 12 horas. O grupo treinado foi submetido a um programa de natação contínua sem sobrecarga, 30 min/dia, cinco dias/semana, por seis semanas. Três dias após a última sessão de treino, as concentrações sanguíneas de lactato e glicose foram medidas em três momentos durante dois testes de esforço de 20 minutos (repouso, 10 min e 20 min, sendo um sem carga e outro com carga (5% do peso corporal, separados por dois dias. Observou-se correlação inversa entre lactato e glicose durante o exercício (ρ = - 0,74; P 0,05. Conclui-se que o treinamento aeróbio em natação aplicado foi capaz de alterar as respostas do lactato e glicose sanguíneos de ratos durante os testes de esforço.The effects of low intensity aerobic swimming training on blood lactate and glucose responses in rats were investigated during exertion test. Twelve adult male Wistar rats were randomly divided into two groups: sedentary (n= 6 and trained (n= 6. All animals received water and food ad libitum and were kept in a room with temperature of 22 ± 2ºC and dark/light cycle of 12 hours. Animals from trained group were submitted to a swimming training protocol of 30 min/day, 5 days/week, for 6 weeks. Sedentary animals did not exercise. Three days after the last training session all animals were submitted to two 20-minute swimming tests with 48 hour-interval, being one unloaded and the other with a load of 5 % of body weight. Blood lactate and glucose were measured at rest, 10 min and 20 min of exercise. Negative correlation between blood lactate and glucose levels

  8. A relação entre o nível de condicionamento aeróbico, execução de uma pista de obstáculos e o rendimento em um teste de tiro La relación entre el nivel de acondicionamiento aeróbico, ejecución de una pista de obstáculos y el rendimiento en un test de tiro Relationship between the level of the aerobic conditioning, performance on an obstacle course, and outcome in a shooting test

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    Adriano da Costa Dias

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available A preparação do militar para o combate é baseada na instrução militar que tem como fundamento a representação do campo de batalha. Entre as principais instruções estão a pista de obstáculos e a execução do tiro. O objetivo deste estudo foi verificar a influência do nível de condicionamento aeróbico sobre o rendimento na execução de uma pista de obstáculos e a realização de um teste de tiro em integrantes do Exército Brasileiro. Procurou-se, também, verificar a influência da execução de uma pista de obstáculos sobre a execução de um teste de tiro. O citado rendimento foi avaliado pelo tempo de execução de uma pista de obstáculos e resultado no teste de tiro (considerou-se a diferença entre o resultado do tiro pós e pré-esforço como índice de performance no tiro IPT. A amostra foi constituída de 28 militares homens, de 19 a 20 anos de idade. Inicialmente foi estimado o VO2máx dos indivíduos por meio do teste de Léger-Boucher. Posteriormente os militares da amostra executaram um teste de tiro, uma pista de obstáculos e, novamente, um teste de tiro. Verificou-se uma diferença significativa entre o tiro pré-esforço e pós-esforço (43,79 ± 4,02 para 40,54 ± 4,10 pontos, p La preparación del ejército para combate esta basado en la instrucción militar que el soldado tiene como fundamento en la representación del campo de batalla. Entre las instrucciones principales ellos son la pista de obstáculos y la ejecución del tiro. El objetivo de este estudio es el de verificar la influencia del nivel de acondicionamiento de ejercicio aeróbico en el ingreso en la ejecución de una pista de obstáculos y el logro de una prueba del tiro en los miembros del Ejército brasileño. Se buscaba además, verificar la influencia de la ejecución de una pista de obstáculos en la ejecución de una prueba del tiro. El estudio mencionado fue evaluado cuando se realizaron pruebas de ejecución de una pista de obstáculos y

  9. Predição da potência aeróbia (VO2máx de crianças e adolescentes em teste incremental na esteira rolante Prediction of aerobic power (VO2max of children and adolescents during an incremental treadmill test

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    Fabiana Andrade Machado

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available O consumo máximo de oxigênio (VO2máx é a quantidade máxima de energia que pode ser produzida pelo metabolismo aeróbio em determinada unidade de tempo, podendo ser determinado direta ou indiretamente através de equações preditivas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi elaborar uma equação preditiva específica para determinar o VO2máx de meninos de 10 a 16 anos. Quarenta e dois meninos realizaram teste ergoespirométrico de corrida em esteira rolante com velocidade inicial de 9 km/h até exaustão voluntária. Através da regressão linear múltipla foi possível desenvolver a seguinte equação para a determinação indireta do VO2máx: VO2máx (ml/min = -1574,06 + (141,38 x Vpico + (48,34 * Massa corporal, com erro padrão de estimativa = 191,5 ml/min (4,10 ml/kg/min e o coeficiente de determinação = 0,934. Sugerimos que esta é uma fórmula adequada para predizer o VO2máx para esta população.The maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max is the maximal quantity of energy that can be produced by the aerobic metabolism in certain time unity. It can be determined direct or indirectly by predictive equations. The objective of this study was to make a specific predictive equation to determine the VO2max from boys aged 10-16 years-old. Forty-two boys underwent a treadmill running ergospirometric test, with the initial velocity set at 9 km/h, until voluntary exhaustion. By the multiple linear regression was possible to develop the following equation for the indirect determination of the VO2max: VO2max (ml/min = -1574.06 + (141.38 x Vpeak + (48.34 * Body mass, with standard error of estimate = 191.5 ml/min (4.10 ml/kg/min and coefficient of determination = 0.934. We suggest that this formula is appropriate to predict VO2max for this population.

  10. Evaluación del proceso de descomposición aeróbica de egeria densa como alimento potencial para especies acuáticas (An assessment of the aerobic decomposition of Egeria densa as a potencial source of food for aquatic species

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    Nacif Osorio, Yamel

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available ResumenLas plantas acuáticas son ampliamente conocidas como fuentes de alimento. En el caso de los organismos omnívorodetritívoros,el nivel de descomposición que presentan los vegetales al ser ingeridos determinan su contenido nutritivo. En este trabajo se evaluó el contenido nutrimental de la macrófita Egeria densa en estado de descomposición aeróbica a distintos tiempos, analizando los cambios que ocurren en la composición de su tejido, así como los principales agentes bióticos y abióticos que inciden en el proceso. Serealizó una caracterización físico-química del hábitat donde se recolectó esta especie. En el laboratorio se aplicó un diseño 2 X 2, con factores como temperatura (ambiente:21ºC y 25ºC y tamaño del vegetal (macrófita entera y fraccionada en segmentos < de 50mm,acondicionado con un inóculo bacteriano proveniente del sedimento del sitio de recolección. Se practicaron estudios microbiológicos en los inóculos aplicados inicialmente y del proceso de descomposición a través de su modificación semanal, sobre la cantidad y tipo de bacterias: coliformes fecales, totales y en grupos específicos deenterobacterias y algunas bacterias atógenas. Para analizar los cambios ocurridos en la composición del ensilado, se analizaron muestras semanales en su contenido de proteína, carbohidratos,lípidos, materia orgánica, minerales y contenido energético.A partir de los resultados de degradación del vegetal, se determinó un tiempo óptimo de acción bacteriana (2-3 semanas, para obtener material cuyo contenido nutritivo y energético pueda ser empleado como alimento en especies acuáticas de hábitos alimenticiosomnívoro– detritívoro.

  11. O bloqueio da síntese do óxido nítrico promove aumento da hipertrofia e da fibrose cardíaca em ratos submetidos a treinamento aeróbio Nitric oxide synthesis blockade increases hypertrophy and cardiac fibrosis in rats submitted to aerobic training

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    Hugo Celso Dutra de Souza

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: O presente estudo avaliou as adaptações teciduais cardíacas em ratos submetidos a treinamento aeróbio, após o bloqueio da síntese de óxido nítrico (NO. MÉTODOS: Os animais (n = 48 foram divididos em quatro grupos: sedentários (grupo CONTROLE, hipertensos após administração de Ng-nitro-L-arginina metil éster durante sete dias (grupo L-NAME, treinados por meio de natação durante oito semanas (grupo TREINADO e treinados e tratados com L-NAME na última semana (grupo TREINADO L-NAME. Em todos os animais foi registrada a pressão arterial (PA e realizada a avaliação morfométrica cardíaca. RESULTADOS: Os grupos L-NAME e TREINADO L-NAME apresentaram-se hipertensos em relação aos demais (p OBJECTIVE: The objective of the present study was to evaluate cardiac tissue adaptations in rats submitted to aerobic training after nitric oxide (NO synthesis blockade. METHODS: The animals (n=48 were divided into four groups: sedentary (CONTROL group; hypertensive after administration of NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester for 7 days (L-NAME Group; trained for 8 weeks through swimming exercises (TRAINED Group;trained and treated with L-NAME during the last week (L-NAME TRAINED Group. All the animals were submitted to the experiment procedures for blood pressure (BP readings and cardiac morphometric evaluation. RESULTS: In comparison to the other groups, the L-NAME and L-NAME TRAINED groups were hypertensive (p<0.05; however, BP elevation in the L-NAME TRAINED group was significantly lower than the L-NAME group (p<0.05. The heart weight indexes for the TRAINED and L-NAME TRAINED groups were higher than the CONTROL and L-NAME groups (p<0.05. Also they had presented higher rates of macroscopic cardiac area and cardiac fibrosis in relation to the rest (p<0.05; comparisons revealed that the values for the L-NAME TRAINED group were significantly higher (p<0.05 than the others. CONCLUSION: Short term NO synthesis blockade in sedentary animals

  12. Efeito do exercício aeróbio e resistido no perfil antropométrico e respostas cardiovasculares de idosos portadores de hipertensão - DOI: 10.4025/actascihealthsci.v28i1.1093 Aerobic exercise and resistance effect on the anthropometric profile and cardiovascular responses in elderly people with high blood pressure - DOI: 10.4025/actascihealthsci.v28i1.1093

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    Hassan Mohamed Elsangedy

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo teve por objetivo analisar os efeitos do exercício aeróbio e resistido no perfil antropométrico e respostas cardiovasculares de idosos portadores de hipertensão arterial (HA. A amostra foi composta de 53 voluntários de ambos os sexos, todos sedentários, com idade de 64,28±4,7 anos, cor branca, portadores de HA. Foram analisados os níveis de pressão arterial (PA, freqüência cardíaca (FC peso corporal (Kg, IMC e percentual de gordura corporal (%GC, antes, durante e após seis meses de exercícios. O protocolo de treinamento foi composto por uma sessão de exercícios, dividida em 20 minutos de atividade aeróbia e 40 minutos de exercícios resistidos dinâmicos, com freqüência semanal de três vezes e duração de seis meses. Como principais resultados apresentaram-se diferenças significativas em relação ao %GC, acompanhado de uma redução linear na pressão arterial média (PAM e FC, indicando uma melhora em importantes parâmetros morfofuncionaisThe present study aimed to analyze the aerobic and resistance exercise effects on the anthropometric profile and cardiovascular responses in elderly people with High Blood Pressure (HBP. The sample consisted of 53 volunteers of both genders who were all sedentary, at the age of 64.28±4.7 years old, fair skin, with HBP. The blood pressure levels, cardiac frequency (CF, body weight (Kg, BMI and body fat percentage (BF% were analyzed before, during and after the period of exercises. The training protocol consisted of exercise sessions divided into 20 minutes of aerobic activity and 40 minutes of dynamic resistance exercises, three times a week, during a period of six months. Results showed a significant difference in relation to the BF%, followed by a linear reduction in the Average Blood Pressure (ABP and CF, as well as an improvement in important morphofunctional parameters

  13. Composição química e estabilidade aeróbia em silagens de milho preparadas com inoculantes bacteriano e/ou enzimático - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v28i2.640 Chemical composition and aerobic stability of corn silages made with bacterials and/or enzymatic inoculants - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v28i2.640

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    Elzânia Sales Pereira

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho avaliou o efeito de inoculantes bacterianos e/ou enzimáticos na composição química e na estabilidade aeróbia da silagem de milho confeccionada em minisilos. Os tratamentos foram: SC (silagem controle, SIB (silagem com inoculante bacteriano, SIBE (silagem com inoculante bacteriano e enzimático e SIE (silagem com inoculante enzimático. A adição de inoculante não alterou os teores de matéria orgânica (87,43%, proteína bruta (7,99%, fibra em detergente neutro (55,43% e fibra em detergente ácido (27,67%. Os tratamentos SIE e SC apresentaram, na abertura, o menor (3,28 e maior (3,42 pH, e, após o período de exposição ao ar, o menor (3,87 e maior (6,64 pH, respectivamente. O uso de inoculantes não influenciou os teores de N-amoniacal das silagens. Os tratamentos com inoculantes apresentaram menor pico de temperatura, maior tempo para atingir o pico de temperatura e maior estabilidade aeróbia.This work evaluated the effect of bacterial and/or enzymatic inoculants on chemical composition and aerobic stability in corn silage, made in mini-silos. The treatments were: CS (control silage, SBI (silage with bacterial inoculant, SBEI (silage with bacterial and enzymatic inoculant and SEI (silage with enzymatic inoculant. The use of inoculants did not affect the organic matter (87,43%, crude protein (7,99%, neutral detergent fiber (55,43% and acid detergent fiber (27,67% contents. The SEI and CS treatments showed the lowest (3,28 and the highest (3,42 pH values in the beginning and after an air exposure period, showed again the lowest (3,87 and the highest (6,64 pH values, respectively. The inoculants used did not affect N-amonniacal contents of the silages. The treatments with inoculants presented the lowest temperature peak, more time to reach this temperature and the highest aerobics stability.

  14. Efeito da inversão dos turnos de trabalho sobre capacidade aeróbia e respostas cardiovasculares ao esforço máximo Effect of the work shift reversal on the aerobic capacity and cardiovascular responses to maximal exercise

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    Anna Myrna Jaguaribe de Lima

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Os distúrbios do sono e alterações associadas atingem grande parte da população que trabalha no turno noturno, afetando a sua qualidade de vida. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi comparar a capacidade aeróbia e as respostas cardiovasculares ao exercício máximo em indivíduos com ciclo sono vigília fisiológico e com inversão dos turnos de trabalho. Foram analisados 18 indivíduos do sexo masculino, sedentários, com idade entre 23-35 anos, divididos em 2 grupos: a grupo controle, formado por estudantes (n=9 e b grupo experimental, composto por controladores de tráfego aéreo que trabalhavam com inversão dos turnos de trabalho (n=9. Para a medida da capacidade aeróbia, foi determinado o VO2máx. por meio do analisador de gases metabólicos (VO-2000, Aerosport, Medgraphics. Para o teste de esforço máximo foi realizado o protocolo de rampa em esteira (Millenniun ATL Inbramed e as respostas cardiovasculares (FC, PAS e PAD foram verificadas antes e após a realização do exercício. De acordo com os resultados, o grupo experimental apresentou valores inferiores de FC no repouso (79,8 ± 11,5 bpm vs. 70,3 ± 3,8 bpm, no 5º (112,7± 15,1 bpm vs. 98,7 ± 6,3 bpm e no 7º minuto (108,7 ± 16,6 bpm vs. 93,9 ± 6,8 bpm de recuperação. Quanto à PAS, foram observados valores superiores durante o repouso (110,0 ± 11,2 mmHg vs. 104,0 ± 5,7 mmHg, nos indivíduos do grupo controle. Já a PAD, mostrou níveis superiores no 5º minuto da recuperação no grupo experimental (67,0 ± 4,4 mmHg vs. 58,9 ± 6,0 mmHg. Por fim, foram verificados valores superiores de VO2máx. para os indivíduos do grupo controle (58,9 ± 6,1 ml/kg/min em relação ao experimental (53,7 ± 2,5 ml/kg/min. Desta forma, podemos concluir que a inversão nos turnos de trabalho, afetando o ciclo sono-vigília, altera não apenas o ciclo circadiano das variáveis cardiovasculares no repouso e na recuperação do esforço, como também traz prejuízos à capacidade

  15. Condicionamento físico aeróbio moderado promove redução no rápido ganho de peso de ratos adultos desnutridos nos períodos de gestação e lactação Moderate aerobic physical conditioning reduces the fast weight gain of adult rats malnourished during pregnancy and lactation

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    Tâmara Nunes de Araújo

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Foram avaliados os efeitos do condicionamento físico aeróbio moderado sobre o peso corporal e o ganho de peso de animais submetidos à desnutrição na gestação e lactação e alimentados com dieta normoprotéica após o desmame. MÉTODOS: Ratos machos Wistar foram gerados e amamentados por nutrizes alimentadas com dieta normoprotéica (caseína 17% e dieta hipoprotéica (caseína 8%, formando os grupos Nutridos (n=18 e Desnutridos (n=17 inicialmente e, após o desmame, foram alimentados com dieta normoprotéica padrão do biotério (Labina®, Purina. Aos 60 dias de vida, os animais foram subdivididos em quatro grupos: Nutrido Sedentário (n=9, Nutrido Condicionado (n=7, Desnutrido na Gestação e Lactação Sedentário (n=8 e Desnutrido na Gestação e Lactação Condicionado (n=9. O condicionamento físico aeróbio moderado foi realizado em esteira elétrica durante 8 semanas, 5 dias/ semana, 60min/dia e os animais sofreram eutanásia após o término do protocolo. Realizaram-se as análises do peso corporal (g e do ganho de peso corporal (%. RESULTADOS: Observou-se menor peso corporal nos grupos Desnutrido na Gestação e Lactação Sedentário (247,00: 134,00 - 335,00 e Desnutrido na Gestação e Lactação Condicionado (245,00: 166,00 - 324,50 comparados respectivamente, aos grupos Nutrido Sedentário (303,75: 176,00 - 372,00 e Nutrido Condicionado (290,25: 190,00 - 372,00 (pOBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to assess the effects of moderate aerobic physical conditioning on the body weight and weight gain of rats whose mothers were fed a low protein diet during gestation and lactation. METHODS: Male Wistar rats were bred from dams fed a normal- (17% casein or low-protein (8% casein diet, constituting the initial nourished (n=18 and malnourished (n=17 groups. After weaning, they were fed the standard diet of the laboratory, with normal protein content (Labina®, Purina. At the age of 60 days, the animals were divided

  16. O treinamento físico aeróbio inibe a sinalização apoptótica muscular esquelética mediada por VEGF-VEGR2 em ratos espontaneamente hipertensos Aerobic exercise training inhibits skeletal muscular apoptotic signaling mediated by VEGF-VEGR2 in spontaneously hypertesive rats

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    Tiago Fernandes

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available O treinamento físico aeróbio (TF tem sido utilizado como um importante tratamento não farmacológico da hipertensão arterial (HA, uma vez que ele corrige a rarefação microvascular e reduz a pressão arterial. Estudos mostram que as anormalidades microvasculares estão diretamente associadas às alterações do fator de crescimento vascular endotelial (VEGF e do VEGF receptor 2 (VEGFR2, bem como a um desequilíbrio da sinalização apoptótica na HA. Entretanto, pouco se conhece sobre os efeitos do TF sobre estes parâmetros na HA. Nós hipotetizamos que o TF recupere os fatores angiogênicos e promova um equilíbrio entre as proteínas anti e pró-apoptóticas da família Bcl-2 potencialmente, contribuindo para a revascularização e regressão da doença. Ratos espontaneamente hipertensos (SHR, n = 14 e Wistar Kyoto (WKY, n = 14 com 12 semanas de vida e divididos em quatro grupos: SHR, SHR treinado (SHR-T, WKY e WKY treinado (WKY-T foram estudados. Como esperado, 10 semanas de TF foram efetivas em reduzir a pressão arterial em SHR-T. Além disso, o TF promoveu bradicardia de repouso nos grupos de animais treinados (WKY-T e SHR-T, sendo considerado como um importante marcador de TF aeróbio. O TF também corrigiu a rarefação capilar em SHR-T e esta resposta se deve em grande parte por uma recuperação dos níveis periféricos de VEGF e um aumento na expressão de VEGFR2. Em paralelo, foi observada uma normalização das vias apoptóticas, com aumento da expressão de proteínas antiapoptóticas (Bcl-2 e Bcl-x e redução das pró-apoptóticas (Bad acompanhada pela fosforilação de Bad. Estes resultados sugerem que o TF promove revascularização periférica na HA dependente de um fino balanço de reguladores positivos e negativos de angiogênese.Aerobic exercise training (ET has been established as an important non-pharmacological treatment for hypertension, since it corrects the microvascular rarefaction and decreases blood pressure

  17. Aer Lingus Teoranta v. Labour Court, 26 February 1988.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    The plaintiffs were airline hostesses who claimed that they had been discriminated against on the basis of sex by their employer. On appeal of a lower court decision, the High Court of Ireland held the following, among other things: 1) the plaintiffs could seek relief with respect to new acts of discrimination that are the direct result of an original act even if a complaint about the original act would be time-barred; 2) the Labour Court need not hold a preliminary hearing to decide whether a complaint is receivable before trying to settle the complaint or referring it to an equality officer for investigation; and 3) the plaintiffs had been subject to discrimination in 1) being forced to resign on marriage; 2) being refused permanent employment when other married women who married later were taken back into service; and 3) when taken back, being refused recognition for past service and experience in calculating seniority when other married women had been given full recognition. It ruled that, under the Employment Equality Act 1977, discrimination could occur with respect to the same sex on the basis of marital status. PMID:12289293

  18. Adaptação enzimática da LDH em ratos submetidos a treinamento aeróbio em esteira e laser de baixa intensidade Adaptation of LDH enzyme in rats undergoing aerobic treadmill training and low intensity laser therapy

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    WHB Vieira

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Verificar a atividade e padrão eletroforético da LDH em resposta ao exercício em esteira em ratos submetidos à fotoestimulação por laser de baixa intensidade (780 etam. MÉTODO: Foram utilizados nesse estudo 54 ratos machos jovens (30dias, Winstar, com peso inicial médio de 112 ± 4,7g, os quais foram divididos em quatro grupos: dois permaneceram em repouso, GRC (grupo repouso controle, n= 9 e GRL (grupo repouso laser, n= 10, sendo o segundo irradiado por laser, e outros dois foram submetidos ao treinamento aeróbio e testes de esforço crescente em esteira (em degraus descontínuos visando à determinação do limiar de anaerobiose (LA durante 5 semanas, GEC (grupo exercício controle, n= 16 e GEL (grupo exercício laser, n= 19, sendo o último também irradiado por laser. O laser foi aplicado no quadríceps, glúteo máximo, sóleo e tibial anterior (TA, bilateralmente, imediatamente após cada sessão de treinamento, usando: 3,8J/cm², 15mW, 10s, modo contínuo, durante 5 semanas. Amostras de sóleo, TA e coração foram removidas 48 horas após a última sessão de exercício para análise eletroforética e espectrofotométrica. A estatística foi realizada através do teste ANOVA e post-hoc de TUKEY. O nível de significância foi considerado (pOBJECTIVE: To analyze the activity and electrophoretic pattern of the enzyme LDH in response to treadmill training, in rats undergoing photostimulation using low-level laser therapy (LLLT (780 etam. METHOD: Fifty-four 30-day-old male Winstar rats initially weighing 112 ± 4.7g were divided into four groups. Two groups remained at rest: resting control group (RCG, n= 9 and resting LLLT group (RLG, n= 10. The other two groups underwent a five-week treadmill program of aerobic training and non-continuous incremental effort tests, with the aim of determining the anaerobic limit. One of the latter was an exercise control group (ECG, n= 16 and the other was an exercise LLLT group (ELG, n

  19. Larval feeding behavior of the truncatus group of Thrypticus (Diptera: Dolichopodidae that breed in the aerenchyma of Pontederiaceae Comportamiento alimentario de las larvas del grupo truncatus de Thrypticus (Diptera: Dolichopodidae que se crían en el aerénquima de Pontederiaceae

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    M. Cristina Hernández

    2007-12-01

    -Laubach (Pontederiaceae, minando cerca de la epidermis y abriendo varios orificios al exterior. La larva de T. romus Bickel & Hernández crece en E. azurea (Sw. Kunth, formando una mina curva, corta en comparación con las otras especies. La larva de T. formosensis Bickel & Hernández se desarrolla en Pontederia cordata L. (Pontederiaceae, excavando la mina entre la epidermis y la gran celda central de los pecíolos. Por último, la larva de T. taragui Bickel & Hernández se cría en tallos sumergidos de P. subovata (Seub. in Mart. Lowden, formando una mina subepidérmica con ramificaciones hacia la estela central del tallo. No se pudieron asociar las minas correspondientes a las especies T. yanayacu, T. chanophalus y T. azuricola. No se encontraron predadores ni parásitos de larvas o pupas, se observaron casos de canibalismo entre larvas cuando el trazado de dos minas confluye. Las especies del grupo truncatus poseen un modo de alimentación sumamente específico, confinadas al aerénquima, se alimentan de la savia extraída de los orificios roídos en los haces vasculares de los pecíolos y tallos, posiblemente con levaduras simbiontes como suplemento para la nutrición. Numerosas colecciones en el campo y pruebas en el laboratorio, indican que estos insectos están asociados con plantas hospedadoras específicas dentro de la misma familia. Esta especialización sugiere una larga asociación insecto-hospedadora.

  20. Redução dos níveis pressóricos em indivíduos hiper-reativos após treinamento físico aeróbio Blood pressure reduction in hyper-reactive individuals after aerobic exercise

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    Cleusa Maria Richter

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: Alguns indivíduos normotensos sedentários têm aumento exagerado da pressão arterial (PA durante a atividade física, comportamento esse chamado hiper-reatividade pressórica (HP. OBJETIVO: Verificar o efeito de um programa de exercício físico (PEF aeróbio sobre a pressão arterial de indivíduos com hiper-reatividade pressórica. MÉTODOS: Dez homens voluntários com HP, 45 ± 10 anos, chamados grupo experimental (GE, foram submetidos a um PEF em esteira, 3x/semana, durante dois meses, comparados a 14 homens com HP, 48 ± 8 anos, chamados grupo controle (GC, que se mantiveram sedentários. Os indivíduos foram avaliados antes e depois do PEF por teste de esforço para fins comparativos. Foram avaliadas as pressões arteriais sistólica (PAS e diastólica (PAD e as frequências cardíacas (FC inicial, de pico e final de teste. RESULTADOS: Houve importante diminuição da PAS inicial (-5 %; p=0,01, da PAD inicial (-4,6 %; p=0,01, da PAS de pico (-12,4 %; p=0,001, da PAD de pico (-14,7%; p=0,03, e da PAS final (-4,6 %; p=0,03 no GE. O GC permaneceu com comportamento hiper-reativo, tendo evoluído com níveis mais exagerados quando comparados pré e pós-estudo (p BACKGROUND: Some normotensive sedentary individuals have an exaggerated increase in blood pressure (BP during physical activity, which is a behavior that is called blood pressure hyper-reactivity. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of an aerobic exercise program (AEP on blood pressure in individuals with blood pressure hyper-reactivity (BPH. METHODS: Ten male volunteers with BPH, aged 45 ± 10 years, referred to as the experimental group (EG, took part in an AEP on a treadmill, 3 times a week for two months. They were compared to 14 men with BPH, aged 48 ± 8 years, referred to as the control group (CG, who remained sedentary. The subjects were evaluated before and after the AEP by stress test for comparison purposes. We evaluated the initial, peak and test-end heart

  1. Perdas fermentativas, composição química, estabilidade aeróbia e digestibilidade aparente de silagem de cana-de-açúcar com aditivos químico e microbiano Fermentation losses, chemical composition, aerobic stability and apparent digestibility of sugarcane ensiling with chemical and microbial additives

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    Geraldo Balieiro Neto

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a influência da adição de cal virgem e Lactobacillus buchneri em perdas fermentativas, valor nutritivo, estabilidade aeróbia e digestibilidade aparente da silagem de cana-de-açúcar (Saccharum officinarum. O primeiro experimento avaliou perdas fermentativas, pH e temperatura, composição química e digestibilidade in vitro da matéria seca de silagens de cana-de-açúcar, com adição ou sem adição de cal ou de inoculante bacteriano (L. buchneri; o segundo avaliou o consumo de matéria seca e a digestibilidade aparente da cana-de-açúcar ensilada com os mesmos aditivos para cordeiros. Os aditivos não reduziram as perdas na ensilagem, e silagens com cal apresentaram maiores perdas por efluentes. O consumo de matéria seca da silagem com inoculante foi inferior ao da silagem com cal ou ao da cana-de-açúcar in natura. A digestibilidade aparente da matéria seca da silagem com cal foi inferior à da cana-de-açúcar in natura e à da silagem com inoculante. A digestibilidade aparente do extrato etéreo das silagens com cal foi superior à da cana-de-açúcar in natura. Os valores de nutrientes digestíveis totais da cana-de-açúcar in natura ou ensilada com inoculante ou cal foram de 61,2, 54,1 e 51,7%, respectivamente. Independentemente do aditivo, a ensilagem da cana-de-açúcar resulta em perda de nutrientes e redução de digestibilidade.The objective of this work was to evaluate the influence addition whitewash (CaO and Lactobacillus buchneri in fermentation losses, nutritional value, aerobic stability and apparent digestibility of sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum silages. A first experiment evaluated fermentation losses, pH and temperature values, chemical composition and in vitro dry matter digestibility of sugarcane silages with or without bacterial inoculants (L. buchneri or CaO. A second experiment evaluated intake and apparent digestibility of sugarcane silage with the same additives to

  2. Avaliação de inoculante microbiano na composição bromatológica, fermentação e estabilidade aeróbia da silagem pré-seca de alfafa Evaluation of microbial inoculant on chemical composition, fermentation characteristics and aerobic stability of alfalfa haylage

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    Vanessa Jaime de Almeida Magalhães

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os efeitos do inoculante microbiano Silobac® (L. plantarum, P. pentosaceus, na silagem pré-seca de alfafa, em 22 silos, distribuídos em dois tratamentos, sendo 11 silos com inoculante e 11 controle, segundo o delineamento inteiramente casualizado. A alfafa foi cortada quando em estádio do meio do florescimento e os silos, confeccionados com aproximadamente 600 kg e revestidos com película de PVC branca. Amostras foram coletadas, logo após a abertura de cada silo, para análise bromatológica e perfil fermentativo. O inoculante diminuiu o teor de MS (inoculada = 44,7 vs. controle = 51,2% e aumentou a concentração de ácido acético (2,35 vs. 0,89% MS, em relação ao grupo controle. O inoculante também revelou diminuição no escore de bolor obtido a 10 cm de profundidade, mas não a 30 ou 50 cm. Não foram observados efeitos sobre os teores de PB (15,9 vs. 16,4% MS, NIDN (14,7 vs. 16,2% do N total, NIDA (11,2 vs. 11,6% do N total, FDN (47,1 vs. 46,7% MS, FDA (40,2 vs. 39,8% MS, celulose (29,7 vs. 28,6% MS, hemicelulose (6,94 vs. 6,89% MS, LDA (10,4 vs. 11,1% MS, carboidratos solúveis (2,97 vs. 2,44% MS e amido (0,82 vs. 0,69% MS, DIVMS (61,6 vs. 62,5% MS, poder tampão (52,9 vs. 51,7 meq./100g MS, as concentrações de etanol (0,018 vs. 0,024% MS e dos ácidos propiônico (0,00 vs. 0,00% MS, butírico (0,00 vs. 0,00% MS e lático (5,62 vs. 4,45% MS, a relação lático:acético (4,57 vs. 4,87, bem como sobre o pH (4,96 vs. 5,33, as concentrações de N-NH3 (8,19 vs. 5,21% do N total e a estabilidade aeróbia.The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of microbial inoculant Silobac® (L. plantarum, P. pentosaceus on alfalfa haylage, in twenty-two big bales, allotted to two treatment, eleven with inoculant and eleven control, assigned to a totally randomized design. Alfalfa crop was harvested at middle bloom stage and conditioned in silage bales of about 600 kg capacity and covered with

  3. Utilização da relação potência-tempo até exaustão em testes de caminhada para avaliação da aptidão aeróbia Use of the power-time until exhaustion relantionship in walk tests to evaluate aerobic fitness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Morais Puga

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar a aptidão aeróbia em testes de caminhada com carga externa aplicada por meio da inclinação da esteira, a partir da relação não linear entre inclinação da esteira e tempo até a exaustão em velocidade fixa. Doze indivíduos do gênero masculino com 23,2 ± 2,7 anos de idade, 74,0 ± 7,9kg de massa corporal e 23,7 ± 2,5kg·(m²-1 de IMC, realizaram duas etapas de testes de caminhada em esteira ergométrica com velocidade fixa de 5,5km·h-1 em todos os testes e sobrecarga de intensidade aplicada por meio de inclinação da esteira (%. A etapa 1 consistiu de três testes retangulares até a exaustão voluntária, nas intensidades de 18%, 20% e 22% de inclinação, para determinação dos parâmetros do modelo de potência crítica por dois modelos lineares e um hiperbólico. A etapa 2 consistiu na determinação da intensidade correspondente ao máximo estado estável de lactato sanguíneo (MEEL. ANOVA demonstrou que o modelo hiperbólico (15,4 ± 1,1% resultou em estimativa significativamente menor que os outros dois modelos lineares inclinação-tempo-1 (16,0 ± 1,0% e hiperbólico linearizado tempo-1-inclinação (15,9 ± 1,0%, porém, houve alta correlação entre os modelos. Os dois modelos lineares superestimaram a intensidade do MEEL (14,1 ± 1,4%, e o modelo hiperbólico, mesmo sem diferença estatística, apresentou fraca correlação, com baixa concordância em relação ao MEEL. Conclui-se que a relação inclinação-tempo até a exaustão, em testes de caminhada, não permitem a estimativa de intensidade de exercício suportável por longo período de tempo.The aim of the present study was to evaluate aerobic fitness during walk tests with workload increased by treadmill inclination, based on non-linear relationship between treadmill inclination and time until exhaustion in steady velocity. Twelve male subjects, 23.2 ± 2.7 years old, 74.0 ± 7.9 kg of body mass and 23.7 ± 2.5 kg

  4. Milk contamination in different points of the process: I Aerobic mesophilics and psychrotrophics microorganisms/ Contaminação do leite em diferentes pontos do processo de produção: I. Microrganismos aeróbios mesófilos e psicrotróficos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mykel Stefanni Pereira

    2001-05-01

    torno de 4ºC selecionam uma microbiota denominada psicrotrófica, que independentemente de sua temperatura ótima de crescimento, multiplica-se bem sob refrigeração e produz enzimas termorresistentes, que comprometem a qualidade principalmente de derivados lácteos e leite UAT. Este trabalho tem como objetivo determinar os principais pontos de contaminação do leite por mesófilos e psicrotróficos no processo de produção leiteira, bem como a eficiência da refrigeração no controle do crescimento destes microrganismos. Avaliou-se cinco (5 propriedades leiteiras da região de Londrina- PR, analisando-se diversos pontos do processo de produção e pesquisando-se microrganismos aeróbios mesófilos (35ºC/48hs e psicrotróficos (21ºC/25 hs. Os principais pontos de contaminação foram os latões, tanques de expansão, água residual de equipamentos e utensílios de ordenha e tetos higienizados inadequadamente. Água residual dos tanques de expansão, de latões, tetos higienizados inadequadamente e a clarificadora foram os pontos com maior contagem de psicrotróficos. A quantidade de psicrotróficos encontrada em todos os segmentos do processo de produção pesquisados, foi superior ao que considera-se tolerável (10% da quantidade de mesófilos. No leite refrigerado, o número de psicrotróficos superou o de mesófilos, mostrando que a contagem de mesófilos pode subestimar a real quantidade de microrganismos presentes, sendo os psicrotróficos os indicadores de contaminação ideais neste produto. Como a refrigeração a 4oC não inibe o crescimento deste grupo de microrganismos, deve-se evitar sua incorporação ao leite durante a produção, havendo necessidade da associação de boas práticas em todo o processo produtivo.

  5. Effects of Statin and Aerobic Physical Exercise Association in the Cardiomyocytes of the Rat: Morphometric Study Efectos de la Asociación de Estatina y del Ejercicio Aeróbico en los Cardiomiocitos de Rata: Estudio Morfométrico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susimary Aparecida Trevizan Padulla

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Physical exercise and statins, recommended interventions to dyslipidaemia treatment, are independently related to cardiomyocytes alterations, characterized by miocardic hypertrophy and apoptosis, respectively. Thus, the objective of the present study was to analyze the effects of statin and aerobic physical exercise association in the morphometric parameters of cardiac cell nucleus. 40 male rats adults were divided into four groups: exercised (DE; sedentary (DS, exercised and statin use (DES; sedentary and statin use (DSS. The animals received during the whole experimental period a hiperlipidic diet added 20% of coconut oil and 1.25% of cholesterol; after 30 days of its ingestión, a blood collection was made to verify the dyslipidaemia. Simvastatin (20 mg was taken five days a week, during eight weeks. During this period, the animals exercised 60 minutes daily in the treadmill. After the last day of the protocol, the cardiac muscle was collected and maintained in liquid nitrogen (-180°C; the cuts were stained by Hematoxilin-Eosin method, and the cardiac fibers were submitted to the nuclear morphometric analyses. The data were analyzed using descriptive analyses, paired T test, Kruskal-Wallis test and Dunn post hoc test; for all analyses, it was adopted pEl ejercicio físico y las estatinas, intervenciones recomendadas para tratamiento de la dislipidemia, están independientemente relacionadas con las alteraciones de los cardiomiocitos, que se caracterizan por hipertrofia miocárdica y apoptosis, respectivamente. El objetivo del presente estudio fue analizar los efectos de la asociación de estatinas y el ejercicio físico aeróbico en los parámetros morfométricos del núcleo de células cardíacas. 40 ratas macho adultas se dividieron en cuatro grupos: ejercitadas (DE; sedentarias (DS, ejercitadas y con uso de estatina (DES, sedentarias y con uso de estatina (DSS. Los animales recibieron durante todo el período experimental una dieta

  6. Comparação entre os métodos rápidos SimplateR TPC- CI e PetrifilmR AC e os métodos convencionais de contagem em placas para a enumeração de aeróbios mesófilos em sorvetes Comparasion of SimplateR test and Petrifilm with plate count agar method for detection and enumeration of bacteria in ice cream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson de Souza Sant'ana

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A contagem de aeróbios mesófilos ou contagem padrão em placas em um produto alimentício reflete a qualidade da matéria-prima, bem como as condições de processamento, manuseio e estocagem. O método de contagem em placas tradicionais requer 48h de incubação para a posterior leitura dos resultados. Comparou-se dois métodos que parecem ser uma boa alternativa para a contagem padrão em placas: SimplateR TPC-CI e PetrifilmR AC. Também avaliou-se a capacidade inibitória do 2, 3, 5 cloreto de trifeniltetrazólio quando adicionado ao Agar Plate Count. Este corante é incolor na forma oxidada e vermelho quando reduzido pelos microrganismos, devido à formação de formazano. O coe-ficiente de correlação obtido, através de estudos conduzidos com 60 amostras de sorvetes, entre 0,866-0,979 indicou uma equivalente sensibilidade dos métodos testados. Somente a contagem padrão em placas com TTC diferiu signicativamente da contagem padrão em placas.The mesophilic aerobic plate count or standard plate count (SPC of fresh food product reflects conditions of raw product quality, processing, handling and storage. Current standard methods require a 48h incubation period to obtain the results. Two rapid alterantive methods: SimplateTM TPC-CI and PetrifilmTM Aerobic Count (AC Plate were compared to standard methods. Also, we evaluated the inhibitory effect of 2, 3, 5 triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC when added to Plate Count Agar. This dye is colorless in the oxidized form and red when reduced by microorganisms, due to the formation of formazan. Sixty ice cream samples were used in this study to obtain correlation coefficients, which ranged from 0.866-0.979, indicating equivalent sensitivities to existing methods. Only plate count with TTC differed significantly from the standard plate count.

  7. Índices fisiológicos associados com a "performance" aeróbia em corredores de "endurance": efeitos da duração da prova Índices fisiológicos asociados a la "performance" aerobia en competidores de "endurance": efectos de la duración de la prueba Physiological indexes associated with aerobic performance in endurance runners: effects of race duration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedito Sérgio Denadai

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi analisar a validade do consumo máximo de oxigênio (VO2max, da velocidade correspondente ao VO2max (vVO2max, do tempo de exaustão na vVO2max (Tlim, da economia de corrida (EC e do limiar anaeróbio (LAn para a predição da performance de atletas de endurance. Quatorze corredores de endurance (33,4 ± 4,4 anos; 62,7 ± 4,3kg; 166,1 ± 5,0cm; VO2max = 60,4 ± 5,9ml.kg-1.min-1 realizaram os seguintes testes: a competição simulada nas distâncias de 1.500 e 5.000m. e; b testes de laboratório para a determinação do VO2max, vVO2max, EC, LAn e Tlim na intensidades de 100% vVO2max. As velocidades (km/h da vVO2max (18,7 ± 0,8, LAn (17,3 ± 1,1 v1.500m (19,9 ± 0,8 e v5.000m (17,9 ± 0,9 foram significantemente diferentes. A regressão múltipla stepwise revelou que o LAn foi o único preditor da performance da v5.000m, explicando 50% da variação desta performance. Para a v1.500m, o Tlim e a vVO2max explicaram 88% da variação da performance. Com base em nossos resultados, pode-se concluir que a validade dos índices fisiológicos (VO2max, vVO2max, Tlim, EC e LAn, para a predição da performance aeróbia de atletas de endurance, é dependente da distância da prova (1.500 x 5.000m analisada.El objetivo de este estudio fue analizar la validez del consumo máximo de oxígeno (VO2max, de la velocidad correspondiente al VO2max (vVO2max, del tiempo de exaustión en la vVO2max (Tlim, de la economía de la carrera (EC y del umbral anaeróbico (LAn para predecir la performance de atletas de endurance. Catorce competidores de endurance (33,4 ± 4,4 años; 62,7 ± 4,3kg; 166,1 ± 5,0cm; VO2max = 60,4 ± 5,9ml.kg-1.min-1 realizaron las siguientes pruebas: a competición simulada en las distancias de 1.500 y 5.000m. e; b pruebas de laboratorio para la determinación del VO2max, vVO2max, EC, LAn y Tlim en la intensidad del 100% vVO2max. Las velocidades (km/h de la vVO2max (18,7 ± 0,8, LAn (17,3 ± 1,1 v1.500m (19,9 ± 0,8 y v5

  8. Abordaje de la obesidad por el ejercicio: desterrando lo aeróbico

    OpenAIRE

    Roig, Jorge Luis

    2013-01-01

    A pesar de la inmensa cantidad de investigaciones que afirman que la mejor elección para adelgazar son los ejercicios de baja intensidad y larga duración, muchos trabajos científicos fueron mostrando que, paralelamente a la pérdida de grasa, algo no deseable también se estaba eliminando con este modelo de ejercicios en las personas no deportistas, la masa muscular. Uno de los errores básicos que se comete al analizar los caminos a elegir para el tratamiento de la obesidad es partir del pri...

  9. Recent developments in testing new membrane systems at AERE Harwell for nuclear applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of a crossflow filtration process for the treatment of radioactive liquid waste has been carried out at the Harwell Laboratory. A number of different membranes in the ultrafiltration and microfiltration range have been tested on simulated and real radioactive effluents under both normal crossflow and electrically cleaned conditions. The membrane fluxes and alpha rejection at different operating conditions have been determined for the Harwell site low level waste. The periodic direct electrical cleaning of conductive membranes permits the use of lower crossflow velocities and pressures while maintaining or even enhancing membrane flux. Electrical cleaning has been found not to compromise membrane life. (author)

  10. Structure of CARB-4 and AER-1 CarbenicillinHydrolyzing β-Lactamases

    OpenAIRE

    Sanschagrin, François; Bejaoui, Noureddine; Levesque, Roger C.

    1998-01-01

    We determined the nucleotide sequences of blaCARB-4 encoding CARB-4 and deduced a polypeptide of 288 amino acids. The gene was characterized as a variant of group 2c carbenicillin-hydrolyzing β-lactamases such as PSE-4, PSE-1, and CARB-3. The level of DNA homology between the bla genes for these β-lactamases varied from 98.7 to 99.9%, while that between these genes and blaCARB-4 encoding CARB-4 was 86.3%. The blaCARB-4 gene was acquired from some other source because it has a G+C content of 3...

  11. AERE contracts with DoE on the treatment and disposal of intermediate level wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reports are presented on work on the following topics concerned with the treatment and disposal of intermediate-level radioactive wastes: comparative evaluation of α and β γ irradiated medium level waste forms; modelling and characterisation of intermediate level waste forms based on polymers; optimisation of processing parameters for polymer and bitumen modified cements; α damage in non-reference waste form matrix materials; leaching mechanisms and modelling; inorganic ion exchange treatment of medium active effluents; electrical processes for the treatment of medium active liquid waste; fast reactor fuel element cladding; dissolver residues; effects of radiation on the properties of cemented MTR waste forms; equilibrium leach testing of cemented MTR waste forms; radiolytic oxidation of radionuclides; immobilisation of liquid organic waste; quality control, non-conformances and corrective action. (U.K.)

  12. AERE contracts with DOE on the treatment and disposal of Intermediate Level Wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Individual summaries are provided for each contract report, under the titles: comparative evaluation of α and βγ irradiated medium level waste forms; modelling and characterisation of intermediate level waste forms based on polymers; optimisation of processing parameters for polymer and bitumen modified cements; α damage in non-reference matrix materials; leaching mechanisms and modelling; inorganic ion exchange treatment of medium active effluents; electrical processes for the treatment of medium active liquid waste; fast reactor fuel element cladding; dissolver residues; effects of radiation on the properties of cemented MTR waste forms; equilibrium leach testing of cemented MTR waste forms; radiolytic oxidation of radionuclides; immobilisation of liquid organic wastes; quality control, non-conformances and corrective action; application of gel processes in the treatment of actinide-containing liquid wastes; the role of colloids in the release of radionuclides from nuclear waste. (author)

  13. Mixing effect in the solution of the AER6 Benchmark problem by KIKO3D/ATHLET code system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The former result calculated with the coupled KIKO3D/ATHLET code system for the sixth dynamic benchmark problem is presented and compared with a new one. The only difference between the two calculations is the slightly different nodalization in the core vessel. Though it is a physically plausible fact that the lack of mixing in the upper plenum causes a considerable change in the results a rough nodalization above the core is widely used as it makes easier. The effect of this simplification is investigated (Authors)

  14. Installation, performance, safety aspects and technical data of the triple axis Spectrometer at TRIGA Reactor of AERE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The technical data of the Triple Axis Neutro Spectrometer installed at the 3 MW TRIGA Mark II research reactor has been described. These are the reference data required for the operation, maintenance and use of the spectrometer. The detail information of the installation of the spectrometer has been given. Radiation safety features of the spectrometer and around the radial piercing beam port (where the spectrometer is installed) are described elaborately. The quality test experiments and the performance of the spectrometer as found from these tests are also described

  15. Study of the electronic and magnetic properties of A2Ti2O7 (A=Er, Tb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Khorasani

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The geometrical frustration in the magnetic pyrochlore oxides causes interesting properties at low temperatures in these materials. Therefore, we studied two challenging materials, Er2Ti2O7 and Tb2Ti2O7, using an ab intio method, based on Density Functional Theory (DFT. To take into account the f electrons coulomb interactions correctly, we employed DFT+U, a Hubbard method correction. As spin-orbit coupling (SOC is very effective in these materials, we added SOC to the DFT+U calculations (DFT+U+SOC. Using DFT+U+SOC, we examined the effect of non-collinear magnetism. The DFT+U+SOC calculations give rise to the magnetic moments 8.2 and 7.1 for Er2Ti2O7 and Tb2Ti2O7, respectively. These values deviate from the experimental results. The reason is that the DFT calculations are trapped in the local minima, indicatinglhat we need more sophisticated methods to find the global minimum in our electronic structure calculations. Although we need structural optimization to find better magnetic moment values, unfortunately it is possible to reach incorrect structural optimization if the electronic structural optimization for finding global minima is not performed correctly

  16. Fungos aeróbios no intestino grosso de borregos e de ovelhas criados em pastagens tropicais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.E.S. Freitas

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Fungi populations were evaluated in large intestine from sheep raised in the North of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The samples were from 39 Santa Inês crossbred ewes and 30 lambs raised on Tanzania grass (Panicum maximum cv. Tanzania, both supplemented with mineral mixtures. The clinical specimens were directly collected from rectal ampoule with sterile swabs. The development of fungal mycelium was observed in all lamb samples and positive cultures were observed in 34 ewe specimens (87.2%. After microculture of 40 colonies from lambs, 34 isolates of the genus Aspergillus, three of Paecilomyces spp., one Acremonium sp., and one Trichoderma sp. were identified. Out of the 39 isolates from ewes, 15 Paecilomyces spp., 11 Aspergillus spp., 11 Malbranchea spp., and one Onychocola sp. were identified. The results showed the predominance of the genus Aspergillus in the lambs, while the genus Paecilomyces, Malbranchea, and Aspergillus were predominant, in ewes.

  17. Fungos aeróbios no intestino grosso de borregos e de ovelhas criados em pastagens tropicais

    OpenAIRE

    C.E.S. Freitas; F.O. Abrão; de Silva, K. L.; P.N.M. Almeida; E.R. Duarte

    2012-01-01

    Fungi populations were evaluated in large intestine from sheep raised in the North of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The samples were from 39 Santa Inês crossbred ewes and 30 lambs raised on Tanzania grass (Panicum maximum cv. Tanzania), both supplemented with mineral mixtures. The clinical specimens were directly collected from rectal ampoule with sterile swabs. The development of fungal mycelium was observed in all lamb samples and positive cultures were observed in 34 ewe specimens (87.2%). After m...

  18. Carga de treinamento durante exercício resistido e aeróbio com intensidades autosselecionada e imposta

    OpenAIRE

    Dias, Marcelo Ricardo Cabral

    2016-01-01

    Tese de Doutoramento em Ciências do Desporto A autosseleção da carga de treinamento não é uma tarefa simples para se alcançar um objetivo. A percepção do que é leve ou pesado, bem como o alcance da fadiga, é de difícil aprendizado. Portanto, é essencial que os profissionais do fitness acompanhem de perto a intensidade e o esforço percebido durante a fase de adoção de programas de exercícios. Com isso, o objetivo do presente estudo teve dois caminhos: realizar um levantamento da literatura ...

  19. List of unclassified documents by the staff of Metallurgy Division, AERE Harwell from January 1979 to July 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This list constitutes unclassified material published or presented between January 1979 and July 1980, by the staff of Metallurgy Division. It covers reports, memoranda, articles in periodicals, conference papers, books and patent specifications. (author)

  20. List of unclassified documents by the staff of Metallurgy Division, AERE Harwell from January 1972 to July 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This list constitutes unclassified material published or presented between January 1972 and July 1977 by the staff of Metallurgy Division. It covers reports, memoranda, bibliographies, articles in periodicals, conference papers, books, theses and patent specifications. It is planned to issue a list annually. The publications are listed under the following titles of the research teams concerned: fast reactor fuels, advanced reactor systems, fracture studies, structural materials, radiation effects, composite materials, high voltage microscope and metals fabrication, management and administration. (U.K.)

  1. Standardizing adverse drug event reporting data

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Liwei; Jiang, Guoqian; Li, Dingcheng; Liu, Hongfang

    2014-01-01

    Background The Adverse Event Reporting System (AERS) is an FDA database providing rich information on voluntary reports of adverse drug events (ADEs). Normalizing data in the AERS would improve the mining capacity of the AERS for drug safety signal detection and promote semantic interoperability between the AERS and other data sources. In this study, we normalize the AERS and build a publicly available normalized ADE data source. The drug information in the AERS is normalized to RxNorm, a sta...

  2. Exegi monumentum aere perennius (Hor. C. 3.30): preservación a largo plazo de materiales bibliográficos digitalizados

    OpenAIRE

    Agenjo, Xavier; Hernández-Carrascal, Francisca

    2009-01-01

    We analyze the digital preservation of library materials from the point of view of the major digitization projects that have been carried out in recent years in Spain, and it follows the need to convert a theoretical concern in a practical necessity, and truly critical, given the volume of digitized material. It examines the two main standards by which the international community is developing policies for long-term digital preservation, ISO 14.721, OAIS, and the Data Dictionary developed by ...

  3. Report by the AERES on the unit: Unit of researches on neutron transport and radioactivity confinement in nuclear installations under the supervision of the establishments and bodies: IRSN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is a kind of audit report on a research laboratory whose activity is organized in three departments: neutron transport and criticality (themes: numerical methods, maths and statistics related to the simulation of neutral particle propagation, nuclear data, uncertainty propagation and bias estimation, code qualification and associated experimental programs, neutron transport in reactors and fuel cycle, criticality accidents), radionuclide transfer in radioactive waste disposals (site identification strategy, hydro-mechanical phenomena affecting storage performance, physical-chemical evolution factors, storage modelling), and metrology and confinement of radioactive gases and aerosols. The authors discuss an assessment of the unit activities in terms of strengths and opportunities, aspects to be improved and recommendations, productions and publications. A more detailed assessment is presented for each department in terms of scientific quality, influence and attractiveness (awards, recruitment capacity, capacity to obtain financing and to tender, participation to international programs), strategy and governance, and project

  4. AERE Harwell Applied Chemistry Division unclassified progress report and bibliography for the period 1st April 1975 to 31st March 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Progress Report is under the headings: Analytical Chemistry Group, Actinide Analysis Group, Applied Electrochemistry Group, Nuclear Fuels Group, Solid State Chemistry Group, Separation Processes Group, list of unclassified publications. (U.K.)

  5. Report by the AERES on the unit: Research unit for man radiation protection under the supervision of establishments and bodies: IRSN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is a kind of audit report on a research laboratory, whose activity is dedicated to man radiation protection, and is organized about four main themes: means to determine in any circumstances the dose received by a victim of an external irradiation or internal contamination, characterization of the biological effects ionizing radiations may create in a sane tissue, epidemiological approaches to the assessment of the exceeding risk associated with exposure to ionizing radiation on different populations, and experimental toxicology for the identification of biological effects induced par long duration and low dose exposures to some radionuclides. The authors discuss an assessment of the whole unit activities in terms of strengths and opportunities, productions and publications, scientific quality, influence and attractiveness (awards, recruitment capacity, capacity to obtain financing and to tender, participation to international programs), strategy and governance, and project. These same aspects are then discussed and commented for each theme: dosimetry, ionizing radiation pathology and experimental therapies, epidemiology of ionizing radiations, experimental and post-accidental radio-toxicology

  6. Customization of ENDF/B-VI and JENDL3.2 basic data for MCNP calculation and measurements on neutron cross section at INST, AERE, Savar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhuiyan, S.I.; Molla, N.I.; Chakrobortty, T.K.; Huda, M.Q.; Mondal, M.A.W. [Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology (INST), Atomic Energy Research Establishment, Savar, Dhaka (Bangladesh)

    2000-03-01

    The NJOY94.10{sup +}, a version of NJOY, has been installed in a VAX computer under Open VMS operating system. ENDF/B-VI, latest release of ENDF data, has been also implemented in the same system. A data library has been processed using the modules RECONR, BROADR and ACER of NJOY code. MCNP4B2 computer code has been used to validate the prepared data library for some benchmark experiments. The results obtained have been found to be in good agreement with the experimental results. Excitation function have been measured for {sup 81}Br(n,alpha){sup 78}As, {sup 79}Br(n,alpha){sup 76}As, {sup 73}Ge(n,p){sup 73}Ga, {sup 72}Ge(n,p){sup 72}Ga, {sup 64}Zn(n,p){sup 64}Cu, {sup 68}Zn(n,alpha){sup 65}Ni, and {sup 70}Zn(n,2n){sup 69m}Zn reactions in the neutron energy range 13.57-14.71 MeV via Activation technique. (author)

  7. Test Firing of chunk wood - Is it possible to automate the fuel supply?; Proveldning av knubbved - Aer det moejligt att automatisera braenslematningen?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Persson, Tomas; Danielsson, Bengt-Olof

    2013-05-15

    Chunk wood is a wood fuel with a fuel particle length typically between 50 and 150 mm. The ad-vantage of chunk wood compared to wood chips is that the fuel dry as fast as fuel wood, but can be produced and handled as wood chip. Technologies for efficient producing, drying and distribution of Chunk wood have been developed since the 1970:s and machines for manufacturing the fuel is available on the market, but still there is no small-scale heating equipment in operation to burn the fuel automatically. The aim of the study was to investigate how the feeding and firing of chunk wood works in a standard 200 kW biomass boiler for various types of biofuels. The main focus was on studying how the fuel feeding system works using chunk wood and if the combustion and emissions are satisfactory. The boiler have a main fuel feeding auger screw connected to the bottom of the fuel storage, followed by a cell feeder and another auger screw that is feeding the fuel into the combustion chamber. The power consumption for the fuel feeding auger screws and the CO-emissions were measured during the firing period. In order to obtain reference values for the stresses in the fuel feeding system and the CO-emissions, regular wood chips were initially fired followed by the chunk wood firing. During the chunk wood firing period several interruptions in the fuel feeding occurred, as the trigger mechanism for the motor protection stopped the fuel supply. Most of the interruptions, however, could be resolved through manual reversing of the fuel feeding auger screw. Only at two occasions the entrance to the auger screw were manually cleared from large fuel pieces. The cell feeder and the auger screw feeding the fuel into the combustion chamber were stopped twice, and to continue operating the boiler it was enough to restart the feeding system. However, as they are both operated by the same motor we do not know whether the two shutdowns that occurred were caused by feeding problems in the auger screw or in the cell feeder. The stresses on the feeder screw varied during the test and during different operating periods, but when the first fuel feeding screw stops, the power requirements was more than three times the normal. The presence of the largest pieces in the chunk wood caused problems when the fuel was entering into the screw, and these problems caused most of the interruptions and the highest screw stress. High screw stress also arises when chunk wood slices get stuck between the auger screw and the cover. By releasing the upper part of the cover, so that the lid can move upwards seemed to reduce this problem. It thus seems beneficial with a greater distance between the lid and screw when chunk wood is to be used. The combustion performance seems to be satisfactory for chunk wood firing in these tests, however only the CO-emissions were measured. If the fuel can be produced without the presence of oversized pieces, the results show that there is a good chance that the fuel can be fired in conventional wood chip boilers of about 200 kW. The most important way forward from now on is to evaluate the market of chippers for chunk wood with respect to the presence of oversized pieces. If there are no chippers that provide adequate fuel without the presence of oversized pieces and it is impossible to develop such shippers, a more methodological work have to be put on developing the fuel feeding system.

  8. Definition of the seventh dynamic AER benchmark-WWER-440 pressure vessel coolant mixing by re-connection of an isolated loop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The seventh dynamic benchmark is a continuation of the efforts to validate systematically codes for the estimation of the transient behavior of VVER type nuclear power plants. This benchmark is a continuation of the work in the sixth dynamic benchmark. It is proposed to be simulated the transient - re-connection of an isolated circulating loop with low temperature or low boron concentration in a VVER-440 plant. It is supposed to expand the benchmark to other cases when a different number of loops are in operation leading to different symmetric and asymmetric core boundary conditions. The purposes of the proposed benchmark are: 1) Best-estimate simulations of an transient with a coolant flow mixing in the Reactor Pressure Vessel of WWER-440 plant by re-connection of one coolant loop to the several ones on operation, 2) Performing of code-to-code comparisons. The core is at the end of its first cycle with a power of 1196.25 MWt. The basic additional difference of the 7-seventh benchmark is in the detailed description of the downcomer and bottom part of the reactor vessel that allow describing the effects of coolant mixing in the Reactor Pressure Vessel without any additional conservative assumptions. The burn-up and the power distributions at this reactor state have to be calculated by the participants. The thermohydraulic conditions of the core in the beginning of the transient are specified. Participants self-generated best estimate nuclear data is to be used. The main geometrical parameters of the plant and the characteristics of the control and safety systems are also specified. Use generated input data decks developed for a WWER-440 plant and for the applied codes should be used. The behaviour of the plant should be studied applying coupled system codes, which combine a three-dimensional neutron kinetics description of the core with a pseudo or real 3D thermohydraulics system code. (Authors)

  9. Passengers’ perceptions of low cost airlines and full service carriers: a case study involving Ryanair, Aer Lingus, Air Asia and Malaysia Airlines

    OpenAIRE

    O'Connell, John F.; Williams, George

    2005-01-01

    Direct competition between full service airlines and no-frills carriers is intensifying across the world. US and European full service airlines have lost a significant proportion of their passengers to low cost carriers, the experience now being repeated in the domestic markets of Asia. This paper attempts to provide answers to a number of critical questions: What are the key drivers of each type of airline's business model? Is there a difference in passengers’ perceptions between low cost ca...

  10. Análise da potência aeróbia de futebolistas por meio de teste de campo e teste laboratorial

    OpenAIRE

    Cristian Javier Ramirez Lizana; Felipe Belozo; Thiago Lourenço; René Brenzikofer; Denise Vaz Macedo; Milton ShoitiMisuta; Alcides José Scaglia

    2014-01-01

    Introdução: Há métodos diretos e indiretos que são utilizados pelos clubes de futebol para avaliar, acompanhar e determinar o VO2max dos jogadores, sendo este muito importante para o rendimento e a recuperação dos atletas durante uma partida. Objetivo: Avaliar o nível de correlação entre as medidas de VO2max por meio da análise direta de gases e do teste de campo Yo-Yo Intermitente Recovery Level 1 (Yo-YoIR1). Métodos: Participaram do estudo 24 jogadores de futebol da categoria SUB-2...

  11. Formation of Stylet Sheaths in aere (in air from eight species of phytophagous hemipterans from six families (Suborders: Auchenorrhyncha and Sternorrhyncha.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Kent Morgan

    Full Text Available Stylet sheath formation is a common feature among phytophagous hemipterans. These sheaths are considered essential to promote a successful feeding event. Stylet sheath compositions are largely unknown and their mode of solidification remains to be elucidated. This report demonstrates the formation and solidification of in āere (in air produced stylet sheaths by six hemipteran families: Diaphorina citri (Psyllidae, Asian citrus psyllid, Aphis nerii (Aphididae, oleander/milkweed aphid, Toxoptera citricida (Aphididae, brown citrus aphid, Aphis gossypii (Aphididae, cotton melon aphid, Bemisia tabaci biotype B (Aleyrodidae, whitefly, Homalodisca vitripennis (Cicadellidae, glassy-winged sharpshooter, Ferrisia virgata (Pseudococcidae, striped mealybug, and Protopulvinaria pyriformis (Coccidae, pyriform scale. Examination of in āere produced stylet sheaths by confocal and scanning electron microscopy shows a common morphology of an initial flange laid down on the surface of the membrane followed by continuous hollow core structures with sequentially stacked hardened bulbous droplets. Single and multi-branched sheaths were common, whereas mealybug and scale insects typically produced multi-branched sheaths. Micrographs of the in āere formed flanges indicate flange sealing upon stylet bundle extraction in D. citri and the aphids, while the B. tabaci whitefly and H. vitripennis glassy-winged sharpshooter flanges remain unsealed. Structural similarity of in āere sheaths are apparent in stylet sheaths formed in planta, in artificial diets, or in water. The use of 'Solvy', a dissolvable membrane, for intact stylet sheath isolation is reported. These observations illustrate for the first time this mode of stylet sheath synthesis adding to the understanding of stylet sheath formation in phytophagous hemipterans and providing tools for future use in structural and compositional analysis.

  12. Influencia del trabajo aeróbico programado en el desarrollo de la gestación : Parámetros materno-fetales

    OpenAIRE

    Barakat Carballo, Ruben

    2002-01-01

    A través de la historia, las recomendaciones acerca del ejercicio durante la gestación han estado basadas más en razones sociales y culturales que en evidencias puramente científicas. Tradicionalmente, los consejos médicos alentaban a la moderación, aunque el concepto de "moderado" era algo conservador. No obstante, esta opinión no se dirigía en la misma dirección del creciente número de mujeres incluidas en programas de actividades físicas recreacionales y deportes. Actualmente, con el ejerc...

  13. Report by the AERES on the unit: Research Unit on Reactor Safety under the supervision of the establishments and bodies: Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety Institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is a kind of audit report on a research laboratory whose activity is organized according to the following themes: behaviour of nuclear fuel under accidental conditions, core fusion accidents, fire in confined environment, and civil engineering and structure behaviour. The authors discuss an assessment of the unit activities in terms of strengths and opportunities, aspects to be improved and recommendations, productions and publications. A more detailed assessment is presented in terms of scientific quality, influence and attractiveness (awards, recruitment capacity, capacity to obtain financing and to tender, participation to international programs), strategy and governance, and project. Each research theme is analyzed in the same way

  14. Exercício aeróbico agudo restaura a concentração de triptofano em cérebro de ratos com hiperfenilalaninemia

    OpenAIRE

    Priscila Nicolao Mazzola; Tarsila Barros Moraes; Carolina Didonet Pederzolli; Andrea Rosa; Fernanda Rech Zanin; Juliana Coelho; Carlos Severo Dutra-Filho

    2012-01-01

    INTRODUÇÃO: A fenilcetonúria (PKU) é caracterizada pela deficiência da enzima fenilalanina hidroxilase, causando acúmulo de fenilalanina. O diagnóstico precoce e a subordinação à dieta pobre em fenilalanina são importantes para prevenir os efeitos prejudiciais da hiperfenilalaninemia. Não aderir estritamente à dieta provoca, entre outros efeitos, um desequilíbrio entre os aminoácidos neutros que usam o mesmo transportador da fenilalanina na barreira hematoencefálica, causando, então, a diminu...

  15. Report by the AERES on the unit: Department of Nuclear Technology under the supervision of the establishments and bodies: Atomic Energy Commission (CEA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is a kind of audit report on a research laboratory, the DTN (Department of Nuclear Technology) which comprises four departments: technology of industrial reactors, advanced technologies and processes, transfer modelling and nuclear measurements, thermal-hydraulic and technological studies. The authors discuss an assessment of the whole unit activities in terms of strengths and opportunities, aspects to be improved, risks and recommendations, productions and publications, scientific quality, influence and attractiveness (awards, recruitment capacity, capacity to obtain financing and to tender, participation to international programs), strategy and governance, and project. The same discussion is proposed for the different research themes: design of nuclear installation circuits and components, thermal-hydraulic and severe accidents, instrumentation for nuclear measurements and process control, transfers in reactors and in the environment

  16. Report by the AERES on the unit: Reactor Study Department (DER) under the supervision of the establishments and bodies: Atomic Energy and Alternative Energies Commission (CEA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is a kind of audit report on a research laboratory, the DER (Departement d'Etudes des Reacteurs, Reactor Study Department) whose activity if focused on four main themes: neutron transport simulation in reactor cores, thermal-hydraulic simulation of reactors, design and safety of innovative reactors, nuclear instrumentation for reactors. The authors discuss an assessment of the whole unit activities in terms of strengths and opportunities, aspects to be improved, risks and recommendations, productions and publications, scientific quality, influence and attractiveness (awards, recruitment capacity, capacity to obtain financing and to tender, participation to international programs), strategy and governance, and project. These same aspects are then discussed and commented for each theme

  17. Tratamento aeróbio conjugado de lodos de tanques sépticos e resíduos sólidos orgânicos domiciliares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanderson Barbosa da Silva Feitosa

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available It was aimed at to evaluate the co-composting as technological alternative to the treatment of sludges of septic tanks with household organic solid wastes originating from cities of small and medium loads. The sludges and the domiciliary organic solid waste were collected in Cabaceiras, Caraúbas and Queimadas, state of Paraíba. The experiment consisted of four treatments with three repetitions, totaling 12 reactors, of cylindrical configuration in polyethylene of 100 L of capacity. Each reactor was fed with 50 kg substratum with variable composition in function of the sludge fraction: 0%, 10%, 20% and 30%. The manual turning was accomplished three times a week and the temperature was monitored daily. The total destruction of helminth eggs in period differentiated in function of the sludges fraction (14, 28, 35 and 63 days and the medium transformation of 54.1% of sludges in biosolids class A and class B, with favorable characteristics to the use in agricultural cultures in 91 days, expressed the viability of the treatment for co-composting of sludges of tanks septic multichamber of collective use for the cities of small and medium load.

  18. A Predictive Model for Vehicle Air Exchange Rates based on a Large, Representative Sample

    OpenAIRE

    Fruin, Scott A.; Hudda, Neelakshi; Sioutas, Constantinos; Delfino, Ralph J.

    2011-01-01

    The in-vehicle microenvironment is an important route of exposure to traffic-related pollutants, particularly ultrafine particles. However, significant particle losses can occur under conditions of low air exchange rate (AER) when windows are closed and air is recirculating. AERs are lower for newer vehicles and at lower speeds. Despite the importance of AER in affecting in-vehicle particle exposures, few studies have characterized AER and all have tested only a small number of cars. One reas...

  19. A Century of American Economic Review

    OpenAIRE

    Torgler, Benno; Piatti, Marco

    2011-01-01

    Using information collected from American Economic Review publications of the last 100 years, we try to provide answers to various questions: Which are the top AER publishing institutions and countries? Which are the top AER papers based on citation success? How frequently is someone able to publish in AER? How equally is citation success distributed? Who are the top AER publishing authors? What is the level of cooperation among the authors? What drives the alphabetical name ordering? What ar...

  20. Influência do índice glicêmico na glicemia em exercício físico aeróbico The glycemic index influence on glucose in aerobic exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria Cristina de Faria

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a influência do índice glicêmico (IG na resposta glicêmica antes e durante o exercício físico decorrente a diferentes sessões experimentais pré-exercício. MÉTODOS: Doze homens adultos realizaram três sessões experimentais pré-exercício: de alto índice glicêmico (AIG; de baixo índice glicêmico (BIG; e em estado de jejum, sendo nesta última oferecida duas formas diferenciadas de hidratação durante o exercício: água e bebida carboidratada. RESULTADOS: Durante o período de repouso, o tipo de refeição, de AIG ou de BIG, interferiu no comportamento da glicemia, ambas tendendo ao "efeito rebote". Durante o exercício, não foi observada diferença na resposta glicêmica entre as quatro ações testadas; contudo, a intervenção com bebida carboidratada manteve constante a glicemia ao longo dos 60 min do exercício. CONCLUSÃO: O IG é determinante na resposta glicêmica ao longo de uma hora antes do exercício, porém não interfere na resposta glicêmica durante a atividade.OBJECTIVE: Evaluate the influence of glycemic index (GI on the glycemic response before and during the physical exercise after to different experimental sessions pre-exercise. METHODS: Twelve adult males performed three experimental sessions pre-exercise: of high glycemic index (HGI; of low glycemic index (LGI; In condition of fast, although this one take two different ways of hydration while the exercise: water and carbohydrate drink. RESULTS: During the repose period, the type of meal, even the HGI and also the LGI, interfered on glycemic's behavior, both tendency to the "Rebound Effect". During the exercise, it was not observed differences in glycemic answers between the four tested actions, although the intervention with CHO drink maintained constant blood along all 60 min of exercise. CONCLUSION: The GI is determinant in the glycemic response over an hour before exercise, but does not interfere in the glycemic response during the activity.

  1. Biodegradación de HAPs durante la biorremediación aeróbica de suelos contaminados con hidrocarburos del petróleo. Análisis de poblaciones bacterianas y genes funcionales

    OpenAIRE

    Izquierdo Romero, Andrés Ricardo

    2014-01-01

    [spa] La contaminación de suelos con derivados del petróleo es un problema a nivel mundial, especialmente en los países productores y exportadores de crudo, teniendo consecuencias muy perjudiciales para el medio ambiente y la salud humana. Una de las mejores alternativas de remediación de suelos es la aplicación de métodos biológicos, como la biorremediación, por tratarse de una tecnología amigable con el medio ambiente y por sus menores costos en comparación con técnicas físicas y químicas. ...

  2. Entrenamiento de la capacidad aeróbica por medio de la terapia acuática en niños con parálisis cerebral tipo diplejía espástica

    OpenAIRE

    Fajardo, Nandy; Moscoso, Fabiola

    2013-01-01

    Los autores de este artículo pretenden identificar las características que debe tener una propuesta de intervención fisioterapéutica para el entrenamiento de la capacidad aérobica en niños y niñas entre los 8 y los 12 años, con parálisis cerebral tipo diplejía espástica, empleando la terapia acuática.

  3. Diseño de plano de aeródromo para movimientos de tierra y rutas/modelos de superficie para aplicaciones de sistema GNSS. Aerouerto de Caudé (Teruel)

    OpenAIRE

    FERNÁNDEZ DE BOBADILLA SÁNCHEZ, PABLO

    2015-01-01

    [ES] Se realizará un estudio de los diferentes sistemas de guiado GNSS existentes en el mercado para navegación aerea tanto de ruta, como de aproximación y aterrizaje para dispositivos móviles, utilizando como base las diferentes cartas aeronaticas. En función del estudio realizado, se verá la posibilidad de desarrollar un sistema de guiado propio basandonos en los anteriores, y donde se integren las tecnologías Geomaticas. El objetivo de este proyecto es elaborar tres Planos alternativos de ...

  4. Respuesta del lulo La Selva (Solanum quitoense x Solanum hirtum a la aplicación de fermentados aeróbicos tipo bocashi y fertilizante químico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramírez-Builes Víctor Hugo

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available En un suelo derivado de cenizas volcánicas bien drenado y de alta fertilidad del municipio Ansermanuevo (zona cafetera de Colombia, en el cultivo de lulo (Solanum quitoense x S. hirtum se evaluaron tres fuentes orgánicas tipo bocashi, provenientes de los procesos de fermentación de pulpa de café, lombricompuesto y gallinaza y un tratamiento con fertilizante químico (10-30-10 más un testigo absoluto sin aplicación de fertilizantes. Se empleó un diseño experimental en bloques completos al azar con tres repeticiones, cada repetición estuvo constituida por 58 plantas. Las aplicaciones de materiales orgánicos mejoraron las características del suelo, estabilizando el pH, aumentando la capacidad de intercambio catiónico y la materia orgánica. En términos generales, el tratamiento de mejor desempeño fue el bocashi de gallinaza, con un promedio de cuajamiento de fruto de 38.3% y un mayor rendimiento (4.7 t/ha. Los bocashis de lombricompuesto y pulpa de café no fueron estadísticamente diferentes al tratamiento químico y todos los tratamientos fueron distintos (P < 0.05 al testigo, lo que demuestra la buena respuesta del cultivo de lulo a las aplicaciones de fuentes orgánicas.

  5. Muscle Response to the Association of Statin and Physical Exercise in Rats Respuestas Musculares de la Asociación de Estatina y Ejercicio Físico Aeróbico en Ratas

    OpenAIRE

    Mariana Rotta Bonfim; José Carlos Silva Camargo Filho; Luiz Carlos Marques Vanderlei; Susimary Aparecida Trevizan Padulla; Marilita Falângola Accioly; Dorotéia Rossi Silva Souza; Reinaldo Azoubel

    2009-01-01

    Physical exercise and statins, which are recommended for the treatment of dyslipidemia, are independently associated to the occurrence of muscle injury. The objective is analyze the effect of aerobic exercise associated to the use of simvastatin on the morphology of the gastrocnemius muscle. Thirty Wistar rats were divided into six groups, two of which received a standard diet (1 sedentary and 1 exercised) and four (1 sedentary with medication, 1 sedentary without medication, 1 exercised with...

  6. Potência aeróbica máxima, freqüência cardíaca e capacidade vital em ambientes normo e hiperbárico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Moreira

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo se propôs verificar variáveis fisiológicas. Revisando a literatura sobre o presente trabalho, levantaram-se vários tratados especificando as reações e adaptações tanto fisiológicas quanto comportamentais ocorridas no organismo durante o mergulho. Seguiu-se o modelo da pesquisa descritiva do tipo survey, da qual participaram mergulhadores da Marinha do Brasil, do sexo masculino, praticantes de atividades físicas num total de 9, com média da idade de 28 ± 4,3 anos, peso de 76,7 ± 8,32kg e estatura de 173,8 ± 6,33cm. Todos foram submetidos à avaliação de vários parâmetros fisiológicos determinados para o estudo ao nível do mar (ambiente normobárico e aos 18 metros de profundidade (ambiente hiperbárico, pressurizados em câmara hiperbárica, sendo verificadas as variáveis propostas em exercício. Os resultados são analisados no nível de significância de p 0,05 denota não existir diferença significativa entre os ambientes verificados. O consumo máximo de oxigênio (p = 0,00013; < 0,05 e a capacidade vital (p = 0,00126; < 0,05 denotam existir diferenças significativas entre os ambientes. Isto comprova a importância de conhecer as reações fisiológicas avaliadas e revisadas na literatura como componentes essenciais da performance, com ênfase na fisiologia do exercício hiperbárica.

  7. Valoración funcional y niveles de actividad física en personas con discapacidad intelectual; efectos de un programa de actividad física aeróbico, de fuerza y equilibrio

    OpenAIRE

    Oviedo, Guillermo Ruben

    2014-01-01

    Les persones adultes amb discapacitat intel•lectual (DI) presenten baixos nivells de capacitat cardiovascular i força, al mateix temps que realitzen poca activitat física (AF) i freqüentment presenten problemes funcionals i d’equilibri. Un dels propòsits d’aquesta tesi fou investigar la fiabilitat del salt vertical en adults amb DI sobre una plataforma de contacte comparar-lo amb el test de salt de longitud sense impuls, normalment utilitzat en la bateria EUROFIT Special, per a avaluar la pot...

  8. Summary of the 11-th session of the AER Working Group F - 'Spent Fuel transmutations' and 2nd meeting of INPRO Project RMI - 'Meeting energy needs in the period of raw materials insufficiency during the 21st century'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There was concluded on the session during discussion, that we must be very cautious in giving forecast of particular form of energy demand and that any longer development in energy is no more possible without taking into account boundary conditions in oil and gas external supply. It was recommended in the discussion to prepare publication based on works, which were published, and try to give into it formulation of new tasks as in nuclear technologies so from nonnuclear branches, including possible society feedbacks. There were several works on the meeting concerning fluoride technology application for future more effective and cleaner reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel. It must be noted that participants expect that it will be part of new technology development, which of course must be done in greater capacities and in more direct connections with new preindustrial project. Such development is expected. It was also discussed how to proceed with INPRO publication 'Task 3 - Global vision of nuclear energy in the 21st century' - up to now the text is prepared in different ways - our position that expected troubles and at least qualitative recommendations for future steps should be there reflected. The technical program covered also the following topics: System energy research in RRC Kurchatov Institute; Results of program SPHINX; Energy forecasts: Methods and computer codes; Preliminary results of analysis of energy situation in the Central Europe; Perspectives of Molten Salt Reactor development in Czech Republic; Calculations of operation states of packed distillation column for uranium hexafluoride; Neutronic Analysis of Two-Fluid Thorium Molten Salt Reactor; Cross-section Measurements of (n,xn) Reactions in the Energy Range 20-100 MeV; The Czech Geological Repository Reference Design 2011: impacts on the strategy of the fuel cycle back end ect.

  9. Modelagem da decomposição aeróbia de lodo de esgoto em solos com diferentes texturas Modeling of aerobic decomposition of sewage sludge in soils of different textures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia R. Teles

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Buscou-se, neste trabalho, avaliar o efeito do teor de argila sobre o processo de decomposição de lodo de esgoto disposto em solo e propor modelos matemáticos inserindo este efeito em seus parâmetros. Solos com texturas contrastantes originados de uma mesma matriz permitiram estabelecer melhores relações entre o teor de argila, biomassa microbiana e carbono orgânico total e a produção de CO2 do que experimentos similares da literatura em que foram utilizados solos de diferentes matrizes. O efeito do teor de argila se manifestou apenas no período inicial de 7 dias (R² = 0,59**. Modelos cinéticos foram propostos para modelar a decomposição de lodo em solos com diferentes texturas. Determinaram-se modelos de primeira ordem bifásicos, assumindo que a fase lenta e a rápida não ocorrem simultaneamente, enquanto os parâmetros do modelo correspondentes às fases lenta e rápida foram correlacionados ao teor de argila resultando em modelos matemáticos que evidenciaram o efeito deste fator no processo de decomposição ao mesmo tempo em que permitem prever seu efeito na produção de CO2.The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of clay content on sewage sludge decomposition in soil and to propose mathematical models with clay dependent parameters. Soils with contrasting textures from the same sample matrix allowed better relationships to be derived between clay content, microbial biomass, organic carbon and CO2 production then those usually obtained in the literature. Clay effect was noticed only in the first week (R² = 0.59**. Kinetic models were proposed to model sludge decomposition in soils with different textures. Double phase first order models with non-simultaneous time scales were fitted to the data. Model parameters were correlated to clay content, emphasizing the clay effect on sewage sludge decomposition and providing a model for prediction of CO2 production.

  10. Compostagem aeróbia conjugada de lodo de tanque séptico e resíduos sólidos vegetais Conjugated aerobic composting of septic tank sludge and vegetable solid waste

    OpenAIRE

    André Gustavo da Silva; Valderí Duarte Leite; Mônica Maria Pereira da Silva; Shiva Prasad; Wanderson Barbosa da Silva Feitosa

    2008-01-01

    O lodo sanitário, principal subproduto do tratamento de esgotos, constitui um dos maiores problemas ambientais urbanos da atualidade. Em meio a este contexto, objetivou-se nesse estudo avaliar o processo da compostagem conjugada de lodo de tanque séptico (LS) e resíduos sólidos vegetais (RV) e determinar a importância da temperatura para o processo de sanitização do substrato tratado. O experimento, inteiramente casualizado com três tratamentos e três repetições, consistiu de nove reatores ae...

  11. Variaciones de los valores plasmáticos de lípidos, hidratos de carbono y hormonas en una prueba de intensidad creciente, en deportistas de resistencia aeróbica

    OpenAIRE

    Ansón Manso, Miguel Ángel; González Haro, Carlos; Escanero Marcén, Jesús Fernando; Soria Aznar, Marisol

    2013-01-01

    Validación de una prueba incremental para conocer el grado de entrenamiento de los deportistas y su futuro rendimiento en competición deportiva mediante la obtención del crossover o punto de cruce metabólico y verificación que las ecuaciones estequiométricas aplicadas se correlacionan con los procesos metabólicos determinantes de las mismas. Conocer la bioquímica del ejercicio y las variaciones sericas de glucosa y grasas a lo largo de todo el rango de intensidad del ejercicio y post-ejercici...

  12. Microbiota cloacal aeróbia de cracídeos cativos no Rio Grande do Sul e sua susceptibilidade a antimicrobianos Cloacal microbiota identification and evaluation of the antimicrobial resistance in captive cracids from Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helton Fernandes Santos

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Os cracídeos são aves silvestres que habitam as matas tropicais da América. Foram coletadas, no ano de 2007, amostras cloacais de 51 aves de dez espécies diferentes de cracídeos mantidos em cativeiros no Estado do Rio Grande do Sul. A partir dos swabs, colhidos assepticamente, foi realizado o isolamento e a caracterização bacteriana e o teste de susceptibilidade antimicrobiana dos isolados. Foram identificadas 93 cepas de bactérias. As bactérias mais frequentemente isoladas foram Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus spp. e Streptococcus spp. Todas as amostras foram negativas para o isolamento de Salmonella spp. O resultado do teste de sensibilidade mostrou que dentre as 93 cepas isoladas, todas foram sensíveis apenas ao imipinem. Adicionalmente, os menores percentuais de resistência foram observados frente ao cloranfenicol e ciprofloxacina. Os gêneros e espécies bacterianas com maior percentual de resistência a diferentes antibióticos testados foram Escherichia coli, Serratia marcescens, Staphylococcus aureus e Streptococcus spp. Com os resultados obtidos no presente trabalho, concluí-se, que a população de cracídeos estudada apresenta sua microbiota cloacal composta por vários gêneros e espécies bacterianas e que a multirresistencia pode ser um problema no futuro, uma vez que algumas cepas isoladas mostraram percentuais elevados de resistência a diferente antimicrobianos.Cracids are wildlife Galliformes which inhabits the America's tropical forests. Fifty one cloacal swabs were collected from 10 different species of captive cracids from the Rio Grande do Sul State during 2007. The cloacal swab samples were submitted to bacterial isolation, identification and, subsequently; antimicrobial susceptibility testing. Ninety three bacterial isolates were obtained from the cracid population examined. The most prevalent among the isolates were Escherichia coli, and bacteria from the Staphylococcus and Streptococcus genera. All samples tested in this study were negative for Salmonella spp. The antimicrobial susceptibility tests showed that none of the 93 strains presented resistance to the antimicrobial imipinem. In addition, the lower percentages of resistance were observed against cloranfenicol and ciprofloxacine. The bacteria genus and species with the highest percentage of resistance to the different antimicrobials examined were E. coli, Serratia marcescens, Staphylococcus spp. and Streptococcus spp. In conclusion, the data presented in this article demonstrate that the cloacal microbiota of the reported cracid population is composed of several bacterial genera and species and multi-drug resistance may be a problem for the future, since some strains showed elevated percentage of resistance against several different antimicrobials.

  13. Magnitude da hipotensão pós-exercício aeróbio agudo: Uma revisão sistemática dos estudos randomizados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cristina Oliveira Marques-Silvestre

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se revisar sistematicamente estudos randomizados sobre a magnitude da hipotensão pós-exercício (HPE em adultos. Consultaram-se as bases Pubmed, Scielo e Lilacs, combinando os indexadores “exercise” e “hypotension”, sendo encontrados 1336 estudos. Destes, excluíram-se 1268 por títulos, 37 por resumos, 10 não randomizados, 1 por repetição de dados, restando 20. Estes foram avaliados segundo os itens de randomização, mascaramento, sigilo de alocação, análise por intenção de tratar e quantitativamente pela Escala de Jadad. As reduções das pressões sistólica (PAS e diastólica (PAD em normotensos foram inferiores à dos hipertensos (−9±3 vs −11±6 mmHg e −5±2 vs −8±6 mmHg, respetivamente. Em ambos os grupos, os indivíduos ativos apresentaram HPE maior que os sedentários (normotensos: PAS −10±4 vs −8±1 mmHg; PAD −5±1 vs −4±1 mmHg; hipertensos: PAS −16±4 vs −9±2 mmHg; PAD −7±4 vs −5±3 mmHg, respetivamente. Nestes estudos, a magnitude da HPE variou entre −4 a −19 mmHg para PAS e −2 a −9 mmHg para PAD, valores que dependem tanto das características da amostra, seus estágios pressóricos iniciais, sexo e nível de atividade física, como também do protocolo de exercício utilizado, não havendo consenso sobre a influência da sua duração ou da intensidade do exercício.

  14. Exposure of BALB/c mice to diesel engine exhaust origin secondary organic aer-osol (DE-SOA during the developmental stages impairs the social behavior in adult life of the males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tin-Tin eWin-Shwe

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Secondary organic aerosol (SOA is a component of particulate matter (PM 2.5 and formed in the atmosphere by oxidation of volatile organic compounds. Recently, we have reported that inhalation exposure to diesel engine exhaust (DE originated SOA (DE-SOA affect novel object recognition ability and impair maternal behavior in adult mice. However, it is not clear whether early life exposure to SOA during the de-velopmental stages affect social behavior in adult life or not. In the present study, to investigate the effects of early life exposure to DE-SOA during the gestational and lactation stages on the social behavior in the adult life, BALB/c mice were exposed to clean air (control, DE, DE-SOA and gas without any particulate matter in the inhala-tion chambers from gestational day 14 to postnatal day 21 for 5 h a day and 5 days per week. Then adult mice were examined for changes in their social behavior at the age of 13 week by a sociability and social novelty preference, social interaction with a juvenile mouse and light-dark transition test, hypothalamic mRNA expression levels of social behavior-related genes, estrogen receptor-alpha and oxytocin receptor as well as of the oxidative stress marker gene, heme oxygenase (HO-1 by real-time RT-PCR method. In addition, hypothalamic level of neuronal excitatory marker, glutamate was determined by ELISA method. We observed that sociability and social novelty pref-erence as well as social interaction were remarkably impaired, expression levels of es-trogen receptor-alpha, oxytocin receptor mRNAs were significantly decreased, ex-pression levels of HO-1 mRNAs and glutamate levels were significantly increased in adult male mice exposed to DE-SOA compared to the control ones. Findings of this study indicate early life exposure of BALB/c mice to DE-SOA may affect their late-onset hypothalamic expression of social behavior related genes, trigger neurotoxi-city and impair social behavior in the males.

  15. Perfil lipídico e glicêmico de ratos treinados em exercício aeróbio ou anaeróbio e suplementados com maltodextrina

    OpenAIRE

    Cátia Fernandes Leite; Cláudia Pinho Hartleben; Caroline Soares Magalhães; Airton José Rombaldi

    2013-01-01

    OBJETIVO: verificar as alterações no perfil lipídico e glicêmico de ratos treinados, suplementados com maltodextrina. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: o protocolo de treinamento consistiu de 8 semanas de natação em padrão contínuo (60min.dia-1) ou intermitente (2 períodos de 30min, com intervalo de 10min), com sobrecargas correspondentes a 5% e 10% do peso corporal, respectivamente. Durante 37 dias os animais foram suplementados com uma dose diária de 0,48g.kg-1 de maltodextrina dissolvida em água ou rec...

  16. Valores cefalométricos de las vías aeréas en una población infantil española y su relación con la clase esquelética

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez Rodríguez, Luis Miguel

    2015-01-01

    Introducción: El diagnóstico del patrón respiratorio en la telerradiografía lateral de cráneo, se realiza a través del estudio de la región adenoidea, el espacio aéreo libre de la nasofaringe y la bucofaringe, el paladar blando, la parte posterior de la lengua y la faringe. La respiración bucal está relacionada con la maloclusión de Clase II, el patrón de crecimiento vertical, la mordida cruzada posterior y la posición lingual baja. Objetivos: Identificar las normas cefalométricas de las vía...

  17. Report by the AERES on the unit: Research Centre on Ions, Materials and Photonic (CIMAP) - UMR 6252 under the supervision of the establishments and bodies: ENSICAEN, Caen University, CNRS, CEA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is a kind of audit report on a research laboratory, the CIMAP (Centre of research on Ions, Materials and Photonic) whose activity is organized about two main themes: excited matter and defects (stability and fragmentation dynamics of molecules and aggregates, atom movements, defects and phase stability under irradiation, modelling of matter under electronic excitation) and materials and optics (micro- and nano-structured thin layer elaboration and investigation for microelectronics and optoelectronics, study of luminescent materials and implementation in laser devices, imagery and measurement optical instrumentation based on optical resonator properties). The authors discuss an assessment of the whole unit activities in terms of strengths and opportunities, aspects to be improved, risks and recommendations, productions and publications, scientific quality, influence and attractiveness (awards, recruitment capacity, capacity to obtain financing and to tender, participation to international programs), strategy and governance, and project. These same aspects are then discussed and commented for each sub-theme or team (AMA, SIMUL, MADIR, NIMPH, MIL, and LIOA)

  18. Respuesta del lulo La Selva (Solanum quitoense x Solanum hirtum a la aplicación de fermentados aeróbicos tipo bocashi y fertilizante químico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Hugo Ramírez-Builes

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available En un suelo derivado de cenizas volcánicas bien drenado y de alta fertilidad del municipio Ansermanuevo (zona cafetera de Colombia, en el cultivo de lulo (Solanum quitoense x S. hirtum se evaluaron tres fuentes orgánicas tipo bocashi, provenientes de los procesos de fermentación de pulpa de café, lombricompuesto y gallinaza y un tratamiento con fertilizante químico (10-30-10 más un testigo absoluto sin aplicación de fertilizantes. Se empleó un diseño experimental en bloques completos al azar con tres repeticiones, cada repetición estuvo constituida por 58 plantas. Las aplicaciones de materiales orgánicos mejoraron las características del suelo, estabilizando el pH, aumentando la capacidad de intercambio catiónico y la materia orgánica. En términos generales, el tratamiento de mejor desempeño fue el bocashi de gallinaza, con un promedio de cuajamiento de fruto de 38.3% y un mayor rendimiento (4.7 t/ha. Los bocashis de lombricompuesto y pulpa de café no fueron estadísticamente diferentes al tratamiento químico y todos los tratamientos fueron distintos (P < 0.05 al testigo, lo que demuestra la buena respuesta del cultivo de lulo a las aplicaciones de fuentes orgánicas.

  19. Influência da cafeína na resposta pressórica ao exercício aeróbio em sujeitos hipertensos Caffeine influence on blood pressure response to aerobic exercise in hypertensive subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Freire Cazé

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available A redução da pressão arterial (PA promovida pelo exercício físico é evidente segundo a literatura atual. Mecanismos neuro-humorais explicam essa resposta hipotensora, em que a diminuição da atividade simpática apresenta-se como um dos principais mecanismos. Porém, a ingestão de alimentos ricos em cafeína (CA pode suprimir esta atenuação simpática. O objetivo desse estudo foi elucidar o impacto da ingestão de CA na resposta pressórica ao exercício em pessoas hipertensas. Sete hipertensos (52,3 ± 3,3 anos, sendo cinco mulheres, realizaram duas sessões de caminhada com 40 minutos de duração, em dois dias de treinamento, tendo previamente ingerido CA (4mg/kg de peso corporal ou placebo (PL. A PA e a frequência cardíaca foram verificadas anteriormente a ingestão, após 15, 30, 45, 60 minutos da ingestão em estado de repouso e com 10, 20 e 30 minutos após o exercício. Os dados foram tratados por meio de estatística descritiva, e pelo teste não paramétrico de Wilcoxon (p Blood pressure reduction (BP promoted by physical exercise is evident according to the current literature. Neurohumoral mechanisms explain this hypotensive response, in which decrease of the sympathetic activity appears as one of its main mechanisms. However, the ingestion of caffeine-rich food (CA can suppress this sympathetic attenuation. The objective of this study was to elucidate the impact of CA ingestion in BP after exercise, in hypertensive individuals. Seven hypertensive subjects (52.3 +/-3.3 years, being 5 women, accomplished two walk sessions with 40 minutes of duration, in two days of training, having previously ingested CA (4 mg/kg of body weight or placebo (PL. BP and heart rate were verified previously to the ingestion, after 15, 30, 45, 60 minutes of the ingestion, at rest and with 10, 20 and 30 minutes after exercise. Data were treated through descriptive statistics and by the non-parametric Wilcoxon test (p<0.05. BP mean increased from 124.9/80.9 mmHg before ingestion to 129.4/84.3 mmHg 60 minutes later (p< 0.05. In the recovery period, after 30 minutes of exercise, hypotensive answer was observed in the PL procedure (decrease of 122.6/79.4 mmHg to 115.7/78.6 mmHg, while in the procedure with CA, BP was significantly higher than at rest (increase of 124.9/80.9 mmHg to 136.9/90.9 mmHg, p<0.05. It was concluded that CA not only suppresses the hypotensive response to exercise, but also provokes post-exercise hypertension.

  20. Estudio de alternativas para la construcción de un hangar en el aeródromo de El Rebollar. Requena. Solución mediante pórtico mixto con celosía Pratt.

    OpenAIRE

    MACÍAS ARIAS, DAVID

    2016-01-01

    [EN] The Final Degree Project called "Study of alternatives for building a hangar in the airfield of El Rebollar. Requena", consists of the proposition of four different solutions which cover the construction of the hangar and the pavement linking it to the landing track. The airfield is situated within the municipality of Requena, a city inside the province of Valencia. The lack of space to store the aircrafts made necessary to take action, with planned dimensions of about 28x42 square me...

  1. Co-Production of Quality in the Applied Education Research Scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozga, Jenny

    2007-01-01

    This contribution looks at the ways in which research quality is defined and addressed in the Applied Education Research Scheme (AERS), particularly within the network on Schools and Social Capital, which is one of the four areas of work within the overall AERS scheme. AERS is a five-year programme, funded jointly by the Scottish Executive and the…

  2. Identifying Housing and Meteorological Conditions Influencing Residential Air Exchange Rates in the DEARS and RIOPA Studies: Development of Distributions for Human Exposure Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appropriate prediction of residential air exchange rate (AER) is important for estimating human exposures in the residential microenvironment, as AER drives the infiltration of outdoor-generated air pollutants indoors. AER differences among homes may result from a number of fact...

  3. Measuring and modeling air exchange rates inside taxi cabs in Los Angeles, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Shi; Yu, Nu; Wang, Yueyan; Zhu, Yifang

    2015-12-01

    Air exchange rates (AERs) have a direct impact on traffic-related air pollutant (TRAP) levels inside vehicles. Taxi drivers are occupationally exposed to TRAP on a daily basis, yet there is limited measurement of AERs in taxi cabs. To fill this gap, AERs were quantified in 22 representative Los Angeles taxi cabs including 10 Prius, 5 Crown Victoria, 3 Camry, 3 Caravan, and 1 Uplander under realistic driving (RD) conditions. To further study the impacts of window position and ventilation settings on taxi AERs, additional tests were conducted on 14 taxis with windows closed (WC) and on the other 8 taxis with not only windows closed but also medium fan speed (WC-MFS) under outdoor air mode. Under RD conditions, the AERs in all 22 cabs had a mean of 63 h-1 with a median of 38 h-1. Similar AERs were observed under WC condition when compared to those measured under RD condition. Under WC-MFS condition, AERs were significantly increased in all taxi cabs, when compared with those measured under RD condition. A General Estimating Equation (GEE) model was developed and the modeling results showed that vehicle model was a significant factor in determining the AERs in taxi cabs under RD condition. Driving speed and car age were positively associated with AERs but not statistically significant. Overall, AERs measured in taxi cabs were much higher than typical AERs people usually encounter in indoor environments such as homes, offices, and even regular passenger vehicles.

  4. Implications of Climate Variability and Change for Smallholder Crop Production in Different Areas of Zimbabwe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Musiyiwa

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable food production in the rain-fed smallholder sector of Zimbabwe is imperative in current and future climates given the increasing proportion and role of the sector in food security. Backgrounds of the smallholder sector include low resource bases, declining soil productivity, climate variability and increasing human population. Impacts of climatic and non-climatic variables on crop production vary in different Agro-Ecological Regions (AERs. The study identifies the main climatic opportunities and constraints for sustainable rain-fed smallholder crop production systems in current and future climates. Estimated changes in rainfall and temperature by 2050 are not likely to negatively impact crop production in smallholder areas in AER I, increases in temperature may have negative impacts for most of AER III and IV. Most of AER V is likely to become unsuitable for sustainable maize production. Overall projections indicate increased differences in agricultural potential between smallholder farmers in AER I compared to those in AER II and III as well as those in AER IV and V and different management options. Proposed adaptation and coping strategies in AER I and some in AER II include intensification of agriculture and optimization of both C3 and C4 crop production while in AER III to V adoption of stress tolerant crops for family subsistence may be imperative.

  5. Effects of particle size and coating on decomposition of alumina-extracted residue from high-alumina fly ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zehua; Ma, Shuhua; Tang, Zhenhua; Wang, Xiaohui; Zheng, Shili

    2016-05-01

    The effective removal of alkali in the alumina-extracted reside (AER) obtained by extracting alumina from high-alumina fly ash is the premise for realizing the utilization of the silicon component in the fly ash. Sodium was removed from the AER by a decomposition reaction. The effects of the particle size and reactant coating on the decomposition reaction of AER were studied, and the results showed that by decreasing the particle size, the decomposition reaction rate of AER could be enhanced obviously and the Na2O content of the products could be decreased effectively. In addition, the process and mechanism of the decomposition reaction of AER and the reaction kinetics were investigated. The results revealed that the decomposition reaction of AER started from the outer surface of the AER particles. The reaction kinetics corresponded with shrinking unreacted core models. Furthermore, the decomposition reaction rate of AER could be enhanced obviously by decreasing the particle size because the effect of product layer diffusion was weakened when the particle size of AER was decreased. PMID:26844406

  6. A nation-wide cross-sectional study of urinary albumin excretion rate, arterial blood pressure and blood glucose control in Danish children with type 1 diabetes mellitus. Danish Study Group of Diabetes in Childhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, H B; Marinelli, K; Nørgaard, K;

    1990-01-01

    than 20 to 150 micrograms min-1 were compared with those for 569 diabetic adolescents with AER less than or equal to 20 micrograms min-1 and duration of diabetes more than 2 years. The group with AER greater than 20 to 150 micrograms min-1 had significantly higher mean age (16.5 years) than the group...

  7. Review of Air Exchange Rate Models for Air Pollution Exposure Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    A critical aspect of air pollution exposure assessments is estimation of the air exchange rate (AER) for various buildings, where people spend their time. The AER, which is rate the exchange of indoor air with outdoor air, is an important determinant for entry of outdoor air pol...

  8. Characterization of atypical Aeromonas salmonicida isolates by ribotyping and plasmid profiling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Karl; Dalsgaard, Inger; Larsen, J.L.

    1996-01-01

    A total of 38 strains of atypical Aeromonas salmonicida, three oxidase-negative but otherwise typical Aer. salmonicida, three typical Aer. salmonicida, and two reference strains, isolated from several countries and fish species were examined with respect to rRNA gene restriction patterns (ribotypes...

  9. Screening Azadirachta indica tree for enhancing azadirachtin and oil contents in dry areas of Gujarat, India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    U.K. Tomar; G. Singh; N. Kaushik

    2011-01-01

    Azadirachta indica seed samples were collected from four different agro-ecological regions (AERs) viz., AER-2, AER-4, AER-5A and AER-5B of Gujarat state, India during 2000 to 2002 with an aim to assess variability in azadirachtin, oil and fatty acids content of the seeds and assess correlation of these parameters with morphological characters.Azadirachtin, oil and fatty acids content indicated significant (p<0.01)variations between years and AERs in Gujarat. The azadirachtin ranged from 142 to 9527 μg·g-1 seed kernel with an average of 2426 μg·g-1 for the state. AER-5B recorded highest azadirachtin and oil content. Fatty acid composition was found to be affected by environmental factors particularly varying degree of annual rainfall and temperature during fruit ripening period. Conclusively trees growing in AER-5B performed better in term of azadirachtin, oil and stearic acid content. Tree girth at breast height showed no significant relation with these biochemicals.

  10. A May American Economic Review Papers Seminar and an Analytic Project for Advanced Undergraduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Catherine S.

    2004-01-01

    The author describes two learning activities for teaching economics at the advanced undergraduate level: a May American Economic Review (AER) papers seminar and an analytic project. Both activities help students learn to "do economics." The May AER papers seminar promotes in-depth synthesis and interpretation on the basis of printed session papers…

  11. 100 Years of the American Economic Review : The Top 20 Articles

    OpenAIRE

    Kenneth J. Arrow; B. Douglas Bernheim; Martin S. Feldstein; Daniel L. McFadden; James M. Poterba; Solow, Robert M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a list of the top 20 articles published in the American Economic Review during its first 100 years. This list was assembled in honor of the AER 's one-hundredth anniversary by a group of distinguished economists at the request of AER 's editor. A brief description accompanies the citations of each article.

  12. Measurement of air exchange rates in different indoor environments using continuous CO2 sensors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan YOU; Can Niu; Jian Zhou; Yating Liu; Zhipeng Bai; Jiefeng Zhang; Fei He; Nan Zhang

    2012-01-01

    A new air exchange rate (AER) monitoring method using continuous CO2 sensors was developed and validated through both laboratory experiments and field studies.Controlled laboratory simulation tests were conducted in a 1-m3 environmental chamber at different AERs (0.1-10.0 hr-1).AERs were determined using the decay method based on box model assumptions.Field tests were conducted in classrooms,dormitories,meeting rooms and apartments during 2-5 weekdays using CO2 sensors coupled with data loggers.Indoor temperature,relative humidity (RH),and CO2 concentrations were continuously monitored while outdoor parameters combined with on-site climate conditions were recorded.Statistical results indicated that good laboratory performance was achieved:duplicate precision was within 10%,and the measured AERs were 90%-120% of the real AERs.Average AERs were 1.22,1.37,1.10,1.91 and 0.73 hr-1 in dormitories,air-conditioned classrooms,classrooms with an air circulation cooling system,reading rooms,and meeting rooms,respectively.In an elderly particulate matter exposure study,all the homes had AER values ranging from 0.29 to 3.46 hr-1 in fall,and 0.12 to 1.39 hr-1 in winter with a median AER of 1.15.

  13. Mutagenic and antimutagenic effects of aqueous extract of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) on meristematic cells of Allium cepa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felicidade, I; Lima, J D; Pesarini, J R; Monreal, A C D; Mantovani, M S; Ribeiro, L R; Oliveira, R J

    2014-01-01

    Polyphenolic compounds present in rosemary were found to have antioxidant properties, anticarcinogenic activity, and to increase the detoxification of pro-carcinogens. The aim of the study was to determine the effect the aqueous extract of rosemary (AER) on mutagenicity induced by methylmethane sulfonate in meristematic cells of Allium cepa, as well as to describe its mode of action. Anti-mutagenicity experiments were carried out with 3 different concentrations of AER, which alone showed no mutagenic effects. In antimutagenicity experiments, AER showed chemopreventive activity in cultured meristematic cells of A. cepa against exposure to methylmethane sulfonate. Additionally, post-treatment and simultaneous treatment using pre-incubation protocols were the most effective. Evaluation of different protocols and the percent reduction in DNA indicated bioantimutagenic as well desmutagenic modes of action for AER. AER may be chemopreventive and antimutagenic. PMID:25501210

  14. Respuesta del lulo La Selva (Solanum quitoense x Solanum hirtum a la aplicación de fermentados aeróbicos tipo bocashi y fertilizante químico Response of the lulo fruit cv. La Selva (Solanum quitoense x Solanum hirtum at the aerobic organic and inorganic fertilizer applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Hugo Ramírez-Builes

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available En un suelo derivado de cenizas volcánicas bien drenado y de alta fertilidad del municipio Ansermanuevo (zona cafetera de Colombia, en el cultivo de lulo (Solanum quitoense x S. hirtum se evaluaron tres fuentes orgánicas tipo bocashi, provenientes de los procesos de fermentación de pulpa de café, lombricompuesto y gallinaza y un tratamiento con fertilizante químico (10-30-10 más un testigo absoluto sin aplicación de fertilizantes. Se empleó un diseño experimental en bloques completos al azar con tres repeticiones, cada repetición estuvo constituida por 58 plantas. Las aplicaciones de materiales orgánicos mejoraron las características del suelo, estabilizando el pH, aumentando la capacidad de intercambio catiónico y la materia orgánica. En términos generales, el tratamiento de mejor desempeño fue el bocashi de gallinaza, con un promedio de cuajamiento de fruto de 38.3% y un mayor rendimiento (4.7 t/ha. Los bocashis de lombricompuesto y pulpa de café no fueron estadísticamente diferentes al tratamiento químico y todos los tratamientos fueron distintos (P In this study four fertilization treatments in lulo crop (Solanum quitoense x S.hirtum were evaluated, three organic with several manure sources like coffee skin , earthworm residues and chicken manure, and a four treatment consisted of inorganic fertilizer with a composition of 10-30-30 ( N,P,K and a control without fertilizer applications. A complete block random design with three replications was used and each replication with 58 plants. The organic fertilization increase the soil pH, cation exchange capacity and soil organic matter. The best treatment was the aerobic fermented, based on chicken manure with a fruit yield average of 4731 kg .ha-1, the rest of the organic treatments did no showed statistical differences with the inorganic fertilization and all were statistical different with the control without fertilizer applications, which showed a good crop response to the organic applications.

  15. Fermentation, losses, and aerobic stability of sugarcane silages treated with chemical or bacterial additives Fermentação, perdas e estabilidade aeróbia de silagens de cana-de-açúcar tratadas com aditivos químicos ou bacterianos

    OpenAIRE

    André de Faria Pedroso; Luiz Gustavo Nussio; Daniele Rebouças Santana Loures; Solidete de Fátima Paziani; José Leonardo Ribeiro; Lucas José Mari; Maity Zopollatto; Patrick Schmidt; Wilson Roberto Soares Mattos; Jorge Horii

    2008-01-01

    Utilization of sugarcane Saccharum officinarum L. silage is increasing in Brazil but intensive ethanol production during fermentation reduces forage quality. This experiment aimed to evaluate the effects of additives on fermentation and aerobic stability of sugarcane silages produced in minisilos. Treatments were (fresh basis): untreated silage (control), urea (5.0 g kg-1), sodium benzoate (1.0 g kg-1), potassium sorbate (0.3 g kg-1), Lactobacillus plantarum (1 x 10(6) cfu g-1), and Lactobaci...

  16. Novos aditivos microbianos na ensilagem da cana-de-açúcar: composição bromatológica, perdas fermentativas, componentes voláteis e estabilidade aeróbia New microbial additives on sugarcane ensilage: bromatological composition, fermentative losses, volatile compounds and aerobic stability

    OpenAIRE

    Patrick Schmidt; Paulo Rossi Junior; Daniel Junges; Laila Talarico Dias; Rodrigo de Almeida; Lucas José Mari

    2011-01-01

    Nesta pesquisa, comparou-se a inclusão de aditivo composto por cepas de Lactobacillus brevis + Enterococcus faecium + L. plantarum à inoculação com aditivo comercial contendo cepas de Lactobacillus buchneri e à ensilagem sem aditivos (controle). As silagens foram confeccionadas em silos experimentais e armazenadas por 90 dias antes da abertura do silo. Foram avaliadas a composição bromatológica da cana-de-açúcar antes e após a ensilagem, a composição de ácidos orgânicos e etanol das silagens,...

  17. Exercício aeróbio como terapia de exposição a estímulos interoceptivos no tratamento do transtorno de pânico Aerobic exercise as exposure therapy to interoceptive cues in panic disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo William Muotri

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Os ataques de pânico são representados por um período distinto no qual há o início súbito de intensa apreensão, temor ou terror, freqüentemente associados com sentimentos de catástrofe iminente, diagnosticado em aproximadamente 10% da população. O Transtorno de Pânico é um transtorno de ansiedade que se caracteriza pela recorrência de ataques de pânico: crises súbitas de mal-estar e sensação de perigo ou morte iminente, acompanhadas de diversos sintomas físicos e cognitivos. Os indivíduos com Transtorno de Pânico apresentam, caracteristicamente, preocupações acerca das implicações ou conseqüências dos ataques de pânico. É uma condição clínica complexa que envolve diferentes modalidades ou conglomerados de sintomas. Assim, o foco nas sensações físicas erroneamente interpretadas no transtorno de pânico e na hipocondria centraliza-se basicamente nas manifestações autonômicas, como taquicardia e dispnéia. Há poucos estudos sobre atividade física e transtorno de pânico. O principal objetivo do estudo visa identificar com diferentes descrições se há uma população "nuclear" com sintomas predominantemente respiratórios apresentando esquiva de atividade física e a influência do exercício nesta população.Panic attacks are represented by distinct periods in which there is a sudden beginning of internal apprehension, fear or terror, frequently associated with feelings of imminent catastrophe, diagnosed in approximately 10% of the population. The panic disorder is an anxiety crisis that is characterized by the recurrence of panic attacks: sudden crises of uneasiness and sensation of danger or imminent death, followed by diverse physical and cognitive symptoms. Individuals with panic disorder are characteristically concerned about panic attacks implications or consequences. It is a complex clinical condition that involves different modalities or myriad of symptoms. Thus, the focus on the physical sensations misinterpreted in panic disorder and hypochondria, is basically centered in autonomic manifestations, such as tachycardia and dyspnea. There are scarce studies on physical activity and panic disorder. The main purpose of the study is to identify with different descriptions whether there is a 'main' population with symptoms predominantly respiratory presenting avoidance of physical activity and exercise influence on this population.

  18. Environmental impacts from the EPSPEX-system. Part 2: Conventional Twinpipes or EPSPEX for District Heat Distribution - Which is best from an Environmental Standpoint?; Miljoebelastning fraan EPSPEX-systemet. Del 2: Konventionella Twinroer eller EPSPEX foer Fjaerrvaermedistribution - Vad aer baest ur Miljoesynpunkt?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansson, Kristin; Olsson, A. Maria; Froeling, Morgan [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Chemical Environmental Science

    2005-07-15

    In this study the life-cycle environmental impacts from an EPSPEX system for distribution of district heat (a four-pipe system with centrally generated hot tap water) are compared with the environmental impacts of a twin-pipe system with steel media pipes, if installed in the same area. A life cycle assessment of the EPSPEX system constructed in Vraaen, Vaernamo, Sweden, has been reported in FVF-FOU--2005-20. In that study the question was raised of how the EPSPEX system compares with a conventional twin-pipe system with polyurethane-insulated steel media pipes. In the present study the EPSPEX system in Vraaen is compared with a hypothetical construction of a conventional twin pipe system in the same area. Two different fuel mixes for district heat generation have been studied to increase the understanding of the environmental performance of district heat distribution systems; the fuel mix used in Vraaen (heat delivered from Vaernamo Energi) and Swedish average district heat. How media pipes from the two different materials (PEX and steel) compare is discussed in a separate part. There are technical differences that must be kept in mind when the systems are compared in this way. The EPSPEX system is designed for low-pressure district heat systems and could only be used in such context. It is unadvisable to install the EPSPEX system below the ground water table; this is not a restriction for the twin pipe system. Under the conditions of this study the environmental performance of the EPSPEX system is better than the twin pipe system. The heat loss from the EPSPEX system is approximately 60% of the heat loss for a comparable twin pipe system. This is caused by a combination of thick insulation for the EPSPEX system and the possibility to summertime shut down the district heating circuit for this system and only use the hot tap-water circuit. Note, however, that the heat loss from the EPSPEX system is more uncertain compared to the twin-pipe system. From the characterization methods used, the production of the EPSPEX system gives a higher environmental impact compared to the twin pipe system. This heavily depends on the large amount of insulating material used. However, the environmental impacts from production of the insulation are more then outweighed by the emissions avoided from heat generation due to lower heat loss. District heating sub centrals generates a notable part of the total environmental impact when using the weighing method EPS2000. Note that sub centrals are not technically necessary in low-pressure district heat systems, as the EPSPEX system. The comparison between different fuel mixes for heat generation indicates clearly that the heat generation is an important parameter for environmental performance for all district heating. It is further indicated that also biofuels must be used with sensible and environmentally friendly methods. The media pipes of PEX seem to give lower environmental impacts compared with media pipes of steel. However, the results differ between assessment methods used.

  19. Effects of Statin and Aerobic Physical Exercise Association in the Cardiomyocytes of the Rat: Morphometric Study Efectos de la Asociación de Estatina y del Ejercicio Aeróbico en los Cardiomiocitos de Rata: Estudio Morfométrico

    OpenAIRE

    Susimary Aparecida Trevizan Padulla; Reinaldo Azoubel; Mariana Rotta Bonfim; Marilita Falángola Accioly; José Carlos Silva Camargo Filho; João Armando Padovani; Antonio Carlos Brandao; Dorotéia Rossi Silva Souza

    2009-01-01

    Physical exercise and statins, recommended interventions to dyslipidaemia treatment, are independently related to cardiomyocytes alterations, characterized by miocardic hypertrophy and apoptosis, respectively. Thus, the objective of the present study was to analyze the effects of statin and aerobic physical exercise association in the morphometric parameters of cardiac cell nucleus. 40 male rats adults were divided into four groups: exercised (DE); sedentary (DS), exercised and statin use (DE...

  20. Efeito do retorno de lodo aeróbio sobre as características da biomassa presente em reatores UASB tratando esgoto sanitário Effect of aerobic sludge return on the characteristics of anaerobic biomass present in UASB reactors treating domestic sewage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Procópio Pontes

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho buscou avaliar a influência do retorno do lodo produzido em filtros biológicos percoladores (FBP sobre as características da biomassa em reatores UASB utilizados para o tratamento de esgoto sanitário. Os experimentos foram conduzidos em reatores em escala piloto e em escala de demonstração, sendo que os reatores UASB foram operados com e sem retorno do lodo produzido nos FBP. Os resultados obtidos indicaram uma diminuição no diâmetro das partículas de lodo, durante as fases com retorno de lodo, mas apenas para as amostras de lodo tomadas nos pontos mais altos dos reatores anaeróbios. A estabilidade e a atividade metanogênica específica do lodo anaeróbio praticamente não se modificaram com o retorno de lodo. Conforme esperado, a produção específica de lodo anaeróbio aumentou com o retorno de lodo.This work aimed at evaluating the influence of the return of excess aerobic sludge produced in trickling filters (TF upon the biomass characteristics in UASB reactors used for the treatment of domestic sewage. The experiments were carried out in pilot and demonstration-scale reactors, with the UASB reactors being operated with and without the return of sludge produced in the TF. Smaller sludge particle sizes were observed when the aerobic sludge was returned to the UASB reactor, but only for sludge samples collected in the upper parts of the anaerobic reactors. Sludge stability and specific methanogenic activity were not affected by the return of sludge. As expected, the specific anaerobic sludge production increased with the return of sludge.

  1. Co-burning of assorted industrial waste consisting of paper, plastic and wood in a bio plant not classified for waste burning; Sameldning av returbraenslen i form av papper, plast och trae i fastbraenslepanna som idag ej aer klassad foer avfall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stroemberg, M. [Gaevle Kraftvaerme AB, Gaevle (Sweden); Erdegren, P. [JD-Gruppen AB, Solna (Sweden)

    2002-01-01

    With the purpose to investigate the possibilities to burn mixed-in assorted industrial waste in existing bio-fuelled solid fuel boilers, a test combustion was performed during one week in a 70 MW bubbling bed bio plant. The test was performed at Gaevle Kraftvaerme's bio plant 'Johannes' during the winter 2001. The purpose with the test combustion was to evaluate the environmental, technical and economical consequences of combustion with 20% (by volume) addition of assorted industrial waste. Remaining fuel was bark and RT-chips. The assorted industrial waste was taken out by manual screening of arriving waste and consisted of paper, plastic and wood from industries and bulky waste. Regarding flue gas emissions during the test combustion all anticipated new emission stipulations according the EU Directive were met with exception of TOC. For CO, the anticipated stipulation was met during the test, however due to CO-variations independent of type of solid fuel, measures must be taken to meet the anticipated more severe CO-demand. By rearranging the air supply system to the boiler, the new TOC and CO-stipulations are expected to be met. As the flue gas emissions were recorded both ahead and after the flue gas condensation, the separation herein could be calculated. For dust, SO{sub 2} and dioxin the separation rates were around 50-60% and for HCI and NH{sub 3} around 90-95%. The EU Directive stipulation for emissions to water was met for all components. During the test, the coating formation on super heater tubes was measured. The result indicates that the growth rate and chloride content of the coating increased when industrial waste was added. However it is difficult to establish what impact it will have on the life of the tubes. The analyses of the various ashes from the plant indicated an increase of primarily Cr Cu, Pb and Sb. During the test, the temperature was measured at a cross section of the furnace. The result from these measurements indicates a higher mean temperature and large variation between the various measure points with addition of waste. According to the presented calculation method, the EU Directive stipulation of 2 seconds retention time in the furnace above 850 deg C was met. For the plant in question it is estimated that an 8 MSEK investment is required in order to permanently burn with a waste mixture as described above. The operation costs are expected to increase with ca 2,5 MSEK annually (1SEK = 0.1 USD). As a conclusion the test was successful without any practical operation problems and the test result indicates that the emission stipulations can be met. If the assorted industrial waste could be delivered to the plant at a price less than 50 SEK/MWh a permanent conversion would be profitable.

  2. AErP.sub.2./sub.O.sub.7./sub. (A = Rb, Cs) and HEuP.sub.2./sub.O.sub.7./sub..3H.sub.2./sub.O: Crystal structures, vibrational studies and thermal behaviours

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Essehli, R.; Lamhamdi, A.; Tahiri, A. A.; El Bali, B.; Mejdoubi, E.; Dušek, Michal; Fejfarová, Karla

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 42, č. 5 (2012), s. 475-485. ISSN 1074-1542 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP204/11/0809 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : erbium * europium * rubidium * caesium * diphosphate * crystal structure * TG and TDA * IR and Raman Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.513, year: 2012

  3. Influência do treinamento físico aeróbio no transporte mitocondrial de ácidos graxos de cadeia longa no músculo esquelético: papel do complexo carnitina palmitoil transferase Influence of aerobic physical training in the motochondrial transport of long chain fatty acids in the skeletal muscle: role of the carnitine palmitoil transferase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Shimura Yamashita

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available O ácido graxo (AG é uma importante fonte de energia para o músculo esquelético. Durante o exercício sua mobilização é aumentada para suprir as necessidades da musculatura ativa. Acredita-se que diversos pontos de regulação atuem no controle da oxidação dos AG, sendo o principal a atividade do complexo carnitina palmitoil transferase (CPT, entre os quais três componentes estão envolvidos: a CPT I, a CPT II e carnitina acilcarnitina translocase. A função da CPT I durante o exercício físico é controlar a entrada de AG para o interior da mitocôndria, para posterior oxidação do AG e produção de energia. Em resposta ao treinamento físico há um aumento na atividade e expressão da CPT I no músculo esquelético. Devido sua grande importância no metabolismo de lipídios, os mecanismos que controlam sua atividade e sua expressão gênica são revisados no presente estudo. Reguladores da expressão gênica de proteínas envolvidas no metabolismo de lipídios no músculo esquelético, os receptores ativados por proliferadores de peroxissomas (PPAR alfa e beta, são discutidos com um enfoque na resposta ao treinamento físico.Fatty acids are an important source of energy for the skeletal muscle. During exercise, their mobilization is increased to supply the muscle energetic needs. Many points of regulation act in the fatty acids metabolism, where the carnitine palmytoiltransferase (CPT complex is the main control system. Three compounds named CPT I, CPT II and carnitine acyl carnitine translocase (CACT are components of this system. Its function is to control the influx of fatty acids inside the mitochondria for posterior oxidation and energy production. There is a pronounced increase in both activity and gene expression of CPT I in the skeletal muscle in response to exercise. Due to its importance in lipid metabolism, the controlling mechanisms are reviewed in the present study. The modulation of gene expression by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs alpha and beta during the physical training is also discussed in this review.

  4. Reproducibility of maximum aerobic power (VO2max among soccer players using a modified heck protocol Reprodutibilidade da potência aeróbia máxima (VO2max em jogadores de futebol utilizando o protocolo de heck modificado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Roberto Santos-Silva

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine the degree of reproducibility of maximum oxygen consumption (VO2max among soccer players, using a modified Heck protocol. METHODS: 2 evaluations with an interval of 15 days between them were performed on 11 male soccer players. All the players were at a high performance level; they were training for an average of 10 hours per week, totaling 5 times a week. When they were evaluated, they were in the middle of the competitive season, playing 1 match per week. The soccer players were evaluated on an ergometric treadmill with velocity increments of 1.2 km.h-1 every 2 minutes and a fixed inclination of 3% during the test. VO2max was measured directly using a breath-by-breath metabolic gas analyzer. RESULTS: The maximum running speed and VO2max attained in the 2 tests were, respectively: (15.6 ± 1.1 vs. 15.7 ± 1.2 km.h-1; [P = .78] and (54.5 ± 3.9 vs. 55.2 ± 4.4 ml.kg-1.min-1; [P = .88]. There was high and significant correlation of VO2max between the 2 tests with a 15-day interval between them [r = 0.97; P OBJETIVO: Determinar o grau de reprodutibilidade do consumo máximo de oxigênio (VO2max em jogadores de futebol utilizando o protocolo de Heck modificado. MÉTODOS: Foram avaliados por duas vezes, com intervalo de 15 dias entre os testes, 11 futebolistas masculinos. Todos eram de alto nível, treinavam em média 10 horas por semana subdivididos em treinamentos físicos, técnicos, táticos e jogos competitivos, totalizando cinco vezes por semana e na fase em que foram avaliados se encontravam em pleno período competitivo realizando um jogo por semana. Os futebolistas foram avaliados em esteira ergométrica (1,2 km.h-1 a cada dois minutos e inclinação fixa durante o teste em 3%. O VO2max foi medido diretamente utilizando analisador metabólico de análise de gases expirados respiração-a-respiração. RESULTADOS: A velocidade máxima de corrida e o VO2max atingido nos dois testes foram respectivamente: (15,6 ± 1,1 vs. 15,7 ± 1,2 km.h-1; [p = 0,78] e (54,5 ± 3,9 vs. 55,2 ± 4,4 ml.kg-1.min-1; [P = 0,88]. Houve correlação significante e alta do VO2max entre os dois testes após 15 dias de intervalo [r = 0,97; P< 0,001]. CONCLUSÃO: O protocolo de Heck modificado foi reprodutível e o intervalo de quinze dias entre os testes ergoespirométricos não foi suficiente para modificar significativamente o VO2max dos jogadores de futebol.

  5. Selección mediante Simulación de una Estructura de Modelo Cinético para la Degradación Aeróbica de Efluentes de una Industria Láctea Selection by Simulation of a Model for the Kinetic Structure of an Aerobic Degradation System for Effluents from a Milk Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Rosa

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available El propósito de este trabajo consiste en implementar una metodología de selección de estructuras de modelos cinéticos, para el caso concreto de la degradación aerobia de los efluentes industriales de una empresa láctea regional, utilizando como herramienta la simulación. Esta se encuentra disponible en un software comercial específico y consiste en configurar para uno o varios sustratos, un set de estructuras de modelos de complejidad creciente, con velocidades de degradación independientes, para evaluar el comportamiento del sistema mediante combinaciones de las mismas, confrontando los resultados obtenidos por simulación con los datos experimentales. Los resultados alcanzados para una estructura relativamente simple se consideran satisfactorios para ser implementados industrialmente. El aporte más importante lo constituye la convalidación tanto de la metodología propuesta como de la potencialidad del software para ser aplicado al análisis de situaciones reales, lo cual resulta de especial importancia para el análisis y diseño de plantas de tratamientoThis work consisted in implementing a methodology for the selection of kinetic model structures for a real case of aerobic degradation of industrial effluents from a regional milk industry using simulation as a tool. This tool is available in a specific commercial software and consists of making configurations for one or several substrates with a set of structural models of increasing complexity and independent degradation velocities. The behavior of the system is evaluated using various combinations of the preceding considerations and comparing the simulated results with industrial experimental data. The results obtained using a relatively simple structure were satisfactory for industrial application. The most important contribution was the proof that both the proposed methodology and the power of the software could be applied to real situations, which is of especial importance for the analysis and design of treatment plants

  6. Viabilidade do tratamento de água residuária sintética têxtil em reator aeróbio de leito fixo Viability of the synthetic textile wastewater treatment in a fixed-bed aerobic reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Rodrigues

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Um reator de escoamento contínuo, inoculado com Aspergillus niger AN400, possuía volume total de 5 L e foi operado a 29ºC, com oito horas de tempo de detenção hidráulica e 150 L.h-1 de vazão de ar, para remover 25 mg.L-1 de corante vermelho do congo de água residuária sintética. A alimentação do reator foi realizada em duas fases: Fase I, com 0,5 g.L-1 de sacarose e Fase II, sem sacarose. Na Fase I, foi possível observar eficiências de remoção de matéria orgânica (mg de DQO.L-1 e de cor (mg PT.L-1 de 80 ± 16% e 82 ± 10% (mg Pt.L-1, respectivamente. Na Fase II, a eficiência de remoção de matéria orgânica foi de 75 ± 13% e de cor (mg Pt.L-1 de 89 ± 7%. As maiores remoções de nutrientes foram alcançadas pelo reator na Fase I, com 25% de amônia, 90% de nitrito, 93% de nitrato e 21% de fósforo. Aparentemente, a presença de sacarose melhorou a remoção dos nutrientes.A continuous flow reactor, inoculated with Aspergillus niger AN400, with total volume of 5 L was operated at 29oC, with eight hours of retention hydraulic time and 150 L.h-1 of air flow rate in order to remove 25 mg.L-1 of Congo Red dye from a synthetic wastewater. The feeding of the reactor, inoculated with Aspergillus niger AN400, was done in two phases: Phase I, with 0,5 g/L of saccharose and Phase II, with no saccharose. In Phase I, it was possible to verify efficiencies of organic matter and color (mg Pt.L-1 removal of 80 ± 16% and 82 ± 10%, respectively. In Phase II, the efficiency of organic matter removal was 75 ± 13% and color removal was 89 ± 7%. The higher removals of nutrients were achieved by the reactor in Phase I with 25% to ammonia, 90% to nitrite, 93% to nitrate and 21% to phosphorus. Apparently, the presence of saccharose improved the removal of the nutrients.

  7. Secondary spontaneous pneumothorax associated with emphysema and ruptured bullae at the azygoesophageal recess

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With secondary spontaneous pneumothorax (SSP) associated with emphysema, lesions responsible for pneumothorax can be located anywhere along the lung surface. Among such lesions, ruptured bullae at the azygoesophageal recess (AER) have received little attention thus far. We conducted a retrospective study of 38 right SSP patients with emphysema who underwent surgery. Among them, we reviewed the clinical characteristics and technical problems of patients with surgically proven ruptured bullae at the AER. Ruptured bullae at the AER were found in 10 of 38 patients. They accounted for 26.3% of all 38 patients and for 66.7% of 15 patients whose bullae at the AER were identified by preoperative computed tomography (CT). On CT, all the bullae were relatively large and oriented in a predominantly vertical axis. At surgery, they were confirmed as white, thin-walled structures originating from the mediastinal part of the apical segment of the right lower lobe. Surgery typically consisted of stapling bullectomy with video-assisted thoracic surgery. Technical problems in surgical treatment included poor mobilization of the base of the bulla and a restricted working space. Bullae at the AER are common and possibly lead to rupture. The presence of a bulla at the AER seen by CT can be predictive of rupture. Although the AER is a unique location, video-assisted bullectomy is the method of choice for treating these lesions. (author)

  8. AcEST: BP920015 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available YMU001_000132_A09 411 Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA. clone: YMU001_000132_A09. BP920015 CL1953C ... n tr|A4SLI3|A4SLI3_AERS4 RTX toxin-like protein OS=Aeromonas ... salmonicida (strain A449) Align length 72 Score (b ... e tr|A4SLI3|A4SLI3_AERS4 RTX toxin-like protein OS=Aeromonas ... salmo... 33 5.5 >tr|A4SLI3|A4SLI3_AERS4 RTX toxin- ...

  9. AcEST: BP918244 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available YMU001_000111_B12 550 Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA. clone: YMU001_000111_B12. BP918244 CL1953C ... n tr|A4SLI3|A4SLI3_AERS4 RTX toxin-like protein OS=Aeromonas ... salmonicida (strain A449) Align length 72 Score (b ... e tr|A4SLI3|A4SLI3_AERS4 RTX toxin-like protein OS=Aeromonas ... salmo... 34 4.5 >tr|A4SLI3|A4SLI3_AERS4 RTX toxin- ...

  10. The development of automatic emotion regulation in an implicit emotional Go/NoGo paradigm and the association with depressive symptoms and anhedonia during adolescence

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Wenhai; Ding, Qiang; Chen, Ning; Wei, Qing; Zhao, Cancan; Zhang, Ping; Li, Xiying; Liu, Qiang; Li, Hong

    2016-01-01

    Impaired automatic emotion regulation (AER) is closely related to major depressive disorder. Our research in adults has identified two AER-related components, Go N2 and NoGo P3, in an implicit emotional Go/NoGo paradigm. However, it is unclear whether Go N2 and NoGo P3 reflect the development of AER in adolescents and the relationship of these components with subclinical depressive symptoms and trait anhedonia. We collected EEG data from 55 adolescents while they completed the implicit emotio...

  11. Small-angle neutron-scattering experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A brief introduction to small-angle scattering (SAS) is given. Initial results obtained using the AERE small-angle diffractometer are presented for four materials of interest: doped uranium dioxide, nitrided steel, graphite and alumina. (U.K.)

  12. Spatiotemporally‐Resolved Air Exchange Rate as a Modifier of Acute Air Pollution‐Related Morbidity in AtlantaMorbidity in Atlanta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epidemiological studies frequently use central site concentrations as surrogates of exposure to air pollutants. Variability in air pollutant infiltration due to differential air exchange rates (AERs) is potentially a major factor affecting the relationship between central site c...

  13. Development and Evaluation of a New Air Exchange Rate Algorithm for the Stochastic Human Exposure and Dose Simulation Model (ISES Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previous exposure assessment panel studies have observed considerable seasonal, between-home and between-city variability in residential pollutant infiltration. This is likely a result of differences in home ventilation, or air exchange rates (AER). The Stochastic Human Exposure ...

  14. Suicide attempts, platelet monoamine oxidase and the average evoked response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The relationship between suicides and suicide attempts and two biological measures, platelet monoamine oxidase levels (MAO) and average evoked response (AER) augmenting was examined in 79 off-medication psychiatric patients and in 68 college student volunteers chosen from the upper and lower deciles of MAO activity levels. In the patient sample, male individuals with low MAO and AER augmenting, a pattern previously associated with bipolar affective disorders, showed a significantly increased incidence of suicide attempts in comparison with either non-augmenting low MAO or high MAO patients. Within the normal volunteer group, all male low MAO probands with a family history of suicide or suicide attempts were AER augmenters themselves. Four completed suicides were found among relatives of low MAO probands whereas no high MAO proband had a relative who committed suicide. These findings suggest that the combination of low platelet MAO activity and AER augmenting may be associated with a possible genetic vulnerability to psychiatric disorders. (author)

  15. Isolation of motile Aeromonas spp. from fish and their cytotoxic effect on Vero cell cultures

    OpenAIRE

    Karabasil Neđeljko; Ašanin Ružica; Baltić Milan Ž.; Teodorović V.; Dimitrijević Mirjana

    2002-01-01

    The presence of motile Aeromonas spp. in fish and other sea food on the Belgrade retail market was investigated with the aim of determining the ability of these bacteria to produce and secrete toxins. Nine strains of motile Aeromonas spp. were isolated from seventy-eight food samples. Aer. sobria was identified in three cases, while six of the obtained strains were identified as Aer. hydrophila. Strains of motile Aeromonas spp. from different sources were analyzed for cytotoxicity on Vero cel...

  16. Characterization of CetA and CetB, a bipartite energy taxis system in Campylobacter jejuni

    OpenAIRE

    Elliott, Kathryn T; DiRita, Victor J.

    2008-01-01

    The energy taxis receptor Aer, in Escherichia coli, senses changes in the redox state of the electron transport system via an flavin adenine dinucleotide cofactor bound to a PAS domain. The PAS domain (a sensory domain named after three proteins Per, ARNT and Sim, where it was first identified) is thought to interact directly with the Aer HAMP domain to transmit this signal to the highly conserved domain (HCD) found in chemotaxis receptors. An apparent energy taxis system in Campylobacter jej...

  17. Comparison of overnight, morning and 24-hour urine collections in the assessment of diabetic microalbuminuria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eshøj, O; Feldt-Rasmussen, B; Larsen, M L; Mogensen, E F

    1987-01-01

    overnight and morning urine samples. These values were slightly improved by relating AER to the excretion of creatinine and it is concluded that overnight as well as morning urine collections can be used when diagnosing microalbuminuria in insulin-dependent diabetics. Furthermore the results show that the...... albumin to creatinine ratio in morning urine is a reliable estimate of 24 h AER and better than measurement of the albumin concentration alone....

  18. Airline Overbooking in the Multi-Class Case

    OpenAIRE

    Coughlan, Joseph

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents an airline overbooking model at a class level for one servcie compartment-cabin. Class level demand data i sused to determine the number of bookings that can be taken for each class. The model is optimised through the use of mulit-dimentsional search routines. The control level model developed is tested with data supplied by Ireland's national airline, Aer Lingus. The model shows a significant improvement over previous methods employed by Aer Lingus and was subsequently ad...

  19. The Economic History of the American Economic Review : A Century's Explosion of Economics Research

    OpenAIRE

    Margo, Robert A.

    2011-01-01

    Written in celebration of the upcoming 100th anniversary of the American Economic Review (February 2011), this paper recounts the history of the journal. The recounting has an analytic core that sees the American Economic Association as an organization supplying goods and services to its members, one of which is the AER. Early in its history the AER was a multi-purpose publication with highly disparate content. Over time the economics profession expanded and more economics research was produc...

  20. The development of automatic emotion regulation in an implicit emotional Go/NoGo paradigm and the association with depressive symptoms and anhedonia during adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenhai Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Impaired automatic emotion regulation (AER is closely related to major depressive disorder. Our research in adults has identified two AER-related components, Go N2 and NoGo P3, in an implicit emotional Go/NoGo paradigm. However, it is unclear whether Go N2 and NoGo P3 reflect the development of AER in adolescents and the relationship of these components with subclinical depressive symptoms and trait anhedonia. We collected EEG data from 55 adolescents while they completed the implicit emotional Go/NoGo task. After the experiment, the subjects completed the Chinese version of the Temporal Experience of Pleasure Scale and the Beck Depression Inventory. Consistent with results in adults, we determined that Go N2 represents automatic top-down attention to emotions in Go trials, whereas NoGo P3 represents automatic response inhibition in NoGo trials. These AER components exhibited age-dependent improvement during adolescence. Additionally, NoGo P3 amplitudes elicited by viewing positive faces were positively correlated with trait anhedonia, whereas NoGo P3 amplitudes elicited by viewing negative faces were negatively correlated with depressive symptoms. Our observations provide further understanding of the neurodevelopmental mechanism of AER and yield new insight into dissociable impairments in AER in adolescents with major depressive disorder during positive and negative implicit processing.

  1. Alkaloids extract of Retama monosperma (L.) Boiss. seeds used as novel eco-friendly inhibitor for carbon steel corrosion in 1 M HCl solution: Electrochemical and surface studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Hamdani, Naoual; Fdil, Rabiaa; Tourabi, Mustapha; Jama, Charafeddine; Bentiss, Fouad

    2015-12-01

    Current research efforts now focus on the development of non-toxic, inexpensive and environmentally friendly corrosion inhibitors as alternatives to different organic and non-organic compounds. In this field, alkaloids extract of Retama monosperma (L.) Boiss. seeds (AERS) was tested for the first time as corrosion inhibitor for carbon steel in 1 M HCl medium using electrochemical and surface characterization techniques. The obtained results showed that this plant extract's acts as an efficient corrosion inhibitor for carbon steel in 1 M HCl and an inhibition efficiency of 94.4% was reached with 400 mg/L of AERS at 30 °C. Ac impedance experimental data revealed a frequency distribution of the capacitance, simulated as constant phase element. Impedance results demonstrated that the addition of the AERS in the corrosive solution decreases the charge capacitance and simultaneously increases the function of the charge/discharge of the interface, facilitating the formation of an adsorbed layer over the steel surface. Polarization curves indicated that AERS is a mixed inhibitor. Adsorption of such alkaloid extract on the steel surface obeyed to the Langmuir adsorption isotherm. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) showed that the inhibition of steel corrosion in normal hydrochloric solution by AERS is mainly controlled by a physisorption process and the inhibitive layer is composed of an iron oxide/hydroxide mixture where AERS molecules are incorporated.

  2. Effect of seed sludge on nitrogen removal in a novel upflow microaerobic sludge reactor for treating piggery wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Jia; Li, Jiuling; Li, Jianzheng; Wang, Cheng; Deng, Kaiwen; Sun, Kai

    2016-09-01

    Anaerobic activated sludge (AnaS) and aerobic activated sludge (AerS) were used to start up a novel upflow microaerobic sludge reactor (UMSR), respectively, and the nitrogen removal in the two reactors were evaluated when treating low C/N ratio manure-free piggery wastewater with a COD/TN ration of about 0.85. With the same hydraulic retention time 8h and TN loading rate (NLR) 0.42kg/(m(3)d), the UMSR (R2) inoculated with AerS could reach its steady state earlier and obtained a better TN removal than that in the UMSR (R1) inoculated with AnaS. However, the accumulated AnaS made R1 show a better capability in bearing shock load and demonstrated an excellent NH4(+)-N and TN removal with a NLR as high as 1.07kg/(m(3)d). Microbial community structure of the accumulated AerS and AnaS were observable different. The decreased proportion of nitrifiers restricted the ammonium oxidation in R2, and resulting in a decrease in TN removal. PMID:27218438

  3. O estilo de vida de pacientes hipertensos de um programa de exercício aeróbico: estudo na Cidade de Toluca, México El estilo de vida de pacientes hipertensos de un programa de ejercicio aerobio: estudio en la Ciudad de Toluca, México The life style of the hypertensive patient of a program of aerobic exercise: study in the Toluca City, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleotilde Garci Reza

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available A hipertensão arterial, assintomática e desconhecida pela maioria dos seus por tadores, é importante fator de risco para complicações cardiovasculares e renais. Este é um estudo quantitativo e descritivo. Objetivou identificar os estilos de vida associados ao incremento do descontrole da pressão ar terial em pacientes hipertensos que acodem a um programa de exercício. A coleta dos dados ocorreu num centro de saúde do município do Toluca, México, durante agosto 2006 a março 2007. Foi utilizado um questionário aplicado a 200 pacientes hipertensos, através do referencial do "Modelo de Campo de Saúde da Lalonde". O estudo mostrou que o nível de pressão do grupo estudado possui relação estatisticamente significativa com o tabagismo, consumo de álcool e tratamento. A falta do controle da pressão arterial pode propiciar a evolução de doenças cardiovasculares e coronárias.La hipertensión arterial es asintomatica y desconocida por la mayorías de sus portadores y es un impor tante factor de riesgo para complicaciones cardiovasculares y renales. Este es un estudio cuantitativo y descriptivo. Con el objetivo de evaluar el estilo de vida de pacientes hiper tensos registrados en un programa de ejercicio aerobio. La colecta de los datos ocurrió en un centro de salud del municipio de Toluca, México, durante agosto de 2006 a marzo de 2007. Fue utilizado un cuestionario aplicado a 200 pacientes hiper tensos, a través del referencial del "Modelo Campo de Salud de Lalonde". El estudio muestra que existe relación estadística entre los niveles de presión ar terial, con el tabaquismo, consumo de alcohol, y el tratamiento. La falta del control de la presión arterial puede propiciar la evolución de enfermedades cardiovasculares y coronarias.Hypertension is an asymptomatic and an unnoticed disease for the majority of hypertensive individuals and an important long-term factor of risk for cardiovascular and renal complications. It is quantitative and descriptive study. The study aims to evaluate hypertenses’s lifestyles in a program of aerobic exercise. The collection of data was made in a health center of Mexico City, during the months of August in 2006 to March in 2007. A questionnaire was applied to 200 hypertenses, using the referencial framework of Lalonde: "Field of Health Model". The study showed the existing statistic relationship between the levels of arterial pressure, smoking habits, consumption of alcohol and the monitoring of their blood pressure condition. The lack of control of the ar terial pressure may propitiate the evolution of coronary and cardiovascular illnesses.

  4. Address-event-based platform for bioinspired spiking systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Fernández, A.; Luján, C. D.; Linares-Barranco, A.; Gómez-Rodríguez, F.; Rivas, M.; Jiménez, G.; Civit, A.

    2007-05-01

    Address Event Representation (AER) is an emergent neuromorphic interchip communication protocol that allows a real-time virtual massive connectivity between huge number neurons, located on different chips. By exploiting high speed digital communication circuits (with nano-seconds timings), synaptic neural connections can be time multiplexed, while neural activity signals (with mili-seconds timings) are sampled at low frequencies. Also, neurons generate "events" according to their activity levels. More active neurons generate more events per unit time, and access the interchip communication channel more frequently, while neurons with low activity consume less communication bandwidth. When building multi-chip muti-layered AER systems, it is absolutely necessary to have a computer interface that allows (a) reading AER interchip traffic into the computer and visualizing it on the screen, and (b) converting conventional frame-based video stream in the computer into AER and injecting it at some point of the AER structure. This is necessary for test and debugging of complex AER systems. In the other hand, the use of a commercial personal computer implies to depend on software tools and operating systems that can make the system slower and un-robust. This paper addresses the problem of communicating several AER based chips to compose a powerful processing system. The problem was discussed in the Neuromorphic Engineering Workshop of 2006. The platform is based basically on an embedded computer, a powerful FPGA and serial links, to make the system faster and be stand alone (independent from a PC). A new platform is presented that allow to connect up to eight AER based chips to a Spartan 3 4000 FPGA. The FPGA is responsible of the network communication based in Address-Event and, at the same time, to map and transform the address space of the traffic to implement a pre-processing. A MMU microprocessor (Intel XScale 400MHz Gumstix Connex computer) is also connected to the FPGA

  5. CT EVALUATION OF AZYGOESOPHAGEAL RECESS IN ADULTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kulamani Sahoo

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Azygoesophageal recess (AER is right posterior mediastinal recess . Knowledge of normal radiologic appearance and manifestations of disease in AER can facilitate the detection and diagnosis of many intrathoracic diseases ranging from infective processes to tumors involving mediastinum, lung/pleura, lymphatic system, upper gastrointestinal system (esophagus & stomach & cardio - vascular system. Aim of this study was to investigate various intrathoracic pathologies, altering the configuration of AER on CT in adults & to find out any significance with various disease processes. This study was carried out in CT center, Department of Radiodiagnosis, Krishna Institute of medical sciences, Karad from October 2012 - September 2014. CT thorax of 156 patients was studied for configuration of AER irrespective of pathology. In this study , configuration of AER was altered in descending order with pathologies belonging to following systems: Respiratory system (Lung parenchyma pathologies causing volume loss of right lower lobe particularly Koch’s , UIP , Malignancy , Pleural pathologies (Secondary more common than Primary >Lymphatic system(secondary subcarinal lymph node more common than Primary Lymphoma >Cardio - vascular system(Cardiomegaly particularly Left atrial enlargement >Gastrointestinal system ( hiatus herni a & esophageal Cancer > Mediastinum ( Koch’s of dorsal spine with paraspinal abscess.

  6. Annual Energy Review 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seiferlein, Katherine E. [USDOE Energy Information Administration (EIA), Washington, DC (United States)

    2003-10-01

    The Annual Energy Review (AER) presents the Energy Information Administration’s historical energy statistics. For many series, statistics are given for every year from 1949 through 2002. The statistics, expressed in either physical units or British thermal units, cover all major energy activities, including consumption, production, trade, stocks, and prices, for all major energy commodities, including fossil fuels, electricity, and renewable energy sources. Publication of this report is required under Public Law 95–91 (Department of Energy Organization Act), Section 205(c), and is in keeping with responsibilities given to the Energy Information Administration (EIA) under Section 205(a)(2), which states: “The Administrator shall be responsible for carrying out a central, comprehensive, and unified energy data and information program which will collect, evaluate, assemble, analyze, and disseminate data and information....” The AER is intended for use by Members of Congress, Federal and State agencies, energy analysts, and the general public. EIA welcomes suggestions from readers regarding data series in the AER and in other EIA publications. Related Publication: Readers of the AER may also be interested in EIA’s Monthly Energy Review, which presents monthly updates of many of the data in the AER. Contact our National Energy Information Center for more information.

  7. Polysaccharide-based silver nanoparticles synthesized by Klebsiella oxytoca DSM 29614 cause DNA fragmentation in E. coli cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldi, Franco; Daniele, Salvatore; Gallo, Michele; Paganelli, Stefano; Battistel, Dario; Piccolo, Oreste; Faleri, Claudia; Puglia, Anna Maria; Gallo, Giuseppe

    2016-04-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs), embedded into a specific exopolysaccharide (EPS), were produced by Klebsiella oxytoca DSM 29614 by adding AgNO3 to the cultures during exponential growth phase. In particular, under aerobic or anaerobic conditions, two types of silver nanoparticles, named AgNPs-EPS(aer) and the AgNPs-EPS(anaer), were produced respectively. The effects on bacterial cells was demonstrated by using Escherichia coli K12 and Kocuria rhizophila ATCC 9341 (ex Micrococcus luteus) as Gram-negative and Gram-positive tester strains, respectively. The best antimicrobial activity was observed for AgNPs-EPS(aer), in terms of minimum inhibitory concentrations and minimum bactericidal concentrations. Observations by transmission electron microscopy showed that the cell morphology of both tester strains changed during the exposition to AgNPs-EPS(aer). In particular, an electron-dense wrapped filament was observed in E. coli cytoplasm after 3 h of AgNPs-EPS(aer) exposition, apparently due to silver accumulation in DNA, and both E. coli and K. rhizophila cells were lysed after 18 h of exposure to AgNPs-EPS(aer). The DNA breakage in E. coli cells was confirmed by the comparison of 3-D fluorescence spectra fingerprints of DNA. Finally the accumulation of silver on DNA of E. coli was confirmed directly by a significant Ag(+) release from DNA, using the scanning electrochemical microscopy and the voltammetric determinations. PMID:26886276

  8. Comparative study on adsorption of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) by different adsorbents in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Yuan; Volchek, Konstantin; Brown, Carl E; Robinson, Adam; Obal, Terry

    2014-01-01

    Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) are emerging environmental pollutants. Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) are the two primary PFC contaminants that are widely found in water, particularly in groundwater. This study compared the adsorption behaviors of PFOS and PFOA on several commercially available adsorbents in water. The tested adsorbents include granular activated carbon (GAC: Filtrasorb 400), powdered activated carbon, multi-walled carbon nanotube (MCN), double-walled carbon nanotube, anion-exchange resin (AER: IRA67), non-ion-exchange polymer, alumina, and silica. The study demonstrated that adsorption is an effective technique for the removal of PFOS/PFOA from aqueous solutions. The kinetic tests showed that the adsorption onto AER reaches equilibrium rapidly (2 h), while it takes approximately 4 and 24 h to reach equilibrium for MCN and GAC, respectively. In terms of adsorption capacity, AER and GAC were identified as the most effective adsorbents to remove PFOS/PFOA from water. Furthermore, MCN, AER, and GAC proved to have high PFOS/PFOA removal efficiencies (≥98%). AER (IRA67) and GAC (Filtrasorb 400) were thus identified as the most promising adsorbents for treating PFOS/PFOA-contaminated groundwater at mg L(-1) level based on their equilibrium times, adsorption capacities, removal efficiencies, and associated costs. PMID:25521134

  9. Differential profiles in auditory social cognition deficits between adults with autism and schizophrenia spectrum disorders: A preliminary analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobe, Russell H; Corcoran, Cheryl M; Breland, Melissa; MacKay-Brandt, Anna; Klim, Casimir; Colcombe, Stanley J; Leventhal, Bennett L; Javitt, Daniel C

    2016-08-01

    Impairment in social cognition, including emotion recognition, has been extensively studied in both Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) and Schizophrenia (SZ). However, the relative patterns of deficit between disorders have been studied to a lesser degree. Here, we applied a social cognition battery incorporating both auditory (AER) and visual (VER) emotion recognition measures to a group of 19 high-functioning individuals with ASD relative to 92 individuals with SZ, and 73 healthy control adult participants. We examined group differences and correlates of basic auditory processing and processing speed. Individuals with SZ were impaired in both AER and VER while ASD individuals were impaired in VER only. In contrast to SZ participants, those with ASD showed intact basic auditory function. Our finding of a dissociation between AER and VER deficits in ASD relative to Sz support modality-specific theories of emotion recognition dysfunction. Future studies should focus on visual system-specific contributions to social cognitive impairment in ASD. PMID:27131617

  10. Rapid detection of virulence factors of Aeromonas isolated from a trout farm by hexaplex-PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, In-Young; Joh, Kiseong

    2007-08-01

    The detection of virulence factors of Aeromonas is a key component in determining potential pathogenicity because these factors act multifunctionally and multifactorially. In this study water samples were collected from a trout farm on a seasonal basis, and diseased fish and Aeromonas species were isolated and identified. For rapid detection of six virulence factors of isolated Aeromonas, a hexaplex-polymerase chain reaction (hexaplex-PCR) assay was used. The detected virulence factors include aerolysin (aer), GCAT (gcat), serine protease (ser), nuclease (nuc) lipase (lip) and lateral flagella (laf). The dominant strain found in our isolates was Aeromonas sobria, and the dominant virulence factors were aer and nuc for all seasons. We confirmed that A. sobria and two of the virulence genes (aer and nuc) are related. We proposed a method by which one can identify the major strains of Aeromonas: A. hydrophila, A. sobria, A. caviae, and A. veronii, using hexaplex-PCR. PMID:17846582

  11. Effect of starvation on survival and virulence expression of Aeromonas hydrophila from different sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casabianca, Anna; Orlandi, Chiara; Barbieri, Federica; Sabatini, Luigia; Di Cesare, Andrea; Sisti, Davide; Pasquaroli, Sonia; Magnani, Mauro; Citterio, Barbara

    2015-04-01

    Aeromonas hydrophila is an aquatic bacterium responsible for several human illnesses. The aim of this work was to investigate the survival ability and virulence expression of two strains from different sources (fish, strain 87 and surface water, strain LS) maintained in a seawater microcosm. The strains were analyzed for the total and viable bacterial counts, adhesion ability to Hep-2 cells and aerA gene expression by qPCR throughout the experiment (35 days). Both strains reached a putative VBNC state and lost adhesive properties but exhibited a different behavior in the expression of aerA. This could be due to the different origin of the two strains; the former adapted to a habitat rich of nutrient and the latter already used to survive in a more hostile environment. Moreover, our results indicate that the quantitative determination of aerA mRNA can be a useful indicator of virulence expression under stress conditions. PMID:25533849

  12. The apical ectodermal ridge of the mouse model of ectrodactyly Dlx5;Dlx6-/- shows altered stratification and cell polarity, which are restored by exogenous Wnt5a ligand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conte, Daniele; Garaffo, Giulia; Lo Iacono, Nadia; Mantero, Stefano; Piccolo, Stefano; Cordenonsi, Michelangelo; Perez-Morga, David; Orecchia, Valeria; Poli, Valeria; Merlo, Giorgio R

    2016-02-15

    The congenital malformation split hand/foot (SHFM) is characterized by missing central fingers and dysmorphology or fusion of the remaining ones. Type-1 SHFM is linked to deletions/rearrangements of the DLX5-DLX6 locus and point mutations in the DLX5 gene. The ectrodactyly phenotype is reproduced in mice by the double knockout (DKO) of Dlx5 and Dlx6. During limb development, the apical ectodermal ridge (AER) is a key-signaling center responsible for early proximal-distal growth and patterning. In Dlx5;6 DKO hindlimbs, the central wedge of the AER loses multilayered organization and shows down-regulation of FGF8 and Dlx2. In search for the mechanism, we examined the non-canonical Wnt signaling, considering that Dwnt-5 is a target of distalless in Drosophila and the knockout of Wnt5, Ryk, Ror2 and Vangl2 in the mouse causes severe limb malformations. We found that in Dlx5;6 DKO limbs, the AER expresses lower levels of Wnt5a, shows scattered β-catenin responsive cells and altered basolateral and planar cell polarity (PCP). The addition of Wnt5a to cultured embryonic limbs restored the expression of AER markers and its stratification. Conversely, the inhibition of the PCP molecule c-jun N-terminal kinase caused a loss of AER marker expression. In vitro, the addition of Wnt5a on mixed primary cultures of embryonic ectoderm and mesenchyme was able to confer re-polarization. We conclude that the Dlx-related ectrodactyly defect is associated with the loss of basoapical and PCP, due to reduced Wnt5a expression and that the restoration of the Wnt5a level is sufficient to partially reverts AER misorganization and dysmorphology. PMID:26685160

  13. The apical ectodermal ridge of the mouse model of ectrodactyly Dlx5;Dlx6−/− shows altered stratification and cell polarity, which are restored by exogenous Wnt5a ligand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conte, Daniele; Garaffo, Giulia; Lo Iacono, Nadia; Mantero, Stefano; Piccolo, Stefano; Cordenonsi, Michelangelo; Perez-Morga, David; Orecchia, Valeria; Poli, Valeria; Merlo, Giorgio R.

    2016-01-01

    The congenital malformation split hand/foot (SHFM) is characterized by missing central fingers and dysmorphology or fusion of the remaining ones. Type-1 SHFM is linked to deletions/rearrangements of the DLX5–DLX6 locus and point mutations in the DLX5 gene. The ectrodactyly phenotype is reproduced in mice by the double knockout (DKO) of Dlx5 and Dlx6. During limb development, the apical ectodermal ridge (AER) is a key-signaling center responsible for early proximal–distal growth and patterning. In Dlx5;6 DKO hindlimbs, the central wedge of the AER loses multilayered organization and shows down-regulation of FGF8 and Dlx2. In search for the mechanism, we examined the non-canonical Wnt signaling, considering that Dwnt-5 is a target of distalless in Drosophila and the knockout of Wnt5, Ryk, Ror2 and Vangl2 in the mouse causes severe limb malformations. We found that in Dlx5;6 DKO limbs, the AER expresses lower levels of Wnt5a, shows scattered β-catenin responsive cells and altered basolateral and planar cell polarity (PCP). The addition of Wnt5a to cultured embryonic limbs restored the expression of AER markers and its stratification. Conversely, the inhibition of the PCP molecule c-jun N-terminal kinase caused a loss of AER marker expression. In vitro, the addition of Wnt5a on mixed primary cultures of embryonic ectoderm and mesenchyme was able to confer re-polarization. We conclude that the Dlx-related ectrodactyly defect is associated with the loss of basoapical and PCP, due to reduced Wnt5a expression and that the restoration of the Wnt5a level is sufficient to partially reverts AER misorganization and dysmorphology. PMID:26685160

  14. Annual Energy Review 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2011-10-01

    This twenty-ninth edition of the Annual Energy Review (AER) presents the U.S. Energy Information Administration’s (EIA) most comprehensive look at integrated energy statistics. The summary statistics on the Nation’s energy production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices cover all major energy commodities and all energy-consuming sectors of the U.S. economy from 1949 through 2010. The AER is EIA’s historical record of energy statistics and, because the coverage spans six decades, the statistics in this report are well-suited to long-term trend analysis.

  15. A Defense of RBC:Understanding the Puzzling Effects of Technology Shocks

    OpenAIRE

    Yi Wen; Pengfei Wang

    2008-01-01

    The research led by Gali (AER 1999) and Basu et al. (AER 2006) raises two important questions regarding the validity of the RBC theory: (i) How important are technology shocks in explaining the business cycle? (ii) Do impulse responses to technology shocks found in the data reject the assumption of flexible prices? This paper argues that the conditional impulse responses of the U.S. economy to technology shocks are not grounds to reject the notion that technology shocks are the main driving f...

  16. Understanding the puzzling effects of technology shocks

    OpenAIRE

    Pengfei Wang; Yi Wen

    2007-01-01

    The research led by Gali (AER 1999) and Basu et al. (AER 2006) raises two important questions regarding the validity of the RBC theory: (i) How important are technology shocks in explaining the business cycle? (ii) Do impulse responses to technology shocks found in the data reject the assumption of flexible prices? This paper argues that the conditional impulse responses of the U.S. economy to technology shocks are not grounds to reject the notion that technology shocks are the main driving f...

  17. AcEST: BP913634 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available YMU001_000032_E02 560 Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA. clone: YMU001_000032_E02. BP913634 CL1411C ... Definition sp|A4SPA7|GLPK_AERS4 Glycerol kinase OS=Aeromonas ... salmonicida (strain A449) Align length 36 Score (b ... its) Value sp|A4SPA7|GLPK_AERS4 Glycerol kinase OS=Aeromonas ... salmonicida (s... 33 1.2 sp|A0KIT3|GLPK_AERHH Glyc ...

  18. Taking care of the energy for tomorrow. Advice to the Minister of Economic Affairs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The central question of the Dutch Minister of Economic Affairs to the General Energy Council (AER) is to determine the risks for Europe and the Netherlands with regard to the energy supply security in the long term and what national and European policy must be developed and implemented to reduce those risks, focusing on the different market parties and governments (national and European) and the relation between the supply security and the environment. In particular, the AER should address geopolitical aspects, fuel mix and capacity shortage in the production of electricity

  19. Continuation of the VVER burnup credit benchmark. Evaluation of CB1 results, overview of CB2 results to date, and specification of CB3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A calculational benchmark focused on VVER-440 burnup credit, similar to that of the OECD/NEA/NSC Burnup Credit Benchmark Working Group, was proposed on the 96'AER Symposium. Its first part, CB1, was specified there whereas the second part, CB2, was specified a year later, on 97'AER Symposium in Zittau. A final statistical evaluation is presented of CB1 results and summarizes the CB2 results obtained to date. Further, the effect of an axial burnup profile of VVER-440 spent fuel on criticality ('end effect') is proposed to be studied in the CB3 benchmark problem of an infinite array of VVER-440 spent fuel rods. (author)

  20. Measurement and ALE3D Simulation of Violence in a Deflagration Experiment With LX-10 and Aermet-100 Alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knap, J; McClelland, M A; Maienschein, J L; Howard, W M; Nichols, A L; deHaven, M R; Strand, O T

    2006-06-22

    We describe the results of a Scaled-Thermal-Explosion-eXperiment (STEX) for LX-10 (94.7 % HMX, 5.3 % Viton A) confined in an AerMet 100 (iron-cobalt-nickel alloy) tube with reinforced end caps. The experimental measurements are compared with predictions of an Arbitrary-Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE3D) computer model. ALE3D is a three-dimensional multi-physics computer code capable of solving coupled equations describing thermal, mechanical and chemical behavior of materials. In particular, we focus on the processes linked to fracture and fragmentation of the AerMet tube driven by the LX-10 deflagration.

  1. Modelado de sistemas de inteligencia ambiental para el entrenamiento de las cualidades físicas

    OpenAIRE

    Gaeta, Eugenio

    2012-01-01

    En un ejercicio no extenuante la frecuencia cardíaca (FC) guarda una relación lineal con el consumo máximo de oxígeno (V O2max) y se suele usar como uno de los parámetros de referencia para cuantificar la capacidad del sistema cardiovascular. Normalmente la frecuencia cardíaca puede remplazar el porcentaje de V O2max en las prescripciones básicas de ejercicio para la mejora de la resistencia aeróbica. Para obtener los mejores resultados en la mejora de la resistencia aeróbica, el entrenamient...

  2. A polymorphism in the angiotensin II type 1 receptor gene has different effects on the risk of diabetic nephropathy in men and women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Möllsten, Anna; Vionnet, Nathalie; Forsblom, Carol;

    2011-01-01

    -control study investigated the association of the rs5186 polymorphism, in the angiotensin II type 1 receptor gene (AGTR1), with diabetic nephropathy. The study included 3561 patients with type 1 diabetes from Denmark, Finland, France and Sweden. Microalbuminuria was defined as albumin excretion rate (AER) ≥20......BACKGROUND: The etiology of diabetic nephropathy depends partly on genetic factors. Elevated systemic and intraglomerular blood pressure and glomerular filtration rate, partly regulated by the renin-angiotensin system, increase the risk of diabetic nephropathy. METHODS: The present case...... to 15 years diabetes duration, AER

  3. Isolation of motile Aeromonas spp. from fish and their cytotoxic effect on Vero cell cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karabasil Neđeljko

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The presence of motile Aeromonas spp. in fish and other sea food on the Belgrade retail market was investigated with the aim of determining the ability of these bacteria to produce and secrete toxins. Nine strains of motile Aeromonas spp. were isolated from seventy-eight food samples. Aer. sobria was identified in three cases, while six of the obtained strains were identified as Aer. hydrophila. Strains of motile Aeromonas spp. from different sources were analyzed for cytotoxicity on Vero cell cultures. A cytotoxic effect was detected for all tested strains, but of different intensity.

  4. Avaliação ergoespirométrica em atleta paraolímpico de esqui alpino: estudo de caso = Cardiopulmonary exercise test on a treadmill for a paralympic alpine skiing athlete: case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinagre, Nelson Alexandre Campos

    2012-01-01

    Conclusões: O esquiador pôde responder ao procedimento de diferentes cargas durante o teste. No teste aplicado o atleta tem que aprender a gerenciar sua resistência, força e capacidades coordenativas. A avaliação da capacidade aeróbica poderá ajudar o desempenho durante o treinamento e competições, visto que os atletas devem dividir sua atenção com uma gama de exigências que juntas são atendidas em grande parte pelo sistema aeróbio.

  5. Morfologia e contratilidade em cardiomiócitos de ratos com baixo desempenho para o exercício físico Morphology and contractility in cardiomyocytes of rats with low exercise performance

    OpenAIRE

    Judson Fonseca Quintão Júnior; Antônio José Natali; Miguel Araújo Carneiro Júnior; Cynthia Aparecida de Castro; Lucas Rios Drummond; Victor Neiva Lavorato; Leonardo Bonato Felix; Jader dos Santos Cruz; Thales Nicolau Prímola-Gomes

    2012-01-01

    FUNDAMENTO: A capacidade aeróbica é fundamental para o desempenho físico, e a baixa capacidade aeróbica está relacionada ao desencadeamento de diversas doenças cardiovasculares. OBJETIVO: Comparar a contratilidade e a morfologia de cardiomiócitos isolados de ratos com baixo desempenho e desempenho padrão para o exercício físico. MÉTODOS: Ratos Wistar, com 10 semanas de idade, foram submetidos a um protocolo de corrida em esteira até a fadiga, e foram divididos em dois grupos: Baixo Desempenho...

  6. Morfologia e contratilidade em cardiomiócitos de ratos com baixo desempenho para o exercício físico

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    FUNDAMENTO: A capacidade aeróbica é fundamental para o desempenho físico, e a baixa capacidade aeróbica está relacionada ao desencadeamento de diversas doenças cardiovasculares. OBJETIVO: Comparar a contratilidade e a morfologia de cardiomiócitos isolados de ratos com baixo desempenho e desempenho padrão para o exercício físico. MÉTODOS: Ratos Wistar, com 10 semanas de idade, foram submetidos a um protocolo de corrida em esteira até a fadiga, e foram divididos em dois grupos: Baixo Desempenho...

  7. Graph plotting for RELAP-UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A FORTRAN program for plotting graphs for RELAP-UK is described. The program uses the GHOST graph plotting package and has been implemented on the ICL 4-70 at AEE Winfrith and the IBM 370/168 at AERE Harwell. (author)

  8. PLOTGEOMX: a program for display of a neutron target assembly by means of a GHOST plotting system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The program PLOTGEOM has been modified to work on the A.E.R.E., Harwell IBM 370-167 computer using the GHOST graphics package. The control data routine has been altered to permit free format input and the program has been compiled and stored using the extended-H FORTRAN optimising compiler. (author)

  9. Trigeneration integrated with absorption enhanced reforming of lignite and biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yaodong Wang; Ye Huang; Anthony P. Roskilly [Newcastle University, Newcastle Upon Tyne (United Kingdom). Sir Joseph Swan Institute for Energy Research

    2009-10-15

    A technical investigation of an innovative trigeneration integrated with absorption enhanced reforming (AER) of lignite and biomass is carried out using the ECLIPSE process simulator. The system includes an internal combustion engine, an AER gasifier, a waste heat recovery and storage unit and an absorption refrigerator. The whole system is operated in the following sequence: The AER gasifier is used to generate hydrogen using lignite and biomass; the hydrogen generated is used to run the engine which drives a generator to produce electricity. Additionally, the heat recovery unit collects waste heat from the engine and is used to supply hot water and space heating. Furthermore, the waste heat is used to operate the absorption refrigerator. The electricity, heat and cooling can be used to meet the energy requirements for the households in a village, a resident building or a commercial building, or a supermarket. Within the study, the effects of lignite mixed with three different types of biomass (straw, willow and switch grass) on the system performance are investigated and the results are compared. The results show that it is feasible to use an AER system to reform the low quality fuels lignite and biomass to generate a cleaner fuel - hydrogen to replace fossil fuels (diesel or natural gas) and to fuel an engine based trigeneration system; the system works with high efficiencies and with a potential of carbon capture from the sorbent-regeneration process that would benefit the environment. 25 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  10. Defect modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calculations, drawing principally on developments at AERE Harwell, of the relaxation about lattice defects are reviewed with emphasis on the techniques required for such calculations. The principles of defect modelling are outlined and various programs developed for defect simulations are discussed. Particular calculations for metals, ionic crystals and oxides, are considered. (UK)

  11. Annual energy review 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-06-29

    This eleventh edition of the Annual Energy Review (AER) presents the Energy Information Administration`s historical energy statistics. For most series, statistics are given for every year from 1949 through 1992. Because coverage spans four decades, the statistics in this report are well-suited to tong-term trend analyses. The AER is comprehensive. It covers all major energy activities, including consumption, production, trade, stocks, and prices, all major energy commodities, including fossil fuels and electricity. The AER also presents statistics on some renewable energy sources. For the most part, fuel-specific data are expressed in physical units such as barrels, cubic feet, and short tons. The integrated summary data in Section 1 are expressed in Btu. The Btu values are calculated using the conversion factors in Appendix A. Statistics expressed in Btu are valuable in that they allow for comparisons among different fuels and for the calculation of in the integrated summary statistics such as US consumption of Energy. The AER emphasizes domestic energy statistics.

  12. Nuclear Physics division progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Work undertaken by the Nuclear Physics Division of AERE, Harwell during 1980 is presented under the headings: (1) Nuclear Data and Technology for Nuclear Power. (2) Nuclear Studies. (3) Applications of Nuclear and Associated Techniques. (4) Accelerator Operation, Maintenance and Development. Reports, publications and conference papers presented during the period are given and members of staff listed. (U.K.)

  13. The role of antecedent moisture conditions on flood response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yu; Westra, Seth; Lambert, Michael; Lambert, Martin

    2016-04-01

    A catchment's antecedent moisture conditions (AMC) represent the relative wetness of a catchment prior to a flood event. The catchment's moisture content prior to an extreme precipitation event can have a significant influence on overall flood response. This study derives an 'antecedent effect ratio' (AER) metric to describe the importance of a catchment's antecedent moisture content on overall runoff volume. The metric was applied to 211 catchments in Australia using hourly precipitation and streamflow data to identify the difference in flood response between dry and wet AMC. Regional calibration of the antecedent period length was used to estimate the effect ratio for all catchments. The AER was found to vary substantially, with the difference in flood response during wet and dry antecedent conditions up to three times that under median conditions for some sites. Higher AER values were found at latitudes closer to the equator and for catchments with highly seasonal precipitation regimes. Other climatic characteristics (e.g. mean annual precipitation, aridity index) and physical catchment characteristics (e.g. vegetation ratio, soil depth) had lesser influence. To improve the assessment of flood models it is important to have metrics, such as the AER, that can evaluate the contribution of antecedent moisture towards a flood response.

  14. Iridescent aerodynamic contrails. The Norderney case of 27 June 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gierens, Klaus; Kaestner, Martina [Deutsches Zentrum fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt, Oberpfaffenhofen (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik der Atmosphaere; Klatt, Dieter [Deutsches Zentrum fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt, Oldenburg (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik der Atmosphaere

    2011-06-15

    An iridescent aerodynamic contrail (AerC) of a 2-engine aircraft flying from Amsterdam to Copenhagen was observed and photographed at Norderney on 27 June 2008, 14:06 UTC. In order to see whether this event was caused by an unusual weather situation we investigate the meteorological situation. It turns out that the situation allows AerC to become visible because it was warm enough and sufficiently moist. The dynamical situation is studied, and it seems that the stable stratification at the flight level of 350 hPa supports the appearance of an AerC. Additionally we investigate the ambient cloudiness where interesting halo features have been displayed in cirrus clouds. We examine the special colours of the Norderney aerodynamic contrail which allows to conclude that the width of the ice crystal size distribution is the factor directly relevant for iridescence, in this case representing a mixture from different growth histories. Finally we present an argumentation that AerC can be differentiated from jet contrails as soon as they display iridescence which requires an angular distance from the sun of less than about 30 . (orig.)

  15. Complete Genome Sequences of Aerococcus christensenii CCUG 28831T, Aerococcus sanguinicola CCUG 43001T, Aerococcus urinae CCUG 36881T, Aerococcus urinaeequi CCUG 28094T, Aerococcus urinaehominis CCUG 42038 BT, and Aerococcus viridans CCUG 4311T

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carkaci, Derya; Dargis, Rimtas; Nielsen, Xiaohui Chen;

    2016-01-01

    Strains belonging to the genus Aerococcus are causative agents of human and animal infections, including urogenital infections, bacteremia/septicemia, and infective endocarditis. This study reports the first fully closed and complete genome sequences of six type strains belonging to the genus Aer...... Aerococcus using a combination of Illumina HiSeq and PacBio sequencing technologies....

  16. Application of robotic principles to laboratory automation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The possibility of applying robotic techniques to some laboratory tasks is considered. A low-cost rig was constructed, at AERE Harwell, to examine the performance of a number of low-cost commercial robots. The importance of justifying the costs of introducing robotic systems and the difficulty of analysing the cost-benefit of robotic over mechanical systems is stressed. (UK)

  17. Acoustically enhanced remediation, Phase 2: Technology scaling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iovenitti, J.L.; Hill, D.G. [Weiss Associates, Emeryville, CA (United States); Rynne, T.M.; Spadaro, J.F.; Hutchinson, W. [Scientific Applications and Research Associates, Inc., Huntington Beach, CA (United States); Illangasakere, T. [Colorado Univ., Boulder, CO (United States). Dept. of Civil, Environmental, and Architectural Engineering

    1996-12-31

    Weiss Associates is conducting the following three phase program investigating the in-situ application of acoustically enhanced remediation (AER) of contaminated unconsolidated soil and ground water under both saturated and unsaturated conditions: Phase I-- laboratory scale parametric investigation; Phase II--technology Scaling; and Phase III--large scale field tests. AER addresses the need for NAPL (either lighter or denser than water: LNAPL or DNAPL, respectively) in high and low permeability sediments, and the remediation of other types of subsurface contaminants (e.g., metals, radionuclides) in low permeability soils. This program has been placed in the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) DNAPL product. Phase I indicated that AER could be used to effectively remediate NAPL in high permeability soil, and that removal of NAPL from low permeability soil could be increased since the water flux through these soils was significantly increased. Phase II, Technology Scaling, the subject of this paper, focused on (1) evaluating the characteristics of an AER field deployment system, (2) developing DNAPL flow and transport performance data under acoustic excitation, (3) predicting the effect of acoustic remediation in three-dimensional unconsolidated hydrogeologic conditions, (4) conducting an engineering analysis of acoustical sources, and (5) identifying candidate field site(s) for large-scale field testing of the technology.

  18. Annual energy review 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This eleventh edition of the Annual Energy Review (AER) presents the Energy Information Administration's historical energy statistics. For most series, statistics are given for every year from 1949 through 1992. Because coverage spans four decades, the statistics in this report are well-suited to tong-term trend analyses. The AER is comprehensive. It covers all major energy activities, including consumption, production, trade, stocks, and prices, all major energy commodities, including fossil fuels and electricity. The AER also presents statistics on some renewable energy sources. For the most part, fuel-specific data are expressed in physical units such as barrels, cubic feet, and short tons. The integrated summary data in Section 1 are expressed in Btu. The Btu values are calculated using the conversion factors in Appendix A. Statistics expressed in Btu are valuable in that they allow for comparisons among different fuels and for the calculation of in the integrated summary statistics such as US consumption of Energy. The AER emphasizes domestic energy statistics

  19. Development and Evaluation of a New Air Exchange Rate Algorithm for the Stochastic Human Exposure and Dose Simulation Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    between-home and between-city variability in residential pollutant infiltration. This is likely a result of differences in home ventilation, or air exchange rates (AER). The Stochastic Human Exposure and Dose Simulation (SHEDS) model is a population exposure model that uses a pro...

  20. Do time-averaged, whole-building, effective volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions depend on the air exchange rate? A statistical analysis of trends for 46 VOCs in U.S. offices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rackes, A; Waring, M S

    2016-08-01

    We used existing data to develop distributions of time-averaged air exchange rates (AER), whole-building 'effective' emission rates of volatile organic compounds (VOC), and other variables for use in Monte Carlo analyses of U.S. offices. With these, we explored whether long-term VOC emission rates were related to the AER over the sector, as has been observed in the short term for some VOCs in single buildings. We fit and compared two statistical models to the data. In the independent emissions model (IEM), emissions were unaffected by other variables, while in the dependent emissions model (DEM), emissions responded to the AER via coupling through a conceptual boundary layer between the air and a lumped emission source. For 20 of 46 VOCs, the DEM was preferable to the IEM and emission rates, though variable, were higher in buildings with higher AERs. Most oxygenated VOCs and some alkanes were well fit by the DEM, while nearly all aromatics and halocarbons were independent. Trends by vapor pressure suggested multiple mechanisms could be involved. The factors of temperature, relative humidity, and building age were almost never associated with effective emission rates. Our findings suggest that effective emissions in real commercial buildings will be difficult to predict from deterministic experiments or models. PMID:26010216

  1. Many-body theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The evolution of the discipline of many-body theory during the past 25 years is outlined and the developments originated in the Theoretical Physics Division, AERE, are discussed. Topics considered include; the connection between plasma oscillations and the dielectric properties of an electron gas, superconductivity, Fermi levels, ferromagnetism in metals, phase transformations, scaling laws, and quasi-one-dimensional solids. (UK)

  2. 77 FR 73294 - Requirements for Child-Resistant Packaging: Products Containing Imidazolines Equivalent to 0.08...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-10

    ... cause serious adverse reactions, such as central nervous system (CNS) depression, decreased heart rate... milligrams or more of imidazolines in a single package. 77 FR 3646. The Commission received five comments in..., section III.A (77 FR 3649), for a summary of IDIs of selected incidents. The AERS is a database...

  3. Aerosol delivery of trail pheromone disrupts red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta, foraging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toxic bait systems are widely used for control of the fire ant, Solenopsis invicta, one of the most aggressive and invasive species in the world. We prepared the trail pheromone Z,E-a-farnesene (91% purity) from isomerised apple extracts and tested disruption of worker trail orientation using an aer...

  4. Annual Energy Review, 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2009-06-01

    The Annual Energy Review (AER) is the Energy Information Administration's (EIA) primary report of annual historical energy statistics. For many series, data begin with the year 1949. Included are statistics on total energy production, consumption, trade, and energy prices; overviews of petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, nuclear energy, renewable energy, and international energy; financial and environment indicators; and data unit conversions.

  5. Aerosol optical depth retrieval in the Arctic region using MODIS data over snow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mei, L.; Xue, Y.; Leeuw, G. de; Hoyningen-Huene, W. von; Kokhanovsky, A.A.; Istomina, L.; Guang, J.; Burrows, J.P.

    2013-01-01

    The Arctic is vulnerable to the long-term transport of aerosols because they affect the surface albedo when particles are deposited on snow and ice. However, aerosol observations for this area are sparse and hence there is considerable uncertainty in the knowledge on the properties of the Arctic aer

  6. Energy supply security and foreign policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The title memo has been sent to the Dutch Lower House. This memo reflects the response of the cabinet to the advice on Energetic Foreign Policy of the Dutch Advisory Council on International Affairs (AIV) and the Dutch Energy Council (AER). Moreover, the development of foreign policy with respect to energy supply security is depicted. [mk

  7. Identification of atypical Aeromonas salmonicida : Inter-laboratory evaluation and harmonization of methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Inger; Gudmundsdottir, B.K.; Helgason, S.;

    1998-01-01

    The atypical isolates of Aeromonas salmonicida are becoming increasingly important as the frequency of isolation of bacteria belonging to this group continues to rise. The primary object of this study was to compare and evaluate the results obtained in various laboratories concerning the biochemi......The atypical isolates of Aeromonas salmonicida are becoming increasingly important as the frequency of isolation of bacteria belonging to this group continues to rise. The primary object of this study was to compare and evaluate the results obtained in various laboratories concerning the...... biochemical identification of atypical Aer. salmonicida before and after standardization of media and methods. Five laboratories examined 25 isolates of Aer. salmonicida from diverse fish species and geographical locations including the reference strains of Aer. salmonicida subsp, salmonicida (NCMB 1102) and...... reactions. After standardization, improvement was obtained with the identification; however, disagreement was still observed between the different laboratories. These findings demonstrate the difficulties involved in a proper identification of atypical Aer. salmonicida and also that data presented in the...

  8. Research in Modeling and Simulation for Airspace Systems Innovation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballin, Mark G.; Kimmel, William M.; Welch, Sharon S.

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation provides an overview of some of the applied research and simulation methodologies at the NASA Langley Research Center that support aerospace systems innovation. Risk assessment methodologies, complex systems design and analysis methodologies, and aer ospace operations simulations are described. Potential areas for future research and collaboration using interactive and distributed simula tions are also proposed.

  9. 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure and renal disease in young subjects with type I diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, S K; Chase, H P; Icaza, G; Rothman, R L; Osberg, I; Carmain, J A

    1997-01-01

    Twenty-four hour ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) was evaluated in 150 teenage and young adults with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) to define high-risk subjects who are likely to develop early diabetic nephropathy. Their age range was 16-28 years with diabetes of 3.5-25.8 years duration. All subjects had office blood pressure (BP) measured, wore an ABP monitor for 24 h, and collected two or more timed urine samples for albumin excretion rates (AERs). Eighty-six subjects had no elevation of AER ( 200 micrograms/min). Age, gender, duration of diabetes, and single office BP readings were similar in the four groups (p > 0.05, logistic regression). All 24-h ABP parameters were significantly higher in subjects with diabetes having AER values greater than 7.6 micrograms/min when compared with healthy age- and gender-matched nondiabetic controls (p 140/90) were significantly related with AERs (p or = 140/90) are associated with diabetic renal disease. PMID:9334907

  10. Res-E Support Policies in the Baltic States: Electricity Price Aspect (Part II)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobinaite, V.; Priedite, I.

    2015-04-01

    Increasing volumes of electricity derived from renewable energy sources (RES-E) affect the electricity market prices and the prices for final electricity consumers in the Baltic States. The results of a multivariate regression analysis show that in 2013 the RES-E contributed to decreasing the electricity market prices in the Baltic States. However, the final electricity consumers pay for the promotion of RES-E through the approved RES-E component which has a tendency to increase. It is estimated that in 2013 the net benefits from the wind electricity promotion were achieved in Lithuania and Latvia while the net cost - in Estonia. This suggests that the economic efficiency of the wind electricity support scheme based on the application of feed-in tariffs was higher than that based on the feed-in premium. Rakstā analizēta elektroenerģijas ražošanas no atjaunojamiem energoresursiem (AER-E) palielināšanas ietekme uz elektroenerģijas tirgus cenu un gala cenu elektroenerģijas lietotājiem Baltijas valstīs. Daudzfaktoru regresijas analīzes rezultāti atklāja, ka AER-E 2013. gadā varētu samazināt elektroenerģijas tirgus cenas Baltijas valstīs. Tomēr jāņem vērā, ka elektroenerģijas lietotāja gala cenā ir iekļauta AER-E atbalsta komponente, kurai ir raksturīgi palielināties. Aprēķināts, ka no vēja elektroenerģijas ražošanas Latvijā un Lietuvā tika iegūta tīrā peļņa, bet Igaunijā tikai nosedza pašizmaksu. Tas liecina, ka vēja elektroenerģijas atbalsta shēmai, kas balstīta uz obligātā iepirkuma atbalsta principu, ir augstāka ekonomiskā efektivitāte, nekā atbalsta shēmai, kas balstīta uz piemaksu par no AER saražoto elektroenerģiju obligātā iepirkuma ietvaros.

  11. Cause-specific long-term mortality in survivors of childhood cancer in Switzerland: A population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindler, Matthias; Spycher, Ben D; Ammann, Roland A; Ansari, Marc; Michel, Gisela; Kuehni, Claudia E

    2016-07-15

    Survivors of childhood cancer have a higher mortality than the general population. We describe cause-specific long-term mortality in a population-based cohort of childhood cancer survivors. We included all children diagnosed with cancer in Switzerland (1976-2007) at age 0-14 years, who survived ≥5 years after diagnosis and followed survivors until December 31, 2012. We obtained causes of death (COD) from the Swiss mortality statistics and used data from the Swiss general population to calculate age-, calendar year-, and sex-standardized mortality ratios (SMR), and absolute excess risks (AER) for different COD, by Poisson regression. We included 3,965 survivors and 49,704 person years at risk. Of these, 246 (6.2%) died, which was 11 times higher than expected (SMR 11.0). Mortality was particularly high for diseases of the respiratory (SMR 14.8) and circulatory system (SMR 12.7), and for second cancers (SMR 11.6). The pattern of cause-specific mortality differed by primary cancer diagnosis, and changed with time since diagnosis. In the first 10 years after 5-year survival, 78.9% of excess deaths were caused by recurrence of the original cancer (AER 46.1). Twenty-five years after diagnosis, only 36.5% (AER 9.1) were caused by recurrence, 21.3% by second cancers (AER 5.3) and 33.3% by circulatory diseases (AER 8.3). Our study confirms an elevated mortality in survivors of childhood cancer for at least 30 years after diagnosis with an increased proportion of deaths caused by late toxicities of the treatment. The results underline the importance of clinical follow-up continuing years after the end of treatment for childhood cancer. PMID:26950898

  12. ALTERAÇÕES DA RESISTÊNCIA AERÓBIA EM JOVENS FUTEBOLISTAS EM UM PERÍODO DE 15 SEMANAS DE TREINAMENTO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juvenilson de Souza

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available O futebolista, para apresentar uma capacidade técnica e tática superior e consistente, tem que possuir níveis elevados de condicionamento físico, especialmente de resistência aeróbia. Este artigo tem como objetivo estudar as alterações da resistência aeróbia expressa por meio do consumo máximo de oxigênio em jovens futebolistas que foram submetidos a 15 semanas de treinamento. Para tanto, participaram do estudo 37 jovens futebolistas com idade média de 17,15 – 1,18 anos, submetidos a um programa de treinamento de cinco dias por semana, duas vezes por dia, com sessão de treinamento de aproximadamente duas horas. O estudo seguiu a periodização de Matveev (1986 e foi desenvolvido durante o período de preparação. Os futebolistas realizaram o teste YO-YO Intermitente de Resistência proposto por Bangsbo (1996. Os resultados mostraram que as posições de laterais, de meias e de volantes parecem solicitar maior resistência aeróbia. Em relação às alterações da resistência aeróbia (VO2máx, os futebolistas das posições de goleiro e de atacante foram os que apresentaram aumentos significantes; porém os futebolistas de todas as posições de jogo apresentaram melhoras em uma amplitude de 2,19 a 8,60%. Assim, com os resultados desse estudo, pôde-se concluir que 15 semanas de treinamento proporcionaram alterações importantes da resistência aeróbia (VO2máx.

  13. Identification of effluent organic matter fractions responsible for low-pressure membrane fouling

    KAUST Repository

    Filloux, Emmanuelle

    2012-11-01

    Anion exchange resin (AER), powder activated carbon (PAC) adsorption and ozonation treatments were applied on biologically treated wastewater effluent with the objective to modify the effluent organic matter (EfOM) matrix. Both AER and PAC led to significant total organic carbon (TOC) removal, while the TOC remained nearly constant after ozonation. Liquid Chromatography-Organic Carbon Detection (LC-OCD) analysis showed that the AER treatment preferentially removed high and intermediate molecular weight (MW) humic-like structures while PAC removed low MW compounds. Only a small reduction of the high MW colloids (i.e. biopolymers) was observed for AER and PAC treatments. Ozonation induced a large reduction of the biopolymers and an important increase of the low MW humic substances (i.e. building blocks).Single-cycle microfiltration (MF) and ultrafiltration (UF) tests were conducted using commercially available hollow fibres at a constant flux. After reconcentration to their original organic carbon content, the EfOM matrix modified by AER and PAC treatments exhibited higher UF membrane fouling compared to untreated effluent; result that correlated with the higher concentration of biopolymers. On the contrary, ozonation which induced a significant degradation of the biopolymers led to a minor flux reduction for both UF and MF filtration tests. Based on a single filtration, results indicate that biopolymers play a major role in low pressure membrane fouling and that intermediate and low MW compounds have minor impact. Thus, this approach has shown to be a valid methodology to identify the foulant fractions of EfOM. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

  14. The NS1 glycoprotein can generate dramatic antibody-enhanced dengue viral replication in normal out-bred mice resulting in lethal multi-organ disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew K I Falconar

    Full Text Available Antibody-enhanced replication (AER of dengue type-2 virus (DENV-2 strains and production of antibody-enhanced disease (AED was tested in out-bred mice. Polyclonal antibodies (PAbs generated against the nonstructural-1 (NS1 glycoprotein candidate vaccine of the New Guinea-C (NG-C or NSx strains reacted strongly and weakly with these antigens, respectively. These PAbs contained the IgG2a subclass, which cross-reacted with the virion-associated envelope (E glycoprotein of the DENV-2 NSx strain, suggesting that they could generate its AER via all mouse Fcγ-receptor classes. Indeed, when these mice were challenged with a low dose (<0.5 LD₅₀ of the DENV-2 NSx strain, but not the NG-C strain, they all generated dramatic and lethal DENV-2 AER/AED. These AER/AED mice developed life-threatening acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS, displayed by diffuse alveolar damage (DAD resulting from i dramatic interstitial alveolar septa-thickening with mononuclear cells, ii some hyperplasia of alveolar type-II pneumocytes, iii copious intra-alveolar protein secretion, iv some hyaline membrane-covered alveolar walls, and v DENV-2 antigen-positive alveolar macrophages. These mice also developed meningo-encephalitis, with greater than 90,000-fold DENV-2 AER titers in microglial cells located throughout their brain parenchyma, some of which formed nodules around dead neurons. Their spleens contained infiltrated megakaryocytes with DENV-2 antigen-positive red-pulp macrophages, while their livers displayed extensive necrosis, apoptosis and macro- and micro-steatosis, with DENV-2 antigen-positive Kuppfer cells and hepatocytes. Their infections were confirmed by DENV-2 isolations from their lungs, spleens and livers. These findings accord with those reported in fatal human "severe dengue" cases. This DENV-2 AER/AED was blocked by high concentrations of only the NG-C NS1 glycoprotein. These results imply a potential hazard of DENV NS1 glycoprotein-based vaccines

  15. Indoor air quality in passive and conventional new houses in Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langer, Sarka; Bekö, Gabriel; Bloom, Erica; Widheden, Anna; Ekberg, Lars

    2015-01-01

    The indoor environment was evaluated in 20 new passive houses and 21 new conventionally built houses during the 2012/2013 and 2013/2014 heating seasons. Temperature, relative humidity (RH), the concentrations of NO2, ozone, formaldehyde, volatile organic compounds (VOC) and viable microbiological...... flora were measured. Air exchange rates (AER) were estimated from the CO2 concentrations measured in the bedrooms. The median AER was slightly higher in the passive houses than in the conventional ones (0.68h-1 vs. 0.60h-1). The median concentrations in the passive and the conventional buildings were 10......, while sources of formaldehyde may have been more pronounced in the conventional houses. In contrast to the passive houses, the indoor microbiological flora indicated possible mould or moisture problems in six (29%) of the conventionally built houses. When compared with the results previously reported...

  16. ultrastructural study of limb bud development in green turtles chelonia mydas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    morphological changes during the embryonic development of limbs of the green turtle,chelonia mydas,were studied during the entire period of incubation,using transmission and scanning electron microscopy (tem and sem).limb buds were first observed at stage 2.at that stage,the tip was covered with an apical ectodermal ridge (aer) which began to regress at stage 6.associated with aer was the presence of the mesenchymal cells which,consequently,differentiated into muscles,cartilage and bones.the gross features of the skeletal development appeared as a condensation of the cartilaginous structures in the proximal distal region of the limbs.the primordial digits were gradually enclosed by hard keratinized webbed skin.the increase in rate of ossification and skin pigmentation was correlated with the growth of the limbs.the development of the limbs was closely related to the transitional appearance of mucus secretion from the epidermis.

  17. Energy and Spatial Planning. Advice to the Minister of Economic Affairs, 29 June 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Dutch Minister of Economic Affairs requested the General Energy Council (AER, abbreviated in Dutch) to advice on spatial planning aspects of energy in the Netherlands, focusing on (1) the spatial facilities c.q. measures to be taken by the Dutch government to guarantee an adequate energy production and energy distribution in the long term; and (2) how to realize the targets for and stimulate the use of renewable energy within the spatial planning process. The vision of the AER is placed against the background of societal actuality of democratization and support of the Dutch population. For that reason in the appendix an overview is given of causes and possible administrative methods of the so-called NIMBY (Not In My Back Yard) phenomenon. 53 refs

  18. A Simple Halide-to-Anion Exchange Method for Heteroaromatic Salts and Ionic Liquids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neus Mesquida

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available A broad and simple method permitted halide ions in quaternary heteroaromatic and ammonium salts to be exchanged for a variety of anions using an anion exchange resin (A− form in non-aqueous media. The anion loading of the AER (OH− form was examined using two different anion sources, acids or ammonium salts, and changing the polarity of the solvents. The AER (A− form method in organic solvents was then applied to several quaternary heteroaromatic salts and ILs, and the anion exchange proceeded in excellent to quantitative yields, concomitantly removing halide impurities. Relying on the hydrophobicity of the targeted ion pair for the counteranion swap, organic solvents with variable polarity were used, such as CH3OH, CH3CN and the dipolar nonhydroxylic solvent mixture CH3CN:CH2Cl2 (3:7 and the anion exchange was equally successful with both lipophilic cations and anions.

  19. Waste management policy and strategies for all waste types and disposal options and international co-operation - Bangladesh perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Bangladesh, LILW radioactive wastes are generated from operation and maintenance of nuclear installations: Research Reactor, Radioisotope Production Laboratory, Neutron Generator, hot facilities, application/use of radiation sources (RS) in medicine, research, agriculture, industry. The radioactive wastes arising are described in this paper. The national policy concerning radioactive wastes and the activities being performed by the Health Physics and Radioactive Waste Management Unit of AERE, Savar, are outlined. BAEC has a perspective plan (2001-2010) to establish a pilot-scale near-surface waste repository for short-lived LILW. The factors being studied are presented, covering: general site description within the AERE campus; geology, hydrology and rivers; seismicity; surface drainage and ground water table; climate and meteorology; transportation and communication; demography and nearby facilities; vegetation; water and power supply; background radiation, nearest township; natural environment, land and water usage; dispersion of radioactive materials through groundwater; engineered feature. (author)

  20. Development and verification of new nodal methods in the KIKO3DMG code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper reports about the development and verification of the new nodal methods to be used in the KIKO3DMG code. Two classes of the new methods are presented. The first class makes the treatment of the heterogeneities possible inside the assemblies while the extent of the crucial approximations applied on the node boundaries is more considerable in comparison to those in case of the second type. The nodal methods were validated by two VVER reference problems found in the AER benchmark book (aerbench.kfki.hu/aerbench). The AER-2 and FCM-101 benchmarks correspond to the VVER-440 and VVER-1000 geometry, respectively. It was found that the differences between the converged and the reference solutions are negligible from the practical point of view. The performance characteristics concerning the accuracy and the necessary CPU time - both depending on the mesh refinement - were also compared.

  1. Continuation of the WWER burnup credit benchmark: evaluation of CB1 results, overview of CB2 results to date, and specification of CB3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A calculational benchmark focused on WWER-440 burnup credit, simular to that of the OECD/NEA/NSC Burnup Credit Criticality Benchmark Working Group, was proposed on the 96'AER Symposium. Its first part, CB1, was specified there whereas the second part, CB2, was specified a year later, on 97'AER Symposium in Zittau. This paper brings a final statistical evaluation of CB1 results and summarizes the CB2 results obtained to date. Further, the effect of an axial burnup profile of WWER-440 spent fuel on criticality ('end effect') is proposed to be studied in the CB3 benchmark problem of an infinite array of WWER-440 spent fuel rods as specified in the paper. (Authors)

  2. Hydrogen/syngas generation by simultaneous steam reforming and carbon dioxide absorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weimer, T.; Specht, M.; Baumgart, F.; Marquard-Moellenstedt, T.; Sichler, P. [IVE Weimer Process and Energy Technology, Sindelfingen (Germany)

    2002-07-01

    A new process for hydrogen or syngas production from various carbonaceous feedstocks is presented. The main feature of the Absorption Enhanced Reforming (AER-process) is the combination of simultaneous steam reforming, shift reaction and carbon dioxide removal in one reactor. Characterised by high efficiency, low investment cost and a high hydrogen content in the product gas, AER-processes are a promising option for hydrogen generation. Calcinated lime is a suitable carbon dioxide absorbent. In addition to hydrogen supply for electricity generation using PEM-fuel cells, industrial applications are in the refinery sector with a growing hydrogen demand for hydrotreating crude oil and the pulp industry where a lime recycle loop and power generation unit are already installed. 6 refs., 6 figs.

  3. Energy research. Combined forces. Advice to the Minister of Economic Affairs, 26 April 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The General Energy Council (AER) advises on energy policy in the Netherlands. In this report the Council advises on the agenda of public financed energy research and the optimal knowledge infrastructure for energy research. The AER focused on energy research policy, aimed at the realization of targets for a clean, reliable and cost-effective energy supply. The main conclusions are that (1) the Dutch government should invest more in long-range energy research; (2) it is necessary to combine forces between universities and technological institutes for long-term research; (3) energy research should focus and prioritize more on specific subjects (renewable energy, energy efficiency, clean fossil fuels, fitting-in of alternative energy sources (e.g. hydrogen), and socio-economic aspects of energy); and (4) there should be one Programme Advisory Council for energy research

  4. Aggregate Size and Architecture Determine Microbial Activity Balance for One-Stage Partial Nitritation and Anammox

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vlaeminck, S.E.; Terada, Akihiko; Smets, Barth F.;

    2010-01-01

    Aerobic ammonium-oxidizing bacteria (AerAOB) and anoxic ammonium-oxidizing bacteria (AnAOB) cooperate in partial nitritation/anammox systems to remove ammonium from wastewater. In this process, large granular microbial aggregates enhance the performance, but little is known about granulation so far......AOB abundance and the activity balance for the different aggregate sizes and (ii) to relate aggregate morphology, size distribution, and architecture putatively to the inoculation and operation of the three reactors. A nitrite accumulation rate ratio (NARR) was defined as the net aerobic nitrite production rate...... divided by the anoxic nitrite consumption rate. The smallest reactor A, B, and C aggregates were nitrite sources (NARR, > 1.7). Large reactor A and C aggregates were granules capable of autonomous nitrogen removal (NARR, 0.6 to 1.1) with internal AnAOB zones surrounded by an AerAOB rim. Around 50% of the...

  5. Caribbean alternative energy programme project proposals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is the third report to follow the Project Group Meeting on ALTERNATIVE ENERGY RESOURCES, Barbados, September, 1977. It consists of summaries of projects proposals identified at the Meeting. The first two reports have been previously circulated. The first CSC(77)AER-1 covers the background, proceedings and recommendations resulting from the meeting as well as containing a brief outline of the project proposals. The country papers and technical papers that were presented at the meeting or served as background material, form the second report, CSC(77)AER-2. Copies of the first two reports can be obtained on request to the Commonwealth Science Council. Projects with potential for making significant progress in the short term have been marked with an asterisk

  6. Fluorescent biological aerosol particles measured with the Waveband Integrated Bioaerosol Sensor WIBS-4: laboratory tests combined with a one year field study

    OpenAIRE

    Toprak, E.; Schnaiter, M.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper bioaerosol measurements conducted with the Waveband Integrated Bioaerosol Sensor mark 4 (WIBS-4) are presented. The measurements comprise aerosol chamber characterization experiments and a one-year ambient measurement period at a semi-rural site in South Western Germany. This study aims to investigate the sensitivity of WIBS-4 to biological and non-biological aerosols and detection of biological particles in the ambient aerosol. Several types of biological and non-biological aer...

  7. DLX5, FGF8 and the Pin1 isomerase control ΔNp63α protein stability during limb development: a regulatory loop at the basis of the SHFM and EEC congenital malformations

    OpenAIRE

    Restelli, Michela; Lopardo, Teresa; Lo Iacono, Nadia; Garaffo, Giulia; Conte, Daniele; Rustighi, Alessandra; Napoli, Marco; Del Sal, Giannino; Perez-Morga, David; Costanzo, Antonio; Merlo, Giorgio Roberto; Guerrini, Luisa

    2014-01-01

    Ectrodactyly, or Split-Hand/Foot Malformation (SHFM), is a congenital condition characterized by the loss of central rays of hands and feet. The p63 and the DLX5;DLX6 transcription factors, expressed in the embryonic limb buds and ectoderm, are disease genes for these conditions. Mutations of p63 also cause the ectodermal dysplasia–ectrodactyly–cleft lip/palate (EEC) syndrome, comprising SHFM. Ectrodactyly is linked to defects of the apical ectodermal ridge (AER) of the developing limb buds. ...

  8. Elasticity of substitution between clean and dirty energy inputs: A macroeconomic perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Papageorgiou, Chris; Saam, Marianne; Schulte, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Recently Acemolgu, Aghion, Bursztyn and Hemous (AER 2012) formulated a model in which a high macroeconomic elasticity of substitution between clean and dirty production represents a crucial condition for green growth. Until now it has never been systematically estimated. Using a novel panel of cross-country sectoral data, we formulate specifications of nested CES production functions that allow to estimate a special case of this parameter: the elasticity of substitution between clean and dirt...

  9. Expression of secondary metabolites by the Mediterranean sponges Aplysina aerophoba and Aplysina cavernicola

    OpenAIRE

    Majdi, Nabil

    2008-01-01

    Aplysina aerophoba and Aplysina cavernicola are two sibling sponge species common in Mediterranean sea. External and internal morphology is almost identical in the two species. So, according to a lack of traditional taxonomic character (spicule comparison), taxonomists have longly debated if the two taxa, showing different ecological requirements but identical morphology, should be regarded as ecotypes or distinct species. Now, molecular phylogeny has brought response to this question: A. aer...

  10. Which Models Can We Trust to Evaluate Consumer Decision Making? Comment on “Choice Inconsistencies among the Elderly”

    OpenAIRE

    Jonathan D. Ketcham; Kuminoff, Nicolai V.; Powers, Christopher A.

    2015-01-01

    Neoclassical and psychological models of consumer behavior often make divergent predictions for the welfare effects of paternalistic policies, leaving wide scope for researchers’ choice of a model to influence their policy conclusions. We develop a framework to reduce this model uncertainty and apply it to administrative data on consumer decision making in Medicare Part D. Consumers’ choices for prescription drug insurance plans can be explained by Abaluck and Gruber’s (AER 2011) model of uti...

  11. A new look at old data – a simple model for estimating deposition based on a statistical reassessment of global fallout data

    OpenAIRE

    Palsson, S.E.; Howard, B.J.; Bergan, T; J. Paatero; Isaksson, M.; Nielsen, S P

    2011-01-01

    Atmospheric testing of nuclear weapons began in 1945 and came largely to an end in 1963. Extensive monitoring was done on the global fallout from these tests. The Environmental Measurements Laboratory (EML) in the US had a global network as well as the UK Atomic Energy Research Establishment (AERE / Harwell). There were also comprehensive national networks such as operated by the Risø National Laboratory in Denmark. Early analysis of the data showed correlation of deposition with precipita...

  12. Statin-associated muscular and renal adverse events: data mining of the public version of the FDA adverse event reporting system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshiyuki Sakaeda

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Adverse event reports (AERs submitted to the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA were reviewed to assess the muscular and renal adverse events induced by the administration of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (statins and to attempt to determine the rank-order of the association. METHODS: After a revision of arbitrary drug names and the deletion of duplicated submissions, AERs involving pravastatin, simvastatin, atorvastatin, or rosuvastatin were analyzed. Authorized pharmacovigilance tools were used for quantitative detection of signals, i.e., drug-associated adverse events, including the proportional reporting ratio, the reporting odds ratio, the information component given by a Bayesian confidence propagation neural network, and the empirical Bayes geometric mean. Myalgia, rhabdomyolysis and an increase in creatine phosphokinase level were focused on as the muscular adverse events, and acute renal failure, non-acute renal failure, and an increase in blood creatinine level as the renal adverse events. RESULTS: Based on 1,644,220 AERs from 2004 to 2009, signals were detected for 4 statins with respect to myalgia, rhabdomyolysis, and an increase in creatine phosphokinase level, but these signals were stronger for rosuvastatin than pravastatin and atorvastatin. Signals were also detected for acute renal failure, though in the case of atorvastatin, the association was marginal, and furthermore, a signal was not detected for non-acute renal failure or for an increase in blood creatinine level. CONCLUSIONS: Data mining of the FDA's adverse event reporting system, AERS, is useful for examining statin-associated muscular and renal adverse events. The data strongly suggest the necessity of well-organized clinical studies with respect to statin-associated adverse events.

  13. Tensions Between the Equity and Efficiency of Schooling: the Case of Scotland

    OpenAIRE

    Croxford, Linda

    2010-01-01

    Equity and efficiency are the twin goals of European education policymakers, but there are tensions between these goals. This article illustrates these tensions within the school system of Scotland, drawing on two recent research projects: ‘Fabricating Quality in European Education’ (FABQ) and the Applied Educational Research Scheme (AERS) study entitled ‘How do schools in Scotland measure their own performance?’ It outlines the Quality Assurance and Evaluation (QAE) system developed in Scotl...

  14. Reuse of textile wastewater after homogenization–decantation treatment coupled to PVDF ultrafiltration membranes

    OpenAIRE

    Buscio Olivera, Valentina; Marín, María José; Crespi Rosell, Martin; Gutiérrez Bouzán, María Carmen

    2015-01-01

    The textile industry is one of the largest consumers of water in the world and its wastewater is a serious problem when it is discharged without the proper treatment. In this work, wastewater generated by textile industry was treated coupling a homogenization–decantation treatment with polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF) ultrafiltration membranes. Initially, the wastewater was aerated in a homogenization–decantation tank where 17% colour and 10% chemical oxygen demand (COD) were removed. The aer...

  15. Genetic Background of Escherichia coli and Extended-spectrum β-Lactamase Type

    OpenAIRE

    Branger, Catherine; Zamfir, Oana; Geoffroy, Sabine; Laurans, Geneviève; Arlet, Guillaume; Thien, Hoang Vu; Gouriou, Stéphanie; Picard, Bertrand; Denamur, Erick

    2005-01-01

    To assess the implication of the genetic background of Escherichia coli strains in the emergence of extended-spectrum-β-lactamases (ESBL), 55 TEM-, 52 CTX-M-, and 22 SHV-type ESBL-producing clinical isolates involved in various extraintestinal infections or colonization were studied in terms of phylogenetic group, virulence factor (VF) content (pap, sfa/foc, hly, and aer genes), and fluoroquinolone resistance. A factorial analysis of correspondence showed that SHV type, and to a lesser extent...

  16. Careful dealing with the introduction of market operations with regard to vital infrastructural utilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The introduction of a liberalized market in e.g. the sectors for the supply of natural gas and electricity, public transport, telecommunications and cable networks appears to be much more complex than expected. The Dutch Advisory Council for Transport, Public Works and Water Management and the General Energy Council (AER) presented a brochure in which they express their opinion that the present political and administrative culture hinder the process of change

  17. AcEST: BP917456 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available YMU001_000101_B01 460 Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA. clone: YMU001_000101_B01. BP917456 - Show ... sp|A4SJR0|GLMM_AERS4 Phosphoglucosamine mutase OS=Aeromonas ... salm... 29 8.5 sp|A0KNE8|GLMM_AERHH Phosphoglucosa ... mine mutase OS=Aeromonas ... hydr... 29 8.5 >sp|P26410|HYPB_RHOCA Hydrogenase n ...

  18. Nuclear electronic instrument systems using the Harwell 6000 series

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes some of the more recent equipment designed by the Systems Instrumentation Unit (AERE, Harwell), in the Harwell 6000 modular format. The units include: Laboratory Instruments (alpha monitors, beta-gamma detectors, spectrometers, automatic sample changer systems, automated counting laboratory systems, low power systems). Environmental Monitors (nuclear plant monitor, air monitor, sea bed monitor). Process Instruments (plutonium waste control, x-ray fluorescence monitor, process monitor, beam current monitor, effluent monitors). (U.K.)

  19. Metabolic Engineering of Escherichia coli for Production of Mixed-Acid Fermentation End Products

    OpenAIRE

    Andreas Hartmut Förster; Johannes eGescher

    2014-01-01

    Mixed-acid fermentation end products have numerous applications in biotechnology. This is probably the main driving force for the development of multiple strains that are supposed to produce individual end products with high yields. The process of engineering Escherichia coli strains for applied production of ethanol, lactate, succinate, or acetate was initiated several decades ago and is still ongoing. This review follows the path of strain development from the general characteristics of aer...

  20. The comparison of oral and laryngeal findings of asthma patients using different dry powder inhaler devices containing steroid and beta agonists

    OpenAIRE

    Fahrettin Talay; Fahrettin Yilmaz; Nadir Goksugur; Bahar Kurt; Murat Sereflican; Zehra Yasar; Ozlem Kar Kurt

    2013-01-01

    Objective: In this study, we aimed to compare the oral and laryngeal findings of asthma patients using different dry powder inhalers (DPI) containing corticosteroid and long-acting beta-2 agonists. Methods: This study included 109 asthmatics who were divided into 3 groups according to the inhaler device (Seretide Discus [fluticasone 250 mcg, salmeterol 50 mcg], Symbicort Turbuhaler [budesonide 320 mcg, formoterol 9 mcg], and Foradil [formoterol 12 mcg] + Miflonide [budesonide 400 mcg] aer...

  1. The diagnosis value of endothelin, calcitonin gene-related peptide and the ratio in diabetic nephropathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To evaluate the diagnosis value of Endothelin (ET), Calcitonin gene-related peptide(CGRP) and theratio in diabetic nephropathy(DN). Methods: To choose 54 healthy as the control group and 124 patients with diabetes or DN as test group. According to urinary albumin excretion rate (uAER), the test group was divided into three groups, which were diabetes group of normalalbuminmia (group A), early DN (group B) and clinical DN and renal failure group( group C ). Plasma concentration of ET and CGRP were measured with radioimmunossay for those in the Control group and patients with diabetes or DN. Results: The level of ET was significantly higher in diabetic nephropathy than that in the control group (P<0.01), and there was positive correlation between ET and uAER(r=0.591, P<0.01). The plasma level of CGRP was significantly lower in diabetic nephropathy than that in the control group (P<0.01), and there was negative correlation between CGRP and uAER(r-0.389, P<0.05). The level of ET, CGRP and ET/CGRP ratio have evidently changed with the uAER rised. Conclusion: (1)The level of ET, CGRP and type 2 diabetic nephropathy are closely related, and which probably plays a role in the development of DN. (2)ET/CGRP ratio, as a new way for diagnosis, can even more reflecte the seriousness of DN. (3)This experiment provide us a new way for the prevention and treatment of DN with extrinsic CGRP. (authors)

  2. The 'materials balance approach' to pollution: its origin, implications and acceptance

    OpenAIRE

    Pethig, Rüdiger

    2003-01-01

    In their seminal paper on "production, consumption and externalities" (AER, 1969), Ayres and Kneese initiated a research program on comprehensive analysis and management of residuals and pollution based on two pillars: the study of the residuals-generating materials flow subject to the mass balance principle and the concept of pervasive (pollution) externality. The present paper aims at (i) recalling the origin of that program, (ii) sheding some light on its principal implications from today'...

  3. Synthesis of blue-photoluminescent graphene quantum dots/polystyrenic anion-exchange resin for Fe(III) detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenjun; Gan, Jie

    2016-05-01

    A novel solid fluorescent sensor with millimeter size, based on graphene quantum dots/polystyrenic anion-exchange resin (GQDs/PS-AER) was obtained for the detection of Fe3+. The linear response range of Fe3+ was obtained from 1 μM to 7 μM and the detection limit was as low as 0.65 μM. In addition, the sensor could be regenerated by adding complexing agent EDTA and be separated by using simple filtration.

  4. Molecular detection and antimicrobial resistance of Aeromonas from houseflies (Musca domestica) in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Davood Ommi; Seyed Mohammadreza Hashemian; Elahe Tajbakhsh; Faham Khamesipour

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective. This study aimed to report the molecular detection and antimicrobial resistance of Aeromonas among houseflies (Musca domestica) in Shahrekord and Isfahan provinces of Iran. Materials and methods. Flies were caught from household kitchens, cattle farms, animal hospitals, human hospitals, slaughter house and poultry farms and put in collection separate sterile tubes. Isolation was accomplished by culture of flies in alkaline peptone water followed by identification with Aer...

  5. original papers : Project evaluation and organizational form

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas Gehrig; Pierre Regibeau; Kate Rockett

    2000-01-01

    In situations of imperfect testing and communication, as suggested by Sah and Stiglitz (AER, 1986), organizational forms can be identified with different rules of aggregating evaluations of individual screening units. In this paper, we discuss the relative merits of polyarchical organizations versus hierarchical organizations in evaluating cost-reducing R&D projects when individual units' decision thresholds are fully endogenous. Contrary to the results of Sah and Stiglitz, we find that the r...

  6. Clonazepam Treatment of Pathologic Childhood Aerophagia with Psychological Stresses

    OpenAIRE

    Hwang, Jin-Bok; Kim, Jun Sik; Ahn, Byung Hoon; Jung, Chul-Ho; Lee, Young Hwan; Kam, Sin

    2007-01-01

    The treatment of pathologic aerophagia has rarely been discussed in the literature. In this retrospective study, the authors investigated the effects of clonazepam on the management of pathologic childhood aerophagia (PCA) with psychological stresses (PS), but not with mental retardation. Data from 22 consecutive PCA patients with PS (aged 2 to 10 yr), who had been followed up for over 1 yr, were reviewed. On the basis of videolaryngoscopic views, the authors observed that the pathologyof aer...

  7. Fuel mix in motion. In search of a good balance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Dutch Energy Council (AER) ascertained that due to the current fuel mix used for Dutch Electricity production, with a relatively large share of gas and a relatively limited percentage of hydropower and nuclear energy, the affordability criterion is hardly met, the decreasing Dutch gas supplies will affect the reliability criterion which will become increasingly difficult to meet and the clean criterion will also hardly be met due to relatively high CO2 emissions per produced kilowatt-hour. [mk

  8. Starter kültür kullanılarak üretilen hıyar turşularında biyojen amin oluşumu üzerine araştırma

    OpenAIRE

    TURGUT, Zeynep

    2006-01-01

           Abstract

    In this study, cucumber pickle was produced by spontaneous fermentation or using Lactobacillus plantarum 11B as starter culture, then amount of biogenic amines, whichwere produced during fermentation, was determined by High Performance LiquidChromatography (HPLC). Additionally, on certain days during fermentation,enumeration of total mesophilic aer...

  9. Harwell emergency handbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Harwell Laboratory Emergency Handbook 1987 contains emergency procedures to deal with any incident which might occur at AERE Harwell involving radioactive or toxic material releases. The Handbook gives details of the duties of members of the Site Emergency Organization and other key members of staff, the methods by which incidents are controlled, the communication links and liaison arrangements with other organizations and the possible consequences and actions that may be needed following an emergency. (UK)

  10. AcEST: BP913187 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available YMU001_000027_E03 540 Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA. clone: YMU001_000027_E03. BP913187 CL397Co ... sp|P0C423|LEP4_AERSA Type 4 prepilin-like proteins leader ... peptid... 30 5.8 sp|A2T195|LEP4_AERS4 Type 4 prepi ... lin-like proteins leader ... peptid... 30 5.8 sp|P62285|ASPM_BOVIN Abnormal spi ...

  11. AcEST: BP913566 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available YMU001_000031_F09 562 Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA. clone: YMU001_000031_F09. BP913566 CL397Co ... sp|P0C423|LEP4_AERSA Type 4 prepilin-like proteins leader ... peptid... 30 6.3 sp|A2T195|LEP4_AERS4 Type 4 prepi ... lin-like proteins leader ... peptid... 30 6.3 sp|P62285|ASPM_BOVIN Abnormal spi ...

  12. Steady-State Thermal-Hydraulic Analysis of TRIGA Research Reactor

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Mizanur Rahman; Mohammad Abdur R. Akond; Mohammad Khairul Basher; Md. Quamrul Huda

    2014-01-01

    The COOLOD-N2 and PARET computer codes were used for a steady-state thermal hydraulic and safety analysis of the 3 MW TRIGA Mark-II research reactor located at Atomic Energy Research Establishment (AERE), Savar, Dhaka, Bangladesh. The objective of the present study is to ensure that all important safety related thermal hydraulic parameters uphold margins far below the safety limits by steady-state calculations at full power. We, therefore, have calculated the hot channel fuel centreline ...

  13. Radiological Concentration Distribution of 131I, 132I, 133I, 134I, and 135I Due to a Hypothetical Accident of TRIGA Mark-II Research Reactor

    OpenAIRE

    Malek, M.A.; K. J. A. Chisty; Rahman, M M

    2012-01-01

    The present work gives a methodology for assessing radiological concentration of 131I, 132I, 133I, 134I, and 135I due to a hypothetical accident of TRIGA Mark-II research Reactor at AERE, Savar, Bangladesh. The concentrations were estimated through different pathways like ingestion of vegetation, milk, and meat from air and ground deposition. The maximum air concentrations for al...

  14. The Distribution of Firm Start-Up Size Across Geographic Space

    OpenAIRE

    Audretsch, David B.; Tamvada, Jagannadha Pawan

    2008-01-01

    A growing body of literature shows that geographic location plays an important role in influencing economic phenomena. Despite the renewed interest in economic geography, the existing literature on the firm size distribution (FSD) has ignored the impact of geographic location. A wave of recent studies has examined the determinants and evolution of FSD (Cabral and Mata, 2003; Angelini and Generale 2008, AER) and a component of this literature has focused on the size of the new firm start-ups. ...

  15. Pós-tratamento de efluente nitrificado da parboilização de arroz utilizando desnitrificação em reator UASB Post-treatment a nitrified parboilized rice wastewater using denitrification in UASB reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loraine Andre Isoldi

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Um sistema combinado reator UASB-reator aeróbio foi utilizado para a remoção de nitrogênio total e DQO de efluente de parboilização de arroz. O experimento foi realizado em reatores de bancada, com volumes de 4 L (UASB e 3,6 L (reator aeróbio. Os parâmetros de operação pH, temperatura, alcalinidade e concentração de ácidos voláteis foram monitorados durante o período experimental. Para o reator aeróbio de mistura completa, foi determinada, também, a concentração de oxigênio dissolvido. O sistema combinado reator UASB-reator aeróbio apresentou uma eficiência de remoção de carbono de 84% e uma eficiência de remoção de nitrogênio total Kjeldahl de 83%. O sistema proposto, nas condições experimentais, demonstrou ser adequado para remoção, simultânea, de DQO e de compostos oxidados de nitrogênio, em reator UASB.An UASB-aerobic reactor system was used for the removal of total nitrogen and COD of effluent from industries of parboilized rice. The experiment was performed in reactors with volumes of 4 L (UASB reactor and 3,6 L (aerobic reactor, respectevely. Temperature, pH, alkalinity and volatile acids concentration were monitored during the experiment. Dissolved oxygen concentration was determined for the aerobic reactor. The UASB-aerobic reactor system showed 84% carbon removal efficiency and 83% total Kjeldahl nitrogen removal efficiency. This system was able to remove, efficiently, COD and nitrogen in an UASB reactor.

  16. NEW APPROACHES CONCERNING THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE ECOTOURISM IN ROMANIA

    OpenAIRE

    Petrică ŞTEFAN; Silviu GHEORGHE; Cristian CUTAŞ

    2014-01-01

    The hereby study undertakes to introduce the certification procedure in ecological tourism, as well as the criteriathat must be fulfilled by the lodging units that wish to voluntarily adhere to this modern form of tourism. In ourcountry, the Certifying System in the Ecotourism is used by the Romanian Association of Ecotourism (AER) and thisadjusts the international experience to the Romanian context. This has been developed in conformity with theAccreditation Program in Nature and Ecotourism ...

  17. SUSTAINABLE MANAGEMENT PLAN APPLICABLE FOR ECOTOURISM CERTIFICATION SYSTEMS

    OpenAIRE

    Romeo Cătălin CREŢU; Petrică ȘTEFAN

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to introduce the certification procedure of ecological tourism as well as the criteria that have to be fulfilled by the lodging units whose desire is to voluntarily adhere to this new form of tourism. In Romania, the Certifying System in Ecotourism is used by the AER (Romanian Association of Ecotourism) and that adjusts the international experience into the national context. This is developed as the same as the Accreditation Program in Nature and Ecotourism promot...

  18. CFD Simulation of Thermal-Hydraulic Benchmark V1000CT-2 Using ANSYS CFX

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas Höhne

    2009-01-01

    Plant measured data from VVER-1000 coolant mixing experiments were used within the OECD/NEA and AER coupled code benchmarks for light water reactors to test and validate computational fluid dynamic (CFD) codes. The task is to compare the various calculations with measured data, using specified boundary conditions and core power distributions. The experiments, which are provided for CFD validation, include single loop cooling down or heating-up by disturbing the heat transfer in the steam gene...

  19. Conserved Residues in the HAMP Domain Define a New Family of Proposed Bipartite Energy Taxis Receptors▿

    OpenAIRE

    Elliott, Kathryn T; Igor B Zhulin; Stuckey, Jeanne A.; DiRita, Victor J.

    2008-01-01

    HAMP domains, found in many bacterial signal transduction proteins, generally transmit an intramolecular signal between an extracellular sensory domain and an intracellular signaling domain. Studies of HAMP domains in proteins where both the input and output signals occur intracellularly are limited to those of the Aer energy taxis receptor of Escherichia coli, which has both a HAMP domain and a sensory PAS domain. Campylobacter jejuni has an energy taxis system consisting of the domains of A...

  20. ORGANIC FARMING BY VERMICULTURE: PRODUCING CHEMICAL-FREE, NUTRITIVE AND HEALTH PROTECTIVE FOOD FOR THE SOCIETY

    OpenAIRE

    Sinha, Rajiv

    2012-01-01

    Vermicompost produced from ''organic wastes'' are scientifically proving to be an ''extraordinary powerful growth promoters and protectors ''for crops (5-7 times over other bulky organic fertilizers and 20-40% higher over chemical fertilizers). They are rich in NKP, micronutrients, beneficial soil microbes like ''nitrogen-fixing'' and ''phosphate solubilizing'' bacteria, ''mycorrhizal fungi'', humus and growth hormones -auxins, gibberellins and cytokinins. It has very high ''porosity'', ''aer...

  1. Techniques for measuring aerosol attenuation using the Central Laser Facility at the Pierre Auger Observatory

    OpenAIRE

    PIERRE AUGER Collaboration; Abreu, P; Pastor, Sergio

    2013-01-01

    The Pierre Auger Observatory in Malargue, Argentina, is designed to study the properties of ultra-high energy cosmic rays with energies above 10(18) eV. It is a hybrid facility that employs a Fluorescence Detector to perform nearly calorimetric measurements of Extensive Air Shower energies. To obtain reliable calorimetric information from the FD, the atmospheric conditions at the observatory need to be continuously monitored during data acquisition. In particular, light attenuation due to aer...

  2. Experimental studies on particle emissions from cruising ship, their characteristic properties, transformation and atmospheric lifetime in the marine boundary layer

    OpenAIRE

    Petzold, A.; Hasselbach, J.; P. Lauer; Baumann, R.; Franke, K.; Gurk, C.; H. Schlager; Weingartner, E.

    2007-01-01

    Particle emissions from ship engines and their atmospheric transformation in the marine boundary layer (MBL) were investigated in engine test bed studies and in airborne measurements of expanding ship plumes. During the test rig studies, detailed aerosol microphysical and chemical properties were measured in the exhaust gas of a serial MAN B&W seven-cylinder four-stroke marine diesel engine under various load conditions. The emission studies were complemented by airborne aer...

  3. Catalizador para la oxidación selectiva de hidrocarburos

    OpenAIRE

    Álvaro Rodríguez, Mercedes; Amarajothi, Dhakshinamoorthy; García Gómez, Hermenegildo

    2010-01-01

    La presente invención se refiere a un catalizador sólido que comprende una matriz reticular metal-orgánica y un agente promotor de la generación de radicales, a un procedimiento de obtención de dicho catalizador ya su uso como catalizador en la reacción de oxidación aeróbica selectiva de hidrocarburos.

  4. Molecular Detection, Quantification, and Toxigenicity Profiling of Aeromonas spp. in Source- and Drinking-Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Boakai K; Harden, Carol; Selvaraju, Suresh B; Pradhan, Suman; Yadav, Jagjit S

    2014-01-01

    Aeromonas is ubiquitous in aquatic environments and has been associated with a number of extra-gastrointestinal and gastrointestinal illnesses. This warrants monitoring of raw and processed water sources for pathogenic and toxigenic species of this human pathogen. In this study, a total of 17 different water samples [9 raw and 8 treated samples including 4 basin water (partial sand filtration) and 4 finished water samples] were screened for Aeromonas using selective culturing and a genus-specific real-time quantitative PCR assay. The selective culturing yielded Aeromonas counts ranging 0 - 2 x 10(3)CFU/ml and 15 Aeromonas isolates from both raw and treated water samples. The qPCR analysis indicated presence of a considerable nonculturable population (3.4 x 10(1) - 2.4 x 10(4) cells/ml) of Aeromonas in drinking water samples. Virulence potential of the Aeromonas isolates was assessed by multiplex/singleplex PCR-based profiling of the hemolysin and enterotoxin genes viz cytotoxic heat-labile enterotoxin (act), heat-labile cytotonic enterotoxin (alt), heat-stable cytotonic enterotoxin (ast), and aerolysin (aerA) genes. The water isolates yielded five distinct toxigenicity profiles, viz. act, alt, act+alt, aerA+alt, and aerA+alt+act. The alt gene showed the highest frequency of occurrence (40%), followed by the aerA (20%), act (13%), and ast (0%) genes. Taken together, the study demonstrated the occurrence of a considerable population of nonculturable Aeromonads in water and prevalence of toxigenic Aeromonas spp. potentially pathogenic to humans. This emphasizes the importance of routine monitoring of both source and drinking water for this human pathogen and role of the developed molecular approaches in improving the Aeromonas monitoring scheme for water. PMID:24949108

  5. Dynamic Fracture Simulations of Explosively Loaded Cylinders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arthur, Carly W. [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering; Goto, D. M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-11-30

    This report documents the modeling results of high explosive experiments investigating dynamic fracture of steel (AerMet® 100 alloy) cylinders. The experiments were conducted at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) during 2007 to 2008 [10]. A principal objective of this study was to gain an understanding of dynamic material failure through the analysis of hydrodynamic computer code simulations. Two-dimensional and three-dimensional computational cylinder models were analyzed using the ALE3D multi-physics computer code.

  6. Potential bioavailability of particulate phosphorus in runoff from arable clayey soils

    OpenAIRE

    Uusitalo, Risto

    2004-01-01

    Runoff phosphorus (P) associated with eroded soil contributes to eutrophication to some extent. The present work examines two methods for estimating the potential bioavailability of particulate P (PP) in runoff, and studies the concentrations and losses of different P forms in surface and subsurface runoff from arable soils. The potential bioavailability of PP was approximated by extraction with (i) anion exchange resin (AER-PP), giving a measure of desorbable PP under aerobic conditions, and...

  7. Phenotypic and Genetic Diversity of Aeromonas Species Isolated from Fresh Water Lakes in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Khor, Wei Ching; Puah, Suat Moi; Tan, Jin Ai Mary Anne; Puthucheary, SD; Chua, Kek Heng

    2015-01-01

    Gram-negative bacilli of the genus Aeromonas are primarily inhabitants of the aquatic environment. Humans acquire this organism from a wide range of food and water sources as well as during aquatic recreational activities. In the present study, the diversity and distribution of Aeromonas species from freshwater lakes in Malaysia was investigated using glycerophospholipid-cholesterol acyltransferase (GCAT) and RNA polymerase sigma-factor (rpoD) genes for speciation. A total of 122 possible Aer...

  8. Atomic energy review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ATOMIC ENERGY REVIEW (AER), a periodical started in 1963 in accordance with the recommendation made by the Scientific Advisory Committee, is now preparing for its tenth year of publication. The journal appears quarterly (ca 900 pages/year) and occasionally has special issues and supplements. From 1963 to 1971 AER developed into an important international high-standard scientific journal which keeps scientists in Member States informed on progress in various fields of nuclear energy. The Agency's specific role of helping 'developing countries to further their science and education' is reflected in the publication policy of the journal. The subject scope of AER, which was determined at the journal's inception, is very broad. It covers topics in experimental and theoretical physics, nuclear electronics and equipment, physics and technology of reactors and reactor materials and fuels, radio-chemistry, and industrial, medical and other uses of radioisotopes. In other words, almost any subject related to the peaceful application of nuclear energy can qualify for inclusion. Specifically, at any particular time the selection criteria for topics are influenced by the Agency's current programme and interests. AER carries comprehensive review articles, critical state-of-the-art and current awareness surveys, and reports on the important meetings organized or sponsored by the Agency. The following four subsections gradually became necessary to do justice to this variety of material: 'Reviews' proper, 'Current Research and Development', 'Special Item' and 'Conferences and Symposia'. Apart from the conference reports, one hundred and twenty-five reviews, almost all of which were published in English to make them accessible to a wide public, have so far been published

  9. Implementation of GNASH and auxiliary codes on the Harwell CRAY-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report describes a version of the preequilibrium, statistical nuclear-model code GNASH which has been implemented, along with a set of small auxiliary codes, on the CRAY-1 at AERE Harwell. GNASH provides a flexible tool for calculating cross sections, isomer ratios and emission spectra. A detailed description of the current user input is provided along with a full listing of the actual FORTRAN code, as modified for this implementation. (author)

  10. Dicty_cDB: VHN388 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available gggplstlnhminxcyxavsfrx lwxvgkf*fxssfrsxfxl*ttik*trcckxpsxvqlrgvexfplvfihsxyfffxyiih ynmthalpkvvkxqlvqdigvalilgsi...pdate 2004.12.25 Homology vs DNA Score E Sequences producing significant alignments: (bits) Value N ( BJ426047 ) Dictyostelium di...ive seq. ID VHN388P (Link to Original site) Representative DNA sequence >VHN388 (VHN388Q) /CSM/VH/VHN3-D/VHN...ltcrka*r*rrslnvnssgvvfsadldgs skyskeftlkaevgkgsitmeftyg*vdpkvwvnsl**gy*vigskvkval...ltcrka*r*rrslnvnssgvvfsadldgs skyskeftlkaevgkgsitmeftyg*vdpkvwvnsl**gy*vigskvkvaltlvtl*aer eag*NSCTIEWDI

  11. Airborne Multi AXis DOAS instrument and measurements of two-dimensional tropospheric trace gas distributions

    OpenAIRE

    Heue, Klaus-Peter

    2005-01-01

    The Airborne Multi AXis DOAS instrument was developed and successfully operated during four measurement campaigns. Depending on the purpose the instrument was installed on two different aeroplanes flying either close to the tropopause or in the mixing layer. In a detailed sensitivity study the possibilities of the measurements were investigated. For a qualitatively good observation of tropospheric trace gases (e.g. NO2 and HCHO) additional information about the mixing layer height and the aer...

  12. Qualifizierung des Kernmodells DYN3D im Komplex mit dem Störfallcode ATHLET als fortgeschrittenes Werkzeug für die Störfallanalyse von WWER-Reaktoren - Teil 2

    OpenAIRE

    S. Kliem; Grundmann, U; Rohde, U.

    2010-01-01

    Benchmark calculations for the validation of the coupled neutron kinetics/thermohydraulic code complex DYN3D-ATHLET are described. Two benchmark problems concerning hypothetical accident scenarios with leaks in the steam system for a VVER-440 type reactor and the TMI-1 PWR have been solved. The first benchmark task has been defined by FZR in the frame of the international association "Atomic Energy Research" (AER), the second exercise has been organised under the auspices of the OECD. While ...

  13. Urinary Liver-Type Fatty Acid–Binding Protein and Progression of Diabetic Nephropathy in Type 1 Diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Panduru, Nicolae M; Forsblom, Carol; Saraheimo, Markku; Thorn, Lena; Bierhaus, Angelika; Humpert, Per M.; Groop, Per-Henrik; ,

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Diabetic nephropathy (DN) has mainly been considered a glomerular disease, although tubular dysfunction may also play a role. This study assessed the predictive value for progression of a tubular marker, urinary liver-type fatty acid–binding protein (L-FABP), at all stages of DN. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS At baseline, 1,549 patients with type 1 diabetes had an albumin excretion rate (AER) within normal reference ranges, 334 had microalbuminuria, and 363 had macroalbuminuria. Patie...

  14. Predicting how People Play Games: a Simple Dynamic Model of Choice.

    OpenAIRE

    Sarin, R.; Vahid, F.

    1999-01-01

    We use the model developed in Sarin and Vahid (1999, GEB) to explain the experiments reported in Erev and Roth (1998, AER). The model supposes that players maximize subject to their "beliefs" which are non-probabilistic and scalar-valued. They are intended to describe the payoffs the players subjectively assess they will obtain from a strategy. In an earlier paper (Sarin and Vahid (1997) we showed that the model predicted behaviour in repeated coordination games remarkably well, and better th...

  15. Consumer Confidence, News and Consumption Stimulation

    OpenAIRE

    Guo, Xinqiang; Xu, Zhiwei

    2009-01-01

    In the Chinese urban data, there is a stronger relationship between consumer behavior (measured by consumption income ratio or cy ratio) and consumer confidence (measured by Consumer Confidence Index or CCI), which implies expectation about the future plays an important role in domestic demand. In our paper, a structural VAR method (based on Beaudry&Portier 2006 AER) is employed to identify the news shock about three markets including housing, education and medical care. We also extract the c...

  16. A comprehensive test specification for pulse fission counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The following test specification is based on the memorandum AERE - M 728 which it now replaces It contains a standard acceptance test procedure for the many U.K.A.E.A, designed pulse fission counters now commercially available. This test specification may be used for any pulse fission counter provided a specification sheet as shown in Appendix 3 is supplied to the contractor quoting this report and including specified values for the measured quantities. (author)

  17. Underreporting of Hemorrhagic and Thrombotic Complications of Pharmaceuticals to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration: Empirical Findings for Warfarin, Clopidogrel, Ticlopidine, and Thalidomide from the Southern Network on Adverse Reactions (SONAR)

    OpenAIRE

    Moore, Thomas J.; Bennett, Charles L.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Food and Drug Administration's (FDA) Adverse Event Reporting System (AERS), familiarly known as “MedWatch,” is the nation's primary tool for postmarket pharmaceutical safety surveillance. This system relies on adverse events voluntarily reported by health care providers and consumers either directly to the FDA or to drug manufacturers, which are required to prepare and forward the information to the agency. Little is known about how frequently adverse events are reported. Previous es...

  18. Širdies ir kraujagyslių sistemos funkcinių rodiklių kaita paros ir aerobikos pratybų metu

    OpenAIRE

    Bardauskienė, Sandra

    2005-01-01

    Dynamics of cardiovascular indices during the 24 hours and exercise training session in aerobics SUMMARY Objects: The aim of this study was to assess the peculiarities in functioning of cardiovascular system during 24 hours and aerobic exercise session. Goals: 1) to monitor the functioning of cardiovascular system during 24 hours. 2) to assess the dynamic of ECG parameters during 24 hours and aerobic exercise. 3) to compare the variability of ECG parameters during 24 hours and aer...

  19. Annual Energy Review 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fichman, Barbara T. [USDOE Energy Information Administration (EIA), Washington, DC (United States)

    2010-08-01

    The Annual Energy Review (AER) is the U.S. Energy Information Administration's (EIA) primary report of annual historical energy statistics. For many series, data begin with the year 1949. Included are statistics on total energy production, consumption, trade, and energy prices; overviews of petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, nuclear energy, renewable energy, and international energy; financial and environment indicators; and data unit conversions. Publication of this report is required under Public Law 95–91 (Department of Energy Organization Act), Section 205(c), and is in keeping with responsibilities given to the EIA under Section 205(a)(2), which states: “The Administrator shall be responsible for carrying out a central, comprehensive, and unified energy data and information program which will collect, evaluate, assemble, analyze, and disseminate data and information....” The AER is intended for use by Members of Congress, Federal and State agencies, energy analysts, and the general public. EIA welcomes suggestions from readers regarding the content of the AER and other EIA publications.

  20. Annual Energy Review 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fichman, Barbara T. [USDOE Energy Information Administration (EIA), Washington, DC (United States)

    2012-09-01

    The Annual Energy Review (AER) is the U.S. Energy Information Administration's (EIA) primary report of annual historical energy statistics. For many series, data begin with the year 1949. Included are statistics on total energy production, consumption, trade, and energy prices; overviews of petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, nuclear energy, and renewable energy; financial and environment indicators; and data unit conversions. Publication of this report is required under Public Law 95–91 (Department of Energy Organization Act), Section 205(c), and is in keeping with responsibilities given to the EIA under Section 205(a)(2), which states: “The Administrator shall be responsible for carrying out a central, comprehensive, and unified energy data and information program which will collect, evaluate, assemble, analyze, and disseminate data and information....” The AER is intended for use by Members of Congress, Federal and State agencies, energy analysts, and the general public. EIA welcomes suggestions from readers regarding the content of the AER and other EIA publications.

  1. Indoor environmental quality in French dwellings and building characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langer, Sarka; Ramalho, Olivier; Derbez, Mickaël; Ribéron, Jacques; Kirchner, Severine; Mandin, Corinne

    2016-03-01

    A national survey on indoor environmental quality covering 567 residences in mainland France was performed during 2003-2005. The measured parameters were temperature, relative humidity, CO2, and the indoor air pollutants: fourteen individual volatile organic compounds (VOC), four aldehydes and particulate matter PM10 and PM2.5. The measured indoor concentrations were analyzed for correlations with the building characteristics: type of dwelling, period of construction, dwelling location, type of ventilation system, building material, attached garage and retrofitting. The median night time air exchange rate (AER) for all dwellings was 0.44 h-1. The night time AER was higher in apartments (median = 0.49 h-1) than in single-family houses (median = 0.41 h-1). Concentration of formaldehyde was approximately 30% higher in dwellings built after 1990 compared with older ones; it was higher in dwellings with mechanical ventilation and in concrete buildings. The VOC concentrations depended on the building characteristics to various extents. The sampling season influenced the majority of the indoor climate parameters and the concentrations of the air pollutants to a higher degree than the building characteristics. Multivariate linear regression models revealed that the indoor-outdoor difference in specific humidity, a proxy for number of occupants and their indoor activities, remained a significant predictor for most gaseous and particulate air pollutants. The other strong predictors were outdoor concentration, smoking, attached garage and AER (in descending order).

  2. Incidence and identification of mesophilic Aeromonas spp. from retail foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neyts, K; Huys, G; Uyttendaele, M; Swings, J; Debevere, J

    2000-11-01

    Sixty-eight food samples were examined for the presence of mesophilic Aeromonas species both qualitatively and quantitatively. Aeromonads were isolated from 26% of the vegetable samples, 70% of the meat and poultry samples and 72% of the fish and shrimps. Numbers of motile aeromonads present in the food samples varied from 10(5) cfu g(-1). GLC analysis of FAMEs was used to identify a selection of presumptive Aeromonas colonies to fenospecies or genomic species level. Aeromonas strains belonging to the Aer. caviae complex, which also includes the potentially pathogenic genospecies HG4, were mostly isolated from vegetables but were also found in meat, poultry and fish. In addition, three strains of the virulent taxon Aer. veronii biovar sobria HG8 were isolated from poultry and minced meat. All members of the Aer. hydrophila complex, predominant in the fish, meat and poultry samples, were classified in the non-virulent taxon HG3. Although the significance of Aeromonas in foods remains undefined, the isolation of Aeromonas HG4 and HG8 strains from a variety of retail foods may indicate that these products can act as possible vehicles for the dissemination of food-borne Aeromonas gastroenteritis. PMID:11069637

  3. Annual Energy Review 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-07-14

    This twelfth edition of the Annual Energy Review (AER) presents the Energy Information Administration`s historical energy statistics. For most series, statistics are given for every year from 1949 through 1993. Because coverage spans four and a half decades, the statistics in this report are well-suited to long-term trend analyses. The AER is comprehensive. It covers all major energy activities, including consumption, production, trade, stocks, and prices, for all major energy commodities, including fossil fuels and electricity. The AER also presents Energy Information Administration (EIA) statistics on some renewable energy sources. EIA estimates that its consumption series include about half of the renewable energy used in the United States. For a more complete discussion of EIA`s renewables data, see p. xix, ``Introducing Expanded Coverage of Renewable Energy Data Into the Historical Consumption Series.`` Copies of the 1993 edition of the Annual Energy Review may be obtained by using the order form in the back of this publication. Most of the data in the 1993 edition also are available on personal computer diskette. For more information about the diskettes, see the back of this publication. In addition, the data are available as part of the National Economic, Social, and Environmental Data Bank on a CD-ROM. For more information about the data bank, contact the US Department of Commerce Economics and Statistics Administration, on 202-482-1986.

  4. Acoustically enhanced remediation of contaminated soils and ground water. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-10-01

    The Phase 1 laboratory bench-scale investigation results have shown that acoustically enhanced remediation (AER) technology can significantly accelerate the ground water remediation of non-aqueous phase liquids (NAPLs) in unconsolidated soils. The testing also determined some of the acoustic parameters which maximize fluid and contaminant extraction rates. A technology merit and trade analysis identified the conditions under which AER could be successfully deployed in the field, and an analysis of existing acoustical sources and varying methods for their deployment found that AER technology can be successfully deployed in-situ. Current estimates of deployability indicate that a NAPL plume 150 ft in diameter can be readily remediated. This program focused on unconsolidated soils because of the large number of remediation sites located in this type of hydrogeologic setting throughout the nation. It also focused on NAPLs and low permeability soil because of the inherent difficult in the remediation of NAPLs and the significant time and cost impact caused by contaminated low permeability soils. This overall program is recommended for Phase 2 which will address the technology scaling requirements for a field scale test.

  5. Collaborative Research: The Influence of Cloud Microphysics and Radiation on the Response of Water Vapor and Clouds to Climate Change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Kerry Emanuel; Michael J. Iacono

    2011-06-28

    Uncertainties in representing the atmospheric water cycle are major obstacles to an accurate prediction of future climate. This project focused on addressing some of these uncertainties by implementing new physics for convection and radiation into the NCAR climate model. To better understand and eventually better represent these processes, we modified CAM3.5 to use the convection and cloud schemes developed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) and the RRTMG rapid radiation code for global models developed by Atmospheric and Environmental Research, Inc. (AER). The impact of the new physics on the CAM3.5 simulation of convection on diurnal and intra-seasonal scales, intra-seasonal oscillations and the distribution of water vapor has been investigated. The effect of the MIT and AER physics also has been tested in the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) regional forecast model. It has been found that the application of the AER radiation and MIT convection produces significant improvements in the modeled diurnal cycle of convection, especially over land, in the NCAR climate model. However, both the standard CAM3.5 (hereinafter STD) and the modified CAM3.5 with the new physics (hereinafter MOD) are still unable to capture the proper spectrum and propagating characteristics of the intra-seasonal oscillations (ISOs). The new physics methods modify, but do not substantially improve, the distribution of upper tropospheric water vapor relative to satellite measurements.

  6. Annual Energy Review 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seiferlein, Katherine E. [USDOE Energy Information Administration (EIA), Washington, DC (United States)

    1998-07-01

    The Annual Energy Review (AER) presents the Energy Information Administration’s historical energy statistics. For many series, statistics are given for every year from 1949 through 1997. The statistics, expressed in either physical units or British thermal units, cover all major energy activities, including consumption, production, trade, stocks, and prices, for all major energy commodities, including fossil fuels, electricity, and renewable energy sources. Publication of this report is in keeping with responsibilities given to the Energy Information Administration (EIA) in Public Law 95–91 (Department of Energy Organization Act), which states, in part, in Section 205(a)(2) that: “The Administrator shall be responsible for carrying out a central, comprehensive, and unified energy data and information program which will collect, evaluate, assemble, analyze, and disseminate data and information....” The AER is intended for use by Members of Congress, Federal and State agencies, energy analysts, and the general public. EIA welcomes suggestions from readers regarding data series in the AER and in other EIA publications.

  7. Annual Energy Review 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seiferlein, Katherine E. [USDOE Energy Information Administration (EIA), Washington, DC (United States)

    2007-06-01

    The Annual Energy Review (AER) is the Energy Information Administration's (EIA) primary report of annual historical energy statistics. For many series, data begin with the year 1949. Included are data on total energy production, consumption, and trade; overviews of petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, nuclear energy, renewable energy, international energy, as well as financial and environment indicators; and data unit conversion tables. Publication of this report is required under Public Law 95–91 (Department of Energy Organization Act), Section 205(c), and is in keeping with responsibilities given to the EIA under Section 205(a)(2), which states: “The Administrator shall be responsible for carrying out a central, comprehensive, and unified energy data and information program which will collect, evaluate, assemble, analyze, and disseminate data and information....” The AER is intended for use by Members of Congress, Federal and State agencies, energy analysts, and the general public. EIA welcomes suggestions from readers regarding data series in the AER and in other EIA publications.

  8. Annual Energy Review 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seiferlein, Katherine E. [USDOE Energy Information Administration (EIA), Washington, DC (United States)

    2006-07-01

    The Annual Energy Review (AER) is the Energy Information Administration's (EIA) primary report of annual historical energy statistics. For many series, data begin with the year 1949. Included are data on total energy production, consumption, and trade; overviews of petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, nuclear energy, renewable energy, international energy, as well as financial and environment indicators; and data unit conversion tables. Publication of this report is required under Public Law 95–91 (Department of Energy Organization Act), Section 205(c), and is in keeping with responsibilities given to the EIA under Section 205(a)(2), which states: “The Administrator shall be responsible for carrying out a central, comprehensive, and unified energy data and information program which will collect, evaluate, assemble, analyze, and disseminate data and information....” The AER is intended for use by Members of Congress, Federal and State agencies, energy analysts, and the general public. EIA welcomes suggestions from readers regarding data series in the AER and in other EIA publications.

  9. Annual Energy Review 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seiferlein, Katherine E. [USDOE Energy Information Administration (EIA), Washington, DC (United States)

    2001-08-01

    The Annual Energy Review (AER) presents the Energy Information Administration’s historical energy statistics. For many series, statistics are given for every year from 1949 through 2000. The statistics, expressed in either physical units or British thermal units, cover all major energy activities, including consumption, production, trade, stocks, and prices, for all major energy commodities, including fossil fuels, electricity, and renewable energy sources. Publication of this report is required under Public Law 95–91 (Department of Energy Organization Act), Section 205(c), and is in keeping with responsibilities given to the Energy Information Administration under Section 205(a)(2), which states: “The Administrator shall be responsible for carrying out a central, comprehensive, and unified energy data and information program which will collect, evaluate, assemble, analyze, and disseminate data and information....” The AER is intended for use by Members of Congress, Federal and State agencies, energy analysts, and the general public. EIA welcomes suggestions from readers regarding data series in the AER and in other EIA publications.

  10. Annual Energy Review 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seiferlein, Katherine E. [USDOE Energy Information Administration (EIA), Washington, DC (United States)

    2005-08-01

    The Annual Energy Review (AER) is the Energy Information Administration's (EIA) primary report of annual historical energy statistics. For many series, data begin with the year 1949. Included are data on total energy production, consumption, and trade; overviews of petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, nuclear energy, renewable energy, international energy, as well as financial and environment indicators; and data unit conversion tables. Publication of this report is required under Public Law 95–91 (Department of Energy Organization Act), Section 205(c), and is in keeping with responsibilities given to the EIA under Section 205(a)(2), which states: “The Administrator shall be responsible for carrying out a central, comprehensive, and unified energy data and information program which will collect, evaluate, assemble, analyze, and disseminate data and information....” The AER is intended for use by Members of Congress, Federal and State agencies energy analysts, and the general public. EIA welcomes suggestions from readers regarding data series in the AER and in other EIA publications.

  11. Mixed-effects Poisson regression analysis of adverse event reports: the relationship between antidepressants and suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbons, Robert D; Segawa, Eisuke; Karabatsos, George; Amatya, Anup K; Bhaumik, Dulal K; Brown, C Hendricks; Kapur, Kush; Marcus, Sue M; Hur, Kwan; Mann, J John

    2008-05-20

    A new statistical methodology is developed for the analysis of spontaneous adverse event (AE) reports from post-marketing drug surveillance data. The method involves both empirical Bayes (EB) and fully Bayes estimation of rate multipliers for each drug within a class of drugs, for a particular AE, based on a mixed-effects Poisson regression model. Both parametric and semiparametric models for the random-effect distribution are examined. The method is applied to data from Food and Drug Administration (FDA)'s Adverse Event Reporting System (AERS) on the relationship between antidepressants and suicide. We obtain point estimates and 95 per cent confidence (posterior) intervals for the rate multiplier for each drug (e.g. antidepressants), which can be used to determine whether a particular drug has an increased risk of association with a particular AE (e.g. suicide). Confidence (posterior) intervals that do not include 1.0 provide evidence for either significant protective or harmful associations of the drug and the adverse effect. We also examine EB, parametric Bayes, and semiparametric Bayes estimators of the rate multipliers and associated confidence (posterior) intervals. Results of our analysis of the FDA AERS data revealed that newer antidepressants are associated with lower rates of suicide adverse event reports compared with older antidepressants. We recommend improvements to the existing AERS system, which are likely to improve its public health value as an early warning system. PMID:18404622

  12. A comparative study between all-electron scalar relativistic calculation and all-electron calculation on the adsorption of hydrogen molecule onto small gold clusters

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Xiang-Jun Kuang; Xin-Qiang Wang; Gao-Bin Liu

    2013-03-01

    A comparative study between all-electron relativistic (AER) calculation and all-electron (AE) calculation on the H2 molecule adsorption onto small gold clusters has been performed. Compared with the corresponding AuH2 cluster obtained by AE method, the AuH2 cluster obtained by AER method has much shorter Au-H bond-length, much longer H-H distance, larger binding energy and adsorption energy, higher vertical ionization potentials (VIP), greater charge transfer, higher vibrational frequency of Au-H mode and lower vibrational frequency of H-H mode. The delocalization of the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) and the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) for AuH2 cluster obtained by AER method is obvious. All these characteristics suggest that the scalar relativistic effect might strengthen the Au-H bond and weaken the H-H bond. It is believed that the scalar relativistic effect is favourable to the H2 molecule adsorption onto small gold cluster and the reactivity enhancement of H2 molecule. It may be one of the reasons why the dissociative adsorptions take place in some AuH2 clusters. With increasing size of AuH2 clusters, the influence of scalar relativistic effect becomes more significant. Some further studies focused on the influence of scalar relativistic effect on the adsorption behaviour of other small molecules onto gold clusters are necessary in the future.

  13. Modeling Population Exposures to Pollutants Emitted from Natural Gas Cooking Burners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lobscheid, Agnes; Singer, Brett C.; Klepeis, Neil E.

    2011-06-01

    We developed a physics-based data-supported model to investigate indoor pollutant exposure distributions resulting from use of natural gas cooking appliances across households in California. The model was applied to calculate time-resolved indoor concentrations of CO, NO2 and formaldehyde resulting from cooking burners and entry with outdoor air. Exposure metrics include 1-week average concentrations and frequency of exceeding ambient air quality standards. We present model results for Southern California (SoCal) using two air-exchange scenarios in winter: (1) infiltration-only, and (2) air exchange rate (AER) sampled from lognormal distributions derived from measurements. In roughly 40percent of homes in the SoCal cohort (N=6634) the 1-hour USEPA NO2 standard (190 ?g/m3) was exceeded at least once. The frequency of exceeding this standard was largely independent of AER assumption, and related primarily to building volume, emission rate and amount of burner use. As expected, AER had a more substantial impact on one-week average concentrations.

  14. High pressure air jet in the endoscopic preparation room: risk of noise exposure on occupational health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, King-Wah; Lu, Lung-Sheng; Wu, Cheng-Kun

    2015-01-01

    After high-level disinfection of gastrointestinal endoscopes, they are hung to dry in order to prevent residual water droplets impact on patient health. To allow for quick drying and clinical reuse, some endoscopic units use a high pressure air jet (HPAJ) to remove the water droplets on the endoscopes. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the excessive noise exposure with the use of HPAJ in endoscopic preparation room and to investigate the risk to occupational health. Noise assessment was taken during 7 automatic endoscopic reprocessors (AERs) and combined with/without HPAJ use over an 8-hour time-weighted average (TWA). Analytical procedures of the NIOSH and the ISO for noise-induced hearing loss were estimated to develop analytic models. The peak of the noise spectrum of combined HPAJ and 7 AERs was significantly higher than that of the 7 AERs alone (108.3 ± 1.36 versus 69.3 ± 3.93 dBA, P  2.5 dB) was 2.15% at 90 dBA, 11.6% at 95 dBA, and 51.3% at 100 dBA. The odds ratio was 49.1 (95% CI: 11.9 to 203.6). The noise generated by the HPAJ to work over TWA seriously affected the occupational health and safety of those working in an endoscopic preparation room. PMID:25710009

  15. Characterization of CetA and CetB, a bipartite energy taxis system in Campylobacter jejuni.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Kathryn T; Dirita, Victor J

    2008-09-01

    The energy taxis receptor Aer, in Escherichia coli, senses changes in the redox state of the electron transport system via an flavin adenine dinucleotide cofactor bound to a PAS domain. The PAS domain (a sensory domain named after three proteins Per, ARNT and Sim, where it was first identified) is thought to interact directly with the Aer HAMP domain to transmit this signal to the highly conserved domain (HCD) found in chemotaxis receptors. An apparent energy taxis system in Campylobacter jejuni is composed of two proteins, CetA and CetB, that have the domains of Aer divided between them. CetB has a PAS domain, while CetA has a predicted transmembrane region, HAMP domain and the HCD. In this study, we examined the expression of cetA and cetB and the biochemical properties of the proteins they encode. cetA and cetB are co-transcribed independently of the flagellar regulon. CetA has two transmembrane helices in a helical hairpin while CetB is a peripheral membrane protein tightly associated with the membrane. CetB levels are CetA dependent. Additionally, we demonstrated that both CetA and CetB participate in complexes, including a likely CetB dimer and a complex that may include both CetA and CetB. This study provides a foundation for further characterization of signal transduction mechanisms within CetA/CetB. PMID:18631239

  16. Comparação dos métodos de Atenuação de Energia Radiante e Titulométrico para a determinação de Etanol no sangue - DOI: 10.4025/actascihealthsci.v25i2.2165 A comparison of Radiative Energy Attenuation and Titrimetric methods for the analysis of ethanol in blood - DOI: 10.4025/actascihealthsci.v25i2.2165

    OpenAIRE

    Miguel Machinski Junior; Paula Nishiyama

    2003-01-01

    A determinação de álcool no sangue foi avaliada através da comparação de duas técnicas analíticas, o método de atenuação de energia radiante (AER) e o método titulométrico (TIT). A sensibilidade do AER foi de 0,4g/L e por TIT de 0,1g/L. A curva padrão de etanol foi linear até 2,5g/L e 4,0g/L para os métodos AER e TIT, respectivamente. O coeficiente de variação intra-série foi de 1,5% a 3,9% e de 0,6% a 3,2%, sendo que o coeficiente de variação inter-série foi de 2,5% a 12,8% e de 0% a 3,3% pa...

  17. ''FULL-CORE'' VVER-440 calculation benchmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Because of the difficulties with experimental validation of power distribution predicted by macro-code on the pin by pin level we decided to prepare a calculation benchmark named ''FULL-CORE'' VVER-440. This benchmark is a two-dimensional (2D) calculation benchmark based on the VVER-440 reactor core cold state geometry with taking into account the geometry of explicit radial reflector. The main task of this benchmark is to test the pin by pin power distribution in fuel assemblies predicted by macro-codes that are used for neutron-physics calculations especially for VVER-440 reactors. The proposal of this benchmark was presented at the 21st Symposium of AER in 2011. The reference solution has been calculated by MCNP code using Monte Carlo method and the results have been published in the AER community. The results of reference calculation were presented at the 22nd Symposium of AER in 2012. In this paper we will compare the available macro-codes results of this calculation benchmark.

  18. Molecular detection of enterotoxins in environmental strains of Aeromonas hydrophila and Aeromonas jandaei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balsalobre, L C; Dropa, M; Matté, G R; Matté, M H

    2009-12-01

    Aeromonas species are widely distributed in aquatic environments and recent studies include the genus in the emergent pathogens group because of its frequent association with local and systemic infections in immunocompetent humans. Aiming to search for virulence genes in environmental strains of Aeromonas hydrophila and Aeromonas jandaei, we designed specific primers to detect act/hlyA/aer complex and alt genes. Primers described elsewhere were used to detect ast. Eighty-seven strains previously identified using phenotypic and genotypic tests as A. hydrophila (41) and A. jandaei (46) were analysed for the presence of the virulence genes using PCR. DNA fragments of expected size were purified and directly sequenced. Among the 41 strains of A. hydrophila 70.7% (29), 97.6% (40) and 26.8% (11) possessed act/hlyA/aer complex, ast and alt genes, respectively. Among the 46 strains of A. jandaei, 4.4% (2), 0% (0) and 32.6% (15) were positive for act/hly A/aer complex, ast and alt genes, respectively. Sequencing allowed for the confirmation of amplified products using BLAST. The present work proposes a specific and rapid diagnostic method to detect the main virulence determinants of Aeromonas, a genus potentially pathogenic to humans. PMID:19590136

  19. The effects of air stoichiometry and air excess ratio on the transient response of a PEMFC under load change conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Effects of controlling parameters on the transient response of a PEMFC are studied. • The transient response is measured by varying air stoichiometry and air excess ratio. • Voltage drop, undershoot, and voltage fluctuation are analyzed under the load change. • Optimal air stoichiometry and air excess ratio are suggested for stable operation. - Abstract: The transient response of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) is an important issue for transportation applications. The objective of this study is to investigate the effects of operating and controlling parameters on the transient response of a PEMFC for achieving more stable cell performance under load change conditions. The transient response of a PEMFC was measured and analyzed by varying air stoichiometry, air humidity, and air excess ratio (AER). The optimal air stoichiometry and AER were determined to minimize the voltage drop, undershoot, and voltage fluctuation under the load change, while maintaining high cell performance. Based on the present data, the optimal air stoichiometry was determined to be between 2.0 and 2.5, and the optimal AER was suggested to be between 1.65 and 2.0

  20. Training intensities for aerobic exercise determined on untrained healthy men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miura,Mochiyoshi

    1995-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine the aerobic training intensity from the maximal and submaximal running exercise in 21 untrained adult men. To accomplish this, we evaluated the relationship between physiological (oxygen intake and heart rate and physical parameters (running speed of training intensity, and determined the training intensity at the submaximal exercise. Oxygen intake and heart rate were measured by a treadmill test. The maximal oxygen intake (VO2 max, and the aerobic threshold (AerT and anaerobic threshold (AT were measured to determine respiratory gas exchange. Running capacity was measured by a 12-min running and treadmill test. For the maximal exercise, there was a significant correlation (r = 0.88, P < 0.01 between VO2 max and 12-min running distance (speed. In addition, the oxygen intake and heart rate at AerT and AT in the submaximal exercise were linearly correlated with running speed. Three levels of training intensity at the submaximal exercise were termed: light, moderate, and heavy. Since AerT was the lower limit intensity and AT was the upper limit, we took the middle of their values as the moderate intensity. The end point for the determination of the training intensity at the submaximal exercise was estimated to be 85% VO2 max and 180 beats.min-1.

  1. Network regulation and regulatory institutional reform: Revisiting the case of Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is well-understood that the success of liberalizing the electricity supply industry depends crucially on the quality and design of the regulatory and institutional framework. This paper analyses the regulatory arrangements that underpin the work of the Australian Energy Regulator (AER). These arrangements are contrasted with the regulatory structure of electricity provision in Norway. A key difference between the reform processes in the two countries relates to the lack of privatization in Norway and the co-existence of private and publicly owned generators and distributors in Australia. This comparative analysis allows us to make several recommendations to improve regulatory arrangements in Australia. These include greater independence for the AER, better coordination among regulatory institutions, greater use of benchmarking analysis, greater customer involvement, and improving market transparency and privatization of government-owned corporations. However, the success of privatization will hinge upon the effectiveness of the regulatory environment. - Highlights: • Rising electricity prices and network costs is of great concern in Australia. • Flaws in the existing regulatory environment and economic efficiency exist. • The AER should be provided with adequate resources (financial and staff experts) and discretion. • Robust benchmarking techniques should be adopted in the incentive regulation framework for cost efficiency. • Privatization of the state-owned assets also remains an option

  2. Detection and distribution of putative virulence associated genes in Aeromonas species from freshwater and wastewater treatment plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igbinosa, Isoken H; Okoh, Anthony I

    2013-11-01

    The detection of genes responsible for Aeromonas virulence is a vital tool in establishing the potential pathogenicity of the bacteria, as these virulence genes may act alone or in synergy in the establishment of infections. Freshwater and wastewater mixed liquor samples were collected from Kat river and Fort Beaufort wastewater treatment plant in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa. Polymerase chain reaction was utilized for the amplification of the different genes coding for virulence. All virulence associated genes screened (alt, lip, fla, aer, ast, hlyA) were detected in at least one Aeromonas isolates. In fresh water sample, virulence genes were distributed as follows: lip (67%), aer (43%), alt (33%), fla (62%), ast (10%), and hlyA (86%), while in wastewater samples the occurrence were as follows: lip (92%), aer (21%), alt (54%), fla (83%), ast (29%), and hlyA (88%). The presence of these virulence genes in environmental Aeromonas isolates is of concern to public health as these organisms are potential pathogens in the environment and the virulence determinants could be transferred to aquatic organisms and humans by one mechanism or the other. PMID:23322604

  3. Annual Energy Review 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This twelfth edition of the Annual Energy Review (AER) presents the Energy Information Administration's historical energy statistics. For most series, statistics are given for every year from 1949 through 1993. Because coverage spans four and a half decades, the statistics in this report are well-suited to long-term trend analyses. The AER is comprehensive. It covers all major energy activities, including consumption, production, trade, stocks, and prices, for all major energy commodities, including fossil fuels and electricity. The AER also presents Energy Information Administration (EIA) statistics on some renewable energy sources. EIA estimates that its consumption series include about half of the renewable energy used in the United States. For a more complete discussion of EIA's renewables data, see p. xix, ''Introducing Expanded Coverage of Renewable Energy Data Into the Historical Consumption Series.'' Copies of the 1993 edition of the Annual Energy Review may be obtained by using the order form in the back of this publication. Most of the data in the 1993 edition also are available on personal computer diskette. For more information about the diskettes, see the back of this publication. In addition, the data are available as part of the National Economic, Social, and Environmental Data Bank on a CD-ROM. For more information about the data bank, contact the US Department of Commerce Economics and Statistics Administration, on 202-482-1986

  4. Dynamic time warping in phoneme modeling for fast pronunciation error detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miodonska, Zuzanna; Bugdol, Marcin D; Krecichwost, Michal

    2016-02-01

    The presented paper describes a novel approach to the detection of pronunciation errors. It makes use of the modeling of well-pronounced and mispronounced phonemes by means of the Dynamic Time Warping (DTW) algorithm. Four approaches that make use of the DTW phoneme modeling were developed to detect pronunciation errors: Variations of the Word Structure (VoWS), Normalized Phoneme Distances Thresholding (NPDT), Furthest Segment Search (FSS) and Normalized Furthest Segment Search (NFSS). The performance evaluation of each module was carried out using a speech database of correctly and incorrectly pronounced words in the Polish language, with up to 10 patterns of every trained word from a set of 12 words having different phonetic structures. The performance of DTW modeling was compared to Hidden Markov Models (HMM) that were used for the same four approaches (VoWS, NPDT, FSS, NFSS). The average error rate (AER) was the lowest for DTW with NPDT (AER=0.287) and scored better than HMM with FSS (AER=0.473), which was the best result for HMM. The DTW modeling was faster than HMM for all four approaches. This technique can be used for computer-assisted pronunciation training systems that can work with a relatively small training speech corpus (less than 20 patterns per word) to support speech therapy at home. PMID:26739104

  5. Effect of burnup history by moderator density on neutron-physical characteristics of WWER-1000 core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results of assessment of burnup history effect by moderator density on neutron physical characteristics of WWER-1000 core are presented on example of stationary fuel loading with Russian design fuel assembly TWSA and AER benchmark for Khmelnitsky NPP that was proposed by TUV and SSTC NRC at nineteenth symposium. Assessment was performed by DYN3D code and cross section library sets generated by HELIOS code. Burnup history was taken into account by preparing of numerous cross section sets with different isotopic composition each of which was obtained by burning under different moderator density. For analysis of history effect 20 cross section sets were prepared for each fuel assembly corresponded to each of 20 axial layers of reactor core model for DYN3D code. Four fuel cycles were modeled both for stationary fuel loading with TWSA and AER benchmark for Khmelnitsky NPP to obtain steady value of error due to neglect of burnup history effect. Main attention of study was paid to effect of burnup history by moderator density to axial power distribution. Results of study for AER benchmark were compared with experimental values of axial power distribution for fuel assemblies of first, second, third and fourth year operation. (Authors)

  6. Early Urinary Markers of Diabetic Kidney Disease: A Nested Case-Control Study From the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern, Elizabeth O; Erhard, Penny; Sun, Wanjie; Genuth, Saul; Weiss, Miriam F

    2010-01-01

    Background Urinary markers were tested as predictors of macroalbuminuria or microalbuminuria in type 1 diabetes. Study Design Nested case:control of participants in the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT) Setting & Participants Eighty-seven cases of microalbuminuria were matched to 174 controls in a 1:2 ratio, while 4 cases were matched to 4 controls in a 1:1 ratio, resulting in 91 cases and 178 controls for microalbuminuria. Fifty-five cases of macroalbuminuria were matched to 110 controls in a 1:2 ratio. Controls were free of micro/macroalbuminuria when their matching case first developed micro/macroalbuminuria. Predictors Urinary N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase, pentosidine, AGE fluorescence, albumin excretion rate (AER) Outcomes Incident microalbuminuria (two consecutive annual AER > 40 but 300 mg/day) Measurements Stored urine samples from DCCT entry, and 1–9 years later when macroalbuminuria or microalbuminuria occurred, were measured for the lysosomal enzyme, N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase, and the advanced glycosylation end-products (AGEs) pentosidine and AGE-fluorescence. AER and adjustor variables were obtained from the DCCT. Results Sub-microalbuminuric levels of AER at baseline independently predicted microalbuminuria (adjusted OR 1.83; p<.001) and macroalbuminuria (adjusted OR 1.82; p<.001). Baseline N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase independently predicted macroalbuminuria (adjusted OR 2.26; p<.001), and microalbuminuria (adjusted OR 1.86; p<.001). Baseline pentosidine predicted macroalbuminuria (adjusted OR 6.89; p=.002). Baseline AGE fluorescence predicted microalbuminuria (adjusted OR 1.68; p=.02). However, adjusted for N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase, pentosidine and AGE-fluorescence lost predictive association with macroalbuminuria and microalbuminuria, respectively. Limitations Use of angiotensin converting-enzyme inhibitors was not directly ascertained, although their use was proscribed during the DCCT. Conclusions Early in type 1 diabetes

  7. Comparação dos métodos de Atenuação de Energia Radiante e Titulométrico para a determinação de Etanol no sangue - DOI: 10.4025/actascihealthsci.v25i2.2165 A comparison of Radiative Energy Attenuation and Titrimetric methods for the analysis of ethanol in blood - DOI: 10.4025/actascihealthsci.v25i2.2165

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Machinski Junior

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available A determinação de álcool no sangue foi avaliada através da comparação de duas técnicas analíticas, o método de atenuação de energia radiante (AER e o método titulométrico (TIT. A sensibilidade do AER foi de 0,4g/L e por TIT de 0,1g/L. A curva padrão de etanol foi linear até 2,5g/L e 4,0g/L para os métodos AER e TIT, respectivamente. O coeficiente de variação intra-série foi de 1,5% a 3,9% e de 0,6% a 3,2%, sendo que o coeficiente de variação inter-série foi de 2,5% a 12,8% e de 0% a 3,3% para os métodos AER e TIT, respectivamente. Os testes de recuperação apresentaram os seguintes resultados, 105% para o método AER e 88% para o método TIT. Em 70 amostras estudadas, o coeficiente de correlação (r foi de 0,9681 e o resultado do teste-t de Student foi de -1,294, demonstrando que os métodos se correlacionam bem.The alcohol determination in the blood was evaluated through the comparison of two analytical techniques, the method of radiative energy attenuation (REA and the chemical titration method (TIT. The sensibility of REA was 0.4g/L and of TIT was 0.1g/L. The curve standard of etanol was linear up to 2.5g/L and 4.0g/L for methods REA and TIT, respectively. The coefficient of variation was 1.5% to 3.9% and 0.6% to 3.2% in the same day, and day-to-day coefficient of variation was 2.5% to 12.8% and 0% to 3.3% for methods REA and TIT, respectively. The tests of recovery presented the following results, 105% for REA and 88% for TIT. In 70 studied samples, the coefficient of correlation (r was 0,9681 and the result of the test-t of Student was -1,294.

  8. Pallidal Deep Brain Stimulation Improves Higher Control of the Oculomotor System in Parkinson's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoniades, Chrystalina A; Rebelo, Pedro; Kennard, Christopher; Aziz, Tipu Z; Green, Alexander L; FitzGerald, James J

    2015-09-23

    The frontal cortex and basal ganglia form a set of parallel but mostly segregated circuits called cortico-basal ganglia loops. The oculomotor loop controls eye movements and can direct relatively simple movements, such as reflexive prosaccades, without external help but needs input from "higher" loops for more complex behaviors. The antisaccade task requires the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, which is part of the prefrontal loop. Information flows from prefrontal to oculomotor circuits in the striatum, and directional errors in this task can be considered a measure of failure of prefrontal control over the oculomotor loop. The antisaccadic error rate (AER) is increased in Parkinson's disease (PD). Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) has no effect on the AER, but a previous case suggested that DBS of the globus pallidus interna (GPi) might. Our aim was to compare the effects of STN DBS and GPi DBS on the AER. We tested eye movements in 14 human DBS patients and 10 controls. GPi DBS substantially reduced the AER, restoring lost higher control over oculomotor function. Interloop information flow involves striatal neurons that receive cortical input and project to pallidum. They are normally silent when quiescent, but in PD they fire randomly, creating noise that may account for the degradation in interloop control. The reduced AER with GPi DBS could be explained by retrograde stimulation of striatopallidal axons with consequent activation of inhibitory collaterals and reduction in background striatal firing rates. This study may help explain aspects of PD pathophysiology and the mechanism of action of GPi DBS. Significance statement: Parkinson's disease causes symptoms including stiffness, slowness of movement, and tremor. Electrical stimulation of specific areas deep in the brain can effectively treat these symptoms, but exactly how is not fully understood. Part of the cause of such symptoms may be impairments in the way information flows

  9. Are Medications Involved in Vision and Intracrancial Pressure Changes Seen in Spaceflight?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faust, K. M.; Wotring, V. E.

    2014-01-01

    The Food and Drug Association Adverse Event Reports (FDA AER) from 2009-2011 were used to create a database from millions of known and suspected medication-related adverse events among the general public. Vision changes, sometimes associated with intracranial pressure changes (VIIP), have been noted in some long duration crewmembers. Changes in vision and blood pressure (which can subsequently affect intracranial pressure) are fairly common side effects of medications. The purpose of this study was to explore the possibility of medication involvement in crew VIIP symptoms. Reports of suspected medication-related adverse events may be filed with the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) by medical professionals or consumers. Quarterly compilations of these reports are available for public download. Adverse Event Reporting System (AERS) reports from 1/1/2009- 6/30/2012 were downloaded and compiled into a searchable database for this study. Reports involving individuals under the age of 18 and older than 65 were excluded from this analysis. Case reports involving chronic diseases such as cancer, diabetes, multiple sclerosis and other serious conditions were also excluded. A scan of the medical literature for medication-related VIIP-like adverse events was used to create a list of suspect medications. These medications, as well as certain medications used frequently by ISS crew, were used to query the database. Queries for use of suspected medications were run, and the nature of the symptoms reported in those cases were tabulated. Symptoms searched in the FDA AERS were chosen to include the typical symptoms noted in crewmembers with VIIP. Vision symptoms searched were: visual acuity reduced, visual impairment, and vitreous floaters. Pressure changes included: abnormal sensation in eye, intracranial pressure increased, intraocular pressure increased, optic neuritis, optic neuropathy, and papilloedema. Limited demographic information is included with the FDA AERS; relevant

  10. 有氧运动加弹力带对正常高值血压人群血压及心血管病危险因素的干预

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖瑄; 刘锋; 张亚星; 叶晓琴; 李彬

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨有氧运动和弹力带对正常高值血压人群血压及心血管病危险因素的影响。方法120例正常高值血压人群随机分为对照组、有氧运动组( AER )和有氧运动加弹力带组( AER+RES ),分别于运动前、运动后24周测量两组身高、体质量、血压( SBP、DBP )、总胆固醇( TC )、三酰甘油( TG )、高密度脂蛋白胆固醇( HDL-C )、低密度脂蛋白胆固醇( LDL-C )、空腹血糖( FPG )、高敏C反应蛋白(hs-CRP)。结果 AER组和AER+RES组SBP、DBP、TG、FPG、hs-CRP较干预前及对照组均有下降,HDL-C升高(P<0.05);AER+RES组DBP、FPG、hs-CRP较AER组显著下降,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。而对照组实验前后各指标差异均无统计学意义。结论正常高值血压人群通过24周的有氧运动加弹力带抗阻练习,在血压下降的同时,各种心血管病危险因素也得到控制,表明有氧运动加抗阻练习对预防原发性高血压病及其并发症的发生起到重要作用。%Objective To investigate the effect of aerobic exercise and elastic strap on blood pressure and cardiovascular disease risk fac-tors am ong people w ith high-norm al blood pressure.Methods 120 people w ith high-norm al blood pressure w ere random ly divided into con-trol group ,aerobic exercise group (AER )and aerobic exercise com bined elastic strap group (AER+RES ),and the items such as height,body mass index(BMI),blood pressure(SBP,DBP),total cholesterol(TC),triglyceride(TG),high density lipoprotein cholesterol(HDL-C),low density lipoprotein cholesterin(LDL-C),fasting plasma glucose(FPG),and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein(hs-CRP)were measured before andafte r24weeksexercise intervention.Results Thevalues of SBP,DBP,TG,FPG,andhs-CRPoftheAER group and the AER+RES group decreased com pared to those before the intervention and those of the control group ,w hile the value of HDL-C increased (P<0 .05 ). ThevaluesofDBP、FPG、hs-CRPoftheAER+RESgroupsignificantlyreducedcompardwiththeAER

  11. Effects of quorum sensing system lasR/rhlR gene on the expression of Foxp3, TGF-β1 and IL-10 of lung tissue in tracheal intubation model rat with Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing-qing XIANG

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective  To investigate the effects of lasR/rhlR gene on Foxp3, TGF-β1 and IL-10 of lung tissue in rat tracheal intubation model with biofilm infection of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Ps. aer wild strain (PAO1 and quorum sensing (QS deficient strain (ΔlasRΔrhlR. Methods  Twenty-one SD rats were randomly assigned into 3 groups (7 each: ΔlasRΔrhlR-treated group, PAO1-treated group and sterile control group. Biofilms (BF were cultured in vitro, and the BF coated tube (infected respectively with Ps. aer PAO1 strain, ΔlasRΔrhlR strain, or with asepsis was inserted into the trachea to establish the rat model. The rats were sacrificed on the 7th day after intubation. Colony count of lung tissue homogenate (cfu and lung HE staining were performed, and IL-10 content in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF, TGF-β1 in lung tissue, and the expression of Foxp3 mRNA in lung cells were determined. Results  The bacterial counts were significantly higher in PAO1 and ΔlasRΔrhlR groups than that in sterile control group, and the counts were obviously higher in PAO1 group (10 400.00±6313.70/g lung tissue than that in ΔlasRΔrhlR group (975.00±559.97/g lung tissue, P<0.05. There was no significant pathological changes in lung tissue in sterile control group, while the bronchi and blood vessels in PAO1 group were infiltrated by a large number of inflammatory cells and complicated with alveolar septum thickening and local abscess and necrosis. The pathological changes were milder in ΔlasRΔrhlR group than in PAO1 group; the expression of Foxp3 mRNA was higher in the two Ps. aer infected groups than that in sterile control group (0.65±0.32, and it was significantly higher in PAO1 group (4.62±1.07 than in ΔlasRΔrhlR group (2.15±1.43, P<0.05. The accumulated optical density value of TGF-β1 was significantly higher in the two Ps. aer infected groups than in sterile control group (3721.66±1412.95, and significantly higher in PAO1 group (65 090.56±33

  12. BMP-mediated functional cooperation between Dlx5;Dlx6 and Msx1;Msx2 during mammalian limb development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxence Vieux-Rochas

    Full Text Available The Dlx and Msx homeodomain transcription factors play important roles in the control of limb development. The combined disruption of Msx1 and Msx2, as well as that of Dlx5 and Dlx6, lead to limb patterning defects with anomalies in digit number and shape. Msx1;Msx2 double mutants are characterized by the loss of derivatives of the anterior limb mesoderm which is not observed in either of the simple mutants. Dlx5;Dlx6 double mutants exhibit hindlimb ectrodactyly. While the morphogenetic action of Msx genes seems to involve the BMP molecules, the mode of action of Dlx genes still remains elusive. Here, examining the limb phenotypes of combined Dlx and Msx mutants we reveal a new Dlx-Msx regulatory loop directly involving BMPs. In Msx1;Dlx5;Dlx6 triple mutant mice (TKO, beside the expected ectrodactyly, we also observe the hallmark morphological anomalies of Msx1;Msx2 double mutants suggesting an epistatic role of Dlx5 and Dlx6 over Msx2. In Msx2;Dlx5;Dlx6 TKO mice we only observe an aggravation of the ectrodactyly defect without changes in the number of the individual components of the limb. Using a combination of qPCR, ChIP and bioinformatic analyses, we identify two Dlx/Msx regulatory pathways: 1 in the anterior limb mesoderm a non-cell autonomous Msx-Dlx regulatory loop involves BMP molecules through the AER and 2 in AER cells and, at later stages, in the limb mesoderm the regulation of Msx2 by Dlx5 and Dlx6 occurs also cell autonomously. These data bring new elements to decipher the complex AER-mesoderm dialogue that takes place during limb development and provide clues to understanding the etiology of congenital limb malformations.

  13. DLX5, FGF8 and the Pin1 isomerase control ΔNp63α protein stability during limb development: a regulatory loop at the basis of the SHFM and EEC congenital malformations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restelli, Michela; Lopardo, Teresa; Lo Iacono, Nadia; Garaffo, Giulia; Conte, Daniele; Rustighi, Alessandra; Napoli, Marco; Del Sal, Giannino; Perez-Morga, David; Costanzo, Antonio; Merlo, Giorgio Roberto; Guerrini, Luisa

    2014-07-15

    Ectrodactyly, or Split-Hand/Foot Malformation (SHFM), is a congenital condition characterized by the loss of central rays of hands and feet. The p63 and the DLX5;DLX6 transcription factors, expressed in the embryonic limb buds and ectoderm, are disease genes for these conditions. Mutations of p63 also cause the ectodermal dysplasia-ectrodactyly-cleft lip/palate (EEC) syndrome, comprising SHFM. Ectrodactyly is linked to defects of the apical ectodermal ridge (AER) of the developing limb buds. FGF8 is the key signaling molecule in this process, able to direct proximo-distal growth and patterning of the skeletal primordial of the limbs. In the limb buds of both p63 and Dlx5;Dlx6 murine models of SHFM, the AER is poorly stratified and FGF8 expression is severely reduced. We show here that the FGF8 locus is a downstream target of DLX5 and that FGF8 counteracts Pin1-ΔNp63α interaction. In vivo, lack of Pin1 leads to accumulation of the p63 protein in the embryonic limbs and ectoderm. We show also that ΔNp63α protein stability is negatively regulated by the interaction with the prolyl-isomerase Pin1, via proteasome-mediated degradation; p63 mutant proteins associated with SHFM or EEC syndromes are resistant to Pin1 action. Thus, DLX5, p63, Pin1 and FGF8 participate to the same time- and location-restricted regulatory loop essential for AER stratification, hence for normal patterning and skeletal morphogenesis of the limb buds. These results shed new light on the molecular mechanisms at the basis of the SHFM and EEC limb malformations. PMID:24569166

  14. BMP-mediated functional cooperation between Dlx5;Dlx6 and Msx1;Msx2 during mammalian limb development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieux-Rochas, Maxence; Bouhali, Kamal; Mantero, Stefano; Garaffo, Giulia; Provero, Paolo; Astigiano, Simonetta; Barbieri, Ottavia; Caratozzolo, Mariano F; Tullo, Apollonia; Guerrini, Luisa; Lallemand, Yvan; Robert, Benoît; Levi, Giovanni; Merlo, Giorgio R

    2013-01-01

    The Dlx and Msx homeodomain transcription factors play important roles in the control of limb development. The combined disruption of Msx1 and Msx2, as well as that of Dlx5 and Dlx6, lead to limb patterning defects with anomalies in digit number and shape. Msx1;Msx2 double mutants are characterized by the loss of derivatives of the anterior limb mesoderm which is not observed in either of the simple mutants. Dlx5;Dlx6 double mutants exhibit hindlimb ectrodactyly. While the morphogenetic action of Msx genes seems to involve the BMP molecules, the mode of action of Dlx genes still remains elusive. Here, examining the limb phenotypes of combined Dlx and Msx mutants we reveal a new Dlx-Msx regulatory loop directly involving BMPs. In Msx1;Dlx5;Dlx6 triple mutant mice (TKO), beside the expected ectrodactyly, we also observe the hallmark morphological anomalies of Msx1;Msx2 double mutants suggesting an epistatic role of Dlx5 and Dlx6 over Msx2. In Msx2;Dlx5;Dlx6 TKO mice we only observe an aggravation of the ectrodactyly defect without changes in the number of the individual components of the limb. Using a combination of qPCR, ChIP and bioinformatic analyses, we identify two Dlx/Msx regulatory pathways: 1) in the anterior limb mesoderm a non-cell autonomous Msx-Dlx regulatory loop involves BMP molecules through the AER and 2) in AER cells and, at later stages, in the limb mesoderm the regulation of Msx2 by Dlx5 and Dlx6 occurs also cell autonomously. These data bring new elements to decipher the complex AER-mesoderm dialogue that takes place during limb development and provide clues to understanding the etiology of congenital limb malformations. PMID:23382810

  15. A Study on Optimization Design of the Powertrain of Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle%Plug-in混合动力汽车动力总成优化设计研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张博; 李君; 杨世春; 高莹; 尹雪峰

    2009-01-01

    The simulation model for a parallel plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) with dual clutch is developed by using forward simulation software PSAT. After the performance constraints of PHEV are defined and the key component costs of its powertrain are analyzed, an optimization on the powertrain of PHEV with different all electric ranges (AER) and different types of power battery is conducted. The results show that the designed capaci-ty of power battery, which mainly dependeds on the AER required, has most effect on the cost of complete vehicle,and as the required AER increases, the desired maximum output power of electric motor rises and the power peak of engine reduces.%应用PSAT前向仿真软件,建立了双离合器式并联PHEV仿真模型.在确定了PHEV整车性能约束条件并对动力总成主要部件进行了成本分析之后,对不同伞电力续驶哩程和动力电池类型的PHEV动力总成进行了优化.结果表明:动力电池设计容量对整车成本影响最大,而它主要取决于所要求的全电力续驶里程;随着所要求的全电力续驶里程的增大,所需电机最大输出功率升高,而发动机最大输出功率则降低.

  16. Condición física, adiposidad y autoconcepto en adolescentes. Estudio piloto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Garc\\u00EDa-S\\u00E1nchez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Un alto índice de masa corporal y una baja capacidad aeróbica se asocia con un peor autoconcepto. Se ha observado también que personas obesas pero con buena forma física están físicamente sanos, fenómeno conocido como “fat but fit”. El presente estudio pretende: 1 determinar la relación entre cantidad de grasa corporal y principales componentes de la condición física con el autoconcepto en adolescentes; 2 testar si el fenómeno fat but fit se asocia con un mejor autoconcepto. Un total de 69 adolescentes (14.68 ± 1.36 años participaron en la evaluación de la composición corporal y la condición física (Batería ALPHA-Fitness. La capacidad aeróbica (forma vs. no en forma e índice de masa corporal (normo-peso vs. sobrepeso-obesidad fueron categorizadas usando criterios estándar. Cinco dimensiones del autoconcepto fueron evaluadas mediante el Cuestionario de Autoconcepto Forma 5. La grasa total y central se correlacionó negativamente con el autoconcepto físico, mientras que la condición física (fuerza, velocidad-agilidad y capacidad aeróbica se correlacionó positivamente (p .3. Los resultados confirman la paradoja fat but fit, el sobrepeso se asocia a un peor autoconcepto físico, pero si se tiene una buena forma física los valores de autoconcepto se igualan a los de los adolescentes con normo-peso.

  17. Drugs associated with more suicidal ideations are also associated with more suicide attempts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry T Robertson

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: In randomized controlled trials (RCTs, some drugs, including CB1 antagonists for obesity treatment, have been shown to cause increased suicidal ideation. A key question is whether drugs that increase or are associated with increased suicidal ideations are also associated with suicidal behavior, or whether drug-induced suicidal ideations are unlinked epiphenomena that do not presage the more troubling and potentially irrevocable outcome of suicidal behavior. This is difficult to determine in RCTs because of the rarity of suicidal attempts and completions. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether drugs associated with more suicidal ideations are also associated with more suicide attempts in large spontaneous adverse event (AE report databases. METHODOLOGY: Generalized linear models with negative binomial distribution were fitted to Food and Drug Administration (FDA Adverse Event (AE Reporting System (AERS data from 2004 to 2008. A total of 1,404,470 AEs from 832 drugs were analyzed as a function of reports of suicidal ideations; other non-suicidal adverse reactions; drug class; proportion of reports from males; and average age of subject for which AE was filed. Drug was treated as the unit of analysis, thus the statistical models effectively had 832 observations. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Reported suicide attempts and completed suicides per drug. RESULTS: 832 drugs, ranging from abacavir to zopiclone, were evaluated. The 832 drugs, as primary suspect drugs in a given adverse event, accounted for over 99.9% of recorded AERS. Suicidal ideations had a significant positive association with suicide attempts (p<.0001 and had an approximately 131-fold stronger magnitude of association than non-suicidal AERs, after adjusting for drug class, gender, and age. CONCLUSIONS: In AE reports, drugs that are associated with increased suicidal ideations are also associated with increased suicidal attempts or completions. This association suggests that drug

  18. Performance of selected anion exchange resins for the treatment of a high DOC content surface water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humbert, Hugues; Gallard, Hervé; Suty, Hervé; Croué, Jean-Philippe

    2005-05-01

    The objective of this study was first to compare the performance of four strong anion exchange resins (AERs) (MIEX from Orica Pty Ltd, DOWEX-11 and DOWEX-MSA from DOW chemical and IRA-938 from Rohm and Haas) for their application in drinking water treatment (natural organic matter (NOM), mineral anions (nitrate, sulfate and bromide) and pesticide removal) using bench-scale experimental procedures on a high DOC content surface water. The efficiency of MIEX for NOM and mineral anions removal was furthermore evaluated using bench-scale dose-response experiments on raw, clarified and post-ozonated waters. NOM removal was assessed using the measurement of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), UV absorbance at 254 nm (UV254) and the use of high-performance size exclusion chromatography with UV (HPSEC/UV) and fluorescence detection (HPSEC/FLUO). The MIEX and IRA938 anionic resins exhibit a faster removal of NOM and mineral anions compared to the DOWEX11 and MSA AERs. All the resins were found to be very effective with similar performances after 30 to 45 min of contact time. As expected, only limited sorption of atrazine and isoproturon (C0=1 microg/L) occurred with MIEX, DOWEX11 and MSA AERs. MIEX resin proved to be very efficient in eliminating NOM of high-molecular weight but also a large part of the smallest UV absorbing organic compounds which were refractory to coagulation/flocculation treatment. Remaining DOC levels after 30 min of contact with MIEX were found similar in raw water, clarified water and even post-ozonated water implying no DOC benefit can be gained by employing conventional treatment prior to MIEX treatment. Removal of bromide (initial concentration 110 microg/L) was also observed and ranged from 30% to 65% for resin dose increasing from 2 to 8 mL/L. T PMID:15899268

  19. Detection and characterization of virulence genes and integrons in Aeromonas veronii isolated from catfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawaz, Mohamed; Khan, Saeed A; Khan, Ashraf A; Sung, Kidon; Tran, Quynhtien; Kerdahi, Khalil; Steele, Roger

    2010-05-01

    The presence of virulence genes and integrons was determined in 81 strains of Aeromonas veronii isolated from farm-raised catfish. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) protocols were used to determine the presence of genes for cytotoxic enterotoxin (act), aerolysin (aerA), two cytotonic enterotoxins (ast, alt), lipase (lip), glycerophospholipid:cholesterol acyltransferase (gcaT), serine protease (ser), DNases (exu), elastase (ahyB) and the structural gene flagellin (fla) in the template DNA. Oligonucleotide primers amplified a 231-bp region of the act gene from the template DNA of 97.0% of the isolates. Primers specific for the amplification of the aerA gene amplified a 431-bp region of the aerA gene from the template DNA of 96.0% of the isolates. None of the isolates contained ast or alt genes. Oligonucleotide primers specific for the amplification of lip, gcaT, ser and fla genes, amplified their respective amplicons from 85.0, 78.0, 82.0 and 80.0% of the isolates. None of the isolates contained exu or the elastase genes. Several of the isolates (48.0%) contained class I integrons that confer resistance to multiple antibiotics; various sizes between 0.6 and 3.1 kb were found. None of the isolates contained Class II integrons. Our results indicate that farm-raised catfish may be a source of pathogenic A. veronii and that the potential health risks posed by virulent strains of A. veronii should not be underestimated. PMID:20227596

  20. Fuel consumption from vehicles of China until 2030 in energy scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estimation of fuel (gasoline and diesel) consumption for vehicles in China under different long-term energy policy scenarios is presented here. The fuel economy of different vehicle types is subject to variation of government regulations; hence the fuel consumption of passenger cars (PCs), light trucks (Lts), heavy trucks (Hts), buses and motor cycles (MCs) are calculated with respect to (i) the number of vehicles, (ii) distance traveled, and (iii) fuel economy. On the other hand, the consumption rate of alternative energy sources (i.e. ethanol, methanol, biomass-diesel and CNG) is not evaluated here. The number of vehicles is evaluated using the economic elastic coefficient method, relating to per capita gross domestic product (GDP) from 1997 to 2007. The Long-range Energy Alternatives Planning (LEAP) system software is employed to develop a simple model to project fuel consumption in China until 2030 under these scenarios. Three energy consumption decrease scenarios are designed to estimate the reduction of fuel consumption: (i) 'business as usual' (BAU); (ii) 'advanced fuel economy' (AFE); and (iii) 'alternative energy replacement' (AER). It is shown that fuel consumption is predicted to reach 992.28 Mtoe (million tons oil equivalent) with the BAU scenario by 2030. In the AFE and AER scenarios, fuel consumption is predicted to be 734.68 and 600.36 Mtoe, respectively, by 2030. In the AER scenario, fuel consumption in 2030 will be reduced by 391.92 (39.50%) and 134.29 (18.28%) Mtoe in comparison to the BAU and AFE scenarios, respectively. In conclusion, our models indicate that the energy conservation policies introduced by governmental institutions are potentially viable, as long as they are effectively implemented.

  1. Impact of pulmonary vein isolation on atrial vagal activity and atrial electrical remodeling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yingxue Dong; Shulong Zhang; Lianjun Gao; Hongwei Zhao; Donghui Yang; Yunlong Xia; Yanzong Yang

    2008-01-01

    Objective Mechanisms of pulmonary vein isolation (PVI) for atrial fibrillation remain controversy.This study aimed to investigate the impact of PVI on vagal modulation to atria.Methods Eighteen adult mongrel dogs under general anesthesia were randomly divided into two groups.Bilateral cervical sympathovagal trunks were decentralized and sympathetic effects was blocked by metoprolol administration.Atrial electrical remodeling (AER) was established by rapid right atrial pacing at the rate of 600 bpm for 30 minutes.PVI was performed in group A.Atrial effective refractory period (ERP),vulnerability window (VW) of atrial fibrillation,and sinus rhythm cycle length (SCL) were measured at baseline and during vagal stimulation before and after atrial rapid pacing with and without PVI at fight atrial appendage (RAA),left atrial appendage (LAA),distal coronary sinus (CSd) and proximal coronary sinus (CSp).Results (1) Effects of PVI on vagal modulation:Shortening of SCL during vagal stimulation decreased significantly after PVI compared with that before PVI in group A (P<0.001).Shortening of ERP during vagal stimulation decreaseed significantly after PVI compared with that before PVI (P<0.05).VW of atrial fibrillation during vagal stimulation decreased significantly after PVI compared with that before PVI (P<0.05).(2) Effects of PVI on AER:shortening of ERP before and after atrial rapid pacing increased significantly at baseline and vagal stimulation in group B compared with that in group A (P<0.05).VW during vagal stimulation increased significantly after atrial rapid pacing in group B (P<0.05).Conclusion PVI attenuates the vagal modulation to the atria,thereby decreases the susceptibility to atrial fibrillation mediated by vagal activity.PVI releases AER,which maybe contributes to the vagal denervation.Our study indicates that PVI not only can eradicate triggered foci but also modify substrates for AF.(J Geriatr Cardiol 2008;5:28-32)

  2. Monitorização do ruído ambiente e laboral na base aérea de Monte Real

    OpenAIRE

    Carreira, Sónia Carin Pereira

    2010-01-01

    Os aeródromos/aeroportos foram, desde sempre, implantados em regiões desocupadas e distantes dos grandes centros urbanos. A construção de infraestruturas básicas transformou esses locais em óptimas opções para a expansão da malha urbana e prospecção imobiliária. O acelerado desenvolvimento dessas regiões, muitas vezes sem a fiscalização necessária por parte das câmaras municipais e juntas de freguesia, acabou por culminar em ocupações desordenadas e ilegais do solo, com edif...

  3. Diferencias fisiológicas entre futbolistas de categoría cadete y juvenil

    OpenAIRE

    Quintela Eguiluz, Kerman

    2014-01-01

    Los objetivos de este estudio fueron analizar las diferencias en las características antropométricas, resistencia aeróbica, temperatura corporal y percepción subjetiva del esfuerzo en futbolistas de distintas categorías (cadete y juvenil), y examinar la relación existente entre las distintas variables analizadas. Para ello participaron 37 jóvenes futbolistas, 20 de ellos cadetes (15,12 ± 0,69 años) y 17 juveniles (16,94 ± 0,89 años). A los futbolistas se les midió la talla y la masa corporal...

  4. Effects of a strength endurance training program on endurance levels Efectos de un programa de entrenamiento de la fuerza-resistencia sobre los niveles de resistencia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. C. Redondo

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available

    The purpose of the current study was to determine whether a strength endurance training program of lower limbs isolate can increase endurance levels, both aerobic capacity and aerobic power, in order to adapt the strength training for endurance races. 20 phisically active men participated in the study. They were divided into two groups: control group (GC (n=10 and experimental group (GE (n=10. GE carried out a strength endurance training program for ten weeks. Results obtained showed that this type of training regime was useful to improve the performance in an aerobic endurance test. This could be due to an improvement in aerobic capacity, maximal dynamic strength, explosive strength and reactive strength. Moreover, there was a decrease in fat mass without increase in muscle mass.
    Key Words:  Training, strength endurance, aerobic capacity, anthropometry.

     

    El presente estudio pretende comprobar que el trabajo aislado de la fuerza resistencia en miembros inferiores produce una mejora de los niveles de resistencia, en términos tanto de potencia como de capacidad aeróbica, optimizando así el entrenamiento de la fuerza para pruebas de resistencia de media y larga duración. Para ello, veinte sujetos participaron en el estudio, dividiéndose de forma aleatoria en dos grupos: grupo control (GC (n=10 y grupo experimental (GE (n=10 el cual llevó a cabo un entrenamiento de fuerza resistencia extensivo por intervalos, de diez semanas de duración. Los resultados obtenidos muestran que este tipo de entrenamiento es efectivo para mejorar el rendimiento en una prueba de resistencia aeróbica para sujetos físicamente activos, gracias a la mejora de la capacidad aeróbica, de la fuerza máxima dinámica, elástico explosiva y elástico explosivo reactiva y a la disminución de los niveles de grasa

  5. The apical ectodermal ridge of the mouse model of ectrodactyly Dlx5;Dlx6 −/− shows altered stratification and cell polarity, which are restored by exogenous Wnt5a ligand

    OpenAIRE

    Conte, Daniele; Garaffo, Giulia; Lo Iacono, Nadia; Mantero, Stefano; Piccolo, Stefano; Cordenonsi, Michelangelo; Perez-Morga, David; Orecchia, Valeria; Poli, Valeria; Merlo, Giorgio R.

    2015-01-01

    The congenital malformation split hand/foot (SHFM) is characterized by missing central fingers and dysmorphology or fusion of the remaining ones. Type-1 SHFM is linked to deletions/rearrangements of the DLX5–DLX6 locus and point mutations in the DLX5 gene. The ectrodactyly phenotype is reproduced in mice by the double knockout (DKO) of Dlx5 and Dlx6. During limb development, the apical ectodermal ridge (AER) is a key-signaling center responsible for early proximal–distal growth and patterning...

  6. Nuclear accident dosimetry - report on the fourth IAEA intercomparison experiment at Harwell, UK - 7th-8th April 1975: Part 2 - Systems used by participants at the experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Participants were invited to submit brief descriptions of the systems which they used to measure the neutron and γ-ray dose in the present experiment. This information is presented as a series of short papers giving details of (a) the system, (b) the measurement procedure, (c) the evaluation procedure and (d) references to more extensive details of their systems. Editing has been restricted mainly to minor corrections in the language and any requests for clarification or for more details should be addressed to the authors of the individual papers. The results of the measurements are contained in Part I of this paper (AERE-R8520, 1976, HMSO). (author)

  7. Microbiota bacteriana da conjuntiva de doadores de córnea Bacterial microbiota of the conjunctiva of donor corneas

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Emília Xavier dos Santos Araújo; Marinho Jorge Scarpi

    2004-01-01

    OBJETIVOS: Quantificar e qualificar a microbiota aeróbia da conjuntiva de doadores de córnea segundo a interferência do intervalo de tempo entre o óbito e a colheita do espécime conjuntival, a causa do óbito e a idade do doador e avaliar a atividade biocida de determinados antibióticos aos microrganismos isolados. MÉTODOS: Entre janeiro e março de 1994 foram colhidos espécimes da conjuntiva de 242 olhos de doadores de córnea. O material transportado em meio de Stuart foi semeado em ágares san...

  8. Identificação de radicais livres e produtos de oxidação de biomoléculas por MS

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, Ana Luísa dos Reis Pereira

    2006-01-01

    A alteração estrutural de biomoléculas por acção de radicais livres resultantes de processos aeróbios, e mais especificamente em ácidos gordos insaturados, tem sido descrita como tendo um papel preponderante em patologias relacionadas com o envelhecimento. Esta tese tem como objectivo o uso da espectrometria de massa (MS) na identificação e caracterização estrutural de radicais livres de ácidos gordos, nomeadamente no ácido gordo ω-6, e em modelos progressivamente mais compl...

  9. Efecto antioxidante y antimicrobiano de sales de ácidos orgánicos y extractos naturales en filetes de bagre dorado (Brachyplatystoma rousseauxii) refrigerados

    OpenAIRE

    José Vicente Pacheco Guerrero; Elisabetta Tomé; Marisa Guerra; Rosa Raybaudi

    2011-01-01

    En el presente trabajo fueron investigados los efectos del lactato de sodio, acetato de sodio, romero y ajo en soluciones acuosas a 2,5 % sobre la calidad microbiológica y oxidación lipídica en rebanadas de bagre dorado (Brachyplatystoma rousseauxii) almacenadas a 4 ºC. Los resultados mostraron que estas soluciones fueron eficaces (p < 0,05) contra la proliferación de distintas categorías de microorganismos deteriorativos, incluyendo poblaciones aeróbicas y psicrotróficas, Pseudomonas spp., b...

  10. Mean forest volume estimation by high-resolution aerial RGB imagery and digital surface model with Trestima as validation technique

    OpenAIRE

    Rybakov, Georgy

    2015-01-01

    Forests typically cover large areas and are hard to access, which is why it is critical to have reliable and cheap means for their surveying. The more accurate the data is and the cheaper its acquisition is, the higher the efficiency of the surveys (i.e. forest inventories) performed is. Potentially also the efficiency of future forest management operations could be higher. This study considers a remote sensing technique for the mean volume estimation based on a very high-resolution (VHR) aer...

  11. ADAPTACIÓN DEL BRAIN GYM® AL MEDIO ACUÁTICO: EFECTOS EN LA FUNCIÓN FÍSICA Y COGNITIVA DE LOS ADULTOS MAYORES

    OpenAIRE

    Mª H. Vila; D. Malvido; Ayán, C.; J.M Cancela

    2015-01-01

    Diferentes investigaciones han propuesto que la práctica regular de la actividad física, especialmente el ejercicio aeróbico, se relaciona con beneficios cognitivos (Lautenschlager et al., 2008; Baker et al., 2010). Varios meta-análisis han informado que la actividad física se asocia con mejoras en la atención, velocidad de procesamiento, y la función ejecutiva en los adultos mayores con y sin discapacidades cognitivas (van Uffelen et al., 2008; Smith et al., 2010). Los movimientos empleados ...

  12. Inconvenient messages. Annual report 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In their annual report of 2007, the Dutch Energy Council (AER) advices the Dutch government to show more decisiveness in the implementation of energy policy. The analyses of the council resulted in a series of advices: enforce energy saving; be prepared for a new oil crisis; be more efficient with natural gas from the Groningen province; maintain a friendly relationship with gas nation Russia; Acknowledge the fact that coal and or /nuclear energy cannot be missed. Finally, the Energy Council appreciatively ascertained that most of the above points of advice have been incorporated in the Energy memorandum published by the Minister of Economic Affairs on June 18th. [mk

  13. Biorremediación de suelo contaminado con hidrocarburos empleando lodos residuales como fuente alterna de nutrientes

    OpenAIRE

    Adriana MARTÍNEZ-PRADO; Ma. Elena PÉREZ-LÓPEZ; Joaquín PINTO-ESPINOZA; Blanca Amelia GURROLA-NEVÁREZ; Ana Lilia OSORIO-RODRÍGUEZ

    2011-01-01

    En la presente investigación se evaluó el proceso de biorremediación aeróbica de un suelo contaminado con hidrocarburos de petróleo empleando lodos residuales (biosólidos), provenientes de una planta de tratamiento de aguas residuales (PTAR) domésticas de la localidad, como fuente alterna de macro y micronutrientes. La contaminación del suelo fue resultado de derrames accidentales de diesel, aceite y grasas en la unidad minera San Antonio perteneciente al grupo Goldcorp México, ubicada en el ...

  14. The stratigraphy of Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Kenneth L.

    1986-01-01

    A global stratigraphy of Mars was developed from a global geologic map series derived from Viking images; the stratigraphy is composed of three maps. A new chronostratigraphic classification system which consists of lower, middle, and upper Noachian, Hesperian, and Amazonian systems is described. The crater-density boundaries of the chronostratigraphic units and the absolute ages of the Martian epochs aer estimated. The relative ages of major geologic units and featues are calculated and analyzed. The geologic history of Mars is summarized on the maps in terms of epochs.

  15. IDENTIDAD URBANA DE LA COMUNA DE HUALPEN Y ALGUNOS DE SUS PRINCIPALES ELEMENTOS URBANO POBLACIONALES

    OpenAIRE

    Alberto Vallette Isla; Carlos Martínez Catalán

    2008-01-01

    La actual comuna de Hualpén, antes de ser creada en el año 2003, se vislumbraba como un gran barrio de la comuna de Talcahuano y se relacionaba su nombre semánticamente como el sector de Hualpencillo. El desarrollo urbanístico de Hualpén, que se inicia a mediados del siglo XX con la instalación del Aeródromo de Hualpencillo como uno de los pocos del país, se puede entender como una sumatoria de asentamientos poblacionales que fueron dispuestos en forma aleatoria en el territorio urbano com...

  16. Application of antimicrobial-producing lactic acid bacteria to control pathogens in ready-to-use vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vescovo, M; Torriani, S; Orsi, C; Macchiarolo, F; Scolari, G

    1996-08-01

    Five psychrotrophic strains of lactic acid bacteria (Lactobacillus casei, Lact. plantarum and Pediococcus spp.) were isolated from 22 samples of commercial salads. These strains were shown to inhibit Aeromonas hydrophila, Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella typhimurium and Staphylococcus aureus on MRS agar, in salads and in juice prepared from vegetable salads. Lactobacillus casei IMPCLC34 was most effective in reducing total mesophilic bacteria and the coliform group; Aer. hydrophila, Salm. typhimurium and Staph. aureus disappeared after 6 d of storage, while the counts for L. monocytogenes remained constant. The potential application of antimicrobial-producing lactic acid bacteria as biopreservatives of ready-to-use vegetables is suggested. PMID:8760320

  17. Proceedings of the seventeenth Symposium of Atomic Energy Research, Vol. I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present volume contains 83 papers, presented on the eleventh Symposium of Atomic Energy Research, held in Yalta, Ukraine, 23-29 September 2007. The papers are presented in their original form, i. e. no corrections or modifications were carried out. The content of this volume is divided into thematic groups: Fuel Management, Spectral and Core Calculations, Core Surveillance and Monitoring, CFD Analysis, Reactor Dynamics Thermal Hydraulics and Safety Analysis, Physical Problems of Spent Fuel Decommissioning and Radwaste, Actinide Transmutation and Spent Fuel Disposal, Core Operation, Experiments and Code Validation, History of TIC/AER - according to the presentation sequence on the Symposium (Author)

  18. Primeros registros de bacterias marinas heterótrofas y hongos aislados de los arrecifes que bordean la plataforma SW de Cuba.

    OpenAIRE

    Miravet, M. E.; Enríquez, D.; Lugioyo, G.M.; Delgado, Y.; R. Núñez; Cabrera, H.; Martí, J.

    2003-01-01

    Se registran por primera vez para los arrecifes de la plataforma SW cubana, la presencia de 5 géneros y 16 especies de bacterias heterótrofas aeróbicas y 15 géneros de hongos, de los cuales, 7 se identificaron hasta especie. Los géneros Bacillus sp. (bacteria) y Aspergillus sp. (hongo) resultaron los más cosmopolitas de todos los géneros encontrados, predominando en las aguas y sedimentos de todos los arrecifes estudiados. Del total de cepas aisladas la mayor diversidad de géne...

  19. AcEST: BP913132 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available YMU001_000026_G12 489 Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA. clone: YMU001_000026_G12. BP913132 - Show ... i GN=... 33 0.63 sp|Q06304|AERA_AERSO Aerolysin OS=Aeromonas ... sobria GN=asa1 PE=3 ... 32 1.1 sp|Q08676|AERA_AERS ... A Aerolysin OS=Aeromonas ... salmonicida GN=ash3 ... 32 1.1 sp|Q54DK4|AK1_DICDI ...

  20. The Influence of Cloud Microphysics and Radiation on the Response of Water Vapor and Clouds to Climate Change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emanuel, Kerry [Atmospheric and Environmental Research, Inc., Lexington, MA (United States); Iacono, Michael J. [Atmospheric and Environmental Research, Inc., Lexington, MA (United States)

    2010-11-11

    Uncertainties in representing the atmospheric water cycle are major obstacles to the accurate prediction of future climate. This project focused on addressing some of these uncertainties by implementing new physics for convection and radiation into the NCAR Community Atmosphere Model (CAM). To better understand and eventually better represent these processes in this major national climate model, we modified CAM3.5 to use the convection and cloud schemes developed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) and the RRTMG rapid radiation code for global climate models developed by Atmospheric and Environmental Research, Inc. (AER). The impact of the new physics on the CAM3.5 simulation of convection on diurnal and intra-seasonal scales, on intra-seasonal oscillations and on the distribution of water vapor has been investigated. In addition, the MIT and AER physics packages have been incorporated and tested in combination within the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) regional forecast model for the purpose of evaluating and improving convective and radiative processes on time scales appropriate to weather simulations. It has been found that the application of the AER radiation and MIT convection produces significant improvements in the modeled diurnal cycle of convection, especially over land, in the NCAR climate model. However, both the standard CAM3.5 and the modified CAM3.5 with the new physics are unable to capture the proper spectrum and propagating characteristics of dynamical intra-seasonal oscillations such as the Madden-Julian Oscillation. In addition, it has been shown that the new physics methods modify, but do not substantially improve, the distribution of upper tropospheric water vapor in CAM as established through the comparison of modeled and observed satellite radiances. This suggests that continuing regional discrepancies in water vapor amounts in the climate model may not be solely related to convective or radiative processes. The major

  1. Agglomeration and the product mix

    OpenAIRE

    Dalvai, Wilfried

    2016-01-01

    Worldwide trade flows are dominated by high-productivity firms, that have a large range of products. Since the product range of firms reflects partly trade flows, it is a source of economic differences in space. In this paper, I analyze the effects of the product mix of firms on agglomeration. I build a theoretical model of multiproduct firms à la Mayer, Melitz, and Ottaviano (2014, AER), expand it with skilled, mobile workers and a spatial equilibrium. I show that a larger product mix of fir...

  2. Annual progress report, July 1, 1983-June 30, 1984

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-01-01

    Research in the Laboratory of Biomolecular and Celluler Sciences deals with proliferation, gene expression and differentiation in normal cells and in cells exposed to pollutants, carcinogens or tumor promoters. The research program of the Laboratory of Environmental Biology presents an integrated approach to studies of the functional interactions of the physical and biotic components of arid land ecosystems. Nuclear Medicine research has focussed on development of positron emission tomography, preparation of short-lived isotopes of oxygen, nitrogen, carbon and fluorine, use of these isotopes to label physiological substrates, tracer studies of cerebral biochemistry and physiology, measurement of regional myocardial fatty acid metabolism and blood flow. (AER)

  3. Environmental monitoring in emergency situations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This manual gives technical guidance on emergency monitoring procedures to those who would have to assess the situation after an accident leading to the uncontrolled release of radioactive substances to the environment. Its aim is to draw attention to the important factors that should be considered in formulating emergency plans. The seven annexes contain inventories of fission products and possible releases; dispersion, deposition and dose-exposure relationships for airborne releases; α-, β- and γ-radiation surveys; information on sample collection and field evaluation; and brief descriptions of the environmental monitoring procedures adopted in previous emergencies (Windscale 1957, AERE Harwell 1961 and NRTS Idaho 1961).

  4. Annual Energy Review 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seiferlein, Katherine E. [USDOE Energy Information Administration (EIA), Washington, DC (United States)

    2002-11-01

    The Annual Energy Review (AER) is a statistical history of energy activities in the United States. It documents trends and milestones in U.S. energy production, trade, storage, pricing, and consumption. Each new year of data that is added to the time series—which now reach into 7 decades—extends the story of how Americans have acquired and used energy. It is a story of continual change as the Nation's economy grew, energy requirements expanded, resource availability shifted, and interdependencies developed among nations.

  5. Padronização de um protocolo experimental de treinamento periodizado em natação utilizando ratos Wistar Standardization of an experimental periodized training protocol in swimming rats

    OpenAIRE

    Gustavo Gomes de Araujo; Marcelo Papoti; Fúlvia de Barros Manchado-Gobatto; Maria Alice Rostom de Mello; Claudio Alexandre Gobatto

    2010-01-01

    Verificar os efeitos de 12 semanas de treinamento periodizado de natação em ratos sobre os valores de glicogênio muscular (GM) e hepático (GH), capacidade aeróbia (LAn) e anaeróbia (Tlim) e creatina quinase (CK). Foram utilizados 70 ratos da linhagem Wistar com 60 dias, adaptados individualmente ao meio líquido por duas semanas. Os animais foram divididos em grupos: controle (GC, n = 40) e periodizado (GP, n = 30); a intensidade do treinamento foi equivalente ao peso corporal do animal (% do ...

  6. La alimentación de los jugadores de baloncesto: peligros nutricionales y microbiológicos

    OpenAIRE

    Santos Badenes, Gemma

    2015-01-01

    El baloncesto tiene unos requerimientos fisiológicos altos que imponen un esfuerzo considerable en las capacidades cardiovasculares y metabólicas de los jugadores. Fisiológicamente, el baloncesto requiere fuerza/resistencia muscular, flexibilidad y energía tanto a nivel de ejercicio aeróbico como anaeróbico. El estudio de la composición corporal es un aspecto muy importante en la valoración del estado nutricional, ya que la distribución de la masa grasa y la masa magra en un individuo puede a...

  7. CB2 result evaluation (VVER-440 burnup credit benchmark)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The second portion of the four-piece international calculational benchmark on the VVER burnup credit (CB2) prepared in the collaboration with the OECD/NEA/NSC Burnup Credit Criticality Benchmarks Working Group and proposed to the AER research community has been evaluated. The evaluated results of calculations performed by analysts from Cuba, the Czech Republic, Finland, Germany, Russia, Slovakia and the United Kingdom are presented. The goal of this study is to compare isotopic concentrations calculated by the participants using various codes and libraries for depletion of the VVER-440 fuel pin cell. No measured values were available for the comparison. (author)

  8. Results of the isotopic concentrations of VVER calculational burnup credit benchmark No. 2(CB2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results of the nuclide concentrations are presented of VVER Burnup Credit Benchmark No. 2(CB2) that were performed in The Nuclear Technology Center of Cuba with available codes and libraries. The CB2 benchmark specification as the second phase of the VVER burnup credit benchmark is summarized. The CB2 benchmark focused on VVER burnup credit study proposed on the 97' AER Symposium. The obtained results are isotopic concentrations of spent fuel as a function of the burnup and cooling time. The depletion point 'ORIGEN2' code and other codes were used for the calculation of the spent fuel concentration. (author)

  9. AcEST: DK947966 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available PYGLKFAKGRDGGTYIEAILPGAAADQTGKFEVGDKVLATSAVFGEEIWP 145 Query: 408 AAAYGQTMYTIRQRIGTLLLKMERRFGEREDAA--VSRDVLAAERNAGAIGERI...n-receptor ... 37 0.079 sp|Q80U72|LAP4_MOUSE Protein LAP4 OS=Mus musculus GN=Scrib PE=1 ... 37 0.079 sp|Q68DX3|FRPD2_HUMAN FERM...ETG 937 >sp|Q68DX3|FRPD2_HUMAN FERM and PDZ domain-containing protein 2 OS=Homo sapiens GN=FRM...RGDQLLSVNNVNLTH----ATHEEAAQA 571 Query: 438 IRQRIGTLLLKMERRFGE--REDAAVSRDVLAAERNAGAIGERIREIQ 575 ++ G + L + ... 97 Query: 399 MWPAAAYGQTMYTIRQRIGTLLLKMERRFGEREDAAVSRDVLAAERNAGAIGERIREIQI 578 MWPAA YG+TMYTIRQR+GTLL++ME+R+G RED + + L+AER

  10. Efectos de una dieta hipocalórica y de un programa de ejercicio físico de corta duración en el perfil lipídico y en la composición corporal de mujeres menopáusicas con sobrepeso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Rojano

    2014-09-01

    Conclusión: Los resultados obtenidos sugieren que la combinación de un programa de ejercicio físico aeróbico y de fuerza de 6 semanas de duración y una dieta hipocalórica en mujeres menopáusicas con sobrepeso, provoca mejoras significativas en la composición corporal y una tendencia hacia la mejora del perfil lipídico, lo que puede repercutir positivamente en la calidad de vida.

  11. Efectos de una dieta hipocalórica y de un programa de ejercicio físico de corta duración en el perfil lipídico y en la composición corporal de mujeres menopáusicas con sobrepeso

    OpenAIRE

    D. Rojano; G.M. Vargas

    2014-01-01

    Objetivo: Analizar los cambios producidos en la composición corporal y, a nivel bioquímico, sobre el colesterol y los triglicéridos, por un programa de ejercicio físico aeróbico y de fuerza de 6 semanas de duración, acompañado de una dieta hipocalórica, en un grupo de mujeres menopáusicas con sobrepeso. Método: La muestra estaba formada por 18 mujeres en la etapa de la menopausia, 9 de las cuales fueron asignadas aleatoriamente al grupo experimental y las otras 9 al grupo control. Todas pr...

  12. Infecção bacteriana na leishmaniose cutânea: padrão bacteriano e sensibilidade a antibióticos Bacterial infection in cutaneous leishmaniasis: bacterial pattern and sensitivity to antibiotics

    OpenAIRE

    Eloísa da Graça do Rosário Gonçalves; Stelito Assis dos Reis Filho; Eurípedes Gomes de Oliveira; André Luiz Neves Pareira; Antonio Rafael da Silva; Jackson Maurício Lopes Costa

    2009-01-01

    Foi estudada a flora bacteriana em úlceras leishmanióticas, destacando-se o encontro das espécies aeróbicas Staphylococus aureus e Pseudomonas aeruginosa. O estudo da sensibilidade destas espécies a antibióticos mostrou sensibilidade à vancomicina, à amicacina e ao cloranfenicol em 100% dos isolados testados de Staphylococus aureus e à amicacina, à gentamicina e à tobramicina em 100% dos isolados testados de Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Estas espécies foram, em geral, resistentes às penicilinas e ...

  13. Asynchronous Complex Pipeline Design Based on ARM Instruction Set

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Bing; WANG Qin; PENG Rui-hua; FU Yu-zhuo

    2008-01-01

    This paper proposes an asynchronous complex pipeline based on ARM-V3 instruction set. Muller pipeline structure is used as prototype, and the factors which may affect pipeline performance are analyzed. To balance the difficulty of asynchronous design and performance analysis, both complete asynchronous and partial asynchronous structures aere designed and compared. Results of comparison with the well-Rnown industrial product ARM922T verify that about 30% and 40% performance improvement of the partial and complete asynchronous complex pipelines can be obtained respectively. The design methodologies can also be used in the design of other asynchronous pipelines.

  14. EFECTO DE UN PROGRAMA DE EJERCICIO AERÓBICO Y UN PROGRAMA DE CIRCUITO CON PESAS SOBRE LA CALIDAD DE VIDA, DISNEA Y RESISTENCIA CARDIORRESPIRATORIA EN SUJETOS CON ENFERMEDAD PULMONAR CRÓNICA

    OpenAIRE

    Delgado Acosta Henry; Acuña Corrales Ernesto

    2007-01-01

    El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar el efecto de un programa de ejercicio aeróbico y un programa de circuito con pesas sobre la calidad de vida, disnea y resistencia cardiorrespiratoria en sujetos con Enfermedad Pulmonar Crónica (EPC). Metodología: el programa de rehabilitación se hizo durante ocho semanas, se realizó un pretest y un postest, se cumplió con una sesión semanal presencial, y las otras dos domiciliarias, se tuvo comunicación directa vía telefónica los días que realizab...

  15. EFECTO DE UN PROGRAMA DE EJERCICIO AERÓBICO Y UN PROGRAMA DE CIRCUITO CON PESAS SOBRE LA CALIDAD DE VIDA, DISNEA Y RESISTENCIA CARDIORRESPIRATORIA EN SUJETOS CON ENFERMEDAD PULMONAR CRÓNICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delgado Acosta Henry

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar el efecto de un programa de ejercicio aeróbico y un programa de circuito con pesas sobre la calidad de vida, disnea y resistencia cardiorrespiratoria en sujetos con Enfermedad Pulmonar Crónica (EPC. Metodología: el programa de rehabilitación se hizo durante ocho semanas, se realizó un pretest y un postest, se cumplió con una sesión semanal presencial, y las otras dos domiciliarias, se tuvo comunicación directa vía telefónica los días que realizaban el ejercicio en la casa. Instrumentos: el cuestionario St. George Respiratory Questonnaire para medir calidad de vida, la escala de Borg para medir la disnea y el test de caminata de los 6 min. para medir la resistencia cardiorrespiratoria. Sujetos: participaron 38 personas con diagnóstico previo de EPC, 18 hombres y 20 mujeres; 27 sujetos con patología obstructiva y 11 sujetos con restrictiva., con una edad promedio de 69.8 ± 9.34 años, divididos aleatoriamente en dos grupos, uno que realizó ejercicio aeróbico (22 sujetos y otro que ejecutó ejercicio aeróbico y de contrarresistencia con pesas (16 sujetos. Análisis estadístico: ANOVA mixta de cuatro vías (2x2x2x2 para las variables mediciones, sexo, tratamiento y patología. Resultados: se encontraron diferencias significativas entre mediciones para la variable disnea (pre: 7.18 ± 0.69 puntos y post: 4.89 ± 0.68 puntos (F = 228.770; p 0,05, ni interacción entre las variable (p>0,05. Conclusión: la realización de ejercicio físico aeróbico y anaeróbico mejoran el grado de disnea, la calidad de vida y resistencia cardiorrespiratoria en pacientes con EPC.

  16. Estudio del estrés oxidativo en un modelo animal de ejercicio físico: análisis citométrico en mitocondrias aisladas y en leucocitos

    OpenAIRE

    Parra Orenga, Marta

    2015-01-01

    Un incremento en el metabolismo aeróbico durante el ejercicio es una fuente potencial de estrés oxidativo. En el músculo, la mitocondria es una fuente importante de intermediarios reactivos. Para su estudio, se han utilizado el hígado, el músculo de diafragma y el corazón de conejos tipo control sin entrenamiento físico específico, conejos entrenados sometidos a un entrenamiento físico específico y conejos sometidos a una operación simulada. Se han obtenido mitocondrias aisladas para su estud...

  17. Verification of a neutronic code for transient analysis in reactors with Hex-z geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Due to the geometry of the fuel bundles, to simulate reactors such as VVER reactors it is necessary to develop methods that can deal with hexagonal prisms as basic elements of the spatial discretization. The main features of a code based on a high order finite element method for the spatial discretization of the neutron diffusion equation and an implicit difference method for the time discretization of this equation are presented and the performance of the code is tested solving the first exercise of the AER transient benchmark. The obtained results are compared with the reference results of the benchmark and with the results provided by PARCS code. (authors)

  18. Characterization of atypical Aeromonas salmonicida isolates by ribotyping and plasmid profiling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Karl; Dalsgaard, Inger; Larsen, J.L.

    1996-01-01

    ) and plasmid profiles. Most epidemiologically unrelated strains had different ribotypes, whereas isolates from the same outbreak were identical. All strains, except one, carried one or more large plasmids (>55 kbp) and all strains, except two, additionally carried one or more smaller plasmids. Many strains...... isolated from the same outbreak showed different plasmid profiles although some plasmids were identical. The results suggest the existence of several atypical Aer, salmonicida. It also seems that ribotypes are stable properties for these bacteria while the plasmids are more labile....

  19. Perfil de la frecuencia cardiaca en triatletas altamente entrenados

    OpenAIRE

    García Zapico, Augusto; Benito Peinado, Pedro José; Díaz Molina, Víctor; Ruíz, J.R.; Calderón Montero, Francisco Javier

    2014-01-01

    Nueve triatletas hombres (68,0 ?? 2,0 mL??kg-1??min-1, 25 ?? 1,9 a??os, 68,3 ?? 2,2 kg y 1,77 ?? 0,22 m), realizaron un test incremental en cicloerg??metro en tres ocasiones correspondientes con el inicio de la temporada, periodo precompetitivo y periodo competitivo. El consumo de ox??geno m??ximo y los umbrales ventilatorios (aer??bico y anaer??bico respectivamente) fueron medidos en cada visita. A pesar de los cambios en la distribuci??n del entrenamiento entre disciplinas, tiempo total de ...

  20. Recomendações práticas para a ingestão de líquidos em lutador

    OpenAIRE

    Edmar Ciro José Brito; Lacerda Mendes; Ana Carolina Pinheiro Volp

    2012-01-01

    Diversos trabalhos estudaram estratégias de reposição hídrica para modalidades aeróbicas, como o ciclismo e a corrida. No entanto, pouco se pesquisou até o momento sobre estratégias de reposição hídrica em lutadores. Este trabalho tem por objetivo apresentar os efeitos benéficos da reposição hidro energética e propor estratégias para lutadores. São apontadas recomendaçõ...

  1. Recomendações práticas para a ingestão de líquidos em lutador
    http://dx.doi.org/10.15601/1983-7631/rt.v1n0p107-113

    OpenAIRE

    Edmar Ciro José Brito; Lacerda Mendes; Ana Carolina Pinheiro Volp

    2012-01-01

    Diversos trabalhos estudaram estratégias de reposição hídrica para modalidades aeróbicas, como o ciclismo e a corrida. No entanto, pouco se pesquisou até o momento sobre estratégias de reposição hídrica em lutadores. Este trabalho tem por objetivo apresentar os efeitos benéficos da reposição hidro energética e propor estratégias para lutadores. São apontadas recomendaçõ...

  2. EFECTO DEL CONSUMO DE CREATINA SOBRE LA EJECUCIÓN DE DESTREZAS REALIZADAS EN FORMA INTERMITENTE Y DE DURACIÓN PROLONGADA

    OpenAIRE

    Óscar Pablo Gutiérrez Sancho; José Moncada Jiménez; Wálter Salazar Rojas

    2002-01-01

    Se estudió el efecto de la suplementación con creatina (Cr)sobre el rendimiento en natación, ciclismo y atletismo en 10 mujeres. Las participantes debían realizar 4intervalos en cada deporte a máxima intensidad, además de un segmento aeróbico de 7 min post intervaloentre el 65 - 85% de la FCmáx. En un diseño de medidas repetidas, las atletas completaron 3 condicionesexperimentales: control (CT), suplementación con creatina (CCr), y condición placebo (PL). Se registró eltiempo de cada interval...

  3. AcEST: BP913572 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available YMU001_000031_G04 459 Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA. clone: YMU001_000031_G04. BP913572 CL397Co ... sp|P0C423|LEP4_AERSA Type 4 prepilin-like proteins leader ... peptide-processing enzyme OS=Aeromonas salmonicida ... sp|P0C423|LEP4_AERSA Type 4 prepilin-like proteins leader ... peptid... 30 3.8 sp|A2T195|LEP4_AERS4 Type 4 prepi ...

  4. Analysis and core-life calculation of 3 MW Triga Mark II research reactor including effects of central thimble modification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The principal objective of this study was to formulate an effective optimal fuel management strategy for TRIGA MARK II research reactor at AERE, Savar. The core management study has been performed by utilizing four basic types of information calculated for the reactor: criticality, power peaking, neutron flux and burnup calculation. Reshuffling at 20,000 MWh step gives the longest core life of the reactor which is 64500 MWh. Central thimble modification altered the shape of the flux which increased the core reactivity by c 12 and the core-life by 500 MWh. Besides, the study gives valuable insight into the behaviour of the reactor

  5. El ejercicio físico durante el embarazo: ¿un riesgo para el recién nacido?

    OpenAIRE

    Rubén Barakat Carballo; Gregoria Alonso Merino; Jesús Javier Rojo González; Marta Rodríguez Cabrero

    2009-01-01

    Presentamos aquí un trabajo de investigación que relaciona el ejercicio físico realizado durante el segundo y tercer trimestre de embarazo con la salud general de recién nacido. Se llevó a cabo un trabajo experimental, del tipo de Casos y Controles, que incluyó un total de 142 mujeres gestantes, luego de entrevistar a 480 mujeres embarazadas en su primera consulta prenatal. El trabajo consistió en 3 clases semanales de 35 minutos cada una de ejercicio aeróbico de carácter moderado desarrollad...

  6. Predicción del motivo salud en el ejercicio físico en centros de fitness. [Prediction of health reason in physical exercise in fitness centers].

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Prieto-Vaello; Antonio Alias; Juan A. Moreno-Murcia

    2015-01-01

    El objetivo de este estudio fue comprobar si el apoyo de la autonomía, las necesidades psicológicas básicas y la motivación intrínseca predicen el motivo de práctica hacia la mejora o mantenimiento de la salud. La muestra estuvo compuesta por 602 practicantes de actividades dirigidas con ritmo coreografiados (zumba, aeróbic, step, fight box, batuka, danza contemporánea, flamenco, sevillanas y bailes latinos), a los que se midió el apoyo de autonomía, las necesidades psicológicas básicas, la m...

  7. Avaliação da qualidade do leite cru e resfriado mediante a aplicação de princípios do APPCC Evaluation of the quality of raw and cool milk using HACCP guidelines

    OpenAIRE

    Leonardo Souza da Rosa; Maria Isabel Queiroz

    2007-01-01

    O trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a qualidade do leite cru e resfriado produzido no município de Canguçu - RS, através da aplicação de princípios do APPCC. Inicialmente, aplicou-se um plano de amostragem simples conforme norma ABC-STD-105, sendo elaboradas cartas controle para os parâmetros redutase, mastite e temperatura. As amostras de leite foram avaliadas quanto aos parâmetros contagem de aeróbios mesófilos, psicrotróficos, redutase, acidez, mastite, índice crioscópico, prova do álcoo...

  8. Nuclear data activity at Atomic Energy Research Establishment, Savar, Dhaka

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nuclear data activity at AERE, Savar is briefly presented in this paper. Major thrust is on the customization of cross section libraries for general purpose reactor and shielding calculations. The processing codes that are available are NJOY91.91, some AMPX-Modules and the modules in SCALE-PC. Recent measurements on cross section data over the energy range 13-15 MeV at the Institute of Nuclear science and Technology have been reviewed. Measurements and calculations are based on the determination of excitation functions of neutron induced reactions on the elements and isotopes of FRT-relevant structural materials. (author)

  9. [Cortical responses evoked by vibrotactile sensations in deaf children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quaranta, A; Cipriani, D; Mininni, F

    1980-05-30

    Vibrotactile evoked responses (VER) to 250 and 500 Hz presented respectively at 50 and 70 dB HL by BC vibrator placed on right thumb, were recorded in 20 children (10 with pathological EEG) with severe sensorineural hearing loss, or deaf since birth, both to control accuracy of cortical responses to high intensity auditory stimuli and to diagnose central non auditory pathways lesions. The results have shown that: VER are present in subjects with severe sensorineural hearing loss or deaf; in children with auditory lesions VER have parameters different from auditory evoked response (AER); VER recording is not related both to the presence of auditory lesions and to neurological pathology. PMID:7448007

  10. La Necesidad de la Preparación Física en el Baile Flamenco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso Vargas Macías

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available El baile flamenco requiere grandes exigencias de esfuerzo para su desarrollo, equiparable a deportes de alto nivel. En cambio, los bailaores no dedican a la preparación física la atención suficiente: el trabajo de la resistencia aeróbica junto al fortalecimiento y estiramiento de determinados grupos musculares, deberían ser un mínimo imprescindible de entrenamiento como herramienta para mejorar su nivel físico y como prevención de lesiones.

  11. Efectos del envejecimiento en las capacidades físicas: implicaciones en las recomendaciones de ejercicio físico en personas mayores. (Effects of aging on physical fitness: implications in the recommendations of physical activity for older adults.)

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Carbonell Baeza; Aparicio García-Molina, Virginia A.; Manuel Delgado Fernández

    2009-01-01

    Resumen El envejecimiento produce una involución de las capacidades físicas que origina un deterioro del estado físico y una reducción de la funcionalidad personal. Conforme avanza la edad se produce una pérdida de fuerza, un descenso de la capacidad aeróbica y una reducción progresiva no lineal y específica por articulación y movimiento articular de la flexibilidad. Además, los desórdenes de equilibrio son frecuentes en las personas mayores, por lo que el trabajo de flexibilidad y equilibrio...

  12. Evolução do perfil neuromotor e capacidade funcional de mulheres fisicamente ativas de acordo com a idade cronológica Evolución del perfil neuromotor y la capacidad funcional de mujeres fisicamente activas de acuerdo con la edad cronológica Evolution of neuromotor profile and functional capacity of physically active women according to chronological age

    OpenAIRE

    Sandra Mahecha Matsudo; Victor K. R. Matsudo; Turíbio Leite Barros Neto; Timóteo Leandro Araújo

    2003-01-01

    FUNDAMENTOS E OBJETIVO: Poucos estudos longitudinais têm sido feitos em mulheres fisicamente ativas para determinar o impacto do envelhecimento na aptidão física e capacidade funcional. O objetivo deste estudo foi comparar a evolução do perfil neuromotor e capacidade funcional de mulheres ativas no período de um ano, de acordo com a idade cronológica. MÉTODOS: A amostra foi composta por 117 mulheres de 50 a 79 anos de idade (: 65 ± 6,6 anos) participantes de um programa de exercícios aeróbico...

  13. STERN -Educational Benefit for the Space Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Schüttauf, Katharina; Stamminger, Andreas; Lappöhn, Karsten; Ciezki, Helmut; Kitsche, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    STERN, the German word for star, is also an acronym for STudentische Experimental-RaketeN. It is a program to provide students with “hands-on” experience in space systems and research. This name was chosen for two reasons. The first reason was to emphasize the idealistic goals of spaceflight providing students with the opportunity to “reach for the stars”. The second and most important one was that the program offers engineering students a practical chance to experience the scope of aer...

  14. Perfil oxidativo de la mujer menopáusica: Papel de los estrógenos en la prevención y tratamiento de las enfermedades Oxidative Profile of the Menopausal Woman: Estrogens´ Rol in the Prevention and Treatment of Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Escalante-Gómez; Silvia Quesada-Mora; Fernando Zeledón-Sánchez

    2009-01-01

    El balance entre la producción de radicales libres de oxigeno y el nivel de enzimas antioxidantes es permanentemente regulado por la célula. Las enzimas antioxidantes son esenciales para las células aeróbicas, puesto que mantienen en niveles aceptables las concentraciones de especies químicas conocidas como radicales libres. Durante el climaterio o etapa perimenopáusica, el cuerpo y metabolismo de una mujer cambia de forma importante, y los mecanismos que regulan el estrés oxidativo no son la...

  15. Efecto de la administración de antioxidantes orales en las adaptaciones al ejercicio físico.

    OpenAIRE

    Doménech de Antonio, Elena

    2006-01-01

    RESUMEN Durante el ejercicio físico se producen radicales libres en el interior de la célula muscular. Éstos pueden actuar como señales reguladoras en diversas funciones fisiológicas del músculo, como por ejemplo su fuerza contráctil, su capacidad para generar ATP, etc Se sabe que el entrenamiento aeróbico empleando una determinada frecuencia, intensidad y duración, puede aumentar el contenido mitocondrial entre un 50% y un 100% en un período aproximado de seis semanas. E...

  16. Signos Vitales de los CDC La actividad física y los adultos con discapacidades (Vital Signs-Physical Activity and Adults with Disabilities)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-05-06

    Este podcast se basa en el informe Signos Vitales de los CDC de mayo del 2014. Los adultos con discapacidades que no hacen actividad física aeróbica tienen un 50 % más de probabilidades de tener enfermedades cardiacas, accidentes cerebrovasculares, diabetes o cáncer. Sepa qué puede hacer para ayudar.  Created: 5/6/2014 by National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities (NCBDDD).   Date Released: 5/6/2014.

  17. Há aumento do peso corporal nos finais de semana e nas festas de final de ano? Análise em participantes de programa de exercício supervisionado ¿Hay aumento del peso corporal en las fiestas de final de año? Análisis en participantes de un programa de ejercicio supervisado Are there increases on the body weight during weekends and New Year celebrations? Analysis on participants in a supervised exercise program

    OpenAIRE

    Paloma Gomes; Claudio Gil Soares de Araújo

    2004-01-01

    FUNDAMENTAÇÃO: Acredita-se que o peso corporal (PC) de adultos tende a aumentar fora dos dias úteis, seja pela maior ingestão ou pela redução de exercício. Objetivamos verificar se o PC aumenta nos finais de semana e nas festas de finais de ano. MÉTODOS: Analisamos, retrospectivamente, os dados de 53 adultos (36 homens), com idade entre 38 e 81 anos (64 ± 10), freqüentando um programa de exercício supervisionado - três a seis sessões semanais de 60 minutos, incluindo exercícios aeróbicos, de ...

  18. Caracterización del sistema regulador de dos componentes híbrido TolR en Azoarcus sp. CIB

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    La biodegradación bacteriana de compuestos aromáticos requiere que las células ajusten sus programas celulares para hacer frente al carácter dual de estos compuestos, ya que, si bien son una fuente de carbono y energía para los microorganismos, muchos de ellos son también un importante factor de estrés debido a su carácter tóxico. En esta tesis se ha utilizado como sistema modelo de estudio la β - proteobacteria Azoarcus sp. CIB, capaz de mineralizar tanto aeróbica como anae...

  19. Proposal of criteria for evaluation of engineering safety factors of VVER core parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper states that the regulatory documentation, as a rule, do not give explicit recommendations on formation techniques of engineering safety factors for design limited parameters of normal operation (Keng). The AER countries use different approaches to Keng evaluation (sometimes even one country in relation of various power units). The paper suggests the development of uniform rules to be used in calculation of engineering safety factor for all VVER reactors. The paper presents principal problems that must be solved in the course of the discussion, and in the form of an exercise suggests the way of their solution. (authors)

  20. Nucleation and growth of sulfate aerosol in coal-fired power plant plumes: sensitivity to background aerosol and meteorology

    OpenAIRE

    Stevens, R G; J. R. Pierce; Brock, C. A.; M. K. Reed; J. H. Crawford; J. S. Holloway; Ryerson, T. B.; L. G. Huey; Nowak, J. B.

    2011-01-01

    New-particle formation in the plumes of coal-fired power plants and other anthropogenic sulfur sources may be an important source of particles in the atmosphere. It remains unclear, however, how best to reproduce this formation in global and regional aerosol models with grid-box lengths that are 10 s of kilometers and larger. The predictive power of these models is thus limited by the resultant uncertainties in aerosol size distributions. In this paper, we focus on sub-grid sulfate aer...