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Sample records for aeolian islands italy

  1. Rare sulfosalts from vulcano, aeolian islands, Italy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinto, Daniela; Balic Zunic, Tonci; Bonaccorsi, Elena

    2006-01-01

    Cl-bearing galenobismutite (Cl ranging from 0.12 to 1.45 wt.%), discovered among high-temperature fumarole incrustations at "La Fossa" crater (Vulcano Island, Italy), has been chemically and structurally investigated. The mineral is commonly associated with bismuthinite, cannizzarite, lillianite......, heyrovskýite and galena; rarely with kirkiite, vurroite and some other less characterized Pb(Bi)-sulfochlorides. Electron-microprobe investigations show that Cl-bearing galenobismutite from Vulcano has a wide compositional field (Pb/Bi atomic ratio ranging from 0.52 to 0.72). The statistical analysis...... from ideal composition toward decreasing Pb (Pb/Bi atomic ratio 0.50 - 0.39). It reflects another type of substitution: 3Pb2+ à 2Bi3+ + ¿. X-ray single crystal investigations were performed on two selected crystals of Cl-bearing galenobismutite from Vulcano. The composition of galenobismutite controls...

  2. First occurrence of close-to-ideal Kirkiite at Vulcano (Aeolian Islands, Italy)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinto, Daniela; Balic-Zunic, Tonci; Garavelli, anna

    2006-01-01

    Samples of kirkiite from the high temperature fumaroles of La Fossa crater of Vulcano (Aeolian islands, Italy) were chemically and structurally investigated in this work. Associated minerals are vurroite, bismuthinite, galenobismutite, cannizzarite, lillianite, heyrovsk ite, galena, and other less...... of the close-to-ideal kirkiite from Vulcano has been compared with the structure of the type specimen. The comparison reveals a variation in As-Bi substitution, with samples from Vulcano probably being close to the maximum possible Bi and the minimum As content for this structure type. This is reflected...

  3. Seasonal variation of air kerma in the 'Vulcano Porto' area (Aeolian Islands, Italy)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellia, S.; Basile, S.; Brai, M.; Hauser, S.; Puccio, P.; Rizzo, S.

    2001-01-01

    Air kerma was measured in the 'Vulcano Porto' area of the Vulcano Island, belonging to the Aeolian Islands, in the Mediterranean Sea. Measurements were carried out using thermoluminescence dosimeters. The relationship between observed dose values and source lithology has been assessed. Data show a seasonal variation due to weather conditions but also probably related to features of the soils, making the variation more evident

  4. Seasonal variation of air kerma in the "Vulcano Porto" area (Aeolian Islands, Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellia, S; Basile, S; Brai, M; Hauser, S; Puccio, P; Rizzo, S

    2001-04-01

    Air kerma was measured in the "Vulcano Porto" area of the Vulcano Island, belonging to the Aeolian Islands, in the Mediterranean Sea. Measurements were carried out using thermoluminescence dosimeters. The relationship between observed dose values and source lithology has been assessed. Data show a seasonal variation due to weather conditions but also probably related to features of the soils, making the variation more evident.

  5. Structure refinement of Ag-free heyrovskýite from Vulcano (Aeolian Islands, Italy)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinto, Daniella; Balic Zunic, Tonci; Garavelli, Anna

    2011-01-01

    The first single-crystal structure refinement of Ag- and Cu-free heyrovskýite was performed in this study. Crystals investigated were sampled from the high-temperature fumaroles of La Fossa crater of Vulcano, Aeolian Islands, Italy. Electron microprobe analyses gave the average chemical formula (Pb...... with Fo > 4s(Fo). In Ag-free heyrovskýite from Vulcano, as well as in the synthetic Pb6Bi2S9, the trigonal prismatic coordinated position Me1, as well as the octahedrally coordinated position Me3 are occupied only by Pb. Me2, also octahedrally coordinated, is dominated by Pb, whereas the octahedra...... the ideal composition, Pb6Bi2S9. Selenium is preferentially ordered at the fivefold-coordinated anionic sites. Taking into account vacancies, as well as Se for S substitutions the structural formula of Ag-free heyrovskýite from Vulcano is Pb5.82Bi2.12¿0.06S8.70Se0.30. Comparison with the Ag...

  6. Comparative crystal-structure study of Ag-free lilliantite and galenobismutite from vulcano, Aeolian Islands, Italy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinto, Daniela; Balic Zunic, Tonci; Garavelli, Anna

    2006-01-01

    The crystal structures of natural Ag-free lillianite of fumarolic origin from Vulcano, Aeolian Islands, Italy, Pb2.88Bi2.12(S5.67 Se0.33)S6.00, with a 13.567(1), b 20.655(2), c 4.1216(4) Å, V 1155.0(2) Å3, space group Bbmm, Z = 4, and galenobismutite also from Vulcano, Pb1.00Bi2.03(S3.87Se0...

  7. "IlVulcanoInforma": The restyling of the INGV Volcanological Information Centres, Aeolian Islands, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Addezio, G.; Carapezza, M. L.; Riposati, D.; Team, L.

    2008-12-01

    Vulcano and Stromboli are the most active volcanoes of the Aeolian Islands. Vulcano is quiescent since the eruption of 1888-90 but in the last decades it experienced several crises with huge increase of gas output and temperature of the crater fumaroles, and variations in the magmatic gas components. Stromboli is characterized by a permanent mild explosive activity, episodically interrupted by major explosions, lava effusions, or paroxystic explosive events (October 2001: a tourist killed; December 2002: lava effusion, tsunami generated by flank collapse; April 2003: explosive paroxysm, block fallout on Ginostra village; February-March 2007: lava effusion and paroxysm). These islands are renowned tourist sites for the marvelous sea and the fascination that the volcanoes evoke. In fact, during summer risk increases as there are 10,000-15,000 persons per island (only a few hundreds in winter). Starting from the 1990 the INGV and the Civil Protection established a Volcanological Information Centre on each island with the main goal to inform population and tourists on the risks related to each volcano. During the year the two centres are visited by 8000-10,000 visitors coming from different countries. Researchers and trained students are involved in the educational activity devoted to inform visitors on the scientific aspects of volcano monitoring and hazard assessment and to ensure that tourists, willing to climb the summit crater area, will behave properly. In 2008 the Vulcano exhibition has been totally restyled. The INGV Laboratorio Grafica e Immagini has created for the project a composite and innovative graphic study. This includes a series of products (logos, brochures, panels ecc) with the intent to create new effective information means. The logo creation has been the first step for all the communications: an image with strong impact on volcano information distributed in strategic zones of the village to stimulate interest in the INGV centre and its exhibition.

  8. Shallow-water gaseohydrothermal plume studies after massive eruption at Panarea, Aeolian Islands, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tudino, T.; Bortoluzzi, G.; Aliani, S.

    2014-03-01

    Marine water dynamics in the near field of a massive gas eruption near Panarea (Aeolian Islands volcanic arc, SE Tyrrhenian Sea) is described. ADCP current-meters were deployed during the paroxysmal phase in 2002 and 2003 a few meters from the degassing vent, recording day-long time series. Datasets were sorted to remove errors and select good quality ensembles over the entire water column. Standard deviation of error velocity was considered a proxy for inhomogeneous velocity fields over beams. Time series intervals had been selected when the basic ADCP assumptions were fulfilled and random errors minimized. Backscatter data were also processed to identify bubbles in the water column with the aim of locating bubble-free ensembles. Reliable time series are selected combining these data. Two possible scenarios have been described: firstly, a highly dynamic situation with visible surface diverging rings of waves, entrainment on the lower part of the gas column, detrainment in the upper part and a stagnation line (SL) at mid depth where currents were close to zero and most of the gas bubbles spread laterally; secondly, a less dynamic situation with water entraining into the gas plume at all depths and no surface rings of diverging waves. Reasons for these different dynamics may be ascribed to changes in gas fluxes (one order of magnitude higher in 2002). Description of SL is important to quantify its position in the water column and timing for entrainment-detrainment, and it can be measured by ADCP and calculated from models.

  9. Seasonal variation of air kerma in the 'Vulcano Porto' area (Aeolian Islands, Italy)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bellia, S.; Basile, S.; Brai, M. E-mail: mbrai@unipa.it; Hauser, S.; Puccio, P.; Rizzo, S

    2001-02-01

    Air kerma was measured in the 'Vulcano Porto' area of the Vulcano Island, belonging to the Aeolian Islands, in the Mediterranean Sea. Measurements were carried out using thermoluminescence dosimeters. The relationship between observed dose values and source lithology has been assessed. Data show a seasonal variation due to weather conditions but also probably related to features of the soils, making the variation more evident.

  10. Melt inclusion: methods, applications and problem: Silica-rich melts in quartz xenoliths from Vulcano islands and their bearing on processes of crustal melting and crust-magma interaction in the Aeolian Arc, Italy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frezzotti, M.L.; Zavon, V.; Peccerillo, A.; Nikogosian, I.

    2002-01-01

    Silica-rich melts in quartz xenoliths from Vulcano islands and their bearing on processes of crustal melting and crust-magma interaction in the Aeolian Arc, Italy Proceedings of workshop Melt inclusion: methods, applications and problem. Napoli, Italy, September 2002, p. 71-73

  11. Applying and validating the PTVA-3 Model at the Aeolian Islands, Italy: assessment of the vulnerability of buildings to tsunamis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Dall'Osso

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The volcanic archipelago of the Aeolian Islands (Sicily, Italy is included on the UNESCO World Heritage list and is visited by more than 200 000 tourists per year. Due to its geological characteristics, the risk related to volcanic and seismic activity is particularly high. Since 1916 the archipelago has been hit by eight local tsunamis. The most recent and intense of these events happened on 30 December 2002. It was triggered by two successive landslides along the north-western side of the Stromboli volcano (Sciara del Fuoco, which poured approximately 2–3×107 m3 of rocks and debris into the Tyrrhenian Sea. The waves impacted across the whole archipelago, but most of the damage to buildings and infrastructures occurred on the islands of Stromboli (maximum run-up 11 m and Panarea.

    The aim of this study is to assess the vulnerability of buildings to damage from tsunamis located within the same area inundated by the 2002 event. The assessment is carried out by using the PTVA-3 Model (Papathoma Tsunami Vulnerability Assessment, version 3. The PTVA-3 Model calculates a Relative Vulnerability Index (RVI for every building, based on a set of selected physical and structural attributes. Run-up values within the area inundated by the 2002 tsunami were measured and mapped by the Istituto Italiano di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV and the University of Bologna during field surveys in January 2003. Results of the assessment show that if the same tsunami were to occur today, 54 buildings would be affected in Stromboli, and 5 in Panarea. The overall vulnerability level obtained in this analysis for Stromboli and Panarea are "average"/"low" and "very low", respectively. Nonetheless, 14 buildings in Stromboli are classified as having a "high" or "average" vulnerability. For some buildings, we were able to validate the RVI scores calculated by the PTVA-3 Model through a qualitative comparison with photographs taken by INGV and

  12. Aeromagnetic anomaly images of Vulcano and Southern Lipari Islands (Aeolian Archipelago, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Chiappini

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Newly acquired high-resolution, low-altitude aeromagnetic data over Vulcano Island and Southwestern Lipari in the Southern Tyrrhenian Sea resolve the major volcanic features in the area associated with the past and present activity. The magnetic character changes in amplitude and frequency from south-east to north-west. The Primordial Vulcano, the Lentia Complex, the Piano Caldera units, the Fossa Caldera deposits, and the currently active La Fossa cone and Vulcanello represent the main volcanic phases on Vulcano Island. They show a distinct magnetic anomaly pattern, whereas prior to this survey, no magnetic signatures of these features were found.

  13. Field {gamma}-ray spectrometry on the Vulcano island (Aeolian Arc, Italy)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiozzi, P.; Pasquale, V.; Russo, D.; Verdoya, M. [Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra, Universita di Genova, Genoa (Italy); De Felice, P. [Istituto Nazionale di Metrologica delle Radiazioni Ionizzanti ENEA, Dipartimento Ambiente, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Rome (Italy)

    1999-08-01

    In situ NaI(Tl) {gamma}-ray spectrometric measurements on the Vulcano island show that the magmatic evolution of the main structural units is reflected by the uranium, thorium and potassium concentrations. The results allowed us to delineate two temporal and radiometric districts. The older district comprises lava flows and pyroclastics of mafic composition forming the whole southern part of the island, with an equivalent uranium concentration and an eTh/eU ratio ranging, on average, from 2.9 to 3.4 ppm and from 2.4 to 4.1, respectively. Rocks of the younger district, ranging from leucitic tephritic and trachytic to rhyolitic composition, show higher K contents (about 6%) and more variable eTh/eU ratios (2.4-6.1)

  14. Field γ-ray spectrometry on the Vulcano island (Aeolian Arc, Italy)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiozzi, P.; Pasquale, V.; Russo, D.; Verdoya, M.; De Felice, P.

    1999-01-01

    In situ NaI(Tl) γ-ray spectrometric measurements on the Vulcano island show that the magmatic evolution of the main structural units is reflected by the uranium, thorium and potassium concentrations. The results allowed us to delineate two temporal and radiometric districts. The older district comprises lava flows and pyroclastics of mafic composition forming the whole southern part of the island, with an equivalent uranium concentration and an eTh/eU ratio ranging, on average, from 2.9 to 3.4 ppm and from 2.4 to 4.1, respectively. Rocks of the younger district, ranging from leucitic tephritic and trachytic to rhyolitic composition, show higher K contents (about 6%) and more variable eTh/eU ratios (2.4-6.1)

  15. Looking inside the Panarea Island (Aeolian Archipelago, Italy by gravity and magnetic data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Greco

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we show and discuss the results of gravity and magnetic surveys of Panarea Island and its archipelago. The most recent volcanic manifestation occurred in November 2002 with a shallow submarine gas eruption between the islets of Dattilo, Panarelli, Lisca Bianca, Bottaro and Lisca Nera. Currently, the activity of Panarea is monitored through a multidisciplinary study under the umbrella of the Italian Department of Civil Protection with the goal of defining the hazard of this area. With this aim, in May 2006 the first gravity and magnetic surveys of Panarea Island and its archipelago were performed. The offshore magnetic data were obtained using a marine magnetometer, a Geometrics G880, from the Istituto Idrografico dell Marina (IIM. Onshore and offshore magnetic data were integrated into an unique dataset for complete magnetic coverage of the study area. By using two micro-gravimeters (LaCoste & Romberg, gravity data were collected along tracks every 250 meters. The gravity dataset was processed using the standard method. A Bouguer reduction was applied to the free-air gravity dataset using a detailed digital elevation model of the island and the neighbouring sea after evaluation of the optimal Bouguer density to reduce the topographic effect. The result is a Bouguer anomaly map that shows lateral variations in density distribution and the relationships between the shallow volcanic/crustal features and tectonic lineaments. This evidence is also highlighted by the magnetic pattern, which suggests the importance of the youngest volcanic deposits with respect to the magnetic features of the island.

  16. Genesis and evolution of the fumaroles of vulcano (Aeolian Islands, Italy): a geochemical model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carapezza, M.; Nuccio, P. M.; Valenza, M.

    1981-09-01

    A geochemical model explaining the presence of fumaroles having different gas composition and temperature at the top of the crater and along the northeastern coast of Vulcano island is proposed. A pressurized biphase (liquid-vapor) reservoir at the depth of about 2 km is hypothesized. Energy and mass balance sheets control P-T conditions in the system. P-T must vary along a boiling curve of brine as liquid is present. The CO2 content in the steam is governed by the thermodynamic properties of the fluids in the H2-NaCl-CO2 system. On the assumption that oxygen fugacity in the system is between the HM-FMQ oxygen buffers, observed SO2/H2S, CO2/CO, CO/CH4 ratios in the fumarolic gases at the Fossa crater appear in equilibrium with a temperature higher than that observed, such as may exist at depth. The more reduced gas phases present on the sea-side may result from re-equilibrium processes in shallower aquifers. The suggested model would help in monitoring changes in volcanic activity by analyzing fumarolic gases.

  17. Temporal evolution of the Western and Central volcanism of the Aeolian Island Arc (Italy, southern Tyrhhenian Sea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leocat, E.; Gillot, P.-Y.; Peccerillo, A.

    2009-04-01

    The Aeolian Archipelago is a volcanic arc in the Southern Tyrrhenian Sea located on the continental margin of the Calabro-Peloritan basement. The Aeolian volcanism occurs in a very complex geodynamic setting linked to the convergence of the European and African plates. For that reason, it is strongly related to regional tectonic lineaments, such as the NW-SE trending Tindari-Letojani (TL) fault. The archipelago consists of seven main islands and several seamounts, which extend around the Marsili Basin, forming a ring-like shape, typical for an island arc. While the seamounts began their activities around 1 Ma , the emerged part is active since about 400 ka. The magmatic products of the whole arc range from typical island arc calc-alkaline (CA) and shoshonitic series, to slightly silica undersaturated potassic alkaline series that are typical of post-collisional settings. Furthermore, the TL fault, along which the Lipari and Vulcano islands are developed, separates a calc-alkaline western sector (Alicudi, Filicudi and Salina islands) from the calc-alkaline to potassic eastern system (Panarea and Stromboli islands) (Peccerillo,1999). This makes of the Aeolian Islands a complex volcanism, with a still controversial origin. In this context, the aim of this work is to constrain the sources and spatio-temporal evolution of this magmatism. We present here new K-Ar ages based on the accurate Cassignol-Gillot technique devoted to the dating of very young rocks (Gillot et Cornette, 1986). These geochronological data were used together with new geochemical data on the same samples. In this study, we attempt to understand the origin of those magmatic events and the relationship between the deep processes and the shallow structures. Our results allow us to define specific periods of very quick geomechemical changes. In the case of Filicudi island, the first rocks range in composition from CA basalts to andesites. This period ended with the edification of the Mte Guardia at 189

  18. A new chromosomal race of the house mouse, Mus musculus domesticus, in the Vulcano Island-Aeolian Archipelago, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solano, Emanuela; Castiglia, Riccardo; Corti, Marco

    2007-07-01

    In this paper we describe a new Robertsonian (Rb) race of the house mouse from Vulcano (Aeolian archipelago) through the identification of the metacentric chromosomes. We analysed fifteen mice. All the specimens were found to have the same karyotype 2n=26. This karyotype is characterized by Rb(1.2), Rb(3.9), Rb(4.13), Rb(5.14), Rb(8.12), Rb(10.16) and Rb(15.17). The differences between the race of Vulcano and the races in a neighbour island (Lipari) consist in the presence of Rb(10.16) and Rb(15.17) in the former and Rb(6.16) and Rb(10.15) in the latter. We discuss the possible hypotheses regarding the origin between these two races including the possible occurrence of a whole arm reciprocal translocation (WART) on the Vulcano island.

  19. Chemical and isotopic compositions of water and dissolved sulfate from shallow wells on Vulcano Island, Aeolian Archipelago, Italy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cortecci, G.; Dinelli, E.; Boschetti, T. [University of Bologna (Italy). Dept. of Earth and Geological Environmental Sciences; Bolognesi, L. [International Institute for Geothermal Research, Pisa (Italy); Ferrara, G. [University of Pisa (Italy). Dept. of Earth Sciences

    2001-02-01

    Twenty-two cold and thermal waters from shallow wells sampled in June 1995 in the Vulcano Porto area, Vulcano Island, were analyzed for major and minor chemical constituents, oxygen and hydrogen isotopes and tritium contents, and sulfur isotopes in the dissolved sulfate. The sulfur isotopic composition of the dissolved sulfate ranges between + 0.6 and + 6.5 per mille (mean + 3.7{+-}1.7 per mille), and is interpreted as deriving mainly from fumarolic SO{sub 2} undergoing oxidation in deep and shallow aquifers, with possible minor contributions from oxidation of H{sub 2}S. Dissolution of secondary anhydrite may have been a minor source of the isotopically heavy aqueous sulfate in the cold groundwaters. The chemical and isotopic features of the waters support previous interpretative hydrologic models of Vulcano Porto, which comprise a number of aquifers fed basically by two major end-members, i.e. meteoric water and crater-type fumarolic inputs, the latter in the form of absorbed emissions or condensate. These data, along with the sulfur isotopes of aqueous sulfate, exclude involvement of seawater in the recharge of the groundwater system of the island. (author)

  20. Volcanogenic SO2, a natural pollutant: Measurements, modeling and hazard assessment at Vulcano Island (Aeolian Archipelago, Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granieri, Domenico; Vita, Fabio; Inguaggiato, Salvatore

    2017-12-01

    Sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ) is a major component of magmatic gas discharges. Once emitted in the atmosphere it can affect the air and land environment at different spatial and temporal scales, with harmful effects on human health and plant communities. We used a dense dataset of continuous SO 2 flux and meteorological measurements collected at Vulcano over an 8-year period spanning from May 2008 to February 2016 to model air SO 2 concentrations over the island. To this end, we adopted the DISGAS (DISpersion of GAS) numerical code coupled with the Diagnostic Wind Model (DWM). SO 2 concentrations in air were determined for three different SO 2 emission rates: a reference SO 2 flux of ∼18 t/d (the median of more than 800 measurements), an enhanced SO 2 flux of 40 t/d (average of all measurements plus 1 σ), and a maximum SO 2 flux of 106 t/d (maximum value measured in the investigated period). Maximum SO 2 concentrations in air were estimated at the crater, near the high-T fumarole field that is the source of the gas, and ranged from 2000 ppb to ∼24,000 ppb for the reference flux, from 2000 ppb to 51,000 ppb for the enhanced flux and from 5000 ppb to 136,000 ppb for the maximum flux, with peak values in limited areas at the bottom of the crater. These concentrations pose a hazard for people visiting the crater, for sensitive individuals in particular. Based on estimated SO 2 concentrations in air, we also consider the phytotoxic effects of SO 2 on local vegetation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The island of Lipari (Aeolian archipelago, Italy). Preliminary distribution and evaluation of the significative elements pertaining to the environmental, floristic and faunistic patrimony; Distribuzione e valutazione preliminare di biotipi, flora e fauna: l'Isola di Lipari (Arcipelago Eoliano)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Ayala, A. [Parma Univ., Parma (Italy). Dipt. di Scienze Ambientali

    2000-02-01

    The island of Lipari (Italy), with the larger territorial extension and human impact in the Aeolian archipelago, shows a remarkable naturalistic resources richness and it was recently studied with the Italian program Carta della Natura (national law 394/91). In order to identify and prioritize areas for protection planning, are here presented some preliminary results concerning the conservation status, the spatial distribution of habitats of European importance (EU Habitat Directive 43/92), floristic and faunistic elements classified as threatened in Italy (IUCN categories), with reference to the ecological sensibility, anthropic pressure and also the main problems related the natural reserve in way of institution. [Italian] L'articolo presenta uno studio di valutazione ambientale relativo alla distribuzione dei biotipi, della flora e della fauna dell'isola di Lipari, inerente al programma nazionale Carta della Natura (L. 394/91). Vengono discussi alcuni aspetti significativi connessi all'importanza della conservazione degli habitat dell'isola, con riferimento alle problematiche della futura riserva.

  2. Bulk rock composition and geochemistry of olivine-hosted melt inclusions in the Grey Porri Tuff and selected lavas of the Monte dei Porri volcano, Salina, Aeolian Islands, southern Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doherty, Angela L.; Bodnar, Robert J.; De Vivo, Benedetto; Bohrson, Wendy A.; Belkin, Harvey E.; Messina, Antonia; Tracy, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    The Aeolian Islands are an arcuate chain of submarine seamounts and volcanic islands, lying just north of Sicily in southern Italy. The second largest of the islands, Salina, exhibits a wide range of compositional variation in its erupted products, from basaltic lavas to rhyolitic pumice. The Monte dei Porri eruptions occurred between 60 ka and 30 ka, following a period of approximately 60,000 years of repose. The bulk rock composition of the Monte dei Porri products range from basaltic-andesite scoria to andesitic pumice in the Grey Porri Tuff (GPT), with the Monte dei Porri lavas having basaltic-andesite compositions. The typical mineral assemblage of the GPT is calcic plagioclase, clinopyroxene (augite), olivine (Fo72−84) and orthopyroxene (enstatite) ± amphibole and Ti-Fe oxides. The lava units show a similar mineral assemblage, but contain lower Fo olivines (Fo57−78). The lava units also contain numerous glomerocrysts, including an unusual variety that contains quartz, K-feldspar and mica. Melt inclusions (MI) are ubiquitous in all mineral phases from all units of the Monte dei Porri eruptions; however, only data from olivine-hosted MI in the GPT are reported here. Compositions of MI in the GPT are typically basaltic (average SiO2 of 49.8 wt %) in the pumices and basaltic-andesite (average SiO2 of 55.6 wt %) in the scoriae and show a bimodal distribution in most compositional discrimination plots. The compositions of most of the MI in the scoriae overlap with bulk rock compositions of the lavas. Petrological and geochemical evidence suggest that mixing of one or more magmas and/or crustal assimilation played a role in the evolution of the Monte dei Porri magmatic system, especially the GPT. Analyses of the more evolved mineral phases are required to better constrain the evolution of the magma.

  3. Occurrence of Somma-Vesuvio fine ashes in the tephrostratigraphic record of Panarea, Aeolian Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donatella, De Rita; Daniela, Dolfi; Corrado, Cimarelli

    2008-10-01

    Ash-rich tephra layers interbedded in the pyroclastic successions of Panarea island (Aeolian archipelago, Southern Italy) have been analyzed and related to their original volcanic sources. One of these tephra layers is particularly important as it can be correlated by its chemical and morphoscopic characteristics to the explosive activity of Somma-Vesuvio. Correlation with the Pomici di Base eruption, that is considered one of the largest explosive events causing the demolition of the Somma stratovolcano, seems the most probable. The occurrence on Panarea island of fine ashes related to this eruption is of great importance for several reasons: 1) it allows to better constrain the time stratigraphy of the Panarea volcano; 2) it provides a useful tool for tephrochronological studies in southern Italy and finally 3) it allows to improve our knowledge on the distribution of the products of the Pomici di Base eruption giving new insights on the dispersion trajectories of fine ashes from plinian plumes. Other exotic tephra layers interbedded in the Panarea pyroclastic successions have also been found. Chemical and sedimentological characteristics of these layers allow their correlation with local vents from the Aeolian Islands thus constraining the late explosive activity of Panarea dome.

  4. Magmatic control along a strike-slip volcanic arc: The central Aeolian arc (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruch, J.; Vezzoli, L.; De Rosa, R.; Di Lorenzo, R.; Acocella, V.

    2016-02-01

    The regional stress field in volcanic areas may be overprinted by that produced by magmatic activity, promoting volcanism and faulting. In particular, in strike-slip settings, the definition of the relationships between the regional stress field and magmatic activity remains elusive. To better understand these relationships, we collected stratigraphic, volcanic, and structural field data along the strike-slip central Aeolian arc (Italy): here the islands of Lipari and Vulcano separate the extensional portion of the arc (to the east) from the contractional one (to the west). We collected >500 measurements of faults, extension fractures, and dikes at 40 sites. Most structures are NNE-SSW to NNW-SSE oriented, eastward dipping, and show almost pure dip-slip motion, consistent with an E-W extension direction, with minor dextral and sinistral shear. Our data highlight six eruptive periods during the last 55 ka, which allow considering both islands as a single magmatic system, in which tectonic and magmatic activities steadily migrated eastward and currently focus on a 10 km long × 2 km wide active segment. Faulting appears to mostly occur in temporal and spatial relation with magmatic events, supporting that most of the observable deformation derives from transient magmatic activity (shorter term, days to months), rather than from steady longer-term regional tectonics (102-104 years). More in general, the central Aeolian case shows how magmatic activity may affect the structure and evolution of volcanic arcs, overprinting any strike-slip motion with magma-induced extension at the surface.

  5. Magmatic control along a strike-slip volcanic arc: The central Aeolian arc (Italy)

    KAUST Repository

    Ruch, Joel

    2016-01-23

    The regional stress field in volcanic areas may be overprinted by that produced by magmatic activity, promoting volcanism and faulting. In particular, in strike-slip settings, the definition of the relationships between the regional stress field and magmatic activity remains elusive. To better understand these relationships, we collected stratigraphic, volcanic and structural field data along the strike-slip Central Aeolian arc (Italy): here the islands of Lipari and Vulcano separate the extensional portion of the arc (to the east) from the contractional one (to the west). We collected >500 measurements of faults, extension fractures and dikes at 40 sites. Most structures are NNE-SSW to NNW-SSE oriented, eastward dipping, and show almost pure dip-slip motion; consistent with an E-W extension direction, with minor dextral and sinistral shear. Our data highlight six eruptive periods during the last 55 ka, which allow considering both islands as a single magmatic system, in which tectonic and magmatic activity steadily migrated eastward and currently focus on a 10 km long x 2 km wide active segment. Faulting appears to mostly occur in temporal and spatial relation with magmatic events, supporting that most of the observable deformation derives from transient magmatic activity (shorter-term, days to months), rather than from steady longer-term regional tectonics (102-104 years). More in general, the Central Aeolian case shows how magmatic activity may affect the structure and evolution of volcanic arcs, overprinting any strike-slip motion with magma-induced extension at the surface.

  6. Continuous in situ measurements of volcanic gases with a diode-laser-based spectrometer: CO2 and H2O concentration and soil degassing at Vulcano (Aeolian islands: Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Natale Paolo

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We report on a continuous-measurement campaign carried out in Vulcano (Aeolian islands, Sicily, devoted to the simultaneous monitoring of CO2 and H2O concentrations. The measurements were performed with an absorption spectrometer based on a semiconductor laser source emitting around a 2-μm wavelength. The emitted radiation was selectively absorbed by two molecular ro-vibrational transitions specific of the investigated species. Data for CO2 and H2O concentrations, and CO2 soil diffusive flux using an accumulation chamber configuration, were collected at several interesting sampling points on the island (Porto Levante beach- PLB, Fossa Grande Crater – FOG- and Valley of Palizzi, PAL. CO2/H2O values, measured on the ground, are very similar (around 0.019 (± 0.006 and comparable to the previous discrete detected values of 0.213 (Fumarole F5-La Fossa crater rim and 0.012 (Fumarole VFS – Baia Levante beach obtaid during the 1977–1993 heating phase of the crater fumaroles. In this work much more homogeneous values are found in different points of the three sites investigated. The field work, although carried out in a limited time window (25th–28th August 2004, pointed out the new apparatus is suitable for continuous gas monitoring of the two species and their ratios, which are important geochemical indicators of volcanic activity, for which other reliable continuous monitoring systems are not yet available.

  7. Continuous in situ measurements of volcanic gases with a diode-laser-based spectrometer: CO2 and H2O concentration and soil degassing at Vulcano (Aeolian islands: Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Rosa, Maurizio; Gagliardi, Gianluca; Rocco, Alessandra; Somma, Renato; De Natale, Paolo; De Natale, Giuseppe

    2007-04-20

    We report on a continuous-measurement campaign carried out in Vulcano (Aeolian islands, Sicily), devoted to the simultaneous monitoring of CO2 and H2O concentrations. The measurements were performed with an absorption spectrometer based on a semiconductor laser source emitting around a 2-microm wavelength. The emitted radiation was selectively absorbed by two molecular ro-vibrational transitions specific of the investigated species. Data for CO2 and H2O concentrations, and CO2 soil diffusive flux using an accumulation chamber configuration, were collected at several interesting sampling points on the island (Porto Levante beach- PLB, Fossa Grande Crater - FOG- and Valley of Palizzi, PAL). CO2/H2O values, measured on the ground, are very similar (around 0.019 (+/- 0.006)) and comparable to the previous discrete detected values of 0.213 (Fumarole F5-La Fossa crater rim) and 0.012 (Fumarole VFS - Baia Levante beach) obtaid during the 1977-1993 heating phase of the crater fumaroles. In this work much more homogeneous values are found in different points of the three sites investigated. The field work, although carried out in a limited time window (25th-28th August 2004), pointed out the new apparatus is suitable for continuous gas monitoring of the two species and their ratios, which are important geochemical indicators of volcanic activity, for which other reliable continuous monitoring systems are not yet available.

  8. Transient magmatic control in a tectonic domain: the central Aeolian volcanic arc (South Italy)

    KAUST Repository

    Ruch, Joel; Vezzoli, Luigina; Di Lorenzo, Riccardo; De Rosa, Rosanna; Acocella, Valerio

    2015-01-01

    The background stress field in volcanic areas may be overprinted by that produced by transient magmatic intrusions, generating local faulting. These events are rarely monitored and thus not fully understood, generating debate about the role of magma and tectonics in any geodynamic setting. Here we carried out a field structural analysis on the NNW-SSE strike-slip system of the central Aeolian Arc, Italy (Lipari and Vulcano islands) with ages constrained by stratigraphy to better capture the tectonic and magmatic evolution at the local and regional scales. We consider both islands as a single magmatic system and define 5 principal stratigraphic units based on magmatic and tectonic activity. We collected >500 measurements of faults, extension fractures and dikes at 40 sites, mostly NNE-SSW to NNW-SSE oriented with a dominant NS orientation. These structures are governed quasi exclusively by pure dip-slip motion, consistent with an E-W extension direction, with minor dextral and sinistral slip, the latter being mostly related to old deposits (>50 ka). We further reconstructed the evolution of the Vulcano-Lipari system during the last ~20 ka and find that it consists of an overall half-graben-like structure, with faults with predominant eastward dips. Field evidence suggests that faulting occurs often in temporal and spatial relation with magmatic events, suggesting that most of the observable deformation derived from transient magmatic activity, rather than from steady regional tectonics. To explain the dominant magmatic and episodic extension in a tectonic dominant domain, we propose a model where the regional N-S trending maximum horizontal stress, responsible for strike-slip activity, locally rotates to vertical in response to transient pressurization of the magmatic system and magma rise below Lipari and Vulcano. This has possibly generated the propagation of N-S trending dikes in the past 1 ka along a 10 km long by 1 km wide crustal corridor, with important

  9. Transient magmatic control in a tectonic domain: the central Aeolian volcanic arc (South Italy)

    KAUST Repository

    Ruch, Joel

    2015-04-01

    The background stress field in volcanic areas may be overprinted by that produced by transient magmatic intrusions, generating local faulting. These events are rarely monitored and thus not fully understood, generating debate about the role of magma and tectonics in any geodynamic setting. Here we carried out a field structural analysis on the NNW-SSE strike-slip system of the central Aeolian Arc, Italy (Lipari and Vulcano islands) with ages constrained by stratigraphy to better capture the tectonic and magmatic evolution at the local and regional scales. We consider both islands as a single magmatic system and define 5 principal stratigraphic units based on magmatic and tectonic activity. We collected >500 measurements of faults, extension fractures and dikes at 40 sites, mostly NNE-SSW to NNW-SSE oriented with a dominant NS orientation. These structures are governed quasi exclusively by pure dip-slip motion, consistent with an E-W extension direction, with minor dextral and sinistral slip, the latter being mostly related to old deposits (>50 ka). We further reconstructed the evolution of the Vulcano-Lipari system during the last ~20 ka and find that it consists of an overall half-graben-like structure, with faults with predominant eastward dips. Field evidence suggests that faulting occurs often in temporal and spatial relation with magmatic events, suggesting that most of the observable deformation derived from transient magmatic activity, rather than from steady regional tectonics. To explain the dominant magmatic and episodic extension in a tectonic dominant domain, we propose a model where the regional N-S trending maximum horizontal stress, responsible for strike-slip activity, locally rotates to vertical in response to transient pressurization of the magmatic system and magma rise below Lipari and Vulcano. This has possibly generated the propagation of N-S trending dikes in the past 1 ka along a 10 km long by 1 km wide crustal corridor, with important

  10. Continuous SO2 flux measurements for Vulcano Island, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Vita

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The La Fossa cone of Vulcano Island (Aeolian Archipelago, Italy is a closed conduit volcano. Today, Vulcano Island is characterized by sulfataric activity, with a large fumarolic field that is mainly located in the summit area. A scanning differential optical absorption spectroscopy instrument designed by the Optical Sensing Group of Chalmers University of Technology in Göteborg, Sweden, was installed in the framework of the European project "Network for Observation of Volcanic and Atmospheric Change", in March 2008. This study presents the first dataset of SO2 plume fluxes recorded for a closed volcanic system. Between 2008 and 2010, the SO2 fluxes recorded showed average values of 12 t.d–1 during the normal sulfataric activity of Vulcano Island, with one exceptional event of strong degassing that occurred between September and December, 2009, when the SO2 emissions reached up to 100 t.d–1.

  11. Merging field mapping and numerical simulation to interpret the lithofacies variations from unsteady pyroclastic density currents on uneven terrain: The case of La Fossa di Vulcano (Aeolian Islands, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doronzo, Domenico M.; Dellino, Pierfrancesco; Sulpizio, Roberto; Lucchi, Federico

    2017-01-01

    In order to obtain results from computer simulations of explosive volcanic eruptions, one either needs a statistical approach to test a wide range of initial and boundary conditions, or needs using a well-constrained field case study via stratigraphy. Here we followed the second approach, using data obtained from field mapping of the Grotta dei Palizzi 2 pyroclastic deposits (Vulcano Island, Italy) as input for numerical modeling. This case study deals with impulsive phreatomagmatic explosions of La Fossa Cone that generated ash-rich pyroclastic density currents, interacting with the topographic high of the La Fossa Caldera rim. One of the simplifications in dealing with well-sorted ash (one particle size in the model) is to highlight the topographic effects on the same pyroclastic material in an unsteady current. We demonstrate that by merging field data with 3D numerical simulation results it is possible to see key details of the dynamical current-terrain interaction, and to interpret the lithofacies variations of the associated deposits as a function of topography-induced sedimentation (settling) rate. Results suggest that a value of the sedimentation rate lower than 5 kg/m2 s at the bed load can still be sheared by the overlying current, producing tractional structures (laminae) in the deposits. Instead, a sedimentation rate higher than that threshold can preclude the formation of tractional structures, producing thicker massive deposits. We think that the approach used in this study could be applied to other case studies (both for active and ancient volcanoes) to confirm or refine such threshold value of the sedimentation rate, which is to be considered as an upper value as for the limitations of the numerical model.

  12. Plastic litter in sediments from a marine area likely to become protected (Aeolian Archipelago's islands, Tyrrhenian sea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fastelli, Paolo; Blašković, Andrea; Bernardi, Giulia; Romeo, Teresa; Čižmek, Hrvoje; Andaloro, Franco; Russo, Giovanni F; Guerranti, Cristiana; Renzi, Monia

    2016-12-15

    This research aims to define for the first time levels and patterns of different litter groups (macro, meso and microplastics) in sediments from a marine area designed for the institution of a new marine protected area (Aeolian Archipelago, Italy). Microplastics resulted the principal group and found in all samples analyzed, with shape and colours variable between different sampling sites. MPs levels measured in this study are similar to values recorded in harbour sites and lower than reported in Adriatic Sea, while macroplastics levels are notably lower than in harbor sites. Sediment grain-size and island extent resulted not significant in determining levels and distribution of plastic debris among islands. In the future, following the establishment of the MPA in the study area, these basic data will be useful to check for potential protective effects on the levels and distribution of plastic debris. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Urban-touristic impacts on the aeolian sedimentary systems of the Canary Islands: conflict between development and conservation

    OpenAIRE

    Leví García-Romero; Antonio I. Hernández-Cordero; Elisabeth Fernández-Cabrera; Carolina Peña-Alonso; Luis Hernández-Calvento; Emma Pérez-Chacón

    2016-01-01

    Aeolian sedimentary systems in the Canary Islands differ significantly from other European and African systems due to their natural characteristics (climate, vegetation and insular isolation). Consequently, their geomorphological processes are unique. In turn, they are areas under high human pressure from touristic development. The aim of this paper is to analyze the impacts of urban-touristic development in four aeolian sedimentary systems in the Canaries: Maspalomas, Corralejo, Lambra and J...

  14. Seismicity Pattern Changes before the M = 4.8 Aeolian Archipelago (Italy Earthquake of August 16, 2010

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    Salvatore Gambino

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the seismicity patterns associated with an M=4.8 earthquake recorded in the Aeolian Archipelago on 16, August, 2010, by means of the region-time-length (RTL algorithm. This earthquake triggered landslides at Lipari; a rock fall on the flanks of the Vulcano, Lipari, and Salina islands, and some damages to the village of Lipari. The RTL algorithm is widely used for investigating precursory seismicity changes before large and moderate earthquakes. We examined both the spatial and temporal characteristics of seismicity changes in the Aeolian Archipelago region before the M=4.8 earthquake. The results obtained reveal 6-7 months of seismic quiescence which started about 15 months before the earthquake. The spatial distribution shows an extensive area characterized by seismic quiescence that suggests a relationship between quiescence and the Aeolian Archipelago regional tectonics.

  15. Spatial Distribution of Field Physico-Chemical Parameters in the Vulcano Island (Italy) Coastal Aquifer: Volcanological and Hydrogeological Implications

    OpenAIRE

    Paolo Madonia; Giorgio Capasso; Rocco Favara; Salvatore Francofonte; Paolo Tommasi

    2015-01-01

    Vulcano, the southernmost of the Aeolian island arc (Italy), is characterized by a shallow coastal aquifer resulting from the mixing of seawater, meteoric recharge and volcanogenic fluids. The aquifer has been intensively studied during the last decades, but a comprehensive hydrogeological model has never been developed due to the lack of direct information about the litho-stratigraphic columns of the wells and the depth of water bearing levels. We present and discuss here the ...

  16. Mercury emissions and stable isotopic compositions at Vulcano Island (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zambardi, T.; Sonke, J. E.; Toutain, J. P.; Sortino, F.; Shinohara, H.

    2009-01-01

    Sampling and analyses methods for determining the stable isotopic compositions of Hg in an active volcanic system were tested and optimized at the volcanic complex of Vulcano (Aeolian Islands, Italy). Condensed gaseous fumarole Hg (fum)T, plume gaseous elemental Hg (g)0 and plume particulate Hg (p)II were obtained at fumaroles F0, F5, F11, and FA. The average total Hg emissions, based on Hg T/SO 2 in condensed fumarolic gases and plumes, range from 2.5 to 10.1 kg y - 1 , in agreement with published values [Ferrara, R., Mazzolai, B., Lanzillotta, E., Nucaro, E., Pirrone, N., 2000. Volcanoes as emission sources of atmospheric mercury in the Mediterranean Basin. Sci. Total Environ. 259(1-3), 115-121; Aiuppa, A., Bagnato, E., Witt, M.L.I., Mather, T.A., Parello, F., Pyle, D.M., Martin, R.S., 2007. Real-time simultaneous detection of volcanic Hg and SO 2 at La Fossa Crater, Vulcano (Aeolian Islands, Sicily). Geophys. Res. Lett. 34(L21307).]. Plume Hg (p)II increases with distance from the fumarole vent, at the expense of Hg (g)0 and indicates significant in-plume oxidation and condensation of fumarole Hg (fum)T. Relative to the NIST SRM 3133 Hg standard, the stable isotopic compositions of Hg are δ 202Hg (fum)T = - 0.74‰ ± 0.18 (2SD, n = 4) for condensed gaseous fumarole Hg (fum)T, δ 202Hg (g)0 = - 1.74‰ ± 0.36 (2SD, n = 1) for plume gaseous elemental Hg (g)0 at the F0 fumarole, and δ 202Hg (p)II = - 0.11‰ ± 0.18 (2SD, n = 4) for plume particulate Hg (p)II. The enrichment of Hg (p)II in the heavy isotopes and Hg (g)0 in the light isotopes relative to the total condensed fumarolic Hg (fum)T gas complements the speciation data and demonstrates a gas-particle fractionation occurring after the gas expulsion in ambient T° atmosphere. A first order Rayleigh equilibrium condensation isotope fractionation model yields a fractionation factor α cond-gas of 1.00135 ± 0.00058.

  17. Urban-touristic impacts on the aeolian sedimentary systems of the Canary Islands: conflict between development and conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leví García-Romero

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Aeolian sedimentary systems in the Canary Islands differ significantly from other European and African systems due to their natural characteristics (climate, vegetation and insular isolation. Consequently, their geomorphological processes are unique. In turn, they are areas under high human pressure from touristic development. The aim of this paper is to analyze the impacts of urban-touristic development in four aeolian sedimentary systems in the Canaries: Maspalomas, Corralejo, Lambra and Jable Sur. Spatial and surface changes of variables related to geomorphology and vegetation are obtained by photo-interpretation of historical aerial photography and current orthophotos. The results indicate that the systems affected by urban-touristic development have experienced significant environmental changes. In contrast, the systems that have not been affected by building and construction of infrastructure show minor changes.

  18. Natural {gamma}-radiation of rocks and soils from Vulcano (Aeolian Islands, Mediteranean Sea)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brai, M. [Palermo Univ. (Italy). Ist. della Biocomunicazione; Hauser, S.; Bellia, S. [Palermo Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Mineralogia, Petrografia e Geochimica; Puccio, P.; Rizzo, S. [Palermo Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Ingegneria Nucleare

    1995-04-01

    Gamma-ray spectra of the main lithotypes and soils from Vulcano island (Mediterranean Sea) have been carried out in order to quantify the natural radioactivity. The {sup 238}U, {sup 232}Th, and {sup 40}K contents obtained are in agreement with the genesis of the rock formation. In fact, basaltic rocks showed the lowest content of radionuclides whereas the rhyolitic rocks showed the highest concentrations. The results are comparable with other volcanic areas of southern Italy. Measurements of absorbed dose in air by TL dosimeters were also performed. The values ranged between 0.5 and 2.0 mGy y{sup -1}. Comparison between these values and those computed from {gamma}-ray spectra showed a good correlation. (author).

  19. Natural γ-radiation of rocks and soils from Vulcano (Aeolian Islands, Mediteranean Sea)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brai, M.; Hauser, S.; Bellia, S.; Puccio, P.; Rizzo, S.

    1995-01-01

    Gamma-ray spectra of the main lithotypes and soils from Vulcano island (Mediterranean Sea) have been carried out in order to quantify the natural radioactivity. The 238 U, 232 Th, and 40 K contents obtained are in agreement with the genesis of the rock formation. In fact, basaltic rocks showed the lowest content of radionuclides whereas the rhyolitic rocks showed the highest concentrations. The results are comparable with other volcanic areas of southern Italy. Measurements of absorbed dose in air by TL dosimeters were also performed. The values ranged between 0.5 and 2.0 mGy y -1 . Comparison between these values and those computed from γ-ray spectra showed a good correlation. (author)

  20. Magmatic control along a strike-slip volcanic arc: The central Aeolian arc (Italy)

    KAUST Repository

    Ruch, Joel; Vezzoli, L.; De Rosa, R.; Di Lorenzo, R.; Acocella, V

    2016-01-01

    -slip motion; consistent with an E-W extension direction, with minor dextral and sinistral shear. Our data highlight six eruptive periods during the last 55 ka, which allow considering both islands as a single magmatic system, in which tectonic and magmatic

  1. Complex Social Structure of an Endangered Population of Bottlenose Dolphins (Tursiops truncatus in the Aeolian Archipelago (Italy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica F Blasi

    Full Text Available We investigated social structure and association patterns for a small population of Mediterranean bottlenose dolphins, Tursiops truncatus, inhabiting the Aeolian Archipelago (southern Italy. Specifically we evaluate the role of sex and age composition, residency patterns and interaction with trammel nets on this social organization. Association data for 23 regularly sighted individuals were obtained from summer photoidentification surveys collected from 2005-2012. Using a combined cluster and social network analysis approach, we found associations between dolphins were hierarchically structured, where two mixed-sex social units were subdivided into smaller temporarily dynamic groups. We found non-random and long-term preferred associations in the population; however, the degree of social cohesion, residence pattern and interaction with trammel nets differed considerably between the two social units. Six of eight females occurred in the more resident social unit-1; in addition, social unit-1 individuals had significantly stronger associations, higher preferred associates, lived in larger groups and occurred less frequently with trammel nets. Nine of eleven males were clustered in social unit-2 and five of these males, interacting with trammel nets, formed small groups and preferred associations. We propose that female and male groups associate in the study area during the breeding season and that some males choose to interact with reproductive females forming a distinct but interrelated social unit. Other males may be associating in a larger fission-fusion network, which consists of dolphins that appear to temporarily join the network from the coastal population. We cannot exclude that some males specialized in trammel net foraging, suggesting that this foraging technique may favor a solitary lifestyle. Large group sizes and high degree of social cohesion for females could be an indication of greater protection and more efficiency in detecting

  2. High precision locations of long-period events at La Fossa Crater (Vulcano Island, Italy

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    Salvatore Rapisarda

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Since the last eruption in 1888-90, the volcanic activity on Vulcano Island (Aeolian Archipelago, Italy has been limited to fumarolic degassing. Fumaroles are mainly concentred at the active cone of La Fossa in the northern sector of the island and are periodically characterized by increases in temperature as well as in the amount of both CO2 and He. Seismic background activity at Vulcano is dominated by micro-seismicity originating at shallow depth (<1-1.5 km under La Fossa cone. This seismicity is related to geothermal system processes and comprises long period (LP events. LPs are generally considered as the resonance of a fluid-filled volume in response to a trigger. We analyzed LP events recorded during an anomalous degassing period (August-October 2006 applying a high precision technique to define the shape of the trigger source. Absolute and high precision locations suggest that LP events recorded at Vulcano during 2006 were produced by a shallow focal zone ca. 200 m long, 40 m wide and N30-40E oriented. Their occurrence is linked to magmatic fluid inputs that by modifying the hydrothermal system cause excitation of a fluid-filled cavity.

  3. Inner structure of La Fossa di Vulcano (Vulcano Island, southern Tyrrhenian Sea, Italy) revealed by high-resolution electric resistivity tomography coupled with self-potential, temperature, and CO2 diffuse degassing measurements

    OpenAIRE

    Revil , A.; Finizola , Anthony; Piscitelli , A.; Rizzo , E.; Ricci , T.; Crespy , A.; Angeletti , B.; Balasco , M.; Barde-Cabusson , Stéphanie; Bennati , L.; Boleve , A.; Byrdina , S.; Carzaniga , N.; Di Gangi , F.; Morin , Julie

    2008-01-01

    International audience; La Fossa cone is an active stratovolcano located on Vulcano Island in the Aeolian Archipelago (southern Italy). Its activity is characterized by explosive phreatic and phreatomagmatic eruptions producing wet and dry pyroclastic surges, pumice fall deposits, and highly viscous lava flows. Nine 2-D electrical resistivity tomograms (ERTs; electrode spacing 20 m, with a depth of investigation >200 m) were obtained to image the edifice. In addition, we also measured the sel...

  4. The November 2002 degassing event at Panarea Island (Italy: five months of geochemical monitoring

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    P. L. Rossi

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available On 3rd November 2002, at about 3 km off-shore of Panarea Island (Aeolian Islands, Southern Italy, a series of gas vents suddenly and violently opened from the seafloor at the depth of 10-15 m, with an unusually high gas flux and superimposing on the already existing submarine fumarolic field. Starting from the 12th November 2002 a discontinuous geochemical monitoring program was carried out. The emissions consisted in an emulsion whose liquid phase derived from condensation of an uprising vapor phase occurring close to the fluid outlets without significant contamination by seawater. The whole composition of the fluids was basically H2O- and CO2-dominated, with minor amounts of typical «hydrothermal» components (such as H2S, H2, CO and light hydrocarbons, atmospheric-related compounds, and characterized by the occurrence of a significant magmatic gas fraction (mostly represented by SO2, HCl and HF. According to the observed temporal variability of the fluid compositions, between November and December 2002 the hydrothermal feeding system was controlled by oxidizing conditions due to the input of magmatic gases. The magmatic degassing phenomena showed a transient nature, as testified by the almost complete disappearance of the magmatic markers in a couple of months and by the restoration, since January 2003, of the chemical features of the existing hydrothermal system. The most striking feature of the evolution of the «Panarea degassing event» was the relatively rapid restoration of the typical reducing conditions of a stationary hydrothermal system, in which the FeO/Fe1.5O redox pair of the rock mineral phases has turned to be the dominating redox controlling system.

  5. Spatial Distribution of Field Physico-Chemical Parameters in the Vulcano Island (Italy Coastal Aquifer: Volcanological and Hydrogeological Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Madonia

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Vulcano, the southernmost of the Aeolian island arc (Italy, is characterized by a shallow coastal aquifer resulting from the mixing of seawater, meteoric recharge and volcanogenic fluids. The aquifer has been intensively studied during the last decades, but a comprehensive hydrogeological model has never been developed due to the lack of direct information about the litho-stratigraphic columns of the wells and the depth of water bearing levels. We present and discuss here the time and spatial analysis of water table elevation, temperature and electric conductivity data, acquired during the last 20 years in 33 wells located at Vulcano Island, with the aim of developing a groundwater circulation scheme able to fit the field observations. We retrieved a circulation scheme characterized by an intricate geometry of flow paths driven by horizontal and vertical permeability variations, accounting for the strong variability of geochemical data evidenced in this area by the related scientific literature. Extending these results to a general context, particular care must be taken in approaching the study of aquifers in volcanic islands, because a strong, small spatial scale variability of the hydrogeochemical parameters is expected, and a reliable knowledge of the local conditions is required for developing successful groundwater circulation schemes.

  6. Remanent and induced magnetization in the volcanites of Lipari and Vulcano (Aeolian Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Lanza

    1994-06-01

    Full Text Available The role of remanent and induced magnetization as sources of magnetic anomalies in the Lipari and Vulcano islands has been studied by systematic sampling. Remanent magnetization is higher than induced magnetization in almost all lithotypes. Its polarity is normal, and the mean directions are close to the present magnetic field. A slight thermal enhancement of the magnetic susceptibility occurs up to 450-500 °C, followed by a fall up to the Curie point, which is comprised in the range 550 ± 30 °C. This points to titanomagnetite as the main carrier of magnetization. The blocking temperature spectrum of the remanence ranges between the Curie point and 400 °C in most lithotypes, and falIs to 150-200 °C in the pyroclastic deposits. The results as a whole yield an outline of the areal distribution of the total magnetization intensity within the two islands.

  7. The marine digital terrain model of the Panarea caldera (Aeolian Islands, Southern Italy

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    M. Anzidei

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available A Marine Digital Elevation Model (MDEM of the still active volcanic area of Panarea caldera is presented in this paper. A fast and accurate survey was performed by means of the Differential Global Positioning System (DGPS geodetic technique coupled with an echo-sounding gear and a real time navigation software. The instrumentation was installed on board of a low draught boat in order to collect data starting from the bathymeter of one meter. Planar positions and depths were obtained with average accuracies of 30 cm and 10 cm respectively providing a 3D map of the seafloor useful for geomorphological, geophysical and volcanic hazard applications.

  8. Seismic and gravity signature of the Ischia Island Caldera (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capuano, P.; de Matteis, R.; Russo, G.

    2009-04-01

    The Campania (Italy) coasts are characterized by the presence of several volcanoes. The island of Ischia, located at the northwestern end of the Gulf of Naples, belongs to the Neapolitan Volcanic District together with Phlegrean Fields and Vesuvius, having all these Pleistocene volcanoes erupted in historical times, and it is characterized by diffuse hydrothermal phenomena The island represents the emergent part of a more extensive volcanic area developed mainly westward of the island, with underwater volcanoes aligned along regional fault patterns. The activity of Ischia volcano is testified by the occurrence of eruptions in historical times, the presence of intense hydrothermal phenomena, and by seismic activity (e.g. the 1883 Casamicciola earthquake). Ischia is populated by about 50,000 inhabitants increasing, mainly in the summer, due to thriving tourism business, partially due to its active volcanic state. Hazard assessment at active, densely populated volcanoes is critically based on knowledge of the volcanoes past behavior and the definition of its present state. As a contribution to the definition of the present state of the Ischia island volcano, we obtain a model of the shallow crust using geophysical observables through seismic tomography and 3D gravity inversion. In particular we use travel times collected during the Serapis experiment on the island and its surroundings and free air anomaly. A new 3D gravity inversion procedure has been developed to take better into account the shape and the effects of topography approximating it by a triangular mesh. Below each triangle, a sequence of triangular prisms is built, the uppermost prism having the upper face coincident with the triangle following the topography. The inversion is performed searching for a regularized solution using the minimum norm stabilizer. The main results inferable from the 3D seismic and gravity images are the definition of the caldera rims hypothesize by many authors along the

  9. Temperature and heat flow measurements in a fumarolic area: Vulcano Island (Italy)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guern, F.L. (Centre des Faibles Radioactivites C.N.R.S., Gifsur Yvette, France); Carbonnelle, J.; D' Amore, F.

    1980-01-01

    Vulcano, the southern Aeolian Island, is in fumarolic activity. The possibilities of measurements are limited by the field conditions as well as by the technological feasibility. In the present work different tests were made in the field to measure temperature continuously: only the measurements made in dry steam gave good results because they avoid corrosion, and solution of the acid gases in the condensed steam in the ground. Field measurements show that the heat transfer is mainly due to convection. The values obtained in the field can be used to quantify the remote sensing of heat transfer.

  10. Preliminary estimate of CO2 budget discharged from Vulcano island

    OpenAIRE

    Inguaggiato, S.; Mazot, A.; Diliberto, I. S.; Rowet, D.; Vita, F.; Capasso, G.; Bobrowski, N.; Inguaggiato, C.; Grassa, F.

    2008-01-01

    Total CO2 output from fumaroles, soil gases, bubbling and water dissolved gases were estimated at Vulcano Island, Italy. The fumaroles output has been estimated from SO2 plume flux, while soil flux emission has been carried out through 730 CO2 fluxes measured on the island surface, performed by means of accumulation chamber method. Vulcano Island, located in the Aeolian Archipelago, is an active volcano that has been in state of solphataric activity, since the last eruption (1888-1890). At p...

  11. Hydrothermal alteration of a rhyolitic hyaloclastite from Ponza Island, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ylagan, Robert F.; Altaner, Stephen P.; Pozzuoli, Antonio

    1996-12-01

    A rhyolitic hyaloclastite from Ponza island, Italy, has been hydrothermally altered producing four distinct alteration zones based on XRD and field textures: (1) non-pervasive argillic zone; (2) propylitic zone; (3) silicic zone; and (4) sericitic zone. The unaltered hyaloclastite is a volcanic breccia with clasts of vesiculated obsidian in a matrix of predominantly pumice lapilli. Incomplete alteration of the hyaloclastite resulted in the non pervasive argillic zone, characterized by smectite and disordered opal-CT. Obsidian clasts, some pumice lapilli, and pyrogenic plagioclase and biotite are unaltered. Smectite has an irregular flakey morphology, although euhedral particles are occasionally observed. The propylitic zone is characterized by mixed-layer illite/smectite (I/S) with 10 to 85% illite (I), mordenite, opal-C and authigenic K-feldspar (akspar). The matrix of the hyaloclastite is completely altered and obsidian clasts are silicified; however, plagioclase and biotite phenocrysts remain unaltered. Flakey I/S replaces pumice, and mordenite, akspar and silica line and fill pores. I/S particles are composed predominantly of subequant plates and euhedral laths. The silicic zone is characterized by highly illitic I/S with ≥ 90% I, quartz, akspar and occasional albite. In this zone the matrix and clasts are completely altered, and pyrogenic plagioclase shows significant alteration. Illitic I/S has a euhedral lath-like morphology. In the sericitic zone the hyaloclastite altered primarily to illitic I/S with ≥ 66% I, quartz, and minor akspar and pyrite. Clay minerals completely replace pyrogenic feldspars and little evidence remains of the original hyaloclastite texture. Unlike other zones, illitic I/S is fibrous and pure illite samples are composed of euhedral laths and hexagonal plates. The temperatures of hydrothermal alteration likely ranged from 30 to 90 °C for the argillic zone, from 110 to 160 °C for the propylitic zone, from 160 to 270 °C for the

  12. Ustica Island (Tyrrhenian Sea, Italy): from shoaling to emergent stage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinoni, L. B.; Pasquaré, G.; Vezzoli, L.

    2003-04-01

    Ustica is a volcanic island located in the southern Tyrrhenian sea, ~60 km NW of Sicily. As usual for volcanic ocean islands, its exposed part (8.6 km2, 248 m max elevation, mostly of Pleistocene age), is a small fraction of the whole edifice which rises from ~2000 m depth. Its 5-pointed-star shape is slightly elongated in a NE direction. A new geological field survey was carried out at scale 1:10000 and locally at 1:2000, establishing informal stratigraphic units that on the whole fit a common scheme of evolution for volcanic ocean islands. In this framework, the whole pre-existing stratigraphy has been revised. Ustica has a variety of volcanic deposits from submarine (basaltic effusive to explosive) to subaereal (effusive, explosive and highly explosive -Plinian?). Moreover, Ustica is one of the few places in the world where a transition of deposits from shoaling to emergent stage crop out. In fact, its oldest deposits consist of: (a) a flank-facies association of submarine lavas (variably-shaped pillows, pillow breccias and hyaloclastites) with biocalcarenite-biocalcirudite lenses, dipping coastward in the E, S and W outer parts of the island; this association is arranged in steep foreset beds (lava deltas) and is capped by flat-lying transitional to subaereal massive lava flows and surf-shaped boulder conglomerates; the geometry of this association may suggest a progressive island uplift or sea lowering during this period; (b) shallow-water to emergent tuff cone deposits in the NW part of the island. In the centre of the island, subsequent activity built a pile, now deeply eroded, of subaereal basaltic lava flows capped by a scoria cone. A previously unknown outcrop where a pumice fall layer is exposed, allows a distinction into two members of a unit that was known as formed by pyroclastic surges only. Higher in the succession, the Ustica Pumice formation (for which 4 members are defined) is underlain by a palaeosoil, and is likely the remnant of a caldera

  13. Ash erupted during normal activity at Stromboli (Aeolian Islands, Italy) raises questions on how the feeding system works

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Oriano, Claudia; Bertagnini, Antonella; Pompilio, Massimo

    2010-05-01

    Normal activity at Stromboli consists of continuous, non-explosive degassing, punctuated by mild explosions at a frequency of about 13 events/h. Each burst, lasting for a few seconds, throws to heights of 100-300 m incandescent scoriae, ash and blocks made of high-porphyritic (HP) degassed magma. During a multidisciplinary experiments on September 2008, ash samples emitted from 18 distinct explosions were collected with the aim of investigating magmatic and volcanic processes occurring in the conduits during the normal Strombolian activity on the basis of ash characterization. The selected samples are representative of the activity of two different craters (SW and NE) during three distinct days. After sieving, about 30 juvenile fragments (from the 0.5-1 mm size interval) were randomly hand-picked from each sample, and then mounted on double-adhesive tape on a glass slide. Single clasts were examined and photographed at the Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) for identification of clast types, external morphology description and identification of secondary minerals. The same clasts were embedded in epoxy, sectioned and polished for textural and compositional analysis of the groundmass. Preliminary results indicate that Pele's hairs and fluidal, glassy fragments represent the majority (>50 vol%) of the juvenile material together with dense clasts (<30 vol%) in all the analysed samples, while crystals and lithic clasts are less than 20 vol%. Within the juvenile fraction a minor but significant amount of highly vesicular fragments (< 3 vol%) shows glass composition typical of deep-seated, volatile-rich, low-porphyritic (LP) magma. Until now the emission of the LP magma, as highly vesicular pumice, was associated exclusively with high energy explosions (paroxysms) (Bertagnini et al. 1999, Schiavi et al. 2009). The comparison of the morphological and textural features of these LP ash fragments let exclude that they are clasts recycled after the last paroxysm (15 March 2007). This new finding has important implications on how the feeding system of the volcano works and raises two main questions: i) is this an occasional occurrence or is a normal feature of the persistent activity? and ii) how volatile-rich parcels of deep magma rise through a crystal-rich body without significant mixing ?

  14. Evolution of the volcanic plumbing systemof Alicudi (Aeolian Islands - Italy: evidence from fluid and melt inclusionsin quartz xenoliths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Peccerillo

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Quartz-rich xenoliths in lavas (basalts to andesites; 90-30 ka from Alicudi contain abundant melt and fluid inclusions. Two generations of CO2-rich fluid inclusions are present in quartz-rich xenolith grains: early (Type I inclusions related to partial melting of the host xenoliths, and late Type II inclusions related to the fluid trapping during xenolith ascent. Homogenisation temperatures of fluid inclusions correspond to two density intervals: 0.93-0.68 g/cm3 (Type I and 0.47-0.26 g/cm3 (Type II. Early Type I fluid inclusions indicate trapping pressures around 6 kbar, which are representative for the levels of partial melting of crustal rocks and xenolith formation. Late Type II fluid inclusions show lower trapping pressures, between 1.7 kbar and 0.2 kbar, indicative for shallow magma rest and accumulation during ascent to the surface. Data suggest the presence of two magma reservoirs: the first is located at lower crustal depths (about 24 km, site of fractional crystallization, mixing with source derived magma, and various degrees of crustal assimilation. The second magma reservoir is located at shallow crustal depths (about 6 km, the site where magma rested for a short time before erupting.

  15. Volcanomagnetic anomalies: a review and the computation of the piezomagnetic field expected at Vulcano (Aeolian Islands, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Ferricci

    1994-06-01

    Full Text Available he volcanic area of Vulcano experienced major unrest, which brought the fumarolic field temperatures from slightly less than 300 °C to ca. 700 °C between 1988-1993. The structure underlying the crater, investigated by drillings and by different geophysical techniques, is relatively well-known. This led us to attempt modelling the magnetic anomaly which could be generated by sudden pressure variations in the magma chamber at shallow depth. The rocks embedding the intrusive rock penetrated by drill-holes to a depth of ca. 2000 m are characterized by high susceptibility, which points to the possibility of obtaining significant magnetic anomalies with acceptably weak pressure pulses. The model for straightforward computing of the anomalous field was drawn accounting for (1 the inferred geometry of the Curie isotherrn, (2 presence of a spherical magma reservoir, 2 km wide and centred at a depth of 3.5 km, overlain by (3 a 0.5 km wide and 1.5 km high cylinder simulating the intrusion first revealed by drillings. The model elements (2 and (3 behave as a single source zone and are assumed to lie beyond the Curie point, the contribution to the piezomagnetic effect being provided by the surrounding medium. Under such conditions, a 10 MPa pressure pulse applied within the sourcezone provides a 4 nT piezomagnetic anomaly, compatible with the amplitude of the anomalies observed at those volcanoes of the world where magnetic surveillance is routinely carried out. The analytical method used for computation of the magnetic field generated by mechanical stress is extensively discussed, and the contribution of piezomagnetism to rapid variations of the magnetic field is compared to other types of magnetic anomalies likely to occur at active volcanoes.

  16. Diffuse volcanic emissions of carbon dioxide from Vulcano Island, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baubron, J C; Allard, P; Toutain, J P

    1990-03-01

    RECENT investigations on Mount Etna (Sicily)(1-3) have revealed that volcanoes may release abundant carbon dioxide not only from their active craters, but also from their flanks, as diffuse soil emanations. Here we present analyses of soil gases and air in water wells on Vulcano Island which provide further evidence of such lateral degassing. Nearly pure carbon dioxide, enriched in helium and radon, escapes from the slopes of the Fossa active cone, adding a total output of 30 tonnes per day to the fumarolic crater discharge ( 180 tonnes CO(2) per day). This emanation has similar He/CO(2) and (13)C/(12)C ratios to those of the crater fumaroles (300%ndash;500 degrees C) and therefore a similar volcanic origin. Gases rich in carbon dioxide also escape at sea level along the isthmus between the Fossa and Vulcanello volcanic cones, but their depletion in both He and (13)C suggests a distinct source. Diffuse volcanic gas emanations, once their genetic link with central fumarole degassing has been demonstrated, can be used for continuous volcano monitoring, at safe distances from active craters. Such monitoring has been initiated at Vulcano, where soil and well emanations of nearly pure CO(2) themselves represent a threat to the local population.

  17. Relict Forms of a Disappeared Mountain. The Periglacial Deposits in Asinara Island-Sardinia, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio GINESU

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Asinara Island is located in northwestern Sardinia (Italy and only recently has been divested as a maximum-security prison and returned to nature protection as a National Park with Marine Protected Area along the coastal perimeter. Geologically, the island is formed by a Paleozoic basement in transition between the metamorphic rocks and the Pre-Hercynian granitic batholith of Sardinia. New surveys carried out to reconstruct the recent evolution of the landscape have shown a lot of deposits formed by large blocks of granitoid and anphibolitic rocks representing a favorable situation to produce this material formation in terms of differential erosion in periglaciar environment. Similar morphologies are possible to observe in many places in Sardinia continental hard rocks as effect of the conditions of refreezing periods ("glacial". These deposits are commonly known as " block streams " or " block fields " and reported for the first time in Italy in 1990 in the central area of the island of Sardinia, about 500 meters above sea level. Their presence in Sardinia is always documented in a range of altitudes not less than 350-400 meters and, in this case for the first time they have been identified in close proximity to the coastline. In addition, some of these deposits cover the thalwegs present on the granite rocks in the central portion of the island. The most interesting cases are represented by the deposits located on the northwestern side, near the lighthouse of Punta Scorno. The widespread presence of these deposits suggests significant areal erosion of the island terrain; they probably accumulated during the colder episodes that have characterized the Middle and Upper Pleistocene of the entire western Mediterranean. These testify the existence of an energy relief higher than the present one and a coastline located about 25 kilometers from the current position, however, documented by the block stream of Cala Arena, the first deposit located for

  18. Genetics, geography, and culture: the population of S. Pietro Island (Sardinia, Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vona, G; Calò, C M; Lucia, G; Mameli, G E; Succa, V; Esteban, E; Moral, P

    1996-08-01

    An interesting aspect of the island of Sardinia (Italy) is the wide range of genetic variability within the island itself. The variability is widened by the presence of some populations of different ethnic origin who speak a language other than Sardinian. This work deals with the study of the genetic structure of the Carloforte population which inhabits the tiny island of S. Pietro 4 km off the southwest coast of Sardinia. S. Pietro was first populated in 1738 by emigrants coming from the island of Tabarka (Tunisia) who spoke an archaic form of the Ligurian dialect. Data on genetic polymorphisms in the Carloforte population are presented and discussed in relation to some Sardinian and Italian populations. Data on demographic and matrimonial structure are also presented. The genetic analyses show the Carloforte population as being clearly separated from both Sardinians and continental Italians. The isolation of Carloforte, highlighted by language diversity, endogamy, and consanguinity levels and marriage area, supports the idea of genetic diversity linked to cultural peculiarity.

  19. Extensive genome rearrangements and multiple horizontal gene transfers in a population of pyrococcus isolates from Vulcano Island, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, James R; Escobar-Paramo, Patricia; Mongodin, Emmanuel F; Nelson, Karen E; DiRuggiero, Jocelyne

    2008-10-01

    The extent of chromosome rearrangements in Pyrococcus isolates from marine hydrothermal vents in Vulcano Island, Italy, was evaluated by high-throughput genomic methods. The results illustrate the dynamic nature of the genomes of the genus Pyrococcus and raise the possibility of a connection between rapidly changing environmental conditions and adaptive genomic properties.

  20. Assessment of land cover changes in Lampedusa Island (Italy) using Landsat TM and OLI data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Alessandro; Manzo, Ciro; Fontinovo, Giuliano; Bassani, Cristiana; Allegrini, Alessia; Petracchini, Francesco

    2016-10-01

    The Lampedusa Island displays important socio-economic criticalities related to an intensive touristic activity, which implies an increase in electricity consumption and waste production. An adequate island conversion to a more environmental, sustainable community needs to be faced by the local Management Plans establishment. For this purpose, several thematic datasets have to be produced and evaluated. Socio-economic and bio-ecological components as well as land cover/use assessment are some of the main topics to be managed within the Decision Support Systems. Considering the lack of Land Cover (LC) and vegetation change detection maps in Lampedusa Island (Italy), this paper focuses on the retrieval of these topics by remote sensing techniques. The analysis was carried out by Landsat 5 TM and Landsat 8 OLI multispectral images from 1984 to 2014 in order to obtain spatial and temporal information of changes occurred in the island. Firstly, imagery was co-registered and atmospherically corrected; secondly, it was then classified for land cover and vegetation distribution analysis with the use of QGIS and Saga GIS open source softwares. The Maximum Likelihood Classifier (MLC) was used for LC maps production, while the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) was used for vegetation examination and distribution. Topographic maps, historical aerial photos, ortophotos and field data are merged in the GIS for accuracy assessment. Finally, change detection of MLC and NDVI are provided respectively by Post-Classification Comparison (PCC) and Image Differencing (ID). The provided information, combined with local socio-economic parameters, is essential for the improvement of environmental sustainability of anthropogenic activities in Lampedusa.

  1. Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-04-01

    For "Background Notes" on Italy, the U.S. State Department, Bureau of Public Affairs, covers geography, people, history, government, politics, economy, defense and foreign relations. Italy had 57.3 million persons in 1986, with a growth rate of 2.3%. The life expectancy is 73 years; the infant mortality rate is 14.3/1000 live births. 98% of the people are literate. The current constitutional republic has existed since 1948. Mean per capita income is $6,447. The people work mainly in services (60%), industry (30%) and agriculture (10%). Most of the country is mountainous, without significant food, energy or natural resources, so Italy's central position in the Mediterranean has influenced economic development since ancient times. The nation is highly homogeneous, as the government is centralized. Although there are several influential political parties, the diverse structure of the Christian Democrats has given them power since the war. The current prime minister, Bettino Craxi, is a member of the centralist Italian Socialist Party. The Italian Communist Party is the largest such party in the free world, polling 30% of the vote in 1983. Italy is a member of NATO.

  2. Cliffs and quarries in the eastern coast of the Favignana island (Sicily, Italy)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falconi, Luca; Peloso, Alessandro; Screpanti Tatì, Angelo; Verrubbi, Vladimiro

    2015-01-01

    Favignana Island (Sicily, Italy) is a historical and environmental attraction site frequented by tourists especially during the long warm season of the year. Over several centuries the sea cliffs constituted by calcareous sandstone outcropping in the east side of the island have been exploited for the production of building stone. Currently the quarries used for the rock extraction as well as the natural cliffs are undergoing extensive erosional and gravitational processes. Besides putting at risk the safety of the people attending the area, the widespread rock falls are likely to threaten sites of great historical and anthropological value that, once destroyed, can no longer be reconstructed. The rock mass quality assessment and slope displacements monitoring of cliffs were conducted with the aim of identifying the most active areas and providing support to the local authorities in the implementation of effective and sustainable mitigation measures. If adequate measures are taken in the future, operators and users of the tourist circuit will have the opportunity to enjoy these amazing sites with a lower landslide risk [it

  3. First record of Bruchidius raddianae in Italy: infested seeds of Vachellia karroo from Lampedusa island (Coleoptera: Bruchidae; Fabales: Fabaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Toma

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Bruchidius raddianae (Anton & Delobel 2003, a species of seed beetle spread in Northern Africa, was detected for the first time in Europe in some localities of the Southern Iberian Peninsula in 2007. In Spain this coleopteran lives on the shrubs of the South African acacia tree, Vachellia karroo (Hayne Banfi & Galasso, currently present in the Southern Iberian Peninsula. From seeds of V. karroo collected in October 2015, in Lampedusa island, Italy, where this plant is widely spread, 45 specimens of this coleopteran emerged. This observation represents the first record of B. raddianae in Italy and the second one for Europe.

  4. The western submerged sector of the Ischia volcanic island (Tyrrhenian Sea, Italy): new insights into its volcano-tectonic evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passaro, Salvatore; de Alteriis, Giovanni; Milano, Girolamo; Fedi, Maurizio; Florio, Giovanni

    2010-05-01

    The Island of Ischia is a volcanic complex located in the northern boundary of the Gulf of Naples (south-eastern Tyrrhenian Sea, Italy). The island represents only the 30% of a larger, E-W trending, volcanic ridge and likely controlled by a regional tectonic lineament. Despite the many geo-volcanological and geophysical investigations conducted on the island since long time, still little is the knowledge of its offshore. Several marine surveys have been carried out over the past 10 years from IAMC - CNR research institute (Naples, Italy) mostly in the frame of INGV and GNV projects, funded by Italy Civil Protection Department. Such surveys have largely improved the knowledge of the entire volcanic complex. Multibeam bathymetry surveys has revealed several, previously unexpected, morphological and morphostructural features. Moreover some structural patterns and volcano alignments offshore show similarities with those occurring at a regional scale in the Campania region and, locally, between the island of Procida and Phlegrean Fields. Here we report the joint interpretation of geophysical data focused on the western underwater sector of the island. Interpretation was chiefly based on processing/inversion of magnetic data in turn constrained by bathymetry and seismic reflection profiles. Magnetic data, acquired by the IAMC during two different cruises in 2000 and 2002 onboard of the Urania R/V oceanographic vessel, put in evidence that the western seafloor of Ischia is characterized by the presence of a strong residual magnetic anomaly field of complex behaviour, somewhere correlated to local bathymetry. These two last methods allowed to define and distinguish between undersea and subsurface magnetic (i.e. magmatic) basement. Interpretation was also constrained by seismological data.

  5. Volcanic emissions from soils at the base of La Fossa volcano, Vulcano island, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obenholzner, J. H.; Parks, J. L.

    2006-12-01

    A top-sealed plastic tube with a diameter of ca. 15 cm had been buried vertically at the base of La Fossa volcano, Volcano island, Italy, next to the front of the obsidian flow. The tube had been filled with quartz wool to condense vapors emanating from the soil. At ca. 75 cm below the surface the sample had been exposed to vapors from Sept. 2005 to April 2006. The leached sample had not been in touch with the ground. Another glass wool cushion (ca. 3 cm thick) had been underneath to minimize capillary effects. Leaching of the quartz wool and ICP-MS analysis documented positive values for: Mg, Al, Si, P, K, Ca, Cr, Mn, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, Sn, Pb. Leaching with nitric acid documented also V and Fe. Acid leaching produced higher values for all elements, except K and Sn, than leaching with deionized water. Negative values had been obtained for As, Se, Mo. Influence from soil breathing can be excluded as the active fumaroles contain As and Se. This experiment documents for the first time an unknown element transport by vapors/gases through a volcanic edifice interacting with hydrothermal and magmatic gases. It remains unknown if elements detected are entering the atmosphere or are getting adsorbed onto the volcanic ash soil particles derived from reworked surge beds. This question is very important as soils might be an unknown filter medium to filter volcanically polluted air in case of major volcanic crises. Data can be obtained from the authors.

  6. The Aeolian Asynchronous Generator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionel Dragomirescu

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The production of the electric energy with lower costs could be realized with the help of the aeolian electric central. In these centrals we can use the squirrel cage asynchronous generators, because these machines are the most safety in function and easy exploited. This work show the function analyzing of the asynchronous generator having on involving torque depending on the square wind speed, the air-density and on the construction of the wing spiral.

  7. Analysis of recent surface deformation at Ischia Island Volcano (South Italy) via multi-platform monitoring systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzo, Mariarosaria; De Martino, Prospero; Castaldo, Raffaele; De Luca, Claudio; Dolce, Mario; Scarpato, Giovanni; Tizzani, Pietro; Zinno, Ivana; Lanari, Riccardo

    2017-04-01

    Ischia Island is a densely populated volcanic area located in the North-Western sector of the Gulf of Napoli (South Italy), whose activity is characterized by eruptions (the last one occurred in 1302 A.D.), earthquakes (the most disastrous ones occurred in 1881 and in 1883), fumarolic-hydrothermal manifestations and ground deformation. In this work we carry out the surface deformation time-series analysis occurring at the Island by jointly exploiting data collected via two different monitoring systems. In particular, we take advantage from the large amount of periodic and continuous geodetic measurements collected by the GPS (campaign and permanent) stations deployed on the Island and belonging to the INGV-OV monitoring network. Moreover, we benefit from the large, free and open archive of C-band SAR data acquired over the Island by the Sentinel-1 constellation of the Copernicus Program, and processed via the advanced Differential SAR Interferometry (DInSAR) technique referred to as Small BAseline Subset (SBAS) algorithm [Berardino et al., 2002]. We focus on the 2014-2017 time period to analyze the recent surface deformation phenomena occurring on the Island, thus extending a previous study, aimed at investigating the temporal evolution of the ground displacements affecting the Island and limited to the 1992-2003 time interval [Manzo et al., 2006]. The performed integrated analysis provides relevant spatial and temporal information on the Island surface deformation pattern. In particular, it reveals a rather complex deformative scenario, where localized phenomena overlap/interact with a spatially extended deformation pattern that involves many Island sectors, with no evidence of significant uplift phenomena. Moreover, it shows a good agreement and consistency between the different kinds of data, thus providing a clear picture of the recent dynamics at Ischia Island that can be profitably exploited to deeply investigate the physical processes behind the observed

  8. Concentration and distribution of dissolved amino acids in a shallow hydrothermal system, Vulcano Island (Italy)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svensson, E.; Skoog, A. [University of Connecticut, Groton, CT (United States). Dept. of Marine Sciences; Amend, J.P. [Washington University, St. Louis, MO (United States). Dept. of Earth and Planetary Sciences

    2004-09-01

    Hydrothermal systems are known to harbour a large number of microorganisms, but the organic chemical composition of the solution that comprises their potential substrate is largely unknown. Concentrations and distributions of dissolved free amino acids (DFAA) and dissolved combined amino acids (DCAA) were determined in fluids from the moderate-temperature (42-89{sup o}C), shallow hydrothermal system on the volcanically active island of Vulcano, Italy. The seven samples represent three different geological settings on the island; shallow ({approx} 1 m) submarine vents, geothermal wells, and seeps in heated beach sediments, in addition to ambient local seawater from the bay, Baia di Levante. All hydrothermal sites, with one exception, had TDAA concentrations that were 3-114 times higher than local seawater in Baia di Levante. There were large similarities in amino acid concentration and composition among samples from the same geological setting. The highest amino acid concentrations were found at sites with acidic and reducing conditions, which also had the largest freshwater component. An unusually high fraction of the TDAA pool was represented by DFAA (33-87%), possibly due to in situ acid hydrolysis of DCAA to DFAA. Both DFAA and DCAA concentrations were correlated to DOC, indicating similar source and sink functions for these pools. The yield of TDAA (TDAA-carbon as fraction of organic carbon) ranged from 2% to 25%, which is high compared with non-hydrothermal settings, and indicates high biological lability. The mole fraction of {beta}-alanine plus {gamma}-aminobutyric acid (% BALA + GABA) was 2-2.7% of TDAA, also indicating high biological lability. Owing to the high over-all amino acid concentrations, the high fraction of DFAAs, and the high biological lability of the organic matter, organic matter in general and amino acids specifically could represent significant carbon and energy sources for archaea and bacteria in this hydrothermal system. The clear

  9. Essential-oil composition of Helichrysum italicum (ROTH) G.DON ssp. italicum from Elba Island (Tuscany, Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonardi, Michele; Ambryszewska, Katarzyna E; Melai, Bernardo; Flamini, Guido; Cioni, Pier Luigi; Parri, Federico; Pistelli, Luisa

    2013-03-01

    The composition of 21 essential-oil samples isolated from Helichrysum italicum collected in seven locations of Elba Island (Tuscany, Italy), characterized by different soil types, during three different periods (January, May, and October 2010) was determined by GC-FID and GC/EI-MS analyses. In total, 115 components were identified, representing 96.8-99.8% of the oil composition. The oils were characterized by a high content of oxygenated monoterpenes (38.6-62.7%), while monoterpene and sesquiterpene hydrocarbons accounted for 2.3-41.9 and 5.1-20.1% of the identified constituents, respectively. The main oxygenated derivatives were nerol (2.8-12.8%) and its ester derivative neryl acetate (5.6-45.9%). To compare the chemical variability of the species within Elba Island and between the island and other localities within the Mediterranean area, studied previously, multivariate statistical analysis was performed. The results obtained showed a difference in the composition of the essential oils of H. italicum from Elba Island, mainly due to the environment where the plant grows, and, in particular, to the soil type. These hypotheses were further confirmed by the comparison of these oils with essential oils obtained from H. italicum collected on other islands of the Tuscan archipelago. Copyright © 2013 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  10. Diversity of hydrolases from hydrothermal vent sediments of the Levante Bay, Vulcano Island (Aeolian archipelago) identified by activity-based metagenomics and biochemical characterization of new esterases and an arabinopyranosidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Placido, Antonio; Hai, Tran; Ferrer, Manuel; Chernikova, Tatyana N; Distaso, Marco; Armstrong, Dale; Yakunin, Alexander F; Toshchakov, Stepan V; Yakimov, Michail M; Kublanov, Ilya V; Golyshina, Olga V; Pesole, Graziano; Ceci, Luigi R; Golyshin, Peter N

    2015-12-01

    A metagenomic fosmid expression library established from environmental DNA (eDNA) from the shallow hot vent sediment sample collected from the Levante Bay, Vulcano Island (Aeolian archipelago) was established in Escherichia coli. Using activity-based screening assays, we have assessed 9600 fosmid clones corresponding to approximately 350 Mbp of the cloned eDNA, for the lipases/esterases/lactamases, haloalkane and haloacid dehalogenases, and glycoside hydrolases. Thirty-four positive fosmid clones were selected from the total of 120 positive hits and sequenced to yield ca. 1360 kbp of high-quality assemblies. Fosmid inserts were attributed to the members of ten bacterial phyla, including Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Acidobateria, Firmicutes, Verrucomicrobia, Chloroflexi, Spirochaetes, Thermotogae, Armatimonadetes, and Planctomycetes. Of ca. 200 proteins with high biotechnological potential identified therein, we have characterized in detail three distinct α/β-hydrolases (LIPESV12_9, LIPESV12_24, LIPESV12_26) and one new α-arabinopyranosidase (GLV12_5). All LIPESV12 enzymes revealed distinct substrate specificities tested against 43 structurally diverse esters and 4 p-nitrophenol carboxyl esters. Of 16 different glycosides tested, the GLV12_5 hydrolysed only p-nitrophenol-α-(L)-arabinopyranose with a high specific activity of about 2.7 kU/mg protein. Most of the α/β-hydrolases were thermophilic and revealed a high tolerance to, and high activities in the presence of, numerous heavy metal ions. Among them, the LIPESV12_24 was the best temperature-adapted, retaining its activity after 40 min of incubation at 90 °C. Furthermore, enzymes were active in organic solvents (e.g., >30% methanol). Both LIPESV12_24 and LIPESV12_26 had the GXSXG pentapeptides and the catalytic triads Ser-Asp-His typical to the representatives of carboxylesterases of EC 3.1.1.1.

  11. Aeolian sand transport and aeolian deposits on Venus: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreslavsly, Mikhail A.; Bondarenko, Nataliya V.

    2017-06-01

    We review the current state of knowledge about aeolian sand transport and aeolian bedforms on planet Venus. This knowledge is limited by lack of observational data. Among the four planetary bodies of the Solar System with sufficient atmospheres in contact with solid surfaces, Venus has the densest atmosphere; the conditions there are transitional between those for terrestrial subaerial and subaqueous transport. The dense atmosphere causes low saltation threshold and short characteristic saltation length, and short scale length of the incipient dunes. A few lines of evidence indicate that the typical wind speeds exceed the saltation threshold; therefore, sand transport would be pervasive, if sand capable of saltation is available. Sand production on Venus is probably much slower than on the Earth; the major terrestrial sand sinks are also absent, however, lithification of sand through sintering is expected to be effective under Venus' conditions. Active transport is not detectable with the data available. Aeolian bedforms (transverse dunes) resolved in the currently available radar images occupy a tiny area on the planet; however, indirect observations suggest that small-scale unresolved aeolian bedforms are ubiquitous. Aeolian transport is probably limited by sand lithification causing shortage of saltation-capable material. Large impact events likely cause regional short-term spikes in aeolian transport by supplying a large amount of sand-size particles, as well as disintegration and activation of older indurated sand deposits. The data available are insufficient to understand whether the global aeolian sand transport occurs or not. More robust knowledge about aeolian transport on Venus is essential for future scientific exploration of the planet, in particular, for implementation and interpretation of geochemical studies of surface materials. High-resolution orbital radar imaging with local to regional coverage and desirable interferometric capabilities is the

  12. Hexavalents in spermatocytes of Robertsonian heterozygotes between Mus m. domesticus 2n=26 from the Vulcano and Lipari Islands (Aeolian Archipelago, Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berríos, Soledad; Fernández-Donoso, Raúl; Page, Jesús; Ayarza, Eliana; Capanna, Ernesto; Solano, Emanuela; Castiglia, Riccardo

    2018-02-20

    The size and shape of the chromosomes, as well as the chromosomal domains that compose them, are determinants in the distribution and interaction between the bivalents within the nucleus of spermatocytes in prophase I of meiosis. Thus the nuclear architecture characteristic of the karyotype of a species can be modified by chromosomal changes such as Rb chromosomes. In this study we analysed the meiotic prophase nuclear organization of the heterozygous spermatocytes from Mus musculus domesticus 2n=26, and the synaptic configuration of the hexavalent formed by the dependent Rb chromosomes Rbs 6.16, 16.10, 10.15, 15.17 and the telocentric chromosomes 6 and 17. Spreads of 88 pachytene spermatocytes from two males were studied and in all of them five metacentric bivalents, four telocentric bivalents, one hexavalent and the XY bivalent were observed. About 48% of the hexavalents formed a chain or a ring of synapsed chromosomes, the latter closed by synapsis between the short arms of telocentric chromosomes 6 and 17.  About 52% of hexavalents formed an open chain of 10 synapsed chromosomal arms belonging to 6 chromosomes.  In about half of the unsynapsed hexavalents one of the telocentric chromosome short arms appears associated with the X chromosome single axis, which was otherwise normally paired with the Y chromosome.  The cluster of pericentromeric heterochromatin mostly determines the hexavalent's nuclear configuration, dragging the centromeric regions and all the chromosomes towards the nuclear envelope similar to an association of five telocentric bivalents. These reiterated encounters between these chromosomes restrict the interactions with other chromosomal domains and might favour eventual rearrangements within the metacentric, telocentric or hexavalent chromosome subsets. The unsynapsed short arms of telocentric chromosomes frequently bound to the single axis of the X chromosome could further complicate the already complex segregation of hexavalent chromosomes.

  13. Hexavalents in spermatocytes of Robertsonian heterozygotes between Mus m. domesticus 2n 26 from the Vulcano and Lipari Islands (Aeolian Archipelago, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berríos, Soledad; Fernández-Donoso, Raúl; Page, Jesús; Ayarza, Eliana; Capanna, Ernesto; Solano, Emanuela; Castiglia, Riccardo

    2018-01-01

    The size and shape of the chromosomes, as well as the chromosomal domains that compose them, are determinants in the distribution and interaction between the bivalents within the nucleus of spermatocytes in prophase I of meiosis. Thus the nuclear architecture characteristic of the karyotype of a species can be modified by chromosomal changes such as Robertsonian (RB) chromosomes. In this study we analysed the meiotic prophase nuclear organization of the heterozygous spermatocytes from Mus musculus domesticus 2n=26, and the synaptic configuration of the hexavalent formed by the dependent Rb chromosomes Rbs 6.16, 16.10, 10.15, 15.17 and the telocentric chromosomes 6 and 17. Spreads of 88 pachytene spermatocytes from two males were studied and in all of them five metacentric bivalents, four telocentric bivalents, one hexavalent and the XY bivalent were observed. About 48% of the hexavalents formed a chain or a ring of synapsed chromosomes, the latter closed by synapsis between the short arms of telocentric chromosomes 6 and 17. About 52% of hexavalents formed an open chain of 10 synapsed chromosomal arms belonging to 6 chromosomes. In about half of the unsynapsed hexavalents one of the telocentric chromosome short arms appears associated with the X chromosome single axis, which was otherwise normally paired with the Y chromosome. The cluster of pericentromeric heterochromatin mostly determines the hexavalent’s nuclear configuration, dragging the centromeric regions and all the chromosomes towards the nuclear envelope similar to an association of five telocentric bivalents. These reiterated encounters between these chromosomes restrict the interactions with other chromosomal domains and might favour eventual rearrangements within the metacentric, telocentric or hexavalent chromosome subsets. The unsynapsed short arms of telocentric chromosomes frequently bound to the single axis of the X chromosome could further complicate the already complex segregation of hexavalent chromosomes. PMID:29569877

  14. Hexavalents in spermatocytes of Robertsonian heterozygotes between Mus m. domesticus 2n=26 from the Vulcano and Lipari Islands (Aeolian Archipelago, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soledad Berríos

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The size and shape of the chromosomes, as well as the chromosomal domains that compose them, are determinants in the distribution and interaction between the bivalents within the nucleus of spermatocytes in prophase I of meiosis. Thus the nuclear architecture characteristic of the karyotype of a species can be modified by chromosomal changes such as Rb chromosomes. In this study we analysed the meiotic prophase nuclear organization of the heterozygous spermatocytes from Mus musculus domesticus 2n=26, and the synaptic configuration of the hexavalent formed by the dependent Rb chromosomes Rbs 6.16, 16.10, 10.15, 15.17 and the telocentric chromosomes 6 and 17. Spreads of 88 pachytene spermatocytes from two males were studied and in all of them five metacentric bivalents, four telocentric bivalents, one hexavalent and the XY bivalent were observed. About 48% of the hexavalents formed a chain or a ring of synapsed chromosomes, the latter closed by synapsis between the short arms of telocentric chromosomes 6 and 17.  About 52% of hexavalents formed an open chain of 10 synapsed chromosomal arms belonging to 6 chromosomes.  In about half of the unsynapsed hexavalents one of the telocentric chromosome short arms appears associated with the X chromosome single axis, which was otherwise normally paired with the Y chromosome.  The cluster of pericentromeric heterochromatin mostly determines the hexavalent’s nuclear configuration, dragging the centromeric regions and all the chromosomes towards the nuclear envelope similar to an association of five telocentric bivalents. These reiterated encounters between these chromosomes restrict the interactions with other chromosomal domains and might favour eventual rearrangements within the metacentric, telocentric or hexavalent chromosome subsets. The unsynapsed short arms of telocentric chromosomes frequently bound to the single axis of the X chromosome could further complicate the already complex segregation of hexavalent chromosomes.

  15. Georeferenced cartography dataset of the La Fossa crater fumarolic field at Vulcano Island (Aeolian Archipelago, Italy: conversion and comparison of data from local to global positioning methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmelo Sammarco

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study illustrates the procedures applied for the coordinate system conversion of the historical fumarole positions at La Fossa crater, to allow their comparison with newly acquired global positioning system (GPS data. Due to the absence of ground control points in the field and on both the old Gauss Boaga and the new UTM WGS 1984 maps, we had to model the transformation errors between the two systems using differential GPS techniques. Once corrected, the maps show a residual Easting shifting, due to erroneous georeferencing of the original base maps; this is corrected by morphological comparative methods. The good correspondence between the corrected positions of the historical data and the results of the new GPS survey that was carried out in 2009 highlights the good quality of the old surveys, although they were carried out without the use of accurate topographical instruments.

  16. Effects of steam-heating processes on a stratified volcanic aquifer: Stable isotopes and dissolved gases in thermal waters of Vulcano Island (Aeolian archipelago)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Federico, C.; Capasso, G.; Paonita, A.; Favara, R.

    2010-05-01

    We report on a comprehensive study of major-ion chemistry, dissolved gases, and stable isotopes measured in water wells at Vulcano Island since 1988. The work focuses on a quantitative model describing steam condensation and boiling phenomena in shallow water bodies. The model is based on the differences in partition coefficients between liquid water and vapor characterizing oxygen and hydrogen isotopes, as well as volcanic gases (CO 2, S species, and HCl). Based on both physical conditions of aquifers identified during drilling campaigns and the composition of the volcanic vapor, mass and enthalpy balances are applied in a multistep process of steam separation and condensation in shallower aquifers. By comparing the model results with measured data, we infer that (i) strong isotope enrichment observed in some shallow thermal waters can result from an increasing mass rate of condensing deep vapor, even in water meteoric in origin; (ii) the high CO 2 content measured in the fumarolic vapor during 1988-1993 affected the δ18O value of the steam-heated water due to CO 2-H 2O isotope exchange; (iii) the high pCO 2 measured in the coldest and peripheral waters are explained by the progressive enrichment of this gas in the vapor phase during multistep boiling; and (iv) the high Cl - and SO 42-contents in the hottest waters can be attributed to the direct condensation (single-step) of volcanic vapor. The model also takes into account both the mass fluxes and the compositions of the involved endmembers (steam and shallow groundwater), which provides important inferences on the modifications observed or expected during periods of increasing mass and heat input from depth.

  17. The transfer of a collection of bird skins from the Solomon Islands via Australia to Italy in the late 19th century

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McAllen, I.; Borgo, E.; Violani, C.

    2005-01-01

    An attempt is made to reconstruct the trail of a collection of birds from the Solomon Islands to museums in Genoa (Museo Civico di Storia Naturale “G. Doria”, Genova), Turin (Museo Regionale di Scienze Naturali, Torino) and Milan (Museo Civico di Storia Naturale, Milano), Italy, with the aid of

  18. Magnetotelluric imaging of the resurgent caldera on the island of Ischia (southern Italy): inferences for its structure and activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Giuseppe, M. G.; Troiano, A.; Carlino, S.

    2017-12-01

    The island of Ischia (located in the Bay of Naples, Italy) represents a peculiar case of a well-exposed caldera that has experienced a large (>800 m) and rapid resurgence, accompanied by volcanic activity. What drives the resurgence of calderas is a crucial issue to investigate, because this process is associated with potential eruptions and high risk to people living within and around such large active volcanic systems. To improve the knowledge of volcano-tectonic processes affecting the caldera of Ischia, electromagnetic imaging of the structures associated with its resurgence was performed and integrated with available geological information. A magnetotelluric (MT) survey of the island was carried out along two main profiles through the central-western sector, providing an electrical resistivity map to a depth of 3 km. These resistivity cross sections allowed us to identify the presence of a very shallow magmatic intrusion, possibly a laccolith, at a depth of about 1 km, which was responsible for both the resurgence and the volcanic activity. Furthermore, the tectonic structures bordering the resurgent area and the occurrence of a large thermal anomaly in the western sector of the caldera also provided a signature in the resistivity cross sections, with the magma intrusion producing advection of hot fluids with high geothermal gradients (>150 °C km-1) in the southern and western sectors. All of these data are fundamental for the assessment of the island's volcano-tectonic dynamics and their associated hazards. The structure and activity of the island have been controlled by the process of resurgence associated with the arrival of new magma and the progressive intrusion of a laccolith at a shallow depth. The reactivation of such a shallow system may imply imminent eruption which would pose a major volcanic hazard.

  19. Tidal notches, coastal landforms and relative sea-level changes during the Late Quaternary at Ustica Island (Tyrrhenian Sea, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furlani, Stefano; Antonioli, Fabrizio; Cavallaro, Danilo; Chirco, Pietro; Caldareri, Francesco; Martin, Franco Foresta; Morticelli, Maurizio Gasparo; Monaco, Carmelo; Sulli, Attilio; Quarta, Gianluca; Biolchi, Sara; Sannino, Gianmaria; de Vita, Sandro; Calcagnile, Lucio; Agate, Mauro

    2017-12-01

    In this paper we present and discuss data concerning the morphostructural evolution at Ustica Island (Tyrrhenian Sea, Italy) during Late Quaternary. New insights on the relative sea-level changes of Ustica are coming from data collected during a geomorphological field survey around the island, together with the bathymetric analysis of the surrounding seabed and 14C datings on samples of speleothems, flowstones and marine shells found inside three selected sea caves. The survey was mainly accomplished on June 2015 through the first complete snorkel investigation off the about 18 km-long volcanic coast of the island, which allowed to precisely define location, relationship and morphometric features of coastal landforms associated with modern sea level. This study highlights the occurrence, for the first time in the Mediterranean, of tidal notches in correspondence of carbonate inclusions in volcanic rocks. The elevation of the modern tidal notch suggests that no significant vertical deformations occurred in the southeastern and eastern sectors of Ustica in the last 100 years. However, the presence of pillow lavas along the coast demonstrates that Ustica was affected by a regional uplift since the Late Quaternary, as also confirmed by MIS5.5 deposits located at about 30 m a.s.l., which suggests an average uplift rate of 0.23 mm/y. Radiocarbon dating of fossil barnacles collected inside the Grotta Segreta cave indicate an age of 1823 ± 104 cal. BP. The difference in height with respect to living barnacles in the same site suggests that their present elevation could be related to stick-slip coseismic deformations caused by the four earthquake sequences (two of which with Mw = 4.63 ± 0.46) that strongly struck the island between 1906 and 1924.

  20. A tentative correlation between seismic activity and changes in the composition of thermal waters on Vulcano Island, Italy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolognesi, Luca [CNR-International Institute for Geothermal Research, Pisa (Italy)

    1997-06-01

    On Vulcano Island, Italy, the thermal water in the shallow water well W2 is a mixture of reservoir water and shallow steam-heated groundwater of meteoric origin. In the period 1986-1988, the composition of the W2 water changed just before two sequences of tectonic earthquakes, from the almost pure reservoir component to the almost pure steam-heated meteoric component. After the seismic activity, the W2 water returned to is pre-earthquake reservoir composition. These changes in composition could be explained by the dilatancy-fluid diffusion model. According to this model, the observed variations in W2 water composition could be in the consequence of stress build-up prior to the seismic events, and stress reduction afterwards. (Author)

  1. Long-term monitoring on a closed-conduit volcano: A 25 year long time-series of temperatures recorded at La Fossa cone (Vulcano Island, Italy), ranging from 250 °C to 520 °C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diliberto, Iole Serena

    2017-10-01

    The longest record of temperature data from an active volcano in southern Italy is presented. The dataset comes from continuous monitoring of fumarole temperatures from the La Fossa cone of Vulcano (Aeolian Islands) running from 1991 to 2016. The discussion includes an empirical approach, based on a large number of direct measurements. At Vulcano Island, geochemical monitoring of the uprising fluids allows detection of the surface effects of perturbation in the state variables of the buried hydrothermal and magmatic systems. The presented datasets show that fumaroles' changing temperatures, which are related to surface heat flow, are useful indicators. Over the past 25 years, the combined effects of runoff and chemo-physical alterations were negligible on the output temperature of the earliest monitored fumaroles. The maximum recorded variation was 298 °C (measured in the ground very close to the steaming vents, at a depth of 0.5 m). Repetition of output temperature values occurred after 19 years in the same position; the time variations suggest a cyclic characteristic, although more years are needed to register the complete cyclic modulation. A combination of minor cyclical variations has also been registered in the fumarole output. The minor cycles appeared in this long series of data after 1995, and they can be interpreted as one of the surface effects of temporary departures from a stationary state assumed for the system feeding the La Fossa area. In this sector of the Mediterranean area, the steady state pressure field, as well as the steady state temperature gradients, can be perturbed either by magmatism or by seismo-tectonic processes related to regional dynamics. This long-term monitoring allowed comparisons of many temperature subsets with other validated geochemical and geophysical data series and highlighted common source mechanisms accounting for endogenous processes. Changes in the magma source and/or seismo-tectonic activity have been the primary

  2. Geochemical Investigations In Soils And Waters Of Ischia Island (southern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avino, R.; Capaldi, G.; Di Matteo, V.; Pece, R.

    The island of Ischia is localized in the Gulf of Naples and is a volcanic field belonging to the volcanic district of the Phlegraean Fields. It covers an area of about 42 Km2 and is characterized by a complex system of faults and fractures of tectonic and volcano- tectonic origin. The highest peak of the island is Mt Epomeo (787 m), situated in the central part of Ischia. The last eruption on this island took place in 1302 (Arso) and from that time the volcanic activity has reduced only to hydrothermal manifestations (fumaroles and thermal springs) localized especially along the faults that border Mt Epomeo. So the area around the Epomeo is an area of great interest for geochemical investigations, and in fact in this place high concentration of mercury, carbon dioxide and radon have been measured. In this work are presented the data of a study on the concentration of CO2 and mercury and of the activity of radon in the soils and in the waters of the island of Ischia. For these investigations 184 samples of soils have been collected and analyzed in laboratory to calculate the concentration of mercury using the Jerome 511 Mercury Vapor Analyzer. In the same sampling sites measurements of CO2 and of the activity of radon-222 in the soils have also been made using the Track- etch@ method. As regards the waters, a sampling of 50 wells localized all around the coast of the island has been carried out. In these waters measures of mercury and of the activity of some radioactive elements have been done. The measures of radioactivity has been carried out by gamma spectrometry with a HPE Ge detector. All the investigations (in soils and in waters) allow to have preliminary information about the concentrations of these investigated elements and will be a starting-point for a more detailed sampling in those place where anomalies have been found. This set of data can also help to better understand the degassing process of these elements through the principal structures of the

  3. Formation of aeolian dunes on Anholt, Denmark since AD 1560

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Lars B; Bjørnsen, Mette; Murray, Andrew

    2007-01-01

    Sand dunes on the island of Anholt (Denmark) in the middle of Kattegat form a relatively barren, temperate climate Aeolian system, locally termed the "Desert". The dunes have developed on top of a raised beach ridge system under the influence of dominant winds from westerly directions. They are r......Sand dunes on the island of Anholt (Denmark) in the middle of Kattegat form a relatively barren, temperate climate Aeolian system, locally termed the "Desert". The dunes have developed on top of a raised beach ridge system under the influence of dominant winds from westerly directions....... They are relatively coarse-grained with an average mean grain size of 480 µm. The last phase of aeolian activity and dune formation on Anholt started after AD 1560, when the local pine forest was removed. Historical sources report intense sand mobilization in the 17th century, and new optically stimulated...... in the beginning of the 20th century probably records a temporary decrease in storminess. Ground-penetrating radar mapping of the internal structures in two dunes in the western part of the Desert (a parabolic dune and a linear dune) indicates the importance of north-westerly (storm) winds during dune formation...

  4. Surface deformation time-series analysis at Ischia Island (South Italy) carried out via multi-platform monitoring systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzo, Mariarosaria; Del Gaudio, Carlo; De Martino, Prospero; Ricco, Ciro; Tammaro, Umberto; Castaldo, Raffaele; Tizzani, Pietro; Lanari, Riccardo

    2014-05-01

    Ischia Island, located at the North-Western corner of the Gulf of Napoli (South Italy), is a volcanic area, whose state of activity is testified from eruptions (the last one occurred in 1302), earthquakes (the most disastrous in 1881 and 1883), hydrothermal manifestations and ground deformation. In this work we present the state of the art of the Ischia Island ground deformation phenomena through the joint analysis of data collected via different monitoring methodologies (leveling, GPS, and Differential SAR Interferometry) during the last twenty years. In particular, our analysis benefits from the large amount of periodic and continuous geodetic measurements collected by the 257 leveling benchmarks and the 20 (17 campaign and 3 permanent) GPS stations deployed on the island. Moreover, it takes advantage from the large archives of C-band SAR data (about 300 ascending and descending ERS-1/2 and ENVISAT images) acquired over the island since 1992 and the development of the advanced Differential SAR Interferometry (DInSAR) technique referred to as Small BAseline Subset (SBAS). The latter, allows providing space-time information on the ground displacements measured along the radar line of sight (LOS), and thanks to the availability of multi-orbit SAR data, permits to discriminate the vertical and east-west components of the detected displacements. Our integrated analysis reveals a complex deformative scenario; in particular, it identifies a spatially extended subsidence pattern, which increases as we move to higher heights, with no evidence of any uplift phenomena. This broad effect involve the Northern, Eastern, Southern and South-Western sectors of the island where we measure velocity values not exceeding -6 mm/year; moreover, we identify a more localized phenomenon affecting the North-Western area in correspondence to the Fango zone, where velocity values up to -10 mm/year are retrieved. In addition, our study shows a migration of the Eastern sector of the island

  5. A new glucosidic phthalide from Helichrysum microphyllum subsp. tyrrhenicum from La Maddalena Island (Sardinia, Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venditti, Alessandro; Lattanzi, Claudia; Ornano, Luigi; Maggi, Filippo; Sanna, Cinzia; Ballero, Mauro; Alvino, Antonello; Serafini, Mauro; Bianco, Armandodoriano

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we reported the analysis of the medium polarity fraction obtained from an accession of Helichrysum microphyllum subsp. tyrrhenicum from La Maddalena Island. Besides several compounds already evidenced in this species and related genera, i.e. micropyrone (1), arzanol (2), helipyrone (3), acetyl-bitalin derivatives (4, 5), gnaphaliol (6), caffeic acid (7), ursolic acid (8), 7-O-β-(D-glucopyranosyl)-5-methoxy-1(3H)-isobenzofuranone (9), gnaphaliol-9-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (11) and gnaphaliol-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (12), the presence of a new glycosidic phthalide, 6-O-β-(D-glucopyranosyl)-4-methoxy-1(3H)-benzofuranone (10), was evidenced for the first time, which resulted in a structural isomer of compound (9). The occurrence of this new benzofuranone derivative is an additional evidence of the deep intraspecific variability expressed by this species, which was also stated for the non-volatile components, and may be a distinctive trait of the population growing on La Maddalena Island.

  6. Palaeococcus helgesonii sp. nov., a facultatively anaerobic, hyperthermophilic archaeon from a geothermal well on Vulcano Island, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amend, Jan P; Meyer-Dombard, D'Arcy R; Sheth, Seema N; Zolotova, Natalya; Amend, Andrea C

    2003-06-01

    A novel, hyperthermophilic archaeon was isolated from a shallow geothermal well that taps marine waters on the Island of Vulcano in the southern Tyrrhenian Sea, Italy. The cells were irregular cocci, 0.6-1.5 microm in diameter, with multiple polar flagella. Growth was observed at temperatures from 45 to 85 degrees C (optimum at approximately 80 degrees C), pH 5-8 (optimum at 6.5), and 0.5-6.0% NaCl (optimum at approximately 2.8%). The minimum doubling time was 50 min. The isolate was obligately chemoheterotrophic, utilizing complex organic compounds including yeast or beef extract, peptone, tryptone, or casein for best growth. The presence of elemental sulfur enhanced growth. The isolate grew anaerobically as well as microaerobically. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 42.5 mol%. The 16S rRNA sequence indicated that the new isolate was a member of the Thermococcales within the euryarchaeota, representing the second species in the genus Palaeococcus. Its physiology and phylogeny differed in several key characteristics from those of Palaeococcus ferrophilus, justifying the establishment of a new species; the name Palaeococcus helgesonii sp. nov. is proposed, type strain PI1 (DSM 15127).

  7. Geochemical survey of Levante Bay, Vulcano Island (Italy), a natural laboratory for the study of ocean acidification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boatta, F; D'Alessandro, W; Gagliano, A L; Liotta, M; Milazzo, M; Rodolfo-Metalpa, R; Hall-Spencer, J M; Parello, F

    2013-08-30

    Shallow submarine gas vents in Levante Bay, Vulcano Island (Italy), emit around 3.6t CO2 per day providing a natural laboratory for the study of biogeochemical processes related to seabed CO2 leaks and ocean acidification. The main physico-chemical parameters (T, pH and Eh) were measured at more than 70 stations with 40 seawater samples were collected for chemical analyses. The main gas vent area had high concentrations of dissolved hydrothermal gases, low pH and negative redox values all of which returned to normal seawater values at distances of about 400m from the main vents. Much of the bay around the vents is corrosive to calcium carbonate; the north shore has a gradient in seawater carbonate chemistry that is well suited to studies of the effects of long-term increases in CO2 levels. This shoreline lacks toxic compounds (such as H2S) and has a gradient in carbonate saturation states. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Acidophiles of saline water at thermal vents of Vulcano, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Susan; Norris, R

    2002-06-01

    DNA was extracted from samples taken from close to acidic hydrothermal vents on shore of the Aeolian Island of Vulcano (Italy). RNA gene sequences were amplified by PCR, cloned, and sequenced. A sequence with an origin in samples at 35 degrees and 45 degrees C corresponded to that of a novel Acidithiobacillus species that was isolated from water close to the vents. Novel, iron-oxidizing mesophilic acidophiles were isolated through enrichment cultures with ferrous iron but were not represented in the clone banks of environmental rDNA. These acidophiles were related to Thiobacillus prosperus, which was isolated previously from Vulcano. The archaeal sequences that comprised a clone bank representing a high-temperature sample (75 degrees C) corresponded to those of Acidianus brierleyi and of thermophiles previously isolated from Vulcano, Thermoplasma volcanium and Acidianus infernus.

  9. Long-term variations of fumarole temperatures on Vulcano Island (Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iole Serena Diliberto

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Fumarole temperatures are the ultimate results of many processes that are encountered by deep fluids during their passage to the surface. Here, the time variations of high-temperature fumaroles acquired by continuous monitoring are presented, to show the effects of the forces that act on the system. Data acquired by continuous monitoring of fumaroles and the time relationships with the different parameters related to the activity of the volcanic system are discussed. From 1998 to 2010, the temperature and compositional changes of fumarolic gases were monitored at the same time as variations in the number of volcano-seismic events, which indicate frequent variations of energy release (heat and mass flow, and seismic strain release. Geochemical modeling applied to the volcanic system of Vulcano Island suggests that the overall expansion of magmatic gas through the fractured system is an almost iso-enthalpic process at depth, which shifts to an adiabatic process at shallow depth, where the rock permeability increases. Thus, the time variations of the fumarole temperatures reflect various physical variations of the system that can either occur at depth or close to the surface. The temperature monitoring performed in the fumarolic area of La Fossa Cone showed short-term effects related to rain events, and negligible effects related to other external agents (ambient temperature and atmospheric pressure variations. At the same time, the long-term monitoring highlighted some mean-term and long-term variations. These last are the main characters observed in the time-series, and they both appear to be related to endogenous forces that perturb the equilibrium of this complex geochemical system.

  10. The Impact of Albedo Increase to Mitigate the Urban Heat Island in Terni (Italy Using the WRF Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Morini

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The impacts of the urban heat island (UHI phenomenon on energy consumption, air quality, and human health have been widely studied and described. Mitigation strategies have been developed to fight the UHI and its detrimental consequences. A potential countermeasure is the increase of urban albedo by using cool materials. Cool materials are highly reflective materials that can maintain lower surface temperatures and thus can present an effective solution to mitigate the UHI. Terni’s proven record of high temperatures along with related environmental and comfort issues in its urban areas have reflected the local consequences of global warming. On the other hand, it promoted integrated actions by the government and research institutes to investigate solutions to mitigate the UHI effects. In this study, the main goal is to investigate the effectiveness of albedo increase as a strategy to tackle the UHI, by using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF mesoscale model to simulate the urban climate of Terni (Italy. Three different scenarios through a summer heat wave in the summer of 2015 are analyzed. The Base Scenario, which simulates the actual conditions of the urban area, is the control case. In the Albedo Scenario (ALB Scenario, the albedo of the roof, walls and road of the whole urban area is increased. In the Albedo-Industrial Scenario (ALB-IND Scenario, the albedo of the roof, walls and road of the area occupied by the main industrial site of Terni, located in close proximity to the city center, is increased. The simulation results show that the UHI is decreased up to 2 °C both at daytime and at nighttime in the ALB and in ALB-IND Scenarios. Peak temperatures in the urban area can be decreased by 1 °C at daytime, and by about 2 °C at nighttime. Albedo increase in the area of interest might thus represent an opportunity to decrease the UHI effect and its consequences.

  11. Boulder coastal deposits at Favignana Island rocky coast (Sicily, Italy): Litho-structural and hydrodynamic control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepe, Fabrizio; Corradino, Marta; Parrino, Nicolò; Besio, Giovanni; Presti, Valeria Lo; Renda, Pietro; Calcagnile, Lucio; Quarta, Gianluca; Sulli, Attilio; Antonioli, Fabrizio

    2018-02-01

    Boulders are frequently dislodged from rock platforms, transported and deposited along coastal zones by high-magnitude storm waves or tsunamis. Their size and shape are often controlled by the thickness of bedding planes as well as by high-angle to bedding fracture network. We investigate these processes along two coastal areas of Favignana Island by integrating geological data for 81 boulders, 49 rupture surfaces (called sockets) and fracture orientation and spacing with four radiocarbon dates, numerical hydrodynamic analysis, and hindcast numerical simulation data. Boulders are scattered along the carbonate platform as isolated blocks or in small groups, which form, as a whole, a discontinuous berm. Underwater surveys also highlight free boulders with sharp edges and sockets carved out in the rock platform. Boulders are composed of ruditic- to arenitic-size clastic carbonates. Their size ranges from 0.6 to 3.7 m, 0.55 to 2.4 m, and 0.2 to 1 m on the major (A), medium (B), and minor (C) axes, respectively. The highest value of mass estimation is 12.5 t. Almost all of boulders and sockets are characterized by a tabular or bladed shape. The comparisons between a) the fractures spacing and the length of A- and B-axes, and b) the frequency peaks of C-axis with the recurrent thickness of beds measured along the coastal zone demonstrate the litho-structural control in the size and shape of joint-bounded boulders. These comparisons, together with the similarity between the shapes of the boulders and those of the sockets as well as between the lithology of boulders and the areas surrounding the sockets, suggest that blocks originate by detachment from the platform edge. Thus, the most common pre-transport setting is the joint-bounded scenario. Hydrodynamic equations estimate that the storm wave heights necessary to initiate the transport of blocks diverge from 2 m to 8 m for joint-bounded boulders and from few tens of centimeters up to 11 m for submerged boulders. The

  12. Crustal stress regime in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Cesaro

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to obtain a reliable map of the present-day stress field in Italy, needed to better understand the active tectonic processes and to contribute to the assessment of seismic hazard, in 1992 we started to collect and analyze new data from borehole breakouts in deep oil and geothermal wells and focal mechanisms of earthquakes (2.5 < M <5 occurred in Italy between 1988 and 1995. From about 200 deep wells and 300 focal mechanisms analyzed to date, we infer that: the internal (SW sector of the Northern Apenninic arc is extending with minimum compressional stress (Shmin oriented ? ENE, while the external front is thrusting over the Adriatic foreland (Shmin ? NW-SE. The entire Southern Apennine is extending in NE direction (from the Tyrrhenian margin to the Apulian foreland and compression (in the foredeep is no longer active at the outer (NE thrust front. Between these two arcs, an abrupt change in the tectonic regime is detected with directions of horizontal stress changing by as much as 90º in the external front, around latitude 430N. Along the Ionian side of the Calabrian arc the stress directions inferred from breakouts and focal mechanisms are scattered with a hint of rotation from N-S Shmin close to the Southern Apennines, to ~ E-W directions in the Messina Strait. In Sicily, a NW-SE direction of SHmax is evident in the Hyblean foreland, parallel to the direction of plate motion between Africa and Europe. A more complex pattern of stress directions is observed in the thrust belt zone, with rotations from the regional trend (NW í directed SHmax to NE oriented SHmax. A predominant NW direction of SHmax is also detected in mainland Sicily from earthquake focal mechanisms, but no well data are available in this region. In the northern part of Sicily (Aeolian Islands a ~N-S direction of SHmax is observed.

  13. Genesis of fumarolic emissions as inferred by isotope mass balances: CO 2 and water at Vulcano Island, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paonita, A.; Favara, R.; Nuccio, P. M.; Sortino, F.

    2002-03-01

    We have developed a quantitative model of CO2 and H2O isotopic mixing between magmatic and hydrothermal gases for the fumarolic emissions of the La Fossa crater (Vulcano Island, Italy). On the basis of isotope balance equations, the model takes into account the isotope equilibrium between H2O and CO2 and extends the recent model of chemical and energy two-end-member mixing by Nuccio et al. (1999). As a result, the H2O and CO2 content and the δD, δ18O, and δ13C isotope compositions for both magmatic and hydrothermal end-members have been assessed. Low contributions of meteoric steam, added at a shallow depth, have been also recognized and quantified in the fumaroles throughout the period from 1988 to 1998. Nonequilibrium oxygen isotope exchange also seems to be occurring between ascending gases and wall rocks along some fumarolic conduits. The δ13CCO2 of the magmatic gases varies around -3 to 1‰ vs. Peedee belemnite (PDB), following a perfect synchronism with the variations of the CO2 concentration in the magmatic gases. This suggests a process of isotope fractionation because of vapor exsolution caused by magma depressurization. The hydrogen isotopes in the magmatic gases (-1 to -‰ vs. standard mean ocean water [SMOW]), as well as the above δ13CCO2 value, are coherent with a convergent tectonic setting of magma generation, where the local mantle is widely contaminated by fluids released from the subducted slab. Magma contamination in the crust probably amplifies this effect. The computed isotope composition of carbon and hydrogen in the hydrothermal vapors has been used to calculate the δD and δ13C of the entire hydrothermal system, including mixed H2O-CO2 vapor, liquid water, and dissolved carbon. We have computed values of about 10‰ vs. SMOW for water and -2 to -6.5‰ vs. PDB for CO2. On these grounds, we think that Mediterranean marine water (δDH2O ≈ 10‰) feeds the hydrothermal system. It infiltrates at depth throughout the local rocks

  14. Aeolian geomorphology from the global perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greeley, R.

    1985-01-01

    Any planet or satellite having a dynamic atmosphere and a solid surface has the potential for experiencing aeolian (wind) processes. A survey of the Solar System shows at least four planetary objects which potentially meet these criteria: Earth, Mars, Venus, and possibly Titan, the largest satellite of Saturn. While the basic process is the same among these four objects, the movement of particles by the atmosphere, the aeolian environment is drastically different. It ranges from the hot (730 K), dense atmosphere of Venus to the extremely cold desert (218 K) environment of Mars where the atmospheric surface pressure is only approximately 7.5 mb. In considering aeolian processes in the planetary perspective, all three terrestrial planets share some common areas of attention for research, especially in regard to wind erosion and dust storms. Relevant properties of planetary objects potentially subject to aeolian processes are given in tabular form.

  15. On the mathematical modeling of aeolian saltation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jens Ledet; Sørensen, Michael

    1983-01-01

    The development of a mathematical model for aeolian saltation is a promising way of obtaining further progress in the field of wind-blown sand. Interesting quantities can be calculated from a model defined in general terms, and a specific model is defined and compared to previously published data...... on aeolian saltation. This comparison points out the necessity of discriminating between pure and real saltation. -Authors...

  16. Geothermometry, geochronology, and mass transfer associated with hydrothermal alteration of a rhyolitic hyaloclastite from Ponza Island, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altaner, S.P.; Ylagan, R.F.; Savin, S.M.; Aronson, J.L.; Belkin, H.E.; Pozzuoli, A.

    2003-01-01

    A rhyolitic hyaloclastite from Ponza Island, Italy, was hydrothermally altered, producing four distinct alteration zones based on X-ray diffraction mineralogy and field textures: (1) nonpervasive argillic zone; (2) propylitic zone; (3) silicic zone; and (4) sericitic zone. The unaltered hyaloclastite is volcanic breccia with clasts of vesiculated obsidian in a matrix of predominantly pumice lapilli. Incomplete alteration of the hyaloclastite resulted in the nonpervasive argillic zone, characterized by smectite and disordered opal-CT. The other three zones exhibit more complete alteration of the hyaloclastite. The propylitic zone is characterized by mixed-layer illite-smectite (I-S) with 10 to 85% I, mordenite, opal-C, and authigenic K-feldspar (akspar). The silicic zone is characterized by I-S with ???90% I, pure illite, quartz, akspar, and occasional albite. The sericitic zone consists primarily of I-S with ???66% I, pure illite, quartz, and minor akspar and pyrite. K/Ar dates of I-S indicate hydrothermal alteration occurred at 3.38 ?? 0.08 Ma. Oxygen isotope compositions of I-S systematically decrease from zones 1 to 4. In the argillic zone, smectite has ??18 O values of 21.7 to 22.0??? and I-S from the propylitic, silicic, and sericitic zones ranges from 14.5 to 16.3???, 12.5 to 14.0???, and 8.6 to 11.9???, respectively. ??18 O values for quartz from the silicic and sericitic zones range from 12.6 to 15.9???. By use of isotope fractionation equations and data from authigenic quartz-hosted primary fluid inclusions, alteration temperatures ranged from 50 to 65 ??C for the argillic zone, 85 to 125 ??C for the propylitic zone, 110 to 210 ??C for the silicic zone, and 145 to 225 ??C for the sericitic zone. Fluid inclusion data and calculated ??18 O water values indicate that hydrothermal fluids were seawater dominated. Mass-transfer calculations indicate that hydrothermal alteration proceeded in a relatively open chemical system and alteration in the sericitic zone

  17. Current observations from a looking down vertical V-ADCP: interaction with winds and tide? The case of Giglio Island (Tyrrhenian Sea, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Cutroneo

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In the context of the environmental monitoring of the Concordia wreck removal project, measurements of currents, winds and sea level height were made along the eastern coast of the Giglio Island, Tyrrhenian Sea (Italy, during 2012–2013. The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of atmospheric forcing and periodic sea-level changes on the coastal currents. Normalised Cross-Correlation Function analysis allowed us to correlate these observations. A marked inter-seasonal variability was found in both current and local wind velocity observations but a significant level of correlation between the data was only found during strong wind events. Current and wind directions appeared to be uncorrelated and current measurements showed a predominant NW–SE direction, presumably linked to the shape and orientation of Giglio Island itself. During strong winds from the SSE, current flow was towards the NNW but it suddenly switched from the NNW to the SE at the end of wind events. The results show that, at Giglio Island, currents are principally dominated by the general cyclonic Tyrrhenian circulation, and, secondly, by strong wind events. The sea level had no effects on the current regime.

  18. Temporal and spatial variations in provenance of Eastern Mediterranean Sea sediments: Implications for Aegean and Aeolian arc volcanism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaver, M.; Djuly, T.; de Graaf, S.; Sakes, A.; Wijbrans, J.R.; Davies, G.R.; Vroon, P.Z.

    2015-01-01

    The Eastern Mediterranean Sea (EMS) is the last remnant of the Tethys Ocean that has been subducted to the north since the Jurassic. Subduction has led to the formation of multiple island arcs in the EMS region where the Aeolian and Aegean arcs are currently active. The EMS is surrounded by

  19. The role of thermo-rheological properties of the crust beneath Ischia Island (Southern Italy) in the modulation of the ground deformation pattern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castaldo, R.; Gola, G.; Santilano, A.; De Novellis, V.; Pepe, S.; Manzo, M.; Manzella, A.; Tizzani, P.

    2017-09-01

    In this paper we develop a model of the ground deformation behaviour occurred at Ischia Island (Southern Italy) in the 1992-2010 time period. The model is employed to investigate the forces and physical parameters of the crust controlling the subsidence of the Island. To this aim, we integrate and homogenize in a Finite Element (FE) environment a large amount of data derived from several and different observation techniques (i.e., geological, geophysical and remote sensing). In detail, the main steps of the multiphysics model are: (i) the generation of a 3D geological model of the crust beneath the Island by merging the available geological and geophysical information; (ii) the optimization of a 3D thermal model by exploiting the thermal measurements available in literature; (iii) the definition of the 3D Brittle/Ductile transition by using the temperature distribution of the crust and the physical information of the rocks; (iv) the optimization of the ground deformation velocity model (that takes into account the rheological stratification) by considering the spatial and temporal information detected via satellite multi-orbit C-Band SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar) measurements acquired during the 1992-2010 time period. The achieved results allow investigating the physical process responsible for the observed ground deformation pattern. In particular, they reveal how the rheology modulates the spatial and temporal evolution of the long-term subsidence phenomenon, highlighting a coupling effect of the viscosities of the rocks and the gravitational loading of the volcano edifice. Moreover, the achieved results provide a very detailed and realistic velocity field image of the subsurface crust of the Ischia Island Volcano.

  20. Ground robotic measurement of aeolian processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Feifei; Jerolmack, Douglas; Lancaster, Nicholas; Nikolich, George; Reverdy, Paul; Roberts, Sonia; Shipley, Thomas; Van Pelt, R. Scott; Zobeck, Ted M.; Koditschek, Daniel E.

    2017-08-01

    Models of aeolian processes rely on accurate measurements of the rates of sediment transport by wind, and careful evaluation of the environmental controls of these processes. Existing field approaches typically require intensive, event-based experiments involving dense arrays of instruments. These devices are often cumbersome and logistically difficult to set up and maintain, especially near steep or vegetated dune surfaces. Significant advances in instrumentation are needed to provide the datasets that are required to validate and improve mechanistic models of aeolian sediment transport. Recent advances in robotics show great promise for assisting and amplifying scientists' efforts to increase the spatial and temporal resolution of many environmental measurements governing sediment transport. The emergence of cheap, agile, human-scale robotic platforms endowed with increasingly sophisticated sensor and motor suites opens up the prospect of deploying programmable, reactive sensor payloads across complex terrain in the service of aeolian science. This paper surveys the need and assesses the opportunities and challenges for amassing novel, highly resolved spatiotemporal datasets for aeolian research using partially-automated ground mobility. We review the limitations of existing measurement approaches for aeolian processes, and discuss how they may be transformed by ground-based robotic platforms, using examples from our initial field experiments. We then review how the need to traverse challenging aeolian terrains and simultaneously make high-resolution measurements of critical variables requires enhanced robotic capability. Finally, we conclude with a look to the future, in which robotic platforms may operate with increasing autonomy in harsh conditions. Besides expanding the completeness of terrestrial datasets, bringing ground-based robots to the aeolian research community may lead to unexpected discoveries that generate new hypotheses to expand the science

  1. Archaen to Recent aeolian sand systems and their sedimentary record

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodríguez-López, Juan Pedro; Clemmensen, Lars B; Lancaster, Nick

    2014-01-01

    The sedimentary record of aeolian sand systems extends from the Archean to the Quaternary, yet current understanding of aeolian sedimentary processes and product remains limited. Most preserved aeolian successions represent inland sand-sea or dunefield (erg) deposits, whereas coastal systems are ...

  2. Ground robotic measurement of aeolian processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Models of aeolian processes rely on accurate measurements of the rates of sediment transport by wind, and careful evaluation of the environmental controls of these processes. Existing field approaches typically require intensive, event-based experiments involving dense arrays of instruments. These d...

  3. The island of Elba (Tuscany, Italy) at the crossroads of ancient trade routes: an archaeometric investigation of dolia defossa from the archaeological site of San Giovanni

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manca, Rosarosa; Pagliantini, Laura; Pecchioni, Elena; Santo, Alba P.; Cambi, Franco; Chiarantini, Laura; Corretti, Alessandro; Costagliola, Pilario; Orlando, Andrea; Benvenuti, Marco

    2016-12-01

    Dolia are large pottery containers used in Roman times for the storage and fermentation of wine. They were produced in specialized pottery workshops ( figlinae) and were typically marked with specific epigraphical stamps, which represent a major tool to unravel their provenance and trade. In this work we present the preliminary results of a study of two dolia defossa, recently found at San Giovanni (Portoferraio, island of Elba, Italy) during 2012-2014 archaeological excavations in a Roman farm (late 2nd cent. BC-1st cent. AD), devoted to wine production and probably constituting the antecedent archaeological phase of the adjacent "Villa delle Grotte". Based on archaeological (epigraphic) evidence, five different production areas have been hypothesized: 1) Elba island, where the dolia have been found; 2) the municipal figlinae in the Pisa territory; 3) the middle catchment of the Tiber river (central Latium) where "urban" figlinae occurred; 4) the figlinae of Minturno (southern Latium), a locality known both for wine production and exportation and for the presence of ancient figlinae; 5) the municipal figlinae in the Volterra territory. Archaeometric analysis of tempering agents intentionally added to the clay for the manufacturing of the dolia, particularly magmatic lithic fragments and clinopyroxene crystals, allowed us to suggest that the watershed of the central Tiber Valley - including different volcanic centres belonging to both Tuscany Magmatic Province (Monti Cimini) and Roman Magmatic Province (Monti Vulsini and Vico volcano) - could have been the most likely sites of production of the dolia found at San Giovanni. Alternatively, the site of Minturno (southern Latium) could be proposed.

  4. New chronological and geochemical constraints on the genesis and geological evolution of Ponza and Palmarola Volcanic Islands (Tyrrhenian Sea, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadoux, Anita; Pinti, Daniele L.; Aznar, Cyril; Chiesa, Sergio; Gillot, Pierre-Yves

    2005-04-01

    A new geochronological and geochemical study of the volcanic rocks of the Ponza and Palmarola Islands, Pontine Archipelago, has been carried out. This archipelago is located along the boundary between the Italian continental shelf and the opening Tyrrhenian basin. It is a key area to study volcanism related to the opening of the Tyrrhenian Sea. Ponza is the oldest felsic magmatic manifestation in the central Tyrrhenian area. Previous studies suggested that Ponza volcanic activity began before 5 Ma. Twenty-five new K-Ar ages constrain the volcanic activity (rhyolitic hyaloclastites and dykes) to the last 4.2 Ma, with two episodes of quiescence between 3.7 and 3.2 Ma and between 2.9 and 1.0 Ma. A new volcanic episode dated at 3.2-2.9 Ma has been identified on the central and southern Ponza, with emplacement of pyroclastic units. At 1.0 Ma, a trachytic episode ended the volcanic activity. The near island of Palmarola exhibits rhyolitic hyaloclastites and domes dated between 1.6 and 1.5 Ma, indicating that the island was entirely built during the Early Pleistocene in a short span of time of ca. 120 ka. Although only 6-8 km apart, the two islands display significantly different geochemical signatures. Ponza rhyolites show major and trace element compositions representative of orogenic magmas of subduction/collision zones: high-K calc-alkaline and metaluminous rhyolites (Agpaitic Index [AI] and Alumina Saturation Index [ASI] 3), and Nb-Ta negative anomalies. In Palmarola, the orogenic character is also present, but much less marked than in Ponza: rhyolites have a peralkaline character (AI>1), lower LILE/HFSE (Th/Ta=11-15), low LREE/HFSE ratios (La/Nb=1-2) close to those of anorogenic lavas, and the Nb-Ta negative anomalies are almost absent. Y/Nb ratios indicate different magmatic sources, one similar to island-arc or active continental margin basalts for Ponza rhyolites, and the others probably involving an OIB type component for Palmarola rhyolites and Ponza trachytes

  5. Remote Sensing and Geodetic Measurements for Volcanic Slope Monitoring: Surface Variations Measured at Northern Flank of La Fossa Cone (Vulcano Island, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Bonforte

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Results of recent monitoring activities on potentially unstable areas of the NW volcano flank of La Fossa cone (Vulcano Island, Italy are shown here. They are obtained by integration of data by aerial photogrammetry, terrestrial laser scanning (TLS and GPS taken in the 1996–2011 time span. A comparison between multi-temporal models built from remote sensing data (photogrammetry and TLS highlights areas characterized by ~7–10 cm/y positive differences (i.e., elevation increase in the upper crown of the slope. The GPS measurements confirm these results. Areas characterized by negative differences, related to both mass collapses or small surface lowering, also exist. The higher differences, positive and negative, are always observed in zones affected by higher fumarolic activity. In the 2010–2012 time span, ground motions in the northern part of the crater rim, immediately above the upper part of observed area, are also observed. The results show different trends for both vertical and horizontal displacements of points distributed along the rim, with a magnitude of some centimeters, thus revealing a complex kinematics. A slope stability analysis shows that the safety factors estimated from these data do not indicate evidence of possible imminent failures. Nevertheless, new time series are needed to detect possible changes with the time of the stability conditions, and the monitoring has to go on.

  6. Publication trends in aeolian research: An analysis of the Bibliography of Aeolian Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stout, John E.; Warren, Andrew; Gill, Thomas E.

    2009-04-01

    An analysis of the Bibliography of Aeolian Research has provided information regarding publication trends in aeolian research. Results suggest that there has been a significant increase in the number of publications per year since the first aeolian-research publication appeared in 1646. Rates of publication have increased from only three publications in the 17th Century to nearly three publications per day in the 21st Century. The temporal distribution of publications follows a complex pattern that is influenced by many factors. In the 17th and 18th Centuries, publications appear as isolated clusters indicating limited interest in aeolian research and limited opportunities for individuals to contribute to scientific literature. With time, many new scientific societies are formed and many new scientific journals are established, opening new opportunities for scientists to contribute to scientific discourse. Landmark publications open up new research areas and define new directions for aeolian research. General advances in science and technology provide new techniques for sampling blowing sand and dust. In addition, clear signs exist that publication rates respond to major environmental and climatic events, especially large-scale disasters that focus attention on wind erosion and blowing dust. The Sirocco dust events of 1901-1903, the North American Dust Bowl of the1930s, and the recent sand and dust storm problems in China have all led to significant increases in the number of publications in aeolian research. Rates of publication are negatively influenced by major political and social upheavals, especially global conflicts such as World Wars I and II. Sudden shifts in government structure and support can also influence publication rates. A good example is the increased publication rates in China following the end of the Cultural Revolution, a trend that continues today.

  7. Recent advances in research on the aeolian geomorphology of China's Kumtagh Sand Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Z.; Lv, P.

    2014-02-01

    The Kumtagh Sand Sea in the hyper-arid region of northwestern China remained largely unexplored until the last decade. It deserves study due to its significance in understanding the evolution of the arid environments in northwestern China, and even central Asia. Aeolian geomorphology in the sand sea has received unprecedented study in the last decade. Encouraging advances have been made in types of aeolian landforms, geological outlines, wind systems, the formation of aeolian landforms, several unique aeolian landforms, aeolian geomorphic regionalization, aeolian geomorphological heritages and tourism development, and aeolian sand hazards and their control. These advances expand our knowledge of aeolian geomorphology.

  8. The aeolian sedimentation record of the Thar desert

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    the monsoon activity in the Thar varied significantly, from being minimal during the isotopic marine stages 4 and 2 ... oped over millennial scale and more, and that the aeolian ..... silt-and-clay-rich horizons within the aeolian sand units, with a ...

  9. Gravitational slope-deformation of a resurgent caldera: New insights from the mechanical behaviour of Mt. Nuovo tuffs (Ischia Island, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marmoni, G. M.; Martino, S.; Heap, M. J.; Reuschlé, T.

    2017-10-01

    Ischia Island (Italy) is an impressive example of the rare phenomenon of caldera resurgence. The emplacement and replenishment of magmas at shallow depth resulted in a vertical uplift of about 900 m, concentrated in the western portion of Mt. Epomeo (789 m a.s.l.). As a consequence of this uplift, the island has experienced several slope instabilities at different scales since the Holocene, from shallow mass movements to large rock and debris avalanches. These mass wasting events, which mobilised large volumes of greenish alkali-trachytic tuff (the Mt. Epomeo Green Tuff, MEGT), were strictly related to volcano-tectonic activity and the interaction between the volcanic slopes and the hydrothermal system beneath the island. Deep-Seated Gravitational Slope Deformation (DSGSD) at Mt. Nuovo, located adjacent to densely populated coastal villages, is an ongoing process that covers an area of 1.6 km2. The Mt. Nuovo DSGSD involves a rock mass volume of 190 Mm3 and is accommodated by a main shear zone and a series of sub-vertical fault zones associated with high-angle joint sets. To improve our understanding of this gravity-induced process, we performed a physical (porosity and permeability) and mechanical (uniaxial and triaxial deformation experiments) characterisation of two ignimbrite deposits - both from the MEGT - that form a significant component of the NW sector of Mt. Epomeo. The main conclusions drawn from our experiments are twofold. First, the presence of water dramatically reduces the strength of the tuffs, suggesting that the movement of fluids within the hydrothermal system could greatly impact slope stability. Second, the transition from brittle (dilatant) to ductile (compactant) behaviour in the tuffs of the MEGT occurs at a very low effective pressure, analogous to a depth of a couple of hundred metres, and that this transition is likely moved closer to the surface in the presence of water. We hypothesise that compactant (porosity decreasing) behaviour at

  10. Aeolian Landscape Change in West Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heindel, Ruth Chaves

    In the Arctic, aeolian processes can be important drivers of landscape change. Soil deflation, the removal of fine-grained sediment by wind, is one aeolian process that has had a profound impact in the Arctic. While soil deflation has been well studied in Iceland, our understanding of aeolian processes across the rest of the Arctic remains limited. Kangerlussuaq, West Greenland, provides an opportunity to study the mechanisms and impacts of soil deflation without direct anthropogenic influence. In Kangerlussuaq, strong katabatic winds have resulted in distinct erosional landforms, here referred to as deflation patches, that are largely devoid of vascular plants and are dominated by biological soil crusts. This dissertation considers the geomorphic and ecological impacts of soil deflation through an interdisciplinary framework. I show that deflation patches are a critical component of the Kangerlussuaq ecosystem, accounting for 22% of the terrestrial landscape and impacting vegetation dynamics by providing habitat for graminoid, herbaceous, and lichen species. Deflation patches formed roughly 230-800 years ago, during a period of cold, dry, and windy climate conditions. Deflation patches expand across the landscape when the active margin, or scarp, becomes undercut and collapses. I estimate that rates of patch expansion are roughly 2.5 cm yr-1, and that geomorphic change can be detected even over the short time period of two years. I suggest that an erosional threshold exists because climate conditions required for initial deflation-patch formation are harsher than those required for continued patch expansion. The future trajectory of deflation patches depends on the role of the biological soil crust as either a successional facilitator or a long-term landscape cover, as well as future climate conditions. While the biological soil crusts slightly enrich soil fertility over time, they decrease soil moisture and create an impenetrable soil surface, which may inhibit

  11. Holocene aeolian activity in the Dinggye area (Southern Tibet, China)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Meihui; Wu, Yongqiu; Zheng, Yinghua; Tan, Lihua

    2014-03-01

    The Dinggye area (Southern Tibet) contains numerous aeolian sediments, including modern and ancient aeolian sand deposition. In this study, we determined the chronological sequences of several profiles of Holocene paleo-aeolian deposits using Optically Stimulate Luminescence (OSL) and radiocarbon (Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) 14C and conventional 14C) dating. Using the grain size, magnetic susceptibility, organic content and chrome characteristics of the deposits, we reconstructed the Holocene aeolian processes in the Dinggye area. The results from the paleo-aeolian depositional record indicate multiple changes in the intensity of aeolian activity and soil fixing with alternations between cool-dry and warm-humid climate conditions in the Dinggye area during the Holocene. From 12.8 ka B.P. to the present, the climate has fluctuated frequently. From 12.8 to 11.6 ka B.P. and from 9.3 to 4.9 ka B.P., the climate was warm and humid with weak aeolian activity, and a sandy paleosol developed. The peak Holocene megathermal period and the main period of pedogenesis in the study area was from 6.6 to 4.9 ka B.P. Between 11.6 and 9.3 ka B.P. and since 2.0 ka B.P., the sandlot expanded due to a cool, dry and windy climate; aeolian activity was strong and caused the development of moving dunes. The period between 4.9 and 2.0 ka B.P. was relatively cool and dry with slightly strengthened aeolian activity that developed stationary and semi-stationary dunes. In general, the Holocene events recorded by the paleo-aeolian deposits correspond well with those interpreted by other methods, such as records from ice-cores, lacustrine deposits and tree rings, but there are minor discrepancies between the methods.

  12. An assessment of urban heat island effect adopting urban parameterizations in COSMO-CLM simulations over big cities in Northern Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montesarchio, Myriam; Rianna, Guido; Mercogliano, Paola; Castellari, Sergio; Schiano, Pasquale

    2015-04-01

    In Europe, about 80% of people live in urban areas, which most of them can be particularly vulnerable to climate impacts (e.g. high air temperatures along with heat waves, flooding due to intense precipitation events, water scarcity and droughts). In fact, the density of people and assets within relatively small geographic areas, such as an urban settlements, mean more risk exposure than in rural areas. Therefore, reliable numerical climate models are needed for elaborating climate risk assessment at urban scale. These models must take into account the effects of the complex three-dimensional structure of urban settlements, combined with the mixture of surface types with contrasting radiative, thermal and moisture characteristics. In this respect, previous studies (e.g. Trusilova et al., 2013) have already assessed the importance to consider urban properties in very high resolution regional climate modeling to better reproduce the features of urban climate, especially in terms of urban heat island effect. In this work, two different configurations of the regional climate model COSMO-CLM at the horizontal resolution of 0.02° (about 2.2km), one including urban parameterization scheme and another without including them, have been applied in order to perform two different climate simulations covering the entire northern Italy. In particular, the present study is focused on large urban settlements such as Milan and Turin. Due to high computational cost required to run very high resolution simulations, the results of the two simulations have been compared over a period of ten years, from 1980 to 1989. Preliminary results indicate that the modification of climate conditions, due to the presence of urban areas, is present mainly in the areas covered by big cities and surrounding them, or rather the presence of urban areas induces modification mainly in their local climate. Other evidences are that the simulation including urban parameterization scheme shows, in general

  13. A new multi-disciplinary model for the assessment and reduction of volcanic risk: the example of the island of Vulcano, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simicevic, Aleksandra; Bonadonna, Costanza; di Traglia, Federico; Rosi, Mauro

    2010-05-01

    is the starting point of the identification of suitable mitigation measures which will be analyzed through a cost-benefit analysis to assess their financial feasibility. Information about public networks is also recorded in order to give an overall idea of the built environment condition of the island. The vulnerability assessment of the technical systems describes the potential damages that could stress systems like electricity supply, water distribution, communication networks or transport systems. These damages can also be described as function disruption of the system. The important aspect is not only the physical capacity of a system to resist, but also its capacity to continue functioning. The model will be tested on the island of Vulcano in southern Italy. Vulcano is characterized by clear signs of volcanic unrest and is the type locality for a deadly style of eruption. The main active system of Vulcano Island (La Fossa cone) is known to produce a variety of eruption styles and intensities, each posing their own hazards and threats. Six different hazard scenarios have been identified based on a detailed stratigraphic work. The urbanization on Vulcano took place in the 1980s with no real planning and its population mostly subsists on tourism. Our preliminary results show that Vulcano is not characterized by a great variability of architectural typologies and construction materials. Three main types of buildings are present (masonry with concrete frame, masonry with manufactured stone units, masonry with hollow clay bricks) and no statistically significant trends were found between physical and morphological characteristics. The recent signs of volcanic unrest combined with a complex vulnerability of the island due to an uncontrolled urban development and a significant seasonal variation of the exposed population in summer months result in a high volcanic risk. As a result, Vulcano represents the ideal environment to test a multi-hazard based risk model and to

  14. Numerical simulation of aeolian sand ripples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang Liqiang; Guo Liejin

    2004-01-01

    With a new horizontal saltation displacement vector, a model is implemented to simulate the initiation and evolution of aeolian sand ripples. In the model, saltation distance considers the effects of surface height and slope. A linear stability analysis is also carried out for formation of sand ripples. The results show that, the model can be able to successfully reproduce sand ripples which can increase in scale by merging of small ripples. The linear stability analysis indicates that sand ripples appear when the relaxation rate parameter is below a threshold value and wind strength parameter is larger than a critical value. The results also verified that the formation of sand ripples is a self-organization process

  15. Editorial - Special Issue on the Ninth International Conference on Aeolian Research - ICAR IX (Coastal Dune Processes and Aeolian Transport)

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Graziela Miot

    2018-04-01

    This special issue combines some of the papers related to coastal dune processes and aeolian sediment transport that were presented at the Ninth International Conference on Aeolian Research - ICAR IX. The conference was held between 4 and 8 of July 2016 in Mildura, Australia, organized by the International Society for Aeolian Research (ISAR) and convened by Adrian Chappell (Cardiff University), Craig Strong (Australian National University), Stephen Cattle (University of Sydney), Patrick Hesp (Flinders University), John Leys (New South Wales Office of Environment and Heritage), Lynda Petherick (University of Wellington) and Nick Webb (USDA-ARS Jornada Experimental Range).

  16. A Threshold Continuum for Aeolian Sand Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swann, C.; Ewing, R. C.; Sherman, D. J.

    2015-12-01

    The threshold of motion for aeolian sand transport marks the initial entrainment of sand particles by the force of the wind. This is typically defined and modeled as a singular wind speed for a given grain size and is based on field and laboratory experimental data. However, the definition of threshold varies significantly between these empirical models, largely because the definition is based on visual-observations of initial grain movement. For example, in his seminal experiments, Bagnold defined threshold of motion when he observed that 100% of the bed was in motion. Others have used 50% and lesser values. Differences in threshold models, in turn, result is large errors in predicting the fluxes associated with sand and dust transport. Here we use a wind tunnel and novel sediment trap to capture the fractions of sand in creep, reptation and saltation at Earth and Mars pressures and show that the threshold of motion for aeolian sand transport is best defined as a continuum in which grains progress through stages defined by the proportion of grains in creep and saltation. We propose the use of scale dependent thresholds modeled by distinct probability distribution functions that differentiate the threshold based on micro to macro scale applications. For example, a geologic timescale application corresponds to a threshold when 100% of the bed in motion whereas a sub-second application corresponds to a threshold when a single particle is set in motion. We provide quantitative measurements (number and mode of particle movement) corresponding to visual observations, percent of bed in motion and degrees of transport intermittency for Earth and Mars. Understanding transport as a continuum provides a basis for revaluating sand transport thresholds on Earth, Mars and Titan.

  17. Single-station seismic noise measures, microgravity, and 3D electrical tomographies to assess the sinkhole susceptibility: the "Il Piano" area (Elba Island - Italy) case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazzi, Veronica; Di Filippo, Michele; Di Nezza, Maria; Carlà, Tommaso; Bardi, Federica; Marini, Federico; Fontanelli, Katia; Intrieri, Emanuele; Fanti, Riccardo

    2017-04-01

    Sudden subsurface collapse, cavities, and surface depressions, regardless of shape and origin, as well as doline are currently indicate by means of the term "sinkhole". This phenomenon can be classified according to a large variety of different schemes, depending on the dominant formation processes (soluble rocks karstic processes, acidic groundwater circulation, anthropogenic caves, bedrock poor geomechanical properties), and on the geological scenario behind the development of the phenomenon. Considering that generally sinkholes are densely clustered in "sinkhole prone areas", detection, forecasting, early warning, and effective monitoring are key aspects in sinkhole susceptibility assessment and risk mitigation. Nevertheless, techniques developed specifically for sinkhole detection, forecasting and monitoring are missing, probably because of a general lack of sinkhole risk awareness, and an intrinsic difficulties involved in detecting precursory sinkhole deformations before collapse. In this framework, integration of different indirect/non-invasive geophysical methods is the best practice approach. In this paper we present the results of an integrated geophysical survey at "Il Piano" (Elba Island - Italy), where at least nine sinkholes occurred between 2008 and 2014. 120 single-station seismic noise measures, 17 3D electrical tomographies (min area 140.3 m2, max area 10,188.9 m2; min electrode spacing 2 m, max electrode spacing 5 m), 964 measurement of microgravity spaced in a grid of 6 m to 8 m were carried out at the study area. The most likely origin for these sinkholes was considered related to sediment net erosion from the alluvium, caused by downward water circulation between aquifers. Therefore, the goals of the study were: i) obtaining a suitable geological and hydrogeological model of the area; ii) detecting possible cavities which could evolve in sinkholes, and finally iii) assess the sinkhole susceptibility of the area. Among the results of the

  18. Aeolian desertification and its control in Northern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Tao

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aeolian desertification is a kind of land degradation through wind erosion resulted from the excessive human activities in arid, semiarid and part of sub-humid regions in Northern China. To compare the results of remote sensing data in the late 1950s, 1975, 1987, 2000 and 2010, we can summarize that the expansion of aeolian desertified land in Northern China has been accelerated for 5 decades, as its annual expanded rate was 1,560 km2 during the late 1950s and 1975, 2,100 km2 between 1975 and 1988, 3,600 km2 from 1988 to 2000, and -1,375 km2 from 2000 to 2010. The desertified land kept expanding before 2000 and began to get rehabilitated since 2000. The impact of human activity on the aeolian desertification process is much more active than that from natural process which mainly incarnates on land use change (from rangeland to farmland and increased land use intensity (over-cultivation, over-grassing, and over-fuelwood collection. The natural vegetation cover destroyed by the human activities has accelerated the development of aeolian desertification. China has made great progresses in understanding and combating aeolian desertification through decades of effort and there were many projects carried out for the prevention and control purpose. The National Project of Grain for Green Program is the most important one with 1060 counties of 22 provinces involved. The objective is to withdraw 3.67 million ha of dry land farming and degraded steppe, and 5.13 million ha of aeolian desertified land suited to reforestation and re-vegetation will be rehabilitated. There are about 8 million ha of lands suffering from aeolian desertification will be brought under control in the next ten years and 26.67 million ha of windbreaks will be planted. The total investment from the central government is estimated to be 75 billion RMB (11 billion USD.

  19. The submarine hydrothermal system of Panarea (Southern Italy: biogeochemical processes at the thermal fluids - sea bottom interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Maugeri

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Among the submarine hydrothermal systems located offshore the volcanic archipelago of the Aeolian Islands (Southern Italy, the most active is located off the coasts of Panarea island. Thermal waters, gases and sulfur deposits coexist at the sea bottom where hydrothermal fluids are released from both shallow and deep vents. The chemical and isotopic composition of the fluid phase shows the presence of a significant magmatic component and the physico-chemical conditions of the geothermal reservoir allow the release of reduced chemical species that are microbially mediated towards the production of organic carbon as a form of biochemical energy. Microorganisms inhabiting this environment possess nutritional requirements and overall metabolic pathways ideally suited to such ecosystem that represents a clear example of the close connection between geosphere and biosphere. Microscopic examination of the white mat attached to rock surfaces showed the presence of Thiothrix-like filamentous bacteria. Moderately thermophilic heterotrophic isolates were identified as strains of the genus Bacillus. Although the hydrothermal system of Panarea has to be considered a “shallow” system, it shows many characteristics that make it similar to the “deep” oceanic systems, giving a unique opportunity for improving our knowledge on such an unexplored world by working at this easily accessible site.

  20. Analyses of TIMS and AVIRIS data, integrated with field and laboratory spectra, for lithological and mineralogical interpretation of Vulcano Island, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buongiorno, M. Fabrizia; Bogliolo, M. Paola; Salvi, Stefano; Pieri, David C.; Geneselli, Francesco

    1995-01-01

    Vulcano Island is part of the Eolian archipelago, located about 25 km from the northeast coast of Sicily. The archipelago comprises seven major volcanic islands, two of which are active volcanoes (Vulcano and Stromboli). Vulcano covers an area of about 50 square km, and is about 10 km long. Explosive volcanic activity has predominated in the geological evolution of Vulcano Island, and there is no evidence that this pattern has ceased. Rather, the current situation is one of unrest, so a strict regimen of continuous geophysical and geochemical monitoring has been undertaken over the last decade. Though the year-round population of Vulcano is small (under 1000), during the summer the island becomes a very popular resort, and has thousands of additional tourists at any time throughout the high season, thus substantially increasing the number of people potentially at risk from an explosive eruption or other hazards such as noxious gas emissions (e.g., CO2, H2S, SO2). During the past ten years, remote sensing data have been repetitively acquired with optical and microwave airborne sensors. The present work shows the preliminary results of a study based on the integration of various remote sensing data sets with field spectroscopy, and other laboratory analyses, for the geological and geomorphological mapping of the island. It is hoped that such work will also usefully contribute to the evaluation of the volcanic hazard potential of the islands as well as to the evaluation of the status of its current activity.

  1. Correlation of aeolian sediment transport measured by sand traps and fluorescent tracers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera, Laura L.; Alonso, Ignacio

    2010-03-01

    Two different methods, fluorescent tracers and vertical sand traps, were simultaneously used to carry out an aeolian sediment transport study designed to test the goodness of fluorescent tracers in aeolian environments. Field experiments were performed in a nebkha field close to Famara beach at Lanzarote Island (Canary Islands, Spain) in a sector where the dunes were between 0.5 and 0.8 m height and 1-2 m wide and the vegetal cover was approximately 22%. In this dune field the sediment supply comes from Famara beach and is blown by trade winds toward the south, where the vegetation acts as natural sediment traps. Wind data were obtained by means of four Aanderaa wind speed sensors and one Aanderaa vane, all them distributed in a vertical array from 0.1 to 4 m height for 27 h. The average velocity at 1 m height during the experiment was 5.26 m s - 1 with the wind direction from the north. The tracer was under wind influence for 90 min at midday. During this period two series of sand traps (T1 and T2) N, S, E and W oriented were used. Resultant transport rates were 0.0131 and 0.0184 kg m - 1 min - 1 respectively. Tracer collection was performed with a sticky tape to sample only surface sediments. Tagged grains were visually counted under UV light. The transport rate was computed from the centroid displacement, that moved 0.875 m southwards, and the depth of the active layer considered was the size of one single grain. Taking into account these data the transport rate was 0.0072 kg m - 1 min - 1 . The discrepancy in results between both methods is related to several factors, such as the thickness of the active layer and the grain size difference between the tagged and the native material.

  2. Hydrological indications of aeolian salts in mid-latitude deserts of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The compositional differences between aeolian salts and local natural waters is evident,indicating the chemistry of aeolian salts and the associated parent brines may be significantly differentthan that predicted for hydrologically closed systems. The formation of aeolian salts in the studieddeserts is strongly controlled by ...

  3. Message to the sincere supporters of the Aeolians

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boiteux, M.

    2009-01-01

    The Aeolians have the wind in their sails, and many French people believe that they have practically achieved competitiveness: it is said that the cost rice of their kWh is barely higher than the average selling price of the domestic kWh. But the domestic kWh is a finished product with a guaranteed delivery The aeolian kWh is an unpredictable product which arrives on the networks at the wholesale level. So there is still a long way too in France before really getting- close to competitiveness. It would be better, in the meantime, to only develop the Aeolians in the countries where there is no other solution to avoid the greenhouse effect. (author)

  4. Laboratory Simulations of Martian and Venusian Aeolian Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greeley, Ronald

    1999-01-01

    With the flyby of the Neptune system by Voyager, the preliminary exploration of the Solar System was accomplished. Data have been returned for all major planets and satellites except the Pluto system. Results show that the surfaces of terrestrial planets and satellites have been subjected to a wide variety of geological processes. On solid- surface planetary objects having an atmosphere, aeolian processes are important in modifying their surfaces through the redistribution of fine-grained material by the wind. Bedrock may be eroded to produce particles and the particles transported by wind for deposition in other areas. This process operates on Earth today and is evident throughout the geological record. Aeolian processes also occur on Mars, Venus, and possibly Titan and Triton, both of which are outer planet satellites that have atmospheres. Mariner 9 and Viking results show abundant wind-related landforms on Mars, including dune fields and yardangs (wind-eroded hills). On Venus, measurements made by the Soviet Venera and Vega spacecraft and extrapolations from the Pioneer Venus atmospheric probes show that surface winds are capable of transporting particulate materials and suggest that aeolian processes may operate on that planet as well. Magellan radar images of Venus show abundant wind streaks in some areas, as well as dune fields and a zone of possible yardangs. The study of planetary aeolian processes must take into account diverse environments, from the cold, low-density atmosphere of Mars to the extremely hot, high- density Venusian atmosphere. Factors such as threshold wind speeds (minimum wind velocity needed to move particles), rates of erosion and deposition, trajectories of windblown particles, and aeolian flow fields over various landforms are all important aspects of the problem. In addition, study of aeolian terrains on Earth using data analogous to planetary data-collection systems is critical to the interpretation of spacecraft information and

  5. Modeling aeolian dune and dune field evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diniega, Serina

    Aeolian sand dune morphologies and sizes are strongly connected to the environmental context and physical processes active since dune formation. As such, the patterns and measurable features found within dunes and dune fields can be interpreted as records of environmental conditions. Using mathematical models of dune and dune field evolution, it should be possible to quantitatively predict dune field dynamics from current conditions or to determine past field conditions based on present-day observations. In this dissertation, we focus on the construction and quantitative analysis of a continuum dune evolution model. We then apply this model towards interpretation of the formative history of terrestrial and martian dunes and dune fields. Our first aim is to identify the controls for the characteristic lengthscales seen in patterned dune fields. Variations in sand flux, binary dune interactions, and topography are evaluated with respect to evolution of individual dunes. Through the use of both quantitative and qualitative multiscale models, these results are then extended to determine the role such processes may play in (de)stabilization of the dune field. We find that sand flux variations and topography generally destabilize dune fields, while dune collisions can yield more similarly-sized dunes. We construct and apply a phenomenological macroscale dune evolution model to then quantitatively demonstrate how dune collisions cause a dune field to evolve into a set of uniformly-sized dunes. Our second goal is to investigate the influence of reversing winds and polar processes in relation to dune slope and morphology. Using numerical experiments, we investigate possible causes of distinctive morphologies seen in Antarctic and martian polar dunes. Finally, we discuss possible model extensions and needed observations that will enable the inclusion of more realistic physical environments in the dune and dune field evolution models. By elucidating the qualitative and

  6. Linking tephrochronology and soil characteristics in the Sila and Nebrodi Mountains, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raab, Gerald; Halpern, Dieter; Scarciglia, Fabio; Raimondi, Salvatore; de Castro Portes, Raquel; Norton, Kevin; Egli, Markus

    2017-04-01

    Mediterranean soils are an important key to understanding past volcanic events and landscape evolution. The influence and timing of Quaternary volcanic events on soils, however, remains still poorly understood in southern Italy. We used a multi-method approach to explore the origin and age of volcanic deposits (soils) in Sicily and Calabria. By comparing the geochemical signature of the soils with the chemical fingerprint of magmatic effusive rocks in southern Italy, we tried to identify the source material. It seems that the investigated soils on the Nebrodi (Sicily) and Sila (Calabria) mountains were both influenced by volcanic deposits having a high-K calc-alkaline series volcanic background. The Aeolian islands (Lipari and Vulcano) are the most likely sources of origin. Due to weathering processes of the volcanic sediments and the partial mixing with the underlying non-volcanic parent material, a direct relation with the potential source areas was not always straightforward. Immobile elements and their corresponding ratios (e.g. the Nb/Y vs Zr/Ti plot) or trace elements (Co, Th) and rare earth elements gave better hints of the origin of the deposits. Radiocarbon dating of the stable soil organic fraction (H2O2 resistant) indicated a minimum age of 8 - 10 ka of the Nebrodi and Sila soils. The chemical proxy of alteration (CPA) and weathering index according to Parker (WIP) were tested as proxies for an age estimate of the volcanic deposits and duration of soil formation. The soils and, subsequently, landscape are characterized by multiple volcanic depositional phases for the last 30 - 50 ka in the Sila mountains and about 70 ka in the Nebrodi mountains. We show that a multi-method approach (numerical dating, relative dating using weathering indices and the forensic procedure) enabled the identification of potential source areas, gave tentative age estimates of the ash deposits, duration of soil formation and, therefore, improved our understanding of volcanic

  7. Aeolian sands as material to construct low-volume roads

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Paige-Green, P

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Aeolian sands are widespread in many semi-arid to arid areas of the world and often provide the only economic source of construction materials for low volume roads. Experience in southern Africa over a number of decades has shown that provided...

  8. Measured spatial variability of beach erosion due to aeolian processes.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, S.; Verheijen, A.H.; Hoonhout, B.M.; Vos, S.E.; Cohn, Nicholas; Ruggiero, P; Aagaard, T.; Deigaard, R.; Fuhrman, D.

    2017-01-01

    This paper shows the first results of measured spatial variability of beach erosion due to aeolian processes during the recently conducted SEDEX2 field experiment at Long Beach, Washington, U.S.A.. Beach erosion and sedimentation were derived using series of detailed terrestrial LIDAR measurements

  9. Monitoring aeolian desertification process in Hulunbir grassland during 1975-2006, Northern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jian; Wang, Tao; Xue, Xian; Ma, Shaoxiu; Peng, Fei

    2010-07-01

    The Hulunbir grassland experienced aeolian desertification expansion during 1975-2000, but local rehabilitation during 2000-2006. Northern China suffered severe aeolian desertification during the past 50 years. Hulunbir grassland, the best stockbreeding base in Northern China, was also affected by aeolian desertification. To evaluate the evolution and status of aeolian desertification, as well as its causes, satellite images (acquired in 1975, 1984, 2000, and 2006) and meteorological and socioeconomic data were interpreted and analyzed. The results show there was 2,345.7, 2,899.8, 4,053.9, and 3,859.6 km(2) of aeolian desertified land in 1975, 1984, 2000, and 2006, respectively. The spatial pattern dynamic had three stages: stability during 1975-1984, fast expansion during 1984-2000, and spatial transfer during 2000-2006. The dynamic degree of aeolian desertification is negatively related to its severity. Comprehensive analysis shows that the human factor is the primary cause of aeolian desertification in Hulunbir grassland. Although aeolian desertified land got partly rehabilitated, constant increase of extremely severe aeolian desertified land implied that current measures were not effective enough on aeolian desertification control. Alleviation of grassland pressure may be an effective method.

  10. Tsunami generation in Stromboli island and impact on the south-east Tyrrhenian coasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Tinti

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Stromboli is one of the most active volcanoes in the Aeolian island arc in south Tyrrhenian sea, Italy. In the last 100 years the most relevant volcanic eruptions have beenaccompanied by local tsunamis, that have caused damage and casualties. In some cases the direct mechanism of local tsunami generation is clear, i.e. pyroclastic flows entering the sea. In some others it is uncertain and some speculation concerning the collapse of the eruptive column on the sea surface or the failure of some underwater mass can be made. But the ordinary activity is unlikely to generate large regional tsunamis. These can be produced by the lateral collapse of the volcanic cone that geomorphological and volcanological  investigations have proven to have occurred repeatedly in the recent history of the volcano, with return period in the order of some thousands of years. The last episode is dated to less than 5 ka BP, and left the Sciara del Fuoco scar on the north-west flank of Stromboli. Based on previous studies, the possible collapse of the nortwestern sector of Stromboli and the consequent generation and propagation of a tsunami are explored. The impact on Stromboli and on the other islands of the Aeolian archipelago is estimated, as well as the impact on the coast of Sicily and the Tyrrhenian coasts of Calabria. The simulation is carried out by means of a double model: a Lagrangian block model to compute the motion of the collapsing mass, and a finite-element hydrodynamic model to compute the evolution of the tsunami. Two distinct tsunami simulations are carried out, one on a very fine grid around the source region to evaluate the tsunami near Stromboli, and one utilising a coarser grid covering the whole south-east Tyrrhenian sea to compute the tsunami propagation toward Sicily and Calabria. It is found that a huge-volume collapse of the north-western flank of the Stromboli cone is capable of producing a regional tsunami which is catastrophic at the source

  11. Quantifying the provenance of aeolian sediments using multiple composite fingerprints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Benli; Niu, Qinghe; Qu, Jianjun; Zu, Ruiping

    2016-09-01

    We introduce a new fingerprinting method that uses multiple composite fingerprints for studies of aeolian sediment provenance. We used this method to quantify the provenance of sediments on both sides of the Qinghai-Tibetan Railway (QTR) in the Cuona Lake section of the Tibetan Plateau (TP), in an environment characterized by aeolian and fluvial interactions. The method involves repeatedly solving a linear mixing model based on mass conservation; the model is not limited to spatial scale or transport types and uses all the tracer groups that passed the range check, Kruskal-Wallis H-test, and a strict analytical solution screening. The proportional estimates that result from using different composite fingerprints are highly variable; however, the average of these fingerprints has a greater accuracy and certainty than any single fingerprint. The results show that sand from the lake beach, hilly surface, and gullies contribute, respectively, 48%, 31% and 21% to the western railway sediments and 43%, 33% and 24% to the eastern railway sediments. The difference between contributions from various sources on either side of the railway, which may increase in the future, was clearly related to variations in local transport characteristics, a conclusion that is supported by grain size analysis. The construction of the QTR changed the local cycling of materials, and the difference in provenance between the sediments that are separated by the railway reflects the changed sedimentary conditions on either side of the railway. The effectiveness of this method suggests that it will be useful in other studies of aeolian sediments.

  12. Evidence for aeolian origins of heuweltjies from buried gravel layers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael D. Cramer

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Although heuweltjies (19–32 m diameter dominate the surface of much of the southwestern Cape of South Africa, their origins, distribution and age remain controversial. Current hypotheses are that the heuweltjies are (1 constructed by the excavation and mounding habits of burrowing animals; (2 the result of erosion by water of areas between patches protected from fluvial action by denser vegetation or (3 the product of localised aeolian sediment accumulation beneath denser vegetation associated with termitaria. At a site where quartz-containing gravels occur on the soil surface in areas between heuweltjies, these gravels were found to extend as a relatively intact layer of uniform concentration from the inter-mound area into the mound at the same plane as the surrounding soil surface. This buried layer suggests that heuweltjies were either built-up by deposition on a previous soil surface layer or eroded from sediment accumulated above the buried gravel layer. Mounds contain a relatively large proportion of silt consistent with sediment deposition. Mound sediment elemental composition was strongly correlated with that of local shale, indicating a local source of sediment. Pedogenesis was considerably more advanced off- than on-mound. There was no evidence of extensive regional aeolian sediment mantling over the vast area in which the heuweltjies occur. These findings and observations support the aeolian deposition hypothesis of heuweltjie origins combined with a degree of erosion, rather than a termite bioturbation hypothesis or a predominantly erosion-based hypothesis.

  13. Aeolian particle transport inferred using a ~150-year sediment record from Sayram Lake, arid northwest China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Long Ma

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available We studied sediment cores from Sayram Lake in the Tianshan Mountains of northwest China to evaluate variations in aeolian transport processes over the past ~150 years. Using an end-member modeling algorithm of particle size data, we interpreted end members with a strong bimodal distribution as having been transported by aeolian processes, whereas other end members were interpreted to have been transported by fluvial processes. The aeolian fraction accounted for an average of 27% of the terrigenous components in the core. We used the ratio of aeolian to fluvial content in the Sayram Lake sediments as an index of past intensity of aeolian transport in the Tianshan Mountains. During the interval 1910-1930, the index was high, reflecting the fact that dry climate provided optimal conditions for aeolian dust transport. From 1930-1980, the intensity of aeolian transport was weak. From the 1980s to the 2000s, aeolian transport to Sayram Lake increased. Although climate in northwest China became more humid in the mid-1980s, human activity had by that time altered the impact of climate on the landscape, leading to enhanced surface erosion, which provided more transportable material for dust storms. Comparison of the Lake Sayram sediment record with sediment records from other lakes in the region indicates synchronous intervals of enhanced aeolian transport from 1910 to 1930 and 1980 to 2000.

  14. Tectono-metamorphic evolution and magmatic processes in the thermo-metamorphic aureole of the Monte Capanne pluton (Elba Island, Northern Tyrrhenian Sea, Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morelli, M.; Pandeli, E.; Principi, G.

    2003-04-01

    Introduction In this work we present new structural and petrographic data collected in the thermo-metamorphic aureole of Monte Capanne (western Elba Island) and its metamorphic evolution. In the western Elba Island the Monte Capanne monzogranitic body (ca. 7 Ma) and its thermo-metamorphic aureole crop out. At least two different tectonic units can be distinguished: the Punta Le Tombe Unit, weak re-crystallized, and the Punta Nera Unit. In the latter one the re-crystallization is strong and a pre-intrusion tectono-metamorphic framework is evident (Morelli et al., 2002). The latter is mainly constituted by thermo-metamorphosed meta-ophiolites and meta-sedimentary successions previously correlated by Barberi et al. (1969) with the un-metamorphic ones (Complex IV and V of Trevisan, 1950) cropping out in the central-eastern Elba. According to Perrin (1975) and Reutter &Spohn (1982) a pre-intrusion tectono-metamorphic framework was recognized into such rocks. As suggested by Daniel &Jolivet (1995) complex relationships between metamorphic evolution and magmatic events are also recognizable. Geological Data The Punta Nera Unit crops out all around the Monte Capanne magmatic body and the primary contact with the underlying granitoid is somewhere preserved. This unit, strongly re-crystallized and locally crosscut by aplitic and porphyritic dikes, is represented by (Coli &Pandeli, 1997; Morelli, 2000) tectonized meta-serpentinites, meta-gabbros with rodingitic dikes, rare meta-basalts and meta-ophicalcites, meta-cherts, marbles, cherty meta-limestones, phyllites and meta-limestones with rare meta-arenites intercalations. A "pre-magmatic" tectono-metamorphic framework of this unit is well evident only in its meta-sedimentary portion. The meta-sediments are deformed by syn-metamorphic isoclinal folds caractherized by N-S trending axes, west dipping axial planes and easternward vergence. A later folding and flattening event clearly post-dated the above said folds and associated

  15. A multicriteria approach to evaluate wind energy plants on an Italian island

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavallaro, Fausto; Ciraolo, Luigi

    2005-01-01

    The decision-making process regarding the choice of alternative energy is multidimensional, made up of a number of aspects at different levels--economic, technical, environmental, and social. In this respect multicriteria analysis appears to be the most appropriate tool to understand all the different perspectives involved and to support those concerned with the decision making process by creating a set of relationships between the various alternatives. The main aim of this paper is to make a preliminary assessment regarding the feasibility of installing some wind energy turbines in a site on the island of Salina (Aeolian islands-Italy). Thus, a multicriteria method will be applied in order to support the selection and evaluation of one or more of the solutions proposed. Having analysed the local environmental conditions and its energy profile, four wind turbine configurations were postulated as options. These options were then appraised by comparison against a family of criteria and calculations were performed using a multicriteria algorithm to rank the solutions, from the best to worst. The option at the top of the ranking refers to the installation of a plant of 150 kW and this emerged as the right compromise between the costs of realization, local energy requirements and the need to conserve the area and the environment especially in view of the high/medium-bracket tourism business on the island. The sensitivity analysis performed subsequently backed up the findings. As this work demonstrates, multicriteria analysis can provide a valid tool to aid decision making for achieving targets relating to more sustainable green energy

  16. Hydrological indications of aeolian salts in mid-latitude deserts of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    soils in low-latitude deserts, but is less common in the aeolian sediments from the ... indicating the chemistry of aeolian salts and the associated parent brines may ... erosion, deposition and other processes on sediment properties will bias the ...

  17. Hydrological indications of aeolian salts in mid-latitude deserts of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Hydrological indications of aeolian salts in mid-latitude deserts of northwestern China. B Q Zhu. Supplementary data. Figure S1. Photograph views of Quaternary and modern sediments of aeolian and lacustrine/fluvial facies that consisted of clay and sand/silt sand alternations in the Taklamakan and Badanjilin Deserts.

  18. Quantifying postfire aeolian sediment transport using rare earth element tracers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dukes, David; Gonzales, Howell B.; Ravi, Sujith; Grandstaff, David E.; Van Pelt, R. Scott; Li, Junran; Wang, Guan; Sankey, Joel B.

    2018-01-01

    Grasslands, which provide fundamental ecosystem services in many arid and semiarid regions of the world, are undergoing rapid increases in fire activity and are highly susceptible to postfire-accelerated soil erosion by wind. A quantitative assessment of physical processes that integrates fire-wind erosion feedbacks is therefore needed relative to vegetation change, soil biogeochemical cycling, air quality, and landscape evolution. We investigated the applicability of a novel tracer technique—the use of multiple rare earth elements (REE)—to quantify soil transport by wind and to identify sources and sinks of wind-blown sediments in both burned and unburned shrub-grass transition zone in the Chihuahuan Desert, NM, USA. Results indicate that the horizontal mass flux of wind-borne sediment increased approximately threefold following the fire. The REE tracer analysis of wind-borne sediments shows that the source of the horizontal mass flux in the unburned site was derived from bare microsites (88.5%), while in the burned site it was primarily sourced from shrub (42.3%) and bare (39.1%) microsites. Vegetated microsites which were predominantly sinks of aeolian sediments in the unburned areas became sediment sources following the fire. The burned areas showed a spatial homogenization of sediment tracers, highlighting a potential negative feedback on landscape heterogeneity induced by shrub encroachment into grasslands. Though fires are known to increase aeolian sediment transport, accompanying changes in the sources and sinks of wind-borne sediments may influence biogeochemical cycling and land degradation dynamics. Furthermore, our experiment demonstrated that REEs can be used as reliable tracers for field-scale aeolian studies.

  19. Equal Susceptibility and Size-selective Mobility in Aeolian Saltation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, R. L.; Kok, J. F.

    2017-12-01

    Natural wind-eroded soils generally contain a mixture of particle sizes. However, models for aeolian saltation are typically derived for sediment bed surfaces containing only a single particle size. To treat natural mixed beds, models for saltation and associated dust aerosol emission have typically simplified aeolian transport either as a series of non-interacting single particle size beds or as a bed containing only the median or mean particle size. Here, we test these common assumptions underpinning aeolian transport models using measurements of size-resolved saltation fluxes at three natural field sites. We find that a wide range of sand size classes experience "equal susceptibility" to saltation at a single common threshold wind shear stress, contrary to the "selective susceptibility" expected for treatment of a mixed bed as multiple single particle size beds. Furthermore, we observe strong size-selectivity in the mobility of different particle sizes, which is not adequately accounted for in current models. At all field sites, mobility is enhanced for particles that are 0.4-0.8 times the median bed particle diameter, while mobility declines rapidly with increasing particle size above this range. We further observe that the most mobile particles also experience the largest saltation heights, which helps to explain variations in size-selective mobility. These observations refute the common simplification of saltation as a series of non-interacting single particle sizes. Sand transport and dust emission models that use this incorrect assumption can be both simplified and improved by instead using a single particle size representative of the mixed bed.

  20. Continued monitoring of aeolian activity within Herschel Crater, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardinale, Marco; Pozzobon, Riccardo; Michaels, Timothy; Bourke, Mary C.; Okubo, Chris H.; Chiara Tangari, Anna; Marinangeli, Lucia

    2017-04-01

    In this work, we study a dark dune field on the western side of Herschel crater, a 300 km diameter impact basin located near the Martian equator (14.4°S, 130°E), where the ripple and dune motion reflects the actual atmospheric wind conditions. We develop an integrated analysis using (1) automated ripple mapping that yields ripple orientations and evaluates the spatial variation of actual atmospheric wind conditions within the dunes, (2) an optical cross-correlation that allows us to quantify an average ripple migration rate of 0.42 m per Mars year, and (3) mesoscale climate modeling with which we compare the observed aeolian changes with modeled wind stresses and directions. Our observations are consistent with previous work [1] [2] that detected aeolian activity in the western part of the crater. It also demonstrates that not only are the westerly Herschel dunes movable, but that predominant winds from the north are able to keep the ripples and dunes active within most (if not all) of Herschel crater in the current atmospheric conditions. References: [1] Cardinale, M., Silvestro, S., Vaz, D.A., Michaels, T., Bourke, M.C., Komatsu, G., Marinangeli, L., 2016. Present-day aeolian activity in Herschel Crater, Mars. Icarus 265, 139-148. doi:10.1016/j.icarus.2015.10.022. [2] Runyon, K.D., Bridges, N.T., Ayoub, F., Newman, C.E. and Quade, J.J., 2017. An integrated model for dune morphology and sand fluxes on Mars. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 457, pp.204-212.

  1. Applicability of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles in Research on Aeolian Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Algimantas, Česnulevičius; Artūras, Bautrėnas; Linas, Bevainis; Donatas, Ovodas; Kęstutis, Papšys

    2018-02-01

    Surface dynamics and instabilities are characteristic of aeolian formation. The method of surface comparison is regarded as the most appropriate one for evaluation of the intensity of aeolian processes and the amount of transported sand. The data for surface comparison can be collected by topographic survey measurements and using unmanned aerial vehicles. Time cost for relief microform fixation and measurement executing topographic survey are very high. The method of unmanned aircraft aerial photographs fixation also encounters difficulties because there are no stable clear objects and contours that enable to link aerial photographs, to determine the boundaries of captured territory and to ensure the accuracy of surface measurements. Creation of stationary anchor points is irrational due to intense sand accumulation and deflation in different climate seasons. In September 2015 and in April 2016 the combined methodology was applied for evaluation of intensity of aeolian processes in the Curonian Spit. Temporary signs (marks) were installed on the surface, coordinates of the marks were fixed using GPS and then flight of unmanned aircraft was conducted. The fixed coordinates of marks ensure the accuracy of measuring aerial imagery and the ability to calculate the possible corrections. This method was used to track and measure very small (micro-rank) relief forms (5-10 cm height and 10-20 cm length). Using this method morphometric indicators of micro-terraces caused by sand dunes pressure to gytia layer were measured in a non-contact way. An additional advantage of the method is the ability to accurately link the repeated measurements. The comparison of 3D terrain models showed sand deflation and accumulation areas and quantitative changes in the terrain very clearly.

  2. Holocene palaeosols and aeolian activities in the Umimmalissuaq valley, West Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, Michael; Thiel, Christine; Kühn, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Aeolian sand sheets and active dunefields preserve an ancient Holocene land surface represented by palaeosols that occur around the present ice margin in the Kangerlussuaq area, West Greenland. To determine the relation between Holocene aeolian activities and periods of soil formation, both...... margin (60 wt%) are comparable with aeolian sand sheets currently formed at greater distances (4–5 km) from the present ice margin. We propose a transport distance for fine....... This period was characterised by low but constant aeolian activity. Since aeolian activity intensified after around 300 cal. yr b2k and is still resulting in active dunefields with coarse and medium sand accumulation, the ice margin must have reached its present position at that time....

  3. Responses of aeolian desertification to a range of climate scenarios in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xunming; Hua, Ting; Ma, Wenyong

    2016-06-01

    Aeolian desertification plays an important role in earth-system processes and ecosystems, and has the potential to greatly impact global food production. The occurrence of aeolian desertification has traditionally been attributed to increases in wind speed and temperature and decreases in rainfall. In this study, by integrating the aeolian desertification monitoring data and climate and vegetation indices, we found that although aeolian desertification is influenced by complex climate patterns and human activities, increases in rainfall and temperature and decreases in wind speed may not be the key factors of aeolian desertification controls in some regions of China. Our results show that, even when modern technical approaches are used, different approaches to desertification need to be applied to account for regional differences. These results have important implications for future policy decisions on how best to combat desertification.

  4. Synthesis on Quaternary aeolian research in the unglaciated eastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markewich, Helaine Walsh; Litwin, Ronald J.; Wysocki, Douglas A.; Pavich, Milan J.

    2015-01-01

    Late-middle and late Pleistocene, and Holocene, inland aeolian sand and loess blanket >90,000 km2 of the unglaciated eastern United States of America (USA). Deposits are most extensive in the Lower Mississippi Valley (LMV) and Atlantic Coastal Plain (ACP), areas presently lacking significant aeolian activity. They provide evidence of paleoclimate intervals when wind erosion and deposition were dominant land-altering processes. This study synthesizes available data for aeolian sand deposits in the LMV, the Eastern Gulf Coastal Plain (EGCP) and the ACP, and loess deposits in the Middle Atlantic Coastal Plain (MACP). Data indicate: (a) the most recent major aeolian activity occurred in response to and coincident with growth and decay of the Laurentide Ice Sheet (LIS); (b) by ∼40 ka, aeolian processes greatly influenced landscape evolution in all three regions; (c) aeolian activity peaked in OIS2; (d) OIS3 and OIS2 aeolian records are in regional agreement with paleoecological records; and (e) limited aeolian activity occurred in the Holocene (EGCP and ACP). Paleoclimate and atmospheric-circulation models (PCMs/ACMs) for the last glacial maximum (LGM) show westerly winter winds for the unglaciated eastern USA, but do not resolve documented W and SW winds in the SEACP and WNW and N winds in the MACP. The minimum areal extent of aeolian deposits in the EGCP and ACP is ∼10,000 km2. For the LMV, it is >80,000 km2. Based on these estimates, published PCMs/ACMs likely underrepresent the areal extent of LGM aeolian activity, as well as the extent and complexity of climatic changes during this interval.

  5. Synthesis on Quaternary aeolian research in the unglaciated eastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markewich, Helaine W.; Litwin, Ronald J.; Wysocki, Douglas A.; Pavich, Milan J.

    2015-06-01

    Late-middle and late Pleistocene, and Holocene, inland aeolian sand and loess blanket >90,000 km2 of the unglaciated eastern United States of America (USA). Deposits are most extensive in the Lower Mississippi Valley (LMV) and Atlantic Coastal Plain (ACP), areas presently lacking significant aeolian activity. They provide evidence of paleoclimate intervals when wind erosion and deposition were dominant land-altering processes. This study synthesizes available data for aeolian sand deposits in the LMV, the Eastern Gulf Coastal Plain (EGCP) and the ACP, and loess deposits in the Middle Atlantic Coastal Plain (MACP). Data indicate: (a) the most recent major aeolian activity occurred in response to and coincident with growth and decay of the Laurentide Ice Sheet (LIS); (b) by ∼40 ka, aeolian processes greatly influenced landscape evolution in all three regions; (c) aeolian activity peaked in OIS2; (d) OIS3 and OIS2 aeolian records are in regional agreement with paleoecological records; and (e) limited aeolian activity occurred in the Holocene (EGCP and ACP). Paleoclimate and atmospheric-circulation models (PCMs/ACMs) for the last glacial maximum (LGM) show westerly winter winds for the unglaciated eastern USA, but do not resolve documented W and SW winds in the SEACP and WNW and N winds in the MACP. The minimum areal extent of aeolian deposits in the EGCP and ACP is ∼10,000 km2. For the LMV, it is >80,000 km2. Based on these estimates, published PCMs/ACMs likely underrepresent the areal extent of LGM aeolian activity, as well as the extent and complexity of climatic changes during this interval.

  6. Gully annealing by aeolian sediment: field and remote-sensing investigation of aeolian-hillslope-fluvial interactions, Colorado River corridor, Arizona, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankey, Joel B.; Draut, Amy E.

    2014-01-01

    Processes contributing to development of ephemeral gully channels are of great importance to landscapes worldwide, and particularly in dryland regions where soil loss and land degradation from gully erosion pose long-term land-management problems. Whereas gully formation has been relatively well studied, much less is known of the processes that anneal gullies and impede their growth. This study of gully annealing by aeolian sediment, spanning 95 km along the Colorado River corridor in Glen, Marble, and Grand Canyon, Arizona, USA, employed field and remote sensing observations, including digital topographic modelling. Results indicate that aeolian sediment activity can be locally effective at counteracting gully erosion. Gullies are less prevalent in areas where surficial sediment undergoes active aeolian transport, and have a greater tendency to terminate in active aeolian sand. Although not common, examples exist in the record of historical imagery of gullies that underwent infilling by aeolian sediment in past decades and evidently were effectively annealed. We thus provide new evidence for a potentially important interaction of aeolian–hillslope–fluvial processes, which could affect dryland regions substantially in ways not widely recognized. Moreover, because the biologic soil crust plays an important role in determining aeolian sand activity, and so in turn the extent of gully development, this study highlights a critical role of geomorphic–ecologic interactions in determining arid-landscape evolution.

  7. Element Geochemical Analysis of the Contribution of Aeolian Sand to Suspended Sediment in Desert Stream Flash Floods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaopeng Jia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The interaction of wind and water in semiarid and arid areas usually leads to low-frequency flash flood events in desert rivers, which have adverse effects on river systems and ecology. In arid zones, many aeolian dune-fields terminate in stream channels and deliver aeolian sand to the channels. Although aeolian processes are common to many desert rivers, whether the aeolian processes contribute to fluvial sediment loss is still unknown. Here, we identified the aeolian-fluvial cycling process responsible for the high rate of suspended sediment transport in the Sudalaer desert stream in the Ordos plateau of China. On the basis of element geochemistry data analysis, we found that aeolian sand was similar to suspended sediment in element composition, which suggests that aeolian sand contributes to suspended sediment in flash floods. Scatter plots of some elements further confirm that aeolian sand is the major source of the suspended sediment. Factor analysis and the relation between some elements and suspended sediment concentration prove that the greater the aeolian process, the higher the suspended sediment concentration and the greater the contribution of aeolian sand to suspended sediment yield. We conclude that aeolian sand is the greatest contributor to flash floods in the Sudalaer desert stream.

  8. Element geochemical analysis of the contribution of aeolian sand to suspended sediment in desert stream flash floods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Xiaopeng; Wang, Haibing

    2014-01-01

    The interaction of wind and water in semiarid and arid areas usually leads to low-frequency flash flood events in desert rivers, which have adverse effects on river systems and ecology. In arid zones, many aeolian dune-fields terminate in stream channels and deliver aeolian sand to the channels. Although aeolian processes are common to many desert rivers, whether the aeolian processes contribute to fluvial sediment loss is still unknown. Here, we identified the aeolian-fluvial cycling process responsible for the high rate of suspended sediment transport in the Sudalaer desert stream in the Ordos plateau of China. On the basis of element geochemistry data analysis, we found that aeolian sand was similar to suspended sediment in element composition, which suggests that aeolian sand contributes to suspended sediment in flash floods. Scatter plots of some elements further confirm that aeolian sand is the major source of the suspended sediment. Factor analysis and the relation between some elements and suspended sediment concentration prove that the greater the aeolian process, the higher the suspended sediment concentration and the greater the contribution of aeolian sand to suspended sediment yield. We conclude that aeolian sand is the greatest contributor to flash floods in the Sudalaer desert stream.

  9. Aeolian sediment transport on a beach: Surface moisture, wind fetch, and mean transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, B. O.; Davidson-Arnott, R. G. D.; Hesp, P. A.; Namikas, S. L.; Ollerhead, J.; Walker, I. J.

    2009-04-01

    Temporal and spatial changes in wind speed, wind direction, and moisture content are ubiquitous across sandy coastal beaches. Often these factors interact in unknown ways to create complexity that confounds our ability to model sediment transport at any point across the beach as well as our capacity to predict sediment delivery into the adjacent foredunes. This study was designed to measure wind flow and sediment transport over a beach and foredune at Greenwich Dunes, Prince Edward Island National Park, with the express purpose of addressing these complex interactions. Detailed measurements are reported for one stormy day, October 11, 2004, during which meteorological conditions were highly variable. Wind speed ranged from 4 ms - 1 to over 20 ms - 1 , wind direction was highly oblique varying between 60° and 85° from shore perpendicular, and moisture content of the sand surface ranged from a minimum of about 3% (by mass) to complete saturation depending on precipitation, tidal excursion, and storm surge that progressively inundated the beach. The data indicate that short-term variations (i.e., minutes to hours) in sediment transport across this beach arise predominantly because of short-term changes in wind speed, as is expected, but also because of variations in wind direction, precipitation intensity, and tide level. Even slight increases in wind speed are capable of driving more intense saltation events, but this relationship is mediated by other factors on this characteristically narrow beach. As the angle of wind approach becomes more oblique, the fetch distance increases and allows greater opportunity for the saltation system to evolve toward an equilibrium transport state before reaching the foredunes. Whether the theoretically-predicted maximum rate of transport is ever achieved depends on the character of the sand surface (e.g., grain size, slope, roughness, vegetation, moisture content) and on various attributes of the wind field (e.g., average wind

  10. Heat Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA's Heat Island Effect Site provides information on heat islands, their impacts, mitigation strategies, related research, a directory of heat island reduction initiatives in U.S. communities, and EPA's Heat Island Reduction Program.

  11. Island biogeography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Whittaker, Robert James; Fernández-Palacios, José María; Matthews, Thomas J.

    2017-01-01

    Islands provide classic model biological systems. We review how growing appreciation of geoenvironmental dynamics of marine islands has led to advances in island biogeographic theory accommodating both evolutionary and ecological phenomena. Recognition of distinct island geodynamics permits gener...

  12. Vegetation in drylands: Effects on wind flow and aeolian sediment transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drylands are characterised by patchy vegetation, erodible surfaces and erosive aeolian processes. Empirical and modelling studies have shown that vegetation elements provide drag on the overlying airflow, thus affecting wind velocity profiles and altering erosive dynamics on desert surfaces. However...

  13. Source-to-sink cycling of aeolian sediment in the north polar region of Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewing, R. C.; Kocurek, G.

    2012-12-01

    Aeolian sand dunes are prominent features on the landscapes of Earth, Mars, Venus and Titan and sedimentary deposits interpreted as aeolian in origin are found in the rock records of Earth and Mars. The widespread occurrence of aeolian dunes on the surface of these worlds and within their deep-time depositional records suggests that aeolian systems are and likely have been a default depositional environment for the Solar System. Within an aeolian source-to-sink context, we hypothesize that planet-specific boundary conditions strongly impact production, transport, accumulation and preservation of aeolian sediment, whereas dunes and dune-field patterns remain largely similar. This hypothesis is explored within the north polar region of Mars, which hosts the most extensive aeolian dune fields and aeolian sedimentary deposits yet recognized on Mars and appears to be a region of dynamic source-to-sink cycling of aeolian sediments. The Planum Boreum Cavi Unit rests beneath north polar ice cap of Mars and is composed of several hundred meters of niveo-aeolian dune cross-stratification. The overall architecture of the unit consists of sets of preserved dune topography with an upward increase in the abundance of ice. Dune sets are defined by stabilized, polygonally fractured bounding surfaces, erosional bounding surfaces and typical internal lee foresets made of sediment and ice. The accumulation of the Cavi Unit is interpreted as occurring through freezing and serves as an example of a cold temperature boundary condition on aeolian sediment accumulation. Preservation of the Cavi Unit arises because of deposition of the overlying ice cap and contrasts with preservation of aeolian sediment on Earth, which is largely driven by eustasy and tectonics. The Cavi Unit is thought to be one source of sediment for the north polar Olympia Undae Dune Field. The region of Olympia Undae near the Cavi Unit shows a reticulate dune field pattern composed of two sets of nearly orthogonal

  14. Granulometric profiling of aeolian dust deposits by automated image analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varga, György; Újvári, Gábor; Kovács, János; Jakab, Gergely; Kiss, Klaudia; Szalai, Zoltán

    2016-04-01

    Determination of granulometric parameters is of growing interest in the Earth sciences. Particle size data of sedimentary deposits provide insights into the physicochemical environment of transport, accumulation and post-depositional alterations of sedimentary particles, and are important proxies applied in paleoclimatic reconstructions. It is especially true for aeolian dust deposits with a fairly narrow grain size range as a consequence of the extremely selective nature of wind sediment transport. Therefore, various aspects of aeolian sedimentation (wind strength, distance to source(s), possible secondary source regions and modes of sedimentation and transport) can be reconstructed only from precise grain size data. As terrestrial wind-blown deposits are among the most important archives of past environmental changes, proper explanation of the proxy data is a mandatory issue. Automated imaging provides a unique technique to gather direct information on granulometric characteristics of sedimentary particles. Granulometric data obtained from automatic image analysis of Malvern Morphologi G3-ID is a rarely applied new technique for particle size and shape analyses in sedimentary geology. Size and shape data of several hundred thousand (or even million) individual particles were automatically recorded in this study from 15 loess and paleosoil samples from the captured high-resolution images. Several size (e.g. circle-equivalent diameter, major axis, length, width, area) and shape parameters (e.g. elongation, circularity, convexity) were calculated by the instrument software. At the same time, the mean light intensity after transmission through each particle is automatically collected by the system as a proxy of optical properties of the material. Intensity values are dependent on chemical composition and/or thickness of the particles. The results of the automated imaging were compared to particle size data determined by three different laser diffraction instruments

  15. Does diet in lacertid lizards reflect prey availability? Evidence for selective predation in the Aeolian wall lizard, Podarcis raffonei (Mertens, 1952 (Reptilia, Lacertidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietro Lo Cascio

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the invertebrate fauna occurring on Scoglio Faraglione, a tiny Aeolian island (AeolianArchipelago, NE Sicily inhabited by a population of the critically endangered lacertid lizard Podarcis raffonei(Mertens, 1952, was censused at different seasons and the resulting data were then compared with dataobtained analysing prey composition and prey abundance in the diet of the lizards occurring on the same islet.The diet of Podarcis raffonei was mainly based on insects and other arthropods. The results indicate that dietcomposition is not directly influenced by prey availability and temporal prey abundance, and that there isstrong evidence indicating selective predation. Lizards prey upon a number of arthropod categories fewer thanthat recorded in field. Some invertebrate taxa (e.g. Diptera and Gastropoda are really less attractive for lizardsand are rarely preyed or not preyed at all despite their spatial and/or temporal abundance. This suggests thatPodarcis raffonei is able to operate a hierarchical choice within the range of prey items constituting its preyspectrum, probably through the ability to discriminate between prey chemicals or visually oriented predation.

  16. Landscape evolution on Mars - A model of aeolian denudation in Gale Crater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, M. D.; Kocurek, G.; Grotzinger, J. P.

    2015-12-01

    Aeolian erosion has been the dominant geomorphic agent to shape the surface of Mars for the past ~3.5 billion years. Although individual geomorphic features evidencing aeolian activity are well understood (e.g., yardangs, dune fields, and wind streaks), landscapes formed by aeolian erosion remain poorly characterized. Intra-crater sedimentary mounds are hypothesized to have formed by wind deflation of craters once filled with flat-lying strata, and, therefore, should be surrounded by landscapes formed by aeolian erosion. Here we present a landscape evolution model that provides both an initial characterization of aeolian landscapes, and a mechanism for large-scale excavation. Wind excavation of Gale Crater to form the 5 km high Mount Sharp would require removal of 6.4 x 104 km3 of sediment. Imagery in Gale Crater from satellites and the Mars Science Laboratory rover Curiosity shows a surface characterized by first-cycle aeolian erosion of bedrock. The overall landscape is interpreted to represent stages in a cycle of aeolian deflation and excavation, enhanced by physical weathering (e.g., thermal fracturing, cratering). Initial wind erosion of bedrock is enhanced along fractures, producing retreating scarps. Underlying less resistant layers then erode faster than the armoring cap rock, increasing relief in scarps to form retreating mesas. As scarp retreat continues, boulders from the armoring cap unit break away and cover the hillslopes of less resistant material below the scarps. Eventually all material from the capping unit is eroded away and a boulder-capped hill remains. Winnowing of fine material flattens hillslope topography, leaving behind a desert pavement. Over long enough time, this pavement is breached and the cycle begins anew. This cycle of landscape denudation by the wind is similar to that of water, but lacks characteristic subaqueous features such as dendritic drainage networks.

  17. Multi-spatial analysis of aeolian dune-field patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewing, Ryan C.; McDonald, George D.; Hayes, Alex G.

    2015-07-01

    Aeolian dune-fields are composed of different spatial scales of bedform patterns that respond to changes in environmental boundary conditions over a wide range of time scales. This study examines how variations in spatial scales of dune and ripple patterns found within dune fields are used in environmental reconstructions on Earth, Mars and Titan. Within a single bedform type, different spatial scales of bedforms emerge as a pattern evolves from an initial state into a well-organized pattern, such as with the transition from protodunes to dunes. Additionally, different types of bedforms, such as ripples, coarse-grained ripples and dunes, coexist at different spatial scales within a dune-field. Analysis of dune-field patterns at the intersection of different scales and types of bedforms at different stages of development provides a more comprehensive record of sediment supply and wind regime than analysis of a single scale and type of bedform. Interpretations of environmental conditions from any scale of bedform, however, are limited to environmental signals associated with the response time of that bedform. Large-scale dune-field patterns integrate signals over long-term climate cycles and reveal little about short-term variations in wind or sediment supply. Wind ripples respond instantly to changing conditions, but reveal little about longer-term variations in wind or sediment supply. Recognizing the response time scales across different spatial scales of bedforms maximizes environmental interpretations from dune-field patterns.

  18. Spatiotemporal Structure of Aeolian Particle Transport on Flat Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niiya, Hirofumi; Nishimura, Kouichi

    2017-05-01

    We conduct numerical simulations based on a model of blowing snow to reveal the long-term properties and equilibrium state of aeolian particle transport from 10-5 to 10 m above the flat surface. The numerical results are as follows. (i) Time-series data of particle transport are divided into development, relaxation, and equilibrium phases, which are formed by rapid wind response below 10 cm and gradual wind response above 10 cm. (ii) The particle transport rate at equilibrium is expressed as a power function of friction velocity, and the index of 2.35 implies that most particles are transported by saltation. (iii) The friction velocity below 100 µm remains roughly constant and lower than the fluid threshold at equilibrium. (iv) The mean particle speed above 300 µm is less than the wind speed, whereas that below 300 µm exceeds the wind speed because of descending particles. (v) The particle diameter increases with height in the saltation layer, and the relationship is expressed as a power function. Through comparisons with the previously reported random-flight model, we find a crucial problem that empirical splash functions cannot reproduce particle dynamics at a relatively high wind speed.

  19. The birth and death of transverse aeolian ridges on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geissler, Paul E.

    2014-01-01

    Transverse aeolian ridges (TARs) are small bright windblown deposits found throughout the Martian tropics that stand a few meters tall and are spaced a few tens of meters apart. The origin of these features remains mysterious more than 20 years after their discovery on Mars. This paper presents a new hypothesis, that some of the TARs could be indurated dust deposits emplaced millions of years ago during periods of higher axial obliquity. It suggests that these TARs are primary depositional bed forms that accumulated in place from dust carried by the winds in suspension, perhaps in a manner comparable to antidunes on Earth, and were subsequently indurated and eroded to their current states by eons of sandblasting. It points out examples of modern dust drifts and dune-like features that appear to have been recently formed by dust accumulating directly onto the surface from atmospheric suspension. It shows how these pristine dust deposits could evolve to explain the range of morphologies of the TARs. Finally, it explains how the known properties of many TARs are consistent with this hypothesis, including their composition, thermal behavior, and distribution.

  20. Aeolian sedimentary processes at the Bagnold Dunes, Mars: Implications for modern dune dynamics and sedimentary structures in the aeolian stratigraphic record of Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewing, Ryan C.; Bridges, Nathan T.; Sullivan, Rob; Lapotre, Mathieu G. A.; Fischer, Woodward W.; Lamb, Mike P.; Rubin, David M.; Lewis, Kevin W.; Gupta, Sanjeev

    2016-04-01

    Wind-blown sand dunes are ubiquitous on the surface of Mars and are a recognized component of the martian stratigraphic record. Our current knowledge of the aeolian sedimentary processes that determine dune morphology, drive dune dynamics, and create aeolian cross-stratification are based upon orbital studies of ripple and dune morphodynamics, rover observations of stratification on Mars, Earth analogs, and experimental and theoretical studies of sand movement under Martian conditions. In-situ observations of sand dunes (informally called the Bagnold Dunes) by Curiosity Rover in Gale Crater, Mars provide the first opportunity to make observations of dunes from the grain-to-dune scale thereby filling the gap in knowledge between theory and orbital observations and refining our understanding of the martian aeolian stratigraphic record. We use the suite of cameras on Curiosity, including Navigation Camera (Navcam), Mast Camera (Mastcam) and Mars Hand Lens Imager (MAHLI), to make observations of the Bagnold Dunes. Measurements of sedimentary structures are made where stereo images are available. Observations indicate that structures generated by gravity-driven processes on the dune lee slopes, such as grainflow and grainfall, are similar to the suite of aeolian sedimentary structures observed on Earth and should be present and recognizable in Mars' aeolian stratigraphic record. Structures formed by traction-driven processes deviate significantly from those found on Earth. The dune hosts centimeter-scale wind ripples and large, meter-scale ripples, which are not found on Earth. The large ripples migrate across the depositional, lee slopes of the dune, which implies that these structures should be present in Mars' stratigraphic record and may appear similar to compound-dune stratification.The Mars Science Laboratory Curiosity Rover Team is acknowledged for their support of this work.

  1. Application of Database Approaches to the Study of Earth's Aeolian Environments: Community Needs and Goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scuderi, Louis A.; Weissmann, Gary S.; Hartley, Adrian J.; Yang, Xiaoping; Lancaster, Nicholas

    2017-08-01

    Aeolian science is faced with significant challenges that impact its ability to benefit from recent advances in information technology. The discipline deals with high-end systems in the form of ground and satellite based sensors, computer modeling and simulation, and wind tunnel experiments. Aeolian scientists also collect field data manually with observational methods that may differ significantly between studies with little agreement on even basic morphometric parameters and terminology. Data produced from these studies, while forming the core of research papers and reports, is rarely available to the community at large. Recent advances are also superimposed on an underlying semantic structure that dates to the 1800's or earlier that is confusing, with ambiguously defined, and at times even contradictory, meanings. The aeolian "world-view" does not always fit within neat increments nor is defined by crisp objects. Instead change is continuous and features are fuzzy. Development of an ontological framework to guide spatiotemporal research is the fundamental starting point for organizing data in aeolian science. This requires a "rethinking" of how we define, collect, process, store and share data along with the development of a community-wide collaborative approach designed to bring the discipline into a data rich future. There is also a pressing need to develop efficient methods to integrate, analyze and manage spatial and temporal data and to promote data produced by aeolian scientists so it is available for preparing diagnostic studies, as input into a range of environmental models, and for advising national and international bodies that drive research agendas. This requires the establishment of working groups within the discipline to deal with content, format, processing pipelines, knowledge discovery tools and database access issues unique to aeolian science. Achieving this goal requires the development of comprehensive and highly-organized databases, tools

  2. Cemented Backfilling Technology of Paste-Like Based on Aeolian Sand and Tailings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qinli Zhang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Aeolian sand, tailings, and #32.5 Portland cement were used to produce backfilling aggregate, and physicochemical evaluations and proportioning tests were conducted. It is revealed that a mixture of aeolian sand and tailings can be used as a backfilling aggregate for the complementarities of their physicochemical properties; e.g., high Al2O3 content in the aeolian sand and CaO content in the tailings, coarse particles of aeolian sand and fine particles of tailings, etc. In addition, the optimal backfilling aggregate was shown to have a mass fraction of 72%–74%, a cement–sand ratio of 1:8, and an aeolian sand proportion of 25%. Furthermore, viscometer tests were used to analyze the rheological characteristics, and the slurry in these optimized proportions exhibited shear thinning phenomena with an initial yield stress, which belongs to paste-like—a cemented backfilling slurry with a higher mass fraction than a two-phase flow and better flowability than a paste slurry. Finally, the application of this backfilling technology shows that it can not only realize safe mining, but also bring huge economic benefits, and has some constructive guidance for environmental protection.

  3. Aeolian and fluvial processes in dryland regions: the need for integrated studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belnap, Jayne; Munson, Seth M.; Field, Jason P.

    2011-01-01

    Aeolian and fluvial processes play a fundamental role in dryland regions of the world and have important environmental and ecological consequences from local to global scales. Although both processes operate over similar spatial and temporal scales and are likely strongly coupled in many dryland systems, aeolian and fluvial processes have traditionally been studied separately, making it difficult to assess their relative importance in drylands, as well as their potential for synergistic interaction. Land degradation by accelerated wind and water erosion is a major problem throughout the world's drylands, and although recent studies suggest that these processes likely interact across broad spatial and temporal scales to amplify the transport of soil resources from and within drylands, many researchers and land managers continue to view them as separate and unrelated processes. Here, we illustrate how aeolian and fluvial sediment transport is coupled at multiple spatial and temporal scales and highlight the need for these interrelated processes to be studied from a more integrated perspective that crosses traditional disciplinary boundaries. Special attention is given to how the growing threat of climate change and land-use disturbance will influence linkages between aeolian and fluvial processes in the future. We also present emerging directions for interdisciplinary needs within the aeolian and fluvial research communities that call for better integration across a broad range of traditional disciplines such as ecology, biogeochemistry, agronomy, and soil conservation.

  4. Resolution 147/012. It authorize the Central Libertador / SA aeolian generation company to generate an aeolian electricity source by an electric power generating plant located in Maldonado town 4 AA Catastral section, and the Sistema inerconectado Nacional connection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    This decree authorizes the generation of electricity using aeolian energy as the primary electricity source. This project was presented by the 'Libertador / S.A' aeolian generation company with the proposal to install an electrical plant in Maldonado town. This authorization is according to the Electric Wholesale Market regulation

  5. The effects of sorting by aeolian processes on the geochemical characteristics of surface materials: a wind tunnel experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xunming; Lang, Lili; Hua, Ting; Zhang, Caixia; Li, Hui

    2018-03-01

    The geochemical characteristics of aeolian and surface materials in potential source areas of dust are frequently employed in environmental reconstructions as proxies of past climate and as source tracers of aeolian sediments deposited in downwind areas. However, variations in the geochemical characteristics of these aeolian deposits that result from near-surface winds are currently poorly understood. In this study, we collected surface samples from the Ala Shan Plateau (a major potential dust source area in Central Asia) to determine the influence of aeolian processes on the geochemical characteristics of aeolian transported materials. Correlation analyses show that compared with surface materials, the elements in transported materials (e.g., Cu, As, Pb, Mn, Zn, Al, Ca, Fe, Ga, K, Mg, P, Rb, Co, Cr, Na, Nb, Si, and Zr) were subjected to significant sorting by aeolian processes, and the sorting also varied among different particle size fractions and elements. Variations in wind velocity were significantly correlated with the contents of Cr, Ga, Sr, Ca, Y, Nd, Zr, Nb, Ba, and Al, and with the Zr/Al, Zr/Rb, K/Ca, Sr/Ca, Rb/Sr, and Ca/Al ratios. Given the great variation in the geochemical characteristics of materials transported under different aeolian processes relative to those of the source materials, these results indicate that considerable uncertainty may be introduced to analyses by using surface materials to trace the potential source areas of aeolian deposits that accumulate in downwind areas.

  6. Late-glacial to Holocene aeolian deposition in northeastern Europe - The timing of sedimentation at the Iisaku site (NE Estonia)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalinska-Nartisa, Edyta; Nartiss, Maris; Thiel, Christine

    2015-01-01

    The Late-glacial and Holocene aeolian inland dune complex at Iisaku (NE Estonia) has been investigated using an accurate and detailed compilation of the sedimentary properties and chronological framework. The quartz grains forming the dunes are very variable, reflecting aeolian, weathering...

  7. The north-eastern aeolian 'European Sand Belt' as potential record of environmental changes: A case study from Eastern Latvia and Southern Estonia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalińska-Nartiša, Edyta; Thiel, Christine; Nartišs, Maris

    2016-01-01

    , and the light mineral content, we found an alternation of aeolian and periglacial components. Further, short-lasting aeolian abrasion and/or transportation periods, and a significant contribution of a nearby sediment source are suggested. Luminescence dating points to aeolian sand accumulation and dune...

  8. Aeolian dune sediment flux heterogeneity in Meridiani Planum, Mars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chojnacki, Matthew; Urso, Anna; Fenton, Lori K; Michaels, Timothy I

    2017-06-01

    It is now known unambiguously that wind-driven bedform activity is occurring on the surface of Mars today, including early detections of active sand dunes in Meridiani Planum's Endeavour crater. Many of these reports are only based on a few sets of observations of relatively isolated bedforms and lack regional context. Here, we investigate aeolian activity across central Meridiani Planum and test the hypothesis that dune sites surrounding Endeavour crater are also active and part of region-wide sediment migration driven by northwesterly winds. All 13 dune fields investigated clearly showed evidence for activity and the majority exhibited dune migration (average rates of 0.6 m/Earth-year). Observations indicate substantial geographic and temporal heterogeneity of dune crest fluxes across the area and per site. Locations with multiple time steps indicate dune sand fluxes can vary by a factor of five, providing evidence for short periods of rapid migration followed by near-stagnation. In contrast, measurements at other sites are nearly identical, indicating that some dunes are in a steady-state as they migrate. The observed sediment transport direction was consistent with a regional northeasterly-to-northwesterly wind regime, revealing more variations than were appreciated from earlier, more localized studies. Craters containing shallow, degraded, flat-floored interiors tended to have dunes with high sediment fluxes/activity, whereas local kilometer-scale topographic obstructions (e.g., central peaks, yardangs) were found to be inversely correlated with dune mobility. Finally, the previous, more limited detections of dune activity in Endeavour crater have been shown to be representative of a broader, region-wide pattern of dune motion.

  9. Aeolian transport of biota with dust: A wind tunnel experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivas, J. A., Jr.; Gill, T. E.; Van Pelt, R. S.; Walsh, E.

    2015-12-01

    Ephemeral wetlands are ideal sources for dust emission, as well as repositories for dormant stages of aquatic invertebrates. An important component of invertebrate dispersal and colonization to new areas is the ability to be entrained into the atmosphere. Aquatic invertebrate eggs fall within the size of dust and sand grains (30-600μm), are less dense and aerodynamically shaped. We have shown previously that aquatic invertebrates can be dispersed long distances in dust storms but the extent of transport of taxa based on diapausing egg size/morphology has not been investigated. Here, we control the wind erosion process in a wind tunnel to test entrainment of diapausing stages of brine shrimp, clam shrimp, tadpole shrimp, fairy shrimp, Daphnia, and the rotifers Brachionus plicatilis and B. calyciflorus into the air by saltation. Diapausing eggs were mixed with sterilized wind-erodible soil. The soil/egg mixture was moistened with distilled water and air dried to form a crust. Dust was generated in a wind tunnel by releasing sand grains that act as saltator material similar to wind-entrained natural sands. Maximum wind velocity was 10m/s and entrained particles were sampled through an isokinetic horizontal intake opening. Aeolian sediment was collected from three points in the system; transfer section for coarse sediment, the pan subtending a settling chamber for finer saltation-sized sediment, and two paper filters for suspension-sized sediment. Samples were then passed through 250 and 350 μm sieves to remove abrader sand and rehydrated with various sterile media depending on the type of organism. We retrieved viable brine, fairy, and tadpole shrimp, ostracods, Daphnia, and diapausing eggs of the rotifers after hydration. This experiment demonstrates that resting stages of many invertebrates can be wind-eroded due to size and egg morphology and remain viable under controlled conditions mimicking dust emission.

  10. Aeolian system dynamics derived from thermal infrared data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheidt, Stephen Paul

    Thermal infrared (TIR) remote-sensing and field-based observations were used to study aeolian systems, specifically sand transport pathways, dust emission sources and Saharan atmospheric dust. A method was developed for generating seamless and radiometrically accurate mosaics of thermal infrared data from the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) instrument. Using a combination of high resolution thermal emission spectroscopy results of sand samples and mosaic satellite data, surface emissivity was derived to map surface composition, which led to improvement in the understanding of sand accumulation in the Gran Desierto of northern Sonora, Mexico. These methods were also used to map sand transport pathways in the Sahara Desert, where the interaction between sand saltation and dust emission sources was explored. The characteristics and dynamics of dust sources were studied at White Sands, NM and in the Sahara Desert. At White Sands, an application was developed for studying the response of dust sources to surface soil moisture based on the relationship between soil moisture, apparent thermal inertia and the erosion potential of dust sources. The dynamics of dust sources and the interaction with sand transport pathways were also studied, focusing on the Bodele Depression of Chad and large dust sources in Mali and Mauritania. A dust detection algorithm was developed using ASTER data, and the spectral emissivity of observed atmospheric dust was related to the dust source area in the Sahara. At the Atmospheric Observatory (IZO) in Tenerife, Spain where direct measurement of the Saharan Air Layer could be made, the cycle of dust events occurring in July 2009 were examined. From the observation tower at the IZO, measurements of emitted longwave atmospheric radiance in the TIR wavelength region were made using a Forward Looking Infrared Radiometer (FLIR) handheld camera. The use of the FLIR to study atmospheric dust from the Saharan is a

  11. Canary Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    This easterly looking view shows the seven major volcanic islands of the Canary Island chain (28.0N, 16.5W) and offers a unique view of the islands that have become a frequent vacation spot for Europeans. The northwest coastline of Africa, (Morocco and Western Sahara), is visible in the background. Frequently, these islands create an impact on local weather (cloud formations) and ocean currents (island wakes) as seen in this photo.

  12. Dynamics of aeolian desertification and its driving forces in the Horqin Sandy Land, Northern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Han-chen; Wang, Tao; Xue, Xian; Liu, Shu-lin; Guo, Jian

    2014-10-01

    Aeolian desertification is one of the most serious environmental and socioeconomic problems in arid, semi-arid, and dry subhumid zones. Understanding desertification processes and causes is important to provide reasonable and effective control measures for preventing desertification. With satellite remote sensing images as data source to assess the temporal and spatial dynamics of desertification from 1975 to 2010 in the Horqin Sandy Land, dynamic changes of aeolian desertification were detected using the human-machine interactive interpretation method. The driving factors of local desertification were analyzed based on natural and socioeconomic data. The results show that aeolian desertified land in the study area covered 30,199 km(2) in 2010, accounting for 24.1% of the study area. The total area of aeolian desertified land obviously expanded from 30,884 km(2) in 1975 to 32,071 km(2) in 1990, and gradually decreased to 30,199 km(2) in 2010; aeolian desertified land represented an increasing trend firstly and then decreased. During the past 35 years, the gravity centers of desertified lands that are classified as extremely severe and severe generally migrated to the northeast, whereas those that are moderate and slight migrated to the northwest. The migration distance of severely desertified land was the largest, which indicated the southern desertified lands were improved during the last few decades. In addition, the climatic variation in the past 35 years has been favorable to desertification in the Horqin Sandy Land. Aeolian desertified land rapidly expanded from 1975 to 1990 under the combined effects of climate changes and unreasonable human activities. After the 1990s, the main driving factors responsible for the decrease in desertification were positive human activities, such as the series of antidesertification and ecological restoration projects.

  13. Late Quaternary Soil Development Enhances Aeolian Landform Stability, Moenkopi Plateau, Southern Colorado Plateau, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy L. Ellwein

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The Moenkopi dune field in northeastern Arizona covers roughly 1250 km2, but most of the field is inactive. Dune deposits on the Moenkopi Plateau (MP have remained inactive throughout the Holocene despite periods of elevated aridity or historical reductions of vegetation cover by livestock grazing. We argue that this inactivity is not because of any diminishment of driving forces in the aeolian system (e.g., insufficient winds, but rather because of increased cohesion due to soil development that enhances resistance to wind erosion. Abundant aeolian sediments were supplied to the Black Mesa region by the Little Colorado River and its tributaries during the late Pleistocene (MIS 2 and 3, which enabled the development of climbing dunes and transport of sand over the Adeii Eechii Cliffs and onto the MP. These deposits (Qe1 stabilized during the Pleistocene/Holocene climatic transition (~12–7.5 ka because of reduced sediment supply and high dust flux which resulted in rapid soil formation. Erosion of climbing dunes/sand ramps from the Adeii Eechii Cliffs eliminated delivery of large quantities of new sand to the MP during the mid to late Holocene. Soil development within the Qe1 mantle increased sediment cohesion and prevented widespread aeolian reactivation during the Holocene, despite the occurrence of conditions (wind speed, climate, etc. under which dune reactivation would be expected. Drylands comprise roughly 40% of the land cover of earth and climate models predict their expansion. Pedogenic stability is not commonly considered in climate-based models used to predict aeolian activity. To improve predictions of future dune activity in drylands, the degree of soil development in aeolian deposits should be considered when evaluating sediment availability in aeolian systems.

  14. Where on Earth can we find Mars? Characterization of an Aeolian Analogue in Northwestern Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favaro, E. A.; Hugenholtz, C.; Barchyn, T.

    2017-12-01

    The Puna Plateau of northwestern Argentina is as a promising analogue for Martian aeolian processes owing to its altitude, low atmospheric pressure, aridity, and widespread granular and bedrock aeolian features. The study was conducted in and surrounding the area known as the Campo de Piedra Pómez - a prominent expanse of wind-carved ignimbrite in Argentina's Catamarca Province. To interpret the evolution of this unique laboratory, which is limited by its isolated location and dearth of in situ measurements, we investigated contemporary aeolian sediment transport through a combination of modeled meteorological data, satellite imagery, field measurements, and sediment traps. Our objective is to utilize modeled meteorological data, satellite imagery, and field measurements and samples to characterize the aeolian environment here to base analogue studies. Satellite imagery from Terra MODIS, GeoEye, and Ikonos indicate recent large-scale aeolian sediment transport events and migration of gravel in the region. A prominent, region-wide sediment transport event on 14 August 2015 coincided with synoptic-scale pressure patterns indicating a strong Zonda (Foehn) winds. Sediment traps and marbles provide additional evidence of wind-driven transport of sand and gravel. Yet, despite the body of evidence for sediment transport on the Puna Plateau, modeled wind data from the European Center for Midrange Weather Forecasting suggest wind rarely attains the speeds necessary to initiate sediment transport. This disconnect is reminiscent of the Martian Saltation Paradox which suggested winds on Mars were incapable of mobilizing sediment, despite widespread evidence from rover, lander, and satellite observations. This raises questions about: (i) the suitability of modeled wind data for characterizing aeolian processes on both planets, and (ii) the possibility that most geomorphic work is conducted in extreme, but infrequent events in this region (possibly analogous to Mars). We

  15. Developing a SAR TT-OSL protocol for volcanically-heated aeolian quartz from Datong (China)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Jinfeng; Murray, Andrew S.; Jain, Mayank

    2012-01-01

    The thermally-transferred optically stimulated luminescence (TT-OSL) responses of chemically-purified fine-grained quartz from a lava-baked aeolian sediment from Datong (China) are presented. Our main focus is to examine the suitability of the test dose TT-OSL and OSL response to monitor sensitiv......The thermally-transferred optically stimulated luminescence (TT-OSL) responses of chemically-purified fine-grained quartz from a lava-baked aeolian sediment from Datong (China) are presented. Our main focus is to examine the suitability of the test dose TT-OSL and OSL response to monitor...

  16. Gully annealing by fluvially-sourced Aeolian sand: remote sensing investigations of connectivity along the Fluvial-Aeolian-hillslope continuum on the Colorado River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankey, Joel B.; East, Amy E.; Collins, Brian D.; Caster, Joshua J.

    2015-01-01

    Processes contributing to development of ephemeral gully channels are of great importance to landscapes worldwide, and particularly in dryland regions where soil loss and land degradation from gully erosion pose long-term, land-management problems. Whereas gully formation has been relatively well studied, much less is known of the processes that anneal gullies and impede their growth. This work investigates gully annealing by aeolian sediment, along the Colorado River downstream of Glen Canyon Dam in Glen, Marble, and Grand Canyons, Arizona, USA (Figure 1). In this segment of the Colorado River, gully erosion potentially affects the stability and preservation of archaeological sites that are located within valley margins. Gully erosion occurs as a function of ephemeral, rainfall-induced overland flow associated with intense episodes of seasonal precipitation. Measurements of sediment transport and topographic change have demonstrated that fluvial sand in some locations is transported inland and upslope by aeolian processes to areas affected by gully erosion, and aeolian sediment activity can be locally effective at counteracting gully erosion (Draut, 2012; Collins and others, 2009, 2012; Sankey and Draut, 2014). The degree to which specific locations are affected by upslope wind redistribution of sand from active channel sandbars to higher elevation valley margins is termed “connectivity”. Connectivity is controlled spatially throughout the river by (1) the presence of upwind sources of fluvial sand within the contemporary active river channel (e.g., sandbars), and (2) bio-physical barriers that include vegetation and topography that might impede aeolian sediment transport. The primary hypothesis of this work is that high degrees of connectivity lead to less gullying potential.

  17. Identifying sources of aeolian mineral dust: Present and past

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhs, Daniel R; Prospero, Joseph M; Baddock, Matthew C; Gill, Thomas E

    2014-01-01

    Aeolian mineral dust is an important component of the Earth’s environmental systems, playing roles in the planetary radiation balance, as a source of fertilizer for biota in both terrestrial and marine realms and as an archive for understanding atmospheric circulation and paleoclimate in the geologic past. Crucial to understanding all of these roles of dust is the identification of dust sources. Here we review the methods used to identify dust sources active at present and in the past. Contemporary dust sources, produced by both glaciogenic and non-glaciogenic processes, can be readily identified by the use of Earth-orbiting satellites. These data show that present dust sources are concentrated in a global dust belt that encompasses large topographic basins in low-latitude arid and semiarid regions. Geomorphic studies indicate that specific point sources for dust in this zone include dry or ephemeral lakes, intermittent stream courses, dune fields, and some bedrock surfaces. Back-trajectory analyses are also used to identify dust sources, through modeling of wind fields and the movement of air parcels over periods of several days. Identification of dust sources from the past requires novel approaches that are part of the geologic toolbox of provenance studies. Identification of most dust sources of the past requires the use of physical, mineralogical, geochemical, and isotopic analyses of dust deposits. Physical properties include systematic spatial changes in dust deposit thickness and particle size away from a source. Mineralogy and geochemistry can pinpoint dust sources by clay mineral ratios and Sc-Th-La abundances, respectively. The most commonly used isotopic methods utilize isotopes of Nd, Sr, and Pb and have been applied extensively in dust archives of deep-sea cores, ice cores, and loess. All these methods have shown that dust sources have changed over time, with far more abundant dust supplies existing during glacial periods. Greater dust supplies in

  18. The morphology of transverse aeolian ridges on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geissler, Paul E.; Wilgus, Justin T.

    2017-06-01

    A preliminary survey of publicly released high resolution digital terrain models (DTMs) produced by the High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) camera on Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter identified transverse aeolian ridges (TARs) in 154 DTMs in latitudes from 50°S to 40°N. Consistent with previous surveys, the TARs identified in HiRISE DTMs are found at all elevations, irrespective of the regional thermal inertia of the surface. Ten DTMs were selected for measuring the characteristics of the TARs, including maximum height, mean height, mean spacing (wavelength), and the slope of the surface where they are located. We confined our measurements to features that were taller than 1 m and spaced more than 10 m apart. We found a surprisingly wide variability of TAR sizes within each local region (typically 5 km by 25 km), with up to a factor of 7 difference in TAR wavelengths in a single DTM. The TAR wavelengths do not appear to be correlated to latitude or elevation, but the largest TARs in our small survey were found at lower elevations. The tallest TARs we measured were on the flat floor of Moni crater, within Kaiser crater in the southern highlands. These TARs are up to 14 m tall, with a typical wavelength of 120 m. TAR heights are weakly correlated with their wavelengths. The height-to-wavelength ratios for most TARs are far less than 1/2π (the maximum predicted for antidunes), however in two cases the ratio is close to 1/2π, and in one case (in the bend of a channel) the ratio exceeds 1/2π. TAR wavelengths are uncorrelated with surface slope, both on local and regional scales. TAR heights are weakly anti-correlated with local slope. These results help constrain models of TAR formation, particularly a new hypothesis (Geissler, 2014) that suggests that TARs were formed from micron-sized dust that was transported in suspension. The lack of correlation between TAR wavelength and surface slope seems to rule out formation by gravity-driven dust flows such as

  19. Effect of rock fragment embedding on the aeolian deposition of dust on stone-covered surfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goossens, D.

    2005-01-01

    Many stone-covered surfaces on Earth are subject to aeolian deposition of atmospheric dust. This study investigates how the deposition of dust is affected when rock fragments become gradually more embedded in the ground or, inversely, become more concentrated on the surface. Experiments were

  20. A clarion call for aeolian research to engage with global land degradation and climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chappell, Adrian; Lee, Jeffrey A.; Baddock, Matthew; Gill, Thomas E.; Herrick, Jeffrey E.; Leys, John F.; Marticorena, Beatrice; Petherick, Lynda; Schepanski, Kerstin; Tatarko, John; Telfer, Matt; Webb, Nicholas P.

    2018-06-01

    This editorial represents a clarion call for the aeolian research community to provide increased scientific input to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) and the United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD) and an invitation to apply for ISAR funding to organize a working group to support this engagement.

  1. Tillage techniques to reactivate aeolian erosion on inland drift-sand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riksen, M.J.P.M.; Goossens, D.

    2005-01-01

    The inland drift-sand areas in northern Europe are characterised by a rapid decline in both aeolian activity and areal size. Many former drift-sand surfaces have become immobilised by natural or man-induced processes, such as conversion into forest or other terrain for agricultural, economic or

  2. A Process-Based Transport-Distance Model of Aeolian Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naylor, A. K.; Okin, G.; Wainwright, J.; Parsons, A. J.

    2017-12-01

    We present a new approach to modeling aeolian transport based on transport distance. Particle fluxes are based on statistical probabilities of particle detachment and distributions of transport lengths, which are functions of particle size classes. A computational saltation model is used to simulate transport distances over a variety of sizes. These are fit to an exponential distribution, which has the advantages of computational economy, concordance with current field measurements, and a meaningful relationship to theoretical assumptions about mean and median particle transport distance. This novel approach includes particle-particle interactions, which are important for sustaining aeolian transport and dust emission. Results from this model are compared with results from both bulk- and particle-sized-specific transport equations as well as empirical wind tunnel studies. The transport-distance approach has been successfully used for hydraulic processes, and extending this methodology from hydraulic to aeolian transport opens up the possibility of modeling joint transport by wind and water using consistent physics. Particularly in nutrient-limited environments, modeling the joint action of aeolian and hydraulic transport is essential for understanding the spatial distribution of biomass across landscapes and how it responds to climatic variability and change.

  3. Aeolian sand transport and its effects on the stability of Miramar-Caranzalem beach

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Reddy, G.V.; Sastry, J.S.

    Removal of sand by wind from the beach at Miramar-Caranzalem, Goa, has been found to effect its stability over a relatively longer time scale. This aeolian sand transport has been computed for this strip of the beach utilising the relation between...

  4. High-frequency measurements of aeolian saltation flux: Field-based methodology and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Raleigh L.; Kok, Jasper F.; Hugenholtz, Chris H.; Barchyn, Thomas E.; Chamecki, Marcelo; Ellis, Jean T.

    2018-02-01

    Aeolian transport of sand and dust is driven by turbulent winds that fluctuate over a broad range of temporal and spatial scales. However, commonly used aeolian transport models do not explicitly account for such fluctuations, likely contributing to substantial discrepancies between models and measurements. Underlying this problem is the absence of accurate sand flux measurements at the short time scales at which wind speed fluctuates. Here, we draw on extensive field measurements of aeolian saltation to develop a methodology for generating high-frequency (up to 25 Hz) time series of total (vertically-integrated) saltation flux, namely by calibrating high-frequency (HF) particle counts to low-frequency (LF) flux measurements. The methodology follows four steps: (1) fit exponential curves to vertical profiles of saltation flux from LF saltation traps, (2) determine empirical calibration factors through comparison of LF exponential fits to HF number counts over concurrent time intervals, (3) apply these calibration factors to subsamples of the saltation count time series to obtain HF height-specific saltation fluxes, and (4) aggregate the calibrated HF height-specific saltation fluxes into estimates of total saltation fluxes. When coupled to high-frequency measurements of wind velocity, this methodology offers new opportunities for understanding how aeolian saltation dynamics respond to variability in driving winds over time scales from tens of milliseconds to days.

  5. Temporal and spatial variability in event scale aeolian transport on Ameland, the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poortinga, A.; Keijsers, J.G.S.; Visser, S.M.; Riksen, M.J.P.M.; Baas, A.C.W.

    2015-01-01

    Coastal dunes are the primary defence protecting the coastline from the destructive forces of the sea in The Netherlands. Aeolian processes are important in this context as they contribute to dune accretion and thus the safety of the coastal hinterland. In this study, we analyze horizontal and

  6. A Fuzzy Cognitive Model of aeolian instability across the South Texas Sandsheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houser, C.; Bishop, M. P.; Barrineau, C. P.

    2014-12-01

    Characterization of aeolian systems is complicated by rapidly changing surface-process regimes, spatio-temporal scale dependencies, and subjective interpretation of imagery and spatial data. This paper describes the development and application of analytical reasoning to quantify instability of an aeolian environment using scale-dependent information coupled with conceptual knowledge of process and feedback mechanisms. Specifically, a simple Fuzzy Cognitive Model (FCM) for aeolian landscape instability was developed that represents conceptual knowledge of key biophysical processes and feedbacks. Model inputs include satellite-derived surface biophysical and geomorphometric parameters. FCMs are a knowledge-based Artificial Intelligence (AI) technique that merges fuzzy logic and neural computing in which knowledge or concepts are structured as a web of relationships that is similar to both human reasoning and the human decision-making process. Given simple process-form relationships, the analytical reasoning model is able to map the influence of land management practices and the geomorphology of the inherited surface on aeolian instability within the South Texas Sandsheet. Results suggest that FCMs can be used to formalize process-form relationships and information integration analogous to human cognition with future iterations accounting for the spatial interactions and temporal lags across the sand sheets.

  7. Trickle-down boundary conditions in aeolian dune-field pattern formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewing, R. C.; Kocurek, G.

    2015-12-01

    One the one hand, wind-blown dune-field patterns emerge within the overarching boundary conditions of climate, tectonics and eustasy implying the presence of these signals in the aeolian geomorphic and stratigraphic record. On the other hand, dune-field patterns are a poster-child of self-organization, in which autogenic processes give rise to patterned landscapes despite remarkable differences in the geologic setting (i.e., Earth, Mars and Titan). How important are climate, tectonics and eustasy in aeolian dune field pattern formation? Here we develop the hypothesis that, in terms of pattern development, dune fields evolve largely independent of the direct influence of 'system-scale' boundary conditions, such as climate, tectonics and eustasy. Rather, these boundary conditions set the stage for smaller-scale, faster-evolving 'event-scale' boundary conditions. This 'trickle-down' effect, in which system-scale boundary conditions indirectly influence the event scale boundary conditions provides the uniqueness and richness of dune-field patterned landscapes. The trickle-down effect means that the architecture of the stratigraphic record of dune-field pattern formation archives boundary conditions, which are spatially and temporally removed from the overarching geologic setting. In contrast, the presence of an aeolian stratigraphic record itself, reflects changes in system-scale boundary conditions that drive accumulation and preservation of aeolian strata.

  8. Diagenetic controls on porosity variations within an aeolian sandstone reservoir, borehole Kudu 9A-3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marot, J.E.B.

    1990-01-01

    Three boreholes, Kudu 9A-1, 9A-2 and 9A-3, were drilled approximately 125 km west of the Orange River mouth to test a gas-bearing structure of Barremian age. The reservoir interval comprises an upper unit of interbedded shallow marine sandstones, limestones and volcaniclastic mass flow deposits, and a lower non-marine unit of interbedded aeolian sandstones, basaltic lavas and volcaniclastic deposits. Despite the overall good poroperm characteristics of the aeolian sandstone and its apparent mineralogical homogeneity, as implied by a gamma ray trace, the core analysis results show an extreme variation in porosity and permeability values. In order to assist in reservoir quality prediction and to assess the regional prospectivity of the sandstone, it was necessary to explain these variations. The resuls of the study indicate that compositionally and texturally the sandstones are extremely homogeneous. It is concluded that the marked variation in the poroperm characteristics of the aeolian sandstones is a result of a relatively complex diagenesis. A fluctuating water table resulted in the formation of a pattern of calcite, anhydrite and quartz cements within an aeolian dune sandstone. 7 refs., 1 fig

  9. The dynamic monitoring of aeolian desertification land distribution and its response to climate change in northern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Lili; Jia, Zhiqing; Li, Qingxue

    2016-01-01

    Aeolian desertification is poorly understood despite its importance for indicating environment change. Here we exploit Gaofen-1(GF-1) and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data to develop a quick and efficient method for large scale aeolian desertification dynamic monitoring in northern China. This method, which is based on Normalized Difference Desertification Index (NDDI) calculated by band1 & band2 of MODIS reflectance data (MODIS09A1). Then we analyze spatial-temporal change of aeolian desertification area and detect its possible influencing factors, such as precipitation, temperature, wind speed and population by Convergent Cross Mapping (CCM) model. It suggests that aeolian desertification area with population indicates feedback (bi-directional causality) between the two variables (P desertification area by population is weak. Meanwhile, we find aeolian desertification area is significantly affected by temperature, as expected. However, there is no obvious forcing for the aeolian desertification area and precipitation. Aeolian desertification area with wind speed indicates feedback (bi-directional causality) between the two variables with significant signal (P desertification is greatly affected by natural factors compared with anthropogenic factors. For the desertification in China, we are greatly convinced that desertification prevention is better than control. PMID:28004798

  10. The dynamic monitoring of aeolian desertification land distribution and its response to climate change in northern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Lili; Jia, Zhiqing; Li, Qingxue

    2016-12-01

    Aeolian desertification is poorly understood despite its importance for indicating environment change. Here we exploit Gaofen-1(GF-1) and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data to develop a quick and efficient method for large scale aeolian desertification dynamic monitoring in northern China. This method, which is based on Normalized Difference Desertification Index (NDDI) calculated by band1 & band2 of MODIS reflectance data (MODIS09A1). Then we analyze spatial-temporal change of aeolian desertification area and detect its possible influencing factors, such as precipitation, temperature, wind speed and population by Convergent Cross Mapping (CCM) model. It suggests that aeolian desertification area with population indicates feedback (bi-directional causality) between the two variables (P population is weak. Meanwhile, we find aeolian desertification area is significantly affected by temperature, as expected. However, there is no obvious forcing for the aeolian desertification area and precipitation. Aeolian desertification area with wind speed indicates feedback (bi-directional causality) between the two variables with significant signal (P China, we are greatly convinced that desertification prevention is better than control.

  11. Aeolian process of the dried-up riverbeds of the Hexi Corridor, China: a wind tunnel experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Caixia; Wang, Xunming; Dong, Zhibao; Hua, Ting

    2017-08-01

    Wind tunnel studies, which remain limited, are an important tool to understand the aeolian processes of dried-up riverbeds. The particle size, chemical composition, and the mineral contents of sediments arising from the dried river beds are poorly understood. Dried-up riverbeds cover a wide area in the Hexi Corridor, China, and comprise a complex synthesis of different land surfaces, including aeolian deposits, pavement surfaces, and Takyr crust. The results of the present wind tunnel experiment suggest that aeolian transport from the dried-up riverbeds of the Hexi Corridor ranges from 0 to 177.04 g/m 2 /min and that dry riverbeds could be one of the main sources of dust emissions in this region. As soon as the wind velocity reaches 16 m/s and assuming that there are abundant source materials available, aeolian transport intensity increases rapidly. The dried-up riverbed sediment and the associated aeolian transported material were composed mainly of fine and medium sands. However, the transported samples were coarser than the bed samples, because of the sorting effect of the aeolian processes on the sediment. The aeolian processes also led to regional elemental migration and mineral composition variations.

  12. Heterogeneity and loss of soil nutrient elements under aeolian processes in the Otindag Desert, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Danfeng; Wang, Xunming; Lou, Junpeng; Liu, Wenbin; Li, Hui; Ma, Wenyong; Jiao, Linlin

    2018-02-01

    The heterogeneity of the composition of surface soils that are affected by aeolian processes plays important roles in ecological evolution and the occurrence of aeolian desertification in fragile ecological zones, but the associated mechanisms are poorly understood. Using field investigation, wind tunnel experiments, and particle size and element analyses, we discuss the variation in the nutrient elements of surface soils that forms in the presence of aeolian processes of four vegetation species (Caragana microphylla Lam, Artemisia frigida Willd. Sp. Pl., Leymus chinensis (Trin.) Tzvel. and Stipa grandis P. Smirn) growing in the Otindag Desert, China. These four vegetation communities correspond to increasing degrees of degradation. A total of 40 macro elements, trace elements, and oxides were measured in the surface soil and in wind-transported samples. The results showed that under the different degradation stages, the compositions and concentrations of nutrients in surface soils differed for the four vegetation species. Aeolian processes may cause higher heterogeneity and higher loss of soil nutrient elements for the communities of Artemisia frigida Willd. Sp. Pl., Leymus chinensis (Trin.) Tzvel, and Stipa grandis P. Smirn than for the Caragana microphylla Lam community. There was remarkable variation in the loss of nutrients under different aeolian transportation processes. Over the past several decades, the highest loss of soil elements occurred in the 1970s, whereas the loss from 2011 to the present was generally 4.0% of that in the 1970s. These results indicate that the evident decrease in nutrient loss has played an important role in the rehabilitation that has occurred in the region recently.

  13. Ecohydrological implications of aeolian sediment trapping by sparse vegetation in drylands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, Howell B.; Ravi, Sujith; Li, Junran; Sankey, Joel B.

    2018-01-01

    Aeolian processes are important drivers of ecosystem dynamics in drylands, and important feedbacks exist among aeolian – hydrological processes and vegetation. The trapping of wind-borne sediments by vegetation may result in changes in soil properties beneath the vegetation, which, in turn, can alter hydrological and biogeochemical processes. Despite the relevance of aeolian transport to ecosystem dynamics, the interactions between aeolian transport and vegetation in shaping dryland landscapes where sediment distribution is altered by relatively rapid changes in vegetation composition such as shrub encroachment, is not well understood. Here, we used a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling framework to investigate the sediment trapping efficiencies of vegetation canopies commonly found in a shrub-grass ecotone in the Chihuahuan Desert (New Mexico, USA) and related the results to spatial heterogeneity in soil texture and infiltration measured in the field. A CFD open-source software package was used to simulate aeolian sediment movement through three-dimensional architectural depictions of Creosote shrub (Larrea tridentata) and Black Grama grass (Bouteloua eriopoda) vegetation types. The vegetation structures were created using a computer-aided design software (Blender), with inherent canopy porosities, which were derived using LIDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) measurements of plant canopies. Results show that considerable heterogeneity in infiltration and soil grain size distribution exist between the microsites, with higher infiltration and coarser soil texture under shrubs. Numerical simulations also indicate that the differential trapping of canopies might contribute to the observed heterogeneity in soil texture. In the early stages of encroachment, the shrub canopies, by trapping coarser particles more efficiently, might maintain higher infiltration rates leading to faster development of the microsites (among other factors) with enhanced ecological

  14. Observations of an aeolian landscape: From surface to orbit in Gale Crater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Mackenzie; Kocurek, Gary

    2016-12-01

    Landscapes derived solely from aeolian processes are rare on Earth because of the dominance of subaqueous processes. In contrast, aeolian-derived landscapes should typify Mars because of the absence of liquid water, the long exposure times of surfaces, and the presence of wind as the default geomorphic agent. Using the full range of available orbital and Mars Science Laboratory rover Curiosity images, wind-formed features in Gale Crater were cataloged and analyzed in order to characterize the aeolian landscape and to derive the evolution of the crater wind regime over time. Inferred wind directions show a dominance of regional northerly winds over geologic time-scales, but a dominance of topography-driven katabatic winds in modern times. Landscapes in Gale Crater show a preponderance of aeolian features at all spatial scales. Interpreted processes forming these features include first-cycle aeolian abrasion of bedrock, pervasive deflation, organization of available sand into bedforms, abundant cratering, and gravity-driven wasting, all of which occur over a background of slow physical weathering. The observed landscapes are proposed to represent a spectrum of progressive surface denudation from fractured bedrock, to retreating bedrock-capped mesas, to remnant hills capped by bedrock rubble, to desert pavement plains. This model of landscape evolution provides the mechanism by which northerly winds acting over ∼3 Ga excavated tens of thousands of cubic kilometers of material from the once sediment-filled crater, thus carving the intra-crater moat and exhuming Mount Sharp (Aeolis Mons). The current crater surface is relatively sand-starved, indicating that potential sediment deflation from the crater is greater than sediment production, and that most exhumation of Mount Sharp occurred in the ancient geologic past.

  15. A reappraisal of the stratigraphy and chronology of Early Pliocene palaeontological sites from Lanzarote Island containing fossil terrestrial animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomoschitz, Alejandro; Sánchez Marco, Antonio; Huertas, María José; Betancort, Juan F.; Isern, Arnau; Sanz, Elena; Meco, Joaquín

    2016-11-01

    The Famara massif, in the north of Lanzarote Island, constitutes the remains of a former island inhabited by the oldest known vertebrate fauna of the Canary archipelago off the coast of Africa. In this study, new ages are offered for the underlying and overlying basaltic lava flows of two paleontological sites. The island's three major palaeontological sites, which contain remains of this ancient fauna (Valle Grande, Valle Chico and Fuente de Gusa), are intercorrelated according to their lithologies, sedimentology, palaeontological content and geochronology. The new K/Ar age interval for the fossiliferous sedimentary deposits ranges between 4.3 ± 0.7 and 3.78 ± 0.71 Ma, within the Early Pliocene, and shows that the first known terrestrial animals in Lanzarote were present on the island for about 500 ka. The principal component of the deposits is a bioclastic calcarenite of aeolian origin (sand sheet deposits), which is present in all three sites and constitutes 65% of the beds. The remaining 35% is of fluvial-aeolian origin (mainly stream deposits). All the beds contain the same fossils (insect egg pods, land snails, avian eggshells and tortoise eggshells). The local palaeogeography and the formation of the deposits were conditioned by a flat plain, larger than 16 km2, over which aeolian sands moved freely with a prevailing NNE-WSW wind direction. In agreement with previous investigations, the palaeoclimate in this interval (ca. 4.3 to 3.8 Ma) must have been mainly dry with some rainy episodes.

  16. MARICULTURE ON CROATIAN ISLANDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordana Šarušić

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available The first attempts of intensive mariculture in Croatia commenced at the very beginning of 1980’s. The mid-eighties brought an expansion of mariculture production, which has been continuously increasing. A few different marine organisms are intensively cultured - both fish and shellfish. Among them commercially most important and highly valued species are sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax and sea bream Sparus aurata. Mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis and oyster Ostrea edulis are the most important shellfish. Fish species such as dentex Dentex dentex, red sea bream Pagrus major and sheepshead bream Puntazzo puntazzo are reared too, but in a rather small quantities. Only recently the rearing, on-growing- of bluefin tuna Thunnus thynnus started in Croatia. The juveniles (70% are reared in a Croatian hatcheries, and 30% has to be imported mainly from Italy and France, due to a higher demand for this kind of culture among the small growers. Croatian part of Adriatic sea possesses a number of geomorfologicaly suitable sites and meteorological conditions which determined the choice - type - of intensive culture. All fish species are reared in a floating cages. The choice of cages i. e. semi off-shore or floating frames, size, rearing volume and design depend on the investors personal preference. The annual turnouf of a market size bass was about 600t and 300t bream in 1996., by 10 island farms which is 70% of total production in Croatia. Including other cultured fish species last year production was up to 1000t, and it™s being estimated to be about 1300t in the following year. The shellfish production on the islands is usually individual attempt of farmers, producing minor quantities mostly in polyculture. This production has bigger potential but it’s limited owing to the EU quality control regulations which do not allow the export, and by domestic market which has drastically decreased due to the collapse of tourism during the recent war. Almost 80

  17. INCLUSIVE EDUCATION IN ITALY

    OpenAIRE

    Voitkāne, Vita

    2017-01-01

    European member States implement Inclusive Education policies thus contributing to a sustainable, inclusive society, although each country is at a different stage in this process. Italy, one of the first countries to launch integrative learning, has set an example since the 1970s, although the quality of inclusive education is unpredictable due to many issues. Authors Cantoni and Panetta (2006) emphasize that, although the culture of integration in Italy exists, much needs to be done to impro...

  18. Climate evolution during the Pleniglacial and Late Glacial as recorded in quartz grain morphoscopy of fluvial to aeolian successions of the European Sand Belt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woronko Barbara

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We present results of research into fluvial to aeolian successions at four sites in the foreland of the Last Glacial Maximum, i.e., the central part of the “European Sand Belt”. These sites include dune fields on higher-lying river terraces and alluvial fans. Sediments were subjected to detailed lithofacies analyses and sampling for morphoscopic assessment of quartz grains. Based on these results, three units were identified in the sedimentary succession: fluvial, fluvio-aeolian and aeolian. Material with traces of aeolian origin predominate in these sediments and this enabled conclusions on the activity of aeolian processes during the Pleniglacial and Late Glacial, and the source of sediment supply to be drawn. Aeolian processes played a major role in the deposition of the lower portions of the fluvial and fluvio-aeolian units. Aeolian material in the fluvial unit stems from aeolian accumulation of fluvial sediments within the valley as well as particles transported by wind from beyond the valley. The fluvio-aeolian unit is composed mainly of fluvial sediments that were subject to multiple redeposition, and long-term, intensive processing in an aeolian environment. In spite of the asynchronous onset of deposition of the fluvio-aeolian unit, it is characterised by the greatest homogeneity of structural and textural characteristics. Although the aeolian unit was laid down simultaneously, it is typified by the widest range of variation in quartz morphoscopic traits. It reflects local factors, mainly the origin of the source material, rather than climate. The duration of dune-formation processes was too short to be reflected in the morphoscopy of quartz grains.

  19. Quantification of the dry aeolian deposition of dust on horizontal surfaces: an experimental comparison of theory and measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goossens, D.

    2005-01-01

    Eight techniques to quantify the deposition of aeolian dust on horizontal surfaces were tested in a wind tunnel. The tests included three theoretical techniques and five measurement techniques. The theoretical techniques investigated were: the gradient technique, the inferential technique without

  20. Response of fluvial, aeolian, and lacustrine systems to late Pleistocene to Holocene climate change, Lower Moravian Basin, Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kadlec, Jaroslav; Kocurek, G.; Mohrig, D.; Shinde, D. P.; Murari, M. K.; Varma, V.; Stehlík, F.; Beneš, V.; Singhvi, A. K.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 232, 1 March (2015), s. 193-208 ISSN 0169-555X Institutional support: RVO:67985530 Keywords : Quaternary * Czech Republic * Fluvio-aeolian Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 2.813, year: 2015

  1. Italy in Postcolonial Discourse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Concilio, Carmen

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this essay, I would like to explore the representations of Italy through the eyes of three outstanding postcolonial writers: Jhumpa Lahiri, Michael Ondaatje and Nuruddin Farah. Even though Italy is an oasis of art and culture, Jhumpa Lahiri looks at it with a profound sense of both admiration and sadness in Hema and Kaushik (2008. Her scrutiny of the ancient, pre-imperial ruins of the Etruscan period leads her characters to question life, death and marital life. Similarly, Ondaatje opposes an Italian Renaissance villa to the debris left behind by war in his well-known The English Patient (1992. His Punjabi character Kirpal Singh mentions Gabicce Mare, a place that soon after World War II will become a memorial and cemetery for the Indian troops who fought and died for the liberation of Italy. This discourse is picked up by Helena Janaczeck, a Polish-Italian writer who combines a narrative on Polish migration in Italy with an elegiac narrative about the cemetery and memorial in Cassino, where a Maori goes to visit the tombs of his ancestor, who also participated with the Commonwealth troops in World War II. Nuruddin Farah too, who provides a reportage on Somali immigrants to Italy, seems to consider the country as a springboard either to other North European destinations or to a possible destiny back home. All three writers present Italy according to varied and unusual perspectives.

  2. ON THE UNDERSTANDING OF AEOLIAN SEQUENCE STRATIGRAPHY: AN EXAMPLE FROM MIOCENE-PLIOCENE DEPOSITS IN PATAGONIA, ARGENTINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CARLOS ZAVALA

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Upper Tertiary aeolian strata (Río Negro Formation outcrop in extensive sea cliffs at the Northeast of Patagonia. These outcrops show deposits corresponding to a complete suite of aeolian and aeolian related sub-environments, and also provide excellent exposures to analyse the sedimentology and internal architecture from a sequence stratigraphic point of view. Field studies, supplemented withline-drawings of oblique photographs, allowed the recognition of seven aeolian depositional sequences within the succession, each one bounded by regional super surfaces (or deflation surfaces. Internally these aeolian sequences display a cyclic recurrence in facies, that yields a tentative genetic model for their evolution. As documented from field examples, each basic aeolian depositional sequence was deposited during a single aggradational period, and is bounded by unconformities related to degradational periods. Degradational periods are regional deflationary events, that resulted in deep-scoured to flat surfaces, characterised by erosion / non deposition in which the only recognised accumulation is isolated and large angular blocks of fine-grained aggregates, interpreted as residual remnants of deposits of the previous sequence. Aggradational periods are characterised by a near- continuous accumulations responsible for the sequence building. Differences in the aeolian sediment budget to the area and the rising rate of water table control the related facies types, and allow to discriminateearly and late aggradational sub-periods. Early aggradational sub-periods form under conditions of relatively fast rising water tables associated with moderate aeolian sediment budget, thus resulting in the development of extended wet interduneslaterally associated with aeolian dunes and dry interdunes. During late aggradational sub-periods, the depositional surface outdistanced the water table, and aeolian dunes and dry interdunes tend to predominate. This sub

  3. Long-term dynamic characterization of aeolian desertification in northwest Shanxi, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Zhanjin; Qin, Zuodong; Cheng, Fangqin; Ding, Guangwei; Li, Hongjian

    2017-07-01

    Northwest Shanxi is located on the farming-pastoral ecotone of northern China, where aeolian desertification is one of the most serious environmental and socioeconomic issues. The remote sensing image and geostatistical approach were implemented to estimate aeolian desertified land (ADL) dynamic variations from 1975 to 2015. Results showed that the ADL covered 11,685.21 km 2 (82.29%) of the study area in 2015, the majority of which was classified as a light or moderate degree. The area of ADL gradually expanded at an increasing rate of 87.37 km 2 a -1 during the 1975-2000 periods. More specifically, the area of ADL has increased by 1259.23 km 2 from 1975 to 1990 and by 924.96 km 2 from 1990 to 2000, respectively. In contrast, spatial transfer of ADL areas has dwindled by 2365.85 km 2 with a net decrease of 157.72 km 2 a -1 , and the mitigated areas of aeolian desertification were 10,602.24 km 2 between 2000 and 2015. During the past 40 years, the gravity center of ADL migrated to southeast until 2000 and moved northwest in 2000-2015. From 1975 to 2000, the migration distance of severe ADL was the largest, migrated toward the northwest by 19.03 km in 1975-1990 and by 20.16 km in 1990-2000, respectively. From 2000 to 2015, the migration distance of light ADL was the largest, 27.54 km migrated to the northwest. Aeolian desertification rapidly expanded from 1975 to 2000 under the combination of climate change and intensive human activities. Since the year of 2000, ecological engineering strategy initiated by the governments has been the dominant contributor to the aeolian desertification severity reversal. Aeolian desertification prevention is a complicated process. Both the central and local government should play a critical role in the rehabilitation of ADL in the long term.

  4. Sedimentology and preservation of aeolian sediments on steep terrains: Incipient sand ramps on the Atacama coast (northern Chile)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventra, Dario; Rodríguez-López, Juan Pedro; de Boer, Poppe L.

    2017-05-01

    The origin of topographically controlled aeolian landforms in high-relief settings is difficult to synthesize under general models, given the dependence of such accumulations on local morphology. Quaternary sand ramps have been linked to palaeoclimate, regional geomorphology and wind patterns; however, controls on the early development and preservation of such landforms are poorly known. This study describes the morphology and sedimentology of complex sedimentary aprons along steep coastal slopes in the Atacama Desert (Chile). Direct slope accessibility and continuous stratigraphic exposures enable comparisons between active processes and stratigraphic signatures. Stratigraphic facies distribution and its links with patterns of aeolian deposition show that the preservation of wind-laid sediments depends on the morphology and processes of specific slope sectors. The spatial organization of runoff depends on bedrock configuration and directly controls the permanence or erosion of aeolian sediment. The occurrence of either water or mass flows depends on the role of aeolian fines in the rheology of flash floods. In turn, the establishment of a rugged surface topography controlled by patterns of mass-flow deposition creates local accommodation for aeolian fines, sustaining the initial aggradation of a colluvial-aeolian system. By contrast, slopes subject to runoff develop a thin, extensive aeolian mantle whose featureless surface is subject mostly to sediment bypass down- and across-slope; the corresponding stratigraphic record comprises almost exclusively thin debris-flow and sheetflood deposits. Slope morphology and processes are fundamental in promoting or inhibiting aeolian aggradation in mountain settings. Long-term sand-ramp construction depends on climate and regional topography, but the initial development is probably controlled by local geomorphic factors. The observed interactions between wind and topography in the study area may also represent a process

  5. Vegetation morphologic and aerodynamic characteristics reduce aeolian erosion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miri, Abbas; Dragovich, Deirdre; Dong, Zhibao

    2017-10-09

    Vegetation cover is crucial to controlling aeolian erosion but highly efficient vegetation is critical. How this efficiency is influenced by vegetation response to airflow is not clear. Here we evaluate the responses of Cosmos bipinnatus and Ligustrum lucidum Ait to a range of wind speeds in a wind tunnel. For both species, we calculate shelter effect and sand flux. We show that plant effectiveness in reducing wind speed and sediment transport is linked to their aerodynamic response to airflow which results from their morphology. We demonstrate that in low-density cover the flow-response and resistance of individuals is most critical in the optimal effectiveness of a canopy. Our wind tunnel experiment suggests that vegetation morphology and structure must be priority parameters in facilitating aeolian erosion control.

  6. Power quality in electrical networks with aeolian penetration. Case: The Turiguanó wind farm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sierra Gil, Eduardo; Coello Igarza, Daisnel; Pérez Lorenzo, Adonis

    2013-01-01

    In this work the problem of the aeolian generation is described regarding to the quality of the produced energy because the inverters, that distort the fundamental wave of tension and current, has been incorporate like one of the characteristics of the aeolian generation that use turbines of variable speed, together with the exports and imports of reactive power and the consequent decrease of the power factor; for this purpose takes a practical example, with real measures of reactive powers, power factor and harmonics, carried out in the Demonstrative Wind Farm of Turiguanó and others accumulated measures from the records of the technical documentation of the wind farm, exposing a methodology to determine, with the realized measures, the values of reactive powers, power factor and harmonics for each value of load degree of the wind farm and operation of the turbines. (author)

  7. Project for the establishment of photovoltaic and aeolian renewable energy station in the TLC field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coccia, S.

    2000-01-01

    The rising problems connected with atmospheric (environmental) pollution, the difficulties reaching telecommunication sites placed in inaccessible areas with electric lines, can induce everyone to look for new solutions for the power supplying of TLC devices. The renewable energy systems, even if more expensive in proportion, have the required specifications. This study was made to assess, from a technical and economical point of view, the possibility to build photovoltaic and aeolian equipments [it

  8. Aeolian nutrient fluxes following wildfire in sagebrush steppe: implications for soil carbon storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. J. Hasselquist

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Pulses of aeolian transport following fire can profoundly affect the biogeochemical cycling of nutrients in semi-arid and arid ecosystems. Our objective was to determine horizontal nutrient fluxes occurring in the saltation zone during an episodic pulse of aeolian transport that occurred following a wildfire in a semi-arid sagebrush steppe ecosystem in southern Idaho, USA. We also examined how temporal trends in nutrient fluxes were affected by changes in particle sizes of eroded mass as well as nutrient concentrations associated with different particle size classes. In the burned area, total carbon (C and nitrogen (N fluxes were as high as 235 g C m−1 d−1 and 19 g N m−1 d−1 during the first few months following fire, whereas C and N fluxes were negligible in an adjacent unburned area throughout the study. Temporal variation in C and N fluxes following fire was largely attributable to the redistribution of saltation-sized particles. Total N and organic C concentrations in the soil surface were significantly lower in the burned relative to the unburned area one year after fire. Our results show how an episodic pulse of aeolian transport following fire can affect the spatial distribution of soil C and N, which, in turn, can have important implications for soil C storage. These findings demonstrate how an ecological disturbance can exacerbate a geomorphic process and highlight the need for further research to better understand the role aeolian transport plays in the biogeochemical cycling of C and N in recently burned landscapes.

  9. Marshall Islands

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2015-01-01

    This note aims to build understanding of the existing disaster risk financing and insurance (DRFI) tools in use in The Marshall Islands and to identify gaps where potential engagement could further develop financial resilience. The likelihood that a hazardous event will have a significant impact on the Marshall Islands has risen with the increasing levels of population and assets in the urban ...

  10. Weichselian Aeolian Geoheritage Top 20 of the Netherlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Ancker, Hanneke; Jungerius, Pieter Dirk; Platform Aardkundige Waarden, members

    2016-04-01

    The Netherlands are known world-wide for its engineered landscapes, its deep polders and bulb fields. The deep polders, up to more than 5 meters below sea level, originated by reclaiming peat lakes and peat quarries made for fuel. Its bulb fields are situated on levelled permeable dunes on which the precise water management is possible that growing bulbs requires. The Waddensea and -islands are less widely known (except by German bathers), although they are a World Heritage. The Waddensea is a highly pristine tidal landscape that already occurs along the Dutch coast for over 10,000 years and an important Natura 2000 area. The Wadden islands have an interesting history of erosion and re-growth and old cultural landscapes that show the interaction of land use and small-scale differences in geology and geomorphology during different cultural periods. Therefore, it is time to change the international perception of foreign visitors to The Netherlands and add the high variety of its historical landscapes, partly pristine and partly old cultural landscapes, to its tourism qualities. The poster presents a Top 20 of a less spectacular but another internationally important Dutch landscape: the coversand sites of the Netherlands. The Top 20 is selected by Geoheritage NL's Platform Aardkundige Waarden. The coversands evolved during the Late Weichselian, when the Netherlands was not covered by land ice and for a long period of time was part of a polar desert. The coversand landscape with dunes of 0,5 m up to 15 metres is not spectacular, but very characteristic. The coversands comprise of more than half a kilometre broad and 40 kilometre long dunes, series of river dunes as well as isolated dunes. The coversands and related Holocene drift sands make up about a quarter of the Dutch landscape. Over a century ago more than half of this landscape still had its pristine topography. Now less than a few percent is remaining. Especially the few remaining heathlands on coversand are an

  11. Modeling the Response of Human Altered Natural Barrier Island Dynamics Along Assateague Island National Seashore to Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, A.; McNamara, D.; Schupp, C.

    2009-12-01

    Assateague Island National Seashore comprises a long barrier island located off the coasts of Maryland and Virginia. Geological evidence suggests that over recent centuries Assateague Island has steadily transgressed up the continental shelf in response to rising sea level. More recently, the natural barrier island dynamics governing Assateague’s evolution have been altered by human activity in three ways: the construction of a jetty and the subsequent interruption of alongshore sediment transport on the north end of Assateague and both the ongoing and abandoned maintenance of a continuous dune system along portions of Assateague with the concomitant modification to overwash dynamics. It is unclear how these varied human alterations to the natural barrier island dynamics will influence the response of Assateague to climate change induced shifts in forcing such as increased rates of sea level rise and changing storm patterns. We use LIDAR detected morphological data of Assateague Island as initial conditions in an alongshore extended model for barrier island dynamics including beach erosion, island overwash and inlet cutting during storms, and beach accretion, tidal delta growth and dune and vegetation growth between storms to explore the response of the various human altered segments of Assateague Island to forcing changes. Traditional models exploring barrier island evolution contain only cross-shore dynamics therefore lacking important alongshore-spatial dynamics in aeolian and surf zone sediment transport. Results show that including alongshore dynamics alter the steady state of Assateague relative to simulations that only include cross-shore dynamics. Results will also be presented exploring the potential for regime shifts in steady state behavior under various scenarios for the rate of sea level rise and storm climate and varying management strategies.

  12. Collection for Italy

    CERN Multimedia

    Fabiola Gianotti, Director-General, and Ghislain Roy, President of the Staff Association

    2016-01-01

    Following the earthquake of 24 August in central Italy, many of you have expressed your solidarity. The collection to support the victims raised a total of 10 000 CHF, which was transferred in its entirety to Italy’s civil protection through the Italian delegation to the CERN Council. The CERN Directorate and the CERN Staff Association sincerely thank you for your generosity.

  13. Facies architecture and stratigraphic evolution of aeolian dune and interdune deposits, Permian Caldeirão Member (Santa Brígida Formation), Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Fábio Herbert; Scherer, Claiton Marlon dos Santos; Kuchle, Juliano

    2016-05-01

    The Permian Caldeirão Member (Santa Brígida Formation), located in the Tucano Central Basin, northeast region of Brazil, is characterized by a sandstone succession of aeolian origin that comprises the preserved deposits of dunes and interdunes. Grainflow and translatent wind-ripple strata, and frequent presence of reactivation surface, compose the cross-bedding of crescent aeolian dune deposits. The aeolian cross-strata show a mean dip toward the ENE. In places, interlayered with dune cross-beds, occur interdune units composed of facies indicative of dry, damp and wet condition of the substrate, suggesting spatial and/or temporal variations in the moisture content of the interdune accumulation surface. The presence of NNW current ripple cross-lamination in wet interdune areas indicates streamflows confined to interdune corridors and oriented perpendicular to aeolian transport direction. Lenses of damp and wet interdune strata exhibit mainly interdigitated and transitional relationships with the toe-sets of overlying aeolian dune units in sections parallel to aeolian transport, indicating that dune migration was contemporaneous with accumulation in adjacent interdunes. Lateral variations in the preserved thickness of the interdune units and the associated rare occurrence of abrupt and erosive contacts between interdune and overlying dune sets, suggest temporal variations in the angle of dune and interdune climb that may be related to high-frequency changes in water table position. Four stratigraphic intervals in the Caldeirão Member can be identified, two intervals showing cross-bedding of aeolian dunes without wet interdune areas and two intervals exhibiting aeolian dunes separated by wet interdune areas, marking the transition between dry aeolian systems (Intervals I and III) and wet aeolian systems (Intervals II and IV). The temporal alternations between dry and wet aeolian systems reflect changes in the availability of dry sand and/or the rate in the water

  14. Wine tourism in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinelli Colombini D

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Donatella Cinelli Colombini Orcia Doc Wine Consortium, Rocca d’Orcia , Italy Abstract: This text includes the history of wine tourism in Italy since 1993, when the first edition of the event “Cantine Aperte” (Open Cellars, Wine Day, took place. The movement grew from the initial 25 wineries to the 21,000 that participate today in opening their doors to the public, while visitors grew in numbers from a couple of hundred, 20 years ago, to the current 4 to 6 million. Wine tourists can be divided into four main groups: wine tourists by chance, classic wine tourists, talent scouts, and lovers of luxury. Each group is examined according to its consumption, its conduct, and its expectations. Wine tourism in Italy boasts around 170 territorial networks: “Strade del Vino” (wine routes regulated by law. After an initial pioneer phase during which preexisting wineries adapted to the growing number of tourists, modern-day wineries were created with bespoke areas for the welcoming of visitors. Wineries in Italy can be classified into the following main types: “functional wineries” that concentrate on productive efficiency; “cathedrals” – renovated historic buildings or modern “starchitecture” designs in which esthetics play an important role; wineries with a “strong identity” linked to the owner or wine producer with the special imprint of his or her personal wine making passion. Other features of Italian wine territories such as food and wellness centers not to speak of the ever present cultural heritage also play a part in attracting wine tourists. Lastly, an evaluation is made of business and communication aspects with a specific reference to the use of the web. Keywords: wine tourism, Italian wineries, winery tours, wine roads of Italy

  15. Sediment grain-size characteristics and relevant correlations to the aeolian environment in China's eastern desert region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chunlai; Shen, Yaping; Li, Qing; Jia, Wenru; Li, Jiao; Wang, Xuesong

    2018-06-15

    To identify characteristics of aeolian activity and the aeolian environment in China's eastern desert region, this study collected surface sediment samples from the main desert and sandy lands in this region: the Hobq Desert and the Mu Us, Otindag, Horqin, and Hulunbuir sandy lands. We analyzed the grain-size characteristics and their relationships to three key environmental indicators: drift potential, the dune mobility index, and vegetation cover. The main sediment components are fine to medium sands, with poor (Hulunbuir) to moderate (all other areas) sorting, of unimodal to bimodal distribution. This suggests that improved sorting is accomplished by the loss of both relatively coarser and finer grains. Since 2000, China's eastern desert region has generally experienced low wind energy environmental conditions, resulting in decreased dune activity. In the Hobq Desert, however, the dry climate and sparse vegetation, in conjunction with the most widely distributed mobile dune area in the eastern desert region, have led to frequent and intense aeolian activity, including wind erosion, sand transport, and deposition, resulting in conditions for good sediment sorting. In the Mu Us, Otindag, and Horqin sandy lands, mosaic distribution has resulted from wind erosion-dominated and deposition-dominated aeolian environments. In the Hulunbuir Sandy Land, high precipitation, low temperatures, and steppe vegetation have resulted in well-developed soils; however, strong winds and flat terrain have created an aeolian environment dominated by wind erosion. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Short communication: Multi-scale topographic anisotropy patterns on a Barrier Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houser, Chris; Bishop, Michael; Wernette, Phil

    2017-11-01

    Barrier islands exhibit a range of landforms that reflect the complex and varied combination of coastal and aeolian processes realized over the evolution of the island. A detailed analysis of the topography can be used to describe the evolution of a barrier island and provide insight on how it may be affected by a change in sea level, storm activity and wind exposure patterns. Topographic anisotropy, or the directional dependence of relief of landforms, can be used to determine the relative importance of different processes to island evolution at a range of scales. This short communication describes the use of scale-dependent topographic anisotropy to characterize the structure of Santa Rosa Island in northwest Florida. Scale-dependent topographic relief and asymmetry were assessed from a LiDAR-derived DEM from May 2004, a few months before the island experienced widespread erosion and overwash during Hurricane Ivan. This application demonstrates how anisotropy can be used to identify unique scale-dependent structures that can be used to interpret the evolution of this barrier island. Results of this preliminary study further highlight the potential of using topographic anisotropy to controls on barrier island response and recovery to storms as well as island resiliency with sea level rise and storm activity.

  17. Sandy aeolian deposits and environments and their relation to climate during the Last Glacial Maximum and Lateglacial in northwest and central Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kasse, C.

    2002-01-01

    Periglacial aeolian sand sheets and dunes of the last glacial cover extensive areas of northwest and central Europe. Four sedimentary facies have been described that could be related to fluvio-aeolian and cryogenic processes, moisture content of the depositional surface and surface morphology.

  18. Aeolian sands and buried soils in the Mecklenburg Lake District, NE Germany: Holocene land-use history and pedo-geomorphic response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Küster, Mathias; Fülling, Alexander; Kaiser, Knut; Ulrich, Jens

    2014-04-01

    The present study is a pedo-geomorphic approach to reconstructing Holocene aeolian sand dynamics in the Mecklenburg Lake District (NE Germany). Stratigraphical, sedimentological and soil research supplemented by morphogenetic interpretations of the genesis of dunes and aeolian sands are discussed. A complex Late Holocene aeolian stratigraphy within a drift sand area was developed at the shore of Lake Müritz. The results were confirmed using palynological records, archaeological data and regional history. Accelerated aeolian activity was triggered by the intensification of settlement and land-use activities during the 13th and in the 15th to 16th century AD. After a period of stability beginning with population decline during the ‘Thirty Years War' and continuing through the 18th century, a final aeolian phase due to the establishment of glassworks was identified during the 19th century AD. We assume a direct link between Holocene aeolian dynamics and human activities. Prehistoric Holocene drift sands on terrestrial sites have not been documented in the Mecklenburg Lake District so far. This might be explained either by erosion and incorporation of older aeolian sediments during younger aeolian phases and/or a lower regional land-use intensity in older periods of the Holocene. The investigated drift sands are stratigraphically and sedimentologically characterised by a high degree of heterogeneity, reflecting the spatial and temporal variability of Holocene human impact.

  19. Relating sedimentary processes in the Bagnold Dunes to the development of crater basin aeolian stratification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewing, R. C.; Lapotre, M. G. A.; Lewis, K. W.; Day, M. D.; Stein, N.; Rubin, D. M.; Sullivan, R. J., Jr.; Banham, S.; Thomas, N. M.; Lamb, M. P.; Gupta, S.; Fischer, W. W.

    2017-12-01

    Wind-blown sand dunes are ubiquitous on the surface of Mars and are a recognized component of the martian stratigraphic record. Our current knowledge of the aeolian sedimentary processes that determine dune morphology, drive dune dynamics, and create aeolian cross-stratification are based upon orbital studies of ripple and dune morphodynamics, rover observations of stratification on Mars, Earth analogs, and experimental and theoretical studies of sand movement under martian conditions. Exploration of the Bagnold Dunes by the Curiosity Rover in Gale Crater, Mars provided the first opportunity to make in situ observations of martian dunes from the grain-to-dune scale. We used the suite of cameras on Curiosity, including Navigation Camera, Mast Camera, and Mars Hand Lens Imager. We measured grainsize and identified sedimentary processes similar to processes on terrestrial dunes, such as grainfall, grainflow, and impact ripples. Impact ripple grainsize had a median of 0.103 mm. Measurements of grainflow slopes indicate a relaxation angle of 29° and grainfall slopes indicate critical angles of at least 32°. Dissimilar to terrestrial dunes, large, meter-scale ripples form on all slopes of the dunes. The ripples form both sinuous and linear crestlines, have symmetric and asymmetric profiles, range in height between 12cm and 28cm, and host grainfall, grainflow, and impact ripples. The largest ripples are interpreted to integrate the annual wind cycle within the crater, whereas smaller large ripples and impact ripples form or reorient to shorter term wind cycling. Assessment of sedimentary processes in combination with dune type across the Bagnold Dunes shows that dune-field pattern development in response to a complex crater-basin wind regime dictates the distribution of geomorphic processes. From a stratigraphic perspective, zones of highest potential accumulation correlate with zones of wind convergence, which produce complex winds and dune field patterns thereby

  20. Beach-dune dynamics: Spatio-temporal patterns of aeolian sediment transport under complex offshore airflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, K.; Jackson, D.; Delgado-Fernandez, I.; Cooper, J. A.; Baas, A. C.; Beyers, M.

    2010-12-01

    This study examines sand transport and wind speed across a beach at Magilligan Strand, Northern Ireland, under offshore wind conditions. Traditionally the offshore component of local wind regimes has been ignored when quantifying beach-dune sediment budgets, with the sheltering effect of the foredune assumed to prohibit grain entrainment on the adjoining beach. Recent investigations of secondary airflow patterns over coastal dunes have suggested this may not be the case, that the turbulent nature of the airflow in these zones enhances sediment transport potential. Beach sediment may be delivered to the dune toe by re-circulating eddies under offshore winds in coastal areas, which may explain much of the dynamics of aeolian dunes on coasts where the dominant wind direction is offshore. The present study investigated aeolian sediment transport patterns under an offshore wind event. Empirical data were collected using load cell traps, for aeolian sediment transport, co-located with 3-D ultrasonic anemometers. The instrument positioning on the sub-aerial beach was informed by prior analysis of the airflow patterns using computational fluid dynamics. The array covered a total beach area of 90 m alongshore by 65 m cross-shore from the dune crest. Results confirm that sediment transport occurred in the ‘sheltered’ area under offshore winds. Over short time and space scales the nature of the transport is highly complex; however, preferential zones for sand entrainment may be identified. Alongshore spatial heterogeneity of sediment transport seems to show a relationship to undulations in the dune crest, while temporal and spatial variations may also be related to the position of the airflow reattachment zone. These results highlight the important feedbacks between flow characteristics and transport in a complex three dimensional surface.

  1. Aeolian stratigraphy describes ice-age paleoenvironments in unglaciated Arctic Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaglioti, Benjamin V.; Mann, Daniel H.; Groves, Pamela; Kunz, Michael L.; Farquharson, Louise M.; Reanier, Richard E.; Jones, Benjamin M.; Wooller, Matthew J.

    2018-02-01

    Terrestrial paleoenvironmental records with high dating resolution extending into the last ice age are rare from the western Arctic. Such records can test the synchronicity and extent of ice-age climatic events and define how Arctic landscapes respond to rapid climate changes. Here we describe the stratigraphy and sedimentology of a yedoma deposit in Arctic Alaska (the Carter Section) dating to between 37,000 and 9000 calibrated radiocarbon years BP (37-9 ka) and containing detailed records of loess and sand-sheet sedimentation, soil development, carbon storage, and permafrost dynamics. Alternation between sand-sheet and loess deposition provides a proxy for the extent and activity of the Ikpikpuk Sand Sea (ISS), a large dune field located immediately upwind. Warm, moist interstadial times (ca. 37, 36.3-32.5, and 15-13 ka) triggered floodplain aggradation, permafrost thaw, reduced loess deposition, increased vegetation cover, and rapid soil development accompanied by enhanced carbon storage. During the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM, ca. 28-18 ka), rapid loess deposition took place on a landscape where vegetation was sparse and non-woody. The most intense aeolian activity occurred after the LGM between ca. 18 and 15 ka when sand sheets fringing the ISS expanded over the site, possibly in response to increasingly droughty conditions as summers warmed and active layers deepened. With the exception of this lagged LGM response, the record of aeolian activity at the Carter Section correlates with other paleoenvironmental records from unglaciated Siberia and Alaska. Overall, rapid shifts in geomorphology, soils, vegetation, and permafrost portray an ice-age landscape where, in contrast to the Holocene, environmental change was chronic and dominated by aeolian processes.

  2. Aeolian processes during the Holocene in Gannan Region, Eastern Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, S.; Cheng, T.; Li, S.; Liang, M.

    2016-12-01

    Aeolian desertification occurring in the Tibetan Plateau has received attention recently for it has become a severe environmental problem by accelerating the grassland degradation and eco-environment damage. The Gannan Region is located in the northeastern Tibetan Plateau with a mean altitude of 3500m. It is highly sensitive to global environmental change and human disturbance. Serious soil erosion and desertification and extensive land degradation have caused heavy eco-environmental impacts. To investigate the evolution of the desertification in Holocene in the Plateau is of great importance for understanding the desertification trend under the global changes in the Tibetan Plateau. Loess and aeolian sands is a key geological archive related to desertification processes and the past environment changes. In this study a typical 8.5m-thick loess-sands profile named MQQ, was selected at the Maqu city. It is situated on the first terrace (T1) of the Yellow River. Detailed accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) 14C dating of bulk organic matter content has shown the Aeolian sediments of the MQQ section occurring since the early Holocene. the mass-specific frequency-dependent magnetic susceptibility (χfd) and grainsize records show a clear upward increase in the contents of superparamagnetic grains and fine fractions in grain size, which indicates a gradual wetting trend during the Holocene.The sediment rates change from very high in the early Holocene to low values after 8.2 ka. The wetting process can be divided into three steps: 10.0-8.2 ka, 8.2-3.0 ka and 3.0-present. It indicates that the climate in the eastern Tibetan Plateau was dry during the early Holocene. After that the climate was getting wet gradually. The variations of the westerlies and the Asian monsoon may cause the environmental change in this region.

  3. Integrated Results from Analysis of the Rocknest Aeolian Deposit by the Curiosity Rover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leshin, L. A.; Grotzinger, J. P.; Blake, D. F.; Edgett, K. S.; Gellert, R.; Mahaffy, P. R.; Malin, M. C.; Wiens, R. C.; Treiman, A. H.; Ming, D. W.; hide

    2013-01-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory Curiosity rover spent 45 sols (from sol 56-101) at an area called Rocknest (Fig. 1), characterizing local geology and ingesting its aeolian fines into the analytical instruments CheMin and SAM for mineralogical and chemical analysis. Many abstracts at this meeting present the contextual information and detailed data on these first solid samples analyzed in detail by Curiosity at Rocknest. Here, we present an integrated view of the results from Rocknest - the general agreement from discussions among the entire MSL Science Team.

  4. Turbulent Flow and Sand Dune Dynamics: Identifying Controls on Aeolian Sediment Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, C. M.; Wiggs, G.

    2007-12-01

    Sediment transport models are founded on cubic power relationships between the transport rate and time averaged flow parameters. These models have achieved limited success and recent aeolian and fluvial research has focused on the modelling and measurement of sediment transport by temporally varying flow conditions. Studies have recognised turbulence as a driving force in sediment transport and have highlighted the importance of coherent flow structures in sediment transport systems. However, the exact mechanisms are still unclear. Furthermore, research in the fluvial environment has identified the significance of turbulent structures for bedform morphology and spacing. However, equivalent research in the aeolian domain is absent. This paper reports the findings of research carried out to characterise the importance of turbulent flow parameters in aeolian sediment transport and determine how turbulent energy and turbulent structures change in response to dune morphology. The relative importance of mean and turbulent wind parameters on aeolian sediment flux was examined in the Skeleton Coast, Namibia. Measurements of wind velocity (using sonic anemometers) and sand transport (using grain impact sensors) at a sampling frequency of 10 Hz were made across a flat surface and along transects on a 9 m high barchan dune. Mean wind parameters and mass sand flux were measured using cup anemometers and wedge-shaped sand traps respectively. Vertical profile data from the sonic anemometers were used to compute turbulence and turbulent stress (Reynolds stress; instantaneous horizontal and vertical fluctuations; coherent flow structures) and their relationship with respect to sand transport and evolving dune morphology. On the flat surface time-averaged parameters generally fail to characterise sand transport dynamics, particularly as the averaging interval is reduced. However, horizontal wind speed correlates well with sand transport even with short averaging times. Quadrant

  5. Group Psychotherapy in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannone, Francesca; Giordano, Cecilia; Di Blasi, Maria

    2015-10-01

    This article describes the history and the prevailing orientations of group psychotherapy in Italy (psychoanalytically oriented, psychodrama, CBT groups) and particularly group analysis. Provided free of charge by the Italian health system, group psychotherapy is growing, but its expansion is patchy. The main pathways of Italian training in the different group psychotherapy orientations are also presented. Clinical-theoretical elaboration on self development, psychopathology related to group experiences, and the methodological attention paid to objectives and methods in different clinical groups are issues related to group therapy in Italy. Difficulties in the relationship between research and clinical practice are discussed, as well as the empirical research network that tries to bridge the gap between research and clinical work in group psychotherapy. The economic crisis in Italy has led to massive cuts in health care and to an increasing demand for some forms of psychological treatment. For these reasons, and because of its positive cost-benefit ratio, group psychotherapy is now considered an important tool in the national health care system to expand the clinical response to different forms of psychological distress.

  6. An integrated OSL chronology, sedimentology and geochemical approach to loess deposits from Tuoji Island, Shandong Province: Implications for the late quaternary paleoenvironment in East China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Shujian; Kong, Fanbiao; Jia, Guangju; Miao, Xiaodong; Ding, Xinchao

    2018-04-01

    The Tuoji II (TJII) section on the Miaodao Islands in the Bohai Sea is a representative aeolian section off China's east coast. This study applied optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating, conducted grain size analysis, and examined major and trace element compositions, to investigate the loess-paleosol sequences. The OSL ages at depths of 0.6, 1.8, 2.8, 3.8, and 4.8 m were determined as 14.4 ± 0.4, 16.7 ± 1.3, 20.8 ± 1.0, 40.9 ± 1.5, and 47.9 ± 3.7 ka, respectively. It was projected that the loess started to accumulate at ca. 62.6 ka, according to presumed depositional rates. In this study, typical aeolian deposits elsewhere including the Luochuan (LC), Xiashu (XS), Wushan (WS), and Xifeng (XF) sections were compared with TJII section here. The results showed similarity in the geochemical characteristics of the deposits from the different areas of China and normalized upper continental crust, indicating aeolian origin of this island loess. In comparison with the LC, XS, WS, and XF samples, the aeolian deposits of the TJII section have higher concentrations of TiO2 and Zr and lower concentrations of Al2O3, Rb, and Ni, and they have higher SiO2/Al2O3 and TiO2/Al2O3 ratios and lower Al2O3/Na2O and Ba/Sr ratios. These features indicate the dust materials of the TJII section were derived from local sources of well-mixed sedimentary protoliths. Our results support the suggestion that paleoclimatic change and the evolution of aeolian sediments were controlled primarily by variation of the East Asian summer monsoon and sea level change.

  7. Nuclear decommissioning in Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tripputi, I.

    2005-01-01

    Italy is in a unique position. Italy has been in the past among the leading countries in the pacific use of nuclear energy, but, as a consequence of the 1987 referendum decided to shutdown all operating power plants, to leave uncompleted the plants under construction and to stop all related research and industrial activities declaring a 5 years moratorium on any future initiative. The moratorium ended unnoticed in 1992, since there was no political move to restart nuclear power in Italy and, in practice, it is still acting. Therefore, now the major efforts in the nuclear field are focused on the closure of past liabilities assuring safety and security highest levels. This is a duty to be carried out by the generation that used this form of energy, but, at least for somebody, also a precondition for the acceptance of any future renaissance of nuclear energy in Italy. SOGIN is a Company carrying out a service for the country and fully committed to solve the liabilities left by the interrupted nuclear industry in Italy. To this aim SOGIN is managed as a private company to assure the highest possible efficiency, but, at the same time, is driven by moral and ethical objectives and the vision of protecting the environment and health and safety of the public. SOGIN blends in a synergic way the various ENEL experiences (design and operation of NPP's) and ENEA experiences (engineering and operation of R and D and industrial facilities supporting NPP's). Such a comprehensive combination of technical competences should not be dispersed in the medium and long term and the management is committed to facilitate the technical growth of the impressing number of motivated young people joining the Company, whose enthusiasm is contaminating every day also the 'veterans', to assure for the country an asset and a presidium of very specialized multi-disciplinary nuclear competences. Speaking of possible scenarios for the future, we should mention that the current international situation

  8. Geographical Detector-Based Identification of the Impact of Major Determinants on Aeolian Desertification Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Ziqiang; Xu, Xiaoming; Zhang, Hong; Wu, Zhitao; Liu, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Arid and semi-arid areas in North China are facing the challenge of a rising aeolian desertification risk (ADR) due to the intertwined effects of complex natural processes and intensified anthropogenic activities. An accurate quantitative assessment of the relationship between ADR and its determinants is beneficial for understanding the driving mechanisms of aeolian desertification and for controlling future desertification. Previous studies have failed to quantify the relative role of determinants driving ADR and have been limited in assessing their interactive impacts. In this study, a spatial variance analysis-based geographical detector methodology is used to quantify the effects of geological, physical, and human factors on the occurrence of ADR in an area characterized by mountains and hills in northern China. It is found that soil type, precipitation, and wind velocity are the major determinants of ADR, which implies that geological and physical elements (e.g., soil attribute) and climatic factors (e.g., precipitation and wind velocity) rather than human activities have played a greater role in the incidence of ADR. Particularly, the results show that the interaction of various determinants causes significant non-linearly enhanced impacts on the ADR. The findings of our study will assist local inhabitants and policy makers in developing measures for wind prevention and sand control to mitigate the effects of desertification in the region.

  9. Geomorphology and drift potential of major aeolian sand deposits in Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hereher, Mohamed E.

    2018-03-01

    Aeolian sand deposits cover a significant area of the Egyptian deserts. They are mostly found in the Western Desert and Northern Sinai. In order to understand the distribution, pattern and forms of sand dunes in these dune fields it is crucial to analyze the wind regimes throughout the sandy deserts of the country. Therefore, a set of wind data acquired from twelve meteorological stations were processed in order to determine the drift potential (DP), the resultant drift potential (RDP) and the resultant drift direction (RDD) of sand in each dune field. The study showed that the significant aeolian sand deposits occur in low-energy wind environments with the dominance of linear and transverse dunes. Regions of high-energy wind environments occur in the south of the country and exhibit evidence of deflation rather than accumulation with the occurrence of migratory crescentic dunes. Analysis of the sand drift potentials and their directions help us to interpret the formation of major sand seas in Egypt. The pattern of sand drift potential/direction suggests that the sands in these seas might be inherited from exogenous sources.

  10. Aeolian dust nutrient contributions increase with substrate age in semi-arid ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coble, A. A.; Hart, S. C.; Ketterer, M. E.; Newman, G. S.

    2013-12-01

    Rock-derived nutrients supplied by mineral weathering become depleted over time, and without an additional nutrient source the ecosystem may eventually regress or reach a terminal steady state. Previous studies have demonstrated that aeolian dust act as parent materials of soils and important nutrients to plants in arid regions, but the relative importance of these exogenous nutrients to the function of dry ecosystems during soil development is uncertain. Here, using strontium isotopes as a tracer and a well-constrained, three million year old substrate age gradient, we show that aeolian-derived nutrients become increasingly important to plant-available soil pools and tree (Pinus edulis) growth during the latter stages of soil development in a semi-arid climate. Furthermore, the depth of nutrient uptake increased on older substrates, suggesting that trees in arid regions acquire nutrients from greater depths as ecosystem development progresses presumably in response to nutrient depletion in the more weathered surface soils. Our results contribute to the unification of biogeochemical theory by demonstrating the similarity in roles of atmospheric nutrient inputs during ecosystem development across contrasting climates.

  11. Sedimentology and palaeontology of upper Karoo aeolian strata (Early Jurassic) in the Tuli Basin, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordy, Emese M.; Catuneanu, Octavian

    2002-08-01

    The Karoo Supergroup in the Tuli Basin (South Africa) consists of a sedimentary sequence composed of four stratigraphic units, namely the Basal, Middle and Upper units, and Clarens Formation. The units were deposited in continental settings from approximately Late Carboniferous to Middle Jurassic. This paper focuses on the Clarens Formation, which was examined in terms of sedimentary facies and palaeo-environments based on evidence provided by primary sedimentary structures, palaeo-flow measurements and palaeontological findings. Two main facies associations have been identified: (i) massive and large-scale planar cross-bedded sandstones of aeolian origin; and (ii) horizontally and cross-stratified sandstones of fluvial origin. Most of the sandstone lithofacies of the Clarens Formation were generated as transverse aeolian dunes produced by northwesterly winds in a relatively wet erg milieu. Direct evidence of aquatic subenvironments comes from local small ephemeral stream deposits, whereas palaeontological data provide indirect evidence. Fossils of the Clarens Formation include petrified logs of Agathoxylon sp. wood type and several trace fossils which were produced by insects and vertebrates. The upper part of the Clarens Formation lacks both direct and indirect evidence of aquatic conditions, and this suggests aridification that led to the dominance of dry sand sea conditions.

  12. Class renormalization: islands around islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meiss, J.D.

    1986-01-01

    An orbit of 'class' is one that rotates about a periodic orbit of one lower class with definite frequency. This contrasts to the 'level' of a periodic orbit which is the number of elements in its continued fraction expansion. Level renormalization is conventionally used to study the structure of quasi-periodic orbits. The scaling structure of periodic orbits encircling other periodic orbits in area preserving maps is discussed here. Fixed points corresponding to the accumulation of p/q bifurcations are found and scaling exponents determined. Fixed points for q > 2 correspond to self-similar islands around islands. Frequencies of the island boundary circles at the fixed points are obtained. Importance of this scaling for the motion of particles in stochastic regions is emphasized. (author)

  13. [Social cooperatives in Italy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villotti, P; Zaniboni, S; Fraccaroli, F

    2014-06-01

    This paper describes the role of social cooperatives in Italy as a type of economic, non-profit organization and their role in contributing to the economic and social growth of the country. The purpose of this paper is to learn more about the experience of the Italian social cooperatives in promoting the work integration process of disadvantaged workers, especially those suffering from mental disorders, from a theoretical and an empirical point of view. Social enterprise is the most popular and consolidated legal and organizational model for social enterprises in Italy, introduced by Law 381/91. Developed during the early 1980s, and formally recognized by law in the early 1990s, social cooperatives aim at pursuing the general interest of the community to promote the human needs and social inclusion of citizens. They are orientated towards aims that go beyond the interest of the business owners, the primary beneficiary of their activities is the community, or groups of disadvantaged people. In Italy, Law 381/91 distinguishes between two categories of social cooperatives, those producing goods of social utility, such as culture, welfare and educational services (A-type), and those providing economic activities for the integration of disadvantaged people into employment (B-type). The main purpose of B-type social cooperatives is to integrate disadvantaged people into the open labour market. This goal is reached after a period of training and working experience inside the firm, during which the staff works to improve both the social and professional abilities of disadvantaged people. During the years, B-type social co-ops acquired a particular relevance in the care of people with mental disorders by offering them with job opportunities. Having a job is central in the recovery process of people suffering from mental diseases, meaning that B-type social co-ops in Italy play an important rehabilitative and integrative role for this vulnerable population of workers. The

  14. Assessing exposure of human and ecological values to wildfire in Sardinia, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michele Salis; Alan A. Ager; Bachisio Arca; Mark A. Finney; Valentina Bacciu; Pierpaolo Duce; Donatella. Spano

    2012-01-01

    We used simulation modelling to analyze spatial variation in wildfire exposure relative to key social and economic features on the island of Sardinia, Italy. Sardinia contains a high density of urban interfaces, recreational values and highly valued agricultural areas that are increasingly being threatened by severe wildfires. Historical fire data and wildfire...

  15. Les depots fumerolliens terrestres et marins de l'Ile vulcano (Italie)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valette, J.N. (Centre Universitaire, Perpignan, Italy); Picot, P.

    1981-01-01

    Many hydrothermal deposits are formed around the marine and terrestrial fumarolic vents of Vulcano island (Italy). Their genesis is related to the recombination of the elements brought by the fumaroles and those liberated by the destruction of pre-existing minerals.

  16. Sedimentology and preservation of aeolian sediments on steep terrains : Incipient sand ramps on the Atacama coast (northern Chile)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ventra, Dario; Rodríguez-López, Juan Pedro; de Boer, Poppe L.

    2017-01-01

    The origin of topographically controlled aeolian landforms in high-relief settings is difficult to synthesize under general models, given the dependence of such accumulations on local morphology. Quaternary sand ramps have been linked to palaeoclimate, regional geomorphology and wind patterns;

  17. Field testing, comparison, and discussion of five aeolian sand transport measuring devices operating on different measuring principles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goossens, Dirk; Nolet, Corjan; Etyemezian, Vicken; Duarte-campos, Leonardo; Bakker, Gerben; Riksen, Michel

    2018-01-01

    Five types of sediment samplers designed to measure aeolian sand transport were tested during a wind erosion event on the Sand Motor, an area on the west coast of the Netherlands prone to severe wind erosion. Each of the samplers operates on a different principle. The MWAC (Modified Wilson And

  18. Field testing, comparison, and discussion of five aeolian sand transport measuring devices operation on different measuring priciples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goossens, Dirk; Nolet, C.; Etyemezian, Vicken; Duarte-Campos, Leonardo; Bakker, G.; Riksen, M.J.P.M.

    2018-01-01

    Five types of sediment samplers designed to measure aeolian sand transport were tested during a wind erosion event on the Sand Motor, an area on the west coast of the Netherlands prone to severe wind erosion. Each of the samplers operates on a different principle. The MWAC (Modified Wilson And

  19. Declines in a ground-dwelling arthropod community during an invasion by Sahara mustard (Brassica tournefortii) in aeolian sand habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heather L. Hulton VanTassel; Anne M. Hansen; Cameron W. Barrows; Quresh Latif; Margaret W. Simon; Kurt E. Anderson

    2014-01-01

    Sahara Mustard (Brassica tournefortii; hereafter mustard), an exotic plant species, has invaded habitats throughout the arid southwestern United States. Mustard has reached high densities across aeolian sand habitats of southwestern deserts, including five distinct sand habitats in the eastern Coachella Valley, California. We examined trends in ground-dwelling...

  20. A study of the management strategies for river aeolian dust inhibition at the estuary of Zhuo-shui River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, S. F.; Lin, C. Y.

    2014-12-01

    With the characteristics of humidity in summer and drought in winter, there existing lots of bare lands due to the decline of water level cause large amounts of aeolian dust and environmental deterioration during the monsoon seasons in central Taiwan. How to adopt effective measures to inhibit the damage of dust is an essential issue. This study selected the serious dust-affected section of Zhuo-shui river (bridge Zi-qiang to Xi-bin) to delineate the areas of potential aeolian dust occurrence, explore the relationship between elevation and water level determined from return period analysis, submit the countermeasures for dust inhibition at the bare lands and/or cultivated areas, and address the responsibilities of related authority offices for dust prevention by means of literature review. The return period of inundation for the areas of potential aeolian dust occurrence is 1.1 years. Engineering of dust prevention with highly unit price are not recommended due to could be destroyed annually. The deposition sites of a river are usually located at the convex bank, which with silt texture and high salinity are not suitable for cultivation, are delineated as the areas of potential aeolian dust occurrence. Besides technology consideration in dust prevention, this study also examined the related articles of river management to integrate a comprehensive vision for better riverside environment and air quality.

  1. Anaerobic treatment in Italy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Del Borghi, M; Solisio, C; Ferrailo, G

    1984-02-01

    In Italy, environmental protection and energy conservation have become very important since the increase in oil prices. The law requires that all waste waters have a B.O.D. of 40 mg/l by 1986 so there has been an expansion of purification plants since 1976, using anaerobic digestion. The report deals with the current state of anaerobic treatment in Italy with particular reference to (1) animal wastes. In intensive holdings, anaerobic digestion leads to a decrease in pollution and an increase in biogas generation which can be used to cover the energy demand of the process. The factors which influence the builders of digestors for farms are considered. (2) Non toxic industrial wastes. These are the waste waters emanating from the meat packing, brewing, pharmaceutical and chemical industries. Particular reference is made to the distillery plants using anaerobic treatment prior to aerobic digestion. (3) Urban wastes. The advantages and the disadvantages are considered and further research and development is recommended. 20 references.

  2. Library system of Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataša Gerbec

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In the European extent, Italy is the cradle of libraries and library sciences. In the past, Italian national public libraries played an important role through their vast book treasury. But only during the last thirty years have public libraries been developed following the Anglo-American public library model. Italy does not have any uniform or general legislation concerning libraries. On the state level, this area is regulated by some separate acts, while on the regional level there is a collection of various acts and regulations. Libraries are not strictly divided into general categories. It is required that the professionals engaged in Italian libraries should have secondary or university education. The level of their professional tasks depends on the type of library and its capacity. The competency for the development in the field of librarianship is assigned to The Ministry of Cultural and Environment Heritage as well as to its subordinate institutions (Central Institute for the Union catalogue of Italian Libraries and for Bibliographic Information, Central Institute for Book Pathology, Observatory for International Libraries Programmes.

  3. Resolution 148/012. It authorize the 'Central Libertador / SA aeolian generation' company to generate an aeolian electricity source by an electric power generating plant located in Lavalleja town 1 AA catastral section and in Maldonado town 4 AA Catastral section, and the 'Sistema inerconectado Nacional' connection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    This decree authorizes the generation of electricity using aeolian energy as the primary electricity source. This project was presented by the 'Libertador / S.A' aeolian generation company with the proposal to instal an electrical plant in Lavalleja town. This authorization is according to the Electric Wholesale Market regulation

  4. Multivariate statistical tools for the radiometric features of volcanic islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basile, S.; Brai, M.; Marrale, M.; Micciche, S.; Lanzo, G.; Rizzo, S.

    2009-01-01

    The Aeolian Islands represents a Quaternary volcanic arc related to the subduction of the Ionian plate beneath the Calabrian Arc. The geochemical variability of the islands has led to a broad spectrum of magma rocks. Volcanic products from calc-alkaline (CA) to calc-alkaline high in potassium (HKCA) are present throughout the Archipelago, but products belonging to shoshonitic (SHO) and potassium (KS) series characterize the southern portion of Lipari, Vulcano and Stromboli. Tectonics also plays an important role in the process of the islands differentiation. In this work, we want to review and cross-analyze the data on Lipari, Stromboli and Vulcano, collected in measurement and sampling campaigns over the last years. Chemical data were obtained by X-ray fluorescence. High resolution gamma-ray spectrometry with germanium detectors was used to measure primordial radionuclide activities. The activity of primordial radionuclides in the volcanic products of these three islands is strongly dependent on their chemism. The highest contents are found in more differentiated products (rhyolites). The CA products have lower concentrations, while the HKCA and Shoshonitic product concentrations are in between. Calculated dose rates have been correlated with the petrochemical features in order to gain further insight in evolution and differentiation of volcanic products. Ratio matching technique and multivariate statistical analyses, such as Principal Component Analysis and Minimum Spanning Tree, have been applied as an additional tool helpful to better describe the lithological affinities of the samples. (Author)

  5. A review of the chronologies and geomorphology of the aeolian landforms in the northwestern Negev dunefield (Israel)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roskin, Joel

    2015-04-01

    The northwestern (NW) Negev Desert dunefield covering an area of only 1,300 km2, comprises the eastern end of the northern Sinai Peninsula - NW Negev erg and is probably the most densely dated dune body in the INQUA Dunes Atlas chronologic database. Over 230 luminescence ages (TL, IRSL, and mainly OSL) and radiocarbon dates have been retrieved over the past course of 20 years from calcic and sandy palaeosols serving as dune substrates, sand sheets, vegetated linear dunes (VLDs), fluvial deposits, and archaeological sites. Despite being from different deposit types and aeolian morphologies, and based on different methodologies, the chronologies usually show good compatibility. By reviewing and reassessing the significance of the Eastern Mediterranean INQUA Dunes Atlas chronologies, along with detailed stratigraphic, structural and geomorphologic data and understandings, the major, and possibly extreme, episodes of aeolian activity and stability are outlined. Repetitive chronostratigraphic sequences in VLDs indicate that this dune type, at least in the Negev, comprises a reliable recorder of main dune mobilization periods. This presentation demonstrates that certain combinations of research finds, using different OSL dating strategies and other regional and local late Quaternary records and in particular aeolian ones, are required assets for providing for acceptable local and regional palaeoclimatic interpretations. The distribution of the VLD chronologies points to rapid mobilization during the Heinrich 1 and Younger Dryas, characterized by powerful winds, though VLDs also form in late Holocene palaeoenvironments. Time slices illustrate the different sensitivities of the studied aeolian landforms to the source, availability, and supply of sediment; long- and short-term climate change, local human-induced environmental changes and also their joint effects, that enable evaluation of aeolian responses to future environmental and climate changes.

  6. Constraints on aeolian sediment transport to foredunes within an undeveloped backshore enclave on a developed coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Kayla L.; Nordstrom, Karl F.; Jackson, Nancy L.

    2016-10-01

    Landforms present in undeveloped beach enclaves located between properties developed with houses and infrastructure are often left to evolve naturally but are influenced by the human structures near them. This field study evaluates how buildings and sand-trapping fences change the direction of wind approach, reduce wind speed, and restrict fetch distances for sediment entrainment, thereby reducing the potential for aeolian transport and development of dunes in enclaves. Field data were gathered in an 80 m long, 44 m deep beach enclave on the ocean shoreline of New Jersey, USA. Comparison of wind characteristics in the enclave with a site unaffected by buildings revealed that offshore winds in the enclave are reduced in strength and altered in direction by landward houses, increasing the relative importance of longshore winds. Vertical arrays of anemometers on the foredune crest, foredune toe and berm crest in the enclave revealed increasing wind speed with distance offshore, with strongest winds on the berm crest. Vertical cylindrical traps on the foredune crest, foredune toe, mid-backshore, berm crest and upper foreshore revealed the greatest rate of sediment transport on the berm crest. Sediment samples from the beach and from traps revealed limited potential for aeolian transport because of coarse grain sizes. Strong oblique onshore winds are common in this region and are normally important for transporting sand to dunes. The length of an enclave and the setback distance on its landward side determine the degree to which sediment delivered by oblique winds contributes to dune growth. The landward edge of the enclave (defined by a sand fence near the dune toe) is sheltered along its entire length from winds blowing at an angle to the shoreline of 25° or less. A foredune set back this distance in an enclave the length of an individual lot (about 20 m) would be sheltered at an angle of 57° or less, reducing the opportunity for dune building by onshore winds

  7. Biodiversity impact of the aeolian periglacial geomorphologic evolution of the Fontainebleau Massif (France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiry, M.; Liron, M. N.

    2009-04-01

    Landscape features The geomorphology of the Fontainebleau Massif is noteworthy for its spectacular narrow ridges, up to 10 km long and 0.5 km wide, armored by tightly cemented sandstone lenses and which overhang sandy depressions of about 50m. Denudation of the sandstone pans lead to a highly contrasted landscape, with sandstone ridges ("platières") towering sandy depressions ("vallées") and limestone plateaus ("monts"). This forms the geological frame of the spectacular sceneries of the Fontainebleau Massif (Thiry & Liron, 2007). Nevertheless, there is little know about the erosive processes that have built-up these landscapes. Periglacial processes, and among them aeolian ones, appear significant in the development of the Fontainebleau Massif physiography. The periglacial aeolian geomorphology Dunes and dune fields are known since long and cover about 15% to 25% of the Fontainebleau Massif. The aeolian dunes developed as well on the higher parts of the landscape, as well as in the lower parts of the landscape. The dunes are especially well developed in the whole eastern part of the massif, whereas the western part of the massif is almost devoid of dunes. Nevertheless, detailed mapping shows that dunes can locally be found in the western district, they are of limited extension, restricted to the east facing backslope of outliers. Loamy-sand covers the limestone plateaus of the "monts". The loam cover is of variable thickness: schematically thicker in the central part of the plateaus, where it my reach 3 m; elsewhere it may thin down to 0,20-0,30 m, especially at the plateau edges. Blowout hollows are "negative" morphologies from where the sand has been withdrawed. Often these blowouts are decametric sized and well-delimited structures. Others, more complex structures, are made up of several elongated hectometric hollows relaying each other from and which outline deflation corridor more than 1 km long. A characteristic feature of these blowout hollows is the

  8. Employing lidar to detail vegetation canopy architecture for prediction of aeolian transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankey, Joel B.; Law, Darin J.; Breshears, David D.; Munson, Seth M.; Webb, Robert H.

    2013-01-01

    The diverse and fundamental effects that aeolian processes have on the biosphere and geosphere are commonly generated by horizontal sediment transport at the land surface. However, predicting horizontal sediment transport depends on vegetation architecture, which is difficult to quantify in a rapid but accurate manner. We demonstrate an approach to measure vegetation canopy architecture at high resolution using lidar along a gradient of dryland sites ranging from 2% to 73% woody plant canopy cover. Lidar-derived canopy height, distance (gaps) between vegetation elements (e.g., trunks, limbs, leaves), and the distribution of gaps scaled by vegetation height were correlated with canopy cover and highlight potentially improved horizontal dust flux estimation than with cover alone. Employing lidar to estimate detailed vegetation canopy architecture offers promise for improved predictions of horizontal sediment transport across heterogeneous plant assemblages.

  9. Phosphorus speciation and solubility in aeolian dust deposited in the interior American West

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhuojun; Goldstein, Harland L.; Reynolds, Richard L.; Hu, Yongfeng; Wang, Xiaoming; Zhu, Mengqiang

    2018-01-01

    Aeolian dust is a significant source of phosphorus (P) to alpine oligotrophic lakes, but P speciation in dust and source sediments and its release kinetics to lake water remain unknown. Phosphorus K-edge XANES spectroscopy shows that calcium-bound P (Ca−P) is dominant in 10 of 12 dust samples (41−74%) deposited on snow in the central Rocky Mountains and all 42 source sediment samples (the fine fraction) (68−80%), with a lower proportion in dust probably because acidic snowmelt dissolves some Ca−P in dust before collection. Iron-bound P (Fe−P, ∼54%) dominates in the remaining two dust samples. Chemical extractions (SEDEX) on these samples provide inaccurate results because of unselective extraction of targeted species and

  10. Physical and logistical considerations of using ultrasonic anemometers in aeolian sediment transport research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Ian J.

    2005-05-01

    Recently, ultrasonic anemometers (UAs) have become available for precise, high-frequency measurement of three-dimensional velocity and turbulence properties. Except for a few wind tunnel and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations, advances in aeolian sediment transport and bedform research have been limited to field studies using instrumentation that is either incapable of measuring turbulence (e.g., cup anemometers) or unable to withstand sediment-laden airflow (e.g., hotfilms). In contrast, extensive progress has occurred in fluvial research where turbulence instrumentation has been available for some time. This paper provides a pragmatic discussion on using UAs in aeolian research. Recent advances using this technology are reviewed and key physical and logistical considerations for measuring airflow properties and near-surface shear stress using UAs over complex terrain are discussed. Physical considerations include limitations of applying boundary layer theory to flow over natural surfaces such as non-logarithmic velocity profiles resulting from roughness- and topographically induced effects and the inability of instrumentation to measure within the thin constant-stress region. These constraints hinder accurate shear velocity ( u*), shear stress and sand transport estimation. UAs allow measurement of turbulent Reynolds stress (RS) that, in theory, should equal profile-derived shear stress. Discrepancies often exist between these quantities however due to three-dimensional (spanwise) flow components and rapid distortion effects (i.e., unbalanced production and dissipation of turbulence) common in flow over complex terrain. While the RS approach yields information on turbulent contributions to near-surface stress generation, little evidence exists showing that RS is a better measure of forces responsible for sediment transport. Consequently, predictive equations for sediment transport using RS do not exist. There is also a need to identify the role of

  11. Reducing uncertainty in dust monitoring to detect aeolian sediment transport responses to land cover change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, N.; Chappell, A.; Van Zee, J.; Toledo, D.; Duniway, M.; Billings, B.; Tedela, N.

    2017-12-01

    Anthropogenic land use and land cover change (LULCC) influence global rates of wind erosion and dust emission, yet our understanding of the magnitude of the responses remains poor. Field measurements and monitoring provide essential data to resolve aeolian sediment transport patterns and assess the impacts of human land use and management intensity. Data collected in the field are also required for dust model calibration and testing, as models have become the primary tool for assessing LULCC-dust cycle interactions. However, there is considerable uncertainty in estimates of dust emission due to the spatial variability of sediment transport. Field sampling designs are currently rudimentary and considerable opportunities are available to reduce the uncertainty. Establishing the minimum detectable change is critical for measuring spatial and temporal patterns of sediment transport, detecting potential impacts of LULCC and land management, and for quantifying the uncertainty of dust model estimates. Here, we evaluate the effectiveness of common sampling designs (e.g., simple random sampling, systematic sampling) used to measure and monitor aeolian sediment transport rates. Using data from the US National Wind Erosion Research Network across diverse rangeland and cropland cover types, we demonstrate how only large changes in sediment mass flux (of the order 200% to 800%) can be detected when small sample sizes are used, crude sampling designs are implemented, or when the spatial variation is large. We then show how statistical rigour and the straightforward application of a sampling design can reduce the uncertainty and detect change in sediment transport over time and between land use and land cover types.

  12. A new aeolian generator for Mexico; Un nuevo generador eolico para Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voronin, Boris; Gomez Reyna, Jose Antonio; Zerquera Izquierdo, Mariano David; Cardenas Grajales, Juan Jose; Zamora Quintana, Laura Angelica [Universidad de Guadalajara (Mexico)

    2009-07-01

    The use of wind kinetic energy to produce electrical energy is one of the most powerful alternatives for the human being, to avoid the risk of being in the threshold of the age of stone. In the present work, different types from aero generators are analyzed and a new generator developed by one of the authors of this article is presented. Its high efficiency is presented in comparison with the helical generators that at the moment are dominant in the construction of Aeolian mills. Perspectives of exploitation of the kinetic energy of the wind in Mexico are analyzed. A resolution model of the problem of obtaining constant parameters of electrical output, to conditions of variable mechanical parameters of entrance is shown. An example is shown of the construction of Aeolian parks that can cover all the needs of electrical energy in Mexico. [Spanish] El uso de la energia cinetica del viento para la obtencion de la energia electrica, es una de las alternativas mas poderosas para el ser humano, para evitar el riesgo de estar al umbral de la edad de piedra. En el trabajo presente, se analizan diferentes tipos de aerogeneradores y se presenta un nuevo generador desarrollado por uno de los autores de este articulo. Se muestra su alta eficiencia en comparacion con los generadores helicoidales que actualmente son dominantes en la construccion de molinos eolicos. Se analizan perspectivas de aprovechamiento de la energia cinetica del viento en Mexico. Se muestra un modelo de resolucion del problema de la obtencion de parametros de salida electricos constantes, a condiciones de los parametros mecanicos de entrada variables. Se muestra un ejemplo de la construccion de parques eolicos que pueden cubrir todas las necesidades de energia electrica en Mexico.

  13. ITALY AT CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    23 - 26 June 2003 Main Building Bldg 60 - ground and 1st floor 09.00 hrs - 17.30 hrs Twenty-four companies will present their latest technology at the "Italy at CERN" exhibition. The Italian industry will exhibit products and technologies which are related to the field of particle physics. The main subjects are: cryogenics and vacuum technologies, electric power and power electronics, mechanical components, small and precision machined mechanical components, engineering, industrial plants, industrial machinery, automation, telecommunication, instrumentation, data processing and electronics. The exhibition is being organised by the INFN of Padova. There follows : - the list of exhibitors. A detailed programme will be available in due course at : - your Divisional secretariat, - the exhibition, - on the SPL homepage http://spl-div.web.cern.ch/spl-div/member_states/exhibitions_visits.htm LIST OF EXHIBITORS 1 Aerimpianti Spa13 Europa Metalli - LMI spa 2 AERSAT Spa14 FBM ICOSS srl 3 Andalo' Gianni Srl15 Finsys...

  14. ITALY AT CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    23 - 26 June 2003 Main Building Bldg 60 - ground and 1st floor 09.30 hrs - 17.30 hrs Twenty-four companies will present their latest technology at the "Italy at CERN" exhibition. The Italian industry will exhibit products and technologies which are related to the field of particle physics. The main subjects are: cryogenics and vacuum technologies, electric power and power electronics, mechanical components, small and precision machined mechanical components, engineering, industrial plants, industrial machinery, automation, telecommunication, instrumentation, data processing and electronics. The exhibition is being organised by the INFN of Padova. There follows: - the list of exhibitors. A detailed programme will be available in due course: - from your Divisional secretariat, - at the exhibition, - on the SPL homepage http://spl-div.web.cern.ch/spl-div/member_states/exhibitions_visits.htm LISTE DES EXPOSANTS / LIST OF EXHIBITORS 1 Aerimpianti Spa13 Europa Metalli - LMI spa 2 AERSAT Spa14 FBM ICOSS srl 3 Anda...

  15. Italy at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2011-01-01

    Nineteen companies will present their latest technology at the industrial exhibition “Italy at CERN”. Italian industries will exhibit products and technologies related to the field of particle physics. The full event programme is available here.   Individual interviews will take place at either the companies’ exhibition stands or in the Main Building’s conference rooms. The firms will be in contact with relevant users and technicians, but anyone wishing to speak with a particular firm is welcome to visit the exhibition or to get in touch with organiser Karin Robert. Italian Industries will also be sponsoring a free concert in the Main Auditorium on Tuesday 11 October at 8:00 pm. The "Trio Poem" concert will feature music by Beethoven and A. Dvořák, with Alberto Torin on the piano, Enrico Carraro on the violin, and Davide Bernardi on the cello.

  16. Italy at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Caroline Laignel

    2005-01-01

    15 - 17 November 2005 Main Building Bldg 60 - ground and 1st floor 09:00 - 17:30 Twenty-six companies will present their latest technology at the "Italy at CERN" exhibition. Italian industry will exhibit products and technologies which are related to the field of particle physics. The main subjects are: electrical engineering, electronics, logistics, mechanical engineering, vacuum and low-temperature technology.   The exhibition is being organised by the INFN in Padua. The exhibitors are listed below.   A detailed programme will be available in due course : from your Departmental secretariat, at the exhibition, on the FI homepage http://fi-dep.web.cern.ch/fi-dep/structure/memberstates/exhibitions_visits.htm LIST OF EXHIBITORS  Ansaldo Superconduttori Spa CAEN Spa CECOM Snc Consorzio Canavese Export CPE Italia Spa Criotec Impianti Srl CTE Sistemi Srl Carpenteria S. Antonio Spa E.E.I. Equipaggiamenti Elettronici Industriali Elettronica Conduttori Srl Goma Elettronica Spa ICAR Spa Intercond Spa Keno...

  17. [Primary care in Italy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Sagrado, T

    Italy is not a country where Spanish doctors emigrate, as there is an over-supply of health care professionals. The Italian Servizio Sanitario Nazionale has some differences compared to the Spanish National Health System. The Servizio Sanitario Nazionale is financed by national and regional taxes and co-payments. There are taxes earmarked for health, and Primary Care receives 50% of the total funds. Italian citizens and residents in Italy have the right to free health cover. However, there are co-payments for laboratory and imaging tests, pharmaceuticals, specialist ambulatory services, and emergencies. Co-payments vary in the different regions. The provision of services is regional, and thus fragmentation and major inequities are the norm. Doctors in Primary Care are self-employed and from 2000 onwards, there are incentives to work in multidisciplinary teams. Salary is regulated by a national contract and it is the sum of per-capita payments and extra resources for specific activities. Responsibilities are similar to those of Spanish professionals. However, medical care is more personal. Relationships between Primary Care and specialised care depend on the doctors' relationships. Primary Care doctors are gatekeepers for specialised care, except for gynaecology, obstetrics and paediatrics. Specialised training is compulsory in order to work as general practitioner. The Italian Health Care System is a national health system like the Spanish one. However, health care professionals are self-employed, and there are co-payments. In spite of co-payments, Italians have one of the highest average life expectancy, and they support a universal and publicly funded health-care system. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria (SEMERGEN). Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  18. Giant calcite concretions in aeolian dune sandstones; sedimentological and architectural controls on diagenetic heterogeneity, mid-Cretaceous Iberian Desert System, Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arribas, M.E.; Rodríguez-López, J.P.; Meléndez, N.; Soria, A.R.; de Boer, P.L.

    2012-01-01

    Aeoliandunesandstones of the Iberian erg system (Cretaceous, Spain) host giantcalciteconcretions that constitute heterogeneities of diagenetic origin within a potential aeolian reservoir. The giantcalciteconcretions developed in large-scale aeoliandune foresets, at the transition between aeoliandune

  19. Spatial and temporal variations of aeolian sediment input to the tributaries (the Ten Kongduis) of the upper Yellow River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hui; Shi, Changxing

    2018-02-01

    The Ten Kongduis of the upper Yellow River, located in Inner Mongolia, northern China, is an area with active wind-water coupled erosion and hence one of the main sediment sources of the Yellow River. In this study, we analyzed the characteristics of spatial and temporal variations of aeolian sediment input to the river channel. For this purpose, three segments of sand dune-covered banks of the Maobula and the Xiliugou kongduis were investigated three times from November 2014 to November 2015 using a 3-D laser scanner, and the displacement of banks of desert reaches of three kongduis was derived from interpreting remote sensing images taking in the years from 2005 to 2015. The data of the surveyed sand dunes reveal that the middle kongduis were fed by aeolian sand through the sand dunes moving towards the river channels. The amount of aeolian sediment input was estimated to be about 14.94 × 104 t/yr in the Maobula Kongdui and about 5.76 × 104 t/yr in the Xiliugou Kongdui during the period from November 2014 to November 2015. According to the interpretation results of remote sensing images, the amount of aeolian sediment input to the Maobula Kongdui was about 15.74 × 104 t in 2011 and 18.2 × 104 t in 2012. In the Xiliugou Kongdui, it was in the range of 9.52 × 104 - 9.99 × 104 t in 2012 and in the springs of 2013 and 2015. In the Hantaichuan Kongdui, it was 7.04 × 104 t in 2012, 7.53 × 104 t in the spring of 2013, and 8.52 × 104 t in the spring of 2015. Owing to the changes in wind and rainfall, both interseasonal and interannual sediment storage and release mechanisms exist in the processes of aeolian sand being delivered into the kongduis. However, all of the aeolian sediment input to the Ten Kongduis should be delivered downstream by the river flows during a long term.

  20. Italy INAF Data Center Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negusini, M.; Sarti, P.

    2013-01-01

    This report summarizes the activities of the Italian INAF VLBI Data Center. Our Data Center is located in Bologna, Italy and belongs to the Institute of Radioastronomy, which is part of the National Institute of Astrophysics.

  1. The courts in Renaissance Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatrice Del Bo

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This review article offers a brief introduction to the issue of the courts in Renaissance Italy along with a selective description of bibliographic sources and electronic resources.

  2. Italy of censuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, G M

    1983-06-01

    To supplement census data on Italy's economy, Istat conducted a sample survey of 2% of households. This paper reports survey findings in 3 areas: age structure of the population, employment and unemployment patterns by region, and structure of the productive system. Those over age 65 years have increased from 11% of the population in 1971 to 13% in 1981 and are forecast to constitute 14.5% in 1991. Women accounted for 51.3% of the total population in 1981 but 58.5% of those over age 65. 12% of households have a member over age 75. The 0-14 year age group has declined from 24.4% of the population in 1971 to 21.5% in 1981 and is projected to comprise 17.4% in 1991. The labor force activity rate was 39.8% in 1981. Unemployment was set at 14.7% in the census sample compared with 9.1% in Istat's quarterly survey of the labor force. 60% of the difference between these 2 figures was accounted for by Campania, Sicily, Puglia, Calabria, and Latium. These 5 regions, which account for only 30% of total employment, are the areas with the most acute employment problems and highest proportions of casual employment in agriculture and traditional services. Agriculture accounted for 22% of total unemployment, construction for 18.5%, and traditional industry for 14%--percentages that are higher than the share of total employment represented by these sectors. In the South, 20.4% of employment is in agriculture, 18.1% in industry, 12.6% in construction, and 48.9% in services. The average worker in the South supports 3.3 persons compared with 2.5 persons in the North. Survey results indicate a substantial shift in the sectoral composition of employment as well as a change in the size of productive units. There has been an increase in the highly specialized components of the economy, including services to firms. The average size of factories has declined, with a proliferation of small and medium sized units. These findings suggest a need to broaden and deepen Italy's industrial base

  3. The using of aeolian energy in air circulators; A utilizacao da energia eolica em circuladores de ar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Assuncao Filho, Telesforo Reis de

    2003-07-01

    The present work is a theoretical research on how to take advantage of the wind kinetic energy using a rotor type Savonius, doing the conversion in mechanical energy, through the fan utilization aiming a thermal comfort and beginning with an introduction on the aeolian energy, its utilization and objectives. Several local types and behavior influenced by the air mass mechanics are shown. A statistic of these air masses and a brief study of the aeolian turbines, its characteristics and design, advantages and disadvantages are presented. An experimental analysis in Sao Luis region were done, using the wind frequency with the objective of obtaining a good revenue. The characterization of the main types of rotors used nowadays are presented, too. (author)

  4. Height profile of particle concentration in an aeolian saltating cloud: A wind tunnel investigation by PIV MSD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Zhibao; Wang, Hongtao; Zhang, Xiaohang; Ayrault, Michael

    2003-10-01

    Attempt is made to define the particle concentration in an aeolian saltating cloud and its variation with height using artificial spherical quartz sand in a wind tunnel. The height profiles of the relative particle concentration in aeolian saltating cloud at three wind velocities were detected by the state of the art PIV (Particle Image Velocimetry) MSD (Mie Scattering Diffusion) technique, and converted to actual concentration based on sand transport rate and the variation with height of velocity of the saltating cloud. The particle concentration was found to decay exponentially with height and to increase with wind velocity. It decayed more rapidly when the wind velocity decreased. The volume/volume concentration in the near-surface layer was at the order of 10-4. The results obtained by PIV MSD technique were in good agreement with those derived from the sand flux and velocity profiles, the former being about 15% greater than the later.

  5. Tenarife Island, Canary Island Archipelago, Atlantic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    Tenarife Island is one of the most volcanically active of the Canary Island archipelago, Atlantic Ocean, just off the NW coast of Africa, (28.5N, 16.5W). The old central caldera, nearly filled in by successive volcanic activity culminating in two stratocones. From those two peaks, a line of smaller cinder cones extend to the point of the island. Extensive gullies dissect the west side of the island and some forests still remain on the east side.

  6. Downwind changes in grain size of aeolian dust; examples from marine and terrestrial archives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuut, Jan-Berend; Prins, Maarten

    2013-04-01

    Aeolian dust in the atmosphere may have a cooling effect when small particles in the high atmosphere block incoming solar energy (e.g., Claquin et al., 2003) but it may also act as a 'greenhouse gas' when larger particles in the lower atmosphere trap energy that was reflected from the Earth's surface (e.g., Otto et al., 2007). Therefore, it is of vital importance to have a good understanding of the particle-size distribution of aeolian dust in space and time. As wind is a very size-selective transport mechanism, the sediments it carries typically have a very-well sorted grain-size distribution, which gradually fines from proximal to distal deposition sites. This fact has been used in numerous paleo-environmental studies to both determine source-to-sink changes in the particle size of aeolian dust (e.g., Weltje and Prins, 2003; Holz et al., 2004; Prins and Vriend, 2007) and to quantify mass-accumulation rates of aeolian dust (e.g., Prins and Weltje 1999; Stuut et al., 2002; Prins et al., 2007; Prins and Vriend, 2007; Stuut et al., 2007; Tjallingii et al., 2008; Prins et al., 2009). Studies on modern wind-blown particles have demonstrated that particle size of dust not only is a function of lateral but also vertical transport distance (e.g., Torres-Padron et al., 2002; Stuut et al., 2005). Nonetheless, there are still many unresolved questions related to the physical properties of wind-blown particles like e.g., the case of "giant" quartz particles found on Hawaii (Betzer et al., 1988) that can only originate from Asia but have a too large size for the distance they travelled through the atmosphere. Here, we present examples of dust particle-size distributions from terrestrial (loess) as well as marine (deep-sea sediments) sedimentary archives and their spatial and temporal changes. With this contribution we hope to provide quantitative data for the modelling community in order to get a better grip on the role of wind-blown particles in the climate system. Cited

  7. Aeolian Sand Transport in the Planetary Context: Respective Roles of Aerodynamic and Bed-Dilatancy Thresholds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, J. R.; Borucki, J.; Bratton, C.

    1999-09-01

    The traditional view of aeolian sand transport generally estimates flux from the perspective of aerodynamic forces creating the airborne grain population, although it has been recognized that "reptation" causes a significant part of the total airborne flux; reptation involves both ballistic injection of grains into the air stream by the impact of saltating grains as well as the "nudging" of surface grains into a creeping motion. Whilst aerodynamic forces may initiate sand motion, it is proposed here that within a fully-matured grain cloud, flux is actually governed by two thresholds: an aerodynamic threshold, and a bed-dilatancy threshold. It is the latter which controls the reptation population, and its significance increases proportionally with transport energy. Because we only have experience with terrestrial sand transport, extrapolations of aeolian theory to Mars and Venus have adjusted only the aerodynamic factor, taking gravitational forces and atmospheric density as the prime variables in the aerodynamic equations, but neglecting reptation. The basis for our perspective on the importance of reptation and bed dilatancy is a set of experiments that were designed to simulate sand transport across the surface of a martian dune. Using a modified sporting crossbow in which a sand-impelling sabot replaced the bolt-firing mechanism, individual grains of sand were fired at loose sand targets with glancing angles typical of saltation impact; grains were projected at about 80 m/s to simulate velocities commensurate with those predicted for extreme martian aeolian conditions. The sabot impelling method permitted study of individual impacts without the masking effect of bed mobilization encountered in wind-tunnel studies. At these martian impact velocities, grains produced small craters formed by the ejection of several hundred grains from the bed. Unexpectedly, the craters were not elongated, despite glancing impact; the craters were very close to circular in planform

  8. Italy au CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    FI Department

    2008-01-01

    4 – 6 March 2008 Main Building Bldg 60 - ground and 1st floor 09.00 hrs - 17.30 hrs Nineteen companies will present their latest technology at the "Italy at CERN" exhibition. Italian industry will exhibit products and technologies related to the field of particle physics. The main subjects are civil engineering and buildings, data processing, electrical engineering, electronics, industrial support, mechanical engineering, particle detectors and vacuum and low-temperature technology. The exhibition is being organised by the INFN of Padova. The exhibitors are listed below. More details on the firms can be found at the following link: http://fi-dep.web.cern.ch/fi-dep/structure/memberstates/exhibitions_visits.htm LIST OF EXHIBITORS Boffetti Impianti S.r.l. Bozzi & Figli S.r.l. C.A.E.N. S.p.A. Cavicel S.p.A. Comecer S.p.A. E.E.I. Elettronica Conduttori S.r.l. Euromec S.r.l. Eurotech S.p.A. IRST Fondazione Bruno Kessler IVG Colbacchini S.p.A. Krohne Italia S.r.l. Luvata For...

  9. ITALY AT CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    FI Department

    2008-01-01

    4 – 6 March 2008 Main Building Bldg 60 - ground and 1st floor 09.00 hrs - 17.30 hrs Nineteen companies will present their latest technology at the "Italy at CERN" exhibition. Italian industry will exhibit products and technologies related to the field of particle physics. The main subjects are civil engineering and buildings, data processing, electrical engineering, electronics, industrial support, mechanical engineering, particle detectors and vacuum and low-temperature technology. The exhibition is being organised by the INFN of Padova. The exhibitors are listed below. More details on the firms can be found at the following link: http://fi-dep.web.cern.ch/fi-dep/structure/memberstates/exhibitions_visits.htm LIST OF EXHIBITORS Boffetti Impianti S.r.l. Bozzi & Figli S.r.l. C.A.E.N. S.p.A. Cavicel S.p.A. Comecer S.p.A. E.E.I. Elettronica Conduttori S.r.l. Euromec S.r.l. Eurotech S.p.A. IRST Fondazione Bruno Kessler IVG Colbacchini S.p.A. Krohne Italia S.r.l. Luvata For...

  10. Italy at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Caroline Laignel

    2005-01-01

    15 - 17 November 2005 Main Building Bldg 60 - ground and 1st floor 09:00 - 17:30 Twenty-six companies will present their latest technology at the "Italy at CERN" exhibition. Italian industry will exhibit products and technologies which are related to the field of particle physics.The main subjects are: electrical engineering, electronics, logistics, mechanical engineering, vacuum and low-temperature technology. The exhibition is being organised by the INFN in Padua.The exhibitors are listed below.A detailed programme will be available in due course : from your Departmental secretariat, at the exhibition, on the FI homepage http://fi-dep.web.cern.ch/fi-dep/structure/memberstates/exhibitions_visits.htm LIST OF EXHIBITORS  Ansaldo Superconduttori Spa CAEN Spa CECOM Snc Consorzio Canavese Export CPE Italia Spa Criotec Impianti Srl CTE Sistemi Srl Carpenteria S. Antonio Spa E.E.I. Equipaggiamenti Elettronici Industriali Elettronica Conduttori Srl Goma Elettronica Spa ICAR Spa Intercond Spa Kenotec Srl O...

  11. Contrasting styles of aeolian, fluvial and marine interaction in the Cutler Group of the Paradox Basin, SE Utah, USA

    OpenAIRE

    Wakefield, Oliver; Mountney, Nigel

    2017-01-01

    The Permian-Pennsylvanian Cutler Group of the Paradox foreland basin of southeast Utah is characterised by a variety of styles of interaction between coeval aeolian, fluvial and marine environments that have resulted in the generation and preservation of a complex suite of stratal architectures. Detailed 3D architectural element analysis has enabled the nature of these interactions to be interpreted in order to constrain both the spatial and temporal scale over which competing ...

  12. Dust records in the Pleistocene sediments of Fraser Island: palaeoclimatic reconstruction of wind erosion over the last 600 ka

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longmore, M.E.; McTainsh, G.H.

    1997-01-01

    Full text: Pleistocene lake sediments from a relic perched freshwater lake on Fraser Island have been found to date back to ca.600 ka using U/Th analysis of the organics. This sequence is one of the three longest terrestrial records of environmental change in Australia and the contained evidence of vegetation, fire and lake level changes (Longmore and Heijnis, 1996) and is an invaluable contribution to palaeoclimatic reconstruction. A younger sequence, dated by conventional radiocarbon analysis, has 6.5 m of continuous organic sedimentation from ca. 30 ka to the present. The last 8.5 ka has been analysed in detail, showing a mid-Holocene 'dry' period (Longmore, 1996). Continental aeolian dust from extreme wind erosional events has been measured in modern atmospheres (McTainsh, 1989; Knight et al., 1995) and deep sea cores (Hesse, 1994), but the terrestrial record of wind erosion during the Pleistocene is sparse. We will report on a pilot project to determine the presence of aeolian dust from extreme wind erosional events in the past in the sediments of Fraser Island lakes. Due to the highly weathered, well-sorted, siliceous nature of the dune sands forming the Island and the highly organic nature of the lake sediments (80-95% LOI), these are some of the few terrestrial sequences that permit separation of aeolian dust from local catchment materials. In the future, oxygen isotope and XRD analysis of the extracted dust will allow the most likely source of the entrained material to be determined and thus provide further evidence as to the wind regime during the last 600ka and 30ka respectively. The separation of dust from these terrestrial sequences is a major achievement and potentially may make a significant contribution to global palaeoclimatic models

  13. [Spatial change of the grain-size of aeolian sediments in Qira oasis-desert ecotone, Northwest China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yong Chong; Xu, Li Shuai

    2017-04-18

    In order to understand the environmental influence of oasis-desert ecotone to oasis ecological system, we comparatively analyzed the grain size characteristics of various aeolian sediments, including the sediments in oasis-desert ecotone, shelterbelt and the inside oasis and in Qira River valley. The results showed that the grain size characteristics (including grain-size distribution curve, grain size parameters, and content of different size classes) of sediments in the oasis-desert ecotone were consistent along the prevailing wind direction with a grain-size range of 0.3-200 μm and modal size of 67 μm. All of the sediments were good sorting and mainly composed of suspension components and saltation components, but not denatured saltation and creeping components (>200 μm). They were typically aeolian deposits being short-range transported. The grain sizes of sediments in oasis-desert ecotone were smaller than that in the material sources of Qira River valley and desert (0.3-800 μm), but very similar to those of the modern aeolian deposits in oasis-desert ecotone, shelterbelt and the inside oasis. The denatured saltation and creep components (>200 μm) were suppressed to transport into oasis-desert ecotone because of the high vegetation cover in oasis-desert ecotone. Therefore, like the shelterbelts, the oasis-desert ecotone could also block the invasion of desert. They safeguarded the oasis ecological environment together.

  14. Spatial and temporal patterns of airflow across a foredune and beach surface under offshore winds: implications for aeolian sediment transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, D.; Delgado-Fernandez, I.; Lynch, K.; Baas, A. C.; Cooper, J. A.; Beyers, M.

    2010-12-01

    The input of aeolian sediment into foredune systems from beaches represents a key component of sediment budget analysis along many soft sedimentary coastlines. Where there are significant offshore wind components in local wind regimes this is normally excluded from analysis. However, recent work has shown that if the topography of the foredune is favourable then this offshore component is steered or undergoes flow reversal through leeside eddying to give onshore transport events at the back beach under offshore flow conditions. At particular distances from the foredune crest flow reattaches to the surface to continue its incident offshore direction. The location of this reattachment point has important implications for aeolian transport of sand on the back beach and foredune toe locations. This study reports initial results where the positioning of the reattachment point is mobile and is driven by incident wind velocity (at the foredune crest) and the actual undulations of the foredune crest’s topography, dictating heterogeneous flow behaviour at the beach. Using detailed field measurements (25 Hz, three-dimensional sonic anemometry) and computational fluid dynamic modelling, a temporal and spatial pattern of reattachment positions are described. Implications for aeolian transport and dune evolution are also examined.

  15. How a barrier island may react on a sea-level rise: The Holocene to Recent Rømø barrier island, Danish Wadden Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannessen, Peter N.; Nielsen, Lars H.; Møller, Ingelise

    set up the water level increases considerably and the highest measured water level is 4.9 m above mean sea level. The barrier island is c. 14 km long and c. 4 km wide and is separated from the mainland by a c. 8 km wide lagoon. At the northern and southern parts of the island, tidal inlets occur...... of c. 15 m and a resolution of c. 20–30 cm (Nielsen et al., 2009), and dating of 70 core samples using optically stimulated luminescence (OSL). The area has experienced a relative sea-level rise of c. 15 m during the last c. 8000 years. The Recent tidal amplitude reaches c. 1.8 m. During strong wind...... with a width of 400–1000 m and depths of 7–30 m. Salt marsh areas, up to 2 km wide, are fringing the lagoonal coast of the island. Active eastward migrating aeolian dunes cover large parts of the island. The Rømø barrier island system is a very sand rich system as it receives coast parallel transported sand...

  16. Analysis of the economic-financial viability of the aeolian energy faced to the new context of the power sector; Analise da viabilidade economico-financeira da energia eolica diante do novo contexto do setor eletrico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abreu, Virginia Brasil [Companhia Hidro-Eletrica de Sao Francisco (CHESF), Recife, PE (Brazil)], e-mail: virginia@chesf.gov.br; Oliveira, Marcos Roberto Gois de [Universidade de Pernambuco (UPE), Recife, PE (Brazil)], e-mail: mrgois@hotmail.com

    2008-07-01

    This paper analyses the economical-financial viability of a hypothetic aeolian project at the Itaparica, Bahia, Brazil. Brazil presents a great aeolian potential, particularly at the Northeastern region, where various aeolian enterprises had been implanted due to favorable conditions of the wind in that region. However, for the increasing the aeolian generation it is necessary that studies have to be done concerning to the technical viability and, specially the economical-financial viability, because the investors need reliable subsides for the decision making.

  17. Size-Selective Modes of Aeolian Transport on Earth and Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swann, C.; Ewing, R. C.; Sherman, D. J.; McLean, C. J.

    2016-12-01

    Aeolian sand transport is a dominant driver of surface change and dust emission on Mars. Estimates of aeolian sand transport on Earth and Mars rely on terrestrial transport models that do not differentiate between transport modes (e.g., creep vs. saltation), which limits estimates of the critical threshold for transport and the total sand flux during a transport event. A gap remains in understanding how the different modes contribute to the total sand flux. Experiments conducted at the MARtian Surface WInd Tunnel separated modes of transport for uniform and mixed grain size surfaces at Earth and Martian atmospheric pressures. Crushed walnut shells with a density of 1.0 gm/cm3 were used. Experiments resolved grain size distributions for creeping and saltating grains over 3 uniform surfaces, U1, U2, and U3, with median grain sizes of 308 µm, 721 µm, and 1294 µm, and a mixed grain size surface, M1, with median grain sizes of 519 µm. A mesh trap located 5 cm above the test bed and a surface creep trap were deployed to capture particles moving as saltation and creep. Grains that entered the creep trap at angles ≥ 75° were categorized as moving in creep mode only. Only U1 and M1 surfaces captured enough surface creep at both Earth and Mars pressure for statistically significant grain size analysis. Our experiments show that size selective transport differs between Earth and Mars conditions. The median grain size of particles moving in creep for both uniform and mixed surfaces are larger under Earth conditions. (U1Earth = 385 µm vs. U1Mars = 355 µm; M1Earth = 762 vs. M1Mars = 697 µm ). However, particles moving in saltation were larger under Mars conditions (U1Earth = 282 µm; U1Mars = 309 µm; M1Earth = 347 µm; M1Mars = 454 µm ). Similar to terrestrial experiments, the median size of surface creep is larger than the median grain size of saltation. Median sizes of U1, U2, U3 at Mars conditions for creep was 355 µm, 774 µm and 1574 µm. Saltation at Mars

  18. Ancient wet aeolian environments on Earth: clues to presence of fossil/live microorganisms on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahaney, William C.; Milner, Michael W.; Netoff, D. I.; Malloch, David; Dohm, James M.; Baker, Victor R.; Miyamoto, Hideaki; Hare, Trent M.; Komatsu, Goro

    2004-09-01

    Ancient wet aeolian (wet-sabkha) environments on Earth, represented in the Entrada and Navajo sandstones of Utah, contain pipe structures considered to be the product of gas/water release under pressure. The sediments originally had considerable porosity allowing the ingress of living plant structures, microorganisms, clay minerals, and fine-grained primary minerals of silt and sand size from the surface downward in the sedimentary column. Host rock material is of a similar size and porosity and presumably the downward migration of fine-grained material would have been possible prior to lithogenesis and final cementation. Recent field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and EDS (energy-dispersive spectrometry) examination of sands from fluidized pipes in the Early Jurassic Navajo Sandstone reveal the presence of fossil forms resembling fungal filaments, some bearing hyphopodium-like structures similar to those produced by modern tropical leaf parasites. The tropical origin of the fungi is consistent with the paleogeography of the sandstone, which was deposited in a tropical arid environment. These fossil fungi are silicized, with minor amounts of CaCO 3 and Fe, and in some cases a Si/Al ratio similar to smectite. They exist as pseudomorphs, totally depleted in nitrogen, adhering to the surfaces of fine-grained sands, principally quartz and orthoclase. Similar wet aeolian paleoenvironments are suspected for Mars, especially following catastrophic sediment-charged floods of enormous magnitudes that are believed to have contributed to rapid formation of large water bodies in the northern plains, ranging from lakes to oceans. These events are suspected to have contributed to a high frequency of constructional landforms (also known as pseudocraters) related to trapped volatiles and water-enriched sediment underneath a thick blanket of materials that were subsequently released to the martian surface, forming piping structures at the near surface and

  19. Southern high latitude dune fields on Mars: Morphology, aeolian inactivity, and climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenton, L.K.; Hayward, R.K.

    2010-01-01

    In a study area spanning the martian surface poleward of 50?? S., 1190 dune fields have been identified, mapped, and categorized based on dune field morphology. Dune fields in the study area span ??? 116400km2, leading to a global dune field coverage estimate of ???904000km2, far less than that found on Earth. Based on distinct morphological features, the dune fields were grouped into six different classes that vary in interpreted aeolian activity level from potentially active to relatively inactive and eroding. The six dune field classes occur in specific latitude zones, with a sequence of reduced activity and degradation progressing poleward. In particular, the first signs of stabilization appear at ???60?? S., which broadly corresponds to the edge of high concentrations of water-equivalent hydrogen content (observed by the Neutron Spectrometer) that have been interpreted as ground ice. This near-surface ground ice likely acts to reduce sand availability in the present climate state on Mars, stabilizing high latitude dunes and allowing erosional processes to change their morphology. As a result, climatic changes in the content of near-surface ground ice are likely to influence the level of dune activity. Spatial variation of dune field classes with longitude is significant, suggesting that local conditions play a major role in determining dune field activity level. Dune fields on the south polar layered terrain, for example, appear either potentially active or inactive, indicating that at least two generations of dune building have occurred on this surface. Many dune fields show signs of degradation mixed with crisp-brinked dunes, also suggesting that more than one generation of dune building has occurred since they originally formed. Dune fields superposed on early and late Amazonian surfaces provide potential upper age limits of ???100My on the south polar layered deposits and ???3Ga elsewhere at high latitudes. No craters are present on any identifiable dune

  20. Analyzing wildfire exposure on Sardinia, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salis, Michele; Ager, Alan A.; Arca, Bachisio; Finney, Mark A.; Alcasena, Fermin; Bacciu, Valentina; Duce, Pierpaolo; Munoz Lozano, Olga; Spano, Donatella

    2014-05-01

    We used simulation modeling based on the minimum travel time algorithm (MTT) to analyze wildfire exposure of key ecological, social and economic features on Sardinia, Italy. Sardinia is the second largest island of the Mediterranean Basin, and in the last fifty years experienced large and dramatic wildfires, which caused losses and threatened urban interfaces, forests and natural areas, and agricultural productions. Historical fires and environmental data for the period 1995-2009 were used as input to estimate fine scale burn probability, conditional flame length, and potential fire size in the study area. With this purpose, we simulated 100,000 wildfire events within the study area, randomly drawing from the observed frequency distribution of burn periods and wind directions for each fire. Estimates of burn probability, excluding non-burnable fuels, ranged from 0 to 1.92x10-3, with a mean value of 6.48x10-5. Overall, the outputs provided a quantitative assessment of wildfire exposure at the landscape scale and captured landscape properties of wildfire exposure. We then examined how the exposure profiles varied among and within selected features and assets located on the island. Spatial variation in modeled outputs resulted in a strong effect of fuel models, coupled with slope and weather. In particular, the combined effect of Mediterranean maquis, woodland areas and complex topography on flame length was relevant, mainly in north-east Sardinia, whereas areas with herbaceous fuels and flat areas were in general characterized by lower fire intensity but higher burn probability. The simulation modeling proposed in this work provides a quantitative approach to inform wildfire risk management activities, and represents one of the first applications of burn probability modeling to capture fire risk and exposure profiles in the Mediterranean basin.

  1. Nuclear power in Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santarossa, G.

    1990-01-01

    As is known to most of this audience in November of 1987 a referendum determined a rejection of nuclear power in Italy. The referendum may be taken into consideration here as a large scale experiment which offers points of interest to this conference and problems to be aware of, in approaching a severe confrontation with the public. To give a synopsis of the Italian perspective I will examine: first the public acceptance in the situation before Chernobyl, then the most disturbing and sensitive factors of Chernobyl's consequences; how the opposition to nuclear energy worked with the support of most media and the strong pressures of an anti-nuclear political party, the syllogism of the opponents and the arguments used, the causes of major weakness of the defenders and how a new perception of nuclear risk was generated in the public. I will come to the topic of utility acceptance by mentioning that ENEL, as the National Utility, in its role is bound to a policy of compliance with Government decisions. It is oriented today to performance of feasibility studies and development of requirements for the next generation of reactors in order to maintain an updated proposal for a future recovery of the nuclear option. I will then try to identify in general terms the factors determining the future acceptance of nuclear power. They will be determined in the interdisciplinary area of politics, media and public interactions with the utilities the uses of the technology are forced to follow, by political constraints, two main directives: working only in new projects to achieve, if possible, new safety goals

  2. Nuclear power in Italy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santarossa, G [ENEA, Rome (Italy)

    1990-07-01

    As is known to most of this audience in November of 1987 a referendum determined a rejection of nuclear power in Italy. The referendum may be taken into consideration here as a large scale experiment which offers points of interest to this conference and problems to be aware of, in approaching a severe confrontation with the public. To give a synopsis of the Italian perspective I will examine: first the public acceptance in the situation before Chernobyl, then the most disturbing and sensitive factors of Chernobyl's consequences; how the opposition to nuclear energy worked with the support of most media and the strong pressures of an anti-nuclear political party, the syllogism of the opponents and the arguments used, the causes of major weakness of the defenders and how a new perception of nuclear risk was generated in the public. I will come to the topic of utility acceptance by mentioning that ENEL, as the National Utility, in its role is bound to a policy of compliance with Government decisions. It is oriented today to performance of feasibility studies and development of requirements for the next generation of reactors in order to maintain an updated proposal for a future recovery of the nuclear option. I will then try to identify in general terms the factors determining the future acceptance of nuclear power. They will be determined in the interdisciplinary area of politics, media and public interactions with the utilities the uses of the technology are forced to follow, by political constraints, two main directives: working only in new projects to achieve, if possible, new safety goals.

  3. Facies architecture and high resolution sequence stratigraphy of an aeolian, fluvial and shallow marine system in the Pennsylvanian Piauí Formation, Parnaíba Basin, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Lucas Valadares; Scherer, Claiton Marlon dos Santos

    2017-07-01

    The Pennsylvanian Piauí Formation records the deposition of aeolian, fluvial and shallow marine systems accumulated in the cratonic sag Parnaíba basin. Characterization of the facies associations and sequence stratigraphic framework was done by detailed description and logging of outcrops. Six facies associations were recognized: aeolian dunes and interdunes, aeolian sandsheets, fluvial channels, tidally-influenced fluvial channels, shoreface and shoreface-shelf transition. Through correlation of stratigraphic surfaces, the facies associations were organized in system tracts, which formed eight high frequency depositional sequences, bounded by subaerial unconformities. These sequences are composed of a lowstand system tract (LST), that is aeolian-dominated or fluvial-dominated, a transgressive system tract (TST) that is formed by tidally-influenced fluvial channels and/or shoreface and shoreface-shelf transition deposits with retrogradational stacking, and a highstand system tract (HST), which is formed by shoreface-shelf transition and shoreface deposits with progradational stacking. Two low frequency cycles were determined by observing the stacking of the high frequency cycles. The Lower Sequence is characterized by aeolian deposits of the LST and an aggradational base followed by a progressive transgression, defining a general TST. The Upper Sequence is characterized by fluvial deposits and interfluve pedogenesis concurring with the aeolian deposits of the LST and records a subtle regression followed by transgression. The main control on sedimentation in the Piauí Formation was glacioeustasy, which was responsible for the changes in relative sea level. Even though, climate changes were associated with glacioeustatic phases and influenced the aeolian and fluvial deposition.

  4. Fatto in Italia: Refashioning Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiziana Ferrero-Regis

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses how the Made in Italy brand helped Italy to recover from economic recession in the 1980s, but also how it redefined the country's identity after the traumatic years of terrorism and especially after the murder of the Christian Democratic Party Secretary, Aldo Moro, at the hands of the Red Brigades. In this period cinema as a form of artistic achievement declined, while fashion and industrial design moved at the centre stage of economic and creative success. The rampant consumerism of the 1980s, fuelled by tax reforms that favoured a wider urban middle class, the retreat of unionism, the abandonment of collective bargaining in many industrial sectors, industrial restructuring with the consequent growth of black market economy in the provincial areas of the so-called Third Italy first and the South later, were all factors that contributed to a social and economic shift within Italy itself. Commercial consumption, propagated by the proliferation of local commercial television networks, hedonism and a re-articulation of identity through appearance replaced the 1970s' political activism and ideological opposition to fashion. Ultimately, 'Made in Italy' was a multidimensional phenomenon that presented itself as a new cultural model for the country’s political tribes of the 1970s.

  5. Aeolian dispersal of bacteria in southwest Greenland: their sources, abundance, diversity and physiological states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šantl-Temkiv, Tina; Gosewinkel, Ulrich; Starnawski, Piotr; Lever, Mark; Finster, Kai

    2018-04-01

    The Arctic is undergoing dramatic climatic changes that cause profound transformations in its terrestrial ecosystems and consequently in the microbial communities that inhabit them. The assembly of these communities is affected by aeolian deposition. However, the abundance, diversity, sources and activity of airborne microorganisms in the Arctic are poorly understood. We studied bacteria in the atmosphere over southwest Greenland and found that the diversity of bacterial communities correlated positively with air temperature and negatively with relative humidity. The communities consisted of 1.3×103 ± 1.0×103 cells m-3, which were aerosolized from local terrestrial environments or transported from marine, glaciated and terrestrial surfaces over long distances. On average, airborne bacterial cells displayed a high activity potential, reflected in the high 16S rRNA copy number (590 ± 300 rRNA cell-1), that correlated positively with water vapor pressure. We observed that bacterial clades differed in their activity potential. For instance, a high activity potential was seen for Rubrobacteridae and Clostridiales, while a low activity potential was observed for Proteobacteria. Of those bacterial families that harbor ice-nucleation active species, which are known to facilitate freezing and may thus be involved in cloud and rain formation, cells with a high activity potential were rare in air, but were enriched in rain.

  6. Pervasive aeolian activity along Curiosity's traverse in Gale Crater on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvestro, S.; Vaz, D.; Ewing, R. C.; Rossi, A.; Flahaut, J.; Fenton, L. K.; Geissler, P. E.; Michaels, T. I.

    2012-12-01

    The NASA Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) has safely landed in Gale Crater (Mars). This crater has been severely modified by the action of the wind which has led to the development of several dark dune fields. One of these fields crosses the landing ellipse from the NE to the SW, and despite its fresh appearance, no evidence of sand movement has been detected until recently. Here we present evidence of current aeolian activity in the form of ripple and dune migration close to the expected traverse of the MSL rover, Curiosity. We calculate a minimum ripple displacement of 1.16 m and a dune migration rate of 0.4 meters/Earth year. Both ripples and dunes migrated toward the SW, suggesting winds above the saltation threshold from the NE. Such winds are predicted by the MRAMS atmospheric model (Fig. 1). The dunes are undergoing changes on a timescale of weeks to a few years that should be detectable by rover instruments. Using theoretical and experimental considerations, we calculate a wind gust velocity of 35 m/s at 1.5 m of height. In addition, we estimate that saltating grains would reach a distance of ~27 m and extend a maximum height of 2 m above the surface. Our constraints on the wind regime provide a unique opportunity to use ground measurements from MSL to test the accuracy of winds predicted from orbital data.RAMS modeled winds in the MSL landing site

  7. Turbulent flow over craters on Mars: Vorticity dynamics reveal aeolian excavation mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, William; Day, Mackenzie

    2017-10-01

    Impact craters are scattered across Mars. These craters exhibit geometric self-similarity over a spectrum of diameters, ranging from tens to thousands of kilometers. The late Noachian-early Hesperian boundary marks a dramatic shift in the role of mid-latitude craters, from depocenter sedimentary basins to aeolian source areas. At present day, many craters contain prominent layered sedimentary mounds with maximum elevations comparable to the rim height. The mounds are remnants of Noachian deposition and are surrounded by a radial moat. Large-eddy simulation has been used to model turbulent flows over synthetic craterlike geometries. Geometric attributes of the craters and the aloft flow have been carefully matched to resemble ambient conditions in the atmospheric boundary layer of Mars. Vorticity dynamics analysis within the crater basin reveals the presence of counterrotating helical vortices, verifying the efficacy of deflationary models put forth recently by Bennett and Bell [K. Bennett and J. Bell, Icarus 264, 331 (2016)], 10.1016/j.icarus.2015.09.041 and Day et al. [M. Day et al., Geophys. Res. Lett. 43, 2473 (2016)], 10.1002/2016GL068011. We show how these helical counterrotating vortices spiral around the outer rim, gradually deflating the moat and carving the mound; excavation occurs faster on the upwind side, explaining the radial eccentricity of the mounds relative to the surrounding crater basin.

  8. Striped aeolian bedforms: a novel longitudinal pattern observed in ripples and megaripples on Earth and Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gough, T. R.; Hugenholtz, C.; Barchyn, T.; Martin, R. L.

    2017-12-01

    Striped aeolian bedforms (SABs) are a previously undocumented longitudinal pattern consisting of streamwise corridors of ripples or megaripples separated by corridors containing smaller bedforms. Similar patterns of spanwise variations in bed texture and/or bed topography are observed in water flumes. SABs have been observed in satellite imagery at sites in Peru, Iran, California, the Puna region of northwestern Argentina, and on Mars. The spanwise periodicity varies from automated image-based grain size analysis, we found that median grain size was larger on the ripples and megaripples than on the intervening corridors containing smaller bedforms. This result is consistent with fluvial stripes, for which it is suggested that instability-driven streamwise vortices produce lateral sediment transport and sorting. We found no consistent evidence upwind of the SAB patterns to indicate topographic seeding is necessary. Therefore, we hypothesize that SABs are a self-organized bedform pattern that develops from secondary (lateral) transport of sediment in mixed sediment deposits. We also hypothesize that the development and maintenance of SABs requires unimodal wind regimes.

  9. Turbulent flow over craters on Mars: Vorticity dynamics reveal aeolian excavation mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, William; Day, Mackenzie

    2017-10-01

    Impact craters are scattered across Mars. These craters exhibit geometric self-similarity over a spectrum of diameters, ranging from tens to thousands of kilometers. The late Noachian-early Hesperian boundary marks a dramatic shift in the role of mid-latitude craters, from depocenter sedimentary basins to aeolian source areas. At present day, many craters contain prominent layered sedimentary mounds with maximum elevations comparable to the rim height. The mounds are remnants of Noachian deposition and are surrounded by a radial moat. Large-eddy simulation has been used to model turbulent flows over synthetic craterlike geometries. Geometric attributes of the craters and the aloft flow have been carefully matched to resemble ambient conditions in the atmospheric boundary layer of Mars. Vorticity dynamics analysis within the crater basin reveals the presence of counterrotating helical vortices, verifying the efficacy of deflationary models put forth recently by Bennett and Bell [K. Bennett and J. Bell, Icarus 264, 331 (2016)]ICRSA50019-103510.1016/j.icarus.2015.09.041 and Day et al. [M. Day et al., Geophys. Res. Lett. 43, 2473 (2016)]GPRLAJ0094-827610.1002/2016GL068011. We show how these helical counterrotating vortices spiral around the outer rim, gradually deflating the moat and carving the mound; excavation occurs faster on the upwind side, explaining the radial eccentricity of the mounds relative to the surrounding crater basin.

  10. Cogeneration at FIAT AVIO (Italy)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cantoni, A.

    1991-01-01

    Brief notes are provided on the FIAT (Italy) - Foster Wheeler joint venture to equip about 20 FIAT manufacturing plants with 50 MW(e) combined cycle cogeneration plants which will make use of a gas turbine whose design is based on that of the successful General Electric aeronautic LM 6000 engine. The paper also discusses solutions, e.g., wet and dry methods, being considered for nitrogen ox des control, and cites the need in Italy for the optimization of Government licensing procedures for small and medium sized manufacturing firms opting for on-site power generation through cogeneration plants

  11. Interconnection France-Italy; Interconnexion France-Italie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    These documents presents the rules, defined by RTE, of the attribution of electric power transportation capacity between France and Italy. The contract form and the general principles are given in annexes. A guide to the application form is provided. (A.L.B.)

  12. PXRF Determination of the Obsidian Industry from the S–F Area of Piani della Corona EBA Settlement (Bagnara Calabra–RC, South Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marino Sara

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Archaeological excavations in the S-F area of Piani della Corona settlement have affected a portion of 2200 m2 of a large plateau (490 m asl. The researches, conducted between 2007 and 2008 by the Superintendence of the Museo Preistorico Etnografico “L. Pigorini” with the Archaeological Superintendence of Calabria, have revealed traces of a large village from the EBA. Before settling in the EBA, human groups belonging Recent Neolithic frequented the plateau. Two burials located near the Bronze Age ditch belong to this period, and there are also sporadic ceramic fragments recovered from the huts. The importance of Piani della Corona is mainly due to its strategic location, serving as a bridge between Calabria, Sicily and the Aeolian Islands, as proven by the archaeological record. A very important role was provided by the obsidian industry, dated after the most distinctive archaeological ceramics class, to the EBA. Out of the 238 obsidian tools found in the S-F area (blades, cores and amorphous splinters, 88 artifacts were analyzed by pXRF. Their chemical determination made it possible to clarify the procurement dynamics and exchange routes with the Aeolian Islands for the EBA, integrating new data in an on-going research.

  13. A new record of late Pliocene-early Pleistocene aeolian loess-red clay deposits from the western Chinese Loess Plateau and its palaeoenvironmental implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zan, Jinbo; Fang, Xiaomin; Zhang, Weilin; Yan, Maodu; Zhang, Dawen

    2018-04-01

    The loess-red clay sequences in northern China provide high-resolution terrestrial records of Asian monsoon evolution and aridification of the Asian interior. To date, however, aeolian deposits of late Pliocene-early Pleistocene age (3.5-2.4 Ma) have only rarely been reported from the western Chinese Loess Plateau (CLP), which significantly hinders our understanding of the distribution of aeolian deposits and the palaeoenvironmental evolution of the region. Here, we present magnetostratigraphic, lithologic and magnetic susceptibility results for two recently-drilled boreholes from the north bank of Baxie River, central Linxia Basin, which are highly correlative with those of the loess-red clay deposits spanning the interval from 3.6 to 2.4 Ma in the eastern CLP. Our results provide the first direct evidence for the occurrence of late Pliocene-early Pleistocene aeolian deposits in the western CLP and provide new insights into the distribution of aeolian deposits in northern China. The spatial coherence of the magnetic susceptibility fluctuations further indicates that magnetic susceptibility is a powerful tool for stratigraphic correlation of late Pliocene aeolian deposits in the western CLP. In addition, our results demonstrate that erosional events may have occurred in the early or middle Pleistocene, and they may provide new insights into the reasons for the absence of loess-red clay deposits from 3.5 to 2.4 Ma in most parts of the western CLP.

  14. Researching Pacific island livelihoods:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egelund Christensen, Andreas; Mertz, Ole

    2010-01-01

    on contemporary theories of nissology and conceptual analytical frameworks for island research. Through a review of selected case-study-based island literature on changing livelihoods coming out of the South Pacific, we wish to illustrate and discuss advantages of finding common grounds for small island studies....... The focus is on two dimensions of island livelihood, migration and natural resource management, both of which are significant contributors in making island livelihoods and shaping Pacific seascapes. We argue that there is still a substantial lack of studies targeting small island dynamics that are empirical...

  15. Multidisciplinary studies on ancient sandstone quarries of Western Sardinia (Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grillo, Silvana Maria; Del Vais, Carla; Naitza, Stefano

    2013-04-01

    The ancient coastal quarries of Mediterranean are increasingly considered geosites of multidisciplinary relevance. They are sites of historical-archaeological interest that show ancient techniques of stone extraction; they are significant for cultural heritage conservation and restoration, as sources of the stones used in ancient buildings and monuments; they are sites of geological relevance, as often retain important stratigraphic sections; they are also useful markers of secular changes in the sea level. A multisciplinary study is in progress on the ancient quarries of the Sinis region (western Sardinia island), integrating archaeological, geological, minero-petrographical data. In Sardinia, coastal quarries have been established from Punic and Roman times. Many of them exploited Quaternary sediments along the southern and western coasts of the island. They consist of middle-late Pleistocene marine conglomerates and carbonate sandstones, and of coastal (aeolian) carbonate sandstones. Sandstone blocks of different sizes have been widely used in ancient cities for buildings, defensive works, harbours, etc. Three main areas of stone extraction (San Giovanni di Sinis, Punta Maimoni, Is Arutas) have been so far recognized in the Sinis. GIS-supported mapping and documentation of the sites includes their geology and stratigraphy, the extension and layout of the quarries, and an evaluation of volumes of extracted rocks. Documented archaeological evidences include ancient extraction fronts, spoil heaps, working areas, working traces in the old fronts, transport routes of blocks, and traces of loading facilities. The study is aimed at reconstructing the relationships of the quarries with the urban areas of Sinis, as the ancient Punic-Roman city of Tharros. Consequently, a minero-petrographical characterization (optical microscopy, XRD) is performed on sandstones sampled in each quarry, and in historical buildings in Tharros and other centres of the region (Cabras

  16. Differentiated waste collection in Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iaboni, V.; Landolfo, P.G.

    2008-01-01

    Differentiated collection is an essential part of the integrated urban waste management system. Despite the progress made in recent years, Italy is still far from achieving the targets set by EU regulations. The simulation thus calls for great efforts by local administrations and individual citizens, especially in the Southern part of the country [it

  17. Flood risk management in Italy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mysiak, J.; Testella, F.; Bonaiuto, M.

    2013-01-01

    Italy's recent history is punctuated with devastating flood disasters claiming high death toll and causing vast but underestimated economic, social and environmental damage. The responses to major flood and landslide disasters such as the Polesine (1951), Vajont (1963), Firenze (1966), Valtelina...

  18. Records of Coastal Change within a Progradational, Wave-Dominated Barrier Island: Morphostratigraphic Framework of the Southern Recurved Spit of Assateague Island, VA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shawler, J. L.; Seminack, C.; DeMarco, K. R.; Hein, C. J.; Petruny, L. M.

    2017-12-01

    Although generally retrogradational in nature, barrier islands commonly contain progradational segments which may preserve records of past coastal dynamics and environmental changes which affected their formation. In particular, recurved-spit ridges may record former shoreline positions on the surface, while in their stratigraphic architecture contain evidence of the processes influencing spit growth. This study uses topographic mapping and nearly 40 km of ground-penetrating radar (GPR) transects to investigate the pre-historic (ca. 1000-1850 C.E.) and historic elongation of Assateague Island, VA (USA) and affiliated progradation of Chincoteague Island. These data uncovered three previously unknown former tidal inlets which have no discernible surface signatures. GPR data further reveal southerly migration (up to 95 m) and closure of these tidal inlets. In addition, GPR data indicates the apparent overprinting of multiple inlets, suggesting later reoccupation of former channels. Seaward-dipping clinoforms (5-15°) indicate that, following inlet closure, the island widened and elongated through beach-ridge growth, proceeded by the development of aeolian foredune ridges. In particular, two large (5 m elevation, 150 m wide) ridges, bounded by smaller (1-3 m elevation, 20-50 m wide) ridge sets, comprise the relict recurved-spit of Assateague Island. This contrasts with the adjacent beach-ridge plain of Chincoteague Island, where surface morphology is characterized by more spatially uniform ridges (1-2 m high, 50-100 m wide). Thus, despite sharing similar internal structure as imaged in GPR, the formational processes associated with these two systems differ: the large, widely-spaced ridges of Assateague are likely indicative of punctuated progradation possibly associated with sediment pulses or complex inlet dynamics, whereas Chincoteague Island may have been built in a semi-protected environment through sediment delivered by inlet bypassing and local longshore

  19. Aeolian sand transport over complex intertidal bar-trough beach topography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony, Edward J.; Ruz, Marie-Hélène; Vanhée, Stéphane

    2009-04-01

    Aeolian sand transport on macrotidal beaches with complex intertidal bar-trough topography (ridge-and-runnel beaches) was assessed from experiments in northern France that involved measurements of wind speed, saltation, surface moisture contents, and rates of sand trapping across surveyed portions of the upper beach profile. Beaches exhibiting intertidal bars and troughs are much more complex, topographically, than simple reflective or dissipative beaches. Furthermore, the intertidal bar-trough morphology commonly exhibits strong cross-shore variations in the moisture contents of the beach surface and in patterns of bedform development. The results of four 30-minute experiments, conducted along topographically surveyed portions of the upper beach-dune toe profile, show that troughs act as extremely efficient sand interceptors, because of their permanently saturated state, which also inhibits sand mobilisation. Troughs, thus, limit or segment the dry fetch during conditions of intermittent saltation. Flow lines, inferred from the wind profiles, suggest that complex interactions at the boundary layer are generated by the bar-trough topography. Troughs systematically appear to be characterised by air expansion, while bar faces generate ramp wind acceleration for onshore winds, and sometimes immediate downwind deceleration for offshore winds. These effects may also contribute to cross-shore variations in the rates of sand trapping. Finally, a simple conceptual model of effective fetch development, integrating the effects of the spring-neap tidal range and of gross bar-trough morphological variability over time, is proposed for bar-trough beaches. The model highlights the key theme of fetch segmentation induced by cross-shore differentiation in the moisture contents of the beach surface hinged on the complex topography of multiple bars and troughs.

  20. Connecting meteorology to surface transport in aeolian landscapes: Peering into the boundary layer with Doppler lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunn, A.; Jerolmack, D. J.; Edmonds, D. A.; Ewing, R. C.; Wanker, M.; David, S. R.

    2017-12-01

    Aolian sand dunes grow to 100s or 1000s of meters in wavelength by sand saltation, which also produces dust plumes that feed cloud formation and may spread around the world. The relations among sediment transport, landscape dynamics and wind are typically observed at the limiting ends of the relevant range: highly resolved and localized ground observations of turbulence and relevant fluxes; or regional and synoptic-scale meteorology and satellite imagery. Between the geostrophic winds aloft and shearing stress on the Earth's surface is the boundary layer, whose stability and structure determines how momentum is transferred and ultimately entrains sediment. Although the literature on atmospheric boundary layer flows is mature, this understanding is rarely applied to aeolian landscape dynamics. Moreover, there are few vertically and time-resolved datasets of atmospheric boundary layer flows in desert sand seas, where buoyancy effects are most pronounced. Here we employ a ground-based upward-looking doppler lidar to examine atmospheric boundary layer flow at the upwind margin of the White Sands (New Mexico) dune field, providing continuous 3D wind velocity data from the surface to 300-m aloft over 70 days of the characteristically windy spring season. Data show highly resolved daily cyles of convective instabilty due to daytime heating and stable stratification due to nightime cooling which act to enhance or depress, respectively, the surface wind stresses for a given free-stream velocity. Our data implicate convective instability in driving strong saltation and dust emission, because enhanced mixing flattens the vertical velocity profile (raising surface wind speed) while upward advection helps to deliver dust to the high atmosphere. We also find evidence for Ekman spiralling, with a magnitude that depends on atmospheric stability. This spiralling gives rise to a deflection in the direction between geostrophic and surface winds, that is significant for the

  1. Earth aeolian wind streaks: Comparison to wind data from model and stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen-Zada, A. L.; Maman, S.; Blumberg, D. G.

    2017-05-01

    Wind streak is a collective term for a variety of aeolian features that display distinctive albedo surface patterns. Wind streaks have been used to map near-surface winds and to estimate atmospheric circulation patterns on Mars and Venus. However, because wind streaks have been studied mostly on Mars and Venus, much of the knowledge regarding the mechanism and time frame of their formation and their relationship to the atmospheric circulation cannot be verified. This study aims to validate previous studies' results by a comparison of real and modeled wind data with wind streak orientations as measured from remote-sensing images. Orientations of Earth wind streaks were statistically correlated to resultant drift direction (RDD) values calculated from reanalysis and wind data from 621 weather stations. The results showed good agreement between wind streak orientations and reanalysis RDD (r = 0.78). A moderate correlation was found between the wind streak orientations and the weather station data (r = 0.47); a similar trend was revealed on a regional scale when the analysis was performed by continent, with r ranging from 0.641 in North America to 0.922 in Antarctica. At sites where wind streak orientations did not correspond to the RDDs (i.e., a difference of 45°), seasonal and diurnal variations in the wind flow were found to be responsible for deviation from the global pattern. The study thus confirms that Earth wind streaks were formed by the present wind regime and they are indeed indicative of the long-term prevailing wind direction on global and regional scales.

  2. Determination of erosion thresholds and aeolian dune stabilization mechanisms via robotic shear strength measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, F.; Lee, D. B.; Bodek, S.; Roberts, S.; Topping, T. T.; Robele, Y.; Koditschek, D. E.; Jerolmack, D. J.

    2017-12-01

    Understanding the parameters that control the spatial variation in aeolian soil erodibility is crucial to the development of sediment transport models. Currently, in-situ measurements of erodibility are time consuming and lack robustness. In an attempt to remedy this issue, we perform field and laboratory tests to determine the suitability of a novel mechanical shear strength method to assess soil erodibility. These tests can be performed quickly ( 1 minute) by a semi-autonomous robot using its direct-drive leg, while environmental controls such as soil moisture and grain size are simultaneously characterized. The robot was deployed at White Sands National Monument to delineate and understand erodibility gradients at two different scales: (1) from dry dune crest to moist interdune (distance 10s m), where we determined that shear strength increases by a factor of three with increasing soil moisture; and (2) from barren barchan dunes to vegetated and crusted parabolics downwind (distance 5 km), where we found that shear strength was enhanced by a factor of two relative to loose sand. Interestingly, shear strength varied little from carbonate-crusted dune surfaces to bio-crust covered interdunes in the downwind parabolic region, indicating that varied surface crusts contribute similarly to erosion resistance. To isolate the control of soil moisture on erodibility, we performed laboratory experiments in a sandbox. These results verify that the observed increase in soil erodibility from barchan crest to interdune at White Sands is dominated by soil moisture, and the variation in parabolic dune and barchan interdune areas results from a combination of soil moisture, bio-activity, and crust development. This study highlights that spatial variation of soil erodibility in arid environments is large enough to significantly affect sediment transport, and that probing soil erodibility with a robot has the potential to improve our understanding of this multifaceted problem.

  3. Increasing aeolian dust deposition to snowpacks in the Rocky Mountains inferred from snowpack, wet deposition, and aerosol chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clow, David W.; Williams, Mark W.; Schuster, Paul F.

    2016-01-01

    Mountain snowpacks are a vital natural resource for ∼1.5 billion people in the northern Hemisphere, helping to meet human and ecological demand for water in excess of that provided by summer rain. Springtime warming and aeolian dust deposition accelerate snowmelt, increasing the risk of water shortages during late summer, when demand is greatest. While climate networks provide data that can be used to evaluate the effect of warming on snowpack resources, there are no established regional networks for monitoring aeolian dust deposition to snow. In this study, we test the hypothesis that chemistry of snow, wet deposition, and aerosols can be used as a surrogate for dust deposition to snow. We then analyze spatial patterns and temporal trends in inferred springtime dust deposition to snow across the Rocky Mountains, USA, for 1993–2014. Geochemical evidence, including strong correlations (r2 ≥ 0.94) between Ca2+, alkalinity, and dust concentrations in snow deposited during dust events, indicate that carbonate minerals in dust impart a strong chemical signature that can be used to track dust deposition to snow. Spatial patterns in chemistry of snow, wet deposition, and aerosols indicate that dust deposition increases from north to south in the Rocky Mountains, and temporal trends indicate that winter/spring dust deposition increased by 81% in the southern Rockies during 1993–2014. Using a multivariate modeling approach, we determined that increases in dust deposition and decreases in springtime snowfall combined to accelerate snowmelt timing in the southern Rockies by approximately 7–18 days between 1993 and 2014. Previous studies have shown that aeolian dust emissions may have doubled globally during the 20th century, possibly due to drought and land-use change. Climate projections for increased aridity in the southwestern U.S., northern Africa, and other mid-latitude regions of the northern Hemisphere suggest that aeolian dust emissions may continue to

  4. Diffuse soil CO_2 degassing from Linosa island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario Cellura

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 14 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Normal 0 14 false false false IT X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Herein, we present and discuss the result of 148 measurements of soil CO2 flux performed for the first time in Linosa island (Sicily Channel, Italy, a Plio-Pleistocene volcanic complex no longer active but still of interest owing to its location within a seismically active portion of the Sicily Channel rift system. The main purpose of this survey was to assess the occurrence of CO2 soil degassing, and compare flux estimations from this island with data of soil degassing from worldwide active volcanic as well as non-volcanic areas. To this aim soil CO2 fluxes were measured over a surface of about 4.2 km2 covering ~80% of the island. The soil CO2 degassing was observed to be mainly concentrated in the eastern part of the island likely due to volcano-tectonic lineaments, the presence of which is in good agreement with the known predominant regional faults system. Then, the collected data were interpreted using sequential Gaussian simulation that allowed estimating the total CO2 emissions of the island. Results show low levels of CO2 emissions from the soil of the island (~55 ton d-1 compared with CO2 emissions of currently active volcanic areas, such as Miyakejima (Japan and Vulcano (Italy. Results from this study suggest that soil degassing in Linosa is mainly fed by superficial organic activity with a moderate contribution of a deep CO2 likely driven by NW-SE trending active tectonic structures in the eastern part of the island.

  5. Diomede Islands, Bering Straight

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    The Diomede Islands consisting of the western island Big Diomede (also known as Imaqliq, Nunarbuk or Ratmanov Island), and the eastern island Little Diomede (also known as Krusenstern Island or Inaliq), are two rocky islands located in the middle of the Bering Strait between Russia and Alaska. The islands are separated by an international border and the International Date Line which is approximately 1.5 km from each island; you can look from Alaska into tomorrow in Russia. At the closest land approach between the United States, which controls Little Diomede, and Russia, which controls Big Diomede, they are 3 km apart. Little Diomede Island constitutes the Alaskan City of Diomede, while Big Diomede Island is Russia's easternmost point. The first European to reach the islands was the Russian explorer Semyon Dezhnev in 1648. The text of the 1867 treaty finalizing the sale of Alaska uses the islands to designate the border between the two nations. The image was acquired July 8, 2000, covers an area of 13.5 x 10.8 km, and is located at 65.8 degrees north latitude, 169 degrees west longitude. The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  6. Tales of island tails

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, de Alma V.; Oost, Albert P.; Veeneklaas, Roos M.; Lammerts, Evert Jan; Duin, van Willem E.; Wesenbeeck, van Bregje K.

    2016-01-01

    The Frisian islands (Southern North Sea) have extensive island tails, i.e. the entire downdrift side of an island consisting of salt marshes, dunes, beaches and beach plains, and green beaches. Currently, large parts of these tails are ageing and losing dynamics, partly due to human influence.

  7. Rhode Island unemployment

    OpenAIRE

    Leonard Lardaro

    2010-01-01

    How can a state like Rhode Island have such a high unemployment rate? This question has been asked often over the past year, especially since at one point, Rhode Island found itself with the dubious distinction of having the highest unemployment rate in the United States. Following that extreme, Rhode Island seemed to settle into a niche where its rank was third nationally.

  8. Aeolian sedimentation in the middle buntsandstein in the eifel north-south depression zone: Summary of the variability of sedimentary processes in a buntsandstein erg as a base for evaluation of the mutual relationships between aeolian sand seas and fluvial river systems in the mid-european buntsandstein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mader, Detlef

    The spectrum of aeolian depositional subenvironments in the upper Middle Buntsandstein Karlstal-Schichten sequence in the Eifel North-South-zone at the western margin of the Mid-European Triassic Basin comprises trains of larger and higher narrowly-spaced dunes in sand seas, isolated smaller and lower widely-spaced dunes in floodplains and interdune playas, dry interdune sheet sands, damp interdune adhesive sandflats, wet interdune playa lakes, rainfall runoff watercourses and ephemeral channels cutting through the dune belt, and deflation gravel lag veneers. Distinction of aeolian and fluvial sediments within the succession of closely intertonguing wind- and water-laid deposits is possible by independent analysis of the conventional criteria and the more modern stratification styles. Thick cross-bedded aeolian sand sequences originate as barchanoid-type dunes which accumulate and migrate in the regime of narrow to wide unimodal southeasterly to southwesterly trade winds in low northern palaeolatitude in summer when the intertropical convergence zone is shifted to the north. The predominantly transverse-ridge dunes accrete mainly by grainfall and subcritical climbing of wind ripples, subordinately also by grainflow interfingering with grainfall. Horizontal-laminated aeolian sands form as sand sheets in dry interdune playas by subcritical migration of wind ripple trains, rarely also by plane bed accretion. Thin cross-bedded dune sands or horizontal-laminated aeolian sands capping fluvial cyclothems originate by deflation of emerged alluvial bar sands during low-water stages and subsequent accumulation of the winnowed sand as widely-spaced dunelets or chains of wind ripples in desiccated parts of the adjoining floodplain. The aeolian sand layers at the base of lacustrine cyclothems record migration of isolated little dunes across the dry playa floor at the beginning of a wetting-upwards cyclothem, with the sand deriving from deflation of fluvial incursions or

  9. Education and science museums. Reflections in Italy and on Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Rodari

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The educational function of science museums was born with the first naturalistic collections ever, flourished in 16th-century Italy. The pedagogic thought and the educational experimentations carried out in approximately five century of history have allowed the educational mission of museums to acquire many different facets, drawing a task having an increasingly higher and complex social value. Recent publications explore these new meanings of an old role.

  10. Relations between Vegetation and Geologic Framework in Barrier Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, N. H.; Ferguson, J. B.; Lehner, J. D.; Taylor, D.; Tuttle, L. F., II; Wernette, P. A.

    2017-12-01

    Barrier islands provide valuable ecosystems and protective services to coastal communities. The longevity of barrier islands is threatened by sea-level rise, human impacts, and extreme storms. The purpose of this research is to evaluate how vegetation dynamics interact with the subsurface and offshore framework geology to influence the beach and dune morphology. Beach and dune morphology can be viewed as free and/or forced behavior, where free systems are stochastic and the morphology is dependent on variations in the storm surge run-up, aeolian sediment supply and transport potential, and vegetation dynamics and persistence. Forced systems are those where patterns in the coastal morphology are determined by some other structural control, such as the underlying and offshore framework geology. Previous studies have documented the effects of geologic framework or vegetation dynamics on the beach and dunes, although none have examined possible control by vegetation dynamics in context of the geologic framework (i.e. combined free and forced behavior). Padre Island National Seashore (PAIS) was used to examine the interaction of free and forced morphology because the subsurface framework geology and surface beach and dune morphology are variable along the island. Vegetation dynamics were assessed by classifying geographically referenced historical aerial imagery into areas with vegetation and areas without vegetation, as well as LiDAR data to verify this imagery. The subsurface geologic structure was assessed using a combination of geophysical surveys (i.e. electromagnetic induction, ground-penetrating radar, and offshore seismic surveys). Comparison of the observed vegetation patterns and geologic framework leads to a series of questions surrounding how mechanistically these two drivers of coastal morphology are related. Upcoming coring and geophysical surveys will enable us to validate new and existing geophysical data. Results of this paper will help us better

  11. The Montessori Experiment in Rhode Island (1913-1940): Tracing Theory to Implementation over 25 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoll, Susan

    2017-01-01

    This article highlights archived documents pertaining to a 25-year experimental classroom implemented by Clara Craig, then supervisor of training at the Rhode Island Normal School. Craig is notable as she was the only participant in the first International Montessori Training Course in Rome, Italy, in 1913, to gain approval from the Rhode Island…

  12. Italy's Prime Minister visits CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Stefania Pandolfi

    2015-01-01

    On Tuesday, 7 July 2015, the Prime Minister of the Italian Republic, Matteo Renzi, visited CERN. He was accompanied by a delegation that included Italy's Minister for Education, University and Research, Stefania Giannini.   From left to right: Fernando Ferroni, President of the Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN); Sergio Bertolucci, CERN Director for Research and Scientific Computing; Stefania Giannini, Italy's Minister of Education, University and Research; Matteo Renzi, Prime Minister of the Italian Republic; Fabiola Gianotti, CERN Director-General Designate; Rolf Heuer, CERN Director-General.   The Prime Minister was welcomed by members of the CERN Management together with former CERN Director-General and Senator for Life of the Italian Republic, Carlo Rubbia. After a brief general introduction to CERN’s activities by Rolf Heuer, the Italian delegation visited LHC Point 1. After a tour of the ATLAS control room, they donned helmets to visit th...

  13. Company profile: Edison of Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    The energy subsidiary of the Montedison chemicals company (Ferruzzi Group), Edison is Italy's largest private sector electricity producer. Last year production amounted to 4.7 TWh, an increase of 8.2% on 1990, and at the end of June this year, total net production of 2.4 TWh was 14.8% higher than in the first half of 1991. Edison also ranks first in the Italian league of private sector hydrocarbons producers, its Edison Gas subsidiary controlling a group that has significant exploration and development interests. These are mainly in Italy where production amounted to 333m cubic metres of natural gas and 690,000 barrels of oil in the first half of the year. The recent acquisition of Deutsche Shell's Italian fields should allow Edison to reach 2bn cubic metres of gas production by 1996. (author)

  14. Cowpox Virus in Llama, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brozzi, Alberto; Eleni, Claudia; Polici, Nicola; D’Alterio, Gianlorenzo; Carletti, Fabrizio; Scicluna, Maria Teresa; Castilletti, Concetta; Capobianchi, Maria R.; Di Caro, Antonino; Autorino, Gian Luca; Amaddeo, Demetrio

    2011-01-01

    Cowpox virus (CPXV) was isolated from skin lesions of a llama on a farm in Italy. Transmission electron microscopy showed brick-shaped particles consistent with orthopoxviruses. CPXV-antibodies were detected in llama and human serum samples; a CPXV isolate had a hemagglutinin sequence identical to CPXV-MonKre08/1–2-3 strains isolated from banded mongooses in Germany. PMID:21801638

  15. Cold fusion research in Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scaramuzzi, F.

    1993-01-01

    This paper summarizes cold fusion (CF) research in Italy. In Italy, many Agencies and Universities are moderately funding research in CF, and the scientists have made a few attempts to coordinate each other, organizing meetings and conferences. However, the activity has been mostly the fruit of the scientists' initiative, and never a coordinated proposal of Agencies and Universities. No position on the scientific validity of the subject has been officially taken and the funds for CF have been rather modest. The investments in Italy on CF, the figure referring to 1992 amounts to about 0.5 million dollars, not including expenses for personnel. A number of about 70 scientists, mostly working part-time, is committed all around the Country in research on CF. The lack of offical commitment and effective support by the Research Agencies and the Universities has not prevented scientists from being quite active in performing research. On the other side, it has to be acknowledged that no formal vetoes have been interposed to the free initiative of scientists in this field: on the contrary, some of the Agencies and Universities have moderately funded such an effort. The quality of the experiments in Italy has been increasingly good, and the results obtained are rather out standing in the general panorama of CF. But it is time to perform a more coordinated effort, keeping in mind that material science aspects, such as the characteristics of the materials used, play a very important role in the development of this topic. Thus, a much more intense effort is required to obtain a more substantial progress in the field. The increasingly convincing results obtained by the whole CF community, and the example of the Japanese Government and Industry, which appear to be determined to promoting CF research, have changed the panorama of CF. These are now signs that also the Italian scientific authorities could consider favouring research in this field in the near future. (J.P.N.)

  16. Reforming Capital Taxation in Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Luc Eyraud

    2014-01-01

    This paper reviews capital taxation issues in Italy based on a comprehensive definition encompassing taxes on income, transactions, and ownership. It discusses options to enhance the neutrality of the capital income tax system, followed by a detailed analysis of the property tax, the inheritance tax, and various transaction taxes. The paper also examines the case for replacing the set of existing taxes on financial and real assets with a single net wealth tax.

  17. Italy INAF Analysis Center Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negusini, M.; Sarti, P.

    2013-01-01

    This report summarizes the activity of the Italian INAF VLBI Analysis Center. Our Analysis Center is located in Bologna, Italy and belongs to the Institute of Radioastronomy, which is part of the National Institute of Astrophysics. IRA runs the observatories of Medicina and Noto, where two 32-m VLBI AZ-EL telescopes are situated. This report contains the AC's VLBI data analysis activities and shortly outlines the investigations into the co-locations of space geodetic instruments.

  18. MATHEMATICAL METHODS FOR THE OPTIMIZATION OF THE AEOLIAN AND HYDRAULICS ENERGIES WITH APPLICATIONS IN HYDRO-AERODYNAMICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mircea LUPU

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The people’s life and activity in nature and society depends primary by air, water, light, climate, ground and by using the aeolian, hydraulic, mechanic and electrical energies, generated by the dynamics of these environments. The dynamics of these phenomena from the nature is linear and majority nonlinear, probabilistic – inducing a mathematical modeling – for the optimal control, with the equations with a big complexity. In the paper the author presents new mathematical models and methods in the optimization of these phenomena with technical applications: the optimization of the hydraulic, aeolian turbine’s blades or for the eliminating air pollutants and residual water purification; the actions hydropneumatics (robotics to balance the ship in roll stability, optimizing the sails (wind powered for extreme durability or propelling force, optimizing aircraft profiles for the drag or the lift forces, directing navigation, parachute brake, the wall, etc. The scientific results are accompanied by numerical calculations, integrating in the specialized literature from our country and foreign.

  19. Evidence for indigenous nitrogen in sedimentary and aeolian deposits from the Curiosity rover investigations at Gale crater, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Jennifer C.; Sutter, Brad; Freissinet, Caroline; Navarro-González, Rafael; McKay, Christopher P.; Archer, P. Douglas; Buch, Arnaud; Brunner, Anna E.; Coll, Patrice; Eigenbrode, Jennifer L.; Fairen, Alberto G.; Franz, Heather B.; Glavin, Daniel P.; Kashyap, Srishti; McAdam, Amy C.; Ming, Douglas W.; Steele, Andrew; Szopa, Cyril; Wray, James J.; Martín-Torres, F. Javier; Zorzano, Maria-Paz; Conrad, Pamela G.; Mahaffy, Paul R.; Kemppinen, Osku; Bridges, Nathan; Johnson, Jeffrey R.; Minitti, Michelle; Cremers, David; Bell, James F.; Edgar, Lauren; Farmer, Jack; Godber, Austin; Wadhwa, Meenakshi; Wellington, Danika; McEwan, Ian; Newman, Claire; Richardson, Mark; Charpentier, Antoine; Peret, Laurent; King, Penelope; Blank, Jennifer; Weigle, Gerald; Schmidt, Mariek; Li, Shuai; Milliken, Ralph; Robertson, Kevin; Sun, Vivian; Baker, Michael; Edwards, Christopher; Ehlmann, Bethany; Farley, Kenneth; Griffes, Jennifer; Grotzinger, John; Miller, Hayden; Newcombe, Megan; Pilorget, Cedric; Rice, Melissa; Siebach, Kirsten; Stack, Katie; Stolper, Edward; Brunet, Claude; Hipkin, Victoria; Léveillé, Richard; Marchand, Geneviève; Sánchez, Pablo Sobrón; Favot, Laurent; Cody, George; Steele, Andrew; Flückiger, Lorenzo; Lees, David; Nefian, Ara; Martin, Mildred; Gailhanou, Marc; Westall, Frances; Israël, Guy; Agard, Christophe; Baroukh, Julien; Donny, Christophe; Gaboriaud, Alain; Guillemot, Philippe; Lafaille, Vivian; Lorigny, Eric; Paillet, Alexis; Pérez, René; Saccoccio, Muriel; Yana, Charles; Armiens-Aparicio, Carlos; Rodríguez, Javier Caride; Blázquez, Isaías Carrasco; Gómez, Felipe Gómez; Gómez-Elvira, Javier; Hettrich, Sebastian; Malvitte, Alain Lepinette; Jiménez, Mercedes Marín; Martínez-Frías, Jesús; Martín-Soler, Javier; - Torres, F. Javier Martín; Jurado, Antonio Molina; Mora-Sotomayor, Luis; Caro, Guillermo Muñoz; López, Sara Navarro; Peinado-González, Verónica; Pla-García, Jorge; Manfredi, José Antonio Rodriguez; Romeral-Planelló, Julio José; Fuentes, Sara Alejandra Sans; Martinez, Eduardo Sebastian; Redondo, Josefina Torres; Urqui-O'Callaghan, Roser; Mier, María-Paz Zorzano; Chipera, Steve; Lacour, Jean-Luc; Mauchien, Patrick; Sirven, Jean-Baptiste; Manning, Heidi; Fairén, Alberto; Hayes, Alexander; Joseph, Jonathan; Squyres, Steven; Sullivan, Robert; Thomas, Peter; Dupont, Audrey; Lundberg, Angela; Melikechi, Noureddine; Mezzacappa, Alissa; DeMarines, Julia; Grinspoon, David; Reitz, Günther; Prats, Benito; Atlaskin, Evgeny; Genzer, Maria; Harri, Ari-Matti; Haukka, Harri; Kahanpää, Henrik; Kauhanen, Janne; Kemppinen, Osku; Paton, Mark; Polkko, Jouni; Schmidt, Walter; Siili, Tero; Fabre, Cécile; Wray, James; Wilhelm, Mary Beth; Poitrasson, Franck; Patel, Kiran; Gorevan, Stephen; Indyk, Stephen; Paulsen, Gale; Gupta, Sanjeev; Bish, David; Schieber, Juergen; Gondet, Brigitte; Langevin, Yves; Geffroy, Claude; Baratoux, David; Berger, Gilles; Cros, Alain; d’Uston, Claude; Forni, Olivier; Gasnault, Olivier; Lasue, Jérémie; Lee, Qiu-Mei; Maurice, Sylvestre; Meslin, Pierre-Yves; Pallier, Etienne; Parot, Yann; Pinet, Patrick; Schröder, Susanne; Toplis, Mike; Lewin, Éric; Brunner, Will; Heydari, Ezat; Achilles, Cherie; Oehler, Dorothy; Sutter, Brad; Cabane, Michel; Coscia, David; Israël, Guy; Szopa, Cyril; Dromart, Gilles; Robert, François; Sautter, Violaine; Le Mouélic, Stéphane; Mangold, Nicolas; Nachon, Marion; Buch, Arnaud; Stalport, Fabien; Coll, Patrice; François, Pascaline; Raulin, François; Teinturier, Samuel; Cameron, James; Clegg, Sam; Cousin, Agnès; DeLapp, Dorothea; Dingler, Robert; Jackson, Ryan Steele; Johnstone, Stephen; Lanza, Nina; Little, Cynthia; Nelson, Tony; Wiens, Roger C.; Williams, Richard B.; Jones, Andrea; Kirkland, Laurel; Treiman, Allan; Baker, Burt; Cantor, Bruce; Caplinger, Michael; Davis, Scott; Duston, Brian; Edgett, Kenneth; Fay, Donald; Hardgrove, Craig; Harker, David; Herrera, Paul; Jensen, Elsa; Kennedy, Megan R.; Krezoski, Gillian; Krysak, Daniel; Lipkaman, Leslie; Malin, Michael; McCartney, Elaina; McNair, Sean; Nixon, Brian; Posiolova, Liliya; Ravine, Michael; Salamon, Andrew; Saper, Lee; Stoiber, Kevin; Supulver, Kimberley; Van Beek, Jason; Van Beek, Tessa; Zimdar, Robert; French, Katherine Louise; Iagnemma, Karl; Miller, Kristen; Summons, Roger; Goesmann, Fred; Goetz, Walter; Hviid, Stubbe; Johnson, Micah; Lefavor, Matthew; Lyness, Eric; Breves, Elly; Dyar, M. Darby; Fassett, Caleb; Blake, David F.; Bristow, Thomas; DesMarais, David; Edwards, Laurence; Haberle, Robert; Hoehler, Tori; Hollingsworth, Jeff; Kahre, Melinda; Keely, Leslie; McKay, Christopher; Wilhelm, Mary Beth; Bleacher, Lora; Brinckerhoff, William; Choi, David; Conrad, Pamela; Dworkin, Jason P.; Eigenbrode, Jennifer; Floyd, Melissa; Freissinet, Caroline; Garvin, James; Glavin, Daniel; Harpold, Daniel; Jones, Andrea; Mahaffy, Paul; Martin, David K.; McAdam, Amy; Pavlov, Alexander; Raaen, Eric; Smith, Michael D.; Stern, Jennifer; Tan, Florence; Trainer, Melissa; Meyer, Michael; Posner, Arik; Voytek, Mary; Anderson, Robert C; Aubrey, Andrew; Beegle, Luther W.; Behar, Alberto; Blaney, Diana; Brinza, David; Calef, Fred; Christensen, Lance; Crisp, Joy A.; DeFlores, Lauren; Ehlmann, Bethany; Feldman, Jason; Feldman, Sabrina; Flesch, Gregory; Hurowitz, Joel; Jun, Insoo; Keymeulen, Didier; Maki, Justin; Mischna, Michael; Morookian, John Michael; Parker, Timothy; Pavri, Betina; Schoppers, Marcel; Sengstacken, Aaron; Simmonds, John J.; Spanovich, Nicole; Juarez, Manuel de la Torre; Vasavada, Ashwin R.; Webster, Christopher R.; Yen, Albert; Archer, Paul Douglas; Cucinotta, Francis; Jones, John H.; Ming, Douglas; Morris, Richard V.; Niles, Paul; Rampe, Elizabeth; Nolan, Thomas; Fisk, Martin; Radziemski, Leon; Barraclough, Bruce; Bender, Steve; Berman, Daniel; Dobrea, Eldar Noe; Tokar, Robert; Vaniman, David; Williams, Rebecca M. E.; Yingst, Aileen; Lewis, Kevin; Leshin, Laurie; Cleghorn, Timothy; Huntress, Wesley; Manhès, Gérard; Hudgins, Judy; Olson, Timothy; Stewart, Noel; Sarrazin, Philippe; Grant, John; Vicenzi, Edward; Wilson, Sharon A.; Bullock, Mark; Ehresmann, Bent; Hamilton, Victoria; Hassler, Donald; Peterson, Joseph; Rafkin, Scot; Zeitlin, Cary; Fedosov, Fedor; Golovin, Dmitry; Karpushkina, Natalya; Kozyrev, Alexander; Litvak, Maxim; Malakhov, Alexey; Mitrofanov, Igor; Mokrousov, Maxim; Nikiforov, Sergey; Prokhorov, Vasily; Sanin, Anton; Tretyakov, Vladislav; Varenikov, Alexey; Vostrukhin, Andrey; Kuzmin, Ruslan; Clark, Benton; Wolff, Michael; McLennan, Scott; Botta, Oliver; Drake, Darrell; Bean, Keri; Lemmon, Mark; Schwenzer, Susanne P.; Anderson, Ryan B.; Herkenhoff, Kenneth; Lee, Ella Mae; Sucharski, Robert; Hernández, Miguel Ángel de Pablo; Ávalos, Juan José Blanco; Ramos, Miguel; Kim, Myung-Hee; Malespin, Charles; Plante, Ianik; Muller, Jan-Peter; Navarro-González, Rafael; Ewing, Ryan; Boynton, William; Downs, Robert; Fitzgibbon, Mike; Harshman, Karl; Morrison, Shaunna; Dietrich, William; Kortmann, Onno; Palucis, Marisa; Sumner, Dawn Y.; Williams, Amy; Lugmair, Günter; Wilson, Michael A.; Rubin, David; Jakosky, Bruce; Balic-Zunic, Tonci; Frydenvang, Jens; Jensen, Jaqueline Kløvgaard; Kinch, Kjartan; Koefoed, Asmus; Madsen, Morten Bo; Stipp, Susan Louise Svane; Boyd, Nick; Campbell, John L.; Gellert, Ralf; Perrett, Glynis; Pradler, Irina; VanBommel, Scott; Jacob, Samantha; Owen, Tobias; Rowland, Scott; Atlaskin, Evgeny; Savijärvi, Hannu; Boehm, Eckart; Böttcher, Stephan; Burmeister, Sönke; Guo, Jingnan; Köhler, Jan; García, César Martín; Mueller-Mellin, Reinhold; Wimmer-Schweingruber, Robert; Bridges, John C.; McConnochie, Timothy; Benna, Mehdi; Franz, Heather; Bower, Hannah; Brunner, Anna; Blau, Hannah; Boucher, Thomas; Carmosino, Marco; Atreya, Sushil; Elliott, Harvey; Halleaux, Douglas; Rennó, Nilton; Wong, Michael; Pepin, Robert; Elliott, Beverley; Spray, John; Thompson, Lucy; Gordon, Suzanne; Newsom, Horton; Ollila, Ann; Williams, Joshua; Vasconcelos, Paulo; Bentz, Jennifer; Nealson, Kenneth; Popa, Radu; Kah, Linda C.; Moersch, Jeffrey; Tate, Christopher; Day, Mackenzie; Kocurek, Gary; Hallet, Bernard; Sletten, Ronald; Francis, Raymond; McCullough, Emily; Cloutis, Ed; ten Kate, Inge Loes; Kuzmin, Ruslan; Arvidson, Raymond; Fraeman, Abigail; Scholes, Daniel; Slavney, Susan; Stein, Thomas; Ward, Jennifer; Berger, Jeffrey; Moores, John E.

    2015-01-01

    The Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) investigation on the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Curiosity rover has detected oxidized nitrogen-bearing compounds during pyrolysis of scooped aeolian sediments and drilled sedimentary deposits within Gale crater. Total N concentrations ranged from 20 to 250 nmol N per sample. After subtraction of known N sources in SAM, our results support the equivalent of 110–300 ppm of nitrate in the Rocknest (RN) aeolian samples, and 70–260 and 330–1,100 ppm nitrate in John Klein (JK) and Cumberland (CB) mudstone deposits, respectively. Discovery of indigenous martian nitrogen in Mars surface materials has important implications for habitability and, specifically, for the potential evolution of a nitrogen cycle at some point in martian history. The detection of nitrate in both wind-drifted fines (RN) and in mudstone (JK, CB) is likely a result of N2 fixation to nitrate generated by thermal shock from impact or volcanic plume lightning on ancient Mars. Fixed nitrogen could have facilitated the development of a primitive nitrogen cycle on the surface of ancient Mars, potentially providing a biochemically accessible source of nitrogen. PMID:25831544

  20. OSL-SAR dating of sediments from Brazilian aeolian system: Dama Branca, Rio de Janeiro, morphodynamic study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carmo, Lucas S. do; Watanabe, Shigueo; DeWitt, Regina

    2017-01-01

    It has been reported that the formation and stabilization of coastal dune fields in Brazil have a dependence on the climate changes and Relative Sea Level (RSL) variations. A few topics regarding the morphodynamics of coastal aeolian systems in Brazil can be the RSL variations in the Holocene and weather conditions. In this work, a dune field known as 'Dama Branca', located in the town of Cabo Frio, Rio de Janeiro, has been studied to understand its formation and stabilization. Dating by trapped charge dating techniques as Optically Stimulated Luminescence (OSL) using the Single Aliquot Regenerative protocol (SAR), help to understand the formation and dynamics of aeolian systems in Brazil. Samples from a dune were collected from different heights and points for dating. The results obtained by OSL-SAR showed that ages decrease as the height from the dune base increase and older samples are found in deeper horizontal positions. The ages for the base of the studied dunes indicated that its stabilization occurred during the recess of the sea level. (author)

  1. Abundances and implications of volatile-bearing species from evolved gas analysis of the Rocknest aeolian deposit, Gale Crater, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, Paul Douglas; Franz, Heather B.; Sutter, Brad; Arevalo, Ricardo D.; Coll, Patrice; Eigenbrode, Jennifer L.; Glavin, Daniel P.; Jones, John J.; Leshin, Laurie A.; Mahaffy, Paul R.; McAdam, Amy C.; McKay, Christopher P.; Ming, Douglas W.; Morris, Richard V.; Navarro-González, Rafael; Niles, Paul B.; Pavlov, Alex; Squyres, Steven W.; Stern, Jennifer C.; Steele, Andrew; Wray, James J.

    2014-01-01

    The Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) instrument on the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) rover Curiosity detected evolved gases during thermal analysis of soil samples from the Rocknest aeolian deposit in Gale Crater. Major species detected (in order of decreasing molar abundance) were H2O, SO2, CO2, and O2, all at the µmol level, with HCl, H2S, NH3, NO, and HCN present at the tens to hundreds of nmol level. We compute weight % numbers for the major gases evolved by assuming a likely source and calculate abundances between 0.5 and 3 wt.%. The evolution of these gases implies the presence of both oxidized (perchlorates) and reduced (sulfides or H-bearing) species as well as minerals formed under alkaline (carbonates) and possibly acidic (sulfates) conditions. Possible source phases in the Rocknest material are hydrated amorphous material, minor clay minerals, and hydrated perchlorate salts (all potential H2O sources), carbonates (CO2), perchlorates (O2 and HCl), and potential N-bearing materials (e.g., Martian nitrates, terrestrial or Martian nitrogenated organics, ammonium salts) that evolve NH3, NO, and/or HCN. We conclude that Rocknest materials are a physical mixture in chemical disequilibrium, consistent with aeolian mixing, and that although weathering is not extensive, it may be ongoing even under current Martian surface conditions.

  2. OSL-SAR dating of sediments from Brazilian aeolian system: Dama Branca, Rio de Janeiro, morphodynamic study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carmo, Lucas S. do; Watanabe, Shigueo, E-mail: lsatiro@usp.br, E-mail: lacifid@if.usp.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), São Paulo, SP (Brazil); DeWitt, Regina, E-mail: dewittr@ecu.edu [East Carolina University (ECU), Greenville, NC (United States)

    2017-07-01

    It has been reported that the formation and stabilization of coastal dune fields in Brazil have a dependence on the climate changes and Relative Sea Level (RSL) variations. A few topics regarding the morphodynamics of coastal aeolian systems in Brazil can be the RSL variations in the Holocene and weather conditions. In this work, a dune field known as 'Dama Branca', located in the town of Cabo Frio, Rio de Janeiro, has been studied to understand its formation and stabilization. Dating by trapped charge dating techniques as Optically Stimulated Luminescence (OSL) using the Single Aliquot Regenerative protocol (SAR), help to understand the formation and dynamics of aeolian systems in Brazil. Samples from a dune were collected from different heights and points for dating. The results obtained by OSL-SAR showed that ages decrease as the height from the dune base increase and older samples are found in deeper horizontal positions. The ages for the base of the studied dunes indicated that its stabilization occurred during the recess of the sea level. (author)

  3. The Influence of Political Decisions upon the Evolution of Renewable Energy in Romania. Case Study: Aeolian Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VASILE POPA

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available It is widely accepted the fact that the foreseeable effects of the climate changes will have a major impact on the environment, and the human activities, especially fossil fuel combustion, represents the main cause of global warming. Both climate changes and the raise of the world consumption of energy and the perspective of diminishing the mineral energy resources turn the renewable energy into the main viable alternative. Between the renewable resources, the wind (Aeolian energy has a great potential. In this context, in the last few decades, as a result of the political support towards the renewable energy, the global production of wind energy has met considerable development. In Romania, the insertion of the promotion of electric energy produced by the renewable energy sources system has gathered plenty investments, leading to spectacular risings. The evolution in this domain has though been mostly influenced by the governmental policies. The repetitive changes of legislation led to an uncertain future for the Aeolian energy in Romania, on short term to say the least.

  4. Evidence for indigenous nitrogen in sedimentary and aeolian deposits from the Curiosity rover investigations at Gale crater, Mars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Jennifer C; Sutter, Brad; Freissinet, Caroline; Navarro-González, Rafael; McKay, Christopher P; Archer, P Douglas; Buch, Arnaud; Brunner, Anna E; Coll, Patrice; Eigenbrode, Jennifer L; Fairen, Alberto G; Franz, Heather B; Glavin, Daniel P; Kashyap, Srishti; McAdam, Amy C; Ming, Douglas W; Steele, Andrew; Szopa, Cyril; Wray, James J; Martín-Torres, F Javier; Zorzano, Maria-Paz; Conrad, Pamela G; Mahaffy, Paul R

    2015-04-07

    The Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) investigation on the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Curiosity rover has detected oxidized nitrogen-bearing compounds during pyrolysis of scooped aeolian sediments and drilled sedimentary deposits within Gale crater. Total N concentrations ranged from 20 to 250 nmol N per sample. After subtraction of known N sources in SAM, our results support the equivalent of 110-300 ppm of nitrate in the Rocknest (RN) aeolian samples, and 70-260 and 330-1,100 ppm nitrate in John Klein (JK) and Cumberland (CB) mudstone deposits, respectively. Discovery of indigenous martian nitrogen in Mars surface materials has important implications for habitability and, specifically, for the potential evolution of a nitrogen cycle at some point in martian history. The detection of nitrate in both wind-drifted fines (RN) and in mudstone (JK, CB) is likely a result of N2 fixation to nitrate generated by thermal shock from impact or volcanic plume lightning on ancient Mars. Fixed nitrogen could have facilitated the development of a primitive nitrogen cycle on the surface of ancient Mars, potentially providing a biochemically accessible source of nitrogen.

  5. Field testing, comparison, and discussion of five aeolian sand transport measuring devices operating on different measuring principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goossens, Dirk; Nolet, Corjan; Etyemezian, Vicken; Duarte-Campos, Leonardo; Bakker, Gerben; Riksen, Michel

    2018-06-01

    Five types of sediment samplers designed to measure aeolian sand transport were tested during a wind erosion event on the Sand Motor, an area on the west coast of the Netherlands prone to severe wind erosion. Each of the samplers operates on a different principle. The MWAC (Modified Wilson And Cooke) is a passive segmented trap. The modified Leatherman sampler is a passive vertically integrating trap. The Saltiphone is an acoustic sampler that registers grain impacts on a microphone. The Wenglor sampler is an optical sensor that detects particles as they pass through a laser beam. The SANTRI (Standalone AeoliaN Transport Real-time Instrument) detects particles travelling through an infrared beam, but in different channels each associated with a particular grain size spectrum. A procedure is presented to transform the data output, which is different for each sampler, to a common standard so that the samplers can be objectively compared and their relative efficiency calculated. Results show that the efficiency of the samplers is comparable despite the differences in operating principle and the instrumental and environmental uncertainties associated to working with particle samplers in field conditions. The ability of the samplers to register the temporal evolution of a wind erosion event is investigated. The strengths and weaknesses of the samplers are discussed. Some problems inherent to optical sensors are looked at in more detail. Finally, suggestions are made for further improvement of the samplers.

  6. Italy's recurrent energy dependency dilemma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ippolito, F.

    1993-01-01

    This paper first critically assesses the objectives of Italy's 1988 National Energy Plan which, in light of the moratorium on nuclear energy, called for moderate but steady reductions in imported energy supplies through the implementation of energy conservation programs and the development of available domestic conventional and renewable energy sources. The economics and energy analyses evidence that, in view this nation's current troubled economic situation, the Energy Plan's target for the year 2000 of a 76% dependency on foreign oil is just not good enough and not in line with stricter European environmental normatives limiting carbon dioxide emissions. It is argued that in order to effectively reduce the nation's excessively high energy costs, keep pace with other industrialized countries in a highly competitive market (Italy's energy tariffs are almost 55% greater than those of Germany and France), and to respect new European anti-pollution laws, Italy must restart its nuclear program and take advantage of the recent advances being made in passive reactor safety systems

  7. Water Saving and Cost Analysis of Large-Scale Implementation of Domestic Rain Water Harvesting in Minor Mediterranean Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Campisano

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a novel methodology to evaluate the benefits of large-scale installation of domestic Rain Water Harvesting (RWH systems in multi-story buildings. The methodology was specifically developed for application to small settlements of the minor Mediterranean islands characterized by sharp fluctuations in precipitation and water demands between winter and summer periods. The methodology is based on the combined use of regressive models for water saving evaluation and of geospatial analysis tools for semi-automatic collection of spatial information at the building/household level. An application to the old town of Lipari (Aeolian islands showed potential for high yearly water savings (between 30% and 50%, with return on investment in less than 15 years for about 50% of the installed RWH systems.

  8. Occurrence of the alien nudibranch Melibe viridis (Kelaart, 1858 (Opisthobranchia, Tethydidae, in the Maltese Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.A. BORG

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The alien dendronotacean nudibranch Melibe viridis (Kelaart, 1858, a tropical Indo-Pacific species that seems to have been introduced by shipping into the Mediterranean via the Suez Canal, and which has established populations in Greece, Turkey, Cyprus, Montenegro, Croatia, NW Sicily, southern peninsular Italy and Djerba Island in the Gulf of Gabes, is recorded for the first time from Malta. A thriving population was observed on a soft sediment bottom at a depth of 18-20 m off the western coast of the island of Comino (Maltese Islands. It is suggested that this species was introduced into Malta due to a natural range expansion of surrounding populations.

  9. 3D Airflow patterns over coastal foredunes: implications for aeolian sediment transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Derek W. T.; Cooper, Andrew G.; Baas, Andreas C. W.; Lynch, Kevin; Beyers, Meiring

    2010-05-01

    across a high resolution LIDAR surface of the dunes and beach we have isolated key areas of wind direction and velocity patterns which are important in aeolian transport budgets. Results are particularly important in post-storm recovery of foredunes damaged under wave action as offshore winds can initiate significant onshore transport, re-supplying the backbeach and foredune zones.

  10. Insight to forcing of late Quaternary climate change from aeolian dust archives in eastern Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGowan, H. A.; Marx, S.; Soderholm, J.; Denholm, J.; Petherick, L.

    2010-12-01

    aeolian sedimentation during the late Quaternary from eastern Australia. Palaeogeogr. Palaeoclimatol. Palaeoecol., 265(3-4), 171-181. McGowan, H. A., et al. 2010: Evidence of solar and tropical ocean forcing of hydroclimate cycles in southeastern Australia for the past 6500 years. Geophys. Res. Lett., 37, L10705, doi:10.1029/2010GL042918.

  11. Paradise Islands? Island States and Environmental Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sverker C. Jagers

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Island states have been shown to outperform continental states on a number of large-scale coordination-related outcomes, such as levels of democracy and institutional quality. The argument developed and tested in this article contends that the same kind of logic may apply to islands’ environmental performance, too. However, the empirical analysis shows mixed results. Among the 105 environmental outcomes that we analyzed, being an island only has a positive impact on 20 of them. For example, island states tend to outcompete continental states with respect to several indicators related to water quality but not in aspects related to biodiversity, protected areas, or environmental regulations. In addition, the causal factors previously suggested to make islands outperform continental states in terms of coordination have weak explanatory power in predicting islands’ environmental performance. We conclude the paper by discussing how these interesting findings can be further explored.

  12. Thirteen years of Aeolian dust dynamics in a desert region (Negev desert, Israel): analysis of horizontal and vertical dust flux, vertical dust distribution and dust grain size

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Offer, Z.Y.; Goossens, D.

    2004-01-01

    At Sede Boqer (northern Negev desert, Israel), aeolian dust dynamics have been measured during the period 1988–2000. This study focuses on temporal records of the vertical and horizontal dust flux, the vertical distribution of the dust particles in the atmosphere, and the grain size of the

  13. Increased aeolian activity during humidity shifts as recorded in a raised bog in south-west Sweden during the past 1700 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. de Jong

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Analyses of testate amoebae and aeolian sediment influx (ASI were used to reconstruct effective humidity changes and aeolian activity in the coastal zone of south-west Sweden. Cores were taken from an ombrotrophic peat sequence from the Undarsmosse bog. Since both types of analysis were carried out on the same core, a direct comparison between humidity fluctuations in the bog and aeolian activity was possible, potentially providing detailed information on atmospheric circulation changes in this region. Relatively wet bog surface conditions occurred from around 1500 to 1230 and 770 to 380 cal. yrs BP, whereas dry conditions dominated from ca. 1630 to 1530, 1160 to 830 and 300 to 50 cal. yrs BP. The transitions between these phases occurred within 60–100 years and are characterised by a major change in the testate amoebae assemblages. A watertable reconstruction was used to study the hydrological changes at the bog surface in more detail. ASI peak events were reconstructed around 1450, 1150, 850 and after 370 cal. yrs BP. Most interestingly, these aeolian activity peaks started during the recorded hydrological transitions, regardless of the direction of these shifts. Our results therefore suggest that humidity shifts in this region were associated with temporary intensifications of atmospheric circulation during the past 1700 years. Several ASI peaks apparently coincide with reduced solar activity, possibly suggesting a solar related cause for some of the observed events.

  14. Episodes of aeolian sand movement on a large spit system (Skagen Odde, Denmark) and North Atlantic storminess during the Little Ice Age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Lars B.; Glad, Aslaug C.; Hansen, Kristian W. T.

    2015-01-01

    . A change in the atmospheric circulation, so that both the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) were negative, apparently led to an increased number of intense cyclones causing inland sand movement and dune building. The second and third phase of aeolian sand...

  15. The response of source-bordering aeolian dunefields to sediment-supply changes 2: Controlled floods of the Colorado River in Grand Canyon, Arizona, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankey, Joel B.; Caster, Joshua; Kasprak, Alan; East, Amy E.

    2018-06-01

    In the Colorado River downstream of Glen Canyon Dam in the Grand Canyon, USA, controlled floods are used to resupply sediment to, and rebuild, river sandbars that have eroded severely over the past five decades owing to dam-induced changes in river flow and sediment supply. In this study, we examine whether controlled floods, can in turn resupply aeolian sediment to some of the large source-bordering aeolian dunefields (SBDs) along the margins of the river. Using a legacy of high-resolution lidar remote-sensing and meteorological data, we characterize the response of four SBDs (a subset of 117 SBDs and other aeolian-sand-dominated areas in the canyon) during four sediment-laden controlled floods of the Colorado River in 2012, 2013, 2014, and 2016. We find that aeolian sediment resupply unambiguously occurred in 8 of the 16 instances of controlled flooding adjacent to SBDs. Resupply attributed to individual floods varied substantially among sites, and occurred with four, three, one, and zero floods at the four sites, respectively. We infer that the relative success of controlled floods as a regulated-river management tool for resupplying sediment to SBDs is analogous to the frequency of resupply observed for fluvial sandbars in this setting, in that sediment resupply was estimated to have occurred for roughly half of the instances of recent controlled flooding at sandbars monitored separately from this study. We find the methods developed in this, and a companion study, are effective tools to quantify geomorphic changes in sediment storage, along linked fluvial and aeolian pathways of sedimentary systems.

  16. The response of source-bordering aeolian dunefields to sediment-supply changes 2: Controlled floods of the Colorado River in Grand Canyon, Arizona, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankey, Joel B.; Caster, Joshua; Kasprak, Alan; East, Amy

    2018-01-01

    In the Colorado River downstream of Glen Canyon Dam in the Grand Canyon, USA, controlled floods are used to resupply sediment to, and rebuild, river sandbars that have eroded severely over the past five decades owing to dam-induced changes in river flow and sediment supply. In this study, we examine whether controlled floods, can in turn resupply aeolian sediment to some of the large source-bordering aeolian dunefields (SBDs) along the margins of the river. Using a legacy of high-resolution lidar remote-sensing and meteorological data, we characterize the response of four SBDs (a subset of 117 SBDs and other aeolian-sand-dominated areas in the canyon) during four sediment-laden controlled floods of the Colorado River in 2012, 2013, 2014, and 2016. We find that aeolian sediment resupply unambiguously occurred in 8 of the 16 instances of controlled flooding adjacent to SBDs. Resupply attributed to individual floods varied substantially among sites, and occurred with four, three, one, and zero floods at the four sites, respectively. We infer that the relative success of controlled floods as a regulated-river management tool for resupplying sediment to SBDs is analogous to the frequency of resupply observed for fluvial sandbars in this setting, in that sediment resupply was estimated to have occurred for roughly half of the instances of recent controlled flooding at sandbars monitored separately from this study. We find the methods developed in this, and a companion study, are effective tools to quantify geomorphic changes in sediment storage, along linked fluvial and aeolian pathways of sedimentary systems.

  17. A neighborhood revealed by geophysical prospection: An example of urbanization at the Phoenician-Punic settlement of Mozia (western Sicily, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Mauro, D.; Alfonsi, L.; Sapia, V.; Urbini, S.

    2014-05-01

    The archaeological site of Mozia, a small island in front of the western coast of Sicily (Italy), is one of the most important Phoenician-Punic settlements in the Mediterranean; it preserves important vestiges and remains, located in an uncontaminated site, inhabited and car-free. The remains are still partially hidden under vegetation and vineyards.

  18. Role of Aeolian Dust in Shaping Landscapes and Soils of Arid and Semi-Arid South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph R. McAuliffe

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The deposition of fine aeolian sediment profoundly influences the morphology of several different landscapes of the arid and semi-arid western portion of South Africa. Such landscapes and features include: (1 regularly-spaced mounds known as heuweltjies of the succulent Karoo region, (2 barren stone pavements in the more arid regions, and (3 hillslopes with smooth, curvilinear slope profiles that are mantled with coarse, stony colluvium. Investigations of each of these are presented, together with comparisons of similar features found within arid and semi-arid portions of Western North America. Recent findings suggest that the formation of the distinct, regularly-spaced heuweltjies involves a linked set of biological and physical processes. These include nutrient accumulation by termites and the production of dense vegetation patches, which, in turn, serve as a trap for aeolian sediments. Dust deposition is also responsible for the formation of stone pavements as demonstrated by research conducted principally in the Mojave Desert region of the United States. Mineralogical and geochronological studies have demonstrated that the stone clasts remain on the surface as fine aeolian sediments are translocated downward beneath the clasts resulting in a silt-rich soil horizon directly beneath the clasts. Pavements examined in South Africa have the same morphological features that can only be explained by the same process. The formation of soils on hillslopes mantled with stony colluvium are commonly viewed as having formed through the in-situ weathering of the stony colluvium. However, like pavements, mantles of coarse, stony colluvium are effective dust traps that provide the long-term stability required for advanced development of thick, fine-grained soils. This process contributes to the evolution of smooth, vegetated, curvilinear slope profiles. In each of these examples, the accumulation of dust has a profound influence, not only in soil formation

  19. A Late Pleistocene linear dune dam record of aeolian-fluvial dynamics at the fringes of the northwestern Negev dunefield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roskin, Joel; Bookman, Revital; Friesem, David; Vardi, Jacob

    2017-04-01

    The paper presents a late Pleistocene aeolian-fluvial record within a linear dune-like structure that partway served as a dune dam. Situated along the southern fringe of the northwestern Negev desert dunefield (Israel) the structure's morphology, orientation, and some of its stratigraphic units partly resemble adjacent west-east extending vegetated linear dunes. Uneven levels of light-colored, fine-grained fluvial deposits (LFFDs) extend to the north and south from the flanks of the studied structure. Abundant Epipalaeolithic sites line the fringes of the LFFDs. The LFFD microstructures of fine graded bedding and clay blocky peds indicate sorting and shrinking of saturated clays in transitional environments between low energy flows to shallow standing water formed by dunes damming a mid-sized drainage system. The structure's architecture of interchanging units of sand with LFFDs indicates interchanging dominances between aeolian sand incursion and winter floods. Sand mobilization associated with powerful winds during the Heinrich 1 event led to dune damming downstream of the structure and within the structure to in-situ sand deposition, partial fluvial erosion, reworking of the sand, and LFFD deposition. Increased sand deposition led to structure growth and blockage of its drainage system that in turn accumulated LFFD units up stream of the structure. Extrapolation of current local fluvial sediment yields indicate that LFFD accretion up to the structure's brim occurred over a short period of several decades. Thin layers of Geometric Kebaran (c. 17.5-14.5 ka cal BP) to Harifian (12-11 ka BP) artifacts within the structure's surface indicates intermittent, repetitive, and short term camping utilizing adjacent water along a timespan of 4-6 kyr. The finds directly imply that the NW Negev LFFDs formed in dune-dammed water bodies which themselves were formed following events of vegetated linear dune elongation. LFFD accumulation persisted as a result of dune dam

  20. Energy and environment in Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menna, P.; Capra, M.; D'Acunto, A.; Del Ciello, R.; Molinas, P.; Virdis, M.

    2001-01-01

    Based upon the more meaningful changing recorded within the Italian energy sector in the year 2000, the Studies Department of ENEA (the Italian National board for new technologies, energy and environment) prepared the 'Rapporto Energia e Ambiente 2000', which provides a picture of the country energy and energy-related activities concerning the environment. In this paper, it is only provided a summary of the whole work. The complete report can be downloaded from the ENEA main page (www.enea.it). Italy gross domestic product (Gdp) grew by almost 3% in the year 2000, mostly sustained by an increase in the industrial production and services, as well. At the same time the total energy consumption rose to almost 185 Mtoe (+1% over 1999). Because Gdp grew more than the energy consumption, the energy intensity decreases in the year 2000. Almost 82% of the Italian energy needs (mainly oil and gas, even if electricity imports are increasing) depend upon imports. This heavy burden makes Italy particularly sensitive to both the oil price fluctuations and the euro/dollar exchange rate. Transportation absorbs a large and growing share of the energy consumption while showing quite an impact on the environment. From the supply side, renewable energy sources appear very promising because they allow the use of local resources, promote local development and may create new jobs, in area of the country with less favourable economic conditions. First among the European countries, a market mechanism to increase the use of renewable by establishing that a share of the whole electricity production (currently set at 2%) has to come from renewable has been introduced. However among the OECD countries, Italy records the lowest rate of R/D investments to GDP. This rate should more than double if the new opportunities coming from the development of innovative energy technologies have to be fully exploited [it

  1. Italy: An Open Air Museum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzorusso, Ann

    2016-04-01

    Imagine if you could see the River Styx, bathe in the Fountain of Youth, collect water which enhances fertility, wear a gem that heals bodily ailments, understand how our health is affected by geomagnetic fields, venture close to the flames of Hell on Earth and much, much, more. Know something? These things exist - on Earth - today - in Italy and you can visit them because Italy is an open air museum. Ann C. Pizzorusso, in her recent book, reveals how Italy's geology has affected its art, literature, architecture, religion, medicine and just about everything else. She explores the geologic birth of the land, describing the formation of the Alps and Apennines, romantic bays of Tuscany and Lazio, volcanoes of the south and Caribbean-like beaches of Puglia. But that's not all, from the first pages of this visually stunning book, the reader has the impression of being in an art museum, where one can wander from page to page to satisfy one's curiosity-- guided from time to time by the Etruscan priests, Virgil, Dante, Goethe or Leonardo da Vinci himself. Pizzorusso stitches together widely diverse topics - such as gemology, folk remedies, grottoes, painting, literature, physics and religion - using geology as a thread. Quoting everyone from Pliny the Elder to NASA physicist Friedemann Freund, the work is solidly backed scholarship that reads as easily as a summer novel. Wonderfully illustrated with many photos licensed from Italian museums, HRH Elizabeth II and the Ministero Beni Culturali the book highlights the best works in Italian museums and those outside in the "open air museums." This approach can be used in any other country in the world and can be used for cultural tourism (a tour following the book has been organized for cultural and university groups), an ideal way of linking museums to the surrounding landscape.

  2. Legionnaires’ disease Surveillance in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Luisa Ricci

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available

    In the report presented, data on legionellosis diagnosed in the year 2003 in Italy and notified to the National Surveillance System are analysed. Overall, 617 cases were notified, of which 517 were confirmed and 46 were presumptive.

    The characteristics of the patients are very similar to those reported in the previous years in terms of male/female ratio, age–specific distribution, occupation, etc. Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 was responsible for approximately 90% of the cases.

  3. Natural gas vehicles in Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mariani, F.

    1991-01-01

    The technology of compressed natural gas (CNG) for road vehicles originated 50 years ago in Italy, always able to adapt itself to changes in energy supply and demand situations and national assets. Now, due to the public's growing concern for air pollution abatement and recent national energy policies calling for energy diversification, the commercialization of natural gas road vehicles is receiving new momentum. However, proper fuel taxation and an increased number of natural gas distribution stations are required to support this growing market potential. Operators of urban bus fleets stand to gain substantially from conversion to natural gas automotive fuels due to natural gas being a relatively cheap, clean alternative

  4. Tanzania - Mafia Island Airport

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — The evaluation design and subsequent data gathering activities will address the following key research questions: a) Has the Mafia Island Airport Upgrade Project...

  5. Preliminary estimation of Vulcano of CO2 budget and continuous monitoring of summit soil CO2 flux

    OpenAIRE

    Inguaggiato, S.; Mazot, A.; Diliberto, I. S.; Rouwet, D.; Vita, F.; Capasso, G.; Bobrowski, N.; Inguaggiato, C.; Grassa, F.

    2008-01-01

    Total CO2 output from fumaroles, soil gases, bubbling and water dissolved gases were estimated at Vulcano Island, Italy. The fumaroles output has been estimated from SO2 plume flux, while soil flux emission has been carried out through 730 CO2 fluxes measured on the island surface, performed by means of accumulation chamber method. Vulcano Island, located in the Aeolian Archipelago, is an active volcano that has been in state of solphataric activity, since the last eru...

  6. Sedimentary differentiation of aeolian grains at the White Sands National Monument, New Mexico, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenton, Lori K.; Bishop, Janice L.; King, Sara; Lafuente, Barbara; Horgan, Briony; Bustos, David; Sarrazin, Philippe

    2017-06-01

    Gypsum (CaSO4·2H2O) has been identified as a major component of part of Olympia Undae in the northern polar region of Mars, along with the mafic minerals more typical of Martian dune fields. The source and age of the gypsum is disputed, with the proposed explanations having vastly different implications for Mars' geological history. Furthermore, the transport of low density gypsum grains relative to and concurrently with denser grains has yet to be investigated in an aeolian setting. To address this knowledge gap, we performed a field study at White Sands National Monument (WSNM) in New Mexico, USA. Although gypsum dominates the bulk of the dune field, a dolomite-rich [CaMg(CO3)2] transport pathway along the northern border of WSNM provides a suitable analog site to study the transport of gypsum grains relative to the somewhat harder and denser carbonate grains. We collected samples along the stoss slope of a dune and on two coarse-grained ripples at the upwind margin of the dune field where minerals other than gypsum were most common. For comparison, additional samples were taken along the stoss slope of a dune outside the dolomite transport pathway, in the center of the dune field. Visible and near-infrared (VNIR), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), and Raman analyses of different sample size fractions reveal that dolomite is only prevalent in grains larger than ∼1 mm. Other minerals, most notably calcite, are also present in smaller quantities among the coarse grains. The abundance of these coarse grains, relative to gypsum grains of the same size, drops off sharply at the upwind margin of the dune field. In contrast, gypsum dominated the finer fraction (MCD) are consistent with the observed concentration of gypsum at dune crests. Density-driven differentiation in transport should not influence sediment fluxes of finer grains (<1 mm) as strongly on Earth, suggesting that the high ratio of fine gypsum grains to other minerals at WSNM is caused by a relatively

  7. Coal use in Italy and environmental compatibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    Fossil fuels have in Italy great importance. In Italy, in terms of environmental protection and for social acceptance, coal has had a real opposition not verified in other countries. Environmental compatibility of coal cycle and related technologies are discussed also consequently at the Kyoto protocol [it

  8. Rembrandt in Italie. Receptie en verzamelgeschiedenis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutgers, J.

    2008-01-01

    This dissertation sets out to investigate if and to what extent Rembrandt's work was appreciated in Italy in the 17th and 18th centuries. From approximately 1650 onwards paintings, drawings and prints by Rembrandt could be found in Italy, he is mentioned in several written sources and a few Italian

  9. International Uranium Resources Evaluation Project (IUREP) national favourability studies: Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-10-01

    The Italian Republic comprises a 1200 - Km - long peninsula ex- tending from southern Europe into the Mediterranean Sea, and a number of adjacent islands, among which the principals are Sicily and Sardinia. The total area is in excess of 300,000 Sq.Km, the islands account for some 50, 000 Sq.Km. From a physiographic and morphologic point of view, Italy mainly consists of the Alpine region and the Po valley to the North and of the Appennine range and small Coastal plains to the Centre and South. Plains occupied only 20% of the total area, hills and mountains, up to 4,810 m of elevation, contribute almost equally to the remaining 80%. The most promising uranium mineralizations have been found in the Bergamasc Alps, near the small town of Novazza. Pitchblende and minor sphalerite (formation temperature, 80 deg. - 100 deg. C) occur disseminated in volcanics of permian age. The host rocks at the Novazza uranium deposit, consist of an acid ignimbrite with cineritic texture. The rocks have been affected by metasomatism which brought abundant neo-formation minerals such as silica, sericite, carbonates and minor adularia, albite and muscovite. The reasonably assured resources of the Novazza deposit have been estimated to be 1,200 ton of U having a grade of 900 p.p.m. U. Estimated additional resources are 1,000 ton U. Production is scheduled to start in 1980

  10. Analyzing seasonal patterns of wildfire exposure factors in Sardinia, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salis, Michele; Ager, Alan A; Alcasena, Fermin J; Arca, Bachisio; Finney, Mark A; Pellizzaro, Grazia; Spano, Donatella

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we applied landscape scale wildfire simulation modeling to explore the spatiotemporal patterns of wildfire likelihood and intensity in the island of Sardinia (Italy). We also performed wildfire exposure analysis for selected highly valued resources on the island to identify areas characterized by high risk. We observed substantial variation in burn probability, fire size, and flame length among time periods within the fire season, which starts in early June and ends in late September. Peak burn probability and flame length were observed in late July. We found that patterns of wildfire likelihood and intensity were mainly related to spatiotemporal variation in ignition locations, fuel moisture, and wind vectors. Our modeling approach allowed consideration of historical patterns of winds, ignition locations, and live and dead fuel moisture on fire exposure factors. The methodology proposed can be useful for analyzing potential wildfire risk and effects at landscape scale, evaluating historical changes and future trends in wildfire exposure, as well as for addressing and informing fuel management and risk mitigation issues.

  11. High resolution fire risk mapping in Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorucci, Paolo; Biondi, Guido; Campo, Lorenzo; D'Andrea, Mirko

    2014-05-01

    The high topographic and vegetation heterogeneity makes Italy vulnerable to forest fires both in the summer and in winter. In particular, northern regions are predominantly characterized by a winter fire regime, mainly due to frequent extremely dry winds from the north, while southern and central regions and the large islands are characterized by a severe summer fire regime, because of the higher temperatures and prolonged lack of precipitation. The threat of wildfires in Italy is not confined to wooded areas as they extend to agricultural areas and urban-forest interface areas. The agricultural and rural areas, in the last century, have been gradually abandoned, especially in areas with complex topography. Many of these areas were subject to reforestation, leading to the spread of pioneer species mainly represented by Mediterranean conifer, which are highly vulnerable to fire. Because of the frequent spread of fire, these areas are limited to the early successional stages, consisting mainly of shrub vegetation; its survival in the competition with the climax species being ensured by the spread of fire itself. Due to the frequency of fire ignition — almost entirely man caused — the time between fires on the same area is at least an order of magnitude less than the time that would allow the establishment of forest climax species far less vulnerable to fire. In view of the limited availability of fire risk management resources, most of which are used in the management of national and regional air services, it is necessary to precisely identify the areas most vulnerable to fire risk. The few resources available can thus be used on a yearly basis to mitigate problems in the areas at highest risk by defining a program of forest management interventions, which is expected to make a significant contribution to the problem in a few years' time. The goal of such detailed planning is to dramatically reduce the costs associated with water bombers fleet management and fire

  12. Two new species of scale insects (Hemiptera, Coccoidea from Sardinia (Italy with a check list of Sardinian Coccoidea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppina Pellizzari

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Two new species of scale insects collected in Sardinia (Italy are described and illustrated: Spinococcus giuliae sp. n. (Pseudococcidae off the roots of Umbilicus rupestris (Crassulaceae and Micrococcus sardous sp. n. (Micrococcidae off the root of an undetermined grass (Poaceae growing near the sea. A n identification key to Micrococcus species and a revised list of the scales presently known in the island are also provided.

  13. High-resolution reconstruction of extreme storm events over the North Sea during the Late Holocene: inferences from aeolian sand influx in coastal mires, Western Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goslin, Jerome; Clemmensen, Lars B.

    2017-04-01

    Possessing long and accurate archives of storm events worldwide is the key for a better understanding of the atmospheric patterns driving these events and of the response of the coastal systems to storms. To be adequately addressed, the ongoing and potential future changes in wind regimes (including in particular the frequency and magnitude of storm events) have to be replaced in the context of long-time records of past storminess, i.e. longer than the century-scale records of instrumental weather data which do not allow the calculation of reliable return periods. During the last decade, several Holocene storminess chronologies have been based on storm-traces left by aeolian processes within coastal lakes, mires and peat bogs, (e.g. Björck and Clemmensen, 2004; De Jong et al., 2006; Clemmensen et al., 2009; Nielsen et al.; 2016; Orme et al., 2016). These data have shown to adequately complement the records which can be derived from the study of records related to wave-induced processes including e.g. washover deposits. Previous works along the west coast of Jutland, Denmark have revealed four main periods of dune building during the last 4200 yrs (Clemmensen et al., 2001; 2009). These were shown to be in phase with periods of climate deterioration (cold periods) recognized elsewhere in Europe and the North Atlantic region and suggest periods of increased aeolian activity. Yet, doubts remain on whether these periods where characterized by several big short-lived storm events or rather by an overall increase in wind energy. This study aims at constructing a high-resolution (centennial to multi-decadal) history of past storminess over the North Sea for the last millenaries. Plurimeter sequences of peat and gyttja have been retrieved from two coastal mires and were analyzed for their sand content. The quartz grains were systematically counted within centimetric slices (Aeolian Sand Influx method, Björck & Clemmensen, 2004), while the palaeo-environmental context and

  14. CAS Introductory Course in Italy

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    The CERN Accelerator School’s introductory course is a great success. This year the CERN Accelerator School held its "Introduction to Accelerator Physics" course in Frascati, Italy, from 2-14 November in collaboration with the University of Rome "La Sapienza" and the INFN Frascati National Laboratory. The Introductory level course is particularly important since, for the majority of participants, it is the first opportunity to discover the various aspects of accelerator physics. For this school the programme had been significantly revised in order to take into account the new trends currently being developed in the field, thus putting more emphasis on linacs, synchrotron light sources and free-electron lasers. The school was a resounding success with 115 participants of more than 23 nationalities. Feedback from the students praised the expertise of the lecturers, the high standard of the lectures as well as the excellent organizati...

  15. Italy: a market in transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, N.

    2002-01-01

    The prospects for the Italian gas market, the third biggest in Europe, are reviewed briefly. With increasing demand for gas-fired generation of electric power, Italy will need a new infrastructure. At present, Italian electric power is among the most expensive in Europe. Enei, the dominant generator in the country, is converting its oil-fired plants to gas to increase efficiency and reduce emissions. Combined cycle gas turbine plants are seen as the best way to enter the Italian market. Eni has much gas under 'take or pay' contracts but eventually their grip on the market will be loosened and international players such as Edison, BG Italia BP Shell, and Italian distributors such as AEM Milano, AEM Torino, and ACEA Roma may find new opportunities on offer

  16. Renewable energies. Italy is mobilizing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marante, W.

    2005-01-01

    About 3 quarter of the Italian electric power comes from fossil fuel power plants. The rest is generated from hydropower, few comes from biomass and wind energy and a very few from geothermal energy (2% of the national production). However, the situation is changing and geothermal energy, with only 5 TWh, makes Italy the European leader in this domain and the world number 4 behind USA, Philippines and Mexico. The renewable sources represent 18.5% of the total Italian energy production. During the last five years, the renewable energy sources have developed rapidly: +80% per year for the wind energy, +32% per year for biomass and about +3% per year for geothermal energy. Moreover, the Italian government is implementing incentives for the development of renewable energy sources. This article gives an overview of the situation. (J.S.)

  17. Extensive Genome Rearrangements and Multiple Horizontal Gene Transfers in a Population of Pyrococcus Isolates from Vulcano Island, Italy▿ †

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, James R.; Escobar-Paramo, Patricia; Mongodin, Emmanuel F.; Nelson, Karen E.; DiRuggiero, Jocelyne

    2008-01-01

    The extent of chromosome rearrangements in Pyrococcus isolates from marine hydrothermal vents in Vulcano Island, Italy, was evaluated by high-throughput genomic methods. The results illustrate the dynamic nature of the genomes of the genus Pyrococcus and raise the possibility of a connection between rapidly changing environmental conditions and adaptive genomic properties. PMID:18723649

  18. Fukushima fallout at Milano, Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ioannidou, Alexandra; Manenti, Simone; Luigi Gini,; Groppi, Flavia

    2012-01-01

    The radionuclides 131 I, 137 Cs and 134 Cs were observed in the Milano region (45°) of Italy early after the nuclear accident in Fukushima, Japan. Increased atmospheric radioactivity was observed on an air filter taken on 30 March 2011, while the maximum activity of 467 μBq m −3 for 131 I was recorded at April 3–4, 2011. The first evidence of Fukushima fallout was confirmed with 131 I and 137 Cs measured in precipitation at two sampling sites at Milano on 28 March, 2011, with the concentrations of 131 I and 137 Cs in the rainwater equal to 0.89 Bq L −1 and 0.12 Bq L −1 , respectively. A sample of dry deposition that was collected 9 days after the first rainfall event of 27–28 March, 2011 showed that the dry deposition was more effective in the case of 137 Cs than it was for 131 I, probably because iodine was mainly in gaseous form whereas caesium was rapidly bound to aerosols and thus highly subject to dry deposition. The relatively high observed values of 137 Cs in grass, soil and fresh goat and cow milk samples were probably from Chernobyl fallout and global fallout from past nuclear tests rather than from the Fukushima accident. Finally, a dose assessment for the region of investigation showed clearly that the detected activities in all environmental samples were very far below levels of concern. - Highlights: ► Radioactive plume from Fukushima reactor accident reached Milano, Italy. ► 131 I, 137 Cs and 134 Cs were determined in rainwater, air, soil, grass and milk samples. ► The 134 Cs/ 137 Cs activity ratio values in air was about 1. ► High observed values of 137 Cs in grass, soil and milk samples are not due to Fukushima accident. ► The dose assessment show that the observed activities are very far below levels of concern.

  19. Vancouver Island gas supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Des Brisay, C.

    2005-01-01

    Terasen Gas is pursuing alternatives for the supply of additional natural gas capacity to Vancouver Island. Its subsidiary, Terasen Gas (Vancouver Island) Inc. (TGVI), is responding to the need for delivery of increased gas supply and, is supporting plans for new gas-fired power generation on Vancouver Island. TGVI's proposal for new natural gas capacity involves a combination of compression and pipeline loops as well as the addition of a storage facility for liquefied natural gas (LNG) at Mt. Hayes to help manage price volatility. This presentation outlined the objectives and components of the resource planning process, including demand forecast scenarios and the preferred infrastructure options. tabs., figs

  20. Island formation without attractive interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, A.P.J.

    2008-01-01

    We show that adsorbates on surfaces can form islands even if there are no attractive interactions. Instead, strong repulsion between adsorbates at short distances can lead to islands, because such islands increase the entropy of the adsorbates that are not part of the islands. We suggest that this

  1. Ancient Martian aeolian processes and palaeomorphology reconstructed from the Stimson formation on the lower slope of Aeolis Mons, Gale crater, Mars

    OpenAIRE

    Banham, Steven G.; Gupta, Sanjeev; Rubin, David M.; Watkins, Jessica A.; Sumner, Dawn Y.; Edgett, Kenneth S.; Grotzinger, John P.; Lewis, Kevin W.; Edgar, Lauren A.; Stack-Morgan, Kathryn M.; Barnes, Robert; Bell, James F., III; Day, Mackenzie D.; Ewing, Ryan C.; Lapotre, Mathieu G. A.

    2018-01-01

    Reconstruction of the palaeoenvironmental context of Martian sedimentary rocks is central to studies of ancient Martian habitability and regional palaeoclimate history. This paper reports the analysis of a distinct aeolian deposit preserved in Gale crater, Mars, and evaluates its palaeomorphology, the processes responsible for its deposition, and its implications for Gale crater geological history and regional palaeoclimate. Whilst exploring the sedimentary succession cropping out on the nort...

  2. The National Wind Erosion Research Network: Building a standardized long-term data resource for aeolian research, modeling and land management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Nicholas P.; Herrick, Jeffrey E.; Van Zee, Justin W; Courtright, Ericha M; Hugenholtz, Ted M; Zobeck, Ted M; Okin, Gregory S.; Barchyn, Thomas E; Billings, Benjamin J; Boyd, Robert A.; Clingan, Scott D; Cooper, Brad F; Duniway, Michael C.; Derner, Justin D.; Fox, Fred A; Havstad, Kris M.; Heilman, Philip; LaPlante, Valerie; Ludwig, Noel A; Metz, Loretta J; Nearing, Mark A; Norfleet, M Lee; Pierson, Frederick B; Sanderson, Matt A; Sharrat, Brenton S; Steiner, Jean L; Tatarko, John; Tedela, Negussie H; Todelo, David; Unnasch, Robert S; Van Pelt, R Scott; Wagner, Larry

    2016-01-01

    The National Wind Erosion Research Network was established in 2014 as a collaborative effort led by the United States Department of Agriculture’s Agricultural Research Service and Natural Resources Conservation Service, and the United States Department of the Interior’s Bureau of Land Management, to address the need for a long-term research program to meet critical challenges in wind erosion research and management in the United States. The Network has three aims: (1) provide data to support understanding of basic aeolian processes across land use types, land cover types, and management practices, (2) support development and application of models to assess wind erosion and dust emission and their impacts on human and environmental systems, and (3) encourage collaboration among the aeolian research community and resource managers for the transfer of wind erosion technologies. The Network currently consists of thirteen intensively instrumented sites providing measurements of aeolian sediment transport rates, meteorological conditions, and soil and vegetation properties that influence wind erosion. Network sites are located across rangelands, croplands, and deserts of the western US. In support of Network activities, http://winderosionnetwork.org was developed as a portal for information about the Network, providing site descriptions, measurement protocols, and data visualization tools to facilitate collaboration with scientists and managers interested in the Network and accessing Network products. The Network provides a mechanism for engaging national and international partners in a wind erosion research program that addresses the need for improved understanding and prediction of aeolian processes across complex and diverse land use types and management practices.

  3. Provenance of marbles used for building the internal spiral staircase of the bell tower of St. Nicholas Church (Pisa, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lezzerini, Marco; Antonelli, Fabrizio; Gallello, Gianni; Ramacciotti, Mirco; Parodi, Luca; Alberti, Antonio; Pagnotta, Stefano; Legnaioli, Stefano; Palleschi, Vincenzo

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the provenance of marbles used as architectural elements (bases, shafts and capitals of columns) for building the internal spiral staircase of the medieval bell tower of St. Nicholas Church at Pisa, Italy. Accordingly, the 45 collected marble samples have been analysed by optical microscopy, X-ray powder diffraction and mass spectroscopy for carbon and oxygen stable isotope ratio analysis; additionally, SEM-EDS analysis have been performed to complement data about accessory minerals. By comparison with literature data on the main sources of the white Mediterranean marbles used in ancient times, the results show that the analysed samples are mainly white crystalline marbles from Carrara (Italy) and, subordinately, from other Tuscan and Eastern Mediterranean quarrying areas. In fact, Mt. Pisano and Campiglia M.ma (Tuscany, Italy) and Marmara (Turkey), Paros, Mt. Penteli, Thasos (Greece) are minor sources. The other coloured stones identified on the strength of their macroscopic features are quartzites from Mt. Pisano area and granitoids from Sardinia and Island of Elba (Italy). Occasionally, a very limited number of architectonical elements made up of Acquabona limestone from Rosignano Marittimo (Livorno, Italy), red limestone with ammonites (the so-called "Rosso Ammonitico") and black limestone belonging to the Tuscan Nappe sequence, outcropping at northwest of Pisa in the nearby Monti d'Oltre Serchio area, are present.

  4. An aeolian or a glaciolacustrine record? A case study from Mieļupīte, Middle Gauja Lowland, northeast Latvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nartišs Māris

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In the Middle Gauja Lowland, northeast Latvia, dunes are distributed over a vast glaciolacustrine plain that formed during the retreat of the Fennoscandian ice sheet. Such a direct contact between aeolian and glaciolacustrine sediments can be used to infer depositional settings and decipher to what extent these sediments bear an aeolian component. Our proxies, although preliminary, reveal a limited range of variation in grain-size parameters, a significant presence of quartz grains with silica precipitation and matt-surface grains of various rounding degrees and massive structure combined with horizontal lamination. These are indicative of periglacial-aeolian depositional conditions in the foreland of the Linkuva ice-marginal zone. Sedimentary characteristics do not match a single luminescence date of 9.2±0.6 ka, which significantly postdates the minimum age of the Linkuva ice-marginal zone with 10Be ages between 15.4 and 12.0 ka. Whether deposition started directly after drainage of the Middle Gauja ice-dammed lake or if there is a gap of 2.8–6.2 ka is a matter of debate; only future studies at higher OSL resolution could resolve this.

  5. Coalescence of magnetic islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pellat, R.

    1982-01-01

    The paper gives the analytical theory of the coalescence instability and of a new, one island, instability. These instabilities are expected to be relevant for the disruptions observed in Tokamak experiments and astrophysical plasmas

  6. Heat Island Compendium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heat islands can be mitigated through measures like planting trees and vegetation, installing green roofs and cool roofs, and using cool pavements. The compendium describes all of these strategies and shows how communities around the country are being used

  7. Three Mile Island revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacLeod, G.K.

    1986-01-01

    The accident at Three Mile Island proved that the Pennsylvania Department of Health lacked the tools to deal with the serious health consequences that occurred during and after this emergency. Despite the relative safety of nuclear power generation, we must be better prepared for the health and medical consequences of serous radiation emergencies. The author reviews the Three Mile Island accident through the eyes of newspaper reporters

  8. Natural gas supply and demand in Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comaschi, C.; Di Giulio, E.; Sormani, E.

    2007-01-01

    This article explores the dynamics between natural gas supply and demand in Italy. In order to supply Italy with increasing volumes of gas, several new pipelines and re gasification plants are expected in the next future, but their implementation is uncertain. Thus, there exist the possibility of natural gas shortage in the future. On the other hand, if all the expected projects will be implemented, situations of oversupply cannot be excluded. A system dynamics model deepens such as issue [it

  9. Biofuels in Italy: obstacles and development opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pignatelli, Vito; Clementi, Chiara

    2006-01-01

    Today biofuels are the sole realistically practical way to reduce CO 2 emissions in the transportation sector. In many countries, including Italy, biofuel production and use are already a reality corresponding to a large agro-industrial production system that uses essentially mature technologies. To significantly lower production costs and optimise land use, Italy needs to develop new, second-generation biofuel production operations that can offer significant opportunities to the nation's agro-industrial sector [it

  10. Islands and Islandness in Rock Music Lyrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Mezzana

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a first exploration, qualitative in character, based on a review of 412 songs produced in the period 1960-2009, about islands in rock music as both social products and social tools potentially contributing to shaping ideas, emotions, will, and desires. An initial taxonomy of 24 themes clustered under five meta-themes of space, lifestyle, emotions, symbolism, and social-political relations is provided, together with some proposals for further research.

  11. Basaltic lava flows covering active aeolian dunes in the Paraná Basin in southern Brazil: Features and emplacement aspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waichel, Breno L.; Scherer, Claiton M. S.; Frank, Heinrich T.

    2008-03-01

    Burial of active aeolian dunes by lava flows can preserve the morphology of the dunes and generate diverse features related to interaction between unconsolidated sediments and lavas. In the study area, located in southern Brazil, burial of aeolian deposits by Cretaceous basaltic lava flows completely preserved dunes, and generate sand-deformation features, sand diapirs and peperite-like breccia. The preserved dunes are crescentic and linear at the main contact with basalts, and smaller crescentic where interlayered with lavas. The various feature types formed on sediment surfaces by the advance of the flows reflect the emplacement style of the lavas which are compound pahoehoe type. Four feature types can be recognized: (a) type 1 features are related to the advance of sheet flows in dune-interdune areas with slopes > 5°, (b) type 2 is formed where the lava flows advance in lobes and climb the stoss slope of crescentic dunes (slopes 8-12°), (c) type 3 is generated by toes that descend the face of linear dunes (slopes 17-23°) and (d) type 4 occurs when lava lobes descend the stoss slope of crescentic dunes (slopes 10-15°). The direction of the flows, the disposition and morphology of the dunes and the ground slope are the main factors controlling formation of the features. The injection of unconsolidated sand in lava lobes forms diapirs and peperite-like breccias. Sand diapirs occur at the basal portion of lobes where the lava was more solidified. Peperite-like breccias occur in the inner portion where lava was more plastic, favoring the mingling of the components. The generation of both features is related to a mechanical process: the weight of the lava causes the injection of sand into the lava and the warming of the air in the pores of the sand facilitates this process. The lava-sediment interaction features presented here are consistent with previous reports of basalt lavas with unconsolidated arid sediments, and additional new sand-deformation features

  12. The Holocene evolution of the beach and inland aeolian sand of the north-central Mediterranean coast of Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roskin, Joel; Sivan, Dorit; Bookman, Revital; Shteinberg, Gilad

    2015-04-01

    Israel's coastal geomorphology, situated within a Mediterranean climate zone, is characterized by parallel Pleistocene aeolianite ridges, coastal cliffs of aeolianite, and sandy beaches. Lobe-like fields of predominantly stable transverse and parabolic quartz sand dunes protrude 2-7 km inland from the current Mediterranean Sea coastline. However, their migration and accumulation history is still not well-defined. This study focuses on the Holocene appearance, chronology and drivers of beach sand deposition and inland aeolian sand transport along the Caesarea-Hadera dunefield in the north-central coastal plain of Israel. In order to achieve these goals, a detailed field survey and sampling campaign was carried out along a west-east and southwest-northeast transect, loyal to the advancement orientations of the currently stable dunes and directions of dominant sand transporting winds. Beach sand, a foredune, a linear dune, and interdunes of parabolic and transverse dunes were sampled down to their aeolianite or red loam (locally named hamra) palaeosol substrate by drilling and analyzing exposed sections. The sampled sediments were sedimentologically analyzed and twenty-five were dated by optically stimulated luminescence (OSL). The results indicate that beach sand started to accumulate rapidly around 6 ka probably in response to global sea level stabilization. Until around 4 ka, thin sand sheets encroached 2-3 km inland. Sand ages in the range of 1.2-1.1 ka (8th-9th century CE -- Early Moslem period) were found throughout the study area, suggesting a major mobilization of sand, followed by stabilization around 0.6 ka and pedogenesis. By 1.2 ka, the sands had reached their current extent of 5-7 km inland, suggesting transport in a southwest-northeast orientation similar to the advancement orientation of the current transverse and parabolic dunes. The particle-size distributions of the fine to medium-sized aeolian sand showed minor variation linked to inland transport

  13. Robotic surgery in Italy national survey (2011).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoro, Eugenio; Pansadoro, Vito

    2013-03-01

    Robotic surgery in Italy has become a clinical reality that is gaining increasing acceptance. As of 2011 after the United States, Italy together with Germany is the country with the largest number of active Robotic centers, 46, and da Vinci Robots installed, with at least 116 operators already trained. The number of interventions performed in Italy in 2011 exceeded 6,000 and in 2010 were 4,784, with prevalence for urology, general surgery and gynecology, however these interventions have also begun to be applied in other fields such as cervicofacial, cardiothoracic and pediatric surgery. In Italy Robotic centers are mostly located in Northern Italy, while in the South there are only a few centers, and four regions are lacking altogether. Of the 46 centers which were started in 1999, the vast majority is still operational and almost half handle over 200 cases a year. The quality of the work is also especially high with large diffusion of radical prostatectomy in urology and liver resection and colic in general surgery. The method is very well accepted among operators, over 80 %, and among patients, over 95 %. From the analysis of world literature and a survey carried out in Italy, Robotic surgery, which at the moment could be better defined as telesurgery, represents a significant advantage for operators and a consistent gain for the patient. However, it still has important limits such as high cost and non-structured training of operators.

  14. Middle Pleistocene palaeoenvironmental changes of the eastern Canary Islands - revealed by the Mála dune-palaeosol-sequence at Lanzarote (Canary Islands)

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Suchodoletz, H.; Zöller, L.; Hilgers, A.; Radtke, U.; Faust, D.

    2012-04-01

    The Canary Islands are located at the transition between the Mediterranean and the Saharan climate off NW-Africa. Thus, they are a key area for the investigation of palaeoenvironmental changes. Several terrestrial studies investigated the palaeoenvironmental development of that region during the later part of the last glacial cycle. However, apart from recent investigations of "vega" sediments on Lanzarote Island (Suchodoletz et al. 2010) the palaeoenvironmental evolution during the Middle Pleistocene is hardly studied yet, basically due to the lack of reliable geochronological data. The Mála dune-palaeosol-sequence is located in the north of Lanzarote. It consists of marine shell detritus originally blown out from the insular shelf during periods of low global sea level, and to a small part of Saharan dust and fine quartz sand. The aeolian layers are intercalated with up to eight silty-clayey palaeosol horizons. Unlike the dune sands, the soils indicate stable landscape conditions with trapping of Saharan dust. Using a combination of ESR and luminescence dating techniques, we are able to place this sequence into the Middle Pleistocene, in contrast to former investigations based on 14C datings postulating a Late Pleistocene age (Ortiz et al. 2006). As a consequence, clayey-silty palaeosols represent periods of stable landscape conditions in the Canarian region during the Middle Pleistocene, which we compare with marine palaeoclimatic studies from the area.

  15. Outstanding accumulation of Sphagnum palustre in central-southern Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casella, Laura; Zaccone, Claudio

    2017-04-01

    Lake Fibreno is a site where some outstanding anomalies for the flora and vegetation of the wetlands of peninsular Italy are concentrated. Here one the southernmost European population of Sphagnum palustre occurs, and is restricted on the surface of a free-floating island, i.e., a round-shaped portion of fen (with a core of Sphagnum), erratically floating on the surface of a submerged sinkhole. Geological evidences point out the existence in the area of a large lacustrine basin since Late Pleistocene. The progressive filling of the lake, caused by changing in climatic conditions and neotectonic events, resulted in the formation of peat deposits in the area, following different depositional cycles in a swampy environment. So that, the studied free-floating island, probably originated around lake margins in the waterlogged area, was somehow isolated from the bank and started to float. Once the separation occurred, sedge peat stopped to accumulate, thus enhancing the role of S. palustre as the main peat-forming plant. The vegetation occurring at the moment of the isolation of the island was a coverage of Salix cinerea/Populus tremula stands below which cushions of moss and, in a lower extent, Thelypteris palustris/Equisetum palustre accumulated resulting in the formation of 2-3 meters of peat dominated by reeds and sedges. This vegetation has been partially degraded by grazing until 1970s, while in 1980s the lake became a nature reserve. Since then, the succession could resume in a spontaneous and natural way and it was possible for the vegetation to recover to natural dynamics and growing rate. The Sphagnum tussocks were measured in an empirical way at a distance of about 60 years after the last signaling and the result was a measurement of an accretion open to about 70 cm thick. Moreover, in a recent study, a 4-m deep peat core was collected from the centre of the island and results were surprising. In fact, 14C age dating, confirmed using 210Pb and 137Cs, showed

  16. Approach and institutions in Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trenta, G.

    1989-01-01

    In order to identify those who require training and information, a brief description is given of the organizational framework which exists in Italy to deal with the radiological aspects of nuclear emergencies. Because the basic training varies and the different fields involve a wide range of tasks, specific information and training are required and should also cover the psychological implications of the subject. We therefore go on to examine the various methods and instruments used in giving training in and information on radiation protection and radiation pathology to the various categories of people working in the fields of prevention, care and treatment. We also describe to what extent the positions of qualified expert and approved doctor are formally recognized academically and administratively; both have an important part to play in terms of providing information and taking action both before and during emergency situations. Lastly, we single out certain aspects of the criteria and methods involved in training and information which could be useful for other countries

  17. [Urinalysis in Italy in 2006].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gai, M; Lanfranco, G

    2007-01-01

    Urinalysis and proteinuria testing represent fundamental tests for the clinician, even though they too often lack standardization. Through the Italian Society of Nephrology Mailing List we sent a questionnaire to 282 centers, in order to assess the state of the art in Italy in the year 2006. 82% of the questionnaires were completed (nephrology laboratories: 64%, general laboratories: 36%). The questionnaire dealt with the main steps of preparation, analysis and report of urinalysis, and proteinuria / microalbuminuria measurement. 85% of the centers use first morning urine, and 7% second morning urine; only 57% of the centers supply with written instructions, 189 laboratories (82%) have only one bright field microscope, rate and time of centrifugation are very varied among centers, different units of measurement are used in reports. Few laboratories measure routinely the proteinuria / creatininuria ratio, there is no agreement on the urine sample type for microalbuminuria assay, total urinary proteins are measured through different methods. 92% of the centers is endowed with an internal quality control system, but only 47% participate in an external quality control program. These data confirm the lack of standardization for urine analysis methods and procedures.

  18. Ancient Martian aeolian processes and palaeomorphology reconstructed from the Stimson formation on the lower slope of Aeolis Mons, Gale crater, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banham, Steve G.; Gupta, Sanjeev; Rubin, David M.; Watkins, Jessica A.; Sumner, Dawn Y.; Edgett, Kenneth S.; Grotzinger, John P.; Lewis, Kevin W.; Edgar, Lauren; Stack, Kathryn M.; Barnes, Robert; Bell, Jame F. III; Day, Mackenzie D.; Ewing, Ryan C.; Lapotre, Mathieu G.A.; Stein, Nathan T.; Rivera-Hernandez, Frances; Vasavada, Ashwin R.

    2018-01-01

    Reconstruction of the palaeoenvironmental context of Martian sedimentary rocks is central to studies of ancient Martian habitability and regional palaeoclimate history. This paper reports the analysis of a distinct aeolian deposit preserved in Gale crater, Mars, and evaluates its palaeomorphology, the processes responsible for its deposition, and its implications for Gale crater geological history and regional palaeoclimate. Whilst exploring the sedimentary succession cropping out on the northern flank of Aeolis Mons, Gale crater, the Mars Science Laboratory rover Curiosity encountered a decametre‐thick sandstone succession, named the Stimson formation, unconformably overlying lacustrine deposits of the Murray formation. The sandstone contains sand grains characterized by high roundness and sphericity, and cross‐bedding on the order of 1 m in thickness, separated by sub‐horizontal bounding surfaces traceable for tens of metres across outcrops. The cross‐beds are composed of uniform thickness cross‐laminations interpreted as wind‐ripple strata. Cross‐sets are separated by sub‐horizontal bounding surfaces traceable for tens of metres across outcrops that are interpreted as dune migration surfaces. Grain characteristics and presence of wind‐ripple strata indicate deposition of the Stimson formation by aeolian processes. The absence of features characteristic of damp or wet aeolian sediment accumulation indicate deposition in a dry aeolian system. Reconstruction of the palaeogeomorphology suggests that the Stimson dune field was composed largely of simple sinuous crescentic dunes with a height of ca10 m, and wavelengths of ca 150 m, with local development of complex dunes. Analysis of cross‐strata dip‐azimuths indicates that the general dune migration direction and hence net sediment transport was towards the north‐east. The juxtaposition of a dry aeolian system unconformably above the lacustrine Murray formation represents starkly

  19. Divergent taxonomic and functional responses of microbial communities to field simulation of aeolian soil erosion and deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xingyu; Zhao, Cancan; Gao, Ying; Liu, Bin; Wang, Tengxu; Yuan, Tong; Hale, Lauren; Nostrand, Joy D Van; Wan, Shiqiang; Zhou, Jizhong; Yang, Yunfeng

    2017-08-01

    Aeolian soil erosion and deposition have worldwide impacts on agriculture, air quality and public health. However, ecosystem responses to soil erosion and deposition remain largely unclear in regard to microorganisms, which are the crucial drivers of biogeochemical cycles. Using integrated metagenomics technologies, we analysed microbial communities subjected to simulated soil erosion and deposition in a semiarid grassland of Inner Mongolia, China. As expected, soil total organic carbon and plant coverage were decreased by soil erosion, and soil dissolved organic carbon (DOC) was increased by soil deposition, demonstrating that field simulation was reliable. Soil microbial communities were altered (p soil erosion and deposition, with dramatic increase in Cyanobacteria related to increased stability in soil aggregates. amyA genes encoding α-amylases were specifically increased (p = .01) by soil deposition and positively correlated (p = .02) to DOC, which likely explained changes in DOC. Surprisingly, most of microbial functional genes associated with carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium cycling were decreased or unaltered by both erosion and deposition, probably arising from acceleration of organic matter mineralization. These divergent responses support the necessity to include microbial components in evaluating ecological consequences. Furthermore, Mantel tests showed strong, significant correlations between soil nutrients and functional structure but not taxonomic structure, demonstrating close relevance of microbial function traits to nutrient cycling. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. A Wireless Sensor Network for the Real-Time Remote Measurement of Aeolian Sand Transport on Sandy Beaches and Dunes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozzebon, Alessandro; Cappelli, Irene; Mecocci, Alessandro; Bertoni, Duccio; Sarti, Giovanni; Alquini, Fernanda

    2018-03-08

    Direct measurements of aeolian sand transport on coastal dunes and beaches is of paramount importance to make correct decisions about coast management. As most of the existing studies are mainly based on a statistical approach, the solution presented in this paper proposes a sensing structure able to orient itself according to wind direction and directly calculate the amount of wind-transported sand by collecting it and by measuring its weight. Measurements are performed remotely without requiring human action because the structure is equipped with a ZigBee radio module, which periodically sends readings to a local gateway. Here data are processed by a microcontroller and then transferred to a remote data collection centre, through GSM technology. The ease of installation, the reduced power consumption and the low maintenance required, make the proposed solution able to work independently, limiting human intervention, for all the duration of the expected experimental campaign. In order to analyze the cause-effect relationship between the transported sand and the wind, the sensing structure is integrated with a multi-layer anemoscope-anemometer structure. The overall sensor network has been developed and tested in the laboratory, and its operation has been validated in field through a 48 h measurement campaign.

  1. Land Use Changes of an Aeolian-Loessial Soil Area in Northwest China: Implications for Ecological Restoration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Yu-Fu; LIU Yan-Sui; WANG Jing; YAN Jian-Ping; GUO Xu-Dong

    2009-01-01

    China has experienced dramatic land use changes over recent decades,with marked environmental and socio-economic consequences.Hcngshan County,located in the aeolian-loessial area of Northwest China,was investigated to illustrate land use changes and their implications for environmental and long-term rural economic development.The farmland in Hengshan County significantly decreased during 1990-2003,whereas forest land and grassland increased.The conversion rates of farmland,orchard land,forest land and construction land varied markedly among different periods:1990-1995,1995-2000 and 2000-2003.Conversion of orchard land,grassland and construction land was dominant in 1990-1995,whereas the conversion of farmland to forest land mainly occurred in 2000-2003.The results suggested a profound transition in institutional policy and political economy of land management,including implementation of integrated soil erosion control projects,adoption of a market-oriented economy and the 'Grain-for-Green' policy,during this period in China.To achieve long-term sustainable land use in Hengshan County,efforts should aim at increasing off-farm income of rural families as well as establishing land-economizing mechanisms to promote land productivity,in addition to conservation measures.

  2. Abundances of Volatile - Bearing Species from Evolved Gas Analysis of Samples from the Rocknest Aeolian Bedform in Gale Crater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, P. D., Jr.; Franc, H. B.; Sutter, B.; McAdam, A.; Ming, D. W.; Morris, R. V.; Mahaffy, P. R.

    2013-01-01

    The Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) instrument suite on board the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) recently ran four samples from an aeolian bedform named Rocknest. SAM detected the evolution of H2O, CO2, O2, and SO2, indicative of the presence of multiple volatile bearing species (Fig 1). The Rocknest bedform is a windblown deposit selected as representative of both the windblown material in Gale crater as well as the globally-distributed martian dust. Four samples of Rocknest material were analyzed by SAM, all from the fifth scoop taken at this location. The material delivered to SAM passed through a 150 m sieve and is assumed to have been well mixed during the sample acquisition/preparation/handoff process. SAM heated the Rocknest samples to approx.835 C at a ramp rate of 35 C/min with a He carrier gas flow rate of apprx.1.5 standard cubic centimeters per minute and at an oven pressure of 30 mbar [1]. Evolved gases were detected by a quadrupole mass spectrometer (QMS). This abstract presents the molar abundances of H2O, CO2, O2, and SO2 as well as their concentration in rocknest samples using an estimated sample mass.

  3. A Wireless Sensor Network for the Real-Time Remote Measurement of Aeolian Sand Transport on Sandy Beaches and Dunes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappelli, Irene; Mecocci, Alessandro; Alquini, Fernanda

    2018-01-01

    Direct measurements of aeolian sand transport on coastal dunes and beaches is of paramount importance to make correct decisions about coast management. As most of the existing studies are mainly based on a statistical approach, the solution presented in this paper proposes a sensing structure able to orient itself according to wind direction and directly calculate the amount of wind-transported sand by collecting it and by measuring its weight. Measurements are performed remotely without requiring human action because the structure is equipped with a ZigBee radio module, which periodically sends readings to a local gateway. Here data are processed by a microcontroller and then transferred to a remote data collection centre, through GSM technology. The ease of installation, the reduced power consumption and the low maintenance required, make the proposed solution able to work independently, limiting human intervention, for all the duration of the expected experimental campaign. In order to analyze the cause-effect relationship between the transported sand and the wind, the sensing structure is integrated with a multi-layer anemoscope-anemometer structure. The overall sensor network has been developed and tested in the laboratory, and its operation has been validated in field through a 48 h measurement campaign. PMID:29518060

  4. Identifying drought response of semi-arid aeolian systems using near-surface luminescence profiles and changepoint analysis, Nebraska Sandhills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckland, Catherine; Bailey, Richard; Thomas, David

    2017-04-01

    Two billion people living in drylands are affected by land degradation. Sediment erosion by wind and water removes fertile soil and destabilises landscapes. Vegetation disturbance is a key driver of dryland erosion caused by both natural and human forcings: drought, fire, land use, grazing pressure. A quantified understanding of vegetation cover sensitivities and resultant surface change to forcing factors is needed if the vegetation and landscape response to future climate change and human pressure are to be better predicted. Using quartz luminescence dating and statistical changepoint analysis (Killick & Eckley, 2014) this study demonstrates the ability to identify step-changes in depositional age of near-surface sediments. Lx/Tx luminescence profiles coupled with statistical analysis show the use of near-surface sediments in providing a high-resolution record of recent system response and aeolian system thresholds. This research determines how the environment has recorded and retained sedimentary evidence of drought response and land use disturbances over the last two hundred years across both individual landforms and the wider Nebraska Sandhills. Identifying surface deposition and comparing with records of climate, fire and land use changes allows us to assess the sensitivity and stability of the surface sediment to a range of forcing factors. Killick, R and Eckley, IA. (2014) "changepoint: An R Package for Changepoint Analysis." Journal of Statistical Software, (58) 1-19.

  5. Aeolian transport of seagrass ( Posidonia oceanica ) beach-cast to terrestrial systems

    KAUST Repository

    Jiménez, Maria A.

    2017-06-29

    The annual export of the Mediterranean seagrass (Posidonia oceanica) litter to adjacent beaches and coastal dunes was quantified by examining the fortnight evolution of seagrass beach-cast volume on two beaches in the NW Mediterranean (Son Real and Es Trenc, Mallorca Island, Spain) for two years and analyzing the wind speed and direction obtained from the closest Meteorological Spanish Agency surface weather stations. The decomposition stage of the deposits was examined by analyzing the total hydrolysable amino acids, its percentage distribution and derived degradation indexes. Prevalent winds exceeding 6 m s−1, the coastline morphology and type of terrestrial vegetation determine the annual dynamics of the seagrass beach-cast. In the most protected beach (Son Real) the seagrass beach-cast remained nearly stationary during the two studied years while it exhibited wide annual fluctuations in the less protected one (Es Trenc). The amounts of P. oceanica wrack washed on Son Real and Es Trenc beaches, respectively, were estimated at 309 kg DW m coastline−1 yr−1 and 1359 kg DW m coastline−1 yr−1. They supplied between 20 kg CaCO3 m coastline−1 yr−1 and 47 kg CaCO3 m coastline−1 yr−1. Between 54% (Son Real) and 70% (Es Trenc) of seagrass beach-cast, respectively accounting for 1.5 kg N m coastline−1 yr−1 and 8.6 kg N m coastline−1 yr−1, were annually exported from the beaches to adjacent dune systems. Our results reveal that Mediterranean seagrass meadows might be an important source of materials, including sand and nutrients, for adjacent terrestrial systems, able to support their functioning.

  6. Aeolian transport of seagrass (Posidonia oceanica) beach-cast to terrestrial systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, Maria A.; Beltran, Rafel; Traveset, Anna; Calleja, Maria Ll; Delgado-Huertas, Antonio; Marbà, Núria

    2017-09-01

    The annual export of the Mediterranean seagrass (Posidonia oceanica) litter to adjacent beaches and coastal dunes was quantified by examining the fortnight evolution of seagrass beach-cast volume on two beaches in the NW Mediterranean (Son Real and Es Trenc, Mallorca Island, Spain) for two years and analyzing the wind speed and direction obtained from the closest Meteorological Spanish Agency surface weather stations. The decomposition stage of the deposits was examined by analyzing the total hydrolysable amino acids, its percentage distribution and derived degradation indexes. Prevalent winds exceeding 6 m s-1, the coastline morphology and type of terrestrial vegetation determine the annual dynamics of the seagrass beach-cast. In the most protected beach (Son Real) the seagrass beach-cast remained nearly stationary during the two studied years while it exhibited wide annual fluctuations in the less protected one (Es Trenc). The amounts of P. oceanica wrack washed on Son Real and Es Trenc beaches, respectively, were estimated at 309 kg DW m coastline-1 yr-1 and 1359 kg DW m coastline-1 yr-1. They supplied between 20 kg CaCO3 m coastline-1 yr-1 and 47 kg CaCO3 m coastline-1 yr-1. Between 54% (Son Real) and 70% (Es Trenc) of seagrass beach-cast, respectively accounting for 1.5 kg N m coastline-1 yr-1 and 8.6 kg N m coastline-1 yr-1, were annually exported from the beaches to adjacent dune systems. Our results reveal that Mediterranean seagrass meadows might be an important source of materials, including sand and nutrients, for adjacent terrestrial systems, able to support their functioning.

  7. Aeolian transport of seagrass ( Posidonia oceanica ) beach-cast to terrestrial systems

    KAUST Repository

    Jimé nez, Maria A.; Beltran, Rafel; Traveset, Anna; Calleja, Maria Ll; Delgado-Huertas, Antonio; Marbà , Nú ria

    2017-01-01

    The annual export of the Mediterranean seagrass (Posidonia oceanica) litter to adjacent beaches and coastal dunes was quantified by examining the fortnight evolution of seagrass beach-cast volume on two beaches in the NW Mediterranean (Son Real and Es Trenc, Mallorca Island, Spain) for two years and analyzing the wind speed and direction obtained from the closest Meteorological Spanish Agency surface weather stations. The decomposition stage of the deposits was examined by analyzing the total hydrolysable amino acids, its percentage distribution and derived degradation indexes. Prevalent winds exceeding 6 m s−1, the coastline morphology and type of terrestrial vegetation determine the annual dynamics of the seagrass beach-cast. In the most protected beach (Son Real) the seagrass beach-cast remained nearly stationary during the two studied years while it exhibited wide annual fluctuations in the less protected one (Es Trenc). The amounts of P. oceanica wrack washed on Son Real and Es Trenc beaches, respectively, were estimated at 309 kg DW m coastline−1 yr−1 and 1359 kg DW m coastline−1 yr−1. They supplied between 20 kg CaCO3 m coastline−1 yr−1 and 47 kg CaCO3 m coastline−1 yr−1. Between 54% (Son Real) and 70% (Es Trenc) of seagrass beach-cast, respectively accounting for 1.5 kg N m coastline−1 yr−1 and 8.6 kg N m coastline−1 yr−1, were annually exported from the beaches to adjacent dune systems. Our results reveal that Mediterranean seagrass meadows might be an important source of materials, including sand and nutrients, for adjacent terrestrial systems, able to support their functioning.

  8. Heron Island, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Heron Island is located at the sourthern end of Australia's 2,050 km-long Great Barrier Reef. Surrounded by coral reef and home to over 1000 species of fish, scuba divers and scientists alike are drawn to the island's resort and research station. The true-color image above was taken by Space Imaging's Ikonos satellite with a resolution of 4 meters per pixel-high enough to see individual boats tied up at the small marina. The narrow channel leading from the marina to the ocean was blasted and dredged decades ago, before the island became a national park. Since then the Australian government has implemented conservation measures, such as limiting the number of tourists and removing or recycling, instead of incinerating, all trash. One of the applications of remote sensing data from Ikonos is environmental monitoring, including studies of coral reef health. For more information about the island, read Heron Island. Image by Robert Simmon, based on data copyright Space Imaging

  9. Hospitalisation among immigrants in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraci Salvatore

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Immigration is increasing in Italy. In 2003, 2.6 million foreign citizens lived in the country; 52% were men and the majority were young adults who migrated for work. The purpose of this study was to investigate differences in hospitalisation between immigrants and the resident population during the year 2000 in the Lazio region. Methods Hospital admissions of immigrants from Less Developed Countries were compared to those of residents. We measured differences in hospitalisation rates and proportions admitted. Results Adult immigrants have lower hospitalisation rates than residents (134.6 vs. 160.5 per thousand population for acute care; 26.4 vs. 38.3 for day care. However, hospitalisation rates for some specific causes (injuries, particularly for men, infectious diseases, deliveries and induced abortions, ill-defined conditions were higher for immigrants than for residents. Immigrants under 18 years seem to be generally healthy; causes of admission in this group are similar to those of residents of the same age (respiratory diseases, injuries and poisoning. The only important differences are for infectious and parasitic diseases, with a higher proportion among immigrant youths. Conclusion The low hospitalisation rates for foreigners may suggest that they are a population with good health status. However, critical areas, related to poor living and working conditions and to social vulnerability, have been identified. Under-utilisation of services and low day care rates may be partially due to administrative, linguistic, and cultural barriers. As the presence of foreigners becomes an established phenomenon, it is important to evaluate their epidemiological profile, develop instruments to monitor and fulfil their specific health needs and plan health services for a multi-ethnic population.

  10. Climate risk index for Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mysiak, Jaroslav; Torresan, Silvia; Bosello, Francesco; Mistry, Malcolm; Amadio, Mattia; Marzi, Sepehr; Furlan, Elisa; Sperotto, Anna

    2018-06-01

    We describe a climate risk index that has been developed to inform national climate adaptation planning in Italy and that is further elaborated in this paper. The index supports national authorities in designing adaptation policies and plans, guides the initial problem formulation phase, and identifies administrative areas with higher propensity to being adversely affected by climate change. The index combines (i) climate change-amplified hazards; (ii) high-resolution indicators of exposure of chosen economic, social, natural and built- or manufactured capital (MC) assets and (iii) vulnerability, which comprises both present sensitivity to climate-induced hazards and adaptive capacity. We use standardized anomalies of selected extreme climate indices derived from high-resolution regional climate model simulations of the EURO-CORDEX initiative as proxies of climate change-altered weather and climate-related hazards. The exposure and sensitivity assessment is based on indicators of manufactured, natural, social and economic capital assets exposed to and adversely affected by climate-related hazards. The MC refers to material goods or fixed assets which support the production process (e.g. industrial machines and buildings); Natural Capital comprises natural resources and processes (renewable and non-renewable) producing goods and services for well-being; Social Capital (SC) addressed factors at the individual (people's health, knowledge, skills) and collective (institutional) level (e.g. families, communities, organizations and schools); and Economic Capital (EC) includes owned and traded goods and services. The results of the climate risk analysis are used to rank the subnational administrative and statistical units according to the climate risk challenges, and possibly for financial resource allocation for climate adaptation. This article is part of the theme issue `Advances in risk assessment for climate change adaptation policy'.

  11. Reconstructing Holocene shore displacement and Stone Age palaeogeography from a foredune sequence on Ruhnu Island, Gulf of Riga, Baltic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muru, Merle; Rosentau, Alar; Preusser, Frank; Plado, Jüri; Sibul, Ivo; Jõeleht, Argo; Bjursäter, Stefan; Aunap, Raivo; Kriiska, Aivar

    2018-02-01

    Holocene shore displacement and the palaeogeography of Late Mesolithic and Late Neolithic settlements on Ruhnu Island, Gulf of Riga, were reconstructed using foredune sequence luminescence dating, sedimentological data supported by ground-penetrating radar analysis, and GIS-based landscape modelling. The foredune ridges consist of very well to well sorted fine- to medium-grained aeolian sand and are underlain by seaward dipping foreshore sediments. The studied sequence of 38 ridges was formed between 6.91 ± 0.58 ka and 2.54 ± 0.19 ka ago, and represents a period of falling relative sea level. Foredune plain progradation, with average rates of 0.3-0.6 m per year, was controlled by isostatic land uplift, which caused a continuous withdrawal of shorelines to lower elevations. The dated foredune succession was used to reconstruct the coastal palaeogeography of the island. Palaeogeographical reconstructions show that during two phases of Late Mesolithic habitation, at ca. 7.2 cal. ka BP and 6.2 cal. ka BP, seal hunters settled the coastal zone of Ruhnu Island. Based on tool material and pottery type they could have originated from Saaremaa Island, which according to palaeoreconstruction of the Gulf of Riga, was located approximately 70 km northwest of Ruhnu Island during the Late Mesolithic. Later signs of human occupation, radiocarbon dated to ca. 4.7 cal. ka BP, were from the centre of the island, hundreds of metres away from the shore at about 8 m above its contemporary sea level. This Late Neolithic habitation shows a clearly different pattern than earlier coastal settlement, and suggests a shift in subsistence strategy towards agriculture and animal husbandry.

  12. Small Island Visitor Attractions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haven Allahar

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This article proposes a process framework for developing and managing visitor attractions (VA in small island developing states with Trinidad and Tobago, a two-island state in the Caribbean, as the case study. An extensive literature review was conducted, supported by field observations, individual depth interviews, and small and large focus group meetings. The process framework identified four sets of processes: national policy formulation and legislation; inventory, classification, evaluation, and ranking of VA; general operations management involving project management activities; and site specific activities of development, operations, and maintenance. The value of the framework lies in the fact that no similar framework applicable to small islands was covered in the literature and validation was obtained from a panel of experts and a cross section of tourism stakeholders in Tobago.

  13. "Pittura Romeica" in Italy: Artistic transfers across the Adriatic sea (18th - 19th centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenia Drakopoulou

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The complex historical reality of the Adriatic region, an area located even today on the borderline between East and West, is reflected in the works of religious painting and in the painters’ geographical movements. The art of Orthodox regions was mainly influenced by Venice, but also by the rest of Italy, and, as a result, a unique art emerged in the Ionian Islands, which remained under Venetian control until the end of the eighteenth century. In the course of the eighteenth century, political and economic conditions contributed to the growth of the Orthodox communities in Italy. Their members were interested in the art of the country where they lived and prospered, but they simultaneously wished to preserve the “pittura romeica” in the decorations of churches and in the icons used for their personal worship. From Naples to the cosmopolitan Trieste, Orthodox painters, coming mainly from the Ionian Islands, produced artworks which were adapted to the new surroundings, thereby making the Adriatic region once again a privileged area for cultural exchanges.

  14. Island of Luzon, Philippines

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    In this north to south view of the Island of Luzon, Philippines (13.0N, 120.0E), the prominent Cordillera Central mountain range where gold, copper and silver are mined. The several large rivers that drain this region normally carry a heavy silt load to the sea but the absence of sediment plumes in this view is evidence of hot dry weather and lack of recent rains. Manila, the capital city is just visible at the south end of the island.

  15. Chatham Islands Climate Change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mullan, B.; Salinger, J.; Thompson, C.; Ramsay, D.; Wild, M.

    2005-06-01

    This brief report provides guidance on climate change specific to the Chatham Islands, to complement the information recently produced for local government by the Ministry for the Environment in 'Climate Change Effects and Impacts Assessment: A guidance manual for Local Government in New Zealand' and 'Coastal Hazards and Climate Change: A guidance manual for Local Government in New Zealand'. These previous reports contain a lot of generic information on climate change, and how to assess associated risks, that is relevant to the Chatham Islands Council.

  16. Island in the Air

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Dorthe Gert

    2017-01-01

    In this article, I explore the formation of airspace in Britain from 1910 to 1913. The technology of flight challenged the “flat discourse” of nationalized geography, drawing up instead a volumetric space in the sky as airplanes flew from the Continent to England. The drive to control aerial...... extension of the Island Kingdom, extrapolating its coastal borders into the sky. However, even as Parliament passed the Aerial Navigation Act in 1913, this legal construction of an island in the air could not endure the agency of airplanes. The formation of airspace, I argue, is a history particularly well...

  17. Archaeoastronomy of Easter Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Edmundo

    Astronomer priests or "skywatchers" on Easter Island lived in stone towers that were used as observatories and built stone markers in the periphery that indicated the heliacal rising of certain stars that served to indicate the arrival of marine birds, turtles, the offshore fishing season, and times for planting and harvest. Petroglyphs related to such sites depict outriggers, fishhooks, pelagic fish, and turtles and supposedly represented a star map. In this chapter, we analyze a set of such skywatchers dwellings, and stone markers located upon the North coast of Easter Island that have astronomic orientations, its related petroglyphs, and the relations between these directions with their yearly activities and their ritual calendar.

  18. Long Island Solar Farm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anders, R.

    2013-05-01

    The Long Island Solar Farm (LISF) is a remarkable success story, whereby very different interest groups found a way to capitalize on unusual circumstances to develop a mutually beneficial source of renewable energy. The uniqueness of the circumstances that were necessary to develop the Long Island Solar Farm make it very difficult to replicate. The project is, however, an unparalleled resource for solar energy research, which will greatly inform large-scale PV solar development in the East. Lastly, the LISF is a superb model for the process by which the project developed and the innovation and leadership shown by the different players.

  19. [Human Papilloma Virus (HPV), cervical cancer incidence and screening uptake: differences among Northern, Central and Southern Italy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giorgi Rossi, Paolo; Chini, Francesco; Borgia, Piero; Guasticchi, Gabriella; Carozzi, Francesca Maria; Confortini, Massimo; Angeloni, Claudio; Buzzoni, Carlotta; Buonaguro, Franco Maria

    2012-01-01

    this article presents a review of evidences about Human Papillomavirus (HPV) and cervical cancer in Italy, highlighting geographical differences. two systematic reviews recently published were updated, one collecting studies on the prevalence of HPV types in Italy in the general population and the other collecting prevalence of HPV types in cervical pathologic samples.The search was updated to 31.10.2010 and performed exclusively in MedLine and references in retrieved papers. the prevalence of HPV types has been related with the incidence of cervical cancer and the spread of Pap tests and screening programs. the prevalence high risk HPV types is 8%in studies with population-based random sample, with no significant difference between Centre-North and South-Islands, however, the prevalence is slightly higher in the South than the Centre-North for women up to 54 years of age, whereas in older women the ratio is reversed. HPV 16 is the most common type, while HPV 18 is less frequent, 5% and 1% respectively. The average of HPV 16 positivity is 64% and 68% in CIN2/3 and invasive cancer respectively, while the average of HPV 18 is 7% and 11% in CIN2/3 and invasive cancer respectively. There are no significant differences by geographical area.The incidence of invasive cervical cancer in Italy has been decreasing in recent years changing from 9.2 to 7.7 per 100,000 inhabitants in 10 years. The incidence is lower in South-Islands. Pap test coverage is over 80% in Centre-North and less than 60%in South-Islands. cervical cancer incidence is lower in Southern Italy, while the Pap test coverage is much higher in Centre-Northern Italy. This paradox, until now, has been interpreted as a consequence of a lower HPV prevalence in Southern than Northern regions. Recent studies on HPV prevalence do not confirm this hypothesis. Our interpretation is that in Southern Italy we are facing an epidemiologic scenario in transition where the low cancer incidence is the consequence of a low HPV

  20. Country policy profile - Italy. December 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-12-01

    In Italy, Renewable energy sources in are promoted through price and tax regulations mechanisms. Several kinds of feed-in and premium tariffs co-exist besides tendering schemes depending on technology and size of RES systems. Additionally regional support schemes exist for RES electricity. The thermal (heating and cooling) energy generated from renewable energies is incentivized through tax regulation and loans. A quota system is presently used for bio-fuels (transport). Under the country's NREAP, Italy has set a renewable energy target (electricity) of 26% to be achieved by 2020. The 2012 total share of renewable energy in Italy amounted to 13.5%; the target for 2020 has been defined as 17% (source: 'The State of Renewable Energies in Europe', 2013 edition)

  1. The dialect in Italy after the union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Grochowska

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Italian dialects occupy an important position in the history of Italian linguistics and are still present and relevant in the linguistic panorama of modern Italy. The purpose of this article is to outline the linguistic image of Italy by drawing attention to its dialects. Through analysis of the situation after unification in Italy in 1861, the author attempts to mark off functions and roles which dialects used to serve. In the second part of the article she concentrates on the phenomena of nuova dialettalità, or the new perspective and collocation of dialect in the Italian linguistic panorama of the 21st century. This article is a part of a research project dedicated to functions and uses of dialects in the Italian cinematography.

  2. Islanded operation of distribution networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    This report summarises the results of a study assessing the benefits and risks to distribution network of generator islanding and examining the technical, commercial and regulatory changes required to facilitate the operation of islanding. The background to the study is traced, and details are given of a literature review, the technical criteria for operating sections of the network in islanding mode, and the impact of islanding on trading. Case studies and a detailed implementation plan, data acquisition, and commercial incentives are discussed.

  3. Islanded operation of distribution networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This report summarises the results of a study assessing the benefits and risks to distribution network of generator islanding and examining the technical, commercial and regulatory changes required to facilitate the operation of islanding. The background to the study is traced, and details are given of a literature review, the technical criteria for operating sections of the network in islanding mode, and the impact of islanding on trading. Case studies and a detailed implementation plan, data acquisition, and commercial incentives are discussed

  4. Anthelmintics efficacy against intestinal strongyles in horses of Sardinia, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Sanna

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Intestinal strongyles (IS are the most important parasites of equids, due to their high prevalence worldwide, pathogenicity and the spread of drug-resistant populations. Despite the large number of horses bred in Sardinia Island, Italy, no data are available on the efficacy of anthelmintic compounds in the control of horse strongylosis. Therefore the aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of five commercial anthelmintic formulations containing fenbendazole (FBZ, pyrantel (PYR, moxidectin (MOX and two ivermectin formulations (IVM1 and IVM2 against IS in Sardinia by performing a fecal egg count reduction test (FECRT and investigating the egg reappearance period (ERP after treatment. In total, 74 horses from 7 farms were examined. Coprocultures performed for individual fecal samples collected at the day of the treatment revealed that cyathostomins were the predominant parasitic species (98.6%. The FECR for all horses belonging to the treatment groups after two weeks was ≥95% with a 95% C.I. >90%. The expected ERP did not decrease in any of the treatment group as FECR values 90% for the entire duration of the trial until D150. The results of the present survey indicate that drug-resistant cyathostomin populations are not present in the examined horse population, contrariwise to what observed in other Italian and European regions. The reasons and implications of these results are discussed.

  5. The Impact of Urbanization on the Regional Aeolian Dynamics of an Arid Coastal Dunefield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Alexander; Jackson, Derek; Cooper, Andrew

    2016-04-01

    The anthropogenic impact on the geomorphology of many landscapes are inextricably connected but are often neglected due to the difficulty in making a direct link between the quasi natural and human processes that impact the environment. This research focuses on the Maspalomas dunefield, located on the southern coast of Gran Canaria, in the Canary Island Archipelago. The tourism industry in Maspalomas has led to intensive urbanization since the early 1960's over an elevated alluvial terrace that extends into the dunefield. Urbanization has had a substantial impact on both the regional airflow conditions and the geomorphological development of this transverse dune system. As a result airflow and sediment has been redirected in response to the large scale construction efforts. In situ data was collected during field campaigns using high resolution three-dimensional anemometry to identify the various modifications within the dunefield relative to incipient regional airflow conditions. The goal is to analyse the flow conditions near the urbanized terrace in relation to areas that are located away from the influence of the buildings and to verify numerical modelling results. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) modelling is used in order to expand the areal extent of analysis by providing an understanding of relevant flow dynamics (e.g. flow velocity, directionality, turbulence, shear stresses, etc.) at the mesoscale. An integrative three dimensional model for CFD simulations was created to address the impact of both the urban area (i.e. hotels, commercial centers, and residential communities) as well as the dune terrain on regional flow conditions. Early modelling results show that there is significant flow modification around the urban terrace with streamline compression, acceleration, and deflection of flow on the windward side of the development. Consequently downwind of the terrace there is an area of highly turbulent flow conditions and well developed separation and

  6. Pediatrics in the Marshall Islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dungy, C.I.; Morgan, B.C.; Adams, W.H.

    1984-01-01

    The delivery of health care to children living on isolated island communities presents unique challenges to health professionals. An evolved method of providing longitudinal services to infants and children residing on islands of the Marshall Island chain - a central Pacific portion of the Micronesian archipelago - is presented. The difficulties associated with provision of comprehensive health care in a vast ocean area are discussed

  7. The Island Smart Energy System and Market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Zheng; Billanes, Joy Dalmacio; Jørgensen, Bo Nørregaard

    2017-01-01

    developing island smart energy systems with the integration of renewable energy resources can increase the energy supply and address the global island energy issues. The island smart energy system operates either in a single-island or in multi-islands. However the island characteristics and influ...

  8. The reception of Austrian economics in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Magliulo

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays the Austrian School enjoys high reputation in Italy: books by Mises, Hayek and other Austrian economists are constantly republished and reviewed with great interest, both inside and outside academic circles. The situation was very different decades ago, when just a few Italian economists devoted attention to the Austrian School. This work studies the reception of Austrian Economics in Italy, from the beginning to our days, so as to bring out, by way of comparison, relevant features of Italian economic culture. We will try to offer just an overview of the entire story, in an attempt to provide useful elements for a deeper analysis of further topics and periods.

  9. Solomon Islands Botany

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenis, van C.G.G.J.

    1969-01-01

    A discussion of the Results of the Royal Society Expedition to the British Solomon Islands Protectorate, 1965. Organized by E.J.H. Corner. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B 255 (1969) 185-631, 196 fig. University Printing House, Shaftesbury Road, Cambridge. Obtainable through booksellers or direct to the Royal

  10. Pacific Island Pharmacovigilance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McEwen, John; Vestergaard, Lasse S.; Sanburg, Amanda L C

    2016-01-01

    Many Pacific Island countries (PICs) are recipients of funding support from the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (Global Fund). However, most of these countries cannot be expected to meet Global Fund and World Health Organization (WHO) minimum requirements for a functioning...

  11. Magnetic-island formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boozer, A.H.

    1983-08-01

    The response of a finite conductivity plasma to resonant magnetic perturbations is studied. The equations, which are derived for the time development of magnetic islands, help one interpret the singular currents which occur under the assumption of perfect plasma conductivity. The relation to the Rutherford regime of resistive instabilities is given

  12. Bone island and leprosy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carpintero, P.; Garcia-Frasquet, A. [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Cordoba University, Medical School, Reina Sofia University Hospital, Cordoba (Spain); Tarradas, E. [Department of Imaging, Cordoba University, Medical School, Cordoba (Spain); Logrono, C. [Department of Dermatology, Reina Sofia University Hospital, Cordoba (Spain); Carrascal, A. [Department of Radiology, Infanta Elena Hospital, Huelva (Spain); Carreto, A. [Department of Radiology, Reina Sofia University Hospital, Cordoba (Spain)

    1998-06-01

    Objective. To determine the incidence of bone islands in leprosy patients. Design. X-rays of feet and hands of patients with Hansen`s disease (leprosy) were reviewed retrospectively. A second group of related age- and sex-matched patients who did not have Hansen`s disease was used for control purposes. Controls had undergone hand or foot X-rays during diagnosis of other pathologies. The patients with Hansen`s disease were compared with the control group, and were also analyzed as subgroups with different types of leprosy. The results were subjected to statistical analysis. Patients. Ninety patients with Hansen`s disease were randomly selected for this study. Patients who had had ulcers on hands or feet were excluded from the study. Results and conclusions. Bone islands were demonstrated in 20 patients with Hansen`s disease; no bone islands were observed in the controls. This was statistically significant (P<0.01). Bone islands were only seen in patients with lepromatous leprosy and borderline types but were not demonstrated in patients with tuberculoid leprosy. There was also a statistically significant relationship for a disease duration of 15 years or more. The cause of this raised incidence of enostosis in leprosy patients is not clear, but there may be a genetic predisposition in patients with leprosy, or it may be a side effect of leprosy, especially the lepromatous form. (orig.) With 4 figs., 2 tabs., 9 refs.

  13. Bone island and leprosy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpintero, P.; Garcia-Frasquet, A.; Tarradas, E.; Logrono, C.; Carrascal, A.; Carreto, A.

    1998-01-01

    Objective. To determine the incidence of bone islands in leprosy patients. Design. X-rays of feet and hands of patients with Hansen's disease (leprosy) were reviewed retrospectively. A second group of related age- and sex-matched patients who did not have Hansen's disease was used for control purposes. Controls had undergone hand or foot X-rays during diagnosis of other pathologies. The patients with Hansen's disease were compared with the control group, and were also analyzed as subgroups with different types of leprosy. The results were subjected to statistical analysis. Patients. Ninety patients with Hansen's disease were randomly selected for this study. Patients who had had ulcers on hands or feet were excluded from the study. Results and conclusions. Bone islands were demonstrated in 20 patients with Hansen's disease; no bone islands were observed in the controls. This was statistically significant (P<0.01). Bone islands were only seen in patients with lepromatous leprosy and borderline types but were not demonstrated in patients with tuberculoid leprosy. There was also a statistically significant relationship for a disease duration of 15 years or more. The cause of this raised incidence of enostosis in leprosy patients is not clear, but there may be a genetic predisposition in patients with leprosy, or it may be a side effect of leprosy, especially the lepromatous form. (orig.)

  14. Discovery of a landscape-wide drape of late-glacial aeolian silt in the western Northern Calcareous Alps (Austria): First results and implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gild, Charlotte; Geitner, Clemens; Sanders, Diethard

    2018-01-01

    Aeolian deposits record palaeoenvironmental conditions and may coin soil properties. Whereas periglacial loess is extensively investigated for 200 years, the study of the intramontane wind-blown deposits of the Alps has just stuttered along. Herein, we describe a drape of polymictic siliciclastic silt interpreted as an aeolian deposit that veneers extensive areas in the western Northern Calcareous Alps (NCA), from kames terraces near valley floors up to last-glacial nunataks. The NCA - part of the Eastern Alps mountain range - consist mainly of Triassic carbonate rocks; these are overlain by deposits of the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) and its deglacial-paraglacial aftermath (e.g., glacial tills, fluvio-lacustrine successions, alluvial fans, scree slopes) - and a regional drape of polymictic silt newly described herein. The drape is typically a few decimeters in thickness and slightly modified by soil formation; it consists mainly of well-sorted silt of quartz, feldspars, phyllosilicates (muscovite, chlorite, biotite), amphiboles and, rarely, calcite or dolomite. The drape is unrelated to the substrate: it overlies carbonate bedrock and - in lateral continuity - abandoned deposystems such as colluvial slopes of redeposited till, kames, alluvial fans, scree slopes, and rock avalanche deposits. The drape was spotted from near the present valley floors up to LGM nunataks, over a vertical range of some 2000 m; it is also present in catchments of the NCA that were not overridden by far-travelled ice streams and that lack metamorphic rock fragments. Two OSL quartz ages of the drape from two distinct locations (18.77 ± 1.55 ka; 17.81 ± 1.68 ka) fall into the early Alpine late-glacial interval shortly after the collapse of pleniglacial ice streams; this fits with geological and geomorphological evidence, respectively, that the drape should be of early late-glacial age, and that it accumulated during a specific interval of time. In the NCA, localized minor deposition of

  15. [Inequalities in health in Italy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caiazzo, Antonio; Cardano, Mario; Cois, Ester; Costa, Giuseppe; Marinacci, Chiara; Spadea, Teresa; Vannoni, Francesca; Venturini, Lorenzo

    2004-01-01

    Socioeconomic inequality and its impact on health is a growing concern in the European public health debate. In many countries, the issue is moving away from description towards the identification of the determinants of inequalities and the development of policies explicitly aimed at reducing inequalities in health. In Italy, ten years after the publication of the first report on inequalities in health, this topic is seldom present on the agenda of public policy makers. The purpose of this report is to update the Italian profile of social variation in health and health care in order to stimulate the debate on ways to tackle inequalities in health that are preventable. In the first section of this book, the threefold objective is to describe the principal mechanisms involved in the generation of social inequalities in health (Introduction); to report Italian data on the distribution and magnitude of this phenomenon in the last decade; and to evaluate policies and interventions in both the social (chapter 1.9, Section I) and the health sector (chapter 2.3, Section I), which are potentially useful to reduce health inequalities. It is intended for anyone who is in a position to contribute t o decision-making that will benefit the health of communities. For this reason, chapters are organized by specific determinants of inequalities on which interentions may have an impact. The methodological approach in the second section focuses on the best methods to monitor social inequalities including recommendations on social indicators, sources of information and study models, based on European guidelines revised for the Italian situation. According to data from national and local studies, mortality increases linearly with social disadvantage for a wide range of indicators at both the individual (education, social class, income, quality of housing) and the geographical level (deprivation indexes computed at different levels of aggregation). This positive correlation is evident

  16. Multidecadal shoreline changes of atoll islands in the Marshall Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, M.

    2012-12-01

    Atoll islands are considered highly vulnerable to the impacts of continued sea level rise. One of the most commonly predicted outcomes of continued sea level rise is widespread and chronic shoreline erosion. Despite the widespread implications of predicted erosion, the decadal scale changes of atoll island shorelines are poorly resolved. The Marshall Islands is one of only four countries where the majority of inhabited land is comprised of reef and atoll islands. Consisting of 29 atolls and 5 mid-ocean reef islands, the Marshall Islands are considered highly vulnerable to the impacts of sea level rise. A detailed analysis of shoreline change on over 300 islands on 10 atolls was undertaken using historic aerial photos (1945-1978) and modern high resolution satellite imagery (2004-2012). Results highlight the complex and dynamic nature of atoll islands, with significant shifts in shoreline position observed over the period of analysis. Results suggest shoreline accretion is the dominant mode of change on the islands studied, often associated with a net increase in vegetated island area. However, considerable inter- and intra-atoll variability exists with regards to shoreline stability. Findings are discussed with respect to island morphodynamics and potential hazard mitigation and planning responses within atoll settings.

  17. Evidence for Perchlorates and the Origin of Chlorinated Hydrocarbons Detected by SAM at the Rocknest Aeolian Deposit in Gale Crater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glavin, Daniel P.; Freissinet, Caroline; Miller, Kristen E.; Eigenbrode, Jennifer L.; Brunner, Anna E.; Buch, Arnaud; Sutter, Brad; Archer, P. Douglas, Jr.; Atreya, Sushil K.; Brinckerhoff, William B.; hide

    2013-01-01

    A single scoop of the Rocknest aeolian deposit was sieved (less than 150 micrometers), and four separate sample portions, each with a mass of approximately 50 mg, were delivered to individual cups inside the Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) instrument by the Mars Science Laboratory rover's sample acquisition system. The samples were analyzed separately by the SAM pyrolysis evolved gas and gas chromatograph mass spectrometer analysis modes. Several chlorinated hydrocarbons including chloromethane, dichloromethane, trichloromethane, a chloromethylpropene, and chlorobenzene were identified by SAM above background levels with abundances of approximately 0.01 to 2.3 nmol. The evolution of the chloromethanes observed during pyrolysis is coincident with the increase in O2 released from the Rocknest sample and the decomposition of a product of N-methyl-N-(tert-butyldimethylsilyl)-trifluoroacetamide (MTBSTFA), a chemical whose vapors were released from a derivatization cup inside SAM. The best candidate for the oxychlorine compounds in Rocknest is a hydrated calcium perchlorate (Ca(ClO4)2·nH2O), based on the temperature release of O2 that correlates with the release of the chlorinated hydrocarbons measured by SAM, although other chlorine-bearing phases are being considered. Laboratory analog experiments suggest that the reaction of Martian chlorine from perchlorate decomposition with terrestrial organic carbon from MTBSTFA during pyrolysis can explain the presence of three chloromethanes and a chloromethylpropene detected by SAM. Chlorobenzene may be attributed to reactions of Martian chlorine released during pyrolysis with terrestrial benzene or toluene derived from 2,6-diphenylphenylene oxide (Tenax) on the SAM hydrocarbon trap. At this time we do not have definitive evidence to support a nonterrestrial carbon source for these chlorinated hydrocarbons, nor do we exclude the possibility that future SAM analyses will reveal the presence of organic compounds native to the

  18. Natural and human controls of the Holocene evolution of the beach, aeolian sand and dunes of Caesarea (Israel)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roskin, J.; Sivan, D.; Shtienberg, G.; Roskin, E.; Porat, N.; Bookman, R.

    2015-12-01

    The study focuses on the Holocene appearance, chronology and drivers of beach sand deposition and inland aeolian sand transport around the Roman-Byzantine ruins of Caesarea, Israel. Beach sand, sand sheets, nebkha, linear and transverse dunes as well as parabolic and transverse interdunes along two transects were sampled in the current study down to their substrate. Sixteen new optically stimulated luminescence ages cluster at ∼5.9-3.3 ka, ∼1.2-1.1 ka (800-900 AD) and ∼190-120 years ago (1825-1895 AD) indicating times of middle and late Holocene sand sheet depositions and historical dune stabilization. The first age cluster indicates that beach sand accumulated when rates of global sea level rise declined around 6-5 ka. Until ∼4 ka sand sheets encroached up to 2.5 km inland. Historical and archaeological evidence points to sand mobilization since the first century AD. Sand sheets dating to 1.2-1.1 ka, coevally found throughout the dunefield represent sand stabilization due to vegetation reestablishment attributed to gradual and fluctuating decline in human activity from the middle Early Islamic period until the 10th century. Historical and chronological evidence of the existence of transverse and coppice dunes from the 19th century suggest that dunes only formed in the last few centuries. The study illustrates the initial role of natural processes, in this case decline in global sea level rise and the primary and later role of fluctuating human activity upon coastal sand mobility. The study distinguishes between sand sheets and dunes and portrays them as sensors of environmental changes.

  19. Sulfur-Bearing Phases Detected by Evolved Gas Analysis of the Rocknest Aeolian Deposit, Gale Crater, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcadam, Amy Catherine; Franz, Heather Bryant

    2014-01-01

    The Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) instrument suite detected SO2, H2S, OCS, and CS2 from approx.450 to 800 C during evolved gas analysis (EGA) of materials from the Rocknest aeolian deposit in Gale Crater, Mars. This was the first detection of evolved sulfur species from a Martian surface sample during in situ EGA. SO2(approx. 3-22 micro-mol) is consistent with the thermal decomposition of Fe sulfates or Ca sulfites, or evolution/desorption from sulfur-bearing amorphous phases. Reactions between reduced sulfur phases such as sulfides and evolved O2 or H2O in the SAM oven are another candidate SO2 source. H2S (approx.41-109 nmol) is consistent with interactions of H2O, H2 and/or HCl with reduced sulfur phases and/or SO2 in the SAM oven. OCS (approx.1-5 nmol) and CS2(approx.0.2-1 nmol) are likely derived from reactions between carbon-bearing compounds and reduced sulfur. Sulfates and sulfites indicate some aqueous interactions, although not necessarily at the Rocknest site; Fe sulfates imply interaction with acid solutions whereas Ca sulfites can form from acidic to near-neutral solutions. Sulfides in the Rocknest materials suggest input from materials originally deposited in a reducing environment or from detrital sulfides from an igneous source. The presence of sulfides also suggests that the materials have not been extensively altered by oxidative aqueous weathering. The possibility of both reduced and oxidized sulfur compounds in the deposit indicates a nonequilibrium assemblage. Understanding the sulfur mineralogy in Rocknest materials, which exhibit chemical similarities to basaltic fines analyzed elsewhere on Mars, can provide insight in to the origin and alteration history of Martian surface materials.

  20. The response of source-bordering aeolian dunefields to sediment-supply changes 1: Effects of wind variability and river-valley morphodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankey, Joel B.; Kasprak, Alan; Caster, Joshua; East, Amy E.; Fairley, Helen C.

    2018-06-01

    Source-bordering dunefields (SBDs), which are primarily built and maintained with river-derived sediment, are found in many large river valleys and are currently impacted by changes in sediment supply due to climate change, land use changes, and river regulation. Despite their importance, a physically based, applied approach for quantifying the response of SBDs to changes in sediment supply does not exist. To address this knowledge gap, here we develop an approach for quantifying the geomorphic responses to sediment-supply alteration based on the interpretation of dunefield morphodynamics from geomorphic change detection and wind characteristics. We use the approach to test hypotheses about the response of individual dunefields to variability in sediment supply at three SBDs along the Colorado River in Grand Canyon, Arizona, USA during the 11 years between 2002 and 2013 when several river floods rebuilt some river sandbars and channel margin deposits that serve as sediment source areas for the SBDs. We demonstrate that resupply of fluvially sourced aeolian sediment occurred at one of the SBDs, but not at the other two, and attribute this differential response to site-specific variability in geomorphology, wind, and sediment source areas. The approach we present is applied in a companion study to shorter time periods with high-resolution topographic data that bracket individual floods in order to infer the resupply of fluvially sourced aeolian sediment to SBDs by managed river flows. Such an applied methodology could also be useful for measuring sediment connectivity and anthropogenic alterations of connectivity in other coupled fluvial-aeolian environments.

  1. The response of source-bordering aeolian dunefields to sediment-supply changes 1: Effects of wind variability and river-valley morphodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankey, Joel B.; Kasprak, Alan; Caster, Joshua; East, Amy; Fairley, Helen C.

    2018-01-01

    Source-bordering dunefields (SBDs), which are primarily built and maintained with river-derived sediment, are found in many large river valleys and are currently impacted by changes in sediment supply due to climate change, land use changes, and river regulation. Despite their importance, a physically based, applied approach for quantifying the response of SBDs to changes in sediment supply does not exist. To address this knowledge gap, here we develop an approach for quantifying the geomorphic responses to sediment-supply alteration based on the interpretation of dunefield morphodynamics from geomorphic change detection and wind characteristics. We use the approach to test hypotheses about the response of individual dunefields to variability in sediment supply at three SBDs along the Colorado River in Grand Canyon, Arizona, USA during the 11 years between 2002 and 2013 when several river floods rebuilt some river sandbars and channel margin deposits that serve as sediment source areas for the SBDs. We demonstrate that resupply of fluvially sourced aeolian sediment occurred at one of the SBDs, but not at the other two, and attribute this differential response to site-specific variability in geomorphology, wind, and sediment source areas. The approach we present is applied in a companion study to shorter time periods with high-resolution topographic data that bracket individual floods in order to infer the resupply of fluvially sourced aeolian sediment to SBDs by managed river flows. Such an applied methodology could also be useful for measuring sediment connectivity and anthropogenic alterations of connectivity in other coupled fluvial-aeolian environments.

  2. 75 FR 67105 - Granular Polytetrafluoroethylene Resin From Italy and Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-01

    ... Polytetrafluoroethylene Resin From Italy and Japan AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION... resin from Italy and Japan. SUMMARY: The Commission hereby gives notice that it has instituted reviews... revocation of the antidumping duty orders on granular polytetrafluoroethylene resin from Italy and Japan...

  3. Beach ridge sedimentology: field observation and palaeoenvironmental interpretation for Anegada Island, British Virgin Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cescon, Anna Lisa; Cooper, J. Andrew G.; Jackson, Derek W. T.

    2014-05-01

    Beach ridge landforms have been observed in different environments and in settings that range from polar to tropical. Their stratigraphy and sedimentology has received a limited amount of discussion in the literature (Tamura, 2012). In coastal geomorphology a beach ridge can be seen as a transitional deposit between onshore and offshore environments. They are regarded as representing high level wave action along a coastline. In the Caribbean the origin of beach ridges has been variously attributed to one of three extreme wave events: extreme swell, extreme storm or tsunami waves. Beach ridges are arranged in beach ridge plains where there is succession of the landforms and can be several kilometres long. Beach ridge accumulation is not continuous and the coast shows alternating accretion and erosion periods. The use of beach ridges as palaeostorm archives is therefore not straightforward. The temporal continuity of beach ridge formation is being assessed on the beach ridge plains of Anegada, British Virgin Islands (Lesser Antilles). This carbonate platform surrounded by a fringing reef contains two beach ridge plains. There are more than 30 ridges in the Atlantic facing- coast and around 10 in the south, Caribbean- facing coast. The sediments of the modern beaches are dominated by the sand fraction and are 100% biogenic origin due to the isolation of Anegada from terrestrial sediment sources. The beach ridge sections have been studied in different area of Anegada beach ridge plains and present low angle seaward-dipping bedding. The sand fraction is dominant in the stratigraphy with a few intact shells. At only one site were coral pebbles deposited in association with the sand fraction. Aeolian deposits represent the upper part of the beach ridges and reflect the stabilization of the beach ridges with ongoing accretion. The sedimentology of the contemporary beach and dunes will be discussed in terms of their implications for understanding beach ridge genesis and its

  4. Education for Older People in Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Principi, Andrea; Lamura, Giovanni

    2009-01-01

    This article provides information on trends in formal and informal adult education in Italy, with a particular focus on the older learners (over 65). Main providers, programs, objectives/motivations, and financial and legal framework are described. In general, over-65-year-old people were found to be underrepresented in participation. They were…

  5. Actors in Corruption: Business Politicians in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    della Porta, Donatella

    1996-01-01

    Argues that the development of political corruption brings about important changes in the political system and in the characteristics of the political class. Describes the emergence and activities of a group of "business politicians" in Italy who have transformed political parties into socializing agencies for illicit activities. (MJP)

  6. Competitiveness and environmental protection in Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ronchi, E.

    2000-01-01

    In presenting his Ministry's annual report for 1999, the Italian Environment Minister pointed out that after years of emergency-driven policies, Italy has finally embarked on far-reaching environmental reform designed to generate sustainable, lasting and high-quality development [it

  7. Measuring the income process in Italy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bucciol, A.

    2012-01-01

    We use a panel dataset from the SHIW survey to study the features of household income in Italy. Income is described as a combination of deterministic and random components. In aggregate deterministic income grows at an average annual rate of 1.8% net of inflation, shocks feature stationarity, and

  8. Postgraduate Courses in Pharmaceutical Medicine in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domenico Criscuolo

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Italy has a significant tradition of excellence in the area of clinical trials (CTRs: important achievements in the clinical development of rifampicin and adriamycin, the two most famous drugs discovered in the research laboratories of two Italian pharmaceutical companies, paved the way to the establishment of a culture of clinical development, mainly in the areas of antimicrobials and oncology. Despite the fact that now the Italian market of pharmaceuticals is largely dominated by multinational companies with headquarters outside Italy, the contribution of Italian studies to the clinical development of new drugs is still significant. Indeed, it largely exceeds the percentage of Italian inhabitants versus the ones living in the remaining EU countries, as Italy has about 12% of EU population, but has a 17% share of the EU CTRs. Education in Pharmaceutical Medicine is now a must for all professionals interested to work either in pharma companies or in contract research organizations: several Italian universities are offering high quality courses, and in the last 10 years, more than 1,200 professionals received a postgraduate education in pharmaceutical medicine. This result places Italy on top of countries concerned about the professional education of people involved in drug development and will represent an asset for a larger involvement of Italian clinical sites in the global process of clinical research.

  9. Big Data Research in Italy: A Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Bergamaschi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to synthetically describe the research projects that a selection of Italian universities is undertaking in the context of big data. Far from being exhaustive, this article has the objective of offering a sample of distinct applications that address the issue of managing huge amounts of data in Italy, collected in relation to diverse domains.

  10. Relationship between Quarry Activity and Municipal Spatial Planning: A Possible Mediation for the Case of Sardinia, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ginevra Balletto

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite its economic importance, quarrying activity for the production of natural aggregates (sand, gravel, and crushed stone can result in overexploitation of the natural environment. This paper investigates the current state of natural and recycled aggregates in Sardinia Italy and how to limit the production of natural aggregates (NA and increase the use of recycled aggregates (RA. The municipalities of Cagliari, Sant’Antioco and Tortolì of Sardinia, Italy, were chosen as case studies because they fall within a particular territorial context. Owing to its geographic condition, the island of Sardinia must produce its own raw materials. The results of this research show how the combined use of NA and RA can help meet local and regional demand for aggregates. This proposal is derived from a needs assessment of NA based on urban masterplans for each municipality. Possible strategies for limiting the consumption of NA, as well as the use of RA, are also described.

  11. Braidplain, floodplain and playa lake, alluvial-fan, aeolian and palaeosol facies composing a diversified lithogenetical sequence in the permian and triassic of South Devon (England)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mader, Detlef

    The Permian and Triassic of South Devon (England) are a continental red bed sequence of very diversified lithogenetical composition. Within the thick series, the distribution of the main depositional environments being fluvial braidplain, fluvial floodplain and playa lake, alluvial fan, aeolian dune and calcrete palaeosol changes repeatedly in both horizontal and vertical direction. Significant sedimentary milieus such as aeolian dunes and calcrete palaeosols occur repeatedly within the succession, but are also lacking in several parts of the sequence. Fluvial braidplain deposits comprise conglomerates, sandstones, intraformational reworking horizons and mudstones and originate in channels and overbank plains of a braided river system. Conglomerates and sandstones are formed by migration of bars and spreading out of sheets during infilling of streams and aggradation of flats. Gravel is often enriched as lag pockets or veneers within steeper scour holes and kolk pots or on the plane floor of the watercourse. Finer-grained sandstones and mudstones are laid down by suspension settling in stagnant water bodies such as small lakes in the overbank area and residual pools in interbar depressions during low-stage or waning-flow in active channels or in abandoned streams. Spectacular bioturbation features in some sandstones with both horizontal tubes and vertical burrows testify to the colonization of the sediments at the bottom of the rivers with declining discharge and transport capacity. Intraformational reworking horizons with ghost-like remnants of degraded sandstones, mudstones and pedogenic carbonates document partially severe condensation of the sequence by removal of some facies elements from the depositional record. The occasionally occurring gravel-bearing mudstones or silty-clayey sandstones represent products of high-energy water surges overspilling the channel banks and transporting sandy and gravelly bed-load in limited amounts beyond the levee wall. The

  12. Induced abortion and contraception in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinelli, A; Grandolfo, M E

    1991-09-01

    This article discusses the legal and epidemiologic status of abortion in Italy, and its relationship to fertility and contraception. Enacted in May 1978, Italy's abortion law allows the operation to be performed during the 1st 90 days of gestation for a broad range of health, social, and psychological reasons. Women under 18 must receive written permission from a parent, guardian, or judge in order to undergo an abortion. The operation is free of charge. Health workers who object to abortion because of religious or moral reasons are exempt from participating. Regional differences exist concerning the availability of abortion, easy to procure in some places and difficult to obtain in others. After an initial increase following legalization, the abortion rate was 13.5/1000 women aged 15-44 and the abortion ratio was 309/1000 live births -- an intermediate rate and ratio compared to other countries. By the time the Abortion Act of 1978 was adopted, Italy already had one of the lowest fertility levels in Europe. Thus, the legalization of abortion has had no impact on fertility trends. Contrary to initial fears that the legalization of abortion would make abortion a method of family planning, 80% of the women who sought an abortion in 1983-88 were using birth control at the time (withdrawal being the most common method used by this group). In fact, most women who undergo abortions are married, between the ages of 25-34, and with at least one child. Evidence indicates widespread ignorance concerning reproduction. In a 1989 survey, only 65% of women could identify the fertile period of the menstrual cycle. Italy has no sex education in schools or national family planning programs. Compared to most of Europe, Italy still has low levels of reliable contraceptive usage. This points to the need to guarantee the availability of abortion.

  13. Island solution; Inselloesung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bah, Isaac

    2013-06-15

    On the Azores island Graciosa the Berlin-based company Younicos has installed a new electricity system with advanced storage technology, which will make the islanders independent from fossil fuels. With an energy mix of wind power, photovoltaics and biomass the dependence on fossil fuels should be terminated. In the center of the flagship project specifically developed hybrid batteries are used (combination of sodium-sulfur- and lithium-ion batteries) with 2.7 MW of power and a storage capacity of ten megawatts hours. [German] Auf der Azoren-Insel Graciosa installiert das Berliner Unternehmen Younicos ein neues Stromsystem mit modernster Speichertechnologie, das die Bewohner unabhaengig von fossilen Energietraegern machen soll. Mit einem Energiemix aus Windkraft, Photovoltaik und Biomasse soll die Abhaengigkeit von fossilen Brennstoffen beendet werden. Im Zentrum des Vorzeigeprojekts stehen speziell fuer den Inseleinsatz entwickelte Hybridbatterien (Kombination aus Natrium-Schwefel- und Lithium-Ionen-Akkus) mit 2,7 Megawatt Leistung und eine Speicherkapazitaet von zehn Megawattestunden.

  14. Urban heat island 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bühler, Oliver; Jensen, Marina Bergen; Petersen, Karen Sejr

    2010-01-01

    Urban Heat Island beskriver det forhold, at temperaturen i byområder er højere end temperaturen i tilgrænsede landområder. Årsagen hertil ligger i den urbane arealanvendelse, hvor en mindre andel af arealerne er dækket af vegetation, og en større andel består af forseglede arealer.......Urban Heat Island beskriver det forhold, at temperaturen i byområder er højere end temperaturen i tilgrænsede landområder. Årsagen hertil ligger i den urbane arealanvendelse, hvor en mindre andel af arealerne er dækket af vegetation, og en større andel består af forseglede arealer....

  15. Charge Islands Through Tunneling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Daryl C.

    2002-01-01

    It has been recently reported that the electrical charge in a semiconductive carbon nanotube is not evenly distributed, but rather it is divided into charge "islands." This paper links the aforementioned phenomenon to tunneling and provides further insight into the higher rate of tunneling processes, which makes tunneling devices attractive. This paper also provides a basis for calculating the charge profile over the length of the tube so that nanoscale devices' conductive properties may be fully exploited.

  16. Islands in the Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Bagina

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Today’s China is an outpost of modern western architecture. All famous architects and firms build here. Having lost their historical context, the objects of traditional Chinese architecture become islands in the ocean of new development. Their destiny is controversial. Architectural masterpieces are perceived in a superficial manner not only by tourists, but also by local people. The link of times that used to be cherished in Chinese culture is being broken today.

  17. Explosive eruptive history of Pantelleria, Italy: Repeated caldera collapse and ignimbrite emplacement at a peralkaline volcano

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Nina J.; Rotolo, Silvio G.; Williams, Rebecca; Speranza, Fabio; McIntosh, William C.; Branney, Michael J.; Scaillet, Stéphane

    2018-01-01

    A new, pre-Green Tuff (46 ka) volcanic stratigraphy is presented for the peralkaline Pantelleria Volcano, Italy. New 40Ar/39Ar and paleomagnetic data are combined with detailed field studies to develop a comprehensive stratigraphic reconstruction of the island. We find that the pre-46 ka succession is characterised by eight silica-rich peralkaline (trachyte to pantellerite) ignimbrites, many of which blanketed the entire island. The ignimbrites are typically welded to rheomorphic, and are commonly associated with lithic breccias and/or pumice deposits. They record sustained radial pyroclastic density currents fed by low pyroclastic fountains. The onset of ignimbrite emplacement is typically preceded (more rarely followed) by pumice fallout with limited dispersal, and some eruptions lack any associated pumice fall deposit, suggesting the absence of tall eruption columns. Particular attention is given to the correlation of well-developed lithic breccias in the ignimbrites, interpreted as probable tracers of caldera collapses. They record as many as five caldera collapse events, in contrast to the two events reported to date. Inter-ignimbrite periods are characterised by explosive and effusive eruptions with limited dispersal, such as small pumice cones, as well as pedogenesis. These periods have similar characteristics as the current post-Green Tuff activity on the island, and, while not imminent, it is reasonable to postulate the occurrence of another ignimbrite-forming eruption sometime in the future.

  18. Surface-based 3D measurements of small aeolian bedforms on Mars and implications for estimating ExoMars rover traversability hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balme, Matt; Robson, Ellen; Barnes, Rob; Butcher, Frances; Fawdon, Peter; Huber, Ben; Ortner, Thomas; Paar, Gerhard; Traxler, Christoph; Bridges, John; Gupta, Sanjeev; Vago, Jorge L.

    2018-04-01

    Recent aeolian bedforms comprising loose sand are common on the martian surface and provide a mobility hazard to Mars rovers. The ExoMars rover will launch in 2020 to one of two candidate sites: Mawrth Vallis or Oxia Planum. Both sites contain numerous aeolian bedforms with simple ripple-like morphologies. The larger examples are 'Transverse Aeolian Ridges' (TARs), which stereo imaging analyses have shown to be a few metres high and up to a few tens of metres across. Where they occur, TARs therefore present a serious, but recognized and avoidable, rover mobility hazard. There also exists a population of smaller bedforms of similar morphology, but it is unknown whether these bedforms will be traversable by the ExoMars rover. We informally refer to these bedforms as "mini-TARs", as they are about an order of magnitude smaller than most TARs observed to date. They are more abundant than TARs in the Oxia Planum site, and can be pervasive in areas. The aim of this paper is to estimate the heights of these features, which are too small to measured using High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) Digital Elevation Models (DEMs), from orbital data alone. Thereby, we aim to increase our knowledge of the hazards in the proposed ExoMars landing sites. We propose a methodology to infer the height of these mini-TARs based on comparisons with similar features observed by previous Mars rovers. We use rover-based stereo imaging from the NASA Mars Exploration Rover (MER) Opportunity and PRo3D software, a 3D visualisation and analysis tool, to measure the size and height of mini-TARs in the Meridiani Planum region of Mars. These are good analogues for the smaller bedforms at the ExoMars rover candidate landing sites. We show that bedform height scales linearly with length (as measured across the bedform, perpendicular to the crest ridge) with a ratio of about 1:15. We also measured the lengths of many of the smaller aeolian bedforms in the ExoMars rover Oxia Planum

  19. Explorations in Aeolian Ecology: Radar and Visual Studies of the Aerofauna during the Convection and Precipitation/electrification (cape) Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Robert William

    I studied the ecology of aerial insects and birds (the "aerofauna") during the Convection and Precipitation/Electrification (CaPE) Experiment in Florida during the summer of 1991. Visual observations were coordinated with simultaneous measurements of atmospheric motions, permitting novel explorations of: (1) patterns and processes in the distribution of "aerial plankton" (i.e., small, weakly flying insects that drift with boundary-layer winds); (2) the feeding ecology of "aerial planktivores" (i.e., predators that feed on aerial plankton); and (3) the flight tactics of soaring birds. Sensitive Doppler radars regularly detected fine lines of enhanced reflectivity in boundary-layer convergence zones. These "fine lines" were attributable to dense concentrations of aerial plankton entrained by the convergent airflow. Insect densities were inferred to be about an order of magnitude higher inside convergence zones then elsewhere. Anecdotal observations suggested that large quantities of aerial plankton entrained in convergence zones were sometimes "scrubbed" from the boundary layer by precipitation. Radar images clearly depicted the rapid aeolian transport of aerial plankton across the landscape, but also showed that densities of aerial plankton became concentrated along coastlines when winds blew toward the sea. In contrast, airspace over the adjacent ocean remained largely free of radar echoes under all wind conditions. The coastal concentrations, together with the absence of overwater echoes, indicate that the organisms comprising the aerial plankton respond behaviorally to coastlines to avoid being blown out to sea. Several species of aerial insectivorous predators commonly exploited boundary-layer fine lines as food resources. Chimney swifts (Chaetura pelagica), barn swallows (Hirundo rustica), and wandering gliders (Pantala flavescens) showed significant responses to fine lines. Details of these responses differed, but this variation clearly reflected species

  20. Self-sustained magnetic islands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chatenet, J H; Luciani, J F [Ecole Polytechnique, 91 - Palaiseau (France); Garbet, X [Association Euratom-CEA, Centre d` Etudes de Cadarache, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France). Dept. de Recherches sur la Fusion Controlee

    1996-06-01

    Numerical simulations of a single magnetic island evolution are presented in the regime where the island width is smaller than an ion Larmor radius. It is shown that the island rotation is controlled by particle diffusion due to collisions or a background of microturbulence. As expected from the theory of a stationary island, there exist cases where linearly stable magnetic perturbation are nonlinearly self-sustained. This situation corresponds to large poloidal beta and temperature gradient. The drive is due to diamagnetic frequency effects. However, this situation is not generic, and islands can also decay. It is found that a magnetic island is self-sustained for a negative off-diagonal diffusion coefficient. This case occurs in a tokamak if the inward particle pinch is due to the temperature gradient. (author). 30 refs.

  1. Self-sustained magnetic islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatenet, J.H.; Luciani, J.F.; Garbet, X.

    1996-06-01

    Numerical simulations of a single magnetic island evolution are presented in the regime where the island width is smaller than an ion Larmor radius. It is shown that the island rotation is controlled by particle diffusion due to collisions or a background of microturbulence. As expected from the theory of a stationary island, there exist cases where linearly stable magnetic perturbation are nonlinearly self-sustained. This situation corresponds to large poloidal beta and temperature gradient. The drive is due to diamagnetic frequency effects. However, this situation is not generic, and islands can also decay. It is found that a magnetic island is self-sustained for a negative off-diagonal diffusion coefficient. This case occurs in a tokamak if the inward particle pinch is due to the temperature gradient. (author)

  2. Demographic Ageing on Croatian Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivo Nejašmić

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the changes in the population structure of the Croatian islands by age, warns of the degree of ageing, provides spatial differentiation of this process and presents perspective of ageing at the level of settlement. Typing of population ageing is based on scores and has seven types. The total island population in 2011 belongs to the type 5 – very old population. Almost a half of the settlements (out of 303 have been affected by the highest levels of ageing (types 6 and 7. It was found that a quarter of island settlements will become “dead villages” in a foreseeable future; most of them are on small islands but also in the interior of larger islands. These are villages decaying in every respect, in which the way of life, as we know it, veins and goes out. The present ageing villagers are their last residents in most cases. Eve¬rything suggests that demographic recovery of the islands is not possible with the forces in situ. It is important to strike a balance between the needs and opportunities in order to successfully organize life on the islands, both small and large ones, and the fact is that there is a continuing disparity, which is especially profound in small islands. A sensitive and selective approach is needed to overcome the unfavourable demographic trends. Therefore it is necessary to respect the particularities of indi¬vidual islands and island groups in devising development strategy. Solutions to the problems must come of the local and wider community in synergy with relevant professional and scientific institutions. However, if the solutions are not found or measures do not give results, if the islands are left to desorganisation and senilisation, a part of the islands will become a wasteland. With regard to the value of this area whose wealth are people in the first place, this would be an intolerable civilization decline.

  3. Renewable energy islands in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oestergaard, Iben [ed.

    1998-12-31

    This publication includes a compiled presentation of various aspects concerning the possible transformation of some European islands into renewable energy communities and these projects were presented by a selection of pioneer islands at the first European Seminar on Renewable Energy Islands, held on the Danish island of Samsoee, 29-30 June 1998. This issue has increased in importance with the presentation of the ambitious EU-White Paper: `Energy for the future: Renewable Sources of Energy` which was adopted in 1998. One of the key elements of the strategy for an accelerated implementation of renewable energy is to transform 100 localities within Europe into communities which are to be 100% self-sufficient with renewable energy before 2010. In line with this strategy, the Danish Government appointed the island of Samsoe towards the end of 1997 to be the first `official` Danish, renewable energy island. This is to serve as a demonstration project for other local communities, both in Denmark as well as in the rest Europe. Gothland, Madeira, Canary Islands, Cape Verde, Arki, Crete, Minorca and Orkney Islands were represented. Environmental advantages of wind, solar and wave power for distant island communities were indicated. Serious savings would be achieved by limitation of fossil fuel import and utilization of local resources. (EG)

  4. CERN Neutrinos search for sunshine in Italy!

    CERN Document Server

    Wednesday, 18th June 2008. The CNGS (CERN Neutrinos to Gran Sasso) beam has re-started, shooting muon neutrinos towards Italy. The neutrino beam should run this year until mid November.The aim of CNGS is to understand the oscillation of neutrinos, for example their transformation from muon into tau neutrinos over long distances.Edda Gschwendtner, the liaison physicist of the CNGS beam, describes the progress of the project, “We did a lot of modifications this year to CNGS, which was a huge amount of work, with many groups and services involved. In parallel the OPERA detector in Italy made an enormous progress in completing their detector and we are looking forward to seeing tau neutrinos soon.”

  5. Is marriage loosing its centrality in Italy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Unlike the countries of north-western Europe, marriage in Italy has maintained a crucial role in the process of family formation. This raise doubts about the possibility that the theory of "second demographic transition" could adequately account for the behaviour of the European population living south of the Alps. The aim of this paper is twofold: to provide some empirical evidence that cohabitation is now spreading in Italy; and to propose an explanation of the delay of its diffusion until the 1990s. The hypothesis proposed here explains the delay, not so much in terms of limited interest of the Italian youth towards this type of union, but with the convenience of the children in the Mediterranean area to avoid choices which are openly clashing with the values of parents.

  6. Climate indicators for Italy: calculation and dissemination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desiato, F.; Fioravanti, G.; Fraschetti, P.; Perconti, W.; Toreti, A.

    2011-05-01

    In Italy, meteorological data necessary and useful for climate studies are collected, processed and archived by a wide range of national and regional institutions. As a result, the density of the stations, the length and frequency of the observations, the quality control procedures and the database structure vary from one dataset to another. In order to maximize the use of those data for climate knowledge and climate change assessments, a computerized system for the collection, quality control, calculation, regular update and rapid dissemination of climate indicators was developed. The products publicly available through a dedicated web site are described, as well as an example of climate trends estimates over Italy, based on the application of statistical models on climate indicators from quality-checked and homogenised time series.

  7. District heating in Italy: Extent of use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sacchi, E.

    1992-01-01

    The Author surveys the trend that has been established over the last two decades in the use of district heating in Italy. Comparison with the European situation reveals that Italy is lagging behind. The reason for this the Author states is the Italian public's aversion to unknown risks involved in the utilization of innovative technologies associated with cogeneration/district heating (current preference is given to autonomous methane fuelled building space heating systems), and the current opinion of some misinformed public administrations that cogeneration/district heating plants are too costly. Citing the successful campaign by the natural gas industry to promote the public acceptance of methane as a safe, readily available and competitively priced energy source, he suggests that similar efforts be made to have the public also accept cogeneration (with methane fired gas turbines)/district heating as being safe and environmentally, as well as, economically beneficial

  8. Nuclear Renaissance in Italy: Maintaining Momentum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iaccarino, F.

    2010-01-01

    Following the adoption of Law No.99 of July 209, Italy is on threshold of returning to nuclear power, even though there are many more challenges yet to overcome. It should be recalled that Law No. 99/2009 includes enabling provisions empowering the government to issue one or more implementing decrees providing rules for the sitting of new nuclear power plants, the licensing process for the construction, operation and dismantling of those plants, as well as rules for interim storage and the final disposal of nuclear waste. On 15 February 2010, upon the proposal of the Ministry of economic development, the Italian council of ministers issued legislative decree No. 31/2010 implementing the enabling provisions. This paper will analyse the strengths and weaknesses of the implementing decree in order to assess if it is able to provide Italy with a sound national nuclear legislative framework which is an essential precondition to the Italian nuclear resurgence. (N.C.)

  9. Italy and War of Vlora during 1920

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xhilda Shuka

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Italy played special attention to the province of Vlora during World War I, because of its great strategic importance in the Adriatic Sea. Italy had deployed in October 1914 in Sazan and had occupied Vlore since December 1914. But for the Albanian people, the liberation of Vlora was a key moment for its survival. It was the victorious War of Vlora in 1920, following the decisions of the Congress of Lushnja which reconfirmed Albania's independence and which put Albania in the course of a normal independent country. The important role of the war in direct confrontation with the Italian political and military forces of the time, are intended to be reflected in this article based on historical arguments and new perspective of our days.

  10. Market for wind turbines in italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    Wind power utilization in Italy has not been very popular until the privatization of the ENEL and introduction of subsidies for private electricity producers. The greatest interest is concentrated around large wind turbines. Therefore the Danish manufacturers with know-how within large wind turbines can establish themselves on the Italian market. Cooperation with one of the four local wind turbine manufacturers is advisable. (EG)

  11. Mammal endemism In Italy: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Amori

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Although there are various checklists of Italian mammals, there is not yet a synthesis of those mammals that are endemic to Italy. Therefore, we provide for the first time a detailed review on Italian mammal endemic species including endemic taxa deserving additional studies. This review is based on the most recent taxonomic revisions obtained using Scopus and Google Scholar databases. We also considered the age of endemic species. Some aspects of mammalian conservation are also provided and discussed.

  12. Energy policy and foreign policy in Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venanzi, F.

    2001-01-01

    Energy policy in Italy is principally a matter of foreign policy. As a result, extensive programmes for the exploration, development, transport and marketing of oil and natural gas have to be planned and carried out together with the producing countries. In this effort, the country shall need the support of its national energy companies. That is why ENI's controlling interest as well as its mission had better be on Italian hands [it

  13. Atmospheric deposition and environmental quality in Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mosello, R.

    1993-01-01

    For Italy's Po River hydrological basin, artificial reservoirs have a great importance; water reserve is about 1600 million cubic meters for the hydroelectric reservoirs and about 76 million cubic meters for irrigation. Relevant to studies on water quality and acidification in the Po River Basin, this paper reviews some aspects of research on atmospheric deposition, i.e., geographical variability, long term trends, and effects on surface waters

  14. Italy and gas: dependence and geopolitical problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giuffida, L.G.; Nicolosi, L.

    2008-01-01

    The increase in world energy demand is making natural gas a leading player, yet its supply in Italy is still inefficient because of internal and external factors of its geopolitical diversification. On the contrary, thanks to its geographical position and morphology our Country could represent the major point of gas exchange in central-southern Europe and transform itself from a country at the risk of emergency into one of the greatest gas hub in Europe [it

  15. International franchising in Italy: trends and perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Majocchi Antonio; Pavione Enrica

    2002-01-01

    In Italy, the recent gradual liberalization of the retail market has led to an increase in competition and innovation. In this context, new and more flexible forms of organization have emerged, and franchising in particular has undergone a strong expansion. The main purpose of this work is to present a complete framework of the Italian franchising and to analyse its role, structural characteristics, trend and development in the context of the European market.

  16. Free-lance nursing in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galli, E; Lindsay, J S

    1993-01-01

    In 1987 Registered Nurses Ernesta 'Tina' Galli and Joanne Lindsay embarked on a unique venture--a private agency* organized and run by nurses that engages free-lance nurses to fill the need for nursing assistance both at home and in public and private institutions. The response has been overwhelming. Today they have branches throughout Italy and have expanded their services to include research and primary health care. Below, their story.

  17. Underground storage of natural gas in Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henking, E.

    1992-01-01

    After first relating the importance of natural gas storage to the viability of Italian industrial activities, this paper discusses the geo-physical nature of different types of underground cavities which can be used for natural gas storage. These include depleted petroleum and natural gas reservoirs, aquifers and abandoned mines. Attention is given to the geologic characteristics and physical characteristics such as porosity, permeability and pressure that determine the suitability of any given storage area, and to the techniques used to resolve problems relative to partially depleted reservoirs, e.g., the presence of oil, water and salt. A review is made of Italy's main storage facilities. This review identifies the various types of storage techniques, major equipment, operating and maintenance practices. A look is then given at Italy's plans for the development of new facilities to meet rising demand expected to reach 80 billion cubic meters/year by the turn of the century. The operating activities of the two leading participants, SNAM and AGIP, in Italy's natural gas industry are highlighted. Specific problems which contribute to the high operating costs of natural gas storage are identified and a review is made of national normatives governing gas storage. The report comes complete with a glossary of the relative terminology and units of measure

  18. Country policy profile - Italy. August 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-08-01

    In Italy, Renewable energy sources in are promoted through price and tax regulations mechanisms. Several kinds of feed-in and premium tariffs co exist besides tendering schemes depending on technology and size of RES systems. Additionally regional support schemes exist for RES electricity. The thermal (heating and cooling) energy generated from renewable energies is incentivized through tax regulation and loans. A quota system is presently used for bio-fuels (transport). In the year 2012 the major share of renewable electricity generation is accounted for by hydropower (3796 ktoe), mainly large plants. PV (1622 ktoe and wind power (1066 ktoe) provide the next largest contributions. As for renewable heating, solid biomass makes the largest contribution with 4671 ktoe ktoe, followed by geo thermal at 3228 ktoe. bio-fuels used in renewable transport amount to 1343 ktoe (source: EurObserv'ER, 2014, www.eurobserv-er.org). Under the country's NREAP, Italy has set a renewable energy target (electricity) of 26% to be achieved by 2020. The 2012 total share of renewable energy in Italy amounted to 13.5%; the target for 2020 has been defined as 17% (source: 'The State of Renewable Energies in Europe', 2013 edition)

  19. Chapter 44: history of neurology in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentivoglio, Marina; Mazzarello, Paolo

    2010-01-01

    The chapter starts from the Renaissance (although the origins of Italian neurology can be traced back to the Middle Ages), when treatises of nervous system physiopathology still followed Hippocratic and Galenic "humoral" theories. In Italy, as elsewhere in Europe, the concepts of humoral pathology were abandoned in the 18th century, when neurology was influenced by novel trends. Neurology acquired the status of clinical discipline (as "clinic of mental diseases") after national reunification (declared in 1861 but completed much later). At the end of the 19th and first decades of the 20th century, eminent Italian "neuropsychiatrists" (including, among many others, Ugo Cerletti, who introduced electroconvulsive shock therapy in 1938) stimulated novel knowledge and approaches, "centers of excellence" flourished, and "Neurological Institutes" were founded. In the first half of the 20th century, the history of Italian neurology was dominated by World Wars I and II (which stimulated studies on the wounded) and the fascist regime in-between the Wars (when the flow of information was instead very limited). Italy became a republic in 1946, and modern neurology and its distinction from psychiatry were finally promoted. The chapter also provides detailed accounts of scientific societies and journals dedicated to the neurological sciences in Italy.

  20. Organizations as Designed Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasquale Gagliardi

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The literature and practice of organizational design are mostly based on simplistic conceptions which ignore recent theoretical developments in organizational studies. Conceiving of organizations as ‘designed islands’, it is argued, can contribute to a more solid theoretical foundation to organization theory, viewed as normative science. Relying on the work of Peter Sloterdijk, who describes the forms of life in space in terms of spheres, the heuristic power of the island metaphor is explored. What can be learnt from the art of isolating in order to construct lived organizational environments is then discussed, and the paradoxical relationship between connection and isolation is highlighted.

  1. Three Mile Island

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, M.S.; Shultz, S.M.

    1988-01-01

    This bibliography is divided into the following categories: Accident Overviews, Sequence and Causes; International Commentary and Reaction; Emergency Preparedness and Disaster Planning; Health Effects; Radioactive Releases and the Environment; Accident Investigations/Commissions; Nuclear Industry: Safety, Occupational, and Financial Issues; Media and Communications; Cleanup; Sociopolitical Response and Commentary; Restart; Legal Ramifications; Federal Documents: President's Commission on the Accident at Three Mile Island; Federal Documents: Nuclear Regulatory Commission; Federal Documents: United States Department of Energy; Federal Documents: Miscellaneous Reports; Pennsylvania State Documents; Federal and State Hearings; and Popular Literature

  2. Weather In Some Islands

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王良华

    2007-01-01

    There are four seasons in a year. When spring comes, the weather is mild(温和的). Summer comes after spring. Summer is the hottest season of the year. Autumn follows summer. It is the best season of the year. Winter is the coldest season of the year. Some islands(岛) have their own particular(特别的) seasons because their weather is very much affected(影响) by the oceans(海洋) around them. In Britain, winter is not very cold and summer is not very hot.

  3. Islands and non-islands in native and heritage Korean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boyoung eKim

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available To a large extent, island phenomena are cross-linguistically invariable, but English and Korean present some striking differences in this domain. English has wh-movement and Korean does not, and while both languages show sensitivity to wh-islands, only English has island effects for adjunct clauses. Given this complex set of differences, one might expect Korean/English bilinguals, and especially heritage Korean speakers (i.e. early bilinguals whose L2 became their dominant language during childhood to be different from native speakers, since heritage speakers have had more limited exposure to Korean, may have had incomplete acquisition and/or attrition, and may show significant transfer effects from the L2. Here we examine islands in heritage speakers of Korean in the U.S. Through a series of four formal acceptability experiments comparing these heritage speakers with native speakers residing in Korea, we show that the two groups are remarkably similar. Both show clear evidence for wh-islands and an equally clear lack of adjunct island effects. Given the very different linguistic environment that the heritage speakers have had since early childhood, this result lends support to the idea that island phenomena are largely immune to environmental influences and stem from deeper properties of the processor and/or grammar. Similarly, it casts some doubt on recent proposals that islands are learned from the input.

  4. Seismic slip recorded in tourmaline fault mirrors from Elba Island (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viti, C.; Brogi, A.; Liotta, D.; Mugnaioli, E.; Spiess, R.; Dini, A.; Zucchi, M.; Vannuccini, G.

    2016-05-01

    This paper reports the first example of fault mirrors developed in an unusual protolith, consisting of tourmaline crystals with interstitial goethite. The deformation mechanisms active in the fault zone have been investigated from the outcrop to the nanoscale, aiming to identify possible traces of frictional heating at seismic slip rate, as observed for other fault mirrors in different protoliths. The investigation revealed the superposition of two main deformational stages. The first was dominated by brittle processes and produced a cataclastic/ultracataclastic principal slip zone, a few mm thick; the second was associated with seismic slip and produced a sharp discontinuity (the principal slip surface) within the cataclastic/ultracataclastic zone. The mirror-like coating, a few microns thick, occurs on the principal slip surface, and is characterized by 1) absence of interstitial goethite; 2) occurrence of truncated tourmaline crystals; 3) highly variable grain size, from 200 μm to 200 nm; 4) tourmaline close packing with interlobate grain boundaries, and 5) tourmaline random crystallographic orientation. Micro and nanostructural investigations indicate the occurrence of thermally-activated processes, involving both interstitial goethite and tourmaline. In particular, close to the principal slip surface, goethite is completely decomposed, and produced an amorphous porous material, with local topotactic recrystallization of hematite. Tourmaline clasts are typically characterized by strongly lobate boundaries, indicative of reaction and partial decomposition at grain boundaries. TEM observations revealed the occurrence of tourmaline nanograins, a few tens of nm in size, characterized by rounded shape and fading amorphous boundaries, that cannot be obtained by brittle processes. Lastly, the peculiar interlobate microstructure of the mirror surface is interpreted as the result of grain boundary recrystallization processes taking place by deformation at high-T conditions. Our results show that tourmaline fault mirrors recorded localized high-T processes triggered by frictional heating and can be therefore considered as reliable traces of ancient earthquakes.

  5. Carbon dioxide and radon measurements in the soils of Pantelleria island (southern Italy)

    OpenAIRE

    D'Alessandro, W.; Brusca, L.; Cinti, D.; Gagliano, A.L.; Longo, M.; Pecoraino, G.; Pizzino, L.; Voltattorni, N.

    2013-01-01

    Pantelleria is an active volcanic complex, at present in quiescent status, hosting a high enthalpy geothermal system. Explorative geothermal wells tapped exploitable water-dominated reservoirs at 600-800 m depth with maximum measured temperatures of 250°C. Five field campaigns for soil gas measurements were made in the period from July 2005 to October 2006. CO2 flux was measured with the accumulation chamber method at 807 sites, CO2 concentration and Rn activity in soil atmosphere were me...

  6. Investigating the use of the dual-polarized and large incident angle of SAR data for mapping the fluvial and aeolian deposits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Gaber

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Mapping the spatial distributions of the fluvial deposits in terms of particles size as well as imaging the near-surface features along the non-vegetated aeolian sand-sheets, provides valuable geological information. Thus this work aims at investigating the contribution of the dual-polarization SAR data in classifying and mapping the surface sediments as well as investigating the effect of the radar incident-angle on improving the images of the hidden features under the desert sand cover. For mapping the fluvial deposits, the covariance matrix ([C2] using four dual-polarized ALOS/PALSAR-1 scenes cover the Wadi El Matulla, East Qena, Egypt were generated. This [C2] matrix was used to generate a supervised classification map with three main classes (gravel, gravel/sand and sand. The polarimetric scattering response, spectral reflectance and temperatures brightness of these 3 classes were extracted. However for the aeolian deposits investigation, two Radarsat-1 and three full-polarimetric ALOS/PALSAR-1 images, which cover the northwestern sandy part of Sinai, Egypt were calibrated, filtered, geocoded and ingested in a GIS database to image the near-surface features. The fluvial mapping results show that the values of the radar backscattered coefficient (σ° and the degree of randomness of the obtained three classes are increasing respectively by increasing their grain size. Moreover, the large incident angle (θi = 39.7 of the Radarsat-1 image has revealed a meandering buried stream under the sand sheet of the northwestern part of Sinai. Such buried stream does not appear in the other optical, SRTM and SAR dataset. The main reason is the enhanced contrast between the low backscattered return from the revealed meandering stream and the surroundings as a result of the increased backscattering intensity, which is related to the relatively large incident angle along the undulated surface of the study area. All archaeological

  7. Mid-Cretaceous aeolian desert systems in the Yunlong area of the Lanping Basin, China: Implications for palaeoatmosphere dynamics and paleoclimatic change in East Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Gaojie; Wu, Chihua; Rodríguez-López, Juan Pedro; Yi, Haisheng; Xia, Guoqing; Wagreich, Michael

    2018-02-01

    The mid-Cretaceous constitutes a period of worldwide atmospheric and oceanic change associated with slower thermohaline circulation and ocean anoxic events, possible polar glaciations and by a changing climate pattern becoming controlled by a zonal planetary wind system and an equatorial humid belt. During the mid-Cretaceous, the subtropical high-pressure arid climate belt of the planetary wind system controlled the palaeolatitude distribution of humid belts in Asia as well as the spatial distribution of rain belts over the massive continental blocks at mid-low latitudes in the southern and northern hemispheres. Additionally, the orographic effect of the Andean-type active continental margin in East Asia hindered the transportation of ocean moisture to inland regions. With rising temperatures and palaeoatmospheric conditions dominated by high pressure systems, desert climate environments expanded at the inland areas of East Asia including those accumulated in the mid-Cretaceous of the Simao Basin, the Sichuan Basin, and the Thailand's Khorat Basin, and leading the Late Cretaceous erg systems in the Xinjiang Basin and Jianghan Basin. This manuscript presents evidences that allow to reinterpret previously considered water-laid sediments to be accumulated as windblown deposits forming part of extensive erg (sandy desert) systems. Using a multidisciplinary approach including petrological, sedimentological and architectural observations, the mid-Cretaceous (Albian-Turonian) Nanxin Formation from the Yunlong region of Lanping Basin, formerly considered to aqueous deposits is here interpreted as representing aeolian deposits, showing local aeolian-fluvial interaction deposits. The palaeowind directions obtained from the analysis of aeolian dune cross-beddings indicates that inland deserts were compatible with a high-pressure cell (HPC) existing in the mid-low latitudes of East Asia during the mid-Cretaceous. Compared with the Early Cretaceous, the mid-Cretaceous had

  8. Relations between rainfall–runoff-induced erosion and aeolian deposition at archaeological sites in a semi-arid dam-controlled river corridor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Brian D.; Bedford, David; Corbett, Skye C.; Fairley, Helen C.; Cronkite-Ratcliff, Collin

    2016-01-01

    Process dynamics in fluvial-based dryland environments are highly complex with fluvial, aeolian, and alluvial processes all contributing to landscape change. When anthropogenic activities such as dam-building affect fluvial processes, the complexity in local response can be further increased by flood- and sediment-limiting flows. Understanding these complexities is key to predicting landscape behavior in drylands and has important scientific and management implications, including for studies related to paleoclimatology, landscape ecology evolution, and archaeological site context and preservation. Here we use multi-temporal LiDAR surveys, local weather data, and geomorphological observations to identify trends in site change throughout the 446-km-long semi-arid Colorado River corridor in Grand Canyon, Arizona, USA, where archaeological site degradation related to the effects of upstream dam operation is a concern. Using several site case studies, we show the range of landscape responses that might be expected from concomitant occurrence of dam-controlled fluvial sand bar deposition, aeolian sand transport, and rainfall-induced erosion. Empirical rainfall-erosion threshold analyses coupled with a numerical rainfall–runoff–soil erosion model indicate that infiltration-excess overland flow and gullying govern large-scale (centimeter- to decimeter-scale) landscape changes, but that aeolian deposition can in some cases mitigate gully erosion. Whereas threshold analyses identify the normalized rainfall intensity (defined as the ratio of rainfall intensity to hydraulic conductivity) as the primary factor governing hydrologic-driven erosion, assessment of false positives and false negatives in the dataset highlight topographic slope as the next most important parameter governing site response. Analysis of 4+ years of high resolution (four-minute) weather data and 75+ years of low resolution (daily) climate records indicates that dryland erosion is dependent on short

  9. Enjebi Island dose assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robison, W.L.; Conrado, C.L.; Phillips, W.A.

    1987-07-01

    We have updeated the radiological dose assessment for Enjebi Island at Enewetak Atoll using data derived from analysis of food crops grown on Enjebi. This is a much more precise assessment of potential doses to people resettling Enjebi Island than the 1980 assessment in which there were no data available from food crops on Enjebi. Details of the methods and data used to evaluate each exposure pathway are presented. The terrestrial food chain is the most significant potential exposure pathway and 137 Cs is the radionuclide responsible for most of the estimated dose over the next 50 y. The doses are calculated assuming a resettlement date of 1990. The average wholebody maximum annual estimated dose equivalent derived using our diet model is 166 mremy;the effective dose equivalent is 169 mremy. The estimated 30-, 50-, and 70-y integral whole-body dose equivalents are 3.5 rem, 5.1 rem, and 6.2 rem, respectively. Bone-marrow dose equivalents are only slightly higher than the whole-body estimates in each case. The bone-surface cells (endosteal cells) receive the highest dose, but they are a less sensitive cell population and are less sensitive to fatal cancer induction than whole body and bone marrow. The effective dose equivalents for 30, 50, and 70 y are 3.6 rem, 5.3 rem, and 6.6 rem, respectively. 79 refs., 17 figs., 24 tabs

  10. An Island Called Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Stubbs

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Review of: An Island Called Home: Returning to Jewish Cuba. Ruth Behar, photographs by Humberto Mayol. New Brunswick NJ: Rutgers University Press, 2007. xiii + 297 pp. (Cloth US$ 29.95 Fidel Castro: My Life: A Spoken Autobiography. Fidel Castro & Ignacio Ramonet. New York: Scribner/Simon & Schuster, 2008. vii + 724 pp. (Paper US$ 22.00, e-book US$ 14.99 Cuba: What Everyone Needs to Know. Julia E. Sweig. New York: Oxford University Press, 2009. xiv + 279 pp. (Paper US$ 16.95 [First paragraph] These three ostensibly very different books tell a compelling story of each author’s approach, as much as the subject matter itself. Fidel Castro: My Life: A Spoken Autobiography is based on a series of long interviews granted by the then-president of Cuba, Fidel Castro, to Spanish-Franco journalist Ignacio Ramonet. Cuba: What Everyone Needs to Know, by U.S. political analyst Julia Sweig, is one of a set country series, and, like Ramonet’s, presented in question/answer format. An Island Called Home: Returning to Jewish Cuba, with a narrative by Cuban-American anthropologist Ruth Behar and photographs by Cuban photographer Humberto Mayol, is a retrospective/introspective account of the Jewish presence in Cuba. While from Ramonet and Sweig we learn much about the revolutionary project, Behar and Mayol convey the lived experience of the small Jewish community against that backdrop.

  11. Trace metal distributions in Posidonia oceanica and sediments from Taranto Gulf (Ionian Sea, Southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. DI LEO

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Distribution of metals (Hg, Pb, Sn, Cu, Cd and Zn was determined in sediments and in different tissues of Posidonia oceanica collected from San Pietro Island, Taranto Gulf (Ionian Sea, Southern Italy. In seagrass, results, compared with metal concentrations in sediments, showed that the highest concentrations of Hg, Pb, Sn and Cu were found in the roots, while in the green leaves were found the highest levels of Cd and Zn. Instead the lowest metal concentrations were found in the basal part of the leaf. Levels of  metals in the leaves were similar to those found by other authors in uncontaminated areas of the Mediterranean Sea. Mercury levels in roots were correlated to levels in sediments. This could demonstrate the plant memorizes sediments contamination . This study reinforces the usefulness and the relevance of Posidonia oceanica as an indicator of spatial metal contamination and an interesting tool for environmental quality evaluation.

  12. Wave Energy Potential in the North-West of Sardinia (Italy)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vicinanza, Diego; Contestabile, P.; Ferrante, V.

    2013-01-01

    Sardinia (Italy) is the second largest island in the Mediterranean Sea and its economy is penalized by high costs of electricity, which is double compared to the continental Italian regions, and triple compared to the EU average. In this research, the wave energy potential of the north......, a Wave Energy Converter with maximum efficiency in the ranges of significant wave heights between 3.5 and 4.5 m (energy periods 9.5-11 s) and 4-6 m (energy periods 9.5-11.5 s) respectively should be selected. In order to find a concrete solution to the problem of harvesting wave energy in this area......, the characterization of waves providing energy is considered along with additional considerations, such as installation and operational costs, institutional factors, environmental sensitivity and interferences with others human activities. On the basis of the information available and the identified circumstances...

  13. Landslide hazard and land management in high-density urban areas of Campania region, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Di Martire

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Results deriving from a research focused on the interplay between landslides and urban development are presented here, with reference to two densely populated settings located in the Campania region, Italy: the city of Naples and the island of Ischia. Both areas suffer adverse consequences from various types of landslides since at least 2000 yr. Our study evidences that, despite the long history of slope instabilities, the urban evolution, often illegal, disregarded the high landslide propensity of the hillsides; thus, unsafe lands have been occupied, even in recent years, when proper and strict rules have been enacted to downgrade the landslide risk. It is finally argued that future guidelines should not be entirely based upon physical countermeasures against mass movements. On the contrary, national and local authorities should enforce the territorial control, obliging citizens to respect the existing regulations and emphasizing the role of alternative, non-structural solutions.

  14. The nuclear in Italy - state of the art; Le nucleaire en Italie - etat des lieux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schifano, F.; Ziller, T

    2007-02-15

    This report aims to evaluate the italian situation in matter of the nuclear, following the referendum of 1987 which decided to stop the nuclear power plants in the country. The first part is devoted to the historical aspects of the nuclear sector in Italy. The second chapter presents the institutional and legislative framework. The third chapter discusses the today situation and the italian actors of the nuclear, from the radioactive wastes management and the dismantling of nuclear installations to the engineering service realized in other countries. It discusses also the research and development programs. The last chapter proposes perspectives of the debate around a possible restart of the nuclear activity in Italy.

  15. Monitoring developments in island waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crellin, L.V.

    1995-01-01

    The environmental effects of islands in the Irish Sea of the offshore oil and gas industry are discussed in this paper, in particular on sand and gravel resources. This information is considered by the Department of Trade and Industry when granting prospecting, exploration and production licenses. Consultation between industry and islanders forms part of the license granting process. (UK)

  16. Islands for nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Usher, E.F.F.W.; Fraser, A.P.

    1981-01-01

    The safety principles, design criteria and types of artificial island for an offshore nuclear power station are discussed with particular reference to siting adjacent to an industrial island. The paper concludes that the engineering problems are soluble and that offshore nuclear power stations will eventually be built but that much fundamental work is still required. (author)

  17. Geophysical investigations of the Southeast Tyrrhenian Sea (Italy): high resolution DTM of the Marsili seamount

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milano, G.; Passaro, S.; Marsella, E.

    2009-04-01

    The Tyrrhenian Sea is the small extensional back-arc basin in the Central Mediterranean Sea characterized by a peculiar volcanic activity due to the presence of two sub-basin: Vavilov and Marsili. The central sector of the Marsili sub-basin, younger than the Valilov, is occupied by the Marsili Volcano. On November 2007, a geophysical survey was carried out by IAMC-CNR research institute (Naples, Italy) in the southeastern Tyrrhenian Sea within the "Aeolian_2007" cruise onboard the Urania oceanographic vessel. During the second Leg of the survey, detailed multibeam data acquisition was carried out in order to obtain high resolution DTM of the major Seamounts of the southeast Tyrrhenian Sea. Here, we report a new, very high resolution Digital Terrain Model (DTM) of the summit area of the Marsili Seamount. Multibeam data acquisition was carried out with the use of the Reson Seabat 8160 multibeam sonar system, which properly works in the 50-3500 m depth range. The system, interfaced with a Differential Global Positioning System, is mounted on keel of the R/V Urania and is composed of a ping source of 50 KHz, 150° degree for the whole opening of the transmitted pulse and a 126 beams-receiver. The whole dataset has been processed with the use of the PDS2000 swath editor tool, in accordance with the International Hydrographic Organization standard, and subsequently reorganized in an MXN matrix (Digital Terrain Model, DTM) of 25X25 m of grid cell size. The total amount of area coverage consists in more than 500 squared Km of multibeam sonar data. The Marsili volcano shows a global sigmoidal trend extending for about 55 km in the N10°E direction. Both the eastern and the western sides shows equal average slopes. Throughout the framework, crater-like morphologies are not clearly visible. The western side of the seamount reveals furrowed channels showing peculiar rounded sections. The northern sector morphologically differs from the rest of the seamount and seems separated

  18. Islanded operation of distributed networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    This report summarises the findings of a study to investigate the regulatory, commercial and technical risks and benefits associated with the operation of distributed generation to power an islanded section of distributed network. A review of published literature was carried out, and UK generators were identified who could operate as part of an island network under the existing technical, regulatory, and safety framework. Agreement on case studies for consideration with distributed network operators (DNOs) is discussed as well as the quantification of the risks, benefits and costs of islanding, and the production of a case implementation plan for each case study. Technical issues associated with operating sections of network in islanded mode are described, and impacts of islanding on trading and settlement, and technical and commercial modelling are explored.

  19. A roadmap for island biology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Patino, Jairo; Whittaker, Robert J.; Borges, Paulo A.V.

    2017-01-01

    Aims: The 50th anniversary of the publication of the seminal book, The Theory of Island Biogeography, by Robert H. MacArthur and Edward O. Wilson, is a timely moment to review and identify key research foci that could advance island biology. Here, we take a collaborative horizon-scanning approach...... to identify 50 fundamental questions for the continued development of the field. Location: Worldwide. Methods: We adapted a well-established methodology of horizon scanning to identify priority research questions in island biology, and initiated it during the Island Biology 2016 conference held in the Azores......); global change (5); conservation and management policies (5); and invasive alien species (4). Main conclusions: Collectively, this cross-disciplinary set of topics covering the 50 fundamental questions has the potential to stimulate and guide future research in island biology. By covering fields ranging...

  20. Islanded operation of distributed networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This report summarises the findings of a study to investigate the regulatory, commercial and technical risks and benefits associated with the operation of distributed generation to power an islanded section of distributed network. A review of published literature was carried out, and UK generators were identified who could operate as part of an island network under the existing technical, regulatory, and safety framework. Agreement on case studies for consideration with distributed network operators (DNOs) is discussed as well as the quantification of the risks, benefits and costs of islanding, and the production of a case implementation plan for each case study. Technical issues associated with operating sections of network in islanded mode are described, and impacts of islanding on trading and settlement, and technical and commercial modelling are explored

  1. Quantifying the effects of European beach grass on aeolian sand transport over the last century: Bodega Marine Reserve, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesmat, R.; Werner, S.; Smith, M. E.; Riedel, T.; Best, R.; Olyarnik, S.

    2012-12-01

    Introduction of European beach grass (Ammophila arenaria) to coastal dune systems of western North America induced significant changes to the transport and storage of sediment, and consequently the nesting habitat of the western snowy plover (Charadrius alexandrinus nivosus). At the Bodega Marine Reserve and Sonoma Coast State Park, Ammophila was introduced within the ~0.5 km2 dune area in the 1920's to limit the flux of sand through Bodega Harbor and agricultural land. To assess the potential impact of restoration efforts (Ammophila removal) on aeolian sediment flux, we measured sediment flux as a function of wind speeds and ground cover, and used these measurements to parameterize a spatial model for historical sand deposition Fine- to coarse-grained lithic to sub-lithic sand is delivered to the Bodega dune system from Salmon Creek beach, the down-shore terminus of a littoral system fed by the 3846 km2 Russian River catchment, several small (Gaffney ridge) at the edge of the planted region. An average accumulation rate of ~4,000 m3/yr is indicated within the study swath by the preserved sediment volumes. Within the modern dune system, unvegetated areas exhibit 2-3 meter wavelength, ~1/2 meter amplitude mega-ripples, and the uppermost 2-10 cm consists of coarse-sand to granule-sized armor layer. In contrast, grain-sizes in vegetated areas are largely vertically homogenous. Open areas are typically 2-8 meters lower than adjacent vegetated areas, and show evidence for net lowering of the land surface (i.e., exposed fence posts, roots). Conversely, vegetated areas appear prone to sediment accumulation, particularly downwind of unvegetated areas. We measured sand transport using 0.5 m high traps deployed at 18 sites throughout the dune field, and used a linear mixed effects model to predict transport rate as a function of wind and ground cover class, taking into account random effects of sampling date and repeated measurements at each site. The analysis indicates up

  2. Geothermal energy in Italy - its importance, potential and projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, W.

    2005-01-01

    This article discusses the perspectives for the use of geothermal energy in Italy. Starting with an overview of the principles of the use of geothermal energy in general, the article goes on to review Italy's geothermal resources and their relevance to energy supply. Figures are given on the political situation in Italy concerning energy and the rapidly increasing demands made on electricity supply. Political support for renewable energy in Italy is looked at and models for financing projects are examined. Examples of geothermal energy projects are given and the perspectives for further developments in this industry are looked at

  3. Indications and organisational methods for autologous blood transfusion procedures in Italy: results of a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalano, Liviana; Campolongo, Alessandra; Caponera, Maurizio; Berzuini, Alessandra; Bontadini, Andrea; Furlò, Giuseppe; Pasqualetti, Patrizio; Liumbruno, Giancarlo M

    2014-10-01

    Pre-operative donation of autologous blood is a practice that is now being abandoned. Alternative methods of transfusing autologous blood, other than predeposited blood, do however play a role in limiting the need for transfusion of allogeneic blood. This survey of autologous blood transfusion practices, promoted by the Italian Society of Transfusion Medicine and Immunohaematology more than 2 years after the publication of national recommendations on the subject, was intended to acquire information on the indications for predeposit in Italy and on some organisational aspects of the alternative techniques of autotransfusion. A structured questionnaire consisting of 22 questions on the indications and organisational methods of autologous blood transfusion was made available on a web platform from 15 January to 15 March, 2013. The 232 Transfusion Services in Italy were invited by e-mail to complete the online survey. Of the 232 transfusion structures contacted, 160 (69%) responded to the survey, with the response rate decreasing from the North towards the South and the Islands. The use of predeposit has decreased considerably in Italy and about 50% of the units collected are discarded because of lack of use. Alternative techniques (acute isovolaemic haemodilution and peri-operative blood salvage) are used at different frequencies across the country. The data collected in this survey can be considered representative of national practice; they show that the already very limited indications for predeposit autologous blood transfusion must be adhered to even more scrupulously, also to avoid the notable waste of resources due to unused units.Users of alternative autotransfusion techniques must be involved in order to gain a full picture of the degree of use of such techniques; multidisciplinary agreement on the indications for their use is essential in order for these indications to have an effective role in "patient blood management" programmes.

  4. First combined total reflection X-ray fluorescence and grazing incidence X-ray absorption spectroscopy characterization of aeolian dust archived in Antarctica and Alpine deep ice cores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cibin, G. [Diamond Light Source, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Didcot, Oxon OX110DE (United Kingdom); IMONT/EIM, Ente Italiano della Montagna, P.za dei Caprettari 70, 00176 Roma (Italy); Universita' degli Studi di Roma Tre, Dipartimento di Scienze Geologiche, L.go S. Leonardo Murialdo 1, 00146 Roma (Italy)], E-mail: giannantonio.cibin@diamond.ac.uk; Marcelli, A. [INFN - Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, P.O. Box 13, 00044 Frascati (Roma) (Italy); Maggi, V. [Universita degli Studi di Milano-Bicocca, Dipartimento di Scienze dell' Ambiente e del Territorio, Piazza della Scienza 1, 20126 Milano (Italy); Sala, M. [Universita degli Studi di Milano-Bicocca, Dipartimento di Scienze dell' Ambiente e del Territorio, Piazza della Scienza 1, 20126 Milano (Italy); Universita degli Studi di Milano, Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra ' A. Desio' , Sez. Mineralogia, Via Mangiagalli 34, 20133 Milano (Italy); Marino, F.; Delmonte, B. [Universita degli Studi di Milano-Bicocca, Dipartimento di Scienze dell' Ambiente e del Territorio, Piazza della Scienza 1, 20126 Milano (Italy); Albani, S. [Universita degli Studi di Milano-Bicocca, Dipartimento di Scienze dell' Ambiente e del Territorio, Piazza della Scienza 1, 20126 Milano (Italy); Universita degli Studi di Siena, Dottorato in Scienze Polari, via Laterina 8, 53100 Siena (Italy); Pignotti, S. [IMONT/EIM, Ente Italiano della Montagna, P.za dei Caprettari 70, 00176 Roma (Italy)

    2008-12-15

    Aeolian mineral dust archived in polar and mid latitude ice cores represents a precious proxy for assessing environmental and climatic variations at different timescales. In this respect, the identification of dust mineralogy plays a key role. In this work we performed the first preliminary X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) experiments on mineral dust particles extracted from Antarctic and from Alpine firn cores using grazing incidence geometry at the Fe K-edge. A dedicated high vacuum experimental chamber was set up for normal-incidence and total-reflection X-Ray Fluorescence and Absorption Spectroscopy analyses on minor amounts of mineral materials at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory. Results show that this experimental technique and protocol allows recognizing iron inclusion mineral fraction on insoluble dust in the 1-10 {mu}g range.

  5. Aeolian sediments deposited in Lake Hamoun; the proxy of frequency and severity of dust storms in Sistan since the late glacial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ali Hamzeh

    2017-03-01

    Our results suggest that the late Holocene in the Sistan Basin (facies C3 was characterized by frequent changes in MLW and SH activity. Palaeoclimatic records show since the mid Holocene to the present time, the climate of Sistan and its catchment area more or less oscillated around a steady state comparable with modern situations (Hamzeh et al. 2016. During this time, the hydroclimatic regime and Aeolian activity of the Sistan Basin and NW Himalaya have been mostly governed by MLW-associated precipitation. Periods of prolonged droughts are indicated in proxy records of NW Iran such Lake Neor (Sharifi et al. 2015, presumably consistent with high MS values in our record. It is possible that weakening of ISM, along with distal influences of the MLW during the late Holocene exposed the Lake Hamoun basin to frequent droughts. Frequent lake level fluctuations show unstable climate of the Sistan Basin during mid to late Holocene with frequent wind storms.

  6. Provenance of the Lower Triassic Bunter Sandstone Formation: implications for distribution and architecture of aeolian vs. fluvial reservoirs in the North German Basin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olivarius, Mette; Weibel, Rikke; Friis, Henrik

    2017-01-01

    Zircon U–Pb geochronometry, heavy mineral analyses and conventional seismic reflection data were used to interpret the provenance of the Lower Triassic Bunter Sandstone Formation. The succession was sampled in five Danish wells in the northern part of the North German Basin. The results show...... Shield did not supply much sediment to the basin as opposed to what was previously believed. Sediment from the Variscan belt was transported by wind activity across the North German Basin when it was dried out during deposition of the aeolian part of the Volpriehausen Member (lower Bunter Sandstone......). Fluvial sand was supplied from the Ringkøbing-Fyn High to the basin during precipitation events which occurred most frequently when the Solling Member was deposited (upper Bunter Sandstone). Late Neoproterozoic to Carboniferous zircon ages predominate in the Volpriehausen Member where the dominant age...

  7. First combined total reflection X-ray fluorescence and grazing incidence X-ray absorption spectroscopy characterization of aeolian dust archived in Antarctica and Alpine deep ice cores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cibin, G.; Marcelli, A.; Maggi, V.; Sala, M.; Marino, F.; Delmonte, B.; Albani, S.; Pignotti, S.

    2008-01-01

    Aeolian mineral dust archived in polar and mid latitude ice cores represents a precious proxy for assessing environmental and climatic variations at different timescales. In this respect, the identification of dust mineralogy plays a key role. In this work we performed the first preliminary X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) experiments on mineral dust particles extracted from Antarctic and from Alpine firn cores using grazing incidence geometry at the Fe K-edge. A dedicated high vacuum experimental chamber was set up for normal-incidence and total-reflection X-Ray Fluorescence and Absorption Spectroscopy analyses on minor amounts of mineral materials at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory. Results show that this experimental technique and protocol allows recognizing iron inclusion mineral fraction on insoluble dust in the 1-10 μg range

  8. Island in an island – The suggestions for transportation improvement plan for Haidian Island, Haikou, Hainan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sia Rosalind Juo Ling

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Haidian Island, which situated at the Northern part of Haikou City of Hainan Province, is an island within a city. Haidian Island is unique in term of it's development which centered around an university, the Hainan University, besides some others important landmarks, such as Haikou city hospital, Baishamen municipal park, Golf Driving Range etc. All commercials, residential, recreational activities etc are planned to serve Hainan University in particular. The study, taking ‘Haidian Island Area Development Control Plan’ as case study, would like to look into the importance of transportation and traffic planning. The study used observation, site investigation and traffic study methods to gather data needed. Firstly the study analyzed the current state of transportation system for Haidian Island in accordance to the Island Development Control plan and Haikou master plan and identified the problems. Then, the study made some recommendations for these problems. The study highlighted the important of non-motorized, cycling and walking as the main transportation system for an education-based island and as supportive to domestic tourism activities found. The transportation planning suggested by the study took ‘green and low-carbon’ approaches considered the role of University as the core activity in the island.

  9. Energy Self-Sufficient Island

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bratic, S.; Krajacic, G.; Duic, N.; Cotar, A.; Jardas, D.

    2011-01-01

    In order to analyze energy self-sufficient island, example of a smaller island, connected to the power system of a bigger island with an undersea cable, was taken. Mounting substation 10/0,4 is situated on the island and for the moment it provides enough electricity using the medium voltage line. It is assumed that the island is situated on the north part of the Adriatic Sea. The most important problem that occurs on the island is the population drop that occurs for a significant number of years, therefore, life standard needs to be improved, and economic development needs to be encouraged immediately. Local authorities to stimulate sustainable development on the island through different projects, to breath in a new life to the island, open new jobs and attract new people to come live there. Because of the planned development and increase of the population, energy projects, planned as a support to sustainable development, and later achievement of the energy self-sufficiency, is described in this paper. Therefore, Rewisland methodology appliance is described taking into the account three possible scenarios of energy development. Each scenario is calculated until year 2030. Also, what is taken into the account is 100% usage of renewable sources of energy in 2030. Scenario PTV, PP, EE - This scenario includes installation of solar photovoltaic modules and solar thermal collectors on the buildings roofs, as well as well as implementation of energy efficiency on the island (replacement of the street light bulbs with LED lightning, replacement of the old windows and doors on the houses, as well as the installation of the thermal insulation). Scenario PV island - This scenario, similarly to the previous one, includes installation of solar photovoltaic modules and solar thermal collectors an the residential buildings, as well as the 2 MW photovoltaic power plant and ''Green Hotel'', a building that satisfies all of its energy needs completely from renewable energy sources

  10. Gypsum karst in Italy: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Waele, Jo; Chiarini, Veronica; Columbu, Andrea; D'Angeli, Ilenia M.; Madonia, Giuliana; Parise, Mario; Piccini, Leonardo; Vattano, Marco; Vigna, Bartolomeo; Zini, Luca; Forti, Paolo

    2016-04-01

    Although outcropping only rarely in Italy, gypsum karst has been described in detail since the early XXth century (Marinelli, 1917). Gypsum caves are now known from almost all Italian regions (Madonia & Forti, 2003), but are mainly localised along the northern border of the Apennine chain (Emilia Romagna and Marche regions), Calabria, and Sicily, where the major outcrops occur. Recently, important caves have also been discovered in the underground gypsum quarries in Piedmont (Vigna et al., 2010). During the late 80s and 90s several multidisciplinary studies have been carried out in many gypsum areas. All this work converged into a comprehensive overview in 2003 (Madonia & Forti, 2003). Further detailed studies focused on the gypsum areas of Emilia Romagna (Chiesi et al., 2010; Forti & Lucci, 2010; Demaria et al., 2012; De Waele & Pasini, 2013; Ercolani et al., 2013; Columbu et al., 2015; Lucci & Piastra, 2015; Tedeschi et al., 2015) and of Sicily (Madonia & Vattano, 2011). Sinkholes related to Permo-Triassic gypsum have been studied in Friuli Venezia Giulia (Zini et al., 2015). This presentation will review the state of the art regarding different aspects of evaporite karst in Italy focusing on the main new results. References Chiesi M., et al. (2010) - Origin and evolution of a salty gypsum/anhydrite karst spring: the case of Poiano (Northern Apennines, Italy). Hydrogeology Journal, 18, pp. 1111-1124. Columbu A. et al. (2015) - Gypsum caves as indicators of climate-driven river incision and aggradation in a rapidly uplifting region. Geology, 43(6), 539-542. Demaria D. et al. (Eds.) (2012), Le Grotte Bolognesi, GSB-USB, 431 p. De Waele J., Pasini G. (2013) - Intra-messinian gypsum palaeokarst in the northern Apennines and its palaeogeographic implications. Terra Nova 25, pp. 199-205. Ercolani M., et al. (Eds.) (2013), I Gessi e la Cave i Monte Tondo. Studio multidisciplinare di un'area carsica nella Vena del Gesso Romagnola. Memorie Ist. It. Spel. II(26), 559 p

  11. Three Mile Island accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barre, B.; Olivier, E.; Roux, J.P.; Pelle, P.

    2010-01-01

    Deluded by equivocal instrumentation signals, operators at TMI-2 (Three Mile Island - unit 2) misunderstood what was going on in the reactor and for 2 hours were taking inadequate decisions that turned a reactor incident into a major nuclear event that led to the melting of about one third of the core. The TMI accident had worldwide impacts in the domain of nuclear safety. The main consequences in France were: 1) the introduction of the major accident approach and the reinforcement of crisis management; 2) the improvement of the reactor design, particularly that of the pressurizer valves; 3) the implementation of safety probabilistic studies; 4) a better taking into account of the feedback experience in reactor operations; and 5) a better taking into account of the humane factor in reactor safety. (A.C.)

  12. Three Mile Island update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snyder, B.J.

    1984-01-01

    Almost six years after the accident at Three Mile Island-2, cleanup operations are proceeding and the financial condition of the owners has improved. The author reviews some of the cleanup activities and notes the milestones ahead before reaching the September, 1988 target date for completion. A decision to decommission or refurbish will follow the completion of fuel removal activities in 1987. The cleanup has produced considerable data and useful information. In particular, the experience of large-scale decontamination and radioactive waste processing, along with information on fission product transport, is relevant for maintenance and safe operation of other plants. Both macro- and microscopic examination of the core could help in developing safer reactors in the future. 3 figures, 1 table

  13. PWR: nuclear islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    Framatome and its partners have produced this glossary of technical terms that can be used in writing English language documents relating to power plants (nuclear islands, individual components, nuclear services, etc.) with the hope of improving the quality of the documents intended for their clients, suppliers and partners and for others. This glossary will be particularly useful to the translators and authors of technical proposals, design documents, manufacturing documents, construction and operating documents concerning Pressurized Water Reactors written in English or French. It can also be useful as a reference document for students, researchers, journalists, etc., having to write on this subject. We would like to thank all those individuals working at the Ministere de la Recherche et de la Technologie, Electricite de France, Jeumont Schneider and Framatome who have contributed to this glossary. We would also appreciate any comments or sugestions intended to improve subsequent editions of this glossary [fr

  14. Mauritius - a Sustainable Island

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Anders

    2010-01-01

    production is determined to be the way forward. A step in this direction is to devolve upon citizens the ability and motivation to produce electricity via small-scale distributed generation (SSDG), i.e. wind, photovoltaic and hydro installations below 50 kW. Given that SSDG is more expensive per installed......The Government of Mauritius has a long-term vision of transforming Mauritius into a sustainable Island. One important element towards the achievement of this vision is to increase the country's renewable energy usage and thereby reducing dependence on fossil fuels. Democratisation of energy...... capacity than the existing much larger power plants, subsidies are needed so as to provide incentives to small independent power producers (SIPP), households and firms to invest in SSDG.The paper presents the context, the theoretical considerations and the proposed incentive schemes to enable electricity...

  15. SRTM Anaglyph: Fiji Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    The Sovereign Democratic Republic of the Fiji Islands, commonly known as Fiji, is an independent nation consisting of some 332 islands surrounding the Koro Sea in the South Pacific Ocean. This topographic image shows Viti Levu, the largest island in the group. With an area of 10,429 square kilometers (about 4000 square miles), it comprises more than half the area of the Fiji Islands. Suva, the capital city, lies on the southeast shore. The Nakauvadra, the rugged mountain range running from north to south, has several peaks rising above 900 meters (about 3000 feet). Mount Tomanivi, in the upper center, is the highest peak at 1324 meters (4341 feet). The distinct circular feature on the north shore is the Tavua Caldera, the remnant of a large shield volcano that was active about 4 million years ago. Gold has been mined on the margin of the caldera since the 1930s. The Nadrau plateau is the low relief highland in the center of the mountain range. The coastal plains in the west, northwest and southeast account for only 15 percent of Viti Levu's area but are the main centers of agriculture and settlement.This shaded relief anaglyph image was generated using preliminary topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. A computer-generated artificial light source illuminates the elevation data from the top (north) to produce a pattern of light and shadows. Slopes facing the light appear bright, while those facing away are shaded. The stereoscopic effect was created by first draping the shaded relief image back over the topographic data and then generating two differing perspectives, one for each eye. When viewed through special glasses, the result is a vertically exaggerated view of the Earth's surface in its full three dimensions. Anaglyph glasses cover the left eye with a red filter and cover the right eye with a blue filter.This image was acquired by SRTM aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument

  16. The first record of translocated white-clawed crayfish from the Austropotamobius pallipes complex in Sardinia (Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julien Amouret

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The white-clawed crayfish Austropotamobius pallipes complex is native to Europe, being present in 18 European countries, Italy included. However, the number and abundance of its populations are today restricted and it has been recently classified as “endangered” by IUCN (International Union for Conservation of Nature. Here, we report the first record of this freshwater crayfish in Sardinia Island (Italy. Using a fragment of the mitochondrial DNA 16S rRNA gene, we identified three haplotypes that correspond to the A. italicus meridionalis subclade. We provide information about the sampling area, population density and finally discuss hypotheses about the occurrence of this population in Sardinia, comparing it with other Mediterranean populations. Our results improve the existing knowledge about the phylogeography of the taxon across Italy, confirming its complex pattern of distribution. In addition to the non-native status of the Sardinian A. i. meridionalis crayfish, we showed that the most proximal Mediterranean population of white-clawed crayfish existing in Corsica belongs to A. pallipes from Southern France.

  17. The Elemental content of Niue Island soils as an indicator of their origin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitehead, N.E.

    1993-01-01

    The major and trace element contents of 241 Niue Island lateritic soils were determined, mainly by X-ray fluorescence, to deduce soil origins. The analyses showed very low SiO 2 content, and a high content of Mg, P, V, Cr, Sr, Y, Hg, and α-counts, compared with other laterites worldwide. The distribution patterns are consistent with derivation by weathering from calcite and dolomite rather then from deposted volcanic ash. Weathering is a particularly novel explanation for the origin of the relatively high content of P in these soils. The soils contain a negative Ce anomly, consistent with an origin from seawater or coral, but not volcanic ash. If recent results showing in situ formation of magnetite in soils are applicable, the soil mineralogy is wholly from calcite is also consistent with the relative lack of volcanic ash on the seabed nearby, and very low deposition of aeolian dust. The radioactivity content is consistent neither with calcite/dolomite wathering, nor volcanic ash orgin, but may have originated, like a few of the stable elements, from rising hydrothermal solutions. (authors). 67 refs.; 8 figs.; 6 tabs

  18. Analysis of the variation effect of the mass in an aeolian shock absorber; Analisis del efecto de la variacion de la masa en un amortiguador eolico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olivares Arriaga, Abraham

    2007-06-15

    In Mexico as well as anywhere in the world, the lines of communication of electrical energy are subjected to vibration that can vary according to the characteristics of the airflow that produce them; in order to attenuate the vibration and with this, the faults that could be produced, mainly faults by fatigue or fracture, since the decade of 1930 have been used aeolian shock absorbers Stockbridge type to dissipate this energy. The main parameters of a shock absorber Stockbridge type are: the mass of the counterweight, the moment of inertia, the length of the messenger cable, the dampening coefficient, the properties of the messenger cable, etc. One of the most important parameters in the design of the aeolian shock absorbers is the adimensional coefficient of damping, reason why it is vital to know if this parameter varies as the characteristics of the aeolian shock absorber change. The present investigation concentrates in knowing if it exists or not a variation in the adimensional coefficient of damping with respect to the parameters of the shock absorber. In chapter 1 the phenomenon of the aeolian vibration is introduced and its basic characteristics. The equipment used for the reduction of the Aeolian vibration is described called shock absorbers Stockbridge type and the definition and the objective of these is considered. In chapter 2, two mathematical models are reviewed to describe the physical behavior of the aeolian shock absorbers, making greater emphasis in the model of two degrees of freedom for being this one employed in this investigation. The revision of the experiment design is realized in chapter 3. Factorial design 23 will be reviewed in detail since the use of this one will be made to carry out the experimentation. In order to measure the response of a system it is necessary to have the adequate instrumentation, it is for this reason in chapter 4 an introduction of the method is given to follow the vibration measurements, as well as of the

  19. Radioactivity in honey of the central Italy.