WorldWideScience

Sample records for aegle marmelos unripe

  1. Studies on the antidiarrhoeal activity of Aegle marmelos unripe fruit: Validating its traditional usage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antia Noshir

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aegle marmelos (L. Correa has been widely used in indigenous systems of Indian medicine due to its various medicinal properties. However, despite its traditional usage as an anti-diarrhoeal there is limited information regarding its mode of action in infectious forms of diarrhoea. Hence, we evaluated the hot aqueous extract (decoction of dried unripe fruit pulp of A. marmelos for its antimicrobial activity and effect on various aspects of pathogenicity of infectious diarrhoea. Methods The decoction was assessed for its antibacterial, antigiardial and antirotaviral activities. The effect of the decoction on adherence of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli and invasion of enteroinvasive E. coli and Shigella flexneri to HEp-2 cells were assessed as a measure of its effect on colonization. The effect of the decoction on production of E. coli heat labile toxin (LT and cholera toxin (CT and their binding to ganglioside monosialic acid receptor (GM1 were assessed by GM1-enzyme linked immuno sorbent assay whereas its effect on production and action of E. coli heat stable toxin (ST was assessed by suckling mouse assay. Results The decoction showed cidal activity against Giardia and rotavirus whereas viability of none of the six bacterial strains tested was affected. It significantly reduced bacterial adherence to and invasion of HEp-2 cells. The extract also affected production of CT and binding of both LT and CT to GM1. However, it had no effect on ST. Conclusion The decoction of the unripe fruit pulp of A. marmelos, despite having limited antimicrobial activity, affected the bacterial colonization to gut epithelium and production and action of certain enterotoxins. These observations suggest the varied possible modes of action of A. marmelos in infectious forms of diarrhoea thereby validating its mention in the ancient Indian texts and continued use by local communities for the treatment of diarrhoeal diseases.

  2. Pharmacological Screening, Ayurvedic values and Commercial Utility of Aegle Marmelos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malviya Rishabha

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available With the ever increasing interest of today’s population towards natural products, Aegle marmelos (L. Corr. emerged out to be one of the most eyes catching plant that nature has endowed us with, bearing multiple medicinal properties, belonging to family Rutaceae. This plant has tremendous uses listed in Ayurvedic and Unani and Siddha Systems of medicine. Almost every part of this plant bears one or more of the medicinal properties utilized through preparation of different formulation either alone or in combination with other herbal plants. This review majorly deals with the traditional and recent pharmacological activities of different parts of Aegle marmelos which have helped it to earn the title of Mahaphala or Great fruit.

  3. Therapeutic potential of Aegle marmelos (L.)-An overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Shahedur; Parvin, Rashida

    2014-01-01

    Medicinal plants are used in herbalism. They form the easily available source for healthcare purposes in rural and tribal areas. In the present review, an attempt has been made to congregate the phytochemical and pharmacological studies done on an important medicinal plant Aegle marmelos. Extensive experimental and clinical studies prove that Aegle marmelos possesses antidiarrhoeal, antimicrobial, antiviral, radioprotective, anticancer, chemopreventive, antipyretic, ulcer healing, antigenotoxic, diuretic, antifertility and anti-inflammatory properties, which help it to play role in prevention and treatment of many disease. Therefore, it is worthwhile to review its therapeutic properties to give an overview of its status to scientist both modern and ancient. This review also encompasses on the potential application of the above plant in the pharmaceutical field due to its wide pharmacological activities.

  4. Antifungal activity of Aegle marmelos (L.) Correa (Rutaceae) leaf extract on dermatophytes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Balakumar S; Rajan S; Thirunalasundari T; Jeeva S

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the in vitro antifungal activity of Aegle marmelos leaf extracts and fractions on the clinical isolates of dermatophytic fungi like Trichophyton mentagrophytes,Trichophyton rubrum, Microsporum canis, Microsporum gypseum and Epidermophyton floccosum. Methods: The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) of various extracts and fractions of the leaves of Aegle marmelos were measured using method of National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS). Results: Aegle marmelos leaf extracts and fractions were found to have fungicidal activity against various clinical isolates of dermatophytic fungi. The MIC and MFC was found to be high in water and ethyl alcohol extracts and methanol fractions (200μg/mL) against dermatophytic fungi studied. Conclusions:Aegle marmelos leaf extracts significantly inhibites the growth of all dermatophytic fungi studied. If this activity is confirmed by in vivo studies and if the compound is isolated and identified, it could be a remedy for dermatophytosis.

  5. Antifungal activity of Aegle marmelos (L. Correa (Rutaceae leaf extract on dermatophytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Balakumar

    2011-08-01

    Conclusions: Aegle marmelos leaf extracts significantly inhibites the growth of all dermatophytic fungi studied. If this activity is confirmed by in vivo studies and if the compound is isolated and identified, it could be a remedy for dermatophytosis.

  6. Antifertility activity of methanolic bark extract of Aegle marmelos (l. in male wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agrawal Shyam S

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aegle marmelos leaf, seed and fruit from earlier studies is known to affect male fertility in reversible manner. However they had delayed onset and recovery was found to be prolonged. The present study was undertaken with an aim to evaluate the effect of Aegle marmelos bark extract on rats as the extract is found to be a rich source of marmin and fagarine known for reducing male fertility. Three different concentration of methanolic bark extracts of Aegle marmelos (L. were evaluated for male antifertility activity on albino wistar rats. Methanolic bark extract of Aegle marmelos at the dose of 200, 400, and 600 mg/Kg b.w was administered orally for 60 days. Treatments were stopped thereafter and animals were sacrificed after a recovery period of 30 days. Control animal were administered vehicle (0.5% CMC for 60 days. Lonidamine was used as standard drug to compare the effect of extract. Results Methanolic extract causes a dose & duration dependent infertility via reducing reproductive organ weight and serum testosterone levels. Sperm analysis results showed reduction in sperm density, motility, viability and sperm acrosomal integrity without interfering libido and vital organ body weight. Histopathological studies of testes revealed exfoliation of elongated spermatids, nuclear chromatin condensation, degeneration and prominent spaces detected within the germinal epithelium signifying testicular cytotoxicity and necrosis. Time dependent complete infertility was observed in all dose levels. Animals after the withdrawal from treatment, for 30 days showed restoration of the morphological as well as physiological parameters in extract treated rats. Methanolic extract showed lipid lowering activity compared to control, suggestive good candidature of this plant for further studies. Conclusions Our studies suggested Aegle marmelos barks methanolic extract as strong candidate for male contraceptive via its ability to produce complete

  7. Antifertility Activity of Methanolic Bark Extract of Aegle Marmelos (l. in Male Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shyam S Agrawal

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Aegle marmelos leaf, seed and fruit from earlier studies is known to affect male fertility in reversible manner. However they had delayed onset and recovery was found to be prolonged. The present study was undertaken with an aim to evaluate the effect of Aegle marmelos bark extract on rats as the extract is found to be arich source of marmin and fagarine known for reducing male fertility. Three different concentration of methanolic bark extracts of Aegle marmelos (L. were evaluated for male antifertility activity on albino wistar rats. Methanolic bark extract of Aegle marmelos at the dose of 200, 400, and 600 mg/Kg b.w was administered orally for 60 days.Treatments were stopped thereafter and animals were sacrificed after a recovery period of 30 days. Control animalwere administered vehicle (0.5% CMC for 60 days. Lonidamine was used as standard drug to compare the effect of extract.Results: Methanolic extract causes a dose & duration dependent infertility via reducing reproductive organ weight and serum testosterone levels. Sperm analysis results showed reduction in sperm density, motility, viability and sperm acrosomal integrity without interfering libido and vital organ body weight. Histopathological studies of testes revealed exfoliation of elongated spermatids, nuclear chromatin condensation, degeneration and prominentspaces detected within the germinal epithelium signifying testicular cytotoxicity and necrosis. Time dependent complete infertility was observed in all dose levels. Animals after the withdrawal from treatment, for 30 days showed restoration of the morphological as well as physiological parameters in extract treated rats. Methanolicextract showed lipid lowering activity compared to control,uggestive good candidature of this plant for further studies.Conclusions: Our studies suggested Aegle marmelos barks methanolic extract as strong candidate for male contraceptive via its ability to produce complete inhibition of

  8. Determination of Some Ethnomedicinally Important Constituents of Aegle marmelos Fruit During Different Stages of Ripening

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nisha Yadav; Parul Singh; Ranjana Mehrotra

    2011-01-01

    AIM: Aegle marmelos is a medicinal herb belonging to the Rutacae family. The fruit of A. marmelos at each stage of ripening is used as ethnomedicine to cure various diseases. The aim of the present study was to determine the components contributing to the medicinal value of the A. marmelos fruit at different stages of ripening. METHODS: High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to determine polyphenol, vitamins, organic acids and sugars in A. marmelos fruit at different stages of ripening. RESULTS: Tannin, a polyphenol responsible for astringent and antimicrobial properties of A. marmelos fruit was found to increase during ripening. Riboflavin, a vital medicinal component was detected in traceable amount only in full-ripe A. marmelos fruit. Ribofla-vin contributes towards body growth, reproduction and red cell production. The content of ascorbic acid (vitamin C) which is useful in preventing scurvy decreased significantly as fruit ripens. CONCLUSIONS: The difference in the medicinal effect of A. marmelos fruit at each stage of ripening might be due to the presence of different amount of polyphenol, vitamins and organic acids.

  9. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles from aqueous Aegle marmelos leaf extract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jagajjanani Rao, K. [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Institute of Technology, Rourkela 769 008, Orissa (India); Paria, Santanu, E-mail: santanuparia@yahoo.com [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Institute of Technology, Rourkela 769 008, Orissa (India)

    2013-02-15

    Graphical abstract: Silver nanoparticles capped with polyphenols present in Aegle marmelos leaf extract. Display Omitted Highlights: ► Silver nanoparticles are synthesized using Aegle marmelos leaf extract in aqueous media. ► Reduction reaction is fast and occurs at room temperature. ► The presence of polyphenols acts as in situ capping agent. -- Abstract: Synthesis of nanoparticles by green route is an emerging technique drawing more attention recently because of several advantages over the convention chemical routes. The present study reports one-pot synthesis and in situ stabilization of silver nanoparticles using Aegle marmelos leaf extract. Nanoparticles of almost uniform spherical size (∼60 nm) were synthesized within ∼25 min reaction time at room temperature. The size of particles depends on the ratio of AgNO{sub 3} and leaf extract. The crystallinity, size, and shape of the nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction, dynamic light scattering, and scanning electron microscopy respectively. The size stability was attained by the capping effect of polyphenolic tannin compound, procatacheuate in the extract. The capped polyphenols can be removed from the particle surface by simple NaOH/methanol wash. The involvement of phenolic compounds in metal ion reduction and capping were supported by UV–visible spectroscopy, infrared spectroscopy, high performance liquid chromatography, and zeta potential measurements.

  10. Microwave assisted synthesis and optimization of Aegle marmelos-g-poly(acrylamide): release kinetics studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setia, A; Kumar, R

    2014-04-01

    Microwave assisted grafting of poly(acrylamide) on to Aegle marmelos gum was carried out employing 3-factor 3-level full factorial design. Microwave power, microwave exposure time and concentration of gum were selected as independent variable and grafting efficiency was taken as dependent variable. A. marmelos-g-poly(acrylamide) was characterized by FTIR, DSC, X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. Microwave power, microwave exposure time had synergistic effect on grafting efficiency where as concentration of the gum did not contributed much to grafting efficiency. Batch having microwave power - 80%, microwave exposure time -120 s and concentration of A. marmelos gum - 2% was selected as the optimized formulation. Comparative release behaviour of diclofenac sodium from the matrix tablets of A. marmelos gum and A. marmelos-g-polyacrylamide was evaluated. The results of kinetic studies revealed that the graft copolymer matrix, marketed tablets and polymer matrix tablets of A. marmelos gum released the drug by zero order kinetics and with n value greater than 1, indicating that the mechanism for release as super case II transport i.e. dominated by the erosion and swelling of the polymer.

  11. Phytochemical evaluation, antimicrobial activity, and determination of bioactive components from leaves of Aegle marmelos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mujeeb, Farina; Bajpai, Preeti; Pathak, Neelam

    2014-01-01

    The therapeutic value of Aegle marmelos Correa (Rutaceae), commonly known as ''Bael," has been recognized as a component of traditional medication for the treatment of various human ailments. The plant, though, being highly explored, still lacks sufficient evidences for the best variety possessing the highest degree of medicinal values. The present study is focused on phytochemical screening of aqueous and methanolic leaf extracts of 18 varieties/accessions of A. marmelos. The crude extracts of A. marmelos revealed the presence of several biologically active phytochemicals with the highest quantity of alkaloids, flavonoids, and phenols in Pant Aparna variety. The antibacterial efficacy was investigated against pathogenic bacterial strains and the highest inhibitory activity of aqueous extract was obtained against S. epidermidis, whereas methanolic extract was found to be most potent against S. aureus at 40 mg/mL concentration. However, in aqueous : ethanol, the best results were observed against E. aerogenes followed by K. pneumonia and S. epidermidis. The MIC of aqueous and methanol extract of Aegle marmelos ranged from 10 mg/mL to 40 mg/mL whereas in aqueous : ethanol it ranged between 40 mg/mL and 160 mg/mL. The GC-MS analysis revealed the presence of many bioactive compounds such as flavonoids, alcohols, aldehydes, aromatic compounds, fatty acid methyl esters, terpenoids, phenolics, and steroids that can be postulated for antibacterial activity.

  12. Evaluation of protective effect of Aegle marmelos Corr. in an animal model of chronic fatigue syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanphawng Lalremruta

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate ethanolic extract of leaves of Aegle marmelos in an experimental animal model of chronic fatigue syndrome for potential therapeutic benefit. Materials and Methods: Age/weight-matched female Wistar albino rats were grouped into five groups. (Group I- V (n = 8. Group I served as naïve control and II served as stress control. Except for group I animals, other group animals were subjected to forced swimming every day for 15 minutes to induce a state of chronic fatigue and simultaneously treated with ethanolic extract of Aegle marmelos (EEAM 150 and 250 mg/kg b.w. and Imipramine (20 mg.kg b.w., respectively. Duration of immobility, anxiety level and locomotor activity were assessed on day 1, 7, 14 and 21 followed by biochemical estimation of oxidative biomarkers at the end of the study. Results: Treatment with EEAM (150 and 250 mg/kg b.w. resulted in a statistically significant and dose dependent reduction (P <0.001 in the duration of immobility, reduction in anxiety and increase in locomotor activity. Dose dependent and significant reduction in LPO level and increase in CAT and SOD was observed in extract treated animals. Conclusion: The results are suggestive of potential protective effect of A. marmelos against experimentally induced CFS.

  13. Quantification and comparison of extraction methods for alkaloids in Aegle marmelos leaves by HPLC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karmase, Aniket; Prasanna, K; Rasabattula, Sruti; Bhutani, Kamlesh K

    2014-07-01

    The leaves of Aegle marmelos are reported to contain multi-bioactive classes of compounds including coumarins, furanocoumarins and alkaloids. HPLC analysis of the crude extract was challenging due to low concentrations of the compounds in the leaves. Five compounds visible in the HPLC chromatogram were separated and identified by HPLC and further elaborated for quantification as marker compounds of A. marmelos leaves using a C18 column with detection at 275 nm. A gradient mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile and water was used. The developed HPLC method showed good linearity (r2 > 0.994), high precision (RSD<5%), and good recovery (99.27-99.98%) of the compounds. The lowest detection limit was 5 ng and the method was found to be robust. All the validation parameters were within the permissible limits. Therefore, the developed method is accurate and reliable for the quality control of A. marmelos. This is the first report of extensive quantitative HPLC analysis of marker compounds in A. marmelos leaves and method validation.

  14. Optimization of Parameters for Biosynthesis of Silver Nanoparticles Using Leaf Extract of Aegle marmelos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JohnSamuel Godwin Christopher

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe aim of this study was to optimize the biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using leaves ofAegle marmelos as the primary source. The optimal reaction medium comprised 2:1 concentration of leaf extract and 6mM concentration of silver nitrate solution (pH 7. The biosynthesized silver nanoparticles were confirmed by UV-Vis spectroscopy at 420 nm, XRD and FTIR analysis. The antimicrobial properties of silver nanoparticles were confirmed withBacillus subtilis andPseudomonas aeruginosa.

  15. Two new cytotoxic furoquinoline alkaloids isolated from Aegle marmelos (Linn.) Correa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohammed, Magdy M D; Ibrahim, Nabaweya A.; El-Sakhawy, Fatma S.

    2016-01-01

    Two new cytotoxic furoquinoline alkaloids were isolated from the leaves of Aegle marmelos (Linn.) Correa; one from the total alkaloidal fraction (acid/base shake-out method) of the CHCl3 extract and identified as 7,8-dihydroxy-4-hydrofuroquinoline and named trivially as Aegelbine-A. The other new...... alkaloid isolated from the pet. ether extract and identified as 4-hydro-7-hydroxy-8-prenyloxyfuroquinoline and named trivially as Aegelbine-B, together with a known alkaloid; aegeline and a known phenolic acid; ρ-hydroxybenzoic acid. The structures of all the isolated compounds were established based on 1D...

  16. TLC AND HPLC Fingerprint development of Aegle marmelos Corr. And its polyherbal marketed formulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitu Singh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Chromatographic fingerprint analysis of herbal drugs represents a comprehensive qualitative approach for the purpose of species authentication, evaluation of quality and ensuring the consistency and stability of herbal drugs and their related products. In the present research article TLC and HPLC Chromatogram of Aegle marmelos Corr is taken as standard for comparing its fingerprinting profile with three marketed formulations containing Aegle marmelos Corr as one ingredient. Bilva patra showed four spots at 0.89, 0.75, 0.65, and 0.52. in thin layer chromatography. Bilwadi churna also showed three spots at 0.89 ,0.80 and 0.63. Pushyanug churna showed two spots at 0.89 and 0. .Whereas Gangadhar churna showed two spots of which only one spot is matching with Bilva Patra (0.63. On the inspection of various chromatogram of Bilva Patra and its formulations in Polyherbal drugs, gives various peaks from 4.8-10.. It seems that the peaks at 4.8,5.8,and 9.2 may be beneficial for standardizing the Bilva Patra in the polyherbal formulations,but when the chromatogram of polyherbal formulations have been been recorded , it was found that the peaks obtained at 9.2 have been retarded to a negligible amount, but only the peak of 5.8 min can be taken as standard.

  17. In Vivo Healing Potential of Aegle marmelos in Excision, Incision, and Dead Space Wound Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. K. Gautam

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The study incorporates the wound healing potential of Aegle marmelos fruit pulp extract (AME on excision, incision, and dead space wound models in rats. AME (200 mg/kg was administered orally once daily for variable days depending on the type of wound ulcer study. AME was studied for its wound breaking strength (incision wound, rate of contraction, period of epithelization and histology of skin (excision model, and granulation tissue free radicals, antioxidants, acute inflammatory marker, and connective tissue markers and deep connective tissue histology (dead space wound. Complete wound contraction and epithelization were observed at the 20th day after treatment with AME as compared to the 24th day in control rats. Mean epithelization period and scar area were decreased while wound breaking strength was increased with AME compared with control. Granulation tissue showed increased levels of collagen determinants (33.7 to 64.4%, P<0.001 and antioxidants (13.0 to 38.8%, P<0.05 to P<0.001, whereas markers of oxidative stress (55.0 to 55.6%, P<0.001 and myeloperoxidase (21.3%, P<0.001 were decreased in AME treated group. A. marmelos seems to promote wound healing by enhancing connective tissue formation and antioxidants status with decrease in free radicals and myeloperoxidase having tissue damaging effects.

  18. Effect of Aegle marmelos and Murraya koenigii in treatment of delayed pubertal buffaloes heifers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohan M. Baitule

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study aims to study the estrus induction, ovulation, and conception rate of delayed puberty in buffaloes heifers by feeding a herbal plants Aegle marmelos (bael/bili/bhel leaf and Murraya koenigii (Curry leaf. Materials and Methods: Totally, 24 buffalo heifers with delayed puberty were selected for the present study and divided randomly in four equal groups (n=6. Before experiment, all animals were dewormed with albendazole at 10 mg/kg body weight to prevent them from the stress of parasitism. In the present experiment, four group taken and Group I (n=6 treated with A. marmelos, Group II (n=6 treated with M. koenigii, Group III (n=6 treated with mixture of A. marmelos and M. koenigii and fed for 9 days. Group IV (n=6 considered as control and fed with concentrate only. The blood samples were collected from all the animals on day 0 (before treatment, 4, 9 (during treatment, on the day of estrus and day 8 after the onset of estrus. The 10 ml blood was collected from the jugular vein of all the experimental animals for estimation of serum calcium, inorganic phosphorus, and progesterone (P4. The estrus response, ovulation, conception rate along with serum calcium, inorganic phosphorus, and progesterone level were determined by the standard protocol. Results: From Group III 4 heifers, from Group II 3 heifers, and from Group I and IV (Control 2 heifers each, exhibited the estrus. The estrus response was recorded as 33.33%, 50.00%, 75.00%, and 33.33% in Group I, Group II, Group III, and Group IV, respectively. In treatment Group III, serum calcium found significantly more (p<0.05 on day 8 post-estrus as compared to other groups at a similar interval. Inorganic phosphorus and progesterone show no significant difference between groups. The ovulation and conception rates are comparatively better in Group III (75% buffalo heifers than other groups. Conclusion: Herbal supplementation of A. marmelos and M. koenigii in combination, as well as M

  19. ANTIPATHOGENIC EFFICACY OF METHANOLIC LEAF EXTRACT OF CINNAMOMUM TAMALA (BUCH.-HAM. AND AEGLE MARMELOS (L. WITH THEIR NUTRITIONAL POTENTIALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AMIT KUMAR

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Antipathogenic efficacy of methanolic leaf extract of Cinnamomum tamala (Buch.-Ham. and Aegle marmelos(L. through inhibiting the growth of Staphylococcus aureus (MTCC 3160, Salmonella typhi (MTCC 3216 andProteus mirabilis (MTCC 7837 the causative pathogens of food poisoning, boils, abscesses, wound infection,pneumonia, toxic shock syndrome, typhoid fever, urethitis, cystitis, pylonephritis and prostatitis has beeninvestigated. All the strains were affected by methanolic leaf extract of C. tamala and A. marmelos in agar diffusionmethod and broth dilution method. The MIC values in agar diffusion method were 2.5 mg/mL against S. aureusfor extract of both plants and 5 mg/mL, 1.25 mg/mL, against P. mirabilis for the extract of C. tamala and A.marmelos respectively. The MIC values in broth dilution method were 2.5 mg/mL against S.aureus for both plantsextract, 4 mg/mL, 1 mg/mL against P.mirabilis and 9 mg/mL, 10 mg/mL against S. typhi for C. tamala and A.marmelos respectively. The nutritional value, phytochemical contents and inorganic substance content of C.tamala is higher than A. marmelos.

  20. AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY TO EVALUATE THE EFFECTS OF AEGLE MARMELOS AND IT'S COMPARISON WITH PIRACETAM ON LEARNING AND MEMORY IN WISTAR RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Himani , Shankar Pratap , R. C. Verma*, Sharad Leve , Amod Sachan and R.K. Dixit

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Present study was done to evaluate the memory enhancing effect of Aegle marmelos and its comparison with the present standard treatment Piracetam in Wistar rats. The learning and memory was assessed using the elevated plus maze. The findings of the present study indicate that, Aegle marmelos extract treated animals at a dose of 100 mg/kg p.o. as well as 200 mg/kg p.o. showed significant decrease in transfer latency from 6th day to 7th day (p<0.05, but the percentage reduction was more with higher dose. When compared to the control group, this reduction was statistically significant (p<0.05. These findings demonstrate the facilitatory effect of Aegle marmelos on learning and memory (nootropic activity. This may be attributed to the involvement of neurotransmitters like acetylcholine, serotonin, noradrenaline and dopamine, which play a vital role in the cognitive functions.

  1. Aegle marmelos (L.) Corr. impedes onset of Insulin resistance syndrome in rats provided with drinking fructose from weaning to adulthood stages of development: A mechanistic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathur, Rajani; Sehgal, Ratika; Rajora, Preeti; Sharma, Shveta; Kumar, Rajesh; Mathur, Sandeep

    2016-12-17

    To explore the effect of aqueous extract of leaves of Aegle marmelos (AM) on hepatic carbohydrate metabolism and insulin downstream signalling in rats provided with drinking fructose (15%) from weaning to adulthood. Wistar albino rats (4week) were randomly divided into Normal Control (NC), Fructose Control (FC) and treatment (AMT) groups and provided over 8 weeks, chow + water, chow + fructose (15%) and chow + fructose (15%) + AM (500 mg/kg/d, p.o.), respectively. Significantly (pInsulin Resistance Syndrome (IRS) is delineated here, along with the potential of Aegle marmelos in impeding the same.

  2. Removal of Pb(II) ions from aqueous solution by adsorption using bael leaves (Aegle marmelos).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakravarty, S; Mohanty, Ashok; Sudha, T Nag; Upadhyay, A K; Konar, J; Sircar, J K; Madhukar, A; Gupta, K K

    2010-01-15

    Biosorption of Pb(II) on bael leaves (Aegle marmelos) was investigated for the removal of Pb(II) from aqueous solution using different doses of adsorbent, initial pH, and contact time. The maximum Pb loading capacity of the bael leaves was 104 mg g(-1) at 50 mg L(-1) initial Pb(II) concentration at pH 5.1. SEM and FT-IR studies indicated that the adsorption of Pb(II) occurs inside the wall of the hollow tubes present in the bael leaves and carboxylic acid, thioester and sulphonamide groups are involved in the process. The sorption process was best described by pseudo second order kinetics. Among Freundlich and Langmuir isotherms, the latter had a better fit with the experimental data. The activation energy E(a) confirmed that the nature of adsorption was physisorption. Bael leaves can selectively remove Pb(II) in the presence of other metal ions. This was demonstrated by removing Pb from the effluent of exhausted batteries.

  3. Bioprospecting Endophytic Fungi and Their Metabolites from Medicinal Tree Aegle marmelos in Western Ghats, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mani, Vellingiri Manon; Soundari, Arockiamjeyasundar Parimala Gnana; Karthiyaini, Damodharan; Preeth, Kathirvel

    2015-09-01

    The increasing emergence of lead drugs for the resistance produced by the pathogenic strains and arrival of new diseases have initiated the need for searching novel metabolites with best anticancer and antimicrobial properties than the existing one. With this view, the investigation was conducted for the isolation, identification, and biological evaluation of potential endophytic fungi of Aegle marmelos, a medicinal tree used for more than three decades, for curing various disorders. A total of 169 endophytic fungal strains obtained from sampling and among those 67 were pigmented strains. Upon antagonistic screening, five endophytic fungal strains exhibited antagonistic potentiality by inhibiting the pathogens. These five potent strains were characterized at molecular level by sequencing the amplified internal transcribed spacer (ITS) 1 and ITS 4 regions of rDNA and they were grouped under order Pleosporales, Eurotiales, and Capnodiales. The metabolites from the respective strains were produced in fungal culturing media and extracted using polar solvents. Further, the extracts of five endophytes manifested antimicrobial activity against tested clinical pathogens and Alternaria alternata (FC39BY), Al. citrimacularis (FC8ABr), and Curvularia australiensis (FC2AP) exhibited significant antimicrobial profile against 9 of 12 tested pathogens, showing broad spectrum activity. The antioxidant levels of all the five endophytes revealed the highest activity at least concentrations, and major activity was unveiled by the members of order Pleosporales FC2AP and FC8ABr. This research explains the value of endophytic fungal extracts and its significance of antimicrobial and antioxidant properties.

  4. In vitro propagation and biochemical analysis of field established wood apple (Aegle marmelos L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuldeep YADAV

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes an improved and rapid protocol for multiple shoot regeneration from nodal segments of wood apple (Aegle marmelos L., a medicinal tree, cultured on Murashige and Skoog (1962 (MS medium supplemented with various concentrations of auxins and cytokinins individually and in various combinations. BAP was found to be more effective than kinetin for shoot multiplication. Nodal explants responded most favorably at low BAP (2.0 mg/l producing maximum number of shoots (8.0 and uniform shoots facilitating their simultaneous harvest for rooting. The medium supplemented with 2.0 mg/l BAP + 1.0 mg/l IAA was found to be most prolific combination of the treatments with regard to number and length of shoots. Creamish friable compact callus accompanying multiple shoots (8.0 was achieved from nodal segment on MS medium fortified with 2.0 mg/l BAP + 0.5 mg/l 2,4-D within 8 days of culture. The in vitro regenerated shoots were rooted best in half strength MS medium enriched with 1.0 mg/l IAA. The rooted plantlets were successfully established with 60% survival. Besides that the biochemical parameters, like chlorophyll, total sugars, reducing sugars and proteins were estimated in leaf tissue from both in vivo and in vitro raised plants in order to establish the sustainability of plants.

  5. In-vitrostudy:Immunomodulatory and cytotoxicity effects of ethanolic leave extracts ofAegle marmelos andFicus benghalensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Winnyfred Crossia; Hans-Uwe Dahms; Krishnan Muthukumar; Thanamegam Kaviarasan; Thiyagarajan Thirunalasundari; Rathinam Arthur James

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To assess the immunomodulatory and antibacterial properties of the coastal trees Aegle marmelos (A. marmelos) andFicus benghalensis (F. benghalensis) byin-vitro methods. Methods:A. marmelos andF. benghalensis leaves were extracted with the solvents di-ethyl ether, ethanol and methanol. The extracts were investigated for antibacterial activity against human pathogenic bacteria and immunomodulatory activity against human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), respectively. Results:F. benghalensis ethanol cold extract gave maximum inhibition zones against Escherichia coliNCIM 2931 (B2) at 18 mm and enhanced the growth of humanPBMC. It was non-toxic to humanPBMC shown by the Tryphan blue dye exclusion method, sulforhodamine B andMTT assays. IR phyto-chemical analysis demonstrated the presence of the functional groups: NH, CH2, CH3, CO, OH, -C-C=O, and C-S. We confirmed the presence of quantifiable amounts of tannins and alkaloids with traces of phenolic compounds by thin layer chromatography analysis. Conclusions: Leaves ofA. marmelos andF. benghalensis provide both antibacterial and immunomodulatory properties.

  6. Investigation of Natural Plant Aegle marmelos Essential Oil Bioactivity on Development and Toxicity of Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhuwan Bhaskar Mishra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The uncontrolled use of synthetic chemicals is a great hazard for the environment and consumers. Methodology: In the present study, essential oil from leaves of Aegle marmelos was isolated by hydro-distillation and tested their insecticidal activity against Tribolium castaneum (Herbst. Results: The results showed that the essential oil of A. marmelos have fumigant toxicity, oviposition and developmental inhibitory activity against T. castaneum. The percentage mortality increased with increasing exposure time and concentration. The median lethal concentration (LC50 of A. marmelos essential oil at 48 h was 14.172 and 17.752 FL against larvae and adults of T. castaneum, respectively. The essential oil significantly reduced oviposition (F3,20 = 304.734 in adults and also reduced pupation (F3,20 = 137.442 and adult emergence (F3,20 = 225.619 in larvae when fumigated with sub-lethal concentration. The percent grains infection was reduced 83.66% at 60% of sub-lethal concentration of 24 h LC50. Fumigation of insect with sub-lethal concentration of A. marmelos essential oil inhibited AChE activity. Reduction in AChE activity was 81.48 and 54.32% of the control, after 24 h of fumigation with sub-lethal concentration. Conclusion: In conclusion, this essential oil probably induces toxicity in insect by inhibiting AChE activity.

  7. Cell length variation in Phloem fibres within the bark of four tropical fruit trees Aegle Marmelos, Mangifera indica, Syzygium cumini, and Zizyphus mauritiana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ghouse, A.K.M.; Siddiqui, Firoz A.

    1976-01-01

    Bark samples from collections made at monthly intervals during the calendar years 1973 and 1974, were studied to estimate the average length of phloem fibres in different positions within the bark of four tropical fruit trees, viz. Aegle marmelos Correa, Mangifera indica L., Syzygium cumini L., and

  8. Antiproliferative and antioxidant activity of Aegle marmelos (Linn. leaves in Dalton′s Lymphoma Ascites transplanted mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijaya Chockalingam

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The present investigation was performed to evaluate the antiproliferative and antioxidant activity of Aegle marmelos leaves in Dalton′s Lymphoma Ascites (DLA-bearing mice. Materials and Methods: The DLA cells maintained in vivo in Swiss albino mice were used for developing ascitic tumor in mice by intraperitoneal transplantation. The standardized 50% ethanolic extract of A. marmelos leaves (AMEE was administered intraperitoneally in dose levels 200 and 400 mg/kg, after 24 hours of tumor inoculation in mice for two weeks. Results: The AMEE treatment significantly prevented (P<0.001 the increase in body weight due to tumor cell growth and increased the mean survival time of the tumor-bearing mice as compared to the untreated DLA control mice. The treatment of DLA-bearing mice brought down the Alanine Aminotransferase (ALAT, Aspartate Aminotransferase (ASAT, and alkaline phosphatase to normal levels. The extract decreased the levels of hepatic lipid peroxidation and increased the levels of hepatic antioxidants Glutathione, Superoxide Dismutase (SOD, and catalase. All the changes observed with AMEE treatment were dose dependent. Conclusion: The hydroalcoholic extract of A. marmelos exhibits strong antitumor and antioxidant activities in DLA-bearing mice.

  9. In-vitro anti-inflammatory and mosquito larvicidal efficacy of nickel nanoparticles phytofabricated from aqueous leaf extracts of Aegle marmelos Correa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angajala, Gangadhara; Ramya, R; Subashini, R

    2014-07-01

    In recent years there is a tremendous growth in the interdisciplinary world of nanotechnology across the globe and emergence of its potential applications remains as a big revolution to the industry. Fusion of green nanotechnology and medicine represents one of the major breakthroughs of modern science with the aim of developing nanomaterials for diagnosis, treatment, prevention of various diseases and overall improving health for the beneficial of mankind. In the present study phytofabrication of nickel nanoparticles (nickel NPs) was carried out by using indigenous Aegle marmelos Correa aqueous leaf extracts as a reducing, stabilizing and capping agents. Nickel NPs were characterized by UV-spectroscopy, FTIR, XRD, SEM, AFM and TGA studies. Phytosynthesis of nickel NPs was monitored both at room temperature (25°C) and at 60°C for 5h. The green synthesis of triangular shape nickel NPs phytofabricated from A. marmelos Correa aqueous leaf extracts having face centered cubic structure showing an average particle size of 80-100nm which is in consistent with the particle size calculated by XRD Scherer equation. We further explored and compared nickel NPs of A. marmelos Correa with crude leaf extracts of A. marmelos Correa for its in-vitro anti-inflammatory and mosquito larvicidal efficacy against three blood feeding parasites. The results obtained clearly gives an idea that nickel NPs of A. marmelos Correa (NiNPs of AmC) possess an enhanced anti-inflammatory and larvicidal activity when compared to crude leaf extracts of A. marmelos Correa.

  10. Essential oil of Aegle marmelos as a safe plant-based antimicrobial against postharvest microbial infestations and aflatoxin contamination of food commodities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Priyanka; Kumar, Ashok; Dubey, Nawal K; Gupta, Rajesh

    2009-08-01

    The essential oil of Aegle marmelos L. Correa (Rutaceae) showed strong fungitoxicity against some storage fungi-causing contamination of foodstuffs. The oil also showed efficacy as aflatoxin suppressor at 500 microL/L as it completely arrested the aflatoxin B(1) production by the toxigenic strains (Navjot 4NSt and Saktiman 3NSt) of Aspergillus flavus Link. Keeping in view the side effects of synthetic fungicides, A. marmelos oil may be recommended as an antimicrobial of plant origin to enhance the shelf life of stored food commodities by controlling the fungal growth as well as aflatoxin secretion. This is the 1st report on aflatoxin B(1) inhibitory nature of this oil. A. marmelos oil may be recommended as a novel plant-based antimicrobial in food protection over synthetic preservatives, most of which are reported to incite environmental problems because of their nonbiodegradable nature and side effects on mammals. The LD(50) of Aegle oil was found to be 23659.93 mg/kg body weight in mice (Mus musculus L.) when administered for acute oral toxicity showing nonmammalian toxicity of the oil. GC-MS analysis of the oil found DL-Limonene to be major component.

  11. Simultaneous determination of aegeline and six coumarins from different parts of the plant Aegle marmelos using UHPLC-PDA-MS and chiral separation of aegeline using HPLC-ToF-MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    A fast UHPLC-PDA method was developed for the simultaneous analysis of one alkaloid, aegeline, and six coumarins namely: umbelliferone; scopoletin; marmesinin; 8-hydroxypsoralen angelicin and marmelosin from leaf, fruit, root and bark of Aegle marmelos (L.) Corrêa (Rutaceae). The method was validate...

  12. Aegle marmelos Mediated Green Synthesis of Different Nanostructured Metal Hexacyanoferrates: Activity against Photodegradation of Harmful Organic Dyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidhisha Jassal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Prussian blue analogue potassium metal hexacyanoferrate (KMHCF nanoparticles Fe4[Fe(CN6]3 (FeHCF, K2Cu3[Fe(CN6]2 (KCuHCF, K2Ni[Fe(CN6]·3H2O (KNiHCF, and K2Co[Fe(CN6] (KCoHCF have been synthesized using plant based biosurfactant Aegle marmelos (Bael and water as a green solvent. It must be emphasized here that no harmful reagent or solvent was used throughout the study. Plant extracts are easily biodegradable and therefore do not cause any harm to the environment. Hence, the proposed method of synthesis of various KMHCF nanoparticles followed a green path. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD, Field-Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FE-SEM, Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM, and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR. MHCF nanoparticles were used for the photocatalytic degradation of toxic dyes like Malachite Green (MG, Eriochrome Black T (EBT, Methyl Orange (MO, and Methylene Blue (MB. Under optimized reaction conditions, maximum photocatalytic degradation was achieved in case of KCuHCF nanoparticles mediated degradation process (MG: 96.06%, EBT: 83.03%, MB: 94.72%, and MO: 63.71% followed by KNiHCF (MG: 95%, EBT: 80.32%, MB: 91.35%, and MO: 59.42%, KCoHCF (MG: 91.45%, EBT: 78.84%, MB: 89.28%, and MO: 58.20%.

  13. A Comparative Study of the Inhibitory Effect of the Extracts of Ocimum sanctum, Aegle marmelos, and Solanum trilobatum on the Corrosion of Mild Steel in Hydrochloric Acid Medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Shyamala

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A comparative study of the inhibitory effect of plant extracts, Ocimum sanctum, Aegle marmelos, and Solanum trilobatum, on the corrosion of mild steel in 1N HCl medium was investigated using weightloss method, electrochemical methods, and hydrogen permeation method. Polarization method indicates plant extracts behave as mixed-type inhibitor. The impedance method reveals that charge-transfer process mainly controls the corrosion of mild steel. On comparison, maximum inhibition efficiency was found in Ocimum sanctum with 99.6% inhibition efficiency at 6.0% v/v concentration of the extract. The plant extracts obey Langmuir adsorption isotherm. The SEM morphology of the adsorbed protective film on the mild steel surface has confirmed the high performance of inhibitive effect of the plant extracts. From hydrogen permeation method, all the plant extracts were able to reduce the permeation current. The reason for the reduced permeation currents in presence of the inhibitors may be attributed to the slow discharge step followed by fast electrolytic desorption step. Results obtained in all three methods were very much in good agreement in the order Ocimum sanctum > Aegle marmelos > Solanum trilobatum.

  14. Effect of Aqueous Extract of Aegle marmelos Fruit on Adherence and β-Lactam Resistance of Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli by Down Regulating Outer Membrane Protein C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subramaniya Bharathi Raja

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Enteropathogenic Escherichia Coli (EPEC continue to be a major health problem, leading to death due to diarrhea, predominantly in children below the age of five. Due to evolution of multi drug resistance in EPEC and side effects caused to host by antibiotics necessitated a search for alternative medicines from medicinal plants. One such medicinal plant used since ancient times to cure diarrhea is Aegle marmelos. This study was done to investigate the effect of aqueous extract of Aegle marmelos fruit (AEAM on outer membrane protein C (OmpC of EPEC, which plays a key role in adherence and antibiotic resistance. Approach: Fixation of minimum inhibitory concentration. In presence and absence of AEAM antibiotic susceptibility test was performed. Expression analysis of OmpC and OmpF was carried out by RT-PCR of EPEC in presence and absence of AEAM. Morphological changes of EPEC in presence and absence of AEAM were analyzed by TEM. In infant mouse ileal loop model, histological analysis, adherence of bacteria to ileal loops and Western blotting for caspase-3 and Hsp70 were done. Results: OmpC (~42kDa a porin, played an important role in selective transport of nutrients and also acted as an adhesin, whereas OmpF (~38kDa is also a porin which is non selective. Susceptibility of EPEC to β-lactam antibiotics in presence of AEAM can be attributed to down regulation of OmpC and upregulation of OmpF. The changes in Omp expression also triggered morphological changes in EPEC. Histology and western blot of Hsp70 and Caspase-3 in rat ileal loop confirmed the effect of AEAM on attenuating the virulence of EPEC by preventing its infection due to loss of adherence. Loss of adherence was due to morphological changes and down regulation of OmpC in EPEC. Conclusion: From this study, we concluded that the protection offered by AEAM against EPEC was due to down regulation of OmpC, leading to loss of adherence and up regulation of OmpF, which

  15. Aegeline from Aegle marmelos stimulates glucose transport via Akt and Rac1 signaling, and contributes to a cytoskeletal rearrangement through PI3K/Rac1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautam, Sudeep; Ishrat, Nayab; Singh, Rohit; Narender, Tadigoppula; Srivastava, Arvind K

    2015-09-01

    Aegeline is an alkaloidal-amide, isolated from the leaves of Aegle marmelos and have shown antihyperglycemic as well as antidyslipidemic activities in the validated animal models of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Here we delineate, aegeline enhanced GLUT4 translocation mediated 2-deoxy-glucose uptake in both time and concentration-dependent manner. 2-deoxy-glucose uptake was completely stymied by the transport inhibitors (wortmannin and genistein) in C2C12 myotubes. Pharmacological inhibition of Akt (also known as protein kinase B) and Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1 (Rac1) suggest that both Akt and Rac1 operate aegeline-stimulated glucose transport via distinct parallel pathways. Moreover, aegeline activates p21 protein-activated kinase 1 (PAK1) and cofilin (an actin polymerization regulator). Rac1 inhibitor (Rac1 inhib II) and PAK1 inhibitor (IPA-3) completely blocked aegeline-induced phosphorylation of cofilin and p21 protein-activated kinase 1 (PAK1). In summary, these findings suggest that aegeline stimulates the glucose transport through Akt and Rac1 dependent distinct parallel pathways and have cytoskeletal roles via stimulation of the PI3-kinase-Rac1-PAK1-cofilin pathway in the skeletal muscle cells. Therefore, multiple targets of aegeline in the improvement of insulin sensitivity of the skeletal muscle cells may be suggested.

  16. Biosynthesis of Silver Nanoparticles Using Aegle marmelos (Bael Fruit Extract and Its Application to Prevent Adhesion of Bacteria: A Strategy to Control Microfouling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Nithya Deva Krupa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Marine biofilms formed due to adhesion of bacteria and other microorganisms on submerged surfaces are generally considered to be a major form of microfouling. Subsequent attachment of larvae of higher organisms like barnacles, mussels, and so forth, on marine biofilms, causes macrofouling. Several approaches have been used to prevent micro- and macrofouling. Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs are known to exhibit strong inhibitory and antimicrobial activity. Biological synthesis of AgNPs is rapidly gaining importance due to its growing success. Hence, the present study is focused on the biosynthesis of AgNPs using fruit extract of Aegle marmelos and its characterization through UV-Vis spectrophotometer, X-ray diffractometer (XRD, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, and atomic force microscopy (AFM. Further isolation and identification of marine biofilm forming bacteria were carried out through 16S rDNA analysis. The antimicrofouling effect of the biosynthesized AgNPs was tested against marine biofilm forming bacteria and the results suggested that it could effectively inhibit biofilm formation. This preliminary study has proved that AgNPs may be used as antimicrofouling agent for the prevention of biofouling in the early stages.

  17. Dry and ripe fruit of Aegle marmelos. L: A potent source of antioxidant, lipoxygenase inhibitors and free radical scavenger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Atiqur; Imran, Hina; Iqbal, Lubna; STaqvi, Syed Intasar Hussain; Fatima, Nudrat; Yaqeen, Zahra

    2016-07-01

    The antioxidant, lipoxygenase inhibitory activities and free radical scavenging capacity of the crude extract, aqueous and some organic fractions of dry and ripe fruit of Aeglemarmelos. L were studied to understand the protective and therapeutic role for the use of the fruit as a remedy in different ailments. All the tested fractions and extracts showed to possess significant antioxidant, free radical scavenging capacity and lipoxygenase inhibitory potential. However, chloroform and aqueous fractions showed significant ability to quench radicals, to reduce ferric chloride and to inhibit soyabean lipoxygenase. Their antioxidant and lipoxygenase inhibition was estimated by IC50 values, for antioxidant ranging from 88-65% activity at concentration of 5-0.15μ/mL and similarly for lipoxygenase inhibition ranging from 89-69% at various concentrations of 5-0.15μ/mL, in chloroform and aqueous fractions respectively. The scavenger molecules in the dry and ripe fruit of A. marmelos may attribute to therapeutic and protective effect during different progressive stages of ailments.

  18. Evaluation of analgesic activity of Aegle marmelos steam bark in experimental animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarang Gajanan Ghodki

    2016-06-01

    Conclusions: AMSBAE has analgesic activity. The analgesic activity of AMSBAE was comparable to that of tramadol and Aspirin. Hence, AMSBAE could be a possible alternative to NSAIDs. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2016; 5(3.000: 1081-1086

  19. Acute Exposure Guideline Levels (AEGLs) for Time Varying Toxic Plumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-12

    1.0 ! The plume densities are not scaled ... Agent = ’NH3’ Agent = ’ PLm ’ ! Any power from 0.0 to 9.0 Agent = ’CL2...Agent will be PLm Call POWER_LAW_AEGL ( power, Arho_PLC, Atime ) Call AGENT_SETUP ( Agent, Arho_PLC, taumin, taumax

  20. Comparison of pancreatic lipase inhibitory isoflavonoids from unripe and ripe fruits of Cudrania tricuspidata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Yang Hee; Kim, Seon Beom; Liu, Qing; Do, Seon-Gil; Hwang, Bang Yeon

    2017-01-01

    The composition and content of the active constituents and their biological activity vary according to diverse factors including their maturation stages. A previous study showed that the fruits of Cudrania tricuspidata inhibited pancreatic lipase activity, a key enzyme in fat absorption. In this study, we investigated the chemical composition and pancreatic lipase inhibitory activity of unripe and ripe fruits of C. tricuspidata. Unripe fruits of C. tricuspidata have a higher content of total phenolic and flavonoids and exhibited stronger pancreatic lipase inhibition compared to ripe fruits. HPLC analysis revealed the different chemical compositions of the unripe and ripe fruits. Further fractionation resulted in the isolation of 30 compounds including two new isoflavonoids. Analysis of the chemical constituents of the unripe and ripe fruits revealed that a 2,2-dimethylpyran ring, a cyclized prenyl, was the predominant side chain in the unripe fruits, whereas it was a linear prenyl group in the ripe fruits. In addition, a new isoflavonoid (19) from the unripe fruits showed the most potent inhibition on pancreatic lipase. Taken together, the maturation stage is an important factor for maximum efficacy and that unripe fruits of C. tricuspidata are a good source of new bioactive constituents for the regulation of obesity PMID:28253267

  1. Phospholipid Profile of the Stomach and Duodenum of Normal Rabbits Fed with Supplements of Unripe Pawpaw (Carica papaya) and Unripe Plantain (Musa sapientum) Extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriyamremu, G. E.; Asagba, S. O.; Osagie, V. E.; Ojeaburu, S. I.; Lolodi, O.

    This study reports the effect of unripe pawpaw and/or unripe plantain extracts on the phospholipid profile of the stomach and duodenum of normal rabbits. Supplementation of chow with unripe pawpaw or plantain extract significantly reduced (p< 0.05) the weight gained by rabbits compared with the control. The total phospholipids content in the stomach and duodenum were significantly increased (p< 0.05) in the test groups compared to the control. In the stomach and duodenum, phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) and sphingomyelin (SGM) were significantly increased (p< 0.05) in the test groups compared to the control. Pawpaw occasioned a decrease in the PE/PC ratio in both tissues as against an increase observed in the SGM/PC ratio. The results presented suggests that unripe pawpaw meal and unripe plantain extract alter the phospholipid profile of the stomach and duodenum in ways which may affect membrane fluidity of these tissues and would have profound effect on the gastro-duodenal mucosa and thus have implication(s) for gastric and duodenal ulcers in rabbits.

  2. Histopathological changes in Wistar albino rats exposed to aqueous extract of unripe Carica papaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taofeeq Oduola

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Exposure of animals to xenobiotics may or may not trigger adverse response at cellular levels. Aqueous extract of unripe Carica papaya is consumed by sickle cell patients as antisickling agent in Western Nigeria. Aim: This study was undertaken to investigate the effects of Carica papaya on certain organs in Wister albino rats exposed to aqueous extract of unripe Carica papaya. Materials and Methods: Different doses of aqueous extract of unripe Carica papaya were administered orally daily for 42 days to six groups of rats. At the end of exposure, the animals were sacrificed and tissue sections were prepared from livers, kidneys, hearts and small intestines using standard techniques. Results: Histopathological results showed that no pathological changes were observed in tissue sections of experimental animals when compared with tissue sections of the same organs in control animals. Conclusion: No pathological changes were elicited in the organs of rats exposed to aqueous extract of unripe Carica papaya.

  3. Pasta with unripe banana flour: physical, texture, and preference study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agama-Acevedo, Edith; Islas-Hernandez, José J; Osorio-Díaz, Perla; Rendón-Villalobos, Rodolfo; Utrilla-Coello, Rubí G; Angulo, Ofelia; Bello-Pérez, Luis A

    2009-08-01

    Banana is a starchy food that contains a high proportion of undigestible compounds such as resistant starch and nonstarch polysaccharides. Products with low glycemic response such as pasta are considered favorable to health. The objective of this study was to use unripe banana flour to make spaghetti with low-carbohydrates digestibility and evaluate its physical and texture characteristics, as well as consumer preference. Formulations with 100% durum wheat semolina (control) and formulations with 3 semolina: banana flour ratios (85: 15, 70: 30, and 55: 45) were prepared for spaghetti processing. The use of banana flour decreased the lightness and diameter of cooked spaghetti, and increased the water absorption of the product. Hardness and elasticity of spaghetti were not affected by banana flour, but adhesiveness and chewiness increased as the banana flour level in the blend rose. Spaghettis prepared in the laboratory (control and those with banana flour) did not show differences in preference by consumers. In general, the preference of spaghettis with different banana flour level was similar. The addition of a source of undigestible carbohydrates (banana flour) to spaghetti is possible without affecting the consumer preference.

  4. In vitro colonic fermentation and glycemic response of different kinds of unripe banana flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menezes, Elizabete Wenzel; Dan, Milana C T; Cardenette, Giselli H L; Goñi, Isabel; Bello-Pérez, Luis Arturo; Lajolo, Franco M

    2010-12-01

    This work aimed to study the in vitro colonic fermentation profile of unavailable carbohydrates of two different kinds of unripe banana flour and to evaluate their postprandial glycemic responses. The unripe banana mass (UBM), obtained from the cooked pulp of unripe bananas (Musa acuminata, Nanicão variety), and the unripe banana starch (UBS), obtained from isolated starch of unripe banana, plantain type (Musa paradisiaca) in natura, were studied. The fermentability of the flours was evaluated by different parameters, using rat inoculum, as well as the glycemic response produced after the ingestion by healthy volunteers. The flours presented high concentration of unavailable carbohydrates, which varied in the content of resistant starch, dietary fiber and indigestible fraction (IF). The in vitro colonic fermentation of the flours was high, 98% for the UBS and 75% for the UBM when expressed by the total amount of SCFA such as acetate, butyrate and propionate in relation to lactulose. The increase in the area under the glycemic curve after ingestion of the flours was 90% lower for the UBS and 40% lower for the UBM than the increase produced after bread intake. These characteristics highlight the potential of UBM and UBS as functional ingredients. However, in vivo studies are necessary in order to evaluate the possible benefit effects of the fermentation on intestinal health.

  5. Ultrasound-assisted extraction, HPLC analysis, and antioxidant activity of polyphenols from unripe apple.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Tianli; Shao, Dongyan; Yuan, Yahong; Wang, Zhouli; Qiang, Chunyan

    2012-08-01

    The polyphenols were extracted from the unripe apple assisted by a highly efficient and simple method of the ultrasound. Response surface methodology was used to investigate the effects of processing parameters, including ultrasound power, extraction time, temperature, and ethanol concentration on total polyphenols yield and polyphenols composition was analyzed by HPLC. Antioxidant activity of the polyphenols was evaluated as 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydracyl scavenging activity and inhibition activity of lipid peroxidation. The results showed that 10-100 times higher total polyphenols yield was obtained from the unripe apple than those from the reported apple pomace. The optimum extraction conditions were ultrasonic power of 519.39 W, extraction time of 30 min, extraction temperature 50°C, ethanol concentration of 50% gave the total polyphenols yield of 13.26 ± 0.56 mg GAE/g. HPLC analysis indicated that (-)-epicatechin, procyanidin B2, chlorogenic acid, and procyanidin B1 were the predominant polyphenols in unripe apple, which contributed to the higher antioxidant activity to 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydracyl of unripe apple polyphenols than other apple polyphenols. The extracted polyphenols had higher ability to inhibit lipid peroxidation than butylated hydroxy toluene, which demonstrated that the unripe apple polyphenols have the potential to be used as a substitute of some synthetic antioxidants.

  6. Prospective thinking in a mustelid? Eira barbara (Carnivora) cache unripe fruits to consume them once ripened

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soley, Fernando G.; Alvarado-Díaz, Isaías

    2011-08-01

    The ability of nonhuman animals to project individual actions into the future is a hotly debated topic. We describe the caching behaviour of tayras ( Eira barbara) based on direct observations in the field, pictures from camera traps and radio telemetry, providing evidence that these mustelids pick and cache unripe fruit for future consumption. This is the first reported case of harvesting of unripe fruits by a nonhuman animal. Ripe fruits are readily taken by a variety of animals, and tayras might benefit by securing a food source before strong competition takes place. Unripe climacteric fruits need to be harvested when mature to ensure that they continue their ripening process, and tayras accurately choose mature stages of these fruits for caching. Tayras cache both native (sapote) and non-native (plantain) fruits that differ in morphology and developmental timeframes, showing sophisticated cognitive ability that might involve highly developed learning abilities and/or prospective thinking.

  7. Comparative assessment of physicochemical properties of unripe peach (Prunus persica) and Japanese apricot (Prunus mume)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hye-Ryun Kim; Il-Doo Kim; Sanjeev Kumar Dhungana; Mi-Ok Kim; Dong-Hyun Shin

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the physicochemical properties of unripe peach-Prunus persica cv. Mibaekdo (Mibaekdo) and Prunus persica cv. Nagasawa Hakuho (Nagasawa Hakuho) as an alternative to food supplement while Japanese apricot (Prunus mume cv. Backaha) (Backaha) was used as a control sample.Methods:The unripe fruits were analyzed for soluble solid (˚Brix), titratable acidity, pH, total polyphenol content, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity, amygdalin content, free amino acid content, organic acid content, free sugar content, and α-amylase activities.Results:Total polyphenol content of unripe peach ranged between 137.27-151.64 µg/g whereas that of apricot was 160.73 µg/g. DPPH radical scavenging activities of Backaha was the highest (89.16%) followed by Mibaekdo (85.05%) and Nagasawa Hakuho (41.50%). The highest amount of oxalic acid (612.8 mg/100 g) was observed in Mibaekdo while that of Nagasawa Hakuho and Backaha were (184.6±18.1) and (334.8±16.1) mg/100 g, respectively. Amygdalin contents of Mibaekdo, Nagasawa Hakuho and Backaha were 486.61, 548.60 and 174.28 µg/g, respectively.Conclusions:The results suggest that the unripe fruit of peach has a significant biochemical potential of using as a food supplement with potential health benefit for human health.

  8. Isolation, Characterization, and Surfactant Properties of the Major Triterpenoid Glycosides from Unripe Tomato Fruits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yamanaka, T.; Vincken, J.P.; Waard, de P.; Sanders, M.G.; Takada, N.; Gruppen, H.

    2008-01-01

    Various triterpenoid glycosides were extracted from whole unripe tomato fruits (Lycopersicon esculentum cv. Cedrico), using aqueous 70% (v/v) ethanol to study their surfactant properties. Cation-exchange chromatography using a Source 15S column and subsequent semipreparative HPLC using an XTerra RP1

  9. RESISTANT STARCH AND BIOACTIVE CONTENTS OF UNRIPE BANANA FLOUR AS INFLUENCED BY HARVESTING PERIODS AND ITS APPLICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anuchita Moongngarm

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, various innovative products from unripe banana flour have been reported as it is high in resistant starch and other important compounds. The harvesting period of the unripe banana fruit is one of the key factors affecting the quality of the unripe banana flour in terms of resistant starch and bioactive compound content. The study aimed to investigate the effect of the harvesting stages of unripe banana fruit on Resistant Starch (RS content, carotenoid content, antioxidant activity and the application of unripe banana flour to prepare high RS rice noodle. Four different harvesting stages of banana fruits of Musa sapientum Linn including 75, 90, 105 and 120 days after bloom, were processed for banana flours. The results indicated that the maturation stages affected RS, some bioactive contents, antioxidant activities. The highest RS content (48.88% of banana flour was obtained from the 105 day banana fruits. The total phenolic and carotenoid contents were high in the banana flours harvested between 75 and 105 days. The unripe banana flour could be substituted for rice flour as high as 80% and contained RS content as high as 18.64% whereas the commercial rice noodle had 4.21% of RS content. Therefore, the preparation of unripe banana flour from banana fruit harvested at 105 days and applying it in the preparation of functional food is promising.

  10. Antioxidant effcacy of unripe banana (Musa acuminata Colla peel extracts in sunflower oil during accelerated storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stella Sye Chee Ling

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. Sunflower oil is prone to oxidation during storage time, leading to production of toxic com- pounds that might affect human health. Synthetic antioxidants are used to prevent lipid oxidation. Spreading interest in the replacement of synthetic food antioxidants by natural ones has fostered research on fruit and vegetables for new antioxidants. Material and methods. In this study, the efficacy of unripe banana peel extracts (100, 200 and 300 ppm  in stabilizing sunflower oil was tested under accelerated storage (65°C for a period of 24 days. BHA and α-tocopherol served as comparative standards besides the control. Established parameters such as peroxide value (PV, iodine value (IV, p-anisidine value (p-AnV, total oxidation value (TOTOX, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS and free fatty acid (FFA content were used to assess the extent of oil deterioration. Results. After 24 days storage at 65°C, sunflower oil containing 200 and 300 ppm extract of unripe banana peel showed significantly lower PV and TOTOX compared to BHA and α-tocopherol. TBARS, p-AnV and FFA values of sunflower oil containing 200 and 300 ppm of unripe banana peel extract exhibited comparable inhibitory effects with BHA. Unripe banana peel extract at 200 and 300 ppm demonstrated inhibitory effect against both primary and secondary oxidation up to 24 days under accelerated storage conditions. Conclusions. Unripe banana peel extract may be used as a potential source of natural antioxidants in the ap- plication of food industry to suppress lipid oxidation.

  11. Enhancing polyphenol extraction from unripe apples by carbohydrate-hydrolyzing enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Hu-zhe; Hwang, In-Wook; Chung, Shin-Kyo

    2009-12-01

    The effects of process variables such as enzyme types, enzyme ratio, reaction temperature, pH, time, and ethanol concentration on the extraction of unripe apple polyphenol were investigated. The results indicated that Viscozyme L had the strongest effect on polyphenols extraction and was selected to study the polyphenol composition. The ratio of enzyme (Viscozyme L) to substrate (2 fungal beta-glucanase units (FBG)) at 0.02, reaction at pH 3.7, 50 degrees C for 12 h, and ethanol concentration of 70% were chosen as the most favorable extraction condition. Total phenolic content (TPC), reducing sugar content (RSC), and extraction yield increased by about 3, 1.5, and 2 times, respectively, compared with control. The contents of p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid, and caffeic acid increased to 8, 4, and 32 times, respectively. The enzyme-aided polyphenol extraction process from unripe apples might be applied to food industry for enhancing bioactive compound production.

  12. Biosorption Kinetic Models on the Removal of Congo red onto Unripe Calamansi (Citrus microcarpa peels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derick Erl P. Sumalapao

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Unripe calamansi peels were prepared and used as a bioadsorbent in the removal of congo red from an aqueous solution using batch adsorption studies. The efficiency of adsorption was evaluated by varying adsorbent dose and contact time. The removal of congo red increased at higher adsorbent dose and longer contact time. The overall rate of adsorption processes appeared to be in accordance with the pseudo-second order reaction mechanism. Higher initial adsorption rate, extent of surface coverage, and activation energy were favored at a lower adsorbent dose, while the intraparticle diffusion was relatively faster at a higher adsorbent dose. The intraparticle diffusion, Elovich, and MacArthur-Wilson modelswere adequate in describing the chaotic behavior of the kinetic processes involved in the removal of congo red dye onto unripe calamansi peels.

  13. Chemical Composition and Antimicrobial Activity of Leaf, Ripe and Unripe Peel of Bitter Orange (Citrus aurantium Essential Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Azhdarzadeh

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: The chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of bitter orange (Citrus aurantium leaf, ripe and unripe peel essential oils, cultivated in southwest of Iran, were investigated. Materials and Methods: The analysis of chemical composition of hydro-distilled essential oils was carried out by GC-MS. The disc diffusion and broth micro-dilution were used to assay the antimicrobial effect of achieved essential oils. Results: According to the GC-MS analysis, 34, 39 and 21 components were determined in the leaf, ripe and unripe peel, respectively. The results revealed that the main components of all essential oils were linalool and limonene. The oxygenated monoterpene and hydrocarbonated monoterpene were the main chemical groups of leaf and peel essential oils, respectively. Although all of the examined essential oils had antimicrobial potential, the leaf and unripe peel essential oils with MIC of 4.67 mg/ml were the most effective against the bacteria and yeast species, respectively, and the ripe peel essential oil was the weakest one. The growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae was controlled in the treated orange juices. The antifungal activity of essential oils was increased by rising up in their concentration and decreased by passing time. Unripe and ripe essential oils showed the strongest and weakest anti yeast potential, respectively. Conclusions: The essential oils of leaves and ripe and unripe peels of bitter orange could be used as natural preservatives in food industry.

  14. Chemical analysis of a polysaccharide of unripe (green) tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Krishnendu; Ghosh, Kaushik; Ojha, Arnab K; Islam, Syed S

    2009-11-02

    A polysaccharide (PS-I) isolated from the aqueous extract of the unripe (green) tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum) consists of D-galactose, D-methyl galacturonate, D-arabinose, L-arabinose, and L-rhamnose. Structural investigation of the polysaccharide was carried out using total acid hydrolysis, methylation analysis, periodate oxidation study, and NMR studies ((1)H, (13)C, DQF-COSY, TOCSY, NOESY, ROESY, HMQC, and HMBC). On the basis of above-mentioned experiments the structure of the repeating unit of the polysaccharide (PS-I) was established as: [structure: see text].

  15. HPLC-DAD Phenolic Characterization and Antioxidant Activities of Ripe and Unripe Sweet Orange Peels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omoba, Olufunmilayo Sade; Obafaye, Rebeccah Olajumoke; Salawu, Sule Ola; Boligon, Aline Augusti; Athayde, Margareth Linde

    2015-01-01

    Phenolic compounds of unripe and ripe sweet orange peels were determined using a high-performance liquid chromatography separation method with diode array detector (HPLC-DAD). The in vitro antioxidant properties and the EC50 (concentration required to obtain a 50% antioxidant effect) values were also determined. The predominant phenolic compounds were quercitrin, rutin, and quercetin with values of 18.77 ± 0.01 mg/mL, 18.65 ± 0.03 mg/mL, and 10.39 ± 0.01 mg/mL respectively in unripe orange peel and 22.61 ± 0.01 mg/mL, 17.93 ± 0.03 mg/mL, and 14.03 ± 0.02 mg/mL respectively in ripe orange peel. The antioxidant properties revealed 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethyl benzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS) scavenging ability of both unripe and ripe orange peels respectively as 14.68 ± 0.01 and 16.89 ± 0.02 mmol TEAC/g, the Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Properties (FRAP) as 70.69 ± 0.01 and 91.38 ± 0.01 mg gallic acid equivalents/100g, total phenol content as 5.27 ± 0.03 and 9.40 ± 0.01 mg gallic acid equivalents/g and total flavonoid content as 3.30 ± 0.30 and 4.20 ± 0.02 mg quercetin equivalent/g. The antioxidant assays showed enhanced potency of extract from ripe orange peel with EC50 values of 2.71 ± 0.03 mg/mL for 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 0.67 ± 0.03 mg/mL for hydroxyl radicals (OH*), 0.57 ± 0.02 mg/mL for Fe2+ chelation, and 0.63 ± 0.06 mg/mL for malondialdehyde (MDA), and was more potent than unripe orange peel. PMID:26783839

  16. Hypoglycaemic Effects of Dietary Intake of Ripe and Unripe Lycopersicon esculentum (Tomatoes on Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetes Mellitus in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Akinnuga

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Ripe and unripe tomatoes have been implicated in prevention of chronic diseases such as cancer probably due to their antioxidant, antibiotic, antifungal and anti-inflammatory properties. Problem statement: This study was designed to investigate whether ripe and unripe tomatoes will have hypoglycaemic effect in a chronic disease such as diabetes mellitus that has been characterized with hyperglycaemia. Approach: Twenty albino Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups (2 control and 2 test groups of 5 rats each. The normal and diabetic control groups were given citrate buffer (intraperitoneally and normal rat chow and 65 mg kg-1 streptozotocin (intraperitoneally and normal rat chow respectively. The test groups were given 65 mg kg-1 streptozotocin via intraperitoneal route and either a mixture of ripe or unripe tomato and normal rat chow. In all groups, the blood samples were obtained at the tail vein of the animals and the fasting blood glucose level were monitored and determined on the 1st, 3rd and 14th day of consumption of different feed combinations. Results: There was significant difference in blood glucose level in animals fed on ripe and unripe Lycopersicon esculentum (tomato compared to the normal and diabetic control groups on the 3rd and 14th day without significant difference on the 1st day. Conclusion: Both high-lycopene ripe tomato and high-tomatine unripe tomato have hypoglycaemic effect in diabetic mellitus at short period of dietary intake therefore this suggest that consumers may benefit by not only eating high-lycopene ripe tomatoes, but also high-tomatine unripe tomatoes.

  17. Effect of Unripe Plantain (Musa paradisiaca) and Ginger (Zingiber officinale) on Blood Glucose, Body Weight and Feed Intake of Streptozotocin-induced Diabetic Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    M, Iroaganachi; C.O, Eleazu; P.N, Okafor; N, Nwaohu

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To determine the effect of unripe plantain (Musa paradisiaca) and ginger (Zingiber officinale) on blood glucose (BG), feed intake (FI) and weight of streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic rats. Methods: Twenty four male albino rats were used and were divided into 4 groups of 6 rats each. Group 1 (non-diabetic) and Group 2 (diabetic) received standard rat feed; Group 3 received unripe plantain incorporated feed (810 /kg body weight) and Group 4 received unripe plantain+ginger incorporated feed (710:100 g/kg body weight). The weights and FI of the rats were measured daily throughout the experimentation. Results: Groups 3 and 4 rats had 159.52% and 71.83% decreases in BG but 24.91% and 35.32% decreases in weights compared with groups 1 and 2 rats that had 2.09% and 22.94% increases in BG with 13.42% increase and 45.36% decrease in weights respectively. The FI of the experimental rats did not differ significantly from each other (P>0.05) at the end of experimentation. The standard rat feed contained higher amounts of Ca but lower amounts of Mg and Fe compared with the unripe plantain and unripe plantain+ginger incorporated feeds. Conclusion: Combination of unripe plantain and ginger at the dose used in the management of diabetes was not very effective compared with unripe plantain alone. PMID:25674161

  18. Hieronymain I, a new cysteine peptidase isolated from unripe fruits of Bromelia hieronymi Mez (Bromeliaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, Mariela A; Pardo, Marcelo F; Caffini, Néstor O; López, Laura M I

    2003-02-01

    A new peptidase, named hieronymain I, was purified to homogeneity from unripe fruits of Bromelia hieronymi Mez (Bromeliaceae) by acetone fractionation followed by cation exchange chromatography (FPLC) on CM-Sepharose FF. Homogeneity of the enzyme was confirmed by mass spectroscopy (MALDI-TOF), isoelectric focusing, and SDS-PAGE. Hieronymain is a basic peptidase (pI > 9.3) and its molecular mass was 24,066 Da. Maximum proteolytic activity on casein (>90% of maximum activity) was achieved at pH 8.5-9.5. The enzyme was completely inhibited by E-64 and iodoacetic acid and activated by the addition of cysteine; these results strongly suggest that the isolated protease should be included within the cysteine group. The N-terminal sequence of hieronymain (ALPESIDWRAKGAVTEVKRQDG) was compared with 25 plant cysteine proteases that showed more than 50% of identity.

  19. Secondary metabolites from the unripe pulp of Persea americana and their antimycobacterial activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Ying-Chen; Chang, Hsun-Shuo; Peng, Chien-Fang; Lin, Chu-Hung; Chen, Ih-Sheng

    2012-12-15

    The fruits of Persea americana (Avocado) are nowadays used as healthy fruits in the world. Bioassay-guided fractionation of the active ethyl acetate soluble fraction has led to the isolation of five new fatty alcohol derivatives, avocadenols A-D (1-4) and avocadoin (5) from the unripe pulp of P. americana, along with 12 known compounds (6-17). These structures were elucidated by spectroscopic analysis. Among the isolates, avocadenol A (1), avocadenol B (2), (2R,4R)-1,2,4-trihydroxynonadecane (6), and (2R,4R)-1,2,4-trihydroxyheptadec-16-ene (7) showed antimycobacterial activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H(37)R(V)in vitro, with MIC values of 24.0, 33.8, 24.9, and 35.7 μg/ml, respectively.

  20. Phenylphenalenone-type Phytoalexins from Unripe Buñgulan Banana Fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamo, T; Kato, N; Hirai, N; Tsuda, M; Fujioka, D; Ohigashi, H

    1998-01-01

    Fourteen phenylphenalenone-type phytoalexins (1-14), including three new compounds, were isolated from the peel of unripe Musa acuminata [AAA] cv. Buñgulan fruit which had been injured and then inoculated with conidia of Colletotrichum musae. These new phytoalexins were identified as (+)-cis-2,3-dihydro-2,3-dihydroxy-4-(4'-hydroxyphenyl)phenalen-1-one (12), 9-(3',4'-dimethoxyphenyl)-2-methoxyphenalen-1-one (13) and 9-(4'-hydroxyphenyl)-2-methoxyphenalen-1-one (14). The ratios of the relative intensities of the [M](+)/[M-H](+) ions or [M-H2O](+)/[M-H2O-H](+) ions in the EI mass spectra were applied to discriminate between 4- and 9-phenylphenalenones. An antifungal test on the phytoalexins showed that a phenolic hydroxyl group was essential for the activity.

  1. Ameliorative potentials of cocoyam (Colocasia esculenta L. and unripe plantain (Musa paradisiacal L. on renal and liver growth in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CO Eleazu

    2013-01-01

    Conclusions: The use of cocoyam and unripe plantain flours in the dietary management of diabetes mellitus could be a breakthrough in the search for plants that could prevent the development of diabetic nephropathy.

  2. Aptitude of Saccharomyces yeasts to ferment unripe grapes harvested during cluster thinning for reducing alcohol content of wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovo, Barbara; Nadai, Chiara; Vendramini, Chiara; Fernandes Lemos Junior, Wilson Josè; Carlot, Milena; Skelin, Andrea; Giacomini, Alessio; Corich, Viviana

    2016-11-07

    Among the viticultural techniques developed to obtain wine with reduced alcohol content, the use of unripe grapes with low sugar and high malic acid concentration, harvested at cluster thinning, was recently explored. So far, no studies have evaluated the fermentation performances of Saccharomyces in unripe grape musts, in terms of fermentation ability and reducing malic acid contents, to improve the quality of this low-alcohol beverage. In this work, we evaluated 24 S. cerevisiae strains isolated from Italian and Croatian vineyards with different fermentation aptitudes. Moreover, four S. paradoxus were considered, as previous works demonstrated that strains belonging to this species were able to degrade high malic acid amounts in standard musts. The industrial strain S. cerevisiae 71B was added as reference. Sugar and malic acid contents were modified in synthetic musts in order to understand the effect of their concentrations on alcoholic fermentation and malic acid degradation. S. cerevisiae fermentation performances improved when glucose concentration decreased and malic acid level increased. The conditions that simulate unripe grape must, i.e. low glucose and high malic acid content were found to enhance S. cerevisiae ability to degrade malic acid. On the contrary, S. paradoxus strains were able to degrade high amounts of malic acid only in conditions that resemble ripe grape must, i.e. high glucose and low malic acid concentration. In fermentation trials when low glucose concentrations were used, at high malic acid levels S. cerevisiae strains produced higher glycerol than at low malic acid condition. Malic acid degradation ability, tested on the best performing S. cerevisiae strains, was enhanced in fermentation trials when unripe grape must was used.

  3. Antioxidant properties of aqueous extracts of unripe Musa paradisiaca on sodium nitroprusside induced lipid peroxidation in rat pancreas in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sidiqat Adamson Shodehinde; Ganiyu Oboh

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate and compare antioxidant activities of the aqueous extracts of unripe plantain (Musa paradisiaca), assess their inhibitory action on sodium nitroprusside induced lipid peroxidation in rat pancreas in vitro and to characterize the main phenolic constituents of the plantain products using gas chromatography analysis. Methods: Aqueous extracts of plantain products (raw, elastic pastry, roasted and boiled) flour of 0.1 g/mL (each) were used to determine their total phenol, total flavonoid, 1,1 diphenyl-2 picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and hydroxyl (OH) radical scavenging ability. The inhibitory effect of the extracts on sodium nitroprusside induced lipid peroxidation was also determined. Results: The results revealed that all the aqueous extracts showed antioxidant activity. The boiled flour had highest DPPH and OH radical scavenging ability while raw flour had the highest Fe2+ chelating ability, sodium nitroprusside inhibitory effect and vitamin C content. The antioxidant results showed that elastic pastry had the highest total phenol and total flavonoid content. Characterization of the unripe plantain products for polyphenol contents using gas chromatography showed varied quantity of apigenin, myricetin, luteolin, capsaicin, isorhaemnetin, caffeic acid, kampferol, quercetin, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, shogaol, glycitein and gingerol per product on the spectra. Conclusions: Considering the antioxidant activities and ability to inhibit lipid peroxidation of unripe plantain, this could justify their traditional use in the management/prevention of diseases related to stress.

  4. Evaluation of Antioxidant Potential and Nutritional Values of White Skinned Sweet Potato-Unripe Plantain Composite Flour Blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. O. Salawu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Summary. The present investigation sought to evaluate the antioxidant properties, phenolic composition, nutrient composition of Unripe Plantain (UP -White Skinned Sweet potato (WSP flour blends. The flour were mixed in various proportions (UP: WSP; 100:0, 80:20, 60:40, 40:60, 20:80 and 0:100. HPLC/DAD phenolic analyses revealed the presence of some phenolic acids and flavonoids. The result of the antioxidant indices showed a progressive increase with respect to sweet potato inclusion and that high antioxidant indices were recorded for 100% WSP (total phenolic: 1.111mg/g; total flavonoid: 2030mg/g; reducing power: 0.76mg/g; ABTS radical scavenging activity:  3.08 x 10-6mg/g and hydroxyl radical scavenging activity: 82.017%, while the least values were recorded for 100% UP. The  proximate composition analysis  revealed that 100%UP had the highest carbohydrate (78.17%, protein (11.72%, fibre (0.20% and fat (5.56% content compared with whole potato flour and that other blends have a decreasing value with respect to increase in the composition of sweet potato. The highest level of Na, Kwas recorded for 100% UP while 100% WP had the highest level of Mg, Ca and P. These investigations showed that sweet potato-unripe plantain composite blend would be a good source of natural antioxidant as well as providing essential nutrients.Industrial Relevance. Several investigations have revealed the antioxidant and nutritional potentials of sweet potato and unripe-plantain when consumed separately. Also a number of scientific reports provide information on the use of sweet potato and unripe plantain as medicinal foods when consumed separately, and are commonly used as functional food especially in the management of diabetes. Therefore, this study sought to assess the antioxidant and nutritional potentials of phenolic containing unripe plantain (UP and white skinned sweet potato (WSP flour blends with a view identifying the blends with good nutritional and

  5. Effects Of Storage Conditions On The Quality Of Unripe Hazelnuts In The Husk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markuszewski Bogumił

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to assess the storability of unripe hazelnuts in the husk of four cultivars: ‘Hall’s Giant’, ‘Catalan’, ‘Webb’s Prize Cob’ and ‘Cosford’. The nuts were stored in normal and controlled atmospheres, and in Xtend® bags for three months. A quality assessment was performed based on the following parameters: weight of the nut in the husk and without the husk, weight of the kernel, percentage of nuts with husk attached, dry matter content in kernels, infection with fungal diseases, and the presence of physiological disorders. The study demonstrated that hazelnuts stored in Xtend® bags and under a controlled atmosphere had a higher weight for the nut in the husk and without the husk, as well as a higher weight of the kernel and water content when compared to batches of hazelnuts stored in a normal atmosphere. The percentage of nuts remaining in the husk was also higher when stored under such conditions. For the majority of investigated cultivars the storage in Xtend® bags, and to a lesser extent under normal atmosphere conditions, resulted in a substantial increase in nuts infected with fungal and abiotic diseases. Among investigated cultivars, ‘Hall’s Giant’ turned out to be the most resistant to storage diseases.

  6. Effects of unripe Citrus hassaku fruits extract and its flavanone glycosides on blood fluidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoh, Kimihisa; Masuda, Megumi; Naruto, Shunsuke; Murata, Kazuya; Matsuda, Hideaki

    2010-01-01

    The enhancement of blood fluidity may lead to improvements in skin problems resulting from unsmooth circulation or blood stagnation. Since a 50% ethanolic extract (CH-ext) obtained from unripe Citrus hassaku fruits may be a useful ingredient in skin-whitening cosmetics, the present study was designed to examine the effect of CH-ext on blood fluidity. CH-ext concentration-dependently inhibited in vitro collagen-induced rabbit platelet aggregation and in vitro polybrene-induced rat erythrocyte aggregation. The CH-ext showed in vitro fibrinolysis activity in fibrin plate assay. Activity-guided fractionation of the CH-ext using antiplatelet activity, inhibitory activity of erythrocyte aggregation, and fibrinolysis activity revealed that these activities of CH-ext were attributable to naringenin-7-glycoside (prunin). Successive oral administration of CH-ext to rats inhibited the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced decrease of blood platelets and fibrinogen, and LPS-induced increase of fibrin degradation products (FDP) in LPS-induced disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) model rats. Effects of CH-ext on blood fluidity were analyzed by a micro channel array flow analyzer (MC-FAN). Preventive oral administration of CH-ext to rats showed dose-dependent reduction of the passage time of whole blood flow of the DIC model rats in comparison with that of the vehicle control rats. These results imply that CH-ext may have effects which improve effects on blood fluidity.

  7. Effects of particle size distribution on some physical, chemical and functional properties of unripe banana flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savlak, Nazlı; Türker, Burcu; Yeşilkanat, Nazlıcan

    2016-12-15

    The objective of this study was to examine the effect of particle size distribution on physical, chemical and functional properties of unripe banana flour for the first time. A pure triploid (AAA group) of Musa acuminata subgroup Cavendish (°Brix;0.2, pH;4.73, titratable acidity; 0.56g/100g malic acid, total solids; 27.42%) which was supplied from Gazipaşa, Antalya, Turkey from October 2014 to October 2015 was used. Size fractions of physical, functional and antioxidant properties. Particle size significantly effected color, water absorbtion index and wettability. L(∗) value decreased, a(∗) and b(∗) values decreased by increasing particle size (r(2)=-0.94, r(2)=0.72, r(2)=0.73 respectively). Particles under 212μm had the lowest rate of wettability (83.40s). A negative correlation between particle size and wettability (r(2)=-0.75) and positive correlation between particle size and water absorption index (r(2)=0.94) was observed.

  8. Purification of balansain I, an endopeptidase from unripe fruits of Bromelia balansae Mez (Bromeliaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardo, M F; López, L M; Canals, F; Avilés, F X; Natalucci, C L; Caffini, N O

    2000-09-01

    A new plant endopeptidase was obtained from unripe fruits of Bromelia balansae Mez (Bromeliaceae). Crude extracts were partially purified by ethanol fractionation. This preparation (redissolved ethanol precipitate, REP) showed maximum activity at pH 8.8-9.2, was very stable even at high ionic strength values (no appreciable decrease in proteolytic activity could be detected after 24 h in 1 M sodium chloride solution at 37 degrees C), and exhibited high thermal stability (inactivation required heating for 60 min at 75 degrees C). Anion exchange chromatography allowed the isolation of a fraction purified to mass spectroscopy, SDS-PAGE, and IEF homogeneity, named balansain I, with pI = 5.45 and molecular mass = 23192 (mass spectrometry). The purification factor is low (2.9-fold), but the yield is high (48.3%), a common occurrence in plant organs with high proteolytic activity, where proteases represent the bulk of protein content of crude extracts. Balansain I exhibits a similar but narrower pH profile than that obtained for REP, with a maximum pH value approximately 9.0 and was inhibited by E-64 and other cysteine peptidases inhibitors but not affected by inhibitors of the other catalytic types of peptidases. The alanine and glutamine derivatives of N-alpha-carbobenzoxy-L-amino acid p-nitrophenyl esters was strongly preferred by the enzyme. The N-terminal sequence of balansain I showed a very high homology (85-90%) with other known Bromeliaceae endopeptidases.

  9. PHYSICO-CHEMICAL AND PHYTOCHEMICAL EVALUATION OF CARICA PAPAYA LINN. UNRIPE FRUITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjum Varisha

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Present study was performed for the development of quality standards of Carica papaya Linn. commonly known as Papita belonging to family Caricaceae is well known for its exceptional nutritional and medicinal properties. The study comprises of physico-chemical and phytochemical evaluation to confirm purity and authenticity of Carica papaya L. unripe fruit using WHO guidelines. Microscopy of the fruit showed presence thick cuticle, parenchyma, epicarp, mesocarp endocarp, calcium oxalate crystals, laticifers, etc. Successive extractive value and hot extractive value was found highest in alcoholic extract 48.34 % and 44.90 % respectively (on dry weight basis. Mean ash values (% are 8.63 (total, 0.79 (acid insoluble ash, and 5.30 (water soluble ash and moisture content was found to be 9.41 % and the phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of carbohydrates, terpenoids, flavonoids, phenolic compounds in different extracts of Carica papaya L. fruit. TLC fingerprinting profile of different extracts were also developed and quantification of β-carotene was also done by using nhexane:acetone (8.5:1.5 as a mobile phase at 415 nm and found to be higher in pet ether Carica papaya L. fruit extract 1.55 % w/w.

  10. Studies on the mechanism which prevents germination of unripe Triticale caryopses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanisław Weidner

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Triticale (MT-3 caryopses were collected at three developmental stages (milk, milk-wax, and full ripeness i.e. 25, 39, 53 days after flowering and germinated for 72 hours. The highest polyribosome contribution to the sum total of ribosomes, as well as, the highest 3H-uridine incorporation into the total ribosomal fraction of embryos (seedlings were found at full ripeness, lower - at milk ripeness, and the lowest at milk-wax ripeness. Treatment of caryopses with gibberellin-A3 (GA3 and benzyloadenine (BA caused an increase in the percentage of embryonic polyribosomes in caryopses which were collected at milk and full ripeness. Whereas the significant increase in 3H-uridine incorporation intothe total ribosomal fractions of embryos (seedlings was observed only during the germination of the least ripe caryopses. This was characteristic of samples with caryopses at milk ripeness treated with BA, or BA and GA3 together. The studies proved that the mechanism which prevents the germination of unripe Triticale cyryopses and the formation of polyribosomes which were germination-induced, originated at the final stage of grain development, before its full ripeness.

  11. Composition of the essential oil of leaves, galls, and ripe and unripe fruits of Jordanian Pistacia palaestina Boiss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flamini, Guido; Bader, Ammar; Cioni, Pier Luigi; Katbeh-Bader, Ahmad; Morelli, Ivano

    2004-02-11

    Pistacia palaestina Boiss. (Pistacia terebinthus L. var. palaestina (Boiss.) Engl.) is a medicinal and foodstuff plant. The ripe fruits are used largely in the Middle East as a component of the so-called Zaatar, a mix of aromatic and food plants. Results of GC and GC-MS analyses of the essential oils of leaves, galls produced by Baizongia pistaciae (L.), and ripe and unripe fruits of Pistacia palaestinaBoiss. collected in Jordan are reported. Both qualitative and quantitative differences between different parts of the plant were observed. The oil was rich in monoterpenes, and the main constituents were alpha-pinene (63.1%) and myrcene (13.3%) in the leaves and alpha-pinene (49.4%), sabinene (22.8%), and limonene (8.1%) in the galls. (E)-Ocimene (33.8-41.3%), sabinene (20.3-24.1%), and (Z)-ocimene (3.8-13.0%) were the main ones in both unripe and ripe fruits. Sesquiterpenes have been detected in small quantities in leaves and fruits and in trace amounts in galls.

  12. Bioactive comparison of main components from unripe fruits of Rubus chingii Hu and identification of the effective component.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tian-Tian; Yang, Li; Jiang, Jian-Guo

    2015-07-01

    Dried and unripe fruit of Rubus chingii Hu, known as "Fu-pen-zi" in Chinese, has been used as a food and tonic in China for a long time. In order to analyze its effective ingredients, polysaccharides, flavonoids, saponins and alkaloids were extracted from the unripe fruits and their contents were determined. The in vitro antioxidant, anticomplementary and anticancer activities against human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells of the four major constituents were investigated. Results showed that total flavonoids exhibited an obvious antioxidant activity, which was very close to ascorbic acid. The anticomplementary and anticancer activities of flavonoids were also the best among the four chemical compositions. Therefore, extraction process optimization of flavonoids was conducted using response surface methodology. The optimal conditions were as follows: extraction temperature 72.8 °C, ethanol concentration 30.67%, extraction time 2.66 h, and a liquid/solid ratio of 19.54 : 1. In addition, total flavonoids were subsequently separated by column chromatography and the major flavonoid was identified as tiliroside. Further experimental data revealed that tiliroside treatment could suppress the proliferation and induced the apoptosis of A549 cells.

  13. Ameliorative Potentials of Cocoyam (Colocasia esculenta L. and Unripe Plantain (Musa paradisiaca L. on the Relative Tissue Weights of Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. O. Eleazu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To investigate the ameliorating potentials of cocoyam (Colocasia esculenta L. and unripe plantain (Musa paradisiaca L. incorporated feeds on the renal and liver growths of diabetic rats, induced with 55 and 65 mg/kg body weight of Streptozotocin. Method. The blood glucose level of the rats was measured with a glucometer, the protein and glucose and specific gravity (SPGR in the urine samples of the rats were measured using urine assay strips and urinometer respectively. The chemical composition and antioxidant screening of the test feeds were carried out using standard techniques. Results. Administration of the test feeds for 21 days to the diabetic rats of groups 4 and 5, resulted in 58.75% and 38.13% decreases in hyperglycemia and amelioration of their elevated urinary protein, glucose, SPGR, and relative kidney weights. The diabetic rats administered cocoyam incorporated feeds, had 2.71% and 19.52% increases in weight and growth rates, the diabetic rats administered unripe plantain incorporated feeds had 5.12% and 29.52% decreases in weight and growth rates while the diabetic control rats had 28.69%, 29.46%, 248.9% and 250.14% decreases in weights and growth rates. The cocoyam incorporated feeds contained higher antioxidants, minerals and phytochemicals except alkaloids than unripe plantain feed. Conclusion. Cocoyam and unripe plantain could be useful in the management of diabetic nephropathy.

  14. Efficient synthesis of highly fluorescent nitrogen-doped carbon dots for cell imaging using unripe fruit extract of Prunus mume

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atchudan, Raji; Edison, Thomas Nesakumar Jebakumar Immanuel [School of Chemical Engineering, Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan 38541 (Korea, Republic of); Sethuraman, Mathur Gopalakrishnan, E-mail: mgsethu@gmail.com [Department of Chemistry, Gandhigram Rural Institute-Deemed University, Gandhigram 624 302, Tamilnadu (India); Lee, Yong Rok, E-mail: yrlee@yu.ac.kr [School of Chemical Engineering, Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan 38541 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-30

    Graphical abstract: The green synthesis of highly fluorescent N-CDs was achieved using the extract of unripe P. mume fruit as a carbon precursor by a one-pot simple hydrothermal-carbonization method. The resulting N-CDs were used as a staining agent for the fluorescence imaging of MDA-MB-231 cells. Display Omitted - Highlights: • The green synthesis of highly fluorescent N-CDs using the extract of unripe P. mume. • The N-CDs were synthesized by one-pot hydrothermal-carbonization method. • This method of synthesis is a simple, cost effective and eco-friendly route. • N-CDs will be a good alternative for fluorescent dyes and SQDs for bio-applications. - Abstract: Highly fluorescent nitrogen-doped carbon dots (N-CDs) were synthesized using the extract of unripe Prunus mume (P. mume) fruit by a simple one step hydrothermal-carbonization method. The N-CDs were synthesized at different pH ranges, 2.3, 5, 7, and 9. The pH of the P. mume extract was adjusted using an aqueous ammonia solution (25%). The optical properties of N-CDs were examined by UV–vis and fluorescence spectroscopy. The N-CDs synthesized at pH 9 emitted high fluorescence intensity compared to other obtained N-CDs. The N-CDs synthesized at pH 9 was further characterized by high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and Fourier transform-infra red (FT-IR) spectroscopy. HR-TEM showed that the average size of the synthesized N-CDs was approximately 9 nm and the interlayer distance was 0.21 nm, which was validated by XRD. The graphitic nature of the synthesized N-CDs were confirmed by Raman spectroscopy. XPS and FT-IR spectroscopy confirmed the doping of the nitrogen moiety over the synthesized CDs. The synthesized nitrogen doped CDs (N-CDs) were low toxicity and were used as a staining probe for fluorescence cell imaging.

  15. Methanolic Extract of Morinda citrifolia L. (Noni) Unripe Fruit Attenuates Ethanol-Induced Conditioned Place Preferences in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Yasmin; Pandy, Vijayapandi

    2016-01-01

    Phytotherapy is an emerging field successfully utilized to treat various chronic diseases including alcohol dependence. In the present study, we examined the effect of the standardized methanolic extract of Morinda citrifolia Linn. unripe fruit (MMC), on compulsive ethanol-seeking behavior using the mouse conditioned place preference (CPP) test. CPP was established by injections of ethanol (2 g/kg, i.p.) in a 12-day conditioning schedule in mice. The effect of MMC and the reference drug, acamprosate (ACAM), on the reinforcing properties of ethanol in mice was studied by the oral administration of MMC (1, 3, and 5 g/kg) and ACAM (300 mg/kg) 60 min prior to the final CPP test postconditioning. Furthermore, CPPs weakened with repeated testing in the absence of ethanol over the next 12 days (extinction), during which the treatment groups received MMC (1, 3, and 5 g/kg, p.o.) or ACAM (300 mg/kg, p.o.). Finally, a priming injection of a low dose of ethanol (0.4 g/kg, i.p.) in the home cage (Reinstatement) was sufficient to reinstate CPPs, an effect that was challenged by the administration of MMC or ACAM. MMC (3 and 5 g/kg, p.o.) and ACAM (300 mg/kg, p.o.) significantly reversed the establishment of ethanol-induced CPPs and effectively facilitated the extinction of ethanol CPP. In light of these findings, it has been suggested that M. citrifolia unripe fruit could be utilized for novel drug development to combat alcohol dependence.

  16. Methanolic extract of Morinda citrifolia L. (noni unripe fruit attenuates ethanol-induced conditioned place preferences in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasmin Khan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Phytotherapy is an emerging field successfully utilized to treat various chronic diseases including alcohol dependence. In the present study, we examined the effect of the standardized methanolic extract of Morinda citrifolia Linn. unripe fruit (MMC, on compulsive ethanol-seeking behaviour using the mouse conditioned place preference (CPP test. CPP was established by injections of ethanol (2g/kg, i.p. in a 12-day conditioning schedule in mice. The effect of MMC and the reference drug, acamprosate (ACAM, on the reinforcing properties of ethanol in mice was studied by the oral administration of MMC (1, 3 and 5g/kg and ACAM (300 mg/kg 60 min prior to the final CPP test postconditioning. Furthermore, CPPs weakened with repeated testing in the absence of ethanol over the next 12 days (extinction, during which the treatment groups received MMC (1, 3 and 5g/kg, p.o. or ACAM (300 mg/kg, p.o.. Finally, a priming injection of a low dose of ethanol (0.4g/kg, i.p. in the home cage (Reinstatement was sufficient to reinstate CPPs, an effect that was challenged by the administration of MMC or ACAM. MMC (3 and 5g/kg, p.o and ACAM (300 mg/kg, p.o. significantly reversed the establishment of ethanol-induced CPPs and effectively facilitated the extinction of ethanol CPP. In light of these findings, it has been suggested that M. citrifolia unripe fruit could be utilized for novel drug development to combat alcohol dependence.

  17. Antiallergic activity of unripe Citrus hassaku fruits extract and its flavanone glycosides on chemical substance-induced dermatitis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoh, Kimihisa; Masuda, Megumi; Naruto, Shunsuke; Murata, Kazuya; Matsuda, Hideaki

    2009-10-01

    Oral administration of a 50% ethanolic extract (CH-ext) obtained from unripe Citrus hassaku fruits collected in July exhibited a potent dose-dependent inhibition of IgE (immunoglobulin E)-mediated triphasic cutaneous reaction at 1 h [immediate phase response (IPR)], 24 h [late phase response (LPR)] and 8 days [very late phase response (vLPR)] after dinitrofluorobenzene challenge in mice. Naringin, a major flavanone glycoside component of CH-ext, showed a potent dose-dependent inhibition against IPR, LPR and vLPR. Neohesperidin, another major glycoside component of CH-ext, showed an inhibition against vLPR. The effect of CH-ext on type IV allergic reaction was examined by determining inhibitory activity against ear swelling in mice by using the picryl chloride-induced contact dermatitis (PC-CD) model. Oral administration (p.o.) of CH-ext and subcutaneous administration (s.c.) of prednisolone inhibited ear swelling during the induction phase of PC-CD. The inhibitory activities of combinations of CH-ext (p.o.) and prednisolone (s.c.) against PC-CD in mice were more potent than those of CH-ext alone and prednisolone alone, without enhancing the adverse effects. Other combinations of prednisolone (s.c.) and flavanone glycoside (p.o.) components of CH-ext, i.e. naringin and neohesperidin, exerted similar synergistic effects.

  18. Efficient synthesis of highly fluorescent nitrogen-doped carbon dots for cell imaging using unripe fruit extract of Prunus mume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atchudan, Raji; Edison, Thomas Nesakumar Jebakumar Immanuel; Sethuraman, Mathur Gopalakrishnan; Lee, Yong Rok

    2016-10-01

    Highly fluorescent nitrogen-doped carbon dots (N-CDs) were synthesized using the extract of unripe Prunus mume (P. mume) fruit by a simple one step hydrothermal-carbonization method. The N-CDs were synthesized at different pH ranges, 2.3, 5, 7, and 9. The pH of the P. mume extract was adjusted using an aqueous ammonia solution (25%). The optical properties of N-CDs were examined by UV-vis and fluorescence spectroscopy. The N-CDs synthesized at pH 9 emitted high fluorescence intensity compared to other obtained N-CDs. The N-CDs synthesized at pH 9 was further characterized by high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and Fourier transform-infra red (FT-IR) spectroscopy. HR-TEM showed that the average size of the synthesized N-CDs was approximately 9 nm and the interlayer distance was 0.21 nm, which was validated by XRD. The graphitic nature of the synthesized N-CDs were confirmed by Raman spectroscopy. XPS and FT-IR spectroscopy confirmed the doping of the nitrogen moiety over the synthesized CDs. The synthesized nitrogen doped CDs (N-CDs) were low toxicity and were used as a staining probe for fluorescence cell imaging.

  19. Ammonium secretion during Colletotrichum coccodes infection modulates salicylic and jasmonic acid pathways of ripe and unripe tomato fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkan, Noam; Fluhr, Robert; Prusky, Dov

    2012-01-01

    The postharvest pathogens Colletotrichum coccodes remains quiescent after infection of unripe fruit. However, during fruit ripening, the pathogen assumes a necrotrophic life style, rapidly colonizing the tissue. C. coccodes secretes ammonium during germination and colonization of host tissue that induces host programmed cell death. We further examined the role of ammonia in the infection process by analyzing transcriptome expression from infected and ammonia-treated fruit tissue compared with healthy tissue. The analysis revealed 82 and 237 common upregulated and downregulated genes, respectively. Quantitative reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction analysis of select transcripts in normal and transgenic NADPH oxidase antisense plants revealed that their expression was NADPH oxidase dependent. Common-upregulated genes showed overrepresentation of salicylic acid (SA)-dependent genes as well as genes related to biotic stress. The downregulated genes showed overrepresentation of jasmonic acid (JA)-dependent genes. Indeed, direct application of SA to the fruit enhanced C. coccodes necrotrophic colonization, whereas the application of JA delayed colonization. Importantly, green fruit and red fruit displayed similar gene expression patterns although only red fruit is susceptible to colonization. Thus, it is likely that the resistance of green fruit to C. coccodes colonization is due to additional factors.

  20. Comparative transcriptome analysis of unripe and mid-ripe fruit of Mangifera indica (var. "Dashehari") unravels ripening associated genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Smriti; Singh, Rajesh K; Pathak, Garima; Goel, Ridhi; Asif, Mehar Hasan; Sane, Aniruddha P; Sane, Vidhu A

    2016-09-02

    Ripening in mango is under a complex control of ethylene. In an effort to understand the complex spatio-temporal control of ripening we have made use of a popular N. Indian variety "Dashehari" This variety ripens from the stone inside towards the peel outside and forms jelly in the pulp in ripe fruits. Through a combination of 454 and Illumina sequencing, a transcriptomic analysis of gene expression from unripe and midripe stages have been performed in triplicates. Overall 74,312 unique transcripts with ≥1 FPKM were obtained. The transcripts related to 127 pathways were identified in "Dashehari" mango transcriptome by the KEGG analysis. These pathways ranged from detoxification, ethylene biosynthesis, carbon metabolism and aromatic amino acid degradation. The transcriptome study reveals differences not only in expression of softening associated genes but also those that govern ethylene biosynthesis and other nutritional characteristics. This study could help to develop ripening related markers for selective breeding to reduce the problems of excess jelly formation during softening in the "Dashehari" variety.

  1. Grãos defeituosos em café colhido verde Occurrence of commercial defective coffee beans in unripe fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Teixeira

    1971-01-01

    Full Text Available Frutos de café Mundo Novo, colhidos verdes, após o benefício, foram analisados quanto aos defeitos comerciais que apresentaram. A classificação foi efetuada independentemente, por três classificadores, com a contagem de grãos "normais" e daqueles considerados defeitos, isto é, "verde" (três categorias, "ardido" e "prêto". Notou-se uma elevada porcentagem de grãos normais quanto à coloração, e também a ocorrência de grãos dos tipos "ardido" e "prêto", no café não maduro. Com a remoção da película prateada verificou-se uma redução na porcentagem de grãos "verdes" e um acentuado aumento na porcentagem de grãos "ardidos", e um aumento menor na de grãos "normais" e "prêtos". Estas observações indicam que os grãos normalmente classificados no comércio como "verdes" devem esta característica à côr .anormal da película, e que os grãos "ardidos" têm, como uma das suas origens, a colheita de frutos verdes.The frequency of defective coffee beans was determined in samples of unripe fruits of the cultivar Mundo Novo (Coffea arabica.Ten samples of 1000 seeds each obtained from green fruits after sundrying and shelling were independently scored for the commercial defects by three coffee classifiers. Each one of the classifiers recorded the occurrence of green-coated, brown and black beans before and after removal of the silver skin. The data revealed that more than half of the beans had normal green color whereas 44.9 per cent were green-coated, 3.5 per cent were brown and 0.1 per cent were black beans. The removal of the silver skin affected the previous classification giving 59.7 per cent of normal green beans, 39.5 per cent of brown and 0.3 per cent of black beans. These observations indicated that the so-called green-coated beans are caused by the presence of the silver skin which retains green pigments probably chlorophyll. On the other hand the browns which have been considered as product of over-fermentation were

  2. Ameliorative potentials of cocoyam (Colocasia esculenta L.) and unripe plantain (Musa paradisiacal L.) on renal and liver growth in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Eleazu CO; Iroaganachi M; Eleazu KC

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the ameliorating potentials of cocoyam(Colocasia esculenta(C. esculenta)L.) and unripe plantain(Musa paradisiacae(M. paradisiacae)L.) incorporated feeds on renal and liver growth ofSTZ induced rats.Method:The blood glucose level of all the rats was measured with a glucometer, the protein and glucose levels in the urine samples of the rats were determined using urine assay strips while the specific gravity of the urine samples of all the rats was determined with a urinometer.The assay of the proximate, phytochemical, mineral composition as well as screening for antioxidant activity of the test feeds was carried out using standard techniques.Results:The administration of the test feeds to the diabetic rats in58.75% and38.13% decreases in their hyperglycemia with a corresponding amelioration of their elevated urinary protein, glucose, specific gravity as well as renal and kidney growths.Administration of the cocoyam incorporated feeds to the diabetic rats of group4, resulted in2.71% increase in body weight with a corresponding19.52% increase in growth rate unlike the diabetic rats of group 5, administered unripe plantain feed that had5.12% decrease in weight with a corresponding 29.52% decrease in growth rate but higher than the diabetic control rats that recorded28.69% and 29.46% decreases in body weights with a corresponding248.9% and250.14% decreases in growth rates.Analysis revealed that the test feeds contained low quantities of moisture but significant quantities of crude fibre, proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, ash, alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, tannins, calcium, magnesium, potassium, iron, zinc, phosphorous as well as considerable amount of energy.In addition, the cocoyam incorporated feeds contained higher quantities of flavonoids, saponin, tannin,Ca,Mg,Fe,Zn,K,P, crude fibre as well as antioxidant activity but lower quantities of alkaloids than the unripe plantain feed.Conclusion:The use of cocoyam and unripe plantain flours in the

  3. Alterations in hippocampal serotonergic and INSR function in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats exposed to stress: neuroprotective role of pyridoxine and Aegle marmelose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Pretty Mary; Kuruvilla, Korah P; Mathew, Jobin; Malat, Anitha; Joy, Shilpa; Paulose, C S

    2010-09-25

    Diabetes and stress stimulate hippocampal 5-HT synthesis, metabolism and release. The present study was carried out to find the effects of insulin, Aegle marmelose alone and in combination with pyridoxine on the hippocampal 5-HT, 5-HT(2A) receptor subtype, gene expression studies on 5-HT(2A), 5-HTT, INSR, immunohistochemical studies and elevated plus maze in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. 5-HT content showed a significant decrease (p Pyridoxine treated in combination with insulin and A. marmelose to diabetic rats reversed the 5-HT content, B(max), Kd of 5-HT, 5-HT(2A) and gene expression of 5-HT(2A), 5-HTT and INSR in hippocampus to near control. The gene expression of 5-HT(2A) and 5-HTT were confirmed by immunohistochemical studies. Behavioural studies using elevated plus maze showed that serotonin through its transporter significantly increased (p anxiety-related traits in diabetic rats which were corrected by combination therapy. Our results suggest that pyridoxine treated in combination with insulin and A. marmelose has a role in the regulation of insulin synthesis and release, normalising diabetic related stress and anxiety through hippocampal serotonergic function. This has clinical significance in the management of diabetes.

  4. Alterations in hippocampal serotonergic and INSR function in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats exposed to stress: neuroprotective role of pyridoxine and Aegle marmelose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joy Shilpa

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Diabetes and stress stimulate hippocampal 5-HT synthesis, metabolism and release. The present study was carried out to find the effects of insulin, Aegle marmelose alone and in combination with pyridoxine on the hippocampal 5-HT, 5-HT2A receptor subtype, gene expression studies on 5-HT2A, 5-HTT, INSR, immunohistochemical studies and elevated plus maze in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. 5-HT content showed a significant decrease (p p max and Kd showed a significant decrease (p 2A receptor binding parameters Bmax showed a significant decrease (p p d in hippocampus of diabetic rats compared to control. Gene expression studies of 5-HT2A, 5-HTT and INSR in hippocampus showed a significant down regulation (p A. marmelose to diabetic rats reversed the 5-HT content, Bmax , Kd of 5-HT, 5-HT2A and gene expression of 5-HT2A, 5-HTT and INSR in hippocampus to near control. The gene expression of 5-HT2A and 5-HTT were confirmed by immunohistochemical studies. Behavioural studies using elevated plus maze showed that serotonin through its transporter significantly increased (p A. marmelose has a role in the regulation of insulin synthesis and release, normalising diabetic related stress and anxiety through hippocampal serotonergic function. This has clinical significance in the management of diabetes.

  5. Polyphenols Variation in Fruits of the Susceptible Strawberry Cultivar Alba during Ripening and upon Fungal Pathogen Interaction and Possible Involvement in Unripe Fruit Tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagpala, Ellaine Grace; Guidarelli, Michela; Gasperotti, Mattia; Masuero, Domenico; Bertolini, Paolo; Vrhovsek, Urska; Baraldi, Elena

    2016-03-09

    Strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa) fruit contains high concentrations of health-promoting phenolic compounds, playing important roles for the fruit ontogenic tolerance to fungi. In the highly susceptible cultivar Alba, the two major strawberry fungal pathogens, Colletotrichum acutatum and Botrytis cinerea, displayed disease symptoms only at red ripe stages because immature fruits are tolerant to diseases. We analyzed and compared the variation of 47 polyphenols in the surface of unripe and ripe Alba fruits upon 24 and 48 h of C. acutatum and B. cinerea infection or mock inoculation. Significant alteration in phenolic content was detected only in white infected fruit, with differences specific for each pathogen. The expression analysis of phenylpropanoid, flavonoid, and shikimate pathway genes showed in only a few cases correlation with the relative metabolite abundance. The alteration in phenolic content and the lack of consistency with gene expression data are discussed in light of previously reported metabolome data of different susceptible and resistant strawberry genotypes.

  6. ELABORAÇÃO, CARACTERIZAÇÃO QUÍMICA E AVALIAÇÃO SENSORIAL DE NÉCTARES DE BANANAS DAS VARIEDADES PRATA, NANICA E MARMELO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Scatolino MESQUITA

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available

    A industrialização da banana é uma opção no aproveitamento de excedentes de produção e de frutos fora dos padrões de qualidade para consumo in natura. Uma das alternativas para a utilização deste fruto é na forma de néctar, uma bebida natural, nutritiva, pronta para o consumo e de fácil processamento. O objetivo deste trabalho foi elaborar néctares de banana a partir do purê acidificado das variedades Prata, Nanica e Marmelo, caracterizar quimicamente bem como avaliar a aceitação sensorial e intenção de compra dos produtos. Os valores médios de pH encontrados para os três néctares variaram entre 4,49 e 4,59; teores de sólidos solúveis totais (SST entre 8,8ºBrix e 10,97ºBrix; acidez total titulável (ATT entre 0,29% e 0,37%; os teores de açúcares redutores variaram de 10,92% a 12,76% e não redutores entre 8,51% e 12,41%. Os resultados obtidos na avaliação sensorial do néctar de banana mostraram que não houve diferença significativa (p≤0,05 entre as variedades Marmelo e Prata em relação a cor, sendo essas as variedades que obtiveram as maiores médias. Em relação ao sabor a banana Nanica obteve a melhor aceitação. A aparência global não apresentou diferença significativa entre as variedades Marmelo e Nanica. A intenção de compra apontou a variedade Nanica como sendo a mais aceita, ficando entre os escores 4 (provavelmente compraria e 3 (talvez comprasse; talvez não comprasse.

  7. Anti-HIV-1 activities of the extracts from the medicinal plant Linum grandiflorum Desf

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohammed, Magdy M. D.; Christensen, Lars Porskjær; Ibrahim, Nabaweya A.;

    2009-01-01

    As part of our screening of anti-AIDS agents from natural sources e.g. Ixora undulata, Paulownia tomentosa, Fortunella margarita, Aegle marmelos and Erythrina abyssinica, the different organic and aqueous extracts of Linum grandiflorum leaves and seeds were evaluated in vitro by the microculture ...

  8. Oviposition-deterrent, ovicidal, and repellent activities of indigenous plant extracts against Anopheles subpictus Grassi (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elango, G; Bagavan, A; Kamaraj, C; Abduz Zahir, A; Abdul Rahuman, A

    2009-11-01

    Insecticides of botanical origin may serve as suitable alternative biocontrol techniques in the future. The leaf acetone, ethyl acetate, and methanol extracts of Aegle marmelos (Linn.) Correa ex Roxb, Andrographis lineata Wallich ex Nees, and Cocculus hirsutus (L.) Diels were tested for oviposition-deterrent, ovicidal, and repellent activities against Anopheles subpictus Grassi (Diptera: Culicidae). The percentage of effective oviposition repellency of 92.60 , 93.04, 95.20, 88.26, 92.80, 94.01, 95.77, 96.93, and 92.54 at 500 ppm and the lowest repellency of 47.14, 58.00, 56.52, 64.93, 71.09, 66.42, 50.62, 57.62, and 65.73 at 31.25 ppm in acetone, ethyl acetate, and methanol extracts of Aegle marmelos, Andrographis lineata, and Cocculus hirsutus, respectively. The oviposition activity index (OAI) value of acetone, ethyl acetate, and methanol extracts of Aegle marmelos, Andrographis lineata, and Cocculus hirsutus at 500 ppm were -0.86, -0.87, -0.90, -0.78, -0.87, -0.86, -0.91, -0.94, and -0.86 respectively. The OAI values revealed that the solvent plant extracts have deterrent effect, and they caused a remarkable negative response resulting in oviposition of very few eggs. Mean percent hatchability of the ovicidal activity was observed 24 h after treatment. The percent hatchability was inversely proportional to the concentration of extract and directly proportional to the eggs. Mortality of 100% with ethyl acetate extract of Aegle marmelos, methanol extracts Aegle marmelos, Andrographis lineata, and Cocculus hirsutus were exerted at 1,000 ppm. The maximum repellent activity was observed at 500 ppm in methanol extracts of Aegle marmelos, Andrographis lineata, and ethyl acetate extract of Cocculus hirsutus, and the mean complete protection time ranged from 90 to 120 min with the different extracts tested. These results suggest that the leaf extracts of Aegle marmelos, Andrographis lineata, and Cocculus hirsutus have the potential to be used as an ideal ecofriendly

  9. Comparative transcriptome analysis of unripe and mid-ripe fruit of Mangifera indica (var. “Dashehari”) unravels ripening associated genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Smriti; Singh, Rajesh K.; Pathak, Garima; Goel, Ridhi; Asif, Mehar Hasan; Sane, Aniruddha P.; Sane, Vidhu A.

    2016-01-01

    Ripening in mango is under a complex control of ethylene. In an effort to understand the complex spatio-temporal control of ripening we have made use of a popular N. Indian variety “Dashehari” This variety ripens from the stone inside towards the peel outside and forms jelly in the pulp in ripe fruits. Through a combination of 454 and Illumina sequencing, a transcriptomic analysis of gene expression from unripe and midripe stages have been performed in triplicates. Overall 74,312 unique transcripts with ≥1 FPKM were obtained. The transcripts related to 127 pathways were identified in “Dashehari” mango transcriptome by the KEGG analysis. These pathways ranged from detoxification, ethylene biosynthesis, carbon metabolism and aromatic amino acid degradation. The transcriptome study reveals differences not only in expression of softening associated genes but also those that govern ethylene biosynthesis and other nutritional characteristics. This study could help to develop ripening related markers for selective breeding to reduce the problems of excess jelly formation during softening in the “Dashehari” variety. PMID:27586495

  10. Application of the Kombucha 'tea fungus' for the enhancement of antioxidant and starch hydrolase inhibitory properties of ten herbal teas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watawana, Mindani I; Jayawardena, Nilakshi; Choo, Candy; Waisundara, Viduranga Y

    2016-03-01

    Ten herbal teas (Acacia arabica, Aegle marmelos flower, A. marmelos root bark, Aerva lanata, Asteracantha longifolia, Cassia auriculata, Hemidesmus indicus, Hordeum vulgare, Phyllanthus emblica, Tinospora cordifolia) were fermented with the Kombucha 'tea fungus'. The pH values of the fermented beverages ranged from 4.0 to 6.0 by day 7, while the titratable acidity ranged from 2.5 to 5.0g/mL (Pantioxidant and starch hydrolase inhibitory potential of the herbal teas was observed by adding the tea fungus.

  11. Ovicidal and Oviposition Deterrent Activities of Medicinal Plant Extracts Against Aedes aegypti L. and Culex quinquefasciatus Say Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Reegan, Appadurai Daniel; Gandhi, Munusamy Rajiv; Paulraj, Micheal Gabriel; Ignacimuthu,Savarimuthu

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the ovicidal and oviposition deterrent activities of five medicinal plant extracts namely Aegle marmelos (Linn.), Limonia acidissima (Linn.), Sphaeranthus indicus (Linn.), Sphaeranthus amaranthoides (burm.f), and Chromolaena odorata (Linn.) against Culex quinquefasciatus and Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. Three solvents, namely hexane, ethyl acetate, and methanol, were used for the preparation of extracts from each plant. Methods Four different concentrations—62.5 parts per ...

  12. Comportamiento viscoelástico de pulpa de membrillo en función de la concentración de sólidos solubles Comportamento viscoelástico de polpa de marmelo em função da concentração de sólidos solúveis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afonso Mota Ramos

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available El conocimiento de las propiedades viscoelásticas de los alimentos es muy útil en el diseño y predicción de la estabilidad de muestras almacenadas. El trabajo tuvo como objetivos caracterizar las propiedades viscoelásticas de las muestras de pulpa de membrillo a diferentes concentraciones de sólidos solubles. El estudio reológico del pulpa de membrillo fue realizado en el rango de concentraciones de 12,3 a 28°Brix a la temperatura de 20°C. Las medidas viscoelásticas fueron realizadas con un reômetro Haake Rheostress RS100 y fue seleccionado el barrido de frecuencia entre 0,1 a 100 Hz. Los resultados demostraron que para la muestra de 28°Brix la pulpa se comportó como un semi-sólido en todo el rango de frecuencia estudiada. Para la concentración de 24°Brix, a bajas frecuencias, la pulpa se comportó como un semi-líquido (G">G' mientras que en frecuencias más altas se comportó como semi-sólido (G'>G". Para la pulpa de 16 e 20°Brix hubo el predominio del carácter viscoso sobre el carácter elástico. Para la pulpa de 12,3°Brix no fue posible determinar los valores G' e G". Se observó todavía que la viscosidad compleja del pulpa de membrillo aumenta con la concentración para todo el rango de frecuencias estudiadas.O conhecimento das propriedades viscoelásticas dos alimentos é muito útil no desenho e na predição da estabilidade de amostras armazenadas. O trabalho teve como objetivo caracterizar as propriedades viscoelásticas de amostras de polpa de marmelo a diferentes concentrações de sólidos solúveis. O estudo reológico da polpa de marmelo foi realizado na faixa de concentração de 12,3 a 28°Brix à temperatura de 20°C. As medidas viscoelásticas foram realizadas com um reômetro Haake Rheostress RS100 e foi selecionado um varrido de freqüência (frequency sweep entre 0,1 e 100 Hz. Os resultados demonstraram que para a amostra de 28°Brix a polpa se comportou como um semi-sólido (G'>G" em toda faixa de freq

  13. Nota científica: Avaliação sensorial de geleia de marmelo 'Japonês' em diferentes concentrações de sólidos solúveis totais Scientific note: Sensory evaluation of japanese quince jam with different concentrations of total soluble solids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo das Graças Pereira

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available As plantas do marmeleiro 'Japonês' (Chaenomeles sinensis Koehne vem sendo amplamente pesquisadas nos últimos anos em função da alta produtividade, da resistência à entomosporiose e da capacidade de servir como porta-enxerto para as demais cultivares. Visando propiciar o aproveitamento dessa cultivar para o consumo humano, o presente trabalho objetivou desenvolver e avaliar a aceitação da geleia de marmelo 'Japonês' em diferentes concentrações de sólidos solúveis totais. Os frutos utilizados no experimento foram colhidos na Fazenda Experimental da EPAMIG, localizada no município de Maria da Fé-MG. Para a obtenção das geleias, os frutos foram processados até se obter um produto final com as concentrações de 66, 68 e 70 °Brix de sólidos solúveis totais. O teste de aceitação foi realizado por um grupo de 50 julgadores não treinados que avaliaram aparência, consistência, aroma, sabor, aspecto global e intenção de compra dos diferentes tratamentos. Os resultados obtidos revelaram que as geleias de marmelo 'Japonês' apresentaram uma boa aceitação para todos os atributos avaliados, sendo que, de uma forma geral, as amostras com 68 e 70 °Brix obtiveram maior aceitabilidade e intenção de compra pelos julgadores.In recent years, Japanese quince (Chaenomeles sinensis Koehne plants have been widely studied due to their high productivity, resistance to entomosporium and ability to serve as rootstock for other cultivars. In order to facilitate the use of this cultivar for human consumption, the present study aimed to develop and evaluate the acceptance of a Japanese quince jam with different concentrations of total soluble solids. The fruits used in the experiment were harvested at the Experimental Farm of EPAMIG, located in the city of Maria da Fé, MG, Brazil. To obtain the jams, the fruits were processed to obtain a final product with concentrations of 66, 68 and 70 °Brix with respect to the total soluble solids

  14. Estabilidade da cor de doces em massa de polpa de umbu (Spondias tuberosa arr. cam. no estádio de maturação verde Color stability of marmalade made from pulp of unripe umbu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vânia Madeira Nunes Policarpo

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Os frutos de umbu (Spondias tuberosa Arr. Cam. maduros são altamente perecíveis, e o aproveitamento deles no estádio de maturação verde, sob a forma de doce é uma interessante alternativa econômica, para o semi-árido nordestino. A conservação da cor, durante o armazenamento, constitui um fator de qualidade dos mais importantes para o consumo, e o presente trabalho objetivou avaliar sua alteração em função de diferentes formulações, embalagens (polipropileno e celofane e temperaturas (33 e 43°C, por 90 dias de armazenamento. A adição de pectina e/ou xarope de glicose não alterou a luminosidade (L*, mas diminuiu os valores de a* ( intensidade do vermelho e b*. ( intensidade do amarelo. Verificou-se diminuição dos valores de L* a* e b*, notadamente para os doces armazenados à temperatura de 43°C e para a formulação sem adição de pectina. A embalagem não exerceu efeito significativo sobre L*( luminosidade, mas afetou a* e b* aos 90 dias de estocagem, em ambas as temperaturas. Os resultados globais indicaram o uso de pectina e xarope de glicose, embalagens de polipropileno e estocagem à temperaturas mais baixas como sendo as condições mais adequadas para preservação da cor.Ripe umbu (Spondias tuberosa Arr. Cam. is highly perishable, thus using unripe umbu to make marmalade is an interesting economic alternative for the semi arid northeastern region in Brazil. Color conservation during storage is one of the major quality factors for consumption. This work aimed to evaluate color alteration in function of different formulations, packagings (polypropylene and cellophane and temperatures (33 and 43°C over 90 storage days. Pectin and/or glucose syrup adittion did not alter luminosity (L*, but decreased a* (red intensity and b*(yellow intensity values. L* (luminosity, a* ( red intensity and b* (yellow intensity values were found to decrease, especially for marmalade stored at 43°C and formulation without pectin addition

  15. PENGARUH EKSTRAK BEBERAPA TANAMAN OBAT TERHADAP USUS TERISOLASI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Dzulkarnain

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The extraction of Anacardium occidentale L.leaves, Aegle marmelos Corr leaves and wood bark, Acorus calamus L. tuber and Desmodium triquetrum D.C. leaves has been tested on the isolated rabbit and guinea pig intestine. The extraction of A. occidentale L. leaves stimulated the isolated rabbit and guinea pig intestine which may due to the anacardic acid content. No consistent influence was seen by the extraction of A.marmelos Corr. leaves and wood bark. The A. calamus L. tuber extraction decreases the isolated intestine activities which is of the atropine-like type not antihistamin one. This may explain the use as antidysentri agent from the motility point of view. The D. triquetrum D.C. leaves extraction stimulated the isolated intestine which has a pilocarpine and histamine-like activity but does not exclude a seretonine-like action.

  16. MEDICINAL PLANTS OF RAJASTHAN (INDIA WITH ANTIDIABETIC POTENTIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Batra Shikha

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Rajasthan has a rich heritage of traditional system of medicine and many medicinally useful plants are found growing wildly because of vast area and variety of agro-climatic conditions. These plants are being used for the treatment of many human ailments including diabetes. Plants that are specifically employed for the treatment of diabetes are Acacia nilotica, Acacia senegal, Aegle marmelos, Calotropis procera, Capparis deciduas, Cassia auriculata, Cassia sophera, Cayratia trifolia, Cyamopsis tetragonoloba, Dalbergia sisso, Gymnema sylvestre, Momordica charantia, Syzygium cumini, Withania somnifera. This article aims to provide a comprehensive review on the some plants of Rajasthan having antidiabetic potential.

  17. Population Status of Commercially Important Medicinal Plants in Dehradun Forest Division, Uttarakhand (India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ninad B. RAUT

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of forest management in the tropics, in recent decades, has shifted from timber production to biodiversity conservation and maintenance of life support system. However, past forestry practices have greatly influenced the structure of plant communities, preponderance of foreign invasive species, populations of high value medicinal plants as well as other non-wood forest products. We assessed the abundance and distribution of medicinal plants in managed and undisturbed forests of Dehradun Forest Division (DFD, Uttarakhand (India. A total of 80 transects (each 1 km long were laid in various categories of forest types in DFD. This paper deals with distribution, availability and regeneration status of five commercially important species viz., Justicia adhatoda, Aegle marmelos, Phyllanthus emblica, Terminalia bellirica and Terminalia chebula, across different forest types. The study reveals that open canopy forest patches, Lantana infested patches and Acacia catechu-Dalbergia sissoo (Khair -Shisam woodlands in the eastern part of the DFD have excellent potential for the production and sustainable harvest of Justicia adhatoda. Areas those are less suitable for timber production viz., open hill forests, have greater potential for conservation and development of Aegle marmelos, Phyllanthus emblica and Terminalia bellirica. For the production and management of high value medicinal plants in the DFD these ecological considerations need to be kept in mind.

  18. CARBOHYDRATES, PHENOLIC COMPOUNDS AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY IN PULP AND PEEL OF 15 BANANA CULTIVARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CÉSAR FERNANDES AQUINO

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to quantify and compare the levels of carbohydrates and phenolic compounds and the antioxidant activity in the pulp and peel of 15 banana cultivars in two ripening stages. Four bunches per cultivar were harvested in the pre-climacteric stage, six fruits were used by sample unit. Fruits were analyzed in the pre-climacteric stage and after ripening. Total, reducing and non-reducing soluble sugars, starch, phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity were evaluated. Cultivar and ripening stage influenced all characteristics analyzed. Unripe pulp and peel had small percentage of sugar, but high percentage of starch, especially ‘Terrinha’ and ‘Marmelo’ cultivars. AAB and ABB cultivars presented the highest percentages of starch, when compared to AA and AAA cultivars. For the phenolic compounds, the highest content was observed in ripe peel, followed by ripe pulp and unripe peel and pulp, highlighting ‘Terrinha’ cultivar in all parts and stages evaluated. The antioxidant potential was higher in ripe peel, followed by unripe peel, ripe and unripe pulp. Fruits of Terrinha, Marmelo, Maçã, Ouro and Caru-Verde cultivars showed the highest carbohydrate contents, and phenolic compounds or antioxidant activity, justifying future actions in the expansion of planting and consumption of these fruits.

  19. Synthesis of novel triterpenoid (lupeol) derivatives and their in vivo antihyperglycemic and antidyslipidemic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papi Reddy, K; Singh, A B; Puri, A; Srivastava, A K; Narender, T

    2009-08-01

    The triterpenoid, lupeol (1) has been isolated from the leaves extract of Aegle marmelos. Few novel derivatives (2-13) were synthesized from the naturally occurring lupeol (1) and screened for their antihyperglycemic activity (2-11) and antidyslipidemic activity (2-4 and 12-13). The derivative 4 lowered the blood glucose levels by 18.2% and 25.0% at 5h and 24h, respectively, in sucrose challenged streptozotocin induced diabetic rats (STZ-S) model at the dose of 100mg/kg body weight. The compound 4 also significantly lowered 40% (P <0.001) in triglycerides, 30% (P <0.05) in glycerol, 24% (P <0.05) in cholesterol quantity and also improved the HDL-cholesterol by 5% in dyslipidemic hamster model at the dose of 50mg/kg b.wt.

  20. Novel drug designing rationale againstBrugia malayi microfilariae using herbal extracts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SharmaRD; PetareS; ShindeGB; KalyanGoswami; ReddyMVR

    2010-01-01

    Objective:To explore the effect of herbal polyphenolics on filariasisin vitro.Methods: Two herbal extracts, methanolic extracts of roots ofVitex negundo Linn. (Nirgundi) and leaves ofAegle marmelos Juss. (Beal) in different concentrations ranging from40-80ng/mL were tested for their antifilarial activity either alone or in combination with diethyl carbonate (DEC)(300μg/mL) and/orH2O2 (0.5 mM).Results:Combination of DEC and each extract had significant anti-filarial effect. And fractions of both extracts were not effective as crude herbal extract.Conclusions:Such unique pharmacodynamics reported in this study might provide new drug development stratagem against filariasis.

  1. Mass attenuation coefficients of X-rays in different medicinal plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morabad, R.B. [Department of Post-Graduate Studies and Research in Physics, Gulbarga University, Gulbarga 585106, Karnataka (India); Kerur, B.R. [Department of Post-Graduate Studies and Research in Physics, Gulbarga University, Gulbarga 585106, Karnataka (India)], E-mail: kerurbrk@yahoo.com

    2010-02-15

    The mass attenuation coefficients of specific parts of several plants, (fruits, leaves, stem and seeds) often used as medicines in the Indian herbal system, have been measured employing NaI (TI)) detector. The electronic setup used is a NaI (TI) detector, which is coupled to MCA for analysis of the spectrum. A source of {sup 241}Am is used to get X-rays in the energy range 8-32 keV from Cu, Rb, Mo, Ag and Ba targets. In the present study, the measured mass attenuation coefficient of Ocimum sanctum, Catharanthus roseus, Trigonella foenum-graecum, Azadirachta indica, Aegle marmelos, Zingiber officinalis, Emblica officinalis, Anacardium occidentale, Momordica charantia and Syzygium cumini show a linear relation with the energy.

  2. Screening of Antioxidant Potential of Selected Barks of Indian Medicinal Plants by Multiple in vitro Assays LI

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ARCHANA KUMARI; POONAM KAKKAR

    2008-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the antioxidant potential in herbal extract barks of five therapeutically important medicinal plants native to India,i.e.Crataeva nurvala Buch.-Ham.,Buchanania lanzan Spreng.,Aegle marmelos Corr.,Dalbergia sissoo Roxb.ex DC.,and Cedrela toona Roxb.Methods Standardized aqueous alcoholic extracts from the selected barks having different target radicals,such as superoxide radical,nitric oxide,ABTS radical,and peroxidative decomposition of phosphohpids.were prepared and screened bv multiple in vitro assays.These extracts were also tested for total phenolic and tannin content and correlated with antioxidant capacity. Results Tbtal phenolic and tannin contents were found to be the highest in C. nurvala (195 GAE mg/g and 218.3 mg/g CE).SOD mimetic activity was found to be the highest in Crataeva nurvula,although all barks showed activity more than 100 units/mg extract.Lipid peroxidation inhibitory potential was found to be the highest in Crataeva nurvala(83.4% inhibition of MDA formation/10 μg extract),and also showed a comparatively high NO quenching capacity (45.5% per 10 μg extract).The highest NO quenching potential was found in Aegle marmelos(47.3% per 10 μg extract).Cedrela toona showed the lowest LPO inhibitory potential and NO quenching capacity(50.5% and 30.5%,respectively).Buchanania lanzan,a medicinal plant extensively used for inflammatory disorders and Dalbergia sissoo also showed 72.5% and 69.1% LPO inhibitory potential/10 μg extract.Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity ranged from 0.24 to 0.39 mmol/L TEAC/mg extract,indicating that all the barks tested had ABTS+ radical quenching capacity.Conclusion Bark of Crataeva nurvulahas the highest antioxidant capacity and a positive correlation between antioxidant activity and their plendic content was found.

  3. Surveillance of multidrug resistance of 6 uropathogens in a teaching hospital and in vitro control by 25 ethnomedicinal plants used by an aborigine of India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shakti Rath; Debasmita Dubey; Mahesh C Sahu; Nagen K Debata; Rabindra N Padhy

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate antimicrobial potencies of 25 plants with reports on ethnomedicinal uses for infectious ailments by the aborigine Kandha tribe of Kalahandi district, Odisha state, India for urinary tract infections. Methods: Over a period of 6 months, multidrug resistant (MDR) strains of 6 uropathogenic bacteria Acinetobacter baumannii (A. baumannii), Citrobacter freundii (C. freundii), Klebsiella oxytoca (K. oxytoca), Proteus mirabilis (P. mirabilis), Proteus vulgaris (P. vulgaris) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) were isolated from clinical samples in a teaching hospital; their antibiograms were ascertained. Concentrated aqueous and ethanolic extracts of leaves and barks of plants were used for monitoring their antimicrobial potencies, by the agar-well diffusion method. Phytochemical analyses of plant parts were done. Results: All isolated bacterial strains were resistant to 15 antibiotics of 6 groups including β-lactams. From a surveillance of bacterial isolates, it was evident that the distribution of MDR strains of each was more in hospital acquired isolates than the community acquired ones. Both aqueous and ethanolic extracts of plants, Aegle marmelos (A. marmelos), Azadirachta indica (A. indica) and Withaniasomnifera Several plants were moderately effective during in vitro control of the pathogens. Plants, Anthocephalus cadamba (A. cadamba), Cleistanthus collinus (C. collinus) and Oroxylum indicum (O. indicum) were totally ineffective in the control of isolated MDR uropathogen. A. indica, T. arjuna and T. alata contained the full range of phytochemicals (alkaloids, glycosides, terpenoids, reducing sugars, saponins, tannins, flavonoids and steroids), which could be attributed to the significant anti-uropathogenic activities. Conclusion: Plants, A. indica, A. marmelos, Cassiafistula (W. somnifera) were highly effective against MDR isolates of all these pathogens. (C. fistula), T. arjuna, Salvadora persica (S. persica), W. somnifera and Vitex

  4. Anti-HIV activity of Indian medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabde, Sudeep; Bodiwala, Hardik S; Karmase, Aniket; Deshpande, Preeti J; Kaur, Amandeep; Ahmed, Nafees; Chauthe, Siddheshwar K; Brahmbhatt, Keyur G; Phadke, Rasika U; Mitra, Debashis; Bhutani, Kamlesh Kumar; Singh, Inder Pal

    2011-07-01

    Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome patients face great socio-economic difficulties in obtaining treatment. There is an urgent need for new, safe, and cheap anti-HIV agents. Traditional medicinal plants are a valuable source of novel anti-HIV agents and may offer alternatives to expensive medicines in future. Various medicinal plants or plant-derived natural products have shown strong anti-HIV activity and are under various stages of clinical development in different parts of the world. The present study was directed towards assessment of anti-HIV activity of various extracts prepared from Indian medicinal plants. The plants were chosen on the basis of similarity of chemical constituents with reported anti-HIV compounds or on the basis of their traditional usage as immunomodulators. Different extracts were prepared by Soxhlet extraction and liquid-liquid partitioning. Ninety-two extracts were prepared from 23 plants. Anti-HIV activity was measured in a human CD4+ T-cell line, CEM-GFP cells infected with HIV-1NL4.3. Nine extracts of 8 different plants significantly reduced viral production in CEM-GFP cells infected with HIV-1NL4.3. Aegle marmelos, Argemone mexicana, Asparagus racemosus, Coleus forskohlii, and Rubia cordifolia demonstrated promising anti-HIV potential and were investigated for their active principles.

  5. Supramolecular structure of S-(+)-marmesin-a linear dihydrofuranocoumarin

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sanjeev Goswami; Vivek K Gupta; Ashok Sharma; B D Gupta

    2005-12-01

    The title compound, C14H14O4, a linear dihydrofuranocoumarin, was isolated from the bark of Aegle marmelos, a plant widely used in Ayurvedic system of medicine for the treatment of various ailments. The crystal structure was determined from X-ray diffraction data using direct methods. The compound crystallizes into monoclinic space group 21 with unit cell parameters: = 5.721(1) Å, = 13.810(1) Å, = 7.864(2) Å, = 100.39(1)°, = 2. The structure was refined by full-matrix least-squares to a final value of 0.0523 for 1184 observed reflections. The benzopyran moiety is perfectly planar. The dihedral angle between the pyrone and benzene rings is 0.3(1)°. The furan ring has a 2-envelope conformation. The molecules are linked by O–H…O hydrogen bonds into chains and these chains are linked into sheets by C–H…O hydrogen bonds. Further, the − stacking and C–H$\\ldots\\pi$(arene) interactions link all of the sheets into a supramolecular structure.

  6. Diversity and use of ethnomedicinal plants in coastal Karnataka, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. JAYAKARA BHANDARY

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Bhandary MJ, Chandrashekar KR. 2014. Diversity and use of ethnomedicinal plants in coastal Karnataka, India. Biodiversitas 15: 89-93. A study was undertaken in Coastal Karnataka, a culturally and floristically diverse region between the Western Ghats and the Arabian sea in India, to document the diversity and uses of ethnomedicinal plants of the area. This study resulted in the documentation of ethnomedicinal uses of 342 species of plants belonging to 34 families. The dominant families of ethnomedicinal plants were: Fabaceae (38 species, Euphorbiaceae (22 species, Rubiaceae (11 species, Acanthaceae, Asteraceae, Apocynaceae and Rutaceae (10 species each. Among the plants used, 30% are herbs, 27% trees, 25% climbers and 18% shrubs. Majority of the plants are used against several diseases, either alone or in combination with other plants. The most popular medicinal plants, in terms of the number of diseases against which they are used, are Cyclea peltata, Aristolochia indica, Cuminum cyminum, Curcuma longa, Tamarindus indica, Asparagus racemosus, Ficus racemosa, Hemidesmus indicus, Ficus religiosa, Calotropis gigantea, Vitex negundo, Aegle marmelos and Leucas aspera. A list of 50 important ethnomedicinal plants of the region which are used in the treatment of 5 or more disorders is provided.

  7. Seasonal variations of airborne pollen in Allahabad, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahney, Manju; Chaurasia, Swati

    2008-01-01

    Using a Burkard 7-day volumetric sampler a survey of airborne pollen grains in Allahabad was carried out from December 2004--November 2005 to assess the qualitative and quantitative occurrence of pollen grains during different months of the year, and to characterize the pollen seasons of dominant pollen types in the atmosphere of Allahabad. 80 pollen types were identified out of the total pollen catch of 3,416.34 pollen grains/m(3). Bulk of the pollen originated from anemophilous trees and grasses. Thirteen pollen types recorded more than 1 % of the annual total pollen catch. Holoptelea integrifolia formed the major component of the pollen spectrum constituting 46.21 % of the total pollen catch followed by Poaceae, Azadirachta indica, Ailanthus excelsa, Putranjiva roxburghii, Parthenium hysterophorus, Ricinus communis, Brassica compestris, Amaranthaceae/Chenopodiaceae, Madhuca longifolia, Syzygium cumini, other Asteraceae and Aegle marmelos. Highest pollen counts were obtained in the month of March and lowest in July. The pollen types recorded marked the seasonal pattern of occurrence in the atmosphere. February-May was the principal pollen season with maximum number of pollen counts and pollen types. Chief sources of pollen during this period were arboreal taxa. September-October was the second pollen season with grasses being the main source of pollen. Airborne pollen spectrum reflected the vegetation of Allahabad, except for Alnus sp., which grows in the Himalayan region. A significant negative correlation was found of daily pollen counts with minimum temperature, relative humidity and rainfall.

  8. Isolation and biological evaluation of novel Tetracosahexaene hexamethyl, an acyclic triterpenoids derivatives and antioxidant from Justicia adhatoda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhankhar, Sandeep; Dhankhar, Seema; Ruhil, Sonam; Balhara, Meenakshi; Malik, Vinay; Chhillar, Anil K

    2014-01-01

    Forty five extracts fraction of nine selected Indian medicinal plants, based on their use in traditional systems of medicine were analyzed for their antioxidant potential. All the extracts were investigated for phenol content value calculated in Gallic acid equivalents (% of GAE) and antioxidant potential. Moreover, total phenolic content (% dw equivalents to gallic acid) of all plant extracts were found in the range of 3.04 to 24.03, which correlated with antioxidant activity. The findings indicated a promising antioxidant activity of crude extracts fractions of three plants (Justicia adhatoda, Capparis aphylla and Aegle marmelos) and required the further exploration for their effective utilization. Results indicated that petroleum ether fraction of J. adhatoda out of three plants also possesses the admirable antioxidant abilities with high total phenolic content. Following, in vitro antioxidant activity-guided phytochemical separation procedures, twelve fractions of petroleum ether extract of J. adhatoda were isolated by silica gel column chromatography. One fraction (Rf value: 0.725) showed the noticeable antioxidant activity with ascorbic acid standard in hydroxyl radical scavenging assays. The molecular structures elucidations of purified antioxidant compound were carried out using spectroscopic studies ((1)H NMR, (13)C NMR and MS). This compound was reported from this species for the first time. The results imply that the J. adhatoda might be a potential source of natural antioxidants and 2,6,10,14,18,22-Tetracosahexaene, 2,6,10,15,19,23-hexamethyl is an antioxidant ingredient in J. adhatoda.

  9. Biodiversity and Indigenous Uses of Medicinal Plant in the Chandra Prabha Wildlife Sanctuary, Chandauli District, Uttar Pradesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurya Santosh Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Conventional medicines are very important part of Indian culture. In this study the outcome of two-year study of ethnomedicinal uses of plants in Chandra Prabha Wildlife Sanctuary (CPWLS and nearby area is reported. Information related to different plants which are used by local community in the treatment of many common diseases and well-being in the area was collected. Data on the use of medicinal plants were collected using structured interview of about 122 participants and thorough observations and conversations with local communities. Approximately 100 plants belonging to 43 families used by the local healers were reported in this study. The plant species with the highest fidelity level (Fl were Holarrhena antidysenterica, Lawsonia inermis, Gymnema sylvestre, Dalbergia sissoo, Cassia fistula Linn., Butea monosperma (Lam. Kuntze., Boerhaavia diffusa Linn., Albizia lebbeck Benth., Aegle marmelos Correa., Sphaeranthus indicus Linn., and Solanum surattense Burm. f. The most frequent ailments reported were hepatitis, jaundice, constipation, and skin and urinary problems. The parts of the plants most frequently used were fruit, roots, and whole plants (17% followed by leaves (16% and bark (15%. This study presents new research efforts and perspectives on the search for new drugs based on local uses of medicinal plants.

  10. Best herbs for managing diabetes: a review of clinical studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Ghorbani

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus is a public health problem which leads to serious complications over time. Experimentally, many herbs have been recommended for treating diabetes. In most cases, however, the recommendations are based on animal studies and limited pieces of evidence exist about their clinical usefulness. This review focused on the herbs, the hypoglycemic actions of which have been supported by three or more clinical studies. The search was done in Google Scholar, Medline and Science Direct databases using the key terms diabetes, plants, herbs, glucose and patients. According to the clinical studies, Aegle marmelos, Allium cepa, Gymnema sylvestre, Momordica charantia, Ocimum sanctum, Nigella sativa, Ocimum sanctum, Panax quinquefolius, Salacia reticulate, Silybum marianum and Trigonella foenum-graecum have shown hypoglycemic and, in some cases, hypolipidemic activities in diabetic patients. Among them, Gymnema sylvestre, Momordica charantia, Silybum marianum and Trigonella foenum-graecum have acquired enough reputation for managing diabetes. Thus, it seems that physicians can rely on these herbs and advise for the patients to improve management of diabetes.

  11. Botanicals to Control Soft Rot Bacteria of Potato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Rahman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Extracts from eleven different plant species such as jute (Corchorus capsularis L., cheerota (Swertia chiraita Ham., chatim (Alstonia scholaris L., mander (Erythrina variegata, bael (Aegle marmelos L., marigold (Tagetes erecta, onion (Allium cepa, garlic (Allium sativum L., neem (Azadiracta indica, lime (Citrus aurantifolia, and turmeric (Curcuma longa L. were tested for antibacterial activity against potato soft rot bacteria, E. carotovora subsp. carotovora (Ecc P-138, under in vitro and storage conditions. Previously, Ecc P-138 was identified as the most aggressive soft rot bacterium in Bangladeshi potatoes. Of the 11 different plant extracts, only extracts from dried jute leaves and cheerota significantly inhibited growth of Ecc P-138 in vitro. Finally, both plant extracts were tested to control the soft rot disease of potato tuber under storage conditions. In a 22-week storage condition, the treated potatoes were significantly more protected against the soft rot infection than those of untreated samples in terms of infection rate and weight loss. The jute leaf extracts showed more pronounced inhibitory effects on Ecc-138 growth both in in vitro and storage experiments.

  12. Mixed Phytochemicals Mediated Synthesis of Multifunctional Ag-Au-Pd Nanoparticles for Glucose Oxidation and Antimicrobial Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, K Jagajjanani; Paria, Santanu

    2015-07-01

    The growing awareness toward the environment is increasing commercial demand for nanoparticles by green route syntheses. In this study, alloy-like Ag-Au-Pd trimetallic nanoparticles have been prepared by two plants extracts Aegle marmelos leaf (LE) and Syzygium aromaticum bud extracts (CE). Compositionally different Ag-Au-Pd nanoparticles with an atomic ratio of 5.26:2.16:1.0 (by LE) and 11.36:13.14:1.0 (by LE + CE) of Ag:Au:Pd were easily synthesized within 10 min at ambient conditions by changing the composition of phytochemicals. The average diameters of the nanoparticles by LE and LE + CE are ∼8 and ∼11 nm. The catalytic activity of the trimetallic nanoparticles was studied, and they were found to be efficient catalysts for the glucose oxidation process. The prepared nanoparticles also exhibited efficient antibacterial activity against a model Gram-negative bacteria Escherichia coli. The catalytic and antimicrobial properties of these readymade trimetallic nanoparticles have high possibility to be utilized in diverse fields of applications such as health care to environmental.

  13. Possible implication of oxidative stress in anti filarial effect of certain traditionally used medicinal plants in vitro against Brugia malayi microfilariae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R D Sharma

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Tropical disease research scheme of World Health Organization has duly recognized traditional medicine as alternative for antifilarial drug development. Polyphenolic compounds present in traditionally used herbal medicines are natural antioxidants; however, paradoxically they may exert pro-oxidant effect. Popular drug diethyl carbamazine citrate harnesses the innate inflammatory response and the consequent oxidative assault to combat invading microbes. Methods: With this perspective, extracts of Vitex negundo L. (roots, Butea monosperma L. (leaves, Aegle marmelos Corr. (leaves, and Ricinus communis L. (leaves were selected to explore the possible role of oxidative rationale in the antifilarial effect in vitro. Results: Apart from the last, other three plant extracts were reported to have polyphenolic compounds. Dose-dependent increase was found in the levels of lipid peroxidation and protein carbonylation for all the three plant extracts except Ricinus communis L. (leaves. Such increase in oxidative parameters also showed some degree of plant-specific predilection in terms of relatively higher level of particular oxidative parameter. High degree of correlation was observed between the antifilarial effect and the levels of corresponding oxidative stress parameters for these three plants. However, extracts of Ricinus communis L. (leaves which is relatively deficient in polyphenolic ingredients recorded maximum 30% loss of motility and also did not show any significant difference in various stress parameters from corresponding control levels. Conclusion: These results reveal that targeted oxidative stress might be crucial in the pharmacodynamics.

  14. Effect of umbelliferone on tail tendon collagen and haemostatic function in streptozotocin-diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramesh, Balakrishnan; Pugalendi, Kodukkur Viswanathan

    2007-08-01

    Diabetes mellitus is known to affect collagen in various tissues. Umbelliferone (7-hydroxycoumarin), a natural antioxidant and benzopyrone, is found in golden apple (Aegle marmelos Correa) and bitter orange (Citrus aurantium). Plant-derived phenolic coumarins have been shown to act as dietary antioxidants. In this study, we have investigated the influence of umbelliferone on collagen content and its effects on the tail tendon in streptozotocin-diabetic rats. Male albino Wistar rats (180-200 g) were made diabetic by intraperitoneal administration of streptozotocin (40 mg/kg). Normal and diabetic rats were treated with umbelliferone for 45 days. Diabetic rats had increased glucose and decreased insulin levels. Tail tendons of diabetic rats had increased total collagen, glycation and fluorescence, and decreased levels of neutral, acid and pepsin-soluble collagens. We have studied the effect of umbelliferone on haemostatic function because umbelliferone is also a coumarin derivative like the anticoagulant, warfarin. Diabetic rats had a significant decrease in prothrombin, clotting and bleeding time, and treatment with umbelliferone made these parameters almost normal. Our results show that umbelliferone controls glycaemia and has a beneficial effect on collagen content and its properties, i.e. collagen related parameters, in the tail tendon, which indicates recovery from the risk (recovery of animals from the risk of complications) of collagen-mediated diabetic polyneuropathy and diabetic nephropathy.

  15. FORMULATION OF ORAL MUCOADHESIVE TABLETS OF TERBUTALINE SULPHATE USING SOME NATURAL MATERIALS AND IN VITRO-IN VIVO EVALUATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RANABIR CHANDA,AMITAVA GHOSH, SANTONU BISWAS,SANTANU ROY CHOWDHURY

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Mucoadhesive polymers that bind to the gastric mucin or epithelial cell surface are useful in drug delivery for the purpose of increasing the intimacy and duration of contact of drug with the absorbing membrane. Several synthetic polymers are in use for this purpose. Since the biodegradability of the synthetic polymers are questionable, in this investigation an oral mucoadhesive controlled delivery system has been developed for terbutaline sulphate (TS using natural mucoadhesive materials extracted from the edible fruits like Zizyphus mauritiana (ZM and Aegle marmelos (Linn. Cor. (AM that have better mucoadhesive property than synthetic polymer hydroxypropylmethylcellulose K4M (HPMC K4M. The in vitro adhesive and mucoadhesive strength of mucoadhesive materials extracted from the fruits of ZM and AM were evaluated and compared with HPMCK4M using both Share Stress and Wilhelmy Plate. Different formulations of oral mucoadhesive coated TS tablets were prepared using these natural materials and compared with tablets prepared with HPMCK4M and hardness, thickness, friability, weight variation and drug content of tablets were tested. The in vitro release of TS was studied in buffer pH 7.2 at 370C 0.50C. Tablets were orally administered to rabbits and blood plasma concentration of TS was determined using HPLC. It was found that mucoadhesive materials extracted from the fruits of ZM and AM exhibited better adhesiveness and mucoadhesiveness as compared with the HPMC- K4M. The in vitro study of TS exhibited showed greater drug release profile for tablets prepared with natural materials than synthetic polymers and confirmed with in vivo study. In vitro and in vivo correlation showed the same release profile.

  16. Useful ethnophytomedicinal recipes of angiosperms used against diabetes in South East Asian Countries (India, Pakistan & Sri Lanka).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marwat, Sarfaraz Khan; Rehman, Fazalur; Khan, Ejaz Ahmad; Khakwani, Abdul Aziz; Ullah, Imdad; Khan, Kaleem Ullah; Khan, Inam Ullah

    2014-09-01

    This paper is based on data recorded from various literatures pertaining to ethnophytomedicinal recipes used against diabetes in South East Asia (India, Pakistan and Srilanka). Traditional plant treatments have been used throughout the world for the therapy of diabetes mellitus. In total 419 useful phytorecipes of 270 plant species belonging to 74 Angiospermic families were collected. From the review it was revealed that plants showing hypoglycemic potential mainly belong to the families, Cucurbitaceae (16 spp.), Euphorbiaceae (15 spp.), Caesalpiniaceae and Papilionaceae (13 spp. each), Moraceae (11 spp.), Acanthaceae (10 spp.), Mimosaceae (09 spp.), Asteraceae, Malvaceae and Poaceae (08 spp. each), Hippocrateaceae, Rutaceae and Zingiberaceae (07 spp. each), Apocynaceae, Asclepiadaceae and Verbenaceae (06 spp. each), Apiaceae, Convolvulaceae, Lamiaceae, Myrtaceae, Solanaceae (05 spp.each). The most active plants are Syzigium cumini (14 recipes), Phyllanthus emblica (09 recipes), Centella asiatica and Momordica charantia (08 recipes each), Azadirachta indica (07 recipes), Aegle marmelos, Catharanthus roseus, Ficus benghalensis, Ficus racemosa, Gymnema sylvestre (06 recipes each), Allium cepa, A. sativum, Andrographis paniculata, Curcuma longa (05 recipes each), Citrullus colocynthis, Justicia adhatoda, Nelumbo nucifera, Tinospora cordifolia, Trigonella foenum-graecum, Ziziphus mauritiana and Wattakaka volubilis (4 recipes each). These traditional recipes include extracts, leaves, powders, flour, seeds, vegetables, fruits and herbal mixtures. Data inventory consists of botanical name, recipe, vernacular name, English name. Some of the plants of the above data with experimentally confirmed antidiabetic properties have also been recorded. More investigations must be carried out to evaluate the mechanism of action of diabetic medicinal plants. Toxicity of these plants should also be explained. Scientific validation of these recipes may help in discovering new drugs from

  17. Evaluation of polyherbal formulation (SJT-HT-03) for antihypertensive activity in albino rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghelani, Hardik S.; Patel, Bipin M.; Gokani, Rina H.; Rachchh, Manish A.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Hypertension is an incurable pathological condition and lifelong therapy is required. Long term use of conventional synthetic anti-hypertensive drugs is associated with a spectrum of toxic effects. However, therapeutic interventions using herbal drugs for hypertension have gained considerable attention worldwide. Aim: To evaluate the anti-hypertensive activity of polyherbal formulation (SJT-HT-03). Materials and Methods: The polyherbal formulation (SJT-HT-03) comprises of leaves of Aegle marmelos L., fruits of Benincasa hispida Thunb., Garcinia indica Thouars, and flowers of Musa paradiasica L., Rosa indica L., Hibiscus rosa sinensis L. Selected plants as mentioned above were collected, dried and extracted with different solvents. Formulation SJT-HT-03 (250 mg/kg, p.o.), was evaluated using two kidney one clip (2K1C) model and deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA)-salt-induced hypertension model using the enalapril (10 mg/kg, p.o.) and hydrochlorothiazide (5 mg/kg, p.o.) as a reference standard drug in respective models. Results: SJT-HT-03 significantly reduced (P < 0.001, one-way analysis of variance followed by Turkey's multiple comparison tests) systolic as well as diastolic blood pressure (BP) in 2K1C and DOCA-salt model. Further, SJT-HT-03 has shown a significant reduction (P < 0.01) in angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) activity in serum, clipped kidney as well as in lungs in 2K1C model, whereas significant reduction (P < 0.05) in serum Na+ and increase in serum K+ level in DOCA model. Conclusion: Polyherbal formulation SJT-HT-03 possess significant anti-hypertensive activity by producing direct depressant effect on heart, inhibition of ACE, aldosterone antagonistic as well as diuretic effect and thereby act on multiple targets to achieve optimal effect. PMID:26195912

  18. In vitro α-glucosidase inhibition, antioxidant, anticancer, and antimycobacterial properties of ethyl acetate extract of Aegle tamilnadensis Abdul Kader (Rutaceae) leaf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    R, Pratap Chandran; S, Nishanth Kumar; S, Manju; S, Abdul Kader; B S, Dileep Kumar

    2015-01-01

    The present study was aimed to investigate in vitro α-glucosidase inhibition, antioxidant, anticancer, and antimycobacterial activities of the ethyl acetate extract of A. tamilnadensis leaves. The extract recorded strong α-glucosidase inhibition with an IC50 value of 100 μg/ml. The antioxidant potential of the extract was evaluated by nitric oxide radical inhibition, lipid peroxidation inhibition, ferric thiocyanate, and ABTS radical scavenging assay, and the extract recorded significant antioxidant activity. The ferric thiocyanate activity of extract was superior to butylated hydroxyl anisol (BHA), the standard antioxidant agent. The anticancer activity of the extract was evaluated against (1) breast cancer cell lines (MDAM B-231), (2) cervical cancer cell lines (HeLa), and (3) lung cancer cell line (A 549) using MTT assay, and significant activity was recorded against A 549 with an IC50 value of 64 μg/ml. Further studies on the morphology, acridine orange/ethidium bromide staining, and cell cycle analysis by flow cytometry confirm the extract-induced apoptosis in A 549. This extract also recorded significant anti-tuberculosis activity against Mycobacterium smegmatis. The current study suggests that the ethyl acetate extract of A. tamilnadensis is a potential source of natural α-glucosidase inhibitor and antioxidant for protection as well as prevention of life-threatening diseases like cancer.

  19. Biochemical analysis of reactive oxygen species production and antioxidative responses in unripe avocado (Persea americana Mill var Hass) fruits in response to wounding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Mercado, E; Martinez-Diaz, Y; Roman-Tehandon, N; Garcia-Pineda, E

    2009-03-01

    We analyzed the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and of detoxifying enzymes and enzymes of the ascorbate (ASC) acid cycle in avocado fruit (Pesea Americana Mill cv Hass) in response to wounding. The levels of superoxide anion (O(2-), hydroxyl radicals (OH.) and hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) increased at 15 min and 2 and 15 h post-wounding. Peroxidase (POD) activity had increased to high levels 24 h after wounding; in contrast, catalase and superoxide dismutase (SOD) levels hat decreased significantly at 24 h post-treatment. Basic POD was the major POD form induced, and the levels of at least three apoplastic POD isozymes -increased following wounding. Using specific inhibitors, we characterized one MnSOD and two CuZnSOD isozymes. CuZnSOD activities decreased notably 12 h after treatment. The activities of dehydroascorbate reductase and glutathione reductase increased dramatically following the wounding treatment, possibly as a means to compensate for the redox changes due to ROS production.

  20. “EFEITO DO PESO DA MUDA TIPO PEDAÇO DE RIZOMA, NO ENRAIZAMENTO INICIAL DA BANANEIRA DO CULTIVAR MARMELO (Musa sp ABB” EFFECT OF THE WEIGHT OF RHIZOME TYPE SEEDLING IN THE INITIAL ROOTING OF BANANA CULTIVAR MARMELO (Musa sp. ABB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raimundo Ney de Macedo Lima

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Um dos maiores problemas na formação de um bananal é a obtenção de mudas sadias e em quantidade suficiente nas proximidades da lavoura. O custo do transporte deste material, assim como o preço é muito alto. Uma solução para amenizar o problema é a utilização de pedaços de rizoma. O presente trabalho foi realizado com finalidade de determinar o tamanho mínimo do pedaço de rizoma que poderá ser recomendado quando se utiliza o cultivar “marmelo” sob nossas condições. Com base nos resultados conclui-se que: a - Quanto maior o pedaço de rizoma, maior o enraizamento; b - O peso mínimo a ser utilizado diretamente no campo é de 750 g; c - Os pedaços de 250 g apresentam bom índice de brotação e podem ser utilizados para propagação rápida.

    One of the greatest problems in the formation of a banana plantation is obtaining healthy shoots in sufficient quantity near the chosen site. The cost of transportation, along with the price of the shoots, is very high. One solution for this problem is to use bits. This study was undertaken to determine the smallest piece of rizoma which could de used in the cultivation of the banana “marmelo” under our existing conditions.

  1. Holocene vegetation and climatic variations in Central India: A study based on multiproxy evidences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, M. S.; Sharma, Anupam; Phartiyal, Binita; Kumar, Kamlesh

    2013-11-01

    Palynology, texture, mineralogy, geochemistry, and magnetic susceptibility analysis of a 2 m deep sediment core from Padauna Swamp, southeastern Madhya Pradesh infers that between 8600 and 7500 cal yr BP a warm and relatively less-humid climate prevailed with open tree-savannahs dominated by grasses followed by sedges, Artemisia and members of Chenopodiaceae/Amaranthaceae with scanty trees viz., Schrebera, Aegle marmelos and Sterculia urens. This is well supported by lower organic to carbonate carbon ratio, coarser texture having relatively low CIA and magnetic susceptibility values and presence of some primary minerals. Between 7500 and 6250 cal yr BP the tree-savannahs were succeeded by open mixed deciduous forests with the invasion of a few more trees viz., Madhuca indica, Holoptelea, Emblica officinalis, Mitragyna parvifolia and members of Anacardiaceae in response to onset of a warm and humid climate. A considerable rise in organic carbon generated from the degradation of plentiful biomass along with increase in clay content with signs of kaolinite and increase in immobile over mobile elements with slightly higher CIA and magnetic susceptibility values also suggest climatic amelioration. The presence of ruderal plants such as Artemisia, Cannabis sativa and Cheno/Am further infers initiation of human activities in the region. Between 6250 and 2800 cal yr BP, the mixed deciduous forests became more diverse and dense, subduing grasses and other herbaceous elements. Sporadic incursion of Shorea robusta (Sal) in forest floristic was recorded around 5000 cal yr BP. The overall change in the vegetation mosaic reflects that a warm and more-humid climate prevailed in the region, probably on account of invigoration of southwest monsoon. This observation is further corroborated by other proxy data showing a spurt in organic/inorganic carbon ratio, increase in clay content with matured mineralogy, significantly higher CIA and magnetic susceptibility values. Since 2800 cal

  2. Comparison of Deproteinization Process for Total Polysaccharides from Exocarp of Unripe Fruits of Juglans mandshurica%北青龙衣总多糖脱蛋白工艺比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任晓蕾; 霍金海; 董文婷; 张海燕; 王伟明

    2015-01-01

    目的:优选北青龙衣总多糖的脱蛋白工艺.方法:以蛋白质脱除率和总多糖保留率为指标,通过单因素试验和正交试验比较Sevage法、三氯乙酸法(TCA)、木瓜蛋白酶法、酶-Sevage联用法及酶-TCA联用法对北青龙衣总多糖的脱蛋白质效果.结果:木瓜蛋白酶-TCA法除蛋白效果最好,最佳脱蛋白条件为木瓜蛋白酶用量3%,酶解时间2h,酶解温度60℃,pH6,TCA质量分数6%.蛋白质脱除率84.76%,总多糖保留率82.48%.结论:不同脱蛋白质法对北青龙衣总多糖中蛋白质脱除效果有明显差异,酶-TCA法效果最佳且操作简便、耗时短.

  3. Study on the fresh unripe corn snack and their preservation by vacuum packaging%嫩玉米小吃及真空包装制品的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋云升; 石祚锋

    2003-01-01

    使用蒸、煮、烟熏等烹调方法将嫩玉米棒制成不同风味的小吃,并利用真空包装及其它保鲜方法将成品进行保鲜试验.结果表明,以玉米棒为原料加工而成的熟玉米小吃,利用真空包装结合速冻,在-18℃下放置,能使嫩玉米制品保持良好风味,保质期长达6个月以上.

  4. A novel ether-linked phytol-containing digalactosylglycerolipid in the marine green alga, Ulva pertusa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishibashi, Yohei; Nagamatsu, Yusuke [Department of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Graduate School of Bioresource and Bioenvironmental Sciences, Kyushu University, 6-10-1 Hakozaki, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8581 (Japan); Miyamoto, Tomofumi [Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kyushu University, Maidashi 3-1-1, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan); Matsunaga, Naoyuki; Okino, Nozomu; Yamaguchi, Kuniko [Department of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Graduate School of Bioresource and Bioenvironmental Sciences, Kyushu University, 6-10-1 Hakozaki, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8581 (Japan); Ito, Makoto, E-mail: makotoi@agr.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Department of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Graduate School of Bioresource and Bioenvironmental Sciences, Kyushu University, 6-10-1 Hakozaki, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8581 (Japan)

    2014-10-03

    Highlights: • Alkaline-resistant galactolipid, AEGL, was found in marine algae. • The sugar moiety of AEGL is identical to that of digalactosyldiacylglycerol. • AEGL is the first identified glycolipid that possesses an ether-linked phytol. • AEGL is ubiquitously distributed in green, red and brown marine algae. - Abstract: Galactosylglycerolipids (GGLs) and chlorophyll are characteristic components of chloroplast in photosynthetic organisms. Although chlorophyll is anchored to the thylakoid membrane by phytol (tetramethylhexadecenol), this isoprenoid alcohol has never been found as a constituent of GGLs. We here described a novel GGL, in which phytol was linked to the glycerol backbone via an ether linkage. This unique GGL was identified as an Alkaline-resistant and Endogalactosylceramidase (EGALC)-sensitive GlycoLipid (AEGL) in the marine green alga, Ulva pertusa. EGALC is an enzyme that is specific to the R-Galα/β1-6Galβ1-structure of galactolipids. The structure of U. pertusa AEGL was determined following its purification to 1-O-phytyl-3-O-Galα1-6Galβ1-sn-glycerol by mass spectrometric and nuclear magnetic resonance analyses. AEGLs were ubiquitously distributed in not only green, but also red and brown marine algae; however, they were rarely detected in terrestrial plants, eukaryotic phytoplankton, or cyanobacteria.

  5. 7 CFR 301.32-2 - Regulated articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION... marmelos Indian bael Peach. Anacardium occidentale Cashew Oriental. Annona cherimola Cherimoya Mexican... reticulata Custard apple, Annona Melon, Mexican, Oriental, Peach. Annona squamosa Custard apple...

  6. In vitro inhibitory effects of plant-based foods and their combinations on intestinal α-glucosidase and pancreatic α-amylase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adisakwattana Sirichai

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plant-based foods have been used in traditional health systems to treat diabetes mellitus. The successful prevention of the onset of diabetes consists in controlling postprandial hyperglycemia by the inhibition of α-glucosidase and pancreatic α-amylase activities, resulting in aggressive delay of carbohydrate digestion to absorbable monosaccharide. In this study, five plant-based foods were investigated for intestinal α-glucosidase and pancreatic α-amylase. The combined inhibitory effects of plant-based foods were also evaluated. Preliminary phytochemical analysis of plant-based foods was performed in order to determine the total phenolic and flavonoid content. Methods The dried plants of Hibiscus sabdariffa (Roselle, Chrysanthemum indicum (chrysanthemum, Morus alba (mulberry, Aegle marmelos (bael, and Clitoria ternatea (butterfly pea were extracted with distilled water and dried using spray drying process. The dried extracts were determined for the total phenolic and flavonoid content by using Folin-Ciocateu’s reagent and AlCl3 assay, respectively. The dried extract of plant-based food was further quantified with respect to intestinal α-glucosidase (maltase and sucrase inhibition and pancreatic α-amylase inhibition by glucose oxidase method and dinitrosalicylic (DNS reagent, respectively. Results The phytochemical analysis revealed that the total phenolic content of the dried extracts were in the range of 230.3-460.0 mg gallic acid equivalent/g dried extract. The dried extracts contained flavonoid in the range of 50.3-114.8 mg quercetin equivalent/g dried extract. It was noted that the IC50 values of chrysanthemum, mulberry and butterfly pea extracts were 4.24±0.12 mg/ml, 0.59±0.06 mg/ml, and 3.15±0.19 mg/ml, respectively. In addition, the IC50 values of chrysanthemum, mulberry and butterfly pea extracts against intestinal sucrase were 3.85±0.41 mg/ml, 0.94±0.11 mg/ml, and 4.41±0.15 mg/ml, respectively

  7. Method, apparatus and system for managing queue operations of a test bench environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostler, Farrell Lynn

    2016-07-19

    Techniques and mechanisms for performing dequeue operations for agents of a test bench environment. In an embodiment, a first group of agents are each allocated a respective ripe reservation and a second set of agents are each allocated a respective unripe reservation. Over time, queue management logic allocates respective reservations to agents and variously changes one or more such reservations from unripe to ripe. In another embodiment, an order of servicing agents allocated unripe reservations is based on relative priorities of the unripe reservations with respect to one another. An order of servicing agents allocated ripe reservations is on a first come, first served basis.

  8. 7 CFR 29.1165 - Lugs (X Group).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing..., 70 percent; tolerance, 30 percent waste. X3KM—Good Quality Variegated Mixed Lugs Unripe, close leaf... may be waste. X4KM—Fair Quality Variegated Mixed Lugs Unripe, close leaf structure, medium...

  9. ESTUDO DA CORRELAÇÃO DOS TEORES DE P, K, Al, Ca e Mg NO SOLO, COM A ALTURA DE BANANEIRAS DO CULTIVAR “MARMELO”, NA EMISSÃO DO CACHO P, K, Al, Ca, AND Mg SOIL CORRELATION STUDY WITH BANANA PLANT HEIGHT CULTIVAR "MARMELO" IN THE BUNCH EMISSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoel Passos de Castro

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    A bananeira do cultivar “Marmelo” vem, a cada dia, sendo a melhor opção para os bananicultores, que fornecem frutas às fábricas de doces. Com o aumento dos plantios deste cultivar, necessitou-se de dados concretos, na indicação de glebas, para a formação de bananais, tomando como base a análise do solo. Para isto tomaram-se 40 amostras, constituídas cada uma de 12 sub-amostras, ao redor de 40 touceiras de bananas. Estas touceiras foram escolhidas ao acaso, em um bananal de 2,5 ha, plantado no espaçamento de 3m x 3m, com idade de três anos. Para cada amostra analisaram-se os teores de P, K, Ca + Mg e Al, sendo estes correlacionados com a altura da bananeira correspondente, na emissão da inflorescência. Com base nas análises estatísticas concluiu-se que: a. Em caso de não se indicar adubação, o plantio só deve ser efetuado em solos com mais de 50 ppm. de K; b. A indicação de adubos fosfatados deverá ser feita apenas quando o teor de P no solo for menor que 1 ppm; c. O teor de Ca + Mg do solo deverá ser elevado para 2 (dois mE/100 ml, utilizando-se calcário dolomítico; d. O alumínio tóxico do solo deve ser totalmente neutralizado.

    For commercial banana production, flat fersain is preferable because farm implements and heavy machinery can move early in the fields, but in Goiás, flat land is generally of very low fertility. This study was undertaken to determine the growth of the “Marmelo” banana in this kind of poor soil, using correlations between analyses of soils and the heights of pseudo stems at flowering, and to suggest viable fertilization for its successful growth.

  10. Soil quality influences efficacy of Melia azedarach (Sapindales: Meliaceae), fruit extracts against Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Acari: Ixodidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hexane extract of chinaberry, Melia azedarach L., unripe fruits obtained from different municipalities of Goias state in Brazil were evaluated on the southern cattle fever tick, Rhipicephalus microplus (Canestrini), engorged females. Hexanic extracts were assayed in decreasing concentrations from 0....

  11. Environ: E00078 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 09755], Naringin [CPD:C09789], Synephrine [CPD:C04548] Citrus aurantium [TAX:43166], Citrus natsudaidai [TAX...:109792] Same as: D06706 Rutaceae (rue family) Citrus unripe fruit Major component: Naringin [CPD:C09789] ...

  12. Avaliação de cultivares de bananeira (Musa sp na região de Selvíria-MS Evaluation of banana (Musa sp cultivars in Selvíria-MS region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edicléia Aparecida da Silva

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o ciclo e a produção de sete cultivares de bananeira na região de Selvíria, Estado do Mato Grosso do Sul. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi do tipo blocos ao acaso, com sete tratamentos (Nanica; Mysore; Marmelo; Ouro-da-Mata; Ourinho; São Tomé e Prata e quatro repetições, num total de 28 parcelas. Os resultados obtidos permitiram as seguintes conclusões: A cultivar Mysore mostrou maior período do plantio ao florescimento, e as cultivares Nanica e São Tomé, menores. As cultivares Ouro-da-Mata e Ourinho apresentaram menor ciclo do plantio à colheita, enquanto as cultivares Mysore e Prata apresentaram ciclos maiores e iguais. As cultivares Marmelo e Nanica produziram cachos e pencas maiores, e as cultivares Ouro-da-Mata e Ourinho produziram cachos e pencas menores. A cultivar Mysore apresentou cacho com maior número de pencas, e a cultivar São Tomé, menor número. A cultivar Ourinho obteve maior número de frutos por penca, e a cultivar Marmelo, menor número. A cultivar Marmelo destacou-se com maior comprimento e diâmetro dos frutos da segunda penca. As melhores cultivares para esta região são Nanica e Marmelo, pois apresentaram bom desenvolvimento.The objective of this study was to evaluate the development and the production of seven banana cultivars in the region of Selvíria, Mato Grosso do Sul state. The experiment was conducted in random blocks, under seven different treatments (Nanica; Mysore; Marmelo; Ouro-da-Mata; Ourinho; São Tomé e Prata with four repetitions, in a total of 28 plots. The results led to the following conclusions: the period which goes from the planting to the flowering was longer for the Mysore cultivar and shorter for the Nanica and São Tomé cultivars. The development from the planting to the harvesting was shorter for the Ouro-da-Mata and Ourinho cultivars and equally longer for the Mysore and Prata cultivars. The Marmelo end Nanica cultivars

  13. Essential Oil Composition and Antimicrobial Activities of Two Closely Related Species, Alpinia mutica Roxb. and Alpinia latilabris Ridl., from Peninsular Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halijah Ibrahim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation of the unripe and ripe fruits of Alpinia mutica Roxb. and Alpinia latilabris Ridl. were analysed by capillary GC and GC-MS. The oils were principally monoterpenic in nature. The unripe and ripe fruit oils of A. mutica were characterized by camphor (21.0% and 15.8%, camphene (16.6% and 10.2%, β-pinene (8.6% and 13.5%, and trans,trans-farnesol (8.0% and 11.2%, respectively. The oils of the unripe and ripe fruits were moderately active against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, and Trichophyton rubrum. 1,8-Cineole (34.2% and 35.9% and β-pinene (20.2% and 19.0% were the two most abundant components in the unripe and ripe fruit oils of A. latilabris. The oil of the unripe fruits elicits moderate activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Trichophyton mentagrophytes while Candida glabrata was moderately sensitive to the oil of the ripe fruits.

  14. Antitubercular activity and phytochemical screening of selected medicinal plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajandeep Kaur

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Medicinal plants offer a hope for developing alternate medicines for the treatment of Tuberculosis.. The present study was done to evaluate in vitro anti-tubercular activity of five medicinal plants viz., Syzygium aromaticum, Piper nigrum, Glycyrrhiza glabra, Aegele marmelos and Lawsonia inermis. Solvent extracts of Syzygium aromaticum, Piper nigrum, Glycyrrhiza glabra, Aegele marmelos and Lawsonia inermis were tested in vitro for their activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv strain using Microplate Alamar Blue Assay. Activity in MABA was evaluated by lowest concentration of sample that prevents color change to pink. Extracts of all the five plants Syzygium aromaticum, Piper nigrum, Glycyrrhiza glabra, Aegele marmelos and Lawsonia inermis exhibited anti-tuberculosis activity, the proportion of inhibition of these plants extracts for M. tuberculosis H37Rv, inhibition was found to be 0.8µg/ml, 50µg/ml, 12.5µg/ml and 50µg/ml respectively. Our findings showed that all these plants exhibited activity against MDR isolates of H37Rv M. tuberculosis strain. Further studies aimed at isolation and identification of active substances from the extracts needs to be carried out

  15. Risk Analysis for Environmental Health Triage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bogen, K T

    2005-11-18

    The Homeland Security Act mandates development of a national, risk-based system to support planning for, response to and recovery from emergency situations involving large-scale toxic exposures. To prepare for and manage consequences effectively, planners and responders need not only to identify zones of potentially elevated individual risk, but also to predict expected casualties. Emergency response support systems now define ''consequences'' by mapping areas in which toxic chemical concentrations do or may exceed Acute Exposure Guideline Levels (AEGLs) or similar guidelines. However, because AEGLs do not estimate expected risks, current unqualified claims that such maps support consequence management are misleading. Intentionally protective, AEGLs incorporate various safety/uncertainty factors depending on scope and quality of chemical-specific toxicity data. Some of these factors are irrelevant, and others need to be modified, whenever resource constraints or exposure-scenario complexities require responders to make critical trade-off (triage) decisions in order to minimize expected casualties. AEGL-exceedance zones cannot consistently be aggregated, compared, or used to calculate expected casualties, and so may seriously misguide emergency response triage decisions. Methods and tools well established and readily available to support environmental health protection are not yet developed for chemically related environmental health triage. Effective triage decisions involving chemical risks require a new assessment approach that focuses on best estimates of likely casualties, rather than on upper plausible bounds of individual risk. If risk-based consequence management is to become a reality, federal agencies tasked with supporting emergency response must actively coordinate to foster new methods that can support effective environmental health triage.

  16. Characterisation of the flavour of fresh bell peppers (Capsicum annuum) and its changes after hot-air drying; and instrumental and sensory evaluation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luning, P.A.

    1995-01-01

    Fruits of Capsicum annuum and C. frutescens are commonly used in the diet because of their typical colour, pungency, taste. and distinct aroma. The fruits are eaten fresh or processed, as unripe (green) or ripe (e.g., red, yellow, orange, white) peppers. In the last decade. attention is shifting tow

  17. Yeasts and lactic acid bacteria microbiota from masau (Ziziphus mauritiana) fruits and their fermented fruit pulp in Zimbabwe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nyanga, L.K.; Nout, M.J.R.; Gadaga, T.H.; Theelen, R.M.C.; Boekhout, T.; Zwietering, M.H.

    2007-01-01

    Masau are Zimbabwean wild fruits, which are usually eaten raw and/ or processed into products such as porridge, traditional cakes, mahewu and jam. Yeasts, yeast-like fungi, and lactic acid bacteria present on the unripe, ripe and dried fruits, and in the fermented masau fruits collected from Muzarab

  18. Biologic Propensities and Phytochemical Profile of Vangueria madagascariensis J. F. Gmelin (Rubiaceae: An Underutilized Native Medicinal Food Plant from Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelvana Ramalingum

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Vangueria madagascariensis (VM, consumed for its sweet-sour fruits, is used as a biomedicine for the management of diabetes and bacterial infections in Africa. The study aims to assess the potential of VM on α-amylase, α-glucosidase, glucose movement, and antimicrobial activity. The antioxidant properties were determined by measuring the FRAP, iron chelating activity, and abilities to scavenge DPPH, HOCl, ∙OH, and NO radicals. Leaf decoction, leaf methanol, and unripe fruit methanol extracts were observed to significantly inhibit α-amylase. Active extracts against α-glucosidase were unripe fruit methanol, unripe fruit decoction, leaf decoction, and ripe fruit methanol, which were significantly lower than acarbose. Kinetic studies revealed a mixed noncompetitive type of inhibition. Leaf methanolic extract was active against S. aureus and E. coli. Total phenolic content showed a strong significant positive correlation (r=0.88 with FRAP. Methanolic leaf extract showed a more efficient NO scavenging potential and was significantly lower than ascorbic acid. Concerning ∙OH-mediated DNA degradation, only the methanol extracts of leaf, unripe fruit, and ripe fruit had IC50 values which were significantly lower than α-tocopherol. Given the dearth of information on the biologic propensities of VM, this study has established valuable primary information which has opened new perspectives for further pharmacological research.

  19. 7 CFR 29.1164 - Cutters (C Group).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cutters (C Group). 29.1164 Section 29.1164 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing.... C4KM—Fair Quality Variegated Mixed Cutters Unripe, close leaf structure, medium body, normal width,...

  20. Influence of phenols mass fraction in olive (Olea europaea L.) paste on volatile compounds in Buža cultivar virgin olive oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germek, Valerija Majetić; Koprivnjak, Olivera; Butinar, Bojan; Pizzale, Lorena; Bučar-Miklavčič, Milena; Conte, Lanfranco S

    2013-06-26

    The influence of the phenolic content in olive paste of cv. Buža increased by the addition of an aqueous solution of phenolic extract of freeze-dried olive pulp (cv. Istarska bjelica) on the final products of the lipoxygenase pathway in oil was studied. Increases by 12, 38, and 56% for ripe fruits (maturity index = 4.0) and by 38% for unripe fruits (maturity index = 1.2) were examined. Phenols in the olive paste were determined according to the HPLC method, whereas volatiles in oil were determined according to SPME-GC-MS. A significant negative effect on Z-3-hexenal and E-2-hexen-1-ol (Tukey's test, p < 0.05) was found for ripe fruits (average decreases of 55 and 60%, respectively), but not for the unripe sample. Positive effects in both ripening levels were found for Z-3-hexenyl acetate (average increase of 68% for ripe and a double increase for unripe fruits) and total C5 compounds (average increase of 32% for ripe and an increase of 30% for unripe fruits).

  1. Biodegradable Composites Based on Starch/EVOH/Glycerol Blends and Coconut Fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unripe coconut fibers were used as fillers in a biodegradable polymer matrix of starch/Ethylene vinyl alcohol (EVOH)/glycerol. The effects of fiber content on the mechanical, thermal and structural properties were evaluated. The addition of coconut fiber into starch/EVOH/glycerol blends reduced the ...

  2. ANTIFUNGAL ACTIVITY OF SOME PLANT EXTRACT S AGAINST FUSARIUM SOLANI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.K. BHARADWAJ

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The aqueous extracts of twenty plants were screened for their antifungal activity Fusarium solani, causal organism if Sudden Death Syndrome (SDS of Soybean (Glycine max wilt diseases, soft rot of potato. The maximum inhibitory effect was shown by leaf extracts of Camellia sinensis (67.17%, root extracts of Asparagus racemosus (54.43%. Some of the other plants showed moderate to intermediate inhibition against the mycelium growth of test fungi whcih varied in the following range Callistemon lanceolatus> Agegle marmelos> Azadirachta> Acacia catechu> Aloevera.

  3. Comparative essential oil composition and antifungal effect of bitter fennel (Foeniculum vulgare ssp. piperitum) fruit oils obtained during different vegetation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozcan, Mehmet Musa; Chalchat, Jean-Claude; Arslan, Derya; Ateş, Ayşe; Unver, Ahmet

    2006-01-01

    The chemical composition of the flower and unripe and ripe fruits from fennel (bitter) (Foeniculum vulgare ssp. piperitum) has been examined by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The main identified components of the flower and unripe and ripe fruit oils were estragole (53.08%, 56.11%, and 61.08%), fenchone (13.53%, 19.18%, and 23.46%), and alpha-phellandrene (5.77%, 3.30%, and 0.72%), respectively. Minor qualitative and major quantitative variations for some compounds of essential oils were determined with respect to the different parts of F. vulgare. The oils exerted varying levels of antifungal effects on the experimental mycelial growth of Alternaria alternata, Fusarium oxysporum, and Rhizoctonia solani. The 40 ppm concentrations of fennel oils showed inhibitory effect against mycelial growth of A. alternaria, whereas 10 ppm levels were ineffective. The analyses show that fennel oils exhibited different degrees of fungistatic activity depending on the doses.

  4. Effects of plantain and corn starches on the mechanical and disintegration properties of paracetamol tablets

    OpenAIRE

    Akin-Ajani, Olufunke D.; Itiola, Oludele A.; ODEKU, OLUWATOYIN A.

    2005-01-01

    The effects of plantain starch obtained from the unripe fruit of the plantMusa paradisiaca L. (Musaceae) on the mechanical and disintegration properties of paracetamol tablets have been investigated in comparison with the effects of corn starch BP using a 23 factorial experimental design. The individual and combined effects of nature of starch binder (N), concentration of starch binder (C), and the relative density of tablet (RD) on the tensile strength (TS), brittle fracture index (BFI), and...

  5. Cell Wall Microstructure Analysis Implicates Hemicellulose Polysaccharides in Cell Adhesion in Tomato Fruit Pericarp Parenchyma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jose J. Ordaz-Ortiz; Susan E. Marcus; J. Paul Knox

    2009-01-01

    Methods developed to isolate intact cells from both unripe and ripe tomato fruit pericarp parenchyma have allowed the cell biological analysis of polysaccharide epitopes at the surface of separated cells. The LM7 pectic homoga-lacturonan epitope is a marker of the junctions of adhesion planes and intercellular spaces in parenchyma systems. The LM7 epitope persistently marked the former edge of adhesion planes at the surface of cells separated from unripe and ripened tomato fruit and also from fruits with the Cnr mutation. The LM 11 xylan epitope was associated, in sections, with cell walls lining intercellular space but the epitope was not detected at the surface of isolated cells, being lost during cell isolation. The LM15 xyloglucan epitope was present at the surface of cells isolated from unripe fruit in a pattern reflecting the former edge of cell adhesion planes/intercellular space but with gaps and apparent breaks, An equivalent pattern ofLM15 epitope occurrence was revealed at the surface of cells isolated by pectate lyase action but was not present in cells isolated from ripe fruit or from Cnr fruit. In contrast to wild-type cells, the LM5 galactan and LM21 mannan epitopes oc-curred predominantly in positions reflecting intercellular space in Cnr, suggesting a concerted alteration in cell wall mi-crostructure in response to this mutation. Galactanase and mannanase, along with pectic homogalacturonan-degrading enzymes, were capable of releasing cells from unripe fruit parenchyma. These observations indicate that hemicellulose polymers are present in architectural contexts reflecting cell adhesion and that several cell wall polysaccharide classes are likely to contribute to cell adhesion/cell separation in tomato fruit pericarp parenchyma.

  6. JPRS Report, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    the first time in the world in breeding some protoplast regenerative plants of sor- ghum, wild soybean , and millet, a project internationally...regenerative plants of wild soybean through culturing protoplasts separated from unripe wild soy- bean leaves. Some of the plants have been...in breeding protoplast regenerative plants of rice, wheat, corn, sweet potato and soybean . Shanghai Sets Up Domestic Animal Production Center

  7. Shifts in Color Discrimination during Early Pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Levente L. Orbán; Farhad N. Dastur

    2012-01-01

    The present study explores two hypotheses: a) women during early pregnancy should experience increased color discrimination ability, and b) women during early pregnancy should experience shifts in subjective preference away from images of foods that appear either unripe or spoiled. Both of these hypotheses derive from an adaptive view of pregnancy sickness that proposes the function of pregnancy sickness is to decrease the likelihood of ingestion of foods with toxins or teratogens. Changes to...

  8. ORANGE: RANGE OF BENEFITS

    OpenAIRE

    Parle Milind; Chaturvedi Dev

    2012-01-01

    No wonder that oranges are one of the most popular fruits in the world. Orange (citrus sinensis) is well known for its nutritional and medicinal properties throughout the world. From times immemorial, whole Orange plant including ripe and unripe fruits, juice, orange peels, leaves and flowers are used as a traditional medicine. Citrus sinensis belongs to the family Rutaceae. The fruit is a fleshy, indehiscent, berry that ranges widely in size from 4 cm to 12 cm. The major medicinal proper...

  9. Symbiotic bacteria enable olive fly larvae to overcome host defences

    OpenAIRE

    Ben-Yosef, Michael; Pasternak, Zohar; Jurkevitch, Edouard; Yuval, Boaz

    2015-01-01

    Ripe fruit offer readily available nutrients for many animals, including fruit fly larvae (Diptera: Tephritidae) and their associated rot-inducing bacteria. Yet, during most of their ontogeny, fruit remain chemically defended and effectively suppress herbivores and pathogens by high levels of secondary metabolites. Olive flies (Bactrocera oleae) are uniquely able to develop in unripe olives. Unlike other frugivorous tephritids, the larvae maintain bacteria confined within their midgut caeca. ...

  10. Seasonal Effects on the Population, Morphology and Reproductive Behavior of Narnia femorata (Hemiptera: Coreidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Lauren A. Cirino; Christine W Miller

    2017-01-01

    Many insects are influenced by the phenology of their host plants. In North Central Florida, Narnia femorata (Hemiptera: Coreidae) spends its entire life cycle living and feeding on Opuntia mesacantha ssp. lata. This cactus begins producing flower buds in April that lead to unripe green fruit in June that ripen into red fruit through December. Many morphological and behavioral characteristics of N. femorata are known to be affected by cactus phenology in a controlled laboratory setting, inclu...

  11. Sensory quality of scab-resistant apple cultivars

    OpenAIRE

    2001-01-01

    Twenty-two scab-resistant apple cultivars were harvested in autumn 1999 and evaluated for sensory quality the following October, November and December. Multivariate analysis was effective in describing the comblex relationships and variabillity among the numerous attributes used to characterise apple quality. Crispness, mealiness, skin toughness, apple flavour, sweetness, unripe flavour and overripe flavour were informative attributes describing the variation in the sensory quality. Texture a...

  12. Study on Ouick - Frozen Technology and Eouioment of Fresh Unrioe Maize%鲜食玉米速冻加工工艺及设备研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄从材; 易克传; 陈守江

    2012-01-01

    介绍了鲜食玉米采收后的加工工艺,简述了鲜嫩玉米剥皮、切端、分级、清洗、蒸煮、冷却、速冻等工序的工艺控制要点,并在此基础上,对各工序加工机械的研究与应用情况进行了分析,为鲜食玉米速冻加工工艺和设备研究提供参考。%The processing techniques of fresh unripe maize postproduction were introduced. This paper explores the Processes control points of the fresh unripe maize postproduction in terms of peeling, cutting ends, grading, testing, cleaning, cook- ing, cooling, freezing, and so on. On the basis of this technology, the application and research on processing machinery for various processes were analyzed, it can provide a reference for the study of frozen processing and equipment on fresh unripe maize.

  13. Insights into molecular and metabolic events associated with fruit response to postharvest fungal pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noam eAlkan

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Due to postharvest losses more than 30% of harvested fruits will not reach the consumers’ plate. Fungal pathogens play a key role in those losses, as they cause most of the fruit rots and the customer complaints. Many of the fungal pathogens are already present in the unripe fruit but remain quiescent during fruit growth until a particular phase of fruit ripening and senescence. The pathogens sense the developmental change and switch into the devastating necrotrophic life style that causes fruit rotting. Colonization of unripe fruit by the fungus initiates defensive responses that limit fungal growth and development. However, during fruit ripening several physiological processes occur that correlate with increased fruit susceptibility. In contrast to plant defenses in unripe fruit, the defense posture of ripe fruit entails a different subset of defense responses that will end with fruit rotting and losses. This review will focus on several aspects of molecular and metabolic events associated with fleshy fruit responses induced by postharvest fungal pathogens during fruit ripening.

  14. Insights into molecular and metabolic events associated with fruit response to post-harvest fungal pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkan, Noam; Fortes, Ana M

    2015-01-01

    Due to post-harvest losses more than 30% of harvested fruits will not reach the consumers' plate. Fungal pathogens play a key role in those losses, as they cause most of the fruit rots and the customer complaints. Many of the fungal pathogens are already present in the unripe fruit but remain quiescent during fruit growth until a particular phase of fruit ripening and senescence. The pathogens sense the developmental change and switch into the devastating necrotrophic life style that causes fruit rotting. Colonization of unripe fruit by the fungus initiates defensive responses that limit fungal growth and development. However, during fruit ripening several physiological processes occur that correlate with increased fruit susceptibility. In contrast to plant defenses in unripe fruit, the defense posture of ripe fruit entails a different subset of defense responses that will end with fruit rotting and losses. This review will focus on several aspects of molecular and metabolic events associated with fleshy fruit responses induced by post-harvest fungal pathogens during fruit ripening.

  15. Protective effects of acerola juice on genotoxicity induced by iron in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Nunes Horta

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Metal ions such as iron can induce DNA damage by inducing reactive oxygen species (ROS and oxidative stress. Vitamin C is one of the most widely consumed antioxidants worldwide, present in many fruits and vegetables, especially inMalpighia glabra L., popularly known as acerola, native to Brazil. Acerola is considered a functional fruit due to its high antioxidant properties and phenolic contents, and therefore is consumed to prevent diseases or as adjuvant in treatment strategies. Here, the influence of ripe and unripe acerola juices on iron genotoxicity was analyzed in vivo using the comet assay and micronucleus test. The comet assay results showed that acerola juice exerted no genotoxic or antigenotoxic activity. Neither ripe nor unripe acerola juices were mutagenic to animals treated with juices, in micronucleus test. However, when compared to iron group, the pre-treatment with acerola juices exerted antimutagenic activity, decreasing significantly micronucleus mean values in bone marrow. Stage of ripeness did not influence the interaction of acerola compounds with DNA, and both ripe and unripe acerola juices exerted protective effect over DNA damage generated by iron.

  16. Assessment of heavy metals in Averrhoa bilimbi and A. carambola fruit samples at two developmental stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soumya, S L; Nair, Bindu R

    2016-05-01

    Though the fruits of Averrhoa bilimbi and A. carambola are economically and medicinally important, they remain underutilized. The present study reports heavy metal quantitation in the fruit samples of A. bilimbi and A. carambola (Oxalidaceae), collected at two stages of maturity. Heavy metals are known to interfere with the functioning of vital cellular components. Although toxic, some elements are considered essential for human health, in trace quantities. Heavy metals such as Cr, Mn, Co, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Pb, and Cd were analyzed by atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS). The samples under investigation included, A. bilimbi unripe (BU) and ripe (BR), A. carambola sour unripe (CSU) and ripe (CSR), and A. carambola sweet unripe (CTU) and ripe (CTR). Heavy metal analysis showed that relatively higher level of heavy metals was present in BR samples compared to the rest of the samples. The highest amount of As and Se were recorded in BU samples while Mn content was highest in CSU samples and Co in CSR. Least amounts of Cr, Zn, Se, Cd, and Pb were noted in CTU while, Mn, Cu, and As were least in CTR. Thus, the sweet types of A. carambola (CTU, CTR) had comparatively lower heavy metal content. There appears to be no reason for concern since different fruit samples of Averrhoa studied presently showed the presence of various heavy metals in trace quantities.

  17. Phytochemical fingerprints of lime honey collected in serbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gašić, Uroš; Šikoparija, Branko; Tosti, Tomislav; Trifković, Jelena; Milojković-Opsenica, Dušanka; Natić, Maja; Tešić, Živoslav

    2014-01-01

    Composition of phenolic compounds and the sugar content were determined as the basis for characterization of lime honey from Serbia. Particular attention was given to differences in phytochemical profiles of ripe and unripe lime honey and lime tree nectar. Melissopalynological analysis confirmed domination of Tilia nectar in all analyzed samples. Phenolic acids, abscisic acid, flavonoids, and flavonoid glycosides were determined by means of ultra-HPLC coupled with a hybrid mass spectrometer (UHPLC-OrbiTrap). Sugar content was determined using high-performance anion-exchange chromatography with amperometric detection. Similar phenolic compounds characterized unripe and ripe honeys, while the lime tree nectar profile showed notable differences. Compared to lime tree nectar, a high amount of chrysin, pinocembrin, and galangin were detected in both ripe and unripe lime honey. Fructose and glucose were the major constituents of all investigated samples, and amounts were within the limits established by European Union legislation. Sucrose content in the nectar sample was up to two-fold higher when compared to all honey samples. Isomaltose and gentiobiose with turanose content were different in analyzed production stages of lime honey.

  18. Water Extractable Phytochemicals from Peppers (Capsicum spp. Inhibit Acetylcholinesterase and Butyrylcholinesterase Activities and Prooxidants Induced Lipid Peroxidation in Rat Brain In Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omodesola O. Ogunruku

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. This study sought to investigate antioxidant capacity of aqueous extracts of two pepper varieties (Capsicum annuum var. accuminatum (SM and Capsicum chinense (RO and their inhibitory effect on acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase activities. Methods. The antioxidant capacity of the peppers was evaluated by the 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS radical scavenging ability and ferric reducing antioxidant property. The inhibition of prooxidant induced lipid peroxidation and cholinesterase activities in rat brain homogenates was also evaluated. Results. There was no significant difference (P>0.05 in the total phenol contents of the unripe and ripe Capsicum spp. extracts. Ripe and unripe SM samples had significantly higher (P<0.05 ABTS* scavenging ability than RO samples, while the ripe fruits had significantly higher (P<0.05 ferric reducing properties in the varieties. Furthermore, the extracts inhibited Fe2+ and quinolinic acid induced lipid peroxidation in rats brain homogenates in a dose-dependent manner. Ripe and unripe samples from SM had significantly higher AChE inhibitory abilities than RO samples, while there was no significant difference in the BuChE inhibitory abilities of the pepper samples. Conclusion. The antioxidant and anticholinesterase properties of Capsicum spp. may be a possible dietary means by which oxidative stress and symptomatic cognitive decline associated with neurodegenerative conditions could be alleviated.

  19. In vitro antibacterial, antioxidant activity and total phenolic content of some essential oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Upma; Ojha, Swati; Tripathi, N N; Singh, Pooja

    2015-11-01

    In vitro antibacterial activity of 16 essential oils was investigated by disc diffusion method against two Gram positive bacteria Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus and two Gram negative bacteria, Shigella flexneri and Escherichia coli. Oils of Cymbopogon citratus and Ocimum basilicum showed highest antibacterial activity. Gram positive bacteria were found to be more sensitive than Gram negative. Antioxidant activities were tested by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay and ABTS radical cation decolourization assay while Folin-Ciocalteu method was used to determine the total phenolic content. In DPPH assay, highest antioxidant activity was observed in 0. basilicum oil followed by Azeratum conyzoides, A. marmelos and C. citratus, with percent inhibition and IC50 value ranging from 66.11-71.93% and 14.10-17.92 µl ml(-1) respectively. In ABTS assay, similar results were obtained but with higher percent inhibition which ranged from 67.48-76.23% and lower IC50 value (12.12-17.21 µ ml(-1)). Moreover, radical scavenging activity of essential oils was lower than that observed for the synthetic antioxidant BHA and BHT. The total phenolic content of the essential oils as GAE in mg 100 µl(-1) of EO was found to be highest in O. basilicum (0.406) oil followed byA. conyzoides (0.322), A. marmelos (0.238) and C. citratus (0.231). The results provide evidence that the oils of C. citratus and O. basilicum can be further commended for treatment of infections caused by these bacterial pathogens and are potential source of natural antioxidants having appreciable amount of total phenolic content.

  20. Current status of Indian medicinal plants with antidiabetic potential:a review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Raju Patil; Ravindra Patil; Bharati Ahirwar; Dheeraj Ahirwar

    2011-01-01

    In India, indigenous remedies have been used in the treatment of diabetes mellitus since the time of Charaka and Sushruta. Plants have always been an exemplary source of drugs and many of the currently available drugs have been derived directly or indirectly from them. The ethnobotanical information reports that about 800 plants may possess anti-diabetic potential. Out of several Indian medicinal plants 33 plants were reviewed. The most effective antidiabetic Indian medicinal plants are Acacia arabica, Aegle marmelose, Agrimonia eupatoria, Allium cepa, Allium sativum, Aloe vera, Azadirachta indica, Benincasa hispida, Beta vulgaris, Caesalpinia bonducella, Citrullus colocynthis, Coccinia indica, Eucalyptus globules, Ficus bengalenesis, Gymnema sylvestre, Hibiscus rosasinesis, Ipomoea batatas, Jatropha curcus, Mangifera indica, Momordica charantia, Morus alba, Mucuna pruriens, Ocimum sanctum, Pterocarpus marsupium, Punica granatum, Syzigium cumini, Tinospora cordifolia, Trigonella foenum graecum. A wide array of plant derived active principles representing numerous chemical compounds has demonstrated activity consistent with their possible use in the treatment of diabetes.

  1. Análise do comércio de bananas em Lavras: Minas Gerais Analysis of banana trade in Lavras: Minas Gerais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lair Victor Pereira

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A participação de Lavras na oferta de banana no mercado local é muito pequena, considerando-se que o Brasil é o segundo país maior produtor com 6,6 milhões de toneladas e Minas Gerais é o quarto entre os Estados produtores dessa fruta. Visando a quantificar a participação de Lavras e região na oferta de banana no mercado local, realizou-se esse trabalho em duas etapas: 2002/2003 e 2004/2005. A aplicação mensal de questionários nos principais estabelecimentos comerciais de hortifruti e feiras - livre de Lavras, permitiu conhecer o volume comercializado, procedência e perdas das principais cultivares de banana. Os resultados obtidos mostram que em 2002/2003 foram comercializados 945,24 t e em 2004/2005 foi de 1.001,98 t. Desse volume, 6,56% em 2002/2003 e 14,62% em 2004/2005 tiveram como origem Lavras. O consumo per capita anual manteve-se em torno de 11,8 kg nos dois períodos pesquisados. As bananas tipo 'Prata', foram as mais comercializadas nas duas etapas, 54,7% no primeiro período e 58,7% no segundo, sendo que 7,91% e 18,35% , respectivamente, tiveram como origem Lavras. O volume de banana 'Marmelo' e do tipo 'Nanicão', foram de 1,91% e 28,4%, respectivamente, sendo que 84,0% da 'Marmelo' e 3,43% da tipo 'Nanicão' na segunda etapa foram procedentes de Lavras. A banana 'Maçã' teve uma redução de 125,30 t para 107,47 t, correspondendo a 13,26%, sendo que a oferta dessa cultivar, originada de Lavras, manteve-se em 13,8%. As bananas 'Maçã' e 'Marmelo' apresentaram as menores perdas, 3,56% e 4,78% e as dos tipos 'Prata'e 'Nanicão'as maiores perdas, 9,39% e 10, 75%, respectivamente.The participation of Lavras in the banana production offered to the local commerce is still very low considering that Brazil is the second banana producer of the world, with a production around 6.6 ton/year and per-capita consumption of 24.4 kg/year. Minas Gerais ranks in the fifth place among the most important Brazilian state producers. This

  2. Amelioration of cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity by ethanolic extract of Bauhinia purpurea: An in vivo study in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rana, Md Azmat; Khan, Rahat Ali; Nasiruddin, Mohammad; Khan, Aijaz Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    Our objective is to study the nephroprotective activity and antioxidant potential of Bauhinia purpurea unripe pods and bark against cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity. Healthy adult albino rats of either sex (150-200 g) were randomly divided into six groups of six animals each Group I (vehicle control) and Group II (negative control). Group III (BBE200) and Group IV (BBE400) were administered the ethanolic extract of Bauhinia purpurea bark in doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg/day p.o., respectively, and Group V (BPE200) and Group VI (BPE400) were administered the ethanolic extract of Bauhinia purpurea unripe pods at doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg/day p.o., respectively. All the treatments were given for nine days. Cisplatin in a single dose of 6 mg/kg i.p. was given on the 4 th day to all groups, except the vehicle control group. On the 10 th day, blood and urine were collected for biochemical tests and the rats were sacrificed. The kidney was removed for histology and lipid peroxidation-antioxidant test. Cisplatin caused nephrotoxicity as evidenced by elevated blood urea, serum creatinine and urine glucose, and there was decreased creatinine clearance in Group II as compared with Group I. Administration of BBE and BPE at doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg in Group III and Group VI caused a dose-dependant reduction in the rise of blood urea, serum creatinine and urine glucose, and there was a dose-dependant increase in creatinine clearance compared with Group II. There was increased catalase and glutathione and decreased malondialdehyde levels in Group II, while BBE 400 (Group IV) and BPE 400 (Group VI) treatments significantly reversed the changes toward normal values. Histological examination of the kidney revealed protection in Group IV and Group VI compared with Group II. The ethanolic extract of Bauhinia purpurea unripe pods and bark has a nephroprotective activity against cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in rats.

  3. Ripening stage and extraction method effects on physical properties, polyphenol composition and antioxidant activities of cumin (Cuminum cyminum L.) seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebey, Iness Bettaieb; Kefi, Sarra; Bourgou, Soumaya; Ouerghemmi, Ines; Ksouri, Riadh; Tounsi, Moufida Saidani; Marzouk, Brahim

    2014-12-01

    The effects of two extraction methods, used at three ripening stages on the total polyphenol contents and the antioxidant activities of Cumin (Cuminum cyminum L.) seed extracts were studied. The ripening stage effect on some physical properties of cumin seed was significant. The increase of dry matter (from 10.3 to 87.5%) during ripeness was correlated negatively with that of moisture content (from 89.7 to 12.5%). Besides results showed that the full ripe seeds were richer on polyphenols and condensed tannin than unripe ones, and consequently exhibited higher antioxidant activities. However, the unripe seeds had a higher total flavonoid content compared to those of half ripe and full ripe ones. The comparison of two extraction methods showed that soxhlet extracts contained the greatest amount of polyphenols and flavonoids, while maceration samples exhibited higher antiradical and bleaching power assay. Total phenolic contents and IC50 (concentration required to cause a 50% DPPH inhibition) values in cumin seed during their maturation allowed to conclude that antioxidant activity does not depend only on the high content of total phenolics but also on the phenolic composition. A total of 19 phenolic compounds were successfully identified by HPLC analysis during the ripening of cumin seeds. Rosmarinic acid was the major phenolic acid for the unripe seeds. Furthermore, half ripe and full ripe seeds were dominated by p-coumaric acid. These compounds might be considered as interesting bioactive natural substances that may be used in several fields, such as nutraceuticals, cosmetics and agro-food industry.

  4. Why are there apes? Evidence for the co-evolution of ape and monkey ecomorphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Kevin D

    2016-04-01

    Apes, members of the superfamily Hominoidea, possess a distinctive suite of anatomical and behavioral characters which appear to have evolved relatively late and relatively independently. The timing of paleontological events, extant cercopithecine and hominoid ecomorphology and other evidence suggests that many distinctive ape features evolved to facilitate harvesting ripe fruits among compliant terminal branches in tree edges. Precarious, unpredictably oriented, compliant supports in the canopy periphery require apes to maneuver using suspensory and non-sterotypical postures (i.e. postures with eccentric limb orientations or extreme joint excursions). Diet differences among extant species, extant species numbers and evidence of cercopithecoid diversification and expansion, in concert with a reciprocal decrease in hominoid species, suggest intense competition between monkeys and apes over the last 20 Ma. It may be that larger body masses allow great apes to succeed in contest competitions for highly desired food items, while the ability of monkeys to digest antifeedant-rich unripe fruits allows them to win scramble competitions. Evolutionary trends in morphology and inferred ecology suggest that as monkeys evolved to harvest fruit ever earlier in the fruiting cycle they broadened their niche to encompass first more fibrous, tannin- and toxin-rich unripe fruits and later, for some lineages, mature leaves. Early depletion of unripe fruit in the central core of the tree canopy by monkeys leaves a hollow sphere of ripening fruits, displacing antifeedant-intolerant, later-arriving apes to small-diameter, compliant terminal branches. Hylobatids, orangutans, Pan species, gorillas and the New World atelines may have each evolved suspensory behavior independently in response to local competition from an expanding population of monkeys. Genetic evidence of rapid evolution among chimpanzees suggests that adaptations to suspensory behavior, vertical climbing, knuckle

  5. As you reap, so shall you sow: coupling of harvesting and inoculating stabilizes the mutualism between termites and fungi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aanen, Duur Kornelis

    2006-01-01

    by consuming modified unripe mushrooms (nodules) for food. However, these nodules provide asexual gut-resistant spores that form the inoculum of new substrate. This within-nest propagation has two important consequences: (i) the mutualistic fungi undergo severe, recurrent bottlenecks, so that the fungus...... is likely to be in monoculture and (ii) the termites ‘artificially' select for high nodule production, because their fungal food source also provides the inoculum for the next harvest. I also provide a brief comparison of the termite-fungus mutualism with the analogous agricultural mutualism between attine...

  6. Basic Study on Color Sorting of Fresh Market Tomatoes

    OpenAIRE

    Mohri, Kentaro; UMEDA, Shigeo; TSURUMI, Gaku

    1987-01-01

    The surface colors of tomatoes are one of decision factor for the ripeness rate of fruits, and that is mainly graded by the human sense in fact. The color sorting based on the surface colors of tomatoes was attemped by using an opto-electronic system consisting of the color sensors. The sample tomatoes of each ripeness rate were prepared and tested by the color sorting system. As the ripeness rate of tomatoes develops from unripe to ripe, the surface colors change from green to pink or red. W...

  7. Morinda citrifolia L. fruit extracts modulates H2O2-induced oxidative stress in human liposarcoma SW872 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruhomally, Z; Somanah, J; Bahorun, T; Neergheen-Bhujun, V S

    2016-07-01

    Morinda citrifolia L. commonly known as noni is used by the pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries due to the plethora of pharmacological activities of its metabolites. In Mauritius, the fruits of M. citrifolia are used in folk medicine against a number of indications. The present study aimed at evaluating the antioxidant activity of ripe and unripe noni fruit at both biochemical and cellular levels. Using an array of established assay systems, the fruit antioxidant propensity was assessed in terms of its radical scavenging, iron reducing and metal chelating potentials. Ascorbic acid, total phenolic and total flavonoid contents of the fruits were also determined. The ascorbic acid content of ripe noni was 76.24 ± 1.13 mg/100 g while total phenolics of ripe and unripe fruit extracts were 748.40 ± 8.85 μg and 770.34 ± 2.27 μg GAE g(-1) FW respectively. Both the ripe and unripe extracts of M. citrifolia were potent scavengers of nitric oxide, superoxide and hydroxyl radicals. The ferric reducing capacity ranged from 11.26 ± 0.33 to 11.90 ± 0.20 mM Fe(2+) g(-1) FW while the IC50 values for the iron (II) chelating power were 0.50 ± 0.01 and 1.74 ± 0.01 g FW/mL for the ripe and unripe fruit extracts respectively. Cellular studies additionally demonstrated that noni were able to dose-dependently counteract accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS)-induced oxidative stress, a potential obesogenic factor within human liposarcoma SW872 cells as well as significantly restore cell death within the concentration range of 0.106-0.813 g/mL. Results reported herein suggest noni as an interesting source of prophylactic antioxidants modulated by its polyphenol composition.

  8. Properties of a milk clotting protease isolated from fruits of Bromelia balansae Mez.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardo, M F; López, L M; Caffini, N O; Natalucci, C L

    2001-05-01

    Unripe fruit extracts of Bromelia balansae Mez (Bromeliaceae), whose principal endopeptidase is balansain I (isolated for anion exchange chromatography: pI = 5.45, molecular weight = 23192), exhibit a pH profile with a maximum activity around pH 9.0 and are inhibited only by cysteine peptidases inhibitors. The alanine and glutamine derivatives of N-alpha-carbobenzoxy-L-amino acid p-nitrophenyl esters were strongly preferred by the enzyme. Enzymatic hydrolysis of milk and soy proteins yield characteristic patterns at pH 9.0. The N-terminal sequence showed a very high homology (85-90%) with other known Bromeliaceae endopeptidases.

  9. Preliminary functional characterization, cloning and primary sequence of Fastuosain, a cysteine peptidase isolated from fruits of Bromelia fastuosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabral, Hamilton; Leopoldino, Andréia M; Tajara, Eloiza H; Greene, Lewis J; Faça, Vitor M; Mateus, Rogério P; Ceron, Carlos R; de Souza Judice, Wagner A; Julianod, Luiz; Bonilla-Rodriguez, Gustavo O

    2006-01-01

    The present work reports the characterization of Fastuosain, a novel cysteine protease of 25kDa, purified from the unripe fruits of Bromelia fastuosa, a wild South American Bromeliaceae. Proteolytic activity, measured using casein and synthetic substrates, was dependent on the presence of thiol reagents, having maximum activity at pH 7.0. The present work reports cDNA cloning of Fastuosain; cDNA was amplified by PCR using specific primers. The product was 1096pb long. Mature fastuosain has 217 residues, and with the proregion has a total length of 324 residues. Its primary sequence showed high homology with ananain(74%), stem bromelain (66%) and papain (44%).

  10. 鲜食玉米籽粒产品加工工艺与设备选择%Processing Technology and Equipment Choice of Fresh Corn Grain Products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭宏杰

    2011-01-01

    采用国际先进的刺皮、削腐、切粒、清洗、人工挑选籽粒新工艺,完善鲜食玉米籽粒产品的加工,保持籽粒色、形及细菌含量的加工.%Adopt international advanced new process of skinning, cutting rotten part, grain-sized dicing, cleaning, artificial choose, improve the process of fresh unriped com grain products, keep well grain color, form and content of bacteria when processing.

  11. Effects of ripening on rheological properties of avocado pulp (Persea americana mill. Cv. Hass)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osorio, F.; Roman, A.; Ortiz, J.

    2015-04-01

    Avocado (Persea americana Mill) Hass variety is the most planted in Chile with a greater trade prospect. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of maturity on rheological properties of Chilean Avocado Hass pulp. Fresh unripe avocados were washed and peeled, cut and stored at 3 different times; a portion was treated at 5°C and the other was treated at 20°C until it reached 2 lb puncture pressure. During maturation changes would develop due to temperature and time, with internal cellular structure changes. Preliminary results of the rheological characteristics of avocado puree show a Bingham plastic behavior.

  12. 苹果多酚提取物对血管紧张素转化酶活性的抑制%Inhibition of Angiotensin Converting Enzyme Activity by Apple Polyphenols

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王艺璇; 王世平; 马丽艳

    2012-01-01

    In order to research the effect of apple polyphenols of different variety and maturity on angiotensin converting enzyme activity, HPLC method was established for the analysis of ACE inhibitory activity by apple polyphenols. Effect of variety ('Fuji' and 'Rails') and maturity on the inhibition of ACE activity was studied in this research. The results showed that, when the concentration of apple polyphenols were at the range of 1-250 μg/mL, the inhibition of ACE activity by four groups of unripe 'Fuji', ripe 'Fuji', unripe 'Rails', ripe 'Rails' were more and more stronger. And IG50 value of unripe 'Fuji' apple polyphenols and ripe 'Rails' apple polyphenols were 16.9, 80.8 μg/mL, respectively. We could get the conclusion that unripe apple polyphenols had the best effect on the inhibition of ACE activity, and could be used as nature sources of ACE inhibitors.%为研究不同品种、成熟度的苹果多酚对血管紧张素转化酶(angiotensin converting enzyme,ACE)活性的影响,确立高效液相色谱法(HPLC)测定苹果多酚对血管紧张素转化酶(ACE)活性抑制的检测方法.选取‘富士’、‘国光’2个品种、2个成熟度的苹果多酚提取物作为实验材料,研究其对ACE活性的抑制.实验结果表明,多酚浓度在1~250 μg/mL范围时,未成熟‘富士’、成熟‘富士’、未成熟‘国光’、成熟‘国光’的苹果多酚对ACE活性的抑制逐渐增强,其中未成熟‘富士’多酚提取物的半抑制率浓度IC50值最低,成熟‘国光’的IC50值最高,分别为16.9、80.8 μg/mL.由以上结果得出,未成熟‘富士’的苹果多酚对ACE活性的抑制作用最强,可以作为天然优良的ACE活性抑制剂.

  13. Composition and Enantiomeric Analysis of the Essential Oil of the Fruits and the Leaves of Pistacia vera from Greece

    OpenAIRE

    Eugenia Tsitsa; Prokopios Magiatis; Eleni Melliou; Katerina Georgopoulou; Anastasia Tsokou

    2007-01-01

    The essential oils of the fruits and the leaves of pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) were analyzed by GC and GC/MS. Fresh unripe pistachio fruits were richer in essential oil (0.5 %, w/w) than the leaves (0.1 %, w/w). Twenty one compounds were identified in the essential oil of the fruits and the major components were (+)-α-pinene (54.6 %) and terpinolene (31.2 %). The enantiomeric ratio of the major constituents of the essential oil of the fruits was determined using chiral GC/MS and it was fo...

  14. Intravaginal prostaglandin E2 for cervical ripening and induction of labour. A comparison of gel and tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davey, D A; Dommisse, J; MacNab, M

    1980-09-27

    Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) 4,5 mg in the form of either 0,5 mg oral tablets or tylose gel, was inserted intravaginally to induce labour in 11 pairs of patients with an unripe cervix. Labour commenced spontaneously in 68% of the patients and there was no difference in efficacy or complications between the tablets and the gel. PGE2 in tylose gel was originally introduced as the optimal preparation, but is not readily available. PGE2 oral tablets, inserted vaginally, although not ideal, are available and are as effective. The use of intravaginal PGE2 for induction of labour is a significant advance in obstetric practice.

  15. Foam-forming properties of Ilex paraguariensis (mate saponin: foamability and foam lifetime analysis by Weibull equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janine Treter

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Saponins are natural soaplike foam-forming compounds widely used in foods, cosmetic and pharmaceutical preparations. In this work foamability and foam lifetime of foams obtained from Ilex paraguariensis unripe fruits were analyzed. Polysorbate 80 and sodium dodecyl sulfate were used as reference surfactants. Aiming a better data understanding a linearized 4-parameters Weibull function was proposed. The mate hydroethanolic extract (ME and a mate saponin enriched fraction (MSF afforded foamability and foam lifetime comparable to the synthetic surfactants. The linearization of the Weibull equation allowed the statistical comparison of foam decay curves, improving former mathematical approaches.

  16. Quality and Yield of Cannabis Products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kastorp, Grith; Lindholst, Christian

    2011-01-01

    Abstract. 180 seizures containing 667 different samples of cannabis products from 5 police districts in Jutland were examined from 2008 to the present. The samples were divided into the groups: hashish, marihuana (leaves and buds) and whole plants (indoors and outdoors). Cannabis seized from indoor...... cultivation was examined in order to determine THC content and yield. The results are used by the Danish Police Attorney to estimate expected yields in cases with unripe cannabis plants. The results indicate that the THC content found in locally grown marihuana is slightly higher than in hashish. However...

  17. Technological use of green banana flour with shell (Musa AAB) as a fat susbtitute for meat models

    OpenAIRE

    Yorleny Araya-Quesada; Alejandra Morales-Torres; Lea Wexler; Pedro Vargas-Aguilar

    2014-01-01

    Green banana flour with shell was evaluated as fat substitute for meat products. Unripe plantains were dried in a hot air dryer (70 °C) and milled by a hammer mill to obtain two flours with different mesh sizes (HF, HG). Proximal composition, water holding capacity (WHC), solubility (S), swelling (SW), and fat absorption capacity (FAC) were determined. 2%, 4% and 6% of HG and HF were added to a meat model emulsion as fat replacement. The effect of adding green banana flour was evaluated on co...

  18. Insecticide and antifeedant activity of different plant parts of Melia azedarach on Xanthogaleruca luteola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defagó, M; Valladares, G; Banchio, E; Carpinella, C; Palacios, S

    2006-12-01

    In laboratory choice and no-choice bioassays, treatment of elm leaves with extracts obtained from unripe fruits and green or senescent leaves of Melia azedarach at 1-10% concentration significantly deterred feeding by adults of the elm leaf beetle, Xanthogaleruca luteola. Also, in no-choice tests, adults fed on leaves treated with 2, 5 or 10% extract showed a dramatic increase in mortality rates. Extracts from the different plant structures were similarly active, and starvation as a consequence of their strong antifeedant activity could play a significant role in the high mortality values observed.

  19. Gluten-free snacks using plantain-chickpea and maize blend: chemical composition, starch digestibility, and predicted glycemic index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Silva, Pamela C; Rodriguez-Ambriz, Sandra L; Bello-Pérez, Luis A

    2015-05-01

    An increase in celiac consumers has caused an increasing interest to develop good quality gluten-free food products with high nutritional value. Snack foods are consumed worldwide and have become a normal part of the eating habits of the celiac population making them a target to improve their nutritive value. Extrusion and deep-frying of unripe plantain, chickpea, and maize flours blends produced gluten-free snacks with high dietary fiber contents (13.7-18.2 g/100 g) and low predicted glycemic index (28 to 35). The gluten-free snacks presented lower fat content (12.7 to 13.6 g/100 g) than those reported in similar commercial snacks. The snack with the highest unripe plantain flour showed higher slowly digestible starch (11.6 and 13.4 g/100 g) than its counterpart with the highest chickpea flour level (6 g/100 g). The overall acceptability of the gluten-free snacks was similar to that chili-flavored commercial snack. It was possible to develop gluten-free snacks with high dietary fiber content and low predicted glycemic index with the blend of the 3 flours, and these gluten-free snacks may also be useful as an alternative to reduce excess weight and obesity problems in the general population and celiac community.

  20. Thin-layer chromatography-densitometric analysis of alpha-mangostin content in Garcinia mangostana fruit rind extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pothitirat, Werayut; Gritsanapan, Wandee

    2008-01-01

    The fruit rinds of mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana Linn.) have long been used as traditional medicines for treatment of skin infections, wounds, and diarrhea. A simple thin-layer chromatography (TLC)-densitometric method has been developed for the simultaneous quantification of alpha-mangostin in the extracts from unripe and ripe fruit rinds of G. mangostana. It was found in the ranges of 10.48 +/- 0.83 and 16.65 +/- 0.38% (w/w) in the dried unripe and ripe fruit rinds, respectively. The method was validated for linearity, precision, accuracy, limit of detection (LOD), and limit of quantitation (LOQ). The linearity was found over the range of 100-500 ng/spot with regression coefficient 0.999. Intraday and interday precision studies showed the relative standard deviation was <2%. Accuracy of the method was determined by a recovery study conducted at 3 different levels, and the average recovery was 99.49%. The LOD and LOQ were 40 and 100 ng, respectively. The proposed TLC-densitometric method was found to be simple, precise, specific, sensitive, and accurate. This method can be used for routine quality control of raw material of G. mangostana fruit rind, extract, and its products. It also can be applied in quantifying this marker compound in other drugs.

  1. Cooking enhances but the degree of ripeness does not affect provitamin A carotenoid bioavailability from bananas in Mongolian gerbils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bresnahan, Kara A; Arscott, Sara A; Khanna, Harjeet; Arinaitwe, Geofrey; Dale, James; Tushemereirwe, Wilberforce; Mondloch, Stephanie; Tanumihardjo, Jacob P; De Moura, Fabiana F; Tanumihardjo, Sherry A

    2012-12-01

    Banana is a staple crop in many regions where vitamin A deficiency is prevalent, making it a target for provitamin A biofortification. However, matrix effects may limit provitamin A bioavailability from bananas. The retinol bioefficacies of unripe and ripe bananas (study 1A), unripe high-provitamin A bananas (study 1B), and raw and cooked bananas (study 2) were determined in retinol-depleted Mongolian gerbils (n = 97/study) using positive and negative controls. After feeding a retinol-deficient diet for 6 and 4 wk in studies 1 and 2, respectively, customized diets containing 60, 30, or 15% banana were fed for 17 and 13 d, respectively. In study 1A, the hepatic retinol of the 60% ripe Cavendish group (0.52 ± 0.13 μmol retinol/liver) differed from baseline (0.65 ± 0.15 μmol retinol/liver) and was higher than the negative control group (0.39 ± 0.16 μmol retinol/liver; P bananas than in those fed raw (P = 0.0027). Body weights did not differ even though gerbils ate more green, ripe, and raw bananas than cooked, suggesting a greater indigestible component. In conclusion, thermal processing, but not ripening, improves the retinol bioefficacy of bananas. Food matrix modification affects carotenoid bioavailability from provitamin A biofortification targets.

  2. ESTUDIO PRELIMINAR DE LA RESISTENCIA MECÁNICA A LA FRACTURA Y FUERZA DE FIRMEZA PARA FRUTA DE UCHUVA (Physalis peruviana L. PRELIMINARY STUDY OF MECHANICAL RESISTANCE TO FRACTURE AND FIRMNESS FORCE FOR UCHUVA (Physalis peruviana L FRUITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor José Ciro Velasquez

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Se hizo la caracterización reológica de la uchuva (Physalis peruviana L. a través de la respuesta mecánica bajo ensayos de compresión unidireccional a pruebas de firmeza y fractura, para 3 grados de madurez (verde, pintón y maduro y los días transcurridos después de la cosecha (1, 3, 5, 7, 9 días. Los resultados indicaron que la fuerza de firmeza y la resistencia mecánica a la fractura en dos sentidos de carga longitudinal y transversal disminuyen con el tiempo de poscosecha de la fruta, indicando que el fruto maduro es mas susceptible al daño mecánico con respecto al verde y pintón.A rheological characterization under unidirectional compression of uchuva fruits (Physalis peruviana L. was undertaken measuring the flesh firmness force and the fracture force according to three specifc developmental stages unripe, ripenning, ripe and five postharvest times (1,3,5,7 and 9 days. The results showed that the flesh firmness and the mechanical resistance to the fracture in two loading directions longitudinal and transversal diminish with the postharvest time. Moreover, the ripe fruit is more susceptible to mechanical damage with respect to unripe and ripening fruit.

  3. Phytochemicals and Antioxidant Capacity from Nypa fruticans Wurmb. Fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagendra Prasad

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Nypa fruticans Wurmb. is one of the important underutilized fruit of Malaysia, which lacks scientific attention. Total phenolics, flavonoid content, and antioxidant capacities from endosperm extracts of Nypa fruticans (unripe and ripe fruits were evaluated. Endosperm extract of unripe fruits (EEU exhibited the highest phenolics (135.6 ± 4.5 mg GAE/g, flavonoid content (68.6 ± 3.1 RE/g, and antioxidant capacity. Free radical scavenging capacity of EEU as assessed by 2-2′-azino-bis (3-ethylbenz-thiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH radicals showed inhibitory activity of 78±1.2% and 85±2.6%, respectively. Beta carotene bleaching coefficient of EEU was higher (2550±123, when compared to endosperm extract of ripe fruits (1729±172. Additionally, EEU exhibited high antioxidant capacity by phosphomolybdenum method and ferric reducing antioxidant power values. Eight phenolic compounds from Nypa fruticans endosperm extracts were identified and quantified by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography. Chlorogenic acid, protocatechuic acid, and kaempferol were the major phenolic compounds. Thus this fruit could be used as a potential source of natural antioxidant.

  4. Transcriptomic responses of the olive fruit fly Bactrocera oleae and its symbiont Candidatus Erwinia dacicola to olive feeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlidi, Nena; Gioti, Anastasia; Wybouw, Nicky; Dermauw, Wannes; Ben-Yosef, Michael; Yuval, Boaz; Jurkevich, Edouard; Kampouraki, Anastasia; Van Leeuwen, Thomas; Vontas, John

    2017-01-01

    The olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae, is the most destructive pest of olive orchards worldwide. The monophagous larva has the unique capability of feeding on olive mesocarp, coping with high levels of phenolic compounds and utilizing non-hydrolyzed proteins present, particularly in the unripe, green olives. On the molecular level, the interaction between B. oleae and olives has not been investigated as yet. Nevertheless, it has been associated with the gut obligate symbiotic bacterium Candidatus Erwinia dacicola. Here, we used a B.oleae microarray to analyze the gene expression of larvae during their development in artificial diet, unripe (green) and ripe (black) olives. The expression profiles of Ca. E. dacicola were analyzed in parallel, using the Illumina platform. Several genes were found overexpressed in the olive fly larvae when feeding in green olives. Among these, a number of genes encoding detoxification and digestive enzymes, indicating a potential association with the ability of B. oleae to cope with green olives. In addition, a number of biological processes seem to be activated in Ca. E. dacicola during the development of larvae in olives, with the most notable being the activation of amino-acid metabolism. PMID:28225009

  5. Developmentally regulated sesquiterpene production confers resistance to Colletotrichum gloeosporioides in ripe pepper fruits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangkyu Park

    Full Text Available Sesquiterpenoid capsidiol, exhibiting antifungal activity against pathogenic fungus, is accumulated in infected ripe pepper fruits. In this study, we found a negative relation between the capsidiol level and lesion size in fruits infected with Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, depending on the stage of ripening. To understand the developmental regulation of capsidiol biosynthesis, fungal-induced gene expressions in the isoprenoid biosynthetic pathways were examined in unripe and ripe pepper fruits. The sterol biosynthetic pathway was almost shut down in healthy ripe fruits, showing very low expression of hydroxymethyl glutaryl CoA reductase (HMGR and squalene synthase (SS genes. In contrast, genes in the carotenoid pathway were highly expressed in ripe fruits. In the sesquiterpene pathway, 5-epi-aristolochene synthase (EAS, belonging to a sesquiterpene cyclase (STC family, was significantly induced in the ripe fruits upon fungal infection. Immunoblot and enzyme activity analyses showed that the STCs were induced both in the infected unripe and ripe fruits, while capsidiol was synthesized discriminatively in the ripe fruits, implying diverse enzymatic specificity of multiple STCs. Thereby, to divert sterol biosynthesis into sesquiterpene production, infected fruits were pretreated with an SS inhibitor, zaragozic acid (ZA, resulting in increased levels of capsidiol by more than 2-fold in the ripe fruits, with concurrent reduction of phytosterols. Taken together, the present results suggest that the enhanced expression and activity of EAS in the ripe fruits play an important role in capsidiol production, contributing to the incompatibility between the anthracnose fungus and the ripe pepper fruits.

  6. Effect of Maturation Degree of Areca Nut and Binder Treatment to The Physicochemical Properties and Citotoxicity of Spray-Dried Areca Nut (Areca catechu L Extracted Powder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yernisa Yernisa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Areca nut (Areca catechu L is a rich polyphenol source which is potential health-benefit. Polyphenol could extract from the sources and then converted to solid powder by spray drying. Polyphenol powder is easy to use and to introduce it into food (materials. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of maturation degree of areca nut (unripe, ripe and binder treatment (without a binder, arabic gum 2% w/v on the  physicochemical properties and citotoxicity of spray-dried areca nut extracted powder. This study used a completely randomized design (CRD. Data were analysed statistically used an analysis of variance. Analysis of the results exhibited unripe areca nut produced powder  with higher in yield, moisture content and total phenolic content but had no significant effect on pH and lower in bulk density and solubility than ripe areca nut. Arabic gum treatment produced powders with higher in yield, and solubility, but had no significant effect on moisture content and lower in bulk density, pH and total phenolic content than the treatment without binder. The areca nut extracted powders from all combination of treatments exhibited high cytotoxic activity against brine shrimp larvae with LC50 less than 1000 ppm, excepted the powders from ripe areca nut with arabic gum.

  7. ASPECTOS DA BIOLOGIA REPRODUTIVA DE Drimys brasiliensis Miers (WINTERACEAE EM FLORESTA OMBRÓFILA MISTA, SUL DO BRASIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Mariot

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Drimys brasiliensis Miers, locally known as “cataia” or “casca-de-anta”, is a native tree of “Floresta Ombrófila Mista”, in Brazil. Its bark has been used for medicine, through the exploitation of plants of natural populations. The present work aimed to study aspects of reproductive biology of Drimys brasiliensis in order to establish strategies for sustainable management and conservation, in order to generate alternative income from the exploitation of this non-timber forest product. Studies about reproductive phenology (296 plants during 2 years and a half, pollination and dispersal ecology, and floral biology were realized. The flowering season occurred the summer, with its peak in January. There are unripe fruits throughout the year, becoming ripe fruits as the temperature increases. There is a superposition of unripe and ripe fruit phenology from different flowering seasons. Ripe fruits are then, available for animals throughout the year. Hymenopteras are flower visitors with major potential for gene flow via pollen, but their frequency is low, like others flowers visitors, despite the high flowers production and pollen viability. Therefore, the highest fruit production which was seen comes from self-fecundation. The primary fruit dispersers are rare, birdsbeing observed. However, the secondary dispersal of seeds that reach the ground by barocory is high.

  8. Synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Solanum trilobatum fruits extract and its antibacterial, cytotoxic activity against human breast cancer cell line MCF 7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramar, Manikandan; Manikandan, Beulaja; Marimuthu, Prabhu Narayanan; Raman, Thiagarajan; Mahalingam, Anjugam; Subramanian, Palanisamy; Karthick, Saravanan; Munusamy, Arumugam

    2015-04-05

    In the present study, we have synthesized silver nanoparticles by a simple and eco-friendly method using unripe fruits of Solanum trilobatum. The aqueous silver ions when exposed to unripe fruits extract were reduced and stabilized over long time resulting in biosynthesis of surface functionalized silver nanoparticles. The bio-reduced silver nanoparticles were characterized by UV-visible spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDX) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). These biologically synthesized silver nanoparticles were tested for its antibacterial activity against few human pathogenic bacteria including Gram-positive (Streptococcus mutans, Enterococcus faecalis) and Gram-negative (Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae) bacteria. In addition, we also demonstrated anticancer activity of these nanoparticles in vitro against human breast cancer cell line (MCF 7) using MTT, nuclear morphology assay, Western blot and RT-PCR expression. These results taken together show the potential applications of biosynthesized silver nanoparticles using S. trilobatum fruits.

  9. Premature and ectopic anthocyanin formation by silencing of anthocyanidin reductase in strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Thilo C; Mirbeth, Beate; Rentsch, Judith; Sutter, Corina; Ring, Ludwig; Flachowsky, Henryk; Habegger, Ruth; Hoffmann, Thomas; Hanke, Magda-Viola; Schwab, Wilfried

    2014-01-01

    Strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa) is a fruit crop with a distinct biphasic flavonoid biosynthesis. Whereas, in the immature receptacle, high levels of proanthocyanidins accumulate, which are associated with herbivore deterrence and pathogen defense, the prominent color-giving anthocyanins are primarily produced in ripe 'fruits' helping to attract herbivores for seed dispersal. Here, constitutive experimental down-regulation of one branch of proanthocyanidin biosynthesis was performed. As a result, the proportion of epicatechin monomeric units within the proanthocyanidin polymer chains was reduced, but this was not the case for the epicatechin starter unit. Shortened chain lengths of proanthocyanidins were also observed. All enzymatic activities for the production of color-giving anthocyanins were already present in unripe fruits at levels allowing a striking red anthocyanin phenotype in unripe fruits of the RNAi silencing lines. An immediately recognizable phenotype was also observed for the stigmata of flowers, which is another epicatechin-forming tissue. Thus, the down-regulation of anthocyanidin reductase (ANR) induced a redirection of the proanthocyanidin pathway, leading to premature and ectopic anthocyanin biosynthesis via enzymatic glycosylation as the alternative pathway. This redirection is also seen in flavonol biosynthesis, which is paralleled by higher pollen viability in silencing lines. ANRi transgenic lines of strawberry provide a versatile tool for the study of the biological functions of proanthocyanidins.

  10. Transcriptomic responses of the olive fruit fly Bactrocera oleae and its symbiont Candidatus Erwinia dacicola to olive feeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlidi, Nena; Gioti, Anastasia; Wybouw, Nicky; Dermauw, Wannes; Ben-Yosef, Michael; Yuval, Boaz; Jurkevich, Edouard; Kampouraki, Anastasia; van Leeuwen, Thomas; Vontas, John

    2017-02-01

    The olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae, is the most destructive pest of olive orchards worldwide. The monophagous larva has the unique capability of feeding on olive mesocarp, coping with high levels of phenolic compounds and utilizing non-hydrolyzed proteins present, particularly in the unripe, green olives. On the molecular level, the interaction between B. oleae and olives has not been investigated as yet. Nevertheless, it has been associated with the gut obligate symbiotic bacterium Candidatus Erwinia dacicola. Here, we used a B.oleae microarray to analyze the gene expression of larvae during their development in artificial diet, unripe (green) and ripe (black) olives. The expression profiles of Ca. E. dacicola were analyzed in parallel, using the Illumina platform. Several genes were found overexpressed in the olive fly larvae when feeding in green olives. Among these, a number of genes encoding detoxification and digestive enzymes, indicating a potential association with the ability of B. oleae to cope with green olives. In addition, a number of biological processes seem to be activated in Ca. E. dacicola during the development of larvae in olives, with the most notable being the activation of amino-acid metabolism.

  11. Wounding tomato fruit elicits ripening-stage specific changes in gene expression and production of volatile compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldassarre, Valentina; Cabassi, Giovanni; Spadafora, Natasha D; Aprile, Alessio; Müller, Carsten T; Rogers, Hilary J; Ferrante, Antonio

    2015-03-01

    Fleshy fruits develop from an unripe organ that needs to be protected from damage to a ripe organ that attracts frugivores for seed dispersal through production of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Thus, different responses to wounding damage are predicted. The aim of this study was to discover whether wound-induced changes in the transcriptome and VOC production alter as tomato transitions from unripe to ripe. Transcript changes were analysed 3h post-wounding using microarray analysis in two commercial salad-tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) cultivars: Luna Rossa and AVG, chosen for their high aroma production. This was followed by quantitative PCR on Luna Rossa genes involved in VOC biosynthesis and defence responses. VOCs elicited by wounding at different ripening stages were analysed by solid phase micro extraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Approximately 4000 differentially expressed genes were identified in the cultivar AVG and 2500 in Luna Rossa. In both cultivars the majority of genes were up-regulated and the most affected pathways were metabolism of terpenes, carotenoids, and lipids. Defence-related genes were mostly up-regulated in immature stages of development, whereas expression of genes related to VOCs changed at riper stages. More than 40 VOCs were detected and profiles changed with ripening stage. Thus, both transcriptome and VOC profiles elicited by wounding depend on stage of ripening, indicating a shift from defence to attraction.

  12. Tomato GOLDEN2-LIKE transcription factors reveal molecular gradients that function during fruit development and ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Cuong V; Vrebalov, Julia T; Gapper, Nigel E; Zheng, Yi; Zhong, Silin; Fei, Zhangjun; Giovannoni, James J

    2014-02-01

    Fruit ripening is the summation of changes rendering fleshy fruit tissues attractive and palatable to seed dispersing organisms. For example, sugar content is influenced by plastid numbers and photosynthetic activity in unripe fruit and later by starch and sugar catabolism during ripening. Tomato fruit are sinks of photosynthate, yet unripe green fruit contribute significantly to the sugars that ultimately accumulate in the ripe fruit. Plastid numbers and chlorophyll content are influenced by numerous environmental and genetic factors and are positively correlated with photosynthesis and photosynthate accumulation. GOLDEN2-LIKE (GLK) transcription factors regulate plastid and chlorophyll levels. Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), like most plants, contains two GLKs (i.e., GLK1 and GLK2/UNIFORM). Mutant and transgene analysis demonstrated that these genes encode functionally similar peptides, though differential expression renders GLK1 more important in leaves, while GLK2 is predominant in fruit. A latitudinal gradient of GLK2 expression influences the typical uneven coloration of green and ripe wild-type fruit. Transcriptome profiling revealed a broader fruit gene expression gradient throughout development. The gradient influenced general ripening activities beyond plastid development and was consistent with the easily observed yet poorly studied ripening gradient present in tomato and many fleshy fruits.

  13. Influence of Ripeness and Drying Process on the Polyphenols and Tocopherols of Pistacia vera L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele Ballistreri

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper highlights, for the first time, the changes in the phenolics fraction (anthocyanins, flavonoids and stilbenes and tocopherols of unpeeled Pistacia vera L. var. bianca with ripening, and the effect of the sun-drying process. The total polyphenol levels in pistachios, measured as mg of Gallic Acid Equivalent (GAE, were: 201 ± 10.1, 349 ± 18.3 and 184.7 ± 6.2 mg GAE/100 g DM in unripe, ripe and dried ripe samples, respectively. Most phenolics in ripe pistachios were found to be anthocyanins. They increased with ripening, while the sun drying process caused a susbtantial loss. Flavonoids found in all pistachio samples were daidzein, genistein, daidzin, quercetin, eriodictyol, luteolin, genistin and naringenin, which decreased both with ripening and drying. Before the drying process both unripe and ripe pistachios showed a higher content of trans-resveratrol than dried ripe samples. γ-Tocopherol was the major vitamin E isomer found in pistachios. The total content (of α- and γ-tocopherols decreased, both during ripening and during the drying process. These results suggested that unpeeled pistachios can be considered an important source of phenolics, particularly of anthocyanins. Moreover, in order to preserve these healthy characteristics, new and more efficient drying processes should be adopted.

  14. Synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Solanum trilobatum fruits extract and its antibacterial, cytotoxic activity against human breast cancer cell line MCF 7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramar, Manikandan; Manikandan, Beulaja; Marimuthu, Prabhu Narayanan; Raman, Thiagarajan; Mahalingam, Anjugam; Subramanian, Palanisamy; Karthick, Saravanan; Munusamy, Arumugam

    2015-04-01

    In the present study, we have synthesized silver nanoparticles by a simple and eco-friendly method using unripe fruits of Solanum trilobatum. The aqueous silver ions when exposed to unripe fruits extract were reduced and stabilized over long time resulting in biosynthesis of surface functionalized silver nanoparticles. The bio-reduced silver nanoparticles were characterized by UV-visible spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDX) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). These biologically synthesized silver nanoparticles were tested for its antibacterial activity against few human pathogenic bacteria including Gram-positive (Streptococcus mutans, Enterococcus faecalis) and Gram-negative (Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae) bacteria. In addition, we also demonstrated anticancer activity of these nanoparticles in vitro against human breast cancer cell line (MCF 7) using MTT, nuclear morphology assay, Western blot and RT-PCR expression. These results taken together show the potential applications of biosynthesized silver nanoparticles using S. trilobatum fruits.

  15. Postharvest response of oranges of ethylene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aharoni, Y.; Lattar, F.S.; Monselise, S.P.

    1969-01-01

    Since the effect of ethylene on the respiration rate of young unripe oranges has not yet been described, experiments were carried out to study the respiratory response of such fruits to ethylene. Oranges (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck) of the Washington navel, Shamouti and Valencia varieties, growing on a sandy loam near Rehovot, Israel, were picked in June, July, September, December and January. Immediately after picking, they were weighed, placed in glass jars, and stored at 20/sup 0/. Each experiment comprised 12 jars, 4 for each variety. A constant stream (200 ml/min) of air containing 20 ppm of ethylene was run through the jars. The respiration rate was measured by the amount of CO/sub 2/ evolved by the fruits, and based on a fresh weight unit. The results show that in all 3 varieties, ethylene caused an immediate rise in respiration rate, at all stages of development tested, regardless of whether it was applied from the beginning of the test or after a certain period of storage in air. The pattern of response to ethylene of young unripe oranges (picked in June, July, and September) was therefore similar to that of ripe ones (picked in December and January).

  16. Blackberry (Rubus spp.: influence of ripening and processing on levels of phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of the 'Brazos' and 'Tupy' varieties grown in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Acácio Antonio Ferreira Zielinski

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Fruits from temperate and tropical climates which have high levels of antioxidant compounds are the source of numerous studies concerning the correlation with benefits to human health. The objectives of this study were to quantify the anthocyanins and phenolic compounds and also to measure the antioxidant activity (ferric reducing antioxidant power - FRAP of blackberries from two varieties grown in southern Brazil ('Brazos' and 'Tupy' at three stages of ripening; unripe, semi-ripe, ripe and their products (pulp and fermented products. During fruit ripening it was observed that weight, size, diameter and sugars increase significantly and acidity decreased significantly. The anthocyanin content ranged from 4.19 (semi-ripe 'Tupy' variety to 205.75mg 100g-1 (ripe 'Brazos' variety. The highest levels of phenolic compounds were observed for the unripe fruit of both varieties, while antioxidant activity showed no significant difference during the ripening stages. The studied pulp showed a high content of phenolic compounds (ten times higher than that found in the ripe fruits. The anthocyanin content and antioxidant activity did not show the same increase due to the degradation of anthocyanins caused by the heat treatment that was used. The alcoholic fermented beverage made from blackberries remained stable (total phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity during two years of storage, but the in third year a significant reduction in antioxidant activity was observed. These results can be important for establishing the shelf life of this kind of product made with blackberry

  17. Use of portable devices and confocal Raman spectrometers at different wavelength to obtain the spectral information of the main organic components in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trebolazabala, Josu; Maguregui, Maite; Morillas, Héctor; de Diego, Alberto; Madariaga, Juan Manuel

    2013-03-01

    Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruit samples, in two ripening stages, ripe (red) and unripe (green), collected from a cultivar in the North of Spain (Barrika, Basque Country), were analyzed directly, without any sample pretreatment, with two different Raman instruments (portable spectrometer coupled to a micro-videocamera and a confocal Raman microscope), using two different laser excitation wavelengths (514 and 785 nm, only for the confocal microscope). The combined use of these laser excitation wavelengths allows obtaining, in a short period of time, the maximum spectral information about the main organic compounds present in this fruit. The major identified components of unripe tomatoes were cutin and cuticular waxes. On the other hand, the main components on ripe tomatoes were carotenes, polyphenoles and polysaccharides. Among the carotenes, it was possible to distinguish the presence of lycopene from β-carotene with the help of both excitation wavelengths, but specially using the 514 nm one, which revealed specific overtones and combination tones of this type of carotene.

  18. A validated method for quantifying hypoglycin A in whole blood by UHPLC-HRMS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlier, Jérémy; Guitton, Jérôme; Moreau, Cécile; Boyer, Baptiste; Bévalot, Fabien; Fanton, Laurent; Habyarimana, Jean; Gault, Gilbert; Gaillard, Yvan

    2015-01-26

    Hypoglycin A (HGA) is the toxic principle in ackee (Blighia sapida Koenig), a nutritious and readily available fruit which is a staple of the Jamaican working-class and rural population. The aril of the unripe fruit has high concentrations of HGA, the cause of Jamaican vomiting sickness, which is very often fatal. HGA is also present in the samara of several species of maple (Acer spp.) which are suspected to cause seasonal pasture myopathy in North America and equine atypical myopathy in Europe, often fatal for horses. The aim of this study was to develop a method for quantifying HGA in blood that would be sensitive enough to provide toxicological evidence of ackee or maple poisoning. Analysis was carried out using solid-phase extraction (HILIC cartridges), dansyl derivatization and UHPLC-HRMS/MS detection. The method was validated in whole blood with a detection limit of 0.35 μg/L (range: 0.8-500 μg/L). This is the first method applicable in forensic toxicology for quantifying HGA in whole blood. HGA was quantified in two serum samples from horses suffering from atypical myopathy. The concentrations were 446.9 and 87.8 μg/L. HGA was also quantified in dried arils of unripe ackee fruit (Suriname) and seeds of sycamore maple (Acer pseudoplatanus L.) (France). The concentrations were 7.2 and 0.74 mg/g respectively.

  19. Absence of gemin5 from SMN complexes in nuclear Cajal bodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burghes Arthur HM

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Spinal muscular atrophy is caused by reduced levels of the survival of motor neurons (SMN protein. SMN is found in large complexes with Sm proteins and at least eight other proteins, including seven "gemins". These complexes are involved in the assembly of snRNPs in the cytoplasm and their transport into the nucleus, but the precise roles of the individual protein components are largely unknown. Results We have investigated the subcellular distribution of gemins using novel antibodies against gemins 3–7, and existing mAbs against SMN, gemin2, unrip, fibrillarin and profilin II. Most gemins were equally distributed between nuclear and cytoplasmic fractions of HeLa cells, but gemin5 and unrip were more abundant in the cytoplasm. In a cytoplasmic extract obtained by mild disruption of HeLa cells, nearly all the SMN and gemins 2–4 were in large complexes, but most of the gemin5 sedimented separately with a lower S value. Most of the unrip sedimented with gemins 6 and 7 near the top of the sucrose density gradients, separate from both SMN and gemin5. Anti-SMN mAbs pulled down gemin5 from cytoplasmic extracts, but not from nuclear extracts, and gemin5 did not co-sediment with large SMN complexes in nuclear extracts. These data suggest that gemin5 is easily detached from SMN-gemin complexes in the nucleus. By immuno-histochemistry, gemin5 was rarely detectable in nuclear gems/Cajal bodies, although it was accessible to antibody and easily detectable when present. This suggests that gemin5 is normally absent from SMN complexes in these nuclear storage sites. Conclusion We conclude that SMN complexes usually exist without gemin5 in nuclear gems/Cajal bodies. Gemin5 is believed to be involved in capturing snRNA into SMN complexes in the cytoplasm for transport into the nucleus. We hypothesize that gemin5, though present in the nucleus, is no longer needed for SMN complex function during the time these complexes are stored in gems

  20. Amelioration of cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity by ethanolic extract of Bauhinia purpurea: An in vivo study in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Azmat Rana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Our objective is to study the nephroprotective activity and antioxidant potential of Bauhinia purpurea unripe pods and bark against cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity. Healthy adult albino rats of either sex (150-200 g were randomly divided into six groups of six animals each Group I (vehicle control and Group II (negative control. Group III (BBE200 and Group IV (BBE400 were administered the ethanolic extract of Bauhinia purpurea bark in doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg/day p.o., respectively, and Group V (BPE200 and Group VI (BPE400 were administered the ethanolic extract of Bauhinia purpurea unripe pods at doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg/day p.o., respectively. All the treatments were given for nine days. Cisplatin in a single dose of 6 mg/kg i.p. was given on the 4 th day to all groups, except the vehicle control group. On the 10 th day, blood and urine were collected for biochemical tests and the rats were sacrificed. The kidney was removed for histology and lipid peroxidation-antioxidant test. Cisplatin caused nephrotoxicity as evidenced by elevated blood urea, serum creatinine and urine glucose, and there was decreased creatinine clearance in Group II as compared with Group I. Administration of BBE and BPE at doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg in Group III and Group VI caused a dose-dependant reduction in the rise of blood urea, serum creatinine and urine glucose, and there was a dosedependant increase in creatinine clearance compared with Group II. There was increased catalase and glutathione and decreased malondialdehyde levels in Group II, while BBE 400 (Group IV and BPE 400 (Group VI treatments significantly reversed the changes toward normal values. Histological examination of the kidney revealed protection in Group IV and Group VI compared with Group II. The ethanolic extract of Bauhinia purpurea unripe pods and bark has a nephroprotective activity against cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in rats.

  1. Produção e atributos de qualidade de cultivares de marmeleiro na região leste paulista

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Emílio Bettiol Neto

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Considerando a baixa produção dos marmeleiros em regiões de inverno ameno, o presente trabalho foi desenvolvido com o intuito de selecionar cultivares produtivas para o Estado de São Paulo. Plantas de três anos de idade dos marmeleiros 'Marmelo Pera', 'Smyrna', 'Cheldow', 'Van Deman', 'Meliforme', 'Portugal', 'Provence', 'Mendoza Inta-37', 'Rea´s Mamouth', 'Fuller', 'Meech Prolific', 'De Patras' e 'Pineapple', cultivadas no Centro APTA de Frutas do IAC (Jundiaí-SP, em espaçamento 3 x 4 m, foram avaliadas nas safras 2008/09 e 2009/10. Durante as duas safras, foram avaliadas as fases fenológica, número médio de frutos, produção média e produtividade estimada, massa, diâmetro e comprimento médio de frutos, coloração da epiderme e polpa, firmeza da polpa, sólidos solúveis, acidez titulável e relação SS/AT. Concluiu-se que os marmeleiros 'Fuller', 'Smyrna', 'Portugal', 'Provence' e 'Mendoza Inta-37' apresentaram maior desempenho produtivo. A cultivar Mendoza Inta-37 apresentou atributos de qualidade mais adequados ao consumo in natura, com maior teor de sólidos solúveis, menor acidez titulável e firmeza de polpa e ratio mais elevado, seguida pelos marmeleiros 'Fuller', 'Provence' e 'Portugal'.

  2. Geografía de la fruta en Chile y Cuyo (1700-1850 = Geography of the fruit growing in Chile and Cuyo (1700-1850

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lacoste, Pablo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Diferentemente de outras regiões do Império Espanhol, o Reino do Chile desenvolveu uma agricultura intensiva da produção de árvores frutíferas. O artigo discute quais, onde e como as diferentes espécies foram mais intensamente cultivadas. Quatro regiões foram examinadas: Norte, Centro, Sul e Leste (província de Cuyo, Argentina. Vinte espécies foram investigadas nessas localidades: pomo (maçã, pêra e marmelo, frutas com caroço (pêssego, damasco, ameixa, cereja azeda, e cereja doce, nozes (nogueira, amêndoa, e castanha, cítricos (laranja, limão, cidra, e lima, e outros tais como, azeitona, figo, maracujá, lúcuma e cherimóia. Com base nos arquivos judiciais e nos inventários de seus bens e cartoriais foi elaborado de um banco de dados com mais de 190 mil espécies de frutas. Posteriormente foi elaborado o mapeamento geográfico destas espécies

  3. Fourier Transform Infrared Absorption Spectroscopy for Quantitative Analysis of Gas Mixtures at Low Temperatures for Homeland Security Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, D C; Benkstein, K D; Hurst, W S; Chu, P M

    2017-05-01

    Performance standard specifications for point chemical vapor detectors are established in ASTM E 2885-13 and ASTM E 2933-13. The performance evaluation of the detectors requires the accurate delivery of known concentrations of the chemical target to the system under test. Referee methods enable the analyte test concentration and associated uncertainties in the analyte test concentration to be validated by independent analysis, which is especially important for reactive analytes. This work extends the capability of a previously demonstrated method for using Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) absorption spectroscopy for quantitatively evaluating the composition of vapor streams containing hazardous materials at Acute Exposure Guideline Levels (AEGL) to include test conditions colder than laboratory ambient temperatures. The described method covers the use of primary reference spectra to establish analyte concentrations, the generation of secondary reference spectra suitable for measuring analyte concentrations under specified testing environments, and the use of additional reference spectra and spectral profile strategies to mitigate the uncertainties due to impurities and water condensation within the low-temperature (7 °C, -5 °C) test cell. Important benefits of this approach include verification of the test analyte concentration with characterized uncertainties by in situ measurements co-located with the detector under test, near-real-time feedback, and broad applicability to toxic industrial chemicals.

  4. Diverse patterns of cell wall mannan/galactomannan occurrence in seeds of the Leguminosae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bento, João Francisco; Mazzaro, Irineu; de Almeida Silva, Lia Magalhães; de Azevedo Moreira, Renato; Ferreira, Marília Locatelli Correa; Reicher, Fany; Petkowicz, Carmen Lúcia de Oliveira

    2013-01-30

    Endosperms from seeds of different subfamilies of Leguminosae were submitted to sequential aqueous and alkaline aqueous extractions. The extractions from species belonging to the Mimosoideae and Faboideae subfamilies yielded galactomannans with constant Man:Gal ratios, whereas the extractions from Caesalpinioideae seeds gave rise to galactomannans with increasing values of the Man:Gal ratio. The presence of a family of galactomannans within the same species may be a trait found only in Caesalpinioideae subfamily. The final insoluble residues that were obtained after the removal of galactomannans from the Caesalpinioideae and Faboideae subfamilies are composed of pure mannans and do not contain cellulose, while those from the Mimosoideae subfamily are composed of cellulose. A mannan was isolated from the unripe endosperm of Caesalpinia pulcherrima, suggesting no developmental relationship between galactomannan and mannan. These results are consistent with the presence of a distinctive cell wall pattern in the endosperms of Leguminosae species.

  5. Detection of platypus-type L/D-peptide isomerase activity in aqueous extracts of papaya fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arakawa, Kensuke; Koh, Jennifer M S; Crossett, Ben; Torres, Allan M; Kuchel, Philip W

    2012-09-01

    Peptide isomerase catalyses the post-translational isomerisation of the L: - to the D: -form of an amino acid residue around the N/C-termini of substrate peptides. To date, some peptide isomerases have been found in a limited number of animal secretions and cells. We show here that papaya extracts have weak peptide isomerase activity. The activity was detected in each 30-100 kDa fraction of the flesh and the seed extracts of unripe and ripe papaya fruit. The definitive activity was confirmed in the ripe papaya extracts, but even then it was much less active than that of the other peptide isomerases previously reported. The activity was markedly inhibited by methanol, and partly so by amastatin and diethyl pyrocarbonate. This is the first report of peptide isomerase activity in a plant and suggests that perhaps every living organism may have some peptide isomerase activity.

  6. Biological activity of alkaloids from Solanum dulcamara L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Padma; Sharma, Bindu; Bakshi, Nidhi

    2009-01-01

    Alkaloids are well known for their antimicrobial activity. Though all natural alkaloids come from plants, not all plants produce alkaloids. Plants of the Solanaceae family are known for their high alkaloid content. Alkaloids are found in all plant parts like roots, stems, leaves, flowers, fruits and seeds. In the present study, those plant parts of Solanum dulcamara were selected which have been reported to produce a high content of a specific alkaloid: solanine (from unripe fruits), solasodine (from flowers) and beta-solamarine (from roots). These alkaloids were extracted from various parts of S. dulcamara by well-established methods and were screened for their antibacterial activity. Human pathogenic bacteria, viz., Enterobacter aerogenes, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, were selected for the study. All three alkaloids inhibited the growth of E. coli and S. aureus. However, no significant activity was observed against E. aerogenes. Minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration were also evaluated.

  7. Differentiation between cooking bananas and dessert bananas. 1. Morphological and compositional characterization of cultivated Colombian Musaceae (Musa sp.) in relation to consumer preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibert, Olivier; Dufour, Dominique; Giraldo, Andrés; Sánchez, Teresa; Reynes, Max; Pain, Jean-Pierre; González, Alonso; Fernández, Alejandro; Díaz, Alberto

    2009-09-09

    The morphological, physical, and chemical characteristics of 23 unripe cultivated varieties of Colombian Musaceae were assessed. Fresh pulp dry matter helped to discriminate the following consumption subgroups: FHIA dessert hybrids (hydes: 24.6%) plantains (pl: 41.1%). Banana flour starch content on dry basis (db) varied from 74.2 to 88.2% among the varieties, with: pl: 86.5% > cook and hycook: 84% > des: 81.9% > hydes: 79.7% (p plantain subgroup (5.6), which also had lower titratable acidity than those of the cooking banana and FHIA groups with 7.9, 13.6, and 15.6 mEq H(+)/100 g db, respectively (p plantain subgroup in relation to stakeholder and the consumer preferences.

  8. Optimization of a method for the extraction and quantification of carotenoids and chlorophylls during ripening in grape berries (Vitis vinifera cv. Merlot).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamffer, Zindi; Bindon, Keren A; Oberholster, Anita

    2010-06-09

    An extraction method to identify and quantify the carotenoid and chlorophyll profile of lyophilized tissue from unripe (green) to ripe (red) Merlot grape berries was developed. The RP-HPLC method baseline separated all of the carotenoids and chlorophylls and their derivatives. Problems encountered during sample storage and extraction are discussed as well as possible alternative methods. This study confirmed that carotenoids and chlorophylls decreased on a per berry (microg/berry) and concentration (microg/g) basis from veraison to harvest over two growing seasons. The carotenoid 5,8-epoxy-beta-carotene was quantified for the first time in grapes and represents a significant amount of the total carotenoids present at harvest. All the carotenoids and chlorophylls except beta-carotene appeared to be sensitive to seasonal variation in climatic conditions. Lutein and beta-carotene were found to be the most abundant carotenoids present in Merlot grape berries together with chlorophyll a for both seasons studied.

  9. Determination of fatty acid composition and quality characteristics of oils from palm fruits using solvent extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasmin, Hasimah; Lazim, Azwan Mat; Awang, Roila

    2015-09-01

    Palm oil contains about 45% of saturated palmitic acid and 39% of mono-unsaturated oleic acid. Investigations made in the past to trace the fatty acid composition in palm revealed that ripeness of fresh fruit bunch (FFB) affect oil composition. However, there is no evidence that processing operations affect oil composition, although different stage of processing does affect the quality of oil extracted. An improved method for sterilizing the oil palm fruits by dry heating, followed by oil extraction has been studied. This method eliminates the use of water, thus, increasing the extraction of lipid soluble. The objective of this study is to determine the possibility production of palm oil with different fatty acid composition (FAC) as well as the changes in quality from conventional milling. The unripe and ripe FFB were collected, sterilized and extracted using different method of solvent extraction. Preliminary data have shown that variation in FAC will also alter the physical and chemical properties of the oil extracted.

  10. Inhibitory effects of Citrus hassaku extract and its flavanone glycosides on melanogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoh, Kimihisa; Hirata, Noriko; Masuda, Megumi; Naruto, Shunsuke; Murata, Kazuya; Wakabayashi, Keitaro; Matsuda, Hideaki

    2009-03-01

    The 50% ethanolic extract (CH-ext) obtained from the unripe fruit of Citrus hassaku exhibited significant tyrosinase inhibitory activity. The CH-ext showed antioxidant activity, such as superoxide dismutase (SOD)-like activity and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging activity. Activity-guided fractionation of the CH-ext indicated that flavanone glycoside-rich fractions showed potent tyrosinase inhibitory activity. Further examination revealed that the tyrosinase inhibitory activity and antioxidant activity of the CH-ext were attributable to naringin and neohesperidin, respectively. The CH-ext showed inhibition of melanogenesis without any effects on cell proliferation in cultured murine B16 melanoma cells after glucosamine exposure. The topical application of the CH-ext to the dorsal skin of brownish guinea pigs showed in vivo preventive effects against UVB-induced pigmentation.

  11. Proteomic Comparison of Fruit Ripening between 'Hedelfinger' Sweet Cherry (Prunus avium L.) and Its Somaclonal Variant 'HS'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prinsi, Bhakti; Negri, Alfredo S; Espen, Luca; Piagnani, M Claudia

    2016-05-25

    The somaclonal variant HS, from sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) 'Hedelfinger' (H), was previously selected for reduced tree vegetative vigor and lesser canopy density. In this work, we compared H and HS fruits at early unripe (green) and full ripe (dark red) stages by biochemical and proteomic approaches. The main biochemical parameters showed that fruit quality was not affected by somaclonal variation. The proteomic analysis identified 39 proteins differentially accumulated between H and HS fruits at the two ripening stages, embracing enzymes involved in several pathways, such as carbon metabolism, cell wall modification, stress response, and secondary metabolism. The evaluation of fruit phenolic composition by mass spectrometry showed that HS sweet cherries have higher levels of procyanidin, flavonol, and anthocyanin compounds. This work provides the first proteomic characterization of fruit ripening in sweet cherry, revealing new positive traits of the HS somaclonal variant.

  12. Influence of terms sowing and methods cultivation on the mas inflorences and seeds of two form moldavian dragonhead (Dracocephalum moldavica L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadeusz Wolski

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Acquaintance of dependence among time - limit of sowing anfd with manner of tillage and with beginning of blooming and with recent mass of inflorescence and also of seeds has essential meaning both for economies in apiary, efficiencies of crop of seeds, which can be raw material that time - limit of sowing how and manner of tillage have influence on recent mass of inflorescence how and of seeds investigated od from dragonhead. One ascertained, that plants from fifth time - limit of sowing former unripe. One showed also, that both recent mass of inflorence how and of seeds independently from time - limit of sowing and of manner of tillage depends from circumstances climatically and former different in investigated years.

  13. Soluble and bound hydroxycinnamates in coffee pulp (Coffea arabica) from seven cultivars at three ripening stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Durán, Luis V; Ramírez-Coronel, Ma Ascención; Aranda-Delgado, Eduardo; Nampoothiri, K Madhavan; Favela-Torres, Ernesto; Aguilar, Cristóbal N; Saucedo-Castañeda, Gerardo

    2014-08-01

    The contents of soluble and bound hydroxycinnamates (HCAs) were analyzed in coffee pulp (CP) of seven cultivars of Coffea arabica at three different ripening stages. Methodologies for the extraction and analysis of HCAs were evaluated and improved. HCAs were present mainly in the soluble fraction (68-97%). Chlorogenic acid was the main phenolic acid (94-98%) in the soluble fraction, whereas caffeic acid was the most abundant HCA found in the bound fraction (72-88%). Small amounts of free and bound ferulic and p-coumaric acids were also detected. The content of total HCAs in CP reached the maximum concentration at the semiripe stage (7.4-25.5 mg/g CP, dw) but decreased at the ripe stage for six of the seven cultivars. These findings suggest that unripe or semiripe coffee cherries, considered as defective cherries, are a potential inexpensive source of phenolic compounds, such as chlorogenic and caffeic acids.

  14. Mechanisms of analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties of Annona muricata Linn. (Annonaceae) fruit extract in rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishola, Ismail O; Awodele, Olufunsho; Olusayero, Abayomi Micheal; Ochieng, Charles O

    2014-12-01

    Unripe fruit of Annona muricata Linn. (Annonaceae) (soursop) is used in traditional African medicine for the treatment of neuralgia, rheumatism, and arthritic pain. This study sought to investigate the analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of lyophilized fruit extract of Annona muricata (AM) in rodents. The analgesic activity was evaluated using the mouse writhing, formalin, and hot-plate tests while the anti-inflammatory action was investigated using the carrageenan-induced rat paw edema and xylene-induced ear edema tests. Pretreatment with AM (50, 100, and 200 mg/kg, p.o.) produced dose-dependent (Pmuricata possesses analgesic effect through interaction with opioidergic pathway and anti-inflammatory property through inhibition of chemical mediators of inflammation.

  15. Chemical constituents of Cycas vespertilio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Consolacion Yasaña Ragasa

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTChemical investigation of Cycas vespertilio A. Lindstr. & K.D. Hill, Cycadaceae, a plant endemic to the Philippines, yielded pinoresinol (1, sesamin (2, paulownin (3, a mixture of β-sitosterol and stigmasterol, and triacylglycerols from the cone base; 1, 3, β-sitosterol, stigmasterol, triacylglycerols, and lariciresinol (4 from the cataphylls; β-sitosterol from the megasporophyll lamina; β-sitosterol and a mixture of trans-4-hydroxycinnamate fatty acid esters (5 and cis-4-hydroxycinnamate fatty acid esters (6 from the unripe sarcotesta; and β-sitosterol and triacylglycerols from the ripe sarcotesta. The structures 1–6 were elucidated by extensive 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy.

  16. Caracterização físico-química do grândulo do amido do feijão caupi Physico-chemical characteristics of the granule of the starch of the cowpea bean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.M. Salgado

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho objetivou caracterizar quimica e fisicamente o amido de feijão caupi nos estádios de maturação em que o grão é consumido. Grãos verdes e maduros de feijão caupi (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp foram submetidos à determinação da composição centesimal: proteína por Kjeldahl, lipídio por Soxleth, umidade a 105º, cinzas a 550ºC, fibra alimentar por método gravimétrico-enzimático, carboidratos totais por diferença, amido total, glicídios redutores e não redutores, por óxido-redução em solução de Fehling. O amido isolado das distintas amostras foi analisado quanto ao amido resistente (baseado no uso de enzimas amilolíticas, amilose e amilopectina (por espectrofotometria e tipificação (difração de raio-X. Os dados paramétricos foram avaliados pelo teste t de Student. Os resultados obtidos demonstraram que as frações de carboidratos diferiram em função do estádio de maturação dos grãos. O amido de feijão verde apresentou maior teor de amido resistente (AR tipo 2 em relação ao amido total e baixo conteúdo de amilose. A maturação influenciou nos padrões de cristalinidade, sendo encontrado padrão tipo C para o feijão verde e o A para o maduro. O estádio de maturação exerceu influência sobre aspectos qualitativos e quantitativos dos constituintes dos feijões. O aspecto morfológico dos grânulos de amido não sofreu influência do estádio de maturação dos grãos. O feijão verde apresenta um percentual da fibra alimentar solúvel compatível com a recomendação do FDA.This work aimed at characterizing the starch of the cowpea bean in the stages of maturation in which it is consumed both chemically and physically. The unripe and ripe grains of the cowpea bean (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp were submitted to determine the centesimal composition: protein by Kjeldahl, lipids by Soxleth, moisture at 105°C, ashes at 550°C, alimentary fiber by gravimetric-enzymatic method, total carbohydrates

  17. Fulminant Hepatic Failure Attributed to Ackee Fruit Ingestion in a Patient with Sickle Cell Trait

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dianne E. Grunes

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of fulminant liver failure resulting in emergent liver transplantation following 3 weeks of nausea, vomiting, and malaise from Jamaican Vomiting Sickness. Jamaican Vomiting Sickness is caused by ingestion of the unripe arils of the Ackee fruit, its seeds and husks. It is characterized by acute gastrointestinal illness and hypoglycemia. In severe cases, central nervous system depression can occur. In previous studies, histologic sections taken from patients with Jamaican Vomiting Sickness have shown hepatotoxicity similar to that seen in Reye syndrome and/or acetaminophen toxicity. We highlight macroscopic and microscopic changes in the liver secondary to hepatoxicity of Ackee fruit versus those caused by a previously unknown sickle cell trait. We discuss the clinical variables and the synergistic hepatotoxic effect of Ackee fruit and ischemic injury from sickled red blood cells, causing massive hepatic necrosis in this patient.

  18. Physicochemical studies on starches isolated from plantain cultivars, plantain hybrids and cooking bananas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eggleston, G.; Akoni, S. (International Inst. of Tropical Agriculture, Ibadan (Nigeria)); Swennen, R. (Catholic Univ. of Leuven, Heverlee (Belgium). Lab. of Tropical Husbandry)

    1992-04-01

    Starches from mature, unripe fruit pulp of plantain cultivars (Musa supp., AAB group) representing the wide variability in Africa, tetraploid and diploid plantain hybrids and starchy cooking bananas (Musa spp., ABB group) were isolated and characterised. In general, studies revealed very compact irregularly shaped and sized granules, with low amylose content (9.11-17.16%), highly resistant to bacterial {alpha}-amylase attack; Brabender amylograms showed very restricted swelling type patterns with great stability and negligible retrogradation. Results indicate that differences in physico-chemical properties exist amongst the three Musa fruit group starches. Plantains represent a chemical/molecular homogeneous group, but heterogeneous for granule structure. Ploidy level affected hybrid properties. ABB cooking bananas starches exhibited highly pronounced restricted swelling and high gelatinisation and pasting temperatures, indicating a more ordered, very strongly bonded granule structure; chemical and physical properties varied considerably within the ABB genotype. (orig.).

  19. Changes in physicochemical characteristics and free amino acids of hawthorn (Crataegus pinnatifida) fruits during maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei-Qin; Hu, Qing-Ping; Xu, Jian-Guo

    2015-05-15

    In this study, changes in physicochemical characteristics associated with fruit quality and free amino acids were investigated during maturation of hawthorn fruits. Significant differences in these parameters were found during maturation. The color turned progressively from mature green to semi-red, to reach bright red; the shape changed gradually from oval to round or approached round; the size, weight, and edible part (flesh/core ratio) of hawthorns increased while the density of intact fruits did not change. The content of moisture, total soluble sugars, soluble pectin, reduced ascorbic acid, total ascorbic acid, fructose, and sucrose increased while crude protein content decreased significantly. The levels of starch, sucrose, titratable acidity, protopectin, pectin, total free amino acids, and total essential amino acids initially increased and then decreased gradually during maturation. The outcomes of this study provide additional and useful information for fresh consumption and processing as well as utilization of dropped unripe hawthorn fruits.

  20. Ultrastructural deposition forms and bioaccessibility of carotenoids and carotenoid esters from goji berries (Lycium barbarum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hempel, Judith; Schädle, Christopher N; Sprenger, Jasmin; Heller, Annerose; Carle, Reinhold; Schweiggert, Ralf M

    2017-03-01

    Goji berries (Lycium barbarum L.) have been known to contain strikingly high levels of zeaxanthin, while the physical deposition form and bioaccessibility of the latter was yet unknown. In the present study, we associated ripening-induced modifications in the profile of carotenoids with fundamental changes of the deposition state of carotenoids in goji berries. Unripe fruit contained common chloroplast-specific carotenoids being protein-bound within chloroplastidal thylakoids. The subsequent ripening-induced transformation of chloroplasts to tubular chromoplasts was accompanied by an accumulation of up to 36mg/100g FW zeaxanthin dipalmitate and further minor xanthophyll esters, prevailing in a presumably liquid-crystalline state within the nano-scaled chromoplast tubules. The in vitro digestion unraveled the enhanced liberation and bioaccessibility of zeaxanthin from these tubular aggregates in goji berries as compared to protein-complexed lutein from spinach. Goji berries therefore might represent a more potent source of macular pigments than green leafy vegetables like spinach.

  1. Corrosion Inhibition Studies of Mild Steel in Acid Medium Using Musa Acuminata Fruit Peel Extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Gunavathy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The inhibition effect of unripe fruit peel extract of Musa acuminata (Cultivar variety – Nendran (MNP on corrosion of mild steel in 1 N HCl has been investigated by weight loss and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS with various concentrations of the extract. The effect of temperature on the corrosion inhibition of mild steel in the temperature range of 30°C – 80°C was carried out. The results indicate that MNP extract act as an effective inhibitor in the acid environment and is of mixed type inhibitor having efficiency as high as 96% at 2% inhibitor concentration. The inhibition efficiency of MNP extract increases with the increase of concentration but decreases with the increase in temperature. The inhibitor achieves its inhibition by physical adsorption of nutrients of the peel extract on the surface of the mild steel. The experimental data revealed that the adsorption occurred according to the Langmuir and Temkin adsorption isotherm.

  2. Micropropagation and cryopreservation of garlic (Allium sativum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, E R Joachim; Senula, Angelika

    2013-01-01

    Garlic (Allium sativum L.) is a very important medicinal and spice plant. It is conventionally propagated by daughter bulbs ("cloves") and bulbils from the flower head. Micropropagation is used for speeding up the vegetative propagation mainly using the advantage to produce higher numbers of healthy plants free of viruses, which have higher yield than infected material. Using primary explants from bulbs and/or bulbils (shoot tips) or unripe inflorescence bases, in vitro cultures are initiated on MS-based media containing auxins, e.g., naphthalene acetic acid, and cytokinins, e.g., 6-γ-γ-(dimethylallylaminopurine) (2iP). Rooting is accompanying leaf formation. It does not need special culture phases. The main micropropagation methods rely on growth of already formed meristems. Long-term storage of micropropagated material, cryopreservation, is well-developed to maintain germplasm. The main method is vitrification using the cryoprotectant mixture PVS3.

  3. Avocado fruit protoplasts: a cellular model system for ripening studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Percival, F W; Cass, L G; Bozak, K R; Christoffersen, R E

    1991-12-01

    Mesocarp protoplasts were isolated from mature avocado fruits (Persea americana cv. Hass) at varying stages of propylene-induced ripening. Qualitative changes in the pattern of radiolabel incorporation into polypeptides were observed in cells derived from fruit at the different stages. Many of these differences correlate with those observed during radiolabeling of polypeptides from fresh tissue slices prepared from unripe and ripe fruit. Protoplasts isolated from fruit treated with propylene for one day or more were shown to synthesize cellulase (endo-ß-1,4-glucanase) antigen, similar to the intact propylene-treated fruit. These results suggest that the isolated protoplasts retain at least some biochemical characteristics of the parent tissue. The cells may also be used in transient gene expression assays. Protoplasts isolated from preclimacteric and climacteric fruit were equally competent in expressing a chimeric test gene, composed of the CaMV 35S RNA promoter fused to the bacterial chloramphenicol acetyltransferase gene, which was introduced by electroporation.

  4. Ripening and in vitro retention of respiratory control by avocado and pear mitochondria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozelkök, S I; Romani, R J

    1975-08-01

    The retention of respiratory control ("survival") by mitochondria held at 25 C was studied in relation to the ripening of two varieties of avocado (Persea americana Mill. var. ;Fuerte' and ;Hass') and one variety of pear (Pyrus communis. L. var. ;Bartlett') fruit. The survival of avocado mitochondria increased from 8 to 10 hours when isolated from unripe, preclimacteric fruit, to 48 hours when isolated from fully ripe, postclimacteric fruits. Although rates of alpha-ketoglutarate oxidation, respiratory control, and ADP/O decreased somewhat in the postclimacteric phase, survival per se was not affected. Pear mitochondria survived for more than 30 hours regardless of the physiological age of the source.Exposure of postclimacteric avocado mitochondria to a preclimacteric supernatant fraction curtailed their survival. The harmful effect of some unknown substance(s) in the preclimacteric avocado supernatant fraction was confirmed by utilizing pear mitochondria as an independent test system.

  5. Effect of in Vitro Gastrointestinal Digestion on Encapsulated and Nonencapsulated Phenolic Compounds of Carob (Ceratonia siliqua L.) Pulp Extracts and Their Antioxidant Capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ydjedd, Siham; Bouriche, Sihem; López-Nicolás, Rubén; Sánchez-Moya, Teresa; Frontela-Saseta, Carmen; Ros-Berruezo, Gaspar; Rezgui, Farouk; Louaileche, Hayette; Kati, Djamel-Edine

    2017-02-01

    To determine the effect of in vitro gastrointestinal digestion on the release and antioxidant capacity of encapsulated and nonencapsulated phenolics carob pulp extracts, unripe and ripe carob pulp extracts were microencapsulated with polycaprolactone via double emulsion/solvent evaporation technique. Microcapsules' characterization was performed using scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectrometry analysis. Total phenolics and flavonoids content and antioxidant activities (ORAC, DPPH, and FRAP) were evaluated after each digestion step. The release of phenolic acids and flavonoids was measured along the digestion process by HPLC-MS/MS analysis. The most important phenolics and flavonoids content as well as antioxidant activities were observed after gastric and intestinal phases for nonencapsulated and encapsulated extracts, respectively. The microencapsulation of carob polyphenols showed a protective effect against pH changes and enzymatic activities along digestion, thereby promoting a controlled release and targeted delivery of the encapsulated compound, which contributed to an increase in its bioaccessibility in the gut.

  6. Calcium carbide poisoning via food in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Per, Hüseyin; Kurtoğlu, Selim; Yağmur, Fatih; Gümüş, Hakan; Kumandaş, Sefer; Poyrazoğlu, M Hakan

    2007-02-01

    The fast ripening of fruits means they may contain various harmful properties. A commonly used agent in the ripening process is calcium carbide, a material most commonly used for welding purposes. Calcium carbide treatment of food is extremely hazardous because it contains traces of arsenic and phosphorous. Once dissolved in water, the carbide produces acetylene gas. Acetylene gas may affect the neurological system by inducing prolonged hypoxia. The findings are headache, dizziness, mood disturbances, sleepiness, mental confusion, memory loss, cerebral edema and seizures. We report the case of a previously healthy 5 year-old girl with no chronic disease history who was transferred to our Emergency Department with an 8-h history of coma and delirium. A careful history from her father revealed that the patient ate unripe dates treated with calcium carbide.

  7. ORANGE: RANGE OF BENEFITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parle Milind

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available No wonder that oranges are one of the most popular fruits in the world. Orange (citrus sinensis is well known for its nutritional and medicinal properties throughout the world. From times immemorial, whole Orange plant including ripe and unripe fruits, juice, orange peels, leaves and flowers are used as a traditional medicine. Citrus sinensis belongs to the family Rutaceae. The fruit is a fleshy, indehiscent, berry that ranges widely in size from 4 cm to 12 cm. The major medicinal properties of orange include anti-bacterial, anti-fungal, anti- diabetic, cardio- protective, anti-cancer, anti-arthritic, anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, anti-Tubercular, anti-asthmatic and anti-hypertensive. Phytochemically, whole plant contains limonene, citral, neohesperidin, naringin, rutin, rhamnose, eriocitrin, and vitamin-C. In the present review article, a humble attempt is made to compile all the strange facts available about this tasty fruit.

  8. QUALIDADE DOS GRÃOS DE CAFÉ (Coffea arábica L. EM COCO PROCESSADOS POR VIA SECA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo de Oliveira Simões

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The quality of coffee can be defined as a set of physical, chemical, sensory and security attributes that meet what the consumers want. The objective of this work was to evaluate and to compare the final quality of coffee produced by using the dry-process, using several procedures such as complete drying on cement terrace, suspended terrace, or their combination with mechanical horizontal rotary type driers. There was no significant change in the coffee quality obtained from any of the drying methods, however, it is known that the high percentage of cherry fruit, up from 90%, determined the high standard of quality of the drink and that this is influenced by the unripe fruits present in the product that cause undesirable fermentations and generate off-flavor.

  9. Simultaneous Determination of Eight Constituents in Fruits of Rubus chingii by UPLC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xin Chai; Long-fei Du; Jing Yang; Zhen-zuo Jiang; Long Yang; Yue-fei Wang; Yan Zhu

    2016-01-01

    Objective To develop a simple,efficient,and reliable method for routine quantitative analysis of main constituents presented in the fruits of Rubus chingii,which is widely used in Chinese materia medica(CMM),known as Fupenzi(FPZ) in Chinese.Methods An ultra performance liquid chromatography-photo diode array(UPLC-PDA) system was employed for simultaneous quantification of eight compounds,i.e.adenosine,gallic acid,brevifolin carboxylic acid,ethyl gallate,ellagic acid,kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside,kaempferol-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside,and tiliroside.The chromatographic analysis was performed on a C18 column using a gradient elution of acetonitrile-0.1%formic acid aqueous solution within a runtime of 25 min.Results All calibration curves were linear(R2> 0.9997) over the tested ranges.The intra- and inter-day precisions as determined from sample solutions were both less than 2.45%and 2.78%,respectively.The average recoveries for the eight constituents ranged from 94.77%to 101.35%with RSD ≤ 4.41%.The newly-developed method was applied to the quality assessment of various R.chingii samples,including both ripe and unripe fruits of R.chingii from different habitats.Conclusion The relative levels of the investigated compounds vary remarkably in the fruits of R.chingii collected from different habitats.As only two of the eight compounds,adenosine and ellagic acid,are determined in the ripe fruits of R.chingii,the results may explain the reason why only the unripe fruits can be used in CMM.

  10. Limits to the host range of the highly polyphagous tephritid fruit fly Anastrepha ludens in its natural habitat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birke, A; Acosta, E; Aluja, M

    2015-12-01

    Anastepha ludens (Diptera: Tephritidae) is a highly polyphagous fruit fly that is able to develop in a wide range of hosts. Understanding the limits of this pest's host range could provide valuable information for pest management and plant breeding for pest resistance. Previous studies have shown that guavas (Psidium guajava (Myrtaceae) L.), are not attacked under natural conditions by A. ludens. To understand this phenomenon, guavas were exposed to natural infestation by A. ludens and to other fruit fly species that infest guavas in nature (Anastrepha striata Schiner, Anastepha fraterculus (Wiedemann), Anastepha obliqua (Macquart)). Once the susceptible phenological stage of guavas was determined, fruit infestation levels were compared between A. ludens and A. striata. Choice and non-choice tests were performed under field-cage conditions. Under field conditions, guavas were susceptible to A. striata and A. fraterculus attack all the way from when fruit was undeveloped to when fruit began to ripen. No infestation by A. ludens was recorded under natural conditions. Similar results were obtained when forced exposures were performed, indicating that unripe guavas were preferred by A. striata over ripe fruit, and that infestation rates were higher at early fruit maturity stages. Under forced oviposition conditions, A. ludens larvae were unable to develop in unripe guavas but did so in fully ripe fruit. However, A. ludens fitness parameters were dramatically affected, exhibiting reduced survival and reduced pupal weight compared to conspecifics that developed in a natural host, grapefruit. We confirm that P. guajava should not be treated as a natural host of this pestiferous species, and suggest that both behavioral aspects and the fact that larvae are unable to adequately develop in this fruit, indeed represent clear limits to A. ludens's broad host range.

  11. Identification of host blends that attract the African invasive fruit fly, Bactrocera invadens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biasazin, Tibebe Dejene; Karlsson, Miriam Frida; Hillbur, Ylva; Seyoum, Emiru; Dekker, Teun

    2014-09-01

    Bactrocera invadens, an invasive fruit fly species in the Afro-tropical region belonging to the Bactrocera dorsalis complex, causes considerable damage to fruit production and productivity. We sought to find attractants from hosts of B. invadens that could serve as baits in traps for monitoring and management of this pest. The attractiveness of volatiles from four different fruit species (mango, guava, banana and orange) at two stages of ripeness (ripe or unripe) was tested in an olfactometer assay. All fruits were attractive against a clean air control. Using hexane extracts of volatile collections of fruits, we demonstrated that male flies preferred the volatiles of ripe guava and orange over unripe fruit extracts. There was a slight difference in preference between females and males; females preferred orange to guava and mango, whereas males preferred mango and guava to orange. Gas chromatography/electroantennographic detection (GC/EAD) and GC/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) were used to identify compounds to which B. invadens antennae were sensitive. GC/EAD recordings from distal and medio-central parts of the fly antenna showed responses to a number of compounds from each fruit species, with esters dominating the responses. Synthetic blends were made for each fruit species using the shared antennally active compounds in ratios found in the extracts. In the olfactometer, B. invadens was most attracted to the banana and orange blends, followed by the mango and guava blends. The synthetic banana blend was as attractive as the volatile collection of banana, although both were less attractive than the fruit. The results demonstrate that composing attractive blends from GC/EAD-active constituents shared by host fruits can be effective for formulating attractive synthetic host mimics for generalist fruit fly species, such as B. invadens.

  12. Chemical and physical characterization of mume fruit collected from different locations and at different maturity stages in São Paulo State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto Quast

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Prunus mume is widely studied due to its health benefits regarding increase of blood fluidity and consequent improvement of the cardiovascular system and the prevention or even the fight against different types of cancer. However, in Brazil this culture is found only among oriental descendants. The present study aimed to characterize mume fruit collected from three different locations in the State of São Paulo regarding general aspects such as pH, total titratable acidity (TTA, total soluble solids (TTS, pectin content and yield of pulp and chemical characteristics: total phenolic compounds (TPC and antioxidant capacity. Mume fruit were collected unripe and analyzed until maturation about 88 days after flowering. Fruit collected in Botucatu came from a commercial mume fruit producer and had average weight of 16.9 g, while in fruit from other locations weight varied from 5.7-6.9 g. TSS ranged from 9.5 to 10.0 Brix, total solids was 10.2-12.2% and pH showed values between 2.5 and 2.7 for all locations. TTA expressed in citric acid decreased from 4.0-5.7 g (100g- 1 at unripe stage to 2.0-3.8 g (100g- 1 in mature-stage fruit. Pectin content decreased from 11.2 to 10.8% during fruit maturation, TPC content was 147-226 mg catechin (g- 1 on a dry matter basis and the antioxidant capacity was 96-169 µMol Trolox (g- 1 on a dry matter basis or 21-34 µMol Trolox (g- 1 on a wet matter basis.

  13. Development of Green Banana (Musa paradisiaca as Potential Food Packaging Films and Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Hanani Z. A.

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to develop biodegradable packaging films based on a unripe green banana (Musa paradisiaca L. with different plasticizers; glycerol, polyethylene glycol (PEG and sorbitol at various concentrations (10-50%. Banana films were produced by using casting method and physical properties of these films were determined. Banana films with 10% of PEG showed the lowest water solubility (P≤0.05 followed by films with glycerol and sorbitol. Banana films with 40% plasticizers possessed the lowest water vapor permeability (WVP whereas films with 30% glycerol exhibited higher values of tensile strength (P≤0.05 compared to films with PEG and sorbitol. However, types of plasticizers did not influence the thickness of the films. Also, used of higher concentrations of plasticizers had increased the solubility values. These findings reveal that concentrations and types of plasticizers have significant roles to provide banana film or coating with good physical properties. The aim of this study was to develop biodegradable packaging films based on a unripe green banana (Musa paradisiaca L. with different plasticizers; glycerol, polyethylene glycol (PEG and sorbitol at various concentrations (10-50%. Banana films were produced by using casting method and physical properties of these films were determined. Banana films with 10% of PEG showed the lowest water solubility (P≤0.05 followed by films with glycerol and sorbitol. Banana films with 40% plasticizers possessed the lowest water vapour permeability (WVP whereas films with 30% glycerol exhibited higher values of tensile strength (P≤0.05 compared to films with PEG and sorbitol. However, types of plasticizers did not influence the thickness of the films. Also, used of higher concentrations of plasticizers had increased the solubility values. These findings reveal that concentrations and types of plasticizers have significant roles to provide banana film or coating with good physical

  14. Screening for alternative antibiotics: an investigation into the antimicrobial activities of medicinal food plants of Mauritius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahomoodally, M F; Gurib-Fakim, A; Subratty, A H

    2010-04-01

    The present study was designed to evaluate the antimicrobial activities of 2 endemic medicinal plants; Faujasiopsis flexuosa (Asteraceae) (FF) and Pittosporum senacia (Pittosporaceae) (PS) and 2 exotic medicinal plants, Momordica charantia (Cucurbitaceae) (MC) and Ocimum tenuiflorum (Lamiaceae) (OT) that forms part of local pharmacopoeia of Mauritius and correlate any observed activity with its phytochemical profile. Aqueous and organic fractions of the leaves, fruits, and seeds of these plants were subjected to antimicrobial testing by the disc diffusion method against 8 clinical isolates of bacteria and 2 strains of fungus. It was found that MC, OT, and FF possessed antimicrobial properties against the test organisms. The MIC for MC ranged from 0.5 to 9 mg/mL and that of FF from 2 to 10 mg/mL and the lowest MIC value (0.5 mg/mL) was recorded for the unripe fruits of MC against E. coli. On the other hand, higher concentration of the unripe MC fruit extract of 9 mg/mL was needed to be effective against a resistant strain of Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). The antimicrobial effect against MRSA was lost upon ripening of the fruits. The methanolic extract of both MC and FF showed highest MIC values compared to the corresponding aqueous extract, which indicates the low efficacy and the need of higher doses of the plant extract. Phytochemical screening of the plants showed the presence of at least tannins, phenols, flavonoids, and alkaloids, which are known antimicrobial phyto-compounds. In conclusion, the observed antimicrobial properties would tend to further validate the medicinal properties of these commonly used endemic medicinal and food plants of Mauritius.

  15. Conhecimento popular e atividade antimicrobiana de Cydonia oblonga Miller (Rosaceae Popular knowledge and antimicrobial activity of Cydonia oblonga Mill. (Rosaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.G. Silva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A espécie Cydonia oblonga Mill. (Rosaceae, Marmeleiro, é proveniente do Cáucaso e se difundiu pela Europa e países mediterrâneos, sendo introduzida no Brasil já em 1532. Algumas propriedades medicinais são atribuídas à C. oblonga determinando seu uso pela população. Neste trabalho, objetivou-se conhecer os diversos usos do marmeleiro em São João do Paraíso, assim como estudar a atividade antimicrobiana desta planta. O estudo etnobotânico foi realizado por meio de entrevistas aplicadas aos produtores do marmeleiro. Os ensaios de atividade antimicrobiana foram realizados por meio do método de difusão em placas, com discos embebidos nas concentrações de 100, 200 e 400 mg/mL do decocto do fruto e do extrato bruto das folhas de C. oblonga, testadas em seis bactérias. O estudo etnobotânico revelou que o marmelo utilizado no combate à diarréia, vômito e hipertensão, é também usado como cicatrizante e antisséptico. Quanto ao estudo antimicrobiano, somente o extrato bruto das folhas inibiu parcialmente o crescimento de Streptococcus agalactiae. Concluiu-se por meio deste trabalho que o decocto do marmelo é utilizado pela população na medicina tradicional e que extrato bruto das folhas afetou o crescimento de S. agalactiae.The species Cydonia oblonga Mill., quince, originated from the Caucasus region, spreading over Europe and Mediterranean countries, and was introduced in Brazil already in 1532. Some medicinal properties are attributed to C. oblonga, determining its use by the population. In this context, the present study aimed to learn the several uses of quince in São João do Paraíso, as well as to study the antimicrobial activity of this plant. The ethnobotanical study was carried out by means of interviews applied to quince farmers. Antimicrobial activity assays were performed according to the diffusion method in dishes with disks embedded at the concentrations of 100, 200 and 400 mg/mL fruit decoction and crude

  16. Mineralogia e química dos sedimentos de fundo do médio e baixo Madeira e de seus principais tributários: Amazonas - Brasil Mineralogy and chemistry of bottom sediments of the middle and lower Madeira River and its main tributaries: Amazonas - Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Mireide Andrade Queiroz

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi investigar a variação composicional e mineralógica dos sedimentos de fundo transportados pelos grandes rios da Amazônia, com nascentes nos Andes provenientes de rochas cratônicas. O estudo foi realizado com base em análises granulométricas, mineralógicas e químicas, incluindo isótopos de Pb, no rio Madeira e seus tributários. O conjunto de dados mostra que os sedimentos de fundo do rio Madeira são granulométrica, mineralógica e quimicamente distintos de seus principais tributários. Os sedimentos do rio Madeira são mais arenosos; têm maior quantidade de quartzo; menor conteúdo de Al2O3, Fe2O3, K2O, MgO, Na2O, PF, TiO2, P2O5, MnO e elementos-traço; e a maturidade aumenta de montante para jusante. Dentre os sedimentos dos tributários, os rios Machado e secundariamente o rio Marmelos são os que mais se aproximam da composição dos sedimentos do rio Madeira, enquanto que o Jamari com sedimentos com maior proporção de TiO2, Zr, Y, Nb, Ga, Hf, U, Ta e ETR, é o mais distinto. Apesar do ambiente de intenso intemperismo e erosão, em condições tropicais úmidas, a que estão submetidas as rochas drenadas pela bacia do rio Madeira, os valores das razões Th/Co, Th/Pb, Th/Yb, Al/Pb, Zr/Co e a composição isotópica de Pb indicam fontes distintas para os sedimentos de fundo estudados. Os sedimentos do rio Madeira são provenientes, principalmente, de rochas máficas, enquanto que os sedimentos de seus tributários têm como fonte essencialmente rochas félsicas.This study reports the granulometric, mineralogic and chemical analyses, including Pb isotope, carried out on the bottom sediments of the Madeira River, whose headwaters are in the Andes Mountain, and its tributaries that come from the cratonic region, in order to investigate the compositional variation of the sediments transported by the major rivers of the Amazon. The analytical data show that the bottom sediments of the Madeira River have

  17. Cultivares e portaenxertos sobre o vigor de plantas de pereira europeias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Dalazen Machado

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A cultura da pereira (Pyrus communis possui grande potencial de expansão no sul do Brasil devido às condições climáticas e solo. A carência de informações a respeito da(s melhor(es combinação(ões de cultivares copa de pereira europeia e portaenxertos, quanto ao aspecto vegetativo e potencial produtivo, tem limitado o cultivo. O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar a influência de cultivares copa de pereira europeia e portaenxertos de marmeleiro (Cydonia oblonga sobre o vigor e variáveis de plantas. Os experimentos foram conduzidos em pomares comerciais da cidade de Fraiburgo, Estado de Santa Catarina, durante os ciclos de cultivo 2008/09, 09/10 e 10/11. As cultivares avaliadas foram 'Packham's Triumph', 'Santa Maria', 'Rocha' e 'Abbè Fetel' e os portaenxertos de marmeleiro EMC e Adams. O espaçamento de plantio foi de 0,3m entre plantas e 4m entre linhas. As variáveis analisadas foram: a. incremento de altura de plantas (m; b. incremento de volume de copa (m³; c. incremento de diâmetro do tronco da cv. 'copa' (mm; d. incremento de diâmetro do tronco do portaenxerto (mm; e. diferença de diâmetro do tronco entre a cultivar copa e o portaenxerto (mm; f. índice de fertilidade (no de gemas cm-1; g. massa fresca média total acumulada do material vegetativo das três podas de inverno (kg; h. diferença cumulativa entre a massa fresca e a massa seca dos ramos podados (kg. As diferentes combinações de cultivares e portaenxertos interferiram nas diferentes variáveis analisadas. As combinações Abbè Fetel e Rocha sobre marmelo Adams, foram significativamente mais vigorosas em termos de incremento de diâmetro do tronco da cultivar copa, incremento de altura de plantas, incremento de volume de copa e massa fresca média total acumulada do material vegetativo das podas de inverno dos três anos. A combinação Santa Maria sobre marmelo Adams apresentou vigor intermediário significativo de plantas de acordo com o incremento em volume

  18. Crescimento de bananeiras sob diferentes níveis de salinidade da água de irrigação Growth in banana cultivars under different salinity levels of irrigation water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilcimar Alves do Carmo

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se os efeitos do uso de diferentes níveis de salinidade da água de irrigação (S1 = 0,55 dS/m, S2 = 1,70 dS/m, S3 = 2,85 dS/m e S1 = 4,00 dS/m no crescimento vegetativo de bananeiras Pacovan (AAB e Marmelo (ABB, utilizando-se um solo Argissolo Crômico, textura franco-argilo-arenosa e adotando-se um delineamento experimental em blocos completos casualizados, com parcelas subdivididas e quatro repetições. As parcelas experimentais foram compostas de uma fileira com 10 plantas, sendo cinco de cada cultivar, com as três plantas centrais de cada sub-parcela consideradas úteis. As irrigações foram feitas diariamente ou a cada dois dias de modo a proporcionar uma fração de lixiviação ao redor de 0,15%, colocando-se volumes aproximados de água para manter o solo próximo à capacidade de campo. Os resultados obtidos aos 110, 160, 220, 300 e 360 dias após o plantio mostraram que o incremento nos níveis de salinidade diminuiu significativamente a altura da planta, o número de folhas e a área foliar com o aumento do nível de salinidade da água até no máximo 240 dias do desenvolvimento, havendo uma equiparação depois do período chuvoso.The effects of different salinity levels of irrigation water (S1 = 0.55 dS/m, S2 = 1.70 dS/m, S3 = 2.85 dS/m e S4 = 4.00 dS/m on vegetative growth in bananas Pacovan (AAB and Marmelo (ABB were evaluated. The experiment was carried out on a sandy clay loam Chromic Argisol in a split-plot scheme arranged in a randomized block design with four replications. The whole plots were composed of a row with 10-plants, five plants of each cultivar (subplot, and the data were collected from the three central ones. The irrigations were applied either dayly or every each two-days period in order to maintain a lixiviation fraction of 0.15, using approximate water sheets to keep the soil at field capacity. The data obtained at 110, 160, 220, 300, and 360 days after planting indicated that the water

  19. Research on the features of college students’ coping style and the relationship between college students’ coping style and suicide ideation%大学生应对方式的特点及其与自杀意念的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王斐然; 高树刚; 叶红; 周紫哲; 高艳华

    2013-01-01

    724 college students were surveyed by the questionnaire of Coping Styles Questionnaire(CSQ), Symptom Check List 90 (SCL-90) and Self-made General Data Questionnaire(SMGDQ), Results Solving problem, seeking support, fantasy, rationalization, withdrawal and self-accusation were the seven factors of college students’ coping style. Compared with freshmen and the seniors, sophomores chose ripe coping style(solving problem, seeking support) more. and unripe coping style(self-accusation etc)less. Female students had higher score in ripe coping style(solving problem, seeking support)and lower score in unripe coping style (fantasy, rationalization, withdrawal and self-accusation) than male students. Urban college students preferred self-accusation withdrawal and rationalization than rural students. Junior college students preferred seeking support, while undergraduate students preferred self-accusation fantasy and rationalization. College students who were satisfied with their major preferred seeking support, and chose unripe coping style(self-accusation etc)less. Compared with the college students who thought their class was common or disunited, inactive and unpleasant, the students who thought their class was united, active and pleasant chose ripe coping style(solving problem, seeking support)more, and unripe coping style(self-accusation etc)less. Healthy students chose ripe coping style(solving problem, seeking support)more, and unripe coping style(self-accusation etc)less. There was no significant difference in the coping style between only-one children and non-only-one children. 9.81% college students had suicide ideation. Suicide ideation was closely related to the coping style. Self-accusation was a significant positive predicator of suicide ideation. Seeking support was a negative predicator of suicide ideation. Conclusion College students prefer ripe coping style(solving problem, seeking support). Students in different grade, with different gender, origin, education

  20. Rhizosphere soil microbial index of tree species in a coal mining ecosystem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinha, S.; Masto, R.E.; Ram, L.C.; Selvi, V.A.; Srivastava, N.K.; Tripathi, R.C.; George, J. [Central Institute of Mining & Fuel Research, Dhanbad (India)

    2009-09-15

    Microbial characterization of the tree rhizosphere provides important information relating to the screening of tree species for re-vegetation of degraded land. Rhizosphere soil samples collected from a few predominant tree species growing in the coal mining ecosystem of Dhanbad, India, were analyzed for soil organic carbon (SOC), mineralizable N, microbial biomass carbon (MBC), active microbial biomass carbon (AMBC), basal soil respiration (BSR), and soil enzyme activities (dehydrogenase, urease, catalase, phenol oxidase, and peroxidase). Principal component analysis was employed to derive a rhizosphere soil microbial index (RSMI) and accordingly, dehydrogenase, BSR/MBC, MBC/SOC, EC, phenol oxidase and AMBC were found to be the most critical properties. The observed values for the above properties were converted into a unitless score (0-1.00) and the scores were integrated into RSMI. The tree species could be arranged in decreasing order of the RSMI as: A. marmelos (0.718), A. indica (0.715), Bauhinia bauhinia (0.693), B. monosperma (0.611), E. jambolana (0.601), Moringa oleifera (0.565), Dalbergia sissoo (0.498), T indica (0.488), Morus alba (0.415), F religiosa (0.291), Eucalyptus sp. (0.232) and T grandis (0.181). It was concluded that tree species in coal mining areas had diverse effects on their respective rhizosphere microbial processes, which could directly or indirectly determine the survival and performance of the planted tree species in degraded coal mining areas. Tree species with higher RSMI values could be recommended for re-vegetation of degraded coal mining area.

  1. Teores de minerais em polpas e cascas de frutos de cultivares de bananeira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Fernandes Aquino

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar a percentagem de matéria seca, o teor de minerais e a capacidade de fornecimento de minerais, com base na ingestão dietética de referência na polpa e na casca de frutos verdes e maduros de 15 cultivares de bananeira. Utilizaram-se quatro cachos por cultivar e seis frutos por unidade amostral. Foram coletadas amostras frescas da polpa e da casca, para digestões sulfúricas (0,2 g e nitroperclóricas (0,5 g. Foram determinados: no extrato sulfúrico, o N total pelo método Kjeldahl; e, no extrato nitroperclórico, P, K, Ca, Mg, Cu, Mn, Fe, Zn e Se. O P foi determinado por colorimetria, e os demais nutrientes, por espectrofotometria de absorção atômica. O teor de minerais na polpa e na casca foi expresso com base na média dos dois estádios. Há diferenças entre cultivares de bananeira quanto à concentração de macro e micronutrientes na polpa e na casca, mas não entre frutos verdes e maduros. A cultivar Terrinha apresentou a maior percentagem de matéria seca na polpa, e as cultivares Marmelo e Maçã, na casca. Para N, P, Fe, Zn e Cu, a casca apresentou duas vezes o teor da polpa. O teor de K e Mn na casca foi de aproximadamente quatro vezes o da polpa. A polpa da cultivar Caipira (AAA e a casca das cultivares Prata e Pacovan (AAB apresentam os maiores teores de minerais.

  2. Molecular phylogenetics of the neotropical butterfly subtribe Oleriina (Nymphalidae: Danainae: Ithomiini).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de-Silva, Donna Lisa; Day, Julia J; Elias, Marianne; Willmott, Keith; Whinnett, Alaine; Mallet, James

    2010-06-01

    The Oleriina is one of the most speciose subtribes of the neotropical nymphalid butterfly tribe Ithomiini. They are widely distributed across the Andes and Amazonian lowlands and like other ithomiines they are involved in complex mimicry rings. This subtribe is of particular interest because it contains the most diverse ithomiine genus, Oleria, as well as two genera, Megoleria and Hyposcada, that feed on hostplants not utilized elsewhere in the tribe. Here we present the first comprehensive species-level phylogeny for the Oleriina, representing 83% of recognised species in the group, and based on 6698bp from eight mitochondrial (mt) and nuclear (nc) genes. Topologies are largely congruent for ncDNA and the concatenated dataset and the genera Oleria, Hyposcada and Megoleria are recovered and well-supported, although strongly discordant genealogy between mtDNA and ncDNA suggest possible introgression among Hyposcada and Megoleria. A fourth clade containing the type species of Ollantaya is consistently recovered, and this recently synonymized name is resurrected. Clear subdivisions within Oleria separate the genus into four species groups, onega, amalda, makrena and aegle, which also correspond to differing biogeographic and elevation range characteristics. Unlike other ithomiine genera, the Oleriina show homogeneity in mimetic wing pattern, in sharp contrast to the emerging paradigm that mimetic shifts have enhanced diversification in the tribe. Our results show a potentially more important role for geographic isolation in the diversification of the Oleriina compared to other Ithomiini studied to date and provide a framework for more detailed biogeographical studies, in addition to a rare opportunity for comparative analyses with other neotropical groups.

  3. Stages of maturation of the fruit on germination and oil content in seeds of Jatropha curcas LinEstádios de maturação do fruto no desempenho germinativo e teor de óleo de sementes de Jatropha curcas Linn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Rubio

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Jatropha curcas Linn., known as physic nut, is a plant that has oil content between 35 and 38%, being used as an alternative for producing biodiesel. However, this culture has uneven fruiting, which discourages the harvest period. This study aimed to relate the color of the seeds during fruit maturation and germination characteristics with the oil concentration, confirming the best time for harvest. Using the Munsell color chart the seeds were classified into four stages: VC (light seeds of unripe fruits, VE (dark seeds of unripe fruits, A (seeds of fruits attached to the tree and C (seeds to the ground. It was conducted the germination test, moisture, dry matter and oil content. The seeds of fruits that were attached to the tree (level A obtained better results in test of germination, about 25% because they had higher dry matter (90.51% and lower water content (9.49%. They also had the largest concentration of oil, which was 47.36% (almond, and therefore, the best stage for harvesting. The light seeds of unripe fruits (VC, did not obtain satisfactory germination (1.25%, indicating that the color of the fruits can be a parameter for physiological maturity of Jatropha curcas Linn.Jatropha curcas Linn. conhecido como pinhão manso apresenta teor de óleo entre 35 e 38% em suas sementes, sendo utilizado como alternativa na produção de biodiesel. Porém, essa cultura apresenta frutificação desuniforme, o que desfavorece a determinação do período ideal de colheita. Desta forma, esse trabalho objetivou relacionar a coloração das sementes de Jatropha curcas Linn. durante o processo de maturação dos frutos com as características germinativas e concentração de óleo, verificando assim a melhor época para a colheita. Utilizando a carta de cores de Munsell, as sementes foram classificadas em 4 estádios: VC (sementes claras de frutos verdes, VE (sementes escuras de frutos verdes, A (sementes de frutos maduros presos à árvore e C (sementes

  4. Contenido de compuestos antioxidantes en tres estados de maduración de tomate de árbol (Solanum betaceum Cav. cultivado a diferentes alturas (m.s.n.m. Antioxidant compounds content in red-purple tree tomato grown at different altitudes (m.a.s.l.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena Cuesta

    2013-06-01

    compounds content in Red-purple treetomato grown at different altitudes (m.a.s.l.. Fruits from Pelileo (2660 m.a.s.l. and Chiquicha(2440 m.a.s.l. in three maturity stages (unripe, ripe and overripe were used. Physicochemical(surface and internal color, pH, titratable total acidity -TTA- and total soluble solids -SST- andbiochemical analyses using UV-Vis spectrophotometry (total phenol -TF-, total anthocyanins -TA-, total carotenes -CT-, L-ascorbic acid -AA- and antioxidant capacity -AC- in the mesocarpand endocarp of fruits were performed. In the color, higher values of L* (epicarp and h*(epicarp and mesocarp in unripe, ripe and overripe fruits from Chiquicha were obtained, whileC* values of mesocarp and endocarp was higher in those from Pelileo. The color differenceswere evident during fruit ripening, but a direct relationship between crop altitude and changes in color parameters analyzed wasn’t found. There was a significantly higher difference in the pH oftomatoes (unripe and ripe from Chiquicha. Also, these fruits had higher TTA (ripe and overripeand TSS (overripe than those from Pelileo. The mesocarp showed higher content of TF and TCin the fruits (three maturity stages from Chiquicha, while higher concentration of thesecompounds showed the endocarp from Pelileo’s fruit. The TA and AA content was higher in ripefruits from Chiquicha. In general, the fruits from Chiquicha showed higher concentration ofantioxidant compounds, possibly because the plantation, consisting of at least two genotypes, islocated in a mountainous area with good characteristics for this fruit cultivation.

  5. Roles of Abscisic Acid in Fruit Ripening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sutthiwal SETHA

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abscisic acid (ABA is a plant growth regulator, and it plays a variety of important roles throughout a plant’s life cycle. These roles include seed development and dormancy, plant response to environmental stresses, and fruit ripening. ABA concentration is very low in unripe fruit, but it increases as a fruit ripens, so it is therefore believed that ABA plays an important role in regulating the rate of fruit ripening. This article reviews the effect of ABA on ripening and quality of climacteric and non-climacteric fruits. The effects of ABA application on fruit ripening are subsequently discussed. Moreover, it is found that during fruit ripening, ABA also contributes to other functions, such as ethylene and respiratory metabolism, pigment and color changes, phenolic metabolism and nutritional contents, cell wall metabolism and fruit softening, and sugar and acid metabolism. These processes are all discussed as part of the relationship between ABA and fruit ripening, and the possibilities for its commercial application and use are highlighted.

  6. [Yield of starch extraction from plantain (Musa paradisiaca). Pilot plant study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Gorosquera, Emigdia; García-Suárez, Francisco J; Flores-Huicochea, Emmanuel; Núñez-Santiago, María C; González-Soto, Rosalia A; Bello-Pérez, Luis A

    2004-01-01

    In México, the banana (Musa paradisiaca) is cooked (boiling or deep frying) before being eaten, but the consumption is not very popular and a big quantity of the product is lost after harvesting. The unripe plantain has a high level of starch and due to this the use of banana can be diversified as raw material for starch isolation. The objective of this work was to study the starch yield at pilot plant scale. Experiments at laboratory scale were carried out using the pulp with citric acid to 0,3 % (antioxidant), in order to evaluate the different unitary operations of the process. The starch yield, based on starch presence in the pulp that can be isolated, were between 76 and 86 %, and the values at pilot plant scale were between 63 and 71 %, in different lots of banana fruit. Starch yield values were similar among the diverse lots, showing that the process is reproducible. The lower values of starch recovery at pilot plant scale are due to the loss during sieving operations; however, the amount of starch recovery is good.

  7. Evolution of the Yields and Composition of Essential Oil from Portuguese Myrtle (Myrtus comunis L. through the Vegetative Cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Gabriela Bernardo-Gil

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition of the essential oil of Portuguese myrtle was determined at different developmental stages of the plant: pre-flowering, flowering, unripe and ripe berries. The oil was extracted separately by Clevenger distillation from leaves, branches and berries. The yields vary from 0.33% to 0.74% for leaves, 0.02% to 0.19% for branches, and 0.11% to 0.23% for berries. The highest yields were obtained for the leaves in October, and for the berries in September; branches show similar values in the months of June, July and September, and the samples collected in May and October produced very little amount of oil. Altogether, September seems to be the month with the best yields for the three parts of the plant. The essential oils were analyzed by GC and GC/MS, and a total of thirty five components were identified. The major components were limonene+1,8-cineole [25.9% (berries–39.5% (leaves], myrtenyl acetate [6.6% (berries–24.8% (leaves], α-pinene [9.7% (berries–21.5% (leaves], and linalool [6.2% (leaves–36.5% (berries]. Portuguese myrtle belongs to the group of myrtles which are characterized by the presence of myrtenyl acetate as one of the major components.

  8. The Aqueous Seed Extract Of Carica papaya Linn. Prevents Carbon Tetrachloride Induced Hepatotoxicity In Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A A Adeneye

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Carica papaya Linn. is known to have a versatile application in African folkloric medicine. In the current study, the dose-dependent (100 – 400 mg/kg/day/oral route and time-course protective effects of the 400 mg/kg/oral route of the aqueous seed extract of unripe and mature Carica papaya fruit (CPE were investigated in carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 hepatotoxic rats for 72 hours. Results showed the extract to cause significant (p<0.05, p<0.001, dose related attenuation in the elevation of serum liver enzyme markers of acute hepatocellular injury (ALT, AST, serum lipids (TG, TC, HDL-c, LDL-c and VLDL-c and serum proteins (TP and ALB. Maximum hepatoprotection was offered at an oral dose of 400 mg/kg/day of the extract. The biochemical results obtained were corroborated by improvements in the CCl4-induced hepatic histological changes. In addition, maximum hepatoprotection was offered at the 400 mg/kg of CPE for up to 3 hours post-CCl4 induction. In conclusion, the results obtained in the current study justify the folkloric application of CPE in the treatment of drug-related hepatic injury. Industrial relevance: Results of the current study provide some scientific information to develop safe and effective products such as food supplements, dietary supplements, etc. that could be useful in the clinical management of patients with drug related hepatic disorders.

  9. Comparative evaluation of gastric secretory response to banana and porridge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadoo, R C; Khatri, H L; Singla, S

    1995-01-01

    Unripe Banana (Plantain) is used in South India as a bland diet for peptic ulcer patients. Flour made of plantain is quite often prescribed in dyspepsia in this part of the country. This has led to the belief that ripe banana may also be a bland fruit. However, it was observed by the Senior Author that ripe banana does produce symptoms of hyperacidity. Hence a study was undertaken to assess whether ripe banana is a bland food or not. A total of 115 patients entered the study. 89 individuals had no GIT symptoms, 15 patients had proved peptic ulcer while 11 patients had non-ulcer acid dyspepsia. The gastric residue was emptied by a nasogastric tube after a night fast. Patients were then given 80 gms. of banana or porridge on two different days. Then consecutive 15 minute samples of gastric juice were collected and submitted for estimation of acid output in mEq/l. It was observed that gastric acid values were higher following banana as compared to porridge and the difference was statistically significant (p < 0.001). It was was thus concluded that ripe banana is not a bland food. It should not be recommended as a part of bland diet for patients of acid peptic disease.

  10. Non-Destructive Sensor-Based Prediction of Maturity and Optimum Harvest Date of Sweet Cherry Fruit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overbeck, Verena; Schmitz, Michaela; Blanke, Michael

    2017-01-01

    (1) Background: The aim of the study was to use innovative sensor technology for non-destructive determination and prediction of optimum harvest date (OHD), using sweet cherry as a model fruit, based on different ripening parameters. (2) Methods: Two cherry varieties in two growing systems viz. field and polytunnel in two years were employed. The fruit quality parameters such as fruit weight and size proved unsuitable to detect OHD alone due to their dependence on crop load, climatic conditions, cultural practices, and season. Coloration during cherry ripening was characterized by a complete decline of green chlorophyll and saturation of the red anthocyanins, and was measured with a portable sensor viz. spectrometer 3–4 weeks before expected harvest until 2 weeks after harvest. (3) Results: Expressed as green NDVI (normalized differential vegetation index) and red NAI (normalized anthocyanin index) values, NAI increased from −0.5 (unripe) to +0.7 to +0.8 in mature fruit and remained at this saturation level with overripe fruits, irrespective of variety, treatment, and year. A model was developed to predict the OHD, which coincided with when NDVI reached and exceeded zero and the first derivative of NAI asymptotically approached zero. (4) Conclusion: The use of this sensor technology appears suitable for several cherry varieties and growing systems to predict the optimum harvest date. PMID:28146114

  11. Non-Destructive Sensor-Based Prediction of Maturity and Optimum Harvest Date of Sweet Cherry Fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verena Overbeck

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available (1 Background: The aim of the study was to use innovative sensor technology for non-destructive determination and prediction of optimum harvest date (OHD, using sweet cherry as a model fruit, based on different ripening parameters. (2 Methods: Two cherry varieties in two growing systems viz. field and polytunnel in two years were employed. The fruit quality parameters such as fruit weight and size proved unsuitable to detect OHD alone due to their dependence on crop load, climatic conditions, cultural practices, and season. Coloration during cherry ripening was characterized by a complete decline of green chlorophyll and saturation of the red anthocyanins, and was measured with a portable sensor viz. spectrometer 3–4 weeks before expected harvest until 2 weeks after harvest. (3 Results: Expressed as green NDVI (normalized differential vegetation index and red NAI (normalized anthocyanin index values, NAI increased from −0.5 (unripe to +0.7 to +0.8 in mature fruit and remained at this saturation level with overripe fruits, irrespective of variety, treatment, and year. A model was developed to predict the OHD, which coincided with when NDVI reached and exceeded zero and the first derivative of NAI asymptotically approached zero. (4 Conclusion: The use of this sensor technology appears suitable for several cherry varieties and growing systems to predict the optimum harvest date.

  12. Tomato transcriptome and mutant analyses suggest a role for plant stress hormones in the interaction between fruit and Botrytis cinerea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara eBlanco-Ulate

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Fruit-pathogen interactions are a valuable biological system to study the role of plant development in the transition from resistance to susceptibility. In general, unripe fruit are resistant to pathogen infection but become increasingly more susceptible as they ripen. During ripening, fruit undergo significant physiological and biochemical changes that are coordinated by complex regulatory and hormonal signaling networks. The interplay between multiple plant stress hormones in the interaction between plant vegetative tissues and microbial pathogens has been documented extensively, but the relevance of these hormones during infections of fruit is unclear. In this work, we analyzed a transcriptome study of tomato fruit infected with Botrytis cinerea in order to profile the expression of genes for the biosynthesis, modification and signal transduction of ethylene (ET, salicylic acid (SA, jasmonic acid (JA, and abscisic acid (ABA, hormones that may be not only involved in ripening, but also in fruit interactions with pathogens. The changes in relative expression of key genes during infection and assays of susceptibility of fruit with impaired synthesis or perception of these hormones were used to formulate hypotheses regarding the involvement of these regulators in the outcome of the tomato fruit-B. cinerea interaction.

  13. Purification and characterization of hieronymain III. Comparison with other proteases previously isolated from Bromelia hieronymi Mez.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, Mariela A; Trejo, Sebastián A; Caffini, Néstor O; López, Laura M I

    2008-12-01

    A new proteolytic enzyme, named hieronymain III, has been purified by ion-exchange chromatography from unripe fruits of Bromelia hieronymi Mez. The new peptidase belongs to the cysteine catalytic type, as well as hieronymain I and II, the other two peptidases previously isolated from this species. Hieronymain III showed optimum alkaline pH range (8.6-9.3) and the molecular mass (MALDI-TOF) was 23713 Da. The N-terminal sequence (AVPQSIDWRRYGAVTTSRNQG) exhibited a higher percentage identity with hieronymain II (93%) than with hieronymain I (71%). The three peptidases showed notable differences on synthetic substrates degradation: whereas hieronymain III was the only one able to hidrolyze Z-Arg-Arg-p-nitroanilide, hieronymain I and II could degrade Z-Phe-Arg-p-nitroanilide; on the other hand, PFLNA was only split by hieronymain I. Finally, the three proteases showed different preferences on N-alpha-CBZ-p-nitrophenyl aminoacid ester substrates. From a biotechnological point of view, cleavage specificity differences are significant enough to use these enzymes as potential tools in that area.

  14. Cloning, sequencing, and identification using proteomic tools of a protease from Bromelia hieronymi Mez.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, Mariela Anahí; Trejo, Sebastián Alejandro; Avilés, Francesc Xavier; Caffini, Néstor Oscar; López, Laura Maria Isabel

    2011-09-01

    Fruits of Bromelia hieronymi, a tropical South American plant, possess a high content of peptidases with potential biotechnological uses. Total RNA was extracted from unripe fruits and peptidase cDNA was obtained by 3'RACE-PCR. The consensus sequence of the cysteine peptidase cDNA contained 875 bp, the 690 first ones codifying for a hypothetical polypeptide chain of the mature peptidase, named Bh-CP1 (molecular mass 24.773 kDa, pI 8.6, extinction molar coefficient 58,705 M(-1) cm(-1)). Bh-CP1 sequence shows a high percentage of identity with those of other cysteine plant proteases. The presence of highly preserved residues is observed, like those forming the catalytic site (Gln19, Cys25, His159, and Asn175, papain numbering), as well as other six Cys residues, involved in the formation of disulfide bounds. Molecular modeling results suggest the enzyme belongs to the α + β class of proteins, with two disulfide bridges (Cys23-Cys63 and Cys57-Cys96) in the α domain, while the β domain is stabilized by another disulfide bridge (Cys153-Cys203). Additionally, peptide mass fingerprints (PMFs) of the three peptidases previously isolated from B. hieronymi fruits (namely hieronymain I, II, and III) were performed and compared with the theoretical fingerprint of PMF of Bh-CP1, showing a partial matching between the in silico-translated protein and hieronymain II.

  15. Isolation and characterization of hieronymain II, another peptidase isolated from fruits of Bromelia hieronymi Mez (Bromeliaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, Mariela A; Trejo, Sebastián A; Avilés, Xavier F; Caffini, Néstor O; López, Laura M I

    2006-04-01

    From unripe fruits of Bromelia hieronymi Mez (Bromeliaceae), a partially purified protease preparation was obtained by acetone fractionation of the crude extract. Purification was achieved by anionic exchange chromatography (FPLC) on Q-Sepharose HP followed by cationic exchange chromatography (SP-Sepharose HP). Homogeneity of the new enzyme, named hieronymain II, was confirmed by SDS-PAGE and mass spectroscopy (MALDI-TOF-TOF). The molecular mass of was 23,411 Da, and maximum proteolytic activity (more than 90% of maximum activity) was achieved at pH 7.5-9.0 on casein and at pH 7.30-8.3 on Z-Phe-Arg-p-nitroanilide. The enzyme was completely inhibited by E-64 and iodoacetic acid and activated by the addition of cysteine. The N-terminal sequence of hieronymain II (AVPQSIDWRVYGAV) was compared with those of 12 plant cysteine proteases which showed more than 70% of identity. Kinetic enzymatic assays were made on Z-Phe-Arg-p-nitroanilide (Km = 0.72mM, kcat = 1.82 seg(-1) , kcat/ Km = 2.54seg(-1) mM(-l)). No detectable activity could be found on PFLNA or Z-Arg-Arg-p-nitroanilide.

  16. Nutraceutical value of yellow- and red-fleshed South African plums (Prunus salicina Lindl.): evaluation of total antioxidant capacity and phenolic composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venter, Alet; Joubert, Elizabeth; de Beer, Dalene

    2014-03-11

    Ten South African plum cultivars and selections, including yellow- and red-fleshed plums from two harvest seasons were evaluated in terms of nutraceutical value (phenolic composition, total polyphenol content (TPC) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC)) and fruit attributes (colour, fruit mass, etc.). Plums were evaluated at two maturity stages, i.e., directly after harvest (unripe) and after a commercial cold storage and ripening regime (ripe). The phenolic composition of South African plums varied greatly, both qualitatively and quantitatively, between cultivars and selections. Neochlorogenic acid, cyanidin-3-O-glucoside and quercetin-3-O-glucoside were the predominant hydroxycinnamic acid, anthocyanin and flavonol, respectively, although not present in all plums. The flavan-3-ols, (+)-catechin, (-)-epicatechin and procyanidins B1 and B2, were present in all plums. Red-fleshed plums tended to display higher TAC and TPC than yellow-fleshed plums. The flavan-3-ol content was highly correlated with TAC. The effect of harvest season was cultivar-dependent, but cultivar differences were not obscured. In terms of maturity stage, the ripe fruits tended to contain higher levels of anthocyanins and some flavonol compounds, although the TPC and TAC were not affected in most cases. South African plums, especially the red-fleshed selections PR04-32 and PR04-35, were shown to provide generally high TAC and TPC compared to literature values.

  17. A Rudimentary Optical System in Detecting Ripeness of Red Watermelon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezan Abdullah, Noor; Hashim, Hadzli; Fathullah Sulaiman, Muhammad; Korlina Madzhi, Nina; Faiz Mohd Sampian, Ahmad; Aima Ismail, Faridatul

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of this project is to detect the ripeness and quality of the watermelon particularly for red watermelon. The ripeness of the watermelon will be evaluated by using near-infrared spectroscopy sensor (NRIS). The color wavelength will classify the ripeness of the watermelon. An infrared light will be used to get the appropriate wavelength from the watermelon either from the rind or inner of it and the signal received will be analyzed. An appropriate algorithm is used to extract the information of the inner of the watermelon. A microcontroller namely Programmable Interface Controller (PIC) will be used to execute the algorithm and the result will be displayed on Liquid Crystal Display (LCD). Based on the result obtain from the device, the data is computed by using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS). This approach is vital to verify the relationship between unripe and ripeness of red watermelon. The objective of this project is to produce an efficient system to detect the ripeness of the watermelon.

  18. Pemanfaatan Tumbuhan Cempedak (Artocarpus champeden oleh Masyarakat Kampung Sabun Distrik Aitinyo Tengah Kabupaten Maybrat, Papua Barat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariance Juli Ross Nauw

    2016-08-01

    Abstract Cempedak (Artocarpus champeden is one of the non timber forest products (NTFPs from the Maybrat district. It is used as a daily food of Maybrat people. The study was conducted from June-July 2014 in Sabun Village, Aitinyo Sub district of the Maybrat Regency, West Papua Province. The objectives of this study were to explore the utilization, harvesting technique, and manufacturing process of cempedak in Sabun villages. Field observations and interviews were used to collect the data of 15 respondents. The result showed that fruits and seeds are part of of the cempedak trees, which is utilised for food. Cempedak processing were divided into 3 parts i.e. the ripe fruit, the unripe fruit, and the seed. Processing of the seed were divided into four parts i.e. boiling, steaming, frying without oil process, filling inside bamboo, and storage. Conservation efforts were conducted by planting cempedak in the garden of villagers’ house. This research also revealed that the utilization process was done for household purposes only. Therefore, the development of cempedak for an alternative food as NTFPs, is necessary to be promoted by collaboration of related stakeholders including forestry and agriculture in Maybrat Regency.

  19. Extraction, identification and activity of Papain from Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.H. Tabaei

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and purpose: Papain, a proteolytic enzyme, is found in the dried and purified latex from the fruits of Carica papaya L. (Caricaceae.Papain is used in medicine as a digestive and in the debridement of necrotic tissues. It is used in pharmaceutics as a spreading agent for drugs, supplied as an ointment (10% with urea which denatures nonviable protein matter present in lesions. Large amounts of papain are used industrially to tenderize meat.Materials and Methods: In this research, crude latex was collected from Sarbaz region of Sistan-o-Baluchestan province. The full-grown but unriped fruit was subjected to shallow incisions on several sides (depth of incision was important. After collection, the coagulated lumps were shredded and dried by the use of heat (30°C.Extraction and sedimentation procedures were used for extraction of papain. In this method, cystein hydrochloride at adjusted pH was used for extraction and sodium chloride for sedimentation.The extracted papain was identified by the use of electrophoresis method and also by comparing its IR spectrum with the standard papain.Results: The activity of extracted papain was determined by USP procedure. In this research, 1.2 g papain was obtained from 100g latex. Electrophoresis pattern and IR spectrum of extracted papain were identical with the satndard papain.Conclusion: The extracted papain from Iranian Carica papaya (c = 1mg/ml showed 5800 U/ml activity.

  20. Food search through the eyes of a monkey: a functional substitution approach for assessing the ecology of primate color vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melin, A D; Kline, D W; Hickey, C M; Fedigan, L M

    2013-06-28

    Efficient detection and selection of reddish fruits against green foliage has long been thought to be a major selective pressure favoring the evolution of primate trichromatic color vision. This has recently been questioned by studies of free-ranging primates that fail to show predicted differences in foraging efficiency between dichromats and trichromats. In the present study, we use a unique approach to evaluate the adaptive significance of trichromacy for fruit detection by undertaking a functional substitution model. The color vision phenotypes of neotropical monkeys are simulated for human observers, who use a touch-sensitive computer interface to search for monkey food items in digital images taken under natural conditions. We find an advantage to trichromatic phenotypes - especially the variant with the most spectrally separated visual pigments - for red, yellow and greenish fruits, but not for dark (purple or black) fruits. These results indicate that trichromat advantage is task-specific, and that shape, size and achromatic contrast variation between ripe and unripe fruits cannot completely mitigate the advantage of color vision. Similarities in fruit foraging performance between primates with different phenotypes in the wild likely reflect the behavioral flexibility of dichromats in overcoming a chromatic disadvantage.

  1. Prostaglandin treatment is associated with a withdrawal of progesterone and androgen at the receptor level in the uterine cervix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekman-Ordeberg Gunvor

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Treatment with prostaglandin(PG-E2 is clinically efficient for cervical priming. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of PG-E2 on the expression of the progesterone (PR, androgen (AR and glucocorticoid (GR receptors in human uterine cervix in prolonged pregnancy. The study groups were postterm nulliparous women with unripe cervices undergoing cervical priming with PG-E2 before labor induction. Responders (n = 12 who delivered vaginally were compared with non-responders (n = 10, who underwent cesarean section due to failure to progress to the active phase of labor. Controls (n = 18 with vaginal partus at a normal gestational age served as a reference group. Cervical levels of PR-A and PR- B isoforms, AR and GR, serum levels of their ligands and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG were quantified. The responder group displayed lower total PR-AB and AR protein levels as compared to non-responders, and lower PR-B and AR protein levels as compared to controls. In addition, the PR mRNA level was lower in responders as compared to non-responders. The GR protein level did not differ between the groups. We conclude that successful PG-E2 priming was followed by a progesterone and androgen withdrawal at the receptor level in the uterine cervix.

  2. Tomato transcriptome and mutant analyses suggest a role for plant stress hormones in the interaction between fruit and Botrytis cinerea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco-Ulate, Barbara; Vincenti, Estefania; Powell, Ann L T; Cantu, Dario

    2013-01-01

    Fruit-pathogen interactions are a valuable biological system to study the role of plant development in the transition from resistance to susceptibility. In general, unripe fruit are resistant to pathogen infection but become increasingly more susceptible as they ripen. During ripening, fruit undergo significant physiological and biochemical changes that are coordinated by complex regulatory and hormonal signaling networks. The interplay between multiple plant stress hormones in the interaction between plant vegetative tissues and microbial pathogens has been documented extensively, but the relevance of these hormones during infections of fruit is unclear. In this work, we analyzed a transcriptome study of tomato fruit infected with Botrytis cinerea in order to profile the expression of genes for the biosynthesis, modification and signal transduction of ethylene (ET), salicylic acid (SA), jasmonic acid (JA), and abscisic acid (ABA), hormones that may be not only involved in ripening, but also in fruit interactions with pathogens. The changes in relative expression of key genes during infection and assays of susceptibility of fruit with impaired synthesis or perception of these hormones were used to formulate hypotheses regarding the involvement of these regulators in the outcome of the tomato fruit-B. cinerea interaction.

  3. Impact of fermentation, drying, roasting, and Dutch processing on epicatechin and catechin content of cacao beans and cocoa ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Mark J; Hurst, W Jeffrey; Miller, Kenneth B; Rank, Craig; Stuart, David A

    2010-10-13

    Low molecular weight flavan-3-ols are thought to be responsible, in part, for the cardiovascular benefits associated with cocoa powder and dark chocolate. The levels of epicatechin and catechin were determined in raw and conventionally fermented cacao beans and during conventional processing, which included drying, roasting, and Dutch (alkali) processing. Unripe cacao beans had 29% higher levels of epicatechin and the same level of catechin compared to fully ripe beans. Drying had minimal effect on the epicatechin and catechin levels. Substantial decreases (>80%) in catechin and epicatechin levels were observed in fermented versus unfermented beans. When both Ivory Coast and Papua New Guinea beans were subjected to roasting under controlled conditions, there was a distinct loss of epicatechin when bean temperatures exceeded 70 °C. When cacao beans were roasted to 120 °C, the catechin level in beans increased by 696% in unfermented beans, by 650% in Ivory Coast beans, and by 640% in Papua New Guinea fermented beans compared to the same unroasted beans. These results suggest that roasting in excess of 70 °C generates significant amounts of (-)-catechin, probably due to epimerization of (-)-epicatechin. Compared to natural cocoa powders, Dutch processing caused a loss in both epicatechin (up to 98%) and catechin (up to 80%). The epicatechin/catechin ratio is proposed as a useful and sensitive indicator for the processing history of cacao beans.

  4. PARTIAL PURIFICATION OF MILK-CLOTTING ENZYME FROM THE SEEDS OF MORINGA OLEIFERA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amna E. Tajalsir

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to search for milk clotting substitute from different parts (flowers, seeds, stem, leaves, ripe and unripe fruits of Moringa oleifera. The samples were blended and extracted using different types of extracting solutions. The most reliable, quick and efficient enzyme extracting solution was found to be 5% NaCl in 100 mM sodium acetate buffer, pH 5.0, which was used throughout the study. The milk clotting activity was only observed in the seeds extract while the other parts were either deficient or has very low milk clotting activity. Thus, the moringa seeds were used as source of milk clotting enzyme. The extracted proteins were fractionated with ammonium sulfate at concentration of 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60 %. Highest milk clotting activity was observed in the 20 % fraction. This fraction was assumed to contain the clotting enzymes and characterized for its heating stability (30 – 90°C and optimum temperature (30 – 90°C. The results demonstrated that moringa seeds milk clotting enzyme is stable up to 50°C with an optimum milk clotting activity of 70°C. The high ratio of milk-clotting to proteolytic activity of the partially purified enzyme indicates the potential of this enzyme as suitable rennet substitute in dairy industry. However, further study is needed to completely purify and characterize this promising milk clotting enzyme from moringa seeds.

  5. Hepatoprotective effect of apple polyphenols against concanavalin A-induced immunological liver injury in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fang; Xue, Yang; Yang, Jingyu; Lin, Fang; Sun, Ying; Li, Ting; Wu, Chunfu

    2016-10-25

    Apple polyphenols (AP), a polyphenol extracted from the unripe apple, has been reported to improve acute hepatotoxicity induced by CCl4 in mice due to its significant antioxidant activity. In this study, the hepatoprotective effect of AP against concanavalin A (Con A)-induced immunological liver injury in mice was investigated. Mice were treated with AP daily for seven days prior to a single intravenous administration of Con A. The serum levels of AST, ALT, TP, Alb and histopathological changes were determined and the A/G ratio was calculated. Potential mechanisms were further explored by measuring TNF-α and IFN-γ levels, NO content as well as changes in the levels of endogenous oxidants and antioxidants. AP significantly improved the abnormal levels of ALT, AST, TP and Alb, and the A/G ratio. AP was also associated with improvement of liver histopathological changes after Con A-induced liver injury. Moreover, AP reduced serum levels of TNF-α and IFN-γ, decreased serum NO content, inhibited oxidative DNA single-strand breaks, and improved the abnormalities of MDA content, SOD activity and GSH level. These results suggest that AP exerts a protective effect against Con A-induced immunological liver injury through suppressing pro-inflammatory cytokines and activating the antioxidant system.

  6. The influence of baboon predation and time in water on germination and early establishment of Opuntia stricta (Australian pest pear in the Kruger National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.D. Lotter

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The alien invader weed, Opuntia stricta Haw (family Cactaceae, is seriously threatening biodiversity in veld habitats of the Kruger National Park. Basic biological and ecological information on the establishment, growth and reproduction of the species is necessary for the development of effective strategies for its control. The rapid spread of the plant is apparently mainly due to seed dispersal by baboon (Papio ursinus. Sixty percent of seed taken from baboon faeces resulted in seedlings that established. Although palatability criteria for ripe fruit were more favourable than for unripe or medium-ripe fruit, seed from fruit at all three degrees of ripeness germinated equally well, and seedling establishment was similar. Despite their lower acidity, as well as higher total soluble sugar content and pH, cladodes are not subject to herbivory to near the extent that ripe fruit are. Freshly collected seed kept in Sabie River water showed significantly better germination/emergence after seven days submersion (83 than at 14 or 28 days (52 and 66 , respectively. Results suggest that seed dispersal of the species by animals, principally baboon, is an important cause of rapidly expanding infestations, and that dissipation in water will intensify the problem. Current findings should contribute toward the development of long-term weed management strategies aimed at con- tainment/eradication of the weed.

  7. Effects of shading on Vallisneria natans (Lour. H. Hara growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fox A.D.

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Effects of surface shading were measured on above- and below-ground biomass and fruit production of Vallisneria natans (Lour. H. Hara plants grown from seed in replicated microcosm experiments, based on a control (no shading and four treatments (25%, 50%, 75% and 90% shading. Above- and below-ground biomass was significantly reduced at treatments above 50% shading and first pistillate and staminate florescence dates were significantly delayed above 75% and 50% shading, respectively. Ratios of mature to unripe fruits produced (both in number or dry weight did not differ between shading treatments, but dry weight fruit production was significantly reduced at 90% shading. We conclude that above 50% surface shading, V. natans plants suffer reductions in accumulated biomass and investment in sexual reproduction. We contend that recent expansions in the extent of the native floating water chestnut Trapa spp. at seasonally inundated wetlands in the Yangtze River floodplain could, by shading, have contributed to the reduction in annual biomass and seed production of V. natans, contributing to declines in distribution and abundance.

  8. Green synthesis of nitrogen-doped graphitic carbon sheets with use of Prunus persica for supercapacitor applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atchudan, Raji; Edison, Thomas Nesakumar Jebakumar Immanuel; Perumal, Suguna; Lee, Yong Rok

    2017-01-01

    Nitrogen-doped graphitic carbon sheets (N-GCSs) were prepared from the extract of unripe Prunus persica fruit by a direct hydrothermal method. The synthesized N-GCSs were examined by high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherms, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. HRTEM showed that the synthesized carbon sheets were graphitic with lattice fringes and an inter-layer distance of 0.36 nm. Doping with the nitrogen moiety present over the synthesized GCSs was confirmed by XPS, FT-IR spectroscopy, and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy elemental mapping. The fruit extract associated with hydrothermal-carbonization method is economical and eco-friendly with a single step process. The resulting carbon sheets could be modified and are promising candidates for nano-electronic applications, including supercapacitors. The synthesized N-GCSs-2 provided a high specific capacitance of 176 F g-1 at a current density of 0.1 A g-1. This electrode material has excellent cyclic stability, even after 2000 cycles of charge-discharge at a current density of 0.5 A g-1.

  9. Studies on Absorption and Tansport of Limoninoids from Fructus Evodiae in Caco-2 Cell Monolayer Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Objective To study the intestinal absorption and transepithelial transport of three limoninoids: evodol (EVO), limonin (LIM), and shihulimonin A (SHIA), isolated from Fructus Evodiae [the unripe fruit of Evodia rutaecarpa and Evodia rutaecarpa var. bodinieri] in the human intestine. Methods The in vitro cultured human colon carcinoma cell line, Caco-2 cell monolayer model, was applied to studying the absorption and transepithelial transport of the three limoninoids from apical (AP) to basolateral (BL) side and from BL to AP side. The three limoninoids were measured by reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography coupled with ultraviolet absorption detector. Transport parameters and apparent permeability coefficients (Papp) were then calculated and compared with those of Propranolol as a control substance of high permeability and Atenolol as a control substance of poor permeability. Results The Papp value of EVO and LIM from AP to BL side for absorption and transport were 1.78 × 10-5 cm/s and 1.16 × 10-5 cm/s, respectively, which was comparable to that of Propranolol with Papp 2.18 × 10-5 cm/s. Conclusion The absorption and transport of both EVO and LIM are main passive diffusion as the dominating process in Caco-2 cell monolayer model, and they were estimated to be high absorbed compounds. SHIA in Caco-2 cell monolayer model may be involved in metabolism in the transport processes.

  10. Nutrition metabolism plays an important role in the alternate bearing of the olive tree (Olea europaea L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mine Turktas

    Full Text Available The olive tree (Olea europaea L. is widely known for its strong tendency for alternate bearing, which severely affects the fruit yield from year to year. Microarray based gene expression analysis using RNA from olive samples (on-off years leaves and ripe-unripe fruits are particularly useful to understand the molecular mechanisms influencing the periodicity in the olive tree. Thus, we carried out genome wide transcriptome analyses involving different organs and temporal stages of the olive tree using the NimbleGen Array containing 136,628 oligonucleotide probe sets. Cluster analyses of the genes showed that cDNAs originated from different organs could be sorted into separate groups. The nutritional control had a particularly remarkable impact on the alternate bearing of olive, as shown by the differential expression of transcripts under different temporal phases and organs. Additionally, hormonal control and flowering processes also played important roles in this phenomenon. Our analyses provide further insights into the transcript changes between "on year" and "off year" leaves along with the changes from unrpipe to ripe fruits, which shed light on the molecular mechanisms underlying the olive tree alternate bearing. These findings have important implications for the breeding and agriculture of the olive tree and other crops showing periodicity. To our knowledge, this is the first study reporting the development and use of an olive array to document the gene expression profiling associated with the alternate bearing in olive tree.

  11. Quality Analysis of Pear Fruit of Shah Miveh variety Using Nondestructive Ultrasonic Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Meamar Dastjerdi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Development of ultrasound technique has not been progressing for evaluating the internal quality of fruits as fast as that of processed foods. In this research for quality assessment of pear fruit (Shah Miveh variety an ultrasonic measurement system was constructed to transmit and receive the ultrasonic waves. The apparatus included a pulser-receiver, a pair of 75 kHz ultrasonic transducers with exponential horn, and a computer system for data acquisition and analysis. Several mechanical and chemical properties, including firmness, TSS, acidity, elastic modulus, pH and total dry matter for destructive quality assessment were measured. Velocity and attenuation of ultrasonic waves for nondestructive tests were also measured. The fruit quality levels for the experiment were: unripe, ripe and overripe. The results of tests showed that firmness was the best parameter for measuring fruit quality, as it decreased significantly with ripeness. The effect of ripeness on the velocity and attenuation of ultrasonic waves was also significant. Investigation showed a positive linear relationship between fruit firmness and wave velocity (R2=0.81. Furthermore, the relationship between fruit firmness and attenuation was exponential and wave attenuation decreased with increasing fruit firmness (R2=0.895. The Relationship between ultrasonic properties and fruit modulus of elasticity showed that the wave velocity increased and attenuation decreased with ‌increasing elasticity. It can be concluded that the ultrasonic instrument equipped with exponential horns can effectively be utilized for pear quality assessment based on measurement of wave velocity and attenuation.

  12. Fruit removal of a wild tomato, Solanum granulosoleprosum Dunal (Solanaceae, by birds, bats and non-flying mammals in an urban Brazilian environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilton Carlos Cáceres

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available A study of removal of fruits of the wild tomato, Solanum granulosoleprosum Dunal (N = 5 plants, by vertebrates was carried out in an urban environment of southern Brazil from January to May 1997 and February 1998. To verify diurnal and nocturnal removals, fruits were counted in several fruit bunches, being classified by size and color. Diurnal observations were made on plants to verify bird removal. A mist net was placed among the plants from the evening to 23:00 h to verify bat consumption. Live traps baited with S. granulosoleprosum fruits were placed on the ground among plants to verify terrestrial removers. On average it was found two ripe fruits available per bunch/day, but unripe, small, fruits were dominant (70%. Nocturnal mammals and birds-diurnal mammals partitioned fruits similarly. Bats removing fruits were Artibeus lituratus (Olfers, 1818, Pygoderma bilabiatum (Wagner, 1843 and Sturnira lilium (E. Geoffroy, 1810. Birds were Saltator similis Lafresnaye & d'Orbigny, 1837 and Thraupis sayaca (Linnaeus, 1766. Terrestrial mammals were a marsupial and three rodent species. Except for rodents, these vertebrates must be promoting the seed dispersal of S. granulosoleprosum seeds in disturbed mixed forests of southern Brazil.

  13. Phenology of the multi-use tree species Carapa guianensis in a floodplain forest of the Amazon Estuary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adelson R. Dantas

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Carapa guianensis is a multi-use tree species that is used for the production of timber and non-timber forest products (NTFPs that are used and sold by rural Amazonian populations. Here we aimed to evaluate the phenophases of C. guianensis in várzea forest and relate them to climatic seasonality. Phenophases of flowering (flower buds and open flowers, fruiting (unripe and ripe fruits, and leaf flush and leaf fall were recorded for 30 individual trees during a 25 month period. Relationships between rainfall and the proportion of trees in each phenophase were tested using Generalised Linear Models with quasi-binomial errors. Flowering was found to peak in the driest months of the year (September to December, while fruiting peaked during the wettest months of the year when river levels are at their highest (January to May. Leaf flush and leaf fall occurred simultaneously throughout the year, regardless of seasonality. Strong seasonality in flowering and fruiting of C. guianensis likely represents a reproductive strategy that maximizes pollination and hydrochorous seed dispersal. This study has the potential to aid in planning the timing of seed collection and oil extraction activities, thus contributing to the sustainable exploitation of this tree.

  14. A short note on seed dispersal by colobines: the case of the proboscis monkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Ikki; Higashi, Seigo; Otani, Yosuke; Tuuga, Augustine; Bernard, Henry; Corlett, Richard T

    2013-12-01

    Although the role of primates in seed dispersal is generally well recognized, this is not the case for colobines, which are widely distributed in Asian and African tropical forests. Colobines consume leaves, seeds and fruits, usually unripe. A group of proboscis monkeys (Colobinae, Nasalis larvatus) consisting of 1 alpha-male, 6 adult females and several immatures, was observed from May 2005 to May 2006. A total of 400 fecal samples from focal group members covering 13 months were examined, with over 3500 h of focal observation data on the group members in a forest along the Menanggul River, Sabah, Malaysia. Intact small seeds were only found in 23 of 71 samples in Nov 2005, 15 of 38 in Dec 2005 and 5 of 21 in Mar 2006. Seeds of Ficus (all seeds from Antidesma thwaitesianum (all seeds in the fecal samples of colobines. Even if colobines pass relatively few seeds intact, their high abundance and biomass could make them quantitatively significant in seed dispersal. The potential role of colobines as seed dispersers should be considered by colobine researchers.

  15. Traditional and Medicinal Uses of Banana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. P. Sampath Kumar

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Banana is the common name for herbaceous plants of the genus Musa and for the fruit they produce. It is one of the oldest cultivated plants. All parts of the banana plant have medicinal applications: the flowers in bronchitis and dysentery and on ulcers; cooked flowers are given to diabetics; the astringent plant sap in cases of hysteria, epilepsy, leprosy, fevers, hemorrhages, acute dysentery and diarrhea, and it is applied on hemorrhoids, insect and other stings and bites; young leaves are placed as poultices on burns and other skin afflictions; the astringent ashes of the unripe peel and of the leaves are taken in dysentery and diarrhea and used for treating malignant ulcers; the roots are administered in digestive disorders, dysentery and other ailments; banana seed mucilage is given in cases of diarrhea in India. Antifungal and antibiotic principles are found in the peel and pulp of fully ripe bananas. The antibiotic acts against Mycobacteria. A fungicide in the peel and pulp of green fruits is active against a fungus disease of tomato plants. Norepinephrine, dopamine, and serotonin are also present in the ripe peel and pulp. The first two elevate blood pressure; serotonin inhibits gastric secretion and stimulates the smooth muscle of the intestines.

  16. De-novo RNA sequencing and metabolite profiling to identify genes involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis in Korean black raspberry (Rubus coreanus Miquel).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyun, Tae Kyung; Lee, Sarah; Rim, Yeonggil; Kumar, Ritesh; Han, Xiao; Lee, Sang Yeol; Lee, Choong Hwan; Kim, Jae-Yean

    2014-01-01

    The Korean black raspberry (Rubus coreanus Miquel, KB) on ripening is usually consumed as fresh fruit, whereas the unripe KB has been widely used as a source of traditional herbal medicine. Such a stage specific utilization of KB has been assumed due to the changing metabolite profile during fruit ripening process, but so far molecular and biochemical changes during its fruit maturation are poorly understood. To analyze biochemical changes during fruit ripening process at molecular level, firstly, we have sequenced, assembled, and annotated the transcriptome of KB fruits. Over 4.86 Gb of normalized cDNA prepared from fruits was sequenced using Illumina HiSeq™ 2000, and assembled into 43,723 unigenes. Secondly, we have reported that alterations in anthocyanins and proanthocyanidins are the major factors facilitating variations in these stages of fruits. In addition, up-regulation of F3'H1, DFR4 and LDOX1 resulted in the accumulation of cyanidin derivatives during the ripening process of KB, indicating the positive relationship between the expression of anthocyanin biosynthetic genes and the anthocyanin accumulation. Furthermore, the ability of RcMCHI2 (R. coreanus Miquel chalcone flavanone isomerase 2) gene to complement Arabidopsis transparent testa 5 mutant supported the feasibility of our transcriptome library to provide the gene resources for improving plant nutrition and pigmentation. Taken together, these datasets obtained from transcriptome library and metabolic profiling would be helpful to define the gene-metabolite relationships in this non-model plant.

  17. De-novo RNA sequencing and metabolite profiling to identify genes involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis in Korean black raspberry (Rubus coreanus Miquel.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae Kyung Hyun

    Full Text Available The Korean black raspberry (Rubus coreanus Miquel, KB on ripening is usually consumed as fresh fruit, whereas the unripe KB has been widely used as a source of traditional herbal medicine. Such a stage specific utilization of KB has been assumed due to the changing metabolite profile during fruit ripening process, but so far molecular and biochemical changes during its fruit maturation are poorly understood. To analyze biochemical changes during fruit ripening process at molecular level, firstly, we have sequenced, assembled, and annotated the transcriptome of KB fruits. Over 4.86 Gb of normalized cDNA prepared from fruits was sequenced using Illumina HiSeq™ 2000, and assembled into 43,723 unigenes. Secondly, we have reported that alterations in anthocyanins and proanthocyanidins are the major factors facilitating variations in these stages of fruits. In addition, up-regulation of F3'H1, DFR4 and LDOX1 resulted in the accumulation of cyanidin derivatives during the ripening process of KB, indicating the positive relationship between the expression of anthocyanin biosynthetic genes and the anthocyanin accumulation. Furthermore, the ability of RcMCHI2 (R. coreanus Miquel chalcone flavanone isomerase 2 gene to complement Arabidopsis transparent testa 5 mutant supported the feasibility of our transcriptome library to provide the gene resources for improving plant nutrition and pigmentation. Taken together, these datasets obtained from transcriptome library and metabolic profiling would be helpful to define the gene-metabolite relationships in this non-model plant.

  18. Variation in oil content, fatty acid and phytosterols profile of Onopordum acanthium L. during seed development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arfaoui, Moufida Oueslati; Renaud, Justin; Ghazghazi, Hanen; Boukhchina, Sadok; Mayer, Paul

    2014-01-01

    This study has determined oil, fatty acid (FA) and phytosterols content during the ripening of the Tunisian Onopordum acanthium L. seeds. In total, nine FAs and six phytosterols were identified. The main FAs were linoleic acid (0.18-8.06 mg/g of seed) followed by oleic acid (0.051-2.45 mg/g of seed), palmitic acid and stearic acid. Pentadecanoic acid was detected, for the first time, in unripe fruits and the two last stages of development were characterised by a relative abundance of erucic acid. Overall, β-sitosterol (34.5-77.79% of total sterols) was the major 4-desmethylsterols during maturation. The first episodes of growth were characterised by the best amounts of stigmasterol and campesterol, while stigmastanol and Δ7 sitosterol had quoted the semi-ripe and fully ripe fruits; however, cholesterol was absent. These findings are useful in understanding a potential new source of important natural compounds (Phytosterols and USFA) found in this fruit and when harvest should be undertaken to optimise desired FA and phytosterols content.

  19. Composition and Enantiomeric Analysis of the Essential Oil of the Fruits and the Leaves of Pistacia vera from Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasia Tsokou

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The essential oils of the fruits and the leaves of pistachio (Pistacia vera L. were analyzed by GC and GC/MS. Fresh unripe pistachio fruits were richer in essential oil (0.5 %, w/w than the leaves (0.1 %, w/w. Twenty one compounds were identified in the essential oil of the fruits and the major components were (+-α-pinene (54.6 % and terpinolene (31.2 %. The enantiomeric ratio of the major constituents of the essential oil of the fruits was determined using chiral GC/MS and it was found that the (+/(--α-pinene ratio was 99.5:0.5, (+/(--limonene 80:20, (+/(--β-pinene 96:4, and (+/(--α-terpineol 0:100. Thirty three compounds were identified in the essential oil of the leaves and the major components were found to be α-pinene (30.0 %, terpinolene (17.6 % and bornyl acetate (11.3 %.

  20. Purification and Study of Proteolytic Activity of Ficin Enzyme of Fig (Ficus Carica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Mostafaie

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Ficin is a member of plant cystein proteases that is abundant in fig. This enzyme has many pharmacological and industrial uses. In the present study, the enzyme was purified by a simple procedure and its proteolytic activity was assayed on several plant and animal proteins. Materials & Methods: Ficin was extracted from unripe fig, precipitated by ammonium sulfate and purified using ion-exchange chromatography on a Carboxymethyl Sepharose column. Proteolytic activities of the purified enzyme were determined in 4 buffering conditions on casein, alpha lactalbumin, beta lactoglobulin and gelatin proteins. Results: Purified enzymes include two bands with molecular mass of 24 and 26 KDa. Re-sults of proteolytic activity showed that ficin can digest casein. It has moderate hydrolytic activity on beta lactoglobulin and gelatin but ficin can not hydrolyze alpha lactalbumin. Conclusion: It seems ficin has selective effects on some proteins so it can be a good candi-date for digestion of casein and making related drugs. (Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci 2013; 20 (2:126-132

  1. The role of the embryoless parts of triticale caryopses in inhibiting precocious germination and transcription in the embryo during development and maturation of caryopses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanisław Weidner

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The experiments were conducted on developing and ripening triticale cv. Dagro caryopses. Increasing capability for precocious germination of the caryopses was seen as development and maturation progressed. A significant role of the embryoless parts of the caryopses (testa, pericarp and endosperm in preventing germination processes was found. Isolated embryos (after 8 days of incubation germinated by 100% from the 32nd day after flowering, while only 10% of whole caryopses from this sample germinated. Removal of the outer pericarp strongly stimulated germination of unripe caryopses. However, incising the caryopses near the embryo only slightly stimulated this process, which indicates that hypoxia of the embryo is not the cause of triticale embryo dormancy. Another very sensitive indicator of release of dormancy in the caryopses was the increased synthesis of embryo polyribosomal RNA induced by germination. The results of investigations on RNA synthesis in embryos - which undergoes extreme intensification when germination processes are initiated in the caryopses - were in agreement with those of biological studies based on observation of the elongation of the radicle. The lowest inhibition of transcription in the embryo was found when it was completely separated from the testa, pericarp and endosperm. A smaller effect was seen upon removal of the outer pericarp from developing and ripening caryopses, and decidedly the smallest effect still of incising the caryopses near the embryo.

  2. Fatal intoxication due to ackee (Blighia sapida) in Suriname and French Guyana. GC-MS detection and quantification of hypoglycin-A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaillard, Yvan; Carlier, Jérémie; Berscht, Marc; Mazoyer, Cédric; Bevalot, Fabien; Guitton, Jérôme; Fanton, Laurent

    2011-03-20

    Between 1998 and 2001 the deaths of 16 Surinamese children were recorded along the Maroni River, which forms the border between Suriname and French Guyana. After a metabolic origin was eliminated, ethnobotanical research in the field led to a hypothesis of intoxication through the ingestion of ackee. Ackee (Blighia sapida) is a large green leafy tree of West African origin. Its unripe fruit contains large quantities of two toxic molecules: hypoglycin-A and hypoglycin-B, the former being the more toxic. We have developed a GC-MS procedure allowing us to demonstrate the presence of hypoglycin-A in the gastric fluid of one of the deceased children, and to compare the content of hypoglycin-A in fruit collected on the road to Paramaribo in Suriname (5.1mg/g) with samples from Burkina Faso (8.1mg/g) and Jamaica (9.2mg/g). Field research showed the misuse of this little-known plant by Maroon witch doctors. The Bushinengue witch doctors were informed about the dangers of ackee, and no new cases have been reported to date.

  3. Long aculeus and behavior of Anastrepha ludens render gibberellic acid ineffective as an agent to reduce 'ruby red' grapefruit susceptibility to the attack of this pestiferous fruit fly in commercial groves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birke, Andrea; Aluja, Martín; Greany, Patrick; Bigurra, Everardo; Pérez-Staples, Diana; McDonald, Roy

    2006-08-01

    Treating Mexican grapefruit with gibberellic acid (GA3) before color break, significantly delayed peel color change and increased peel puncture resistance, but it did not reduce grapefruit susceptibility to Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens (Loew) attack under natural conditions. Despite GA3 treatments, larval infestation levels increased with higher fruit fly populations, which also increased as the season progressed. Late in the season, infestation levels were even higher in GA3-treated fruit compared with untreated fruit, possibly because treated fruit were in better condition at that stage. Egg clutch size was significantly greater in very unripe, hard, GA3-treated fruit at the beginning of the harvest season and in December, compared with control fruit. Under laboratory conditions, egg injection into different regions of the fruit suggested that A. ludens eggs are intoxicated by peel oil content in the flavedo region. However, A. ludens' long aculeus allows females to oviposit eggs deeper into the peel (i.e., albedo), avoiding toxic essential oils in the flavedo. This makes A. ludens a particularly difficult species to control compared with other citrus-infesting species such as Anastrepha suspensa (Loew), Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann), and Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (fly species with significantly shorter aculei), which can be effectively managed with GA3 sprays. We discuss our findings in light of their practical implications and with respect to the oviposition behavior of various fruit flies attacking citrus.

  4. Simultaneous transcriptome analysis of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and tomato fruit pathosystem reveals novel fungal pathogenicity and fruit defense strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkan, Noam; Friedlander, Gilgi; Ment, Dana; Prusky, Dov; Fluhr, Robert

    2015-01-01

    The fungus Colletotrichum gloeosporioides breaches the fruit cuticle but remains quiescent until fruit ripening signals a switch to necrotrophy, culminating in devastating anthracnose disease. There is a need to understand the distinct fungal arms strategy and the simultaneous fruit response. Transcriptome analysis of fungal-fruit interactions was carried out concurrently in the appressoria, quiescent and necrotrophic stages. Conidia germinating on unripe fruit cuticle showed stage-specific transcription that was accompanied by massive fruit defense responses. The subsequent quiescent stage showed the development of dendritic-like structures and swollen hyphae within the fruit epidermis. The quiescent fungal transcriptome was characterized by activation of chromatin remodeling genes and unsuspected environmental alkalization. Fruit response was portrayed by continued highly integrated massive up-regulation of defense genes. During cuticle infection of green or ripe fruit, fungi recapitulate the same developmental stages but with differing quiescent time spans. The necrotrophic stage showed a dramatic shift in fungal metabolism and up-regulation of pathogenicity factors. Fruit response to necrotrophy showed activation of the salicylic acid pathway, climaxing in cell death. Transcriptome analysis of C. gloeosporioides infection of fruit reveals its distinct stage-specific lifestyle and the concurrent changing fruit response, deepening our perception of the unfolding fungal-fruit arms and defenses race.

  5. PHENOLOGY OF Copernicia prunifera (ARECACEAE IN A CAATINGA AREA OF RIO GRANDE DO NORTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talita Geovanna Fernandes Rocha

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the vegetative and reproductive phenology of Copernicia prunifera (carnauba wax in natural populations correlated with climate variables. The study was conducted in a native area, located in the Campus of Academic Unit Specialized in Agricultural Sciences of UFRN in the municipality of Macaíba, RN. The evaluations were made between May 2010 and December 2012, totaling 67 fortnightly observations of vegetative phenophases and reproductive. The relationship between the occurrence of each phenophase and climate variables (air temperature, precipitation, relative humidity, wind speed and radiation were tested by Spearman correlation, performed with the climate data of the first (rS1, second (rS2, third (rS3 and fourth (rS4 phenological fortnight prior to the event. Individuals of C. prunifera are asynchronous with leaf loss and emission of new leaves all the time. Flowering is subanual, i.e. occurs more than once a year. There is a positive relationship between the intensity of unripe fruits and higher temperature with delay of three (rS3 = 0.261; P < 0.005 to four fortnights (rS4 = 0.276; P < 0.005 to the phenological event. We observed also significant positive correlations between temperature and number of trees with ripe fruits. Thus, it is assumed that the species studied was influenced by aspects of morphology and physiology, with environmental factors interfering secondarily.

  6. Composition, digestibility and application in breadmaking of banana flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juarez-Garcia, E; Agama-Acevedo, E; Sáyago-Ayerdi, S G; Rodríguez-Ambriz, S L; Bello-Pérez, L A

    2006-09-01

    Banana flour (BF) was obtained from unripe banana (Musa paradisiacal L.) and characterized in its chemical composition. Experimental bread was formulated with BF flour and the product was studied regarding chemical composition, available starch (AS), resistant starch (RS) and rate of starch digestion in vitro. The chemical composition of BF showed that total starch (73.36%) and dietary fiber (14.52%) were the highest constituents. Of the total starch, available starch was 56.29% and resistant starch 17.50%. BF bread had higher protein and total starch content than control bread, but the first had higher lipid amount. Appreciable differences were found in available, resistant starch and indigestible fraction between the bread studied, since BF bread showed higher resistant starch and indigestible fraction content. HI-based predicted glycemic index for the BF bread was 65.08%, which was significantly lower than control bread (81.88%), suggesting a "slow carbohydrate" feature for the BF-based goods. Results revealed BF as a potential ingredient for bakery products containing slowly digestible carbohydrates.

  7. EVALUATION OF GASTRIC ANTIULCEROGENIC ACTION OF PLANTAIN BANANA ( MUSA SAPIENTUM VAR. PARADISIACA IN ASPIRIN PLUS PYLORUS LIGATED ALBINO RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.R. Tandel* and B.K. Shah

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To assess the effect of unripe dried banana powder in experimentally induced gastric ulcers and effect on gastric acid secretion. To evaluate the antiulcerogenic effect of plantain banana of Gujarat as a part of evaluation of impact of biological variables on this activity. Materials and methods: Total of 24 albino rats of either sex weighing between 150-250 gm were randomly divided into 4 groups. Each group has 6 no. of rats. The first group received placebo (distilled water, the second, third & forth group received 0.5gm/kg, 1gm/kg and 2mg/kg of banana powder respectively. Banana powder was given as suspension at fixed time (3 times in a day for two days and animals were kept for fasting for another 48hrs. On 5th day, the animals were sacrificed after 7 hrs and stomach were removed for examination and gastric juice samples were collected to analyze volume and acidity.Results: Orally administered banana powder in the dose of 2gm/kg caused a statistically significant decrease in aspirin with pyloric ligation induced ulcers in rats without significantly decrease in secretary activity.Conclusion: It can be concluded from these results that vegetable plantain banana has antiulcerogenic and mucosal protective actions, but it has no antisecretory activity.

  8. Three New Clerodane Diterpenes from Polyalthia longifolia var. pendula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tung-Ho Wu

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Three new clerodane diterpenes, (4→2-abeo-cleroda-2,13E-dien-2,14-dioic acid (1, (4→2-abeo-2,13-diformyl-cleroda-2,13E-dien-14-oic acid (2, and 16(R&S- methoxycleroda-4(18,13-dien-15,16-olide (3, were isolated from the unripe fruit of Polyalthia longifolia var. pendula (Annonaceae together with five known compounds (4–8. The structures of all isolates were determined by spectroscopic analysis. The anti-inflammatory activity of the isolates was evaluated by testing their inhibitory effect on NO production in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages. Among the isolated compounds, 16-hydroxycleroda-3,13-dien-15,16-olide (6 and 16-oxocleroda-3,13-dien-15-oic acid (7 showed promising NO inhibitory activity at 10 µg/mL, with 81.1% and 86.3%, inhibition, respectively.

  9. Antioxidant and enzymatic responses to oxidative stress induced by pre-harvest water supply reduction and ripening on mango (Mangifera indica L. cv. 'Cogshall') in relation to carotenoid content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosalie, Rémy; Joas, Jacques; Deytieux-Belleau, Christelle; Vulcain, Emmanuelle; Payet, Bertrand; Dufossé, Laurent; Léchaudel, Mathieu

    2015-07-20

    The effects of a reduction in water supply during fruit development and postharvest fruit ripening on the oxidative status and the antioxidant defense system were studied in the mango fruit (Mangifera indica L.) cv. Cogshall. Changes in non-enzymatic (ascorbate) and enzymatic (SOD, CAT, APX, MDHAR, DHAR and GR) antioxidants, as well as oxidative parameters (H2O2 and MDA) and major carotenoids, were measured in unripe and ripe fruits from well-irrigated and non-irrigated trees. Under non-limiting water supply conditions, ripening induced oxidation as a result of the production of ROS and decreased ascorbate content. Antioxidant enzymatic systems were activated to protect fruit tissues and to regenerate the ascorbate pool. The carotenoid pool, mainly represented by β-carotene and esterified violaxanthine isomers, accumulated naturally during mango ripening. The suppression of irrigation decreased fruit size and induced accumulation of ABA and of its storage form, ABA-GE, in fruit pulp from the earliest harvest. It also increased oxidation, which was observable by the high levels of ascorbate measured at the early stages at harvest, and by the delay in the time it took to reach the pseudo constant carotene-to-xanthophyll ratio in ripe fruits. Nevertheless, differences between the irrigation treatments on the antioxidant system in ripe fruits were not significant, mainly because of the drastic changes in this system during ripening.

  10. Nutritive value of tomatillo fruit (Physalis ixocarpa Brot.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Ostrzycka

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Tomatillo is widely cultivated in Mexico but is little known in other countries. The chemical composition of fruit from field grown plants was investigated during several vegetative seasons. Tomatillo contained a relatively high percentage of dry matter (7-10% and extract (6.6-7.4%. Its potassium content was lower than that of tomato growing in the same conditions. The content of iron was higher, and that of other elements was comparable, depending on the conditions during the given year. The total sugar content amounted to 2.8-5.7%, depending on the selected population. The percentage of glucose and fructose decreased during ripening and that of saccharose increased. The content of pectic substances was similar as in tomato but the proportions of particular fractions was different. Tomatillo contained more acids than tomato, and showed an especially high citric and malic acid content. The latter decreased drastically during ripening. The content of oxalic acid was 11-18 mg 100 g-1 in ripe fruit and up to 54 mg in unripe. The vitamin C content depended on the selected population and amounted to 8-21 mg 100 g-1, dehydroascorbic acid prevailing. The content of vitamin PP was 0.8-1.3 mg 100 g-1.

  11. Bioconversion of oleuropein to hydroxytyrosol by lactic acid bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, M M; Piccirillo, C; Castro, P M L; Kalogerakis, N; Pintado, M E

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this work is to study the conversion of oleuropein-a polyphenol present in olives and olive oil by-products-into hydroxytyrosol, a polyphenol with antioxidant and antibacterial properties. The hydrolysis reaction is performed by lactic acid bacteria. Six bacterial strains (Lactobacillus plantarum 6907, Lactobacillus paracasei 9192, Lactobacillus casei, Bifidobacterium lactis BO, Enterococcus faecium 32, Lactobacillus LAFTI 10) were tested under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. The oleuropein degradation and hydroxytyrosol formation were monitored by HPLC. Results showed that oleuropein could be successfully converted into hydroxytyrosol. The most effective strain was Lactobacillus plantarum 6907, with a reaction yield of hydroxytyrosol of about 30 %. Different reaction mechanisms were observed for different microorganisms; a different yield was observed for Lactobacillus paracasei 9192 under aerobic or anaerobic conditions and an intermediate metabolite (oleuropein aglycone) was detected for Lactobacillus paracasei 9192 and Lactobacillus plantarum 6907 only. This study could have significant applications, as this reaction can be used to increase the value of olive oil by-products and/or to improve the taste of unripe olives.

  12. Nutraceutical Value of Yellow- and Red-Fleshed South African Plums (Prunus salicina Lindl.: Evaluation of Total Antioxidant Capacity and Phenolic Composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alet Venter

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Ten South African plum cultivars and selections, including yellow- and red-fleshed plums from two harvest seasons were evaluated in terms of nutraceutical value (phenolic composition, total polyphenol content (TPC and total antioxidant capacity (TAC and fruit attributes (colour, fruit mass, etc.. Plums were evaluated at two maturity stages, i.e., directly after harvest (unripe and after a commercial cold storage and ripening regime (ripe. The phenolic composition of South African plums varied greatly, both qualitatively and quantitatively, between cultivars and selections. Neochlorogenic acid, cyanidin-3-O-glucoside and quercetin-3-O-glucoside were the predominant hydroxycinnamic acid, anthocyanin and flavonol, respectively, although not present in all plums. The flavan-3-ols, (+-catechin, (−-epicatechin and procyanidins B1 and B2, were present in all plums. Red-fleshed plums tended to display higher TAC and TPC than yellow-fleshed plums. The flavan-3-ol content was highly correlated with TAC. The effect of harvest season was cultivar-dependent, but cultivar differences were not obscured. In terms of maturity stage, the ripe fruits tended to contain higher levels of anthocyanins and some flavonol compounds, although the TPC and TAC were not affected in most cases. South African plums, especially the red-fleshed selections PR04-32 and PR04-35, were shown to provide generally high TAC and TPC compared to literature values.

  13. Network inference analysis identifies an APRR2-like gene linked to pigment accumulation in tomato and pepper fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Yu; Bradley, Glyn; Pyke, Kevin; Ball, Graham; Lu, Chungui; Fray, Rupert; Marshall, Alexandra; Jayasuta, Subhalai; Baxter, Charles; van Wijk, Rik; Boyden, Laurie; Cade, Rebecca; Chapman, Natalie H; Fraser, Paul D; Hodgman, Charlie; Seymour, Graham B

    2013-03-01

    Carotenoids represent some of the most important secondary metabolites in the human diet, and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) is a rich source of these health-promoting compounds. In this work, a novel and fruit-related regulator of pigment accumulation in tomato has been identified by artificial neural network inference analysis and its function validated in transgenic plants. A tomato fruit gene regulatory network was generated using artificial neural network inference analysis and transcription factor gene expression profiles derived from fruits sampled at various points during development and ripening. One of the transcription factor gene expression profiles with a sequence related to an Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) ARABIDOPSIS PSEUDO RESPONSE REGULATOR2-LIKE gene (APRR2-Like) was up-regulated at the breaker stage in wild-type tomato fruits and, when overexpressed in transgenic lines, increased plastid number, area, and pigment content, enhancing the levels of chlorophyll in immature unripe fruits and carotenoids in red ripe fruits. Analysis of the transcriptome of transgenic lines overexpressing the tomato APPR2-Like gene revealed up-regulation of several ripening-related genes in the overexpression lines, providing a link between the expression of this tomato gene and the ripening process. A putative ortholog of the tomato APPR2-Like gene in sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum) was associated with pigment accumulation in fruit tissues. We conclude that the function of this gene is conserved across taxa and that it encodes a protein that has an important role in ripening.

  14. Shifts in Color Discrimination during Early Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levente L. Orbán

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study explores two hypotheses: a women during early pregnancy should experience increased color discrimination ability, and b women during early pregnancy should experience shifts in subjective preference away from images of foods that appear either unripe or spoiled. Both of these hypotheses derive from an adaptive view of pregnancy sickness that proposes the function of pregnancy sickness is to decrease the likelihood of ingestion of foods with toxins or teratogens. Changes to color discrimination could be part of a network of perceptual and physiological defenses (e.g., changes to olfaction, nausea, vomiting that support such a function. Participants included 13 pregnant women and 18 non-pregnant women. Pregnant women scored significantly higher than non-pregnant controls on the Farnsworth-Munsell (FM 100 Hue Test, an objective test of color discrimination, although no difference was found between groups in preferences for food images at different stages of ripeness or spoilage. These results are the first indication that changes to color discrimination may occur during early pregnancy, and is consistent with the view that pregnancy sickness may function as an adaptive defense mechanism.

  15. Studies on chemical constituents and bioactivity of Rosa micrantha: an alternative antioxidants source for food, pharmaceutical, or cosmetic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães, Rafaela; Barros, Lillian; Carvalho, Ana Maria; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2010-05-26

    Rose species have long been used for food and medicinal purposes. Rosa micrantha is one of the rose species that grow feral in the northeastern Portuguese region so-called Nordeste Transmontano. For the first time, chemical composition and bioactivity of their petals, fertilized flowers, unripe, ripening, and overripe hips were evaluated in order to valorize them as sources of important phytochemicals. Chemical characterization included determination of proteins, fats, ash, and carbohydrates, particularly sugars, by HPLC-RI, fatty acids by GC-FID, tocopherols by HPLC-fluorescence, and phenolics, flavonoids, carotenoids, and ascorbic acid by spectrophotometric techniques. Bioactivity was evaluated through screening of antioxidant properties: radical scavenging effects, reducing power, and inhibition of lipid peroxidation. Ripening and overripe hips showed high nutritional value including proteins, carbohydrates, omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids, energy, sugars, particularly the reducing sugars fructose and glucose, and ascorbic acid (>693 mg/100 g). Fertilized flowers and petals revealed the highest antioxidant activity (EC(50) > 152 microg/mL) and phenolics, flavonoids, and tocopherols contents (>35 mg/100 g). Furthermore, petals, ripening, and overripe hips are important sources of carotenoid pigments (>64 mg/100 g). Because of the diversity and abundance of antioxidants found in this species, some food, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical applications could be explored.

  16. Chronic stimulation of uterine prostaglandin synthesis during cervical ripening before the onset of labor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keirse, M J; Thiery, M; Parewijck, W; Mitchell, M D

    1983-05-01

    Concentrations of 13,14-dihydro-15-keto-PGF2 alpha (PGFM) were measured in plasma of six carefully selected primigravid women with an unripe cervix at term before and at various intervals after extra-amniotic insertion of a Foley catheter with or without methylhydroxyethylcellulose (Tylose) gel. The procedure caused an acute elevation of PGFM levels within 5 min (P less than 0.025), which was maintained for at least 6 hours in the absence of uterine activation at 179 +/- 32% of the initial values (P less than 0.01). Extra-amniotic administration of Tylose gel caused an increase in PGFM levels which was both higher and more prolonged (greater than 12 hours) than insertion of a Foley catheter alone. The observations indicate that cervical ripening without concomitant uterine activation is associated with an increase in PGFM levels. They also demonstrate that prolonged activation of (intra) uterine prostaglandin synthesis may occur several hours before the onset of labor-like uterine activity. A chance finding further suggests that spontaneous rupture of the membranes too may be preceeded by an increase in (intra) uterine prostaglandin synthesis. In their totality these observations lend strong support to the proposition that an increase in (intra) uterine prostaglandin production is a prerequisite to rather than a consequence of the initiation of labor.

  17. Biological activity and phytochemical analysis of three Indonesian medicinal plants, Murraya koenigii, Syzygium polyanthum and Zingiber purpurea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusuma, Irawan Wijaya; Kuspradini, Harlinda; Arung, Enos Tangke; Aryani, Farida; Min, Yu-Hong; Kim, Jin-Sook; Kim, Yong-ung

    2011-03-01

    Extracts of Indonesian medicinal plants, Murraya koenigii, Syzygium polyanthum, and Zingiber purpurea were investigated for their biological activity. The presence of phytochemicals, cytotoxicity, and antimicrobial and antioxidant activities were investigated. Parts of M. koenigii, S. polyanthum, and Z. purpurea were extracted with ethanol. The extracts were evaluated for antimicrobial activity using the disc diffusion method, while antioxidant activity was determined with a 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging assay. Cytotoxicity was investigated using the brine shrimp lethality test, and phytochemical screening was performed using a standard method. M. koenigii leaf extract exhibited the most activity in the test microorganism activity index (AI), 0.38-1.25, when compared with standard drugs. S. polyanthum ripened fruit displayed significant antioxidant activity (90%) in comparison to ascorbic acid (95%). Z. purpurea rhizome extract possessed the highest cytotoxic effect with a LC(50) of 52 μg/mL. Phytochemical analysis revealed that carbohydrate, tannin, alkaloid, steroid, triterpenoid, and flavonoid were present in the extracts of M. koenigii leaves and twigs, S. polyanthum leaves and ripened and unripe fruits, and Z. purpurea rhizome, while saponin was only present in the S. polyanthum ripened fruit extract. Our work revealed that the M. koenigii leaves, S. polyanthum ripened fruit, and Z. purpurea rhizome extracts have potential as sources of new antimicrobial, antioxidant, and cytotoxic compounds, respectively.

  18. Different Influences on Tacrolimus Pharmacokinetics by Coadministrations of Zhi Ke and Zhi Shi in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiuan-Pey Lin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Tacrolimus, an immunosuppressant with narrow therapeutic window, has been used widely in transplant patients. Grapefruit juice and pomelo have been reported to increase the blood levels of tacrolimus. Zhi Ke and Zhi Shi, the ripe peels and unripe fruits of Citrus aurantium which is chemotaxonomically related to grapefruit and pomelo, are in wide use in clinical Chinese medicine. To investigate the possible interaction of these two Citrus herbs with tacrolimus, male Sprague-Dawley rats were orally given tacrolimus (1.5 mg/kg with and without Zhi Ke and Zhi Shi decoctions in a cross-over design. Blood samples were withdrawn via cardiopuncture at specific time and quantitated by a microparticle enzyme immunoassay. In addition, to explore the mechanism of interaction, LS 180 cell line was used for the transport study of rhodamine 123, a typical substrate of P-glycoprotein (P-gp. The results showed that Zhi Shi significantly decreased the Cmax⁡ and AUC0-t of tacrolimus by 72.4% and 72.0%, respectively, whereas Zhi Ke did not affect tacrolimus pharmacokinetics. LS 180 cell line study indicated that Zhi Shi increased the efflux activity of P-gp, enabling us to explain the decreased oral bioavailability of tacrolimus caused by Zhi Shi. Hence, we suggest that Zhi Shi be contraindicated for transplant patients treated with tacrolimus to reduce the risk of allograft rejection.

  19. Food and foraging preferences of three pteropodid bats in southern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.R Sudhakaran

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A study on the food, foraging and flight height in three species of pteropodid bats, namely Cynopterus sphinx, Rousettus leschenaultii and Pteropus giganteus was conducted in Tirunelveli and Tuticorin districts of southern Tamil Nadu, India. A total of 37 species of plants were identified as potential food plants of the pteropodid bats. The preference for fruits by pteropodids varied according to the developmental stages of fruits namely, immature, unripe and ripe. There is a relationship between the foraging activities of bats and the moon phase. Bats exhibit a varied foraging pattern and flight height. A variation in the foraging flight height was observed in C. sphinx and R. leschenaultii. R. leschenaultii was observed to have a higher foraging echelon than that of the C. sphinx. In our study we found that the C. sphinx forages normally at canopy level (up to 3.5m, R. leschenaultii forages at upper canopy levels (up to 9m and P. giganteus at a height above the canopy area (>9m.

  20. Regulation of Glutamate Dehydrogenase and Glutamine Synthetase in Avocado Fruit during Development and Ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loulakakis, K. A.; Roubelakis-Angelakis, K. A.; Kanellis, A. K.

    1994-09-01

    The activity, protein, and isoenzymic profiles of glutamate de-hydrogenase (GDH) and glutamine synthetase (GS) were studied during development and ripening of avocado (Percea americana Mill. cv Hass) fruit. During fruit development, the activity and protein content of both GDH and GS remained relatively constant. In contrast, considerable changes in these enzymes were observed during ripening of avocado fruit. The specific activity of GDH increased about 4-fold, coincident with a similar increase in GDH protein content and mRNA levels. On the other hand, GS specific activity showed a decline at the end of the ripening process. On the isoenzymic profile of GDH, changes in the prevalence of the seven isoenzymes were found, with a predominance of the more cathodal isoenzymes in the unripe and of the most anodal isoenzymes in the ripe fruit. Two-dimensional electrophoresis revealed that avocado fruit GDH consists of two subunits whose association gives rise to seven isoenzymes. The results support the view that the predominance of the more anodal isoenzymes in the overripe fruit was due to the accumulation of the [alpha]-polypeptide.

  1. Cucurbitane Glycosides Derived from Mogroside IIE: Structure-Taste Relationships, Antioxidant Activity, and Acute Toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Wang

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Mogroside IIE is a bitter triterpenoid saponin which is the main component of unripe Luo Han Guo fruit and a precursor of the commercially available sweetener mogroside V. In this study, we developed an enzymatic glycosyl transfer method, by which bitter mogroside IIE could be converted into a sweet triterpenoid saponin mixture. The reactant concentration, temperature, pH and buffer system were studied. New saponins with the α-glucose group were isolated from the resulting mixtures, and the structures of three components of the extract were determined. The structure-taste relationships of these derivatives were also studied together with those of the natural mogrosides. The number and stereoconfiguration of glucose groups present in the mogroside molecules were found to be the main factor to determine the sweet or bitter taste of a compound. The antioxidant and food safety properties were initially evaluated by their radical scavenging ability and via 7 day mice survival tests, respectively. The results showed that the sweet triterpenoid saponin mixture has the same favorable physiological and safety characteristics as the natural mogrosides.

  2. DILLENIA INDICA (OUTENGA AS ANTI-DIABETIC HERB FOUND IN ASSAM: A REVIW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apurba Talukdar et al

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Dillenia Indica, commonly known as elephant apple and locally known as outenga, is the handsome evergreen tree grows in the moist forest of sub-Himalayan region to Assam. The fruit grows in abundance and due to lack of knowledge and technical knowledge; most of these fruits are wasted. In Assam, traditionally the unripe fruits are used to make curries because of its sour taste and ripe fruits are making pickles. The fruits are generally high in fibre and due to presence of gummy substances, extraction of juice becomes difficult. The plant grows about 15 m tall. Not only the fruits have medicinal values but the leaves and the bark also showed numerous pharmacological activity. The studies showed that the plant possesses various activities like Antimicrobial, Antioxidant, Analgesic, Anti-inflammatory, dysentery, Antidiabetic etc. The fruits and the juice of the plant are traditionally used for the treatment of various diseases and one of the major diseases is Diabetes Mellitus. It was also proved from the review of literatures that this plant possesses some antidiabetic properties (Sunil kumar et.al. Thus in this review we gave some emphasise on the traditional and clinical use of Dillenia Indica (outenga or elephant apple as an antidiabetic herb.

  3. Volatile compounds in medlar fruit (Mespilus germanica L. at two ripening stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veličković Milovan M.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Medlar is the fruit of Mespilus germanica L. in the family of Rosaceae. The fruit can be eaten only if ‘bletted’ (softened by frost or longer storage. The effect of the maturation stages on the volatile compounds of the medlar fruit was investigated during two different stages. Volatile flavour substances were isolated from the minced pulp of unripe and full ripe medlar fruits by simultaneous steam distillation extraction (SDE with methilen chloride as the extracting solvent. The concentrate was analysed by GC-FID-MS. Hexanoic and hexadecanoic acids were the predominant acids, hexanal and (E-2-hexenal were the predominant aldehydes, (Z-3-hexenol and hexanol were the predominant alcohols, with p-cymene, terpinen-4-ol, and γ-terpiene (the terpenes responsible for the characteristic medlar flavour being also present. The C6 aliphatic compounds, such as hexanal and (E-2-hexenal, were observed as the major volatile constituents in the green stage. In contrast, hexanol and (Z-3-hexenol were the main volatiles in ripe fruits.

  4. Cryobanking of Korean allium germplasm collections: results from a 10 year experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, H H; Popova, E; Shin, D J; Yi, J Y; Kim, C H; Lee, J S; Yoon, M K; Engelmann, F

    2012-01-01

    This paper reviews a 10-year experience in establishing a cryopreserved Allium germplasm collection at the genebank of the National Agrobiodiversity Center, Republic of Korea. A systematic approach to Allium cryopreservation included: 1. revealing the most critical factors that affected regeneration after cryostorage; 2. understanding the mechanisms of cryoprotection by analyzing the thermal behavior of explants and cryoprotectant solutions using DSC and influx/efflux of cryoprotectants using HPLC; 3. assessing genetic stability of regenerants; and 4. revealing the efficiency of cryotherapy. Bulbil primordia, i.e. asexual bulbs formed on unripe inflorescences, proved to be the most suitable material for conservation of bolting varieties due to high post-cryopreservation regrowth and lower microbial infection level, followed by apical shoot apices from single bulbs and cloves. A total of 1,158 accessions of garlic as well as some Allium species have been cryopreserved during 2005-2010 using the droplet-vitrification technique with a mean regeneration percentage of 65.9 percent after cryostorage. These results open the door for large-scale implementation of cryostorage and for simplifying international exchange for clonal Allium germplasm.

  5. Technological use of green banana flour with shell (Musa AAB as a fat susbtitute for meat models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yorleny Araya-Quesada

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Green banana flour with shell was evaluated as fat substitute for meat products. Unripe plantains were dried in a hot air dryer (70 °C and milled by a hammer mill to obtain two flours with different mesh sizes (HF, HG. Proximal composition, water holding capacity (WHC, solubility (S, swelling (SW, and fat absorption capacity (FAC were determined. 2%, 4% and 6% of HG and HF were added to a meat model emulsion as fat replacement. The effect of adding green banana flour was evaluated on cooking yield, water holding capacity, pH, hardness, gumminess, chewiness, adhesiveness, elasticity, cohesiveness and color. There were not significant differences between both flours for protein, fat, ashes, WHC, S, SW, and FAC. No significant differences were found for adhesiveness, elasticity, and cohesiveness. A drop in L*, b* and C* parameters regarding the control gel was determined with the increase of fat substitution. We recommend a substitution percentage equal or lower than 4%, which represents a 20% of fat reduction.

  6. A HOT WAY LEADING TO HEALTHY STAY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaura Sushila

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Green Chilli is the life and soul of all delicious Indian dishes. It has been cultivated for thousands of years. Green Chilli is a fruit of the flowering plant Capsicum frutescens. Unripe fruits are green in color. On ripening, they attain the red shade. Green Chilli forms an excellent combination of healthy ingredients and essential nutrients. It is a good source of vitamins (A, C, B, E and P, minerals (iron, magnesium and potassium, dietary fibersand macronutrients. Green Chilli is famous for its intense pungent taste, which is provided by its active constituent Capsaicin. Capsaicin is generally recognized as a powerful local stimulant with no narcotic effect. Apart from its traditional and culinary uses, its therapeutic and pharmacological actions are noteworthy. Medicinally, Green Chilli plays a prominent role as an immunity booster, anti-cancer, anti-ulcer, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, anti-epileptic and anti-hemorrhoidal agent. It is helpful in the management of burns, psoriasis and chronic migraine. It is also beneficial in heart disorders and diabetes.

  7. Foley Catheter versus Vaginal Misoprostol for Labour Induction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasreen Noor

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To compare the efficacy and safety of intravaginal misoprostol with transcervical Foley catheter for labour induction. Material and Methods. One hundred and four women with term gestation, with Bishop score < 4, and with various indications for labour induction were randomly divided into two groups. In Group I, 25 μg of misoprostol tablet was placed intravaginally, 4 hourly up to maximum 6 doses. In Group II, Foley catheter 16F was placed through the internal os of the cervix under aseptic condition and then inflated with 50 cc of sterile saline. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS software. Results. The induction to delivery interval was 14.03 ± 7.61 hours versus 18.40 ± 8.02 hours (p<0.01. The rate of vaginal delivery was 76.7% versus 56.8% in misoprostol and transcervical Foley catheter group, respectively. Uterine hyperstimulation was more common with misoprostol. Neonatal outcome was similar in both the groups. Conclusion. Intravaginal misoprostol is associated with a shorter induction to delivery interval as compared to Foley’s catheter and it increases the rate of vaginal delivery in cases of unripe cervix at term. Transcervical Foley catheter is associated with a lower incidence of uterine hyperstimulation during labour.

  8. The principal toxic glycosidic steroids in Cerbera manghas L. seeds: identification of cerberin, neriifolin, tanghinin and deacetyltanghinin by UHPLC-HRMS/MS, quantification by UHPLC-PDA-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlier, Jérémy; Guitton, Jérôme; Bévalot, Fabien; Fanton, Laurent; Gaillard, Yvan

    2014-07-01

    The toxicity of the sea mango (Cerbera manghas L.) is well known. The plant is ranked as one of the deadliest of the southern Asian coastline. Cardenolidic heterosides are responsible for the cardiotoxicity of trees of the Cerbera genus. We have identified and determined the concentration of the principal glycosidic steroids present in the seeds of sea mangos (Thailand). Drug screening of an extract of the seeds was carried out using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled to photodiode array detection and mass spectrometry (UHPLC-PDA-MS) with quantification at 219nm. Identification was confirmed by UHPLC-HRMS. Deacetyltanghinin (m/z 549.3055±2ppm), neriifolin (m/z 535.3259±2ppm), tanghinin (m/z 591.3169±2ppm) and cerberin (577.3375±2ppm) were the most abundant glycosidic steroids present in the sea mango seeds. A seed of the dried ripe fruit had concentrations of 1209.1, 804.2, 621.4 and 285.9μg/g, respectively. A seed of the fresh unripe fruit had concentrations of 49.4, 47.0, 3.5 and 2.3μg/g.

  9. Protection against hydrogen peroxide induced oxidative damage in rat erythrocytes by Mangifera indica L. peel extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajila, C M; Prasada Rao, U J S

    2008-01-01

    Phytochemicals such as polyphenols and carotenoids are gaining importance because of their contribution to human health and their multiple biological effects such as antioxidant, antimutagenic, anticarcinogenic and cytoprotective activities and other therapeutic properties. Mango peel is a major by-product in pulp industry and it contains various bioactive compounds like polyphenols, carotenoids and others. In the present study, the protective effect of peel extracts of unripe and ripe mango fruits of two varieties namely, Raspuri and Badami on hydrogen peroxide induced hemolysis, lipid peroxidation, degradation of membrane proteins and its morphological changes are reported. The oxidative hemolysis of rat erythrocytes by hydrogen peroxide was inhibited by mango peel extract in a dose dependent manner. The IC(50) value for lipid peroxidation inhibition on erythrocyte ghost membrane was found to be in the range of 4.5-19.3 microg gallic acid equivalents. The mango peel extract showed protection against membrane protein degradation caused by hydrogen peroxide. Morphological changes to erythrocyte membrane caused by hydrogen peroxide were protected by mango peel extract. The results demonstrated that mango peel extracts protected erythrocytes against oxidative stress and may impart health benefits and it could be used as a valuable food ingredient or a nutraceutical product.

  10. Atividade nictimeral e tempo de digestão de Aegla longirostri (Crustacea, Decapoda, Anomura Diel activity and digestion time of Aegla longirostri (Crustacea, Decapoda, Anomura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina C. Sokolowicz

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente trabalho foi caracterizar o ritmo de atividade e tempo de digestão em Aegla longirostri Bond-Buckup & Buckup, 1994. Os animais foram coletados em Santa Maria, RS, Brasil. Em laboratório, os animais foram transferidos para aquários individuais (5L. Para testar a atividade locomotora e alimentar dos aeglídeos um grupo de animais permaneceu sob luminosidade constante durante 12 horas, enquanto outro grupo permanecia no escuro, essa condição sendo invertida a cada 12 horas. As observações foram realizadas a cada 6 horas. Para determinar o tempo de digestão os animais foram alimentados e a cada 30 minutos um indivíduo era sacrificado. Aegla longirostri mostrou menor atividade em períodos de luminosidade, o que aconteceu nos dois grupos de animais. Essa espécie leva aproximadamente 5 horas para concluir a digestão extracelular. Os resultados sugerem que A. longirostri possui hábitos noturnos e provavelmente se alimenta sempre que há recursos disponíveis.The aim of this work was to characterize the diel activity rhythm and time of digestion in Aegla longirostri Bond-Buckup & Buckup, 1994. The individuals were collected in Santa Maria, RS, Brazil. In laboratory, the animals were kept in individuals glass aquariums (5L. To test locomotor and feeding activity of the aeglids, a group remained under constant luminosity for 12 hours, while another group was mantained in the dark, this condition being reversed at each 12 hours. The observations were taken at every 6 hours. For the determination of digestion's time the animals were fed, and one individual was sacrificed at each 30 minutes. Aegla longirostri showed lower activity in periods of light time. This condition was recorded for both groups of animals. This species takes approximately 5 hours to conclude its extracellular digestion. The results suggest that A. longirostri has nocturnal habits and probably feeds whenever resources are available.

  11. HepML, an XML-based format for describing simulated data in high energy physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belov, S.; Dudko, L.; Kekelidze, D.; Sherstnev, A.

    2010-10-01

    In this paper we describe a HepML format and a corresponding C++ library developed for keeping complete description of parton level events in a unified and flexible form. HepML tags contain enough information to understand what kind of physics the simulated events describe and how the events have been prepared. A HepML block can be included into event files in the LHEF format. The structure of the HepML block is described by means of several XML Schemas. The Schemas define necessary information for the HepML block and how this information should be located within the block. The library libhepml is a C++ library intended for parsing and serialization of HepML tags, and representing the HepML block in computer memory. The library is an API for external software. For example, Matrix Element Monte Carlo event generators can use the library for preparing and writing a header of an LHEF file in the form of HepML tags. In turn, Showering and Hadronization event generators can parse the HepML header and get the information in the form of C++ classes. libhepml can be used in C++, C, and Fortran programs. All necessary parts of HepML have been prepared and we present the project to the HEP community. Program summaryProgram title: libhepml Catalogue identifier: AEGL_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEGL_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: GNU GPLv3 No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 138 866 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 613 122 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: C++, C Computer: PCs and workstations Operating system: Scientific Linux CERN 4/5, Ubuntu 9.10 RAM: 1 073 741 824 bytes (1 Gb) Classification: 6.2, 11.1, 11.2 External routines: Xerces XML library ( http://xerces.apache.org/xerces-c/), Expat XML Parser ( http://expat.sourceforge.net/) Nature of problem: Monte Carlo simulation in high

  12. Pirólise de resíduos do coco-da-baía (Cocos nucifera Linn e análise do carvão vegetal Pyrolysis of coconut residues (Cocos nucifera L. and analysis of charcoal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azarias Machado de Andrade

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho objetivou realizar a pirólise de resíduos do coco-da-baía (Cocos nucifera Linn e efetuar a análise química imediata do carvão vegetal produzido. Carvão vegetal, líquido pirolenhoso e gases não-condensáveis foram produzidos sob as temperaturas máximas de destilação de 350, 450 e 550 ºC. Submeteram-se à pirólise o coco inteiro e o seu endocarpo (verde e maduro, adotando como referência o carvão derivado do lenho de eucalipto (Eucalyptus urophylla S. T. Blake. O rendimento gravimétrico do carvão do coco inteiro, pirolisado na temperatura máxima de 350 ºC, foi estatisticamente superior aos dos demais tratamentos. Os maiores rendimentos em gases condensáveis foram obtidos a partir da pirólise do endocarpo verde, sob as três temperaturas máximas de pirólise analisadas. Os maiores teores de carbono fixo foram apresentados pelos carvões derivados do endocarpo do coco maduro, pirolisados nas temperaturas máximas de 450 e 550 ºC. Houve a equiparação estatística dos rendimentos em carbono fixo dos carvões do endocarpo do coco maduro e do lenho de eucalipto, pirolisados sob as três temperaturas máximas ora analisadas, e do coco inteiro destilado a 450 e 550 ºC.The objective of this work was to carry out the pyrolysis of coconut residues (Cocos nucifera Linn and to perform the chemical analysis of charcoal. Charcoal, pirogalyc liquid and non-condensed gases were produced under maximum temperatures of 350ºC, 450ºC and 550ºC. The whole coconut and its endocarp were pyrolysed (ripe and unripe, having as reference the charcoal derived from eucalyptus log (Eucalyptus urophylla S. T. Blake. The gravimetrical yield of whole coconut charcoal pyrolysed under maximum temperature of 350ºC, was superior to the other treatments. The largest yields of condensed gases were obtained from pyrolysis of unripe endocarp under the three pyrolysis temperatures. The highest levels of fixed carbon were given by charcoal derived

  13. STABILITY OF VITAMIN C IN FRESH CAGAITA AND DURING PULP AND JUICE STORAGE ESTABILIDADE DA VITAMINA C EM CAGAITA IN NATURA E DURANTE A ESTOCAGEM DA POLPA E REFRESCO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Cristina da Conceição Ferreira

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available

    Fruits of cagaita, in different degrees of maturation (unripe, semi-ripe and ripe, their pulp and juice were evaluated considering the pH, titratable acidity, soluble solids and stability of vitamin C. The pulp was frozen and stored at -18°C, for four months, and analyzed once a month. The juice was refrigerated at 4ºC, during the test period (24 hours, and analyzed five times (0, 2, 4, 6, and 24 hours. Vitamin C contents were 26.84 mg/100 g, 20.21 mg/100 g and 27.46 mg/100 g for the unripe, semi-ripe and ripe fruits, respectively. In the period of storage, there were slight differences between the initial and the final values of pH and soluble solids, for frozen pulp and refrigerated juice, while the vitamin C content showed a considerable reduction. The storage of frozen pulp, for four months, and refrigerated juice, for 24 hours, under experimental conditions, adversely affected the vitamin C content, decreasing it in 33.7% and 56.2%, respectively.

    KEY-WORDS: Pulp; juice; vitamin C; physicochemical analysis.

    Frutos de cagaita, em diferentes estágios de maturação (verde, semi-madura e madura, sua polpa e refresco foram avaliados, quanto ao pH, acidez titulável, sólidos solúveis e estabilidade da vitamina C. A polpa dos frutos foi congelada em freezer (-18ºC e as análises fisico-químicas foram conduzidas, mensalmente

  14. Effects of plantain and corn starches on the mechanical and disintegration properties of paracetamol tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akin-Ajani, Olufunke D; Itiola, Oludele A; Odeku, Oluwatoyin A

    2005-10-22

    The effects of plantain starch obtained from the unripe fruit of the plant Musa paradisiaca L. (Musaceae) on the mechanical and disintegration properties of paracetamol tablets have been investigated in comparison with the effects of corn starch BP using a 2(3) factorial experimental design. The individual and combined effects of nature of starch binder (N), concentration of starch binder (C), and the relative density of tablet (RD) on the tensile strength (TS), brittle fracture index (BFI), and disintegration time (DT) of the tablets were investigated. The ranking of the individual effects on TS was RD > C > N, on BFI was C > RD > N and on DT was N > C > RD. The ranking for the interaction effects on TS and DT was N-C > N-RD > C-RD, while that on BFI was N-C > C-RD > N-RD. Changing nature of starch from a "low" (plantain starch) to a "high" (corn starch) level, increasing the concentration of starch binding agent from 2.5% to 10.0% wt/wt, and increasing relative density of the tablet from 0.80 to 0.90, led to increase in the values of TS and DT, but a decrease in BFI. Thus, tablets containing plantain starch had lower tensile strength and disintegration time values than those containing corn starch, but showed better ability to reduce the lamination and capping tendency in paracetamol tablet formulation. The interaction between N and C was significantly (P starch used as binding agent in tablet formulations to obtain tablets of desired bond strength and disintegration properties. Furthermore, plantain starch could be useful as an alternative binding agent to cornstarch, especially where faster disintegration is required and the problems of lamination and capping are of particular concern.

  15. A role for protein phosphatase PP1γ in SMN complex formation and subnuclear localization to Cajal bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renvoisé, Benoît; Quérol, Gwendoline; Verrier, Eloi Rémi; Burlet, Philippe; Lefebvre, Suzie

    2012-06-15

    The spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) gene product SMN forms with gem-associated protein 2-8 (Gemin2-8) and unrip (also known as STRAP) the ubiquitous survival motor neuron (SMN) complex, which is required for the assembly of spliceosomal small nuclear ribonucleoproteins (snRNPs), their nuclear import and their localization to subnuclear domain Cajal bodies (CBs). The concentration of the SMN complex and snRNPs in CBs is reduced upon SMN deficiency in SMA cells. Subcellular localization of the SMN complex is regulated in a phosphorylation-dependent manner and the precise mechanisms remain poorly understood. Using co-immunoprecipitation in HeLa cell extracts and in vitro protein binding assays, we show here that the SMN complex and its component Gemin8 interact directly with protein phosphatase PP1γ. Overexpression of Gemin8 in cells increases the number of CBs and results in targeting of PP1γ to CBs. Moreover, depletion of PP1γ by RNA interference enhances the localization of the SMN complex and snRNPs to CBs. Consequently, the interaction between SMN and Gemin8 increases in cytoplasmic and nuclear extracts of PP1γ-depleted cells. Two-dimensional protein gel electrophoresis revealed that SMN is hyperphosphorylated in nuclear extracts of PP1γ-depleted cells and expression of PP1γ restores these isoforms. Notably, SMN deficiency in SMA leads to the aberrant subcellular localization of Gemin8 and PP1γ in the atrophic skeletal muscles, suggesting that the function of PP1γ is likely to be affected in disease. Our findings reveal a role of PP1γ in the formation of the SMN complex and the maintenance of CB integrity. Finally, we propose Gemin8 interaction with PP1γ as a target for therapeutic intervention in SMA.

  16. Pharmacological research on natural substances in Latvia: Focus on lunasin, betulin, polyprenol and phlorizin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muceniece, Ruta; Namniece, Jana; Nakurte, Ilva; Jekabsons, Kaspars; Riekstina, Una; Jansone, Baiba

    2016-11-01

    In this concise review the current research in plant bioactive compound studies in Latvia is described. The paper summarizes recent studies on substances from edible plants (e.g., cereals and apples) or their synthetic analogues, such as peptide lunasin, as well as substances isolated from inedible plants (e.g., birch and conifer), such as pentacyclic triterpenes (e.g., betulin, betulinic acid, and lupeol) and polyprenols. Latvian researchers have been first to demonstrate the presence of lunasin in triticale and oats. Additionally, the impact of genotype on the levels of lunasin in cereals was shown. Pharmacological studies have revealed effects of lunasin and synthetic triterpenes on the central nervous system in rodents. We were first to show that synthetic lunasin causes a marked neuroleptic/cataleptic effect and that betulin antagonizes bicuculline-induced seizures (a GABA A receptor antagonist). Studies on the mechanisms of action showed that lunasin binds to dopamine D1 receptors and betulin binds to melanocortin and gamma-aminobutyric acid A receptors therefore we suggest that these receptors play an essential role in lunasin's and betulin's central effects. Recent studies on conifer polyprenols demonstrated the ability of polyprenols to prevent statin-induced muscle weakness in a rat model. Another study on plant compounds has demonstrated the anti-hyperglycemic activity of phlorizin-containing unripe apple pomace in healthy volunteers. In summary, research into plant-derived compounds in Latvia has been focused on fractionating, isolating and characterizing of lunasin, triterpenes, polyprenols and phlorizin using in vitro, and in vivo assays, and human observational studies.

  17. Misoprostol versus oxytocin for labor induction in term and post-term pregnancy: randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Maria Auxiliadora de Aquino

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Misoprostol, a synthetic E1 methyl analog prostaglandin, is at present receiving attention as a cervical modifier and labor induction agent. However, there is still a need for better determination of its safety and effectiveness. OBJECTIVE: To compare intravaginal misoprostol versus intravenous oxytocin for cervical ripening and labor induction in pregnant women with unripe cervices. DESIGN: Randomized controlled trial. SETTING: The study was performed at the Leonor Mendes de Barros Maternity Hospital between November 1998 and December 2000. PARTICIPANTS: 210 pregnant women with intact membranes and indication for labor induction were selected. PROCEDURES: The women randomly received 25 µg of vaginal misoprostol every 4 hours, not exceeding 8 doses (105 women, or oxytocin in a continuous infusion (105 women. MAIN MEASUREMENTS: The main parameters measured were: latent period, time from induction to vaginal delivery, delivery route, occurrence of vaginal delivery with time, occurrence of uterine tonus alterations, hypoxia and neonatal morbidity. To verify the statistical significance of the differences between the groups, the chi-squared, Student t and log-rank tests were used. RESULTS: There were no significant differences between the groups concerning conditions for labor induction, age, parity, race, marital status, family income, initial Bishop Index and number of prenatal visits. The cesarean section rate, latent period and period from induction to vaginal delivery were significantly lower for the misoprostol group. With regard to uterine tonus alterations, tachysystole was significantly more common in the misoprostol group. However, there was no difference in hypoxia and neonatal morbidity between the groups. CONCLUSION: 25 µg of misoprostol used vaginally every 4 hours is safer and more efficient for cervical ripening and labor induction than oxytocin.

  18. Phenological synchrony and seasonality of understory Rubiaceae in the Atlantic Forest, Bahia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heitor Scarpati Liuth

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In tropical forests with low seasonality, climatic variables generally exert a weak influence on the phenology of species. The seasonality of phenophases in closely related taxa can be controlled by phylogenetic constraints in such environments. In this study, our aim was to describe the phenology of Rubiaceae in the understory of the Atlantic Forest in the southern part of Bahia, Brazil, as well as to evaluate the seasonality and phenological synchrony of this family. For two years, we observed 90 individuals belonging to 13 species, in an area of 0.2 ha. Leaf flushing and leaf fall did not demonstrate any seasonality, were continuous for most species and correlated with few of the climatic variables. Flowering was seasonal and correlated positively with all climatic variables. Species exhibited seasonality for this phenophase with high flowering overlap among species of Psychotria, indicating an aggregated pattern for this genus. Fruiting was also seasonal and correlated with all the climatic variables, unripe fruit development peaking at the beginning of the season during which humidity is highest and fruit ripening peaking in the season during which humidity is slightly lower. The vegetative and flowering patterns observed in the study area are commonly seen in other tropical forests. The reproductive seasonality of this family can facilitate the attraction of biotic agents, as postulated in the facilitation hypothesis. Our results demonstrate that climatic variables influenced the phenological patterns observed here, although the high reproductive seasonality and interspecific synchrony, especially in congeneric species, raises the possibility that phylogenetic proximity plays a role in the pattern of the family Rubiaceae.

  19. Seasonal Effects on the Population, Morphology and Reproductive Behavior of Narnia femorata (Hemiptera: Coreidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirino, Lauren A; Miller, Christine W

    2017-01-17

    Many insects are influenced by the phenology of their host plants. In North Central Florida, Narnia femorata (Hemiptera: Coreidae) spends its entire life cycle living and feeding on Opuntia mesacantha ssp. lata. This cactus begins producing flower buds in April that lead to unripe green fruit in June that ripen into red fruit through December. Many morphological and behavioral characteristics of N. femorata are known to be affected by cactus phenology in a controlled laboratory setting, including the degree of sexual dimorphism and mating behavior. Our goal with this study was to determine if similar phenotypic changes of N. femorata occurred over time in the wild, and the extent to which these changes were concordant with phenological changes in its host plant. Further, we investigate the length of the insect mouthparts (beak) over time. Ongoing work has suggested that beak length may change across cohorts of developing insects in response to feeding deep within cactus fruit where seed and pulp depth decrease as the fruit ripens. Our results revealed a drop in cactus fruit abundance between the months of July through October 2015 as cactus fruits turned red and ripened. Simultaneously, the average body size of both males and females of N. femorata declined at two sampled sites. Male hind femora (a sexually-selected weapon) decreased disproportionately in size over time so that males later in the year had relatively smaller hind femora for their body size. The sex-specific patterns of morphological change led to increased sexual-size dimorphism and decreased sexual dimorphism for hind femora later in the year. Further, we found that beak length decreased across cohorts of insects as cactus fruit ripened, suggesting phenotypic plasticity in mouthpart length. Behavioral studies revealed that female readiness to mate increased as the season progressed. In sum, we found pronounced changes in the phenotypes of these insects in the field. Although this study is far from

  20. Dual Resonant Frequencies Effects on an Induction-Based Oil Palm Fruit Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noor Hasmiza Harun

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available As the main exporter in the oil palm industry, the need to improve the quality of palm oil has become the main interest among all the palm oil millers in Malaysia. To produce good quality palm oil, it is important for the miller to harvest a good oil palm Fresh Fruit Bunch (FFB. Conventionally, the main reference used by Malaysian harvesters is the manual grading standard published by the Malaysian Palm Oil Board (MPOB. A good oil palm FFB consists of all matured fruitlets, aged between 18 to 21 weeks of antheses (WAA. To expedite the harvesting process, it is crucial to implement an automated detection system for determining the maturity of the oil palm FFB. Various automated detection methods have been proposed by researchers in the field to replace the conventional method. In our preliminary study, a novel oil palm fruit sensor to detect the maturity of oil palm fruit bunch was proposed. The design of the proposed air coil sensor based on the inductive sensor was further investigated mainly in the context of the effect of coil diameter to improve its sensitivity. In this paper, the sensitivity of the inductive sensor was further examined with a dual flat-type shape of air coil. The dual air coils were tested on fifteen samples of fruitlet from two categories, namely ripe and unripe. Samples were tested within 20 Hz to 10 MHz while evaluations on both peaks were done separately before the gap between peaks was analyzed. A comparative analysis was conducted to investigate the improvement in sensitivity of the induction-based oil palm fruit sensor as compared to previous works. Results from the comparative study proved that the inductive sensor using a dual flat-type shape air coil has improved by up to 167%. This provides an indication in the improvement in the coil sensitivity of the palm oil fruit sensor based on the induction concept.

  1. Feeding on Host Plants with Different Concentrations and Structures of Pyrrolizidine Alkaloids Impacts the Chemical-Defense Effectiveness of a Specialist Herbivore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, Beatriz P.; Solferini, Vera N.

    2015-01-01

    Sequestration of chemical defenses from host plants is a strategy widely used by herbivorous insects to avoid predation. Larvae of the arctiine moth Utetheisa ornatrix feeding on unripe seeds and leaves of many species of Crotalaria (Leguminosae) sequester N-oxides of pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) from these host plants, and transfer them to adults through the pupal stage. PAs confer protection against predation on all life stages of U. ornatrix. As U. ornatrix also uses other Crotalaria species as host plants, we evaluated whether the PA chemical defense against predation is independent of host plant use. We fed larvae from hatching to pupation with either leaves or seeds of one of eight Crotalaria species (C. incana, C. juncea, C. micans, C. ochroleuca, C. pallida, C. paulina, C. spectabilis, and C. vitellina), and tested if adults were preyed upon or released by the orb-weaving spider Nephila clavipes. We found that the protection against the spider was more effective in adults whose larvae fed on seeds, which had a higher PA concentration than leaves. The exceptions were adults from larvae fed on C. paulina, C. spectabilis and C. vitellina leaves, which showed high PA concentrations. With respect to the PA profile, we describe for the first time insect-PAs in U. ornatrix. These PAs, biosynthesized from the necine base retronecine of plant origin, or monocrotaline- and senecionine-type PAs sequestered from host plants, were equally active in moth chemical defense, in a dose-dependent manner. These results are also partially explained by host plant phylogeny, since PAs of the host plants do have a phylogenetic signal (clades with high and low PA concentrations in leaves) which is reflected in the adult defense. PMID:26517873

  2. Feeding on Host Plants with Different Concentrations and Structures of Pyrrolizidine Alkaloids Impacts the Chemical-Defense Effectiveness of a Specialist Herbivore.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos H Z Martins

    Full Text Available Sequestration of chemical defenses from host plants is a strategy widely used by herbivorous insects to avoid predation. Larvae of the arctiine moth Utetheisa ornatrix feeding on unripe seeds and leaves of many species of Crotalaria (Leguminosae sequester N-oxides of pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs from these host plants, and transfer them to adults through the pupal stage. PAs confer protection against predation on all life stages of U. ornatrix. As U. ornatrix also uses other Crotalaria species as host plants, we evaluated whether the PA chemical defense against predation is independent of host plant use. We fed larvae from hatching to pupation with either leaves or seeds of one of eight Crotalaria species (C. incana, C. juncea, C. micans, C. ochroleuca, C. pallida, C. paulina, C. spectabilis, and C. vitellina, and tested if adults were preyed upon or released by the orb-weaving spider Nephila clavipes. We found that the protection against the spider was more effective in adults whose larvae fed on seeds, which had a higher PA concentration than leaves. The exceptions were adults from larvae fed on C. paulina, C. spectabilis and C. vitellina leaves, which showed high PA concentrations. With respect to the PA profile, we describe for the first time insect-PAs in U. ornatrix. These PAs, biosynthesized from the necine base retronecine of plant origin, or monocrotaline- and senecionine-type PAs sequestered from host plants, were equally active in moth chemical defense, in a dose-dependent manner. These results are also partially explained by host plant phylogeny, since PAs of the host plants do have a phylogenetic signal (clades with high and low PA concentrations in leaves which is reflected in the adult defense.

  3. "A comparison of vaginal Misoprostol with intravenous Oxytocin for cervical ripening and labor induction "

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eftekhari N

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Labor induction despite an unriped cervix is one of the most common indications of the use of prostaglandines. This clinical trial was performed to compare the effectiveness of oxytocin with misoprostol for induction of labor in Bahonar Hospital, Kerman/Iran from 1999 to 2000. Sixty pregnant women with indication for labor induction were randomly assigned to receive misoprostol or oxytocin. Misoprostol in tablet form. 25 µg, was placed in the posterior fornix and was repeated every four hours in the first group (to a maximum of 100 µg. The second group received intravenous oxytocin (21 µm/min. The results showed that 83.3% of women in the misoprostol group were delivered vaginally within 3.5-21 hours of the initiation of induction versus 76.7% within 4.5-17.5 hours in oxytocin group and there was no significant difference between them. The total cesarean rate was between them. The total cesarean rate was approximately similar in the two groups. Women receiving oxytocin had higher rate of cesarean for distocia (5 versus 1. The mean and median interval from induction to delivery were not significantly different between the two groups, (685±223 and 710 minutes in the first group compared with 685±198 and 690 minutes in the second group, respectively. There were no significant differences in Apgar score and meconium staining between the two groups. Hyperstimluation was seen in a patient in the first group with neither low Apgar score nor adverse neonatal outcomes. This study showed that the outcome of induction was not significantly different in the two groups. Therefore regarding the advantages of misoprostol, it is recommended as an alternative to oxytocin.

  4. Overexpression of a defensin enhances resistance to a fruit-specific anthracnose fungus in pepper.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyo-Hyoun Seo

    Full Text Available Functional characterization of a defensin, J1-1, was conducted to evaluate its biotechnological potentiality in transgenic pepper plants against the causal agent of anthracnose disease, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. To determine antifungal activity, J1-1 recombinant protein was generated and tested for the activity against C. gloeosporioides, resulting in 50% inhibition of fungal growth at a protein concentration of 0.1 mg·mL-1. To develop transgenic pepper plants resistant to anthracnose disease, J1-1 cDNA under the control of 35S promoter was introduced into pepper via Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation method. Southern and Northern blot analyses confirmed that a single copy of the transgene in selected transgenic plants was normally expressed and also stably transmitted to subsequent generations. The insertion of T-DNA was further analyzed in three independent homozygous lines using inverse PCR, and confirmed the integration of transgene in non-coding region of genomic DNA. Immunoblot results showed that the level of J1-1 proteins, which was not normally accumulated in unripe fruits, accumulated high in transgenic plants but appeared to differ among transgenic lines. Moreover, the expression of jasmonic acid-biosynthetic genes and pathogenesis-related genes were up-regulated in the transgenic lines, which is co-related with the resistance of J1-1 transgenic plants to anthracnose disease. Consequently, the constitutive expression of J1-1 in transgenic pepper plants provided strong resistance to the anthracnose fungus that was associated with highly reduced lesion formation and fungal colonization. These results implied the significance of the antifungal protein, J1-1, as a useful agronomic trait to control fungal disease.

  5. Seasonal Effects on the Population, Morphology and Reproductive Behavior of Narnia femorata (Hemiptera: Coreidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirino, Lauren A.; Miller, Christine W.

    2017-01-01

    Many insects are influenced by the phenology of their host plants. In North Central Florida, Narnia femorata (Hemiptera: Coreidae) spends its entire life cycle living and feeding on Opuntia mesacantha ssp. lata. This cactus begins producing flower buds in April that lead to unripe green fruit in June that ripen into red fruit through December. Many morphological and behavioral characteristics of N. femorata are known to be affected by cactus phenology in a controlled laboratory setting, including the degree of sexual dimorphism and mating behavior. Our goal with this study was to determine if similar phenotypic changes of N. femorata occurred over time in the wild, and the extent to which these changes were concordant with phenological changes in its host plant. Further, we investigate the length of the insect mouthparts (beak) over time. Ongoing work has suggested that beak length may change across cohorts of developing insects in response to feeding deep within cactus fruit where seed and pulp depth decrease as the fruit ripens. Our results revealed a drop in cactus fruit abundance between the months of July through October 2015 as cactus fruits turned red and ripened. Simultaneously, the average body size of both males and females of N. femorata declined at two sampled sites. Male hind femora (a sexually-selected weapon) decreased disproportionately in size over time so that males later in the year had relatively smaller hind femora for their body size. The sex-specific patterns of morphological change led to increased sexual-size dimorphism and decreased sexual dimorphism for hind femora later in the year. Further, we found that beak length decreased across cohorts of insects as cactus fruit ripened, suggesting phenotypic plasticity in mouthpart length. Behavioral studies revealed that female readiness to mate increased as the season progressed. In sum, we found pronounced changes in the phenotypes of these insects in the field. Although this study is far from

  6. Spatio-temporal complexity of chimpanzee food: How cognitive adaptations can counteract the ephemeral nature of ripe fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janmaat, Karline R L; Boesch, Christophe; Byrne, Richard; Chapman, Colin A; Goné Bi, Zoro B; Head, Josephine S; Robbins, Martha M; Wrangham, Richard W; Polansky, Leo

    2016-06-01

    Ecological complexity has been proposed to play a crucial role in primate brain-size evolution. However, detailed quantification of ecological complexity is still limited. Here we assess the spatio-temporal distribution of tropical fruits and young leaves, two primary chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) foods, focusing on the predictability of their availability in individual trees. Using up to 20 years of information on monthly availability of young leaf, unripe and ripe fruit in plant species consumed by chimpanzees from tropical forests in East, Central, and West Africa, we estimated: (1) the forest-wide frequency of occurrence of each food type and (2) the predictability of finding ripe fruit-bearing trees, focusing on the timing, frequency, and amount of ripe fruit present. In all three forests, at least half of all encountered trees belonged to species that chimpanzees were known to feed on. However, the proportion of these trees bearing young leaves and fruit fluctuated widely between months. Ripe fruit was the most ephemeral food source, and trees that had more than half of their crown filled were at least nine times scarcer than other trees. In old growth forests only one large ripe fruit crop was on average encountered per 10 km. High levels of inter-individual variation in the number of months that fruit was present existed, and in some extreme cases individuals bore ripe fruit more than seven times as often as conspecifics. Some species showed substantially less variation in such ripe fruit production frequencies and fruit quantity than others. We hypothesize that chimpanzees employ a suite of cognitive mechanisms, including abilities to: (1) generalize or classify food trees; (2) remember the relative metrics of quantity and frequency of fruit production across years; and (3) flexibly plan return times to feeding trees to optimize high-energy food consumption in individual trees, and efficient travel between them. Am. J. Primatol. 78:626-645, 2016. © 2016

  7. Identification and characterization of MYB-bHLH-WD40 regulatory complexes controlling proanthocyanidin biosynthesis in strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa) fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaart, Jan G; Dubos, Christian; Romero De La Fuente, Irene; van Houwelingen, Adèle M M L; de Vos, Ric C H; Jonker, Harry H; Xu, Wenjia; Routaboul, Jean-Marc; Lepiniec, Loïc; Bovy, Arnaud G

    2013-01-01

    Strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa) fruits contain high concentrations of flavonoids. In unripe strawberries, the flavonoids are mainly represented by proanthocyanidins (PAs), while in ripe fruits the red-coloured anthocyanins also accumulate. Most of the structural genes leading to PA biosynthesis in strawberry have been characterized, but no information is available on their transcriptional regulation. In Arabidopsis thaliana the expression of the PA biosynthetic genes is specifically induced by a ternary protein complex, composed of AtTT2 (AtMYB123), AtTT8 (AtbHLH042) and AtTTG1 (WD40-repeat protein). A strategy combining yeast-two-hybrid screening and agglomerative hierarchical clustering of transcriptomic and metabolomic data was undertaken to identify strawberry PA regulators. Among the candidate genes isolated, four were similar to AtTT2, AtTT8 and AtTTG1 (FaMYB9/FaMYB11, FabHLH3 and FaTTG1, respectively) and two encode putative negative regulators (FaMYB5 and FabHLH3∆). Interestingly, FaMYB9/FaMYB11, FabHLH3 and FaTTG1 were found to complement the tt2-1, tt8-3 and ttg1-1 transparent testa mutants, respectively. In addition, they interacted in yeast and activated the Arabidopsis BANYULS (anthocyanidin reductase) gene promoter when coexpressed in Physcomitrella patens protoplasts. Taken together, these results demonstrated that FaMYB9/FaMYB11, FabHLH3 and FaTTG1 are the respective functional homologues of AtTT2, AtTT8 and AtTTG1, providing new tools for modifying PA content and strawberry fruit quality.

  8. PROSOPIS CINERARIA (L DRUCE: A DESERT TREE TO BRACE LIVELIHOOD IN RAJASTHAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BINA RANI, UPMA SINGH, RAVI SHARMA, A AYUSHI GUPTA, NIDHI GAUBA DHAWAN, AJIT KUMAR SHARMA, SURBHI SHARMA, RAAZ K MAHESHWARI

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The Prosopis cineraria (L Druce is an important tree (Khejri- a local name in Rajasthanfor the Thar Desert withhard climatic adaptation and one of the lifeline in desert habitat as mentioned in ancient literature. This is a speciesrepresenting all five F viz., Forest, Fiber, Fuel, Fodder and Food. This tree is also mythological important in localcommunities. High value of this species recognized as a State symbol (state tree of Rajasthan. Prosopis cineraria(L. Druce is a tree endemic to hot deserts of India, belonging to the family Leguminosae. Pods locally called“Sangri” are considered as dry fruit of desert and are one of the main ingredients of quintessential Rajasthani dish -The Panchkuta. In the present article, we have attempted to review different characteristics of the pods, tounderstand its health benefits. Various phytoconstituents like tannins (gallic acid, steroids (stigmasterol,campesterol, sitosterol, etc., Flavone derivatives (prosogerin A, B, C, D, and E, alkaloids (spicigerine,prosophylline, etc. have been isolated from the sangri pods .As this plant is found in water stress (or deficient areaso antioxidant potential of pods has also been discussed. Prosopis cineraria (L Druce is one of the highly valuedplant in the Indigenous System of Medicine. P. cineraria pods provide protein, iron, vitamins A and C and othermicro minerals Unripe pods are also nutritious and are used to prepare curries and pickles. Its bark is said to be apotent drug for several ailments such as leprosy, dysentery, bronchitis, asthma, leucoderma, piles, muscular tremors,asthma, rheumatism and inflammations. Pharmacological activities like analgesic, antipyretic, antihyperglycemic,antioxidant, antihypercholesterolemic, antitumor, nootropic anthelmintic, antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral andanticancer activities have been reported from different plant extracts. In view of its medicinal importance, thepresent review is focused to delineate its chemical

  9. New Insights into the Complex Relationship between Weight and Maturity of Burgundy Truffles (Tuber aestivum)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Büntgen, Ulf; Bagi, István; Fekete, Oszkár; Molinier, Virginie; Peter, Martina; Splivallo, Richard; Vahdatzadeh, Maryam; Richard, Franck; Murat, Claude; Tegel, Willy; Stobbe, Ulrich; Martínez-Peña, Fernando; Sproll, Ludger; Hülsmann, Lisa; Nievergelt, Daniel; Meier, Barbara; Egli, Simon

    2017-01-01

    Despite an increasing demand for Burgundy truffles (Tuber aestivum), gaps remain in our understanding of the fungus’ overall lifecycle and ecology. Here, we compile evidence from three independent surveys in Hungary and Switzerland. First, we measured the weight and maturity of 2,656 T. aestivum fruit bodies from a three-day harvest in August 2014 in a highly productive orchard in Hungary. All specimens ranging between 2 and 755 g were almost evenly distributed through five maturation classes. Then, we measured the weight and maturity of another 4,795 T. aestivum fruit bodies harvested on four occasions between June and October 2015 in the same truffière. Again, different maturation stages occurred at varying fruit body size and during the entire fruiting season. Finally, the predominantly unrelated weight and maturity of 81 T. aestivum fruit bodies from four fruiting seasons between 2010 and 2013 in Switzerland confirmed the Hungarian results. The spatiotemporal coexistence of 7,532 small-ripe and large-unripe T. aestivum, which accumulate to ~182 kg, differs from species-specific associations between the size and ripeness that have been reported for other mushrooms. Although size-independent truffle maturation stages may possibly relate to the perpetual belowground environment, the role of mycelial connectivity, soil property, microclimatology, as well as other abiotic factors and a combination thereof, is still unclear. Despite its massive sample size and proof of concept, this study, together with existing literature, suggests consideration of a wider ecological and biogeographical range, as well as the complex symbiotic fungus-host interaction, to further illuminate the hidden development of belowground truffle fruit bodies. PMID:28125633

  10. Embryonic development, hatching, mineral consumption, and survival of Macrobrachium rosenbergii (de Man reared in artificial seawater in closed recirculating water system at different levels of salinity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krasindh Hangsapreurke

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available This experiment aims to study the effect of different levels of salinity (5, 15 and 25 ppt using artificial sea water on the embryonic development and hatching percentage of the eggs of unripe berried female giant freshwater prawns (Macrobrachium rosenbergii with an average size of 14.3+0.6 cm TL. After incubation through the heart beating stage (grayish black eggs, the brooders in each salinity were separately transferred to the hatching tank with 15 ppt saline water for the second part of the study. After hatching, the healthy larvae from the brooders which were previously incubated in 3 levels of salinity were collected for the larviculture experiment. The closed recirculating water system with trickling filter unit packed with fiberglass and bioballs was used as incubation and larviculture units. The metamorphosis period and survival rate were examined. The rearing water from each larviculture aquarium was collected for determination of sodium, magnesium, potassium, calcium and chloride ions. The result showed that the percentage of ripe berried females (with heart beating stage embryos were not significantly different (p>0.05 between 5 and 15 ppt salinity but their values were significantly higher (p0.05 in the survival rate of post larvae and metamorphosis period among the treatments. The first post larvae stage occurred on the 26th day. During 30 days of larviculture, the survival rate of all treatments was 100% until the 19th day, after which it suddenly decreased. When the concentrations of the ions in the rearing water were determined in all treatments, it was found that the concentration of magnesium ions rapidly declined (p0.05. The low survival rate during the final stage of larviculture might be due to the depletion of the previously mentioned ions especially that of magnesium.

  11. KNOX genes influence a gradient of fruit chloroplast development through regulation of GOLDEN2-LIKE expression in tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadakuduti, Satya Swathi; Holdsworth, William L; Klein, Chelsey L; Barry, Cornelius S

    2014-06-01

    The chlorophyll content of unripe fleshy fruits is positively correlated with the nutrient content and flavor of ripe fruit. In tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruit, the uniform ripening (u) locus, which encodes a GOLDEN 2-LIKE transcription factor (SlGLK2), influences a gradient of chloroplast development that extends from the stem end of the fruit surrounding the calyx to the base of the fruit. With the exception of the u locus, the factors that influence the formation of this developmental gradient are unknown. In this study, characterization and positional cloning of the uniform gray-green (ug) locus of tomato reveals a thus far unknown role for the Class I KNOTTED1-LIKE HOMEOBOX (KNOX) gene, TKN4, in specifying the formation of this chloroplast gradient. The involvement of KNOX in fruit chloroplast development was confirmed through characterization of the Curl (Cu) mutant, a dominant gain-of-function mutation of TKN2, which displays ectopic fruit chloroplast development that resembles SlGLK2 over-expression. TKN2 and TKN4 act upstream of SlGLK2 and the related gene ARABIDOPSIS PSEUDO RESPONSE REGULATOR 2-LIKE (SlAPRR2-LIKE) to establish their latitudinal gradient of expression across developing fruit that leads to a gradient of chloroplast development. Class I KNOX genes typically influence plant morphology through maintenance of meristem activity, but this study identifies a role for TKN2 and TKN4 in specifically influencing chloroplast development in fruit but not leaves, suggesting that this fundamental process is differentially regulated in these two organs.

  12. Diet and feeding behavior of Rhinopithecus brelichi at Yangaoping, Guizhou.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Zuo-Fu; Liang, Wen-Bin; Nie, Shuai-Guo; Li, Ming

    2012-06-01

    Expectations of increases in human population growth and accelerated habitat loss, along with the realization that efforts to provide protection for ecosystems that sustain primates have met with limited success, make it critical that conservation plans are grounded firmly in scientific observation. Studies of the diet breadth and feeding behavior of endangered species, therefore, are critical for understanding ecological adaptations and developing a conservation strategy. The diet and feeding ecology of gray snub-nosed monkeys (Rhinopithecus brelichi) were studied in the Fanjingshan National Nature Reserve, Guizhou, China. The monkeys were found to consume 107 different species of trees, shrubs, and ground plants from 58 genera and 28 families. Food items included young leaves, mature leaves, flowers, fruits/seeds, buds, and insects. Among these food items, there were at least 13 evergreen species of tree and liana, 3 species of grasses, and at least 2 kinds of invertebrates collected from decayed wood. Diet varied markedly throughout different seasons. Overall, diet composition (based on feeding records) was 15.3% buds, 25.5% young leaves, 21.8% mature leaves, 9.4% flowers, 21.6% fruits/seeds, and 6.3% other items. The monkeys feed mainly on young leaves and flowers in spring, unripe fruits/seeds and young leaves in summer, ripe fruits/seeds in autumn, and mature leaves and buds in winter. We propose that when inhabiting forests of lower elevation and greater vegetation complexity, R. brelichi is characterized by expanded diet breadth and includes a greater diversity of food types and plant species in its diet. One food type that appears critical to the diet of this species, especially during the winter, are the buds of Magnolia sprengeri. To protect this resource we advocate working with local communities to limit the collection of M. sprengeri, which is used in traditional Chinese medicine and has high economic value for people in the reserve.

  13. Características Físico-Químicas del Látex de Papayuelo (Vasconcellea cundinamarcensis Badillo, Caricaceae Physico-Chemical Characteristics of Papayuelo Latex (Vasconcellea Cundinamarcensis Badillo, Caricaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leslie V Vidal

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Se determinó el rendimiento y la actividad enzimática de la papaína presente en el látex de papayuelo (Vasconcellea cundinamarcensis, cultivado en Cobquecura, VIII región del Bío-Bío, Chile, durante un año. Entre enero y diciembre, las plantas, frutos y látex, obtenidos de frutos inmaduros, fueron caracterizados con el propósito de conocer el comportamiento del cultivo a través de las estaciones del año, y comprender las posibles relaciones entre los parámetros estudiados. El diseño experimental fue completamente aleatorio y los datos se procesaron mediante un ANDEVA y prueba de rangos múltiples de Duncan. Se encontró diferencia estadística significativa entre estaciones en cuanto al desarrollo de la planta y sus características. Los mayores rendimientos de látex se obtuvieron en la estación de primavera, mientras que la actividad enzimática se mantuvo constante durante el año de estudio.A study to determine the yield and enzymatic activity of papain present in the latex obtained from papayuelo fruit (Vasconcellea cundinamarcensis cultivated in Cobquecura, VIII Bío-Bío Region in Chile, during one year was done. Between January and December the papayuelo plants, fruits and latex obtained from unripe fruits were characterized. The objective of the study was to know the species behavior through the seasons and the relation between the parameters studied. The experimental design was completely random, and the data were processed through ANOVA and Duncan’s multiple range test. A significant statistical difference in plant growth and plan characteristics between seasons was found. The higher latex yields were obtained in spring, whereas the enzymatic activity was constant through the year.

  14. Individual shrink wrapping extends the storage life and maintains the antioxidants of mango (cvs. 'Alphonso' and 'Banganapalli') stored at 8 °C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, D V Sudhakar; Shivashankara, K S

    2015-07-01

    Freshly-harvested mature green mangoes (cvs. 'Alphonso' and 'Banganapalli') were individually shrink wrapped using two semi-permeable Cryovac films® (D-955 and LD-935) and a locally available LDPE film. The shrink wrapped and non-wrapped fruit were stored at 8 °C for 5 weeks and transferred to ambient conditions for subsequent ripening, to study the feasibility of alleviation of chilling injury (CI) and to determine shrink wrapping effect on fruit quality. Shrink wrapped mangoes of 'Banganapalli' and 'Alphonso' cultivars packed in D-955 (15 μm thickness) film could be stored for 5 weeks at 8 °C in fresh and unripe green condition. After storage, these cultivars respectively lost only 0.5 and 1.4 % mass in case of shrink wrapping as compared to 5.8 and 6.9 % loss in non-wrapped fruit. After removal from low temperature and unwrapping, shrink wrapped mangoes showed normal respiratory behaviour with production of CO2 and ethylene peaks (climacteric peaks) during ripening, whereas non-wrapped fruit did not show any respiratory peaks. Shrink wrapped mangoes ripened normally within a week at ambient temperature (24-32 °C and 60-70 % RH) with good surface yellow colour (reflected by hue and chroma values), edible softness, retention of nutritional quality and acceptable organoleptic quality. These quality parameters were better in fruit wrapped with D-955 film compared to LD-935 and LDPE films. Total carotenoids in terms of β-carotene content were significantly higher in shrink wrapped fruit when compared to non-wrapped fruit. Among different shrink films, total antioxidant capacity and DPPH radical scavenging abilities were higher in LD-935 wrapped fruit in case of 'Alphonso' cultivar whereas these were on par in LD-935 and D-955 film wrapped fruit in case of 'Banganapalli' cultivar.

  15. Impact of fermentation, drying, roasting and Dutch processing on flavan-3-ol stereochemistry in cacao beans and cocoa ingredients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miller Kenneth B

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper reports a systematic study of the level of flavan-3-ol monomers during typical processing steps as cacao beans are dried, fermented and roasted and the results of Dutch-processing. Methods have been used that resolve the stereoisomers of epicatechin and catechin. In beans harvested from unripe and ripe cacao pods, we find only (--epicatechin and (+-catechin with (--epicatechin being by far the predominant isomer. When beans are fermented there is a large loss of both (--epicatechin and (+-catechin, but also the formation of (--catechin. We hypothesize that the heat of fermentation may, in part, be responsible for the formation of this enantiomer. When beans are progressively roasted at conditions described as low, medium and high roast conditions, there is a progressive loss of (--epicatechin and (+-catechin and an increase in (--catechin with the higher roast levels. When natural and Dutch-processed cacao powders are analyzed, there is progressive loss of both (--epicatechin and (+-catechin with lesser losses of (--catechin. We thus observe that in even lightly Dutch-processed powder, the level of (--catechin exceeds the level of (--epicatechin. The results indicate that much of the increase in the level of (--catechin observed during various processing steps may be the result of heat-related epimerization from (--epicatechin. These results are discussed with reference to the reported preferred order of absorption of (--epicatechin > (+-catechin > (--catechin. These results are also discussed with respect to the balance that must be struck between the beneficial impact of fermentation and roasting on chocolate flavor and the healthful benefits of chocolate and cocoa powder that result in part from the flavan-3-ol monomers.

  16. Feeding on Host Plants with Different Concentrations and Structures of Pyrrolizidine Alkaloids Impacts the Chemical-Defense Effectiveness of a Specialist Herbivore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Carlos H Z; Cunha, Beatriz P; Solferini, Vera N; Trigo, José R

    2015-01-01

    Sequestration of chemical defenses from host plants is a strategy widely used by herbivorous insects to avoid predation. Larvae of the arctiine moth Utetheisa ornatrix feeding on unripe seeds and leaves of many species of Crotalaria (Leguminosae) sequester N-oxides of pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) from these host plants, and transfer them to adults through the pupal stage. PAs confer protection against predation on all life stages of U. ornatrix. As U. ornatrix also uses other Crotalaria species as host plants, we evaluated whether the PA chemical defense against predation is independent of host plant use. We fed larvae from hatching to pupation with either leaves or seeds of one of eight Crotalaria species (C. incana, C. juncea, C. micans, C. ochroleuca, C. pallida, C. paulina, C. spectabilis, and C. vitellina), and tested if adults were preyed upon or released by the orb-weaving spider Nephila clavipes. We found that the protection against the spider was more effective in adults whose larvae fed on seeds, which had a higher PA concentration than leaves. The exceptions were adults from larvae fed on C. paulina, C. spectabilis and C. vitellina leaves, which showed high PA concentrations. With respect to the PA profile, we describe for the first time insect-PAs in U. ornatrix. These PAs, biosynthesized from the necine base retronecine of plant origin, or monocrotaline- and senecionine-type PAs sequestered from host plants, were equally active in moth chemical defense, in a dose-dependent manner. These results are also partially explained by host plant phylogeny, since PAs of the host plants do have a phylogenetic signal (clades with high and low PA concentrations in leaves) which is reflected in the adult defense.

  17. Expression of a ripening-related cytochrome P450 cDNA in Cavendish banana (Musa acuminata cv. Williams).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pua, Eng-Chong; Lee, Yi-Chuan

    2003-02-13

    As part of a study to understand the molecular basis of fruit ripening, this study reports the isolation and characterization of a banana cytochrome P450 (P450) cDNA, designated as MAP450-1, which was associated with fruit ripening of banana. MAP450-1 encoded a single polypeptide of 507 amino acid residues that shared an overall identity of 27-45% with that of several plant P450s, among which MAP450-1 was most related phylogenetically to the avocado P450 CYP71A1. The polypeptide that possessed residue domains conserved in all P450s was classified as CYP71N1. Expression of CYP71N1 varied greatly between banana organs. Transcripts were detected only in peel and pulp of the ripening fruit and not in unripe fruit tissues at all developmental stages or other organs (root, leaf, ovary and flower). During ripening, transcripts were barely detectable in pre-climacteric and climacteric fruits but, as ripening progressed, they began to accumulate and reached a maximum in post-climacteric fruits. CYP71N1 expression in pre-climacteric fruit could be upregulated by exogenous application of ethylene (1-5 ppm) and treatment of overripe fruit with exogenous sucrose (50-300 mM) but not glucose downregulated the expression. These results indicate that P450s may not play a role in fruit development and its expression is associated with ripening, which may be regulated, in part, by ethylene and/or sucrose, at the transcript level.

  18. Recognition of artificial ripening tomato and nature mature tomato based on computer vision%基于计算机视觉的番茄催熟与正常熟识别

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵海波; 周向红

    2011-01-01

    国内常有菜农采摘远离成熟期的番茄,采用乙烯利处理进行催熟,为了阻止催熟番茄进入瓜果市场危害食用者的身体健康,给出了催熟番茄识别系统的硬件组成,通过计算机视觉装置获取番茄透射光颜色参数(R、G、B),并将RGB值转换成HIS值,采用遗传算法训练的多层前馈神经网络实现催熟番茄的自动识别.试验结果表明,系统正确识别率为91.7%,为进一步进行番茄催熟与正常熟识别的研究提供参考.%Nowadays some vegetable farmers pick unripe tomatoes and treat them with ethylene to quicken ripeness in China. In order to keep artificial ripening tomato which harming consumer's health from entering into melon and fruit market, the hardware structure of artificial ripening tomato recognition system was given. The colour parameters RGB (red, green, blue) of transmitted light of tomatoes were obtained through computer vision device, and the RGB values were converted into HIS (hue, intensity, saturation) values. The multilayer feedforward neural networks with genetic algorithm training realized the automated recognition of artificial ripening tomato. The results of test showed that accurate recognition rate of the system was 91.7%, and the method can provide references for further research on recognition of artificial ripening tomato and nature mature tomato.

  19. Dual resonant frequencies effects on an induction-based oil palm fruit sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harun, Noor Hasmiza; Misron, Norhisam; Mohd Sidek, Roslina; Aris, Ishak; Wakiwaka, Hiroyuki; Tashiro, Kunihisa

    2014-11-19

    As the main exporter in the oil palm industry, the need to improve the quality of palm oil has become the main interest among all the palm oil millers in Malaysia. To produce good quality palm oil, it is important for the miller to harvest a good oil palm Fresh Fruit Bunch (FFB). Conventionally, the main reference used by Malaysian harvesters is the manual grading standard published by the Malaysian Palm Oil Board (MPOB). A good oil palm FFB consists of all matured fruitlets, aged between 18 to 21 weeks of antheses (WAA). To expedite the harvesting process, it is crucial to implement an automated detection system for determining the maturity of the oil palm FFB. Various automated detection methods have been proposed by researchers in the field to replace the conventional method. In our preliminary study, a novel oil palm fruit sensor to detect the maturity of oil palm fruit bunch was proposed. The design of the proposed air coil sensor based on the inductive sensor was further investigated mainly in the context of the effect of coil diameter to improve its sensitivity. In this paper, the sensitivity of the inductive sensor was further examined with a dual flat-type shape of air coil. The dual air coils were tested on fifteen samples of fruitlet from two categories, namely ripe and unripe. Samples were tested within 20 Hz to 10 MHz while evaluations on both peaks were done separately before the gap between peaks was analyzed. A comparative analysis was conducted to investigate the improvement in sensitivity of the induction-based oil palm fruit sensor as compared to previous works. Results from the comparative study proved that the inductive sensor using a dual flat-type shape air coil has improved by up to 167%. This provides an indication in the improvement in the coil sensitivity of the palm oil fruit sensor based on the induction concept.

  20. Emissão de etileno e de CO2 em mamão 'Sunrise Solo' e 'Golden' Emission of ethilene and CO2 in 'Sunrise Solo' and 'Golden' papaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos José de Oliveira Fonseca

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Frutos de mamoeiro 'Sunrise Solo' e 'Golden' foram armazenados a 10º C e a 25º C e monitorados diariamente quanto às emissões de CO2 e de C2H4, observando-se a evolução do índice de cor de casca. A não-alteração do índice de cor de casca, ao longo dos 20 dias de conservação a 10º C, refletiu a influência da refrigeração na retenção do metabolismo dos mamões. Houve dois incrementos da respiração e da emissão de etileno, no quarto dia e entre o oitavo e o nono dia, nos frutos armazenados a 25º C. A temperatura de 10º C deteve a respiração climatérica do mamão e a emissão de etileno, comprovando que o seu metabolismo se reduz, permitindo que os frutos apresentem aspecto imaturo após 20 dias de armazenamento.Papaya fruits of Sunrise Solo and Golden cultivars were stored at 10ºC and 25ºC. They were daily evaluated on C2H4 and CO2 production rates, by observing the peel color index increasing. The non increasing of the peel color index, during the 20 days of stored, was influenced by the appropriate refrigeration temperature whose inhibit papayas metabolism. It was noticed in the fourth and between the eighth and ninth day an increasing on respiration and ethylene rates, in the fruits stored at 25ºC. The refrigeration decreased the respiration rate and papayas ethylene production, showing a metabolism reduction allowing fruits to present unripe appearance, even after 20 days of storage.

  1. Preinduction cervical ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiery, M

    1983-01-01

    This work reviews the evolution of cervical ripening procedures and discusses the most effective current techniques. Current knowledge of the process of spontaneous ripening of the cervix is briefly assessed, but the review concentrates on methodological aspects and the clinical results of preinduction cervical ripening. The historical development of mechanical and pharmacologic ripening procedures is examined, including enzymes, oxytocin, relaxin, corticosteriods, estrogens administered parenterally or locally, and prostaglandins (PGs) administered intravenously, orally, locally, and intravaginally. 3 effective procedures for preinduction cervical ripening are identified and described in greater detail: the catheter technique and local and vaginal administration of PGs. The extraamniotic catheter technique is simple, effective, and safe and is recommended for patients with not totally unripe cervixes and for whom PGs are unavailable or contraindicated. Single-dose extraamniotic instillation of PGE2 in Tylose gel was found to be highly effective for priming the unfavorable cervix before conventional labor induction. In some patients the procedure induces labor. The technique is easy to use, well accepted by the woman, and safe when applied appropriately to carefully selected patients. PGF2alpha gel has been less thoroughly studied. Electronic monitoring at the ripening stage is recommended for patients at risk, and even in low-risk cases much larger series will require study before conclusions can be reached about safety. Injection of PG gel into the cervical canal is less invasive than extraamniotic instillation, but no definite conclusions about its safety are possible due to small series and dissimilar clinical protocols. Pericervical administration of PGE2 and PGF2 alpha and intracervical and intraamniotic tablets of PGE2 are briefly assessed. Adoption of the intravaginal route has been a major step in the development of ripening techniques. 3 types of media

  2. Snakebites and ethnobotany in the northwest region of Colombia. Part III: neutralization of the haemorrhagic effect of Bothrops atrox venom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otero, R; Núñez, V; Barona, J; Fonnegra, R; Jiménez, S L; Osorio, R G; Saldarriaga, M; Díaz, A

    2000-11-01

    Thirty-one of 75 extracts of plants used by traditional healers for snakebites, had moderate or high neutralizing ability against the haemorrhagic effect of Bothrops atrox venom from Antioquia and Chocó, north-western Colombia. After preincubation of several doses of every extract (7.8-4000 microg/mouse) with six minimum haemorrhagic doses (10 microg) of venom, 12 of them demonstrated 100% neutralizing capacity when the mixture was i.d. injected into mice (18-20 g). These were the stem barks of Brownea rosademonte (Caesalpiniaceae) and Tabebuia rosea (Bignoniaceae); the whole plants of Pleopeltis percussa (Polypodiaceae), Trichomanes elegans (Hymenophyllaceae) and Senna dariensis (Caesalpiniaceae); rhizomes of Heliconia curtispatha (Heliconiaceae); leaves and branches of Bixa orellana (Bixaceae), Philodendron tripartitum (Araceae), Struthanthus orbicularis (Loranthaceae) and Gonzalagunia panamensis (Rubiaceae); the ripe fruits of Citrus limon (Rutaceae); leaves, branches and stem of Ficus nymphaeifolia (Moraceae). Extracts of another 19 species showed moderate neutralization (21-72%) at doses up to 4 mg/mouse, e.g. the whole plants of Aristolochia grandiflora (Aristolochiaceae), Columnea kalbreyeriana (Gesneriaceae), Sida acuta (Malvaceae), Selaginella articulata (Selaginellaceae) and Pseudoelephantopus spicatus (Asteraceae); rhizomes of Renealmia alpinia (Zingiberaceae); the stem of Strychnos xinguensis (Loganiaceae); leaves, branches and stems of Hyptis capitata (Lamiaceae), Ipomoea cairica (Convolvulaceae), Neurolaena lobata (Asteraceae), Ocimum micranthum (Lamiaceae), Piper pulchrum (Piperaceae), Siparuna thecaphora (Monimiaceae), Castilla elastica (Moraceae) and Allamanda cathartica (Apocynaceae); the macerated ripe fruits of Capsicum frutescens (Solanaceae); the unripe fruits of Crescentia cujete (Bignoniaceae); leaves and branches of Piper arboreum (Piperaceae) and Passiflora quadrangularis (Passifloraceae). When the extracts were independently administered

  3. Distribution of major sugars, acids, and total phenols in juice of five grapevine (Vitis spp.) cultivars at different stages of berry development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabir, A.; Kafkas, E.; Tangolar, S.

    2010-07-01

    The juices of five grapevine cultivars cultivated in a typical Mediterranean climate were analyzed for sugars, organic acids, and phenols at four distinct stages of berry development. When the unripe berries were almost in full size, the glucose and fructose contents, based on HPLC detection, ranged from 13.3 to 30.7 g L{sup -}1 and from 8.3 to 23.7 g L{sup -}1 for Muscat of Alexandria and Muscat of Hamburg, respectively. At this stage, tartaric acid concentration was between 10.3 (Italia) and 12.3 g L{sup -}1 (Muscat of Alexandria), while the level of total phenols was low. Up to veraison, there were slight reductions in organic acids, while sugar content increased slightly. However, dramatic changes in all genotypes were apparent after veraison. Slight reductions were determined in the glucose and fructose levels of Italia prior to final analysis, possibly indicating this cultivars sensitivity to late harvest. In the final analysis, glucose and fructose content varied from 86.4 (Italia) to 107.0 g L-1 (Muscat of Hamburg), and from 73.1 (Italia) to 94.1 g L{sup -}1 (Alphonse Lavallee), respectively. Tartaric acid content of ripe berries was between 3.8 (Alphonse Lavallee) and 5.2 g L{sup -}1 (Isabella) with a mean value of 4.6 g L{sup -}1, and phenol content of mature berries ranged from 2253 to 2847 mg L{sup -}1. This study provides valuable information for further understanding the sugar, acid and total phenol changes that occur in some grape cultivars during berry maturation. Therefore, these results will be useful for future research on the biochemistry of the grape berry. (Author) 22 refs.

  4. 小儿胃肠道植物粪石%Phytobezoars in Infants and Children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董毓珍; 张金哲; 罗明

    1991-01-01

    93 children with phytobezoars in Beijing Children's Hospital in the past 33 years were reported.77 cases of them were studied.26 of them were gastric bezoars and 51 intestinal bezoars All of them were boys of 7 years or younger,most of them were admittded in late Autumn.All the gastric bezoar patients had a history of eating a lot of unriped Chinese black date(persimmon group).All patients had anorexia,epigastric pain and vomiting.A big movable cake-like mass can always be palpable in tue epigastrum.However patient's general condition remained good.Only one case with gastric bleeding and peritoneal irritation was treated by surgical removal,all the rest were cured by external manual breaking and oral traditional herbs.Intestinal bezoars usually present as a subaeute or chronic intestinal obstruction characterized by abdominal pain,distension,vomiting and a later intoxication and dehydrvtion.42 of 51 cares with oomplete obstruction underwent laparotomy.Among them,bezoars were treated by extra-intestinal breaking and milking downward into the colonin 32.by open-bowel removal in 9.Resection was Performed in a case of the Meckel's diverticulum and intestinal bezoar.For the others,8 cares of incomplete intestinal obstruction were cured with oral liquid paraffin and traditional herbs.Only one case was cured by extra-abdominaI breaking under epidural anesthesia without surgery.The average hospitalization was 6.1 days.There was no death no recurrance except one complicated by wound infection.%本文对77例小儿胃肠道植物粪石的临床症状、诊断、治疗等进行了回顾性分析,并对今后如何早期诊断及预防本病提出了意见.

  5. Fruit flies (Diptera, Tephritidae and their parasitoids on cultivated and wild hosts in the Cerrado-Pantanal ecotone in Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago Ledesma Taira

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Fruit flies (Diptera, Tephritidae and their parasitoids on cultivated and wild hosts in the Cerrado-Pantanal ecotone in Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. Information on frugivorous flies in cultivated or wild host plants and their parasitoids in the Cerrado-Pantanal ecotone in Aquidauana, Mato Grosso do Sul is presented and discussed. Fruit fly samples were collected weekly in specific fruit trees, and McPhail® traps were installed in the same trees for a period of two years. The fruit flies infested ripe and unripe fruits of Averrhoa carambola L., Schoepfia sp., Psidium guajava L. and Pouteria torta (Mart. Radlk and mature fruits of Anacardium occidentale L. and Inga laurina (Sw. Willd. Nineteen fruit fly species were obtained with the combination of sampling methods (collecting fruits and trapping, nine of them obtained with both methods, five found only in fruits and five only in traps. This is the first record of Anastrepha striata Schiner in a species of Sapotaceae, as well as for A. castanea Norrbom and A. daciformes Bezzi in Schoepfia sp. (Olacaceae, and for A. distincta Greene in fruits of P. guajava in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul. Fruit collections simultaneously associated with capture of fruit flies by McPhail traps in the same host plants are essential to understand the diversity of fruit flies and their relationship with hosts and parasitoids. Species of Braconidae and Pteromalidae were recovered, where Doryctobracon areolatus (Szépligeti was the most abundant parasitoid in larvae of tephritids infesting both cultivated and wild host fruits.

  6. Seed size selection by olive baboons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunz, Britta Kerstin; Linsenmair, Karl Eduard

    2008-10-01

    Seed size is an important plant fitness trait that can influence several steps between fruiting and the establishment of a plant's offspring. Seed size varies considerably within many plant species, yet the relevance of the trait for intra-specific fruit choice by primates has received little attention. Primates may select certain seed sizes within a species for a number of reasons, e.g. to decrease indigestible seed load or increase pulp intake per fruit. Olive baboons (Papio anubis, Cercopithecidae) are known to select seed size in unripe and mature pods of Parkia biglobosa (Mimosaceae) differentially, so that pods with small seeds, and an intermediate seed number, contribute most to dispersal by baboons. We tested whether olive baboons likewise select for smaller ripe seeds within each of nine additional fruit species whose fruit pulp baboons commonly consume, and for larger seeds in one species in which baboons feed on the seeds. Species differed in fruit type and seed number per fruit. For five of these species, baboons dispersed seeds that were significantly smaller than seeds extracted manually from randomly collected fresh fruits. In contrast, for three species, baboons swallowed seeds that were significantly longer and/or wider than seeds from fresh fruits. In two species, sizes of ingested seeds and seeds from fresh fruits did not differ significantly. Baboons frequently spat out seeds of Drypetes floribunda (Euphorbiaceae) but not those of other plant species having seeds of equal size. Oral processing of D. floribunda seeds depended on seed size: seeds that were spat out were significantly larger and swallowed seeds smaller, than seeds from randomly collected fresh fruits. We argue that seed size selection in baboons is influenced, among other traits, by the amount of pulp rewarded per fruit relative to seed load, which is likely to vary with fruit and seed shape.

  7. Utilità e costo/efficacia del dinoprostone in ostetricia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Eandi

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Pregnancy-related hypertension, intrauterine growth retardation, post-maturity and unfavorable local conditions are among the most frequent indications for labor induction. There are two competing strategies for the induction of labor in term pregnancies: formal induction with artificial rupture of the membranes and/or intravenous oxytocin on one side, and cervical ripening and induction with exogenous prostaglandins on the other. The use of prostaglandins in obstetrics relies on two pharmacological properties: the capacity of inducing the biochemical changes in the connective tissue of the cervix that lead to its maturation and the stimulation of the uterine smooth musculature. While the latter property is shared with oxytocin, the former offers great clinical advantages, in particular in those women that present an indication for labor induction but whose cervix, normally assessed with the use of the Bishop score, does not show “ripeness”, i.e. does not permit vaginal delivery. Since the acquisition cost of the prostaglandins is quite high, but the clinical benefit appears evident, several studies have analyzed the overall economical impact of their use, both as pre-induction cervical ripening agents and as induction drugs. When compared to a strategy of expectant management in term pregnancies without cervical ripeness, exogenous prostaglandin administration has proven to be more cost-effective and better accepted by the patients. Prostaglandins have also proven to be more cost-effective than oxytocin and/or amniotomy in women with an indication to labor induction and unripe cervix, due to the reduced number of induction failures and cesarean sections required with this strategy. The economical analyses that have compared oxytocin and prostaglandins in women with ripe cervices deliver more ambiguous data, but it appears that their cost-effectiveness is comparable. Furthermore, none of the reviewed studies has considered intangible costs

  8. Seasonal Effects on the Population, Morphology and Reproductive Behavior of Narnia femorata (Hemiptera: Coreidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren A. Cirino

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Many insects are influenced by the phenology of their host plants. In North Central Florida, Narnia femorata (Hemiptera: Coreidae spends its entire life cycle living and feeding on Opuntia mesacantha ssp. lata. This cactus begins producing flower buds in April that lead to unripe green fruit in June that ripen into red fruit through December. Many morphological and behavioral characteristics of N. femorata are known to be affected by cactus phenology in a controlled laboratory setting, including the degree of sexual dimorphism and mating behavior. Our goal with this study was to determine if similar phenotypic changes of N. femorata occurred over time in the wild, and the extent to which these changes were concordant with phenological changes in its host plant. Further, we investigate the length of the insect mouthparts (beak over time. Ongoing work has suggested that beak length may change across cohorts of developing insects in response to feeding deep within cactus fruit where seed and pulp depth decrease as the fruit ripens. Our results revealed a drop in cactus fruit abundance between the months of July through October 2015 as cactus fruits turned red and ripened. Simultaneously, the average body size of both males and females of N. femorata declined at two sampled sites. Male hind femora (a sexually-selected weapon decreased disproportionately in size over time so that males later in the year had relatively smaller hind femora for their body size. The sex-specific patterns of morphological change led to increased sexual-size dimorphism and decreased sexual dimorphism for hind femora later in the year. Further, we found that beak length decreased across cohorts of insects as cactus fruit ripened, suggesting phenotypic plasticity in mouthpart length. Behavioral studies revealed that female readiness to mate increased as the season progressed. In sum, we found pronounced changes in the phenotypes of these insects in the field. Although this

  9. The effect of vaginal Misoprostol and intravenous Oxytocin for labor induction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasrin Jalilian

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Unripe cervix is one of the most causes of failure of labor induction. There are different methods for labor induction, which may differ depending on its duration. This study was performed to compare the effectiveness of vaginal Misoprostol intravenous and Oxytocin for induction of labor on hospitalized patients.Methods: In a randomized clinical trail 110 pregnant women with Bishop score<6 requiring induction of labor were divided into two groups. The first group (n=50 received 25 g vaginal Misoprostol and dosage was repeated every 4 hours until reach to either onset of the active labor or the final dose of 100 g. Second group (n=60 received intravenous Oxytocin started from 2.66 mu/min and up to the maximum dose of 42.5 mu/min or until the onset of the active labor. Inductions to delivery time interval, maternal and neonatal outcomes were recorded. Statistical analysis was performed using the U Mann-Whitney and Chi Squared tests.Results: After matching mother age, gestational age, Bishop score, gravidity and parity, sample size decreases to 48 cases in Misoprostol group and 54 cases in Oxytocin group. There was no significant difference in the mean time from induction to delivery between Misoprostol and Oxytocin groups (10.16+3.66 vs. 8.86+3.65 and P=0.121. The rate of cesarean was 18.8% and 25.9% in Misoprostal and Oxytocin groups, respectively (P=0.387. This study showed that the maternal and neonatal outcomes of induction were not significantly different in two groups.Conclusion: It seems that vaginal Misoprostol could be administrated for the induction of labor.

  10. Characterization of Brazilian mango kernel fat before and after gamma irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aquino, Fabiana da Silva; Ramos, Clecio Souza, E-mail: fasiaquino@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: clecio@dcm.ufrpe.br [Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco (UFRPE), Recife, PE (Brazil); Aquino, Katia Aparecida da Silva, E-mail: aquino@ufpe.br [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Mangifera indica Linn (family of Anacardiaceae) is a tree indigenous to India, whose both unripe and ripe fruits (mangoes) are widely used by the local population. After consumption or industrial processing of the fruits, considerable amounts of mango seeds are discarded as waste. The kernel inside the seed represents from 45% to 75% of the seed and about 20% of the whole fruit and lipid composition of mango seed kernels has attracted the attention of researches because of their unique physical and chemical characteristics. Our study showed that fat of the mango kernel obtained by Soxhlet extraction with hexane had a solid consistency at environmental temperature (27 deg C) because it is rich in saturated acid. The fat contents of the seed of Mangifera indica was calculated to 10% and are comparable to the ones for commercial vegetable oils like soybean (11-25%). One problem found in the storage of fast and oils is the attack by microorganisms and the sterilization process becomes necessary. Samples of kernel fat were irradiated with gamma radiation ({sup 60}Co) at room temperature and air atmosphere at 5 and 10 kGy (sterilization doses). The data of GC-MS analysis revealed the presence of four major fatty acids in the sample of mango kernel examined and that the chemical profile of the sample not altered after being irradiated. Moreover, analysis of Proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR H{sup 1}) was used to obtain the mango kernel fat parameters before and after gamma irradiation. The data interpretation of RMN H{sup 1} indicated that there are significant differences in the acidity and saponification indexes of fat. However, it was found an increase of 14% in iodine index of fat after irradiation. This result means that some double bonds were formed on the irradiation process of the fat. (author)

  11. Indigenous anti-ulcer activity of Musa sapientum on peptic ulcer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Prabha

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Peptic ulcer disease (PUD, encompassing gastric and duodenal ulcers is the most prevalent gastrointestinal disorder. The pathophysiology of PUD involves an imbalance between offensive factors like acid, pepsin and defensive factors like nitric oxide and growth factors. The clinical evaluation of antiulcer drugs showed tolerance, incidence of relapses and side-effects that make their efficacy arguable. An indigenous drug like Musa sapientum possessing fewer side-effects is the major thrust area of present day research, aiming at a better and safer approach for the management of PUD. Material and Methods: The unripe plantain bananas (Musa sapientum were shade-dried, powdered and used for phytochemical analysis and as antiulcer drug. In our present study Group I rats served as control and were treated with saline, Group II was indomethacin-induced ulcerated rats, Group III received aqueous extract of Musa sapientum along with indomethacin and Group IV received esomeprazole along with indomethacin for 21 days. The anti-ulcerogenic activity was investigated by performing hematological, mucosal, antioxidant profile in comparison with the standard drug esomeprazole. Results: Our findings from High - Performance Thin Layer Chromatography (HPTLC analysis showed that Musa sapientum has an active compound a monomeric flavonoid (leucocyanidin with anti-ulcerogenic activity. Results were expressed as mean ± SD. All our results are in congruous with the results of standard drug esomeprazole. Conclusion: It could be clearly concluded that administration of the aqueous extract of Musa sapientum at the dose used in this study tends to ameliorate ulcers. Its use in indigenous medicine should be scientifically scrutinized with further research.

  12. Ocorrência dos principais defeitos do café em várias fases de maturação dos frutos Occurrence of the main coffee beans deffects in several stages of ripening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Carvalho

    1970-01-01

    samples were monthly collected during the year 1967 and 1968. The so-called abnormal dried fruits have a dull black exocarp, whereas the normal ones have bright black colored shells. The total production of three plants was harvested every month, separated according to the different ripening stages, and then, after drying, were shelled and the proportion of defective beans was scored. The data showed that the so-called green coated beans appear in significant proportions in all stages studied. The highest percentage of these was found in the unriped fruits and in the abnormal dried fruits. Its occurrence decreases as the fruits become more and more mature. The lowest percentage was found in the samples of dried fruits which had fallen on the ground. The green color is produced by the silver skin which retains the green pigment, probably chrolophyll. The brown beans appear more frequently in the fallen fruits and they also occur in a decreasing proportion in the normal and abnormal dried berries and from unriped to over-riped fruits. This type have been considered to be caused by over-fermentation, however our results indicate that it may have other causes, due to their appearance even in the unriped fruits. The high percentage of brown beans in the fruits dried on the tree indicates that the berries must be harvested in the cherry stage to have a high quality product. The black beans, characterized exclusively by the black endosperm, were more frequently found in the berries dried on the tree or in the dried fruits fallen on the ground. It seems reasonable to assume that the black beans represent a more advanced stage of deterioration of the endosperm. The initial stages would, probably, be characterized by the different shades of brown. Based on these findings it is proposed a revision on the defective beans nomenclature in Brazil. Considering the Brazilian system of coffee classification it was suggested that for the nomenclature of the defective beans more emphasis

  13. Situação e perspectivas da fruticultura de clima temperado no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Carlos Fachinello

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available A fruticultura está presente em todos os estados brasileiros e, como atividade econômica, envolve mais de cinco milhões de pessoas que trabalham de forma direta e indireta no setor. O Brasil é o terceiro maior produtor mundial de frutas, com colheita em torno de 40 milhões de toneladas ao ano, mas participa com apenas 2% do comércio global do setor, o que demonstra o forte consumo interno (ANUÁRIO BRASILEIRO DE FRUTICULTURA, 2010. A área plantada com plantas frutíferas no Brasil está distribuída em 1.034.708 ha com frutas tropicais, 928.552 ha com frutas subtropicais e 151.732 ha com espécies de clima temperado. Dentre as frutas de clima temperado, destaca-se a produção de uvas de mesa e viníferas (81.355 ha; maçãs (38.205 ha; pêssegos, ameixas e nectarinas (19.043 ha; caqui (8.638 ha; morango, amora, framboesa, mirtilo (3.560 ha; figo (2.886 ha; pera (1.394 ha e marmelo (211 ha. Mesmo com uma área inferior em relação às espécies de clima tropical e subtropical, as frutas de clima temperado têm uma importância socioeconômica destacada em diversas regiões do Brasil, principalmente nos Estados do Rio Grande do Sul, Santa Catarina, Paraná, São Paulo, Minas Gerais e o Vale do São Francisco, seja como cultivo in natura, agroindústria e/ou agroturismo. Para que ocorra a produção de frutas de qualidade nas regiões de clima temperado no Brasil, é necessário o desenvolvimento de programas de melhoramento genético e/ou estudos de manejo e controles sobre a fisiologia das plantas para adaptá-las às condições de inverno ameno e com oscilação de temperaturas, muito frequentes nas principais regiões produtoras brasileiras. Os verões longos e excesso de precipitação ocasionam muitas doenças e pragas, obrigando muitas vezes ao excesso de tratamentos fitossanitários. O manejo dos pomares com a produção integrada de frutas está possibilitando a produção de qualidade e, ao mesmo tempo, reduzindo o impacto

  14. NEOLOGISMOS LEXICAIS E ASPECTOS LÚDICOS EM OBRAS LITERÁRIAS CONTEMPORÂNEAS PARA CRIANÇAS E JOVENS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solange Maria Moreira

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO: O principal propósito do estudo aqui apresentado é o de demonstrar a função lúdica do neologismo especificamente em três produções literárias brasileiras contemporâneas para crianças e jovens: Marcelo, Marmelo, martelo e outras histórias, de Ruth Rocha (1999; Clave de lua, de Leo Cunha (2001 e Pequenininha, de Mirna Pinsk (1998. As breves reflexões tiveram como propósito atiçar a curiosidade de leitores e professores para uma das particularidades da língua – a criação neológica – e oferecer mais uma possibilidade de leitura dos textos de ficção na sala de aula. Por outro lado, buscaram ainda comprovar que tais inovações contribuem fortemente para a ampliação vocabular de leitores iniciantes, tanto na linguagem falada quanto na linguagem escrita, além de demonstrar como o trânsito dos novos itens lexicais nelas encontrados reforça uma das principais contribuições dos neologismos para a literatura: dar dinamismo ao texto por seu caráter lúdico e bem humorado. Assim, foi possível realçar um dos elementos básicos da poética contemporânea – a renovação lexical – que se realiza na tessitura textual por meio da valorização dos recursos oferecidos pela língua e, a partir dela, sugerir uma nova possibilidade de trânsito dos estudos linguísticos e da literatura na escola. PALAVRAS-CHAVE: neologismo – literatura - ludismo ABSTRACT: The main purpose of this study is to demonstrate the role of playful neologism specifically in three Brazilian contemporary literary productions for children and young people: Marcelo, quince, hammer and other stories by Ruth Richards (1999, Clave de moon, Leo Cunha (2001 and Pequenininha of Mirna Pinsk (1998. The brief comments were aimed at stirring up the curiosity of readers and teachers of a particular language - the creation neologism - and offer another possibility of reading fiction in the classroom. On the other hand, has sought to show that these innovations

  15. Teste de porta-enxertos intergenéricos para marmeleiros em condições de viveiro Tests of intergeneric rootstocks for quinces in nursery conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Pio

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Os marmeleiros sempre foram propagados comercialmente mediante o enraizamento de estacas. Devido ao baixo vigor das mudas, principalmente nos primeiros anos após o plantio, alguns trabalhos foram desenvolvidos no Brasil a fim de viabilizar a utilização do marmeleiro 'Japonês' (Chaenomeles sinensis Koehne como porta-enxerto para marmelos. Os resultados foram satisfatórios, mas frente à falta de outras opções de porta-enxertos mais vigorosos para marmeleiros e devido a observações em viveiro e a campo do alto vigor dos porta-enxertos para pereira 'Taiwan Nashi-C' (Pyrus calleryana Decne e 'Taiwan Mamenashi' (Pyrus betulifolia Bunge, objetivou-se, neste trabalho, verificar o crescimento de cultivares de marmeleiros ('Provence', 'Mendoza Inta-37', 'Portugal', 'Smyrna' e 'Japonês' enxertados sobre esses porta-enxertos, na fase de viveiro. Os marmeleiros foram enxertados pelo método de garfagem em mudas dos porta-enxertos 'Japonês', 'Taiwan Nashi-C' e 'Taiwan Mamenashi', mantidas em sacos plásticos (capacidade de 3 L de substrato, no período hibernal. Foram utilizados garfos com três gemas, coletadas de plantas-matrizes do Instituto Agronômico (IAC. O experimento foi realizado em viveiro telado (50% de luminosidade, sendo avaliados o comprimento e diâmetro do enxerto aos 60, 90, 120 e 150 dias após a realização da enxertia e a porcentagem de garfos brotados na última avaliação. Os porta-enxertos orientais de pereira apresentaram bons resultados na fase de viveiro, com 'Taiwan Nashi-C' destacando-se como porta-enxerto para os marmeleiros 'Smyrna' e 'Mendoza Inta-37', 'Taiwan Mamenashi' para o marmeleiro 'Smyrna' e 'Japonês' para o mesmo.The quince tree has always been commercially propagated by cuttings. Due to the low vigor, mainly in the first years of the orchard, a series of works was developed in Brazil in order to enable the use of the Japanese quince tree (Chaenomeles sinensis Koehne as a rootstock. The results were

  16. Digital and dynamical emergency response plan system for accidental air pollution and its application%突发性大气污染事件数字化动态应急预案系统及其应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张欣; 王体健; 蒋自强; 王勤耕; 杜婷婷

    2012-01-01

    针对近些年频繁发生的突发性大气污染事件,构建了数字化动态应急预案系统.该系统由基础信息数据库、气象环境模式与健康风险评估系统、数字化动态应急预案三部分组成,并利用地理信息系统将三者有机结合,将事故基本信息、事故发展预测及救援状况直观、动态地展现在系统界面,使应急行动得以及时、高效地展开.实地外场综合应急演习证明,该系统技术路线稳定畅通,运行高效,功能强大,具有较好的可行性和实效性.%With regard to frequent accidental air pollution in recent years, a risk assessment and digital real-time dynamic emergency response plan system is designed. The system contains three components: a basic information database, a meteorological model and a health risk assessment system as well as a digital real-time dynamic e-mergency response plan. The basic information database includes geographic information of industrial parks, distribution of risk sources, emergency monitoring methods of hazardous pollutants, disposal methods of hazardous pollutants and equipments, personnel health protection measures and emergency rescue agencies information etc. Meteorological model and health risk assessment system is made up of the Air Pollution Model (TAPM), the Areal Locations of Hazardous Atmospheres (ALOHA) and SLAB-AEGLs health risk assessment system. The system not only predicts the meteorological fields and the distribution of hazardous pollutants, but also the health risk fields. Tnis system is able to forecast the development of accidental air pollution. The digital real-time dynamic emergency response plan is the core of the system in guiding the whole rescue operation. A geographical information system (GIS) is applied in the system. The G1S map shows geographic information of the environment around the site of the accident and the predicted regions of influence. A new classification of accident damage degree is also

  17. Marker based standardization of polyherbal formulation (SJT-DI-02 by high performance thin layer chromatography method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhakti J Ladva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Preparation of highly standardized herbal products with respect to chemical composition and biological activity is considered to be a valuable approach in this field. SJT-DI-02 polyherbal formulation was successfully developed at our institute and filed for patent at Mumbai patent office. Objective: The present work was marker based standardization of patented, novel and efficacious polyherbal formulation namely SJT-DI-02 for the treatment of diabetes. The SJT-DI-02 was comprised of dried extracts of rhizomes of Acorus calamus, leaves of Aegle marmelose, fruits of Benincasa hispida, roots of Chlorophytum arendinaceum, seeds of Eugenia jambolana, leaves of Ocimum sanctum, pericarp of Punica granatum, seeds of Tamarindus indica. Selected plants were collected, dried and extracted with suitable solvents. The formulation was prepared by mixing different fractions of extracts. Materials and Methods: For successful and best standardization, first of all selection and procurement was carried out. Selection is done on the basis of therapeutic efficacy and amount of the marker present in the particular plant part. At the time of procurement side by side phytochemical screening and estimation of phytoconstituents was carried out. After completion of preliminary screening using characterized markers, we tried to develop best TLC systems using selected solvent composition. Finally well-developed TLC systems were applied in HPTLC. In the present study polyherbal formulation was standardized by using different four markers. TLC Densitometric methods were developed using HPTLC for the quantification of these marker compounds. Solvent systems were optimized to achieve best resolution of the marker compounds from other components of the sample extract. The identity of the bands in the sample extracts were confirmed by comparing the Rf and the absorption spectra by overlaying their UV absorption spectra with those of their respective standards. The

  18. Effects of pigeon pea and plantain starches on the compressional, mechanical, and disintegration properties of paracetamol tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dare, Kunle; Akin-Ajani, Dorothy O; Odeku, Oluwatoyin A; Itiola, Oludele A; Odusote, Omotunde M

    2006-03-01

    A study has been made of the effects of pigeon pea starch obtained from the plant Cajanus cajan (L) Millisp. (family Fabaceae) and plantain starch obtained from the unripe fruit of Musa paradisiaca L. (family Musaceae) on the compressional, mechanical, and disintegration properties of paracetamol tablets in comparison with official corn starch BP. Analysis of compressional properties was done by using density measurements, and the Heckel and Kawakita equations, whereas the mechanical properties of the tablets were evaluated by using tensile strength (T--a measure of bond strength) and brittle fracture index (BFI--a measure of lamination tendency). The ranking for the mean yield pressure, P(y), for the formulations containing the different starches was generally corn plantain starch while the ranking for P(k), an inverse measure of the amount of plasticity, was pigeon pea plantain starch, which indicated that formulations containing corn starch generally exhibited the fastest onset of plastic deformation, whereas those formulations containing pigeon pea starch exhibited the highest amount of plastic deformation during tableting. The tensile strength of the tablets increased with increase in concentration of the starches while the Brittle Fracture Index decreased. The ranking for T was pigeon pea > plantain > corn starch while the ranking for BFI was corn > plantain > pigeon pea starch. The bonding capacity of the formulations was in general agreement with the tensile strength results. The disintegration time (DT) of the formulation increased with concentration of plantain and corn starches but decreased with concentration of pigeon pea starch. The general ranking of DT values was plantain starch. Notably, formulations containing pigeon pea starch exhibited the highest bond strength and lowest brittleness, suggesting the usefulness of pigeon pea starch in producing strong tablets with minimal lamination tendency. Plantain starch, on the other hand, would be more

  19. Actividade antimicrobiana do óleo essencial do Foeniculum vulgare Miller Antimicrobial activity of Foeniculum vulgare Miller essential oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. T. Tinoco

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available O Foeniculum vulgare Mill. subsp. vulgare é uma planta espontânea da região mediterrânea, pertencente à família Apiaceae. O seu óleo essencial, principalmente o dos frutos secos, é amplamente utilizado nas indústrias alimentar, farmacêutica, cosmética e perfumaria. Neste trabalho, pretendeu-se avaliar a actividade antimicrobiana do óleo essencial dos frutos verdes e das folhas da variedade de funcho doce colhido no Alentejo, na região de Évora, e relacionar essa actividade com a respectiva composição química. A extracção dos óleos essenciais foi efectuada por hidrodestilação e a sua análise foi feita por GC-FID e GC-MS. No óleo das folhas foram identificados como componentes maioritários os fenilpropanóides anetol, fenchona e estragol e o monoterpeno a-felandreno, enquanto que o óleo dos frutos apresentou como constituintes predominantes anetol e fenchona. A actividade antimicrobiana dos óleos foi avaliada face às estirpes Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Saccharomyces spp., Fusarium oxysporum e Penicillium sp.. Os óleos essenciais apresentaram actividade antimicrobiana contra S. aureus, Saccharomyces spp. e Fusarium oxysporum.Foeniculum vulgare Mill. ssp. vulgare is a spontaneous plant of Mediterranean region that belongs to the Apiaceae family. Its essential oil is used as additives in food, pharmaceutical, cosmetic and perfume industries mainly that one obtained from dried seeds. The main goal of this work were to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of essential oils obtained from fresh leaves and unripe seeds of sweet fennel, collected in Évora-Alentejo, in face of their chemical composition. The extraction of the essentials oils was made by hydrodistillation. Chemical analyses were carried out by GC-FID and GCMS. Phenylpropanoides anethole, fenchone, estragole and the monoterpene aphellandrene were the most abundant compounds of leaves essential oil. Seeds essential oil showed as main components

  20. Factors involved in the inflammatory events of cervical ripening in humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Hong

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cervical ripening is an inflammatory reaction. The glucocorticoid receptor (GR mediates glucocorticoid anti-inflammatory reactions, whereas nuclear factor (NFkappaB is a key pro-inflammatory transcription factor. Prostaglandins as well as platelet activating factor (PAF are inflammatory mediators. Inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS regulates the level of nitric oxide (NO in response to various inflammatory stimuli. We hypothesize that a changed biological response to glucocorticoids could be a mechanism regulating the inflammatory events resulting in cervical ripening. Methods We monitored GR and NFkappaB, prostaglandin synthases cyclooxygenase (COX-1 and -2, iNOS, as well as the PAF-receptor (PAF-R in the uterine cervix from term pregnant women (with unripe cervices before the onset of labor (TP, immediately after parturition (PP, as compared to non-pregnant (NP, using immunohistochemistry and RT-PCR. Results The GR protein was detected by immunohistochemistry in the nuclei of stroma and squamous epithelium (SQ. Stromal GR staining was increased in TP as compared to the NP group and decreased again after parturition. GR staining in SQ was decreased after parturition as compared to term. NFkappaB was present in SQ and glandular epithelium (GE, stroma and vascular endothelium. Increased nuclear NFkappaB staining was observed postpartum as compared to term pregnancy in stroma and GE. Stromal immunostaining for COX-1 as well as COX-2 was increased in the TP and PP groups as compared to the NP, and GE displayed an intensely increased COX-2 immunostaining at term and postpartum. Stromal PAF-R immunostaining was highest at term, while it was greatly increased in GE postpartum. No difference in the immunostaining for iNOS was found between the groups. RT-PCR showed a predominance of GRalpha to GRbeta mRNA in cervical tissue. The COX-2 mRNA level was increased in the PP group as compared to the TP group. Conclusions There is a

  1. Comparison on Quality of Raphanus sativus cv.Weixian luobo in Different Habitats%不同来源潍县萝卜品质性状比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵光强; 刘慧莲; 刘春香

    2011-01-01

    [目的]为萝卜的品质育种和人们科学膳食提供参考依据.[方法]以来源于6个不同产地的潍县萝卜为试材,测定不同萝卜肉质根中干物质、可溶性糖及Vc含量,比较不同来源萝卜品种的品质性状.[结果]潍坊学院改良的潍县萝卜干物质含量最低,为64.5g/kg,适合生食;潍坊学院改良的潍县萝卜品种含糖量和Vc含量均最高,分别为31.2 g/kg(FW)和340 mg/kg(FW).从综合品质来看,潍坊学院改良的潍县萝卜营养成分最高,干物质、可溶性糖及Vc含量3项指标均排在首位.[结论]潍县萝卜品质性状的改良仍有待加强.%[ Objective] The aim was to provide reference for the quality breeding of radish and scientific diet of people. [ Methods] Taking Raphanus sativus cv. Weixian luobo in 6 habitats as text materials, the concents of dry matter, total soluble sugar and Vitamin C were mensu-rated to compare the quality properties of radish from different habitats. [Result] The concent of dry matter in Raphanus sativus cv. Weixian luobo improved by Weifang University was lowest, namely 31.2 g/kg, thus can be used as unripe food; and the contents of total soluble sugar and Vitamin C were highest, namely 31.2 g/kg( FW) and 340 mg/kg( FW) , respectively. From comprehensive qualities, the nutritional composition of Raphanus sativus cv. Weixian luobo improved by Weifang University were highest, and the above three indicators were all excellent. [Conclusion] The quality of Raphanus sativus cv. Weixian luobo needs to be further improved.

  2. The postharvest of mill olives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yousfi, Khaled

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The greatest deterioration of olive oil is due to poor handling of the olives during the time between harvesting and processing. Storage of olive fruits is carried out by simple heaping in fruit piles, waiting their processing. These fruits develop all kinds of degenerative processes in a short period of time. Oils obtained from them show characteristics hydrolytic and oxidative deteriorations confirmed by their high acidity values, peroxide value or ultraviolet absorbance at 232 and 270 nm. To avoid this situation, the industry is currently reducing the interval between harvesting and processing, through an increase in milling capacity. However, the equipment necessary for preventing the accumulation of fruit in January would be unnecessary for the rest of the season. In this chapter, refrigeration of the olive fruits, or the use of physical treatments, to allow the processing of unripe fruits, are analysed as possible alternatives.El mayor deterioro del aceite de oliva es debido a la inadecuada manipulación de las aceitunas durante el tiempo que media entre su cosecha y su procesado. El almacenamiento de las aceitunas se lleva acabo mediante el simple amontonamiento del fruto, esperando su procesamiento. Estos frutos desarrollan toda clase de procesos degenerativos en un corto periodo de tiempo. Los aceites obtenidos a partir de estos frutos exhiben deterioros hidrolíticos y oxidativos característicos, confirmados por sus valores altos de acidez, de índice de peróxidos o de absorbancia en la región ultravioleta a 232 y 270 nm. Para evitar esta situación, la industria intenta reducir al máximo el intervalo entre la cosecha y el procesado del fruto, mediante un aumento de la capacidad de molturación. Sin embargo, el equipo necesario para prevenir la acumulación de fruto en Enero no se precisa para el resto de la campaña. En este capítulo, la refrigeración de las aceitunas o el uso de tratamientos físicos, que permiten el procesado

  3. The use of natural product-papaya pulp powder as a disinte-grant in tablet formulation and their invitro evaluation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dilip Chandrasekhar; Saraswathy R; Krishnan.N.V

    2009-01-01

    Objective:An attempt was made to study the use of papaya pulp powder as a disintegrant in tablet formula-tions.The objective of the present work is to identify a natural binding and disintegrating agent for formulating tablets and to study the effect of disintegrating agents and binding agents on the dissolution of the formulation containing paracetamol.Methods:Papaya pulp powder is obtained from unripe papaya fruit.The fruit was screened for its physical and chemical characteristics and used in tablet formulations.In order to find out the percentage that could be used to formulate a product containing good disintegrating and dissolution characteris-tics,several formulations (Paracetamol)with different concentrations of 8%,10%,12%,15%,20%,25% &30% were prepared.As a comparison,an already established disintegrant,sodium starchgylcolate was select-ed and several formulations containing similar concentrations,were also prepared.The invitro evaluation of the formulations were undertaken,and the results compared.In the present study preformulation studies on the pu-rity,development of calibration curve of the drug and the compatibility between the drug and excepients were carried out.The fruits were cut into small pieces,grated,dried and powdered,passed through different sieves and made into fine powder.Fine powder of papaya was mixed with required amount of drug and sodium starch-gylcolate individually in different concentrations along with other additives &binding agents.The dried gran-ules were compressed into tablets and all the formulated dosage forms of paracetamol tablets were subjected to quality control tests like hardness disintegration and dissolution.Results:From the results it was observed that formulations S1 and P7 containing 8% of sodium starchgylcolate and 30% of papaya pulp powder showed good disintegration and dissolution characteristics.Conclusion:Since the tablet formulation P7 containing 30% of papaya pulp powder shows good disintegration and

  4. Dihydroflavonol 4-reductase genes encode enzymes with contrasting substrate specificity and show divergent gene expression profiles in Fragaria species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvija Miosic

    Full Text Available During fruit ripening, strawberries show distinct changes in the flavonoid classes that accumulate, switching from the formation of flavan 3-ols and flavonols in unripe fruits to the accumulation of anthocyanins in the ripe fruits. In the common garden strawberry (Fragaria×ananassa this is accompanied by a distinct switch in the pattern of hydroxylation demonstrated by the almost exclusive accumulation of pelargonidin based pigments. In Fragaria vesca the proportion of anthocyanins showing one (pelargonidin and two (cyanidin hydroxyl groups within the B-ring is almost equal. We isolated two dihydroflavonol 4-reductase (DFR cDNA clones from strawberry fruits, which show 82% sequence similarity. The encoded enzymes revealed a high variability in substrate specificity. One enzyme variant did not accept DHK (with one hydroxyl group present in the B-ring, whereas the other strongly preferred DHK as a substrate. This appears to be an uncharacterized DFR variant with novel substrate specificity. Both DFRs were expressed in the receptacle and the achenes of both Fragaria species and the DFR2 expression profile showed a pronounced dependence on fruit development, whereas DFR1 expression remained relatively stable. There were, however, significant differences in their relative rates of expression. The DFR1/DFR2 expression ratio was much higher in the Fragaria×ananassa and enzyme preparations from F.×ananassa receptacles showed higher capability to convert DHK than preparations from F. vesca. Anthocyanin concentrations in the F.×ananassa cultivar were more than twofold higher and the cyanidin:pelargonidin ratio was only 0.05 compared to 0.51 in the F. vesca cultivar. The differences in the fruit colour of the two Fragaria species can be explained by the higher expression of DFR1 in F.×ananassa as compared to F. vesca, a higher enzyme efficiency (Kcat/Km values of DFR1 combined with the loss of F3'H activity late in fruit development of F.×ananassa.

  5. Novo processo de avaliação da adstringência dos frutos no melhoramento do caquizeiro New analytic process for persimmon astringency determination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Antonio Campo-Dall'orto

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Nos trabalhos de melhoramento do caqui no Instituto Agronômico, é fato comum defrontar-se com grande número de frutos para serem analisados, de diferentes amostras colhidas no estádio de maturação comercial (de vez. Todas as amostras têm que passar por prova gustativa, ao lado de análises dos parâmetros de qualidade, como as do °Brix e do pH, eis que envolvem diferentes tipos de caqui - desde os fortemente adstringentes (taninosos até os praticamente desprovidos de tanino (doces. Nesse particular, pode-se aquilatar a dificuldade para o melhorista realizar tais testes, pois um grupo de caquis taninosos mascara o paladar de duas ou três amostras subseqüentes. Daí a necessidade de desenvolver um processo de análise indireta, a exemplo do presente, que consiste no tratamento da polpa dos frutos com a solução de cloreto férrico. A reação de coloração "achocolatada", em diferentes tonalidades, indica o grau de tanino que encerra, permitindo efetuar a tipificação preliminar dos caquis, sem a necessidade de degustação.In IAC persimmon breeding program there is usually the need of analyzing hundreds of fruit samples coming from different hybrid plants, aiming at the selection of the best genetic materials. Fruits are usually harvested unripe and classified as to the astringency level in tasting tests: constant "shibugaki", variable "shibugaki"/ "amagaki" and absence of astringency "amagaki". As misleading results have been obtained in tasting tests, an indirect procedure has been proposed to evaluate tannin levels in persimmon flesh. It is based on a color scale (dark blue/dark gray - astringent type; brown - variable astringency, and light gray-absence of astringency, detected after the application of 0.1 N iron chloride solution on persimmon flesh. The new method has shown good precision, allowing determination of a great number of samples in a short period of time.

  6. Low molecular weight procyanidins from grape seeds enhance the impact of 5-Fluorouracil chemotherapy on Caco-2 human colon cancer cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ker Y Cheah

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Grape seed procyanidins (PC are flavan-3-ol oligomers and polymers known for their biological activity in the gut. Grape seed extract (GSE have been reported to reduce intestinal injury in a rat model of mucositis. We sought to investigate effects of purified PC fractions differing in mean degree of polymerization (mDP combined with 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU chemotherapy on the viability of colon cancer cells (Caco-2. DESIGN: SixPC fractions (F1-F6 were isolated from Cabernet Sauvignon seeds at two ripeness stages: pre-veraison unripe (immature and ripe (mature, utilizing step gradient, low-pressure chromatography on a Sephadex LH-20 resin. Fractions were tested on Caco-2 cells, alone and in combination with 5-FU. Eluted fractions were characterized by phloroglucinolysis and gel permeation chromatography. Cell viability was determined by the 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2yl-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT assay. RESULTS: All isolated fractions significantly reduced Caco-2 cell viability compared to the control (P<0.05, but F2 and F3 (mDP 2-6 were the most active fractions (immature F2 = 32% mDP 2.4, F3 = 35% mDP 5.8 and mature F2 = 13% mDP 3.6 and F3 = 17% mDP 5.9; percentage of viable cells remaining on Caco-2 cells. When combined with 5-FU, immature fractions F1-F3 enhanced the cell toxicity effects of 5-FU by 27-73% (P<0.05. Mature seed PC fractions (F1-F4 significantly enhanced the toxicity of 5-FU by 60-83% against Caco-2 cells (P<0.05. Moreover, some fractions alone were more potent at decreasing viability in Caco-2 cells (P<0.05; immature fractions = 65-68% and mature fractions = 83-87% compared to 5-FU alone (37%. CONCLUSIONS: PCs of mDP 2-6 (immature F1-F3 and mature F1 and F4not only enhanced the impact of 5-FU in killing Caco-2 cells, but also surpassed standard 5-FU chemotherapy as an anti-cancer agent.The bioactivity of PC is therefore attributed primarily to lower molecular weight PCs.

  7. A New CMS Sweet Pepper F1 Hybird —‘Longjiao No.11'%甜椒CMS三系配套新品种龙椒11号的选育

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张慧; 徐健; 刘录祥; 林宝祥; 陈立新; 谢立波; 郭亚华

    2011-01-01

    Using pepper CMS generation of three-line hybrid breeding method and crossing sweet pepper, France progeny isolated from sterile parental source as a transfer, after 8 generations' selection a stable sterile line Z4-2A, maintainer line 02-5B, and restorer line 02-7C were crossed to breed a new variety ' Longjiao No.l 1'. It is of mid and early maturity and takes 110 days to grow. The plant has strong growth vigor. The plant is about 60 cm in height. The first flower node sets on 9-10 node. Its fruit is of oblong shape with smooth surface. Its vertical and horizontal diameter is 10-12 cm and 8-9 cm, respectively. Its flesh thickness is 0.55 cm. The single fruit weight is over 125 g. The unripe fruit is green in color. The VC content is 1 058 mg ? Kg . Its resistance to phytophthora capsici and CMV. It can yield about 49.5 t ? Hm~2. It is suitable for planting in protected and open fields all over China.%龙椒1 1号是利用甜椒胞质雄性不育三系配套育成的甜椒一代杂种,以法国甜椒自交后代分离出的不育源作为转育亲本,经过8代轮回选择得到稳定不育系Z4-2A、保持系02-5B,与恢复系02-7C杂交育成.中早熟,生育期110 d(天)左右,植株生长势强,株高60 cm左右,始花节位第9~10节,连续坐果能力强,果实长方形,果面光滑,纵径10 ~ 12 cm,横径8~9cm,肉厚0.55 cm,单果质量125 g以上.嫩果绿色,成熟果红色,VC含量1 058 mg kg-1,抗疫病、CMV.一般产量3 300 kg·(667 m2)-1左右,适于全国各地棚室栽培和露地秋延后栽培.

  8. Biodiversity in vegetable crops, a heritage to save: the case of Puglia region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Elia

    2013-03-01

    for which there is a strong link with the Puglia traditions and which are described in this review are: carota di Polignano (Polignano carrot and carota di sant’Ippazio (Saint Ippazio carrot (Apiaceae, cipolla di Acquaviva delle Fonti (Acquaviva delle Fonti onion and cipolla bianca di Margherita (Margherita white onion (Liliaceae, cima di rapa (broccoli raab (Brassicaceae, unripe melon - carosello, barattiere, meloncella, etc. (Cucurbitaceae, catalogna chicory - cicoria di Molfetta e cicoria di Galatina (Molfetta’s chicory and Galatina’s chicory (Asteraceae.

  9. Misoprostol sublingual versus vaginal para indução do parto a termo Sublingual versus vaginal misoprostol for labor induction of term pregnancies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olímpio Barbosa de Moraes Filho

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: comparar efetividade e segurança de uso de comprimido sublingual de 25 µg de misoprostol com o comprimido vaginal de 25 µg do misoprostol na indução do parto com idade gestacional e > 37 semanas e colo uterino desfavorável. MÉTODOS: realizou-se ensaio clínico controlado e aleatorizado, não cego, na Maternidade Monteiro de Morais (CISAM-UPE, em Recife, no período de outubro de 2003 a fevereiro de 2004. Participaram do estudo 123 gestantes com idade gestacional e > 37 semanas, índice de Bishop PURPOSE: to compare the effectiveness and safety of sublingual misoprostol (25 µg versus vaginal misoprostol (25 µg (Prostokos® for labor induction with gestational age > 37 weeks and unripe cervices. METHODS: a randomized controlled clinical trial was performed at the Maternidade Monteiro de Morais (CISAM-UPE, in Recife - PE, Brazil, from October 2003 to February 2004. One hundred and twenty-three women with gestational age > 37 weeks, Bishop score <8, not in labor and with medical indication for interruption of pregnancy were included in this study. The women received randomly 25 µg sublingual misoprostol or 25 µg vaginal misoprostol every 6 h, not exceeding eight doses. In order to evaluate the differences between the groups, means, standard deviations, Student's t-test, c² trend and Mann-Whitney test were used. The statistical significance was considered to be 5%. RESULTS: there were no significant differences between the number of women with vaginal delivery in the sublingual group as compared with the vaginal group (65.5 vs 75.8%, p<0.22, or in the interval of time between the induction onset and delivery (24 h and 42 min vs 20 h and 37 min respectively, p=0.11. The two groups, sublingual and vaginal, also did not differ as to the hyperstimulation syndrome (1.7 vs 3.2%, p=0.95, meconium incidence (5.2 vs 4.8%, p=0.74, Apgar score <7 at 5 min (3.4 vs 4.8%, p=0.98 and other adverse effects. CONCLUSION: twenty-five micrograms of

  10. Misoprostol for cervical ripening: a clinical trial in 60 pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khazardoost S

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available "n 800x600 Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";} Background: Cervical ripening usually begins prior to the labor when there is an unripe cervix. Complications will increase significantly when the cervix is not ripped. Misoprostol is a pharmacologic agent available for cervical ripening and labor induction. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy and safety of administration of a single dose of 25 mg vaginal Misoprostol (A with 100 mg Misoprostol (B for cervical ripening."n"nMethods: Sixty subjects with pregnancies of at least 40 gestation weeks, and an unfavorable cervix (Bishop Score <6 were randomly assigned to receive one dose oral misoprostol 100 mg or 25 mg vaginal misoprostol. The main dependent variables were mode of delivery, time interval from induction to cervical ripening, need for additional oxytocin, perinatal results and maternal side effects. "n"nResults: The mean time from the indication of induction to cervical ripening was the same in the two groups (3.63 h in oral group and 3.9 h in vaginal group. Two groups did not differ statistically in the percent of patients who were delivered vaginally or with cesarean section during 24 hours (20% in group A versus 10% in group B."n"nConclusion: Based on the results of our study, Misoprostol is an effective drug for the cervical ripening and labor induction in the term pregnancies. 25 mg vaginal tablet of Misoprostol is as effective as 100 mg oral misoprostol for cervical ripening.

  11. Mamey sapote seed oil (Pouteria sapota. Potential, composition, fractionation and thermal behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solís-Fuentes, J. A.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition of the waste from mamey sapote (Pouteria sapota and its oil extracted from the seed (MSSO of ripe and unripe fruits, was studied. The MSSO from ripe fruits was dry-fractionated, and the thermal and phase behaviors of its fractions and their mixtures with other known natural fats were analyzed. The main components of the mamey peel and the seed were crude fiber (81.32% and fat (44.41% db, respectively. The seed oil contained oleic, stearic, palmitic and linoleic as its main fatty acids. The MSSO showed a simple thermal behavior with a broad fusion range and four maximum temperature peaks. The solid fractions showed maximum melting peaks at higher temperatures than the residual liquid. The MSSO solid fractions showed a potential for use as constituents in mixtures with other natural fats, such as cocoa butter or mango seed fat.Se estudió la composición de los residuos del zapote mamey (Pouteria sapota y del aceite extraído de la semilla (ASZM de frutos maduros e inmaduros. El ASZM de frutos maduros fue fraccionado en seco y se analizó la conducta térmica y de fase de las fracciones y mezclas de éstas con otras grasas naturales conocidas. Los principales componentes de la cáscara y de la semilla fueron fibra cruda (81.32% bs y grasa (44.41% bs, respectivamente. Los principales ácidos grasos del ASZM fueron: oleico, esteárico, palmítico y linoleico y mostró una conducta térmica simple con un intervalo de fusión amplio y cuatro máximos de temperatura. Las fracciones sólidas obtenidas presentaron máximos de fusión a temperaturas más altas que la fracción líquida residual. Las fracciones sólidas del ASZM mostraron potencialidad para usarse como constituyente en mezclas con la manteca de cacao y la grasa de la semilla de mango.

  12. Mechanism simulation analysis and prototype experiment ofLycium barbarum harvest by vibration mode%振动式枸杞采摘机理仿真分析与样机试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张最; 肖宏儒; 丁文芹; 梅松

    2015-01-01

    L. barbarum has been a tough problem. Its harvesting has been artificial, which brings about low picking efficiency and high harvesting costs. With the continuous expansion ofL. barbarum acreage, fruit picker has been increasingly scarce, which will be followed by rising picking costs. It’s no doubt that the picking has become the bottleneck restricting the development of L. barbarum industry. Aiming at realizing the harvesting mechanization ofL. barbarum and establishing the theoretical guidance and design basis for theL. barbarum picking machine, the vibration picking mechanism ofL. barbarum plant’s fruiting branches in picking was studied, the parameter optimization and simulation analysis was done to determine exciting force vector and rotational speed of driving wheel, and an experiment was conducted to prove the obtained rotational speed of driving wheel in this paper. First, we analyzed the working principle of the picking machine to get the vibration picking mechanism. The fruiting branches’ model was simplified and theL. barbarum plant’s fruiting branches’ physical model and mathematical model were got, which were solved by equation solutions. We then obtained the forced vibration response of the fruiting branch and the forced vibration picking inertia force exerted on ripe and unripe fruits and flowers on each node. Second, 10L. barbarum trees were selected as the test samples. We measured the binding force and mechanical parameters of theL. barbarum and fruiting branches, such as the number of ripe and unripe fruits and flowers, diameter, length, elastic modulus, damping ratio of fruiting branches, and node number. Based on the principle of successful picking which is the ripe can be picked and the other parts wouldn’t be picked, the parameters were optimized, and the inertia force changes of the fruits and flowers with rotational speed were simulated with the MATLAB software. Simulation results showed the reasonable rotational speed was 2 868.84-2 871

  13. Soybean oligosaccharides: Potential as new ingredients in functional food Oligosacáridos de la soja: Su potencial como ingredientes nuevos de los alimentos funcionales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Espinosa-Martos

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available The effects of maturity degree and culture type on oligosaccharide content were studied in soybean seed, a rich source of non-digestible galactooligosaccharides (GOS. Therefore, two commercial cultivars of yellow soybeans (ripe seeds and two of green soybeans (unripe seeds were chosen. One yellow and one green soybean seed were from intensive culture, while one yellow and one green soybean seed were biologically grown. Low molecular weight carbohydrates (LMWC in soybean seeds were extracted with 85% ethanol and determined spectrophotometrically and by high performance liquid chromatography. LWC in soybean seeds were mainly: stachyose, raffinose and sucrose. Oligosaccharide content was not affected significantly, either by biological or intensive culture technique. On the contrary, significant differences in GOS content were found depending on ripeness degree of soybean seeds. Ripe yellow soybean seeds showed a higher oligosaccharide content (1.84-1.95%, than unripe green seeds (1.43-1.61%. Other LMWC content was also affected by ripeness degree, thus making that the relative percentage of GOS was higher in immature (47-53% than in matured soybean seeds (21-34%. Moreover, in order to purify soybean GOS, biologically grown yellow soybean seeds with a higher GOS content were selected and a previously reported method was followed. Although the GOS containing fraction was enriched, the yield obtained was low and an effective purification was not achieved. According to these results, yellow soybean seeds seem to be a good source of GOS but, in order to improve their purification, simple methods must be further developed and evaluated.En este trabajo se estudia cómo afecta el grado de madurez y el tipo de cultivo al contenido de oligosacáridos en la semilla de soja, que es una fuente rica en galactooligosacáridos (GOS no digeribles. Para ello se eligieron dos variedades comerciales de habas de soja amarilla (semillas maduras y dos de soja verde

  14. Cobertura da pulverização e maturação de frutos do cafeeiro com ethephon em diferentes condições operacionais Spraying coverage and maturation uniformity with ethephon in coffee tree fruit under different operational conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Scudeler

    2004-01-01

    scale used for different fluorescence levels emitted by the tracer solution have enable spraying distribution evaluation. Quantitative evaluation of tracer deposition and ethephon efficacy were carried out through spectrophotometry and relative percentage of unripe and ripe fruits, respectively. A higher deposition in lower canopy was obtained using Arbus 400 air carrier sprayer equipped with HC-02 and JA-2 hollow-cone nozzles. Better spraying distribution was observed in fruits at lower canopy and frontally toward spraying. The highest percentage was obtained using HC-02 nozzle Arbus 400 equipment under lower work pressure, although it was not enough to reduce ripe fruit to less than 20% following 59 days from ethephon application.

  15. Conduta obstétrica no óbito fetal Obstetrical management of fetal death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia M A de Aquino

    1998-04-01

    pregnancies history and delivery (induction, route, complications. The statistical procedures used were estimation of mean and standard deviation and chi². The main causes of fetal death were hypertension and infections. The mostly used drug for labor induction was misoprostol (37.7% followed by oxytocin (19.7%, while 27% of cases had spontaneous onset of labor. The mean time of induction was 3 hours. The majority of women had vaginal delivery and cesarean section was performed in 9.1% of them. It is concluded that labor induction for fetal death is safe and efficient, irrespective of the method used. Misoprostol when used in the vagina is specially useful for cases with an unripe cervix because of the modifying effect of the drug on the cervix.

  16. Changes in Contents of Soluble Sugar during Fruit Ripening of Jackfruit%菠萝蜜果实成熟过程中可溶性糖含量的变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段小强; 刘鑫泉; 刘胜辉; 李映志; 叶春海

    2016-01-01

    Objective] The aim was to analyze soluble sugar accumulation mechanism during fruit ripening of jackfruit, and provide theoreti-cal basis for cultivation and breeding of jackfruit. [Method] Using 4 genotypes of jackfruit (12E, 148-4, 12As, 12Cs) as materials, contents of total soluble sugar were determined by anthrone colorimetry method and contents of fructose, glucose and sucrose were determined by HPLC. [Result] During fruit ripening of jackfruit, contents of soluble sugar increased constantly, and the percentages of sucrose to total solu-ble sugar contents were 43. 47% -76. 81%;an extremely significant positive correlation between changes in contents of glucose and fructose and between changes in contents of sucrose and total soluble sugar contents were observed;the ratios of fructose to glucose content were low in unripe fruits, with the highest value among fruits investigated being 0. 689 9, while the ratios in fully ripe fruits were close to 1. 000 0. [Con-clusion] During fruit ripening of jackfruit, total soluble sugar contents, mainly consisted of sucrose, increased constantly and contents of fruc-tose and glucose were similar in fully ripe fruits.%[目的]分析菠萝蜜果实成熟过程中的可溶性糖分积累机制,为菠萝蜜栽培和育种提供理论依据。[方法]以4个不同基因型的菠萝蜜种质(12E、148-4、12As、12Cs)为材料,采用蒽酮比色法测定菠萝蜜果实中可溶性总糖含量,采用高效液相色谱法( HPLC)测定果糖、葡萄糖及蔗糖含量。[结果]菠萝蜜果实成熟过程中,可溶性糖含量不断增加,其中蔗糖占可溶性总糖含量的比例为43.47%~76.81%;果糖含量与葡萄糖含量之间以及蔗糖含量与可溶性总糖含量之间存在极显著正相关关系;未成熟果实中,果肉果糖含量与葡萄糖含量的比值较低,最高仅为0.6899,当果实完全成熟后,比值接近1.0000。[结论]菠萝蜜果实成熟过程中,可溶性糖逐渐积累,可溶性糖以蔗

  17. A STUDY OF PAPAYA EXTRACT IN THE TREATMENT OF LOW PLATELET COUNT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakuntala Putrevu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Thrombocytopenia is defined as platelet count less than one and half lakh per mm cube of blood. Thrombocytopenia has been documented in patients with infectious mononucleosis, cytomegalovirus, and varicella zoster infections. Hepatitis C, tuberculosis and human immunodeficiency virus also have been reported in the causes list. Thrombocytopenia is a well-known complication of chronic lymphocytic leukaemia, although it may not be encountered as easily as seen in autoimmune haemolytic anaemias in these patients. It has also been reported in patients with other lymphoproliferative disorders including Hodgkin’s disease. Thrombocytopenia in patients with a variety of solid tumours has also been thought to most likely be immune mediated. Thrombocytopenia may accompany Graves’ disease and Hashimoto’s thyroiditis, but it is not certain that it is immunologically mediated or not. In our country, Dengue and malaria remain the predominant cause for Thrombocytopenia. Chymopapain and papain are the two important compound that are present in papaya. Lipase, a hydrolase, which is tightly bonded to the waterinsoluble fraction of crude papain is also seen in papaya. The papaya seeds and fruits have excellent antibiotic properties. The consumption of unripe and semi-ripe papaya fruits could be dangerous during pregnancy as it contains papain which may cause natural uterine contraction and may lead to abortions. It is reported that the plant extracts of papaya have maximum activity against dengue virus. It also has been reported that the methyl gallate of plant origin interacts with herpes simplex virus and causes its destruction. Majority of the papaya plant parts is known to have antimicrobial property. This study puts in a sincere effort to check the effects of papaya extract in the treatment of low platelet count. This study is intended to help the practising physicians to understand the benefits of the use of papaya extract when using in the

  18. The biology of Colletotrichum acutatum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diéguez-Uribeondo, Javier

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Colletotrichum acutatum is major pathogen of fruit crops, causing economically important losses of temperate, subtropical and tropical fruits worldwide. However, few studies have been carried out on key aspects of its biology. This is mainly because traditionally isolates of C. acutatum were often wrongly identified as C. gloeosporioides. Effective separation of the two species was not possible until the introduction of molecular tools for taxonomy. The life cycle of C. acutatum comprises a sexual and an asexual stage and much remains to be resolved regarding the genetics of sexuality and the effects of the sexual stage on population structure. Colletotrichum acutatum exhibits both infection strategies described for Colletotrichum species, i.e. intracellular hemibiotrophy and subcuticular-intramural necrotrophy, and may also undergo a period of quiescence in order to overcome resistance mechanisms in immature fruit such as pre-formed toxic compounds and phytoalexins, or due to the unsuitability of unripe fruit to fulfill the nutritional and energy requirements of the pathogen. Colletotrichum acutatum may overwinter as mycelium and/or appressoria in or on different parts of the host. Conidia are water-born and spread by rain episodes so infections are usually highest during the wettest periods of the growing season. Current management strategies for this fungus comprise the exploitation of cultivar resistance, cultural, chemical, and biological control methods, and preventive strategies such as disease-forecasting models. This review focuses on the current knowledge of biological aspects of C. acutatum and related Colletotrichum species and includes a discussion of the progress towards their control.Colletotrichum acutatum es uno de los principales hongos patógenos en agricultura y responsable de importantes pérdidas económicas en frutales en áreas tanto de climas templados como subtropicales y tropicales. Sin embargo, existen pocos estudios

  19. Inibição do amadurecimento da banana-'Prata-Anã' com a aplicação do 1-metilciclopropeno Inhibition of the ripening of banana 'Prata-Anã' by 1-methylcyclopropene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NEIDE BOTREL

    2002-04-01

    Janaúba, north of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The fruits were harvest at the maturation stage 1, which corresponds to the unripe and classified as "extra" selected and separated in parcels of 10 fruits each one. It was used 3 replications for each planned treatment. The 1-Methylcyclopropene (1-MCP were used at four concentrations: 0 (reference, 10, 30 and 90 ppb. The 1-MCP used is a powder containing 0,14% of the active ingredient. The fruits were stored at room temperature (24ºC and 78.5% RH and analyzed at 0, 4, 8 and 12 days after the application of the product. The following characteristics were evaluated: development of the color, separation of the bananas from the bunch, firmness, soluble solids content, titratable acidity and pH. By adding 30 ppb and 90ppb the ripening was delayed for 4 and 8 days, respectively. This technique comes as an alternative to improve the shelf life of the fruits of this cultivar.

  20. Exploring the Effect of Phyllanthus emblica L. on Cognitive Performance, Brain Antioxidant Markers and Acetylcholinesterase Activity in Rats: Promising Natural Gift for the Mitigation of Alzheimer's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uddin, Md. Sahab; Mamun, Abdullah Al; Hossain, Md. Sarwar; Akter, Farjana; Iqbal, Mohammed Ashraful; Asaduzzaman, Md.

    2016-01-01

    Neurodegenerative diseases are incurable and debilitating conditions that result in the progressive degeneration of nerve cells, which affect the cognitive activity. Currently, as a result of multiple studies linking Alzheimer's disease (AD) to oxidative damage, the uses of natural antioxidant to prevent, delay, or enhance the pathological changes underlying the progression of AD has received considerable attention. Therefore, this study was aimed at examining the effect of ethanolic extracts of Phyllanthus emblica (EEPE) ripe (EEPEr) and EEPE unripe (EEPEu) fruits on cognitive functions, brain antioxidant enzymes, and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity in rat. The effects of EEPEr and EEPEu fruits (i.e., 100 and 200 mg/kg b.w.) were examined in Swiss albino male rats for 12 days and its effect on cognitive functions, brain antioxidant enzymes, and AChE activity determined. Learning and memory enhancing activity of EEPE fruit was examined by using passive avoidance test and rewarded alternation test. Antioxidant potentiality was evaluated by measuring the activity of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), glutathione reductase, reduced glutathione (GSH), glutathione-S-transferase, and the contents of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) in entire brain tissue homogenates. AChE activity was determined using colorimetric method. Administration of the highest dose (i.e., 200 mg/kg b.w.) of EEPEr fruit significantly (p < 0.01) and both lowest and highest doses (i.e., 100 and 200 mg/kg b.w.) of EEPEu fruit markedly (p < 0.05, p < 0.001) increased step-through latency in rats on 6th, 11th, and 12th day with respect to the control group. For aforementioned doses, the percentage of memory retention (MR) was considerably (p < 0.05, p < 0.01) increased in rats on 10th, 11th, and 12th days with respect to the control group. The extract, particularly highest dose (i.e., 200 mg/kg b.w.) of EEPEr

  1. Nutritional Value of Raisin by- Product and its Effect on Late Flower Alfalfa Hay Fermentation Profile and Nutrient Availability in Ruminants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojtaba Yari

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Using agro-industrial by-products in ruminants feeding could help in semi arid climate condition throughout the year. Raisin by-product is produced in huge magnitude in Malayer city, Hamedan province. Local different raisin by-products which produced during machinery cleaning and sorting of sun dried treated grapevine cluster (Vitisvinifera L. cv. Sultana, are as:1 some outer layer of flesh and skin and pedicle of berries; 2 rejected raisins mostly un-ripped berries with their pedicles and 3 peduncles and rachises with their lateral branches of clusters. They may have suitable nutritive value in ruminants. However, their nutrient profile and availability and anti nutrient factors such as lignin and tannin should be considered. Alfalfa hay is usually the important forage used in dairy cow’s diet. However, it has lower fiber digestibility and higher ruminal crude protein degradability. Increasing alfalfa hay fiber digestibility and decreasing ruminal crude protein degradability can help its feeding value. Raisin by-product may help to achieve those in the case of alfalfa hay. The objective of this study was to evaluate the nutritional value of raisin by-product in ruminant feeding compared with late flower alfalfa hay and consideration of its effect on in vitro fermentation of alfalfa hay. Material and methods Based on completely randomized block design, two original samples (two blocks for each of alfalfa hay and raisin by-product from local availabilities were collected. In first experiment, chemical and phenolic (total phenol and tannin composition analysis was measured by two replicates for each block according to AOAC methods. In second experiment, in situ ruminal degradation kinetics of alfalfa hay and raisin by-product was measured using two fistulated Mehraban rams. For ruminal incubation times of 0, 3, 6, 16, 36, and 72 h respectively 2, 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 filled nylon bags used which randomly assigned in animals. In situ

  2. COMPORTAMIENTO DEL FRUTO DE AGRAZ (Vaccinium meridionale Swartz COSECHADO EN DIFERENTES ESTADOS DE MADUREZ Y ALMACENADO EN REFRIGERACIÓN BEHAVIOR OF AGRAZ FRUIT (Vaccinium meridionale Swartz HARVESTED IN DIFFERENT MATURITY STAGES AND STORED UNDER REFRIGERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Cecilia Rincón Soledad

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Resumen. El agraz o mortiño es un frutal promisorio, considerado como un alimento funcional por su contenido de antocianinas, antioxidantes y vitaminas; no obstante, es un fruto altamente perecedero que pierde rápidamente su calidad comercial y nutricional. El objetivo fue evaluar el comportamiento de frutos de agraz cosechados en tres estados de madurez y almacenados en condiciones de refrigeración. Se utilizó un diseño completamente al azar con arreglo factorial 3x3, donde el primer factor fue la temperatura de almacenamiento: 1, 8 y 20 °C; el segundo factor correspondió al estado de madurez: 3, 4 y 5, el cual se estableció de acuerdo al color de la epidermis del fruto. Se realizaron mediciones de calidad del fruto. Los resultados indicaron que los frutos almacenados a 8 °C en estado de madurez 3 y 4 conservaron las características de calidad comercial hasta los 45 días y para el estado 5 sólo hasta los 25 días. Mientras que a temperatura ambiente los frutos conservaron su vida útil hasta los 21 días en los diferente estados de madurez evaluados. Los frutos del estado 3 y almacenados a 1 °C tuvieron mayor firmeza y acidez total titulable, un alto contenido de sólidos solubles totales y la menor relación de madurez. Para mantener la calidad del fruto de agraz por largo tiempo, se recomienda refrigerar los frutos, en el estado 3 de madurez, a 1 °C.Abstract. The Ericaceae agraz or mortiño is a promising fruit, is considered as a functional food for its high content of anthocyanins, antioxidants and vitamins. It is a highly perishable fruit that quickly loses its commercial and nutritional quality. The objective was to evaluate the behavior of unripe fruits harvested at three maturity stages and stored under refrigeration. It was used a completely randomized design with 3x3 factorial arrangement, where the first factor was the storage temperature: 1, 8 and 20 °C; the second factor corresponded to maturity: 3, 4 and 5, which

  3. Estudo comparativo entre misoprostol e placebo para o amadurecimento cervical e indução do parto A randomized trial of misoprostol and placebo for cervical ripening and induction of labor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Murad Macedo

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: avaliar a eficácia e segurança da aplicação intravaginal de misoprostol para amadurecimento cervical e indução do parto em gravidez a termo quando comparado com placebo.Pacientes e Métodos: cinqüenta e uma mulheres com gestação de alto risco, a termo, e cérvix imatura foram alocadas em estudo duplo cego para aplicação de misoprostol intravaginal (40 mg de 4/4 h ou placebo intravaginal (4/4 h. Resultados: entre as 51 pacientes estudadas, 32 receberam misoprostol e 19 receberam placebo. Os grupos foram homogêneos quanto à idade materna, idade gestacional, paridade e indicação para indução (p > 0,05. No grupo Misoprostol observamos 87,5% de eficácia e no grupo placebo 21,1% de eficácia (p=0,0000087. Em relação à via de parto, no grupo Misoprostol 75% dos partos foram vaginais e 25% cesáreos, Já no grupo placebo, apenas 32% foram partos vaginais e 68% cesáreos (p = 0,0059. O Apgar neonatal foi semelhante em ambos grupos. Conclusão: misoprostol se apresentou extremamente eficaz e seguro no amadurecimento cervical e indução do parto, surgindo como nova opção em obstetrícia em gestações de alto risco, a termo, com cérvix imatura e com necessidade de resolução do parto a curto prazo.Objective: to determine the efficacy and safety of misoprostol for cervical ripening and induction of labor in pregnant women at term when compared with placebo. Patients and Methods: fifty-one high-risk pregnant women at term, with unripe cervix, were allocated in a double-blind trial for treatment with intravaginal misoprostol (40 mg, 4/4 h or intravaginal placebo. Results: thirty-two patients received misoprostol and 19 received placebo. The groups were homogeneous concerning maternal age, gestacional age, parity, and indication for induction (p > 0.05. In the misoprostol group the efficacy was 87.5% and in the placebo group 21.1% (p = 0.0000087. Regarding delivery, in the misoprostol group 75% had vaginal delivery and 25

  4. EFFECTS OF Sulfite oxidase GENE OVEREXPRESSION ON IMPROVEMENT OF OXIDATION OF SULFITE IN TRANSGENIC TOMATO%超表达亚硫酸氧化酶基因对促进番茄果实亚硫酸盐氧化的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴自明; 韩瑞才; 陈慧珍; 谭雪明; 石庆华; 潘晓华

    2011-01-01

    本研究以亚硫酸氧化酶基因(SO)超表达系(OE)、干扰系(Ri)及野生型(WT)的绿熟番茄果实为材料,经SO2熏蒸后,12℃低温贮藏,研究亚硫酸氧化酶基因的超表达,对番茄贮藏期间相对电导率、亚硫酸盐含量、番茄红素含量及成熟度的变化。结果表明,经SO2熏蒸后,Ri果实较WT果实表现为相对电导率增加,亚硫酸盐残留较多,番茄红素含量增加较慢,红熟加快,接种病菌后的第4天果实组织溃烂,菌丝生长明显,组织病斑较大;相反,OE果实较WT果实表现为相对电导率下降,亚硫酸盐残留较少,番茄红素明显增加,红熟延迟,接种病菌后第4天的果实无明显病斑,软化腐烂较小。亚硫酸氧化酶基因超表达,能够有效减少SO2熏蒸后贮藏番茄中亚硫酸盐的残留。%The sulfite oxidase gene(SO) overexpressed(OE),RNA interferred(Ri) and wild type tomato were used as materials.The mature green unripe tomato fruits were fumigated with SO2,then stored at 12℃.The effects of sulfite oxidase overexpression on the relative electrical conductivity,sulfite content,lyconpene and maturity diffrence in transgenic tomato were studied.The results showed that electrical conductivity and sulfite residual of Ri fruits increased,lycopene content decreased,fruit color change accelerated.Tissue rotting and fungal growth of Ri fruit appeared 4d after B.cinerea inoculation,and surrounding pericarp tissue developed.In contrast,the relative electrical conductivity and sulfite residual of OE fruits decreased,lycopene level remained normal,fruit color change delayed.The growth of fungus in OE fruits was limited to the puncture sites and soft rot symptoms did not develop after B.cinerea inoculation for 4d.The study showed that sulfite oxidase gene overexpression in fruit could decrease sulfite residual,and improve the quality and storage properties of the tomato with SO2 fumigation.

  5. Caracterização e qualidade de frutos de umbu-cajá (Spondias tuberosa X S. mombin provenientes do Recôncavo Sul da Bahia Characterization and quality of umbu-caja fruits (Spondias tuberosa X S. mombin procceeding from the Southern Reconcavo in Bahia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio Barros dos Santos

    2010-12-01

    them, especially on their chemical composition. As examples of these plants, it can be found fruits of (Spondias tuberosa X S. mombin that are widely consumed fresh or as processed products all over Brazil. Due to the increasing pro acceptance of its products and the continuing search for new flavors, agro-industries have attracted the interest for both the domestic market and exportation. However, despite the strong commercial interest, few studies have been conducted in search for answers about its composition. Thus, this work aimed to make the physical, physical-chemical and mineralogical composition of unripe fruits of umbu-caja grown in the climatic conditions of the southern Recôncavo in Bahia. Analysis were performed of fruit and bark weight; size and diameter; percentage of bark, seeds and pulp; pH; soluble solids; acidity; soluble solid relationship acidity (ratio; the technology index; sugars (reducing and non reducing and total; vitamin C; protein; moisture; lipids; crude fiber; starch; and minerals (phosphorus, iron, calcium, sodium and potassium. The fruits have large size (23,18g, with considerable pulp yield (69,70 %, reasonable values of sugars (7,49 %, total acidity (1,32 %, fiber (1,36 %, vitamin C (8 mg /100g and minerals ( Na-40 mg /100g; K-44mg /100g; P-17,76mg /100g; Fe-0,59mg /100g; and Ca-12,25mg /100g, proving to be an alternative to the market of fresh fruits and for agribusiness in the region.

  6. Behavior and diet of the Critically Endangered Eulemur cinereiceps in Manombo forest, southeast Madagascar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy J. Stevens

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Manombo Special Reserve is a parcel of rainforest along the southeastern coast of Madagascar, containing eight lemur species, including the White-collared brown lemur (Eulemur cinereiceps [Eulemur albocollaris]. Following a drastic cyclone in the region in January of 1997, the population of E. cinereiceps at Manombo was reduced by half. Results indicate that individuals of this critically endangered species at Manombo consume a total of 54 plant species belonging to 24 families, with over two - thirds of the diet comprised of ripe and unripe fruits. White - collared brown lemurs also opportunistically feed on novel food items and invasive plants in their recovering habitat. We report the first record of E. cinereiceps consuming a shelf fungus species growing on invasive trees. During feeding, lemurs tore pieces of the fungus from the trees with their hands and mouth (chewing cycle duration mean 0.28 s; SD 0.01. White - collared brown lemurs also consumed spicy fruits of a non - native plant species (Aframomum angustifolium growing in highly disturbed open areas. Feeding bouts typically began by stripping away the outer covering with the anterior dentition, with pulp and seeds then consumed (chewing cycle duration mean 0.22 s; SD 0.005. This is the first record of consumption of either of these resources for any lemur species at Manombo. Ability to feed on items like A. angustifolium may permit E. cinereiceps to avoid competition with other species in this highly degraded forest environment. RÉSUMÉ. La Réserve Spéciale de Manombo est un fragment de forêt dense humide de basse altitude et située le long de la côte Sud - est de Madagascar. Cette partie de forêt abrite au total huit espèces de lémuriens, y compris le Lémur à collier blanc (Eulemur cinereiceps [Eulemur albocollaris]. Le passage dramatique du cyclone Gretelle dans la région en janvier 1997 a réduit de moitié la taille de la population d’E. cinereiceps dans sa zone de

  7. Determination of Soursop (Annona muricata L. cv. Elita Fruit Volatiles during Ripening by Electronic Nose and Gas Chromatography Coupled to Mass Spectroscopy / Determinación de Compuestos Volátiles en Frutos de Guanábana (Annona muricata L. cv. Elita, d

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Julio Márquez Cardozo

    2013-12-01

    highly perishable tropical fruit commercially grown in Colombia, soursop (Annona muricata L. is currently in need of postharvest handling studies. Thus, the present researchwas conducted to characterize the volatile compounds of soursop cv. Elita during postharvest. For this purpose, fruit ripeness wasevaluated, for one thing, by a volatile compound measuring systemknown as electronic nose (EN, and for another thing, by headspacesolid phase microextraction and gas chromatography massspectrometry (HS-SPME/GC-MS. The profile of volatile substancesin fruits is one of the main indicators of the sensory attributes that  typify the organoleptic quality of these products. The EN constitutesan economical, relatively simple, fast and innovative alternative to determine groups of volatile compounds in whole or fractionatedsamples from fruits of commercial interest. In contrast, and despite its being a highly selective technique, the use of SPME/CG-MS might be limited by its elevated cost. Based on EN assessment, fruit ripening stages were classified as unripe, half ripe, ripe and overripe. The most active EN sensors were numbers 2 sensitiveto nitrogen oxides, 6 (sensitive to methane and 8 (sensitive toalcohols and partially aromatic compounds. HS-SPME/GCMS analysis allowed establishing that during postharvest, the major proportion of volatile compounds corresponded to esters, predominantly Methyl hexanoate. Particularly in overripe fruits, the presence of alcoholic compounds coincides with the EN assessment, which, for its part, detected mainly alcohols and a wide range of aromatic substances. The study contributes to the characterization of postharvest volatiles, which are one of themajor sensory attributes of tropical fruits.

  8. 枣缩果病初侵染链格孢菌的抗硫酸铜标记及稳定性%Resistance-Labeling and Stability of Jujube Shrunken-Fruit Disease Pathogen Alternaria alternata to Copper Sulfate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵乐; 邢艺林; 李正楠; 郭金堂; 冉隆贤

    2016-01-01

    Objective]In order to determine the suitable agent and method for labeling Alternaria alternata,the pathogen of jujube shrunken-fruit disease,and to explore its primary infection period,the labeling system with copper sulfate in A. alternata was established,which will facilitate the study of infection mechanisms and pathogenicity of the pathogen,and effective management of the disease in the field. [Method]Copper sulfate was selected for the reagent of resistance-labeling in A. alternata wild type strain CN193 from the four fungicidal chemicals,i. e. copper sulfate,cobalt chloride,silver nitrate and cycloheximide by using inhibition zone method on PDA plate. With the inhibition method of spore germination,the mixture of conidial spore suspension with either 1. 0 mg·mL -1 ,1. 5 mg·mL -1 or 2. 0 mg·mL -1 concentration of the copper sulfate in a ratio of 1∶1 was dropped into concave slides. The germinated spores were scored after a 12 h incubation,and the initial concentration of copper sulfate was determined. A copper sulfate-resistant mutant strain CN193Cur was obtained by culturing the fungus on PDA medium containing copper sulfate from 1. 5 mg·mL -1 up to 4. 5 mg·mL -1 . The stability of the copper sulfate resistance of mutant CN193Cur was verified in the laboratory,and its infectivity was determined by pathogenicity test in a jujube plantation with inoculation of spore by spraying to the jujube flowers and stab-wounding on the surface of unripe jujube fruits,together with the analysis of BOX-PCR finger printing patterns.[Result]Copper sulfate had highly inhibitory effect on A. alternata while cobalt chloride and silver nitrate were less inhibitive,and cycloheximide was not inhibitive. The initial concentration of copper sulfate was set at 1. 5 mg·mL -1 , which produced a mutation rate of 12%,and the final concentration of copper sulfate in this study was 4. 5 mg·mL -1 . Inoculation tests showed that the mutant CN193Cur had the same pathogenicity as did