WorldWideScience

Sample records for aegypti diptera culicidae

  1. Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) Biting Deterrence: Structure-Activity Relationship of Saturated and Unsaturated Fatty Acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-01

    VECTOR CONTROL, PEST MANAGEMENT, RESISTANCE, REPELLENTS Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) Biting Deterrence: Structure- Activity Relationship of...deterrent effects of a series of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids against Aedes aegypti (L), yellow fever mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) using theK...greater thanDEET againstAe. aegypti and their relative repellency varied according to species tested. The MED values of 120 (C11:0), 145 (C12:0) and

  2. Toxicity of Thiophenes from Echinops transiliensis (Asteraceae) against Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) Larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Toxicity of Thiophenes from Echinops transiliensis (Asteraceae) against Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) Larvae by Hiroshi Nakano*a)b)c), Abbas...larvicides against Aedes aegypti . Structural differences among compounds 3, 5, and 8 consisted in differing AcO and OH groups attached to C(3’’) and C(4...mg/ml), 4 (LC50 , 17.95 mg/ml), 6 (LC50 , 18.55 mg/ml), and 7 (LC50 , 19.97 mg/ml). These data indicated that A. aegypti larvicidal activities of

  3. Leaf extracts of Melia azedarach Linnaeus (Sapindales: Meliaceae) act as larvicide against Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762) (Diptera: Culicidae) Extratos de folhas de Melia azedarach Linnaeus (Sapindales: Meliaceae) atuam como larvicida de Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762) (Diptera: Culicidae)

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the larvicidal effect of hydroethanolic extracts of fresh and dry leaves of Melia azedarach Linnaeus (Sapindales: Meliaceae) on Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762) (Diptera: Culicidae). All the extracts evaluated induced mortality among the third and fourth instar larvae of Aedes aegypti after 24 and 48 hours of exposure to the products. Although previous studies had demonstrated the action of seeds and fruits of Melia azedarach against the larvae of diff...

  4. Leaf extracts of Melia azedarach Linnaeus (Sapindales: Meliaceae) act as larvicide against Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762) (Diptera: Culicidae)

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the larvicidal effect of hydroethanolic extracts of fresh and dry leaves of Melia azedarach Linnaeus (Sapindales: Meliaceae) on Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762) (Diptera: Culicidae). All the extracts evaluated induced mortality among the third and fourth instar larvae of Aedes aegypti after 24 and 48 hours of exposure to the products. Although previous studies had demonstrated the action of seeds and fruits of Melia azedarach against the larvae of diff...

  5. Ovicidal activity of entomopathogenic hyphomycetes on Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) under laboratory conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luz, C; Tai, M H H; Santos, A H; Rocha, L F N; Albernaz, D A S; Silva, H H G

    2007-09-01

    The ovicidal activity of 21 hyphomycete fungi species against Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae) was tested. Fungi with ovicidal activity developed on high numbers of eggs (> or =70%) during 25 d of exposure. A clear ovicidal activity with low values of hatch (1.3-40%) was observed after 25 d of incubation with Isaria farinosa (Holm: Fries) Fries, Paecilomyces carneus (Duché & Heim) Brown & Smith, Paecilomyces marquandii (Massee) Hughes, Isaria fumosorosea (Wize), Metarhizium anisopliae (Metschnikoff) Sorokin, Penicillium sp., Paecilomyces lilacinus (Thom) Samson, Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuillemin, and Evlachovaea kintrischica Borisov & Tarasov. More than 63% of eggs hatched after 25-d exposures to 11 other fungi species deemed as ineffective. These are the first results to show the effects of entomopathogenic fungi against eggs of Ae. aegypti, and they suggest their potential as control agents of this vector.

  6. Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) in Mauritania: First Report on the Presence of the Arbovirus Mosquito Vector in Nouakchott.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mint Lekweiry, Khadijetou; Ould Ahmedou Salem, Mohamed Salem; Ould Brahim, Khyarhoum; Ould Lemrabott, Mohamed Aly; Brengues, Cécile; Faye, Ousmane; Simard, Frédéric; Ould Mohamed Salem Boukhary, Ali

    2015-07-01

    Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae) is a major vector of yellow fever, dengue, and chikungunya viruses throughout tropical and subtropical areas of the world. Although the southernmost part of Mauritania along the Senegal river has long been recognized at risk of yellow fever transmission, Aedes spp. mosquitoes had never been reported northwards in Mauritania. Here, we report the first observation of Aedes aegypti aegypti (L.) and Aedes (Ochlerotatus) caspius (Pallas, 1771) in the capital city, Nouakchott. We describe the development sites in which larvae of the two species were found, drawing attention to the risk for emergence of arbovirus transmission in the city.

  7. Leaf extracts of Melia azedarach Linnaeus (Sapindales: Meliaceae) act as larvicide against Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762) (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prophiro, Josiane Somariva; Rossi, Juliana Chedid Nogared; Pedroso, Murilo Fernandes; Kanis, Luiz Alberto; Silva, Onilda Santos

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the larvicidal effect of hydroethanolic extracts of fresh and dry leaves of Melia azedarach Linnaeus (Sapindales: Meliaceae) on Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762) (Diptera: Culicidae). All the extracts evaluated induced mortality among the third and fourth instar larvae of Aedes aegypti after 24 and 48 hours of exposure to the products. Although previous studies had demonstrated the action of seeds and fruits of Melia azedarach against the larvae of different Aedes aegypti populations, the present report is the first to show the larvicidal effect of the fresh and dry leaves of this plant.

  8. Toxicity and Larvicidal Activity of Podophyllum-Based Lignans Against Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maleck, Marise; Hollanda, Priscila de Oliveira; Serdeiro, Michele Teixeira; Soares, Renata Oliveira de Araújo; Honório, Nildimar Alves; Silva, Cláudia Gontijo

    2017-01-01

    Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae) is a mosquito species that has adapted to urban environments and is the main vector of dengue viruses. Because of the increasing incidence of dengue, a more environmentally acceptable insecticide needs to be found. Natural products have been and continue to be an important source of leading compounds that can be modified in order to develop new drugs. The lignan family of natural products includes compounds with a diverse spectrum of biological activity. Podophyllotoxin and its related lignans represent an exciting class of natural products that can be targeted at different types of biological activity and are therefore worth exploring further. This study had the aim of evaluating the larvicidal activity of an ethanolic extract from the rhizomes and roots of Podophyllum hexandrum (PM-3) and its isolated lignans, podophyllotoxone (1) and desoxypodophyllotoxin (2), on the larvae of the mosquito vector Ae. aegypti. The PM-3 extract and the compounds (1) and (2) were dissolved in a mixture of acetone and dimethylsulfoxide at final concentrations of 1, 10, 30, 50, 100, and 200 μg/ml. After dilution, the solutions were applied (μg/ml) to the larvae-rearing medium. Overall, the ethanolic extract from the rhizomes and roots of P. hexandrum and the compounds (1) and (2) showed larvicidal activity against the larvae of Ae. aegypti According to the results from this study, it can be concluded that podophyllotoxone (1) and desoxypodophyllotoxin (2) exhibited significant toxicity toward Ae. aegypti larvae.

  9. Leaf extracts of Melia azedarach Linnaeus (Sapindales: Meliaceae act as larvicide against Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762 (Diptera: Culicidae Extratos de folhas de Melia azedarach Linnaeus (Sapindales: Meliaceae atuam como larvicida de Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762 (Diptera: Culicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josiane Somariva Prophiro

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to compare the larvicidal effect of hydroethanolic extracts of fresh and dry leaves of Melia azedarach Linnaeus (Sapindales: Meliaceae on Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762 (Diptera: Culicidae. All the extracts evaluated induced mortality among the third and fourth instar larvae of Aedes aegypti after 24 and 48 hours of exposure to the products. Although previous studies had demonstrated the action of seeds and fruits of Melia azedarach against the larvae of different Aedes aegypti populations, the present report is the first to show the larvicidal effect of the fresh and dry leaves of this plant.O objetivo deste trabalho foi comparar o efeito larvicida de extratos hidro-etanólicos de folhas verdes e secas de Melia azedarach Linnaeus (Sapindales: Meliaceae em Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762 (Diptera: Culicidae. Todos os extratos avaliados induziram mortalidade em larvas de 3º e 4º estágios de Aedes aegypti, após 24 e 48 horas de exposição aos produtos. Embora estudos prévios tenham demonstrado a ação de sementes e frutos de Melia azedarach em larvas de diferentes populações de Aedes aegypti, o presente estudo é o primeiro a reportar o efeito larvicida de folhas verdes e secas desta planta.

  10. Reappearance of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) in Lima, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, C S; Cáceres, A G; Vaquerizo, A; Ibañez-Bernal, S; Cachay, L S

    2001-07-01

    We report here the reappearance of Aedes aegypti in the Rimac district, and summarize the history of this mosquito species in Peru since its first detection in 1852. On March 17 2000 were found Ae. aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus in Mariscal Castilla town, Flor de Amancaes, San Juan de Amancaes, El Altillo and Santa Rosa in the Rimac district, Lima Province.

  11. Exploring New Thermal Fog and Ultra-Low Volume Technologies to Improve Indoor Control of the Dengue Vector, Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    Dengue Vector, Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) JAMES F. HARWOOD,1,2 MUHAMMAD FAROOQ,1 ALEC G. RICHARDSON,1 CARL W. DOUD,1 JOHN L. PUTNAM,3 DANIEL E...vector, Aedes aegypti (L.), inside human habitations must be performed quickly and efÞciently to reduce the risk of transmission during dengue...ULV]and thermal fog)wereevaluated for their ability toprovide immediate control of Ae. aegypti mosquitoes with a contact insecticide inside simulated

  12. Larvicide and oviposition deterrent effects of fruit and leaf extracts from Melia azedarach L. on Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coria, C; Almiron, W; Valladares, G; Carpinella, C; Ludueña, F; Defago, M; Palacios, S

    2008-05-01

    Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae), the main urban vector of dengue, has developed resistance to various insecticides, making its control increasingly difficult. We explored the effects of Argentine Melia azedarach L. (Meliaceae) fruit and senescent leaf extracts on Ae. aegypti larval development and survival, by rearing cohorts of first instar mosquitoes in water with different extract concentrations. We also analysed oviposition deterrent activity in choice tests with extract-treated ovitraps. The leaf extract showed a strong larvicide activity, with all larvae dying before pupation, and significantly delayed development time. It strongly inhibited oviposition by Ae. aegypti females. The fruit extract showed much weaker effects. This first report of highly effective larvicidal, growth regulating and oviposition deterrent activity of a senescent leaf extract of M. azedarach against Ae. aegypti, suggests that such extract could represent a promising tool in the management of this mosquito pest.

  13. Derris (Lonchocarpus urucu (Leguminosae Extract Modifies the Peritrophic Matrix Structure of Aedes aegypti (Diptera:Culicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gusmão Desiely Silva

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Aqueous suspension of ethanol extracts of Derris (Lonchocarpus urucu (Leguminosae, collected in the state of Amazonas, Brazil, were tested for larvicidal activity against the mosquito Aedes aegypti (Diptera:Culicidae. The aim of this study was to observe the alterations of peritrophic matrix in Ae. aegypti larvae treated with an aqueous suspension of D. urucu extract. Different concentrations of D. urucu root extract were tested against fourth instar larvae. One hundred percent mortality was observed at 150 µg/ml (LC50 17.6 µg/ml 24 h following treatment. In response to D. urucu feeding, larvae excreted a large amount of amorphous feces, while control larvae did not produce feces during the assay period. Ultrastructural studies showed that larvae fed with 150 µg/ml of D. urucu extract for 4 h have an imperfect peritrophic matrix and extensive damage of the midgut epithelium. Data indicate a protective role for the peritrophic matrix. The structural modification of the peritrophic matrix is intrinsically associated with larval mortality.

  14. Tackling the growing threat of dengue: Phyllanthus niruri-mediated synthesis of silver nanoparticles and their mosquitocidal properties against the dengue vector Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosquitoes transmit pathogens that cause millions of human deaths each year. Dengue virus is transmitted to humans in tropical and subtropical areas by Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae). The use of synthetic insecticides to control this mosquito is accompanied by high operational costs and adverse...

  15. Larvicidal and repellent activity of tetradecanoic acid againstAedes aegypti (Linn.) andCulex quinquefasciatus (Say.) (Diptera:Culicidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sivakumar R; Jebanesan A; Govindarajan M; Rajasekar P

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the larvicidal and repellent efficacy of tetradecanoic acid against Aedes aegypti (Ae. aegypti) L. andCulex quinquefasciatus (Cx. quinquefasciatus) Say (Diptera: Culicidae).Methods: Larvicidal efficacy of tetradecanoic acid was tested at various concentrations against the early third instar larvae of Ae. aegypti andCx. quinquefasciatus. The repellent activity was determined against two mosquito species at three concentrations viz.,1.0,2.5 and5.0 ppm under the laboratory conditions.Results: The tetradecanoic acid was found to be more effective againstCx. quinquefasciatus thanAe. aegypti larvae. TheLC50values were14.08 ppm and25.10 ppm, respectively. Tetradecanoic acid showed lesser repellency againstAe. aegypti andCx. quinquefasciatus. The highest repellency was observed in higher concentration of5.0 mg/cm2provided100% protection up to60 and 90 min againstAe. aegypti andCx. quinquefasciatusrespectively.Conclusions: From the results it can be concluded the tetradecanoic acid is a potential for controlling Cx. quinquefasciatus andAe. aegypti mosquitoes.

  16. Especificidade da armadilha Adultrap para capturar fêmeas de Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae Specificity of the Adultrap for capturing females of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almério de Castro Gomes

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available A Adultrap é uma nova armadilha feita para capturar fêmeas de Aedes aegypti. Foram realizados testes para avaliar sua especificidade tendo como referência a técnica da aspiração da espécie em abrigos artificiais. A Adultrap ficou exposta por 24 horas no intradomicílio e peridomicílio de 120 casas sorteadas em dois bairros da Cidade de Foz do Iguaçu, Estado do Paraná. O teste estatístico foi o modelo log-linear de Poisson. O resultado foi a captura de 726 mosquitos Culicidae, dos quais 80 eram Aedes aegypti. A Adultrap capturou apenas fêmeas desta espécie, enquanto o aspirador os dois sexos de Aedes aegypti e mais cinco outras espécies. A Adultrap capturou Aedes aegypti dentro e fora das casas, mas a análise indicou que no peridomicílio a armadilha capturou significantemente mais fêmeas do que a aspiração. Também, ficou evidenciada a sensibilidade da Adultrap para detectar Aedes aegypti em situação de baixa freqüência.The Adultrap is a new trap built for capturing females of Aedes aegypti. Tests were carried out to evaluate the specificity of this trap in comparison with the technique of aspiration of specimens in artificial shelters. Adultraps were kept for 24 hours inside and outside 120 randomly selected homes in two districts of the city of Foz do Iguaçú, State of Paraná. The statistical test was Poisson’s log-linear model. The result was 726 mosquitoes captured, of which 80 were Aedes aegypti. The Adultrap captured only females of this species, while the aspiration method captured both sexes of Aedes aegypti and another five species. The Adultrap captured Aedes aegypti inside and outside the homes, but the analysis indicated that, outside the homes, this trap captured significantly more females than aspiration did. The sensitivity of the Adultrap for detecting females of Aedes aegypti in low-frequency situations was also demonstrated.

  17. Characterisation of novel Bacillus thuringiensis isolates against Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) and Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elleuch, Jihen; Tounsi, Slim; Ben Hassen, Najeh Belguith; Lacoix, Marie Noël; Chandre, Fabrice; Jaoua, Samir; Zghal, Raida Zribi

    2015-01-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis is successfully used in pest management strategies as an eco-friendly bioinsecticide. Isolation and identification of new strains with a wide variety of target pests is an ever growing field. In this paper, new B. thuringiensis isolates were investigated to search for original strains active against diptera and able to produce novel toxins that could be used as an alternative for the commercial H14 strain. Biochemical and molecular characterization revealed a remarkable diversity among the studied strains. Using the PCR method, cry4C/Da1, cry30Ea, cry39A, cry40 and cry54 genes were detected in four isolates. Three strains, BLB355, BLB196 and BUPM109, showed feeble activities against Aedes aegypti larvae. Interestingly, spore-crystal mixtures of BLB361, BLB30 and BLB237 were found to be active against Ceratitis capitata with an LC50 value of about 65.375, 51.735 and 42.972 μg cm(-2), respectively. All the studied strains exhibited important mortality levels using culture supernatants against C. capitata larvae. This suggests that these strains produce a wide range of soluble factors active against C. capitata larvae.

  18. Chemical Composition and Larvicidal Activity of Essential Oils Extracted from Brazilian Legal Amazon Plants against Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Clarice Noleto; Alves, Luciana Patrícia Lima; Rodrigues, Klinger Antonio da Franca; Brito, Maria Cristiane Aranha; Rosa, Carliane dos Santos; do Amaral, Flavia Maria Mendonça; Monteiro, Odair dos Santos; Andrade, Eloisa Helena de Aguiar; Maia, José Guilherme Soares; Moraes, Denise Fernandes Coutinho

    2015-01-01

    The mosquito Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae) is the major vector of dengue and chikungunya fever. The lack of effective therapies and vaccines for these diseases highlights the need for alternative strategies to control the spread of virus. Therefore, this study investigated the larvicidal potential of essential oils from common plant species obtained from the Chapada das Mesas National Park, Brazil, against third instar A. aegypti larvae. The chemical composition of these oils was determined by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. The essential oils of Eugenia piauhiensis Vellaff., Myrcia erythroxylon O. Berg, Psidium myrsinites DC., and Siparuna camporum (Tul.) A. DC. were observed to be mainly composed of sesquiterpene hydrocarbons. The essential oil of Lippia gracilis Schauer was composed of oxygenated monoterpenes. Four of the five tested oils were effective against the A. aegypti larvae, with the lethal concentration (LC50) ranging from 230 to 292 mg/L after 24 h of exposure. Overall, this work demonstrated the possibility of developing larvicidal products against A. aegypti by using essential oils from the flora of the Brazilian Legal Amazon. This in turn demonstrates the potential of using natural resources for the control of disease vectors. PMID:25949264

  19. Odonate Nymphs: Generalist Predators and Their Potential in the Management of Dengue Mosquito, Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akram, Waseem; Ali-Khan, Hafiz Azhar

    2016-01-01

    Background: Dengue is amongst the most serious mosquito-borne infectious disease with hot spots in tropical and subtropical parts of the world. Unfortunately, no licensed vaccine for the disease is currently available in medicine markets. The only option available is the management of dengue vector mosquito, Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae). Method: Predatory potential of five odonate nymphs namely Anax parthenope, Bradinopyga geminate, Ischnura forcipata, Rhinocypha quadrimaculata, and Orthetrum sabina were evaluated against the 4th instar larvae of the dengue vector mosquito, Aedes aegypti, under laboratory conditions. The consumption of the mosquito larvae was evaluated at three water volume levels viz., 1 liter, 2 liter and 3 liter. Results: The number of Ae. aegypti larvae consumed varied significantly among the five species, and at different levels of water volume (Podonate nymphs and the water volumes was statistically non-significant (P> 0.05). Ischnura forcipata consumed the highest number of Ae. aegypti larvae (n=56) followed by A. parthenope (n=47) and B. geminate (n=46). The number of larvae consumed was decreased with increasing search area or water volume, and the highest predation was observed at 1-liter water volume. Conclusion: The odonate nymphs could be a good source of biological agents for the management of the mosquitoes at larval stages. PMID:27308283

  20. Selection of insensitive acetylcholinesterase as a resistance mechanism in Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) from Santiago de Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisset, Juan; Rodríguez, María M; Fernández, Ditter

    2006-11-01

    A sample of Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae) from Santiago de Cuba, Cuba, with a high level of propoxur resistance compared with the reference susceptible Rockefeller strain (12.60 x at the 50% lethal concentration [LC50] and 18.08 at the 90% lethal concentration [LC90]), with a 4.3% frequency of insensitive acetylcholinesterase (AChE) frequency, was subjected to propoxur selection for 13 successive generations to increase the frequency of this resistance mechanism in Ae. aegypti. High resistance to propoxur was developed during this selection (41.73-fold), and the frequency of insensitive AChE mechanism was increased 13.25-fold. Other mechanisms (overproduced esterases, glutathione transferases, or monooxygenases) were not detected in the propoxur-selected strain. The selection of an insensitive AChE resistance mechanism in Ae. aegypti has important implications and will be a valuable resource for genetic studies and molecular characterization of the ace gene mutation(s) associated with insecticide resistance in Ae. aegypti.

  1. Susceptibility of larvae of Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus (Diptera: Culicidae to entomopathogenic nematode Heterorhabditis bacteriophora (Poinar (Rhabditida: Heterorhabditidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María L. PESCHIUTTA

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus (Diptera: Culicidae es vector de los agentes etiológicos de la fiebre amarilla y del dengue. Una alternativa al control químico de este vector es el uso de agentes biológicos. Los nematodos entomopatógenos son efectivos en el control de plagas. La infectividad y el ciclo de vida de un aislado argentino de Heterorhabditis bacteriophora Poinar (Rhabditida: Heterorhabditidae en larvas de A. aegypti se registró por primera vez bajo condiciones de laborato - rio. Para cada unidad experimental, 30 larvas de mosquito de segundo estadio fueron expuestas a 8 dosis del nematodo (0:1, 1:1, 5:1, 15:1, 100:1, 500:1, 750:1, 1500:1. Los juveniles infectivos (JIs utilizados fueron multiplicados sobre Galleria mellonella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae. La continuidad infectiva de los JIs obtenidos de A. aegypti fue probada aplicándolos en una dosis de 100:1 sobre larvas del mosquito . Las tasas de mortalidad fueron de 0% a 84%. El número de nematodos desarrollados dentro de la larva de mosquito, la mortalidad larval y los nuevos JIs se incrementaron con el aumento de la dosis de nematodos. Los resultados indican que H. bacteriophora es capaz de infectar larvas de A. aegypti , se desarrolla y produce nuevos JIs, permitiendo la continuidad de su ciclo de vida.

  2. Odonate Nymphs: Generalist Predators and their Potential in the Management of Dengue Mosquito, Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waseem Akram

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dengue is amongst the most serious mosquito-borne infectious disease with hot spots in tropical and subtropical parts of the world. Unfortunately, no licensed vaccine for the disease is currently available in medicine markets. The only option available is the management of dengue vector mosquito, Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae.Method: Predatory potential of five odonate nymphs namely Anax parthenope, Bradinopyga geminate, Ischnura forcipata, Rhinocypha quadrimaculata, and Orthetrum sabina were evaluated against the 4th instar larvae of the den­gue vector mosquito, Aedes aegypti, under laboratory conditions. The consumption of the mosquito larvae was eval­uated at three water volume levels viz., 1 liter, 2 liter and 3 liter.Results: The number of Ae. aegypti larvae consumed varied significantly among the five species, and at different levels of water volume (P< 0.01. However, the interaction between odonate nymphs and the water volumes was statistically non-significant (P> 0.05. Ischnura forcipata consumed the highest number of Ae. aegypti larvae (n=56 followed by A. parthenope (n=47 and B. geminate (n=46. The number of larvae consumed was decreased with in­creasing search area or water volume, and the highest predation was observed at 1-liter water volume.Conclusion: The odonate nymphs could be a good source of biological agents for the management of the mosquitoes at larval stages. 

  3. Larvicidal efficacy of different plant parts of railway creeper, Ipomoea cairica Extract Against Dengue Vector Mosquitoes, Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) and Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    AhbiRami, Rattanam; Zuharah, Wan Fatma; Thiagaletchumi, Maniam; Subramaniam, Sreeramanan; Sundarasekar, Jeevandran

    2014-01-01

    Natural insecticides from plant origin against mosquito vectors have been the main concern for research due to their high level of eco-safety. Control of mosquitoes in their larval stages are an ideal method since Aedes larvae are aquatic, thus it is easier to deal with them in this habitat. The present study was specifically conducted to explore the larvicidal efficacy of different plant parts of Ipomoea cairica (L.) or railway creeper crude extract obtained using two different solvents; methanol and acetone against late third-stage larvae of Aedes albopictus (Skuse) and Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae). Plant materials of I. cairica leaf, flower, and stem were segregated, airdried, powdered, and extracted using Soxhlet apparatus. Larvicidal bioassays were performed by using World Health Organization standard larval susceptibility test method for each species which were conducted separately for different concentration ranging from 10 to 450 ppm. Both acetone and methanol extracts showed 100% mortality at highest concentration tested (450 ppm) after 24 h of exposure. Results from factorial ANOVA indicated that there were significant differences in larvicidal effects between mosquito species, solvent used and plant parts (F=5.71, df=2, Paegypti with LC50 of 101.94 ppm followed by Ae. albopictus with LC50 of 105.59 ppm compared with other fractions of I. cairica extract obtained from flower, stem, and when methanol are used as solvent. The larvae of Ae. aegypti appeared to be more susceptible to I. cairica extract with lower LC50 value compared with Ae. albopictus (F=8.83, df=1, Pinsecticide for the control of Aedes mosquitoes. This study quantified the larvicidal property of I. cairica extract, providing information on lethal concentration that may have potential for a more eco-friendly Aedes mosquito control program.

  4. Larvicidal & ovicidal efficacy of Pithecellobium dulce (Roxb. Benth. (Fabaceae against Anopheles stephensi Liston & Aedes aegypti Linn. (Diptera: Culicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Govindarajan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: In view of the recently increased interest in developing plant origin insecticides as an alternative to chemical insecticide, this study was undertaken to assess the larvicidal and ovicidal potential of the crude hexane, benzene, chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanol solvent extracts from the medicinal plant Pithecellobium dulce against the mosquito vectors, Anopheles stephensi and Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae. Methods: Larvicidal activity of P. dulce plant extracts was studied in the range of 60 to 450 mg/l against early third instar larvae of An. stephensi and Ae. aegypti in the laboratory. The larval mortality was observed after 24 h of exposure. The ovicidal activity was determined against An. stephensi and Ae. aegypti to various concentrations ranging from 100 to 750 mg/l under the laboratory conditions. Mean per cent hatchability of the eggs were observed after 48 h post treatment. Results: All leaf and seed extracts showed moderate larvicidal and ovicidal effects; however, the highest larval mortality was found in methanol extract of leaf of P. dulce against the larvae of An. stephensi and Ae. aegypti with the LC 50 and LC 90 values 145.43, 155.78 mg/l and 251.23, 279.73 mg/l, respectively. The per cent hatchability was inversely proportional to the concentration of extract and directly proportional to the eggs. Zero hatchability was observed at 400 mg/l for leaf methanol extract and 625 mg/l for seed methanol extract of P. dulce against An. stephensi and Ae. aegypti, respectively. Compared to leaf extracts, seed extracts have low potency against the two mosquitoes. Interpretation & conclusions: The present results suggest that the leaf and seed extracts of P. dulce have the potential to be used as an ideal eco-friendly approach for the control of mosquitoes.

  5. Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) biting deterrence: structure-activity relationship of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Abbas; Cantrell, Charles L; Bernier, Ulrich R; Duke, Stephen O; Schneider, John C; Agramonte, Natasha M; Khan, Ikhlas

    2012-11-01

    In this study we evaluated the biting deterrent effects of a series of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids against Aedes aegypti (L), yellow fever mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) using the K & Dbioassay module system. Saturated (C6:0 to C16:0 and C18:0) and unsaturated fatty acids (C11:1 to C14:1, C16:1, C18:1, and C18:2) showed biting deterrence index (BDI) values significantly greater than ethanol, the negative control. Among the saturated fatty acids, mid chain length acids (C10:0 to C13:0) showed higher biting deterrence than short (C6:0 to C9:0) and long chain length acids (C14:0 to C18:0), except for C8:0 and C16:0 that were more active than the other short and long chain acids. The BDI values of mid chain length acids (C10:0 to C13:0) were not significantly less than N, N-diethyl-meta-toluamide (DEET), the positive control. Among the unsaturated fatty acids, C11:1 showed the highest activity (BDI = 1.05) and C18:2 had the lowest activity (BDI = 0.7). In C11:1, C12:1, and C14:1 BDI values were not significantly less than DEET. After the preliminary observations, residual activity bioassays were performed on C11:0, C12:0, C11:1, and C12:1 over a 24-h period. All the fatty acids (C11:0, C12:0, C11:1, and C12:1) and DEET showed significantly higher activity at all test intervals than the solvent control. At treatment and 1-h posttreatment, all fatty acids showed proportion not biting (PNB) values not significantly less than DEET. At 3-, 6-, and 12-h posttreatment, all fatty acids showed PNB values significantly greater than DEET. At 24-h posttreatment, only the PNB value for C12:0 was significantly higher than DEET. The dose-responses of C12:0 and DEET were determined at concentrations of 5-25 nmol/cm2. As in the residual activity bioassays, the PNB values for C12:0 and DEET at 25 nmol/cm(2) were not significantly different. However, at lower concentrations, the PNB values for C12:0 were significantly greater than DEET. These results clearly indicate that mid

  6. Larvicidal Activity of Essential Oils from the Leaves and Fruits of Nutmeg (Myristica fragrans Houtt Against Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Carolina

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to examine the larvicidal activity of essential oil (EO extracted from nutmeg (Myristica fragrans Houtt leaves and fruits by steam distillation, and to analyze its chemical compounds. The EO yield of nutmeg leaves and fruits collected from the same tree was 0.66% and 0.30%, respectively. Larvicidal tests with the EO were carried out against Aedes aegypti (L. (Diptera: Culicidae. The concentrations of nutmeg EO used for the larvicidal assay were 50, 100, 150, 200, and 250 μg/mL. The results showed that fruit oil was more toxic than the leaf oil. LC50 values of leaf and fruit EOs were 133.8 and 110.1 µg/mL, respectively. The chromatogram of GC-MS showed that the chemical components in nutmeg leaf and fruit EOs were dominated by α-pinene, sabinene, β-pinene, delta-3-carene, limonene, β-phellandrene, α-terpinolene, linalool, safrole, croweacin, and myristicin.

  7. The Influence of Ambient Temperature on the Susceptibility of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) to the Pyrethroid Insecticide Permethrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiten, Shavonn R; Peterson, Robert K D

    2016-01-01

    Insecticides are the most common strategy used for the management of mosquitoes. Changes in ambient temperature can alter the toxicity of insecticides to ectothermic organisms. Studies show organophosphate insecticides exhibit a positive correlation between ambient temperature and mortality for many insect species, and carbamate insecticides exhibit a slightly negative correlation between ambient temperature and mortality. Pyrethroid insecticides exhibit a distinctly negative correlation between increasing ambient temperature and mortality for insects. However, this relationship has not been systematically studied for adult mosquitoes. Therefore, we examined the influence of temperature on the susceptibility of adult Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae) when exposed to permethrin. The median lethal concentration, LC50, was estimated for adult Ae. aegypti when exposed to eight concentrations of permethrin (ranging from 0.06–0.58 ng/cm2) at each of the following temperatures—16, 23, 26, 30, 32, and 34C—for 24 h in bottle assays. The estimated LC50 for each temperature was 0.26, 0.36, 0.36, 0.45, 0.27, and 0.31 ng/cm2, respectively. Results indicated a negative correlation between temperature and mortality from 16 to 30C, a positive correlation between temperature and mortality from 30 to 32C, and a negative correlation between temperature and mortality from 32 to 34C. If mosquito populations are expanding in space and time because of increased ambient temperatures and cannot be managed as effectively with pyrethroids, the spread of mosquito-borne diseases may pose considerable additional risk to public health.

  8. Evaluation of Andrographis paniculata Burm.f. (Family:Acanthaceae) extracts against Culex quinquefasciatus (Say.) and Aedes aegypti (Linn.) (Diptera:Culicidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Marimuthu Govindarajan

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the larvicidal and ovicidal efficacy of different extracts of Andrographis paniculata (A. paniculata) against Culex quinquefasciatus (Cx. quinquefasciatus) Say and Aedes aegypti (Ae. aegypti ) L. (Diptera:Culicidae). Methods:Larvicidal efficacy of the crude leaf extracts of A. paniculata with five different solvents like benzene, hexane, ethyl acetate, methanol and chloroform was tested against the early third instar larvae of Cx. quinquefasciatus and Ae. aegypti. The ovicidal activity was determined against two mosquito species to various concentrations ranging from 50-300 ppm under the laboratory conditions. Results:The benzene, hexane, ethyl acetate, methanol and chloroform leaf extract of A. paniculata was found to be more effective against Cx. quinquefasciatus than Ae. aegypti. The LC50 values were 112.19, 137.48, 118.67, 102.05, 91.20 ppm and 119.58, 146.34, 124.24, 110.12, 99.54 ppm respectively. Among five tested solvent, methanol and ethyl acetate crude extract was found to be most effective for ovicidal activity against two mosquito species. The extract of methanol and ethyl acetate exerted 100%mortality at 200 ppm against Cx. quinquefasciatus and at 250 ppm against Ae. aegypti. Conclusions:From the results it can be concluded the crude extract of A. paniculata was a potential for controlling Cx. quinquefasciatus and Ae. aegypti mosquitoes.

  9. Temporal patterns of abundance of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae and mitochondrial DNA analysis of Ae. albopictus in the Central African Republic.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basile Kamgang

    Full Text Available The invasive Asian tiger mosquito Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae was first reported in central Africa in 2000, in Cameroon, with the indigenous mosquito species Ae. aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae. Today, this invasive species is present in almost all countries of the region, including the Central African Republic (CAR, where it was first recorded in 2009. As invasive species of mosquitoes can affect the distribution of native species, resulting in new patterns of vectors and concomitant risk for disease, we undertook a comparative study early and late in the wet season in the capital and the main cities of CAR to document infestation and the ecological preferences of the two species. In addition, we determined the probable geographical origin of invasive populations of Ae. albopictus with two mitochondrial DNA genes, COI and ND5. Analysis revealed that Ae. aegypti was more abundant earlier in the wet season and Ae. albopictus in the late wet season. Used tyres were the most heavily colonized productive larval habitats for both species in both seasons. The invasive species Ae. albopictus predominated over the resident species at all sites in which the two species were sympatric. Mitochondrial DNA analysis revealed broad low genetic diversity, confirming recent introduction of Ae. albopictus in CAR. Phylogeographical analysis based on COI polymorphism indicated that the Ae. albopictus haplotype in the CAR population segregated into two lineages, suggesting multiple sources of Ae. albopictus. These data may have important implications for vector control strategies in central Africa.

  10. Morphological changes in the midgut of Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae) larvae following exposure to an Annona coriacea (Magnoliales: Annonaceae) extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, M S; Pinheiro, D O; Serrão, J E; Pereira, M J B

    2012-08-01

    Bioinsecticides are important in the control of disease vectors, but data regarding their physiological effects on target insects are incomplete. This study describes morphological changes that occur in the midgut of third instar Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae) following treatment with a methanolic extract of Annona coriacea (Magnoliales: Annonaceae). Dissected midguts were subdivided into anterior and posterior regions and analyzed by light and scanning electron microscopy. Insects exposed to the extract displayed intense, destructive cytoplasmic vacuolization in columnar and regenerative midgut cells. The apical surfaces of columnar cells exhibited cytoplasmic protrusions oriented toward the lumen, suggesting that these cells could be involved in apocrine secretory processes and/or apoptosis. We report that A. coriacea extracts induced morphological alterations in the midgut of A. aegypti midgut larvae, supporting the use of plant extracts for control of the dengue vector.

  11. Mosquito larvicidal, ovicidal, and repellent properties of botanical extracts against Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti, and Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindarajan, M; Mathivanan, T; Elumalai, K; Krishnappa, K; Anandan, A

    2011-08-01

    Mosquito-borne diseases have an economic impact, including loss in commercial and labor outputs, particularly in countries with tropical and subtropical climates; however, no part of the world is free from vector-borne diseases. In mosquito control programs, botanical origin may have the potential to be used successfully as eggs, larvae, and adult. The larvicidal, ovicidal, and repellent activities of crude benzene and ethyl acetate extracts of leaf of Ervatamia coronaria and Caesalpinia pulcherrima were assayed for their toxicity against three important vector mosquitoes, viz., Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti, and Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae). The larval mortality was observed after 24 h of exposure. All extracts showed moderate larvicidal effects; however, the highest larval mortality was found in benzene extract of E. coronaria against the larvae of Anopheles Stephensi, Aedes aegypti, and Culex quinquefasciatus with the LC(50) and LC(90) values were 79.08, 89.59, and 96.15 ppm and 150.47, 166.04, and 174.10 ppm, respectively. Mean percent hatchability of the ovicidal activity was observed 48 h posttreatment. The percent hatchability was inversely proportional to the concentration of extract and directly proportional to the eggs. The leaf extract of E. coronaria was found to be most effective than Caesalpinia pulcherrima against eggs/egg rafts of three vector mosquitoes. For E. coronaria, the benzene extract exerted 300, 250, and 200 ppm against Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti, and Culex quinquefasciatus, respectively. The results of the repellent activity of benzene and ethyl acetate extract of E. coronaria and Caesalpinia pulcherrima plants at three different concentrations of 1.0, 2.5, and 5.0 mg/cm(2) were applied on skin of fore arm in man and exposed against adult female mosquitoes. In this observation, these two plant crude extracts gave protection against mosquito bites without any allergic reaction to the test person, and also, the

  12. Transcriptional Analysis of Four Family 4 P450s in a Puerto Rico Strain of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) Compared With an Orlando Strain and Their Possible Functional Roles in Permethrin Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-01

    MOLECULAR BIOLOGY/GENOMICS Transcriptional Analysis of Four Family 4 P450s in a Puerto Rico Strain of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) Compared...10.1603/ME13228 ABSTRACT A Þeld strain of Aedes aegypti (L.) was collected from Puerto Rico in October 2008. Based onLD50 values by topical application...resistance of Puerto Rico strain of Ae. aegypti was reduced to 15-fold, suggesting that cytochrome P450-mediated detoxiÞcation is involved in the

  13. [Morphology and cytochemistry of Aedes aegypti's cell cultures (Diptera: Culicidae) and susceptibility to Leishmania panamensis (Kinetoplastida: Trypanosomatidae)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Alfonso Arturo; Sarmiento, Ladys; Caldas, María Leonor; Zapata, Cristina; Bello, Felio Jesús

    2008-06-01

    Morphology and cytochemistry of Aedes aegypti's cell cultures (Diptera: Culicidae) and susceptibility to Leishmania panamensis (Kinetoplastida: Trypanosomatidae). The first cellular line of Aedes aegypti was developed by Grace in 1966; afterwards, other cellular lines of this species have been generated. These have been used for the study of pathogenic organisms like viruses, bacteria and parasites, which demonstrates their importance in biomedical applications. This research describes, for the first time, some cytochemical characteristics of A. aegypti cell cultures, that were infected with (MHOM/CO/87CL412) strain of Leishmania panamensis. A morphological study of the cell culture was also carried out. Maintenance of the cell culture, parasites and infection in vitro were carried out in the Laboratory of Entomology, Cell Biology and Genetics of the Universidad de La Salle. The cell cultures infected with the parasite were maintained in a mixture of mediums Grace/L15, supplemented with 10 % fetal bovine serum (FBS) at pH 6.8 and a temperature of 26 degrees C, during 3, 6 and 9 post-infection days. After this, these cell cultures were processed through High Resolution Light Microscopy (HRLM) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) based on standard protocols defined by the Group of Microscopy and Image Analyses of the Instituto Nacional de Salud. Semi-fine slices of 1 microm colored with toluidine blue were used for the morphological analysis of the culture, and ultra fine cuts of 60 to 90 nm stained with uranyl acetate and lead citrate where used for the ultrastructural study. In addition, PAS and peroxidase staining was carried out in cells fixed with methanol. The morphometric study was analyzed with software ImageJ (NIH). In the semi-fine slices, small cells were observed showing fibroblastic appearance 10.84 +/- 2.54 microm in length and 5.31 +/- 1.26 microm wide; other cells had epithelial appearance with a great peripheral nucleus, voluminous and

  14. Effect of niloticin, a protolimonoid isolated from Limonia acidissima L. (Rutaceae) on the immature stages of dengue vector Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reegan, Appadurai Daniel; Gandhi, Munusamy Rajiv; Paulraj, Micheal Gabriel; Balakrishna, Kedike; Ignacimuthu, Savarimuthu

    2014-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the mosquitocidal activity of fractions and a compound niloticin from the hexane extract of Limonia acidissima L. leaves on eggs, larvae and pupae of Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae). In these bioassays, the eggs, larvae and pupae were exposed to concentrations of 2.5, 5.0, 7.5 and 10.0ppm for fractions and 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0ppm for compound. After 24h, the mortality was assessed and the LC50 and LC90 values were calculated for larvae and pupae. Per cent ovicidal activity was calculated for eggs after 120h post treatment. Among the sixteen fractions screened, fraction 8 from the hexane extract of L. acidissima generated good mosquitocidal activity against Ae. aegypti. The LC50 and LC90 values of fraction 8 were 4.11, 8.04ppm against Ae. aegypti larvae and 4.19, 8.10ppm against Ae. aegypti pupae, respectively. Further, the isolated compound, niloticin recorded strong larvicidal and pupicidal activities. The 2ppm concentration of niloticin showed 100% larvicidal and pupicidal activities in 24h. The LC50 and LC90 values of niloticin on Ae. aegypti larvae were 0.44, 1.17ppm and on pupae were 0.62, 1.45ppm, respectively. Niloticin presented 83.2% ovicidal activity at 2ppm concentration after 120h post treatment and niloticin exhibited significant growth disruption and morphological deformities at sub lethal concentrations against Ae. aegypti. The structure of the isolated compound was identified on the basis of single XRD and spectral data ((1)H NMR and (13)C NMR) and compared with literature spectral data. The results indicate that niloticin could be used as a potential natural mosquitocide.

  15. Genetic deviation in geographically close populations of the dengue vector Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae): influence of environmental barriers in South India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadivalagan, Chithravel; Karthika, Pushparaj; Murugan, Kadarkarai; Panneerselvam, Chellasamy; Paulpandi, Manickam; Madhiyazhagan, Pari; Wei, Hui; Aziz, Al Thabiani; Alsalhi, Mohamad Saleh; Devanesan, Sandhanasamy; Nicoletti, Marcello; Paramasivan, Rajaiah; Dinesh, Devakumar; Benelli, Giovanni

    2016-03-01

    Mosquitoes are vectors of devastating pathogens and parasites, causing millions of deaths every year. Dengue is a mosquito-borne viral infection found in tropical and subtropical regions around the world. Recently, dengue transmission has strongly increased in urban and semiurban areas, becoming a major international public health concern. Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) is a primary vector of dengue. Shedding light on genetic deviation in A. aegypti populations is of crucial importance to fully understand their molecular ecology and evolution. In this research, haplotype and genetic analyses were conducted using individuals of A. aegypti from 31 localities in the north, southeast, northeast and central regions of Tamil Nadu (South India). The mitochondrial DNA region of cytochrome c oxidase 1 (CO1) gene was used as marker for the analyses. Thirty-one haplotypes sequences were submitted to GenBank and authenticated. The complete haplotype set included 64 haplotypes from various geographical regions clustered into three groups (lineages) separated by three fixed mutational steps, suggesting that the South Indian Ae. aegypti populations were pooled and are linked with West Africa, Columbian and Southeast Asian lineages. The genetic and haplotype diversity was low, indicating reduced gene flow among close populations of the vector, due to geographical barriers such as water bodies. Lastly, the negative values for neutrality tests indicated a bottle-neck effect and supported for low frequency of polymorphism among the haplotypes. Overall, our results add basic knowledge to molecular ecology of the dengue vector A. aegypti, providing the first evidence for multiple introductions of Ae. aegypti populations from Columbia and West Africa in South India.

  16. Larvicidal and Pupicidal Activities of Alizarin Isolated from Roots of Rubia cordifolia Against Culex quinquefasciatus Say and Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandhi, M R; Reegan, A D; Ganesan, P; Sivasankaran, K; Paulraj, M G; Balakrishna, K; Ignacimuthu, S; Al-Dhabi, N A

    2016-08-01

    The mosquitocidal activities of different fractions and a compound alizarin from the methanol extract of Rubia cordifolia roots were evaluated on larvae and pupae of Culex quinquefasciatus Say and Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae). Larvae and pupae were exposed to concentrations of 2.5, 5.0, 7.5 and 10 ppm for fractions and 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 ppm for compound. After 24 h, the mortality was assessed and the LC50 and LC90 values were estimated for larvae and pupae. Among the 23 fractions screened, fraction 2 from the methanol extract of R. cordifolia showed good mosquitocidal activity against C. quinquefasciatus and A. aegypti. LC50 and LC90 values of fraction 2 were 3.53 and 7.26 ppm for C. quinquefasciatus and 3.86 and 8.28 ppm for A. aegypti larvae, and 3.76 and 7.50 ppm for C. quinquefasciatus and 3.92 and 8.05 ppm for A. aegypti pupae, respectively. Further, the isolated compound alizarin presented good larvicidal and pupicidal activities. LC50 and LC90 values of alizarin for larvae were 0.81 and 3.86 ppm against C. quinquefasciatus and 1.31 and 6.04 ppm for A. aegypti larvae, respectively. Similarly, the LC50 and LC90 values of alizarin for pupae were 1.97 and 4.79 ppm for C. quinquefasciatus and 2.05 and 5.59 ppm for A. aegypti pupae, respectively. The structure of the isolated compound was identified on the basis of spectroscopic analysis and compared with reported spectral data. The results indicated that alizarin could be used as a potential larvicide and pupicide.

  17. Chikungunya virus susceptibility & variation in populations of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae mosquito from India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mangesh D Gokhale

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Although having immense clinical relevance, yet only a few studies have been targeted to understand the chikungunya virus (CHIKV susceptibility and growth in Aedes aegypti populations from India. This study was undertaken to investigate CHIKV susceptibility and growth kinetics in Ae. aegypti along with genetic heterogeneity of Ae. aegypti populations. Methods: Dose dependent CHIKV susceptibility and growth kinetic studies for three CHIKV strains reported from India were carried out in Ae. aegypti mosquito populations. The phenotypic variation and genetic heterogeneity in five Ae. aegypti populations were investigated using multivariate morphometrics and allozyme variation studies. Results: The dissemination and growth kinetics studies of the three CHIKV strains showed no selective advantage for a particular strain of CHIKV in Ae. aegypti. At 100 per cent infection rate, five geographic Ae. aegypti populations showed differences in dissemination to three CHIKV strains. Morphometric studies revealed phenotypic variation in all the studied populations. The allelic frequencies, F statistics, and Nei′s genetic identity values showed that genetic differences between the populations were small, but significant. Interpretation & conclusions: The results obtained in this study suggest that genetic background of the vector strongly influences the CHIKV susceptibility in Ae. aegypti.

  18. Structure-Activity Relationships of 33 Carboxamides as Toxicants Against Female Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    there is a safe and effective vac- cine for the yellow fever virus, epidemic transmission still occurs in Africa with sporadic cases in South America...aegypti (L.) from Quintana Roo, Southern Mexico . J. Am. Mosq. Control. Assoc. 22: 672Ð677. Fouque, F., and R. Carinci. 1996. [Aedes aegypti in French Guiana

  19. Occurrence of Toxorhynchites guadeloupensis (Dyar and Knab) in oviposition trap of Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honorio, Nildimar A. [Instituto Oswaldo Cruz (FIOCRUZ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Entomologia. Lab. de Transmissores de Hematozoarios; Barros, Fabio S.M. de [Universidade Federal de Roraima (UFRR), Boa Vista, RR (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Biologicas e da Saude. Nucleo Avancado de Vetores; Tsouris, Pantelis; Rosa-Freitas, Maria G. [Freitas and Tsouris Consultants, Spata-Attikis (Greece)]. E-mail: maria@freitas-tsouris.com

    2007-09-15

    Toxorhynchites guadeloupensis (Dyar and Knab), a poorly known mosquito species, was observed preying upon Aedes aegypti (L.) larvae, in an oviposition trap placed for routine dengue entomological surveillance, during 2003-2004 in the urban area of Boa Vista, Roraima, Brazil. This is the first report for Tx. guadeloupensis using Ae. aegypti oviposition traps as breeding places. This finding may have important consequences in the epidemiology and local dengue control since Ae. aegypti density is a basic variable in dengue prediction. Whether predation of Ae aegypti by Tx. guadeloupensis in the Amazon is of significance, is a question to be examined. Also, larval predation may be a cause for underestimation of the actual Ae aegypti numbers. Together these hypotheses need to be better investigated as they are directly related to dengue epidemiology, to the success of any outbreak prediction and surveillance program. (author)

  20. Larvicidal activity of Annona senegalensis and Boswellia dalzielii leaf fractions against Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Younoussa Lame; Elias Nchiwan Nukenine; Danga Yinyang Simon Pierre; Charles Okechukwu Esimone

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the larvicidal activity of leaf fractions of Annona senegalensis and Boswellia dalzielii against fourth instar larvae of Aedes aegypti. Fourth instar larvae of Ae. aegypti were exposed for 24 hours to various concentrations (312.5-2500 mg/L) of methanolic crude extract and its fractions obtained with n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl-acetate and methanol solvents, following WHO method. The mortalities recorded were subjected to ANOVA test for mean co...

  1. Evidence for Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) Oviposition on Boats in the Peruvian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guagliardo, Sarah Anne; Morrison, Amy C; Luis Barboza, Jose; Wesson, Dawn M; Ponnusamy, Loganathan; Astete, Helvio; Vazquez-Prokopec, Gonzalo; Kitron, Uriel

    2015-07-01

    Dengue vector Aedes aegypti L. is invading peri-urban and rural areas throughout Latin America. Our previous research in the Peruvian Amazon has shown that river boats are heavily infested with immature and adult Ae. aegypti mosquitoes, likely playing a major role in their long-distance dispersal and successful invasion. However, the presence of immature mosquitoes provides no information about the timing of oviposition, and whether it took place in the boats. Here, we used baited ovitraps deployed on river boats to test the hypothesis that Ae. aegypti oviposition occurs during boat travel. We deployed 360 ovitraps on 60 different barges during August and October of 2013, and February 2014 (with 20 barges sampled during each month). We found that Ae. aegypti mosquitoes in 22 individual ovitraps from 15 of the 60 barges (premise index 25%) across all sampling dates. Further, the distribution of Ae. aegypti egg abundance was highly aggregated: 2.6% of traps (N=7) were responsible for 71.8% of eggs found, and 1.5% of traps (N=4) were responsible for all (100%) of the larvae found. Similarly, 5% of boats were responsible for the 71.47% of eggs. Our results provide strong evidence that Ae. aegypti oviposition commonly occurs during boat travel. Baited ovitraps could represent a cost-effective means of monitoring and controlling mosquito populations on boats.

  2. Indoor Resting Behavior of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) in Acapulco, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzul-Manzanilla, Felipe; Ibarra-López, Jésus; Bibiano Marín, Wilbert; Martini-Jaimes, Andrés; Leyva, Joel Torres; Correa-Morales, Fabián; Huerta, Herón; Manrique-Saide, Pablo; Prokopec, Gonzalo Vazquez M

    2016-12-22

    The markedly anthropophilic and endophilic behaviors of Aedes aegypti (L.) make it a very efficient vector of dengue, chikungunya, and Zika viruses. Although a large body of research has investigated the immature habitats and conditions for adult emergence, relatively few studies have focused on the indoor resting behavior and distribution of vectors within houses. We investigated the resting behavior of Ae. aegypti indoors in 979 houses of the city of Acapulco, Mexico, by performing exhaustive indoor mosquito collections to describe the rooms and height at which mosquitoes were found resting. In total, 1,403 adult and 747 female Ae. aegypti were collected, primarily indoors (98% adults and 99% females). Primary resting locations included bedrooms (44%), living rooms (25%), and bathrooms (20%), followed by kitchens (9%). Aedes aegypti significantly rested below 1.5 m of height (82% adults, 83% females, and 87% bloodfed females); the odds of finding adult Ae. aegypti mosquitoes below 1.5 m was 17 times higher than above 1.5 m. Our findings provide relevant information for the design of insecticide-based interventions selectively targeting the adult resting population, such as indoor residual spraying.

  3. Differentiation of Aedes aegypti and Aedes notoscriptus (Diptera: Culicidae) eggs using scanning electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faull, Katherine J; Williams, Craig R

    2016-05-01

    Aedes notoscriptus and Aedes aegypti are both peri-domestic, invasive container-breeding mosquitoes. While the two potential arboviral vectors are bionomically similar, their sympatric distribution in Australia is limited. In this study, analyses of Ae. aegypti and Ae. notoscriptus eggs were enabled using scanning electron microscopy. Significant variations in egg length to width ratio and outer chorionic cell field morphology between Ae. aegypti and Ae. notoscriptus enabled distinction of the two species. Intraspecific variations in cell field morphology also enabled differentiation of the separate populations of both species, highlighting regional and global variation. Our study provides a comprehensive comparative analysis of inter- and intraspecific egg morphological and morphometric variation between two invasive container-breeding mosquitoes. The results indicate a high degree of intraspecific variation in Ae. notoscriptus egg morphology when compared to the eggs of Ae. aegypti. Comparative morphological analyses of Ae. aegypti and Ae. notoscriptus egg attributes using SEM allows differentiation of the species and may be helpful in understanding egg biology in relation to biotope of origin.

  4. Oviposition and Embryotoxicity of Indigofera suffruticosa on Early Development of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Jeymesson Raphael Cardoso; Leite, Roberta Maria Pereira; Lima, Izabela Rangel; Navarro, Daniela do Amaral Ferraz; Bianco, Everson Miguel; Leite, Sônia Pereira

    2012-01-01

    Aqueous extract of Indigofera suffruticosa leaves obtained by infusion was used to evaluate the oviposition, its effect on development of eggs and larvae, and morphological changes in larvae of Aedes aegypti. The bioassays were carried out with aqueous extract in different concentrations on eggs, larvae, and female mosquitoes, and the morphological changes were observed in midgut of larvae. The extract showed repellent activity on A. aegypti mosquitoes, reducing significantly the egg laying by females with control substrate (343 (185-406)) compared with the treated substrate (88 (13-210)). No eclosion of A. aegypti eggs at different concentrations studied was observed. The controleclodedin 35%. At concentration of 250 μg/mL, 93.3% of larvae remained in the second instar of development and at concentrations of 500, 750, and 1000 μg/mL the inhibitory effect was lower with percentages of 20%, 53.3%, and 46.6%, respectively. Morphological changes like disruption on the peritrophic envelope (PE), discontinued underlying epithelium, increased gut lumen, and segments with hypertrophic aspects were observed in anterior region of medium midgut of larvae of A. aegypti. The results showed repellent activity, specific embryotoxicity, and general growth retardation in A. aegypti by medium containing aqueous extract of I. suffruticosa leaves.

  5. Oviposition and Embryotoxicity of Indigofera suffruticosa on Early Development of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeymesson Raphael Cardoso Vieira

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aqueous extract of Indigofera suffruticosa leaves obtained by infusion was used to evaluate the oviposition, its effect on development of eggs and larvae, and morphological changes in larvae of Aedes aegypti. The bioassays were carried out with aqueous extract in different concentrations on eggs, larvae, and female mosquitoes, and the morphological changes were observed in midgut of larvae. The extract showed repellent activity on A. aegypti mosquitoes, reducing significantly the egg laying by females with control substrate (343 (185–406 compared with the treated substrate (88 (13–210. No eclosion of A. aegypti eggs at different concentrations studied was observed. The controleclodedin 35%. At concentration of 250 μg/mL, 93.3% of larvae remained in the second instar of development and at concentrations of 500, 750, and 1000 μg/mL the inhibitory effect was lower with percentages of 20%, 53.3%, and 46.6%, respectively. Morphological changes like disruption on the peritrophic envelope (PE, discontinued underlying epithelium, increased gut lumen, and segments with hypertrophic aspects were observed in anterior region of medium midgut of larvae of A. aegypti. The results showed repellent activity, specific embryotoxicity, and general growth retardation in A. aegypti by medium containing aqueous extract of I. suffruticosa leaves.

  6. EFEKTIVITAS PEMANASAN KELAMBU BERINSEKTISIDA, OLYSET TERHADAP NYAMUK AEDES AEGYPTI (DIPTERA: CULICIDAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Upik Kesumawati Hadi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to know the effectiveness of heating insecticide bednet, against the mosquito Aedes aegypti. As many as 240 Olyset samples from eleven health centers in Bangka District were tested its effectiveness against mosquitoes with WHO ball test method. In these test, there were used 25 Aedes aegypti female, and 3-5 days old. Bednet sample treatments was collected from six health centreareas that the people washed and heated the nets. Control samples was taken from five health centre areas where the people only washed their nets without heating. Sample collections were done for four periods with interval time of three months, from September 2007 to June 2008. The observation on knockdown effect/mortality of Aedes aegypti was done on 30 minutes, 60 minutes, and 24 hours after 3 minutes exposured. The effectiveness of Olyset bed net was based on the value of knock-down time 50% (KT-50. The result showed that the difference of the average percentage mortality of Aedes aegypti after 30 minutes, 60 minutes and 24 hours exposured on period of I, II, III and IV in the control groups and on the treatment groups were not significant enough. However, based on the value of KT-50, the heat regeneration on Olyset net has a better effectiveness compared with the control (P<0,05. Keywords: Olyset, long-lasting insecticidal net, Aedes aegypti, heat regeneration

  7. Myco-synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Beauveria bassiana against dengue vector, Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banu, A Najitha; Balasubramanian, C

    2014-08-01

    The efficacy of silver synthesized biolarvicide with the help of entomopathogenic fungus, Beauveria bassiana, was assessed against the different larval instars of dengue vector, Aedes aegypti. The silver nanoparticles were observed and characterized by a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX). A surface plasmon resonance band was observed at 420 nm in UV-vis spectrophotometer. The characterization was confirmed by shape (spherical), size 36.88-60.93 nm, and EDX spectral peak at 3 keV of silver nanoparticles. The synthesized silver nanoparticles have been tested against the different larval instars of Ae. aegypti at different concentrations for a period of 24 h. Ae. aegypti larvae were found more susceptible to the synthesized silver nanoparticles. The LC50 and LC90 values are 0.79 and 1.09 ppm with respect to the Ae. aegypti treated with B. bassiana (Bb) silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). First and second instar larvae of Ae. aegypti have shown cent percent mortality while third and fourth instars found 50.0, 56.6, 70.0, 80.0, and 86.6 and 52.4, 60.0, 68.5, 76.0, and 83.3% mortality at 24 h of exposure in 0.06 and 1.00 ppm, respectively. It is suggested that the entomopathogenic fungus synthesized silver nanoparticles would be appropriate for environmentally safer and greener approach for new leeway in vector control strategy through a biological process.

  8. Influence of the Length of Storage on Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) Egg Viability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Heidi E; Smith, Caitlin; Lashway, Stephanie

    2016-12-22

    Aedes aegypti (L.) is one of the most important arboviral vectors worldwide. Vector control is targeted at immature and adult stages; however, eggs are resistant to desiccation and may repopulate treated areas long after treatment ceases. We investigated the effect of age on Ae. aegypti egg hatching rates using newly colonized populations (F2) from an arid region. We found a strongly negative association where older eggs had lower hatch rates. The capacity of eggs to survive for long periods of time has implications on mosquito control. In addition, the accumulation of eggs in containers should be accounted for in abundance modeling efforts where populations may grow rapidly early in the season.

  9. Ovicidal activity of Ageratina adenophora (Family: Asteraceae) against dengue vector, Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    To determine the ovicidal efficacy of different solvent leaf extracts of Ageratina adenophora against dengue vector Aedes aegypti . Methods: The ovicidal efficacy of the crude leaf extracts of A. adenophora with five different solvents (hexane, benzene, chloroform, ethyl acetate, methanol) and was ...

  10. Larvicidal activity of some Euphorbiaceae plant extracts against Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahuman, A Abdul; Gopalakrishnan, Geetha; Venkatesan, P; Geetha, Kannappan

    2008-04-01

    Larvicidal activity of ethyl acetate, butanol, and petroleum ether extracts of five species of Euphorbiaceae plants, Jatropha curcas, Pedilanthus tithymaloides, Phyllanthus amarus, Euphorbia hirta, and Euphorbia tirucalli, were tested against the early fourth instar larvae of Aedes aegypti L. and Culex quinquefasciatus (Say). The larval mortality was observed after 24 h of exposure. All extracts showed low larvicidal effects; however, the highest larval mortality was found in petroleum ether extract. The LC50 value of petroleum ether extracts of J. curcas, P. tithymaloides, P. amarus, E. hirta, and E. tirucalli were 8.79, 55.26, 90.92, 272.36, and 4.25 ppm, respectively, against A. aegypti and 11.34, 76.61, 113.40, 424.94, and 5.52 ppm, respectively, against C quinquefasciatus. Of the various ratios tested, the petroleum ether extracts of J. curcas and E. tirucalli were observed to be more efficient than the other plant extracts. It is, therefore, suggested that E. tirucalli can be applied as an ideal potential larvicide against A. aegypti and C. quinquefasciatus. This is an ideal ecofriendly approach for the control of the dengue vector, A. aegypti, and the lymphatic filariasis vector, C. quinquefasciatus.

  11. Toxicity of Mexican native plant extracts against larvae of Aedes aegypti(Diptera: Culicidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rosario; Ruiz-Guerrero; Mario; Alberto; Rodríguez-Pérez; Mariano; Norzagaray-Campos

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate five indigenous Mexican plants [Hippocratea excelsa, Hippocratea celastroides, Argemone mexicana(A. mexicana), Tagetes lucida, and Pseudosmodingium perniciosum(P. perniciosum)] toxicity against the fourth instar larvae of the dengue primary vector, Aedes aegypti(A. aegypti).Methods: Each plant part was treated successively with hexane, ethyl acetate, acetone, and methanol to extract potential active components of the plants against the dengue vector.Results: There was a range of toxicity at 24 or 48 h post-exposure for the different plant parts and organic solvent used(LC50 values ranged between 20 and 890 μg/mL). Extracts from seeds of A. mexicana(hexane washing with methanol and acetone) and stem-bark of P. perniciosum(hexane) showed highest toxicity to Ae. aegypti larvae at 48 h post-exposure(LC50 values were80, 50, and 20 μg/mL, respectively), thus making them potential candidates as biolarvicides.Efforts are on-going to characterize the bioactive components of the extracts, through chromatography, for their use as biological tools for the control of the primary dengue vector.Conclusions: A. mexicana and P. perniciosum are good candidates to combat the dengue vector, Ae. aegypti, as they were highly toxic to the larvae.

  12. Genetics and morphology of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) in septic tanks in Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somers, Gerard; Brown, Julia E; Barrera, Roberto; Powell, Jeffrey R

    2011-11-01

    Dengue viruses, primarily transmitted by the mosquito Aedes aegypti (L.), affect an estimated 50-100 million people yearly. Traditional approaches to control mosquito population numbers, such as the use of pesticides, have had only limited success. Atypical mosquito behavior may be one reason why current vector control efforts have been less efficacious than expected. In Puerto Rico, for example, adult Ae. aegypti have been observed emerging from septic tanks. Interestingly, adults emerging from septic tanks are larger on average than adults collected from surface containers. To determine whether adults colonizing septic tanks constitute a separate Ae. aegypti population, we used 12 previously validated microsatellite loci to examine adult mosquitoes collected from both septic tanks and surface containers, but found no evidence to suggest genetic differentiation. Size differences between septic tank and surface mosquitoes were reduced when nutrient levels were held constant across experimental groups. Despite the absence of evidence suggesting a genetic difference between experimental groups in this study, Ae. aegypti emerging from septic tanks may still represent a more dangerous phenotype and should be given special consideration when developing vector control programs and designing public health interventions in the future.

  13. Field validation of the gravid Aedes trap (GAT) for collection of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritchie, Scott A; Buhagiar, Tamara S; Townsend, Michael; Hoffmann, Ary; Van Den Hurk, Andrew F; McMahon, Jamie L; Eiras, Alvaro E

    2014-01-01

    Current surveillance methods for adult Aedes aegypti (L.) are expensive, require electrical power (e.g., the BG-Sentinel trap, BGS), are labor intensive (aspirators), or require difficult to use and costly adhesives (sticky ovitraps). Field trials were conducted in Cairns (Australia) to compare the efficacy of the newly designed Gravid Aedes Trap (GAT) against existing sticky ovitraps (MosquiTRAP and double sticky ovitrap) and the BGS. Latin square design trials confirmed that alarge GAT using a 9.2-liters bucket treated with Mortein Barrier Outdoor Surface Spray ([AI] 0.3 g/kg imiprothrin and 0.6 g/kg deltamethrin) outperformed a smaller 1.2-liters GAT and collected, on average, 3.7x and 2.4X more female Ae. aegypti than the MosquiTRAP and double sticky ovitrap, respectively. Field trials showed that the GAT collected 10-50% less female Ae. aegypti than the BGS trap but 30% more gravid mosquitoes than the BGS. Trials using the BGS and the GAT indicated that there was no difference in capture rates between female Ae. aegypti uninfected and infected with the wMel strain of Wolbachia, and wMel infection rates were nearly identical at >90% to field captured Ae. aegypti. The potential for the GAT to be used for dengue virus surveillance was also demonstrated with dengue virus type 3 RNA detected in five-sixths and six-sixths pools ofAe. aegypti stored in a GAT held at 28 degreeC and 60% relative humidity for 7 and 14 d, respectively. Mosquito knock down in GATs treated with Mortein surface spray set in 30, 70, and 99% shade was comparable for up to 2 mo, with only approximately 10% of adults escaping. The GAT is therefore a useful tool for capturing adult Ae. aegypti and may be suitable for other container-inhabiting species such as Aedes albopictus (Skuse) and Culex quinquefasciatus Say. The low cost and practicality of operation make the GAT suitable for vector surveillance and projects requiring monitoring of mosquitoes for Wolbachia and arboviruses, especially in

  14. The Siren's Song: Exploitation of Female Flight Tones to Passively Capture Male Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Brian J; Ritchie, Scott A

    2016-01-01

    The need to capture male mosquitoes has intensified recently as a result of a number of male-based sterile insect technique (SIT) and population-modification programs focused on Aedes aegypti (L.) having initiated field releases. Here, we report the results of the successful exploitation of the attraction of male Ae. aegypti to female flight tones to enhance male collections in nonmechanical passive (nonbattery powered) Gravid Aedes Traps (GAT). Prior to field studies, male attraction to female flight tones of 484 and 560 Hz, as well as to a male flight tone of 715 Hz, were assessed in a series of controlled release-recapture and semifield trials. These trials determined that a pure tone of 484 Hz was significantly more attractive to free-flying males than the other flight tones and enabled their collection in sound-baited GATs (ca. 95% capture rate after 2 h; 484 Hz at 65 dB). In contrast, gravid females were unresponsive to male or female flight tones and were evenly distributed among sound-baited and control GATs. Importantly, under normal field conditions sound-baited GATs (484 Hz at 70 dB) captured significantly more male Ae. aegypti per 24-h trap interval (1.3 ± 0.37) than controls (0.2 ± 0.13). Overall, sound-bated GATs captured approximately twice as many Ae. aegypti (male and female; 3.0 ± 0.68 per interval, 30 total) than controls (1.5 ± 0.56 per interval, 15 total). These results reveal that sound-baited GATs are a simple and effective surveillance tool for Ae. aegypti that would allow current male-based SIT and population-modification programs to effectively monitor males in their target populations.

  15. Raw sewage as breeding site to Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti (Diptera, culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chitolina, R F; Anjos, F A; Lima, T S; Castro, E A; Costa-Ribeiro, M C V

    2016-12-01

    The selection of oviposition sites by females of Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti is a key factor for the larval survival and egg dispersion and has a direct influence in vector control programs. In this study, we evaluated the aspects of reproductive physiology of Ae. aegypti mosquitoes tested in the presence of raw sewage. Ae. aegypti females were used in oviposition bioassays according to two methodologies: (i) choice assay, in which three oviposition substrates were offered in the same cage: treatment (raw sewage), positive control (distilled water) and negative control (1% sodium hypochlorite) and; (ii) no choice assay, in which only one substrate was available. The physicochemical and microbiological analysis of the raw sewage used in this study indicated virtually no levels of chlorine, low levels of dissolved oxygen and high levels of nitrogenous compounds as well as the presence of Escherichia coli and total fecal coliforms. After 72h of oviposition, the eggs were counted and there was no statistically significant difference (p>0.05) in the oviposition rate between raw sewage and positive control in both methodologies. In addition, females were dissected to evaluate egg-retention and also there were no appreciable differences in egg retention even when raw sewage was the only substrate offered. The data also showed that egg hatching and larvae development occurred normally in the raw sewage. Therefore, the present study suggests that Ae. aegypti can adapt to new sites and lay eggs in polluted water, such as the raw sewage. These findings are of particular importance for the control and surveillance programs against Ae. aegypti in countries where the conditions of poor infrastructure and lack of basic sanitation are still an issue.

  16. Biosynthesized silver nanoparticles from Pedilanthus tithymaloides leaf extract with anti-developmental activity against larval instars of Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera; Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundaravadivelan, Chandran; Nalini Padmanabhan, Madanagopal; Sivaprasath, Prabhu; Kishmu, Lingan

    2013-01-01

    Mosquitoes transmit dreadful diseases to human beings wherein biological control of these vectors using plant-derived molecules would be an alternative to reduce mosquito population. Aqueous leaf extract and green synthesized silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) from Pedilanthus tithymaloides (L.) Poit. were investigated for their efficacy against the dengue vector Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera; Culicidae). The biologically synthesized Ag NPs were characterized by UV-vis spectrum, X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared, and surface characteristics by atomic force microscopy. Further, on exposure of the larvae to varying concentrations of aqueous leaf and Ag NPs for 24 h, these Ag NPs showed 100 % mortality from first to fourth instars and pupae of A. aegypti at 0.25 %, which is the highest concentration, tested, wherein it was the lowest concentration of aqueous leaf extract alone which showed only 10-18 % of mortality. Lethal concentration (LC(50)) values of Ag NPs against the larval and pupal stages were 0.029, 0.027, 0.047, 0.086, and 0.018 % with no mortality in control. These results suggest that the use of P. tithymaloides silver nanoparticles can be a rapid, environmentally safer bio-pesticide which can form a novel approach to develop effective biocides for controlling the target vector.

  17. In vitro Mosquito Larvicidal Activity of Marine Algae Against the Human Vectors, Culex quinquefasciatus (Say and Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus (Diptera: Culicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akbar Idhayadhulla

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of twenty marine algae were collected from the rocky intertidal and subtidal regions of the southwest coast of India and extracted in methanol. The extracts were evaluated for larvicidal activity against the second and third instar larvae of the human vector mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus and Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae. Analysis on the activity profile of the above marine algae indicated that the early stage larvae were very sensitive to seven seaweed extracts that had been tested. Among the seven marine algae, Lobophora variegata was highly potential, showing LD50 value of 70.38 and 79.43 g mL-1 on the 2nd instar larvae of A. aegypti and C. quinquefasciatus respectively. The rank of larvicidal potency in highly active algae in the descending order is as follows: Lobophora variegata (Dictyotaceae>Spatoglossum asperum (Dictyotaceae>Stoechospermum marginatum (Dictyotaceae>Sargassum wightii (Sargassaceae >Acrosiphonia orientalis (Acrosiphoniaceae>Centroceras clavulatum (Ceramiacea>Padina tetrastromatica (Dictyotaceae. This is the first report that envisaged the mosquito larvicidal efficacy of L. variegata from the Indian coast. Therefore, this marine alga could be recognized as a potential resource of natural insecticide and can be developed to replace synthetic insecticides in future.

  18. Biochemical mechanisms of insecticide resistance in field population of Dengue vector Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Muthusamy

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Insecticide resistance has been known to be prevalent in several insect species including mosquito. It has become a major problem in vector control programme due to pesticide resistance through detoxification enzymes. The present study investigated the toxicity of Ae. aegypti to organophosphates and pyrethroid insecticide and biochemical mechanisms involved in insecticide resistance in larval population. Larval bioassay revealed an LC50 value of 0.734 ppm for dichlorvos and 1.140 ppm for λ-cyhalothrin exposure. Biochemical assay revealed increased activity of AChE (0.3 µmole/mg protein and GST in dichlorvos (1-1.5 µmole/mg protein treatment and esterase activity in λ-cyhalothrin treated compared to control activity. These studies suggest that AChE and GST is associated with organophosphate and esterase associated with pyrethroid resistance in Ae. aegypti.

  19. Repellence of essential oils of aromatic plants growing in Argentina against Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleiser, Raquel M; Bonino, Maria A; Zygadlo, Julio A

    2011-01-01

    Mosquitoes are vectors of pathogens to humans and domestic animals and may also have economical impacts. One approach to prevent mosquito-borne diseases is bite deterrence through the application of repellents. Currently, there is an interest to search for alternative bioactive products to the synthetic active ingredients most widely used in insect repellents. Repellence against Aedes aegypti of essential oils extracted from Acantholippia salsoloides, Aloysia catamarcensis, Aloysia polystachya, Lippia integrifolia, Lippia junelliana (Verbenaceae), Baccharis salicifolia, Euphatorium buniifolium, and Tagetes filifolia (Asteraceae) were assessed. Tests were conducted by alternatively exposing untreated and treated forehand to the mosquitoes and counting probing attempts. All essential oils tested were significantly repellent against A. aegypti when compared to untreated controls; L. junelliana was the most repellent and T. filifolia was the least based on the response of the mosquitoes to different concentrations of the essential oils (EO). Repellence may be attributed to the respective main components of each EO.

  20. Larvicidal activity of Annona senegalensis and Boswellia dalzielii leaf fractions against Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Younoussa Lame

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the larvicidal activity of leaf fractions of Annona senegalensis and Boswellia dalzielii against fourth instar larvae of Aedes aegypti. Fourth instar larvae of Ae. aegypti were exposed for 24 hours to various concentrations (312.5-2500 mg/L of methanolic crude extract and its fractions obtained with n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl-acetate and methanol solvents, following WHO method. The mortalities recorded were subjected to ANOVA test for mean comparison and Probit analysis to determine LC50. Preliminary phytochemical screening test for some components of the plants assessed were also evaluated. The phytochemical screening of the two plants revealed the presence of alkaloids, steroids, phenolic compounds, terpenoids, fats and oils in the crude extracts which, after splitting were most distributed in n-hexane and chloroform fractions. Apart from methanol fraction, all products used showed a significant (P<0.001 concentration-dependent toxicity against Ae. aegypti larvae. The LC50 recorded with crude extract were 759.6 and 830.4 mg/L for A. senegalensis and B. dalzielli respectively. After fractionation, n-hexane and chloroform fractions of A. senegalensis revealed more effective activity than others with CL50 values of 379.3 and 595.2 mg/L respectively. As for B. dalzielli, n-hexane (LC50=537.1 mg/L and chloroform (LC50=585.5 mg/L fractions were also the most effective. These results suggest that the n-hexane and chloroform fractions of these plants as a promising larvicide against Ae. aegypti and can constitute the best basic and vital step in the development of a botanical insecticide source.

  1. Susceptibility of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) to Acanthamoeba polyphaga (Sarcomastigophora: Acanthamoebidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rott, Marilise; Caumo, Karin; Sauter, Ismael; Eckert, Janina; da Rosa, Luana; da Silva, Onilda

    2010-06-01

    To date there is no report on mosquitoes infected with free-living amoebae. For this reason, the aim of this study was to verify if Aedes aegypti could be susceptible to Acanthamoeba polyphaga under laboratory conditions, so trophozoites were offered as a unique food resource for larvae of first instar. The results show that those amoebae are able to infect and colonize the mosquito gut and could be re-isolated of all stages of the mosquito (larvae, pupae, and adults).

  2. Contribution of midgut bacteria to blood digestion and egg production in aedes aegypti (diptera: culicidae (L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pimenta Paulo FP

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The insect gut harbors a variety of microorganisms that probably exceed the number of cells in insects themselves. These microorganisms can live and multiply in the insect, contributing to digestion, nutrition, and development of their host. Recent studies have shown that midgut bacteria appear to strengthen the mosquito's immune system and indirectly enhance protection from invading pathogens. Nevertheless, the physiological significance of these bacteria for mosquitoes has not been established to date. In this study, oral administration of antibiotics was employed in order to examine the contribution of gut bacteria to blood digestion and fecundity in Aedes aegypti. Results The antibiotics carbenicillin, tetracycline, spectinomycin, gentamycin and kanamycin, were individually offered to female mosquitoes. Treatment of female mosquitoes with antibiotics affected the lysis of red blood cells (RBCs, retarded the digestion of blood proteins and reduced egg production. In addition, antibiotics did not affect the survival of mosquitoes. Mosquito fertility was restored in the second gonotrophic cycle after suspension of the antibiotic treatment, showing that the negative effects of antibiotics in blood digestion and egg production in the first gonotrophic cycle were reversible. Conclusions The reduction of bacteria affected RBC lysis, subsequently retarded protein digestion, deprived mosquito from essential nutrients and, finally, oocyte maturation was affected, resulting in the production of fewer viable eggs. These results indicate that Ae. aegypti and its midgut bacteria work in synergism to digest a blood meal. Our findings open new possibilities to investigate Ae. aegypti-associated bacteria as targets for mosquito control strategies.

  3. [Larvicidal activity of Anacardium humile Saint Hill oil on Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762) (Diptera, Culicidae)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porto, Karla Rejane de Andrade; Roel, Antonia Railda; Silva, Márcia Marlene da; Coelho, Rosemary Matias; Scheleder, Eloty Justina Dias; Jeller, Alex Haroldo

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential of Anacardium humile (monkey nuts) against Aedes aegypti larvae. Hexane, ethanol and aqueous extracts and oil from leaves were obtained from plant material collected from the Brazilian savanna. These were tested at concentrations of 1%, 0.5%, 0.25%, 0.125%, 0.05% and 0.0125%, diluted in 1% dimethyl sulfoxide. The dead larvae were counted 24 hours later. The Probit analysis method was used to obtain the LC(50) and the respective confidence intervals. The conclusion was that only the oil extracted from Anacardium humile leaves caused 100% mortality among fourth-instar Aedes aegypti larvae, using concentrations of up to 0.125%. This seems to indicate that the active ingredients are present in the most apolar phase. This indicates that this plant has potential use as a larvicide against Aedes aegypti. However, new tests should be carried out using other plant organs, as well as using other methods and solvents for the extraction.

  4. Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using Bacillus thuringiensis against dengue vector, Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banu, A Najitha; Balasubramanian, C; Moorthi, P Vinayaga

    2014-01-01

    The present study reveals the larvicidal activity of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) synthesized by Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) against Aedes aegypti responsible for the diseases of public health importance. The Bt-AgNPs were characterized by using UV-visible spectrophotometer followed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy. A surface plasmon resonance spectrum of AgNps was obtained at 420 nm. The particle sizes were measured through SEM imaging ranging from 43.52 to 142.97 nm. The Bt-AgNPs has also given a characteristic peak at 3 keV in EDX image. Interestingly, the mortality rendered by Bt-AgNPs was comparatively high than that of the control against third-instar larvae of A. aegypti (LC50 0.10 ppm and LC90 0.39 ppm) in all the tested concentrations, viz. 0.03, 0.06, 0.09, 0.12, and 0.15 ppm. Hence, Bt-AgNPs would be significantly used as a potent mosquito larvicide against A. aegypti.

  5. Reinvestigation of an endogenous meiotic drive system in the mosquito, Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Akio; Chadee, Dave D; Graham, Douglas H; Severson, David W

    2004-11-01

    We have initiated efforts to determine the molecular basis for the M(D) meiotic drive system in the mosquito, Aedes aegypti. The effect of the M(D) gene is a highly male-biased sex ratio, but varies depending on the frequency and sensitivity of a susceptible responder m(s) allele. The M(D) system has potential as a mechanism for driving trangenes for pathogen resistance into natural Ae. aegypti populations. Because all previously existing laboratory strains carrying the M(D) gene have been lost, we have selected for a new strain, T37, that carries a strong driver. Matings between T37 males and drive-susceptible m(s) females result in progeny with highly biased sex ratios, wherein only approximately 14.7% females are produced. We discuss the potential for identifying M(D) candidate genes based on comparisons with the well-described Drosophila melanogaster segregation distorter (SD) meiotic drive system and considerations for release of transgenic Ae. aegypti into natural populations where M(D) and insensitive m3 alleles are likely segregating.

  6. Isolation and Characterization of Midgut Lectin From Aedes aegypti (L. (Diptera: Culicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahany Hassan Ayaad

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The present investigation deals with the isolation and characterization of a lectin from Aedes aegypti (Ae aegypti female mid gut extract that agglutinates various mammalian red blood cells (RBCs such as human three groups A, B, and O (RH+, mouse, rat, guinea-pig, sheep and goat erythrocytes. The highest activity of both crude and isolated mid gut lectins were detected against sheep RBCs. Using (NH42 SO4 fractionation, ion-exchange and mannose-CNBr-Sepharose 6B affinity chromatography techniques, Ae. aegypti midgut lectin (Aelec was purified to homogeneity.Isoelectric focusing (IEF and reducing SDS/PAGE revealed that the isolated mid gut lectin had isoelectric point (PI of 5.90, and subunits approximate molecular weights of 35.50 and 27.35 KDa. The hemagglutination (HA of lectins were Ca2+ - independent and heat-resistant. The sugar specificity of the purified Aelec was strongly inhibited by D (+-mannose and raffinose, followed by D (+ glucose. N-acetyl-D-manosamine and N-acetyl-D-glucosamine were moderate inhibitors. None of the lectins were inhibited by the disaccharides such as galactose, lactose, trehalose (IC50 up to 200 mM or fetuin up to 1% but the glycosubstances mucin and laminarin were strong inhibitors up to very low concentrations (0.030 - 0.003%.

  7. Seasonal Genetic Changes of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) Populations in Selected Sites of Cebu City, Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayson, S L; Gloria-Soria, A; Powell, J R; Edillo, F E

    2015-07-01

    Aedes aegypti (L.) is the primary vector of dengue virus in the Philippines, where dengue is endemic. We examined the genetic changes of Ae. aegypti collected from three selected sites in Cebu city, Philippines, during the relatively wet (2011-2012) and dry seasons (2012 and 2013). A total of 493 Ae. aegypti adults, reared in the laboratory from field-collected larvae, were analyzed using 11 microsatellite loci. Seasonal variation was observed in allele frequencies and allelic richness. Average genetic differentiation (DEST=0.018; FST=0.029) in both dry seasons was higher, due to reduced Ne, than in the wet season (DEST=0.006; FST=0.009). Thus, average gene flow was higher in the wet season than in the dry seasons. However, the overall FST estimate (0.02) inclusive of the two seasons showed little genetic differentiation as supported by Bayesian clustering analysis. Results suggest that during the dry season the intense selection that causes a dramatic reduction of population size favors heterozygotes, leading to small pockets of mosquitoes (refuges) that exhibit random genetic differentiation. During the wet season, the genetic composition of the population is reconstituted by the expansion of the refuges that survived the preceding dry season. Source reduction of mosquitoes during the nonepidemic dry season is thus recommended to prevent dengue re-emergence in the subsequent wet season.

  8. Larvicidal and Growth-Inhibitory Activity of Entomopathogenic Bacteria Culture Fluids Against Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, João Luiz Rosa; Undurraga Schwalm, Fernanda; Eugênio Silva, Carlos; da Costa, Marisa; Heermann, Ralf; Santos da Silva, Onilda

    2017-01-06

    Dengue, Chikungunya, and Zika are important vector-borne diseases, and Aedes aegypti L. is their main transmitter. As the disease management is mainly based on mosquito control strategies, the search for alternative and cost-effective approaches is ongoing. The Gram-negative bacteria Xenorhabdus nematophila and Photorhabdus luminescens are symbiotically associated with entomopathogenic nematodes and are highly pathogenic for insect larvae. After we have recently confirmed the toxicity of these bacteria in Ae. aegypti larvae, we here evaluated the toxic activity of culture fluids on the development of this mosquito species. Larval susceptibility was assessed by exposing larvae to different concentrations of P. luminescens or X. nematophila culture fluids to confirm whether secondary metabolites might cause the mosquitos' death. Xenorhabdus nematophila culture fluid was more effective and stable during the mosquito pathogenicity bioassays compared to that of P. luminescens Larval mortality started a few hours after exposure of the insects to the fluids. Furthermore, the residual effect of larvicidal activity of X. nematophila fluid persisted at full efficiency for 4 d. Particularly, larval mortality was still higher than 50% for up to 8 d. Exposure of larvae to a sublethal dose of X. nematophila fluid delayed pupation as well as emergence of adult mosquitoes and caused cumulative larval mortality higher than 90% by day 14. Here, we describe for the first time the use of stable culture fluids and therefore secondary metabolites of P. luminescens and X. nematophila as a promising basis for the use as biopesticide for control of Ae. aegypti in the future.

  9. Surveillance, insecticide resistance and control of an invasive Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) population in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornel, Anthony J; Holeman, Jodi; Nieman, Catelyn C; Lee, Yoosook; Smith, Charles; Amorino, Mark; Brisco, Katherine K; Barrera, Roberto; Lanzaro, Gregory C; Mulligan Iii, F Stephen

    2016-01-01

    The invasion and subsequent establishment in California of Aedes aegypti in 2013 has created new challenges for local mosquito abatement and vector control districts. Studies were undertaken to identify effective and economical strategies to monitor the abundance and spread of this mosquito species as well as for its control. Overall, BG Sentinel (BGS) traps were found to be the most sensitive trap type to measure abundance and spread into new locations. Autocidal-Gravid-Ovitraps (AGO-B), when placed at a site for a week, performed equally to BGS in detecting the presence of female Ae. aegypti. Considering operational cost and our findings, we recommend use of BGS traps for surveillance in response to service requests especially in locations outside the known infestation area. We recommend AGO-Bs be placed at fixed sites, cleared and processed once a week to monitor mosquito abundance within a known infestation area. Long-term high density placements of AGO-Bs were found to show promise as an environmentally friendly trap-kill control strategy. California Ae. aegypti were found to be homozygous for the V1016I mutation in the voltage gated sodium channel gene, which is implicated to be involved in insecticide resistance. This strain originating from Clovis, California was resistant to some pyrethroids but not to deltamethrin in bottle bio-assays. Sentinel cage ultra-low-volume (ULV) trials using a new formulation of deltamethrin (DeltaGard®) demonstrated that it provided some control (average of 56% death in sentinel cages in a 91.4 m spray swath) after a single truck mounted aerial ULV application in residential areas.

  10. Surveillance, insecticide resistance and control of an invasive Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) population in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornel, Anthony J.; Holeman, Jodi; Nieman, Catelyn C.; Lee, Yoosook; Smith, Charles; Amorino, Mark; Brisco, Katherine K.; Barrera, Roberto; Lanzaro, Gregory C.; Mulligan III, F. Stephen

    2016-01-01

    The invasion and subsequent establishment in California of Aedes aegypti in 2013 has created new challenges for local mosquito abatement and vector control districts. Studies were undertaken to identify effective and economical strategies to monitor the abundance and spread of this mosquito species as well as for its control. Overall, BG Sentinel (BGS) traps were found to be the most sensitive trap type to measure abundance and spread into new locations. Autocidal-Gravid-Ovitraps (AGO-B), when placed at a site for a week, performed equally to BGS in detecting the presence of female Ae. aegypti. Considering operational cost and our findings, we recommend use of BGS traps for surveillance in response to service requests especially in locations outside the known infestation area. We recommend AGO-Bs be placed at fixed sites, cleared and processed once a week to monitor mosquito abundance within a known infestation area. Long-term high density placements of AGO-Bs were found to show promise as an environmentally friendly trap-kill control strategy. California Ae. aegypti were found to be homozygous for the V1016I mutation in the voltage gated sodium channel gene, which is implicated to be involved in insecticide resistance. This strain originating from Clovis, California was resistant to some pyrethroids but not to deltamethrin in bottle bio-assays. Sentinel cage ultra-low-volume (ULV) trials using a new formulation of deltamethrin (DeltaGard®) demonstrated that it provided some control (average of 56% death in sentinel cages in a 91.4 m spray swath) after a single truck mounted aerial ULV application in residential areas. PMID:27158450

  11. Widespread evidence for interspecific mating between Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) in nature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bargielowski, I E; Lounibos, L P; Shin, D; Smartt, C T; Carrasquilla, M C; Henry, A; Navarro, J C; Paupy, C; Dennett, J A

    2015-12-01

    Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus, two important vectors of the dengue and chikungunya viruses to humans, often come in contact in their invasive ranges. In these circumstances, a number of factors are thought to influence their population dynamics, including resource competition among the larval stages, prevailing environmental conditions and reproductive interference in the form of satyrization. As the distribution and abundance of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus have profound epidemiological implications, understanding the competitive interactions that influence these patterns in nature is important. While evidence for resource competition and environmental factors had been gathered from the field, the evidence for reproductive interference, though strongly inferred through laboratory trials, remained sparse (one small-scale field trial). In this paper we demonstrate that low rates (1.12-3.73%) of interspecific mating occur in nature among populations of these species that have co-existed sympatrically from 3 to 150yrs. Finally this report contributes a new species-specific primer set for identifying the paternity of sperm extracted from field collected specimens.

  12. Bionomics of Aedes aegypti subpopulations (Diptera: Culicidae) from Misiones Province, northeastern Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tejerina, Edmundo Fabricio; Almeida, Francisco Felipe Ludueña; Almirón, Walter Ricardo

    2009-01-01

    Life statistics of four Aedes aegypti subpopulations from the subtropical province of Misiones were studied during autumn and winter, under semi-natural conditions, coming from the localities of Posadas (SW), San Javier (SE), Bernardo de Irigoyen (NE) and Puerto Libertad (NW). The eastern subpopulations are geographically separated by the central mountain system of the province from the western subpopulations. High percentages of larval and pupal survival (97-100%) were recorded, and no significant differences were detected among the four subpopulations. Larvae and pupae lasted approximately 8 days to complete their development, no significant differences being detected among the four subpopulations studied. Sex ratio recorded did not differ significantly from 1:1. Male longevity did not show difference among the different subpopulations, but female longevity was remarkably different among the four subpopulations (F=16.27; d.f.=(3;8); P=0.0009), ranging among 11.45 days for San Javier and 57.87 days for Posadas. Fecundity also varied considerably among subpopulations, the greatest number (307.44 eggs/female) being recorded for Posadas (F=4.13; d.f.=(3;8); P=0.04). Ae. aegypti females of the western subpopulations lived longer than the eastern subpopulations studied, therefore, the risk of dengue outbreak would be greater on the Misiones Province border with Paraguay.

  13. Evaluation of novel insecticides for control of dengue vector Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Ayesa; Harrington, Laura C; Scott, Jeffrey G

    2006-01-01

    Insecticides are one of the major tools for controlling vector populations and for reducing the transmission of human pathogens. However, there are few new insecticides being developed and marketed for vector control. Herein, we report on the toxicity of six novel insecticides to both adult and larval Aedes aegypti (L). and the toxicity of three novel insect growth regulators (IGRs) to larvae. Four insecticides were highly or moderately toxic to larvae with LC50 values of 16 (chlorfenapyr), 70 (hydramethylnon), 79 (indoxacarb), and 84 ng/ml (imidacloprid). Diafenthiuron and chlorfenapyr were moderately toxic to adult mosquitoes with LC50 values of 13 and 92 ng/cm2, respectively. Imidacloprid was strongly synergized by piperonyl butoxide (PBO) in Ae. aegypti adults, suggesting that neonicotinoids are intrinsically very toxic to adult mosquitoes (in the absence of detoxification). The effect of PBO on the toxicity in adults and larvae was considerably different, both in terms of the insecticides that were synergized (or antagonized for chlorfenapyr versus adults) and in terms of the degree of synergism. This result implies that the cytochrome P450s involved in metabolism of these insecticides are different between adults and larvae. Pyriproxyfen was confirmed as a potent IGR (EC50 of 0.0017 ng/ml) for mosquitoes, although tebufenozide lacked activity. The potential for use of these materials in mosquito control is discussed.

  14. Repellent activity of constituents identified in Foeniculum vulgare fruit against Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Do-Hyoung; Kim, Soon-Il; Chang, Kyu-Sik; Ahn, Young-Joon

    2002-11-20

    The repellent activity of materials derived from the methanol extract of fruits from Foeniculum vulgareagainst hungry Aedes aegypti females was examined using skin and patch tests and compared with that of the commercial N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide (deet) and (Z)-9-octadecenoic acid. The biologically active constituents of the Foeniculum fruits were characterized as (+)-fenchone and (E)-9-octadecenoic acid by spectroscopic analyses. Responses varied according to compound, dose, and exposure time. In a skin test with female mosquitoes, at a dose of 0.4 mg/cm(2), (+)-fenchone and (Z)-9-octadecenoic acid exhibited moderate repellent activity at 30 min after treatment, whereas deet provided >1 h of protection against adult mosquitoes at 0.2 mg/cm(2). (Z)-9-Octadecenoic acid was a more potent repellent agent than (E)-9-octadecenoic acid. (+)-Fenchone and (E)-9-octadecenoic acid merit further study as potential mosquito repellent agents or as lead compounds.

  15. Late-instar Behavior of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) Larvae in Different Thermal and Nutritive Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiskind, Michael H; Janairo, M Shawn

    2015-09-01

    The effects of temperature on ectotherm growth have been well documented. How temperature affects foraging behavior is less well explored, and has not been studied in larval mosquitoes. We hypothesized that temperature changes foraging behavior in the aquatic larval phase of the mosquito, Aedes aegypti L. Based on empirical results in other systems, we predicted that foraging effort would increase at higher temperatures in these insects. We tested this prediction over three temperature conditions at two food levels. We measured behaviors by video recording replicated cohorts of fourth-instar mosquitoes and assessing individual behavior and time budgets using an ethogram. We found both food level and temperature had significant impacts on larval foraging behavior, with more time spent actively foraging at low food levels and at low temperatures, and more occurrences of active foraging at both temperature extremes. These results are contrary to some of our predictions, but fit into theoretical responses to temperature based upon dynamic energy budget models.

  16. Productividad del vector del dengue aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae), en Girardot-Cundinamarca

    OpenAIRE

    Alcalá Espinosa, Lucas Andrés

    2014-01-01

    Girardot, Cundinamarca es un municipio hiperendémico para dengue. Se determinó la productividad de su vector Aedes aegypti en una época de lluvia (Feb-May, 2011) y otra de sequía (Ago-Sept, 2011). Se estimaron los índices de pupas por persona (IPP), pupas por hectárea (IPH) y se estimó el tamaño corporal del insecto para cada tipo de sitio de cría usando estimación del tamaño del centroide. De todas las pupas recolectadas, los predios aportaron el 94% (n=7098) y los espacios públicos el 6% (n...

  17. Insecticide resistance and genetic variability in natural populations of Aedes (Stegomyia aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae from Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar A. Aguirre-Obando

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Mosquito control prevails as the most efficient method to protect humans from the dengue virus, despite recent efforts to find a vaccine for this disease. We evaluated insecticide resistance and genetic variability in natural populations of Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762 from Colombia. This is the first Colombian study examining kdr mutations and population structure. Bioassays with larvae of three mosquito populations (Armenia, Calarcá and Montenegro were performed according to the World Health Organization (WHO guidelines, using Temephos. For the analysis of the Val1016Ile mutation and genetic diversity, we sampled recently-emerged adults from four mosquito populations (Armenia, Calarcá, Montenegro and Barcelona. Following the WHO protocol, bioassays implemented with larvae showed resistance to Temephos in mosquito populations from Armenia (77% ± 2 and Calarcá (62% ± 14, and an incipient altered susceptibility at Montenegro (88% ± 8. The RR95 of mosquito populations ranged from 3.7 (Montenegro to 6.0 (Calarca. The Val1016Ile mutation analysis of 107 genotyped samples indicates that 94% of the specimens were homozygous for the wild allele (1016Val and 6% were heterozygous (Val1016Ile. The 1016Ile allele was not found in Barcelona. Genetic variability analysis found three mitochondrial lineages with low genetic diversity and gene flow. In comparison with haplotypes from the American continent, those from this study suggest connections with Mexican and North American populations. These results confirm that a continuous monitoring and managing program of A. aegypti resistance in the state of Quindío is required.

  18. [Insecticide resistance mechanisms of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) from two Peruvian provinces].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisset, Juan A; Rodríguez, María; Fernández, Ditter; Palomino, Miriam

    2007-01-01

    Insecticide resistance of Aedes aegypti larvae and adults from two Peruvian provinces, that is, Trujillo and Tumbes provinces, was conducted. High infestation indexes and extensive use of insecticides based on the Vector Surveillance and Control Strategy of the Ministry of Public Health prevailed in these places. Larval bioassays revealed susceptibility to organophosphorate insecticide called malathion in TRUJILLO strain, it being moderate to fention and fenitrotion and high to chlorpyriphos and temephos;however, TUMBES strain was susceptible to the evaluated organophosphorate compounds, except for fention, with moderate resistance. In the adult state, at the recommended dose, TRUJILLO strain showed resistence to DDT organochlorate insecticide and to pyrethoids called lambdacyalotrine and cyflutrine whereas TUMBES was resistant to DDT and to all assessed pyrethoids. None of them was resistant to chlorpiriphos in adult stage. By using synergists, the results showed that esterases and monooxigenases played an important role in the detected resistence to organophosphorate in Aedes larvae from TRUJILLO province. Biochemical assays yielded that increased activity of esterases was very frequent in TRUJILLO strain as was the case of glutathion transferase(GST) and modified acetylcholinesterase (AchR). On the other hand, the polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis allowed observing the prevalence of amplified activity of esterases A4 in TRUJILLO strain but not in TUMBES strain.

  19. An aggregation pheromone modulates lekking behavior in the vector mosquito Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera, Maira; Jaffe, Klaus

    2007-03-01

    Males of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes formed swarms in the laboratory, triggered by the onset of the photophase or by the presence of odors from a rat (which is a potential host for females). The swarm attracted both males and females and increased mating activity. The number of copulas per mosquito was positively correlated with the number of mosquitoes in the swarm and with the duration of the swarm. Swarming and mating activity increased with the presence of a host for females. Young sexually immature males, less than 24 h old, flew but did not swarm nor copulate. Observations using an olfactometer showed that swarming males produced a volatile pheromone that stimulates the flying activity of females at a distance. Females also produce a volatile attractant. The results suggest that males, and possibly also females, produce an aggregation pheromone that attracts males and females towards the swarm. The characteristics of the pheromone-mediated swarm may be described as a 3-dimensional lek. Our results suggest that the development of pheromone-based control systems and/or pheromone traps for the monitoring of vector populations is feasible, adding a new tool to combat this vector of several human pathogens.

  20. Indirect effects of cigarette butt waste on the dengue vector Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieng, Hamady; Rajasaygar, Sudha; Ahmad, Abu Hassan; Rawi, Che Salmah Md; Ahmad, Hamdan; Satho, Tomomitsu; Miake, Fumio; Zuharah, Wan Fatma; Fukumitsu, Yuki; Saad, Ahmad Ramli; Abdul Hamid, Suhaila; Vargas, Ronald Enrique Morales; Ab Majid, Abdul Hafiz; Fadzly, Nik; Abu Kassim, Nur Faeza; Hashim, Nur Aida; Abd Ghani, Idris; Abang, Fatimah Bt; AbuBakar, Sazaly

    2014-02-01

    Despite major insecticide-based vector control programs, dengue continues to be a major threat to public health in urban areas. The reasons for this failure include the emergence of insecticide resistance and the narrowing of the spectrum of efficient products. Cigarette butts (CBs), the most commonly discarded piece of waste, also represent a major health hazard to human and animal life. CBs are impregnated with thousands of chemical compounds, many of which are highly toxic and none of which has history of resistance in mosquitoes. This study was performed to examine whether exposure to CB alters various biological parameters of parents and their progeny. We examined whether the mosquito changes its ovipositional behaviors, egg hatching, reproductive capacity, longevity and fecundity in response to CB exposure at three different concentrations. Females tended to prefer microcosms containing CBs for egg deposition than those with water only. There were equivalent rates of eclosion success among larvae from eggs that matured in CB and water environments. We also observed decreased life span among adults that survived CB exposure. Extracts of CB waste have detrimental effects on the fecundity and longevity of its offspring, while being attractive to its gravid females. These results altogether indicate that CB waste indirectly affect key adult life traits of Aedes aegypti and could conceivably be developed as a novel dengue vector control strategy, referring to previously documented direct toxicity on the larval stage. But this will require further research on CB waste effects on non-target organisms including humans.

  1. Larvicidal, ovicidal, and adulticidal efficacy of Erythrina indica (Lam.) (Family: Fabaceae) against Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti, and Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindarajan, Marimuthu; Sivakumar, Rajamohan

    2014-02-01

    Mosquitoes are the major vector for the transmission of malaria, dengue fever, yellow fever, filariasis, schistosomiasis, and Japanese encephalitis. Mosquito control is facing a threat because of the emergence of resistance to synthetic insecticides. Insecticides of botanical origin may serve as suitable alternative biocontrol techniques in the future. In view of the recently increased interest in developing plant origin insecticides as an alternative to chemical insecticide, this study was undertaken to assess the larvicidal, ovicidal, and adulticidal potential of the crude hexane, benzene, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and methanol solvent extracts from the medicinal plant Erythrina indica against the medically important mosquito vectors, Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti, and Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae). The larval mortality was observed after 24 h of exposure. All extracts showed moderate larvicidal effects; however, the highest larval mortality was found in methanol extract of leaf of E. indica against the larvae of A. stephensi, A. aegypti, and C. quinquefasciatus with the LC50 and LC90 values of 69.43, 75.13, and 91.41 ppm and 125.49, 134.31, and 167.14 ppm, respectively. The mean percent hatchability of the eggs was observed after 48 h post treatment. The percent hatchability was inversely proportional to the concentration of extract and directly proportional to the eggs. All the five solvent extracts showed moderate ovicidal activity; however, the methanol extract showed the highest ovicidal activity. The methanol extract of E. indica against A. stephensi, A. aegypti, and C. quinquefasciatus exerted 100 % mortality (zero hatchability) at 150, 200, and 250 ppm, respectively. Control eggs showed above 99.3-100 % hatchability. The adult mortality was observed after 24 h recovery period. The plant crude extracts showed dose-dependent mortality. At higher concentrations, the adult showed restless movement for some times with abnormal wagging and

  2. Wide spread cross resistance to pyrethroids in Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) from Veracruz state Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Adriana E; Ponce, Gustavo; Silva, Brenda G; Gutierrez, Selene M; Bobadilla, Cristina; Lopez, Beatriz; Mercado, Roberto; Black, William C

    2013-04-01

    Seven F1 strains of Aedes aegypti (L.) were evaluated by bottle bioassay for resistance to the pyrethroids d-phenothrin, permethrin, deltamethrin, lambda-cyalothrin, bifenthrin, cypermethrin, alpha-cypermethrin, and z-cypermethrin. The New Orleans strain was used as a susceptible control. Mortality rates after a 1 h exposure and after a 24 h recovery period were determined. The resistance ratio between the 50% knockdown values (RR(KC50)) of the F1 and New Orleans strains indicated high levels of knockdown resistance. The RR(KC50) with alpha-cypermethrin varied from 10 to 100 among strains indicating high levels of knockdown resistance. Most of the strains had moderate resistance to d-phenothrin. Significant but much lower levels of resistance were detected for lambda-cyalothrin, permethrin, and cypermethrin. For zeta-cypermethrin and bifenthrin, only one strain exhibited resistance with RR(KC50) values of 10- and 21-fold, respectively. None of the strains showed RR(KC50) >10 with deltamethrin, and moderate resistance was seen in three strains, while the rest were susceptible. Mosquitoes from all strains exhibited some recovery from all pyrethroids except d-phenothrin. Regression analysis was used to analyze the relationship between RR(LC50) and RR(KC50). Both were highly correlated (R2 = 0.84-0.97) so that the slope could be used to determine how much additional pyrethroid was needed to ensure lethality. Slopes ranged from 0.875 for d-phenothrin (RR(LC50) approximately equal to RR(KC50)) to 8.67 for lambda-cyalothrin (-8.5-fold more insecticide needed to kill). Both RR(LC50) and RR(KC50) values were highly correlated for all pyrethroids except bifenthrin indicating strong cross-resistance. Bifenthrin appears to be an alternative pyrethroid without strong cross-resistance that could be used as an alternative to the current widespread use of permethrin in Mexico.

  3. Egg Hatching and Survival of Immature Stages of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) Under Natural Temperature Conditions During the Cold Season in Buenos Aires, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Majo, María Sol; Montini, Pedro; Fischer, Sylvia

    2017-01-01

    In temperate regions, the seasonal dynamics of Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae) is mainly influenced by temperature. It is assumed that, during the winter season, the population remains as eggs and that the development and population growth of surviving eggs begin during the following spring. The aim of the current study was to assess egg hatching of Ae. aegypti during the winter in Buenos Aires city (Argentina), and analyze the survival of immature stages. The experiments consisted of immersing eggs and studying the development of immature stages of cohorts from June and September under natural temperature conditions. The proportion of hatched eggs was compared between weeks of immersion and related to environmental variables. Survival was compared among cohorts and the development rate was related to the mean temperature during development. The results showed that, with few exceptions, egg hatching was over 45% during the winter period. The proportion of hatched eggs was positively associated with immersion temperature, pre-immersion temperature and photoperiod. The immature stages completed the development during the cold season, with a trend toward increased survival of late-hatching cohorts. Survival was 30% at 13.2 °C and above 90% at 20 °C, whereas the development time at low temperatures was 49.4 d at 13.2 °C and 17.7 d at 20 °C. The high hatching and survival compared with other studies suggest that the local population might be adapting to winter conditions. The anticipated emergence of adults would be adaptive if they are able to reproduce successfully in the early spring.

  4. Ovicidal, larvicidal and adulticidal properties of Asparagus racemosus (Willd.) (Family: Asparagaceae) root extracts against filariasis (Culex quinquefasciatus), dengue (Aedes aegypti) and malaria (Anopheles stephensi) vector mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindarajan, Marimuthu; Sivakumar, Rajamohan

    2014-04-01

    Several diseases are associated to the mosquito-human interaction. Mosquitoes are the carriers of severe and well-known illnesses such as malaria, arboviral encephalitis, dengue fever, chikungunya fever, West Nile virus and yellow fever. These diseases produce significant morbidity and mortality in humans and livestock around the world. The present investigation was undertaken to study the ovicidal, larvicidal and adulticidal activities of crude hexane, ethyl acetate, benzene, chloroform and methanol extracts of root of Asparagus racemosus were assayed for their toxicity against three important vector mosquitoes, viz., Culex quinquefasciatus, Aedes aegypti and Anopheles stephensi (Diptera: Culicidae). The mean percent hatchability of the eggs was observed after 48 h post-treatment. The percent hatchability was inversely proportional to the concentration of extract and directly proportional to the eggs. All the five solvent extracts showed moderate ovicidal activity; however, the methanol extract showed the highest ovicidal activity. The methanol extract of Asparagus racemosus against Culex quinquefasciatus, Aedes aegypti and Anopheles stephensi exerted 100% mortality (zero hatchability) at 375, 300 and 225 ppm, respectively. Control eggs showed 99-100% hatchability. The larval mortality was observed after 24 h of exposure. All extracts showed moderate larvicidal effects; however, the highest larval mortality was found in methanol extract of root of Asparagus racemosus against the larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus, Aedes aegypti and Anopheles stephensi with the LC50 and LC90 values were 115.13, 97.71 and 90.97 ppm and 210.96, 179.92, and 168.82 ppm, respectively. The adult mortality was observed after 24 h recovery period. The plant crude extracts showed dose-dependent mortality. At higher concentrations, the adult showed restless movement for some times with abnormal wagging and then died. Among the extracts tested, the highest adulticidal activity was observed in

  5. Tackling the growing threat of dengue: Phyllanthus niruri-mediated synthesis of silver nanoparticles and their mosquitocidal properties against the dengue vector Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suresh, Udaiyan; Murugan, Kadarkarai; Benelli, Giovanni; Nicoletti, Marcello; Barnard, Donald R; Panneerselvam, Chellasamy; Kumar, Palanisamy Mahesh; Subramaniam, Jayapal; Dinesh, Devakumar; Chandramohan, Balamurugan

    2015-04-01

    Mosquitoes are vectors of devastating pathogens and parasites, causing millions of deaths every year. Dengue is a mosquito-borne viral infection found in tropical and subtropical regions around the world. Recently, transmission has strongly increased in urban and semiurban areas, becoming a major international public health concern. Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) is the primary vector of dengue. The use of synthetic insecticides to control Aedes mosquitoes lead to high operational costs and adverse nontarget effects. In this scenario, eco-friendly control tools are a priority. We proposed a novel method to synthesize silver nanoparticles using the aqueous leaf extract of Phyllanthus niruri, a cheap and nontoxic material. The UV-vis spectrum of the aqueous medium containing silver nanostructures showed a peak at 420 nm corresponding to the surface plasmon resonance band of nanoparticles. SEM analyses of the synthesized nanoparticles showed a mean size of 30-60 nm. EDX spectrum showed the chemical composition of the synthesized nanoparticles. XRD highlighted that the nanoparticles are crystalline in nature with face-centered cubic geometry. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) of nanoparticles exhibited prominent peaks 3,327.63, 2,125.87, 1,637.89, 644.35, 597.41, and 554.63 cm(-1). In laboratory assays, the aqueous extract of P. niruri was toxic against larval instars (I-IV) and pupae of A. aegypti. LC50 was 158.24 ppm (I), 183.20 ppm (II), 210.53 ppm (III), 210.53 ppm (IV), and 358.08 ppm (pupae). P. niruri-synthesized nanoparticles were highly effective against A. aegypti, with LC50 of 3.90 ppm (I), 5.01 ppm (II), 6.2 ppm (III), 8.9 ppm (IV), and 13.04 ppm (pupae). In the field, the application of silver nanoparticles (10 × LC50) lead to A. aegypti larval reduction of 47.6%, 76.7% and 100%, after 24, 48, and 72 h, while the P. niruri extract lead to 39.9%, 69.2 % and 100 % of reduction, respectively. In adulticidal experiments, P. niruri extract

  6. Dynamics of the control of Aedes (Stegomyia aegypti Linnaeus (Diptera, Culicidae by Bacillus thuringiensis var israelensis, related with temperature, density and concentration of insecticide Dinâmica do controle de Aedes (Stegomyia aegypti Linnaeus, (Diptera, Culicidae por Bacillus thuringiensis var israelensis, relacionada com a temperatura, densidade e concentração do inseticida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonny E. Duque L

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The dynamics of the control of Aedes (Stegomyia aegypti Linnaeus, (Diptera, Culicidae by Bacillus thuringiensis var israelensis has been related with the temperature, density and concentration of the insecticide. A mathematical model for biological control of Aedes aegypti with Bacillus thuringiensis var israelensis (Bti was constructed by using data from the literature regarding the biology of the vector. The life cycle was described by differential equations. Lethal concentrations (LC50 and LC95 of Bti were determined in the laboratory under different experimental conditions. Temperature, colony, larvae density and bioinsecticide concentration presented marked differences in the analysis of the whole set of variables; although when analyzed individually, only the temperature and concentration showed changes. The simulations indicated an inverse relationship between temperature and mosquito population, nonetheless, faster growth of populations is reached at higher temperatures. As conclusion, the model suggests the use of integrated control strategies for immature and adult mosquitoes in order to achieve a reduction of Aedes aegypti.Foi elaborado um modelo matemático do controle biológico de Aedes aegypti com foco em Bacillus thuringiensis var israelensis (Bti. Na construção do modelo foram utilizados dados da literatura sobre a biologia do vetor, no qual o ciclo de vida foi descrito através de equações diferenciais. As concentrações letais (CL50 e CL95 do Bti foram determinadas no laboratório sob diferentes condições experimentais. As variáveis temperatura, colônia, densidade de larvas e concentração do bioinseticida acusaram diferenças significativas quando analisadas no modelo geral, porém quando analisadas individualmente, apenas a temperatura e concentração apresentaram diferenças. As simulações do modelo indicam que a temperatura afeta inversamente a produção de indivíduos e que os pontos máximos de produ

  7. Development and Evaluation of a Pyriproxyfen-treated Device to Control the Dengue Vector, Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    A PyriProxyfen TreATed device for Ae. Aegypti conTrol Vol 44 No. 2 March 2013 167 Correspondence: Alongkot Ponlawat, Depart- ment of Entomology...of Defense, or the US Governments. DEVELOPMENT AND EVALUATION OF A PYRIPROXYFEN- TREATED DEVICE TO CONTROL THE DENGUE VECTOR, AEDES AEGYPTI (L...control of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes, the vectors of these diseases, critically important. We developed and evaluated an Ae. aegypti control device

  8. Insecticide resistance and its underlying mechanisms in field populations of Aedes aegypti adults (Diptera: Culicidae) in Singapore

    OpenAIRE

    Koou, Sin-Ying; Chong, Chee-Seng; Vythilingam, Indra; Lee, Chow-Yang; Ng, Lee-Ching

    2014-01-01

    Background In Singapore, dose–response bioassays of Aedes aegypti (L.) adults have been conducted, but the mechanisms underlying resistance to insecticides remain unclear. In this study, we evaluated insecticide resistance and its underlying mechanism in field populations of Ae. aegypti adults. Methods Seven populations of Ae. aegypti were collected from public residential areas and assays were conducted according to WHO guidelines to determine their susceptibility to several commonly used in...

  9. Susceptibility status of Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae) to temephos from three districts of Tamil Nadu, India

    OpenAIRE

    MUTHUSAMY, R; M S Shivakumar

    2015-01-01

    Background & objectives: Dengue is the most rapidly expanding arboviral disease in India. Aedes aegypti is the primary vector of dengue fever. Chemical insecticides have long been used in the vector control programmes along with other control measures. However, continuous use of insecticides targeting Ae. aegypti may lead to development of insecticide resistance. Though resistance in Ae. aegypti has been reported, the mutation in ace-1 gene associated with temephos resistance is not reported ...

  10. Molecular characterization of Aedes aegypti (L. (Diptera: Culicidae of Easter Island based on analysis of the mitochondrial ND4 gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Andrea Núñez

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Aedes aegypti mosquitoes are the main vector of viruses Dengue, Zika and Chikungunya. Shortly after the first report of the dengue vector Ae. aegypti in Easter Island (Rapa Nui in late 2000, the first disease outbreak dengue occurred. Viral serotyping during the 2002 outbreak revealed a close relationship with Pacific DENV-1 genotype IV viruses, supporting the idea that the virus most likely originated in Tahiti. Mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase subunit 4 (ND4 DNA sequences generated from 68 specimens of Ae. aegypti from Easter Island reporting a unique finding of a single maternal lineage of Ae. aegypti on Easter Island.

  11. Mosquitocidal properties of Oxystelma esculentum (Asclepiadaceae-Indian medicinal plant tested against Ades aegypti (Linn. (Diptera: Culicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuppusamy Elumalai

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the mosquitocidal activities of various solvent extract of Oxystelma esculentum (O. esculentum against the medically important dengue vector mosquito, Aedes aegypti (Ae. aegypti L. Methods: A total of 25 early third instar larvae of Ae. aegypti were exposed to various concentrations (60-300 mg/L and were assayed in the laboratory by using the protocol of World Health Organization, 2005; the 24 h LC50 values of the O. esculentum leaf extract was determined by probit analysis. The ovicidal activity was determined against the freshly laid eggs of Ae. aegypti to various concentrations ranging from 50-300 mg/L under laboratory conditions. The pupicidal activity was determined against pupae of Ae. aegypti to various concentrations ranging from 70-280 mg/L after 24 h of exposure to the concern extract. The repellent efficacy was determined against adult female mosquito species at 1.0, 2.0 and 3.0 mg/ cm2 under laboratory conditions. Results: The LC50 value of methanol extract of O. esculentum against 3rd instar larvae of Ae. aegypti was 125.82 mg/L. The same extract showed 100% egg mortality at 250 mg/L and also pupicidal activity observed against the pupae of Ae. aegypti at 280 mg/L. Conclusions: The present results suggest that the O. esculentum leaf extracts provided an excellent, potential phytopesticide for controlling Ae. aegypti mosquito.

  12. Pesticidal and Mosquitocidal Activities of Clausena excavata Burm. F. (Rutaceae against Spodoptera litura (Fab. (Noctuidae: Lepidoptera and Aedes aegypti L., Anopheles stephensi Liston, and Culex quinquefasciatus Say. (Diptera: Culicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathivanan Thangarasu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to evaluate the larvicidal and ovicidal activities of hexane, diethyl ether, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, and methanol extract of Indian medicinal plant, Clausena excavata, at different concentrations against lepidopteran agricultural field pest, Spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae, and Aedes aegypti, Anopheles stephensi, and Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae. Twenty-five early fourth instar larvae of S. litura and A. aegypti, An. stephensi and C. quinquefasciatus were exposed to various concentrations and were assayed in the laboratory by using specific protocols. The 24 h LC50 and LC90 values of the C. excavata leaf extract was determined by probit analysis. The ovicidal activity were determined against S. litura and A. aegypti, An. stephensi, and C. quinquefasciatus and was assessed 120 hrs after treatment. Results of this study show that the selected Indian medicinal plant C. excavata may be a potential source of natural larvicidal and ovicidal activities against selected pest and vector mosquitoes.

  13. Development and evaluation of a pyriproxyfen-treated device to control the dengue vector, Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera:Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponlawat, Alongkot; Fansiri, Thanyalak; Kurusarttra, Somwang; Pongsiri, Arissara; McCardle, Patrick W; Evans, Brian P; Evans, Brain P; Richardson, Jason H

    2013-03-01

    The resurgence of dengue fever and the chikungunya epidemic make the control of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes, the vectors of these diseases, critically important. We developed and evaluated an Ae. aegypti control device that is visually-attractive to mosquitoes. This pyriproxyfen-treated device was evaluated for its impact on Ae. aegypti egg production and population dynamics in dengue-endemic areas in Thailand. The device consists of a "high rise" shaped ovitrap/ resting station covered with black cotton cloth. The device is easily collapsible and transportable. Ae. aegypti are generally drawn towards darker, shadier areas making this device physically attractive as a resting station to mosquitoes of all physiological stages. The results show this device suppressed Ae. aegypti populations after it was introduced into a village. The observed effect was primarily the result of the Ae. aegypti exposure to pyriproxyfen shortly after adult emergence or after taking a blood meal resulting in decreased egg production. We believe the device may be further improved physically and the formulation should be replaced to provide even better efficacy for controlling Ae. aegypti mosquito, populations.

  14. Mosquito larvicidal and ovicidal properties of Eclipta alba (L.) Hassk (Asteraceae) against chikungunya vector, Aedes aegypti (Linn.) (Diptera:Culicidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M Govindarajan; P Karuppannan

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The present study deals with the investigation of larvicidal and ovicidal activities of benzene, hexane, ethyl acetate, methanol and chloroform leaf extract of Eclipta alba (E. alba) against dengue vector, Aedes aegypti (Ae. Aegypti). Methods: Twenty five early III instar larvae of Ae. aegypti was exposed to various concentrations (50-300 ppm) and was assayed in the laboratory by using the protocol of WHO 2005; the 24 h LC50 values of the E. alba leaf extract was determined by Probit analysis. For ovicidal activity, slightly modified method of Su and Mulla was performed. The ovicidal activity was determined against Ae. aegypti to various concentrations ranging from 100-350 ppm under the laboratory conditions. The egg hatch rates were assessed 48 h post treatment. Results: The LC50 values of benzene, hexane, ethyl acetate, methanol and chloroform extract of E. alba against early third instar larvae of Ae. aegypti were 151.38, 165.10, 154.88, 127.64 and 146.28 ppm, respectively. Maximum larvicidal activity was observed in the methanol extract followed by chloroform, benzene, ethyl acetate and hexane extract. No mortality was observed in control. Among five solvent tested the methanol extract was found to be most effective for ovicidal activity against Ae. aegypti. The methanol extracts exerted 100% mortality (zero hatchability) at 300 ppm. Conclusions: From the results it can be concluded the crude extract of E. alba was an excellent potential for controlling Ae. aegypti mosquito.

  15. Mosquito adulticidal properties of Delonix elata (Family:Fabaceae) against dengue vector, Aedes aegypti (Diptera:Culicidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohan Rajeswary; Marimuthu Govindarajan

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To determine the adulticidal activity of hexane, benzene, chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanol leaf and seed extracts of Delonix elata (D. elata) against Aedes aegypti (Ae. aegypti). Methods:The bioassay was conducted in an experimental kit consisting of two cylindrical plastic tubes both measuring 125 mm×44 mm following the WHO method;mortality of the mosquitoes was recorded after 24 h. Results:The adulticidal activity of plant leaf and seed extracts showed moderate toxic effect on the adult mosquitoes after 24 h of exposure period. However, the highest adulticidal activity was observed in the leaf methanol extract of D. elata against Ae. aegypti with the LC50 and LC90 values 162.87 and 309.32 mg/L, respectively. Conclusions:From this result, it can be concluded the crude extract of D. elata was an excellent potential for controlling Ae. aegypti mosquitoes.

  16. Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) Longevity and Differential Emergence of Dengue Fever in Two Cities in Sonora, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, Kacey C; Walker, Kathleen R; Reyes-Castro, Pablo; Joy, Teresa K; Castro-Luque, A Lucia; Diaz-Caravantes, Rolando E; Gameros, Mercedes; Haenchen, Steven; Hayden, Mary H; Monaghan, Andrew; Jeffrey-Guttierez, Eileen; Carrière, Yves; Riehle, Michael R

    2017-01-01

    Dengue virus, primarily transmitted by the Aedes aegypti (L.) mosquito, has rapidly expanded in geographic extent over the past several decades. In some areas, however, dengue fever has not emerged despite established Ae. aegypti populations. The reasons for this are unclear and have sometimes been attributed to socio-economic differences. In 2013 we compared Ae. aegypti adult density and population age structure between two cities in Sonora, Mexico: Hermosillo, which has regular seasonal dengue virus transmission, and Nogales, which has minimal transmission. Larval and pupal abundance was greater in Nogales, and adult density was only higher in Hermosillo during September. Population age structure, however, was consistently older in Hermosillo. This difference in longevity may have been one factor that limited dengue virus transmission in Nogales in 2013, as a smaller proportion of Ae. aegypti females survived past the extrinsic incubation period.

  17. Spatial analysis of wing geometry in dengue vector mosquito, Aedes aegypti (L. (Diptera: Culicidae, populations in Metropolitan Manila, Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaddeus M Carvajal

    2016-01-01

    Interpretation & conclusion: The newly modified wing preparation procedure was able to capture a complete coverage of the wings of Ae. aegypti, thus providing a stronger separation power for very close populations in an urban area. It is also noteworthy that the results of IBD and SA supported the findings of GM in the population structuring of male and female Ae. aegypti. The outcome of the study increases our understanding of the vector, which would be useful in developing effective control strategies.

  18. Use of the CDC autocidal gravid ovitrap to control and prevent outbreaks of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrera, Roberto; Amador, Manuel; Acevedo, Veronica; Caban, Belkis; Felix, Gilberto; Mackay, Andrew J

    2014-01-01

    Populations ofAedes aegypti (L.) can be managed through reductions in adult mosquito survival, number of offspring produced, or both. Direct adult mortality can be caused by the use of space sprays or residual insecticides to mosquito resting sites, and with a variety of residual insecticide-impregnated surfaces that are being tested, such as curtains, covers for water-storage vessels, bednets, and ovitraps. The fertility ofAe. aegypti populations can be reduced by the use of autocidal oviposition cups that prevent the development of mosquitoes inside the trap by mechanical means or larvicides, as well as by releasing sterile, transgenic, and para-transgenic mosquitoes. Survival and fertility can be simultaneously reduced by capturing gravid female Ae. aegypti with sticky gravid traps. We tested the effectiveness of the novel Centers for Disease Control and Prevention autocidal gravid ovitrap (CDC-AGO trap) to control natural populations ofAe. aegypti under field conditions in two isolated urban areas (reference vs. intervention areas) in southern Puerto Rico for 1 yr. There were significant reductions in the captures of female Ae. aegypti (53-70%) in the intervention area The presence of three to four AGO control traps per home in 81% of the houses prevented outbreaks of Ae. aegypti, which would be expected after rains. Mosquito captures in BG-Sentinel and AGO traps were significantly and positively correlated, showing that AGO traps are useful and inexpensive mosquito surveillance devices. The use of AGO traps to manage Ae. aegypti populations is compatible with other control means such as source reduction, larviciding, adulticiding, sterile insect techniques, induced cytoplasmic incompatibility, and dominant lethal gene systems.

  19. Mosquito larvicidal properties of Impatiens balsamina (Balsaminaceae against Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marimuthu Govindarajan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the larvicidal potential of the crude benzene, chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanol solvent extracts of the medicinal plant Impatiens balsamina against Anopheles stephensi (An. stephensi, Aedes aegypti (Ae. aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus (Cx. quinquefasciatus. Methods: Twenty five third instar larvae of An. stephensi, Ae. aegypti and Cx. quinquefasciatus were exposed to various concentrations and were assayed in the laboratory by using the protocol recommended by WHO. The larval mortality was observed after 24 h of treatment. Results: Among extracts tested, the highest larvicidal activity was observed in leaf methanol extract of Impatiens balsamina against An. stephensi, Ae. aegypti and Cx. quinquefasciatus with the LC50 and LC90 values 98.04, 119.68, 125.06 and 172.93, 210.14, 220.60 mg/L, respectively. Conclusions: From the results it can be concluded that the larvicidal effect of Impatiens balsamina against An. stephensi, Ae. aegypti and Cx. quinquefasciatus make this plant product promising as an alternative to synthetic insecticide in mosquito control programs.

  20. Atividade larvicida do óleo de Anacardium humile Saint Hill sobre Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762 (Diptera, Culicidae Larvicidal activity of Anacardium humile Saint Hill oil on Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762 (Diptera, Culicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karla Rejane de Andrade Porto

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o potencial do cajuzinho do cerrado (Anacardium humile sobre larvas de Aedes aegypti. Os extratos hexânico, etanólico, aquoso e o óleo das folhas foram obtidos do material vegetal coletado em fragmento de cerrado. Estes foram testados nas concentrações 1%; 0,5%, 0,25%, 0,125%, 0,05% e 0,0125% diluídas em dimetil sulfóxido 1%. A contagem das larvas mortas foi realizada após 24 horas. Utilizou-se o método Probit de análise para obtenção das CL50 e respectivos intervalos de confiança. Conclui-se que apenas o óleo extraído de folhas de Anacardium humile causa 100% de mortalidade em larvas de 4º estádio de Aedes aegypti nas concentrações até 0,125%, o que parece indicar que os ingredientes ativos estão na fase mais apolar. O que indica a potencialidade de uso da planta como larvicida de Aedes aegypti, entretanto, novos testes deverão ser conduzidos utilizando outros órgãos vegetais, assim como outros métodos e solventes utilizados na extração.The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential of Anacardium humile (monkey nuts against Aedes aegypti larvae. Hexane, ethanol and aqueous extracts and oil from leaves were obtained from plant material collected from the Brazilian savanna. These were tested at concentrations of 1%, 0.5%, 0.25%, 0.125%, 0.05% and 0.0125%, diluted in 1% dimethyl sulfoxide. The dead larvae were counted 24 hours later. The Probit analysis method was used to obtain the LC50 and the respective confidence intervals. The conclusion was that only the oil extracted from Anacardium humile leaves caused 100% mortality among fourth-instar Aedes aegypti larvae, using concentrations of up to 0.125%. This seems to indicate that the active ingredients are present in the most apolar phase. This indicates that this plant has potential use as a larvicide against Aedes aegypti. However, new tests should be carried out using other plant organs, as well as using other methods

  1. Evaluation of Insect Growth Regulators Against Field-Collected Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) from Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Koon Weng; Chen, Chee Dhang; Lee, Han Lim; Norma-Rashid, Yusoff; Sofian-Azirun, Mohd

    2015-03-01

    Susceptibility status of Aedes aegypti (L.) and Aedes albopictus Skuse larvae obtained from 12 states in Malaysia were evaluated against five insect growth regulators (IGRs), namely, pyriproxyfen, methoprene, diflubenzuron, cyromazine, and novaluron under laboratory conditions. Field populations of Ae. aegypti exhibited moderate resistance toward methoprene and low resistance toward pyriproxyfen, with resistance ratios of 12.7 and 1.4, respectively, but susceptibility to diflubenzuron, cyromazine, and novaluron. On the other hand, field populations of Ae. albopictus exhibited low resistance against diflubenzuron and novaluron, with resistance ratio of 2.1 and 1.0, respectively, but susceptibility to other tested IGRs. Our study concluded that the tested IGRs provide promising results and can be used to control field population of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus, especially cyromazine. The use of IGR should be considered as an alternative when larvae develop resistance to conventional insecticides.

  2. Ovicidal and repellent activities of botanical extracts against Culex quinquefasciatus,Aedes aegypti and Anopheles stephensi(Diptera:Culicidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Govindarajan; M; Mathivanan; T; Elumalai; K; Krishnappa; K; Anandan; A

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To determine the ovicidal and repellent activities of methanol leaf extract of Ervatamia coronaria(E.coronaria) and Caeslpinia pulckerrima(C.pulcherrima) against Culex quinquefasciatus(Cx.quinquefasciatus),Aedes aegypti(Ae.aegypti) and Anopheles stephensi(An. stephensi).Methods:The ovicidal activity was determined against three mosquito species at various concentrations ranging from 50-450 ppm under the laboratory conditions.The hatch rates were assessed 48 h after treatment.The repellent efficacy was determined against three mosquito species at three concentrations viz.,1.0,2.5 and 5.0 mg/cm under the laboratory conditions. Results:The crude extract of E.coronaria exerted zero hatchability(100%mortality) at 250.200 and 150 ppm for Cx.quinqitefasciatus,Ae.aegypti and An.stephensi,respectively.The crude extract of C.pulchenima exerted zero hatchability(100%mortality) at 375.300 and 225 ppm for Cx.quinquefasciatus,Ae.aegypti and An.Stephensi,respectively.The methanol extract of E. coronaria found to be more repellenct than C.pukherrima extract.A higher concentration of 5.0 mg/cm~2 provided 100%protection up to 150.180 and 210 min against Cx.quinquefasciatus,Ae. aegypti and An.stephensi,respectively.The results clearly showed that repellent activity was dose dependent.Conclusions:From the results it can be concluded the crude extracts of E.coronaria and C.pukherrima are an excellent potential for controlling Cx.quinquefasciatus,Ae.aegypti and An.stephensi mosquitoes.

  3. Reported Distribution of Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti and Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus in the United States, 1995-2016 (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Micah B; Eisen, Rebecca J; Eisen, Lars; Boegler, Karen A; Moore, Chester G; McAllister, Janet; Savage, Harry M; Mutebi, John-Paul

    2016-06-09

    Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti (L.) and Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus (Skuse) transmit arboviruses that are increasing threats to human health in the Americas, particularly dengue, chikungunya, and Zika viruses. Epidemics of the associated arboviral diseases have been limited to South and Central America, Mexico, and the Caribbean in the Western Hemisphere, with only minor localized outbreaks in the United States. Nevertheless, accurate and up-to-date information for the geographical ranges of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus in the United States is urgently needed to guide surveillance and enhance control capacity for these mosquitoes. We compiled county records for presence of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus in the United States from 1995-2016, presented here in map format. Records were derived from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention ArboNET database, VectorMap, the published literature, and a survey of mosquito control agencies, university researchers, and state and local health departments. Between January 1995 and March 2016, 183 counties from 26 states and the District of Columbia reported occurrence of Ae. aegypti, and 1,241 counties from 40 states and the District of Columbia reported occurrence of Ae. albopictus During the same time period, Ae. aegypti was collected in 3 or more years from 94 counties from 14 states and the District of Columbia, and Ae. albopictus was collected during 3 or more years from 514 counties in 34 states and the District of Columbia. Our findings underscore the need for systematic surveillance of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus in the United States and delineate areas with risk for the transmission of these introduced arboviruses.

  4. Mosquitocidal activity of Polygala arvensis Willd against Aedes aegypti (Linn., Anopheles stephensi (Liston. and Culex quinquefasciatus (Say. (Diptera: Culicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Deepa

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available To determine the larvicidal, ovicidal and repellent activities of benzene and methanol extract of Polygala arvensis against Aedes aegypti, Anopheles stephensi and Culex quinquefasciatus Twenty five 3rd instar larvae of selected mosquitoes species were exposed to various concentrations (60-300 ppm and were assayed in the laboratory by using the protocol of WHO 2005; the 24 h LC50 values of the P. Arvensis leaf extract was determined following Probit analysis. The ovicidal activity was determined against Aedes aegypti, Anopheles stephensi and Culex quinquefasciatus exposed to variousconcentrations were tested under laboratory conditions and the hatch rates were assessed 120hrs post treatment. The repellent efficacy was determined against selected mosquitoes at three concentrations viz., 1.0, 2.0 and 3.0 mg/cm2 under the laboratory conditions. The LC50 and LC90 values of benzene and methanol extract of P. arvensis against Aedes aegypti, Anopheles stephensi and Culex quinquefasciatus larvae in 24 h were 75.32, 88.26, 82.46, 58.21, 46.37, 42.68 and 260.48, 275.26, 251.39, 208.45, 189.82 and 130.44 ppm, respectively. It has been noticed that the higher concentrations of P. arvensis extractspossesses strong ovicidal activity at 200 ppm concentration against Ae. aegypti, An. stephensi and C. quinquefasciatus, no egg hatchability was recorded. In the same way, methanol extracts showed maximum ovicidal activity followed by benzene extract against selected vector mosquitoes. In repellent activity, among two extracts tested P. arvensis methanol extract had strong repellent action against selected mosquitoes as it provided 100% protection against Aedes aegypti, Anopheles stephensi and Culex quinquefasciatus for 280min. From the results it can be concluded the P. arvensis extract was an excellent potential for controlling Aedes aegypti, Anopheles stephensi and Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes.

  5. Synthesis and biological activity of acetates of copper (II and iron (III for the control of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jéssica V. Nardeli

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed to the synthesis of basic acetates of Cu (II and Fe(III against larvae of Aedes aegypti and Gram negative and Gram positive. The transition metal ions Cu (II and Fe (III have bactericidal activity and are toxic to Aedes aegypti larvae in the eggs and larval stages of initial, precludes the eggs hatch and slow reproductive cycle of the insect. The theme investigates the importance of carboxyl groups in complex formation, transport and cellular internalization of the toxic ions. It is known that the bactericide or insecticide activity is due to metal ions and Cu (IIor Fe (III.

  6. Papyracillic acid and its derivatives as biting deterrents against Aedes aegypti(Diptera: Culicidae): structure–activity relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aedes aegypti L. is the major vector of the arboviruses responsible for dengue fever, one of the most devastating human diseases. Papyracillic acid, the main phytotoxin produced by Ascochyta agropyrina var. nana, was evaluated in a preliminary screening together with other fungal phytotoxins, cyclo...

  7. Spatial distribution and esterase activity in populations of Aedes (Stegomyia aegypti (Linnaeus (Diptera: Culicidae resistant to temephos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanessa Porto Tito Gambarra

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The need for studies that describe the resistance patterns in populations of Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus in function of their region of origin justified this research, which aimed to characterize the resistance to temephos and to obtain information on esterase activity in populations of Aedes aegypti collected in municipalities of the State of Paraíba. METHODS: Resistance to temephos was evaluated and characterized from the diagnostic dose of 0.352mg i.a./L and multiple concentrations that caused mortalities between 5% and 99%. Electrophoresis of isoenzymes was used to verify the patterns of esterase activity among populations of the vector. RESULTS: All populations of Aedes aegypti were resistant to temephos, presenting a resistance rate (RR greater than 20. The greatest lethal dose 50% of the sample (CL50 was found for the municipality of Lagoa Seca, approximately forty-one times the value of CL50 for the Rockefeller population. The populations characterized as resistant showed two to six regions of α and β-esterase, called EST-1 to EST-6, while the susceptible population was only seen in one region of activity. CONCLUSIONS: Aedes aegypti is widely distributed and shows a high degree of resistance to temephos in all municipalities studied. In all cases, esterases are involved in the metabolism and, consequently, in the resistance to temephos.

  8. Oviposition activity and seasonal pattern of a population of Aedes (Stegomyia aegypti (L. (Diptera: Culicidae in subtropical Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Micieli María Victoria

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Monthly oviposition activity and the seasonal density pattern of Aedes aegypti were studied using larvitraps and ovitraps during a research carried out by the Public Health Ministry of Salta Province, in Tartagal, Aguaray and Salvador Mazza cities, in subtropical Argentina. The A. aegypti population was active in both dry and wet seasons with a peak in March, accordant with the heaviest rainfall. From May to November, the immature population level remained low, but increased in December. Ae. aegypti oviposition activity increased during the fall and summer, when the relative humidity was 60% or higher. Eggs were found in large numbers of ovitraps during all seasons but few eggs were observed in each one during winter. The occurrence and the number of eggs laid were variable when both seasons and cities were compared. The reduction of the population during the winter months was related to the low in the relative humidity of the atmosphere. Significant differences were detected between oviposition occurrences in Tartagal and Aguaray and Salvador Mazza cities, but no differences in the number of eggs were observed. Two factors characterize the seasonal distribution pattern of Ae. aegypti in subtropical Argentina, the absence of a break during winter and an oviposition activity concomitant of the high relative humidity of the atmosphere.

  9. The effect of photoperiod on life history and blood-feeding activity in Aedes albopictus and Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costanzo, K S; Schelble, S; Jerz, K; Keenan, M

    2015-06-01

    Several studies have examined how climatic variables such as temperature and precipitation may affect life history traits in mosquitoes that are important to disease transmission. Despite its importance as a seasonal cue in nature, studies investigating the influence of photoperiod on such traits are relatively few. This study aims to investigate how photoperiod alters life history traits, survival, and blood-feeding activity in Aedes albopictus (Skuse) and Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus). We performed three experiments that tested the effects of day length on female survival, development time, adult size, fecundity, adult life span, and propensity to blood feed in Ae. albopictus and Ae. aegypti. Each experiment had three photoperiod treatments: 1) short-day (10L:14D), 2) control (12L:12D), and 3) long-day (14L:10D). Aedes albopictus adult females were consistently larger in size when reared in short-day conditions. Aedes aegypti adult females from short-day treatments lived longer and were more likely to take a blood meal compared to other treatments. We discuss how species-specific responses may reflect alternative strategies evolved to increase survival during unfavorable conditions. We review the potential impacts of these responses on seasonal transmission patterns, such as potentially increasing vectorial capacity of Ae. aegypti during periods of shorter day lengths.

  10. Susceptibility status of Aedes aegypti (L. (Diptera: Culicidae to temephos from three districts of Tamil Nadu, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Muthusamy

    2015-01-01

    Interpretation & conclusion: The high activity of esterase, mixed-function oxidase (MFO and ace-1 mutation frequency were closely associated with temephos resistance. Early detection of resistance alleles in natural vector population could be useful for the successful implementation of insecticide resistance management strategies. The results of this study provide baseline data on temephos resistance in Ae. aegypti populations.

  11. Vacant Lots: Productive Sites for Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) in Mérida City, México

    Science.gov (United States)

    BAAK-BAAK, CARLOS M.; ARANA-GUARDIA, ROGER; CIGARROA-TOLEDO, NOHEMI; LOROÑO-PINO, MARÍA ALBA; REYES-SOLIS, GUADALUPE; MACHAIN-WILLIAMS, CARLOS; BEATY, BARRY J.; EISEN, LARS; GARCÍA-REJÓN, JULIÁN E.

    2014-01-01

    We assessed the potential for vacant lots and other non-residential settings to serve as source environments for Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti (L.) in Mérida City, México. Mosquito immatures were collected, during November 2011 – June 2013, from residential premises (n = 156 site visits) and non-residential settings represented by vacant lots (50), parking lots (18), and streets/sidewalks (28). Collections totaled 46,025 mosquito immatures of 13 species. Ae. aegypti was the most commonly encountered species accounting for 81.0% of total immatures, followed by Culex quinquefasciatus Say (12.1%). Site visits to vacant lots (74.0%) were more likely to result in collection of Ae. aegypti immatures that residential premises (35.9%). Tires accounted for 75.5% of Ae. aegypti immatures collected from vacant lots. Our data suggest that vacant lots should be considered for inclusion in mosquito surveillance and control efforts in Mérida City, as they often are located near homes, commonly have abundant vegetation, and frequently harbor accumulations of small and large discarded water-holding containers that we now have demonstrated to serve as development sites for immature mosquitoes. Additionally, we present data for associations of immature production with various container characteristics, such as storage capacity, water quality and physical location in the environment. PMID:24724299

  12. Spatial distribution and esterase activity in populations of Aedes (Stegomyia aegypti (Linnaeus (Diptera: Culicidae resistant to temephos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanessa Porto Tito Gambarra

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The need for studies that describe the resistance patterns in populations of Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus in function of their region of origin justified this research, which aimed to characterize the resistance to temephos and to obtain information on esterase activity in populations of Aedes aegypti collected in municipalities of the State of Paraíba. METHODS: Resistance to temephos was evaluated and characterized from the diagnostic dose of 0.352mg i.a./L and multiple concentrations that caused mortalities between 5% and 99%. Electrophoresis of isoenzymes was used to verify the patterns of esterase activity among populations of the vector. RESULTS: All populations of Aedes aegypti were resistant to temephos, presenting a resistance rate (RR greater than 20. The greatest lethal dose 50% of the sample (CL50 was found for the municipality of Lagoa Seca, approximately forty-one times the value of CL50 for the Rockefeller population. The populations characterized as resistant showed two to six regions of α and β-esterase, called EST-1 to EST-6, while the susceptible population was only seen in one region of activity. CONCLUSIONS: Aedes aegypti is widely distributed and shows a high degree of resistance to temephos in all municipalities studied. In all cases, esterases are involved in the metabolism and, consequently, in the resistance to temephos.

  13. Impact of Autocidal Gravid Ovitraps on Chikungunya Virus Incidence in Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) in Areas With and Without Traps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrera, Roberto; Acevedo, Veronica; Felix, Gilberto E; Hemme, Ryan R; Vazquez, Jesus; Munoz, Jorge L; Amador, Manuel

    2016-12-28

    Puerto Rico detected the first confirmed case of chikungunya virus (CHIKV) in May 2014 and the virus rapidly spread throughout the island. The invasion of CHIKV allowed us to observe Aedes aegypti (L.) densities, infection rates, and impact of vector control in urban areas using CDC autocidal gravid ovitraps (AGO traps) for mosquito control over several years. Because local mosquitoes can only get the virus from infectious residents, detecting the presence of virus in mosquitoes functions as a proxy for the presence of virus in people. We monitored the incidence of CHIKV in gravid females of Ae. aegypti in four neighborhoods-two with three AGO traps per home in most homes and two nearby neighborhoods without AGO mosquito control traps. Monitoring of mosquito density took place weekly using sentinel AGO traps from June to December 2014. In all, 1,334 pools of female Ae. aegypti (23,329 individuals) were processed by real-time reverse transcription PCR to identify CHIKV and DENV RNA. Density of Ae. aegypti females was 10.5 times lower (91%) in the two areas with AGO control traps during the study. Ten times (90.9%) more CHIKV-positive pools were identified in the nonintervention areas (50/55 pools) than in intervention areas (5/55). We found a significant linear relationship between the number of positive pools and both density of Ae. aegypti and vector index (average number of expected infected mosquitoes per trap per week). Temporal and spatial patterns of positive CHIKV pools suggested limited virus circulation in areas with AGO traps.

  14. Larvicidal, oviposition, and ovicidal effects of Artemisia annua (Asterales: Asteraceae) against Aedes aegypti, Anopheles sinensis, and Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheah, Shao-Xiong; Tay, Jia-Wei; Chan, Lai-Keng; Jaal, Zairi

    2013-09-01

    This study focuses on the larvicidal, oviposition, and ovicidal effects of a crude extract of Artemisia annua against Aedes aegypti, Anopheles sinensis, and Culex quinquefasciatus. Dried cells of Artemisia annua from cell suspension cultures were extracted using hexane. The extract showed moderate larvicidal effects against mosquitoes. At 24-h post treatment, the LC50 values for Anopheles sinensis, Aedes aegypti, and Culex quinquefasciatus were recorded as 244.55, 276.14, and 374.99 ppm, respectively. The percentage mortality of larvae was directly proportional to the tested concentration. Anopheles sinensis was found to be the most susceptible species, whereas Culex quinquefasciatus was the most tolerant to the Artemisia annua extract. The results indicated that the Artemisia annua extract showed concentration-dependent oviposition deterrent activity and had a strong deterrent effect. At 500 ppm, the percentage effective repellency was more than 85% compared with the control group for all the species, with oviposition activity index values of -0.94, -0.95, and -0.78 for Aedes aegypti, Anopheles sinensis, and Culex quinquefasciatus, respectively. In the ovicidal assay, the percentage hatchability of eggs after treatment with 500 ppm of Artemisia annua extract was significantly lower than the control, with values of 48.84 ± 4.08, 38.42 ± 3.67, and 79.35 ± 2.09% for Aedes aegypti, Anopheles sinensis, and Culex quinquefasciatus, respectively. Artemisia annua was found to be more effective against Aedes aegypti and Anopheles sinensis compared with Culex quinquefasciatus. This study indicated that crude extract of A. annua could be a potential alternative for use in vector management programs.

  15. Effects of larval crowding on development time, survival and weight at metamorphosis in Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae Efectos del hacinamiento larval en el tiempo de desarrollo, la supervivencia y el peso en la metamorfosis de Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnaldo Maciá

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The effects of larval crowding on survival, weight at metamorphosis and development time were assessed in the dengue mosquito, Aedes aegypti L., under a controlled environment. Larval cohorts were bred at 7 different densities (4, 8, 16, 32, 64, 128 and 256 larvae / 175 ml pot, while keeping constant water volume and food amount and quality, under controlled temperature and photoperiod. Natural detritus, mainly leaves, obtained from containers naturally colonized by A. aegypti, were used as a source of nutrients for larvae. Development time, mortality, mass at metamorphosis, and total biomass were recorded for each density. Development time ranged from 4 to 23 days in males, and from 5 to 24 in females, whereby larvae took longer to develop at 64 (females and 128 (males larvae per recipient. At high densities there was a male-biased sex proportion. At densities equal to or higher than 0.4 larvae/ml (0.32 larvae/cm² there was an increase of mortality. An inverse relationship between larval density and pupal weight was detected. Biomass per individual reached asymptotic values of about 1 mg/individual at a density of 128 individuals/pot (0.64 larvae/cm². This experiment shows that this southern strain of A. aegypti is sensitive to crowding in small containers.Los efectos del hacinamiento larval sobre el tiempo de desarrollo, la supervivencia y el peso en la metamorfosis fueron estudiados en el mosquito del dengue, Aedes aegypti L., en el laboratorio. Se criaron cohortes de larvas en 7 densidades (4, 8, 16, 32, 64, 128 y 256 larvas/ recipiente de 175 ml mientras se mantuvo constante el volumen de agua y la calidad y cantidad de alimento, bajo fotoperíodo y temperatura controlados. Se usaron detritos naturales, principalmente hojas, obtenidos de contenedores colonizados naturalmente por A. aegypti como fuente de nutrientes para las larvas. En cada densidad se registraron el tiempo de desarrollo, la mortalidad, el peso en la metamorfosis y la

  16. Susceptibility of adult female Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae to the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae is modified following blood feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuels Richard I

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The mosquito Aedes aegypti, vector of dengue fever, is a target for control by entomopathogenic fungi. Recent studies by our group have shown the susceptibility of adult A. aegypti to fungal infection by Metarhizium anisopliae. This fungus is currently being tested under field conditions. However, it is unknown whether blood-fed A. aegypti females are equally susceptible to infection by entomopathogenic fungi as sucrose fed females. Insect populations will be composed of females in a range of nutritional states. The fungus should be equally efficient at reducing survival of insects that rest on fungus impregnated surfaces following a blood meal as those coming into contact with fungi before host feeding. This could be an important factor when considering the behavior of A. aegypti females that can blood feed on multiple hosts over a short time period. Methods Female A. aegypti of the Rockefeller strain and a wild strain were infected with two isolates of the entomopathogenic fungus M. anisopliae (LPP 133 and ESALQ 818 using an indirect contact bioassay at different times following blood feeding. Survival rates were monitored on a daily basis and one-way analysis of variance combined with Duncan's post-hoc test or Log-rank survival curve analysis were used for statistical comparisons of susceptibility to infection. Results Blood feeding rapidly reduced susceptibility to infection, determined by the difference in survival rates and survival curves, when females were exposed to either of the two M. anisopliae isolates. Following a time lag which probably coincided with digestion of the blood meal (96-120 h post-feeding, host susceptibility to infection returned to pre-blood fed (sucrose fed levels. Conclusions Reduced susceptibility of A. aegypti to fungi following a blood meal is of concern. Furthermore, engorged females seeking out intra-domicile resting places post-blood feeding, would be predicted to rest for prolonged

  17. Isolation of Bacillus thuringiensis from the state of Amazonas, in Brazil, and screening against Aedes aegypti (Diptera, Culicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joelma Soares-da-Silva

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the use of Bacillus thuringiensis isolated in the state of Amazonas, in Brazil, for the biological control of the dengue vector Aedes aegypti. From 25 soil samples collected in nine municipalities, 484 bacterial colonies were obtained, 57 (11.78% of which were identified as B. thuringiensis. Six isolates, IBt-03, IBt-06, IBt-07, IBt-28, IBt-30, and BtAM-27 showed insecticidal activity, and only BtAM-27 presents the five genes investigated cry4Aa, cry4Ba, cry10Aa, cry11Aa, and cry11Ba. The IBt-07 and IBt- 28, with lower LC50 values, showed equal toxicity compared to the standards. The isolates of B. thuringiensis from Amazonas constitute potential new means of biological control for A. aegypti, because of their larvicidal activity and the possibility that they may also contain new combinations of toxins.

  18. Environmental characteristics of the cemeteries of Buenos Aires City (Argentina and infestation levels of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vezzani Darío

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Cemeteries with many water-filled containers, flowers, sources of human blood, and shade are favorable urban habitats for the proliferation of Aedes aegypti, a vector of yellow fever and dengue. A total of 22,956 containers was examined in the five cemeteries of the city of Buenos Aires, Argentina. The vector was found in four cemeteries that showed an average infestation level of 5.5% (617 positive out of 11,196 water-filled containers. The four cemeteries positive for Ae. aegypti showed significantly different (p<0.01 infestation levels. Vegetation cover and percentage of infestation were significantly correlated (p<0.01, but neither cemetery area nor number of available containers were significantly related to the proportion of positive vases. Our results suggest that the cemeteries of Buenos Aires represent a gradient of habitat favorableness for this vector species, some of which may act as foci for its proliferation and dispersal.

  19. Evaluation of two sweeping methods for estimating the number of immature Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae in large containers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margareth Regina Dibo

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Here, we evaluated sweeping methods used to estimate the number of immature Aedes aegypti in large containers. Methods III/IV instars and pupae at a 9:1 ratio were placed in three types of containers with, each one with three different water levels. Two sweeping methods were tested: water-surface sweeping and five-sweep netting. The data were analyzed using linear regression. Results The five-sweep netting technique was more suitable for drums and water-tanks, while the water-surface sweeping method provided the best results for swimming pools. Conclusions Both sweeping methods are useful tools in epidemiological surveillance programs for the control of Aedes aegypti.

  20. Larvicidal effect of dried leaf extracts from Pinus caribaea against Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762 (Diptera: Culicidae Efeito larvicida dos extratos de folhas secas de Pinus caribaea contra Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762 (Diptera: Culicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Alberto Kanis

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the larvicidal activity of dried leaf extracts from Pinus caribaea Morelet against Aedes aegypti was evaluated for the first time. Pinus caribaea extracts were obtained by macerating dried leaves in alkaline hydroethanol, ethanol and acetone solutions followed by evaporation under reduced pressure. The lignin content was quantified using the thioglycolic acid complexation method. Lethality bioassays (LC50 and LC90 were carried out in accordance with the recommendations of the World Health Organization. The results showed that the acetone extract from Pinus caribaea was more active, and that larvicidal activity was associated with lignin concentration.Neste trabalho foi avaliada pela primeira vez a atividade larvicida contra Aedes aegypti de extratos obtido a partir de folhas secas de Pinus caribae. Os extratos de Pinus caribaea foram obtidos a partir da maceração de folhas secas em solução hidroetanólica alcalina, etanol e acetona, seguido de evaporação sob pressão reduzida. O teor de lignina foi quantificado usando o método de complexação com ácido tioglicóliclo. Os ensaios de letalidade foram conduzidos de acordo com a recomendação da Organização Mundial da Saúde. Os resultados demonstraram que o extrato obtido com acetona foi mais ativo, e a atividade larvicida esta associada com a concentração de ligninas.

  1. A biodegradable device for the controlled release of Piper nigrum (Piperaceae standardized extract to control Aedes aegypti (Diptera, Culicidae larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kauê Muller Custódio

    Full Text Available Abstract: INTRODUCTION: The significant increase in dengue, Zika, and chikungunya and the resistance of the Aedes aegypti mosquito to major insecticides emphasize the importance of studying alternatives to control this vector. The aim of this study was to develop a controlled-release device containing Piper nigrum extract and to study its larvicidal activity against Aedes aegypti. METHODS: Piper nigrum extract was produced by maceration, standardized in piperine, and incorporated into cotton threads, which were inserted into hydrogel cylinders manufactured by the extrusion of carrageenan and carob. The piperine content of the extract and thread reservoirs was quantified by chromatography. The release profile from the device was assessed in aqueous medium and the larvicidal and residual activities of the standardized extract as well as of the controlled-release device were examined in Aedes aegypti larvae. RESULTS The standardized extract contained 580mg/g of piperine and an LC50 value of 5.35ppm (24h and the 3 cm thread reservoirs contained 13.83 ± 1.81mg of piperine. The device showed zero-order release of piperine for 16 days. The P. nigrum extract (25ppm showed maximum residual larvicidal activity for 10 days, decreasing progressively thereafter. The device had a residual larvicidal activity for up to 37 days. CONCLUSIONS: The device provided controlled release of Piper nigrum extract with residual activity for 37 days. The device is easy to manufacture and may represent an effective alternative for the control of Aedes aegypti larvae in small water containers.

  2. Variation in Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus (Diptera, Culicidae infestation in artificial containers in Caxias, state of Maranhão, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joelma Soares-da-Silva

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Dengue is a serious public health problem worldwide, with cases reported annually in tropical and subtropical regions. Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762, the main vector of dengue, is a domiciliary species with high dispersal and survival capacities and can use various artificial containers as breeding sites. We assessed potential container breeding sites of A. aegypti in the municipality of Caxias, Maranhão, Brazil. METHODS: In the initial phase, we analyzed 900 properties in 3 neighborhoods during the dry and rainy seasons (August-October 2005 and February-April 2006, respectively. During the second sampling period, September 2006-August 2007, we used 5 assessment cycles for 300 properties in a single neighborhood. RESULTS: During the dry and rainy seasons, water-storage containers comprised 55.7% (n = 1,970 and 48.5% (n = 1,836 of the total containers inspected, and showed the highest productivity of immature A. aegypti; we found 23.7 and 106.1 individuals/container, respectively, in peridomicile sites. In intradomicile sites, water-storage containers were also the most important breeding sites with 86.4% (n = 973 and 85.6% (n = 900 of all containers and a mean of 7.9 and 108.3 individuals/container in the dry and rainy seaso-October 2006 (1,342. The highest number of positives (70 was recorded in May, mostly (94% in storage containers. CONCLUSIONS: Storage containers are the principal and most productive A. aegypti breeding sites and are a major contributing factor to the maintenance of this vector in Caxias.

  3. Ovicidal and Oviposition Deterrent Activities of Medicinal Plant Extracts Against Aedes aegypti L. and Culex quinquefasciatus Say Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Reegan, Appadurai Daniel; Gandhi, Munusamy Rajiv; Paulraj, Micheal Gabriel; Ignacimuthu,Savarimuthu

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the ovicidal and oviposition deterrent activities of five medicinal plant extracts namely Aegle marmelos (Linn.), Limonia acidissima (Linn.), Sphaeranthus indicus (Linn.), Sphaeranthus amaranthoides (burm.f), and Chromolaena odorata (Linn.) against Culex quinquefasciatus and Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. Three solvents, namely hexane, ethyl acetate, and methanol, were used for the preparation of extracts from each plant. Methods Four different concentrations—62.5 parts per ...

  4. First report on susceptibility of wild Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) using Carapa guianensis (Meliaceae) and Copaifera sp. (Leguminosae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prophiro, Josiane S; da Silva, Mario Antonio Navarro; Kanis, Luiz A; da Rocha, Louyse Caroline B P; Duque-Luna, Jonny E; da Silva, Onilda S

    2012-02-01

    Oils of Carapa guianensis and Copaifera spp. are well known in the Amazonian region as natural insect repellent, and studies have reported their efficiency as larvicide against some laboratory mosquito species. However, in wild populations of mosquitoes, these oils have not yet been evaluated. Thus, the objective of this study was to investigate their efficiency as larvicide in wild populations of Aedes aegypti with a history of exposure to organophosphate. The susceptibility of larvae was determined under three different temperatures, 15°C, 20°C, and 30°C. For each test, 1,000 larvae were used (late third instar and early fourth instar-four replicates of 25 larvae per concentration). Statistical tests were used to identify significant differences. The results demonstrated that as the laboratory A. aegypti, the wild populations of A. aegypti were also susceptible to C. guianensis and Copaifera sp. oils. The lethal concentrations for Copaifera sp. ranged from LC(50) 47 to LC(90) 91 (milligrams per liter), and for C. guianensis, they were LC(50) 136 to LC(90) 551 (milligrams per liter). In relation to different temperature, the effectiveness of the oils on larvae mortality was directly related to the increase of temperature, and better results were observed for temperature at 25°C. The results presented here indicate the potential larvicidal activity of C. guianensis and species of Copaifera, in populations of A. aegypti from the wild. Therefore, the results presented here are very important since such populations are primarily responsible for transmitting the dengue virus in the environment.

  5. Temporal distribution of Aedes aegypti Linnaeus (Diptera, Culicidae, in a Hospital in Cuiabá, State of Mato Grosso, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo de Carvalho-Leandro

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at registering and monitoring the presence of Aedes aegypti in the University Hospital Júlio Muller, Cuiabá-MT, as well as investigating the influence of temperature and rainfall on its temporal distribution and egg densities in ovitraps. The study was performed from April/2007 to March/2008, utilizing ovitraps with 10% of hay infusion and a wood paddle as an oviposition substrate. For surveillance, one ovitrap was placed in each of the 12 points distributed throughout the hospital. Ovitraps were collected monthly at the end of a 5-day installation period. After egg counting, wood paddles were immersed in water to allow larval eclosion for species identification through optical microscopy. Egg Density Index (EDI, Positive Ovitraps Index (POI, and Mean Number of Eggs (MNE were used for data analysis. The presence of A. aegypti in the hospital was registered throughout the study period, except in July. The MNE was proportionally higher in the internal area (n= 8.47 eggs/paddle when compared to the external area (n= 5.46 eggs/paddle, and was higher in September/October 2007 and January/February 2008. A significant increase in EDI, POI and MNE was registered in periods where the average temperature was higher, and the increase in POI was also concomitant with an increase in rainfall. The continuous presence of A. aegypti in the hospital throughout the study period, points out the need of including this mosquito in the arthropod control list in this environment. This is particularly important, considering that A. aegypti is an important vector of several arboviroses.

  6. Structure-Activity Relationships of 33 Piperidines as Toxicants Against Female Adults of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-03-01

    MEDICAL ENTOMOLOGY Vol. 44, no. 2 tigotes and amastigotes of Trypanosoma cruzi . Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett. 14: 3555Ð3558. Rudnick, A. 1967. Aedes aegypti and...alkaloid piperine and 12 syn- thetic derivatives have been evaluated against epimas- tigote and amastigote forms of the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma ... cruzi , the etiological agent of ChagasÕ disease. Furthermore, it has been suggested that pip- erine is a suitable template for the development of new

  7. The Insecticide Susceptibility Status of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) in Farm and Nonfarm Sites of Lagos State, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayorinde, A; Oboh, B; Oduola, A; Otubanjo, O

    2015-01-01

    Nigeria is one of the malaria-endemic countries. In Lagos State, Nigeria, various malaria vector control programs including the use of chemical insecticides are currently being implemented. This study was designed to provide information on the susceptibility status of some nontargeted vectors such as Aedes aegypti. Adult Ae. aegypti mosquitoes from two farm sites and a nonfarm site were exposed to World Health Organization test papers impregnated with Deltamethrin (0.05%), Permethrin (0.75%), and DDT (4%) insecticides. The Knockdown time (KdT50 and KdT95) and percentage mortality after 24 h post exposure were determined. In all the exposed mosquito populations to permethrin, mortality rate > 98% (susceptibility) was recorded, whereas mortality rates  98% (susceptibility) to deltamethrin were observed in the nonfarm site and farm sites mosquito populations, respectively. All the mosquito populations were resistant to DDT in 2 yr. The KdT50 of the populations to DDT increased (60.2-69.6) in one of the farm sites and the nonfarm site (68.9-199.96), while a decrease (243-63.4) in another farm site in 2 yr. Significant difference (P aegypti mosquitoes in the second year after exposure to deltamethrin and DDT. An increase in KdT95 after exposure to deltamethrin in the first year was recorded. Higher KdT values and lower mortality rates in Ae. aegypti populations in the nonfarm sites are indications there are existing factors selecting for insecticide resistance outside agricultural use of insecticides.

  8. Larvicidal and repellent effect of some Tribulus terrestris L., (Zygophyllaceae extracts against the dengue fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarek M.Y. El-Sheikh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aedes aegypti transmits etiologic agents of yellow fever and dengue. Vaccine for dengue virus is not available and vector control is essential to minimize dengue incidence. The larvicidal and repellent effect of the crude ethanol, acetone and petroleum ether extract leaves of Tribulus terrestris, against 3rd instar larvae and adults of mosquito, Ae. aegypti the vector of dengue fever was evaluated. The efficacy of petroleum ether extract seemed to be more effective with LC50 64.6 ppm followed by acetone extract with LC50 173.2 ppm and finally ethanolic extract with LC50 376.4 ppm. Moreover, the acetone and petroleum ether extracts exerted a highly delayed toxic effect on the pupae and adults resulted from treated larvae, where the pupal mortality was 57.1% and 100% at concentrations 400 and 100 ppm, respectively. Also, the petroleum ether and acetone extracts showed reduction effects on adult emergence. The repellent action of the plant extracts tested was varied depending on the solvent used in extraction and the dose of the extract. The most effective plant extract that evoked 100% repellency or biting deterrence was petroleum ether extract at a dose of 1.5 mg/cm2 compared with 100% repellency for commercial formulation, N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (DEET at the same dose. Hence, these extracts can be used as an effective alternative to the existing synthetic pesticides for the control of Ae. aegypti.

  9. Sublethal effect of pyriproxyfen released from a fumigant formulation on fecundity, fertility, and ovicidal action in Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harburguer, Laura; Zerba, Eduardo; Licastro, Susana

    2014-03-01

    Dengue and dengue hemorrhagic fever are mosquito-borne viral diseases that coincide with the distribution of Aedes aegypti (L.), the primary vector in the tropical and semitropical world. With no available vaccine, controlling the dengue vector is essential to prevent epidemics. The effects of the insect growth regulator pyriproxyfen on Ae. aegypti adults that survived a treatment with a sublethal dose were investigated in the laboratory, including effects on their reproductive potential. Pyriproxyfen was released from a fumigant formulation at a dose causing 20 or 40% emergence inhibition (%EI). Females were dissected before and after blood feeding and the basal follicle number was counted. There were no differences between the control and treated group on the basal follicle number for both doses used. Fertility and fecundity were reduced at a concentration of EI40 but no at EI20. There was no ovicidal effect of pyriproxyfen by immersion of eggs in treated water neither when the females laid their eggs on a pyriproxyfen-treated surface. This work shows that sublethal doses of pyriproxyfen can have effects on fertility and fecundity ofAe. aegypti females, which together with its larvicidal activity could contribute to an overall decrease in a given population.

  10. Mosquito larvicidal and ovicidal activity of puffer fish extracts against Anopheles stephensi, Culex quinquefasciatus and Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samidurai, Kaliyaperumal; Mathew, Nisha

    2013-03-01

    The extracts of liver (LE), ovary (OE), skin (SE) and muscle (ME) tissues of four species of puffer fishes viz., Arothron hispidus, Lagocephalus inermis, Lagocephalus scleratus and Chelonodon patoca were evaluated against larvae and eggs of three mosquito vectors, Anopheles stephensi, Culex quinquefasciatus and Aedes aegypti. The LC50 values were 1194.26, 1382.73 (LE); 1421.42, 1982.73 (OE); 7116.86, 15038.98 (ME) and 10817.8 ppm (SE) for An. stephensi and Cx. quinquefasciatus respectively for A. hispidus. In the case of L. inermis, the LC50 values were 1163.83, 1556.1 and 2426.38 (LE); 1653.53, 2734.74 (OE); 6067.47 (ME) and 10283.04 ppm (SE) for An. stephensi, Cx. quinquefasciatus and Ae. aegypti respectively. The LC50 values were 1509.98, 1608.69 (LE) and 1414.9, 2278.69 ppm (OE) for An. stephensi and Cx. quinquefasciatus respectively for the extracts of L. scleratus. In the case C. patoca extracts the LC50 values were 1182.29, 1543.00, 2441.03 (LE) and 1076.13, 2582.11 ppm (OE) for An. stephensi, Cx. quinquefasciatus and Ae. aegypti respectively. OE and LE of all puffer fishes exhibited zero percent egg hatchability from 600 to 1000 ppm against eggs of An. stephensi and Cx. quinquefasciatus. This study shows that puffer toxins are effective in killing the larvae and eggs of mosquitoes.

  11. Insecticidal and repellent activity of Clausena dentata (Rutaceae) plant extracts against Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramkumar, Govindaraju; Karthi, Sengodan; Muthusamy, Ranganathan; Natarajan, Devarajan; Shivakumar, Muthugounder Subramanian

    2015-03-01

    Mosquito control is facing a threat due to the emergence of resistance to synthetic insecticides. Insecticides of botanical origin may serve as suitable alternative biocontrol agents. The present study is to evaluate adulticidal activity of Clausena dentata plant extract against Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes. The adult mortality was observed after 24 h of exposure. The highest mortality was found in acetone extracts against Ae. aegypti and Cx. quinquefasciatus with the LC50 and LC90 4.1783 mg/ml (3.8201-7.1026), 9.3884 mg/ml (7. 8258-13.1820) and 4.2451 mg/ml (3.8547-8.0254), 12.3214 mg/ml (10.9287-16.2220), respectively. Smoke toxicity was observed at 10-min interval for 40 min, and the mortality data were recorded. Result shows that Ae. aegypti and Cx. quinquefasciatus are 85 ± 2 and 89 ± 1.5, respectively. A mortality of 100 % was recorded in the commercial mosquito control. These results suggest that the leaf extracts of C. dentata have a potential to be used as an ideal eco-friendly approach for the control of mosquitoes.

  12. [Biology and thermal exigency of Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae) from four bioclimatic localities of Paraíba].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beserra, Eduardo B; de Castro, Francisco P; dos Santos, José W; Santos, Tatiana da S; Fernandes, Carlos R M

    2006-01-01

    The present work aimed at estimating the thermal requirements for the development and the number of generations per year of Aedes aegypti (L.) under natural conditions. The life cycle of A. aegypti populations was studied at constant temperatures of 18, 22, 26, 30 and 34 degrees C, and 12 h photophase. The development period, egg viability and larval and pupal survival were evaluated daily as well as adult longevity and fecundity. The low threshold temperature of development (Tb) and the thermal constant (K) were determined. The number of generations per year in laboratory and field were also estimated. The favorable temperature to A. aegypti development is between 21 degrees C and 29 degrees C, and to longevity and fecundity is between 22 degrees C and 30 degrees C. The egg to adult basal temperature, thermal constant and the number of generations in field were, in order, 9.5, 8.5, 3.4, 7.1, 13.5 degrees C; 244.5, 273.9, 298.5, 280.9 and 161.8 degree-days; and 21.9, 23.8, 24.2, 21.1 and 22.1 generations in populations from Boqueirão, Brejo dos Santos, Campina Grande, Itaporanga and Remígio.

  13. Comparison of the Insecticidal Characteristics of Commercially Available Plant Essential Oils Against Aedes aegypti and Anopheles gambiae (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Edmund J; Gross, Aaron D; Dunphy, Brendan M; Bessette, Steven; Bartholomay, Lyric; Coats, Joel R

    2015-09-01

    Aedes aegypti and Anopheles gambiae are two mosquito species that represent significant threats to global public health as vectors of Dengue virus and malaria parasites, respectively. Although mosquito populations have been effectively controlled through the use of synthetic insecticides, the emergence of widespread insecticide-resistance in wild mosquito populations is a strong motivation to explore new insecticidal chemistries. For these studies, Ae. aegypti and An. gambiae were treated with commercially available plant essential oils via topical application. The relative toxicity of each essential oil was determined, as measured by the 24-h LD(50) and percentage knockdown at 1 h, as compared with a variety of synthetic pyrethroids. For Ae. aegypti, the most toxic essential oil (patchouli oil) was ∼1,700-times less toxic than the least toxic synthetic pyrethroid, bifenthrin. For An. gambiae, the most toxic essential oil (patchouli oil) was ∼685-times less toxic than the least toxic synthetic pyrethroid. A wide variety of toxicities were observed among the essential oils screened. Also, plant essential oils were analyzed via gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) to identify the major components in each of the samples screened in this study. While the toxicities of these plant essential oils were demonstrated to be lower than those of the synthetic pyrethroids tested, the large amount of GC/MS data and bioactivity data for each essential oil presented in this study will serve as a valuable resource for future studies exploring the insecticidal quality of plant essential oils.

  14. Ciclos de vida comparados de Aedes aegypti (Diptera, Culicidae do semiárido da Paraíba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco P. de Castro Jr.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve como objetivo comparar os ciclos de vida entre amostras de populações de Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762 coletadas em dez municípios localizados no semiárido paraibano. Os ciclos de vida foram estudados a uma temperatura de 26 ± 2ºC, umidade relativa de 60 ± 10% e fotofase de 12 horas. Diariamente foram avaliados os períodos de desenvolvimentos e as viabilidades das fases de ovo, larva e pupa, bem como a razão sexual, longevidade, tamanho e fecundidade dos adultos. Foi realizada uma análise de agrupamento, utilizando-se uma matriz de distância euclidiana através do método da média não-ponderada. As durações e viabilidades para as fases de ovo, larva e pupa apresentaram respectivamente, uma variação média de 3,7 a 4,7 dias e 82,8% a 97,7%, 9,1 a 10,8 dias e 91,2% a 99,2% e de 2,1 a 2,5 dias e 93,5% a 98,4%. O comprimento alar foi de 5,13 a 5,34 mm para as fêmeas e de 4,18 a 4,25 mm para os machos. A menor fecundidade (153,6 ovos/fêmea ocorreu na população de A. aegypti oriunda de Pedra Lavrada, enquanto que a maior fecundidade (310,6 ovos/fêmea foi constatada para A. aegypti de Campina Grande. A análise de agrupamento com base na similaridade dos dados biológicos revelou a formação de dois grandes grupos distintos, onde as populações de A. aegypti de Serra Branca e Cuité apresentam maior similaridade entre si. As diferenças de ciclos biológicos verificadas entre as populações de A. aegypti demonstra a capacidade dessa espécie de sofrer variações na sua biologia e se adaptar às diferentes condições ambientais, favorecendo a permanência deste inseto nessas áreas com aumento do risco de transmissão do vírus da dengue.

  15. Sublethal effects of atrazine and glyphosate on life history traits of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bara, Jeffrey J; Montgomery, Allison; Muturi, Ephantus J

    2014-08-01

    Although exposure of mosquito larvae to agricultural chemicals such as herbicides is common and widespread, our understanding of how these chemicals affect mosquito ecology and behavior is limited. This study investigated how an environmentally relevant concentration of two herbicides, atrazine and glyphosate, affects mosquito life history traits. One hundred and fifty (150) first instar Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti (L.) or Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus (Skuse) larvae were reared in 1.6 L of live oak leaf (Quercus virginiana) infusion in the presence (5 mg/L) or absence (0 mg/L) of atrazine or glyphosate. The containers were monitored daily to determine the emergence rates, sex ratio, male and female emergence times, and female body size. Emergence rates of A. aegypti from atrazine treatment were significantly higher relative to either glyphosate or control treatments (A. aegypti: atrazine = 93 ± 6% (±95% CI), glyphosate = 82 ± 5%, control = 78 ± 5%), while emergence rates of A. albopictus in atrazine treatments were significantly higher than in glyphosate treatments but not in controls (A. albopictus: atrazine = 84 ± 5 %, glyphosate = 76 ± 4%, control = 78 ± 4%). For both mosquito species, a sex ratio distortion with male bias was observed in control and glyphosate treatments, but not in atrazine treatments (A. aegypti: atrazine = 0.90 ± 0.17 (±SE), glyphosate = 1.63 ± 0.21, control = 1.69 ± 0.26; A. albopictus: atrazine = 1.09 ± 0.08, glyphosate = 1.88 ± 0.12, control = 1.37 ± 0.11). Emergence times for both sexes of the two mosquito species were significantly longer in atrazine treatments compared to glyphosate or control treatments (A. aegypti: females: atrazine = 11.20 ± 0.50 (days ± 95 % CI), glyphosate = 9.71 ± 0.23, control = 9.87 ± 0.21; males: atrazine = 9.46 ± 0.27, glyphosate = 8.80 ± 0.25, control

  16. Surveillance, insecticide resistance and control of an invasive Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae population in California [version 3; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony J. Cornel

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The invasion and subsequent establishment in California of Aedes aegypti in 2013 has created new challenges for local mosquito abatement and vector control districts. Studies were undertaken to identify effective and economical strategies to monitor the abundance and spread of this mosquito species as well as for its control. Overall, BG Sentinel (BGS traps were found to be the most sensitive trap type to measure abundance and spread into new locations. Autocidal-Gravid-Ovitraps (AGO-B, when placed at a site for a week, performed equally to BGS in detecting the presence of female Ae. aegypti. Considering operational cost and our findings, we recommend use of BGS traps for surveillance in response to service requests especially in locations outside the known infestation area. We recommend AGO-Bs be placed at fixed sites, cleared and processed once a week to monitor mosquito abundance within a known infestation area. Long-term high density placements of AGO-Bs were found to show promise as an environmentally friendly trap-kill control strategy. California Ae. aegypti were found to be homozygous for the V1016I mutation in the voltage gated sodium channel gene, which is implicated to be involved in insecticide resistance. This strain originating from Clovis, California was resistant to some pyrethroids but not to deltamethrin in bottle bio-assays. Sentinel cage ultra-low-volume (ULV trials using a new formulation of deltamethrin (DeltaGard® demonstrated that it provided some control (average of 56% death in sentinel cages in a 91.4 m spray swath after a single truck mounted aerial ULV application in residential areas.

  17. Effects of larval crowding on development time, survival and weight at metamorphosis in Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnaldo MACIÁ

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Los efectos del hacinamiento larval sobre el tiempo de desarrollo, la supervivencia y el peso en la metamorfosis fueron estudiados en el mosquito del dengue, Aedes aegypti L., en el laboratorio. Se criaron cohortes de larvas en 7 densidades (4, 8, 16, 32, 64, 128 y 256 larvas/ recipiente de 175 ml mientras se mantuvo constante el volumen de agua y la calidad y cantidad de alimento, bajo fotoperíodo y temperatura controlados. Se usaron detritos naturales, principalmente hojas, obtenidos de contenedores colonizados naturalmente por A. aegypti como fuente de nutrientes para las larvas. En cada densidad se registraron el tiempo de desarrollo, la mortalidad, el peso en la metamorfosis y la biomasa total. El tiempo de desarrollo varió entre 4 y 23 días en los machos, y 5 a 24 días en hembras; fue más prolongado a la densidad de 64 (en las hembras y 128 (en los machos larvas por recipiente. En densidades altas la proporción de sexos favoreció los machos. Hubo un incremento en la mortalidad en densidades iguales o mayores que 0,4 larvas/ ml (0,32 larvas/cm2. Se detectó una relación inversa entre la densidad larval y el peso de las pupas. La biomasa por individuo alcanzó un valor asintótico de aproximadamente 1 mg/individuo en una densidad de 128 individuos/ recipiente (0,64 larvas/cm2. Las poblaciones de A. aegypti, cercanas a su extremo sur de distribución, serían sensibles al hacinamiento en pequeños contenedores de agua.

  18. Eggs viability of Aedes aegypti Linnaeus (Diptera, Culicidae under different environmental and storage conditions in Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. C. Soares-Pinheiro

    Full Text Available Abstract The viability of Aedes aegypti eggs was assessed in the Amazon region. The eggs were maintained under different conditions: indoors (insectarium and outdoors (natural environment, as well as in different storage types (plastic cup, paper envelope, plastic bag for different days. Egg viability was measured as the mean of hatchings observed from egg-bearing sheets of filter paper immersed in water, using three sheets randomly selected from each storage type and at both sites. There were significant differences in the viability of Ae. aegypti eggs with respect to the location (F=30.40; DF=1; P<0.0001, storage type (F=17.66; DF=2; P<0.0001, and time of storage (F=49.56; DF=9; P<0.0001. The interaction between storage site versus storage type was also significant (F=15.96; DF=2; P<0.0001. A higher hatching mean was observed for the eggs kept in the insectarium than for those outdoors (32.38 versus 7.46. Hatching rates of egg batches stored for 12 to 61 days ranged between 84 and 90%. A reduction was observed between 89 and 118 days, with values of 63 and 48%, respectively. With respect to type of storage, mean egg hatching was higher for the eggs in plastic cups (44.46. It was concluded that the viability of the eggs of Ae. aegypti in the Amazon region remains high up to 4 months, after which it declines drastically, although in this study hatching occurred for up to 8 months in very low percentages.

  19. Surveillance, insecticide resistance and control of an invasive Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae population in California [version 2; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony J. Cornel

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The invasion and subsequent establishment in California of Aedes aegypti in 2013 has created new challenges for local mosquito abatement and vector control districts. Studies were undertaken to identify effective and economical strategies to monitor the abundance and spread of this mosquito species as well as for its control. Overall, BG Sentinel (BGS traps were found to be the most sensitive trap type to measure abundance and spread into new locations. Autocidal-Gravid-Ovitraps (AGO-B, when placed at a site for a week, performed equally to BGS in detecting the presence of female Ae. aegypti. Considering operational cost and our findings, we recommend use of BGS traps for surveillance in response to service requests especially in locations outside the known infestation area. We recommend AGO-Bs be placed at fixed sites, cleared and processed once a week to monitor mosquito abundance within a known infestation area. Long-term high density placements of AGO-Bs were found to show promise as an environmentally friendly trap-kill control strategy. California Ae. aegypti were found to be homozygous for the V1016I mutation in the voltage gated sodium channel gene, which is implicated to be involved in insecticide resistance. This strain originating from Clovis, California was resistant to some pyrethroids but not to deltamethrin in bottle bio-assays. Sentinel cage ultra-low-volume (ULV trials using a new formulation of deltamethrin (DeltaGard® demonstrated that it provided some control (average of 56% death in sentinel cages in a 91.4 m spray swath after a single truck mounted aerial ULV application in residential areas.

  20. Estimation of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae population size and adult male survival in an urban area in Panama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Neira

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Traditional mosquito control strategies rely heavily on the use of chemical insecticides. However, concerns about the efficiency of traditional control methods, environmental impact and emerging pesticide resistance have highlighted the necessity for developing innovative tools for mosquito control. Some novel strategies, including release of insects carrying a dominant lethal gene (RIDL®, rely on the sustained release of modified male mosquitoes and therefore benefit from a thorough understanding of the biology of the male of the species. In this report we present the results of a mark-release-recapture study aimed at: (i establishing the survival in the field of laboratory-reared, wild-type male Aedes aegypti and (b estimating the size of the local adult Ae. aegypti population. The study took place in Panama, a country where recent increases in the incidence and severity of dengue cases have prompted health authorities to evaluate alternative strategies for vector control. Results suggest a life expectancy of 2.3 days for released male mosquitoes (confidence interval: 1.78-2.86. Overall, the male mosquito population was estimated at 58 males/ha (range 12-81 males/ha, which can be extrapolated to an average of 0.64 pupae/person for the study area. The practical implications of these results are discussed.

  1. Estimation of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) population size and adult male survival in an urban area in Panama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neira, Marco; Lacroix, Renaud; Cáceres, Lorenzo; Kaiser, Paul E; Young, Josue; Pineda, Lleysa; Black, Isaac; Sosa, Nestor; Nimmo, Derric; Alphey, Luke; McKemey, Andrew

    2014-11-01

    Traditional mosquito control strategies rely heavily on the use of chemical insecticides. However, concerns about the efficiency of traditional control methods, environmental impact and emerging pesticide resistance have highlighted the necessity for developing innovative tools for mosquito control. Some novel strategies, including release of insects carrying a dominant lethal gene (RIDL®), rely on the sustained release of modified male mosquitoes and therefore benefit from a thorough understanding of the biology of the male of the species. In this report we present the results of a mark-release-recapture study aimed at: (i) establishing the survival in the field of laboratory-reared, wild-type male Aedes aegypti and (b) estimating the size of the local adult Ae. aegypti population. The study took place in Panama, a country where recent increases in the incidence and severity of dengue cases have prompted health authorities to evaluate alternative strategies for vector control. Results suggest a life expectancy of 2.3 days for released male mosquitoes (confidence interval: 1.78-2.86). Overall, the male mosquito population was estimated at 58 males/ha (range 12-81 males/ha), which can be extrapolated to an average of 0.64 pupae/person for the study area. The practical implications of these results are discussed.

  2. The synergistic effects of insecticidal essential oils and piperonyl butoxide on biotransformational enzyme activities in Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waliwitiya, Ranil; Nicholson, Russell A; Kennedy, Christopher J; Lowenberger, Carl A

    2012-05-01

    The biochemical mechanisms underlying the increased toxicity of several plant essential oils (thymol, eugenol, pulegone, terpineol, and citronellal) against fourth instar of Aedes aegypti L. when exposed simultaneously with piperonyl butoxide (PBO) were examined. Whole body biotransformational enzyme activities including cytochrome P450-mediated oxidation (ethoxyresorufin O-dethylase [EROD]), glutathione S-transferase (GST), and beta-esterase activity were measured in control, essential oil-exposed only (single chemical), and essential oil + PBO (10 mg/liter) exposed larvae. At high concentrations, thymol, eugenol, pulegone, and citronellal alone reduced EROD activity by 5-25% 16 h postexposure. Terpineol at 10 mg/liter increased EROD activity by 5 +/- 1.8% over controls. The essential oils alone reduced GST activity by 3-20% but PBO exposure alone did not significantly affect the activity of any of the measured enzymes. All essential oils in combination with PBO reduced EROD activity by 58-76% and reduced GST activity by 3-85% at 16 h postexposure. This study indicates a synergistic interaction between essential oils and PBO in inhibiting the cytochrome P450 and GST detoxification enzymes in Ae. aegypti.

  3. Synergistic actions of formamidine insecticides on the activity of pyrethroids and neonicotinoids against Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, M A I; Matsumura, F

    2012-11-01

    Formamidines are unique insecticides and acaricides that elicit multiple effects in controlling insects. Here, we tested two formamidines, amitraz, and chlordimeform, for their synergistic actions on type II pyrethroids and neonicotinoids to increase their larvicidal actions on the fourth instars of Aedes aegypti L. An organophosphate insecticide was used as a negative control. After 24 h, the synergism of formamidines was highest on imidacloprid, followed by two type II pyrethroids, deltamethrin and fenvalerate. After 48 h, the synergism of formamidines on imidacloprid decreased, remained unchanged on type II pyrethroids, and increased noticeably on two of the newer type neonicotinoids, dinotefuran and thiamethoxam. By 72 h, synergism of formamidines on dinotefuran reached the maximum, while that on imidacloprid was at a minimum. Both formamidines did not show synergistic effects on permethrin or fenitrothion. In all cases, the synergistic effects of amitraz on the two major classes of larvicides were greater than for chlordimeform. These results indicate that amitraz is a promising synergist that shows the potential to increase the efficacy of certain members of type II pyrethroids as well as neonicotinoids to control Ae. aegypti larvae.

  4. LARVICIDAL ACTIVITY OF PERESKIA BLEO (KUNTH) DC. (CACTACEAE) FRUIT ENDOCARP CRUDE AND FRACTIONATED EXTRACTS AGAINST AEDES AEGYPTI (L.) (DIPTERA: CULICIDAE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thongwat, Damrongpan; Ganranoo, Lucksagoon; Chokchaisiri, Ratchanaporn

    2014-11-01

    The use of insecticides can cause adverse effects in vector control, a plant bio-insecticide is an advantageous substitute. Currently, the promising mosquito larvicidal activity from plant extracts has been reported worldwide, including Thailand. In this study, the endocarp of Pereskia bleo (Kunth) DC. fruit was extracted with distilled water and ethanol. Crudes and fractionated groups of the extracts were evaluated for their larvicidal efficacy against the 3rd instar larvae of Aedes aegypti. At 48 hours of exposure, it was found that the activities of the extracts were higher than 24-hour's. The ethanolic extracts showed stronger activities than the aqueous ones, indicating the lower LC50 values of both crude and fractionated group extracts. The most toxic activity was found in a fractionated group of the ethanolic extract, E-Gr3, with significantly lowest LC50 values of 707.94 and 223.12 ppm for 24- and 48-hour detection times, respectively. The bioassay results indicated the larvicidal property against the Ae. aegypti mosquito of the P. bleo plant extracts. A safety for non-target organisms or an action on other mosquito vectors of this plant, should be further investigated.

  5. Chemical Composition and Biological Activity of Essential Oils from Four Nepeta Species and Hybrids against Aedes aegypti (L. (Diptera: Culicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Ali

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Essential oils of four ornamental species and hybrids of Nepeta: N. racemosa Lam. hybrid ‘Select’, N. sibirica L., N. subsessilis Maxim, and N.×faassenii Bergmans ex Stearn ‘Dropmore were studied for their chemical composition, larvicidal and biting deterrent activity. Water-distilled essential oils from aerial parts of Nepeta species were analyzed by gas chromatography (GC-FID and gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS. Nepeta racemosa hybrid ‘Select’ and N. ×faassenii ‘Dropmore’ essential oils were rich in 1,8-cineole whereas N. sibirica and N. subsessilis essential oils mainly consisted of sesquiterpenes: (Z- b -farnesene, b -bisabolene, d -cadinene or b -caryophyllene, and caryophyllene oxide. Many Nepeta species essential oils are reported to be rich in nepetalactone isomers, but essential oils from these species contained either very low or no nepetalactone content. In biting deterrent bioassays, essential oils of these Nepeta species and hybrids at 100 µg/cm 2 showed activity similar to DEET at 25 nmol/cm 2 against Aedes aegypti, whereas this activity at the concentration of 10 µg/cm 2 was lower than DEET. All the essential oils showed weak larvicidal activity and mortalities were observed only at highest dose of 125 ppm against Ae. aegypti.

  6. Field evaluation of effectiveness of the BG-Sentinel, a new trap for capturing adult Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Maciel-de-Freitas

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the development of new tools to gather field information about vector ecological parameters has increased. This report evaluated the BG-Sentinel Trap (BGS-Trap, a promising new attempt to improve collection of the dengue vector, Aedes aegypti. The efficacy of the BGS-Trap was compared with the CDC backpack aspirator, one of the commonest used methods for capturing adult mosquitoes. BGS-Traps captured significantly more Ae. aegypti males (chi2 = 21.774, df = 1, P < 0.05 and females (chi2 = 56.007, df = 1, P < 0.05 than CDC aspirator during all days of field collection. However, CDC aspirator was significantly more efficient to capture Culex quinquefasciatus males (chi2 = 5.681, df = 1, P < 0.05 and females (chi2 = 6.553, df = 1, P < 0.05. BGS-Traps captured host-seeking females (varying between 68.75 to 89.8% in detriment of females in other behavioral and physiological stages. BGS-Traps proved to be efficient and can be used for monitoring adult mosquito populations.

  7. Insecticidal Activity of [Cu(H2NTA2].2H2O in Aedes aegypti Larvae (Diptera: Culicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Ramos Lima

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The demand for new insecticides and alternative strategies for the population control of Aedes aegypti has stimulated research to obtain new compounds with broad biological activity. Accordingly, the dihydrogen nitrilotriacetate complex of copper (II dihydrate, [Cu(H2NTA2].2H2O, was synthesized by the stoichiometric reaction of nitrilotriacetic acid (H3NTA hydroxide with basic copper carbonate (II (Cu2(OH2CO3 and characterized by the spectroscopic techniques UV-Vis and FT-IR. The biological toxicity in A. aegypti was determined by bioassay using concentrations ranging from 90.0 mg L−1 to 897.4 mg L−1. The LC50 obtained was 146.11 mg L−1 [132.18–160.10] and the LT50 obtained at a concentration of 897.4 mg L−1 was 70.61 min [38.21–94.90]. The results showed that the complex obtained in this work is a potential metal-insecticide. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.17807/orbital.v7i4.735 

  8. Dengue Virus-1 Infection Did Not Alter the Behavioral Response of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) to DEET.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiharto, Victor A; Murphy, Jittawadee R; Turell, Michael J; Olsen, Cara H; Stewart, V Ann; Colacicco-Mayhugh, Michelle G; Grieco, John P; Achee, Nicole L

    2016-05-01

    No licensed vaccine or antiviral drug against dengue virus (DENV) is available; therefore, most of the effort to prevent this disease is focused on reducing vector-host interactions. One of the most widely accepted methods of blocking vector-human contact is to use insect repellents to interfere with mosquito host-seeking behavior. Some arboviruses can replicate in the nervous system of the vector, raising the concern that arboviral infection may alter the insect behavioral response toward chemical stimuli. Three different Aedes aegypti (L.) mosquito cohorts: DENV-1-injected, diluent-injected, and uninjected were subjected to behavioral tests using a high-throughput screening system with 2.5% DEET and 0.14% DEET on 1, 4, 7, 10, 14, and 17 d postinjection. All test cohorts exhibited significant contact irritant or escape responses when they were exposed to 2.5% or 0.14% DEET. However, we found no biologically relevant irritancy response change in DENV-1-infected Ae. aegypti mosquitoes when they were exposed to DEET. Further studies evaluating the effects of other arboviral infections on insect repellents activity are necessary in order to provide better recommendation on the prevention of vector-borne disease transmission.

  9. Effect of stalk and leaf extracts from Euphorbiaceae species on Aedes aegypti (Diptera, Culicidae larvae Efeito dos extratos de caule e folha de espécies de Euphorbiaceae sobre larvas de Aedes aegypti (Diptera, Culicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Goretti Araújo de Lima

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the larvicidal activity of essential oil aqueous solutions (hydrolates obtained by steam distillation of stalks and leaves of Croton argyrophylloides, Croton nepetaefolius, Croton sonderianus and Croton zehntneri against Aedes aegypti larvae. Twenty-five larvae of third instar were placed in plastic beckers, containing the hydrolates (50 mL, in a four repetitions scheme. Water was used as control and the number of dead larvae was counted after 24 hours. The data obtained were submitted to Variance Analysis and Tukey test. Significant differences were observed among the hydrolates from different species and from different parts of each plant (p O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a atividade larvicida dos hidrolatos obtidos por destilação à vapor de caule e folha das espécies de Croton argyrophylloides, Croton nepetaefolius, Croton sonderianus e Croton zehntneri contra Aedes aegypti. Em cada bioensaio foram utilizadas 25 larvas de 3º estádio juntamente com 50 mL de cada hidrolato, dispostos em recipientes plásticos, num esquema de quatro repetições, utilizando-se como controle a água e avaliando-se a mortalidade com 24 horas de tratamento. Os dados foram submetidos à análise de variância e ao teste de Tukey. Verificou-se que houve diferença significativa tanto em relação aos hidrolatos das diferentes espécies vegetais, quanto em relação às diferentes partes de cada planta (p < 0,001. Os hidrolatos referentes ao caule e folha de C. nepetaefolius e C. zehntneri causaram 100% de mortalidade das larvas e diferiram das demais espécies, exceto da folha do C. argyrophylloides que apresentou o mesmo resultado. Os compostos presentes em C. zehntneri e C. nepetaefolius são fenil propanóides mais solúveis em água que os monoterpenos e sesquiterpenos detectados em C. argyrophylloides e C. sonderianus. Esta pesquisa evidenciou que todas as espécies testadas possuem compostos com

  10. Impact of small variations in temperature and humidity on the reproductive activity and survival of Aedes aegypti (Diptera, Culicidae); Impacto de pequenas variacoes de temperatura e umidade na atividade reprodutiva e sobrevivencia de Aedes aegypti (Diptera, Culicidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Ethiene Arruda Pedrosa de Almeida; Santos, Eloina Maria de Mendonca; Correia, Juliana Cavalcanti; Albuquerque, Cleide Maria Ribeiro de, E-mail: cleide.ufpe@gmail.co [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Biologicas. Dept. de Zoologia

    2010-07-01

    In short space of time increase in temperature and rainfall can affect vector populations and, consequently, the diseases for them transmitted. The present study analyzed the effect of small temperature and humidity variations on the fecundity, fertility and survival of Aedes aegypti. These parameters were analyzed using individual females at temperatures ranging from 23 to 27 deg C (mean 25 deg C); 28 to 32 deg C (mean 30 deg C) and 33 to 37 deg C (mean 35 deg C) associated to 60 +- 8% and 80 +- 6% relative humidity. Females responded to an increase in temperature by reducing egg production, oviposition time and changing oviposition patterns. At 25 deg C and 80% relative humidity, females survived two-fold more and produced 40% more eggs when compared to those kept at 35 deg C and 80% relative humidity. However, in 45% of females kept at 35 deg C and 60% relative humidity oviposition was inhibited and only 15% females laid more than 100 eggs, suggesting that the intensity of the temperature effect was influenced by humidity. Gradual reductions in egg fertility at 60% relative humidity were observed with the increase in temperature, although such effect was not found in the 80% relative humidity at 25 deg C and 30 deg C. These results suggest that the reduction in population densities recorded in tropical areas during seasons when temperatures reach over 35 deg C is likely to be strongly influenced by temperature and humidity, with a negative effect on several aspects of mosquito biology. (author)

  11. Biogeography of the two major arbovirus mosquito vectors, Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus (Diptera, Culicidae, in Madagascar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raharimalala Fara

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the past ten years, the Indian Ocean region has been the theatre of severe epidemics of chikungunya and dengue. These outbreaks coincided with a high increase in populations of Aedes albopictus that outcompete its sister taxon Aedes aegypti in most islands sampled. The objective of this work was to update the entomological survey of the two Aedes species in the island of Madagascar which has to face these arboviroses. Methods The sampling of Aedes mosquitoes was conducted during two years, from October 2007 to October 2009, in fifteen localities from eight regions of contrasting climates. Captured adults were identified immediately whereas immature stages were bred until adult stage for determination. Phylogenetic analysis was performed using two mtDNA genes, COI and ND5 and trees were constructed by the maximum likelihood (ML method with the gene time reversible (GTR model. Experimental infections with the chikungunya virus strain 06.21 at a titer of 107.5 pfu/mL were performed to evaluate the vector competence of field-collected mosquitoes. Disseminated infection rates were measured fourteen days after infection by immunofluorescence assay performed on head squashes. Results The species Aedes aegypti was detected in only six sites in native forests and natural reserves. In contrast, the species Aedes albopictus was found in 13 out of the 15 sites sampled. Breeding sites were mostly found in man-made environments such as discarded containers, used tires, abandoned buckets, coconuts, and bamboo cuts. Linear regression models showed that the abundance of Ae. albopictus was significantly influenced by the sampling region (F = 62.00, p -16 and period (F = 36.22, p = 2.548 × 10-13, that are associated with ecological and climate variations. Phylogenetic analysis of the invasive Ae. albopictus distinguished haplotypes from South Asia and South America from those of Madagascar, but the markers used were not discriminant enough

  12. Mukia maderaspatana (Cucurbitaceae) extract-mediated synthesis of silver nanoparticles to control Culex quinquefasciatus and Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chitra, Govindaraj; Balasubramani, Govindasamy; Ramkumar, Rajendiran; Sowmiya, Rajamani; Perumal, Pachiappan

    2015-04-01

    Mosquitoes and mosquito-borne diseases are prone to raise health and economic impacts. Synthetic insecticide-based interventions are indeed in situations of epidemic outbreak and sudden increases of adult mosquitoes. Nanoparticles are being used in many commercial applications and were found that aqueous silver ions can be reduced by an aqueous extract of plant parts to generate extremely stable silver nanoparticles in water. Based on this, silver nanoparticles (SNPs) were synthesized using leaf aqueous extract (LAE) of Mukia maderaspatana. Further, the synthesized SNPs were characterized by UV-visible spectrum, which indicated a strong plasmon resonance at 427 nm. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis revealed the average crystalline size of the synthesized SNPs was approximately 64 nm by Debye-Scherrer formulae. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy analysis revealed the presence of different functional groups like amines, halides, alkanes, alkynes, amides, and esters with respective stretches, which are responsible for the bio-reduction of silver ions. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) depicted the spherical morphology of SNPs with size range of 13-34 nm. The larvicidal activity of LAE and SNPs exhibited an effective mortality to Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus. The lethal concentration (LC50; LC90) of LAE and SNPs were found to be 0.506; 1.082, 0.392; 0.870 ppm and 0.211; 0.703, 0.094; 0.482 ppm, respectively on A. aegypti and C. quinquefasciatus. Thus, the synthesized SNPs have shown preponderant larvicidal activity, but further studies are needed to formulate the potential larvicidal agents.

  13. Frequency of the Val1016Ile mutation on the kdr gene in Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) in south Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collet, M L; Frizzo, C; Orlandin, E; Rona, L D P; Nascimento, J C; Montano, M A E; Müller, G A; Wagner, G

    2016-11-21

    Recently, the number of Aedes aegypti foci has increased in west of Santa Catarina, south Brazil, which has increased concern regarding mosquito-borne disease outbreaks such as dengue fever, Zika virus, and chikungunya. Therefore, it is important to monitor genetic resistance to insecticides through "knockdown resistance". Homozygosity (Ile/Ile) at position 1016 in the coding region of a voltage-dependent sodium channel gene (Nav) may induce resistance to pyrethroid insecticides. We evaluated the frequency of these alleles in A. aegypti in west Santa Catarina. In total, 349 specimens were obtained from the microregions of Joaçaba (31), Concórdia (35), Chapecó (154), and São Miguel do Oeste (129). We found that 109 individuals (31.0%) were homozygous for Val/Val, 102 (29.0%) were heterozygous for Val/Ile, and 138 (40.0%) were homozygous for Ile/Ile. The allele frequencies were similar for Val (0.455) and Ile (0.545). Joaçaba and Concórdia had the highest mutant allele frequencies (0.825 and 0.685, respectively). Therefore, these populations should be monitored for increases in pyrethroid resistance. The São Miguel do Oeste and Chapecó populations had similar frequencies of Val and Ile and were not in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, suggesting that a selection pressure or other evolutionary force has occurred. In conclusion, the observed frequency of Ile/Ile homozygous individuals in the region studied requires attention, because the implementation of controls using pyrethroid may increase the frequency of the mutant allele through the selection of resistant populations.

  14. Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae): evaluation of natural long-lasting materials containing pyriproxyfen to improve control strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seccacini, Emilia; Juan, Laura; Zerba, Eduardo; Licastro, Susana

    2014-09-01

    Natural materials such as beeswax or a paraffin/stearin mixture containing pyriproxyfen and used as a slow release formulation may convert any breeding place into a larvicidal ovitrap for Aedes aegypti (L.) control. Effectiveness and residual activity of beeswax and paraffin/stearin 1:1 discs containing from 10(-5) to 10(-1) % pyriproxyfen and sticked at the bottom of plastic jars were evaluated for adult emergence inhibition (EI) on late 3rd or early 4th instar A. aegypti larvae. At the initial time t = 0, the EI was 100% for vessels containing beeswax or paraffin/stearin 1:1 discs containing up to 10(-4)% pyriproxyfen. For the lowest pyriproxyfen concentration of 10(-5)%, paraffin/stearin mixture gave a higher EI% value than beeswax (100 and 50%, respectively). Jars were kept at room temperature, and water was totally replaced every 15 days. Bioassays for residual activity repeated monthly showed that at 30 days and for pyriproxyfen 10(-5) % and both matrices, the EI values were low and comparable to control values. For pyriproxyfen 10(-4) %, EI remained above 95% for at least 90 days and around 75% up to 180 days. The EI values are always higher for paraffin/stearin mixture than for beeswax. For all other higher concentrations, 100% EI was obtained at least during 300 days. In a semi-field trial, paraffin/stearin/sand O-rings (2:1:2), containing pyriproxyfen 1%, were sunken in 200-l water-storage tanks and held outdoors in a shadow place. After 72 h, a 250-ml aliquot was taken (t = 0) obtaining 100 % EI. Water level was completed to 200 l every 15 days and bioassays repeated monthly as before. Residual activity remains with 100% EI at least for 6 months.

  15. Evaluation of a peridomestic mosquito trap for integration into an Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) push-pull control strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar, Ferdinand V; Achee, Nicole L; Grieco, John P; Prabaripai, Atchariya; Eisen, Lars; Shah, Pankhil; Chareonviriyaphap, Theeraphap

    2012-06-01

    We determined the feasibility of using the BG-Sentinel™ mosquito trap (BGS) as the pull component in a push-pull strategy to reduce indoor biting by Aedes aegypti. This included evaluating varying numbers of traps (1-4) and mosquito release numbers (10, 25, 50, 100, 150, 200, and 250) on recapture rates under screen house conditions. Based on these variations in trap and mosquito numbers, release intervals were rotated through a completely randomized design with environmental factors (temperature, relative humidity, and light intensity) and monitored throughout each experiment. Data from four sampling time points (05:30, 09:30, 13:30, and 17:30) indicate a recapture range among treatments of 66-98%. Furthermore, 2-3 traps were as effective in recapturing mosquitoes as 4 traps for all mosquito release numbers. Time trends indicate Day 1 (the day the mosquitoes were released) as the "impact period" for recapture with peak numbers of marked mosquitoes collected at 09:30 or 4 h post-release. Information from this study will be used to guide the configuration of the BGS trap component of a push-pull vector control strategy currently in the proof-of-concept stage of development in Thailand and Peru.

  16. A new strategy for Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) control with community participation using a new fumigant formulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harburguer, Laura; Beltrán, Gaston; Goldberg, Lucila; Goldberg, Laura; Zerba, Eduardo; Licastro, Susana; Masuh, Héctor

    2011-05-01

    Dengue and dengue hemorrhagic fever are mosquito-borne viral diseases that coincide with the distribution of Aedes aegypti (L.), the primary vector in the tropical and semitropical world. With no available vaccine, controlling the dengue vector is essential to avoid epidemics. This study evaluates the efficacy of a new smoke-generating formulation containing pyriproxyfen and permethrin in Puerto Libertad, Misiones, Argentina. A fumigant tablet (FT) was applied inside the houses by the community members and compared with a professional application. A treatment combining the application of fumigant tablets indoors and ultralow volume fumigation outdoors was also assessed. The community perceptions and practices about dengue disease and the acceptance of this new nonprofessional FT were evaluated through surveys. Results show >90% adult emergence inhibition and 100% adult mortality with these treatments. More than 80% of the residents applied the FT and preferred participating in a vector control program by using a nonprofessional mosquito control tool, instead of attending meetings and workshops promoting cultural changes.

  17. Impact of Argemone mexicana extracts on the cidal, morphological, and behavioral response of dengue vector, Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warikoo, Radhika; Kumar, Sarita

    2013-10-01

    The larvicidal, behavioral, and morphological response of dengue vector, Aedes aegypti treated with deleterious weed, Argemone mexicana, was explored. The 1,000 ppm extracts of A. mexicana leaf, stem, and roots prepared in five different solvents (petroleum ether, hexane, benzene, acetone, and ethanol) were screened for their larvicidal activity against dengue vector establishing the efficacy of petroleum ether and hexane extracts. Other extracts, unable to give 100% mortality, were considered ineffective and discarded from further study. Larvicidal bioassay conducted with selected extracts confirmed the higher efficacy of hexane extracts exhibiting 1.1- to 1.8-fold more potential than the petroleum ether extracts. The results further revealed 1.6- to 2.4-fold higher efficacy of root extracts than those prepared from the leaves and stem of A. mexicana. The hexane root extract of A. mexicana was found to be the most effective larvicide with LC50 value of 91.331 ppm after 24 h of exposure causing 1.8 and 2.4 fold more toxicity as compared to the hexane leaf and stem extracts, respectively. Prolonged exposure of the larvae to the extracts resulted in increased toxicity potential of the extracts. Observations of the treated larvae revealed excitation, violent vertical, and horizontal movements with aggressive anal biting behavior suggesting effect of extracts on their neuromuscular system. Morphological studies of the treated larvae revealed the demelanization of cuticle and shrinkage of internal cuticle of anal papillae indicating the anal papillae as the probable action sites of the A. mexicana extracts. The potential of A. mexicana as new larvicides against dengue vector are being explored.

  18. 植物精油及化合物对埃及伊蚊幼虫的生物活性%Essential Oils and Their Compounds as Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera:Culicidae) Larvicides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁建忠; 李庆凤; 黄健波

    2014-01-01

    Essential oils and their compounds exhibit bioactivity against Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae) larvae, which is the primary vector of dengue. More than 60%of 361 essential oils from 269 plant species were considered active(LC50﹤100 mg/L), and the majority of these active oils were derived from plant species belonging to Myrtaceae, Lamiaceae and Rutaceae. Essential oils rich in phenylpropanoids, oxygenated sesquiterpenes and monoterpene hydrocarbons were found to be the most active. This article mainly reviews activities of essential oils against A. aegypti larvae, the factors affecting activities of essential oils, structure-activity relationships of essential oil compounds and their mode of action.%植物精油及化合物对登革热的主要媒介埃及伊蚊幼虫具有杀幼虫活性。从269种植物中提取的361个植物精油中,超过60%具有较高的生物活性(LC50<100 mg/L),这些植物主要为桃金娘科、唇形科和芸香科。精油中富含苯丙烷类、倍半萜烯类和单萜烯类物质具有最高的活性。着重介绍了植物精油对埃及伊蚊幼虫的活性、影响精油的活性因素、分子结构与活性相关性及精油及化合物的作用机理。

  19. Larvicidal and ovicidal properties of leaf and seed extracts of Delonix elata (L.) Gamble (family: Fabaceae) against malaria (Anopheles stephensi Liston) and dengue (Aedes aegypti Linn.) (Diptera: Culicidae) vector mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marimuthu, Govindarajan; Rajamohan, Sivakumar; Mohan, Rajeswari; Krishnamoorthy, Yogalakshmi

    2012-07-01

    Mosquito-borne diseases with an economic impact create loss in commercial and labor outputs, particularly in countries with tropical and subtropical climates. Mosquito control is facing a threat because of the emergence of resistance to synthetic insecticides. Extracts from plants may be alternative sources of mosquito control agents because they constitute a rich source of bioactive compounds that are biodegradable into nontoxic products and potentially suitable for use to control mosquitoes. Insecticides of botanical origin may serve as suitable alternative biocontrol techniques in the future. In view of the recently increased interest in developing plant origin insecticides as an alternative to chemical insecticide, this study was undertaken to assess the larvicidal and ovicidal potential of the crude hexane, benzene, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and methanol solvent extracts from the medicinal plant Delonix elata against the medically important mosquito vectors, Anopheles stephensi and Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae). The larval mortality was observed after 24 h of exposure. All extracts showed moderate larvicidal effects; however, the highest larval mortality was found in methanol extract of leaf of D. elata against the larvae of A. stephensi and A. aegypti with the LC(50) and LC(90) values being 93.59 and 111.83, and 163.69 and 202.77 ppm, respectively. Compared to leaf extracts, seeds have low potency against two mosquitoes with the LC(50) and LC(90) values being 115.28 and 139.04, and 225.07 and 273.03 ppm, respectively. The mean percent hatchability of the eggs was observed after 48 h post-treatment. The percent hatchability was inversely proportional to the concentration of extract and directly proportional to the eggs. All the five solvent extracts showed moderate ovicidal activity; however, the methanol extract showed the highest ovicidal activity. One hundred percent mortality was observed at 300 ppm for leaf methanol extract and 500 ppm for seed

  20. Influência do período de quiescência dos ovos sobre o ciclo de vida de Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762 (Diptera, Culicidae em condições de laboratório

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva Heloisa Helena Garcia da

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se a influência do período de quiescência dos ovos no ciclo de vida de Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762 (Diptera, Culicidae em condições de laboratório, na busca de informações que possam melhorar o direcionamento das ações de controle, pois sabe-se que o ovo é a forma mais resistente do ciclo biológico, possibilitando ao mosquito ampla sobrevida, devido à resistência às adversidades climáticas. Os experimentos foram realizados numa câmara biológica, mantida à temperatura de 28 ± 1oC, com umidade relativa de 80 ± 5% e fotofase de 12 horas. Apresentam-se os dados da influência de diferentes períodos de quiescência sobre a eclosão das larvas, desenvolvimento larval e pupal, ciclo evolutivo. Verificou-se o efeito altamente significativo do período de quiescência na eclosão das larvas. O período de quiescência não influenciou nas durações dos períodos de incubação, larval e pupal. Constatou-se que ovos de um mesmo período de quiescência apresentaram períodos de incubação estatisticamente diferentes entre si. As larvas eclodiam em grupos, definidos pela incubação, e este efeito de grupo foi significativo na duração do ciclo. Pode-se afirmar que, em 99,8% dos ciclos, a variação foi determinada pela incubação.

  1. Efectos de la competencia larval en los mosquitos de contenedores artificiales, Aedes aegypti y Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae en condiciones semi-controladas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Analía FRANCIA

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Las larvas de los mosquitos Aedes aegypti (Linneo y Culex pipiens Linneo pueden criar conjuntamente en pequeños contenedores artificiales de agua, se genera así una competencia interespecífica y/o intraespecífica. El objetivo de este trabajo fue comparar la magnitud relativa de la competencia intra e interespecífica en A. aegypti y C. pipiens, generada durante el desarrollo larval en contenedores artificiales. Las variables medidas como respuesta fueron la supervivencia y el tiempo de desarrollo larval, y la biomasa total producida en estado de pupa. Se criaron larvas de ambos mosquitos en neumáticos de automóvil con agua declorinada y hojarasca. Se introdujeron larvas recién eclosionadas de acuerdo a la densidad (δ estimada según un censo previo de A. aegypti y C. pipiens. Se realizaron los siguientes tratamientos agregando larvas de: (1 A. aegypti hasta alcanzar δ A. aegypti determinada según el censo previo, (2 C. pipiens hasta δ C. pipiens del censo previo, (3 A. aegypti hasta alcanzar la suma de δ A. aegypti y δ C. pipiens del censo previo, (4 C. pipiens hasta alcanzar la suma de δ A. aegypti y δ C. pipiens del censo previo y (5 A. aegypti y C. pipiens hasta δ A. aegypti y δ C. pipiens del censo previo. Las tres variables medidas fueron afectadas por los tratamientos, excepto la supervivencia y la biomasa producida por C. pipiens. Aedes aegypti fue más alterada por la competencia intraespecífica que por la competencia interespecífica. En C. pipiens, la competencia interespecífica superó en sus efectos a la competencia intraespecífica. Existió asimetría competitiva, ya que C. pipiens fue más afectada por A. aegypti que lo contrario.

  2. Insecticidal and genotoxic potential of two semi-synthetic derivatives of dillapiole for the control of Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingos, Pedro Rauel Cândido; da Silva Pinto, Ana Cristina; dos Santos, Joselita Maria Mendes; Rafael, Míriam Silva

    2014-09-15

    The effects of two semi-synthetic dillapiole derivatives, ethyl-ether dillapiole and n-butyl ether dillapiole, on eggs and larvae of Aedes aegypti were studied in view of the need for expansion and renovation of strategic action to control this mosquito - the vector of Dengue virus -, which currently shows a high resistance to chemical insecticides. Eggs and third-instar larvae of A. aegypti that had been exposed to different concentrations of these two compounds showed toxicity and susceptibility, with 100% mortality. Classical cytogenetic assays showed genotoxicity caused by the two compounds in A. aegypti from the cumulative effect of nuclear abnormalities, indicating that these derivatives may be potential alternatives to control A. aegypti.

  3. Insecticide susceptible/resistance status in Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti and Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus (Diptera : Culicidae) in Thailand during 2003-2005

    OpenAIRE

    Jirakanjanakit, N.; Rongnoparut, P.; Saengtharatip, S.; T Chareonviriyaphap; Duchn, S.; Bellec, Christian; Yoksan, S

    2007-01-01

    Susceptibility baselines and diagnostic doses of the technical grade insecticides deltamethrin, permethrin, fenitrothion, and propoxur were established based on Aedes aegypti (L.), Bora (French Polynesia), a reference susceptible strain. Field-collected Aedes mosquitoes from each part of Thailand were subjected to bioassay for their susceptibility to the diagnostic doses of each insecticide. Almost all Ae. aegypti collected were incipient resistant or resistant to deltamethrin and permethrin,...

  4. The combination of the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae with the insecticide Imidacloprid increases virulence against the dengue vector Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuels Richard I

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dengue fever transmitted by the mosquito Aedes aegypti, is one of the most rapidly spreading insect borne diseases, stimulating the search for alternatives to current control measures. The dengue vector A. aegypti has received less attention than anophelene species, although more than 2.5 billion people are at risk of infection worldwide. Entomopathogenic fungi are emerging as potential candidates for the control of mosquitoes. Here we continue our studies on the pathogenicity of the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae against adult A. aegypti females. With the aim of further reducing mean survival times of A. aegypti exposed to fungus impregnated surfaces, a sub-lethal concentration of the neonicotinoid insecticide Imidacloprid (IMI was added to fungal suspensions. Results A sub-lethal concentration of IMI that did not significantly alter the daily survival rates or mean survival percentages of mosquitoes was identified to be 0.1 ppm. This sub-lethal concentration was combined with M. anisopliae conidia (1 × 109 conidia mL-1. Both the combined treatment and the conidia alone were able to reduce the survival of A. aegypti compared with untreated or IMI treated mosquitoes. Importantly, mosquito survival following exposure to the combined treatment for 6 and 12 hrs was significantly reduced when compared with mosquitoes exposed to conidia alone. Conclusions This is the first time that a combination of an insecticide and an entomopathogenic fungus has been tested against A. aegypti. Firstly, the study showed the potential of IMI as an alternative to the currently employed pyrethroid adulticides. Secondly, as an alternative to applications of high concentrations of chemical insecticides, we suggest that adult A. aegypti could be controlled by surface application of entomopathogenic fungi and that the efficiency of these fungi could be increased by combining the fungi with ultra-low concentrations of insecticides

  5. Oviposition strategies adopted by gravid Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae) as detected by ovitraps in Trinidad, West Indies (2002-2006).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadee, D D

    2009-09-01

    Aedes aegypti oviposition strategies were studied weekly over a period of 5 years (2002-2006) in Curepe, Trinidad using modified ovitraps. From a total of 23,293 ovitraps collected, 10,156 were collected in the months of the dry season, with 3041 positive (30%) containing 99,577 Ae. aegypti eggs. In contrast, during the wet season from 13,137 ovitraps collected, 10,652 were positive (81.9%), containing 192,209 Ae. aegypti eggs. When, the number of eggs collected and the number of positive ovitraps were divided into different egg number categories, 91, significantly more eggs (G=89.6; d.f.=4; P91 eggs. The patterns of oviposition displayed by Ae. aegypti during the early, mid and late wet and dry seasons showed a significant (F=102.8; d.f.=5; P91 egg category. These results suggest that the oviposition strategies adopted depend on numerous factors including the physical state of the oviposition site, the presence of eggs from conspecific females, whether the same or different individuals and the number or clutch size already present on the oviposition site. Therefore vector control workers should employ source reduction strategies to remove the small containers which may harbour 1-30 eggs and treat the larger permanent containers like water drums which may contain >60 eggs and may be the sites of superoviposition in nature. These combined strategies can effectively control the vector populations and reduce dengue transmission in Ae. aegypti infested countries.

  6. Spatial and Temporal Variation in Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) Numbers in the Yogyakarta Area of Java, Indonesia, With Implications for Wolbachia Releases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tantowijoyo, W; Arguni, E; Johnson, P; Budiwati, N; Nurhayati, P I; Fitriana, I; Wardana, S; Ardiansyah, H; Turley, A P; Ryan, P; O'Neill, S L; Hoffmann, A A

    2016-01-01

    of mosquito vector populations, particularly through Wolbachia endosymbionts. The success of these strategies depends on understanding the dynamics of vector populations. In preparation for Wolbachia releases around Yogyakarta, we have studied Aedes populations in five hamlets. Adult monitoring with BioGent- Sentinel (BG-S) traps indicated that hamlet populations had different dynamics across the year; while there was an increase in Aedes aegypti (L.) and Aedes albopictus (Skuse) numbers in the wet season, species abundance remained relatively stable in some hamlets but changed markedly (>2 fold) in others. Local rainfall a month prior to monitoring partly predicted numbers of Ae. aegypti but not Ae. albopictus. Site differences in population size indicated by BG-S traps were also evident in ovitrap data. Egg or larval collections with ovitraps repeated at the same location suggested spatial autocorrelation (aegypti numbers were high. Overall, there was a weak negative association (raegypti and Ae. albopictus numbers in ovitraps when averaged across collections. Ae. albopictus numbers in ovitraps and BG-S traps were positively correlated with vegetation around areas where traps were placed, while Ae. aegypti were negatively correlated with this feature. These data inform intervention strategies by defining periods when mosquito densities are high, highlighting the importance of local site characteristics on populations, and suggesting relatively weak interactions between Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus. They also indicate local areas within hamlets where consistently high mosquito densities may influence Wolbachia invasions and other interventions.

  7. Bioassay and biochemical studies of the status of pirimiphos-methyl and cypermethrin resistance in Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti and Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) in Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, R M L; Choong, C T H; Goh, B P L; Ng, L C; Lam-Phua, S G

    2014-12-01

    Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti (Linnaeus) and Ae. (Stegomyia) albopictus (Skuse) were sampled from five regions of Singapore (Central, North East, North West, South East and South West) and tested with diagnostic concentrations of the technical grade insecticides, pirimiphos-methyl and cypermethrin. Biochemical assays were performed on the same populations of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus to determine activities of detoxifying enzymes, including non-specific esterase (EST), monooxygenase (MFO) and acetylcholinesterase (AChE). The diagnostic test showed that all Ae. aegypti populations were susceptible to pirimiphos-methyl (mortality = 99 to 100%), but resistant to cypermethrin (mortality = 11 to 76%). Resistance to pirimiphos-methyl was observed in all Ae. albopictus populations (mortality = 49 to 74%) while cypermethrin resistance was detected in most Ae. albopictus populations (mortality = 40 to 75%), except those from Central (mortality = 86%) and South East (mortality = 94%) showing incipient resistance. The biochemical assays showed that there was significant enhancement (P aegypti populations. The biochemical assay results suggested that AChE could play a role in pirimiphos-methyl resistance of Ae. albopictus in South West, South East and North East regions. The small but significant increase in EST activities in Ae. aegypti from all regions suggest that it may play a role in the observed cypermethrin resistance.

  8. Evaluation of the larvicidal activity of extracts obtained from the stem of Croton linearifolius Mull. Arg. (Euphorbiaceae against larvae of Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762 (Diptera: Culicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Lúcia da Cunha e Silva

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Among the public health problems affecting the human population, at the national and world levels, dengue fever stands out, whose primary vector of the virus is Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762. For reducing the population density of this vector, an integrated control is recommended and, as an element of this control, the use of insecticides. However, this practice has led to the selection of resistant insect populations. Thus, there is a need to seek alternative insecticides that can contribute to control this vector. This study aimed to evaluate the larvicidal potential of an extract obtained from the stem of Croton linearifolius against larvae of A. aegypti, as well as conduct a phytochemical screening of the ethanolic extract. The ethanolic extract and the hexane, dichloromethanic, and hydroalcoholic fractions, besides ethyl acetate, were tested on third-instar larvae of A. aegypti. The biological assays revealed the larvicidal effectiveness of the extract of the stem of C. linearifolius against A. aegypti, especially the dichloromethanic and hexane fractions. Phytochemical screening showed the presence in the ethanolic extract of strong fixed acids, alkaloids, catechins, free steroids, flavonoids, flavones, resins, condensed tannins, and xanthones.

  9. Toxicological Evaluation of Essential Oil From the Leaves of Croton argyrophyllus (Euphorbiaceae) on Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) and Mus musculus (Rodentia: Muridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, R C D; Silva, S L C E; Souza, I A; Gualberto, S A; Carvalho, K S; Santos, F R; Carvalho, M G

    2017-01-27

    Plant-derived essential oils can be used as insecticides for vector control. However, to establish their safety, it is necessary to perform toxicological studies. Herein, we evaluated the chemical composition and insecticidal activity of the essential oil from the leaves of Croton argyrophyllus on the third- and fourth-instar larvae and adult Aedes aegypti (L., 1762). We also evaluated the acute toxicity of the essential oil in adult female Mus musculus The lethal concentration 50 (LC50) and 90 (LC90) of C. argyrophyllus essential oil on larvae of Ae. aegypti were 0.31 and 0.70 mg ml(-1), respectively, and 5.92 and 8.94 mg ml(-1), respectively, on Ae. aegypti adults. The major components of the essential oil were spathulenol (22.80%), (E)-caryophyllene (15.41%), α-pinene (14.07%), and bicyclogermacrene (10.43%). It also displayed acute toxicity in adults of Mus musculus; the intraperitoneal and oral lethal dose 50 (LD50) were 2,000 mg kg(-1) and 2,500 mg kg(-1), respectively. The results showed that the essential oil from C. argyrophyllus leaves has insecticidal activity on Ae. aegypti larvae and adults at an average lethal concentration below the median lethal dose needed to cause acute toxicity in the common mouse.

  10. Detection of dengue virus serotype 3 by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction in Aedes aegypti (Diptera, Culicidae captured in Manaus, Amazonas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria CS Pinheiro

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The detection of dengue virus serotypes from Aedes aegypti in Manaus, state of Amazonas was carried out using the reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction technique. Fourteen pools out 82 (17.1% were positive for DENV3, providing a minimal infection rate of 2.1% of all analyzed infected female specimens of three different areas of the city.

  11. Comparison of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) resting behavior on two fabric types under consideration for insecticide treatment in a push-pull strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tainchum, Krajana; Polsomboon, Suppaluck; Grieco, John P; Suwonkerd, Wannapa; Prabaripai, Atchariya; Sungvornyothin, Sungsit; Chareonviriyaphap, Theeraphap; Achee, Nicole L

    2013-01-01

    Aedes aegypti (L.), the primary vector of dengue and dengue hemorrhagic fever, breeds and rests predominately inside human dwellings. With no current vaccine available, vector control remains the mainstay for dengue management and novel approaches continue to be needed to reduce virus transmission. This requires a full understanding of Ae. aegypti ecology to design effective strategies. One novel approach is the use of contact irritants at target resting sites inside homes to make the surface unacceptable and cause vectors to escape before biting. The objective of the current study was to observe indoor resting behavior patterns of female Ae. aegypti within experimental huts in response to two fabrics under consideration for insecticide treatment: cotton and polyester. Results indicate that fabric type, coverage ratio of dark to light fabric and placement configuration (vertical vs. horizontal) all influenced the resting pattern of mosquito cohorts. Findings from this study will guide evaluations of a push-pull strategy designed to exploit contact irritant behaviors and drive Ae. aegypti out of homes prefeeding.

  12. Blood Feeding Status, Gonotrophic Cycle and Survivorship of Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae) Caught in Churches from Merida, Yucatan, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baak-Baak, C M; Ulloa-Garcia, A; Cigarroa-Toledo, N; Tzuc Dzul, J C; Machain-Williams, C; Torres-Chable, O M; Navarro, J C; Garcia-Rejon, J E

    2017-03-03

    Blood-feeding status, gonotrophic cycle, and survival rates of Aedes (Stegmyia) aegypti (L.) was investigated in catholic churches from Merida, Yucatan. Female Ae. aegypti were caught using backpack aspirator during 25 consecutive days in rainy (2015) and dry season (2016). Blood-feeding status was determined by external examination of the abdomen and classified as unfed, fed, and gravid. Daily changes in the parous-nulliparous ratio were recorded, and the gonotrophic cycle length was estimated by a time series analysis. Also, was observed the vitellogenesis to monitoring egg maturity. In total, 408 females Ae. aegypti were caught, and there was a significant difference in the number of females collected per season (Z = -6.729, P ≤ 0.05). A great number was caught in the rainy season (n = 329). In the dry season, 79 females were caught, which the fed females were twice greatest than the unfed. The length of gonotrophic cycle was estimated on the base of a high correlation coefficient value appearing every 4 days in rainy at 26.7 ± 1.22°C, and 3 days in dry season at 29.8 ± 1.47°C. The daily survival rate of the Ae. aegypti population was higher in both seasons, 0.94 and 0.93 for the rainy and dry season, respectively. The minimum time estimated for developing mature eggs after blood feeding was similar in both seasons (3.5 days in rainy versus 3.25 days in dry). The measurement of the vectorial capacity of Ae. aegypti in catholic churches could help to understand the dynamics of transmission of arboviruses in sites with high human aggregation.

  13. Identification of chemical constituents and larvicidal activity of essential oil from Murraya exotica L. (Rutaceae) against Aedes aegypti, Anopheles stephensi and Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnamoorthy, Shanmugam; Chandrasekaran, Manivachagam; Raj, Gnanaprakasam Adaikala; Jayaraman, Mahalingam; Venkatesalu, Venugopalan

    2015-05-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the phytochemical composition and larvicidal effect of leaf essential oil from Murraya exotica against early fourth-instar larvae of Aedes aegypti, Anopheles stephensi and Culex quinquefasciatus. Gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analyses revealed that the essential oil contained 27 components. The major chemical components identified were β-humulene (40.62%), benzyl benzoate (23.96%), β-caryophyllene (7.05%) and α-terpinene (5.66%). The larval mortality was observed after 12 and 24 h of exposure period. The results revealed that essential oil showed varied levels of larvicidal activity against A. aegypti, A. stephensi and C. quinquefasciatus. After 12 h of exposure period, the larvicidal activities were LC₅₀ = 74.7 and LC₉₀ = 152.7 ppm (A. aegypti), LC₅₀ = 56.3 and LC₉₀ = 107.8 ppm (A. stephensi ), and LC₅₀ = 74.4 and LC₉₀ = 136.9 ppm (C. quinquefasciatus) and the larvicidal activities after 24 h of exposure period were LC₅₀ = 35.8 and LC₉₀ = 85.4 ppm (A. aegypti), LC₅₀ = 31.3 and LC₉₀ = 75.1 ppm (A. stephensi), and LC₅₀ = 43.2 and LC₉₀ = 103.2 ppm (C. quinquefasciatus). These results suggest that leaf essential oil from M. exotica is a promising and eco-friendly source of natural larvicidal agent against A. aegypti, A. stephensi and C. quinquefasciatus.

  14. Evaluation of toxic effects with transition metal ions, EDTA, SBTI and acrylic polymers on Aedes aegypti (L., 1762 (Diptera: Culicidae and Artemia salina (artemidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo José de Arruda

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed to evaluate the toxicity of some insecticides compounds on Aedes aegypti and Artemia salina larvae. Bioassays were carried out to evaluate the toxic effect after of 24 and 72 h using the compounds or associations. The LC10, LC50 and LC90 values were obtained and utilized for toxicity comparations. For Ae. aegypti, LC50 were 32.65 mg L-1 in 24 h for Na2[EDTA-Cu(II] and total mortality in 72 h for SAP-Na2[EDTA-Cu(II].Aedes aegypti é inseto de grande interesse na Saúde Pública por transmitir o vírus da Dengue, Febre Amarela e Febre Hemorrágica da Dengue. No controle do mosquito utilizam-se inseticidas organoclorados, organofosforados, carbamatos e piretróides que guiam à seleção de insetos resistentes. A combinação de íons metálicos de transição, EDTA, STI e SAP são propostos como estratégia efetiva e persistente para o controle de larvas de Ae. aegypti através de danos ao sistema digestório por radicais livres. A toxicidade dos compostos foi avaliada para Ae. aegypti e A. salina (organismo não alvo. Os bioensaios foram conduzidos para avaliar o efeito tóxico dos compostos e associações após 24 e 72 horas. As CL10, CL50 e CL90 foram obtidas para comparações de toxicidade. Para Ae. aegypti a CL50 foi 32,65 mg L-1 em 24 horas para Na2[EDTA-Cu(II] e mortalidade total a 62,5 mg.L-1para quelato em polímero acrílico de liberação lenta SAP-Na2[EDTA-Cu(II] em até 72 horas.

  15. Effect of temperature on life history traits during immature development of Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae) from Córdoba city, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grech, Marta G; Sartor, Paolo D; Almirón, Walter R; Ludueña-Almeida, Francisco F

    2015-06-01

    We investigated how ambient temperature under fluctuating conditions affects the larval-pupal immature traits of Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes from Córdoba city, Argentina, and established each species development threshold and physiological time. Based on life tables, three cohorts of each mosquito species were reared in the laboratory under small fluctuating temperatures conditions of 15.2±1.7°C, 17.9±1.6°C, 21.6±0.7°C and 25.3±0.4°C for Ae. aegypti, and 16.6±1.7°C, 18.7±1.7°C and 25.2±0.3°C for Cx. quinquefasciatus. Immature development time and survival values, and also thermal development threshold and physiological time were estimated. Development times of all larval and pupal stages of Ae. aegypti and Cx. quinquefasciatus were significantly affected by the rearing temperatures, decreasing when temperature increased. Mean Ae. aegypti total (larva+pupa) development time ranged from 21.9 to 8.6 days, at 15.2 and 25.3°C, whereas, for Cx. quinquefasciatus varied between 23.5 to 9.2 days at 16.6 and 25.2°C, respectively. Larval and pupal survival of both species was affected by different rearing temperatures, increasing in general as temperature increased. For Ae. aegypti the total immature survival ranged from 26% at 15.2°C to 92% at 21.6°C; however, temperature did not have significant effect on this variable. The total immature survival of Cx. quinquefasciatus was significantly and positively affected by temperatures, ranging from 32 to 88%, at 16.6 and 25.2°C. The temperature development threshold and the physiological time estimated for Ae. aegypti and Cx. quinquefasciatus were 11.11°C and 93.74 degree-days, and 10.96°C and 136.87 degree-days, respectively. The results of the present study showed that temperature significantly affects the larval-pupal immature traits of these mosquito species of sanitary importance, from the central region of Argentina. All the parameters recorded are useful for the development of

  16. Spatio-temporal distribution of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae mitochondrial lineages in cities with distinct dengue incidence rates suggests complex population dynamics of the dengue vector in Colombia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeiczon Jaimes-Dueñez

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Aedes aegypti is the primary vector of the four serotypes of dengue virus (DENV1-4, Chikungunya and yellow fever virus to humans. Previous population genetic studies have revealed a particular genetic structure among the vector populations in the Americas that suggests differences in the ability to transmit DENV. In Colombia, despite its high epidemiologic importance, the genetic population structure and the phylogeographic depiction of Ae. aegypti, as well as its relationship with the epidemiologic landscapes in cities with heterogeneous incidence levels, remains unknown. We conducted a spatiotemporal analysis with the aim of determining the genetic structure and phylogeography of Colombian populations of Ae. aegypti among cities with different eco-epidemiologic characteristics with regard to DENV.Mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase C subunit 1 (COI--NADH dehydrogenase subunit 4 (ND4 genes were sequenced and analyzed from 341 adult mosquitoes collected during 2012 and 2013 in the Colombian cities of Bello, Riohacha and Villavicencio, which exhibit low, medium and high levels of incidence of DENV, respectively. The results demonstrated a low genetic differentiation over time and a high genetic structure between the cities due to changes in the frequency of two highly supported genetic groups. The phylogeographic analyses indicated that one group (associated with West African populations was found in all the cities throughout the sampling while the second group (associated with East African populations was found in all the samples from Bello and in only one sampling from Riohacha. Environmental factors such as the use of chemical insecticides showed a significant correlation with decreasing genetic diversity, indicating that environmental factors affect the population structure of Ae. aegypti across time and space in these cities.Our results suggest that two Ae. aegypti lineages are present in Colombia; one that is widespread and related to a West

  17. Mosquito larvicidal properties of silver nanoparticles synthesized using Heliotropium indicum (Boraginaceae) against Aedes aegypti, Anopheles stephensi, and Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veerakumar, Kaliyan; Govindarajan, Marimuthu; Rajeswary, Mohan; Muthukumaran, Udaiyan

    2014-06-01

    Mosquitoes transmit dreadful diseases to human beings wherein biological control of these vectors using plant-derived molecules would be an alternative to reduce mosquito population. In the present study activity of aqueous leaf extract and silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) synthesized using Helitropium indicum plant leaves against late third instar larvae of Aedes aegypti, Anopheles stephensi and Culex quinquefasciatus. The range of varying concentrations of synthesized AgNPs (8, 16, 24, 32, and 40 μg/mL) and aqueous leaf extract (30, 60, 90, 120, and 150 μg/mL) were tested against the larvae of Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti, and Culex quinquefasciatus. The synthesized AgNPs from H. indicum were highly toxic than crude leaf aqueous extract in three important vector mosquito species. The results were recorded from UV-Vis spectrum, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis, transmission electron microscopy, and histogram. The synthesized AgNPs showed larvicidal effects after 24 h of exposure. Considerable mortality was evident after the treatment of H. indicum for all three important vector mosquitoes. The LC50 and LC90 values of H. indicum aqueous leaf extract appeared to be effective against A. stephensi (LC50, 68.73 μg/mL; LC90, 121.07 μg/mL) followed by A. aegypti (LC50, 72.72 μg/mL; LC90, 126.86 μg/mL) and C. quinquefasciatus (LC50, 78.74 μg/mL; LC90, 134.39 μg/mL). Synthesized AgNPs against the vector mosquitoes of A. stephensi, A. aegypti, and C. quinquefasciatus had the following LC50 and LC90 values: A. stephensi had LC50 and LC90 values of 18.40 and 32.45 μg/mL, A. aegypti had LC50 and LC90 values of 20.10 and 35.97 μg/mL, and C. quinquefasciatus had LC50 and LC90 values of 21.84 and 38.10 μg/mL. No mortality was observed in the control. These results suggest that the leaf aqueous extracts of H. indicum and green synthesis of silver nanoparticles have the

  18. Evaluation of Simultaneous Transmission of Chikungunya Virus and Dengue Virus Type 2 in Infected Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuckols, J T; Huang, Y-J S; Higgs, S; Miller, A L; Pyles, R B; Spratt, H M; Horne, K M; Vanlandingham, D L

    2015-05-01

    The simultaneous transmission of chikungunya virus (CHIKV) and dengue viruses (DENV) has been a major public health concern because of their sympatric distribution and shared mosquito vectors. Groups of Aedes aegypti (L.) and Aedes albopictus (Skuse) were orally infected with 1.5 × 10(5) PFU/ml of CHIKV and 3.2 × 10(6) FFU/ml of DENV-2 simultaneously or separately in inverse orders and evaluated for dissemination and transmission by qRT-PCR. Simultaneous dissemination of both viruses was detected for all groups in Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus while cotransmission of CHIKV and DENV-2 only occurred at low rates after sequential but not simultaneous infection.

  19. Physiological and biochemical effects of botanical extract from Piper nigrum Linn (Piperaceae) against the dengue vector Aedes aegypti Liston (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lija-Escaline, Jalasteen; Senthil-Nathan, Sengottayan; Thanigaivel, Annamalai; Pradeepa, Venkatraman; Vasantha-Srinivasan, Prabhakaran; Ponsankar, Athirstam; Edwin, Edward Sam; Selin-Rani, Selvaraj; Abdel-Megeed, Ahmed

    2015-11-01

    The leaves of Piper nigrum L. (Piperaceae) were evaluated for chemical constituents and mosquito larvicidal activity against the larvae of Aedes aegypti. GC and GC-MS analyses revealed that the crude extracts contain 16 compounds. Thymol (20.77%) and ç-elemene (10.42%) were identified as the major constituents followed by cyclohexene, 4-ethenyl-4-methyl-3-(1-methylethenyl)-1-(1 methylethyl)-, (3R-trans) (7.58%), 4,6-octadienoic acid, 2-acetyl-2-methyl-, ethyl ester (6.98), 2(3H)-furanone, 3,4-bis(1,3-benzodioxol-5-ylmethyl) dihydro-, (3R-trans) (6.95%), 1-naphthalenol, 1,2,3,4,4a,7,8,8a-octahydro-1,6-dimethyl-4-(1-methylethyl)-, [1R-(1à,4á,4aá,8aá)]-(Cedreanol) (5.30%), trans-2-undecen-1-ol (4.48%), phytol (4.22%), 1,6-cyclodecadiene, 1-methyl-5-methylene-8-(1-methylethyl)-,[s-(E,E)] (3.78%) and 2,6-dimethyl-3,5,7-octatriene-2-ol, Z,Z (2.39%). Larval mortality was observed after 3 h of exposure period. The crude extract showed remarkable larvicidal activity against Ae. aegypti (LC50 = 34.97). The larvae of Ae. aegypti exposed to the P. nigrum, significantly reduced the activities of α- and β-carboxylesterases and superdioxide. Further, P. nigrum extract was severely affecting the mosquito gut cellular organelles. Based on the results, the chemical constituents of crude extracts of P. nigrum can be considered as a new source of larvicide for the control of Ae. aegypti.

  20. Comparative analysis of mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae: Aedes aegypti Liston) responses to the insecticide Temephos and plant derived essential oil derived from Piper betle L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasantha-Srinivasan, Prabhakaran; Senthil-Nathan, Sengottayan; Ponsankar, Athirstam; Thanigaivel, Annamalai; Edwin, Edward-Sam; Selin-Rani, Selvaraj; Chellappandian, Muthiah; Pradeepa, Venkatraman; Lija-Escaline, Jalasteen; Kalaivani, Kandaswamy; Hunter, Wayne B; Duraipandiyan, Veeramuthu; Al-Dhabi, Naif Abdullah

    2017-05-01

    Resistance to treatments with Temephos or plant derived oil, Pb-CVO, between a field collected Wild Strain (WS) and a susceptible Laboratory Strain (LS) of Ae. aegypti were measured. The Temephos (0.1mg/L) showed the greatest percentage of mosquito mortality compared to Pb-CVO (1.5mg/L) in LS Ae. aegypti. However, WS Ae. aegypti was not significantly affected by Temephos (0.1mg/L) treatment compare to the Pb-CVO (1.5mg/L). However, both strains (LS and WS) when treated with Pb-CVO (1.5mg/L) displayed steady larval mortality rate across all instars. The LC50 of Temephos was 0.027mg in LS, but increased in WS to 0.081mg/L. The LC50 of Pb-CVO treatment was observed at concentrations of 0.72 and 0.64mg/L for LS and WS strains respectively. The enzyme level of α- and β-carboxylesterase was reduced significantly in both mosquito strains treated with Pb-CVO. Whereas, there was a prominent deviation in the enzyme ratio observed between LS and WS treated with Temephos. The GST and CYP450 levels were upregulated in the LS, but decreased in WS, after treatment with Temephos. However, treatment with Pb-CVO caused both enzyme levels to increase significantly in both the strains. Visual observations of the midgut revealed cytotoxicity from sub-lethal concentrations of Temephos (0.04mg/L) and Pb-CVO (1.0mg/L) in both strains of Ae. aegypti compared to the control. The damage caused by Temephos was slightly less in WS compared to LS mosquito strains.

  1. Excito-Repellency of Citrus hystrix DC Leaf and Peel Essential Oils Against Aedes aegypti and Anopheles minimus (Diptera: Culicidae), Vectors of Human Pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nararak, Jirod; Sathantriphop, Sunaiyana; Kongmee, Monthathip; Bangs, Michael J; Chareonviriyaphap, Theeraphap

    2017-01-01

    The essential oils of kaffir lime (Citrus hystrix DC.) at four different concentrations (0.5, 1.0, 2.5, and 5.0% v/v) were studied for their repellency, excitation, and knockdown properties against laboratory strains of Aedes aegypti (L.) and Anopheles minimus Theobald using an excito-repellency test system. Both contact and noncontact escape responses to leaf- and peel-derived kaffir lime oils were observed. Comparing unadjusted escape responses for An. minimus, leaf oil had strong combined irritant and repellent activity responses at 1-5% concentrations (90.0-96.4% escape) and the strongest spatial repellent activity at 1% and 2% (85.9% and 87.2% escape, respectively). The peel oil exhibited good excitation with repellency at concentrations of 2.5% (89.8% escape) and 5% (96.28% escape), while concentrations 1-5% showed more moderate repellent activity against An. minimus. For Ae. aegypti, 2.5% leaf oil produced the greatest response for both contact (56.1% escape) and noncontact (63.3% escape) trials, while 2.5% produced the strongest response among all concentrations of peel oil, with 46.5% escape. However, after adjusting the contact trial escape (a measure of combined excitation and repellency), the estimated escape due to contact alone was a much weaker response than spatial repellency for both species. Knockdown responses above 50% were only observed in Ae. aegypti exposed to 5% leaf oil. Kaffir lime oils were more active against An. minimus than Ae. aegypti mosquitoes. There were statistically significant differences between leaf (more active) and peel oils at each concentration against An. minimus in contact and noncontact trials, except at the highest (5%) concentration.

  2. Vector competence of Aedes albopictus and Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) for DEN2-43 and New Guinea C virus strains of dengue 2 virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xiao-Xia; Zhu, Xiao-Juan; Li, Chun-Xiao; Dong, Yan-De; Zhang, Ying-Mei; Xing, Dan; Xue, Rui-De; Qin, Cheng-Feng; Zhao, Tong-Yan

    2013-12-01

    The vector competence of Aedes albopictus and Aedes aegypti with regard to DEN2-43 and New Guinea C (NGC) virus strains of Dengue 2 viruses was assessed and compared. The infection and dissemination rate and distribution of DEN2-43 antigens in orally infected Ae. albopictus was investigated using the reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and an indirect immunofluorescence assay. To better understand the initial infection, dissemination and transmission of these viral strains in vector mosquitoes, Ae. albopoictus and Ae. aegypti were fed an artificial blood meal containing either the DEN2-43 or NGC strain. There was no significant difference in the infection and dissemination rates of DEN2-43 and NGC virus strains in Ae. albopictus, however, Ae. aegypti was more susceptible to infection by NGC than DEN2-43 vrius strain. Ae. albopictus mosquitoes infected with the NGC strain developed a higher percentage of midgut infections than those infected with the DEN2-43 strain (t=2.893, df=7, P=0.024). Approximately 26.7% of midgut samples were positive for the NGC antigen 5 days after infection, and 80% of mosquitoes had infected midgets after 15 days. The NGC antigen first became evident in mosquito salivary glands on Day 5, and 40% of mosquitoes had infected salivary by Day 9. In contrast, the DEN2-43 antigen first became evident in salivary glands on Day 7. The infection rate of NGC and DEN2-43 virus strains in salivary glands were similar. These results indicate that Ae. albopictus and Ae. aegypti are moderately competent vectors for the DEN2-43 virus, which could provide basic data for the epidemiology study of dengue fever in China.

  3. Larvicidal, Ovicidal, and Repellent Activities of Marine Sponge Cliona celata (Grant) Extracts against Culex quinquefasciatus Say and Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Reegan, Appadurai Daniel; Kinsalin, Arokia Valan; Paulraj, Michael Gabriel; Ignacimuthu,Savarimuthu

    2013-01-01

    Solvent extracts of marine sponge Cliona celata (Grant) were screened for larvicidal, ovicidal, and repellent properties against the filarial vector Culex quinquefasciatus Say and dengue vector Aedes aegypti L. Larvicidal and ovicidal activities of hexane, ethyl acetate, and methanol extracts were tested in four different concentrations ranging as 62.5, 125, 250, and 500 ppm. Among the three solvent extracts of C. celata, methanol extract showed the highest larvicidal activity at 500 ppm agai...

  4. The Effect of Ivermectin in Seven Strains of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) Including a Genetically Diverse Laboratory Strain and Three Permethrin Resistant Strains

    OpenAIRE

    Deus, K. M.; Saavedra-rodriguez, K.; Butters, M. P.; Black, W C; Foy, B.D.

    2012-01-01

    Seven different strains of Aedes aegypti (L.), including a genetically diverse laboratory strain, three laboratory-selected permethrin-resistant strains, a standard reference strain, and two recently colonized strains were fed on human blood containing various concentrations of ivermectin. Ivermectin reduced adult survival, fecundity, and hatch rate of eggs laid by ivermectin-treated adults in all seven strains. The LC50 of ivermectin for adults and the concentration that prevented 50% of egg...

  5. Larvicidal potential of silver nanoparticles synthesized using fungus Cochliobolus lunatus against Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762) and Anopheles stephensi Liston (Diptera; Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salunkhe, Rahul B; Patil, Satish V; Patil, Chandrashekhar D; Salunke, Bipinchandra K

    2011-09-01

    Larvicides play a vital role in controlling mosquitoes in their breeding sites. The present study was carried out to establish the larvicidal activities of mycosynthesized silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) against vectors: Aedes aegypti and Anopheles stephensi responsible for diseases of public health importance. The AgNPs synthesized by filamentous fungus Cochliobolus lunatus, characterized by UV-Vis spectrophotometry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. The characterization studies confirmed the spherical shape and size (3-21 nm) of silver nanoparticles. The efficacy of mycosynthesized AgNPs at all the tested concentrations (10, 5, 2.5, 1.25, 0.625, and 0.3125 ppm) against second, third, and fourth instar larvae of A. aegypti (LC(50) 1.29, 1.48, and 1.58; LC(90) 3.08, 3.33, and 3.41 ppm) and against A. stephensi (LC(50) 1.17, 1.30, and 1.41; LC(90) 2.99, 3.13, and 3.29 ppm) were observed, respectively. The mortality rates were positively correlated with the concentration of AgNPs. Significant (P against fourth instar larvae of A. aegypti and A. stephensi. The possible larvicidal activity may be due to penetration of nanoparticles through membrane. Toxicity studies carried out against non-target fish species Poecilia reticulata, the most common organism in the habitats of A. aegypti and A. stephensi showed no toxicity at LC50 and LC90 doses of the AgNPs. This is the first report on mosquito larvicidal activity of mycosynthesized nanoparticles. Thus, the use of fungus C. lunatus to synthesize silver nanoparticles is a rapid, eco-friendly, and a single-step approach and the AgNps formed can be potential mosquito larvicidal agents.

  6. The role of octopamine receptor agonists in the synergistic toxicity of certain insect growth regulators (IGRs) in controlling Dengue vector Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) mosquito.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Mohamed Ahmed Ibrahim; Vogel, Christoph Franz Adam

    2016-03-01

    The synergistic action of octopamine receptor agonists (OR agonists) on many insecticide classes (e.g., organophosphorus, pyrethroids, and neonicotinoids) on Aedes aegypti L. has been reported recently. An investigation of OR agonist's effect on insect growth regulators (IGRs) was undertaken to provide a better understanding of the mechanism of action. Based on the IGR bioassay, pyriproxyfen was the most potent IGR insecticide tested (EC50=0.0019ng/ml). However, the lethal toxicity results indicate that diafenthiuron was the most potent insecticide (LC50=56ng/cm(2)) on A. aegypti adults after 24h of exposure. The same trend was true after 48 and 72h of exposure. Further, the synergistic effects of OR agonists plus amitraz (AMZ) or chlordimeform (CDM) was significant on adults. Among the tested synergists, AMZ increased the potency of the selected IGRs on adults the greatest. As results, OR agonists were largely synergistic with the selected IGRs. OR agonists enhanced the lethal toxicity of IGRs, which is a valuable new tool in the field of A. aegypti control. However, further field experiments need to be done to understand the unique potential role of OR agonists and their synergistic action on IGRs.

  7. Larvicidal Potential of the Halogenated Sesquiterpene (+)-Obtusol, Isolated from the Alga Laurencia dendroidea J. Agardh (Ceramiales: Rhodomelaceae), against the Dengue Vector Mosquito Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus) (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvador-Neto, Orlando; Gomes, Simone Azevedo; Soares, Angélica Ribeiro; Machado, Fernanda Lacerda da Silva; Samuels, Richard Ian; Nunes da Fonseca, Rodrigo; Souza-Menezes, Jackson; Moraes, Jorge Luiz da Cunha; Campos, Eldo; Mury, Flávia Borges; Silva, José Roberto

    2016-02-01

    Dengue is considered a serious public health problem in many tropical regions of the world including Brazil. At the moment, there is no viable alternative to reduce dengue infections other than controlling the insect vector, Aedes aegypti Linnaeus. In the continuing search for new sources of chemicals targeted at vector control, natural products are a promising alternative to synthetic pesticides. In our work, we investigated the toxicity of a bioactive compound extracted from the red alga Laurencia dendroidea J. Agardh. The initial results demonstrated that crude extracts, at a concentration of 5 ppm, caused pronounced mortality of second instar A. aegypti larvae. Two molecules, identified as (-)-elatol and (+)-obtusol were subsequently isolated from crude extract and further evaluated. Assays with (-)-elatol showed moderate larvicidal activity, whereas (+)-obtusol presented higher toxic activity than (-)-elatol, with a LC50 value of 3.5 ppm. Histological analysis of the larvae exposed to (+)-obtusol revealed damage to the intestinal epithelium. Moreover, (+)-obtusol-treated larvae incubated with 2 µM CM-H₂DCFDA showed the presence of reactive oxygen species, leading us to suggest that epithelial damage might be related to redox imbalance. These results demonstrate the potential of (+)-obtusol as a larvicide for use against A. aegypti and the possible mode of action of this compound.

  8. Larvicidal Potential of the Halogenated Sesquiterpene (+-Obtusol, Isolated from the Alga Laurencia dendroidea J. Agardh (Ceramiales: Rhodomelaceae, against the Dengue Vector Mosquito Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus (Diptera: Culicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlando Salvador-Neto

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Dengue is considered a serious public health problem in many tropical regions of the world including Brazil. At the moment, there is no viable alternative to reduce dengue infections other than controlling the insect vector, Aedes aegypti Linnaeus. In the continuing search for new sources of chemicals targeted at vector control, natural products are a promising alternative to synthetic pesticides. In our work, we investigated the toxicity of a bioactive compound extracted from the red alga Laurencia dendroidea J. Agardh. The initial results demonstrated that crude extracts, at a concentration of 5 ppm, caused pronounced mortality of second instar A. aegypti larvae. Two molecules, identified as (−-elatol and (+-obtusol were subsequently isolated from crude extract and further evaluated. Assays with (−-elatol showed moderate larvicidal activity, whereas (+-obtusol presented higher toxic activity than (−-elatol, with a LC50 value of 3.5 ppm. Histological analysis of the larvae exposed to (+-obtusol revealed damage to the intestinal epithelium. Moreover, (+-obtusol-treated larvae incubated with 2 µM CM-H2DCFDA showed the presence of reactive oxygen species, leading us to suggest that epithelial damage might be related to redox imbalance. These results demonstrate the potential of (+-obtusol as a larvicide for use against A. aegypti and the possible mode of action of this compound.

  9. Insecticidal potential of Ocimum canum plant extracts against Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus larval and adult mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murugan, Jimmantiyur Madhappan; Ramkumar, Govindaraju; Shivakumar, Muthugoundar Subramanian

    2016-01-01

    Mosquitoes have developed resistance to various synthetic insecticides, making their control increasingly difficult. Insecticides of botanical origin may serve as suitable natural control. This study evaluates the toxic potential of Ocimum canum (Sims) leaf extract and powder against Anopheles stephensi (Liston), Aedes aegypti (Lin) and Culex quinquefasciatus (Say) larval and adult mosquitoes. Larval mortality was observed after 24 h recovery period and adult smoke toxicity observed for 40 min duration at 10 min interval. Methanol extract of O. canum showed highest larval mortality against the larvae of C. quinquefasciatus LC50 = 28.3225, LC90 = 44.1150; Ae. aegypti LC50 = 43.327, LC90 = 61.249; and An. stephensi LC50 = 30.2001, LC90 = 48.2866 ppm. The smoke toxicities were 93% mortality in C. quinquefasciatus, 74% in Ae. aegypti and 79% in An. stephensi adults, respectively, whereas 100% mortality was recorded in the commercial mosquito control. Our results suggest that O. canum leaf extract and powder are natural insecticide, and ideal eco friendly approach for mosquito control.

  10. Seasonal dynamics of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae in the northernmost state of Brazil: a likely port-of-entry for dengue virus 4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia Torres Codeço

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Roraima is the northernmost state of Brazil, bordering both Venezuela and Guyana. Appropriate climate and vector conditions for dengue transmission together with its proximity to countries where all four dengue serotypes circulate make this state, particularly the capital Boa Vista, strategically important for dengue surveillance in Brazil. Nonetheless, few studies have addressed the population dynamics of Aedes aegypti in Boa Vista. In this study, we report temporal and spatial variations in Ae. aegypti population density using ovitraps in two highly populated neighbourhoods; Centro and Tancredo Neves. In three out of six surveys, Ae. aegypti was present in more than 80% of the sites visited. High presence levels of this mosquito suggest ubiquitous human exposure to the vector, at least during part of the year. The highest infestation rates occurred during the peak of the rainy seasons, but a large presence was also observed during the early dry season (although with more variation among years. Spatial distribution of positive houses changed from a sparse and local pattern to a very dense pattern during the dry-wet season transition. These results suggest that the risk of dengue transmission and the potential for the new serotype invasions are high for most of the year.

  11. Larvicidal Potential of the Halogenated Sesquiterpene (+)-Obtusol, Isolated from the Alga Laurencia dendroidea J. Agardh (Ceramiales: Rhodomelaceae), against the Dengue Vector Mosquito Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus) (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvador-Neto, Orlando; Gomes, Simone Azevedo; Soares, Angélica Ribeiro; Machado, Fernanda Lacerda da Silva; Samuels, Richard Ian; Nunes da Fonseca, Rodrigo; Souza-Menezes, Jackson; Moraes, Jorge Luiz da Cunha; Campos, Eldo; Mury, Flávia Borges; Silva, José Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Dengue is considered a serious public health problem in many tropical regions of the world including Brazil. At the moment, there is no viable alternative to reduce dengue infections other than controlling the insect vector, Aedes aegypti Linnaeus. In the continuing search for new sources of chemicals targeted at vector control, natural products are a promising alternative to synthetic pesticides. In our work, we investigated the toxicity of a bioactive compound extracted from the red alga Laurencia dendroidea J. Agardh. The initial results demonstrated that crude extracts, at a concentration of 5 ppm, caused pronounced mortality of second instar A. aegypti larvae. Two molecules, identified as (−)-elatol and (+)-obtusol were subsequently isolated from crude extract and further evaluated. Assays with (−)-elatol showed moderate larvicidal activity, whereas (+)-obtusol presented higher toxic activity than (−)-elatol, with a LC50 value of 3.5 ppm. Histological analysis of the larvae exposed to (+)-obtusol revealed damage to the intestinal epithelium. Moreover, (+)-obtusol-treated larvae incubated with 2 µM CM-H2DCFDA showed the presence of reactive oxygen species, leading us to suggest that epithelial damage might be related to redox imbalance. These results demonstrate the potential of (+)-obtusol as a larvicide for use against A. aegypti and the possible mode of action of this compound. PMID:26821032

  12. Dispersal of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae in an urban endemic dengue area in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nildimar Alves Honório

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Experimental releases of female Aedes (Stegomyia aegypti and Aedes (Stegomyia albopictus were performed in August and September 1999, in an urban area of Nova Iguaçu, State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, to estimate their flight range in a circular area of 1,600 m where 1,472 ovitraps were set. Releases of 3,055 Ae. aegypti and 2,225 Ae. albopictus females, fed with rubidium (Rb-marked blood and surgically prevented from subsequent blood-feeding, were separated by 11 days. Rb was detected in ovitrap-collected eggs by atomic emission spectrophotometry. Rb-marked eggs of both species were detected up to 800 m from the release point. Eggs of Ae. albopictus were more numerous and more heterogeneously distributed in the area than those of Ae. aegypti. Eggs positively marked for Rb were found at all borders of the study area, suggesting that egg laying also occurred beyond these limits. Results from this study suggest that females can fly at least 800 m in 6 days and, if infected, potentially spread virus rapidly.

  13. Anopheles (Anopheles) pseudopunctipennis Theobald (Diptera: Culicidae): Neotype Designation and Description

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    Diptera Ð Culicidae). Guayaquil Univ., Guayaquil, Ecuador. Levi-Castillo, R. 1945. Los anofelinos de la Republica del Ecuador, vol. 1: 1Ð172. Artes ...BritishMuseumNatural History, Lon- don, England. Vargas, L., and A. Martinez Palacios. 1956. Anofelinos mexicanos . Taxonomia y distribucion. Secretaria

  14. Low-cost and eco-friendly green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Feronia elephantum (Rutaceae) against Culex quinquefasciatus, Anopheles stephensi, and Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veerakumar, Kaliyan; Govindarajan, Marimuthu; Rajeswary, Mohan; Muthukumaran, Udaiyan

    2014-05-01

    Mosquitoes transmit serious human diseases, causing millions of deaths every year. The use of synthetic insecticides to control vector mosquitoes has caused physiological resistance and adverse environmental effects in addition to high operational cost. Insecticides of synthesized natural products for vector control have been a priority in this area. In the present study, the larvicidal activity of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) synthesized using Feronia elephantum plant leaf extract against late third-instar larvae of Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti, and Culex quinquefasciatus was determined. The range of concentrations of synthesized AgNPs (5, 10, 15, 20, and 25 μg mL(-1)) and aqueous leaf extract (25, 50, 75, 100, and 125 μg mL(-1)) were tested against the larvae of A. stephensi, A. aegypti, and C. quinquefasciatus. Larvae were exposed to varying concentrations of aqueous crude extract and synthesized AgNPs for 24 h. Considerable mortality was evident after the treatment of F. elephantum for all three important vector mosquitoes. The synthesized AgNPs from F. elephantum were highly toxic than crude leaf aqueous extract to three important vector mosquito species. The results were recorded from UV-visible spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis (EDX). Synthesized AgNPs against the vector mosquitoes A. stephensi, A. aegypti, and C. quinquefasciatus had the following LC50 and LC90 values: A. stephensi had LC50 and LC90 values of 11.56 and 20.56 μg mL(-1); A. aegypti had LC50 and LC90 values of 13.13 and 23.12 μg mL(-1); and C. quinquefasciatus had LC50 and LC90 values of 14.19 and 24.30 μg mL(-1). No mortality was observed in the control. These results suggest that the green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using F. elephantum has the potential to be used as an ideal eco-friendly approach for the control of A. stephensi, A. aegypti, and C

  15. Genetic profile and molecular resistance of Aedes (Stegomyia aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae in Foz do Iguaçu (Brazil, at the border with Argentina and Paraguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana C. Dalla Bona

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The genetic variability of populations of Aedes (Stegomyia aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762 is often low due to the intense selection pressure caused by chemical control measures. In this study, we evaluated the susceptibility of larvae and adults of this mosquito to chemical insecticides, the frequency of the Val1016IIe mutation, and the genetic variability of the mitochondrial ND4 gene fragment in the urban area of Foz do Iguaçu, Paraná. The populations of A. aegypti in the southern and central regions of the city were resistant to the diagnostic dose of temephos 0.0162 ppm. Additionally, we detected difference in susceptibility in the northern population. The resistance ratios (RR95 were 3.8, 4.1, and 4.6 for the populations in the north, central, and south of the city, respectively. The entire population of A. aegypti in Foz do Iguaçu is resistant to pyrethroids. The mortality rates are as follows: 72.2% for cypermethrin (CD: 146 mg i.a./m² and 57% for deltamethrin (CD: 18 mg i.a./m². These results corroborate the hypothesis that the mutated 1016Ile allele is present in all analyzed strata. Out of the 234 samples genotyped for the Val1016Ile mutation, 15% were homozygous dominant for the wild allele (Val/Val, 62% were heterozygous (Va/Ile and 23% were homozygous for the recessive mutation (Ile/Ile. With respect to the genetic variability of the mitochondrial ND4 gene fragment, 93% of the sequences analyzed belonged to haplotype 1, and 7% belonged to haplotype 2. The genetic diversity was low, the fixation index was not significant, and gene flow was high. The control of A. aegypti in Foz do Iguaçu using temephos and pyrethroids may be compromised because of the reduced vector susceptibility. Populations of A. aegypti, that undergoes a sudden reduction in effective population size and become resistant to pyrethroids may differ from the original population in vector capacity.

  16. Mosquito larvicidal potential of silver nanoparticles synthesized using Chomelia asiatica (Rubiaceae) against Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti, and Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthukumaran, Udaiyan; Govindarajan, Marimuthu; Rajeswary, Mohan

    2015-03-01

    Mosquitoes transmit serious human diseases, causing millions of deaths every year. Mosquito control is to enhance the health and quality of life of county residents and visitors through the reduction of mosquito populations. Mosquito control is a serious concern in developing countries like India due to the lack of general awareness, development of resistance, and socioeconomic reasons. Today, nanotechnology is a promising research domain which has a wide ranging application in vector control programs. These are nontoxic, easily available at affordable prices, biodegradable, and show broad-spectrum target-specific activities against different species of vector mosquitoes. In the present study, larvicidal activity of aqueous leaf extract and silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) synthesized using C. asiatica plant leaves against late third instar larvae of Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti, and Cx. quinquefasciatus. The range of varying concentrations of synthesized AgNPs (8, 16, 24, 32, and 40 μg/mL) and aqueous leaf extract (40, 80, 120, 160, and 200 μg/mL) were tested against the larvae of An. stephensi, Ae. aegypti, and Cx. quinquefasciatus. The synthesized AgNPs from C. asiatica were highly toxic than crude leaf aqueous extract in three important vector mosquito species. The results were recorded from UV-Vis spectrum, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis (EDX). Considerable mortality was evident after the treatment of C. asiatica for all three important vector mosquitoes. The LC50 and LC90 values of C. asiatica aqueous leaf extract appeared to be effective against An. stephensi (LC50, 90.17 μg/mL; LC90, 165.18 μg/mL) followed by Ae. aegypti (LC50, 96.59 μg/mL; LC90, 173.83 μg/mL) and Cx. quinquefasciatus (LC50, 103.08 μg/mL; LC90, 183.16 μg/mL). Synthesized AgNPs against the vector mosquitoes of An. stephensi, Ae. aegypti, and Cx. quinquefasciatus had the following LC50 and LC90

  17. The Effectiveness of Dibutyltin (IV and Di-tert-butyltin (IV Alkyl-phenyl Dithiocarbamate Compounds as Larvicide against Aedes aegypti Linn. (Diptera: Culicidae in Laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Normah Awang

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Extensive use of insecticides to control dengue vectors has led to the development of mosquito resistance, environmental pollution and undesirable effects on non target organisms. Thus, the potential of organotin (IV compounds has been explored to be developed as insecticides to obviate the existing problems. The aim of this study was to examine the larvicidal effect of dibutylt in (IV and di-tert-butyltin (IV alkyl-phenyl dithiocarbamate compounds against Aedes aegypti Linn. in laboratory. Larvicidal bioassay test of four compounds dibutyltin (IV ethyl phenyl dithiocarbamate, di-tert-butyltin (IV ethyl phenyl dithiocarbamate, dibutyltin (IV butyl phenyl dithiocarbamate and di-tert-butyltin (IV butyl phenyl dithiocarbamate against third instar larvae of A. aegypti was carried out. The study indicated that dibutyltin (IV butyl phenyl dithiocarbamate showed the highest larvicidal effect with LC50 and LC90 values of 0.59 and 3.91 ppm, respectively. However, the other three compounds showed lower larvicidal effects. Dibutyltin (IV ethyl phenyl dithiocarbamate showed moderate larvicidal effect with LC50 and LC90 values of 4.45 and 11.08 ppm, respectively, followed by di-tert-butyltin (IV butyl phenyl dithiocarbamate compound with LC50 and LC90 values of 5.08 and 11.50 ppm, respectively. Di-tert-butyltin (IV ethyl phenyl dithiocarbamate compound showed the least larvicidal effect with LC50 and LC90 values of 8.59 and 36.74 ppm, respectively. Morphological anomalies such as elongated neck region, shortened length and destructed digestive tract in the larvae were observed and recorded during the larvicidal bioassay testing. As a conclusion, dibutyltin (IV butyl phenyl dithiocarbamate compound is the most effective compound against the dengue vector, A. aegypti and has the potential to be explored as a larvicide. Further study is needed to ensure that this compound can be used safely as a larvicide.

  18. Ovicidal and adulticidal potential of leaf and seed extract of Albizia lebbeck (L.) Benth. (Family: Fabaceae) against Culex quinquefasciatus, Aedes aegypti, and Anopheles stephensi (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindarajan, Marimuthu; Rajeswary, Mohan

    2015-05-01

    Several diseases are associated to the mosquito-human interaction. Mosquitoes are the carriers of severe and well-known illnesses such as malaria, arboviral encephalitis, dengue fever, chikungunya fever, West Nile virus, and yellow fever. These diseases produce significant morbidity and mortality in humans and livestock around the world. In the present study, hexane, benzene, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and methanol extracts of leaf and seed of Albizia lebbeck were assayed for their toxicity against three important vector mosquitoes, viz., Culex quinquefasciatus, Aedes aegypti, and Anopheles stephensi. The mean percent hatchability of the eggs was observed after 48 h post-treatment. The percent hatchability was inversely proportional to the concentration of extract and directly proportional to the eggs. All the five solvent extracts showed moderate ovicidal activity; however, the methanol extract showed the highest ovicidal activity. One hundred percent mortality was observed at 250, 200, and 150 ppm for leaf methanol extract and 375, 300, and 225 ppm for seed methanol extract of A. lebbeck against C. quinquefasciatus, Ae. aegypti, and An. stephensi, respectively. The adulticidal activity of plant leaf and seed extracts showed moderate toxic effect on the adult mosquitoes after 24 h of exposure period. However, the highest adulticidal activity was observed in the leaf methanol extract of A. lebbeck against An. stephensi where the LC₅₀ and LC₉₀ values were 65.12 and 117.70 ppm, respectively. Compared to leaf extracts, seeds have low potency against three mosquito species. No mortality was recorded in the control. Our data suggest that the crude hexane, benzene, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and methanol solvent extracts of A. lebbeck have the potential to be used as an eco-friendly approach for the control of the An. stephensi, Ae. aegypti, and C. quinquefasciatus. These results suggest that the leaf and seed extracts have the potential to be used as an ideal

  19. Expression of heat shock proteins (HSPs) in Aedes aegypti (L) and Aedes albopictus (Skuse) (Diptera: Culicidae) larvae in response to thermal stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivan, Arun; Shriram, Ananganallur Nagarajan; Muruganandam, Nagarajan; Thamizhmani, Ramanathan

    2017-03-01

    Climatic changes are responsible, to a certain extent for the occurrence and spread of arboviral pathogens world over. Temperature is one of the important abiotic factors influencing the physiological processes of mosquitoes. Several genes of heat shock protein (HSP) families are known to be expressed in mosquitoes, which aid in overcoming stress induced by elevated temperature. In order to understand expression of HSP family genes in the Andaman population of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus, we used quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) to examine expression levels of HSPs in response to thermal stress under laboratory and in actual field conditions. HSP genes AeaHsp26, AeaHsp83 and AeaHsc70 were examined by comparing relative transcript expression levels at 31°C, 33°C, 34°C, 37°C and 39°C respectively. Enhanced up-regulation of HSPs was evident in third instar larvae of Ae. aegypti with rise in water temperatures (31°C, 33°C, 34°C) in the containers in the nature and thermally stressed (37°C and 39°C) in laboratory conditions. In Ae. albopictus up-regulation of HSPs was observed in field conditions at 34°C only and when thermally treated at 37°C, while down regulation was evident in larvae subjected to thermal stress in laboratory at 39°C. Data on expression levels revealed that larvae of Ae. aegypti was tolerant to thermal stress, while Ae. albopictus larvae was sensitive to heat shock treatment. Statistical analysis indicated that AeaHsp83 genes were significantly up-regulated in Ae. aegypti larvae after 360min exposure to high temperature (39°C). The difference in expression levels of AeaHsp26, AeaHsc70 and AeaHsp83 genes in Ae. albopictus larvae was statistically significant between different exposure temperatures. All of these genes were significantly up-regulated at 37°C. These results indicate that AeaHsp26, AeaHsc70 and AeaHsp83 are important markers of stress and perhaps function as proteins conferring protection and

  20. Altered behavioral responses of Sindbis virus-infected Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) to DEET and non-DEET based insect repellents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qualls, Whitney A; Day, Jonathan F; Xue, Rui-de; Bowers, Doria F

    2012-06-01

    Changes in the time to first bite (TFB) and the bloodfeeding behavior of adult female Aedes aegypti (L.) mosquitoes following dissemination of Sindbis virus (SINV) were observed after exposure to repellents with the active ingredients (AI) DEET, picaridin, 2-undecanone (2-U), and oil of lemon eucalyptus. Dissemination of SINV significantly decreased (Prepellents compared to uninfected mosquitoes. Taken together, a decrease in TFB and time to complete the four bloodfeeding stages will lessen the prey-status, and enhance both the chances of mosquito survival and arbovirus transmission.

  1. Analysis of ovary-specific genes in relation to egg maturation and female nutritional condition in the mosquitoes Georgecraigius atropalpus and Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telang, Aparna; Rechel, Julie A; Brandt, Jessica R; Donnell, David M

    2013-03-01

    Analysis of the reproductive physiology of anautogenous mosquitoes at the molecular level is complicated by the simultaneity of ovarian maturation and the digestion of a blood meal. In contrast to anautogenous mosquitoes, autogenous female mosquitoes can acquire greater nutrient stores as larvae and exhibit higher ovarian production of ecdysteroids at adult eclosion. These features essentially replace the role of a blood meal in provisioning the first batch of eggs and initiating egg development. To gain insight into the process of ovary maturation we first performed a transcript analysis of the obligatory autogenous mosquito Georgecraigius atropalpus (formerly Ochlerotatus atropalpus). We identified ESTs using suppressive subtractive hybridization (SSH) of transcripts from ovaries at critical times during oogenesis in the absence of blood digestion. Preliminary expression studies of genes such as apolipophorin III (APO) and oxysterol binding protein (OSBP) suggested these genes might be cued to female nutritional status. We then applied our findings to the medically important anautogenous mosquito Aedes aegypti. RNAi-based analyses of these genes in Ae. aegypti revealed a reduction in APO transcripts leads to reduced lipid levels in carcass and ovaries and that OSBP may play a role in overall lipid and sterol homeostasis. In addition to expanding our understanding of mosquito ovarian development, the continued use of a comparative approach between autogenous and anautogenous species may provide novel intervention points for the regulation of mosquito egg production.

  2. Cyclopaldic acid, seiridin, and sphaeropsidin A as fungal phytotoxins, and larvicidal and biting deterrents against Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae): structure-activity relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cimmino, Alessio; Andolfi, Anna; Avolio, Fabiana; Ali, Abbas; Tabanca, Nurhayat; Khan, Ikhlas A; Evidente, Antonio

    2013-07-01

    Aedes aegypti L. is the major vector of the arboviruses responsible for dengue fever, one of the most devastating human diseases. From a preliminary screening of fungal phytotoxins, cyclopaldic acid (1), seiridin (2), sphaeropsidin A (4), and papyracillic acid (5) were evaluated for their biting deterrent and larvicidal activities against Ae. aegypti L. Because compounds 1, 2, 4, and 5 exhibited mosquito biting deterrent activities and 1 and 4 demonstrated larvicidal activities, further structureactivity relationship studies were initiated on these toxins. In biting-deterrence bioassays, 1, 2, 4, and 5, 3,8-didansylhydrazone of cyclopaldic acid, 1F, 5-azidopentanoate of cyclopaldic acid A, 1G, the reduced derivative of cyclopaldic acid, 1 H, isoseiridin (3), 2'-O-acetylseiridin (2A), 2'-oxoseiridin (2C), 6-O-acetylsphaeropsidin A (4A), 8,14-methylensphaeropsidin A methyl ester (4B), and sphaeropsidin B (4C) showed activities higher than the solvent control. Sphaeropsidin B (4C) was the most active compound followed by 2A, while the other compounds were less active. Biting-deterrence activity of compound 4C was statistically similar to DEET. In the larvicidal screening bioassays, only compounds 1 and 4 demonstrated larvicidal activities. Based on LD50 values, compound 4 (LD50 36.8 ppm) was significantly more active than compound 1 (LD50 58.2 ppm). However, the activity of these compounds was significantly lower than permethrin.

  3. Evaluation of the Toxic Effect from Eupatorium Microphyllum L.F. (Asteraceae Extracts on Aedes Aegypti Larvae (Diptera: Culicidae in Laboratory Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro Rozo

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available In the present work the toxic activity ofextracts of Eupatorium microphyllum L.F. wasevaluated on 4th instar larvae of the mosquitoAedes aegypti (Linneaus, under laboratoryconditions. Aqueous extracts were utilized inconcentrations of 500 mg L-1, 1,500 mg L-1 and2,500 mg L-1 and acetone in concentrations of10 mg L-1, 20 mg L-1, 30 mg L-1, 40 mg L-1and50 mg L-1. The bioassays were carried out fortriplicate each one with 20 larvae, exposedfor 24 hours to 150 mL of solution. In all thebioassays were employed control groups. Inthe evaluation of the acetone extracts, a negativecontrol was employed to avoid that themortality of the larvae to occur on account ofthe solvent. The Aqueous extracts showed lowmoderate action in the mortality of larvae, lessthan 20%. On the contrary, the action of theacetone extracts was observed to 10 and 20 mgL-1with 15% of mortality, while to 30 and 40mg L-1 were registered 22 to 38% of mortality.However, to 50 mg L-1 the mortality wasof 95.4% with highly significant statisticalresults. The concentrations of the acetone extractsshowed to be the most efficient for thecontrol of the mosquitoes selected. Both typesof extracts showed toxic effect in larvae of A.aegypti, nevertheless, greater effect in theacetone extracts was observed relating to theaqueous extracts of E. microphyllum, whichconstitutes a viable alternative in the search ofnew larvicides from composed natural.

  4. Performance of the plant-based repellent TT-4302 against mosquitoes in the laboratory and field and comparative efficacy to 16 mosquito repellents against Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bissinger, B W; Schmidt, J P; Owens, J J; Mitchell, S M; Kennedy, M K

    2014-03-01

    Repellent efficacy of the plant-based repellent, TT-4302 (5% geraniol), was compared with 16 other products in laboratory arm-in-cage trials against Aedes aegypti (L). Eight repellents (Badger, BioUD, Burt's bees, California Baby, Cutter Natural, EcoSMART, Herbal Armor, and SkinSmart) exhibited a mean repellency below 90% to Ae. aegypti at 0.5 h after application. Three repellents (Buzz Away Extreme, Cutter Advanced, and OFF! Botanicals lotion) fell below 90% repellency 1.5 h after application. TT-4302 exhibited 94.7% repellency 5 h posttreatment, which was a longer duration than any of the other repellents tested. The positive control, 15% DEET (OFF! Active), was repellent for 3 h before activity dropped below 90%. Additional arm-in-cage trials comparing TT-4302 with 15% DEET were carried out against Anopheles quadrimaculatus Say. At 6 h after treatment, TT-4302 provided 95.2% repellency while DEET exhibited 72.2%. In North Carolina field trials, TT-4302 provided 100% repellency 5 h after application against Aedes albopictus Skuse while DEET provided 77.6% repellency. These results demonstrate that TT-4302 is an efficacious plant-based repellent that provides an extended duration of protection compared with many other commercially available products.

  5. Synergistic action of octopamine receptor agonists on the activity of selected novel insecticides for control of dengue vector Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) mosquito.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Mohamed Ahmed Ibrahim; Vogel, Christoph Franz Adam

    2015-05-01

    Studying insecticide resistance in mosquitoes has attracted the attention of many scientists to elucidate the pathways of resistance development and to design novel strategies in order to prevent or minimize the spread and evolution of resistance. Here, we tested the synergistic action of piperonyl butoxide (PBO) and two octopamine receptor (OR) agonists, amitraz (AMZ) and chlordimeform (CDM) on selected novel insecticides to increase their lethal action on the fourth instar larvae of Aedes aegypti L. However, chlorfenapyr was the most toxic insecticide (LC50 = 193, 102, and 48 ng/ml, after 24, 48, and 72 h exposure, respectively) tested. Further, PBO synergized all insecticides and the most toxic combinatorial insecticide was nitenpyram even after 48 and 72 h exposure. In addition, OR agonists significantly synergized most of the selected insecticides especially after 48 and 72 h exposure. The results imply that the synergistic effects of amitraz are a promising approach in increasing the potency of certain insecticides in controlling the dengue vector Ae. aegypti mosquito.

  6. Flutuação populacional e comparação de métodos de coleta de Aedes (Stegomyia aegypti (Diptera, Culicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo B. Beserra

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Fatores ambientais podem atuar como reguladores da expansão das populações de Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762. Este trabalho objetivou avaliar a influência da temperatura, umidade relativa do ar, e precipitação pluviométrica na flutuação populacional de Ae. aegypti. A pesquisa foi conduzida em Boqueirão, Campina Grande e Remígio, Estado da Paraíba, compreendendo um período de 12 meses, utilizando-se o método de coleta por armadilha de oviposição e de pesquisa larvária. A flutuação populacional de ovos e de outras formas imaturas, bem como os índices de infestação para ovos e larvas foi correlacionada com os dados climáticos utilizando-se a análise de correlação de Pearson. Os testes do qui-quadrado e de Tukey foram utilizados para comparar a infestação entre as áreas de estudo e a eficiência entre os métodos de pesquisas com armadilha de oviposição e de coletas de larvas. Não foram encontradas correlações entre as variáveis climáticas e a flutuação populacional de Ae. aegypti, nem com os índices para armadilha de oviposição (IAO e de Breteau (IB. O IAO foi considerado alto, com média de 54,9; 59,53 e 59,51%, enquanto que o IB foi muito baixo com média de 1,55, 1,69 e 3,64, para os municípios de Boqueirão, Campina Grande e Remígio, respectivamente. A análise do qui-quadrado para o número de imóveis positivos foi altamente significativa, podendo-se inferir que o método de coleta por armadilha de oviposição foi mais eficiente que a pesquisa larvária na detecção da infestação pelo Ae. aegypti. Os resultados indicam que os fatores avaliados não podem ser considerados isolados na análise ecológica da distribuição desta espécie, já que não foram estabelecidas correlações entre a presença do vetor e fatores climático, como temperatura, umidade relativa do ar e precipitação pluviométrica. Assim na análise ecológica da distribuição do Ae. aegypti deve ser considerados os m

  7. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Sida acuta (Malvaceae) leaf extract against Culex quinquefasciatus, Anopheles stephensi, and Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veerakumar, Kaliyan; Govindarajan, Marimuthu; Rajeswary, Mohan

    2013-12-01

    Mosquitoes act as a vector for most of the life-threatening diseases like malaria, yellow fever, dengue fever, chikungunya fever, filariasis, encephalitis, West Nile Virus infection, etc. Under the Integrated Mosquito Management, emphasis was given on the application of alternative strategies in mosquito control. The continuous application of synthetic insecticides causes development of resistance in vector species, biological magnification of toxic substances through the food chain, and adverse effects on environmental quality and nontarget organisms including human health. Application of active toxic agents from plant extracts as an alternative mosquito control strategy was available from ancient times. These are nontoxic, easily available at affordable prices, biodegradable, and show broad-spectrum target-specific activities against different species of vector mosquitoes. In the present study, the larvicidal activity of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) synthesized using Sida acuta plant leaf extract against late third instar larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus, Anopheles stephensi, and Aedes aegypti was determined. Range of concentrations of synthesized AgNPs (10, 20, 30, 40, and 50 μg/mL) and aqueous leaf extract (50, 100, 150, 200, and 250 μg/mL) were tested against the larvae of C. quinquefasciatus, A. stephensi and A. aegypti. The synthesized AgNPs from S. acuta leaf were highly toxic than crude leaf aqueous extract in three important vector mosquito species. The results were recorded from UV-Vis spectrum, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis. Larvae were exposed to varying concentrations of aqueous crude extract and synthesized AgNPs for 24 h. Considerable mortality was evident after the treatment of S. acuta for all three important vector mosquitoes. The LC50 and LC90 values of S. acuta aqueous leaf extract appeared to be most effective

  8. Evaluations of larvicidal activity of medicinal plant extracts to Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) and other effects on a non target fish

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUWANNEE PROMSIRI; AMARA NAKSATHIT; MALEEYA KRUATRACHUE; USAVADEE THAVARA

    2006-01-01

    A preliminary study was conducted to investigate the effects of the extracts of 112 medicinal plant species, collected from the southern part of Thailand, on Aedes aegypti. Studies on larvicidal properties of plant extracts against the fourth instar larvae revealed that extracts of 14 species showed evidence of larvicidal activity. Eight out of the 14 plant species showed 100% mosquito larvae mortality. The LC50 values were less than 100μg/mL (4.1μg/ mL-89.4μg/mL). Six plant species were comparatively more effective against the fourth instar larvae at very low concentrations. These extracts demonstrated no or very low toxicity to guppy fish (Poecilia reticulata), which was selected to represent most common non-target organism found in habitats of Ae. aegypti, at concentrations active to mosquito larvae. Three medicinal plants with promising larvicidal activity, having LC50 and LC90 values being 4.1 and 16.4μg/mL for Mammea siamensis, 20.2 and 34.7μg/mL for Anethum graveolens and 67.4 and 110.3 μg/mL for Annona muricata, respectively, were used to study the impact of the extracts on the life cycle of Ae. aegypti. These plants affected pupal and adult mortality and also affected the reproductive potential of surviving adults by reducing the number of eggs laid and the percentage of egg hatchability. When each larval stage was treated with successive extracts at the LC50 value, the first instar larvae were found to be very susceptible to A. muricata and the second instar larvae were found to be susceptible to A. graveolens, while the third and fourth instar larvae were found to be susceptible to M. siamensis. These extracts delayed larval development and inhibited adult emergence and had no adverse effects on P.reticulata at LC50 and LC90 values, except for the M. siamensis extract at its LC50 value.

  9. Larvicidal, Repellent and Irritant Potential of the Seed-derived Essential oil of Apium graveolens against Dengue Vector, Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarita eKumar

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Aedes aegypti L., the primary carrier for viruses causing dengue, chikungunya and yellow fever is widespread over large areas of the tropics and subtropics. Keeping in view the adverse effects of chemical insecticides-based intervention measures; the eco-friendly, bio-degradable essential oil extracted from the seeds of celery, Apium graveolens; was investigated for anti-mosquito potential against Ae. aegypti. Evaluation of larvicidal potential of celery seed oil against early fourth instars of Ae. aegypti resulted in LC50 and LC90 values of 16.10 ppm and 29.08 ppm, respectively, after an exposure to 24 h; the toxic effect of the oil increasing by 1.2 fold with an LC50 value of 13.22 ppm after an exposure to 48h. Interestingly, the seed oil did not cause rapid mortality, suggesting a delayed type of larval killing effect. The remarkable finding of the present study was effective repellency of the essential oil leading to 100% protection till 165 min as compared to control that did not show any repellency against mosquitoes. Only 1 bite was recorded in the 165th minute after which only 2 bites were scored until 180 min of exposure of the oil to the adult mosquitoes. An exciting observation was the knocked-down of mosquitoes caused by the exposure to 10% oil-impregnated papers. The exposure to 1% oil resulted in first flight only after 4 sec and a total of 63.66 average flights during 15 min exposure revealing the relative irritability of 26.97.The qualitative phytochemical study of the oil showed the presence of terpenoids, lactones and flavonoids as the major constituents suggesting their possible role in the toxicity. Present investigations proved celery seed essential oil to be an efficient larvicide and repellent against dengue vector. Further studies are needed to identify the active principles involved, their mode of action, formulated preparations for enhancing potency and stability, toxicity and effects on non-target organisms and the

  10. Larvicidal and Biting Deterrent Activity of Essential Oils of Curcuma longa, Ar-turmerone, and Curcuminoids Against Aedes aegypti and Anopheles quadrimaculatus (Culicidae: Diptera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Abbas; Wang, Yan-Hong; Khan, Ikhlas A

    2015-09-01

    Essential oils and extract of Curcuma longa, ar-turmerone, and curcuminoids were evaluated for their larvicidal and deterrent activity against mosquitoes. Ar-turmerone and curcuminoids constituted 36.9, 24.9 and 50.6% of rhizome oil, leaf oil, and rhizome extract, respectively. Ar-turmerone was the major compound of the rhizome oil (36.9%) and leaf oil (24.9%). The ethanolic extract had 15.4% ar-turmerone with 6.6% bisdesmethoxycurcumin, 6.1% desmethoxycurcumin, and 22.6% curcumin. In in vitro studies, essential oils of the leaf (biting deterrence index [BDI] = 0.98), rhizome (BDI = 0.98), and rhizome ethanolic extract (BDI = 0.96) at 10 µg/cm(2) showed biting deterrent activity similar to DEET at 25 nmol/cm(2) against Aedes aegypti L. Among the pure compounds, ar-turmerone (BDI = 1.15) showed the biting deterrent activity higher than DEET at 25 nmol/cm(2) whereas the activity of other compounds was lower than DEET. In Anopheles quadrimaculatus Say, only ar-turmerone showed deterrent activity similar to DEET. In dose-response bioassay, ar-turmerone showed significantly higher biting deterrence than DEET at all the dosages. Ar-turmerone, at 15 nmol/cm(2), showed activity similar to DEET at 25 nmol/cm(2) and activity at 5 nmol/cm(2) was similar to DEET at 20 and 15 nmol/cm(2). Leaf essential oil with LC(50) values of 1.8 and 8.9 ppm against larvae of An. quadrimaculatus and Ae. aegypti, respectively, showed highest toxicity followed by rhizome oil and ethanolic extract. Among the pure compounds, ar-turmerone with LC(50) values of 2.8 and 2.5 ppm against larvae of An. quadrimaculatus and Ae. aegypti, respectively, was most toxic followed by bisdesmethoxycurcumin, curcumin, and desmethoxycurcumin.

  11. Bioefficacy of larvicdial and pupicidal properties of Carica papaya (Caricaceae) leaf extract and bacterial insecticide, spinosad, against chikungunya vector, Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovendan, Kalimuthu; Murugan, Kadarkarai; Naresh Kumar, Arjunan; Vincent, Savariar; Hwang, Jiang-Shiou

    2012-02-01

    The present study was carried out to establish the properties of Carica papaya leaf extract and bacterial insecticide, spinosad on larvicidal and pupicidal activity against the chikungunya vector, Aedes aegypti. The medicinal plants were collected from the area around Bharathiar University, Coimbatore, India. C. papaya leaf was washed with tap water and shade-dried at room temperature. An electrical blender powdered the dried plant materials (leaves). The powder (500 g) of the leaf was extracted with 1.5 l of organic solvents of methanol for 8 h using a Soxhlet apparatus and then filtered. The crude leaf extracts were evaporated to dryness in a rotary vacuum evaporator. The plant extract showed larvicidal and pupicidal effects after 24 h of exposure; however, the highest larval and pupal mortality was found in the leaf extract of methanol C. papaya against the first- to fourth-instar larvae and pupae of values LC(50) = I instar was 51.76 ppm, II instar was 61.87 ppm, III instar was 74.07 ppm, and IV instar was 82.18 ppm, and pupae was 440.65 ppm, respectively, and bacterial insecticide, spinosad against the first to fourth instar larvae and pupae of values LC(50) = I instar was 51.76 ppm, II instar was 61.87 ppm, III instar was 74.07 ppm, and IV instar was 82.18 ppm, and pupae was 93.44 ppm, respectively. Moreover, combined treatment of values of LC(50) = I instar was 55.77 ppm, II instar was 65.77 ppm, III instar was 76.36 ppm, and IV instar was 92.78 ppm, and pupae was 107.62 ppm, respectively. No mortality was observed in the control. The results that the leaves extract of C. papaya and bacterial insecticide, Spinosad is promising as good larvicidal and pupicidal properties of against chikungunya vector, A. aegypti. This is an ideal eco-friendly approach for the control of chikungunya vector, A. aegypti as target species of vector control programs.

  12. Efectos de la competencia larval en los mosquitos de contenedores artificiales, Aedes aegypti y Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae en condiciones semi-controladas Effects of larval competition between the container mosquitoes, Aedes aegypti and Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae in semi-controlled conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Analía Francia

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Las larvas de los mosquitos Aedes aegypti (Linneo y Culex pipiens Linneo pueden criar conjuntamente en pequeños contenedores artificiales de agua, se genera así una competencia interespecífica y/o intraespecífica. El objetivo de este trabajo fue comparar la magnitud relativa de la competencia intra e interespecífica en A. aegypti y C. pipiens, generada durante el desarrollo larval en contenedores artifi ciales. Las variables medidas como respuesta fueron la supervivencia y el tiempo de desarrollo larval, y la biomasa total producida en estado de pupa. Se criaron larvas de ambos mosquitos en neumáticos de automóvil con agua declorinada y hojarasca. Se introdujeron larvas recién eclosionadas de acuerdo a la densidad (5 estimada según un censo previo de A. aegypti y C. pipiens. Serealizaron los siguientes tratamientos agregando larvas de: (1 A. aegypti hasta alcanzar δ A. aegypti determinada según el censo previo, (2 C. pipiens hasta δ C. pipiens del censo previo, (3 A. aegypti hasta alcanzar la suma de δ A. aegypti y δ C. pipiens del censo previo, (4 C. pipiens hasta alcanzar la suma de δ A. aegypti y δ C. pipiens del censo previo y (5 A. aegypti y C. pipiens hasta δ A. aegypti y δ C. pipiens del censo previo. Las tres variables medidas fueron afectadas por los tratamientos, excepto la supervivencia y la biomasa producida por C. pipiens. Aedes aegypti fue más alterada por la competencia intraespecífica que por la competencia interespecífica. En C. pipiens, la competencia interespecífica superó en sus efectos a la competencia intraespecífica. Existió asimetría competitiva, ya que C. pipiens fue más afectada por A. aegypti que lo contrario.Larvae of Aedes aegypti (Linneo and Culex pipiens Linneo may develop together in small artificial water containers, promoting inter- and/or intra-specific competition. Our aim was to compare the relative importance of interspecific and intraspecific competition in both species during

  13. INSECTICIDE RESISTANCE AND EFFECT OF PIPERONYL BUTOXIDE AS A SYNERGIST IN THREE STRAINS OF Aedes aegypti (Linn. (Diptera: Culicidae AGAINST INSECTICIDES PERMETHRIN, CYPERMETHRIN, AND D-ALLETHRIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sita Astari

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Tiga strain nyamuk Aedes aegypti yang dipelihara di laboratorium dan dikoleksi dari lapangan diuji menggunakan tiga jenis insektisida dari golongan piretroid (permetrin, cypermetrin, dan d-alletrin dengan metode bottle bioassay untuk mengetahui tingkatan dan mekanisme dari resistensi yang terjadi terhadap insektisida piretroid. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa ketiga strain yang diuji kemungkinan telah resisten terhadap ketiga insektisida tersebut, termasuk strain-strain yang telah dipelihara selama beberapa generasi di laboratorium, yang diindikasikan dengan nilai LT90 yang tinggi. Hasil ini mengindikasikan bahwa terdapat aktivitas MFO (Mixed-Function Oxidase pada ketiga strain yang diuji, di mana mekanisme tersebut mungkin berperan dalam menimbulkan resistensi pada ketiga strain, meskipun diduga terdapat mekanisme lain yang juga ikut terlibat.

  14. Evaluation of fifteen local plants as larvicidal agents against an Indian strain of dengue fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarita eKumar

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The adverse effects of chemical insecticides-based intervention measures for the control of mosquito vectors have received wide public apprehension because of several problems like insecticide resistance, resurgence of pest species, environmental pollution, toxic hazards to humans and non-target organisms. These problems have necessitated the need to explore and development of alternative strategies using eco-friendly, environmentally safe, bio-degradable plant products which are non-toxic to non target organisms too. In view of this, fifteen plants were collected from local areas in New Delhi, India. Different parts of these plants were separated, dried, mechanically grinded and sieved to get fine powder. The 200 g of each part was soaked in 1000 mL of different solvents separately and the crude extracts, thus formed, were concentrated using a vacuum evaporator at 45ºC under low pressure. Each extract was screened to explore its potential as a mosquito larvicidal agent against early fourth instars of dengue vector, Aedes aegypti using WHO protocol. The preliminary screening showed that only ten plants possessed larvicidal potential as they could result in 100% mortality at 1000 ppm. Further evaluation of the potential larvicidal extracts established the hexane leaf extracts of Lantana camara to be most effective extracts exhibiting a significant LC50 value of 30.71 ppm while the Phyllanthus emblica fruit extracts were found to be least effective with an LC50 value of 298.93 ppm. The extracts made from different parts of other five plants; Achyranthes aspera, Zingiber officinalis, Ricinus communis, Trachyspermun ammi and Cassia occidentalis also possessed significant larvicidal potential with LC¬50 values ranging from 55.0 to 74.67 ppm. Other three extracts showed moderate toxicity against Aedes aegypti larvae. Further investigations would be needed to isolate and identify the primary component responsible for the larvicidal efficiency of the

  15. Influence des matières végétales et des engrais NPK sur la biologie de Aedes aegypti (Diptera : Culicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darriet F.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Dans cette étude de laboratoire, les auteurs ont mesuré sur des femelles gravides de Aedes aegypti, l’attractivité à la ponte de milieux aqueux contenant un engrais NPK, de la matière végétale (MV et un mélange composé de MV+NPK. Tandis que les analyses physico-chimiques ont permis d’identifier puis de doser les constituants de chaque milieu, le suivi des larves et la pesée des femelles émergentes nous ont renseigné sur l’impact des composés minéraux et organiques sur le développement des moustiques. Sur les 23 jours qu’a duré l’expérience, la solution NPK est restée aussi attractive que le mélange MV+NPK sans toutefois pouvoir assurer le développement des larves. L’infusion MV a révélé une attractivité à la ponte moins importante, mais elle a apporté aux larves de moustiques les substances organiques dont la solution NPK était dépourvue. Enfin le mélange MV+NPK a attiré les femelles à la ponte tout en assurant pleinement la croissance des larves de Ae. aegypti. Alors que les analyses physico-chimiques de NPK ont révélé une composition essentiellement minérale (NH4++NO3–+P+K et celles de MV de fortes concentrations en carbone et en azote organiques, le mélange MV+NPK s’est distingué par une composition mixte organique et minérale qui a favorisé la prolifération des bactéries et le développement des larves de moustiques. Ce sont des observations importantes qui pourraient aider à la fabrication de pièges à la fois attractifs et létaux (NPK+larvicide et dont les fonctions seraient de piéger les femelles gravides à la recherche d’un lieu de ponte et de tuer les larves à l’éclosion des oeufs.

  16. Chemical composition and larvicidal activity of edible plant-derived essential oils against the pyrethroid-susceptible and -resistant strains of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutthanont, Nataya; Choochote, Wej; Tuetun, Benjawan; Junkum, Anuluck; Jitpakdi, Atchariya; Chaithong, Udom; Riyong, Doungrat; Pitasawat, Benjawan

    2010-06-01

    The chemical compositions and larvicidal potential against mosquito vectors of selected essential oils obtained from five edible plants were investigated in this study. Using a GC/MS, 24, 17, 20, 21, and 12 compounds were determined from essential oils of Citrus hystrix, Citrus reticulata, Zingiber zerumbet, Kaempferia galanga, and Syzygium aromaticum, respectively. The principal constituents found in peel oil of C. hystrix were beta-pinene (22.54%) and d-limonene (22.03%), followed by terpinene-4-ol (17.37%). Compounds in C. reticulata peel oil consisted mostly of d-limonene (62.39%) and gamma-terpinene (14.06%). The oils obtained from Z. zerumbet rhizome had alpha-humulene (31.93%) and zerumbone (31.67%) as major components. The most abundant compounds in K. galanga rhizome oil were 2-propeonic acid (35.54%), pentadecane (26.08%), and ethyl-p-methoxycinnamate (25.96%). The main component of S. aromaticum bud oil was eugenol (77.37%), with minor amounts of trans-caryophyllene (13.66%). Assessment of larvicidal efficacy demonstrated that all essential oils were toxic against both pyrethroid-susceptible and resistant Ae. aegypti laboratory strains at LC50, LC95, and LC99 levels. In conclusion, we have documented the promising larvicidal potential of essential oils from edible herbs, which could be considered as a potentially alternative source for developing novel larvicides to be used in controlling vectors of mosquito-borne disease.

  17. The effect of ivermectin in seven strains of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) including a genetically diverse laboratory strain and three permethrin resistant strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deus, K M; Saavedra-Rodriguez, K; Butters, M P; Black, W C; Foy, B D

    2012-03-01

    Seven different strains of Aedes aegypti (L.), including a genetically diverse laboratory strain, three laboratory-selected permethrin-resistant strains, a standard reference strain, and two recently colonized strains were fed on human blood containing various concentrations of ivermectin. Ivermectin reduced adult survival, fecundity, and hatch rate of eggs laid by ivermectin-treated adults in all seven strains. The LC50 of ivermectin for adults and the concentration that prevented 50% of eggs from hatching was calculated for all strains. Considerable variation in adult survival after an ivermectin-bloodmeal occurred among strains, and all three permethrin-resistant strains were significantly less susceptible to ivermectin than the standard reference strain. The hatch rate after an ivermectin bloodmeal was less variable among strains, and only one of the permethrin-resistant strains differed significantly from the standard reference strain. Our studies suggest that ivermectin induces adult mortality and decreases the hatch rate of eggs through different mechanisms. A correlation analysis of log-transformed LC50 among strains suggests that permethrin and ivermectin cross-resistance may occur.

  18. Evaluación larvicida de suspensiones acuosas de Annona muricata Linnaeus «guanábana» sobre Aedes aegypti Linnaeus (Diptera, Culicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Bobadilla

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available EL presente trabajo evaluó la toxicidad larvicida de suspensiones acuosas provenientes de extractos etanólicos de las semillas, flores, hojas, corteza de ramas y corteza de raíces de Annona muricata L. «guanábana» sobre larvas del IV estadio de Aedes aegypti para determinar de esta manera los niveles de susceptibilidad. El mayor efecto tóxico correspondió a la suspensión de las semillas con un 100% de mortalidad a las 24 horas a 0,5 mg/mL, seguidos por las flores a las 48 horas a 10 mg/mL y hojas a las 36 horas a 100 mg/mL. En semillas, las concentraciones letales al 50% (CL50 y 90% (CL90 a las 48 horas de exposición fueron 0,02 mg/mL y 0,11 mg/mL, en flores 3,33 y 12,16 mg/mL, en hojas 8,25 y 26,87 mg/mL y en corteza de ramas 19,21 y 97,23 mg/mL, respectivamente. Los resultados de las rectas probit-logarítmicas indicaron susceptibilidad de los individuos a cada suspensión, gracias a la acción de diversos principios activos distribuidos en todo el árbol.

  19. Unique biochemical and molecular biological mechanism of synergistic actions of formamidine compounds on selected pyrethroid and neonicotinoid insecticides on the fourth instar larvae of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Mohamed Ahmed Ibrahim; Vogel, Christoph F A; Matsumura, Fumio

    2015-05-01

    We recently reported that formamidine pesticides such as amitraz and chlordimeform effectively synergize toxic actions of certain pyrethroid and neonicotinoid insecticides in some insect species on the 4th instar larvae of Aedes aegypti. Here we studied the biochemical basis of the synergistic actions of the formamidines in amplifying the toxicity of neonicotinoids and pyrethroids such as dinotefuran and thiamethoxam, as well as deltamethrin-fenvalerate type of pyrethroids. We tested the hypothesis that their synergistic actions are mediated by the octopamine receptor, and that the major consequence of octopamine receptor activation is induction of trehalase to increase glucose levels in the hemolymph. The results show that formamidines cause a significant up-regulation of the octopamine receptor and trehalase mRNA expressions. Furthermore, formamidines significantly elevate levels of free glucose when co-treated with dinotefuran, deltamethrin and fenvalerate, but not with permethrin or fenitrothion, which showed no synergistic toxic effects with formamidines. These results support the conclusion that the main mode of synergism is based on the ability to activate the octopamine receptor, which is particularly effective with insecticides causing hyperexcitation-induced glucose release and consequently leading to quick energy exhaustion.

  20. Evaluation of Clove Oil, Icaridin, and Transfluthrin for Spatial Repellent Effects in Three Tests Systems Against the Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nentwig, G; Frohberger, S; Sonneck, R

    2017-01-01

    One essential oil (clove oil), one skin repellent (icaridin), and one insecticide (transfluthrin) were tested for spatial repellent effects against non-blood-fed female Aedes aegypti (L.) mosquitoes. The compounds were tested in acetone dilution series using a Y-olfactometer, a double cage system, and a double room system. All compounds exhibited spatial repellent effects at certain concentrations. Clove oil required relative high dosages to cause high effects (Y-olfactometer 6 mg, double cage 60 mg, and double room 1,200 mg). The dosages to achieve comparable results with icaridin were lower (Y-olfactometer and double cage 1 mg, and double room 150 mg). For transfluthrin, the equivalent dosages were lower again (Y-olfactometer 0.003 mg, double cage 0.03 mg, and double room 0.1 mg). Furthermore, these results reveal a correlation between the size of the test system and the effective dosage. Averaged for the three compounds, the quantity for the double room was 21-fold higher than for the double cage, which required again a 9-fold higher dosage than the Y-olfactometer. An establishment of a screening cascade is discussed starting with the Y-olfactometer (high throughput rate), followed by the double cage system and ending with the double room system as the most nearest to practical conditions. Furthermore, the testing of existing repellent products to validate the double room test, the role of sublethal dosages concerning insecticides including possible upcoming of resistance after exposure, the delayed action and impact on blood feeding and oviposition are exemplified.

  1. Meiotic drive by the Y-linked D gene in Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae) is associated with disruption of spermiogenesis, leading to premature senescence of spermatozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owusu-Daaku, K O; Butler, R D; Wood, R J

    2007-06-01

    Y chromosome meiotic drive in the mosquito Aedes aegypti, due to the gene D (Distorter) in coupling with M (male determination) [the MD haplotype], is associated with spermiogenic disruption, leading to senescence, at a rate proportionate to male excess. Spermiogenesis was compared between 'Enhanced Mutant' males with a strongly female-depleted sex ratio (8.9% females), 'Mutant' males showing a lesser degree of distortion (38.3% females), and two controls with normal sex ratios (51.2% and 49.2% females). Sections of testes dissected from mature pupae and adults aged 0, 4, 8, 12 and 16 days were examined by transmission electron microscopy. A difference between Mutant and control spermiogenesis was apparent as early as the pupal stage when some Mutant spermatids showed extra tail elements (axonemes and/or mitochondrial derivatives). The same was true of Enhanced Mutant males but to a more extreme degree. Sperm senescence was evident in Enhanced Mutant testes from day 0 of adult life but in Mutant testes not until day 4. Progressive disorganisation was associated with many loose organelles, and disturbance of the anterior-posterior axis of gamete differentiation within the testis. Degenerative changes of a similar kind in the controls did not become apparent until day 8. These findings are discussed with respect to other characteristics of this meiotic drive system, in terms of a theory of inhibition of reduction division in spermatogenesis associated with fragmentation of the X chromosome, leading to the formation of a restitution nucleus as early as metaphase 1.

  2. Chemical composition, larvicidal, and biting deterrent activity of essential oils of two subspecies of Tanacetum argenteum (Asterales: Asteraceae) and individual constituents against Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Abbas; Tabanca, Nurhayat; Kurkcuoglu, Mine; Duran, Ahmet; Blythe, Eugene K; Khan, Ikhlas A; Baser, K Husnu Can

    2014-07-01

    Water-distilled essential oils from dried aerial parts of Tanacetum argenteum (Lam.) Willd. subsp. argenteum (Lam.) and T. argenteum (Lam.) Willd. subsp. canum (C. Koch) Grierson were analyzed by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. In total, 27 and 32 components were identified representing 97.2 and 98.7% of essential oils of subsp. argenteum and canum, respectively. Main compounds of T. argenteum subsp. argenteum were alpha-pinene (67.9%) and beta-pinene (4.8%), whereas alpha-pinene (53.6%), 1, 8-cineole (14.8%), and camphor (4.7%) were the major constituents of subsp. canum. Essential oil of T. argenteum subsp. canum at 10 microg/cm2 with Biting Deterrent Index (BDI) value of 0.73 showed activity similar to N,N-Diethyl-meta-toluamide (DEET) at 25 mol/cm2, whereas the activity of essential oil of subsp. argenteum was lower (BDI = 0.47) than subsp. canum and DEET. Based on 95% CIs, activity of beta-caryophyllene (BDI value = 0.54) and caryophyllene oxide (BDI = 0.66) were significantly lower than DEET. In larval bioassays, essential oil of T. argenteum subsp. argenteum showed LC50 value of 93.34 ppm, whereas T. argenteum subsp. canum killed only 40% of the larvae at the highest dose of 125 ppm. Among the pure compounds, beta-caryophyllene (LC50 = 26 ppm) was the most potent compound followed by caryophyllene oxide (LC50 = 29 ppm), which was also similar to (-)-beta-pinene (LC50 = 35.9 ppm) against 1-d-old Ae. aegypti larvae at 24-h post treatment. Compounds (-)-alpha-pinene and (+)-beta-pinene showed similar larvicidal activity. Activity of (+)-alpha-pinene with LC50 value of was similar to the essential oil of T. argenteum subsp. argenteum.

  3. Effect of Quorum Sensing by Staphylococcus epidermidis on the Attraction Response of Female Adult Yellow Fever Mosquitoes, Aedes aegypti aegypti (Linnaeus) (Diptera: Culicidae), to a Blood-Feeding Source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xinyang; Crippen, Tawni L; Coates, Craig J; Wood, Thomas K; Tomberlin, Jeffery K

    2015-01-01

    Aedes aegypti, the principal vector of yellow fever and dengue fever, is responsible for more than 30,000 deaths annually. Compounds such as carbon dioxide, amino acids, fatty acids and other volatile organic compounds (VOCs) have been widely studied for their role in attracting Ae. aegypti to hosts. Many VOCs from humans are produced by associated skin microbiota. Staphyloccocus epidermidis, although not the most abundant bacteria according to surveys of relative 16S ribosomal RNA abundance, commonly occurs on human skin. Bacteria demonstrate population level decision-making through quorum sensing. Many quorum sensing molecules, such as indole, volatilize and become part of the host odor plum. To date, no one has directly demonstrated the link between quorum sensing (i.e., decision-making) by bacteria associated with a host as a factor regulating arthropod vector attraction. This study examined this specific question with regards to S. epidermidis and Ae. aegypti. Pairwise tests were conducted to examine the response of female Ae. aegypti to combinations of tryptic soy broth (TSB) and S. epidermidis wildtype and agr- strains. The agr gene expresses an accessory gene regulator for quorum sensing; therefore, removing this gene inhibits quorum sensing of the bacteria. Differential attractiveness of mosquitoes to the wildtype and agr- strains was observed. Both wildtype and the agr- strain of S. epidermidis with TSB were marginally more attractive to Ae. aegypti than the TSB alone. Most interestingly, the blood-feeder treated with wildtype S. epidermidis/TSB attracted 74% of Ae. aegypti compared to the agr- strain of S. epidermidis/TSB (P ≤ 0.0001). This study is the first to suggest a role for interkingdom communication between host symbiotic bacteria and mosquitoes. This may have implications for mosquito decision-making with regards to host detection, location and acceptance. We speculate that mosquitoes "eavesdrop" on the chemical discussions occurring between

  4. Detecção e tipagem de vírus dengue em Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae na Cidade de Manaus, Estado do Amazonas Detection and typing of dengue viruses in Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae in the City of Manaus, State of Amazonas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristóvão Alves da Costa

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available O estudo teve por objetivo a detecção e tipagem do vírus dengue, nos vetores Aedes aegypti. Durante o período de dezembro de 2005 a dezembro de 2006, foram coletados 8.984 mosquitos, em 46 bairros da Cidade de Manaus abrangendo todas as zonas geográficas da cidade. Destes, 819 eram Aedes aegypti (414 fêmeas e 405 machos. As fêmeas de Aedes aegypti foram agrupadas em pools de 1 a 10 mosquitos totalizando 138 pools, sendo que 111 pools foram positivos para DENV 3. Porém, um pool mostrou-se positivo para dois sorotipos, DENV 1 e DENV 3. A prevalência de Aedes aegypti infectados com DENV 3, na Cidade de Manaus foi de 53%. Entretanto, a prevalência por zona foi de 70% no Centro-oeste, 60% no Sul, 53% no Oeste, 47% no Centro-Sul, 30% no Norte e 23% na zona Leste. O monitoramento da circulação viral em mosquitos com o uso da técnica da transcrição reversa-reação da polimerase em cadeia que permite o conhecimento prévio dos níveis de disseminação viral em determinadas áreas contribuindo para determinar os locais para aplicar as medidas de prevenção e controle.The aim of this study was to detect and type dengue viruses in the vector Aedes aegypti. Between December 2005 and December 2006, 8,984 mosquitoes were collected in 46 districts of the city of Manaus, covering all of the geographical zones of the city. Of these, 819 were Aedes aegypti (414 females and 405 males. The females of Aedes aegypti were grouped in pools of 1 to 10 mosquitoes, thus totaling 138 pools, of which 111 pools were positive for DENV 3 and a single pool was positive for two serotypes (DENV 1 and DENV 3. The prevalence of Aedes aegypti infected with DENV 3 in the city of Manaus was 53%. The zonal prevalence was 70% in the western central zone, 60% in the southern zone, 53% in the western zone, 47% in the southern central zone, 30% in the northern zone and 23% in the eastern zone. Monitoring of virus circulation among mosquitoes by means of the reverse

  5. Monitoramento do mosquito Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762 (Diptera: Culicidae, por meio de ovitrampas no Campus da Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso, Cuiabá, Estado de Mato Grosso Monitoring of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes (Linnaeus, 1762 (Diptera: Culicidae by means of ovitraps at the Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso Campus, Cuiabá, State of Mato Grosso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosina Djunko Miyazaki

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available A dengue é uma das mais importantes arboviroses que atinge o homem e constitui um sério problema de saúde nas áreas tropicais, cujas condições climáticas são favoráveis à ocorrência de focos de Aedes aegypti. Armadilhas de oviposição acrescidas de infusão de feno foram instaladas em 19 pontos no Campus da Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso com o objetivo de verificar mensalmente o nível de infestação do vetor da dengue e a influência dos fatores abióticos. Os resultados obtidos foram comparados com dados abióticos de temperatura e umidade relativa do ar, e de precipitação pluviométrica, mensais e dos dias que as armadilhas permaneceram no campo. A chuva é o único fator abiótico que apresenta influência no nível de infestação dos vetores da dengue no local. Existem diferenças significativas entre as quantidades de ovos de Aedes aegypti encontrados em diferentes locais de coleta na mesma área de estudo. O número de ovos encontrados em cada ponto ao longo do ano não obedece a um padrão de distribuição único.TDengue is one of the most important arboviruses affecting man and is a serious health problem in tropical areas where climatic conditions are favorable for occurrences of foci of Aedes aegypti. Oviposition traps with added hay infusion were installed at 19 points on the campus of the Federal University of Mato Grosso with the objective of investigating the monthly levels of infestation with the dengue vector and the influence of abiotic factors. The results obtained were compared with the following monthly abiotic data: temperature, relative air humidity and precipitation; and with the number of days for which the traps remained in the field. Rain was the only abiotic factor that influenced the level of infestation of the dengue vector at this location. There were significant differences between the quantities of Aedes aegypti eggs found at different sites within the same study area. The numbers of eggs

  6. Avaliação da atividade inibidora do diflubenzuron na ecdise das larvas de Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762 (Diptera, Culicidae Evaluation of the inhibiting activity of the diflubenzuron on the ecdysis of larvae of Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762 (Diptera, Culicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Martins

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Foi avaliada a atividade inibidora do diflubenzuron na ecdise de larvas do Aedes aegypti, visando à utilização desse produto no controle desse mosquito. Além disso, conhecer a interação do produto com o tipo de criadouro e a suscetibilidade do mosquito. Os bioensaios foram realizados em um fundo de quintal de residência, em sete tipos potenciais de criadouros artificiais: pneu, vidro, cimento-amianto, cimento, lata, plástico e cerâmica. Para cada tipo de criadouro colocaram-se 20 larvas de cada estádio do Aedes aegypti. O mesmo número de larvas foi utilizado para o controle. Foram feitas nove réplicas e as leituras de mortalidade foram em intervalos de 24 horas, após o início dos experimentos, até atingir o índice de 100%. Isto foi obtido a 1 ppm. Não houve diferença significativa entre os períodos médios de sobrevivência das larvas e nem entre os diferentes tipos de criadouros. Houve diferenças significativas entre os estádios, sendo o 3° o mais tolerante. Constatou-se também que as concentrações não interagiram com os estádios e tipos de criadouros, ao nível de 5%.The inhibiting activity of diflubenzuron on the ecdysis of Aedes aegypti larvae was evaluated, with a view to using this product in mosquito control. This study also aimed to determine the interaction between this product, the type of artificial containers and the susceptibility of the mosquito. Bioassays were carried out in the backyard of a residence, using seven kinds of artificial habitats: tires, glass, concrete roofing, cans, plastic containers, cement and pottery. In each kind of artificial habitat, 20 Aedes aegypti larvae in the 4th instar were set. The same number of larvae was used as a control. Each test was repeated five times and the observation of mortality was done once every 24 hours, until 100% mortality was reached at 1 ppm. There was no significant difference between the main surveillance periods of the larvae, nor between the various

  7. An Annotated Bibliography of the Mosquitoes and Mosquito-Borne Diseases of Guam (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    Nematocera . University Press of Hawaii, Honolulu, Hawaii. 618 pp. Family Culicidae; see A. Stone and M.D. Delfinado, 1973. 359 Edgren, D.C., V.S...Culicidae, in Delfinado, M.D. and D.E. Hardy (Eds.), A Catalog of the Diptera of the Oriental Region, Vol. 1: Nematocera , pp. 266-343. University Press

  8. LÍNEA CELULAR DE Aedes aegypti (DIPTERA: CULICIDAE AEGY28 REFRACTARIA A LA INFECCIÓN CON LOS VIRUS DENGUE 2 Y FIEBRE AMARILLA AEGY28 Cell Line of Aedes aegypti (Diptera Culicidae is Infection Refractory to Dengue 2 and Yellow Fever Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NADIA Y CASTAÑEDA

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Los cultivos celulares de mosquitos son frecuentemente utilizados para el aislamiento, identificación y caracterización de arbovirus. Para el estudio de los virus dengue (VDEN y virus de fiebre amarilla (VFA se emplean, principalmente, la línea celular C6/36 de Aedes albopictus y la línea celular AP61, obtenida de Aedes pseudoscutellaris. La línea celular de A. aegypti AEGY28, previamente obtenida a partir de tejidos embrionarios del vector, se utilizó en el presente trabajo para evaluar la susceptibilidad a la infección por VDEN y VFA. Para ello, los cultivos celulares se ensayaron a diferente multiplicidad de infección con los aislados clínicos de virus dengue tipo 2 (COL789, MOI: 1 y 5 y VFA (V341, MOI 0,02. Posteriormente se realizó la detección de antígenos virales por la técnica de inmunocitoquímica y su cuantificación por la técnica de CellELISA fluorométrica. Se usaron como controles positivos de infección, tanto células C6/36 como células VERO. Inesperadamente, no se observó inmunoreactividad en las células de A. aegypti infectadas con ambos tipos de virus en ninguno de los MOI o tiempos estudiados. Tampoco se evidenció antígeno por la técnica fluorométrica ni fue posible detectar RNA viral por RTPCR a partir de células infectadas. Por lo tanto, se puede concluir que la línea celular de A. aegypti no es susceptible a la infección por VDEN ni por VFA. Ello podría estar relacionado con características propias de la membrana celular o de la maquinaria enzimática necesaria para la replicación viralMosquito cell derived cultures are useful tools for arbovirus isolation, identification or characterization. For studying dengue (DENV and yellow fever viruses (YFV Aedes albopictus C6/36 or Aedes pseudoscutellaris AP61 cell lines, are normally used. The Aedes aegypti AEGY28 cell line was obtained from embryonic tissues and characterized previously by one of us. In order to evaluate its susceptibility to two

  9. Linea celular de Aedes aegypti (Diptera Culicidae AEGY-28 refractaria a la infección con los virus dengue 2 y fiebre amarilla AEGY-28 Cell Line of Aedes aegypti (Diptera Culicidae is Infection Refractory to Dengue 2 and Yellow Fever Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bello Felio

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Los cultivos celulares de mosquitos son frecuentemente utilizados para el aislamiento, identificación y caracterización de arbovirus. Para el estudio de los virus dengue (VDEN y virus de fiebre amarilla (VFA se emplean, principalmente, la línea celular C6/36 de Aedes albopictus y la línea celular AP-61, obtenida de Aedes pseudoscutellaris. La línea celular de A. aegypti AEGY-28, previamente obtenida a partir de tejidos embrionarios del vector, se utilizó en el presente trabajo para evaluar la susceptibilidad a la infección por VDEN y VFA. Para ello, los cultivos celulares se ensayaron a diferente multiplicidad de infección con los aislados clínicos de virus dengue tipo 2 (COL-789, MOI: 1 y 5 y VFA (V-341, MOI 0,02. Posteriormente se realizó la detección de antígenos virales por la técnica de inmunocitoquímica y su cuantificación por la técnica de Cell-ELISA fluorométrica. Se usaron como controles positivos de infección, tanto células C6/36 como células VERO. Inesperadamente, no se observó inmunoreactividad
    en las células de A. aegypti infectadas con ambos tipos de virus en ninguno de los MOI o tiempos estudiados. Tampoco se evidenció antígeno por la técnica fluorométrica ni fue posible detectar RNA viral por RT-PCR a partir de células infectadas.
    Por lo tanto, se puede concluir que la línea celular de A. aegypti no es susceptible a la infección por VDEN ni por VFA. Ello podría estar relacionado con características propias de la membrana celular o de la maquinaria enzimática necesaria para la replicación viral.Mosquito cell derived cultures are useful tools for arbovirus isolation, identification or characterization. For studying dengue (DENV and yellow fever viruses (YFV Aedes albopictus C6/36 or Aedes pseudoscutellaris AP-61 cell lines, are normally used. The Aedes aegypti AEGY-28 cell line was obtained from embryonic tissues and characterized previously by one of us. In order to evaluate its

  10. Larvicidal activity of oil-resin fractions from the Brazilian medicinal plant Copaifera reticulata Ducke (Leguminosae-Caesalpinoideae against Aedes aegypti (Diptera, Culicidae Atividade larvicida das frações do óleo-resina da planta medicinal brasileira Copaifera reticulata Ducke (Leguminosae-Caesalpinoideae sobre o Aedes aegypti (Diptera, Culicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heloísa Helena Garcia da Silva

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Oil-resin fractions from Copaifera reticulata Ducke (Leguminosae-Caesalpinoideae were evaluated for larvicidal activity on third larval instars of Aedes aegypti, in searching for alternative control methods for this mosquito. The bioactive fractions were chemically monitored by thin-layer chromatography, ¹H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectrometry. Bioassays were performed using five repetitions, at a temperature of 28 ± 1°C, relative humidity of 80 ± 5% and light and dark cycles of 12h. Mortality was indicated by darkening of the cephalic capsule after 24h of exposure of the larvae to the solutions. The most active fractions were CRM1-4 (sesquiterpenes and CRM5-7 (labdane diterpenes, which showed LC50 values of 0.2 and 0.8ppm, respectively.A atividade larvicida das frações do óleo-resina de Copaifera reticulata Ducke (Leguminosae-Caesalpinoideae foi avaliada em larvas de 3º estádio de Aedes aegypti, na busca de alternativas para o controle desse mosquito. As frações bioativas foram monitoradas quimicamente através de cromatografia de camada delgada, analisada por ressonância magnética nuclear de hidrogênio (¹H e 13C e espectrometria de massas. Os bioensaios foram realizados à temperatura de 28±1°C, 80±5% de umidade relativa e fotofase de 12h, com cinco repetições. A mortalidade foi determinada através do escurecimento da cápsula cefálica, após 24h de exposição das larvas às soluções. As frações mais ativas foram CRM1-4 (sesquiterpenos e CRM5-7 (diterpeno labdano, que mostraram os valores de CL50 de 0,2 e 0,8ppm, respectivamente.

  11. Residual effect of two Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis products assayed against Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae in laboratory and outdoors at Rio de Janeiro, Brazil Efeito residual de duas formulações de Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis sobre Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae em condições de laboratório e em simulado de campo, no Rio de Janeiro, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Bento Pereira Lima

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Resistance of the dengue vector to temephos stimulated its substitution for Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis (Bti since 2001 in Brazil. The persistence of the two Bti formulations employed at that time by the Health Ministry, Vectobac G and Aquabac G, was assayed under laboratory and outdoor conditions. Both formulations were tested at 0.2 g/10 liters of water, the same concentration applied in the field for vector control. The tests were done against Ae. aegypti third instar larvae (Rockefeller strain. In the laboratory, Vectobac G and Aquabac G caused at least 95% mortality until 101 and 45 days after treatment, respectively. In the outdoor assays, test containers of different materials were treated with either formulation and placed in a shaded area. Larvae were introduced each 3-6 days and mortality was recorded 24 and 48 hours later. In the first set of assays, performed in June 2001, mortality levels of 70% or more were attained for 2-5 weeks for both formulations in all containers. The exception was for the iron one that rusted, resulting in low mortality after seven days. In the second set of assays (August 2001, 70% mortality was attained for just 1-2 weeks for all the containers and both formulations.RESUMO Resistência do vetor de dengue, Aedes aegypti, a temephos estimulou sua substituição por Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis (Bti desde 2001 no Brasil. A persistência de duas formulações de Bti empregadas naquele ano pelo Ministério da Saúde, Vectobac G e Aquabac G, foi testada em condições externas e de laboratório. Ambas formulações foram testadas a 0,2 g/10 litros de água, a mesma concentração recomendada para o controle do vetor no campo. Os testes foram realizados com larvas de Ae. aegypti de terceiro estádio (linhagem Rockefeller. No laboratório, Vectobac G e Aquabac G induziram pelo menos 95% de mortalidade até 101 e 45 dias depois do tratamento, respectivamente. Nos testes externos, recipientes

  12. Evaluation of oviposition traps as an entomological surveillance method for Aedes aegypti (Diptera, Culicidae Avaliação das armadilhas de oviposição como método de vigilância entomológica para Aedes aegypti (Diptera, Culicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelita Anália Carniel Barbosa

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to describe the behavior of oviposition traps for Aedes aegypti over time, to compare it with the larval survey and to investigate the association with climatic variables. It was conducted in São José do Rio Preto city, São Paulo. Daily climatic data and fortnightly measurements for oviposition traps and larval infestation were collected from October 2003 to September 2004. Three different periods were identified in the behavior of oviposition traps' positivity and mean number of eggs: increase, plateau and decrease in values. These measurements followed the variation of climatic data from the first and third periods. High correlation was obtained between the positivity and the mean number of eggs. The oviposition traps showed higher capacity to detect the vector than did larval survey. It was observed that the first (October to December and third (May to September periods were considered to be the most suitable to use oviposition traps than larval surveys.O estudo teve como objetivos descrever o comportamento da armadilha de oviposição para Aedes aegypti ao longo do tempo, comparar com a pesquisa larvária e investigar sua associação com variáveis climáticas. O trabalho foi realizado em São José do Rio Preto, São Paulo. Entre outubro de 2003 a setembro de 2004, as armadilhas e a pesquisa larvária forneceram dados quinzenais e foram obtidos dados climáticos. Três períodos distintos foram identificados no comportamento da positividade das armadilhas e no número médio de ovos: aumento, patamar e decréscimo dos valores. Estas medidas acompanharam as variações climáticas. Alta correlação foi obtida entre a positividade e número de ovos. As armadilhas de oviposição apresentam maior capacidade para detectar o vetor do que a pesquisa larvária. Foi observado que o primeiro (outubro a dezembro e terceiro (maio a setembro períodos foram os mais adequados para utilização das armadilhas de oviposição em

  13. [Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti L. and associated culicidae fauna in a urban area of southern Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, J; da Silva, M A; Borsato, A M; de Oliveira, V D; Oliveira, F J

    1993-10-01

    Some aspects of the ecology of eleven species of Culicidae that were found breeding in recipients in an urban area of Southern Brazil are presented. A great variety of recipients were listed as efficient breeding sites. Apparently Aedes aegypti has been recently introduced into the region and was limited to two areas of the city. Culex quinquefasciatus, Cx. coronator, Ae. aegypti, Ae. fluviatilis e Limatus durhamii were the predominant species.

  14. Medical Entomology Studies - XV. A Revision of the Subgenus Paraedes of the Genus Aedes (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    Med. Res. 10: 430-75. Diptera Nematocera from the Federated Malay States museums. J. Fed. Malay States Mus. 14: l-139. Philippine nematocerous...Culicidae. p. 266-343. In M. D. Delfinado and D. E. Hardy, Ed. A catalog of the Diptera of the Oriental region. Volume I. Suborder Nematocera . Univ

  15. Mosquito traps designed to capture Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae females: preliminary comparison of Adultrap, MosquiTRAP and backpack aspirator efficiency in a dengue-endemic area of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Maciel-de-Freitas

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available In this report, the efficiency of Adultrap under field conditions is compared to a CDC backpack aspirator and to MosquiTRAP. An urban dengue-endemic area of Rio de Janeiro was selected to evaluate the efficiency of mosquito traps in capturing Aedes aegypti females. Adultrap and aspirator captured similar numbers of Ae. aegypti females, with the former showing high specificity to gravid individuals (93.6%. A subsequent mark-release-recapture experiment was conducted to evaluate Adultrap and MosquiTRAP efficiency concomitantly. With a 6.34% recapture rate, MosquiTRAP captured a higher mean number of female Ae. aegypti per trap than Adultrap (Ç2 = 14.26; df = 1; p < 0,05. However, some MosquiTRAPs (28.12% contained immature Ae. aegypti after 18 days of exposure in the field and could be pointed as an oviposition site for female mosquitoes. Both trapping methods, designed to collect gravid Ae. aegypti females, seem to be efficient, reliable and may aid routine Ae. aegypti surveillance.

  16. Description of the Immature Stages of Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus) rondoni (Neiva & Pinto) (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-05-01

    Neiva & Pinto) (Diptera: Culicidae) Maria Anice Mureb Sallum/+, Richard C Wilkerson* Núcleo de Pesquisa Taxonômica e Sistemática em Entomologia ...Taxonômica e Sistemática em Entomologia Médica, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo. The following specimens were used for setal counts and measurements (the

  17. Phylogeny of Anophelinae (Diptera: Culicidae) Based on Nuclear Ribosomal and Mitochondrial DNA Sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    combining data from nuclear protein-encoding enes for phylogenetic analyses of Noctuoidea (Insecta: Lepidoptera ). Systematic Biology, 49, 202 224. Nixon... Systematic Entomology (2002) 27, 361 382 Phylogeny of Anophelinae (Diptera: Culicidae) based on nuclear ribosomal and mitochondrial DNA sequences...Entomologia M•dica, Departamento de Epidemiologia, Faculdade de Safide Pfiblica, Universidade de S•o Paulo, Brazil, -• Department of Systematic

  18. [The mosquitoes (Diptera Culicidae) of Morocco. Bibliographic review (1916-2001) and inventory of the species].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trari, B; Dakki, M; Himmi, O; el Agbani, M A

    2003-11-01

    The history of the Culicidae of Morocco was related from bibliographical data. A synthesis of the almost entire works carried out on these Insects (Diptera) since 1916 allowed to bring out the main stages of research of which they were the subject, while emphasizing the important periods of large malaria epidemics in Morocco. A short list of species is also given.

  19. Vector competence of Aedes albopictus and Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) for the DEN2-FJ10 and DEN2-FJ11 strains of the dengue 2 virus in Fujian, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xiao-Xia; Li, Chun-Xiao; Zhang, Ying-Mei; Xing, Dan; Dong, Yan-De; Zhang, Heng-Duan; Qin, Cheng-Feng; Zhao, Tong-Yan

    2016-09-01

    Dengue is an acute, emerging, infectious disease transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes that has become a serious global public health problem. The DEN2-FJ10 and DEN2-FJ11 strains of the dengue 2 virus were originally isolated from the serum of a patient with dengue fever in Fujian Province, China, in 1999. Our data provide the first assessment of the vector competence of Aedes mosquitoes with respect to the DEN2-FJ10 and DEN2-FJ11 strains of the dengue virus. There were significant differences in the replication rates of these two viral strains in Aedes albopictus and Aedes aegypti (Paegypti than in Ae. albopictus 5 days post infection whereas replication of the DEN2-FJ11 was greater in Ae. albopictus than in Ae. aegypti 7 days post infection. The replicative ability of the DEN2-FJ11 strain was greater than that of the DEN2-FJ10 strain in infected Ae. albopictus. In infected Ae. aegypti, rapid proliferation of the DEN2-FJ10 strain occurred earlier than in the DEN2-FJ11 strain. There were no significant differences in the midgut and salivary gland infection rates of Ae. albopictus and Ae. aegypti with respect to either viral strain. Although the DEN2-FJ10 and DEN2-FJ11 strains differ in their virulence to neonatal rats, there was no significant difference in the ability of either Ae. albopictus or Ae. aegypti to transmit the DEN2-FJ10 and DEN2-FJ10 strains of the dengue 2 virus (P>0.05). In summary, our results indicate that Ae. albopictus and Ae. aegypti mosquitoes are moderately competent vectors of the DEN2-FJ10 and DEN2-FJ11 strains of the dengue virus and provide the first evidence of the effect of these two viral strains on the vector competence of mosquitoes in China.

  20. DETEKSI MUTASI V1016G PADA GEN VOLTAGE-GATED SODIUM CHANNEL PADA POPULASI Aedes aegypti (DIPTERA: CULICIDAE DI KABUPATEN KLATEN, JAWA TENGAH DENGAN METODE ALLELE-SPECIFIC PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dyah Widiastuti

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakMeluasnya kejadian resistensi pada vektor virus Dengue di Jawa Tengah memerlukan strategi pengelolaan resistensi insektisida secara efektif. Oleh karena itu, informasi mengenai mutasi gen pada posisi 1016 di domain II segmen ke­6 gen VGSC pada nyamuk Aedes aegypti yang menyebabkan perubahan asam amino valin (V menjadi glisin (G akan dapat memperkuat penelitian operasional mengenai strategi pemilihan insektisida dalam program­pengendalian­vektor­Dengue.­Penelitian­ini­menggunakan­uji­Allele-Specific­Polymerase­Chain­Reaction(AS­PCR yang dapat mendeteksi mutasi V1016G. Sampel penelitian ini adalah 22 ekor nyamuk Aedes aegypti dari Kabupaten Klaten yang berumur 2­5 hari. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa 22,7% nyamuk belum mengalami mutasi (V/V, 59,1% nyamuk mengalami mutasi heterozigot (V/G dan 18,2% nyamuk mengalami mutasi homozigot (G/G. Hal ini menunjukkan indikasi terjadinya resistensi populasi nyamuk Ae.aegypti terhadap insektisida sintetik piretroid yang disebabkan oleh mekanisme knockdown resistance.Kata Kunci:­Aedes­aegypti,­mutasi­V1016G,­Allele-Specific­PCR,­VGSCAbstractInsecticides resistance has spread rapidly among dengue vectors from Central Java, and require an effective insecticide resistance management strategies.one of the resistance mechanism in Aedes aegypti may arise through knockdown resistance or kdr which consists of single point mutation within the genes that are targeted by insecticide compounds. Mutation at position 1016 in domain II, segment 6 of the Voltage Gated Sodium Channel gene in Ae. aegypti leads to a valine to glycine substitution (V1016G is associated with resistance to the type II pyrethroid. The result of this study will help us to strengthen basic and operational research on the­development­of­strategies­for­Dengue­vector­control­in­Indonesia.­This­study­utilized­an­allele-specificPolymerase Chain Reaction (AS­PCR assay that could be used to detect the V1016G

  1. Transcriptional analysis of four family 4 P450s in a Puerto Rico strain of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) compared with an Orlando strain and their possible functional roles in permethrin resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    A field strain of Aedes aegypti was collected from Puerto Rico (PR) in October 2008. Based on LD50 values by topical application, the PR strain was 73-fold resistant to permethrin compared to a susceptible Orlando strain. In the presence of piperonyl butoxide (PBO), the resistance of Puerto Rico str...

  2. Real-time PCR Tests in Dutch Exotic Mosquito Surveys; Implementation of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus Identification Tests, and the Development of Tests for the Identification of Aedes atropalpus and Aedes japonicus japonicus (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Vossenberg, B T L H; Ibáñez-Justicia, A; Metz-Verschure, E; van Veen, E J; Bruil-Dieters, M L; Scholte, E J

    2015-05-01

    Since 2009, The Netherlands Food and Consumer Product Safety Authority carries out surveys focusing on, amongst others, the presence of invasive mosquito species (IMS). Special attention is given to exotic container-breeding Aedes species Aedes aegypti (L.), Aedes albopictus (Skuse), Aedes atropalpus (Coquillett), and Aedes japonicus japonicus (Theobald). This study describes the implementation of real-time PCR tests described by Hill et al. (2008) for the identification of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus, and the development of two novel real-time PCR tests for the identification of Ae. atropalpus and Ae. j. japonicus. Initial test showed that optimization of elements of the Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus tests was needed. Method validation tests were performed to determine if the implemented and newly developed tests are fit for routine diagnostics. Performance criteria of analytical sensitivity, analytical specificity, selectivity, repeatability, and reproducibility were determined. In addition, experiments were performed to determine the influence of environmental conditions on the usability of DNA extracted from mosquito specimens trapped in BG-Sentinel traps. The real-time PCR tests were demonstrated to be sensitive, specific, repeatable, reproducible, and are less prone to false negative results compared to partial cytochrome c oxidase I gene sequencing owing to the DNA fragmentation caused by environmental influences.

  3. [Mosquitoes (Diptera, Culicidae) of Smir marshes (northwest of Morocco): inventory and biotypology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Joubari, M; Louah, A; Himmi, O

    2014-02-01

    The Smir marshes are a favorable environment for the growth of many mosquitoes (Diptera, Culicidae). The inventory of Culicidae species reveals 14 species, is 33% of the species of Morocco, distributed in four genera: Culex, Culiseta, Ochlerotatus and Anopheles (with 5, 2, 5 and 2 species respectively) which Anopheles labranchiae, vector of the agent of the malaria in Morocco until 2004. In this study, we investigated the spatiotemporal mesological affinities and we tried to explain the biotypology of mosquito populations of the site. These analyzes revealed several groups of stations and species according to various parameters, especially salinity.

  4. Screening of dengue virus in field-caught Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) by one-step SYBR green-based reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction assay during 2004-2007 in Southern Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chien-Fu; Shu, Pei-Yun; Teng, Hwa-Jen; Su, Chien-Ling; Wu, Jhy-Wen; Wang, Jen-Hsin; Lin, Ting-Hsiang; Huang, Jyh-Hsiung; Wu, Ho-Sheng

    2010-12-01

    We carried out virological surveillance of dengue virus (DENV) in field-caught Aedes mosquitoes during 2004-2007 to estimate the monthly prevalence of infected females in dengue high-risk areas of Taiwan. A total of 92,892 Aedes aegypti (43,133 females and 49,759 males) and 79,315 Aedes albopictus (57,319 females and 21,996 males) adults were collected, grouped into 25,654 pools, and processed for virus detection using a one-step SYBR Green-based real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction assay. DENVs were periodically and sympatrically detected in Ae. aegypti females in accordance with major dengue outbreaks and the corresponding dengue serotypes. Only 0.2% of 7628 pools of Ae. aegypti females were positive for DENVs. This resulted in an overall estimated infection rate (maximum likelihood estimation) of 0.970 per 1000 mosquitoes (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.53-1.65). The total monthly infection rates ranged from 0.50 to 2.23 per 1000 mosquitoes (95% CI = 0.03-10.71). When sampling areas were scaled down to the city level, monthly infection rates increased to 0.73-12.59 (95% CI = 0.06-59.19). Monthly infection rates over all sampling areas and at the city level increased significantly by month. All positive pools were collected in July (one pool), August (two pools), September (one pool), October (three pools), November (four pools), and December (one pool). All four virus serotypes were detected in mosquitoes, which were consistent with dengue serotypes infecting humans in 2004 (DENV-4), 2005 and 2006 (DENV-2 and DENV-3), and 2007 (DENV-1). Our results provide supporting evidence that, in general, DENV infection rates were low in local Aedes mosquito population during 2004-2007 and that transovarial transmission may not be occurring or is occurring at much lower rates than evidenced in some endemic countries.

  5. Nanoparticles in the fight against mosquito-borne diseases: bioactivity of Bruguiera cylindrica-synthesized nanoparticles against dengue virus DEN-2 (in vitro) and its mosquito vector Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murugan, Kadarkarai; Dinesh, Devakumar; Paulpandi, Manickam; Althbyani, Abdulaziz Dakhellah Meqbel; Subramaniam, Jayapal; Madhiyazhagan, Pari; Wang, Lan; Suresh, Udaiyan; Kumar, Palanisamy Mahesh; Mohan, Jagathish; Rajaganesh, Rajapandian; Wei, Hui; Kalimuthu, Kandasamy; Parajulee, Megha N; Mehlhorn, Heinz; Benelli, Giovanni

    2015-12-01

    Mosquitoes are blood-feeding insects serving as the most important vectors for spreading human pathogens and parasites. Dengue is a viral disease mainly vectored through the bite of Aedes mosquitoes. Its transmission has recently increased in urban and semi-urban areas of tropical and subtropical regions worldwide, becoming a major international public health concern. There is no specific treatment for dengue. Its prevention and control solely depend on effective vector control measures. Mangrove plants have been used in Indian traditional medicine for a wide array of purposes. In this research, we proposed a method for biosynthesis of antiviral and mosquitocidal silver nanoparticles (AgNP) using the aqueous extract of Bruguiera cylindrica leaves. AgNP were characterized using a variety of biophysical analyses, including UV-visible spectrophotometry, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Bruguiera cilyndrica aqueous extract and green-synthesized AgNP were tested against the primary dengue vector Aedes aegypti. AgNP were the most effective. LC50 values ranged from 8.93 ppm (larva I) to 30.69 ppm (pupa). In vitro experiments showed that 30 μg/ml of AgNP significantly inhibited the production of dengue viral envelope (E) protein in vero cells and downregulated the expression of dengue viral E gene. Concerning nontarget effects, we observed that the predation efficiency of Carassius auratus against A. aegypti was not affected by exposure at sublethal doses of AgNP. Predation in the control was 71.81 % (larva II) and 50.43 % (larva III), while in an AgNP-treated environment, predation was boosted to 90.25 and 76.81 %, respectively. Overall, this study highlights the concrete potential of green-synthesized AgNP in the fight against dengue virus. Furthermore, B. cylindrica-synthesized AgNP can be employed at low doses to reduce larval and pupal population of A. aegypti, without detrimental

  6. Medical Entomology Studies - XVI. A Review of the Species of Subgenus Verrallina, Genus Aedes, from Sri Lanka and a Revised Description of the Subgenus (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    351-401. Diptera Nematocera from the Federated Malay States Museums. J. Fed. Malay States Mus. 14: 1-139, 2 pls. Diptera, Fam. Culicidae. In P...266-343. In M. D. Delfinado and D. E. Hardy, Ed. A catalog of the Diptera of the Oriental region. Volume I. Suborder Nematocera . Univ. Press Hawaii

  7. Argyritarsis Section of the Subgenus Nyssorhynchus of Anopheles (Diptera: Culicidae). Revision

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    Am. Entomol. Inst. (Ann Arbor) 1(2):1-17. 1967. Estudios sobre mosquitos (Diptera, Culicidae). Ia. Un proyecto para un estudio sistematico de los...subgenero Nyssorhynchus do Brasil. Arq. Hig. Saude Publica 8:141-162. 1950. Do diagnostico diferencial entre A (N) strodel e A (N) pessoai na fase larvaria...Mex. , D. F. , Secr. Salubr. Asist. 181 p. Vargas V. M. 1956. Clave numerica para identificacion de larvas en cuarta fase de Anophelini en Costa Rica

  8. A Revision of the Argyritarsis Section of the Subgenus Nyssorhynchus of Anopheles (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    Middle America. Contrib. Am. Entomol. Inst. (Ann Arbor) 1(2):1-17. 1967. Estudios sobre mosquitos (Diptera, Culicidae). Ia. Un proyecto para un estudio...N) pessoai na fase larvaria. Rev. Bras. Malariol. 2:38-48. Galvao, A. L. A. and F. A. D. Amaral 1938. Sobre urn novo anofelino de Campos do Jordao...Salubr. Taxonomia y distribution. Mex., D. F., P* identification de larvas en cuarta fase de Rev. Biol. Trop. 4:27-34. identification de larvas

  9. The Brazilian Malaria Vector Anopheles (Kerteszia) Cruzii: Life Stages and Biology (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-11-01

    Mosquitos no litoral paranaense. I - Idade fisioldgica de no Parque National da Serra dos Orgaos, Anopheles cruzii (Diptera, Culicidae). Arq. Estado do...no Parque National da Peryassii, A.G. 1908. OS culicideos do Brazil. Serra dos Grgaos, Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Inst. de Manguinhos, Rio de Janeiro...Kerteszia no litoral Guimar%es, A.E. and V.N.M. Victoria. 1986. do estado de Santa Catarina. Rev. Bras. Mosquitos no Parque National da Serra dos

  10. Second Supplement to "A Catalog of the Mosquitoes of the World" (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    Faran 1979:27 (d*, ?*, P*, L*). Type-lot: 1.5 km S of Puyo, Pastaza, Ecuador (USNM). Name Rejected Anopheles subpictus var. vadakadiensis...25. Type Depositories AMC. Institute of Microbiology and Epidemiology, Academy of Medical Science, P.L.A., People’s Republic of China. BMC...YeZanoconion) from Bolivia and Ecuador (Diptera: Culicidae). Mosq. Syst. 11:135-138. Sirivanakarn, S. 1982 (1983). A review of the systematics and

  11. Survey of the mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) of Mayotte.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Goff, Gilbert; Goodman, Steven M; Elguero, Eric; Robert, Vincent

    2014-01-01

    A transversal survey of immature mosquitoes was conducted on Mayotte Island (France) in the Comoros Archipelago, western Indian Ocean, with the aim to inventory the Culicidae and to document inter-species relationships in different habitats. In total 420 habitats were sampled for larvae and/or pupae mosquitoes, resulting in more than 6,000 specimens. Forty species belonging to 15 genera were collected, with eight taxa integrated for the first time to the Mayotte mosquito list. The most frequently recorded species were Stegomyia aegypti, St. albopicta, Anopheles gambiae and Eretmapodites subsimplicipes, the first three species being known vectors of viruses and parasites transmitted to humans. Mean species richness in habitats ranged from 1.00 to 3.29, with notable differences between habitats. For example, water-filled axils of banana leaves, tree-holes and crab-holes had low species richness, while cut bamboo, water pools, abandoned tires and marsh and swamp water had notably higher species richness. Twenty-seven mosquito species belonging to 12 genera were routinely collected (in ≥20% of at least one type of larval habitat) suggesting that multiple species play a role in the biocenosis of these aquatic habitats. Multispecies association was observed in 52% of the habitats. The co-occurrence of up to six species belonging to five genera was recorded in a single habitat. The mosquitoes of Mayotte show notable biogeographical affinities to those of Madagascar, as compared to the African continent. These two potential source areas are nearly equidistant from Mayotte, which in turn indicates biased dispersal from east to west. Our findings suggest that with relatively short-term intensive sampling in different habitats, it is possible to approach exhaustive species inventories based on collection of larvae. Mayotte, with its modest elevation range and land surface, has a notable species richness of mosquitoes with 45 well-documented species belonging to 15 genera.

  12. Mosquito activity of a series of chalcones and 2-pyrazoline derivatives against Aedes aegypti

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae) transmit pathogens to humans, leading to diseases such as yellow fever and dengue fever. Repellents and insecticides are two common interventions to reduce mosquito biting and thereby disease risk. However, overreliance on a chemical or class of chemicals c...

  13. Nota sobre culicídeos (Diptera: Culicidae da bacia do rio Purus, Acre, Amazônia (Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delsio Natal

    1992-04-01

    Full Text Available Foram feitas coletas de mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae na área do projeto de Colonização Pedro Peixoto, no Estado do Acre, Brasil. Obteve-se um total de 4.588 exemplares pertencentes a 53 espécies ou grupos. Salienta-se a ocorrência de Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus oswaldoi.

  14. Attractiveness of MM-X traps baited with human or synthetic odor to mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in The Gambia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qiu, Y.T.; Smallegange, R.C.; Braak, ter C.J.F.; Spitzen, J.; Loon, van J.J.A.; Jawara, M.; Milligan, P.; Galimard, A.M.S.; Beek, van T.A.; Knols, B.G.J.; Takken, W.

    2007-01-01

    Chemical cues play an important role in the host-seeking behavior of blood-feeding mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae). A field study was carried out in The Gambia to investigate the effects of human odor or synthetic odor blends on the attraction of mosquitoes. MM-X traps baited with 16 odor blends to

  15. Culex Verutus, a New Species of the Subgenus Culex (Diptera: Culicidae) from Sierra Leone

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    216 Cu7ex verutus, a new species of the subgenu s1 Cu7ex (Diptera: Culicidae) from Sierra Leone Ralph E. Harbach’ Walter Reed Biosystematics...sp. from Sierra Leone are described and illus- trated. The new species is compared to other members of the guiarti group. This paper describes a...new species of Cu7ex collected in Sierra Leone by Dr. Yiau-Min Huang and Mr. James Pecor during field studies conducted in 1984. The species has been

  16. Structure of host-odour plumes influences catch of Anopheles gambiae s.s. and Aedes aegypti in a dual-choice olfactometer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, T.; Takken, W.; Cardé, R.T.

    2001-01-01

    The effects of structure, concentration and composition of host-odour plumes on catch of female Anopheles gambiae Giles sensu stricto and Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae) were investigated in a dual-choice olfactometer. We demonstrate that the fine-scale structure of host-odour plumes modulat

  17. The impact of industrial anthropization on mosquito (Diptera, Culicidae) communities in mangrove areas of Guanabara Bay (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, A S; Couri, M S; Florindo, L

    2012-02-01

    The effects of industrial anthropization on species composition and community diversity of Culicidae (Diptera) were studied in a mangrove area impacted by industrial activities as compared to a preserved area, both around Guanabara Bay in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Diversity, equitability, and species richness in Culicidae community differed between the studied areas. Indicator species analysis and correspondence analysis were carried out and indicated that the Sabethini, especially Wyeomyia (Phoniomyia) theobaldi Lane, Wyeomyia (Phoniomyia) fuscipes (Edwards), and a non-identified species of Wyeomyia sp. were associated to the preserved area, whereas Aedes taeniorhynchus Wiedemann and Aedes scapularis (Rondani) to the impacted area.

  18. Permethrin resistance in Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) and associated fitness costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Hiang Hao; Zairi, Jaal

    2013-03-01

    Insecticide resistance has become a serious issue in vector management programs. Information on insecticidal resistance and its associated mechanisms is important for successful insecticide resistance management. The selection of a colony of permethrin-resistant Aedes albopictus (Skuse) (Diptera: Culicidae), originating from Penang Island, Malaysia, yielded high larval-specific resistance to permethrin and cross-resistance to deltamethrin. Synergism assays showed that the major mechanism underlying this resistance involves cytochrome P450 monooxygenase. The resistance is autosomal, polygenically inherited and incompletely dominant (D = 0.26). Resistant larvae were reared under different conditions to assess the fitness costs. Under high larval density, larval development time of the resistant SGI strain was significantly longer than the susceptible VCRU strain. In both high- and low-density conditions SGI showed a lower rate of emergence and survival compared with the VCRU strain. Resistant larvae were more susceptible to predation by Toxorhynchites splendens (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Culicidae) larvae. The body size of SGI females reared under high-density conditions was larger compared with females of the susceptible strain. SGI females survived longer when starved than did VCRU females. The energy reserve upon eclosion was positively correlated with the size of the adults.

  19. Mosquito Fauna (Diptera: Culicidae of Hamedan County, Western Iran.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Hossein Zahirnia

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to identify and determine the larval and adult mosquitoes (Culicidae fauna in Hamedan County, western Iran.It was a cross-sectional study which took place in four area of the Hamedan County. Sampling methods for larvae, pupae and adults were dipping, hand catch, night catch and total catch. Larvae and adult mosquitoes collected and were sent to laboratory of Medical Entomology, Hamedan University of Medical Sciences, Hamedan, Iran for further identification to species level to determination of fauna. Data analysis was performed using SPSS software version19.Three genera and eight species of family Culicidae were collected and identified in Hamedan County, Hamedan Province, West Iran, during May to October 2013. These species included: Culex theileri, Cx. pipiens, Cx. antennatus, Culiseta subochrea, Cs. langiareolata, Anopheles superpictus, An. maculipennis and An. stephensi. The species Cx. antennatus and An. stephensi were reported for the first time in Hamedan County.An. stephensi and Cx. antennatus caught had not been previously recorded in Hamedan Province. Due to vast agricultural activities in the province which provides suitable environment for the establishment of various species of mosquitoes and since many of them are potential vectors of human and domesticated animal pathogens, their ecology needs to be studied extensively.

  20. First report of Stegomyia aegypti (= Aedes aegypti) in Mexico City, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuri-Morales, P; Correa-Morales, F; González-Acosta, C; Sánchez-Tejeda, G; Dávalos-Becerril, E; Fernanda Juárez-Franco, M; Díaz-Quiñonez, A; Huerta-Jimenéz, H; Mejía-Guevara, M D; Moreno-García, M; González-Roldán, J F

    2017-01-20

    Stegomyia aegypti (= Aedes aegypti) (Diptera: Culicidae) is a species of mosquito that is currently widespread in Mexico. Historically, the mosquito has been distributed across most tropical and subtropical areas lower than 1700 m a.s.l. Currently, populations that are found at higher altitudes in regions with cold and dry climates suggest that these conditions do not limit the colonization and population growth of S. aegypti. During a survey of mosquitoes in September 2015, larvae of S. aegypti mosquitoes were found in two different localities in Mexico City, which is located at about 2250 m a.s.l. Mexico City is the most populous city in Mexico and has inefficient drainage and water supply systems. These factors may result in the provision of numerous larval breeding sites. Mosquito monitoring and surveillance are now priorities for the city.

  1. National Mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) Survey in The Netherlands 2010-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibañez-Justicia, A; Stroo, A; Dik, M; Beeuwkes, J; Scholte, E J

    2015-03-01

    From 2010 onwards, a nationwide mosquito monitoring scheme has been conducted in The Netherlands with the aim of gaining crucial information about mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) species composition, geographical distributions, biodiversity, and habitat preferences. The results of this study are based on 778 randomly sampled mosquito locations. These are divided into three main habitat types: urban, rural-agricultural, and natural areas. Twenty-seven mosquito species were found: 26 indigenous and 1 exotic, Aedes japonicus japonicus (Theobald, 1901). The preliminary results are presented here, with details of their species distribution and seasonality. Monitoring the temporal and spatial distribution of mosquitoes is an essential step in the risk analysis of emerging mosquito-borne diseases.

  2. [Detection of flavivirus in mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) from Easter Island-Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collao, Ximena; Prado, Lorena; González, Christian; Vásquez, Ana; Araki, Romina; Henríquez, Tuki; Peña, Cindy M

    2015-02-01

    Flaviviruses are arthropod-borne viruses, mainly by mosquitoes of the genera Aedes and Culex (Culicidae) that are detected in tropical and subtropical areas. Main flaviviruses of public health importance are: dengue, West Nile virus, yellow fever, among others. In continental Chile, flaviviruses has not been detected. However, there are indigenous cases of dengue detected in Easter Island since 2002, as the presence of its vector Aedes aegypti. The aim of this study was: To determine diversity of flavivirus mosquitoes present in Easter Island. Thirty pools of mosquitoes collected in Hanga Roa were analyzed; a RT-PCR nested flavivirus was performed. Thirteen positive samples were detected and the amplification products were sequenced, identifying two specific flavivirus Insect, the Cell fusing agent virus and other related viruses Kamiti River. This is the first study in Chile showed the presence of flavivirus in vectors in Easter Island.

  3. Medical Entomology Studies - XI. The Subgenus Stegomyia of Aedes in the Oriental Region with Keys to the Species (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    aegypti Linnaeus, 1762 ( Insecta , Diptera); proposed validation and interpretation under the plenary powers of the species so named. Z. N. (S.) 1216...Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine and Medical Parasitology. Part II. Filariasis. Mem. Lpool. Sch. Trop. Med. 4 (Ap. ) ii: l-14. Huang: Aedes

  4. The Susceptibility and Behavioral Response of Anopheles Albimanus Weidemann and Anopheles Vestitipennis Dyar and Knab (Diptera: Culicidae) to Insecticides in Northern Belize, Central America

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    33:205-211. 66 Marquetti, M.C.., A. Navarro and JA Bisset. 1990. Estudio de la actividad hematofagica de Anopheles vestitipennis Dyar & Knab, 1906...Garcia. 1986. Estudio estaeional de sitios de reposo de anophelinos (Diptera: Culicidae). [Studies of the resting places ofanophelines (Diptera...Anofelinos mexicanos . Taxonomia y distribucion [Mexican anophelines. Taxonomy and distribution]. Mex.., D.F.., ecr. Salubr. Assist. CNEP/SS~ 181 pp

  5. Vector Competence of Peruvian Mosquitoes (Diptera:Culicidae) for a Subtype IIIC Strain in the Venezuelan Equine Encephalomyelitis Complex Isolated from Mosquitoes Captured in Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-03-01

    strains of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus. J Am Mosq Control Assoc 15:295–298. Turell MJ, Gargan TP II, Bailey CL. 1984. Replication and dissemination...Venezuelan equine encephalitis (VEE) complex alphavirus by Culex (Melanoconion) gnomatos (Diptera: Culicidae) in northeastern Peru. J Med Entomol 42:404–408

  6. Analyzing mosquito (Diptera: culicidae diversity in Pakistan by DNA barcoding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Ashfaq

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although they are important disease vectors mosquito biodiversity in Pakistan is poorly known. Recent epidemics of dengue fever have revealed the need for more detailed understanding of the diversity and distributions of mosquito species in this region. DNA barcoding improves the accuracy of mosquito inventories because morphological differences between many species are subtle, leading to misidentifications. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Sequence variation in the barcode region of the mitochondrial COI gene was used to identify mosquito species, reveal genetic diversity, and map the distribution of the dengue-vector species in Pakistan. Analysis of 1684 mosquitoes from 491 sites in Punjab and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa during 2010-2013 revealed 32 species with the assemblage dominated by Culex quinquefasciatus (61% of the collection. The genus Aedes (Stegomyia comprised 15% of the specimens, and was represented by six taxa with the two dengue vector species, Ae. albopictus and Ae. aegypti, dominant and broadly distributed. Anopheles made up another 6% of the catch with An. subpictus dominating. Barcode sequence divergence in conspecific specimens ranged from 0-2.4%, while congeneric species showed from 2.3-17.8% divergence. A global haplotype analysis of disease-vectors showed the presence of multiple haplotypes, although a single haplotype of each dengue-vector species was dominant in most countries. Geographic distribution of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus showed the later species was dominant and found in both rural and urban environments. CONCLUSIONS: As the first DNA-based analysis of mosquitoes in Pakistan, this study has begun the construction of a barcode reference library for the mosquitoes of this region. Levels of genetic diversity varied among species. Because of its capacity to differentiate species, even those with subtle morphological differences, DNA barcoding aids accurate tracking of vector populations.

  7. Nationwide inventory of mosquito biodiversity (Diptera: Culicidae) in Belgium, Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Versteirt, V; Boyer, S; Damiens, D; De Clercq, E M; Dekoninck, W; Ducheyne, E; Grootaert, P; Garros, C; Hance, T; Hendrickx, G; Coosemans, M; Van Bortel, W

    2013-04-01

    To advance our restricted knowledge on mosquito biodiversity and distribution in Belgium, a national inventory started in 2007 (MODIRISK) based on a random selection of 936 collection points in three main environmental types: urban, rural and natural areas. Additionally, 64 sites were selected because of the risk of importing a vector or pathogen in these sites. Each site was sampled once between May and October 2007 and once in 2008 using Mosquito Magnet Liberty Plus traps. Diversity in pre-defined habitat types was calculated using three indices. The association between species and environmental types was assessed using a correspondence analysis. Twenty-three mosquito species belonging to traditionally recognized genera were found, including 21 indigenous and two exotic species. Highest species diversity (Simpson 0.765) and species richness (20 species) was observed in natural areas, although urban sites scored also well (Simpson 0.476, 16 species). Four clusters could be distinguished based on the correspondence analysis. The first one is related to human modified landscapes (such as urban, rural and industrial sites). A second is composed of species not associated with a specific habitat type, including the now widely distributed Anopheles plumbeus. A third group includes species commonly found in restored natural or bird migration areas, and a fourth cluster is composed of forest species. Outcomes of this study demonstrate the effectiveness of the designed sampling scheme and support the choice of the trap type. Obtained results of this first country-wide inventory of the Culicidae in Belgium may serve as a basis for risk assessment of emerging mosquito-borne diseases.

  8. Molecular identification of mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in southeastern Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batovska, Jana; Blacket, Mark J; Brown, Karen; Lynch, Stacey E

    2016-05-01

    DNA barcoding is a modern species identification technique that can be used to distinguish morphologically similar species, and is particularly useful when using small amounts of starting material from partial specimens or from immature stages. In order to use DNA barcoding in a surveillance program, a database containing mosquito barcode sequences is required. This study obtained Cytochrome Oxidase I (COI) sequences for 113 morphologically identified specimens, representing 29 species, six tribes and 12 genera; 17 of these species have not been previously barcoded. Three of the 29 species ─ Culex palpalis, Macleaya macmillani, and an unknown species originally identified as Tripteroides atripes ─ were initially misidentified as they are difficult to separate morphologically, highlighting the utility of DNA barcoding. While most species grouped separately (reciprocally monophyletic), the Cx. pipiens subgroup could not be genetically separated using COI. The average conspecific and congeneric p-distance was 0.8% and 7.6%, respectively. In our study, we also demonstrate the utility of DNA barcoding in distinguishing exotics from endemic mosquitoes by identifying a single intercepted Stegomyia aegypti egg at an international airport. The use of DNA barcoding dramatically reduced the identification time required compared with rearing specimens through to adults, thereby demonstrating the value of this technique in biosecurity surveillance. The DNA barcodes produced by this study have been uploaded to the 'Mosquitoes of Australia-Victoria' project on the Barcode of Life Database (BOLD), which will serve as a resource for the Victorian Arbovirus Disease Control Program and other national and international mosquito surveillance programs.

  9. Online database for mosquito (Diptera, Culicidae) occurrence records in French Guiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talaga, Stanislas; Murienne, Jérôme; Dejean, Alain; Leroy, Céline

    2015-01-01

    A database providing information on mosquito specimens (Arthropoda: Diptera: Culicidae) collected in French Guiana is presented. Field collections were initiated in 2013 under the auspices of the CEnter for the study of Biodiversity in Amazonia (CEBA: http://www.labexceba.fr/en/). This study is part of an ongoing process aiming to understand the distribution of mosquitoes, including vector species, across French Guiana. Occurrences are recorded after each collecting trip in a database managed by the laboratory Evolution et Diversité Biologique (EDB), Toulouse, France. The dataset is updated monthly and is available online. Voucher specimens and their associated DNA are stored at the laboratory Ecologie des Forêts de Guyane (Ecofog), Kourou, French Guiana. The latest version of the dataset is accessible through EDB's Integrated Publication Toolkit at http://130.120.204.55:8080/ipt/resource.do?r=mosquitoes_of_french_guiana or through the Global Biodiversity Information Facility data portal at http://www.gbif.org/dataset/5a8aa2ad-261c-4f61-a98e-26dd752fe1c5 It can also be viewed through the Guyanensis platform at http://guyanensis.ups-tlse.fr.

  10. Larvicidal Effects of Four Citrus Peel Essential Oils Against the Arbovirus Vector Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campolo, Orlando; Romeo, Flora V; Algeri, Giuseppe M; Laudani, Francesca; Malacrinò, Antonino; Timpanaro, Nicolina; Palmeri, Vincenzo

    2016-02-01

    In this study, we evaluated the larvicidal activity of four citrus essential oils (EOs; sweet orange, mandarin, bergamot, and lemon) against the arbovirus vector Aedes albopictus (Skuse) (Diptera: Culicidae) under laboratory conditions. Through gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analyses, we found that in sweet orange, mandarin, and lemon EOs, limonene was the most abundant compound, whereas linalyl acetate was the most abundant in the bergamot EO. All tested EOs showed a marked larvicidal activity, in particular sweet orange, lemon, and bergamot that killed all treated larvae. After 24 h of exposure, the LC50 values of the tested citrus EOs ranged from 145.27 (lemon EO) to 318.07 mg liter(-1) (mandarin EO), while LC(95) ranged from 295.13 to 832.44 mg liter(-1). After 48 h of exposure, the estimated LC(50) values decreased to values ranging from 117.29 to 209.38 mg liter(-1), while LC(95) ranged from 231.85 to 537.36 mg liter(-1). The results obtained from these evaluations, together with the large availability at reasonable costs of citrus EOs, are promising for the potential development of a new botanical mosquitocide.

  11. Worthy of their name: how floods drive outbreaks of two major floodwater mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berec, Ludĕk; Gelbic, Ivan; Sebesta, Oldrich

    2014-01-01

    An understanding of how climate variables drive seasonal dynamics of mosquito populations is critical to mitigating negative impacts of potential outbreaks, including both nuisance effects and risk of mosquito-borne infectious disease. Here, we identify climate variables most affecting seasonal dynamics of two major floodwater mosquitoes, Aedes vexans (Meigen, 1830) and Aedes sticticus (Meigen, 1838) (Diptera: Culicidae), along the lower courses of the Dyje River, at the border between the Czech Republic and Austria. Monthly trap counts of both floodwater mosquitoes varied both across sites and years. Despite this variability, both models used to fit the observed data at all sites (and especially that for Ae. sticticus) and site-specific models fitted the observed data quite well. The most important climate variables we identified-temperature and especially flooding-were driving seasonal dynamics of both Aedes species. We suggest that flooding determines seasonal peaks in the monthly mosquito trap counts while temperature modulates seasonality in these counts. Hence, floodwater mosquitoes indeed appear worthy of their name. Moreover, the climate variables we considered for modeling were able reasonably to predict mosquito trap counts in the month ahead. Our study can help in planning flood management; timely notification of people, given that these mosquitoes are a real nuisance in this region; public health policy management to mitigate risk from such mosquito-borne diseases as that caused in humans by the Tahyna virus; and anticipating negative consequences of climate change, which are expected only to worsen unless floods, or the mosquitoes themselves, are satisfactorily managed.

  12. Artificial activation of mature unfertilized eggs in the malaria vector mosquito, Anopheles stephensi (Diptera, Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Daisuke S; Hatakeyama, Masatsugu; Matsuoka, Hiroyuki

    2013-08-01

    In the past decade, many transgenic lines of mosquitoes have been generated and analyzed, whereas the maintenance of a large number of transgenic lines requires a great deal of effort and cost. In vitro fertilization by an injection of cryopreserved sperm into eggs has been proven to be effective for the maintenance of strains in mammals. The technique of artificial egg activation is a prerequisite for the establishment of in vitro fertilization by sperm injection. We demonstrated that artificial egg activation is feasible in the malaria vector mosquito, Anopheles stephensi (Diptera, Culicidae). Nearly 100% of eggs dissected from virgin females immersed in distilled water darkened, similar to normally oviposited fertilized eggs. It was revealed by the cytological examination of chromosomes that meiotic arrest was relieved in these eggs approximately 20 min after incubation in water. Biochemical examinations revealed that MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase)/ERK (extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase) and MEK (MAPK/ERK kinase) were dephosphorylated similar to that in fertilized eggs. These results indicate that dissected unfertilized eggs were activated in distilled water and started development. Injection of distilled water into body cavity of the virgin blood-fed females also induced activation of a portion of eggs in the ovaries. The technique of artificial egg activation is expected to contribute to the success of in vitro fertilization in A. stephensi.

  13. Screening of Asteraceae (Compositae Plant Extracts for Larvicidal Activity against Aedes fluviatilis (Diptera: Culicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Macêdo Maria E

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Ethanol extracts of 83 plants species belonging to the Asteraceae (Compositae family, collected in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil, were tested for larvicidal activity against the mosquito Aedes fluviatilis - Diptera: Culicidae. The extract from Tagetes minuta was the most active with a LC90 of 1.5 mg/l and LC50 of 1.0 mg/l. This plant has been the object of several studies by other groups and its active components have already been identified as thiophene derivatives, a class of compounds present in many Asteraceae species. The extract of Eclipta paniculata was also significantly active, with a LC90 of 17.2 mg/l and LC50 of 3.3 mg/l and no previous studies on its larvicidal activity or chemical composition could be found in the literature. Extracts of Achryrocline satureoides, Gnaphalium spicatum, Senecio brasiliensis, Trixis vauthieri, Tagetes patula and Vernonia ammophila were less active, killing more than 50% of the larvae only at the higher dose tested (100 mg/l.

  14. Development of the immature stages of Culex (Culex saltanensis Dyar (Diptera, Culicidae under laboratory conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Antonio C. Zequi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Development of the immature stages of Culex (Culex saltanensis Dyar (Diptera, Culicidae under laboratory conditions. Culex (Culex saltanensis Dyar, 1928 is becoming frequent and abundant in natural and artificial breeding sites in urban and rural areas of Brazil. This study contributes to the knowledge of the biology of a Brazilian strain of C. saltanensis. The development of specimens reared individually or grouped was observed. The study was conducted at a constant temperature of 27 ± 2°C, 14L:10D photoperiod and 80 ± 5% relative humidity. The immature stages were observed every 6 hours until adult emergence, which occurred in 12.29 days among individually reared specimens and in 13.12 days among group-reared specimens. Egg rafts for the experiment were obtained from the laboratory and field. Eggs hatched at a rate of 97.48 ± 2.32%. More eggs per egg raft were obtained from the field than from the laboratory. Males from individually reared specimens emerged in 12.29 ± 1.11 days and females in 13.12 ± 1.58 days. The male-female ratio was 1:1. Larval survival rate was higher than 85% for larvae reared isolated and higher than 95% for group-reared larvae. The Culex saltanensis life cycle was completed within 12 to 14 days, where larval instars I and IV took the most time to develop and the pupae, the shortest.

  15. Culicinae (Diptera: Culicidae Mosquitoes in Chabahar County, Sistan and Baluchistan Province, Southeastern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SH Moosa-Kazemi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available  Background: Mosquito-borne diseases are a major public health threat in Iran. The objective of this study was to de­ter­mine the fauna of culicinae mosquitoes for future mosquito control programs.Methods: Three genera and eleven species of the subfamily Culicinae (Diptera: Culicidae were collected by dipping tech­nique and identified in Chabahar County, Sistan and Baluchistan Province, southeastern Iran, during January, Feb­ru­ary, and March 2007.Results: The collected species included:  Aedes vexans (new occurrence record for the province, Culex  arbieeni, Cx. bitaeniorhynchus, Cx. deserticola, Cx. hortensis, Cx. perexiguus, Cx. pipiens, Cx.  pseudovishnui, Cx. pusillus, Cx. quinquefasciatus, Cx. sinaiticus, Cx. theileri, Cx. tritaeniorhynchus, Culiseta longiareolata, Ochlerotatus cabal­lus, Oc. caspius, and Uranotaenia unguiculata.Conclusion: Our observations indicate that, in South of Iran hot and wet climatic conditions support the persistence of culicinae mosquitoes. As our study, regular monitoring of culicinae mosquitoes in this area could be the most use­ful for mosquito control and mosquito-borne disease prevention.

  16. Culicinae (Diptera: Culicidae Mosquitoes in Chabahar County, Sistan and Baluchistan Province, Southeastern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SH Moosa-Kazemi

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available   Abstract Background: Mosquito-borne diseases are a major public health threat in Iran. The objective of this study was to de­ter­mine the fauna of culicinae mosquitoes for future mosquito control programs."nMethods: Three genera and eleven species of the subfamily Culicinae (Diptera: Culicidae were collected by dipping tech­nique and identified in Chabahar County, Sistan and Baluchistan Province, southeastern Iran, during January, Feb­ru­ary, and March 2007."nResults: The collected species included:  Aedes vexans (new occurrence record for the province, Culex  arbieeni, Cx. bitaeniorhynchus, Cx. deserticola, Cx. hortensis, Cx. perexiguus, Cx. pipiens, Cx.  pseudovishnui, Cx. pusillus, Cx. quinquefasciatus, Cx. sinaiticus, Cx. theileri, Cx. tritaeniorhynchus, Culiseta longiareolata, Ochlerotatus cabal­lus, Oc. caspius, and Uranotaenia unguiculata."nConclusion: Our observations indicate that, in South of Iran hot and wet climatic conditions support the persistence of culicinae mosquitoes. As our study, regular monitoring of culicinae mosquitoes in this area could be the most use­ful for mosquito control and mosquito-borne disease prevention.

  17. Mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) diversity of a forest-fragment mosaic in the Amazon rain forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchings, Rosa Sá Gomes; Sallum, Maria Anice Mureb; Hutchings, Roger William

    2011-03-01

    To study the impact of Amazonian forest fragmentation on the mosquito fauna, an inventory of Culicidae was conducted in the upland forest research areas of the Biological Dynamics of Forest Fragments Project located 60 km north of Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil. The culicid community was sampled monthly between February 2002 and May 2003. CDC light traps, flight interception traps, manual aspiration, and net sweeping were used to capture adult specimens along the edges and within forest fragments of different sizes (1, 10, and 100 ha), in second-growth areas surrounding the fragments and around camps. We collected 5,204 specimens, distributed in 18 genera and 160 species level taxa. A list of mosquito taxa is presented with 145 species found in the survey, including seven new records for Brazil, 16 new records for the state of Amazonas, along with the 15 morphotypes that probably represent undescribed species. No exotic species [Aedes aegypti (L.) and Aedes albopictus (Skuse)] were found within the sampled areas. Several species collected are potential vectors of Plasmodium causing human malaria and of various arboviruses. The epidemiological and ecological implications of mosquito species found are discussed, and the results are compared with other mosquito inventories from the Amazon region.

  18. Avaliação de atraentes de oviposição, identificados em infusões de capim colonião (Panicum maximum) para fêmeas de Aedes aegypti (L. 1762) (Diptera: Culicidae) em condições de semicampo e campo.

    OpenAIRE

    Rosemary Aparecida Roque

    2007-01-01

    RESUMO O mosquito Aedes aegypti é o transmissor da dengue e da febre amarela urbana no Brasil. O monitoramento do vetor pode ser feito por meio de armadilhas associadas a atraentes específicos. A armadilha para captura de adultos, MosquiTRAP é uma nova ferramenta que está sendo utilizada no monitoramento do A. aegypti em área urbana, enquanto que o AtrAedes é um atraente sintético de oviposição, especifico para fêmeas grávidas. O nonanal, decanal, p-cresol, 3-metil indol, benzotiazol e...

  19. Avaliação do potencial inseticida de extratos salinos de sementes de seis espécies de plantas (família Fabaceae) contra Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) L. em diferentes estágios do ciclo biológico

    OpenAIRE

    Chagas, Juliana Macêdo

    2016-01-01

    Atualmente, 4 vírus podem ser veiculados pelo Aedes aegypti, sendo estes o da Febre amarela urbana, Chikungunya, Zika e o Dengue, este ultimo, é atualmente o causador de uma das principais doenças reemergente do mundo. Cerca de 3 bilhões de pessoas encontram-se sob o risco de se infectarem pelos vírus. O controle dessas enfermidades é feito através do combate ao inseto transmissor, o A. aegypti, por meio da utilização em ampla escala de inseticidas químicos, os quais são altamente tóxicos par...

  20. A New Species of Culex (Eumelanomyia) from India with Descriptions of Pupae and Larvae of Cx. pluvialis Barraud and Cx. iphis Barraud (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    Barraud and Cx. <@is Barraud (Diptera: Culicidae)l Sunthorn Sirivanakarn 2 ABSTRACT. All known stages of CuZex Nilgiri Hills, Madras, India and the...specimens collected by Be N. Mohan in the Nilgiri Hills, Madras, India in 1974 and by Eb L. Peyton and Y,-M. Huang in Sri Lanka in 1975% These collec...of topotypic specimens of CUZSX in the Nilgiri Hills have been a valuable contribution to the taxonomic knowledge of several Indian species. The

  1. Field Responses of Anopheles gambiae Complex (Diptera: Culicidae) in Liberia using Yeast-Generated Carbon Dioxide and Synthetic Lure-Baited Light Traps

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    VECTOR-BORNE DISEASES, SURVEILLANCE, PREVENTION Field Responses of Anopheles gambiae Complex (Diptera: Culicidae) in Liberia using Yeast-Generated...and light, bed-net, tent, andodor-baited traps (Mboera 2005). TheCenters forDiseaseControl and Prevention (CDC) light trap with its typical 4Ð6 W...using paper- clips. Although primarily developed and used to attract day ßying Stegomyia ( Aedes ) mosquitoes, blends of this lureÕs primary ingredients

  2. [Effect of several extracts derived from plants on the survival of larvae of Aedes fluviatilis (Lutz) (Diptera: Culicidae) in the laboratory].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consoli, R A; Mendes, N M; Pereira, J P; Santos, B de S; Lamounier, M A

    1988-01-01

    The larvicidal properties of 34 plant extracts were tested against Aedes fluviatilis (Lutz) (Diptera: Culicidae) larvae, at 100, 10 and 1 ppm concentrations; 26.6% of the extracts enhanced larval mortality (alpha = 0.05) at 100 ppm (Anacardium occidentale, Agave americana, Allium sativum, Coriandrum sativum, Nerium oleander, Spatodea campanulata, Tibouchina scrobiculata and Vernonia salzmanni). Anacardic acid (A. occidentale) was effective at 10 ppm and A. sativum (crude extract) at 1 ppm.

  3. Dispersal of Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae) in a Hawaiian rain forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapointe, D.A.

    2008-01-01

    Introduced mosquito-borne pathogens avian malaria (Plasmodium relictum Grassi and Feletti) and avian pox virus (Avipoxvirus) have been implicated in the past extinctions and declines of Hawaiian avifauna and remain significant obstacles to the recovery and restoration of endemic Hawaiian birds. Effective management of avian disease will require extensive mosquito control efforts that are guided by the local ecology of the vector Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae). During October and November 1997 and September through November 1998 five mark-release-recapture experiments with laboratory-reared Cx. quinquefasciatus were conducted in a native rain forest on Hawaii Island. Of the overall 66,047 fluorescent dye-marked and released females, 1,192 (1.8%) were recaptured in 43-52 CO2-baited traps operated for 10-12-d trapping periods. Recaptured mosquitoes were trapped in all directions and at distances up to 3 km from the release site. The cumulative mean distance traveled (MDTs) over the trapping period ranged from a high of 1.89 km after 11 d (September 1998) to a low of 0.81 km after 11 d (November 1998). Released mosquitoes moved predominately in a downwind direction and they seemed to use forestry roads as dispersal corridors. Applying an estimated MDT of 1.6 km to a geographical information system-generated map of the Hakalau Forest National Wildlife Refuge clearly demonstrated that the effective refuge area could be reduced 60% by mosquitoes infiltrating into managed refuge lands. These findings should have significant implications for the design of future refuges and development of effective mosquito-borne avian disease control strategies.

  4. Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) and their relevance as disease vectors in the city of Vienna, Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebl, Karin; Zittra, Carina; Silbermayr, Katja; Obwaller, Adelheid; Berer, Dominik; Brugger, Katharina; Walter, Melanie; Pinior, Beate; Fuehrer, Hans-Peter; Rubel, Franz

    2015-02-01

    Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) are important vectors for a wide range of pathogenic organisms. As large parts of the human population in developed countries live in cities, the occurrence of vector-borne diseases in urban areas is of particular interest for epidemiologists and public health authorities. In this study, we investigated the mosquito occurrence in the city of Vienna, Austria, in order to estimate the risk of transmission of mosquito-borne diseases. Mosquitoes were captured using different sampling techniques at 17 sites in the city of Vienna. Species belonging to the Culex pipiens complex (78.8 %) were most abundant, followed by Coquillettidia richiardii (10.2 %), Anopheles plumbeus (5.4 %), Aedes vexans (3.8 %), and Ochlerotatus sticticus (0.7 %). Individuals of the Cx. pipiens complex were found at 80.2 % of the trap sites, while 58.8 % of the trap sites were positive for Cq. richiardii and Ae. vexans. Oc. sticticus was captured at 35.3 % of the sites, and An. plumbeus only at 23.5 % of the trap sites. Cx. pipiens complex is known to be a potent vector and pathogens like West Nile virus (WNV), Usutu virus (USUV), Tahyna virus (TAHV), Sindbis virus (SINV), Plasmodium sp., and Dirofilaria repens can be transmitted by this species. Cq. richiardii is a known vector species for Batai virus (BATV), SINV, TAHV, and WNV, while Ae. vexans can transmit TAHV, USUV, WNV, and Dirofilaria repens. An. plumbeus and Oc. sticticus seem to play only a minor role in the transmission of vector-borne diseases in Vienna. WNV, which is already wide-spread in Europe, is likely to be the highest threat in Vienna as it can be transmitted by several of the most common species, has already been shown to pose a higher risk in cities, and has the possibility to cause severe illness.

  5. Sitios potenciales para la multiplicación de aedes aegypti (diptera: culicidae en Relación con las características de las viviendas de la comunidad "La Carpio", San Josí, Costa Rica, durante la estación seca de 2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olger Calderón Arguedas

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó la identificación y tipificación de los potenciales criaderos para Ae. aegypti en viviendas pertenecientes a los sectores que conforman el caserío "La Carpio", San José, Costa Rica. Las viviendas visitadas fueron caracterizadas en cuatro categorías que se establecieron con base en su tipo de construcción y materiales utilizados. El número de potenciales criaderos por vivienda fue correlacionado con el número de habitantes respectivo. Se pudieron identificar 573 contenedores permisivo s para la multiplicación de Ae. aegypti, que estuvieron representados en su mayoría por estañones y baldes, los cuales tuvieron una localización predominantemente peridomiciliar. La positividad por Ae. aegypti se expresó de acuerdo con los índices entomológicos usuales (índice de contenedores: IC; índice de viviendas: IV e índice de Breteau: IB. Los índices entomológicos más altos se observaron en el sector 4 (IC: 5.66, IV:8.08, IB: 9.09. Se observó una relación inversa entre la frecuencia relativa al número de viviendas y la cantidad de criaderos potenciales por casa. Esta relación fue similar en las cuatro categorías de vivienda identificadas. No se pudo evidenciar una correlación entre la cantidad de posibles criaderos respecto al número de habitantes por vivienda. Los bajos índices entomológicos y el predominio de potenciales criaderos representados por depósitos de agua no eliminables,parecen indicar que los pobladores muestran una adecuada concientización acerca del problema de salud que representa la presencia de Ae. aegypti en el caserío, que podría ser el resultado de las intensas campañas preventivas desencadenadas por los personeros de salud.

  6. [A new technique for the study of thoracic sclerites of mosquitoes (Diptera, Culicidae) allowing correct identification of genera and species].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalin, A V; Aĭbulatov, S V

    2012-01-01

    A new technique for the study of the external morphology of thoracic sclerites of mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) is elaborated. According to this method, the shape of sclerites and the location of setal and scale bases can be examined under a scanning electron or an optical microscopes even in cases when setae or scales are lost. The method can be recommended for the damaged material, as it often happens while sample collecting. The bases of setae differ significantly from those of scales in the size of the orifice in the socket. The diameter of setal bases usually exceeds 100 microns, while the diameter of scale bases is about 30 microns. The analysis of the structure of sclerites (and the disposition of setae and scales on the sclerites) taken from the different specimens of one species will allow describing intraspecific variations of the given complex of morphological characters. The comparison of species from different genera of family Culicidae, as well as the comparison of closely related species, will presumably help evaluating the diagnostic value of thoracic sclerites as morphological characters.

  7. Síntese, Caracterização e Atividade Biológica do Acetato de Cu(II para Larvas de Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae e Bactérias Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhimurium e Lysteria monocytogenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jéssica V. Nardeli

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was the synthesis of Cu(II acetate route carbonate for analysis of biological activity in larvae 3rd instar of Aedes aegypti (Rockefeller strain and bacteries gram-negative and gram-positive. The characterization the sample commercial and synthesized via carbonate was accomplished by FTIR and indicated the formation of Cu(II acetate by the  bands 1425-1625 cm-1. Analyses by UV-Vis showed bands at 244 nm attributed to acetate and 704 nm to the Cu(II. The melting point for commercial sample and route carbonate was 117 ºC. The results of the bioassays for toxicity of Cu(II acetate CL10 showed 14.48; CL50 CL90 22.81 and 50.00 mg L-1. The antibiograms showed bactericidal activity for grams and concentration-dependent in the range of 10-1 to 10-4 mol L-1. The values ​​of the inhibition zones for bacteria found were 16 to 10 mm of Cu(II acetate. Results demonstrated significant biological activity for of Cu(II acetate and the need for continuing studies for investigation of Cu(II acetate as an alternative to the comprehensive control of immature in breeding, micro / food chain and even the attractiveness of insects females for breeding

  8. Population structure of the mosquito Aedes aegypti (Stegomyia aegypti) in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasheed, S B; Boots, M; Frantz, A C; Butlin, R K

    2013-12-01

    Eleven microsatellite markers were used to determine the genetic population structure and spread of Aedes aegypti (Stegomyia aegypti) (Diptera: Culicidae) in Pakistan using mosquitoes collected from 13 different cities. There is a single genetic cluster of Ae. aegypti in Pakistan with a pattern of isolation by distance within the population. The low level of isolation by distance suggests the long-range passive dispersal of this mosquito, which may be facilitated by the tyre trade in Pakistan. A decrease in genetic diversity from south to north suggests a recent spread of this mosquito from Karachi. A strong negative correlation between genetic distance and the quality of road connections shows that populations in cities connected by better road networks are less differentiated, which suggests the human-aided passive dispersal of Ae. aegypti in Pakistan. Dispersal on a large spatial scale may facilitate the strategy of introducing transgenic Ae. aegypti or intracellular bacteria such as Wolbachia to control the spread of dengue disease in Pakistan, but it also emphasizes the need for simple measures to control container breeding sites.

  9. Larvicidal potential of commercially available pine (Pinus longifolia) and cinnamon ( Cinnamnomum zeylanicum) oils against dengue fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti L.( Diptera: Culicidae)%市售长叶松油和锡兰肉桂油对登革热媒蚊埃及伊蚊的灭幼效果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Radhika WARIKOO; Naim WAHAB; Sarita KUMAR

    2011-01-01

    The aromatic nature of pine and cinnamon oils has established them as good adult repellents but their larvicidal efficacy against mosquitoes has not been explored much.Keeping this in view,laboratory studies were conducted to uncover the larvicidal potential of commercially available pine ( Pinus longifolia) oil and cinnamon ( Cinnamomum zeylanicum) oil against the early 4th instar larvae of Aedes aegypti, originating from Delhi, India.The larvicidal effects were investigated in terms of the larval mortality, behavioural and morphological changes, if any.Our studies revealed the larvicidal efficiency of both the oils against 4th instar larvae of Ae.aegypti, the pine oil proving to be more effective than the cinnamon oil.The LC50 and LC70values exhibited by pine oil were 0.33093 mg/L and 0.54476 mg/L,respectively, while the values obtained with cinnamon oil were 0.63159 mg/L and 0.77736 mg/L,respectively.It was further observed that at LC90 the larvicidal potential of cinnamon oil surpassed that of the pine oil, exhibiting a value of 1.11879 mg/L as in comparison to 1.04915 mg/L shown by pine oil.The behavioural changes as excitation, restlessness, tremors, and convulsions followed by paralysis observed in the treated larvae suggest a probable effect of the oils on their neuromuscular system.Microscopic study of morphological alterations in the treated larvae revealed that most of their organs had a normal structural appearance as that of controls except the little internal shrinkage in anal gills leading to the structural deformity.This indicates the anal gills as the probable action sites of the oil extracts and dysfunction of the gills leading to larval mortality.The potential of oils as new types of larvicides for the control of mosquitoes are explored.%松油和桂皮油由于具有芳香性气味,因而成为良好的成虫驱避剂,但是关于它们对蚊虫的杀幼虫作用研究不多.为揭示市售的长叶松Pinus longifolia

  10. Cryptic Species in the Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus) albitarsis (Diptera: Culicidae) Complex: Incongruence Between Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA-Polymerase Chain Reaction Identification and Analysis of Mitochondrial DNA COI Gene Sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-11-01

    SYSTEMATICS Cryptic Species in the Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus) albitarsis (Diptera: Culicidae) Complex: Incongruence Between Random Amplified...J.M.,O.Pellmyr, J.N.Thompson, andR.G.Harrison. 1994. Phylogeny of Greya ( Lepidoptera : Prodoxidae), based on nucleotide sequence variation in

  11. ESTABLISHMENT OF PRIMARY AND CONTINUOUS CULTURE OF MIDGUT EPITHELIAL CELLS FROM AEDES AEGYPTI(DIPTERA:CULICIDAE) IN VITRO%埃及伊蚊中肠上皮细胞的原代培养和细胞的持续培养

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    公茂庆; 黄勇; 谭文彬; Brian D. For; John C. Beier

    2003-01-01

    目的探讨蚊虫中肠上皮细胞的培养,建立细胞的原代培养和细胞持续培养. 方法用含抗生素的10%蔗糖水喂养新羽化出的埃及伊蚊成蚊,3 d后,在无菌的条件下解剖中肠,用含抗生素的平衡盐溶液洗3次,放入Grace's培养基中(含有7%小牛血清,0.5%庆大霉素,1 mg/ml抗酵母菌素和6 μl/ml 复合维生素),25℃培养箱中培养. 结果培养3 d后,95%的细胞生长良好,7 d后,大约25%的细胞死亡.第3 d的细胞死亡率明显低于以后的任何时间(P0.05).成功地建立起中肠上皮细胞的原代培养并能持续存活40多天,保持细胞的连续培养. 结论所发展的埃及伊蚊中肠上皮细胞的原代培养和细胞的持续培养的方法是成功的.%Objective To investigate the growth and development of the adult mosquito midgut, to develop primary midgut culture. Methods After emerging adult mosquitoes were fed for 3 consecutive days on antibiotic solution, midguts dissected under sterile condition were kept in Grace's medium containing 7% fetal bovine serum, 0.5% gentamycin, 1 mg/ml yeastolate and 6 μl/ml vitamin premix to incubate at 25℃. Results The cells recovered from the midgut are healthy with about 95% viability on day 3. Approximately 25% of the cells died one week later, but those that survive stay in a stable condition during 35 days. There are significantly fewer dead cells on day 3 (P0.05). Primary cultures that would survive up to over a 40-day incubation period were successfully developed and continuous cultures were established. Conclusion The procedure that would facilitate the culture of midgut epithelial cells from Aedes aegypti adult mosquitoes was developed.

  12. Implications of saline concentrations for the performance and competitive interactions of the mosquitoes Aedes aegypti (Stegomyia aegypti) and Aedes albopictus (Stegomyia albopictus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yee, D A; Himel, E; Reiskind, M H; Vamosi, S M

    2014-03-01

    Aedes albopictus (Stegomyia albopictus) (Diptera: Culicidae) has probably supplanted Aedes aegypti (Stegomyia aegypti) throughout most of its historical range in the U.S.A., although Ae. aegypti still exists in large coastal cities in southern Florida. We measured salt concentrations in field containers along an axis perpendicular to the coast and examined intraspecific outcomes in these species under different salt concentrations in a factorial study using varying intra- and interspecific densities in different conditions of salinity to order to determine if salt could mitigate the documented competitive superiority of Ae. albopictus. Salt in field containers declined away from the coast, with maximal values similar to our lower salt concentrations. Egg hatching and short-term survival of pupae and late instars were not affected by salt concentrations; survival of early instars of both species decreased at higher concentrations. In high salt conditions, Ae. aegypti achieved higher survival. In the longterm experiment, both species displayed longer development times. Salt did not affect interactions for either species; Ae. aegypti survived in the highest salt conditions, regardless of density. The tolerance of Ae. aegypti to high salt concentrations may allow it to use coastal containers, although because salt did not mediate interspecific interactions between Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus, the ultimate effects of salt on the coexistence of these species or exclusion of either species remain unknown.

  13. SITUACIÓN ACTUAL EN ESPAÑA Y ECO-EPIDEMIOLOGÍA DE LAS ARBOVIROSIS TRANSMITIDAS POR MOSQUITOS CULÍCIDOS (DIPTERA: CULICIDAE)

    OpenAIRE

    Rubén Bueno Marí; Ricardo Jiménez Peydró

    2010-01-01

    En el presente manuscrito se analiza la posible emergencia y/o reemergencia en España de algunas de las arbovirosis transmitidas por mosquitos culícidos (Diptera: Culicidae) de mayor incidencia a nivel mundial en los últimos años. Los datos faunísticos, bioecológicos y de distribución de los culícidos en nuestro país permiten discernir entre especies con capacidad de mantener la enzootia de algunas de estas arbovirosis de otras que pueden actuar como vectores puente de la virosis hasta el ser...

  14. [English and Russian terminology for the thoracic skeletal structures of mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae): a critical review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalin, A V; Aĭbulatov, S V

    2013-01-01

    The authors analyze different names of thoracic skeletal structures in mosquitoes (Dip- tera: Culicidae), used by various authors (Kirkpatrick, 1925; Edwards, 1932; Stackelberg, 1937; Sazonova, 1958; Belkin, 1962a, b: Maslov, 1967: Gutsevich et al., 1970; Knight, Laffoon, 1970; McAlpine, 1981; Becker et al., 2010). In the abovementioned publications, a small number of skeletal structures, morphologically very important for the identification of species and genera of the family Culicidae, are denoted by multiple synonymic names, while certain completely different skeletal structures are represented under a single homonymous name. Duplicated synonymic names for thoracic sclerites, setae, and scales on sclerites considerably hamper the work of specialists determining species of the family Culicidae. In some cases, this fact results in erroneous diagnostics of species. We provide a detailed description of the thoracic morphology of mosquitoes, pointing to existing synonymic Russian and English names for each skeletal structure and also recommend the use of a single Russian term for each structure.

  15. The Cretaceous Fossil Burmaculex antiquus Confirmed as the Earliest Known Lineage of Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borkent, Art; Grimaldi, David A

    2016-01-01

    A second female of mid-Cretaceous Burmaculex antiquus Borkent & Grimaldi, preserved in 99 myo Burmese amber, and the oldest known member of the Culicidae, is described in detail. Although generally opaque and distorted, some character states are added or refined. The discovery of well-developed scales on the legs shows that this feature must now be considered a synapomorphy of both the fossil and all extant members of the family. Previously described synapomorphies and further interpretation here confirm the phylogenetic position of this fossil as the sister group to extant and all known fossil Culicidae. It is placed in the new subfamily Burmaculicinae.

  16. INVENTORY OF MOSQUITOES (DIPTERA: CULICIDAE) IN CONSERVATION UNITS IN BRAZILIAN TROPICAL DRY FORESTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Cleandson Ferreira; Silva, Alex Chavier; Rodrigues, Raquel Andrade; de Jesus, Jamilli Sanndy Ramos; Borges, Magno Augusto Zazá

    2015-01-01

    In Brazil, most studies of the Culicidae family are concentrated in rainforest regions. As such, there is a lack of knowledge regarding the diversity of Culicidae in regions with different climatic and vegetational characteristics. The aim of this study was to compile an inventory of Culicidae in protected areas of the semi-arid region of the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, in order to better understand the diversity of the family within this region. The study was conducted across four protected areas in the northern region of the state, in tropical dry forest (TDF) fragments. Sampling methods included Shannon trap and CDC light trap, as well as active collection. A total of 11,219 mosquito specimens were collected between August 2008 and July 2012, belonging to 11 genera and 45 species; 15 new records for the state of Minas Gerais were registered, as well as 26 new records for semi-arid regions within the state. The high number of new Culicidae records in this region demonstrates the importance of inventory studies for increasing the knowledge of culicid biodiversity in Minas Gerais, and in particular within semi-arid regions of the state.

  17. Productivity and population density estimates of the dengue vector mosquito Aedes aegypti (Stegomyia aegypti) in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, C R; Johnson, P H; Ball, T S; Ritchie, S A

    2013-09-01

    New mosquito control strategies centred on the modifying of populations require knowledge of existing population densities at release sites and an understanding of breeding site ecology. Using a quantitative pupal survey method, we investigated production of the dengue vector Aedes aegypti (L.) (Stegomyia aegypti) (Diptera: Culicidae) in Cairns, Queensland, Australia, and found that garden accoutrements represented the most common container type. Deliberately placed 'sentinel' containers were set at seven houses and sampled for pupae over 10 weeks during the wet season. Pupal production was approximately constant; tyres and buckets represented the most productive container types. Sentinel tyres produced the largest female mosquitoes, but were relatively rare in the field survey. We then used field-collected data to make estimates of per premises population density using three different approaches. Estimates of female Ae. aegypti abundance per premises made using the container-inhabiting mosquito simulation (CIMSiM) model [95% confidence interval (CI) 18.5-29.1 females] concorded reasonably well with estimates obtained using a standing crop calculation based on pupal collections (95% CI 8.8-22.5) and using BG-Sentinel traps and a sampling rate correction factor (95% CI 6.2-35.2). By first describing local Ae. aegypti productivity, we were able to compare three separate population density estimates which provided similar results. We anticipate that this will provide researchers and health officials with several tools with which to make estimates of population densities.

  18. Evaluation of four sampling techniques for surveillance of Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae) and other mosquitoes in African rice agroecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muturi, Ephantus J; Mwangangi, Joseph; Shililu, Josephat; Muriu, Simon; Jacob, Benjamin; Mbogo, Charles M; John, Githure; Novak, Robert

    2007-05-01

    Field studies were conducted in a rice, Oryza sativa L., agroecosystem in Mwea Kenya to compare the efficiency of CO2-baited Centers for Disease Control (CDC) light traps against nonbaited CDC light traps and gravid traps against oviposition traps in outdoor collection of Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae) and other mosquitoes. Collectively, 21 mosquito species from the genera Culex, Anopheles, Mansonia, Ficalbia, and Aedes were captured during the 10-wk study period. Cx. quinquefasciatus was the predominant species in all trap types with proportions ranging from 57% in the nonbaited CDC light traps to 95% in the gravid traps. Significantly higher numbers of Cx. quinquefasciatus and Culex annulioris Theobald were collected in the CO2-baited CDC light traps than in the nonbaited CDC light traps, but the numbers of other mosquito species, including malaria vectors Anopheles arabiensis Patton and Anopheles funestus Giles did not differ significantly between the two trap types. More Cx. quinquefasciatus females were collected in grass infusion-baited gravid traps than egg rafts of this species in oviposition traps containing the same infusion. Although most mosquitoes captured in CO,-baited and nonbaited CDC light traps were unfed, most of those collected in gravid traps were gravid. From these findings, it is concluded that at least in the rice-growing area of Mwea Kenya, CO2-baited CDC light traps in conjunction with gravid traps can be used in monitoring of Cx. quinquefasciatus both for control and disease surveillance.

  19. Evaluation of Some Plant Fruit Extracts for the Control of West Nile Virus Vector Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koc, Samed; Evren, Ozay Hasan; Cetin, Huseyin

    2016-01-01

    Background: The extracts of different parts of plants were found very effective against various pests. The aim of this research was to determine the insecticidal activity of fruit methanol extracts obtained from Melia azedarach (Meliaceae), Phoenix theophrasti (Arecaceae), Styphnolobium japonicum (Fabaceae) and Pyracantha coccinea (Rosaceae) against the larvae of Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae). Methods: The fruits of test plants were collected from the Campus of Akdeniz University, Antalya, Turkey in 2013. A series of concentrations of the extracts ranging from 62.5–1000 ppm were tested against second instar larvae. Results: Only the extracts of Me. azedarach and Ph. theoprasti showed significant larvicidal activity against Cx. pipiens and the LC50 values of these extracts were found to be 169.48 and 220.60 ppm, respectively. This is the first research investigating the insecticidal or larvicidal activity of Ph. theophrasti, St. japonicum and Py. coccinea extracts on mosquitoes. Conclusion: The methanol extract of fruits of Me. azedarach and Ph. theophrasti showed significantly higher larvicidal activity against Cx. pipiens. PMID:28032112

  20. Repellent activities of some Labiatae plant essential oils against the saltmarsh mosquito Ochlerotatus caspius (Pallas, 1771) (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koc, Samed; Oz, Emre; Cetin, Huseyin

    2012-06-01

    The repellent activities of the essential oils of two Thymus (Thymus sipyleus Boiss. subsp. sipyleus and Thymus revolutus Celak) and two Mentha (Mentha spicata L. subsp. spicata and Mentha longifolia L.) species against Ochlerotatus caspius (Pallas, 1771) (Diptera: Culicidae) are presented. The essential oils were obtained by hydrodistillation of the aerial parts of the plants in flowering period and repellency tests were done with a Y-tube olfactometer. All essential oils showed repellency in varying degrees and exhibited no significant time-dependent repellent activities. When all test oils compared for repellent activities there was no significant activity detected within 15 min exposure period. Mentha essential oils had better activity than Thymus essential oils, producing high repellency (73.8-84.2%) at 30th min on Oc. caspius. Mentha longifolia has the best mosquito repellent activity among the plants tested at the 25th min. Th. sipyleus subsp. sipyleus essential oil produced >85% repellent activity at the 15th min, but the effect decreased noticeably to 63.1% and 68% at 25th and 30th min, respectively.

  1. Evaluation of temephos and chlorpyrifos-methyl against Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae) larvae in septic tanks in Antalya, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cetin, H; Yanikoglu, A; Kocak, O; Cilek, J E

    2006-11-01

    The larvicidal activity of chlorpyrifos-methyl and temephos was evaluated against Culex pipiens L. (Diptera: Culicidae) in septic tanks in Antalya, Turkey. Chlorpyrifos-methyl (Pyrifos MT 25 emulsifiable concentrate [EC] ) was evaluated at application rates of 0.04, 0.08, and 0.12 mg active ingredient (AI)/liter, and temephos (Temeguard 50 EC) was evaluated at 0.02, 0.04, and 0.06 mg (AI)/liter during a 21-d study. Generally, overall larval reduction in septic tanks from single- and multifamily dwellings treated with either larvicide was significantly greater than pretreatment levels and control tanks for the duration of the study. At 14 d posttreatment, duration of control was greatest in multifamily tanks treated with chlorpyrifos-methyl at the highest application rate with similar levels of control through 21 d for single-family dwellings (range 97-100%). Septic tanks from both types of family dwellings treated at the highest application rate of temephos resulted in >90% reduction through day 21 (range 91-100%). Laboratory bioassays of septic tank water treated at field application rates, without daily dilution, revealed that complete larval mortality was achieved for 21 d at each application rate and formulation. It is thought that daily addition of water and organic matter to the septic tanks in the single and multifamily dwellings influenced the duration of effectiveness of the larvicides.

  2. Bioefficacy of botanical insecticides against the dengue and chikungunya vector Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera:Culicidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Samuel Tennyson; K John Ravindran; S Arivoli

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To determine the bioefficacy of plant extracts viz., whole plants of Sphaeranthus indicus (Asteraceae) and Citrullus colocynthis (Cucurbitaceae), leaves of Abutilon indicum (Malvaceae), Cleistanthus collinus (Euphorbiaceae), Leucas aspera (Lamiaceae) and Murrayakoenigii (Rutaceae), and aerial parts of Hyptis suaveolens (Lamiaceae) against the dengue and chikungunya vector Aedes aegypti. Methods: The larvicidal activity was determined against the early third instar larvae at concentrations of 250, 500, 750 and 1000 ppm. Larval mortality was assessed after 24 h. Results: The ethyl acetate extract of Sphaeranthus indicus (201.11ppm) and hexane extract of Abutilon indicum (261.31ppm) was found to be effective. Conclusions: Further in-depth investigations on the crude extract/phytotoxic compounds of Sphaeranthus indicus are needed to elucidate the larvicidal activity against a wide range of all stages of mosquito species and also the active ingredients of the extract responsible for larvicidal activity in Aedesaegypti should be identified, and small scale field trials are needed for usage of this plant as a mosquitocidal agent.

  3. Laboratory evaluation of lactic acid on attraction of Culex spp. (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan, Sandra A; Bernier, Ulrich R; Kline, Daniel L

    2010-12-01

    The role of lactic acid was evaluated for attraction of Culex nigripalpus, Culex quinquefasciatus, Culex tarsalis, and Aedes aegypti in the laboratory using a dual-port olfactometer. When lactic acid was combined with chicken odor, attraction was increased for Cx. quinquefasciatus compared to chicken odor alone but not for Cx. nigripalpus, Cx. tarsalis, and Ae. aegypti. Lactic acid combined with hand odor did not change attraction of Cx. tarsalis and Ae. aegypti but decreased attraction of Cx. nigripalpus and Cx. quinquefasciatus. The addition of lactic acid to CO(2) increased attraction of Ae. aegypti and Cx. quinquefasciatus but reduced attraction of Cx. nigripalpus and Cx. tarsalis. Use of commercial lactic acid baits with CO(2) resulted in a similar trend except for Cx. nigripalpus which showed no difference. A blend of lactic acid, acetone, and dimethyl disulfide was attractive to Ae. aegypti (63.4%) but elicited low responses by all Culex spp. (1.3-26.8%). Addition of the blend to CO(2) increased attraction of Ae. aegypti and Cx. quinquefasciatus but reduced attraction of Cx. nigripalpus and Cx. tarsalis. The mixture of compounds plus CO(2) was as attractive as a hand for Cx. quinquefasciatus, Cx. tarsalis, and Ae. aegypti.

  4. Infestation by the Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) mosquito in the town of Chapeco, Santa Catarina, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Samara Tessaro Balsan; Marciana Frigeri de Souza; Indiana Alegransi Bones; Fatima Terezinha Castro Cechin; Caroline Constanci; Carin Guarda; Bárbara Zanchet; Deise Vanessa Friedrich; Junir Antonio Lutinski; Suzana Marta Zarychta; Maria Assunta Busato

    2013-01-01

    Dengue fever became a public health problem and it has caused concern among health professionals. This study aimed to evaluate the conditioning factors for the occurrence of dengue fever in the town of Chapeco, Santa Catarina, Brazil. One analyzed the information available on the Information System on Yellow Fever and Dengue Fever (SISFAD) and conducted a survey through a semi-structured questionnaire applied to the population. The analyses indicate the association of infestation by the mosqu...

  5. Potential Use of Pyriproxyfen for Control of Aedes aegypti Diptera: Culicidae) in Iquitos, Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-20

    Cladocera, Copepoda, Ostracoda, Odonata , Dystisci- dae, Hydrophilidae, Chironomidae, and Cerato- pogonidae). In a separate study, Schaefer and Miura...no residues in rice plants (5 ppb). Slight aberrations in Odonata adults andminor reproductive suppressionof cladocerans and ostracods were noted

  6. Structure and formation of egg membranes in Aedes aegypti. (L. ) (Diptera:Culicidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathew, G.; Rai, K.S.

    1975-01-01

    An ultrastructural study of mosquito ovarioles reveals that both the vitelline membrane and the endochorion are secreted by the follicular epithelium. The presecretory phase is characterized by the hypertrophy of endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi complex in the follicle cells. Synthesis of vitelline membrane precursors begins immediately after yolk protein uptake by micropinocytosis. Secretory droplets are budded off Golgi cisternae and released into the follicle cell--oocyte interface by exocytosis. The vitelline membrane first appears as dense plaques which eventually fuse to form a single homogeneous layer. Two types of secretory material are identified in the follicle cells prior to the formation of the endochorion. Golgi cisternae bud off small droplets similar in size and appearance to the precursors of the vitelline membrane. These migrate to the apical surface and accumulate between surface folds in the plasma membrane. The second type is a fibrous material formed in endoplasmic reticulum. When fully secreted, the endochorion is a 2-layered structure. The lower layer is comprised of pillar-like structures alternating with fibrous mesh-like areas. The pillars are formed by the coalescence of droplets released from Golgi, while the mesh-like areas presumably arise from the fibrous material. The outer layer is also fibrous. The follicle cells degenerate once the endochorion is laid down. endochorion is laid down.

  7. Dynamics of breeding containers formation of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae Larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonny E. Duque L.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Presentamos la construcción y la simulación de un modelo matemático, del tipo SIRS (Susceptible–Infeccioso– Removido-Susceptible. Se utilizaron cuatro ecuaciones diferenciales para mostrar los parámetros más relevantes que deben ser seguidos en lucha contra vectores del dengue: θ (tasa de control cultural y ϕ (tasa de protección de los criaderos con la aplicación de tratamiento biológico o químico por un tiempo determinado, dentro del control de criaderos que influencian directamente el número de mosquitos que está relacionado con los aspectos ambientales representados por la función Sen2. Intengrando el control cultural y el tratamiento convencional, se puede mantener el número de criaderos en niveles bajos y con ello, la población de mosquitos. Debe utilizarse un control integrado para disminuir el número de criaderos de mosquitos y así reducir la cantidad de los mismos

  8. Passage of Ingested Mansonella ozzardi (Spirurida: Onchocercideae) Microfilariae Through the Midgut of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-10-12

    increasedover theÞrst 2h, remained relatively constant up to 6 h, and then decreased at 14Ð17 h (Table 3). Unlike mf observed wriggling in the hemo...All evidence todate indicates that intrathoracically inoculatedden- gue viruses only replicate efÞciently in Aedes spp. mosquitoes (Rosen et al...Þlariasis: twelve year follow- up in northern Trinidad, including observations on Mansonella ozzardi. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 52: 174Ð176. Chadee, D. D

  9. Infestation by the Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae mosquito in the town of Chapeco, Santa Catarina, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samara Tessaro Balsan

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Dengue fever became a public health problem and it has caused concern among health professionals. This study aimed to evaluate the conditioning factors for the occurrence of dengue fever in the town of Chapeco, Santa Catarina, Brazil. One analyzed the information available on the Information System on Yellow Fever and Dengue Fever (SISFAD and conducted a survey through a semi-structured questionnaire applied to the population. The analyses indicate the association of infestation by the mosquito which transmits dengue to improperly handled garbage and to the rainwater collection deposit, as well as to the residential environment. The prevention of dengue in the town of Chapeco involves the implementation of public policies on health environmental education for proper separation and disposal of solid waste and improvements in the public water supply system. Educational campaigns aimed at care in the home environment are also needed.

  10. Spatial and temporal patterns of abundance of Aedes aegypti L. (Stegomyia aegypti) and Aedes albopictus (Skuse) [Stegomyia albopictus (Skuse)] in southern Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiskind, M H; Lounibos, L P

    2013-12-01

    Invasion by mosquito vectors of disease may impact the distribution of resident mosquitoes, resulting in novel patterns of vectors and concomitant risk for disease. One example of such an impact is the invasion by Aedes albopictus (Skuse) [Stegomyia albopictus (Skuse)] (Diptera: Culicidae) of North America and this species' interaction with Aedes aegypti L. (Stegomyia aegypti L). We hypothesized that Ae. aegypti would be found in urban, coastal areas that experience hotter and drier conditions, whereas Ae. albopictus would be more commonly found in suburban and rural areas that are cooler and wetter. In addition, we hypothesized that Ae. aegypti would be more abundant early in the wet season, whereas Ae. albopictus would be more abundant later in the wet season. Urban areas were drier, hotter and contained more Ae. aegypti than suburban or rural areas. Aedes aegypti was relatively more abundant early in the wet season, whereas Ae. albopictus was more abundant in both the late wet season and the dry season. The spatial patterns of inter- and intraspecific encounters between these species were also described. The distribution of these mosquitoes is correlated with abiotic conditions, and with temperature, humidity and the relative availability of rain-filled containers. Understanding the ecological determinants of species distribution can provide insight into the biology of these vectors and important information for their appropriate control.

  11. Filamentous fungi associated with mosquito larvae (Diptera: Culicidae) in municipalities of the Brazilian Amazon

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, Eleny da S; Sarquis, Maria I de M; Ferreira-Keppler, Ruth Leila; Neusa Hamada; Alencar, Yamile B

    2009-01-01

    Algumas espécies da família Culicidae são importantes vetores de doenças em humanos e em outros animais. Estágios imaturos são filtradores não seletivos de partículas orgânicas e microrganismos. Estudos da diversidade microbiológica podem contribuir para a descoberta de novas substâncias que podem ser usadas em indústrias farmacêuticas, para alimentação ou para controle biológico. O objetivo deste estudo foi isolar e identificar os fungos associados a larvas de Culicidae encontradas em difere...

  12. Pictorial Keys for the Identification of Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) Associated With Dengue Virus Transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-08-03

    mediovittatus. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 39, 218–222. Gubler, D.J. (1997) Dengue and dengue hemorrhagic fever: its history and...Culicidae). Insecta Koreana, 19(1), 1–130. © 2004 Magnolia Press 9KEY TO MOSQUITOES 589...virus in Yap State, Federated States of Micronesia, and implication of Aedes hensilli as an epidemic vector. American Journal of Tropical Medicine

  13. Influência de diversos derivados de vegetais na sobrevida das larvas de Aedes fluviatilis(Lutz (Diptera: Culicidade em laboratorio Larvicidal properties of plant extracts against Aedes fluviatilis (Lutz (Diptera: Culicidae in the laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rotraut A. G. B. Consoli

    1988-03-01

    Full Text Available As propriedades larvicidas de 34 extratos, provenientes de 29 vegetais, foram testados em larvas de Aedes fluviatilis (Lutz (Diptera: Culicidae nas concentrações de 100, 10 e 1 ppm. 26,5% dos exames utilizados, reduziram significamente a sobrevida larvária (alfa = 0,05, quando empregados na concentração de 100 ppm (Anacardium occidentale, Agave americana, Allium sativum, Coriandrum sativum, Nerium oleander, Spatodea campanulata, Tibouchina scrobiculata e Vernonia salzmanni. O ácido anacárdio (A. occidentale mostrou-se larvicida na concentração de 10 ppm e o extrato bruto de A. sativum foi eficaz contra as larvas na concentração de 1 ppm.The larvicidal properties of 34 plant extracts were tested against Aedes fluviatilis (Lutz (Diptera: Culicidae larvae, at 100, 10 and 1 ppm concentrations; 26,6% of the extracts enhanced larval mortality (x = 0,05 at 100 ppm (Anacardium occidentale, Agave americana, Allium sativum, Coriandrum sativum, Nerium oleander, Spatodea campanulata, Tibouchina serobiculata and Vernonia salzmanni. Anacardic acid (A. occidentale was effective at 10 ppm and A. sativum (crude extract at 1 ppm.

  14. Conteúdo dos criadouros larvais e comportamento de adultos de Toxorhynchites (Lynchiella haemorrhoidalis haemorrhoidalis (Fabricius (Diptera, Culicidae numa floresta de terra-firme da Amazônia central Larval breeding site contents and adult behavior of toxorhynchites (Lynchiella haemorrhoidalis haemorrhoidalis (Fabricius (Diptera, Culicidae in an upland forest of the central amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Sá Gomes Hutchings

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available The natural breeding sites of Toxorhynchites (Lynchiella haemorrhoidalis haemorihoidalis (Fabricius, 1794, in two study areas, were sampled monthly, during a period of one year, in an upland "terra-firme" forest of the Central Amazon. These natural breeding sites, consisting of water filled palm bracts on the ground, contained invertobrates and vertebrates along with palm inflorescences, leaves and twigs. The inhabitants of the non-submersed area of the bracts include Diplopoda, Acarina, Araneae, Pseudoscorpiones, Isopoda, Blattodea, Coleoptera (Carabidae, Curculionidae, Scolytidae, Staphilinidae. Collembola, Dermaptera, Diptera (Cecidomyidae, Drosophilidae, Mycetophilidae, Tipulidae, Hemiptera, Hymenoptera and Trichoptera. The submersed areas of the bracts were inhabited by Oligochaeta, Coleoptera (Dysticidae, Helodidae, Histeridae, Hydrophilidae, Limnebiidae, Diptera (Ceratopogonidae, Chirononiidae, Culicidae, Psychodidae, Stratiomyidae, Syrphidae. Odonata, along with immature Dendrobatidae e Hylidae. The ovipositing, resting and feeding behaviors of T. h. haemorrhoidalis adults are described.

  15. Mosquitocidal properties of Oxystelma esculentum (Asclepiadaceae)-Indian medicinal plant tested against Ades aegypti (Linn.) (Diptera:Culicidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kuppusamy Elumalai; Kaliyamoorthy Krishnappa

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the mosquitocidal activities of various solvent extract of Oxystelma esculentum (O. esculentum) against the medically important dengue vector mosquito, Aedes aegypti (Ae. aegypti) L. Methods: A total of 25 early third instar larvae of Ae. aegypti were exposed to various concentrations (60-300 mg/L) and were assayed in the laboratory by using the protocol of World Health Organization, 2005; the 24 h LC50 values of the O. esculentum leaf extract was determined by probit analysis. The ovicidal activity was determined against the freshly laid eggs of Ae. aegypti to various concentrations ranging from 50-300 mg/L under laboratory conditions. The pupicidal activity was determined against pupae of Ae. aegypti to various concentrations ranging from 70-280 mg/L after 24 h of exposure to the concern extract. The repellent efficacy was determined against adult female mosquito species at 1.0, 2.0 and 3.0 mg/cm2 under laboratory conditions. Results: The LC50 value of methanol extract of O. esculentum against 3rd instar larvae of Ae. aegypti was 125.82 mg/L. The same extract showed 100% egg mortality at 250 mg/L and also pupicidal activity observed against the pupae of Ae. aegypti at 280 mg/L. Conclusions: The present results suggest that the O. esculentum leaf extracts provided an excellent, potential phytopesticide for controlling Ae. aegypti mosquito.

  16. Essential oils enhance the toxicity of permethrin against Aedes aegypti and Anopheles gambiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, A D; Norris, E J; Kimber, M J; Bartholomay, L C; Coats, J R

    2017-03-01

    Insecticide resistance and growing public concern over the safety and environmental impacts of some conventional insecticides have resulted in the need to discover alternative control tools. Naturally occurring botanically-based compounds are of increased interest to aid in the management of mosquitoes. Susceptible strains of Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus) (Diptera: Culicidae) and Anopheles gambiae (Meigen) (Diptera: Culicidae) were treated with permethrin, a common type-I synthetic pyrethroid, using a discriminate dose that resulted in less than 50% mortality. Piperonyl butoxide (PBO) and 35 essential oils were co-delivered with permethrin at two doses (2 and 10 µg) to determine if they could enhance the 1-h knockdown and the 24-h mortality of permethrin. Several of the tested essential oils enhanced the efficacy of permethrin equally and more effectively than piperonyl butoxide PBO, which is the commercial standard to synergize chemical insecticide like pyrethroids. PBO had a strikingly negative effect on the 1-h knockdown of permethrin against Ae. aegypti, which was not observed in An. gambiae. Botanical essential oils have the capability of increasing the efficacy of permethrin allowing for a natural alternative to classic chemical synergists, like PBO.

  17. Attractiveness of MM-X traps baited with human or synthetic odor to mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in The Gambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Yu Tong; Smallegange, Renate C; Ter, Braak Cajo J F; Spitzen, Jeroen; Van Loon, Joop J A; Jawara, Musa; Milligan, Paul; Galimard, Agnes M; Van Beek, Teris A; Knols, Bart G J; Takken, Willem

    2007-11-01

    Chemical cues play an important role in the host-seeking behavior of blood-feeding mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae). A field study was carried out in The Gambia to investigate the effects of human odor or synthetic odor blends on the attraction of mosquitoes. MM-X traps baited with 16 odor blends to which carbon dioxide (CO2) was added were tested in four sets of experiments. In a second series of experiments, MM-X traps with 14 odor blends without CO2 were tested. A blend of ammonia and L-lactic acid with or without CO2 was used as control odor in series 1 and 2, respectively. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) traps were placed in a traditional house and an experimental house to monitor mosquito densities during the experiments. The MM-X traps caught a total number of 196,756 mosquitoes, with the most abundant species belonging to the genera Mansonia (70.6%), Anopheles (17.5%), and Culex (11.5%). The most abundant mosquito species caught by the CDC traps (56,290 in total) belonged to the genera Mansonia (59.4%), Anopheles (16.0% An. gambiae s.l. Giles, and 11.3% An. ziemanni Grünberg), and Culex (11.6%). MM-X traps baited with synthetic blends were in many cases more attractive than MM-X traps baited with human odors. Addition of CO2 to synthetic odors substantially increased the catch of all mosquito species in the MM-X traps. A blend of ammonia + L-lactic acid + CO, + 3-methylbutanoic acid was the most attractive odor for most mosquito species. The candidate odor blend shows the potential to enhance trap collections so that traps will provide better surveillance and possible control.

  18. Bioefficacy of Morinda tinctoria and Pongamia glabra plant extracts against the malaria vector Anopheles stephensi (Diptera: Culicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Amerasan

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Mosquito-borne diseases have an economic impact, including loss in commercial and labour outputs, particularly in countries with tropical and subtropical climates; however, no part of the world is free from vector-borne diseases. The aim of the present study was to investigate the larvicidal, adulticidal and ovicidal activity of dried leaf chloroform, ethyl acetate, acetone, aqueous, and methanol extracts of Morinda tinctoria and Pongamia glabra against larvae of Anopheles stephensi (Diptera: Culicidae. Larvae were exposed to varying concentrations of plant extracts for 24 h. All extracts showed moderate larvicidal effects after 24 h of exposure; however, the highest larval mortality was found with the leaf methanol extracts of M. tinctoria and P. glabra against the larvae of A. stephensi lethal concentration (LC50=136.24 and 141.05 ppm; LC90=342.67 and 368.89 ppm, respectively. The results of the adulticidal activity assays of chloroform, ethyl acetate, acetone, aqueous, and methanol extracts of M. tinctoria and P. glabra showed significant mortality against larvae of A. stephensi. The methanol extract showed maximum activity compared with the other extracts. The greatest effect on mean percentage hatch in the ovicidal assays was observed 48 h post-treatment. Percent hatch was inversely proportional to the concentration of extract, and directly proportional to the number of eggs. A mortality of 100% was observed with 100-400 ppm methanol extracts and 200-400 ppm aqueous extracts of M. tinctoria, and 200-400 ppm aqueous and methanol extracts of P. glabra. This study provides the first report of the larvicidal, adulticidal and ovicidal activities of M. tinctoria and P. glabra plant extracts against the malaria vector, A. stephensi, representing an ideal eco-friendly approach for its control.

  19. Mosquitos (Diptera: Culicidae) de los parques naturales de la Comunidad Valenciana

    OpenAIRE

    Bernués Bañeres, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    La familia Culicidae incluye algunas de las especies de dípteros más relevantes en el ámbito de la Salud Pública, no solo por las molestias que son capaces de causar debido a su tipo de alimentación hematófaga, sino por su capacidad para actuar como vectores de enfermedades de afección humana. Por este motivo, los mosquitos han sido, desde siempre, una de las dianas predilectas en los programas de control establecidos para la regulación de sus poblaciones y, por tanto, como medida profiláctic...

  20. Diversity and abundance of mosquitoes (Diptera:Culicidae) in an urban park: larval habitats and temporal variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medeiros-Sousa, Antônio R; Ceretti-Júnior, Walter; de Carvalho, Gabriela C; Nardi, Marcello S; Araujo, Alessandra B; Vendrami, Daniel P; Marrelli, Mauro T

    2015-10-01

    Urban parks are areas designated for human recreation but also serve as shelter and refuge for populations of several species of native fauna, both migratory and introduced. In Brazil, the effect of annual climate variations on Aedes aegypti and dengue epidemics in large cities like São Paulo is well known, but little is known about how such variations can affect the diversity of mosquito vectors in urban parks and the risk of disease transmission by these vectors. This study investigates the influence of larval habitats and seasonal factors on the diversity and abundance of Culicidae fauna in Anhanguera Park, one of the largest remaining green areas in the city of São Paulo. Species composition and richness and larval habitats were identified. Seasonality (cold-dry and hot-rainy periods) and year were considered as explanatory variables and the models selection approach was developed to investigate the relationship of these variables with mosquito diversity and abundance. A total of 11,036 specimens from 57 taxa distributed in 13 genera were collected. Culex nigripalpus, Cx. quinquefasciatus and Aedes albopictus were the most abundant species. Bamboo internodes and artificial breeding sites showed higher abundance, while ponds and puddles showed greater richness. Significant relationships were observed between abundance and seasonality, with a notable increase in the mosquitos abundance in the warm-rainy periods. The Shannon and Berger-Parker indices were related with interaction between seasonality and year, however separately these predictors showed no relationship with ones. The increased abundance of mosquitoes in warm-rainy months and the fact that some of the species are epidemiologically important increase not only the risk of pathogen transmission to people who frequent urban parks but also the nuisance represented by insect bites. The findings of this study highlight the importance of knowledge of culicid ecology in green areas in urban environments.

  1. Larvicidal effects of endophytic and basidiomycete fungus extracts on Aedes and Anopheles larvae (Diptera, Culicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augusto Bucker

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction In vitro bioassays were performed to access the larvicidal activity of crude extracts from the endophytic fungus Pestalotiopsis virgulata (Melanconiales, Amphisphaeriaceae and the saprophytic fungus Pycnoporus sanguineus (Basidiomycetes, Polyporaceae against the mosquitoes Aedes aegypti and Anopheles nuneztovari. Methods The extracts were tested at concentrations of 100, 200, 300, 400 and 500ppm. Ethyl acetate mycelia (EAM extracts and liquid culture media (LCM from Pe. virgulata and Py. sanguineus were tested against third instar larvae of Ae. aegypti and An. nuneztovari. Results The larvicidal activity of the EAM extracts from Pe. virgulata against Ae. aegypti had an LC50=101.8ppm, and the extract from the basidiomycete fungus Py. sanguineus had an LC50=156.8ppm against the Ae. aegypti larvae. The Pe. virgulata extract had an LC50=16.3ppm against the An. nuneztovari larvae, and the Py. sanguineus extract had an LC50=87.2ppm against these larvae. Conclusions These results highlight the larvicidal effect of EAM extracts from the endophyte Pe. virgulata against the two larval mosquitoes tested. Thus, Pe. virgulata and Py. sanguineus have the potential for the production of bioactive substances against larvae of these two tropical disease vectors, with An. nuneztovari being more susceptible to these extracts.

  2. [Mosquito fauna (Diptera:Culicidae) from Falcon State, Venezuela. I. New records and current checklist].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, J C; Bastidas, R J; Zavala, Y

    1994-01-01

    A total of 16 new species records of Culicidae from Falcon State was collected at the "Juan Crisostomo Falcon National Park" (Sierra de San Luis), Natural Monument "Cerro Santa Ana", Coro, and La Vela. Species of Sabethini, Culicini and Toxorhynchitini Tribes were found in natural breeding sites (Phytotelmata), with special occurrence in plants belonging to Tillandsia, Vriesea, Guzmania, Aechmea (Bromelianceae), Heliconia (Heliconiaceae), Calathea (Marantaceae) and Colocasia (Araceae). Aedini and Mansonini were collected only as adults. A specie of Culex (Carrollia) was collected from an artificial container. The Culicidae species belong to 6 genera out of the 23 genera reported from Venezuela (Culex, Wyeomyia, Johnbelkinia, Aedes, Psorophora, Mansonia and Coquillettidia) and to 5 Tribes out of the 9 present in the country. The Aedini, Sabethini and Culicini Tribes were richer in species with 5, 4 and 4 species, respectively, than the Mansonini (2 species) and Toxorhynchitini (1 species) Tribes. We discuss some bioecological aspects regarding the 16 new-species records in Falcon State and give a checklist of the mosquito species previously reported in the literature.

  3. Biological differences between brackish and fresh water-derived Aedes aegypti from two locations in the Jaffna peninsula of Sri Lanka and the implications for arboviral disease transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramasamy, Ranjan; Jude, Pavilupillai J; Veluppillai, Thabothiny; Eswaramohan, Thampoe; Surendran, Sinnathamby N

    2014-01-01

    The mainly fresh water arboviral vector Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae) can also undergo pre-imaginal development in brackish water of up to 15 ppt (parts per thousand) salt in coastal areas. We investigated differences in salinity tolerance, egg laying preference, egg hatching and larval development times and resistance to common insecticides in Ae. aegypti collected from brackish and fresh water habitats in Jaffna, Sri Lanka. Brackish water-derived Ae. aegypti were more tolerant of salinity than fresh water-derived Ae. aegypti and this difference was only partly reduced after their transfer to fresh water for up to five generations. Brackish water-derived Ae. aegypti did not significantly discriminate between 10 ppt salt brackish water and fresh water for oviposition, while fresh water-derived Ae. aegypti preferred fresh water. The hatching of eggs from both brackish and fresh water-derived Ae. aegypti was less efficient and the time taken for larvae to develop into pupae was prolonged in 10 ppt salt brackish water. Ae. aegypti isolated from coastal brackish water were less resistant to the organophosphate insecticide malathion than inland fresh water Ae. aegypti. Brackish and fresh water-derived Ae. aegypti however were able to mate and produce viable offspring in the laboratory. The results suggest that development in brackish water is characterised by pertinent biological changes, and that there is restricted genetic exchange between coastal brackish and inland fresh water Ae. aegypti isolates from sites 5 km apart. The findings highlight the need for monitoring Ae. aegypti developing in coastal brackish waters and extending vector control measures to their habitats.

  4. Chemical composition and larvicidal activity of essential oil of Origanum majorana (Lamiaceae) cultivated in Morocco against Culex pipiens (Diptera:Culicidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fouad El-Akhal; Abdelhakim El Ouali Lalami; Yassine Ez Zoubi; Hassane Greche; Raja Guemmouh

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the larvicidal activity of essential oil of Origanum majorana (Lamiaceae) cultivated in Morocco against Culex pipiens (Diptera:Culicidae). Methods: The analysis and the identification of the various constituents of essential oil were carried out by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. Biological test was performed according to a standard methodology inspired by the World Health Organization protocol with slight modification. Results:This oil mainly consisted of monoterpene and sesquiterpenes. The majority compounds are 4-terpinene (28.96%), γ-terpinene (18.57%), α-terpinene (12.72%) and sabinene (8.02%). The lethal concentrations (LC50 and LC90) measured for the essential oil Origanum majorana, were respectively of the order of 258.71 mg/L and 580.49 mg/L.

  5. Bothaella manhi, a new species of tribe Aedini (Diptera: Culicidae) from the Cuc Phuong National Park of Vietnam based on morphology and DNA sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    COOK, SHELLEY; LIEN, NGO GIANG; MCALISTER, ERICA; HARBACH, RALPH E.

    2012-01-01

    A new species of genus Bothaella (Diptera: Culicidae) collected along with two other species of the genus during surveys for flavivirus isolations in the Cuc Phuong National Park in northern Vietnam is formally described and named as Bothaella manhi, sp. n. The adults, pupa and fourth-instar larva are characterized, the male genitalia and the two immature stages are illustrated and DNA sequence data are included for regions coding for sections of the COI and COII genes (mtDNA). The species is compared and distinguished from the other species of the genus, and sequence data are used to hypothesise its phylogenetic relationship with Bo. helenae and Bo. kleini, the other two species collected during the survey. PMID:23155353

  6. Primeiro registro do gênero Toxorhynchites Theobald (Diptera, Culicidae em Mata Atlântica, Viçosa, Minas Gerais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Simões Albeny

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Durante os meses de março e abril de 2007 foi verificada a presença do gênero Toxorhynchites (Diptera, Culicidae em fragmentos de Mata Atlântica no município de Viçosa, Minas Gerais, Brasil. No experimento foram utilizadas 500 armadilhas de oviposição. Registrando-se, pela primeira vez na região de Viçosa o gênero Toxorhynchites, sendo as espécies T. pusillus (Costa Lima, 193 1 e T. theobaldi (Dyar & Knab, 1906 encontradas pela primeira vez no Estado de Minas Gerais. As espécies relatadas como primeiro registro e sua distribuição são citadas e discutidas.

  7. Ecology of Anopheline (Diptera, Culicidae, malaria vectors around the Serra da Mesa Reservoir, State of Goiás, Brazil: 1 - Frequency and climatic factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Érico Guimarães

    Full Text Available The ecology of anopheline species (Diptera, Culicidae was studied in the vicinity of the Serra da Mesa Reservoir, State of Goiás, Brazil. Climatic factors and frequency of anopheline populations were analyzed. Bimonthly human-bait and Shannon trap captures were conducted for 36 consecutive months (January 1997 through December 1999. A total of 5,205 adult anophelines belonging to five species were collected. Anopheles darlingi was the most frequently collected anopheline (61.4%, followed by An. albitarsis s.l. (35.4%, An. triannulatus. (2.5%, An. oswaldoi (0.4%, and An. evansae (0.2%. The water level and vegetation along the banks of the reservoir were crucial to the frequency of the various anopheline species. Climatic factors had a secondary influence. The reservoir's water-level stability, increased frequency of An. darlingi, and the arrival of gold prospectors were responsible for the increase in malaria cases.

  8. Ovicidal and repellent activities of botanical extracts against Culex quinquefasciatus, Aedes aegypti and Anopheles stephensi (Diptera:Culicidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Govindarajan M; Mathivanan T; Elumalai K; Krishnappa K; Anandan A

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To determine the ovicidal and repellent activities of methanol leaf extract ofErvatamia coronaria (E. coronaria) and Caesalpinia pulcherrima (C. pulcherrima) against Culex quinquefasciatus (Cx. quinquefasciatus), Aedes aegypti (Ae. aegypti) and Anopheles stephensi (An. stephensi). Methods: The ovicidal activity was determined against three mosquito species at various concentrations ranging from 50-450 ppm under the laboratory conditions. The hatch rates were assessed 48 h after treatment. The repellent efficacy was determined against three mosquito species at three concentrations viz., 1.0, 2.5 and 5.0 mg/cm2 under the laboratory conditions.Results:The crude extract of E. coronaria exerted zero hatchability (100% mortality) at 250, 200 and 150 ppm for Cx. quinquefasciatus, Ae. aegypti and An. stephensi, respectively. The crude extract of C. pulcherrima exerted zero hatchability (100% mortality) at 375, 300 and 225 ppm for Cx. quinquefasciatus, Ae. aegypti and An. Stephensi, respectively. The methanol extract of E. coronaria found to be more repellenct than C. pulcherrima extract. A higher concentration of 5.0 mg/cm2 provided 100% protection up to 150, 180 and 210 min against Cx. quinquefasciatus, Ae.aegypti and An. stephensi, respectively. The results clearly showed that repellent activity was dose dependent. Conclusions: From the results it can be concluded the crude extracts of E. coronaria and C. pulcherrima are an excellent potential for controlling Cx. quinquefasciatus, Ae. aegypti and An. stephensi mosquitoes.

  9. Biodiversity and influence of climatic factors on mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) around the Peixe Angical hydroelectric scheme in the state of Tocantins, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Júlia Dos Santos; Pacheco, Juliana Barreto; Alencar, Jeronimo; Guimarães, Anthony Erico

    2010-03-01

    The influence of climatic factors on the seasonal frequency of mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) at the Peixe Angical hydroelectric scheme (Tocantins, Brazil) was evaluated in the present paper. Mosquito surveys were conducted in the municipality of Peixe and in areas surrounding the reservoir in the municipalities of Paranã and São Salvador do Tocantins during two daytime periods (10 am-12 noon and 2 pm-4 pm) and two night-time periods (6 pm-8 pm and 6 pm-10 am) over 14 months. In total, 10,840 specimens from 42 species were captured, 84.5% of which belonged to the Culcinae. The most common species were Anopheles darlingi, Psorophora albipes and Sabethes chloropterus. The number of Culicidae specimens was higher in months with higher rainfall and air humidity than during the drier months. The large population of Ps. albipes and the presence of both An. darlingi (primary vector for human malaria parasites) and Haemagogus janthinomys (primary vector for yellow fever virus) are highlighted.

  10. Mosquito Records from Mexico: The Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) of Tamaulipas State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega-Morales, Aldo I; Zavortink, Thomas J; Huerta-Jiménez, Herón; Sánchez-Rámos, Francisco J; Valdés-Perezgasga, Ma Teresa; Reyes-Villanueva, Filiberto; Siller-Rodríguez, Quetzaly K; Fernandez-Salas, Ildefonso

    2015-03-01

    To document the diversity and distribution of mosquito species inhabiting the Mexican state of Tamaulipas, collection trips were conducted to all physiographic regions (Grand Northamerican Plains, Coastal Plain of North Gulf, and Sierra Madre Oriental) and subregions across the state. Additionally, we re-examined mosquito specimens in two Mexican entomological collections: the Collection of Insects and Mites of Medical Importance and the Collection of Arthropods of Medical Importance. In total, 3,931 specimens were collected. These represent the two Culicidae subfamilies Anophelinae and Culicinae, 10 tribes, 17 genera, 27 subgenera, 80 named species, and 2 undescribed species. Of these, 3 tribes, 6 genera, 7 subgenera, and 20 species are new records for the mosquito fauna of Tamaulipas. Fourteen species recorded in the historical records were not found in collections made for this study. Taxonomic notes, new distribution limits, and comments about the medical importance of some of the species collected are reported.

  11. Multi-scale analysis of the associations among egg, larval and pupal surveys and the presence and abundance of adult female Aedes aegypti (Stegomyia aegypti) in the city of Merida, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manrique-Saide, P; Coleman, P; McCall, P J; Lenhart, A; Vázquez-Prokopec, G; Davies, C R

    2014-09-01

    Despite decades of research, there is still no agreement on which indices of Aedes aegypti (Stegomyia aegypti) (Diptera: Culicidae) presence and abundance better quantify entomological risk for dengue. This study reports the results of a multi-scale, cross-sectional entomological survey carried out in 1160 households in the city of Merida, Mexico to establish: (a) the correlation between levels of Ae. aegypti presence and abundance detected with aspirators and ovitraps; (b) which immature and egg indices correlate with the presence and abundance of Ae. aegypti females, and (c) the correlations amongst traditional Aedes indices and their modifications for pupae at the household level and within medium-sized geographic areas used for vector surveillance. Our analyses show that ovitrap positivity was significantly associated with indoor adult Ae. aegypti presence [odds ratio (OR) = 1.50; P = 0.03], that the presence of pupae is associated with adult presence at the household level (OR = 2.27; P = 0.001), that classic Aedes indices are informative only when they account for pupae, and that window screens provide a significant level of protection against peridomestic Ae. aegypti (OR = 0.59; P = 0.02). Results reinforce the potential of using both positive collections in outdoor ovitraps and the presence of pupae as sensitive indicators of indoor adult female presence.

  12. Mosquito larvicidal properties of Impatiens balsamina (Balsaminaceae) against Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera:Culicidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Marimuthu Govindarajan; Mohan Rajeswary

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To assess the larvicidal potential of the crude benzene, chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanol solvent extracts of the medicinal plant Impatiens balsamina against Anopheles stephensi(An. stephensi), Aedes aegypti (Ae. aegypti) and Culex quinquefasciatus (Cx. quinquefasciatus). Methods: Twenty five third instar larvae of An. stephensi, Ae. aegypti and Cx. quinquefasciatus were exposed to various concentrations and were assayed in the laboratory by using the protocol recommended by WHO. The larval mortality was observed after 24 h of treatment. Results: Among extracts tested, the highest larvicidal activity was observed in leaf methanol extract of Impatiens balsamina against An. stephensi, Ae. aegypti and Cx. quinquefasciatus with the LC50 and LC90 values 98.04, 119.68, 125.06 and 172.93, 210.14, 220.60 mg/L, respectively. Conclusions:From the results it can be concluded that the larvicidal effect of Impatiens balsamina against An. stephensi, Ae. aegypti and Cx. quinquefasciatus make this plant product promising as an alternative to synthetic insecticide in mosquito control programs.

  13. Oviposition-deterrent, ovicidal, and repellent activities of indigenous plant extracts against Anopheles subpictus Grassi (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elango, G; Bagavan, A; Kamaraj, C; Abduz Zahir, A; Abdul Rahuman, A

    2009-11-01

    Insecticides of botanical origin may serve as suitable alternative biocontrol techniques in the future. The leaf acetone, ethyl acetate, and methanol extracts of Aegle marmelos (Linn.) Correa ex Roxb, Andrographis lineata Wallich ex Nees, and Cocculus hirsutus (L.) Diels were tested for oviposition-deterrent, ovicidal, and repellent activities against Anopheles subpictus Grassi (Diptera: Culicidae). The percentage of effective oviposition repellency of 92.60 , 93.04, 95.20, 88.26, 92.80, 94.01, 95.77, 96.93, and 92.54 at 500 ppm and the lowest repellency of 47.14, 58.00, 56.52, 64.93, 71.09, 66.42, 50.62, 57.62, and 65.73 at 31.25 ppm in acetone, ethyl acetate, and methanol extracts of Aegle marmelos, Andrographis lineata, and Cocculus hirsutus, respectively. The oviposition activity index (OAI) value of acetone, ethyl acetate, and methanol extracts of Aegle marmelos, Andrographis lineata, and Cocculus hirsutus at 500 ppm were -0.86, -0.87, -0.90, -0.78, -0.87, -0.86, -0.91, -0.94, and -0.86 respectively. The OAI values revealed that the solvent plant extracts have deterrent effect, and they caused a remarkable negative response resulting in oviposition of very few eggs. Mean percent hatchability of the ovicidal activity was observed 24 h after treatment. The percent hatchability was inversely proportional to the concentration of extract and directly proportional to the eggs. Mortality of 100% with ethyl acetate extract of Aegle marmelos, methanol extracts Aegle marmelos, Andrographis lineata, and Cocculus hirsutus were exerted at 1,000 ppm. The maximum repellent activity was observed at 500 ppm in methanol extracts of Aegle marmelos, Andrographis lineata, and ethyl acetate extract of Cocculus hirsutus, and the mean complete protection time ranged from 90 to 120 min with the different extracts tested. These results suggest that the leaf extracts of Aegle marmelos, Andrographis lineata, and Cocculus hirsutus have the potential to be used as an ideal ecofriendly

  14. Adulticidal, repellent, and ovicidal properties of indigenous plant extracts against the malarial vector, Anopheles stephensi (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panneerselvam, Chellasamy; Murugan, Kadarkarai

    2013-02-01

    Mosquito-borne diseases with an economic impact create loss in commercial and labor outputs, particularly in countries with tropical and subtropical climates. Mosquito control is facing a threat because of the emergence of resistance to synthetic insecticides. Extracts from plants may be alternative sources of mosquito control agents because they constitute a rich source of bioactive compounds that are biodegradable into nontoxic products and potentially suitable for use to control mosquitoes. Insecticides of botanical origin may serve as suitable alternative biocontrol techniques in the future. In view of the recently increased interest in developing plant origin insecticides as an alternative to chemical insecticide, this study was undertaken to assess the adulticidal, repellent, and ovicidal potential of the crude hexane, ethyl acetate, benzene, aqueous, and methanol solvent extracts from the medicinal plants Andrographis paniculata, Cassia occidentalis, and Euphorbia hirta against the medically important mosquito vector, Anopheles stephensi (Diptera: Culicidae).The adult mortality was observed after 24 h of exposure. All extracts showed moderate adulticide effects; however, the highest adult mortality was found in methanol extract of A. paniculata followed by C. occidentalis and E. hirta against the adults of A. stephensi with LC(50) and LC(90) values of 210.30, 225.91, and 263.91 ppm and 527.31, 586.36, and 621.91 ppm, respectively. The results of the repellent activity of hexane, ethyl acetate, benzene, aqueous, and methanol extract of A. paniculata, C. occidentalis, and E. hirta plants at three different concentrations of 1.0, 3.0, and 6.0 mg/cm(2) were applied on skin of forearm in man and exposed against adult female mosquitoes. In this observation, these three plant crude extracts gave protection against mosquito bites without any allergic reaction to the test person, and also, the repellent activity is dependent on the strength of the plant extracts

  15. Chemical composition and laboratory investigation of Melissa officinalis essential oil against human malarial vector mosquito, Anopheles stephensi L. (Diptera: Culicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathalaimuthu Baranitharan

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To decide the larvicides, ovicidal, pupicidal and repellent activity of Melissa officinalis (M. officinalis chemical compositions against important mosquito Anopheles stephensi (An. stephensi (Diptera: Culicidae. Methods: A chemical constituent of 24 compounds was identified in the oils of M. officinalis compounds representing to 98.73%. A total of 25 3rd instar larvae of An. stephensi were showed to a variety of concentrations (30–300 mg/L in laboratory by means of utilizing the standard procedure portrayed by World Health Organization (2005. The larvae were exposed for 24 h and mortalities were subjected to probit analysis. The ovicidal activity was strong-minded against An. stephensi mosquito to a variety of concentrations ranging from 15– 90 mg/L under the laboratory circumstances. The repellent activity of M. officinalis chemical compositions tested at concentrations of 0.75 and 1.50 mg/cm2 was evaluated in a net cage (45 cm × 45 cm × 40 cm including 100 blood starving female mosquitoes of An. stephensi using the methods of World Health Organization (1996. Results: The LC50 and LC90 values of citronellal compound against An. stephensi larvae were 85.44 and 159.73 mg/L, respectively. Mean percent hatchability of the ovicidal action was observed 48 h post-treatment. Similarly, the citronellal compound and other compositions were found to be mainly effective against eggs of An. stephensi. Citronellal compound exerted 45, 60, 75 and 90 mg/L against An. stephensi, respectively. The repellent activity of citronellal compound was contained to be mainly effective and the maximum action was observed at 0.75 and 1.50 mg/cm2 concentrations giving 100% protection up to 210 min against An. stephensi. Conclusions: This current study was undertaken to evaluate the larvicidal, ovicidal, repellent potential of compounds from the M. officinalis essential oil against An. stephensi. This is initial statement on the mosquito larvicidal

  16. How dengue vector Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae survive during the dry season in Dhaka City, Bangladesh?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajib Chowdhury

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: In 2000, a dengue outbreak occurred in Bangladesh that included Dhaka City. Both dengue vectors, Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus are present in Bangladesh. Aedes aegypti mosquitoes mainly breed in and around houses and Ae. albopictus is an outside breeder. There are many old trees throughout Dhaka City in different parks, streets and the university campus which may have holes that can contribute as potential breeding habitat for the dengue vector. Therefore, a survey was conducted to investigate the presence of eggs of the dengue vector mosquitoes in treeholes during the dry season in February 2001 to know their contribution on dengue outbreaks. Methods: All treeholes in 10 different localities (parks, streets and university campus of Dhaka City were surveyed. All trees were examined for treeholes up to the height of approximately 3 m and sampled. Debris were collected and packed in poly bags and brought to the laboratory for detailed studies. These were then soaked with tap water to observe egg hatching. The soaked materials were kept up to 20 days covered by a fine mosquito net. After 2-3 days, the eggs started hatching and larvae were separated from the sample for rearing up to IV instar. Results: A total of 245 treeholes were surveyed in 49 identified tree species and 18 unidentified trees. Altogether, 1365 Aedes larvae were found, of which 1096 were Aedes albopictus and 269 were other Aedes species. The largest number of larvae was observed in Delonix regia of Leguminosae family. The number of Aedes albopictus found in the treeholes have perfect positive correlation with the number of other Aedes species. Not a single egg of Aedes aegypti was found in this survey. Interpretation & conclusion: This information will inform public health workers as well as the national control programme to help to solve mosquito borne diseases specially that of dengue. This is critical in planning for vector control operations due to

  17. Larvicidal efficacy of Cleistanthus collinus (Roxb.) (Euphorbiaceae) leaf extracts against vector mosquitoes (Diptera:Culicidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Arivoli S; Samuel T

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To determine the larvicidal activity of Cleistanthus collinus (C. collinus) leaf extracts against Aedes aegypti, Anopheles stephensi (An. stephensi) and Culex quinquefasciatus. Methods:The larvicidal activity was determined against three vector mosquito species at concentrations of 250, 500, 750 and 1000 ppm. Larval mortality was assessed after 24 hours. Results:The leaf extracts of C. collinus was found to exhibit a larvicidal activity against the larvae of An. stephensi with a LC50 value of 399.72 ppm. Conclusions:The results indicate moderate level of larvicidal activity against vector mosquitoes.

  18. Toxic effects on and structure-toxicity relationships of phenylpropanoids, terpenes, and related compounds in Aedes aegypti larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Sandra R L; Silva, Viviane B; Melo, Manuela A; Barbosa, Juliana D F; Santos, Roseli L C; de Sousa, Damião P; Cavalcanti, Sócrates C H

    2010-12-01

    In the search for toxic compounds against Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae) larvae, a collection of commercially available aromatic and aliphatic diversely substituted compounds were selected and evaluated. p-Cymene exhibited the highest larvicidal potency LC₅₀ = 51 ppm, whereas 1,8-cineole exhibited the lowest activity value LC₅₀ = 1419 ppm. To aid future work on the search for larvicidal compounds, the structure-toxicity relationships of this collection have been evaluated. The presence of lipophilic groups results in an overall increase in potency. In general, the presence of hydroxyl groups resulted in less potent compounds. However, methylation of such hydroxyls led to an overall increase in potency. The most potent compounds showed comparably good larvicidal activity in A. aegypti larvae as other terpenes, which we assume to be the result of the increased lipophilicity.

  19. Spatial evaluation of larvae of Culicidae (Diptera from different breeding sites: application of a geospatial method and implications for vector control Avaliação espacial de formas larvais de Culicidae (Diptera em diferentes criadouros: aplicação de um método geoespacial e implicações para o controle de vetores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Piovezan

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Spatial evaluation of Culicidae (Diptera larvae from different breeding sites: application of a geospatial method and implications for vector control. This study investigates the spatial distribution of urban Culicidae and informs entomological monitoring of species that use artificial containers as larval habitats. Collections of mosquito larvae were conducted in the São Paulo State municipality of Santa Bárbara d' Oeste between 2004 and 2006 during house-to-house visits. A total of 1,891 samples and nine different species were sampled. Species distribution was assessed using the kriging statistical method by extrapolating municipal administrative divisions. The sampling method followed the norms of the municipal health services of the Ministry of Health and can thus be adopted by public health authorities in disease control and delimitation of risk areas. Moreover, this type of survey and analysis can be employed for entomological surveillance of urban vectors that use artificial containers as larval habitat.Avaliação espacial de formas larvais de Culicidae (Diptera em diferentes criadouros: aplicação de um método geoespacial e implicações para o controle de vetores. Este estudo investiga a distribuição espacial da fauna urbana e de Culicidae e informa o monitoramento entomológico de espécies que usam recipientes artificiais como habitat larval. Coletas de larvas de mosquitos foram realizadas no município paulista de Santa Bárbara d' Oeste entre os anos de 2004 e 2006, durante visitas casa-a-casa. Um total de 1.891 amostras foi considerado, com nove espécies diferentes coletadas. A distribuição das espécies foi avaliada através do método de krigagem estatística extrapolando as divisões administrativas do município. O método de coleta adotado no presente estudo está de acordo com os métodos sugeridos aos serviços de saúde municipais pelo Ministério da Saúde e pode, portanto, ser adotado pelas autoridades p

  20. A list of mosquito species of the Brazilian State of Pernambuco, including the first report of Haemagogus janthinomys (Diptera: Culicidae, yellow fever vector and 14 other species (Diptera: Culicidae Lista de espécies de mosquitos do Estado de Pernambuco e primeiro relato de Haemagogus janthinomys (Diptera: Culicidae vetor de febre amarela silvestre e outras 14 espécies (Diptera: Culicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nádia Consuelo Aragão

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Besides mosquito species adapted to urban environments (Culex quinquefasciatus, Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus, only 15 species of Anopheles had been recorded in the State of Pernambuco. METHODS: Human-landing mosquitoes were collected in Dois Irmãos Park, in Recife. RESULTS: The first report for the state of Haemagogus janthinomys, an important vector of yellow fever virus, and 14 other species, including Trichoprosopon lampropus, a first reported for Brazil. CONCLUSIONS: The mosquito fauna in the area is diversified and has potential medical and veterinary importance.INTRODUÇÃO: Além de mosquitos adaptados ao ambiente urbano (Culex quinquefasciatus, Aedes aegypti e Ae. albopictus, apenas 15 espécies de Anopheles haviam sido relatadas no Estado de Pernambuco. MÉTODOS: Mosquitos que pousavam em humanos no Parque Dois Irmãos, em Recife foram coletados. RESULTADOS: Haemagogus janthinomys, importante vetor de vírus de febre amarela, e outras 14 espécies são relatadas pela primeira vez no estado, incluindo Trichoprosopon lampropus, relatado pela primeira vez no Brasil. CONCLUSÕES: A fauna de mosquitos na área é muito diversificada e tem potencial importância médica e veterinária.

  1. Molecular Characterization of Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in Northwestern Iran by Using rDNA-ITS2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoshdel-Nezamiha, Farahnaz; Vatandoost, Hassan; Oshaghi, Mohammad Ali; Azari-Hamidian, Shahyad; Mianroodi, Reza Arabi; Dabiri, Farrokh; Bagheri, Masoomeh; Terenius, Olle; Chavshin, Ali Reza

    2016-07-22

    Several mosquito species are vectors of disease; however, to understand their role in disease transmission, accurate species identification is of particular importance. Morphological identification is the main method used, but molecular techniques have emerged as a tool for the identification of closely related species. In this study, mosquitoes from the West Azerbaijan Province in northwestern Iran were characterized on the basis of their rDNA-ITS2 sequences. Nine populations of 6 species of mosquitoes belonging to the genera Anopheles, Culex, Culiseta, and Ochlerotatus were studied. To the best of our knowledge, ITS2 sequences of Culiseta longiareolata and Culex hortensis have been reported for the first time. In addition, ITS2 sequences of Culex theileri and Ochlerotatus caspius have been reported for the first time in Iran. Phylogenetic analysis based on ITS2 showed that subfamilies Anophelinae and Culicinae of the family Culicidae could be differentiated successfully and subgenera Anopheles and Cellia of the genus Anopheles were separated. The analysis showed that the genera Culex, Culiseta, and Ochlerotatus have diverged separately.

  2. [Mosquitoes (Diptera, Culicidae) and their medical importance for Portugal: challenges for the 21st century].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouveia de Almeida, A Paulo

    2011-01-01

    Mosquitoes are dipterous insects, responsible for the transmission of several pathogenic agents to humans, causing vector-borne diseases, such as malaria, lymphatic and other filariasis, and several arboviral diseases such as yellow fever and dengue. In this revision, Culicidae or mosquitoes are summarily characterized, as well as their bioecology, internal morphology, digestive and egg maturation physiology, and the main methods for their collection and control. The epidemiology of mosquito-borne diseases depends on parameters such as Vectorial efficiency, Vector competence and Vectorial capacity, the concepts of which are presented. Forty one species of mosquitoes have been detected so far in mainland Portugal. Malaria was endemic till 1959, yellow fever outbreaks were registered in the XIX century, and human cases of dirofilarisis and West Nile fever have been detected. In face of the current climate changes in course and the threat of the (re)-introduction of exotic mosquito species, not only new cases of some of these diseases may occur, increasing their risk, but also other mosquito-borne diseases may be introduced constituting challenges for the XXI century, demanding a continued surveillance in a Public Health perspective.

  3. Assessing the Susceptibility Status of Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae in a Dirofilariasis Focus, Northwestern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abolfazl Ataie

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Mosquitoes are considered as the vectors of dirofilariasis and some vector borne disease in Iran. The objective of this study was to determine the susceptibility level of the vectors to various insecticides recommended by WHO for any control measures in an endemic area in northwestern Iran.Methods: Mosquito larval and adult collections were carried out using different methods provided by WHO including dipping and hand catch techniques. The susceptibility level was assessed to DDT 4%, malathion 5%, propoxur 0.1%, deltamethrin 0.05% and lambda-cyhalothrin 0.05%.Results: Totally, 749 adults and 5060 larvae of Culicidae mosquitoes were collected comprising seven species of adult and larvae, including: Anopheles claviger, An. maculipennis, An. sacharovi, Culex hortensis, Cx. pipiens, Cx. theileri and Culiseta longiaerolata. Frequency of larvae and adults of An. maculipennis was very low, so susceptibility tests on this species did not performed. Results showed that Cx. theileri, Cs. longiaerolata and Cx. pipiens were resistant to DDT 4%, lambda-cyhalothrin 0.05%, and propoxur 0.1% whereas found tolerant to deltamethrin 0.05% and malathion 5%. The LT50 and LT90 values for five insecticides were calculated.Conclusion: We suggest the same study in different parts of the world to obtain the data due to bionomic and susceptibility status of dirofilariasis vectors. This information will help the health authorities for monitoring and evaluation of control measures.

  4. The potential attractant or repellent effects of different water types on oviposition in Aedes aegypti L. (Dipt., Culicidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Navarro, D.M.A.F.; Oliveira, de P.E.S.; Potting, R.P.J.; Brito, A.C.; Fital, S.J.F.; Goulart Sant Ana, A.E.

    2003-01-01

    The selection of oviposition sites by the yellow-fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti , was studied in the laboratory. The repellent or attractant effects of salinity and the presence of bacteria in water collected from a local community on the Brazilian coast were investigated. Water contaminated with bac

  5. Susceptibility to temephos, permethrin and deltamethrin ofAedes aegypti (Diptera:Culicidae) from Muang district, Phitsanulok Province, Thailand

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Damrongpan Thongwat; Nophawan Bunchu

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the susceptibility to temephos, permethrin and deltamethrin ofAedes aegypti(Ae. aegypti), collected from areas with high incidence of dengue hemorrhagic fever cases inPhitsanulokProvince,Thailand.Methods:TheF1 progenies ofAe. aegypti colony, originated from five sub-districts includingAranyik,HuaRo,NaiMuang,BanKrang andThaPho, were used in the bioassays following the procedures ofWorldHealthOrganization.For larval bioassay, the late third or early fourth-instar larvae were tested with different concentrations of temephos. For adult bioassay, the females were exposed to0.75% permethrin or0.05% deltamethrin.LC50 value and mortality rate were analyzed to compare the insecticide susceptibility of the larvae and the adults in each area, respectively. Results:TheLC50 value of temephos for the larvae from Aranyik,HuaRo,NaiMuang,BanKrang andThaPho sub-districts was0.017,0.017,0.026,0.061, and0.113 ppm, respectively.For permethrin, the highest mortality rate(86.84%) was found in the mosquitoes fromAranyik but the others were more resistant with the lower mortality rates(16.00-42.67%).The adult mortality rates after exposing to deltamethrin were higher(82.34-98.67%) in all areas.Conclusions:Ae. aegypti larvae were still susceptible to temephos.Conversely, most tested adults tended to resist the permethrin and deltamethrin.

  6. Mosquitocidal Effect of Glycosmis pentaphylla Leaf Extracts against Three Mosquito Species (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramkumar, Govindaraju; Karthi, Sengodan; Muthusamy, Ranganathan; Suganya, Ponnusamy; Natarajan, Devarajan; Kweka, Eliningaya J.; Shivakumar, Muthugounder S.

    2016-01-01

    Background The resistance status of malaria vectors to different classes of insecticides used for public health has raised concern for vector control programmes. Alternative compounds to supplement the existing tools are important to be searched to overcome the existing resistance and persistence of pesticides in vectors and the environment respectively. The mosquitocidal effects of Glycosmis pentaphylla using different solvents of acetone, methanol, chloroform and ethyl acetate extracts against three medically important mosquito vectors was conducted. Methods Glycosmis pentaphylla plant leaves were collected from Kolli Hills, India. The WHO test procedures for larval and adult bioassays were used to evaluate extracts against mosquito vectors, and the chemical composition of extracts identified using GC-MS analysis. Results The larvicidal and adulticidal activity of G. pentaphylla plant extracts clearly impacted the three species of major mosquitoes vectors. Acetone extracts had the highest larvicidal effect against An. stephensi, Cx. quinquefasciatus and Ae. aegypti with the LC50 and LC90 values of 0.0004, 138.54; 0.2669, 73.7413 and 0.0585, 303.746 mg/ml, respectively. The LC50 and LC90 adulticide values of G. pentaphylla leaf extracts in acetone, methanol, chloroform and ethyl acetate, solvents were as follows for Cx. quinquefasciatus, An. stephensi and Ae. Aegypti: 2.957, 5.458, 2.708, and 4.777, 3.449, 6.676 mg/ml respectively. The chemical composition of G. pentaphylla leaf extract has been found in 20 active compounds. Conclusions The plant leaf extracts of G. pentaphylla bioactive molecules which are effective and can be developed as an eco-friendly approach for larvicides and adulticidal mosquitoes vector control. Detailed identification and characterization of mosquitocidal effect of individual bioactive molecules ingredient may result into biodegradable effective tools for the control of mosquito vectors. PMID:27391146

  7. [Updated inventory of mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) of the island of La Réunion, Indian Ocean].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boussès, P; Dehecq, J S; Brengues, C; Fontenille, D

    2013-05-01

    A literature analysis coupled with new entomological surveys conducted between 2009 and 2012 led to changes in the list of mosquito species present on the island of La Réunion. Using morphological criteria, Orthopodomyia arboricollis is replaced by Or. reunionensis. On the basis of morphometrical and genetic criteria, Culex univittatus is replaced by Cx. neavei. Cx. poicilipes, which was already reported missing 40 years ago, has not been found again. Anopheles arabiensis is confirmed as the only species of the Gambiae complex present on the island. Thus, twelve species are currently known. For each of them, elements of taxonomic, biological and medical interest are listed. An. arabiensis is a major vector of human Plasmodium (last case of indigenous malaria in 1967). In the Indian Ocean, Aedes albopictus and Ae. aegypti both are competent for transmitting dengue and chikungunya viruses. In Africa, Cx. quinquefasciatus transmits Wuchereria bancrofti and Cx. neavei transmits the Sindbis virus; both species also transmit the West Nile virus. Cx. tritaeniorhynchus is the major vector of Japanese Encephalitis virus in Asia. Two species are endemic (Ae. dufouri and Or. reunionensis), the ten other ones are also found in Madagascar and on the African continent (An. coustani, An. arabiensis, Ae. fowleri, Cx. tritaeniorhynchus, Cx. neavei, Cx. insignis, Lutzia tigripes), with three of them having also a cosmopolitan distribution (Ae. aegypti, Ae. albopictus and Cx. quinquefasciatus). Among the twelve recorded taxa, eight species are anthropophilic, three are supposedly zoophilic and one is a predatory species. No new invasive anthropophilic species did settle on the island. Updated identification keys of larval and adult stages are proposed.

  8. Extracellular synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Bacillus megaterium against malarial and dengue vector (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banu, A Najitha; Balasubramanian, C

    2015-11-01

    Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles has provoked nowadays and alternative to physical and chemical approaches. In the present study, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were synthesized extracellular method using Bacillus megaterium. The AgNPs formations were confirmed initially through color change, and the aliquots were characterized through UV-visible spectrophotometer, followed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy, and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra. The surface plasmon resonance band was shown at 430 nm in UV-vis spectrophotometer. The bioreduction was categorized through identifying the compounds responsible for the AgNP synthesis, and the functional group present in B. megaterium cell-free culture was scrutinized using FTIR. The topography and morphology of the particles were determined using SEM. In addition, this biosynthesized AgNPs were found to show higher insecticidal efficacy against vector mosquitoes. The LC50 and LC90 were found to be 0.567, 2.260; 0.90, 4.44; 1.349, 8.269; and 1.640, 9.152 and 0.240, 0.955; 0.331, 1.593; 0.494, 2.811; and 0.700, 4.435 with respect to the first, second, third, and fourth instar larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus and Aedes aegypti. All the calculated χ (2) values are highly significant compared with the tabulated value. Therefore, B. megaterium-synthesized silver nanoparticles would be used as a potent larvicidal agent against Cx. quinquefasciatus and Ae. aegypti.

  9. Larval Habitats Diversity and Distribution of the Mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) Species in the Republic of Moldova.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulesco, Tatiana M; Toderas, Lidia G; Uspenskaia, Inga G; Toderas, I K

    2015-11-01

    A countrywide field survey of immature mosquitoes was conducted in Moldova with the aim to evaluate the Culicidae species composition in different larval habitats and their distribution in the country. In total, 259 potential larval habitats were sampled in the 53 localities, resulting in 9,456 specimens. Twenty species belonging to the genera Anopheles, Aedes, Culex, Culiseta, and Uranotaenia were collected. Mean species richness in aquatic habitats ranged from 1.00 to 4.00, and, for example, was higher in swamps, flood plains, ditches, and large ground pools and lower in rivers, streams, tree-holes, and containers. Six mosquito species were identified only in a single type of aquatic habitat. Anopheles maculipennis s.l., Culex pipiens pipiens L., and Culex modestus Ficalbi were the most abundant and distributed species representing over 80% of the identified specimens. Three, four, and five associated species were recorded from 23.5% of mosquito-positive aquatic habitats. Our findings demonstrate the co-occurrence of Cx. p. pipiens and Culex torrentium Martini in natural and rural environments. It is concluded that the study area has undergone a dramatic ecological change since the previous studies in the 1950s, causing the near extinction of Culex theileri Theobald from Moldova. An. maculipennis s.l. larval abundance, reduced by the DDT control of the adults in the 1950s, had returned to those of the 1940s. Restoration of An. maculipennis s.l. abundance in combination with imported malaria cases constitute a risk of the reintroduction of malaria transmission in Moldova.

  10. Proof of concept for a novel insecticide bioassay based on sugar feeding by adult Aedes aegypti (Stegomyia aegypti).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stell, F M; Roe, R M; Arellano, C; Kennedy, L; Thornton, H; Saavedra-Rodriguez, K; Wesson, D M; Black, W C; Apperson, C S

    2013-09-01

    Aedes aegypti L. (Stegomyia aegypti) (Diptera: Culicidae) is the principal vector of dengue and yellow fever viruses in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Disease management is largely based on mosquito control achieved by insecticides applied to interior resting surfaces and through space sprays. Population monitoring to detect insecticide resistance is a significant component of integrated disease management programmes. We developed a bioassay method for assessing insecticide susceptibility based on the feeding activity of mosquitoes on plant sugars. Our prototype sugar-insecticide feeding bioassay system was composed of inexpensive, disposable components, contained minimal volumes of insecticide, and was compact and highly transportable. Individual mosquitoes were assayed in a plastic cup that contained a sucrose-permethrin solution. Trypan blue dye was added to create a visual marker in the mosquito's abdomen for ingested sucrose-permethrin solution. Blue faecal spots provided further evidence of solution ingestion. With the sugar-insecticide feeding bioassay, the permethrin susceptibility of Ae. aegypti females from two field-collected strains was characterized by probit analysis of dosage-response data. The field strains were also tested by forced contact of females with permethrin residues on filter paper. Dosage-response patterns were similar, indicating that the sugar-insecticide feeding bioassay had appropriately characterized the permethrin susceptibility of the two strains.

  11. Vector competence of North American mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) for West Nile virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turell, M J; O'Guinn, M L; Dohm, D J; Jones, J W

    2001-03-01

    We evaluated the potential for several North American mosquito species to transmit the newly introduced West Nile (WN) virus. Mosquitoes collected in the New York City metropolitan area during the recent WN virus outbreak, at the Assateague Island Wildlife Refuge, VA, or from established colonies were allowed to feed on chickens infected with WN virus isolated from a crow that died during the 1999 outbreak. These mosquitoes were tested approximately 2 wk later to determine infection, dissemination, and transmission rates. Aedes albopictus (Skuse), Aedes atropalpus (Coquillett), and Aedes japonicus (Theobald) were highly susceptible to infection, and nearly all individuals with a disseminated infection transmitted virus by bite. Culex pipiens L. and Aedes sollicitans (Walker) were moderately susceptible. In contrast, Aedes vexans (Meigen), Aedes aegypti (L.), and Aedes taeniorhynchus (Wiedemann) were relatively refractory to infection, but individual mosquitoes inoculated with WN virus did transmit virus by bite. Infected female Cx. pipiens transmitted WN virus to one of 1,618 F1 progeny, indicating the potential for vertical transmission of this virus. In addition to laboratory vector competence, host-feeding preferences, relative abundance, and season of activity also determine the role that these species could play in transmitting WN virus.

  12. Cloning and sequence analysis of β-actin gene from Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Weijie Wang; Xiaobang Hu; Donghui Zhang; Jianhua Jiao; Yan Sun; Lei Ma; Changliang Zhu

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To obtain the complete β-actin gene from Aedes albopictus. Methods: Total RNA was extracted from C6/36 cells. Degenerate primers were designed based on the β-actin sequences of An. gambiae, Ae. aegypti, Cx. pipiens pallens and D.melanogaster. By RT-PCR, the product was amplified, purified, cloned into the pGT vector and sequenced. The β-actin sequence was aligned and phylogenetically analyzed by the BLAST program and the CLUSTAL W program. Results: A sequence of 1132 bp including an open reading frame of 1131 bp was obtained (GenBank DQ657949). The deduced protein had 376 amino acids.Aligned to SWISS-PROT, it exhibited a high level of identity with β-actins from Anopheles, Drosophila and Culex at the amino acid sequence level. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that Ae. albopictus β-actin was much more homologous with invertebrate β-actin than with vertebrate β-actin. Conclusion: The gene may be used as the internal control in the experiments of Ae. albopictus.

  13. A technique for preparing polytene chromosomes from Aedes aegypti (Diptera, Culicinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jairo Campos

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Polytene chromosome preparations were obtained from larval, pupal and adult female Malpighian tubules of Aedes aegypti. The Malpighian tubules of the pupae (0-4 h old from larvae reared at 20ºC provided the best cytogenetic analysis. The interaction of nucleic acids and proteins that influence the spreading of the chromosomes could be reduced with the preparation technique of the sheets submitted to a stronger treatment starting with the hypotony of tissue and successive bathings with acetic acid. A simple technique should facilitate molecular cytogenetics used in the location of resistance and vector competence genes.

  14. Evaluation of leaf aqueous extract and synthesized silver nanoparticles using Nerium oleander against Anopheles stephensi (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roni, Mathath; Murugan, Kadarkarai; Panneerselvam, Chellasamy; Subramaniam, Jayapal; Hwang, Jiang-Shiou

    2013-03-01

    Green nanoparticle synthesis has been achieved using environmentally acceptable plant extract and ecofriendly reducing and capping agents. The present study was carried out to establish the larvicidal activity of synthesized silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using leaf extract of Nerium oleander (Apocynaceae) against the first to fourth instar larvae and pupae of malaria vector, Anopheles stephensi (Diptera: Culicidae). Nanoparticles are being used in many commercial applications. It was found that aqueous silver ions can be reduced by the aqueous extract of the plant parts to generate extremely stable silver nanoparticles in water. The results were recorded from UV-Vis spectrum, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy analysis. The production of the AgNPs synthesized using leaf extract of N. oleander was evaluated through a UV-Vis spectrophotometer in a wavelength range of 200 to 700 nm. This revealed a peak at 440 nm in N. oleander leaf extracts, indicating the production of AgNPs. The FTIR spectra of AgNPs exhibited prominent peaks at 509.12 cm(-1) (C-H bend alkenes), 1,077.05 cm(-1) (C-O stretch alcohols), 1,600.63 cm(-1) (N-H bend amines), 2,736.49 and 2,479.04 cm(-1) (O-H stretch carboxylic acids), and 3,415.31 cm(-1) (N-H stretching due to amines group). An SEM micrograph showed 20-35-nm-size aggregates of spherical- and cubic-shaped nanoparticles. EDX showed the complete chemical composition of the synthesized nanoparticles of silver. Larvicidal activity of aqueous leaf extract of N. oleander and synthesized AgNPs was carried out against Anopheles stephensi, and the results showed that the highest larval mortality was found in the synthesized AgNPs against the first to fourth instar larvae and pupae of Anopheles stephensi with the following values: LC(50) of instar larvae 20.60, 24.90, 28.22, and 33.99 ppm; LC(90) of instar larvae 41.62, 50.33, 57.78, and 68.41

  15. Long-term spatio-temporal dynamics of the mosquito Aedes aegypti in temperate Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, S; De Majo, M S; Quiroga, L; Paez, M; Schweigmann, N

    2017-04-01

    Buenos Aires city is located near the southern limit of the distribution of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae). This study aimed to assess long-term variations in the abundance of Ae. aegypti in Buenos Aires in relation to changes in climatic conditions. Ae. aegypti weekly oviposition activity was analyzed and compared through nine warm seasons from 1998 to 2014, with 200 ovitraps placed across the whole extension of the city. The temporal and spatial dynamics of abundances were compared among seasons, and their relation with climatic variables were analyzed. Results showed a trend to higher peak abundances, a higher number of infested sites, and longer duration of the oviposition season through subsequent years, consistent with a long-term colonization process. In contrast, thermal favorability and rainfall pattern did not show a consistent trend of changes. The long-term increase in abundance, and the recently documented expansion of Ae. aegypti to colder areas of Buenos Aires province suggest that local populations might be adapting to lower temperature conditions. The steadily increasing abundances may have implications on the risk of dengue transmission.

  16. Multiple Modes of Action of the Squamocin in the Midgut Cells of Aedes aegypti Larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Paula, Sérgio Oliveira; Martins, Gustavo Ferreira; Zanuncio, José Cola

    2016-01-01

    Annonaceous acetogenins are botanical compounds with good potential for use as insecticides. In the vector, Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae), squamocin (acetogenin) has been reported to be a larvicide and cytotoxic, but the modes of action of this molecule are still poorly understood. This study evaluated the changes in the cell morphology, and in the expression of genes, for autophagy (Atg1 and Atg8), for membrane ion transporter V-ATPase, and for water channel aquaporin-4 (Aqp4) in the midgut of A. aegypti larvae exposed to squamocin from Annona mucosa Jacq. (Annonaceae). Squamocin showed cytotoxic action with changes in the midgut epithelium and digestive cells of A. aegypti larvae, increase in the expression for autophagy gene Atg1 and Atg8, decrease in the expression of V-ATPase, decrease in the expression of Aqp4 gene in LC20 and inhibition of Apq4 genes in the midgut of this vector in LC50. These multiple modes of action for squamocin are described for the first time in insects, and they are important because different sites of action of squamocin from A. mucosa may reduce the possibility of resistance of A. aegypti to this molecule. PMID:27532504

  17. Lethal ovitrap deployment for Aedes aegypti control: potential implications for non-target organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Sharron A; Jacups, Susan P; Ritchie, Scott A

    2015-06-01

    In Australia, dengue control combines source reduction with lethal ovitraps to reduce Aedes aegypti populations during outbreaks. Lethal ovitraps are considered a sustainable and environmentally friendly method of controlling container-inhabiting mosquitoes, however, to-date, this claim has not been quantified. This study assesses the potential impact of lethal ovitraps on non-target organisms when used to control Ae. aegypti in tropical Australia. For retention of specimens, we substituted standard sticky ovitraps for lethal ovitraps. We collected 988 Ae. aegypti and 44,132 non-target specimens over 13 months from 16 sites. Although Ae. aegypti comprised only 2.2% of the total collection, they were were the eighth most dominant taxa collected, on the 93(rd) percentile. Of the non-target organisms, Collembola were the dominant taxa, 44.2%, with 36.8% and 10.5% Diptera and Hymenoptera, respectively. Of the Dipterans, 61% were family Phoridae. Lethal ovitraps were visited by 90 insect or invertebrate families in total. Ovitraps are attractive to Collembola, Phoridae, Sciaridae, Formicidae, and Culicidae, with minimal attraction by Apidae and other commonly monitored non-target organisms. For container-inhabiting mosquitoes, LOs are cost effective operationally, requiring minimal staff resources for placement and retrieval.

  18. Bioactivity of plant extracts on the larval and pupal stages of Aedes aegypti (Diptera, Culicidea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lafayette Pereira Candido

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Aedes aegypti is responsible for the transmission of the dengue and yellow fever viruses. This study evaluated the effects of extracts from Cnidosculos phyllacanthus, Ricinus communis, and Coutarea hexandra on the developmental periods of A.aegypti larvae and pupae. Crude extracts of C. phyllacanthus and C. hexandra and oil from R. communis and C. phyllacanthus were used. Methods Bioassays of the larvicidal and pupicidal effects of these products at different concentrations and times of exposure were evaluated. The lethal and sublethal effects were determined using different concentrations in larvicidal tests. Mortality data were evaluated by Probit analysis to determine the LC50 and LC90 values. Results The vegetable oils from C. phyllacanthus and R. communis demonstrated greater efficiency for larval control with an LC50=0.28µl/mL and an LC90=1.48µl/mL and LC50=0.029µl/mL and a LC90=0.26µl/mL, respectively. In pupal tests toxic effects for all insects were verified after exposure to the products at significant LC50 and LC90 values for 24 and 48h. The effects of sublethal concentrations of C. phyllacanthus (oil were more effective on the insects. Conclusions The vegetables oils from C. phyllacanthus and R. communis demonstrated greater potential from the control of different developmental periods in the life cycle of this insect.

  19. Culicidae and Ceratopogonidae (Diptera: Nematocera inhabiting phytotelmata in Iguazú National Park, Misiones Province, subtropical Argentina Culicidae y Ceratopogonidae (Diptera: Nematocera que habitan en fi totelmata en el Parque Nacional Iguazú, provincia de Misiones, Argentina subtropical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl E. Campos

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A list of the most common phytotelmata and their Culicidae and Ceratopogonidae inhabitants from Iguazú National Park, Misiones Province, Argentina, is presented, and biological and behavioral observations are also included. Species of Poaceae, Bromeliaceae, Apiaceae, Araceae, Urticaceae, Marantaceae, and Arecaceae, were identified as phytotelmata. Twenty six species of Culicidae and nine of Ceratopogonidae were identified. The highest species richness of culicids and ceratopogonids was recorded from the bamboo Guadua chacoensis (Poaceae and treeholes, respectively. Fourteen species of Culicidae and three of Ceratopogonidae inhabit bamboo, two and five treeholes, seven and three bromeliads, and nine and one, other less known phytotelmata, respectively.Se presenta una lista de las fitotelmata más comunes y los Culicidae y Ceratopogonidae que las habitan, del Parque Nacional Iguazú, Misiones, Argentina; además de observaciones biológicas y de comportamiento. Especies de Poaceae, Bromeliaceae, Apiaceae, Araceae, Urticaceae, Marantaceae, y Arecaceae, fueron identificadas como fitotelmata. Fueron reconocidas 26 especies de culícidos y nueve de Ceratopogonidae. La mayor riqueza de especies de culícidos y ceratopogónidos se registraron en el bambú Guadua chacoensis (Poaceae y en los huecos de los árboles respectivamente. Catorce especies de culícidos y tres de ceratopogónidos habitan bambúes, dos y cinco en los huecos de los árboles, siete y tres en bromelias y nueve y una en otras fitotelmata, respectivamente.

  20. Septic tanks as larval habitats for the mosquitoes Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus in Playa-Playita, Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, R; Barrera, R; Lewis, M; Kluchinsky, T; Claborn, D

    2010-06-01

    Adult Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus) (Diptera: Culicidae) were previously recovered from emergence traps on septic tanks in southeastern Puerto Rico. In this study we quantified immature mosquito abundance and its relationship with structural variables of the septic tanks and chemical properties of the water containing raw sewage. A miniaturized floating funnel trap was used to sample 89 septic tanks for larvae in the Puerto Rican community of Playa-Playita. Aedes aegypti larvae were recovered from 18% of the sampled tanks (10.3 larvae per septic tank per day). Larval presence was positively associated with cracking of the septic tank walls and uncovered access ports. Larval abundance was positively associated with cracking of the septic tank walls and larger tank surface areas, and inversely associated with the total dissolved solids (TDS). Culex quinquefasciatus (Say) larvae were also recovered from 74% of the septic tanks (129.6 larvae per septic tank per day). Larval presence was negatively associated with TDS in the water and larval abundance was positively associated with cracking of the septic tank walls. A screened, plastic emergence trap was used to sample 93 septic tanks within the community for Ae. aegypti and Cx. quinquefasciatus adults. Aedes aegypti adults were recovered from 49% of the sampled tanks (8.7 adults per septic tank per day) and Cx. quinquefasciatus adults were recovered from 97% of the sampled tanks (155.5 adults per septic tank per day). Aedes aegypti adult presence was positively associated with cracking, uncapped openings and septic water pH. The Ae. aegypti adult counts were positively associated with cracking and inversely associated with TDS and conductivity. This study marks the first published record of the recovery of Ae. aegypti larvae from holding tanks containing raw sewage in the Caribbean region. Our study indicates that Ae. aegypti larvae are present in sewage water and that septic tanks have at least the potential to maintain

  1. Imaturos de Culicidae (Diptera encontrados em recipientes instalados em mata residual no munícipio de Londrina, Paraná, Brasil Immature specimens of Culicidae (Diptera found in installed recipients in forest fragments in the Londrina, Paraná, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João A. C. Zequi

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Fragmentos de mata na área urbana ou periurbana podem ser locais favoráveis a procriação de Culicidae. Esse trabalho teve como objetivo levantar as espécies de culicídeos que utilizam criadouros artificiais, suas coexistência e as flutuações populacionais em uma reserva de mata localizada em Londrina - PR. Realizou-se coletas quinzenais de outubro de 1995 a setembro de 1996 em pneus e internódios de bambu armadilha que foram instalados ao nível do solo e outros internódios instalados a 2 m de altura. Coletou-se 12.656 espécimes, pertencentes a cinco gêneros e 11 espécies. As espécies mais abundantes nos criadouros foram Limatus durham Theobald, 1901, Culex eduardoi Casal & Garcia, 1968, Aedes terrens (Walker, 1856, Culex quinquefasciatus Say, 1823 e Aedes albopictus (Skuse, 1894. O maior número de indivíduos foi coletado em pneus, sendo que Limatus durham e Aedes terrens, apresentaram preferência nesse criadouro. A presença de Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762, Aedes albopictus e Haemagogus leucocelaenus (Dyar & Shannon, 1924 em diferentes coletas indica que esse tipo de ambiente não deve ser ignorado nas ações de controle de vetores, merecendo constante monitoramento.Forest fragments in an urban area were found to be a situable site for Culicidae breeding. This research aims to inventory the Culicidae species that use artificial breeding sites, their coexistence, and the population variation in a fragment forest in the Londrina City, Paraná State. Biweekly collecting efforts were performed from October 1995 to September 1996 using tires and bamboo internodes traps installed at a ground level and bamboo internodes traps at two 2 m height. A total of 12,656 culicid specimens belonging to five genus and 11 species were collected. The most abundant species in those artificial breeding sites were Limatus durhami Theobald, 1901, Culex eduardoi Couple & Garcia, 1968, Aedes terrens (Walker, 1856, Culex quinquefasciatus Say, 1823 and

  2. New records of mosquito species (Diptera: Culicidae from Neuquén and La Rioja provinces, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Grech

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The presence of Aedes aegypti is reported beyond its current limit of distribution in Argentina, in the city of Neuquén, Neuquén Province. Ovitraps were placed to collect Ae. aegypti eggs between December 2009 and April 2010. The geographical distribution of Culex eduardoi, Psorophora ciliata and Ps. cingulata is extended with new records from two provinces.

  3. Mosquito larvicidal and ovicidal properties of Pemphis acidula Frost. (Lythraceae) against Culex tritaeniorhynchus Giles and Anopheles subpictus Grassi (Diptera:Culicidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    K. Samidurai

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This study was undertaken to assess the larvicidal and ovicidal potential of the crude methanol, benzene and acetone solvent extracts from the medicinal plant Pemphis acidula (Pe. acidula) against the medically important mosquito vectors, Culex tritaeniorhynchus (Cx. tritaeniorhynchus) and Anopheles subpictus (An. subpictus) were exposed to various concentrations and (Diptera: Culicidae). Methods: Twenty five late third instar of Cx. tritaeniorhynchus and An. subpictus were exposed to various concentrations and were assayed in the laboratory by using the protocol of WHO 2005. The larval mortality was observed 24 h of treatment. Hundred eggs of Cx. tritaeniorhynchus and An. subpictus were exposed to various concentrations and were assayed in the laboratory by using the protocol of Su and Mulla 1998. The ovicidal activity was observed 48 h of treatment. Results: The LC50 and LC90 values being 10.81and 20.64 and 22.10 and 43.71 ppm and hundred percent of egg mortality was observed at 350 and 400 ppm methanol extract of Pe. acidula against Cx. tritaeniorhynchus and An. subpictus, respectively. Conclusion: These results suggest that the leaf extracts have the potential to be used as an ideal ecofriendly approach for the control of mosquitoes.

  4. Larvicidal and repellent activity of essential oils from wild and cultivated Ruta chalepensis L. (Rutaceae) against Aedes albopictus Skuse (Diptera: Culicidae), an arbovirus vector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conti, Barbara; Leonardi, Michele; Pistelli, Luisa; Profeti, Raffaele; Ouerghemmi, Ines; Benelli, Giovanni

    2013-03-01

    Rutaceae are widely recognized for their toxic and repellent activity exerted against mosquitoes. In our research, the essential oils extracted from fresh leaves of wild and cultivated plants of Ruta chalepensis L. (Rutaceae) were evaluated for larvicidal and repellent activity against the Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus Skuse (Diptera: Culicidae), currently the most invasive mosquito worldwide. In this research, gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses of the essential oils from wild and cultivated plants showed only quantitative differences, in particular relatively to the amounts of ketone derivatives, while the qualitative profile evidenced a similar chemical composition. Both essential oils from wild and cultivated R. chalepensis plants were able to exert a very good toxic activity against A. albopictus larvae (wild plants, LC(50) = 35.66 ppm; cultivated plants, LC(50) = 33.18 ppm), and mortality was dosage dependent. These data are the first evidence of the toxicity of R. chalepensis against mosquitoes. Furthermore, the R. chalepensis essential oil from wild plants was an effective repellent against A. albopictus, also at lower dosages: RD(50) was 0.000215 μL/cm(2) of skin, while RD(90) was 0.007613 μL/cm(2). Our results clearly evidenced that the larvicidal and repellent activity of R. chalepensis essential oil could be used for the development of new and safer products against the Asian tiger mosquito.

  5. Chemical Compositions of the Peel Essential Oil of Citrus aurantium and its Natural Larvicidal Activity against the Malaria Vector Anopheles stephensi (Diptera: Culicidae in Comparison with Citrus paradisi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Sanei-Dehkordi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Recently, essential oils and extracts derived from plants have received much interest as potential bioactive agents against mosquito vectors.Methods: The essential oils extract from fresh peel of ripe fruit of Citrus aurantium and Citrus paradisi were tested against mosquito vector Anopheles stephensi (Diptera: Culicidae under laboratory condition. Then chemical com­position of the essential oil of C. aurantium was analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC–MS.Results: The essential oils obtained from C. aurantium, and C. paradisi showed good larviciding effect against An. stephensi with LC50 values 31.20 ppm and 35.71 ppm respectively. Clear dose response relationships were established with the highest dose of 80 ppm plant extract evoking almost 100% mortality. Twenty-one (98.62% constituents in the leaf oil were identified. The main constituent of the leaf oil was Dl-limonene (94.81.Conclusion: The results obtained from this study suggest that the limonene of peel essential oil of C. aurantium is promising as larvicide against An. stephensi larvae and could be useful in the search for new natural larvicidal compounds.

  6. Crepuscular activity of culicids (Diptera, Culicidae in the peridomicile and in the remaining riparian forest in Tibagi river, State of Paraná, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerson A. Müller

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Crepuscular activity of culicids (Diptera, Culicidae in the peridomicile and in the remaining riparian forest in Tibagi river, State of Paraná, Brazil. Human-attracted mosquitoes were collected for one hour, around sunset time (half hour before and half after, from April to December 2006, in two environments (riparian forest and near houses, in Tibagi river basin, Palmeira municipality, State of Paraná. Seven-hundred forty-nine mosquitoes, belonging to 13 species, were collected. Psorophora champerico Dyar & Knab, 1906 (42.86% and Psorophora discrucians (Walker, 1856 (40.59% were the most frequent species. No significant differences between quantities of Ps. champerico (t = -0.792; d.f. = 16; p = 0.43 and Ps. discrucians (t = 0.689; d.f. = 16; p = 0.49 obtained in riparian forest and near houses were observed, indicating similar conditions for crepuscular activity of these species in both environments. Psorophora champerico and Ps. discrucians responded (haematophagic activity to environmental stimuli associated with the twilight hours differently in distinct habitats studied. The former species is registered for the first time in the Atlantic forest biome.

  7. Ecology of mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae in areas of Serra do Mar State Park, State of São Paulo, Brazil. II - Habitat distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Érico Guimarães

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae ecology was studied in areas of Serra do Mar State Park, State of São Paulo, Brazil. Systematized biweekly human bait collections were made three times a day, for periods of 2 or 3 h each, in sylvatic and rural areas for 24 consecutive months (January 1991 to December 1992. A total of 24,943 adult mosquitoes belonging to 57 species were collected during 622 collective periods. Aedes scapularis, Coquillettidia chrysonotum, Cq. venezuelensis, Wyeomyia dyari, Wy. longirostris, Wy. theobaldi and Wy. palmata were more frequently collected at swampy and at flooded areas. Anopheles mediopunctatus, Culex nigripalpus, Ae. serratus, Ae. fulvus, Psorophora ferox, Ps. albipes and the Sabethini in general, were captured almost exclusively in forested areas. An. cruzii, An. oswaldoi and An. fluminensis were captured more frequently in a residence area. However, Cx. quinquefasciatus was the only one truly eusynanthropic. An. cruzii and Ae. scapularis were captured feeding on blood inside and around the residence, indicating that both species, malaria and arbovirus vectors respectively, may be involved in the transmission of these such diseases in rural areas.

  8. Comparison of fatty acid contents and composition in major lipid classes of larvae and adults of mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) from a steppe region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sushchik, Nadezhda N; Yurchenko, Yuri A; Gladyshev, Michail I; Belevich, Olga E; Kalachova, Galina S; Kolmakova, Angelika A

    2013-10-01

    Emerging aquatic insects, including mosquitoes, are known to transfer to terrestrial ecosystems specific essential biochemicals, such as polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). We studied fatty acid (FA) composition and contents of dominant mosquito populations (Diptera: Culicidae), that is, Anopheles messeae, Ochlerotatus caspius, Oc. flavescens, Oc. euedes, Oc. subdiversus, Oc. cataphylla, and Aedes cinereus, inhabited a steppe wetland of a temperate climate zone to fill up the gap in their lipid knowledge. The polar lipid and triacylglycerol fractions of larvae and adults were compared. In most studied mosquito species, we first found and identified a number of short-chain PUFA, for example, prominent 14:2n-6 and 14:3n-3, which were not earlier documented in living organisms. These PUFA, although occurred in low levels in adult mosquitoes, can be potentially used as markers of mosquito biomass in terrestrial food webs. We hypothesize that these acids might be synthesized (or retroconverted) by the mosquitoes. Using FA trophic markers accumulated in triacylglycerols, trophic relations of the mosquitoes were accessed. The larval diet comprised green algae, cryptophytes, and dinoflagellates and provided the mosquitoes with essential n-3 PUFA, linolenic, and eicosapentaenoic acids. As a result, both larvae and adults of the studied mosquitoes had comparatively high content of the essential PUFA. Comparison of FA proportions in polar lipids versus storage lipids shown that during mosquito metamorphosis transfer of essential eicosapentaenoic and arachidonic acids from the reserve in storage lipids of larvae to functional polar lipids in adults occurred.

  9. Efficacy of agnique (mmf) monomolecular surface film against immature stages of Anopheles arabiensis patton and Culex spp (diptera: culicidae) in Khartoum, Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashir, Al; Hassan, A Abu; Salmah, M R Che; Rahman, W A

    2008-03-01

    The efficacy of the larvicidal and pupicidal agent (Agnique) MMF was evaluated against larvae of An. arabiensis and Culex (Diptera: Culicidae) under field conditions in Bahary Locality, Khartoum, Sudan. At an applied dosage of 0.25 ml/m2, MMF resulted in 89.4, 79.8 and 88.2% reductions in L3-L4 instars An. arabiensis and 63.5% in Culex larvae (all stages) 24 to 72 hours post-treatment. Pupae were completely eliminated (100%) within 24 hours posttreatment. The earlier instars (L1-L2) of An. arabiensis were more tolerant with a 62.5% reduction at 72 hours post-treatment compared to (L3-L4) instars and pupae. At 7-days post-treatment Agnique gave a 57.5% reduction in L1-L2 and 92.6% in L3-L4 instar larvae of An. arabiensis and 57.3% and 86.4% in Culex larvae and pupae, respectively. We conclude that Agnique can perform effectively against L3-L4 instars and pupae of An. arabiensis for only 1 week, and 3 to 4 days against L1-L2 instars of Culex spp.

  10. Toxicity of pirimiphos methyl (Actellic 25EC) on Anopheles gambiae s.s., Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae), and potential biocontrol agent, Poecilia reticulata (Pisces: Poeciliidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anogwih, Joy A

    2014-08-01

    The toxicity of an emulsifiable formulation of pirimiphos methyl (Actellic 25EC) on Anopheles gambiae s.s. Giles, Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae), and predator fish Poecilia reticulata Peters (Pisces: Poeciliidae) was investigated. Acute toxicity tests were carried out to determine the effect of the larvicide on mosquito larvae and fish species. To investigate the nontarget effects on P. reticulata, fish of similar size (3.5 +/- 0.2 cm) were randomly selected and exposed for 28 d, under static renewal bioassay, to sublethal concentrations of the larvicide capable of killing 30 and 70% of Cx. quinquefasciatus. The 24 h LC50 value of pirimiphos methyl on the test organisms ranged between 20.44 and 697.30 microg liter(-1). The ultrastructural changes observed in the intestinal cells of P. reticulata were characterized by degenerating cell membranes with gradual loss of gray area in pycnotic nucleus at lower concentration. Marked damage was found at higher concentration including distinct loss of gray areas in cytosol, absence of cristae, numerous ruptures, and several dead cells. Pirimiphos methyl was toxic to a predatory fish species, and for its relevance in vector control and crop protection, warrants cumulative assessment to establish its comprehensive ecological risk, and the dosage required for field larviciding.

  11. Larvicidal and repellent activity of the essential oil of Coriandrum sativum L. (Apiaceae) fruits against the filariasis vector Aedes albopictus Skuse (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benelli, Giovanni; Flamini, Guido; Fiore, Giulia; Cioni, Pier Luigi; Conti, Barbara

    2013-03-01

    The essential oils of many Apiaceae species have been already studied for their insecticidal and repellent properties against insect pests. In this research, the essential oil (EO) extracted from the fruits of Coriandrum sativum L. (Apiaceae) was evaluated for the first time for its larvicidal and repellent activities against the most invasive mosquito worldwide, Aedes albopictus Skuse (Diptera: Culicidae). The chemical composition of C. sativum EO was investigated by gas chromatography with electron impact mass spectrometry analysis. Coriander EO was mainly composed by monoterpene hydrocarbons and oxygenated monoterpenes, with linalool (83.6 %) as the major constituent. C. sativum EO exerted toxic activity against A. albopictus larvae: LC(50) was 421 ppm, while LC(90) was 531.7 ppm. Repellence trials highlighted that C. sativum EO was a good repellent against A. albopictus, also at lower dosages: RD(50) was 0.0001565 μL/cm(2) of skin, while RD(90) was 0.002004 μL/cm(2). At the highest dosage (0.2 μL/cm(2) of skin), the protection time achieved with C. sativum essential oil was higher than 60 min. This study adds knowledge about the chemical composition of C. sativum EO as well as to the larvicidal and repellent activity exerted by this EO against A. albopictus. On this basis, we believe that our findings could be useful for the development of new and safer products against the Asian tiger mosquito.

  12. Culicidae (Diptera del arco sur de la Laguna de Mar Chiquita (Córdoba, Argentina y su importancia sanitaria Culicidae (Diptera from the southern coast of Mar Chiquita Lake (Cordoba, Argentina and their sanitary importance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Ludueña Almeida

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Se amplía la lista de veintidos especies de Culicidae citadas para el arco sur de la Laguna de Mar Chiquita a veintiocho. Aedeomyia squamipennis (Lynch Arribalzaga , Culex acharistus Root, Culex chidesteri Dyar, Haemagogus spegazzinii Brèthes, Mansonia titillans (Walker y Psorophora holmbergi Lynch Arribalzaga se citan por primera vez para la región. Se sintetizan los antecedentes relacionados con la importancia sanitaria de los culícidos de la zona.The list of twenty-two species of Culicidae from the southern coast of Mar Chiquita Lake is extended to twenty-eight. Aedeomyia squamipennis (Lynch Arribalzaga , Culex acharistus Root, Culex chidesteri Dyar, Haemagogus spegazzinii Brèthes , Mansonia titillans (Walker and Psorophora holmbergi Lynch Arribalzaga are listed for the first time for the region. The available information on sanitary importance of the culicids of the area is summarized.

  13. An in vitro bioassay for the quantitative evaluation of mosquito repellents against Stegomyia aegypti (=Aedes aegypti) mosquitoes using a novel cocktail meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, T-H; Tien, N-Y; Luo, Y-P

    2015-09-01

    To assess the efficacy of new insect repellents, an efficient and safe in vitro bioassay system using a multiple-membrane blood-feeding device and a cocktail meal was developed. The multiple-membrane blood-feeding device facilitates the identification of new insect repellents by the high-throughput screening of candidate chemicals. A cocktail meal was developed as a replacement for blood for feeding females of Stegomyia aegypti (=Aedes aegypti) (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae). The cocktail meal consisted of a mixture of salt, albumin and dextrose, to which adenosine triphosphate was added to induce engorging. Feeding rates of St. aegypti on the cocktail meal and pig blood, respectively, did not differ significantly, but were significantly higher than the feeding rate on citrate phosphate dextrose-adenine 1 (CPDA-1) solutions, which had been used to replace bloodmeals in previous repellent assays. Dose-dependent biting inhibition rates were analysed using probit analysis. The RD(50) (the dose producing 50% repellence of mosquito feeding) values of DEET, citronella, carvacrol, geraniol, eugenol and thymol were 1.62, 14.40, 22.51, 23.29, 23.83 and 68.05 µg/cm(2), respectively.

  14. Imidacloprid impairs the post-embryonic development of the midgut in the yellow fever mosquito Stegomyia aegypti (=Aedes aegypti).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, K M; Gonzaga, W G; Pascini, T V; Miranda, F R; Tomé, H V V; Serrão, J E; Martins, G F

    2015-09-01

    The mosquito Stegomyia aegypti (=Aedes aegypti) (Diptera: Culicidae) is a vector for the dengue and yellow fever viruses. As blood digestion occurs in the midgut, this organ constitutes the route of entry of many pathogens. The effects of the insecticide imidacloprid on the survival of St. aegypti were investigated and the sub-lethal effects of the insecticide on midgut development were determined. Third instar larvae were exposed to different concentrations of imidacloprid (0.15, 1.5, 3.0, 6.0 and 15.0 p.p.m.) and survival was monitored every 24 h for 10 days. Midguts from imidacloprid-treated insects at different stages of development were dissected and processed for analyses by transmission electron microscopy, immunofluorescence microscopy and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick-end labelling (TUNEL) assays. Imidacloprid concentrations of 3.0 and 15.0 p.p.m. were found to affect midgut development similarly. Digestive cells of the fourth instar larvae (L4) midgut exposed to imidacloprid had more multilamellar bodies, abundantly found in the cell apex, and more electron-lucent vacuoles in the basal region compared with those from untreated insects. Moreover, imidacloprid interfered with the differentiation of regenerative cells, dramatically reducing the number of digestive and endocrine cells and leading to malformation of the midgut epithelium in adults. The data demonstrate that imidacloprid can reduce the survival of mosquitoes and thus indicate its potentially high efficacy in the control of St. aegypti populations.

  15. Larvicidal activity against Aedes aegypti of pacharin from Bauhinia acuruana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva Góis, Roberto Wagner; de Sousa, Leôncio Mesquita; Santiago, Gilvandete Maria Pinheiro; Romero, Nirla Rodrigues; Lemos, Telma Leda Gomes; Arriaga, Angela Martha Campos; Braz-Filho, Raimundo

    2013-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the activity of pacharin isolated from the ethanol extract from roots of Bauhinia acuruana on third-instar larvae of Aedes aegypti Linn. (Diptera: Culicidae). The crude ethanol extract showed larvicidal activity at the concentration of 500 μg/mL. Given this larvicidal activity, this extract was submitted to chromatographic fractionation on a silica gel column eluted with n-hexane, dichloromethane, ethyl ether, ethyl acetate, and methanol in order to isolate the active compound(s). Pacharin, obtained in pure form from fraction eluted with ethyl ether, was evaluated for their larvicidal effects against A. aegypti. In these bioassays, the larvae were exposed at concentrations of 500, 250, 100, 50, and 25 μg/mL of the crude ethanol extract or pacharin. After 24 h, the number of dead larvae was counted and the LC₅₀ values for larval mortality were calculated. Pacharin showed LC50 value of 78.9 ± 1.8 μg/mL. The structure of isolated compound was identified on the basis of their spectral data (IR, 1D- and 2D-NMR) and by comparison with literature spectral data. The results indicate pacharin as a potential natural larvicide.

  16. Infestação pelo mosquito Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) na cidade de Chapecó – SC

    OpenAIRE

    Lutinski, Junir Antonio

    2013-01-01

    http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2013v26n2p143 A dengue se tornou um problema de saúde pública e vem causando preocupação aos profissionais de saúde. Este estudo visou a avaliar os fatores condicionantes para a ocorrência de dengue na cidade de Chapecó – SC. Foram analisadas as informações disponíveis no Sistema de Informações de Febre Amarela e Dengue (SISFAD) e foi realizada uma pesquisa a partir de um questionário semiestruturado aplicado à população. As análises indicam a associação da...

  17. Eleutherococcus senticosus (Araliaceae) leaf morpho-anatomy, essential oil composition and its biological activity against Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The roots of Eleutherococcus senticosus, a well-known medicinal plant from Eastern Asia, are used worldwide for their known beneficial medicinal properties. Recently the leaves have been used as an alternative to the roots. The present study was aimed at exploring the leaf essential oil as a potenti...

  18. Characterization of Tolypocladium cylindrosporum (Hypocreales: Ophiocordycipitaceae)and its effectiveness in infecting Aedes aegypti eggs (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Availability of an effective egg-targeting system would allow for the control of a much greater portion of mosquito populations, because after emergence adults disperse away from egg-laying sites. Consequently, eggs form a reservoir of individuals highly susceptible to control measures. The purpose ...

  19. A novel in vitro bioassay to explore the repellent effects of compounds against mosquito Aedes Aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosquitoes are vectors for many pathogens that can cause human diseases which can result in high rates of human morbidity and mortality at significant levels of transmission. Repellents play an important role in reducing mosquito bites and hence the risk of spread of mosquito borne diseases. Current...

  20. A Novel in vitro Bioassay to Explore the Repellent Effects of Compounds Against Mosquito Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehman, Junaid U; Tabanca, Nurhayat; Khan, Ikhlas A

    2016-01-01

    Mosquitoes are vectors for many pathogens resulting in many deaths of humans. Repellents play an important role in reducing mosquito bites and the spread of mosquito-borne diseases. Currently, Klun & Debboun (K & D) and human-arm-based bioassay systems are used to identify repellent properties of compounds, extracts, and essential oils. Risks involved with human-arm-based systems are allergic reactions and limited replicates. We are reporting an in vitro bioassay method “NCNPR repellent bioassay (NCNPR-RB)” that can closely simulate the results of the cloth patch bioassay system used to determine repellency against mosquitoes. The NCNPRRB method uses heat to attract mosquito and edible collagen sheets as an alternate to human skin. Multiple plant compounds with documented repellency were tested. DEET (N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide) was used as a positive control. Treatments were prepared in EtOH and applied in dosages ranging from 0.011–1.5mg/cm2 to a 20-cm2 collagen sheet. The number of mosquitoes commencing to bite per probe was recorded visually for 1 min. The minimum effective dosage (mg/cm2) of compounds: DEET (0.021), carvacrol (0.011), thymol (0.013), undecanoic acid (0.023), thymol methyl ether (0.269), and 2-nonanone (>0.375 mg/cm2) determined in NCNPRRB were similar to those reported in literature using a cloth patch bioassay system. The NCNPR-RB can be used to screen compounds with reasonable reproducibility of the data at a faster rate than the cloth patch bioassay, which involves the use of human subjects.

  1. Crepuscular activity of culicids (Diptera, Culicidae in the peridomicile and in the remaining riparian forest in Tibagi river, State of Paraná, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerson A. Müller

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Crepuscular activity of culicids (Diptera, Culicidae in the peridomicile and in the remaining riparian forest in Tibagi river, State of Paraná, Brazil. Human-attracted mosquitoes were collected for one hour, around sunset time (half hour before and half after, from April to December 2006, in two environments (riparian forest and near houses, in Tibagi river basin, Palmeira municipality, State of Paraná. Seven-hundred forty-nine mosquitoes, belonging to 13 species, were collected. Psorophora champerico Dyar & Knab, 1906 (42.86% and Psorophora discrucians (Walker, 1856 (40.59% were the most frequent species. No significant differences between quantities of Ps. champerico (t = -0.792; d.f. = 16; p = 0.43 and Ps. discrucians (t = 0.689; d.f. = 16; p = 0.49 obtained in riparian forest and near houses were observed, indicating similar conditions for crepuscular activity of these species in both environments. Psorophora champerico and Ps. discrucians responded (haematophagic activity to environmental stimuli associated with the twilight hours differently in distinct habitats studied. The former species is registered for the first time in the Atlantic forest biome.Atividade crepuscular de culicídeos (Diptera, Culicidae no peridomicílio e remanescentes de matas ciliares do Rio Tibagi. Estado do Paraná, Brasil. Mosquitos atraídos por humanos foram coletados por uma hora em torno do crepúsculo vespertino (meia hora antes e meia hora depois, de abril a dezembro de 2006, em dois locais (mata ciliar e peridomicílio na bacia do Rio Tibagi, município de Palmeira, Estado do Paraná. Foram capturados 749 mosquitos distribuídos em 13 espécies. Psorophora champerico Dyar & Knab, 1906 (42,86% e Ps. discrucians (Walker, 1856 (40,59% foram as espécies mais freqüentes. Não foram registradas diferenças significativas entre as médias de indivíduos capturados entre os pontos de mata ciliar e peridomicílio para Ps. champerico (t = -0,792; g.l. = 16; p = 0

  2. SITUACIÓN ACTUAL EN ESPAÑA Y ECO-EPIDEMIOLOGÍA DE LAS ARBOVIROSIS TRANSMITIDAS POR MOSQUITOS CULÍCIDOS (DIPTERA: CULICIDAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubén Bueno Marí

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available En el presente manuscrito se analiza la posible emergencia y/o reemergencia en España de algunas de las arbovirosis transmitidas por mosquitos culícidos (Diptera: Culicidae de mayor incidencia a nivel mundial en los últimos años. Los datos faunísticos, bioecológicos y de distribución de los culícidos en nuestro país permiten discernir entre especies con capacidad de mantener la enzootia de algunas de estas arbovirosis de otras que pueden actuar como vectores puente de la virosis hasta el ser humano. Los resultados revelan la existencia de especies, algunas de ellas muy frecuentes en los humedales de nuestro país y fuertemente antropófilas como Aedes vexans, Culex modestus, Culex pipiens u Ochlerotatus caspius, con una elevada capacidad para transmitir flavivirus como el virus West Nile o el virus Usutu. Además, la reciente introducción, establecimiento y expansión del mosquito tigre, Aedes albopictus, abre una preocupante vía para la aparición de posibles brotes, probablemente incluso de tipo epidémico, de arbovirosis habitualmente importadas a nuestro país por personas inmigrantes y turistas, como el Dengue o Chikungunya. Por último, también se discute el interés epidemiológico de especies propias de nuestro entorno como Aedes vittatus u Ochlerotatus geniculatus, debido a su capacidad vectorial constatada para la transmisión de algunas de estas virosis típicamente tropicales.

  3. Host-seeking and blood-feeding behavior of Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) exposed to vapors of geraniol, citral, citronellal, eugenol, or anisaldehyde.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Huiling; Wei, Jianrong; Dai, Jianqing; Du, Jiawei

    2008-05-01

    The changes of the host-seeking and blood-feeding behavior of Aedes albopictus (Skuse) (Diptera: Culicidae) surviving in a space containing vapors of the spatial repellents geraniol, eugenol, citral, anisaldehyde, or citronellal were evaluated using an arm-in-cage test and a bioassay of bloodmeals on a shaved mouse. The mosquitoes surviving concentrations of geraniol, citral, eugenol, or anisaldehyde at 0.013, 0.025, 0.050, 0.100, and 0.250 microg/cm3 for 24 and 48 h all showed different degrees of reduction in host-seeking ability. After 48 h of exposure to 0.250 microg/cm3 geraniol, almost 100% of the mosquitoes lost their host-seeking ability. The next most potent spatial repellent, anisaldehyde, stopped host seeking by > 85.5%. Citronellal did not result in a significant reduction in the host-seeking ability at any concentration level after either 24 or 48 h of treatment. We also found that reduction of host-seeking ability recovered after various times. The longest recovery time (144 h) was observed for geraniol after 24 h at 0.250 microg/cm3. In the study, geraniol, eugenol, and citral all significantly affected the activation and orientation stages of the blood-feeding behavior. However, only anisaldehyde significantly interrupted the normal blood-feeding of mosquitoes in all stages of behavior. These initial laboratory results clearly showed that anisaldehyde and geraniol could be promising spatial repellents against Ae. albopictus that they could play a major role in new repellent technology.

  4. Population structure and gene flow of Anopheles farauti s.s. (Diptera: Culicidae) among ten sites on five islands of Vanuatu: implications for malaria control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiff, D M; Kaneko, A; Taleo, G; Amos, M; Lum, J K

    2007-07-01

    The Anopheles punctulatus (Diptera: Culicidae) group is the main vector for malaria and Bancroftian filariasis in Vanuatu. Anopheles larvae were collected from 10 localities on five islands of Vanuatu during the 2004 dry season for species identification as well as for estimating population structure and gene flow within and among islands. Species identification was determined using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of the internal transcribed spacer 2 region. Population structure and gene flow were examined by sequencing a portion of the ND4/ND5 region of the mitochondrial genome. Only one species of the An. punctulatus group, An. farauti s.s., was identified, consistent with previous studies in Vanuatu. A nonrandom distribution of An. farauti s.s. lineages was observed with one cosmopolitan lineage shared by eight sites on all five islands and a preponderance of island-specific lineages (36/40), indicating the introduction of a single main lineage into Vanuatu followed by dispersal, diversification, and limited lineage exchange between islands. Network analysis suggests a possible second introduction of An. farauti s.s. into the northern islands of Gaua and Malekula. Gene flow was high on three of the five islands, whereas Tanna and Santo have significant population structure. Among islands, gene flow was limited, indicating active mosquito dispersal only over short distances and a paucity of passive human-mediated dispersal over long distances. Minimal risk of active dispersal among these islands indicates that vector control can be effectively initiated at the island level within the archipelago of Vanuatu.

  5. Larval habitat for the avian malaria vector culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae) in altered mid-elevation mesic-dry forests in Hawai'i

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiter, M.E.; Lapointe, D.A.

    2009-01-01

    Effective management of avian malaria (Plasmodium relictum) in Hawai'i's endemic honeycreepers (Drepanidinae) requires the identification and subsequent reduction or treatment of larval habitat for the mosquito vector, Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae). We conducted ground surveys, treehole surveys, and helicopter aerial surveys from 20012003 to identify all potential larval mosquito habitat within two 100+ ha mesic-dry forest study sites in Hawai'i Volcanoes National Park, Hawai'i; 'Ainahou Ranch and Mauna Loa Strip Road. At 'Ainahou Ranch, anthropogenic sites (43%) were more likely to contain mosquitoes than naturally occurring (8%) sites. Larvae of Cx. quinquefasciatus were predominately found in anthropogenic sites while Aedes albopictus larvae occurred less frequently in both anthropogenic sites and naturally-occurring sites. Additionally, moderate-size (???20-22,000 liters) anthropogenic potential larval habitat had >50% probability of mosquito presence compared to larger- and smaller-volume habitat (<50%). Less than 20% of trees surveyed at ' Ainahou Ranch had treeholes and few mosquito larvae were detected. Aerial surveys at 'Ainahou Ranch detected 56% (95% CI: 42-68%) of the potential larval habitat identified in ground surveys. At Mauna Loa Strip Road, Cx. quinquefasciatus larvae were only found in the rock holes of small intermittent stream drainages that made up 20% (5 of 25) of the total potential larval habitat. The volume of the potential larval habitat did not influence the probability of mosquito occurrence at Mauna Loa Strip Road. Our results suggest that Cx. quinquefasciatus abundance, and subsequently avian malaria, may be controlled by larval habitat reduction in the mesic-dry landscapes of Hawai'i where anthropogenic sources predominate.

  6. Landscape factors influencing the spatial distribution and abundance of mosquito vector Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae) in a mixed residential-agricultural community in Hawai'i

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiter, M.E.; Lapointe, D.A.

    2007-01-01

    Mosquito-borne avian diseases, principally avian malaria (Plasmodium relictum Grassi and Feletti) and avian pox (Avipoxvirus sp.) have been implicated as the key limiting factor associated with recent declines of endemic avifauna in the Hawaiian Island archipelago. We present data on the relative abundance, infection status, and spatial distribution of the primary mosquito vector Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae) across a mixed, residential-agricultural community adjacent to Hawai'i Volcanoes National Park on Hawai'i Island. We modeled the effect of agriculture and forest fragmentation in determining relative abundance of adult Cx. quinquefasciatus in Volcano Village, and we implement our statistical model in a geographic information system to generate a probability of mosquito capture prediction surface for the study area. Our model was based on biweekly captures of adult mosquitoes from 20 locations within Volcano Village from October 2001 to April 2003. We used mixed effects logistic regression to model the probability of capturing a mosquito, and we developed a set of 17 competing models a priori to specifically evaluate the effect of agriculture and fragmentation (i.e., residential landscapes) at two spatial scales. In total, 2,126 mosquitoes were captured in CO 2-baited traps with an average probability of 0.27 (SE = 0.10) of capturing one or more mosquitoes per trap night. Twelve percent of mosquitoes captured were infected with P. relictum. Our data indicate that agricultural lands and forest fragmentation significantly increase the probability of mosquito capture. The prediction surface identified areas along the Hawai'i Volcanoes National Park boundary that may have high relative abundance of the vector. Our data document the potential of avian malaria transmission in residential-agricultural landscapes and support the need for vector management that extends beyond reserve boundaries and considers a reserve's spatial position in a highly

  7. Laboratory evaluation of aqueous leaf extract of Tephrosia vogelii against larvae of Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) and non-target aquatic organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Weisheng; Huang, Congling; Wang, Kun; Fu, Jiantao; Cheng, Dongmei; Zhang, Zhixiang

    2015-06-01

    Mosquito control using insecticides has been the most successful intervention known to reduce malaria prevalence or incidence. However, vector control is facing a threat due to the emergence of resistance to synthetic insecticides. Insecticides of botanical origin may serve as suitable alternative biocontrol techniques in the future. In this research, the leaf aqueous leachate of Tephrosia vogelii was evaluated for its toxicity against larvae of the most invasive mosquito worldwide, Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae), and toward adults of the water flea, Daphnia magna (Cladocera: Crustacea) and Oreochromis niloticus, two non-target aquatic organisms that share the same ecological niche of A. albopictus. The leaf aqueous leachate of T. vogelii was evaluated against fourth-instar larvae, non-blood fed 3-5 days old laboratory strains of A. albopictus under laboratory condition. In addition, the objective of the present work was to study the environmental safety evaluation for aquatic ecosystem. Mortality was then recorded after 7d exposure. The leaf aqueous leachate of T. vogelii showed high mosquitocidal activity against larvae of A. albopictus, with a LC50=1.18μg/mL. However, it had a remarkable acute toxicity also toward adults of the non-target arthropod D. magna, with a LC50=0.47μg/L and O. niloticus with a LC50=5.31μg/L. The present findings have important implications in the practical control of mosquito larvae in the aquatic ecosystem, as the medicinal plants studied are commonly available in large quantities. The extract could be used in stagnant water bodies for the control of mosquitoes acting as vector for many communicable diseases.

  8. Encontro de Haemagogus (Conopostegus leucocelaenus (Diptera: Culicidae, no Município de Porto Alegre, Estado do Rio Grande do Sul Finding of Haemagogus (Conopostegus leucocelaenus (Diptera: Culicidae, in the municipality of Porto Alegre, State of Rio Grande do Sul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almério de Castro Gomes

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Em novembro de 2006, foi realizada uma investigação entomológica numa mata nativa do município de Porto Alegre, Estado do Rio Grande do Sul. O resultado foi a captura de várias espécies Culicidae, incluindo o primeiro registro da presença de Haemagogus leucocelaenus na localidade. Esta espécie é considerada vetora do vírus da febre amarela em alguns municípios do Estado, motivando esta comunicação para alertar sobre o potencial da área para circulação do agente etiológico desta doença.In November 2006, an entomological investigation was carried out in a native forest in the municipality of Porto Alegre, State of Rio Grande do Sul. The result was the capture of several Culicidae species, including the first recording of the presence of Haemagogus leucocelaenus in this locality. This species is considered to be a vector for the yellow fever virus in some municipalities of this State, and this was the motivation for the present communication, in order to warn regarding the potential of this area for circulation of the etiological agent for this disease.

  9. Culicidae (Diptera) community structure, spatial and temporal distribution in three environments of the province of Chaco, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Marina; Santana, Mirta; Galindo, Liliana María; Etchepare, Eduardo; Willener, Juana Alicia; Almirón, Walter Ricardo

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this work was to study the composition of the Culicidae community in three environments with different degrees of anthropic disturbance in the province of Chaco. The nonparametric richness estimator ACE was calculated to measure the completeness of the sampling in each environment, and the diversity of each environment (α-diversity) were estimated. The composition, abundance and uniformity of species from the different environments were compared by means of range-species curves. β-diversity was measured as species complementarity, which allowed us to know the degree of dissimilarity among the environments. The synanthropic index was estimated, identifying urban environment (synanthropic) species, eusynanthropic species, and wild species. The influence of climatic factors (mean temperature, relative humidity and rainfall) on the monthly and annual variations of the identified mosquito species was analysed using multilevel Poisson models with over-dispersion. The wild environment showed higher diversity and the semi-urban environment higher species richness. Despite having lower S and abundance, the urban environment showed greater diversity than semi-urban environment, although it also showed lower completeness, which means S could increase. Anthropogenic disturbance can lead to the elimination and/or modification or substitution of habitats, with the subsequent loss of richness in the more sensitive species of Culicidae fauna, although the conditions are also favourable for the settling of opportunistic and exotic species well-adjusted to disturbed environments. Most of the species abundances were positively influenced by the analysed climatic variables. The study area showed a rich Culicidae fauna of public health significance, with a risk of pathogen transmission, suggesting the need of further studies and the febrile and entomological surveillance.

  10. [Culicidae (Diptera) in the dam area bordering the states of Santa Catarina and Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Almério C; Paula, Marcia B; Vitor Neto, João B; Borsari, Rodrigo; Ferraudo, Antonio S

    2009-01-01

    The Culicidae composition of the Barra Grande Lake situated between the municipalities of Esmeralda (Rio Grande do Sul State) and Anita Garibaldi (Santa Catarina State) was assessed by monthly samplings. Twenty-four species were identified from a total of 1,185 specimens (74.7% as adults and 25.3% as immatures), with Aedes fluviatilis Lutz as the most frequent species. Several species are new records, and some of them are of public health interest. It is suggested that local environmental changes may alter the relationship between humans and vector mosquitoes.

  11. Species Composition and Ecological Aspects of Immature Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in Bromeliads in Urban Parks in the City of São Paulo, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceretti-Junior, Walter; de Oliveira Christe, Rafael; Rizzo, Marco; Strobel, Regina Claudia; de Matos Junior, Marco Otavio; de Mello, Maria Helena Silva Homem; Fernandes, Aristides; Medeiros-Sousa, Antônio Ralph; de Carvalho, Gabriela Cristina; Marrelli, Mauro Toledo

    2016-01-01

    Background: Bromeliads can be epiphytic, terrestrial or saxicolous and use strategies to allow water to be retained in their leaf axils, where various arthropods can be found. These include mosquitoes, whose larvae are the most abundant and commonly found organisms in the leaf axils. The objective of this study was to look for immature forms of mosquitoes (the larval and pupal stages) in bromeliads in municipal parks in São Paulo and to discuss the ecological and epidemiological importance of these insects. Methods: From October 2010 to July 2013, immature mosquitoes were collected from bromeliads in 65 municipal parks in the city of São Paulo, Brazil, using suction samplers. The immature forms were maintained until adult forms emerged, and these were then identified morphologically. Results: Two thousand forty-two immature-stage specimens belonging to the genera Aedes, Culex, Trichoprosopon, Toxorhynchites, Limatus and Wyeomyia were found in bromeliads in 15 of the 65 parks visited. Aedes albopictus was the most abundant species (660 specimens collected), followed by Culex quinquefasciatus (548 specimens) and Cx. (Microculex) imitator (444). The taxa with the most widespread distribution were Ae. aegypti and Toxorhynchites spp, followed by Ae. albopictus and Cx. quinquefasciatus. Conclusion: Bromeliads in urban parks are refuges for populations of native species of Culicidae and breeding sites for exotic species that are generally of epidemiological interest. Hence, administrators and surveillance and mosquito-control agencies must constantly monitor these microenvironments as the presence of these species endangers the health of park users and employees as well as people living near the parks. PMID:27047978

  12. Species Composition and Ecological Aspects of Immature Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae in Bromeliads in Urban Parks in the City of São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Ceretti-Junior

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Bromeliads can be epiphytic, terrestrial or saxicolous and use strategies to allow water to be re­tained in their leaf axils, where various arthropods can be found. These include mosquitoes, whose larvae are the most abundant and commonly found organisms in the leaf axils. The objective of this study was to look for im­mature forms of mosquitoes (the larval and pupal stages in bromeliads in municipal parks in São Paulo and to discuss the ecological and epidemiological importance of these insects.Methods: From October 2010 to July 2013, immature mosquitoes were collected from bromeliads in 65 munici­pal parks in the city of São Paulo, Brazil, using suction samplers. The immature forms were maintained until adult forms emerged, and these were then identified morphologically.Results: Two thousand forty-two immature-stage specimens belonging to the genera Aedes, Culex, Trichoprosopon, Toxorhynchites, Limatus and Wyeomyia were found in bromeliads in 15 of the 65 parks visited. Aedes albopictus was the most abundant species (660 specimens collected, followed by Culex quinquefasciatus (548 specimens and Cx. (Microculex imitator (444. The taxa with the most widespread distribution were Ae. aegypti and Toxorhynchites spp, followed by Ae. albopictus and Cx. quinquefasciatus.Conclusion: Bromeliads in urban parks are refuges for populations of native species of Culicidae and breeding sites for exotic species that are generally of epidemiological interest. Hence, administrators and surveillance and mosquito-control agencies must constantly monitor these microenvironments as the presence of these species endangers the health of park users and employees as well as people living near the parks. 

  13. Diversidade de Culicidae durante os períodos crepusculares em bioma de Floresta Atlântica e paridade de Anopheles cruzii (Diptera: Culicidae Diversity of Culicidae during the crepuscular periods in Atlantic Forest biome and parity of Anopheles cruzii (Diptera: Culicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana C. D. Bona

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo da investigação foi analisar a variação da diversidade e abundância das espécies de Culicidae e sua relação com algumas variáveis ambientais, bem como estimar a taxa de paridade de Anopheles cruzii Dyar & Knab, 1908. O estudo foi desenvolvido em Floresta Ombrófila Densa da Mata Atlântica, localizada no Estado do Paraná, denominada de Floresta Estadual do Palmito. As capturas foram executadas quinzenalmente, de dezembro 2006 a março 2007, com a técnica de "aspiração menor", nos crepúsculos vespertino e matutino, iniciando antes dos crepúsculos e finalizando após os crepúsculos. Foram detectadas 25 espécies, sendo as mais abundantes, Anopheles cruzii (65,2%, Culex sachettae Sirivanakarn & Jacob, 1982 (11,2% e Anopheles bellator Dyar & Knab, 1906 (8,5%. De acordo com análise de variância, ocorreu diferença significativa na freqüência entre os períodos crepusculares para seguintes espécies: Aedes scapularis (Rondone, 1848 (p = 0,03651, Coquillettidia chrysonotum (Peryassu, 1922 (p = 0,00795, Mansonia fonsecai (Pinto, 1932 (p = 0,00804, e Runchomyia theobaldi Lane & Cerqueira, 1934 (p = 0,01996. Não houve correlação significativa com a abundância das principais espécies capturadas e as médias dos fatores abióticos avaliados. A taxa de paridade de Anopheles cruzii atingiu média percentual de 48%, não existindo correlação entre a abundância e a taxa de paridade. O crepúsculo exerce influência no comportamento apetente das espécies de Culicidae. A comparação de similaridade entre os crepúsculos apontou para elevada semelhança da composição específica. Anopheles cruzii atingiu dominância nos períodos vespertino e matutino, sendo a diversidade de forma geral reduzida nestes períodos.The aim of this investigation was to know the diversity and abundance of Culicidae associating with the climatic factors and obtaining the parity of Anopheles cruzii Dyar & Knab, 1908. The study was developed in a

  14. New records of mosquito species (Diptera: Culicidae from Neuquén and La Rioja provinces, Argentina Nuevos registros de mosquitos (Diptera: Culicidae en las provincias de Neuquén y La Rioja, Argentina Novo registro de mosquitos (Diptera: Culicidae nas províncias de Neuquén e La Rioja, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Grech

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The presence of Aedes aegypti is reported beyond its current limit of distribution in Argentina, in the city of Neuquén, Neuquén Province. Ovitraps were placed to collect Ae. aegypti eggs between December 2009 and April 2010. The geographical distribution of Culex eduardoi, Psorophora ciliata and Ps. cingulata is extended with new records from two provinces.Se reporta la presencia de Aedes aegypti al sur de su límite actual de distribución en Argentina, en la ciudad de Neuquén, provincia de Neuquén. Huevos de esta especie fueron colectados mediante el uso de ovitrampas que fueron colocadas de diciembre/2009 a abril/2010. La distribución geográfica de Culex eduardoi, Psorophora ciliata y Ps. cingulata se amplía, incluyendo nuevos registros para dos provincias.Relata-se a presença de Aedes aegypti ao sul de seu limite atual de distribuição na Argentina, na cidade de Neuquén, província de Neuquén. Ovitrampas foram instaladas de dezembro/2009 a abril/2010. A distribuição geográfica de Culex eduardoi, Psorophora ciliata e Ps. cingulata aumenta, incluindo novos registros para duas províncias.

  15. Estirpes de Bacillus thuringiensis efetivas contra insetos das ordens Lepidoptera, Coleoptera e Diptera Bacillus thuringiensis strains effective against insects of Lepidoptera, Coleoptera and Diptera orders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lílian Botelho Praça

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi selecionar entre 300 estirpes de Bacillus thuringiensis as efetivas simultaneamente contra larvas de Spodoptera frugiperda J.E. Smith e Anticarsia gemmatalis Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae, Anthonomus grandis Boheman (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Aedes aegypti Linnaeus e Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae. Foram selecionadas duas estirpes de B. thuringiensis, denominadas S234 e S997, que apresentaram atividade contra as três ordens de insetos. As estirpes foram caracterizadas por métodos morfológicos, bioquímicos e moleculares. As mesmas apresentaram duas proteínas principais de 130 e 65 kDa, produtos de reação em cadeia da polimerase de tamanho esperado para a detecção dos genes cry1Aa, cry1Ab, cry1Ac, cry1B e cry2 e cristais bipiramidais, cubóides e esféricos.The aim of this work was to select among 300 strains of Bacillus thuringiensis those which are simultaneously effective against larvae of Spodoptera frugiperda J.E. Smith and Anticarsia gemmatalis Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae, Anthonomus grandis Boheman (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Aedes aegypti Linnaeus and Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae. Two strains of B. thuringiensis were selected, S234 and S997, which presented activity against those three insect orders. Both strains were characterized by morphological, biochemical and molecular methods. They have presented two main proteins with 130 and 65 kDa, polimerase chain reaction products with expected sizes for detection of the genes cry1Aa, cry1Ab, cry1Ac, cry1B and cry2 and bipiramidal, cubical and spherical crystals.

  16. Changes in species richness and spatial distribution of mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) inferred from museum specimen records and a recent inventory: a case study from Belgium suggests recent expanded distribution of arbovirus and malaria vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekoninck, W; Hendrickx, F; Versteirt, V; Coosemans, M; De Clercq, E M; Hendrickx, G; Hance, T; Grootaert, P

    2013-03-01

    Mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) distribution data from a recent inventory of native and invading mosquito species in Belgium were compared with historical data from the period 1900-1960 that were retrieved from a revision of the Belgian Culicidae collection at the Royal Belgian Institute of Natural Sciences. Both data sets were used to investigate trends in mosquito species richness in several regions in Belgium. The relative change in distribution area of mosquito species was particularly important for species that use waste waters and used tires as larval habitats and species that recently shifted their larval habitat to artificial larval habitats. More importantly, several of these species are known as vectors of arboviruses and Plasmodium sp. and the apparent habitat shift of some of them brought these species in proximity to humans. Similar studies comparing current mosquito richness with former distribution data retrieved from voucher specimens from collections is therefore encouraged because they can generate important information concerning health risk assessment at both regional and national scale.

  17. Effect of different hosts on feeding patterns and mortality of mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae and their implications on parasite transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliningaya J Kweka

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The host-response to hematophagus insects is still an important parameter in understanding disease transmission patterns. We investigated the feeding and mortality rates of three mosquito species, namely Culex quinquefasciatus, Aedes aegypti and Anopheles arabiensis against three different hosts. Materials and Methods: Unfed three to five-day-old female mosquitoes were released in a tunnel box that had a rabbit or guinea pig or mice as a host. The feeding succession patterns of mosquitoes in different hosts were An. arabiensis, Cx. quinquefasciatus and A. aegypti. Results: Mosquito mortality rate was 54.9% for mosquitoes introduced in mice as a host, 34.3% in the Guinea pig and 10.8% for those that introduced in the rabbit. Conclusion: The presence of defensive and tolerable hosts in environment emphasizes the relevance of studying epidemiological impact of these behaviors in relation to diseases transmission.

  18. Culicidae and Ceratopogonidae (Diptera: Nematocera inhabiting phytotelmata in Iguazú National Park, Misiones Province, subtropical Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl E. CAMPOS

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta una lista de las fitotelmata más comunes y los Culicidae y Ceratopogonidae que las habitan, del Parque Nacional Iguazú, Misiones, Argentina; además de observaciones biológicas y de comportamiento. Especies de Poaceae, Bromeliaceae, Apiaceae, Araceae, Urticaceae, Marantaceae, y Arecaceae, fueron identificadas como fitotelmata. Fueron reconocidas 26 especies de culícidos y nueve de Ceratopogonidae. La mayor riqueza de especies de culícidos y ceratopogónidos se registraron en el bambú Guadua chacoensis (Poaceae y en los huecos de los árboles respectivamente. Catorce especies de culícidos y tres de ceratopogónidos habitan bambúes, dos y cinco en los huecos de los árboles, siete y tres en bromelias y nueve y una en otras fitotelmata, respectivamente.

  19. Development of the gravid Aedes trap for the capture of adult female container-exploiting mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eiras, Alvaro E; Buhagiar, Tamara S; Ritchie, Scott A

    2014-01-01

    Monitoring dengue vector control by sampling adult Aedes aegypti (L.) recently has been used to replace both larval and pupal surveys. We have developed and evaluated the Gravid Aedes Trap (GAT) through a sequential behavioral study. The GAT does not require electricity to function, and trapped mosquitoes are identified easily during trap inspections. The GAT concept relies on visual and olfactory cues to lure gravid Ae. aegypti and an insecticide to kill trapped mosquitoes. Gravid mosquitoes are lured to a black bucket base containing oviposition attractant (infusion) and are trapped in a translucent chamber impregnated with a pyrethroid insecticide where they are killed within 3-15 min. In semifield observations, the GAT captured a significantly higher proportion of gravid mosquitoes than the double sticky ovitrap. We also demonstrated that the visual cues of the prototype GAT-LgBF (large black base bucket with a black funnel at the top of the translucent chamber) captured a significantly higher proportion of gravid mosquitoes than the other prototypes. The visual contrast created by the addition of a white lid to the top of the black funnel significantly increased the number of captured gravid mosquitoes when compared with the GAT-LgBF in semifield trials. We conclude that the GAT is more efficient in recapturing gravid Ae. aegypti when compared with sticky ovitraps. The GAT is an effective, practical, low cost, and easily transportable trap, features that are essential in large-scale monitoring programs, particularly in areas where funding is limited.

  20. Experience- and age-mediated oviposition behaviour in the yellow fever mosquito Stegomyia aegypti (=Aedes aegypti).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruktanonchai, N W; Lounibos, L P; Smith, D L; Allan, S A

    2015-09-01

    In repeated behaviours such as those of feeding and reproduction, past experiences can inform future behaviour. By altering their behaviour in response to environmental stimuli, insects in highly variable landscapes can tailor their behaviour to their particular environment. In particular, female mosquitoes may benefit from plasticity in their choice of egg-laying site as these sites are often temporally variable and clustered. The opportunity to adapt egg-laying behaviour to past experience also exists for mosquito populations as females typically lay eggs multiple times throughout their lives. Whether experience and age affect egg-laying (or oviposition) behaviour in the mosquito Stegomyia aegypti (=Aedes aegypti) (Diptera: Culicidae) was assessed using a wind tunnel. Initially, gravid mosquitoes were provided with a cup containing either repellent or well water. After ovipositing in these cups, the mosquitoes were blood-fed and introduced into a wind tunnel. In this wind tunnel, an oviposition cup containing repellent was placed in the immediate vicinity of the gravid mosquitoes. A cup containing well water was placed at the opposite end of the tunnel so that if the females flew across the chamber, they encountered the well water cup, in which they readily laid eggs. Mosquitoes previously exposed to repellent cups became significantly more likely to later lay eggs in repellent cups, suggesting that previous experience with suboptimal oviposition sites informs mosquitoes of the characteristics of nearby oviposition sites. These results provide further evidence that mosquitoes modify behaviour in response to environmental information and are demonstrated in a vector species in which behavioural plasticity may be ecologically and epidemiologically meaningful.

  1. Phytochemical constituents and larvicidal activity ofTragia involucrata Linn. (Euphorbiacea) leaf extracts against chikungunya vector,Aedes aegypti (Linn.) (Diptera:Culicidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ramar Ganasekar; Jeyasankar Alagarmalai

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To determine the phytochemical and larvicidal activity ofTragia involucrata (T. involucrata) leaf extracts against fourth instar larvae ofAe. aegypti. Methods:Phytochemical analysis of hexane leaf extract was performed and larvicidal activity was determined againstAe. aegypti at concentrations of 50, 100, 150, 200 and 250 mg/L. Larval mortality was assessed after 24 h. Results: The hexane extracts ofT. involucrata was found to be higher mortality against the larvae ofAe. aegypti with a LC50 value of 153.51 mg/L. Conclusions: These results suggested that the leaf extracts ofT. involucrata showed potential to be used as an ideal ecofriendly approach for the control of theAe. aegypti.

  2. Genetic relationships among populations of Aedes aegypti from Uruguay and northeastern Argentina inferred from ISSR-PCR data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soliani, C; Rondan-Dueñas, J; Chiappero, M B; Martínez, M; Da Rosa, E García; Gardenal, C N

    2010-09-01

    Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae), the main vector of yellow fever and dengue viruses, was eradicated from Argentina between 1955 and 1963, but reinvaded the country in 1986. In Uruguay, the species was reintroduced in 1997. In this study we used highly polymorphic inter-simple sequence repeats (ISSR) markers to analyse the genetic structure of Ae. aegypti populations from Uruguay and northeastern Argentina to identify possible colonization patterns of the vector. Overall genetic differentiation among populations was high (F(ST) = 0.106) and showed no correlation with geographic distance, which is consistent with the short time since the reintroduction of the species in the area. Differentiation between pairs of Argentine populations (F(ST) 0.072 to 0.221) was on average higher than between Uruguayan populations (F(ST)-0.044 to 0.116). Bayesian estimation of population structure defined four genetic clusters and most populations were admixtures of two of them: Mercedes and Treinta y Tres (Uruguay) were mixtures of clusters 1 and 3; Salto (Uruguay) and Paraná (Argentina) of clusters 1 and 4; Fray Bentos (Uruguay) of clusters 2 and 3, and Gualeguaychú (Argentina) of clusters 2 and 3. Posadas and Buenos Aires in Argentina were fairly genetically homogeneous. Our results suggest that Ae. aegypti recolonized Uruguay from bordering cities in Argentina via bridges over the Uruguay River and also from Brazil.

  3. Host-feeding patterns of Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) in relation to availability of human and domestic animals in suburban landscapes of central North Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Stephanie L; Ponnusamy, Loganathan; Unnasch, Thomas R; Hassan, Hassan K; Apperson, Charles S

    2006-05-01

    Aedes albopictus (Skuse) (Diptera: Culicidae) is a major nuisance mosquito and a potential arbovirus vector. The host-feeding patterns of Ae. albopictus were investigated during the 2002 and 2003 mosquito seasons in suburban neighborhoods in Wake County, Raleigh, NC. Hosts of blood-fed Ae. albopictus (n = 1,094) were identified with an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, by using antisera made in New Zealand White rabbits to the sera of animals that would commonly occur in peridomestic habitats. Ae. albopictus fed predominantly on mammalian hosts (83%). Common mammalian hosts included humans (24%), cats (21%), and dogs (14%). However, a notable proportion (7%) of bloodmeals also was taken from avian hosts. Some bloodmeals taken from birds were identified to species by a polymerase chain reaction-heteroduplex assay (PCR-HDA). Ae. albopictus fed predominantly on chickens and a northern cardinal. PCR-HDA failed to produce detectable products for 29 (58%) of 50 bloodmeals for which DNA had been amplified, indicating that these mosquitoes took mixed bloodmeals from avian and nonavian hosts. Ae. albopictus preference for humans, dogs, and cats was determined by calculating host-feeding indices for the three host pairs based on the proportion of host specific blood-fed mosquitoes collected in relation to the number of specific hosts per residence as established by a door-to-door survey conducted in 2003. Estimates of the average amount of time that residents and their pets (cats and dogs) spent out of doors were obtained. Host-feeding indices based only on host abundance indicated that Ae. albopictus was more likely to feed on domestic animals. However, when feeding indices were time-weighted, Ae. albopictus fed preferentially upon humans. Ae. albopictus blood feeding on humans was investigated using a STR/PCR-DNA profiling technique that involved amplification of three short tandem repeats loci. Of 40 human bloodmeals, 32 (80%) were from a single human, whereas

  4. Repellent effect of Salvia dorisiana, S. longifolia, and S. sclarea (Lamiaceae) essential oils against the mosquito Aedes albopictus Skuse (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conti, Barbara; Benelli, Giovanni; Leonardi, Michele; Afifi, Fatma U; Cervelli, Claudio; Profeti, Raffaele; Pistelli, Luisa; Canale, Angelo

    2012-07-01

    Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) has been one of the fastest spreading insects over the past 20 years. Its medical importance is due to the aggressive daytime human-biting behavior and the ability to vector many viruses, including dengue, LaCrosse, Eastern Equine encephalitis and West Nile viruses. In this research, the essential oils (EOs) extracted from fresh air dried leaves of Salvia dorisiana, S. longifolia, and S. sclarea (Lamiaceae) were evaluated for their repellent activity against A. albopictus by using the human-bait technique. The EOs chemical composition was also investigated, and EOs were divided in three different profiles on the basis of their chemical composition: EO with large amount of monoterpenes from S. sclarea, EO rich in oxygenated sesquiterpenes from S. dorisiana, and S. longifolia EO characterized by similar percentages of monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes. The efficacy protection from S. dorisiana, S. longifolia, and S. sclarea EOs, at dosages ranging from 0.004 to 0.4 μL cm(-2) of skin, was evaluated during 120 min of observation. Results indicated that S. dorisiana, S. longifolia, and S. sclarea EOs had a significant repellent activity (RD(50) =0.00035, 0.00049, and 0.00101 μL cm(-2), respectively), with differences in repellency rates, as a function of oil, dosage, and observation time. S. dorisiana was the most effective oil: at the two higher dosages, it gave almost complete protection (with a protective efficacy of 90.99% and 95.62%, respectively) for 90 min. The best protection time was achieved with S. dorisiana essential oil. It ranged from 9.2 to 92.4 min. Protection times of S. longifolia and S. sclarea oils ranged from 3.2 to 60 min, and from 3.6 to 64.2 min, respectively. Our findings clearly reveal that these EOs have a good repellent activity against A. albopictus, therefore they can be proposed to improve the efficacy of repellent formulations against the Asian tiger mosquito.

  5. Using remote sensing to map larval and adult populations of Anopheles hyrcanus (Diptera: Culicidae a potential malaria vector in Southern France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger François

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although malaria disappeared from southern France more than 60 years ago, suspicions of recent autochthonous transmission in the French Mediterranean coast support the idea that the area could still be subject to malaria transmission. The main potential vector of malaria in the Camargue area, the largest river delta in southern France, is the mosquito Anopheles hyrcanus (Diptera: Culicidae. In the context of recent climatic and landscape changes, the evaluation of the risk of emergence or re-emergence of such a major disease is of great importance in Europe. When assessing the risk of emergence of vector-borne diseases, it is crucial to be able to characterize the arthropod vector's spatial distribution. Given that remote sensing techniques can describe some of the environmental parameters which drive this distribution, satellite imagery or aerial photographs could be used for vector mapping. Results In this study, we propose a method to map larval and adult populations of An. hyrcanus based on environmental indices derived from high spatial resolution imagery. The analysis of the link between entomological field data on An. hyrcanus larvae and environmental indices (biotopes, distance to the nearest main productive breeding sites of this species i.e., rice fields led to the definition of a larval index, defined as the probability of observing An. hyrcanus larvae in a given site at least once over a year. Independent accuracy assessments showed a good agreement between observed and predicted values (sensitivity and specificity of the logistic regression model being 0.76 and 0.78, respectively. An adult index was derived from the larval index by averaging the larval index within a buffer around the trap location. This index was highly correlated with observed adult abundance values (Pearson r = 0.97, p An. hyrcanus larval and adult populations from the landscape indices. Conclusion This work shows that it is possible to use

  6. Optomotor Reactions Reveal Polarization Sensitvity in the Zika Virus Transmitting Yellow Fever Mosquito Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti (Diptera; Nematocera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernáth, Balazs; Meyer-Rochow, Victor Benno

    2016-12-01

    In polarization-sensitive insect species an orthogonal arrangement of photoreceptive microvilli is a characteristic feature. However, mosquito eyes had not revealed this feature, and polarization sensitivity (PS) was considered to be non-existent in them. Recently, however, gravid Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti females were found to possess PS, sequels of which could be demonstrated only in the absence of chemicals emitted by conspecifics. Therefore, PS in Ae. aegypti, unlike that of other aquatic insects, apparently does not play a dominant role in locating water bodies, and is difficult to demonstrate in situations free of chemical cues. Here, we present behavioral evidence with Ae. aegypti females, exposed to large-field optomotor stimuli based solely on polarization contrast. Under conditions with stripes of alternating orthogonal directions of polarization, clear optomotor responses were elicited, no different from those in response to a rotating drum with vertical black and white stripes. Thus, Ae. aegypti is indeed polarization-sensitive; it reacts to vertically-striped contrast patterns with low spatial frequency on the basis of both intensity and polarization differences between the stripes.

  7. Expression Profiles and RNAi Silencing of Inhibitor of Apoptosis Transcripts in Aedes, Anopheles, and Culex Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puglise, Jason M; Estep, Alden S; Becnel, James J

    2016-03-01

    Effective mosquito control is vital to curtail the devastating health effects of many vectored diseases. RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated control of mosquitoes is an attractive alternative to conventional chemical pesticides. Previous studies have suggested that transcripts for inhibitors of apoptosis (IAPs) may be good RNAi targets. To revisit and extend previous reports, we examined the expression of Aedes aegypti (L.) IAPs (AaeIAPs) 1, 2, 5, 6, 9, and a viral IAP-associated factor (vIAF) as well as Anopheles quadrimaculatus Say and Culex quinquefasciatus Say IAP1 homologs (AquIAP1 and CquIAP1) in adult females. Expression profiles of IAPs suggested that some older female mosquitoes had significantly higher IAP mRNA levels when compared to the youngest ones. Minor differences in expression of AaeIAPs were observed in mosquitoes that imbibed a bloodmeal, but the majority of the time points (up to 48 h) were not significantly different. Although in vitro experiments with the Ae. aegypti Aag-2 cell line demonstrated that the various AaeIAPs could be effectively knocked down within one day after dsRNA treatment, only Aag-2 cells treated with dsIAP1 displayed apoptotic morphology. Gene silencing and mortality were also evaluated after topical application and microinjection of the same dsRNAs into female Ae. aegypti. In contrast to previous reports, topical administration of dsRNA against AaeIAP1 did not yield a significant reduction in gene expression or increased mortality. Knockdown of IAP1 and other IAPs by microinjection did not result in significant mortality. In toto, our findings suggest that IAPs may not be suitable RNAi targets for controlling adult mosquito populations.

  8. A Native Wolbachia Endosymbiont Does Not Limit Dengue Virus Infection in the Mosquito Aedes notoscriptus (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skelton, Ellie; Rancès, Edwige; Frentiu, Francesca D; Kusmintarsih, Endang Srimurni; Iturbe-Ormaetxe, Iñaki; Caragata, Eric P; Woolfit, Megan; O'Neill, Scott L

    2016-03-01

    The endosymbiotic bacterium Wolbachia pipientis infects many species of insects and has been transinfected into the mosquito Aedes aegypti (L.), the primary vector of dengue virus (DENV). Recently, it has been shown that Wolbachia blocks the replication and transmission of RNA viruses, such as DENV, in a number of mosquito species including Ae. aegypti and Aedes albopictus (Skuse), which is naturally infected with Wolbachia and considered a secondary vector for DENV. The mosquito species Aedes notoscriptus (Skuse) is highly prevalent in Australia, including in areas where DENV outbreaks have been recorded. The mosquito has been implicated in the transmission of Ross River and Barmah Forest viruses, but not DENV. We investigated whether Wolbachia naturally infects this mosquito species and whether it has an impact on the ability of Ae. notoscriptus to transmit DENV. We show, for the first time, that Ae. notoscriptus is naturally infected with a strain of Wolbachia that belongs to supergroup B and is localized only in the ovaries. However, Wolbachia infection in Ae. notoscriptus did not induce resistance to DENV and had no effect on overall DENV infection rate or titer. The presence of a native Wolbachia in Ae. notoscriptus cannot explain why this mosquito is an ineffective vector of DENV.

  9. Culicidae (Diptera selection of humans, chickens and rabbits in three different environments in the province of Chaco, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Stein

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Studies were conducted to determine the selection of humans, chickens and rabbits by Culicidae in three different environments in the province of Chaco, Argentina. Mosquitoes were collected fortnightly using cylindrical metal traps containing animal bait (chickens and rabbits. The mosquitoes were collected between June 2001-May 2002. During the same period and with the same frequency, mosquitoes biting the human operators of the traps were collected during the first 15 min of exposure within different time intervals: from 09:00 am-11:00 am, 01:00 pm-03:00 pm, 05:00 pm-07:00 pm and 09:00 pm-10:00 pm. A total of 19,430 mosquitoes of 49 species belonging to 10 genera were collected. Culex species mainly selected chicken bait and Wyeomyia species selected rabbit bait. Ochlerotatus and Psorophora species were more abundant in rabbit-baited traps. Anopheles triannulatus, Coquillettidia nigricans, Ochlerotatus scapularis, Mansonia titillans and Psorophora albigenu showed a strong attraction for human bait. The Anopheles, Coquillettidia, Culex and Mansonia species were more active between 05:00 pm-09:00 pm, while Ochlerotatus, Psorophora, Haemagogus and Wyeomyia were most active from 09:00 am-07:00 pm. This study provides additional information about the biology and ecology of arbovirus vectors in Chaco.

  10. Evaluation of toxic effects with transition metal ions, EDTA, SBTI and acrylic polymers on Aedes aegypti (L., 1762 (Culicidae and Artemia salina (Artemidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo José de Arruda

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed to evaluate the toxicity of some insecticides compounds on Aedes aegypti and Artemia salina larvae. Bioassays were carried out to evaluate the toxic effect after of 24 and 72 h using the compounds or associations. The LC10, LC50 and LC90 values were obtained and utilized for toxicity comparations. For Ae. aegypti, LC50 were 32.65 mg L-1 in 24 h for Na2[EDTA-Cu(II] and total mortality in 72 h for SAP-Na2[EDTA-Cu(II].

  11. A study of the larvicidal activity of two Croton species from northeastern Brazil against Aedes aegypti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dória, Grace A A; Silva, Wellington J; Carvalho, Gilcia A; Alves, Péricles B; Cavalcanti, Sócrates C H

    2010-06-01

    The essential oils of Croton heliotropiifolius Kunth (Euphorbiaceae) and Croton pulegiodorus Baill. were selected for larvicidal evaluation against Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae) and studied qualitatively and quantitatively by GC and GC-MS. Sixty-one compounds representing 92.03% (C. heliotropiifolius) and 85.68% (C. pulegiodorus) of the essential oils, respectively, have been identified. The major components of C. heliotropiifolius essential oil were identified as beta-caryophyllene (35.82%), bicyclogermacrene (19.98%), and germacrene-D (11.85%). The major components in C. pulegiodorus essential oil were identified as beta-caryophyllene (20.96%), bicyclogermacrene (16.89%), germacrene-D (10.55%), tau-cadinol (4.56%), and beta-copaen-4-alpha-ol (4.35%). The essential oil of C. pulegiodorus (LC50 159 ppm) was more effective against Ae. aegypti than that of C. heliotropiifolius (LC50 544 ppm). In order to verify whether the major compound of both essential oils is the active principle responsible for the larvicidal activity, beta-caryophyllene was purchased and its larvicidal potential was further evaluated. However, beta-caryophyllene (LC50 1038 ppm) showed weak larvicidal potency. Results of larvicidal evaluation suggest the existence of a synergistic effect of minor components in the essential oils.

  12. Larvicidal activity of few select indigenous plants of North East India against disease vector mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dohutia, C; Bhattacharyya, D R; Sharma, S K; Mohapatra, P K; Bhattacharjee, K; Gogoi, K; Gogoi, P; Mahanta, J; Prakash, A

    2015-03-01

    Mosquitoes are the vectors of several life threatening diseases like dengue, malaria, Japanese encephalitis and lymphatic filariasis, which are widely present in the north-eastern states of India. Investigations on five local plants of north-east India, selected on the basis of their use by indigenous communities as fish poison, were carried out to study their mosquito larvicidal potential against Anopheles stephensi (malaria vector), Stegomyia aegypti (dengue vector) and Culex quinquefasciatus (lymphatic filariasis vector) mosquitoes. Crude Petroleum ether extracts of the roots of three plants viz. Derris elliptica, Linostoma decandrum and Croton tiglium were found to have remarkable larvicidal activity; D. elliptica extract was the most effective and with LC50 value of 0.307 μg/ml its activity was superior to propoxur, the standard synthetic larvicide. Half-life of larvicidal activity of D. elliptica and L. decandrum extracts ranged from 2-4 days.

  13. A lethal ovitrap-based mass trapping scheme for dengue control in Australia: II. Impact on populations of the mosquito Aedes aegypti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapley, L P; Johnson, P H; Williams, C R; Silcock, R M; Larkman, M; Long, S A; Russell, R C; Ritchie, S A

    2009-12-01

    In Cairns, Australia, the impacts on Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae) populations of two types of 'lure & kill' (L&K) lethal ovitraps (LOs), the standard lethal ovitrap (SLO) and the biodegradable lethal ovitrap (BLO) were measured during three mass-trapping interventions. To assess the efficacy of the SLO, two interventions (one dry season and one wet season) were conducted in three discrete areas, each lasting 4 weeks, with the following treatments: (i) SLOs (>200 traps, approximately 4/premise), BG-sentinel traps (BGSs; approximately 15, 1/premise) and larval control (container reduction and methoprene treatment) and (ii) larval control alone, and (iii) untreated control. Female Ae. aegypti populations were monitored for 4 weeks pre- and post-treatment in all three areas using BGSs and sticky ovitraps (SOs) or non-lethal regular ovitraps (ROs). In the dry season, 206 SLOs and 15 BGSs set at 54 and 15 houses, respectively, caught and killed an estimated 419 and 73 female Ae. aegypti, respectively. No significant decrease in collection size of female Ae. aegypti could be attributed to the treatments. In the wet season, 243 SLOs and 15 BGSs killed approximately 993 and 119 female Ae. aegypti, respectively. The mean number of female Ae. aegypti collected after 4 weeks with SOs and BGSs was significantly less than the control (LSD post-hoc test). The third mass-trapping intervention was conducted using the BLO during the wet season in Cairns. For this trial, three treatment areas were each provided with BLOs (>500, approximately 4/premise) plus larval control, and an untreated control area was designated. Adult female Ae. aegypti were collected for 4 weeks pre- and post-treatment using 15 BGSs and 20 SOs. During this period, 53.2% of BLOs contained a total of 6654 Ae. aegypti eggs. Over the intervention period, collections of Ae. aegypti in the treatment areas were significantly less than in the control area for BGSs but not SOs. An influx of relatively large

  14. Biting activity of Aedes scapularis (Rondani and Haemagogus mosquitoes in Southern Brazil (Diptera: Culicidae Atividade hematófaga de mosquitos Aedes scapularis (Rondani e Haemagogus no sul do Brasil (Diptera: Culicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oswaldo Paulo Forattini

    1988-04-01

    Full Text Available The biting activity of a population of Aedes scapularis (Rondani, Haemagogus capricornii Lutz and Hg. leucocelaenus (Dyar and Shannon in Southern Brazil was studied between March 1980 and April 1983. Data were obtained with 25-hour human bait catches in three areas with patchy residual forests, named "Jacaré-Pepira", "Lupo" Farm, and "Sta. Helena" Farm, in the highland region of S. Paulo State (Brazil. Data obtained on Ae. scapularis were compared with those formerly gathered in the "Ribeira'' Valley lowlands, and were similar, except in the "Lupo" Farm study area, where a precrepuscular peak was observed, not recorded at the "Jacaré-Pepira" site or in the "Ribeira" Valley. In all the areas this mosquito showed diurnal and nocturnal activity, but was most active during the evening crepuscular period. These observations support the hypothesis about the successful adaptation of Ae. scapularis to man-made environments and have epidemiological implications that arise from it. As for Haemagogus, results obtained on the "Lupo" and "Sta. Helena" regions agree with previous data obtained in several other regions and show its diurnal activity. The proximity of "Lupo" Farm, where Hg. capricornii and Hg. leucocelaenus showed considerable activity, to "Araraquara" city where Aedes aegypti was recently found, raises some epidemiological considerations about the possibility of urban yellow fever resurgence.No período de março de 1980 a abril de 1983 foi estudada a atividade hematófaga de uma população de Aedes scapularis (Rondani, Haemagogus capricornii Lutz, Hg. leucocelaenus (Dyar e Shannon, na região sul do Brasil. Os dados foram obtidos com o emprego de isca humana, mediante captura de 25 horas de duração e correspondente a três áreas, contendo manchas de floresta residual, denominadas Jacaré-Pepira, Fazenda Lupo e Fazenda Santa Helena. Os resultados relativos a Ae. scapularis foram comparados com as coletas anteriormente feitas em áreas de

  15. Identification, characterization and analysis of expression of gene encoding carboxypeptidase A in Anopheles culicifacies A (Diptera: culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ashwani; Sharma, Arvind; Sharma, Richa; Gakhar, S K

    2014-11-01

    Carboxypeptidases are the digestive enzymes which cleave single amino acid residue from c-terminus of the protein. Digestive carboxypeptidase A gene regulatory elements in insects have shown their efficiency to drive midgut specific expression in transgenic mosquitoes. However no endogenous promoter has been reported for Indian malaria vector Anopheles culicifacies which is major vector in Indian subcontinent. Here we report cloning of carboxypeptidase A gene in the An. culicifacies A including its 5' upstream regions and named AcCP. In the upstream region of the gene an arthropod initiator sequence and two repeat sequences of the particular importance TTATC and GTTTT were also identified. The 1290 base pairs open reading frame encodes a protein of 48.5kDa. The coding region of the gene shares 82% and 72% similarity at nucleotide level with Anopheles gambiae and Ae. aegypti carboxypeptidase A gene, respectively. The peak expression of the gene was found to be at 3h after blood feeding and this is limited to midgut only. Based on the protein sequence, 3D structure of the AcCP was predicted and the active centre of the enzyme was predicted to consist of GLN 183, GLU 186, HIS 308 and Ser 309 amino acid residues. Comparison of the protein sequence among different genera revealed the conservation of zinc binding residues. Phylogenetically, AcCP was found most closely related to An. gambiae.

  16. Cumulative mortality of Aedes aegypti larvae treated with compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Sandra Maria; da Cruz, Nadine Louise Nicolau; Rolim, Vitor Pereira de Matos; Cavalcanti, Maria Inês de Assis; Alves, Leucio Câmara; da Silva, Valdemiro Amaro

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the larvicidal activity of Azadirachta indica, Melaleuca alternifolia, carapa guianensis essential oils and fermented extract of Carica papaya against Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762) (Diptera: Culicidae). METHODS The larvicide test was performed in triplicate with 300 larvae for each experimental group using the third larval stage, which were exposed for 24h. The groups were: positive control with industrial larvicide (BTI) in concentrations of 0.37 ppm (PC1) and 0.06 ppm (PC2); treated with compounds of essential oils and fermented extract, 50.0% concentration (G1); treated with compounds of essential oils and fermented extract, 25.0% concentration (G2); treated with compounds of essential oils and fermented extract, 12.5% concentration (G3); and negative control group using water (NC1) and using dimethyl (NC2). The larvae were monitored every 60 min using direct visualization. RESULTS No mortality occurred in experimental groups NC1 and NC2 in the 24h exposure period, whereas there was 100% mortality in the PC1 and PC2 groups compared to NC1 and NC2. Mortality rates of 65.0%, 50.0% and 78.0% were observed in the groups G1, G2 and G3 respectively, compared with NC1 and NC2. CONCLUSIONS The association between three essential oils from Azadirachta indica, Melaleuca alternifolia, Carapa guianensis and fermented extract of Carica papaya was efficient at all concentrations. Therefore, it can be used in Aedes aegypti Liverpool third larvae stage control programs. PMID:25119939

  17. Cumulative mortality of Aedes aegypti larvae treated with compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Sandra Maria; Cruz, Nadine Louise Nicolau da; Rolim, Vitor Pereira de Matos; Cavalcanti, Maria Inês de Assis; Alves, Leucio Câmara; Silva Júnior, Valdemiro Amaro da

    2014-06-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the larvicidal activity of Azadirachta indica, Melaleuca alternifolia, carapa guianensis essential oils and fermented extract of Carica papaya against Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762) (Diptera: Culicidae). METHODS The larvicide test was performed in triplicate with 300 larvae for each experimental group using the third larval stage, which were exposed for 24h. The groups were: positive control with industrial larvicide (BTI) in concentrations of 0.37 ppm (PC1) and 0.06 ppm (PC2); treated with compounds of essential oils and fermented extract, 50.0% concentration (G1); treated with compounds of essential oils and fermented extract, 25.0% concentration (G2); treated with compounds of essential oils and fermented extract, 12.5% concentration (G3); and negative control group using water (NC1) and using dimethyl (NC2). The larvae were monitored every 60 min using direct visualization. RESULTS No mortality occurred in experimental groups NC1 and NC2 in the 24h exposure period, whereas there was 100% mortality in the PC1 and PC2 groups compared to NC1 and NC2. Mortality rates of 65.0%, 50.0% and 78.0% were observed in the groups G1, G2 and G3 respectively, compared with NC1 and NC2. CONCLUSIONS The association between three essential oils from Azadirachta indica, Melaleuca alternifolia, Carapa guianensis and fermented extract of Carica papaya was efficient at all concentrations. Therefore, it can be used in Aedes aegypti Liverpool third larvae stage control programs.

  18. Cumulative mortality of Aedes aegypti larvae treated with compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Maria Torres

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To evaluate the larvicidal activity of Azadirachta indica, Melaleuca alternifolia, carapa guianensis essential oils and fermented extract of Carica papaya against Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762 (Diptera: Culicidae. METHODS The larvicide test was performed in triplicate with 300 larvae for each experimental group using the third larval stage, which were exposed for 24h. The groups were: positive control with industrial larvicide (BTI in concentrations of 0.37 ppm (PC1 and 0.06 ppm (PC2; treated with compounds of essential oils and fermented extract, 50.0% concentration (G1; treated with compounds of essential oils and fermented extract, 25.0% concentration (G2; treated with compounds of essential oils and fermented extract, 12.5% concentration (G3; and negative control group using water (NC1 and using dimethyl (NC2. The larvae were monitored every 60 min using direct visualization. RESULTS No mortality occurred in experimental groups NC1 and NC2 in the 24h exposure period, whereas there was 100% mortality in the PC1 and PC2 groups compared to NC1 and NC2. Mortality rates of 65.0%, 50.0% and 78.0% were observed in the groups G1, G2 and G3 respectively, compared with NC1 and NC2. CONCLUSIONS The association between three essential oils from Azadirachta indica, Melaleuca alternifolia, Carapa guianensis and fermented extract of Carica papaya was efficient at all concentrations. Therefore, it can be used in Aedes aegypti Liverpool third larvae stage control programs.

  19. Household survey of container-breeding mosquitoes and climatic factors influencing the prevalence of Aedes aegypti (Diptera:Culicidae) in Makkah City, Saudi Arabia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Al Thabiany Aziz; Hamdan Ahmad; Wan Fatma Zuharah; Ahmad Saad Ramli; Fumio Miake; Hamady Dieng; Abu Hassan Ahmad; Jazem A Mahyoub; Abdulhafis M Turkistani; Hatabbi Mesed; Salah Koshike; Tomomitsu Satho; MR Che Salmah

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the prevalence of container breeding mosquitoes with emphasis on the seasonality and larval habitats of Aedes aegypti (Ae. aegypti) in Makkah City, adjoining an environmental monitoring and dengue incidence. Methods: Monthly visits were performed between April 2008 and March 2009 to randomly selected houses. During each visit, mosquito larvae were collected from indoors and outdoors containers by either dipping or pipetting. Mosquitoes were morphologically identified. Data on temperature, relative humidity, rain/precipitations during the survey period was retrieved from governmental sources and analyzed. Results: The city was warmer in dry season (DS) than wet season (WS). No rain occurred at all during DS and even precipitations did fall, wetting events were much greater during WS. Larval survey revealed the co-breeding of Aedes, Culex and Anopheles in a variety of artificial containers in and around homes. 32109 larvae representing 1st , 2nd, 3rd, and 4th stages were collected from 22618 container habitats. Culicines was far the commonest and Aedes genus was as numerous as the Culex population. Ae. aegypti larval abundance exhibited marked temporal variations, overall, being usually more abundant during WS. Ten types of artificial containers were found with developing larvae. 70% of these habitats were located indoors. 71.42% of indoor containers were permanent and 28.58% was semi-permanent during WS. Cement tanks was the only container type permanent during DS. Ae. aegypti larval indices (CI, HI, BI) recorded were greater during WS. Conclusions: Taken together, these results indicate a high risk of dengue transmission in the holy city.

  20. Medical Entomology Studies - XII. A Revision of the Aedes Scutellaris Group of Tonga (Diptera: Culicidae) (Contributions of the American Entomological Institute. Volume 17, Number 3, 1980)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    collections (With associated invertebrates) (With associated invertebrates, non-Culicidae) Mollusca Annelida A rthropoda Crustacea Arachnida ...Culex) 27, 28, 30, 30t, 32, 38, 39, 41, 41t, 43, 44, 51t, 52, 53, 54, 55, 58 Anous sp. 43 Arachnida 19t, 42t Arthropoda 19t, 30, 42t, 56t, 57t

  1. Developing new approaches for detecting and preventing Aedes aegypti population outbreaks: basis for surveillance, alert and control system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lêda Regis

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available A new approach to dengue vector surveillance based on permanent egg-collection using a modified ovitrap and Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis(Bti was evaluated in different urban landscapes in Recife, Northeast Brazil. From April 2004 to April 2005, 13 egg-collection cycles of four weeks were carried out. Geo-referenced ovitraps containing grass infusion, Bti and three paddles were placed at fixed sampling stations distributed over five selected sites. Continuous egg-collections yielded more than four million eggs laid into 464 sentinel-ovitraps over one year. The overall positive ovitrap index was 98.5% (over 5,616 trap observations. The egg density index ranged from 100 to 2,500 eggs per trap-cycle, indicating a wide spread and high density of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae breeding populations in all sites. Fluctuations in population density over time were observed, particularly a marked increase from January on, or later, according to site. Massive egg-collection carried out at one of the sites prevented such a population outbreak. At intra-site level, egg counts made it possible to identify spots where the vector population is consistently concentrated over the time, pinpointing areas that should be considered high priority for control activities. The results indicate that these could be promising strategies for detecting and preventing Ae. aegypti population outbreaks.

  2. Enhanced ovicidal activity of an oil formulation of the fungus Metarhizium anisopliae on the mosquito Aedes aegypti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albernaz, D A S; Tai, M H H; Luz, C

    2009-06-01

    The effect of humidity on the activity of Metarhizium anisopliae IP 46 (Metsch.) Sorokin (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae) formulated in sunflower oil against Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae) eggs was examined. After exposure of eggs at 75% relative humidity (RH) for ovicidal activity was not increased by oil-in-water formulated conidia, hyphal bodies or pure-oil formulated conidia, compared with conidia or hyphal bodies prepared in water only. At optimal > 98% RH, eclosion was Ovicidal activity was still detected at 93% RH and was augmented with increasing humidity and time of exposure of eggs. Eclosion of larvae was distinctly reduced by IP 46 pure-oil formulated conidia after a minimal initial exposure of 3 days at > 98% RH, followed by: (a) a 12-day exposure at 75% RH before submersion in water; (b) a minimal 5-day exposure at > 98% RH and direct subsequent transfer of treated eggs to water, or (c) a minimal daily 20-h exposure at > 98% RH alternating with 4 h at 75% RH for 10 days. We demonstrate that oil-based formulations of conidia of M. anisopliae enhance ovicidal activity at high humidities and conclude that these formulations have potential in the integrated control of Ae. aegypti.

  3. Temephos resistance and esterase activity in the mosquito Aedes aegypti in Havana, Cuba increased dramatically between 2006 and 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisset, J A; Rodríguez, M M; Ricardo, Y; Ranson, H; Pérez, O; Moya, M; Vázquez, A

    2011-09-01

    Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae) control programmes in Cuba rely on the application of the organophosphate temephos for larval control. Hence, the monitoring of resistance to this insecticide is an essential component of such programmes. Here, 15 field populations from different municipalities of Havana City were assayed for resistance to temephos. High levels of resistance were detected in all strains and resistance ratios were highly correlated with esterase activity (P = 0.00001). Populations from three municipalities were tested in both 2006 and 2008; resistance and esterase activities both significantly increased during this 2-year period. Synergist studies demonstrated that neither glutathione transferases nor monooxygenases were associated with the increase in resistance to temephos in this period. The duration of the efficacy of commercial formulations of temephos in controlling Ae. aegypti populations in Havana City was reduced by the high level of temephos resistance observed; hence these data are of clear operational significance for the dengue control programme in Cuba. New integrated strategies to avoid further increases in temephos resistance in Cuba are necessary.

  4. Developing new approaches for detecting and preventing Aedes aegypti population outbreaks: basis for surveillance, alert and control system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regis, Lêda; Monteiro, Antonio Miguel; Melo-Santos, Maria Alice Varjal de; SilveiraJr, José Constantino; Furtado, André Freire; Acioli, Ridelane Veiga; Santos, Gleice Maria; Nakazawa, Mitsue; Carvalho, Marilia Sá; Ribeiro Jr, Paulo Justiniano; Souza, Wayner Vieira de

    2008-02-01

    A new approach to dengue vector surveillance based on permanent egg-collection using a modified ovitrap and Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis(Bti) was evaluated in different urban landscapes in Recife, Northeast Brazil. From April 2004 to April 2005, 13 egg-collection cycles of four weeks were carried out. Geo-referenced ovitraps containing grass infusion, Bti and three paddles were placed at fixed sampling stations distributed over five selected sites. Continuous egg-collections yielded more than four million eggs laid into 464 sentinel-ovitraps over one year. The overall positive ovitrap index was 98.5% (over 5,616 trap observations). The egg density index ranged from 100 to 2,500 eggs per trap-cycle, indicating a wide spread and high density of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) breeding populations in all sites. Fluctuations in population density over time were observed, particularly a marked increase from January on, or later, according to site. Massive egg-collection carried out at one of the sites prevented such a population outbreak. At intra-site level, egg counts made it possible to identify spots where the vector population is consistently concentrated over the time, pinpointing areas that should be considered high priority for control activities. The results indicate that these could be promising strategies for detecting and preventing Ae. aegypti population outbreaks.

  5. Patient-based dengue virus surveillance in Aedes aegypti from Recife, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.R.D. Guedes

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Dengue is currently one of the most important arthropod-borne diseasesand may be caused by four different dengue virus serotypes (DENV-1 to DENV-4, transmittedmainly by Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae mosquitoes. With the lack of a dengue vaccine,vector control strategies constitute a crucial mode to prevent or reduce disease transmission. Inthis context, DENV detection in natural Ae. aegypti populations may serve as a potential additionaltool for early prediction systems of dengue outbreaks, leading to an intensification of vector controlmeasures, aimed at reducing disease transmission. In Brazil, this type of surveillance has beenperformed sporadically by a few groups and has not been incorporated as a routine activity incontrol programs. This study aimed at detecting DENV in natural Ae. aegypti from Recife,Pernambuco, to check the circulating serotypes and the occurrence of transovarial transmission inlocal mosquito populations.Methods: From January 2005 to June 2006, mosquitoes (adults and eggs were collected in houseswhere people with clinical suspicion of dengue infection lived at. RNA was extracted from pooledmosquitoes and RT-PCR was performed in these samples for detection of the four DENV serotypes.Results & conclusion: Out of 83 pools of adult mosquitoes collected in the field, nine were positivefor DENV: five for DENV-1, two for DENV-2 and two for DENV-3. From 139 pools of adultmosquitoes reared from collected eggs, there were 17 positive pools: three for DENV-1, 10 forDENV-2, and four for DENV-3. These results are discussed in the paper in regard to the localdengue epidemiological data. The conclusions clearly point to the informative power and sensitivityof DENV entomological surveillance and to the importance of including mosquito immature formsin this strategy.

  6. Mosquito larvicidal properties ofOrthosiphon thymiflorus(Roth) Sleesen. (Family:Labiatae) against mosquito vectors,Anopheles stephensi, Culex quinquefasciatus and Aedes aegypti (Diptera:Culicidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    K Kovendan; K Murugan; S Vincent; Donald R Barnard

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective:To determine the mosquito larvicidal activities of hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, acetone and methanol leaf extract ofOrthosiphon thymiflorus (O. thymiflorus) againstAnopheles stephensi (An. stephensi), Culex quinquefasciatus (Cx. quinquefasciatus) andAedes aegypti (Ae. aegypti).Methods: The larvicidal activity was assayed against three mosquito species at various concentrations ranging from (50-450 ppm) under the laboratory conditions. TheLC50and LC90value of theO. thymiflorus leaf extract was determined by Probit analysis.Results: The LC50values of hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, acetone and methanol extract ofO. thymiflorus third instar larvae ofAn. stephensiwereLC50= 201.39, 178.76, 158.06, 139.22 and118.74 ppm;Cx. quinquefasciatus were LC50=228.13, 209.72, 183.35, 163.55 and149.96 ppm andAe. aegyptiwere LC50=215.65, 197.91, 175.05, 154.80 and137.26 ppm, respectively. Maximum larvicidal activity was observed in the methanolic extract followed by acetone, ethyl acetate chloroform and hexane extract. The larval mortality was observed after24h exposure. No mortality was observed in control.Conclusions:The present results suggest that the effective plant crude extracts have potential to be used as an ideal eco-friendly approach for the control of mosquito vectors. This study provides the first report on the larvicidal activity of this plant crude solvent extract of againstAn. stephensi, Cx. quinquefasciatus andAe. aegyptimosquitoes.

  7. Essential Oils of Echinophora lamondiana (Apiales: Umbelliferae): A Relationship Between Chemical Profile and Biting Deterrence and Larvicidal Activity Against Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    essential oils and terpinolene produced biting deterrence similar to 25 nmol/cm2 N, N- diethyl-meta-toluamide (DEET; 97%) against Aedes aegypti (L...25 nmol/cm2 N, Ndiethyl- meta-toluamide (DEET; 97%) against Aedes aegypti (L.) and Anopheles quadrimaculatus Say. Compounds (??)-d-3-carene, (R)-(-)-a...Heywood 1985, Mozaffarian 1996). In Iran, fresh and dried aerial parts of E. platyloba are used in flavoring cheese and yogurt, and for preventing

  8. Genetic Characterization of Spondweni and Zika Viruses and Susceptibility of Geographically Distinct Strains of Aedes aegypti, Aedes albopictus, and Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae) to Spondweni Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-26

    passaged once in African green monkey kidney cells 117 (Vero; ATCC #CCL-81) for vector susceptibility experiments (virus stocks frozen at -118 80°C...maintenance between Nigeria and South Africa, 222 although interpretation is limited due to the lack of spatial and temporally spaced 223 sequences (i.e...to a single rhesus 240 monkey 72 days post-exposure [21]. Since that time, several studies have shown that 241 various geographically distinct

  9. Expression of AeaHsp26 and AeaHsp83 in Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) Larvae and Pupae in Response to Heat Shock Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-01

    suppressing expression of Hsp23 and Hsp70 in ßies by using RNAi does not alter the decision to enter diapause or the duration of diapause in insects , it...in insects , including mosquitoes, and may have a cu- mulative role in responding to stress induced by ele- vated temperature (Mahroof et al. 2005...response to stress condi- tions other than temperature in human cells andmany other animals and insects including mosquitoes (Mosser et al. 1988

  10. Creams Formulated with Ocimum gratissimum L. and Lantana camara L. Crude Extracts and Fractions as Mosquito Repellents Against Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Keziah, Ezeike Amarachi; Nukenine, Elias Nchiwan; Danga, Simon Pierre Yinyang; Younoussa, Lame; Esimone, Charles Okechukwu

    2015-01-01

    Mosquitoes are the most deadly vectors of parasites that cause diseases such as malaria, yellow fever, and filariasis. In view of the recent increased interest in developing plant origin insecticides as an alternative to chemical insecticides, the objective of this study was to determine the repellent activity of creams formulated with methanol crude extract (MCE), hexane fraction (HF), and ethyl acetate fractions (EAFs) of Ocimum gratissimum and Lantana camara leaves in single and combined a...

  11. Larvicidal activity of the leaf extracts of Spondias mombin Linn. (Anacardiaceae) from various solvents against malarial, dengue and filarial vector mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Elijah Ajaegbu Eze; Simon Pierre Yinyang Danga; Festus Basden Chiedu Okoye

    2015-01-01

    Background & objectives: Aedes aegypti, Anopheles gambiae and Culex quinquefasciatus are vector mosquitoes of dengue, malaria, and filariasis, respectively. Since no vaccine is available to treat these diseases, the control of the main mosquito vectors is essential. As conventional insecticides have limited success, plants may be alternative larvicidal agents, since they contain a rich source of bioactive chemicals. The aim of this study was to evaluate the larvicidal activity of methanol cru...

  12. In vivo binding of the Cry11Bb toxin of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. medellin to the midgut of mosquito larvae (Diptera: Culicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruiz Lina María

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. medellin produces numerous proteins among which 94 kDa known as Cry11Bb, has mosquitocidal activity. The mode of action of the Cry11 proteins has been described as similar to those of the Cry1 toxins, nevertheless, the mechanism of action is still not clear. In this study we investigated the in vivo binding of the Cry11Bb toxin to the midgut of the insect species Anopheles albimanus, Aedes aegypti, and Culex quinquefasciatus by immunohistochemical analysis. Spodoptera frugiperda was included as negative control. The Cry11Bb protein was detected on the apical microvilli of the midgut epithelial cells, mostly on the posterior midgut and gastric caeca of the three mosquito species. Additionally, the toxin was detected in the Malpighian tubules of An. albimanus, Ae. aegypti, Cx. quinquefasciatus, and in the basal membrane of the epithelial cells of Ae. aegypti midgut. No toxin accumulation was observed in the peritrophic membrane of any of the mosquito species studied. These results confirm that the primary site of action of the Cry11 toxins is the apical membrane of the midgut epithelial cells of mosquito larvae.

  13. The effect of shade on the container index and pupal productivity of the mosquitoes Aedes aegypti and Culex pipiens breeding in artificial containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vezzani, D; Albicócco, A P

    2009-03-01

    The aim of this study was to assess whether certain attributes of larval breeding sites are correlated with pupal productivity (i.e. numbers of pupae collected per sampling period), so that these could be used as the focus for control measures to enhance control efficiency. Therefore, the objectives were to identify the months of highest pupal productivity of Aedes aegypti (L.) and Culex pipiens L. (Diptera: Culicidae) in an urban temperate cemetery in Argentina where artificial containers of containers and to determine whether the composition of the containers affected pupal productivity. Over a period of 9 months, 200 randomly chosen water-filled containers (100 sunlit and 100 shaded), out of approximately 3738 containers present (approximately 54% in shade), were examined each month within a cemetery (5 ha) in Buenos Aires (October 2006 to June 2007). In total, 3440 immatures of Cx pipiens and 1974 of Ae. aegypti were collected. The larvae : pupae ratio was 10 times greater for the former, indicating that larval mortality was greater for Cx pipiens. Both mosquito species showed a higher container index (CI) in shaded than in sunlit containers (Ae. aegypti: 12.8% vs. 6.9% [chi(2) = 17.6, P container and the number of pupae per pupa-positive container did not differ significantly between sunlit and shaded containers for either species. Therefore, the overall relative productivity of pupae per ha of Ae. aegypti and Cx pipiens was 2.3 and 1.8 times greater, respectively, in shaded than in sunlit areas as a result of the greater CIs of containers in shaded areas. Neither the CI nor the number of immatures per infested container differed significantly among container types of different materials in either lighting condition. The maximum CI and total pupal counts occurred in March for Ae. aegypti and in January and February for Cx pipiens. The estimated peak abundance of pupae in the whole cemetery reached a total of approximately 4388 in the middle of March for Ae

  14. Essential oils of Cupressus funebris, Juniperus communis, and J. chinensis (Cupressaceae) as repellents against ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) and mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) and as toxicants against mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, John F; Tabanca, Nurhayat; Kramer, Matthew; Elejalde, Natasha M; Wedge, David E; Bernier, Ulrich R; Coy, Monique; Becnel, James J; Demirci, Betul; Başer, Kemal Husnu Can; Zhang, Jian; Zhang, Sui

    2011-12-01

    Juniperus communis leaf oil, J. chinensis wood oil, and Cupressus funebris wood oil (Cupressaceae) from China were analyzed by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. We identified 104 compounds, representing 66.8-95.5% of the oils. The major components were: α-pinene (27.0%), α-terpinene (14.0%), and linalool (10.9%) for J. communis; cuparene (11.3%) and δ-cadinene (7.8%) for J. chinensis; and α-cedrene (16.9%), cedrol (7.6%), and β-cedrene (5.7%) for C. funebris. The essential oils of C. funebris, J. chinensis, and J. communis were evaluated for repellency against adult yellow fever mosquitoes, Aedes aegypti (L.), host-seeking nymphs of the lone star tick, Amblyomma americanum (L.), and the blacklegged tick, Ixodes scapularis Say, and for toxicity against Ae. aegypti larvae and adults, all in laboratory bioassays. All the oils were repellent to both species of ticks. The EC(95) values of C. funebris, J. communis, and J. chinensis against A. americanum were 0.426, 0.508, and 0.917 mg oil/cm(2) filter paper, respectively, compared to 0.683 mg deet/cm(2) filter paper. All I. scapularis nymphs were repelled by 0.103 mg oil/cm(2) filter paper of C. funebris oil. At 4 h after application, 0.827 mg oil/cm(2) filter paper, C. funebris and J. chinensis oils repelled ≥80% of A. americanum nymphs. The oils of C. funebris and J. chinensis did not prevent female Ae. aegypti from biting at the highest dosage tested (1.500 mg/cm(2) ). However, the oil of J. communis had a Minimum Effective Dosage (estimate of ED(99) ) for repellency of 0.029 ± 0.018 mg/cm(2) ; this oil was nearly as potent as deet. The oil of J. chinensis showed a mild ability to kill Ae. aegypti larvae, at 80 and 100% at 125 and 250 ppm, respectively.

  15. Susceptibility of Aedes aegypti (L to the insect growth regulators diflubenzuron and methoprene in Uberlândia, State of Minas Gerais Susceptibilidade de Aedes aegypti (L aos reguladores de crescimento de insetos diflubenzuron e methoprene em Uberlândia, Estado de Minas Gerais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Junqueira da Silva

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Aedes aegypti (L (Diptera: Culicidae was reared in several concentrations of diflubenzuron and methoprene under laboratory conditions in Uberlândia, State of Minas Gerais, southeastern Brazil. Characteristics such as LC50 and LC95, the susceptibility of immature stages of different ages to these insect growth regulators and their residual effects were studied. The LC50 and LC95 of diflubenzuron and methoprene were 5.19 and 12.24 ppb; 19.95 and 72.08 ppb, respectively. While diflubenzuron caused great mortality in all larval instars, methoprene was more effective when the mosquito was exposed from the start of the fourth larval instar onwards. Commercial concentrations of these two insect growth regulators close to LC95 presented greater residual activity than did their respective technical formulations. The parameters were compared with those obtained elsewhere. The characteristics investigated here indicate that these insect growth regulators are effective alternatives for controlling the dengue vector in the Uberlândia region.Aedes aegypti (L (Diptera: Culicidae foi criado em várias concentrações de diflubenzuron e methoprene sob condições de laboratório em Uberlândia, Minas Gerais, sudeste do Brasil. Foram estudados aspectos tais como, CL50 e CL95, suscetibilidade de estágios imaturos de diferentes idades a estes insect growth regulators e seu efeito residual. As CL50 e CL95 de diflubenzuron e methoprene foram: 5,19 e 12,24ppb; 19,95 e 72,08ppb, respectivamente. Enquanto diflubenzuron causou grande mortalidade em todos os estádios larvais, methoprene causou maior mortalidade quando o mosquito foi exposto a partir do início do quarto estádio larval. As concentrações comerciais dos dois insect growth regulators próximas às CL95 mostraram maior atividade residual que suas respectivas formulações técnicas. Os parâmetros são comparados com aqueles obtidos em outros locais. Os aspectos aqui investigados indicam estes insect

  16. Flight height preference for oviposition of mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) vectors of sylvatic yellow fever virus near the hydroelectric reservoir of Simplício, Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alencar, Jeronimo; Morone, Fernanda; De Mello, Cecília Ferreira; Dégallier, Nicolas; Lucio, Paulo Sérgio; de Serra-Freire, Nicolau Maués; Guimarães, Anthony Erico

    2013-07-01

    In this study, the oviposition behavior of mosquito species exhibiting acrodendrophilic habits was investigated. The study was conducted near the Simplicio Hydroelectic Reservoir (SHR) located on the border of the states of Minas Gerais and Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Samples were collected using oviposition traps installed in forest vegetation cover between 1.70 and 4.30 m above ground level during the months of April, June, August, October, and December of 2011. Haemagogus janthinomys (Dyar), Haemagogus leucocelaenus (Dyar and Shannon), Aedes albopictus (Skuse), and Aedes terrens (Walker) specimens were present among the collected samples, the first two of which being proven vectors of sylvatic yellow fever (SYF) in Brazil and the latter is a vector of dengue in mainland Asia. As the data set was zero-inflated, a specific Poisson-based model was used for the statistical analysis. When all four species were considered in the model, only heights used for egg laying and months of sampling were explaining the distribution. However, grouping the species under the genera Haemagogus Williston and Aedes Meigen showed a significant preference for higher traps of the former. Considering the local working population of SHR is very large, fluctuating, and potentially exposed to SYF, and that this virus occurs in almost all Brazilian states, monitoring of Culicidae in Brazil is essential for assessing the risk of transmission of this arbovirus.

  17. Chemical composition and larvicidal activity of essential oil of Origanum majorana(Lamiaceae) cultivated in Morocco against Culex pipiens(Diptera:Culicidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fouad; El-Akhal; Abdelhakim; El; Ouali; Lalami; Yassine; Ez; Zoubi; Hassane; Greche; Raja; Guemmouh

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the larvicidal activity of essential oil of Origanum mtijoruna(Lamiaceae)cultivated in Morocco against Culex pipiens(Diptera:Culicidae).Methods:The analysis and the identification of the various constituents of essential oil were carried out by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry.Biological test was performed according to a standard methodology inspired by the World Health Organization protocol with slight modification.Results:This oil mainly consisted of monoterpene and sesquiterpenes.The majority compounds are 4-terpinene(28.96%),y-terpinene(18.57%),α-terpinene(12.72%) and sabinene(8.02%).The lethal concentrations(LC50 and LC90) measured for the essential oil Origanum majorana,were respectively of the order of 258.71 mg/L and 580.49 mg/L.Conclusions:The results could be useful in search for newer,safer,and more effective natural larvicidal agents.

  18. Antimalarial efficacy of dynamic compound of plumbagin chemical constituent from Plumbago zeylanica Linn (Plumbaginaceae) against the malarial vector Anopheles stephensi Liston (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradeepa, Venkatraman; Sathish-Narayanan, Subbiah; Kirubakaran, Suyambulingam Arunachalam; Senthil-Nathan, Sengottayan

    2014-08-01

    In the present investigation, the effective root compound of plumbagin of Plumbago zeylanica (Plumbaginaceae) was evaluated for chemical constituent and antimalarial effect against the fourth instar larvae of Anopheles stephensi Liston (Diptera). In the chromatographic analyses of root compound with Rf value of 0.788 and NMR analyses also revealed that the effective compound contain naphthoquinone plumbagin were identified as the major chemical constituent. Larval mortality was observed after 3 h of exposure period. The plumbagin compound showed remarkable larvicidal activity against A. stephensi (LC50 32.65 and LC9072.27 ppm). Histopathological effects of compound was observed in the treated larvae. Based on the results, the plumbagin compound of P. zeylanica can be considered as a new source of natural larvicide for the control of malarial vector.

  19. Ecologia de mosquitos (Diptera: Culicidae em criadouros naturais e artificiais de área rural do Norte do Estado do Paraná, Brasil. V. Coleta de larvas em recipientes artificiais instalados em mata ciliar Mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae ecology of natural and artificial rural breeding places in horthern Parana, Brazil. V. Larvae captured in artificial reservoirs installed in ciliary forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Lopes

    1997-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: A utilização pelos Culicidae de recipientes contendo água para a colocação de seus ovos, em área antropogênica, pode indicar plasticidade genética que os direcione evolutivamente no sentido da domiciliação. Nesse sentido, foram coletadas as diferentes espécies de Culicidae que colonizam recipientes alocados em mata ciliar, na área rural. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: Foram instalados recipientes de pneu, plástico, lata e bambu, em mata ciliar, em área rural no Norte do Paraná, Brasil. RESULTADOS: Coletaram-se larvas de Cx. grupo coronator, Cx. declarator, Cx. laticlasper, Cx. (Melanoconion secção Spissipes, Cx. tatoi, Tr. compressum, Tr. pallidiventer, Ae. terrens, Cx. mollis, Cx. bigoti, Hg. leucocelaenus, Cx. eduardoi, Cx. quinquefasciatus, Li. durhamii e Toxorhynchites sp. As cinco primeiras espécies foram específicas de pneus. As duas espécies de Trichoprosopon ficaram restritas a bambu. Ae. terrens e Cx. mollis foram caletadas em pneu e bambu, Cx. bigoti foi coletada em pneu, lata e bambu, enquanto que Hg. leucocelaenus só não foi encontrada em lata. As quatro últimas espécies foram coletadas em todos os tipos de recipientes. Cx. quinquefasciatus, Cx. eduardoi, Li. durhamii tiveram significante flutuação populacional. CONCLUSÕES: O pneu caracterizou-se como o recipiente mais aceito pelos culicídeos. As áreas onde a mata ciliar esteve mais densa e o locais onde o solo esteve mais úmido foram os pontos com maior número de capturas. A mata ciliar, mesmo muito reduzida e alterada, foi suficiente para abrigar várias espécies de culicídeos. As espécies caputradas podem ser portadoras de plasticidade gênica que as capacitem a colonizar ambientes antropogênicos.INTRODUCTION: The use of receptacles containing water for the laying of the Culicidae eggs in an anthropogenic area, may indicate a genetic plasticity thet leads them evolutionarily towards domiciliation. Thus, the varions species of Culicidae which

  20. Culicidae (Diptera em área sob influência de construção de represa no Estado de São Paulo Culicidae (Diptera in a dam construction area in the state of São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia Bicudo de Paula

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Descrever a fauna Culicidae em área sob impacto da modificação ambiental causada pela construção de represa. MÉTODOS: Foi estudada a área onde estava sendo construída a Represa Porto Primavera no município de Presidente Epitácio, SP. As capturas dos culicídeos foram realizadas mensalmente, em seis pontos exploratórios antes do seu enchimento e em um ponto fixo, um ano antes (1997-1998 e outro depois do primeiro enchimento (1999-2000. Mosquitos adultos foram capturados com aspirador, no período matutino, e com armadilhas de Shannon e CDC, no período crepuscular vespertino. Os imaturos foram coletados por meio de conchadas nos criadouros maiores e com pipeta, nos menores. RESULTADOS: No período anterior ao enchimento da represa foram coletados 944 exemplares de culicídeos imaturos, distribuídos em dez gêneros. O total de adultos foi de 14.932, dos quais 7.031 mosquitos (em dez gêneros foram capturados nos pontos exploratórios e 7.901 espécimes, distribuídos em oito gêneros, no ponto fixo. Após a primeira etapa de enchimento da represa, o total de imaturos foi de 1.201 exemplares, distribuídos em quatro gêneros, e o total de mosquitos capturados foi de 5.912, distribuídos em nove gêneros. Houve redução populacional de espécies dos gêneros Aedes e Psorophora e aumento no número de espécimes dos gêneros Aedeomyia, Anopheles, Culex (Melanoconion, Mansonia e Uranotaenia. CONCLUSÕES: As mudanças ambientais decorrentes da construção da Represa Porto Primavera favoreceram o aumento da densidade de algumas populações de culicídeos vetores e que geram incômodo, com riscos potenciais de transmissão de patógenos para humanos.OBJECTIVE: To describe the culicidae fauna in an area impacted by environmental changes caused by the construction of a dam. METHODS: The studied area was the Porto Primavera dam construction site in Southeastern Brazil. Monthly culicidae samples were taken in six exploratory sites in

  1. Low-temperature threshold for egg survival of a post-diapause and non-diapause European aedine strain, Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Stephanie

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The interplay between global warming and invasive arthropods in temperate zones is of utmost interest in terms of the potential expansions of vector-borne diseases. Up to now, investigations on the recent establishment of mosquito vectors have focused on temperatures during their phases of activity. However, cold temperatures may also act as a strong ecological constraint. Projected changes in winter climate indicate an increase of mean minimum temperatures of the coldest quarter, less frequent days with frost and a shorter frost-season in Europe at the end of the century. Nevertheless, single cold extremes are also expected to persist under warming scenarios, which have a strong impact on reproduction success. Methods Here, the temperature constraints of European Aedes albopictus eggs, which had passed through a diapause, compared to non-diapausing eggs were examined systematically under controlled laboratory conditions. Additionally, one tropical strain of Ae. albopictus and of Ae. aegypti was used in the comparison. Results The lower temperature threshold tolerated by the European eggs of Ae. albopictus which have undergone a diapause, was -10°C for long term exposures (12 and 24h and -12°C for 1h exposure. Non-diapausing eggs of European Ae. albopictus were found to hatch after a -7°C cold treatment (8, 12 and 24h exposure. Both tropical aedine species only tolerated the long term treatment at -2°C. Neither Ae. albopictus nor Ae. aegypti eggs hatched after being exposed to -15°C. Survival was mainly influenced by temperature (F = 329.2, df = 1, p  Conclusions Here, low temperature thresholds for aedine mosquito egg survival were detected. The compilation of risk maps for temperate regions can substantially be improved by considering areas where an establishment of a vector population is unlikely due to winter conditions.

  2. Larvicidal and ovideterrent properties of neem oil and fractions against the filariasis vector Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae): a bioactivity survey across production sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benelli, Giovanni; Bedini, Stefano; Cosci, Francesca; Toniolo, Chiara; Conti, Barbara; Nicoletti, Marcello

    2015-01-01

    Neem seed oil (NSO) of Azadirachta indica (Meliaceae) contains more than 100 determined biologically active compounds, and many formulations deriving from them showed toxicity, antifeedancy and repellence against a number of arthropod pests. However, it is widely known that botanical products can differ in their chemical composition and bioactivity, as function of the production site and production process. We used high-performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) to investigate differences in chemical constituents of NSOs from three production sites. HPTLC analyses showed several differences in chemical abundance and diversity among NSOs, with special reference to limonoids. Furthermore, the three NSOs and their fractions of increasing polarities [i.e. ethyl acetate (EA) fraction and butanol (BU) fraction] were evaluated for larvicidal toxicity and field oviposition deterrence against the Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus, currently the most invasive mosquito worldwide. Results from bioactivity experiments showed good toxicity of NSOs and EA fractions against A. albopictus fourth instar larvae (with LC50 values ranging from 142.28 to 209.73 ppm), while little toxicity was exerted by BU fractions. A significant effect of the production site and dosage was also found and is probably linked to differences in abundance of constituents among samples, as highlighted by HPTLC analyses. NSOs and EAs were also able to deter A. albopictus oviposition in the field (effective repellence values ranging from 98.55 to 70.10%), while little effectiveness of BU fractions was found. Concerning ovideterrent activity, no difference due to the production site was found. This is the first report concerning larvicidal toxicity of NSO against A. albopictus and ovideterrence against Culicidae in the field. The chance to use chemicals from the NSO EA fraction seems promising, since they are effective at lower doses, if compared to synthetic products currently marketed, and could be

  3. Bioefficacy of Plumbago zeylanica (Plumbaginaceae) and Cestrum nocturnum (Solanaceae) plant extracts against Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicide) and nontarget fish Poecilia reticulata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Chandrashekhar D; Patil, Satish V; Salunke, Bipinchandra K; Salunkhe, Rahul B

    2011-05-01

    In a search for natural products that could be used to control the vectors of tropical diseases, extracts of medicinal plants Plumbago zeylanica and Cestrum nocturnum have been tested for larvicidal activity against second, third, and fourth instar larvae of Aedes aegypti. The LC(50) values of all the extracts in different solvents of both the plants were less than 50 ppm (15.40-38.50 ppm) against all tested larval instars. Plant extracts also affected the life cycle of A. aegypti by inhibition of pupal development and adult emergence with increasing concentrations. The larvicidal stability of the extracts at five constant temperatures (19°C, 22°C, 25°C, 28°C, and 31°C) evaluated against fourth instar larvae revealed that toxicity of both plant extracts increases with increase in temperature. Toxicity studies carried out against fish species Poecilia reticulata, the most common nontarget organism in the habitats of A. aegypti, showed almost nil to meager toxicity at LC(50) and LC(90) doses of the plant extracts. The qualitative analysis of crude extracts of P. Zeylanica and C. nocturnum revealed the presence of bioactive phytochemicals with predominance of plumbagin in P. zeylanica and saponins in C. nocturnum. Partially purified plumbagin from P. zeylanica and saponins from C. nocturnum were obtained, and their presence was confirmed by thin-layer chromatography and biochemical tests. The bioassay experiment of partially purified secondary metabolites showed potent mosquito larvicidal activity against the fourth instar larval form. Therefore, this study explored the safer and effective potential of plant extracts against vector responsible for diseases of public health importance.

  4. [Comparison of taxonomic importance of morphological and molecular-genetic characters in systematics of Microsporidia (Microsporidia) of blood-sucking mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simakova, A V

    2014-01-01

    Comparative analysis of the taxonomic position of microsporidians from mosquitoes of the family Culicidae, for which SSU rDNA sequences data were obtained, demonstrates partial contradiction of systems based on morphological and phylogenetic characteristics. Representatives of the genera Anncaliia Issi. et al., 1993 and Vavraia Weiser, 1977 constitute separate evolutionary branches of the phylogenetic tree of microsporidians of blood-sucking mosquitoes. Representatives of other genera, for which the SSU rRNA sequences data were obtained (Amblyospora Hazard, Oldacre, 1975, Andreanna Simakova et al., 2008, Culicospora (Kudo, 1921), Weiser, 1977, Culicosporella Hazard, Savage, 1970, Edhazardia (Kudo, 1930), Sprague, Fucuda, 1989, Hazardia Weiser, 1977, Hyalinocysta Hazard, Oldacre, 1975, Novothelohania Andreadis et al., 2012, Parathelohania Codreanu, 1966, Senoma Simakova et al., 2005, and Trichoctosporea Larsson, 1994), form a separate, monophyletic group in the tree of Microsporidia. They are closely related and probably possess a common ancestor. The genera Amblyospora, Culicospora, Edhazardia, and Trichoctosporea were placed in the family Amblyosporidae with the revision of the diagnosis. On the basis of the obtained data on morphology and molecular phylogeny we placed Intrapredatorus barri Chen et al:, 1998 into the genus Amblyospora as Amblyospora barri, comb. nov., and also the species Amblyospora bakcharia Andreadis et al., 2012, A. kazankia Andreadis et al., 2012, A. mocrushinia Andreadis et al., 2012, and A. rugosa Simakova, Pankova, 2005 into the genus Trichoctosporea as Trichoctosporea bakcharia comb. nov., T. kazankia comb. nov., T. mocrushinia comb. nov., and T. rugosa comb. nov. Microsporidians of blood-sucking mosquitoes originally possessed complicated life cycles with transovarial and oral transmissions and with the presence of intermediate hosts (lower crustaceans). Later, some microsporidians had lost a part of their life cycle, either during

  5. Invasion of Wolbachia at the residential block level is associated with local abundance of Stegomyia aegypti, yellow fever mosquito, populations and property attributes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, A A; Goundar, A A; Long, S A; Johnson, P H; Ritchie, S A

    2014-08-01

    Wolbachia can suppress dengue and control mosquito populations and this depends on the successful invasion of Wolbachia-infected mosquitoes into local populations. Ovitrap data collected during the recent invasion of wMel-infected Stegomyia aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) (Linnaeus) into Gordonvale near Cairns, Australia, were used to identify variables that help predict the success of localized invasion. Based on the variance in Wolbachia frequencies across Gordonvale as well as at another release site at Yorkeys Knob in comparison to simulations, it was estimated that on average 2-4 females contributed eggs to an ovitrap. By collating ovitrap data from two collection periods at the start of the release from residential blocks, it was found that uninfected mosquitoes had a patchy distribution across the release site. Residential blocks with relatively high uninfected mosquito numbers were less easily invaded by Wolbachia than blocks with low numbers. The numbers of uninfected mosquitoes in ovitraps were negatively correlated with the proportion of brick houses in a residential block, whereas local Wolbachia frequencies were correlated positively with this variable as well as negatively with the amount of shading in a yard and availability of breeding sites. These findings point to proxy measures for predicting the ease of localized invasion of Wolbachia.

  6. Ectopic expression of a cecropin transgene in the human malaria vector mosquito Anopheles gambiae (Diptera: Culicidae): effects on susceptibility to Plasmodium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Won; Koo, Hyeyoung; Richman, Adam M; Seeley, Douglas; Vizioli, Jacopo; Klocko, Andrew D; O'Brochta, David A

    2004-05-01

    Genetically altering the disease vector status of insects using recombinant DNA technologies is being considered as an alternative to eradication efforts. Manipulating the endogenous immune response of mosquitoes such as the temporal and special expression of antimicrobial peptides like cecropin may result in a refractory phenotype. Using transgenic technology a unique pattern of expression of cecropin A (cecA) in Anopheles gambiae was created such that cecA was expressed beginning 24 h after a blood meal in the posterior midgut. Two independent lines of transgenic An. gambiae were created using a piggyBac gene vector containing the An. gambiae cecA cDNA under the regulatory control of the Aedes aegypti carboxypeptidase promoter. Infection with Plasmodium berghei resulted in a 60% reduction in the number of oocysts in transgenic mosquitoes compared with nontransgenic mosquitoes. Manipulating the innate immune system of mosquitoes can negatively affect their capacity to serve as hosts for the development of disease-causing microbes.

  7. Effect of food on immature development, consumption rate, and relative growth rate of Toxorhynchites splendens (Diptera: Culicidae, a predator of container breeding mosquitoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Dominic Amalraj

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Food utilization by the larvae of Toxorhynchites splendens (Wiedemann was studied in the laboratory by offering larvae of Aedes aegypti Linnaeus, Anopheles stephensi (Liston, and Culex quinquefasciatus (Say. Quantitative analyses of data indicated that immature development was significantly faster with increase in food availability. The regression analysis showed that the degrees of the relationship between immature duration (Id and food availability were higher when offered early instars of prey (first and second instars than late instars. Consumption rate (Cr of the predator increased with increase in food availability and this relationship was highly significant when larvae of An. stephensi were offered as food. Consumption rate to food level decreased with increase in the age class of the prey. There was a significant negative correlation between Id and Cr. This aspect helps to increase population turnover of T. splendens in a shorter period when the prey is abundant. Conversely, the predator compensated the loss in daily food intake at low food level by extending Id thereby attains the minimum threshold pupal weight for adult emergence. There was an increase in the relative growth rate (RGR of the predator when An. stephensi was offered as prey and this was related to the high protein content of the prey per body weight. There was a positive correlation between Cr and RGR. This adaptive life characteristic strategy of this predator is useful for mass-rearing for large scale field release programmes in the control of container breeding mosquitoes is discussed.

  8. Studies on the impact of biosynthesized silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) in relation to malaria and filariasis vector control against Anopheles stephensi Liston and Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subarani, Selladurai; Sabhanayakam, Selvi; Kamaraj, Chinnaperumal

    2013-02-01

    Biosynthesized nanoparticles have been achieved using environmentally acceptable plant extract and eco-friendly reducing and capping agents. The present study was based on assessments of the larvicidal activities to determine the efficacies of synthesized silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using aqueous leaf extract of Vinca rosea (L.) (Apocynaceae) against the larvae of malaria vector Anopheles stephensi Liston and filariasis vector Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae). Larvae were exposed to varying concentrations of aqueous extract of V. rosea and synthesized AgNPs for 24, 48, and 72 h. AgNPs were rapidly synthesized using the leaf extract of V. rosea, and the formation of nanoparticles was observed within 15 min. The results recorded from UV-Vis spectrum, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) support the biosynthesis and characterization of AgNPs. The formation of the AgNPs synthesized from the XRD spectrum compared with the Bragg reflections at 2θ = 29.36, 38.26, 44.51, 63.54, and 77.13° which can be indexed to the (121), (111), (200), (220), and (311) orientations, respectively, confirmed the presence of AgNPs. The FTIR spectra of AgNPs exhibited prominent peaks at the spectra showed sharp and strong absorption band at 3,406.71 to 3,431.90 cm(-1) double in case of NH(2) group of a primary amine (N-H stretch). The presence of the sharp peak at 2,926.54 to 2,925.80 cm(-1) very broad often looks like distorted baseline (O-H carboxylic acids). The band 1,633.26 to 1,625.81 cm(-1) was assigned to C = C alkenes, aromatic ring stretching vibration, respectively. SEM analysis of the synthesized AgNPs clearly showed the clustered and irregular shapes, mostly aggregated and having the size of 120 nm. TEM reveals spherical shape of synthesized AgNPs. Particle size analysis revealed that the size of particles ranges from 25 to 47 nm with average size of 34.61 nm

  9. Dynamics of immature stages of Anopheles arabiensis and other mosquito species (Diptera: Culicidae) in relation to rice cropping in a rice agro-ecosystem in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwangangi, Joseph; Shililu, Josephat; Muturi, Ephantus; Gu, Weidong; Mbogo, Charles; Kabiru, Ephantus; Jacob, Benjamin; Githure, John; Novak, Robert

    2006-12-01

    We determined changes in species composition and densities of immature stages of Anopheles arabiensis mosquitoes in relation to rice growth cycle in order to generate data for developing larval control strategies in rice ecosystems. Experimental rice paddies (6.3m x 3.15m) exposed to natural colonization of mosquitoes were sampled weekly for two rice growing cycles between February 2004 and March 2005. Overall, 21,325 Anopheles larvae were collected, of which 91.9% were 1st and 2nd instars and 8.1% were 3rd and 4th instars. An. arabiensis was the predominant species (84.1%) with other species, An. pharoensis (13.5%), An. funestus (2.1%), An. coustani (0.3%), and An. maculipalpis (0.1%) accounting for only a small proportion of the anophelines collected. Culex quinquefasciatus (65.7%) was the predominant species among the non-anopheline species. Others species collected included: C. annulioris (9.9%), C. poicilipes (7.3%), C. tigripes (7.2%), C. duttoni (0.6%), Aedes aegypti (5.3%), Ae. cumminsii (3.5%), and Ae. vittatus (0.7%). The densities of the major anopheline species were closely related to rice stage and condition of the rice field. An. arabiensis, the predominant species, was most abundant over a three-week period after transplanting. Low densities of larvae were collected during the late vegetative, reproductive, and ripening phases of rice. An increase in larval density ten days post-transplanting was found to correlate with the application of fertilizer (sulphate of ammonia). Culicine and aedine species densities were significantly higher during the post-harvesting period. Our results suggest that the transplanting stage is favorable for the growth of immature stages of An. arabiensis and provides a narrow window for targeted larval intervention in rice.

  10. The Eye of the Tiger, the Thrill of the Fight: Effective Larval and Adult Control Measures Against the Asian Tiger Mosquito, Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae), in North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faraji, Ary; Unlu, Isik

    2016-09-01

    The Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus (Skuse), is a highly invasive container-inhabiting species with a global distribution. This mosquito, similar to other Stegomyia species such as Aedes aegypti (L.), is highly adapted to urban and suburban areas, and commonly oviposits in artificial containers, which are ubiquitous in these peridomestic environments. The increase in speed and amount of international travel and commerce, coupled with global climate change, have aided in the resurgence and expansion of Stegomyia species into new areas of North America. In many parts of their range, both species are implicated as significant vectors of emerging and re-emerging arboviruses such as dengue, chikungunya, and now Zika. Although rapid and major advances have been made in the field of biology, ecology, genetics, taxonomy, and virology, relatively little has changed in the field of mosquito control in recent decades. This is particularly discouraging in regards to container-inhabiting mosquitoes, because traditional integrated mosquito management (IMM) approaches have not been effective against these species. Many mosquito control programs simply do not possess the man-power or necessary financial resources needed to suppress Ae. albopictus effectively. Therefore, control of mosquito larvae, which is the foundation of IMM approaches, is exceptionally difficult over large areas. This review paper addresses larval habitats, use of geographic information systems for habitat preference detection, door-to-door control efforts, source reduction, direct application of larvicides, biological control agents, area-wide low-volume application of larvicides, hot spot treatments, autodissemination stations, public education, adult traps, attractive-toxic sugar bait methods, lethal ovitraps, barrier-residual adulticides, hand-held ultra-low-volume adulticides, area-wide adulticides applied by ground or air, and genetic control methods. The review concludes with future

  11. Novos registros e potencial epidemiológico de algumas espécies de mosquitos (Diptera, Culicidae, no Estado do Rio Grande do Sul New records and epidemiological potential of certain species of mosquito (Diptera, Culicidae in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jáder da Cruz Cardoso

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: A vigilância entomológica tem se mostrado uma importante estratégia de monitoramento da fauna de culicídeos com vistas a predizer o risco de exposição a espécies vetoras de patógenos. Esse trabalho apresenta uma lista de mosquitos identificados pela primeira vez no Rio Grande do Sul e discute o potencial epidemiológico de algumas espécies ocorrentes no Município de Maquiné com registros em outras regiões do Estado. MÉTODOS: Os mosquitos foram coletados com aspirador de Nasci e armadilhas CDC, entre dezembro de 2006 e dezembro de 2008, em área silvestre, rural e urbana do Município de Maquiné. RESULTADOS: Foram verificadas 55 espécies, das quais 22 são registradas pela primeira vez no estado e 10 são potencialmente vetoras do vírus Saint Louis, Oropouche, Aura, Trocara, Ilhéus, Rocio, Una, West Nile e encefalite equina do leste. CONCLUSÕES: Esses dados demonstram a importância da Vigilância Entomológica como ferramenta de informação e ação para a Vigilância em Saúde.INTRODUCTION: Entomological surveillance has proven to be an important strategy for monitoring culicidae fauna, aimed at predicting the risk of exposure to pathogen vector species. The present work reports species identified for the first time in the State Rio Grande do Sul and discusses the epidemiological potential displayed by mosquito species occurring in Maquiné municipality and in other regions of the State. METHODS: Mosquitoes were collected with Nasci vacuum and CDC light traps between December 2006 and December 2008, in the wild, rural and urban areas of Maquiné. RESULTS: Fifty-five species were verified, of which 22 were registered for the first time in the state and 10 are potential vector species for the Saint Louis, Oropouche, Aura, Trocara, Ilhéus, Rocio, Una, West Nile, and eastern equine encephalitis viruses. CONCLUSIONS: These data demonstrate the importance of entomological surveillance as a tool for gathering

  12. Eficiência e Persistência de Três Produtos Comerciais à Base de Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis e Bacillus sphaericus no controle de Culicidae (Diptera em Lagoas de Tratamento de Efluentes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Lopes

    2010-11-01

    Abstract. The hematofagic effect caused by females belonging to some species of Culicidae on humans and animals can be directly related to pathogen transmission, allergic reactions and uneasiness. The emergence of populations resistant to chemical insecticides has fostered the use of alternative methods, mainly biological control. The trials were conducted in three effluent treatment lagoons, on larvae of Culicidae to test the efficiency and persistence of commercial products whose active principles are based on Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis Berliner and Bacillus sphaericus Neide. The products tested were Vectolex (a granulated formulation of B. sphaericus, Sphaericus (a liquid formulation of B. sphaericus and Bt-horus (a liquid formulation of B. thuringiensis. The products were applied biweekly and evaluations were conducted 0, 24, 48, 72, and 120 hours after each application. The lagoons were colonized by Culex nigripalpus Theobald (1.5%, Culex saltanensis Dyar (2.25%, and Culex quinquefasciatus Say (96.25%. Bt-horus reduced larvae by 89.06%, 83.97% and 89.96% at 24, 48 and 72 hours after product application, respectively. The granulated and the liquid formulations containing B. sphaericus reduced larvae by 98.89 % and 98.34% 24 hours after application, and by 99.79% and 99.78% after 48 hours, respectively. The products and the different formulations were effective in controlling larvae of all three Culicidae species in lagoons with high levels of organic matter, but the persistence was recorded in two and three days for products containing respectively B. sphaericus and B. thuringiensis israelensis.

  13. Ecologia de mosquitos (Diptera: Culicidae em criadouros naturais e artificiais de área rural do Norte do Estado do Paraná, Brasil: l - Coletas ao longo do leito de ribeirão

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Lopes

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivando-se conhecer as espécies de Culicidae aptas a colonizarem ambiente de um ribeirão com mata ciliar reduzida e localizado na região Sul do Brasil, foram realizadas capturas com auxílio de rede para coleta de insetos aquáticos. Foram apanhadas as seguintes espécies: Aedes crinifer, Aedomya squamipennis, Anopheles fluminensis, An. intermedius, An. albitarsis, An. argyritarsis, An. evansae, An. galvaoi, An. oswaldoi, An. strodei, An. triannulatus, Chagasia fajardi, Culex bidens, Cx. grupo coronator, Cx. eduardoi, Cx. mollis, Cx. quinquefasciatus, Cx. coppenamensis, Cx. vaxus, Cx. grupo inhibitator, Cx. intrincatus, Cx. (Melanoconion sp., Psorophora saeva (? e Uranotaenia pulcherrima. Para as espécies em que foi capturada uma amostra tida como representativa, foram estudadas a distribuição ao longo da área pesquisada, a flutuação populacional e a correlação com fatores físicos do ambiente. Conclui-se da análise que massas de água orladas por mata ciliar reduzida podem funcionar como refúgio para alguns Culicidae e esta condição pode contribuir decisivamente para o processo de domiciliação de espécies deste grupo.

  14. Descrição da colonização de Aedes albopictus (Diptera: culicidae na região de São José do Rio Preto, SP, 1991-1994

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Chiaravalloti Neto

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho é descrever e analisar colonização do Aedes albopictus, cuja presença foi detectada na região de São José do Rio Preto em 1991, jã colonizada pelo Aedes aegypti. A partir de informações obtidas em medidas de densidade larvária pela Superintendência de Controle de Endemias (SUCEN, analisou-se: ano e mês de oconência, município, composição e localização das amostras lanúrias, tipo de recipiente, número médio de laivas e índice de Breteau. Até dezembro de 1994 a presença do As. albopictus fora constatada em 34 municípios. A colonização da região pelo mosquito ainda é reduzida, apresentando algumas diferenças em relação ao Ae. aegypti: maior proporção no peridomicílio, ocupando recipientes em proporções diferentes. O número médio de larvas de As. albopictus sofreu influência da presença de larvas da outra espécie. Apresentou comportamento sazonal semelhante ao do Ae. aegypti e avançou no sentido leste para oeste.

  15. Potential of crude seed extract of celery, Apium graveolens L. Against Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae)%旱芹籽粗提取物对埃及伊蚊的效果评定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wej Choochote; 郑剑宁; 裘炯良; 杨定波

    2005-01-01

    埃及伊蚊(Aedes aegypti)是众所周知的虫媒病毒性疾病——登革热的传播媒介,分布于东南亚、太平洋岛屿、非洲和美洲。它也是中美、南美和西非传播黄热病的媒介。登革热因报告的病例数逐年上升,尤其是因该病有多种类型——登革出血热、登革休克综合症和其他诸如侵犯中枢神经系统等少见类型,已成为当今社会严重的公共卫生问题。据2003年世界卫生组织的报告,全球受到登革热威胁的人口约占全球人口总数的40%。目前,减少该病发生的最有效措施是加强个人防护和控制埃及伊蚊。

  16. Mosquito Studies (Dipera: Culicidae) 34. A Revision of the Albimanus Section of the Subgenus Nyssorhynchus of Anopheles. (Contributions of the American Entomological Institute. Volume 15, Number 7, 1980)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    aquasalis) nas marcacoes do alado, ao A. oswaldoi na terminalia do macho, ao A. noroestensis na fase Zarvaria e possue ovos do tipo oswaldoi, donde se...conclue que para se fazer urn diagnostico conscientodas dessa especie e indispensavel que se analise todo esse conjun to, isto e todos as suas fases ...Middle America. Am. Entomol. Inst., Contrib. l(2): 1-17. 1967. Estudios sobre mosquitos (Diptera, Culicidae). Ia. Un proyecto para un estudio

  17. Ecologia de mosquitos (Diptera: Culicidae em criadouros naturais e artificiais de área rural do Norte do Estado do Paraná, Brasil. V. Coleta de larvas em recipientes artificiais instalados em mata ciliar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Lopes

    1997-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: A utilização pelos Culicidae de recipientes contendo água para a colocação de seus ovos, em área antropogênica, pode indicar plasticidade genética que os direcione evolutivamente no sentido da domiciliação. Nesse sentido, foram coletadas as diferentes espécies de Culicidae que colonizam recipientes alocados em mata ciliar, na área rural. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: Foram instalados recipientes de pneu, plástico, lata e bambu, em mata ciliar, em área rural no Norte do Paraná, Brasil. RESULTADOS: Coletaram-se larvas de Cx. grupo coronator, Cx. declarator, Cx. laticlasper, Cx. (Melanoconion secção Spissipes, Cx. tatoi, Tr. compressum, Tr. pallidiventer, Ae. terrens, Cx. mollis, Cx. bigoti, Hg. leucocelaenus, Cx. eduardoi, Cx. quinquefasciatus, Li. durhamii e Toxorhynchites sp. As cinco primeiras espécies foram específicas de pneus. As duas espécies de Trichoprosopon ficaram restritas a bambu. Ae. terrens e Cx. mollis foram caletadas em pneu e bambu, Cx. bigoti foi coletada em pneu, lata e bambu, enquanto que Hg. leucocelaenus só não foi encontrada em lata. As quatro últimas espécies foram coletadas em todos os tipos de recipientes. Cx. quinquefasciatus, Cx. eduardoi, Li. durhamii tiveram significante flutuação populacional. CONCLUSÕES: O pneu caracterizou-se como o recipiente mais aceito pelos culicídeos. As áreas onde a mata ciliar esteve mais densa e o locais onde o solo esteve mais úmido foram os pontos com maior número de capturas. A mata ciliar, mesmo muito reduzida e alterada, foi suficiente para abrigar várias espécies de culicídeos. As espécies caputradas podem ser portadoras de plasticidade gênica que as capacitem a colonizar ambientes antropogênicos.

  18. Ecologia de mosquitos (Diptera: Culicidae em criadouros naturais e artificiais de área rural do Norte do Estado do Paraná, Brasil. V. Coleta de larvas em recipientes artificiais instalados em mata ciliar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lopes José

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: A utilização pelos Culicidae de recipientes contendo água para a colocação de seus ovos, em área antropogênica, pode indicar plasticidade genética que os direcione evolutivamente no sentido da domiciliação. Nesse sentido, foram coletadas as diferentes espécies de Culicidae que colonizam recipientes alocados em mata ciliar, na área rural. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: Foram instalados recipientes de pneu, plástico, lata e bambu, em mata ciliar, em área rural no Norte do Paraná, Brasil. RESULTADOS: Coletaram-se larvas de Cx. grupo coronator, Cx. declarator, Cx. laticlasper, Cx. (Melanoconion secção Spissipes, Cx. tatoi, Tr. compressum, Tr. pallidiventer, Ae. terrens, Cx. mollis, Cx. bigoti, Hg. leucocelaenus, Cx. eduardoi, Cx. quinquefasciatus, Li. durhamii e Toxorhynchites sp. As cinco primeiras espécies foram específicas de pneus. As duas espécies de Trichoprosopon ficaram restritas a bambu. Ae. terrens e Cx. mollis foram caletadas em pneu e bambu, Cx. bigoti foi coletada em pneu, lata e bambu, enquanto que Hg. leucocelaenus só não foi encontrada em lata. As quatro últimas espécies foram coletadas em todos os tipos de recipientes. Cx. quinquefasciatus, Cx. eduardoi, Li. durhamii tiveram significante flutuação populacional. CONCLUSÕES: O pneu caracterizou-se como o recipiente mais aceito pelos culicídeos. As áreas onde a mata ciliar esteve mais densa e o locais onde o solo esteve mais úmido foram os pontos com maior número de capturas. A mata ciliar, mesmo muito reduzida e alterada, foi suficiente para abrigar várias espécies de culicídeos. As espécies caputradas podem ser portadoras de plasticidade gênica que as capacitem a colonizar ambientes antropogênicos.

  19. Microevolution of Aedes aegypti

    OpenAIRE

    Caroline Louise; Paloma Oliveira Vidal; Lincoln Suesdek

    2015-01-01

    Scientific research into the epidemiology of dengue frequently focuses on the microevolution and dispersion of the mosquito Aedes aegypti. One of the world's largest urban agglomerations infested by Ae. aegypti is the Brazilian megalopolis of Sao Paulo, where >26,900 cases of dengue were reported until June 2015. Unfortunately, the dynamics of the genetic variability of Ae. aegypti in the Sao Paulo area have not been well studied. To reduce this knowledge gap, we assessed the morphogenetic va...

  20. Anofelinos de Santa Catarina (Diptera: Culicidae, Brasil Anophelines of Santa Catarina (Diptera: Culicidae, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria da Graça Teixeira Portes

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: No Brasil, a Região Amazônica é endêmica em malária. Em Santa Catarina, a malária foi eliminada na década de 80. A partir daí, ocorreram poucos casos autóctones isolados, e esporádicos. No entanto, em função da existência do vetor em seu território, da existência de extensa área endêmica no Brasil e da grande mobilidade de pessoas em áreas turísticas no estado, existe a probabilidade de reintrodução da doença. MÉTODOS: Utilizou-se os seguintes dados: Banco de Dados do Núcleo de Entomologia da Fundação Nacional de Saúde, Santa Catarina (ACCES,1997-2000; Sistema de Informação de Vigilância Epidemiológica, Secretaria de Vigilância em Saúde (Malária/SC e Sistema de Informação de Notificação e Agravo(SINAN/SC. Os mesmos foram transportados e analisados, no programa Microsoft Office Excel 2007. RESULTADOS: As coletas foram realizadas em 48 municípios, 159 localidades, sendo identificados 12.310 Culicídeos, 11.546 (93,7% Anopheles e 764 (6,2% como outros. Foram identificados três subgêneros e 13 espécies de anofelinos. CONCLUSÕES: Considerando que nos municípios pesquisados, foi identificada a presença de importantes vetores como Anopheles cruzii e Anopheles albitasis e há circulação de pessoas infectadas provenientes de áreas endêmicas, pode-se considerar que os mesmos são áreas receptivas e vulneráveis à malária. Essas espécies são suspeitas de serem responsáveis pela transmissão de malária na região, principalmente nos municípios de Gaspar, Indaial e Rodeio.INTRODUCTION: The Amazon region of Brazil is endemic for malaria. In the State of Santa Catarina, malaria was eliminated in the 1980s. Since then, a few sporadic isolated autochthonous cases have occurred. However, because malaria vectors are present within Brazilian territory and extensive endemic areas exist in this country, along with the great mobility of people in tourist areas of Santa Catarina, there is the likelihood of reintroduction of the disease. METHODS: The following data were used: the database of the Entomology Group of the National Health Foundation, Santa Catarina (ACCES, 1997-2000; the epidemiological surveillance information system of the Health Surveillance Department (Malaria/SC; and the notifiable disease information system (SINAN/SC. These data were transferred to and analyzed in the Microsoft Office Excel 2007 software. RESULTS: Collections were carried out in 48 municipalities and 159 localities, and 12,310 culicids, 11,546 anophelines (93.7% and 764 others (6.2% were identified. Three subgenera and 13 species of anophelines were identified. CONCLUSIONS: Given that in the municipalities investigated, important vectors such as Anopheles cruzii and Anopheles albitasis were found to be present, with movements of infected individuals from endemic areas, these areas can be considered to be receptive and vulnerable to malaria. These species are suspected of being responsible for malaria transmission in this region, especially in the municipalities of Gaspar, Indaial and Rodeio.

  1. Preferência por local de oviposição de Aedes albopictus (Skuse (Diptera, Culicidae, em relação à presença de imaturos da própria espécie, sob condições de laboratório Aedes (Stegomyia albopictus (Skuse (Diptera, Culicidae, preference for oviposition site related with homospecific immatures presence, under laboratory conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreia Aparecida Barbosa

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Aedes (Stegomyia albopictus (Skuse, 1894 is an exotic Culicidae species in Brazil. Since its first report in this country, the mosquito has been increasing its geographic distribution. This mosquito is a natural dengue and Japanese Encephalitis virus vector in Asia. The females preference for oviposition sites related with homospecific immature presence was assessed. The experiment was performed with Aedes albopictus from laboratory colony since March ]999, in the Laboratório de Entomologia Médica e Veterinária, Departamento de Zoologia, Universidade Federal do Paraná. The preferred container was the one that kept pupae for 24 hours, with 643 eggs, 30,6% at total. The eggs recipients received 11,45% from total set by the females, and the following numbers to the others: larva 1 (15,79%, larva 2 (14,69%, pupa 1 (20,74%, pupa 2 (30,58%, control (6,75%. Although the ANOVA did not detect significant difference among the treatments, the data possibly indicate that Aedes albopictus prefer laying eggs in containers previously colonized by immature.

  2. Preferência por hospedeiro e estratificação de Culicidae (Diptera em área de remanescente florestal do Parque Regional do Iguaçu, Curitiba, Paraná, Brasil Host preference and Culicidae stratification in area of degradated inside forest of Regional do Iguaçu Park, Curitiba, Paraná, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cristina Tissot

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available A investigação das populações de Culicidae em áreas de remanescentes florestais inseridas em área urbana, podem fornecer subsídios para compreensão dos processos de utilização de habitats apresentando diferentes graus de interferência antrópica. Foram investigadas espécies potencialmente zoofílicas durante o período vespertino no interior de remanescente florestal, no espaço urbano de Curitiba, Paraná. Durante o período de setembro de 2000 a junho de 2001, foram realizadas cinco coletas por estação, com auxílio de armadilhas CDC-M instaladas em dois estratos verticais, a 1,5 m do solo e na copa das árvores (6 m. Como iscas foram utilizados mamíferos Cavia porcellus (Linnaeus, 1758 (Rodentia, Cavidae e aves Nothura maculosa (Temminck, 1815 (Tinamiformes, Tinamidae em cada um dos estratos, com revezamento das iscas animais. As armadilhas foram operadas no intervalo horário das 16:00 às 20:00 h, sendo retiradas amostras a cada intervalo de 30 minutos. Em 60 horas de operação das armadilhas CDC-M, foram capturados 1.407 exemplares de Culicidae, sendo 1.143 espécies identificadas, distribuídas em nove gêneros e 13 espécies. As espécies mais freqüentes foram Mansonia(Mansonia fonsecai (Pinto, 1932 e Mansonia (Mansonia pessoai (Barreto e Coutinho, 1944, destaca-se também a ocorrência de: Ochlerotatus (Ochlerotatus scapularis (Rondani, 1848; Psorophora (Janthinosoma ferox (Humboldt, 1819 e Aedes (Stegomyia albopictus (Skuse, 1894. Na área foram detectadas a presença de espécies com graus variados de importância epidemiológica e com tendência a explorar ambientes exófilos, florestais e peridomiciliares.Parks and plazas (green areas or vegetation islands within urban areas can provide conditions for the development of populations of mosquitoes, many species of which are very adaptable to a variety of environments. The species of mosquitoes in the family Culicidae with animal hosts, in a vegetation island within an

  3. α-Humulene and β-elemene from Syzygium zeylanicum (Myrtaceae) essential oil: highly effective and eco-friendly larvicides against Anopheles subpictus, Aedes albopictus, and Culex tritaeniorhynchus (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindarajan, Marimuthu; Benelli, Giovanni

    2016-07-01

    Mosquitoes transmit serious pathogens and parasites to humans and animals, including malaria, dengue, Japanese encephalitis and filariasis. The extensive use of chemical pesticides leads to the development of resistance in mosquito vector populations and serious non-target effects on human health and the environment. Myrtaceae plants can be a useful reservoir of natural products effective against Culicidae young instars. In this research, we evaluated the mosquito