Sample records for aegean island arc

  1. The pre-Kos Plateau Tuff Volcanic Rocks on Kefalos Peninsula (Kos Island, Dodecanese, Greece): Crescendo to the Largest Eruption of the Modern Aegean Arc (United States)

    Bachmann, O.; Schnyder, C.


    Young volcanic rocks (K-Ar ages of 3 to 0.5 Ma) from the Kefalos Peninsula (Kos Island, Dodecanese, Greece) erupted prior to the voluminous (>60 km\\ 3) Kos Plateau Tuff (KPT; Ar-Ar age of 0.16 Ma) were studied in order to better define the conditions that led to the paroxysmal eruption of the modern Aegean Arc. Two different whole-rock compositions were sampled on Kefalos peninsula; dacites (63-65 wt% SiO2) and rhyolites (75-77 wt% SiO2). Kefalos dacites are crystal-rich (>40% crystals), show high Sr-Ba contents compared to other continental arcs, and have "adakitic" Sr/Y ratios (>40). Kefalos rhyolites are typical high- SiO2 arc magmas, similar in composition and mineralogy to the KPT, but displaying lower crystallinities (30% in most of the KPT). The high Sr/Y ratios of the dacites is surprising in an area where the subducting slab is not particularly hot and the continental crust relatively thin (~30 km). If the low Y and high Sr-Ba contents result from the fact that magma formed deep enough to supress plagioclase and have garnet present, dacite magma generation must have occurred in the mantle. There is geochemical and mineralogical evidence for the Kefalos and KPT rhyolites being generated by fractional crystallization from magmas similar to the Kefalos dacites. However, the few distinctions between KPT and Kefalos rhyolites (KPT is more voluminous, contains more crystals, has lower whole-rock U and Th contents, and lower MgO-SiO2, but higher Al2O3-FeOtot in biotite) suggest slightly different conditions in the magma chambers. These observations, together with increasing explosivity of the volcanic products from ~3 Ma to 0.16 Ma, may indicate that the build-up to the large KPT eruption could be the result of an increase in magmatic water input in the system through time.

  2. Periodicities in sediment temperature time-series at a marine shallow water hydrothermal vent in Milos Island (Aegean Volcanic arc, Eastern Mediterranean) (United States)

    Aliani, Stefano; Meloni, Roberto; Dando, Paul R.


    Time-series data sets of total bottom pressure (tidal plus atmospheric), seawater temperature and sediment temperature from a marine shallow hydrothermal vent (Milos, Hellenic Volcanic Arc, Aegean Sea) were studied to determine factors influencing periodicity at the vents. Bottom pressure and vent temperature were mainly opposite in phase, with the main fluctuations of vent temperature occurring at tidal frequencies. Although the fluctuations in atmospheric pressure were of the same order as those due to tidal pressure, the contribution of atmospheric pressure was considerably weaker at diurnal frequencies. Some sudden discontinuities in sediment temperature were recorded, at least one of these may have been caused by seismic events. Seawater temperature changes were not reflected in the sediment temperature record. Transient loadings, such as tidal loadings, barometric pressure and earth tides, may affect the pore pressure in sediments, influencing fluid expulsion and sediment temperature as a consequence. Most of the contribution to the fluctuations in sediment temperature depends on tidal loadings. Gravitational forces, in the form of earth tides, can also be involved and barometric pressure is probably responsible for long period temperature oscillations.

  3. Temporal and spatial variations in provenance of Eastern Mediterranean Sea sediments: Implications for Aegean and Aeolian arc volcanism (United States)

    Klaver, Martijn; Djuly, Thomas; de Graaf, Stefan; Sakes, Alex; Wijbrans, Jan; Davies, Gareth; Vroon, Pieter


    The Eastern Mediterranean Sea (EMS) is the last remnant of the Tethys Ocean that has been subducted to the north since the Jurassic. Subduction has led to the formation of multiple island arcs in the EMS region where the Aeolian and Aegean arcs are currently active. The EMS is surrounded by continents and receives a large sediment input, part of which is transported down with the subducting slab into the mantle and potentially contributes a major flux to the arc volcanism. An along-arc gradient in the composition of subducting sediment has been evoked to explain the distinct geochemical signature of the easternmost volcanic centre of the Aegean arc, but direct evidence for this proposal is lacking. We present a detailed study of the mineralogical, major-, trace elements and Sr-Nd-Hf-Pb isotope composition of 45 Neogene EMS sediment samples obtained from Deep Sea Drilling Project (DSDP) and Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) drill sites and box cores to characterise their geochemical composition, distinguish provenance components and investigate the temporal and spatial variation in provenance to evaluate the potential changing contribution of subducted EMS sediment to Aegean and Aeolian arc volcanism. Based on trace element characteristics of EMS sediments, we can distinguish four provenance components. Nile sediment and Sahara dust are the main components, but contributions from the Tethyan ophiolite belt and arc volcanic rocks in the north are also recognised. Pliocene and Quaternary EMS sediment records a strong geochemical gradient where Nile River sediment entering the EMS in the east is progressively diluted by Sahara Desert dust towards the west. Pre-Messinian samples, however, have a remarkably homogeneous composition with Nile sediment characteristics. We relate this rapid increase in Sahara dust contribution to a late Miocene climate shift leading to decreased Nile runoff and aridification of the Sahara region. EMS sediment has a restricted range in Pb isotopes

  4. Accessibility of Peripheral Regions: Evidence from Aegean Islands (Greece

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    Ioannis Spilanis


    Full Text Available Islands, especially smaller ones, are characterized by discontinuity of space and are considered as some of the least accessible areas. In this paper, we seek to shed light on the accessibility problems that islands face from the point of view of island residents. This shift in emphasis considers additional aspects to accessibility that include the availability of connections to access services required to cover the needs of island residents and the different destinations where these may be available, and the time that one may have to spend to get to these destinations in order to use these services. An alternative measure of accessibility is proposed, based on the time required to travel; this is then applied to three different Greek islands in the Aegean Sea. The accessibility of the residents of these islands to selected services is compared with that of settlements in continental Greece of similar population and distance to the capital Athens. The findings clearly demonstrate the adversities that island residents have to face, especially for smaller islands, where accessing selected services may require as many as four destinations, with virtual distances 4 to 6 times longer than ‘real distances’.

  5. The interaction between Aegean back-arc extension and Anatolia escape since Middle Miocene

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    Philippon, M.; Brun, J.-P.; Gueydan, F.; Sokoutis, D.


    The Aegean domain is a key area for understanding the processes of back-arc extension. Observed deformation pattern and present day kinematics result from the interaction between the southward retreat of the Hellenic trench and the westward escape of Anatolia. Lithosphere-scale analogue models were

  6. Sustainable use of water in the Aegean Islands. (United States)

    Gikas, Petros; Tchobanoglous, George


    Water demands in the Aegean Islands have increased steadily over the last decade as a result of a building boom for new homes, hotels, and resorts. The increase in water demand has resulted in the disruption of past sustainable water management practices. At present, most freshwater needs are met through the use of the limited groundwater, desalinated seawater, and freshwater importation. Wastewater reclamation, not used extensively, can serve as an alternative source of water, for a variety of applications now served with desalinated and imported water. Three alternative processes: desalination, importation, and water reclamation are compared with respect to cost, energy requirements and long-term sustainability. Based on the comparisons made, water reclamation and reuse should be components of any long-term water resources management strategy. PMID:19243876

  7. The economic determinants of Greek return migration to the islands of the East Aegean. (United States)

    Robolis, S; Xideas, E


    "The purpose of this article is to investigate the economic determinants of Greek return migration to the islands of the East Aegean, a region comprising hundreds of islands of different size in four administrative departments....[It] examines the sensitivity of return migration flows to changes in economic variables which influence decisions to return....The to investigate the effect on return migration not only of economic development in the host country (push factors) but also of economic development in the islands of the East Aegean (pull factors), given their isolation from the mainland and their different economic structures." (SUMMARY IN SPA AND FRE)

  8. Zircon crytallization and recycling in the magma chamber of the rhyolitic Kos Plateau Tuff (Aegean arc) (United States)

    Bachman, O.; Charlier, B.L.A.; Lowenstern, J. B.


    In contrast to most large-volume silicic magmas in continental arcs, which are thought to evolve as open systems with significant assimilation of preexisting crust, the Kos Plateau Miff magma formed dominantly by crystal fractionation of mafic parents. Deposits from this ??? 60 km3 pyroclastic eruption (the largest known in the Aegean arc) lack xenocrystic zircons [secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) U-Pb ages on zircon cores never older than 500 ka] and display Sr-Nd whole-rock isotopic ratios within the range of European mantle in an area with exposed Paleozoic and Tertiary continental crust; this evidence implies a nearly closed-system chemical differentiation. Consequently, the age range provided by zircon SIMS U-Th-Pb dating is a reliable indicator of the duration of assembly and longevity of the silicic magma body above its solidus. The age distribution from 160 ka (age of eruption by sanidine 40Ar/39Ar dating; Smith et al., 1996) to ca. 500 ka combined with textural characteristics (high crystal content, corrosion of most anhydrous phenocrysts, but stability of hydrous phases) suggest (1) a protracted residence in the crust as a crystal mush and (2) rejuvenation (reduced crystallization and even partial resorption of minerals) prior to eruption probably induced by new influx of heat (and volatiles). This extended evolution chemically isolated from the surrounding crust is a likely consequence of the regional geodynamics because the thinned Aegean microplate acts as a refractory container for magmas in the dying Aegean subduction zone (continent-continent subduction). ?? 2007 Geological Society of America.

  9. Zircon crystallization and recycling in the magma chamber of the rhyolitic Kos Plateau Tuff (Aegean arc) (United States)

    Bachman, O.; Charlier, B.L.A.; Lowenstern, J. B.


    In contrast to most large-volume silicic magmas in continental arcs, which are thought to evolve as open systems with significant assimilation of preexisting crust, the Kos Plateau Tuff magma formed dominantly by crystal fractionation of mafic parents. Deposits from this ~60 km3 pyroclastic eruption (the largest known in the Aegean arc) lack xenocrystic zircons [secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) U-Pb ages on zircon cores never older than 500 ka] and display Sr-Nd whole-rock isotopic ratios within the range of European mantle in an area with exposed Paleozoic and Tertiary continental crust; this evidence implies a nearly closed-system chemical differentiation. Consequently, the age range provided by zircon SIMS U-Th-Pb dating is a reliable indicator of the duration of assembly and longevity of the silicic magma body above its solidus. The age distribution from 160 ka (age of eruption by sanidine 40Ar/39Ar dating; Smith et al., 1996) to ca. 500 ka combined with textural characteristics (high crystal content, corrosion of most anhydrous phenocrysts, but stability of hydrous phases) suggest (1) a protracted residence in the crust as a crystal mush and (2) rejuvenation (reduced crystallization and even partial resorption of minerals) prior to eruption probably induced by new influx of heat (and volatiles). This extended evolution chemically isolated from the surrounding crust is a likely consequence of the regional geodynamics because the thinned Aegean microplate acts as a refractory container for magmas in the dying Aegean subduction zone (continent-continent subduction).

  10. a Structural and Thermochronological Study of Santorini Detachment in Santorini Island, Aegean Sea (United States)

    Marsellos, A.; Foster, D. A.; Min, K. K.; Kamenov, G. D.; Kidd, W. S.; Garver, J. I.; Kyriakopoulos, K.


    Extension in the Aegean has been very prominent since early Miocene expressed by a series of detachments, opening of the Cretan basin, arc expansion and plutons, with a peak of extensional activity at 10-16 Ma across the south Aegean. In Santorini, which is the southernmost Cyclades island and closest to the forearc, intrusion of an unexposed pluton to a depth equivalent to modern sea level took place at about 9.5 Ma (Skarpelis et al., 1992). In this study, Zircon fission-track (ZFT) and apatite (U-Th)/He (AHe) data from the Athinios metamorphic rocks exposed in Santorini caldera distinguish an upper metamorphic cooling unit associated with Early-Middle Eocene exhumation (46.3 ± 2.8 Ma, ZFT; 49.34 ± 2.9 Ma, AHe) from a lower metamorphic unit of Middle-Late Miocene (10.9 ± 0.7 Ma, ZFT; 9.4 ± 0.3 Ma, AHe) exhumation ages. The upper unit shows mineral lineations that range from N-S to NE-SW trending while the lower unit shows lineations ranging from N-S to NW-SE trending. U-Pb (LA-MC-ICP-MS) zircon data from mica-schists in the lower Santorini metamorphic unit show a prominent Pan-African signature similar to the Phyllite-quartzite unit (PQU) rocks exposed along the forearc in Kythera, Peloponnese and western Crete. The NW-SE stretching lineations in the lower unit imply an arc-parallel extension. Similar arc-parallel extension took place between 10-13 in PQU rocks in the west Crete-Kythera-south Peloponnese area (Marsellos et al., 2010). The lower unit shows ductile structures affected by top to the S shearing while the upper unit by top to the N shearing. A 3D projection of the mineral lineation dip angles along N-S direction shows a C' shear band of top to the N shearing that has affected the entire structural stack. Early brittle structures, which appear to be re-oriented normal faults, and show top to the S displacement. Later normal faults show similar shear sense. A tectonic model that could explain the above structures shows that initial exhumation of the

  11. Reply to: 'A late Pleistocene clockwise rotation phase of Zakynthos (Greece) and implications for the evolution of the western Aegean Arc'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duermeijer, C.E.; Langereis, C.G.


    During the 80s, a number of seminal papers were published by the Gif-sur-Yvette group of Carlo Laj and co-workers, on the late Neogene palaeomagnetic rotations of the Aegean and, in particular, of the Aegean Arc system. These studies shed new light on the tectonic evolution of the region (e.g. [1,2

  12. Development of a behavioural framework for analyzing employment mobility decisions in island areas: the case of the Aegean Islands, Greece

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    Eleni Kitrinou


    Full Text Available This paper proposes a theoretical framework to model employment mobility in island areas. It aims at identifying the critical factors affecting the decision of the employees to relocate their workplace to an island area, given a possible residential relocation. Emphasis is given to the role of transport and telecommunications systems on the region’s connectivity and accessibility. Discrete choice models are developed, using both observed and latent variables for the workplace relocation decision to the Aegean island area in Greece. Data was collected in the year 2012 from 518 Greek employees. Findings indicate the importance of the role of transport and telecommunications systems for employment mobility in island areas. The estimated choice models identified profiles of the employees who are prone to: a keep their current workplace; b relocate their workplace to the island area; c change occupation after residential relocation. Finally, the sample enumeration method integrates the models’ results across all Greek employees.

  13. Car-borne and on foot scintillometer survey of the Aegean Sea Islands (Greece). Pt. B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study being the continuation of a previous report (DEMO 84/8G) gives a detailed description and interpretation of the results of the radiometric survey in general and of the radiometric anomalies more particularly of fifty-one Aegean islands of Greece. The main radiometric anomalies from the point of view of great surface extension and/or high concentration in soluble and/or total uranium are indicated. Further estimation and investigation of the proven uraniferous regions where such anomalies have been traced are suggested. (author)

  14. Ductile nappe stacking and refolding in the Cycladic Blueschist Unit: insights from Sifnos Island (south Aegean Sea)

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    Aravadinou, E.; Xypolias, P.; Chatzaras, V.; Iliopoulos, I.; Gerogiannis, N.


    New geological and structural mapping combined with kinematic and amphibole chemistry analyses is used to investigate the deformation history of the Cycladic Blueschist Unit (CBU) on Sifnos Island (Cyclades, Aegean Sea). We concentrate on north Sifnos, an area characterized by exceptionally well-pre

  15. First record of the non-indigenous fangtooth moray Enchelycore anatina from Rhodes Island, south- eastern Aegean Sea

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    Full Text Available The collection of one specimen of the non-indigenous fangtooth moray Enchelycore anatina of tropical Atlantic origin was for the first time found in an area of south eastern Aegean Sea. This record may indicate a recent establishment of the species on the coasts of Rhodes Island and a possible expansion of it on the coastal rocky habitats.

  16. On Entrepreneurs and Entrepreneurship of the Olive-oil Economy in the Aegean: The Case of Lesvos Island

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    Evridiki Sifneos


    Full Text Available This article summarizes the conclusions of a study on entrepreneurial activities related to the cycle of the olive-oil economy in Lesvos, an island in the North-Eastern Aegean, from the eighteenth century until the middle of the twentieth century. It is based on research and observations drawn from a multiform primary material, such as companies' records, communal and family archives, consular and administrative reports, as well as secondary sources which allow comparisons with other oleiferous regions and connect the economy of Lesvos to the broader Aegean and Mediterranean environment.It points out that the single cultivation phenomenon, though associated to the economy of risk, obeyed to the market's command and was prepared by the abolition of the governor's monopoly on the oil trading and the consequent opening of the market. This enabled the Christian ottoman subjects to develop the administration of intensive olive growing, mechanized oil extraction and trade expansion. Olive oil and soap were the two basic commodities of the island's export revenues that were commercialised, despite their low quality, into a wide range of port and island markets of the Asia Minor coast, the Aegean islands and the Black Sea. Moreover, the article explores the type of commercial and industrial enterprises and the characteristics of the olive-cycle entrepreneurs. It concludes with the commercial crisis suffered from the major political and economic changes of the twentieth century and the consequent reorientation of Lesvos' businessmen towards Crete and Piraeus, the olive manufacturing centres of the Neohellenic state.

  17. Characterization of juvenile pyroclasts from the Kos Plateau Tuff (Aegean Arc): insights into the eruptive dynamics of a large rhyolitic eruption


    Bouvet De Maisonneuve, Caroline; Bachmann, Olivier; Burgisser, Alain


    Silicic pumices formed during explosive volcanic eruptions are faithful recorders of the state of the magma in the conduit, close to or at the fragmentation level. We have characterized four types of pumices from the non-welded rhyolitic Kos Plateau Tuff, which erupted 161,000 years ago in the East Aegean Arc, Greece. The dominant type of pumice (>90 vol.%) shows highly elongated tubular vesicles. These tube pumices occur throughout the eruption. Less common pumice types include: (1) “frothy”...

  18. Barrier island arcs along abandoned Mississippi River deltas (United States)

    Penland, S.; Suter, J.R.; Boyd, Ron


    Generation of transgressive barrier island arcs along the Mississippi River delta plain and preservation of barrier shoreline facies in their retreat paths on the inner shelf is controlled by: (1) shoreface translation; (2) age of the transgression; and (3) the thickness of the barrier island arc sediment package. Barrier island arcs experience an average relative sea level rise of 0.50-1.00 cm yr-1 and shoreface retreat rates range from 5-15 m yr-1. Young barrier island arc sediment packages (Isles Dernieres) are thin and have experienced limited landward retreat of the shoreface. Older barrier island arcs (Chandeleur Islands) are thicker and have experienced significant landward movement of the shoreface because of the greater time available for retreat. If the transgressed barrier shoreline sediment package lies above the advancing ravinement surface, the entire sequence is truncated. A thin reworked sand sheet marks the shoreface retreat path. The base of the transgressive sediment package can lie below the ravinement surface in older barrier shorelines. In this setting, the superstructure of the barrier shoreline is truncated, leaving the basal portion of the transgressive sequence preserved on the inner shelf. A variety of transgressive stratigraphic sequences from sand sheets to truncated barrier islands to sand-filled tidal inlet scars have been identified by high resolution seismic profiling across the shoreface retreat paths of Mississippi delta barrier island arcs. One of these examples, the Isles Dernieres, represents a recently detached barrier island arc in the early stages of transgression. An older example, the Chandeleur Islands, represents a barrier island arc experiencing long-term shoreface retreat. This paper describes the stratigraphic character and preserved transgressive facies for the Isles Dernieres and Chandeleur Islands. ?? 1985.

  19. Source parameters of the M 6.5 Skyros Island (North Aegean Sea earthquake of July 26, 2001

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    A. Kiratzi


    Full Text Available Teleseismic body wave modelling, time domain moment tensor inversion of regional waveforms and spectral analysis of the far-field P-wave pulses are used to derive the source parameters of the July 26, 2001 Skyros earthquake (M 6.5. Its epicentre is located south of the Sporades Islands in the North Aegean Sea (Greece. Previous focal mechanism solutions indicate motion on strike-slip faults. The time domain moment tensor inversion is applied for the first time to the regional waveforms of the recently established broadband network in Greece. Its application gave results which are highly consistent with teleseismic waveform modelling. The results of this study, in combination with the distribution of aftershocks, indicate left-lateral strike slip motion on a NW-SE striking fault with parameters: fault plane (strike = 151°, dip = 83°, rake = 7° and auxiliary plane (strike = 60°, dip = 84°, rake = 173°, depth 12 km and M 0 = 5.98e18 N m. Moreover, the time domain moment tensor inversion technique yielded a pure double couple source with negligible CLVD. The spectral analysis of the far-field P-wave pulses resulted in a fault length L ~ 32 km, stress drop ~ 9 bars and average displacement u ~ 30 cm.These values are in very good agreement with those estimated from empirical scaling relations applicable to the Aegean area.

  20. Carbon fluxes from hydrothermal vents off Milos, Aegean Volcanic Arc, and the influence of venting on the surrounding ecosystem. (United States)

    Dando, Paul; Aliani, Stefano; Bianchi, Nike; Kennedy, Hilary; Linke, Peter; Morri, Carla


    The island of Milos, in the Aegean Sea, has extensive hydrothermal fields to the east and southeast of the island with additional venting areas near the entrance to and within the central caldera. A calculation of the total area of the vent fields, based on ship and aerial surveys, suggested that the hydrothermal fields occupy 70 km2, twice the area previously estimated. The vents ranged in water depth from the intertidal to 300 m. As a result of the low depths there was abundant free gas release: in places water boiled on the seabed. The stream of gas bubbles rising through the sandy seabed drove a shallow re-circulation of bottom seawater. The majority of the water released with the gas, with a mean pH of 5.5, was re-circulated bottom water that had become acidified in contact with CO2 gas and was often diluted by admixture with the vapour phase from the deeper fluids. The major component of the free gas, 80%, was CO2, with an estimated total flux of 1.5-7.5 x 1012 g a-1. The methane flux, by comparison, was of the order of 1010 g a.-1 Using methane as a tracer it was shown that the major gas export from the vents was below the thermocline towards the southwest, in agreement with the prevailing currents. Areas of hydrothermal brine seepage occurred between the gas vents and occasional brine pools were observed in seabed depressions. Under relatively calm conditions, many of the brine seeps were covered by thick minero-bacterial mats consisting of silica and sulphur and surrounded by mats of diatoms and cyanobacteria. The minerals were not deposited in the absence of bacteria. Storms disrupted the mats, leading to an export of material to the surrounding area. Stable isotope data from sediments and sediment trap material suggested that exported POM was processed by zooplankton. The combined effects of the geothermal heating of the seabed, the large gas flux, variation in the venting and the effect of the brine seeps had a dramatic effect on the surrounding

  1. A comparison of the seismic structure of oceanic island arc crust and continental accreted arc terranes (United States)

    Calvert, A. J.


    Amalgamation of island arcs and their accretion to pre-existing continents is considered to have been one of the primary mechanisms of continental growth over the last 3 Ga, with arc terranes identified within Late Archean, Proterozoic, and Phanerozoic continental crust. Crustal-scale seismic refraction surveys can provide P wave velocity models that can be used as a proxy for crustal composition, and although they indicate some velocity variation in accreted arcs, these terranes have significantly lower velocities, and are hence significantly more felsic, than modern island arcs. Modern oceanic arcs exhibit significant variations in crustal thickness, from as little as 10 km in the Bonin arc to 35 km in the Aleutian and northern Izu arcs. Although globally island arcs appear to have a mafic composition, intermediate composition crust is inferred in central America and parts of the Izu arc. The absence of a sharp velocity contrast at the Moho appears to be a first order characteristic of island arc crust, and indicates the existence of a broad crust-mantle transition zone. Multichannel seismic reflection surveys complement refraction surveys by revealing structures associated with variations in density and seismic velocity at the scale of a few hundred meters or less to depths of 60 km or more. Surveys from the Mariana and Aleutian arcs show that modern middle and lower arc crust is mostly non-reflective, but reflections are observed from depths 5-25 km below the refraction Moho suggesting the localized presence of arc roots that may comprise gabbro, garnet gabbro, and pyroxenite within a broad transition from mafic lower crust to ultramafic mantle. Such reflective, high velocity roots are likely separated from the overlying arc crust prior to, or during arc-continent collision, and seismic reflections within accreted arc crust document the collisional process and final crustal architecture.

  2. diet composition of the salamander lyciasalamandra luschani basoglui on the greek island of kastellorizo in the southeast aegean sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    the diet composition of the lycian salamander lyciasalamandra luschani basoglui across both age and sex groups was studied.specimens were collected from a small island in the southeast aegean sea.the dominant prey group of juveniles consisted of collembola,while coleoptera dominated the diet of males and females.the number and size of prey items consumed by males and females of l.luschani basoglui were quite similar,while juveniles ate fewer items of much smaller size.the numerical abundance along with the four measures of the size of prey permitted discrimination among males,females and juveniles.although discrimination between adults and juveniles is expected due to dissimilarity in body size,discrimination between males and females remains inexplicable despite their similarity in body size.future studies should be focused on understanding how and why prey choice differs between sexes in l.luschani basoglui.

  3. April 16, 2015 Crete Island Earthquake (Mw=5.9) Series and its Seismotectonic Significance, Southern Aegean Sea (United States)

    Yalçın, Hilal; Kürçer, Akın; Gülen, Levent


    The active deformation of the southern Aegean Sea is a result of the northward motion of the African and Arabian Plates with respect to the Eurasian Plate in the Eastern Mediterranean Region. The Hellenic subduction zone plays a key role in the active tectonics of the region. On 16 April, 2015, a moderate earthquake occurred on the eastern part of Hellenic arc (south of Crete island), with a moment magnitude of Mw=5.9. A series of aftershocks were occurred within four months following the mainshock, which have magnitudes varying from Mw = 3.4 to 5.4. Source parameters of the 16 April 2015 earthquake have been modeled in order to reveal the regional stress tensor and the tectonic style of the region. In this study, the source parameters of the main shock and 36 aftershocks that have magnitudes M≥3.4 have been determined and modeled by seismic moment tensor waveform inversion method developed by Sokos and Zahradnik (2006) algorithm using the near-field and regional waveforms. The depth of earthquakes are varied from 2 to 61 km. Stress tensor can describe reliably principle stress axes (σ1, σ2, σ3), their relative size and stress field variations. Stress tensor inversions have been carried out using the Micheal method (1984, 1987). In this study, 16 April 2015 Crete Earthquake mainshock (Mw=5.9), a total of 36 earthquake moment tensor solutions that belong to the Crete earthquake sequence and 24 earthquake moment tensor solutions of previous main shocks in the region have been compiled and used in the stress inversion calculation. Orientations of σ1, σ2 and σ3 were computed and the principal directions are projected onto a lower hemisphere Wulff net. The best fit was attained for Phi = 0.38+/‑0.13609 and indicated that the stress regime revealed strike-slip faulting with reverse component and for the azimuth and plunge pair of (-161.6°, 21.7°) for σ1, (-11.1°, 65.4°) for σ2 and (103.8°, 10.9°) for σ3. At the final step of the study, Gutenberg and

  4. Heat flow in the Lesser Antilles island arc and adjacent back arc Grenada basin


    Manga, Michael; Hornbach, Matthew J.; Friant, Anne Le; Ishizuka, Osamu; Stroncik, Nicole; Adachi, Tatsuya; Aljahdali, Mohammed; Boudon, Georges; Breitkreuz, Christoph; Fraass, Andrew; Fujinawa, Akihiko; Hatfield, Robert; Jutzeler, Martin; Kataoka, Kyoko; Lafuerza, Sara


    Using temperature gradients measured in 10 holes at 6 sites, we generate the first high fidelity heat flow measurements from Integrated Ocean Drilling Program drill holes across the northern and central Lesser Antilles arc and back arc Grenada basin. The implied heat flow, after correcting for bathymetry and sedimentation effects, ranges from about 0.1 W/m2 on the crest of the arc, midway between the volcanic islands of Montserrat and Guadeloupe, to 15 km from the crest in the back arc direct...

  5. A list of macrofauna on the continental shelf of Gökçeada Island (northern Aegean Sea) with a new record (Gryphus vitreus Born, 1778) (Brachiopoda, Rhynchonellata) for the Turkish seas


    Gönülal, Onur; Güreşen, Sedat Ozan


    Abstract Long-term sampling (1974-2013) of macro fauna of the Gökçeada Island (northern Aegean Sea) provided qualitative information on many taxa including Porifera, Cnidaria Mollusca, Arthropoda, Brachiopoda, Bryozoa, Spinculida, Echinodermata, Chordata. Gryphus vitreus (Brachiopoda) and Funiculina quadrangularis (Pallas, 1766) are the first records for the Turkish seas and the Aegean coast of Turkey, respectively. The present paper aims to describe macrofauna occurring on the continental sh...

  6. Radiometric dating of sediment cores from a hydrothermal vent zone off Milos Island in the Aegean Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sediment cores from a hydrothermal vent zone off Milos Island in the Aegean Sea were dated using the 210Pb method. The average unsupported 210Pb inventory in the cores was calculated to be 3256 Bq m-2. The corresponding mean annual 210Pb flux of 105 Bq m-2 year-1 is comparable to estimates of the atmospheric flux given in the literature. 210Pb fluxes calculated from the unsupported 210Pb inventories in cores are also comparable with the 210Pb vertical fluxes determined from settling particles off the coast of Milos Island. The highest unsupported 210Pb concentrations (89 Bq kg-1) were measured in the sediments nearest to the hydrothermal vent area suggesting that the sedimentation rate is lowest at this site. Direct gamma measurements of 210Pb were used to date three sediment cores that are located at different distances from the vent zone: one is in the immediate vicinity of the vent; and others are outside the zone. Sedimentation rates for these cores, calculated using the CRS and CIC models, ranged from 0.088±0.008 cm year-1 to 0.14±0.01 cm year-1. Where both models were applicable, the results given by the two methods were in good agreement. 137Cs concentrations in all three cores generally declined with depth but showed no clear signal of either the period of maximum fallout from weapons testing or the Chernobyl accident. 210Po activities were also measured and the maximum 210Po concentration was in the sediment surface layer (166 Bq kg-1)

  7. Abundance and Distribution of Zooplankton in CoastalArea of Gokceada Island (Northern Aegean Sea)


    Tarkan, Abmet Nuri


    Abstract This study was carried out in order to determine population of zooplankton in the coastal waters of Gokgeada. At the 10 stations of those depths ranging from 20 in to 30 in, the measurements of temperature, salinity and oxygen were made, and zooplankton samples were collected vertically and horizontally using plankton nets. In the neritic waters of the island, the effects of the Black Sea waters through Dardanelles were observed and zooplankton species of the Black Sea found. F...

  8. Formation of heterogeneous magmatic series beneath North Santorini, South Aegean island arc

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bailey, John C; Jensen, E.S.; Hansen, A.;


    The geochemistry of basaltic to dacitic lavas and dykes in the volcanic centres of NorthSantorini (Greece) has been investigated using elemental and Sr-Nd-Pb isotopic data andthree main magmatic series with sub-parallel trace element patterns for basalts can bedistinguished. The basalts have Sr...... and Nd isotopic values consistent with varying levels of incompatible-element mantle depletion. A fourth magma group with only two basalt samples has a trace element pattern with even lower contents of incompatible elements, especially Th, and with lower 87Sr/86Sr but higher 206Pb/ 204Pb. Heterogeneous...

  9. Frequent underwater volcanism in the central Aegean Sea (United States)

    Huebscher, C.; Ruhnau, M.; Dehghani, G. A.


    The extinction of the Minoan culture in the mid second millennium BCE is a well known consequence of the Plinian eruption of Thera volcano (Santorini Island). Santorini is a member of the South Aegean arc forming a chain from the Gulf of Saronikos (Susaki, Egina, Poros, Methana) at West, to an area close to the Anatolian coast at East (Kos, Nisyros and minor islands), through the central part (Milos and Santorini island groups). Underwater volcanic activity was manifested historically only once. During 1649-1650 CE the Kolumbo underwater volcano evolved about 8 km northeast of Santorini. As a consequence of this eruption volcanic ash covered the entire Aegean area and a hazardous tsunami was triggered. Here we show by means of reflection seismic and magnetic data that underwater volcanism occurred more frequently in the central Aegean Sea than previously assumed. Seismic data show that Kolumbo constitutes of five vertically stacked cones of pyroclastic sediment plus at least four smaller cones on the flank of the volcano. The formation of Kolumbo started synchronous with Santorini Island. The entire volume of the Kolumbo pyroclastic cones is estimated to more than 15 cubic-kilometers. Several small-scale cones have been detected in the Anyhdros Basin some km north-east of Kolumbo, being previously interpreted as mud volcanoes by other authors. However, the similarity of seismic and magnetic signatures of these cones and Kolumbo strongly suggest that these cones were also created by underwater volcanism. Volcanic cones, Kolumbo and Santorini are situated along a NE-SW striking graben system that evolved during five extensional tectonic pulses in the Pliocene.

  10. The importance of shallow hydrothermal island arc systems in ocean biogeochemistry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hawkes, J.A.; Connelly, D.P.; Rijkenberg, M.J.A.; Achterberg, E.P.


    Hydrothermal venting often occurs at submarine volcanic calderas on island arc chains, typically at shallower depths than mid-ocean ridges. The effect of these systems on ocean biogeochemistry has been under-investigated to date. Here we show that hydrothermal effluent from an island arc caldera was

  11. Earthquakes increase hydrothermal venting and nutrient inputs into the Aegean (United States)

    Dando, P. R.; Hughes, J. A.; Leahy, Y.; Taylor, L. J.; Zivanovic, S.


    Areas of submarine gas and water venting around the island of Milos, in the Hellenic volcanic island arc, were mapped. Water samples were collected from five stations in the geothermally active Paleohori Bay on 15 March 1992. Seismic events, of M s 5.0 and 4.4, occurred south of the Bay on 20 March and the sampling was repeated after these. Phosphate and manganese in the water column increased by 360% after the seismic activity. Analysis of water samples collected from gas and water seeps and of interstitial water from sediment cores showed that the hot sediment in the Bay was enriched in phosphate, to a mean concentration of 65 μmol l -1 in the interstitial water. The number of geothermally active areas in the Aegean, together with the extent of venting and the frequency of earthquakes suggests that the hydrothermal areas may be an important source of phosphate in this oligotrophic Sea.

  12. Brachyopa minima (Diptera: Syrphidae), a new species from Greece with notes on the biodiversity and conservation of the genus Brachyopa Meigen in the Northern Aegean Islands. (United States)

    Pérez-Bañón, Celeste; Radenković, Snezana; Vujić, Ante; Petanidou, Theodora


    An on-going study of the hoverfly fauna of the Northern Aegean Islands (Greece) has revealed the presence of four species of the genus Brachyopa Meigen. During the survey the following species were found: B. bicolor (Fallén), B. quadrimaculosa Thompson in Kaplan & Thompson, B. minima Vujić & Pérez-Bañón sp. nov. and an unidentified species very close to B. pilosa (Collin). Morphological characters and mitochondrial COI barcodes were used to link different life stages of B. minima, and to identify a larval specimen of B. bicolor. In this study adult and larval morphology and habitat preferences for B. minima are described. The description of larval morphology of B. bicolor and Brachyopa sp. aff. pilosa is amended too. An identification key to the adults of the B. quadrimaculosa group sensu Kassebeer (2002) in the Eastern Mediterranean (Greece, Israel and Turkey) is provided. The importance of specific microhabitats for the continued existence of these taxa is discussed. PMID:27395920

  13. Petrogenesis of Late Cretaceous lava flows from a Ceno-Tethyan island arc: The Raskoh arc, Balochistan, Pakistan (United States)

    Siddiqui, Rehanul Haq; Qasim Jan, M.; Asif Khan, M.


    The Raskoh arc is about 250 km long, 40 km wide and trends in an ENE direction. The oldest rock unit in the Raskoh arc is an accretionary complex (Early to Late Jurassic), which is followed in age by Kuchakki Volcanic Group, the most wide spread unit of the Raskoh arc. The Volcanic Group is mainly composed of basaltic to andesitic lava flows and volcaniclastics, including agglomerate, volcanic conglomerate, breccia and tuff, with subordinate shale, sandstone, limestone and chert. The flows generally form 3-15 m thick lenticular bodies but rarely reach up to 300 m. They are mainly basaltic-andesites with minor basalts and andesites. The main textures exhibited by these rocks are hypocrystalline porphyritic, subcumulophyric and intergranular. The phenocrysts comprise mainly plagioclase (An30-54 in Nok Chah and An56-64 in Bunap). They are embedded in a micro-cryptocrystalline groundmass having the same minerals. Apatite, magnetite, titanomagnetite and hematite occur as accessory minerals. Major, trace and rare earth elements suggest that the volcanics are oceanic island arc tholeiites. Their low Mg # (42-56) and higher FeO (total)/MgO (1.24-2.67) ratios indicate that the parent magma of these rocks was not directly derived from a mantle source but fractionated in an upper level magma chamber. The trace element patterns show enrichment in LILE and depletion in HFSE relative to N-MORB. Their primordial mantle-normalized trace element patterns show marked negative Nb anomalies with positive spikes on K, Ba and Sr which confirm their island arc signatures. Slightly depleted LREE to flat chondrite normalized REE patterns further support this interpretation. The Zr versus Zr/Y and Cr versus Y studies show that their parent magma was generated by 20-30% melting of a depleted mantle source. The trace elements ratios including Zr/Y (1.73-3.10), Ti/Zr (81.59-101.83), Ti/V (12.39-30.34), La/YbN (0.74-2.69), Ta/Yb (0.02-0.05) and Th/Yb (0.11-0.75) of the volcanics are more

  14. Cycling of sulfur in subduction zones: The geochemistry of sulfur in the Mariana Island Arc and back-arc trough (United States)

    Alt, J.C.; Shanks, Wayne C.; Jackson, M.C.


    The sulfur contents and sulfur isotopic compositions of 24 glassy submarine volcanics from the Mariana Island Arc and back-arc Mariana Trough were determined in order to investigate the hypothesis that subducted seawater sulfur (??34S = 21???) is recycled through arc volcanism. Our results for sulfur are similar to those for subaerial arc volcanics: Mariana Arc glasses are enriched in 34S (??34S = up to 10.3???, mean = 3.8???) and depleted in S (20-290 ppm, mean = 100 ppm) relative to MORB (850 ppm S, ??34S = 0.1 ?? 0.5???). The back-arc trough basalts contain 200-930 ppm S and have ??34S values of 1.1 ?? 0.5???, which overlap those for the arc and MORB. The low sulfur contents of the arc and some of the trough glasses are attributed to (1) early loss of small amounts of sulfur through separation of immiscible sulfide and (2) later vapor-melt equilibrium control of sulfur contents and loss of sulfur in a vapor phase from sulfide-undersaturated melts near the minimum in sulfur solubility at f{hook}O2 ??? NNO (nickel-nickel oxide). Although these processes removed sulfur from the melts their effects on the sulfur isotopic compositions of the melts were minimal. Positive trends of ??34S with 87Sr 86Sr, LILE and LREE contents of the arc volcanics are consistent with a metasomatic seawater sulfur component in the depleted sub-arc mantle source. The lack of a 34S-rich slab signature in the trough lavas may be attributed to equilibration of metasomatic fluid with mantle material along the longer pathway from the slab to the source of the trough volcanics. Sulfur is likely to have been transported into the mantle wedge by metasomatic fluid derived from subducted sediments and pore fluids. Gases extracted from vesicles in arc and back-arc samples are predominantly H2O, with minor CO2 and traces of H2S and SO2. CO2 in the arc and back-arc rocks has ??13C values of -2.1 to -13.1???, similar to MORB. These data suggest that degassing of CO2 could explain the slightly lower

  15. Geomorphologic Indices for Transition from Subduction to Arc-Continent Collision in Sumba Island, Indonesia (United States)

    Authemayou, C.; Delcaillau, B.; Brocard, G. Y.; Molliex, S.; Nexer, M.; Pedoja, K.


    The Sumba Island lies in a key area to study the eastern Indonesia geodynamics. It is located in the Sunda-Banda fore-arc in the area of transition from subduction of the Indian oceanic lithosphere (W) beneath the Sunda-Banda arc to arc-continent collision between the Australian continental margin and the Sunda-Banda arc (E). East of the Sumba Island, the western boundary of the Savu basin originated during Middle Miocene by the southeastward slab retreat below the Sunda-Banda arc (Rigg and Hall, 2001). Previous studies has detected a global uplift of the island accommodating the Australian plate - South West Banda Arc convergence (Fleury et al., 2009). This uplift is associated with northeastward tilting and gravitational collapse to the South. Analyses of various geomorphic markers (perched low relief landscapes, rockyshore platform, coral reef terraces, drainages) and of morphometric indices allowed us to localise new structures (faults and folds), to determine the chronology of their activation and to better constraint the uplift history of Sumba Island. These results aim to understand the evolution of the deformation in Sumba Island in regard with its geodynamic context from Middle Miocene to present-day.

  16. Seismic stratigraphy of barrier-island arc retreat paths in Mississippi River delta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penland, S.; Suter, J.R.


    The stratigraphic record preserved in the retreat path of Mississippi delta barrier-island arcs is controlled by erosional shoreface retreat processes, relative sea level rise, and sediment supply. More than 500 km (300 mi) of high resolution shallow seismic profiles correlated with vibracores from retreat paths fronting the Isles Dernieres and Chandeleur barrier-island arcs, show contrasting stratigraphic sequences preserved on the inner continental shelf (Mississippian delta). The Isles Dernieres barrier-island arc developed as a consequence of the Caillou Headland abandonment in the early Lafourche delta approximately 800 years B.P. On the lower shoreface, channels can be seen projecting seaward under the central part of the island arc; associated with it is a beach-ridge plain extending eastward. On the inner shelf, a sand sheet up to 60 cm (2 ft) thick marks the retreat path of the Isles Dernieres. The Chandeleur barrier-island arc was generated by abandonment of the St. Bernard delta complex 1,500 years ago. Scattered outcrops of shell reefs and lagoonal deposits occur on the lower shoreface. Beyond the shoreface, a 1 to 5 m (3 to 16 ft) thick sand sheet, caps tidal inlet scars up to 10 m (33 ft) thick, as well as the basal portions of migrating barrier-island sequences associated with earlier shoreline positions. Differences seen in the two stratigraphic sequences are a function of distributary size and depositional history of each barrier-island arc. The Isles Dernieres developed from a series of small sand-deficient distributaries in the Lafourche delta complex, whereas the Chandeleur Islands developed from large sand-rich distributaries of the St. Bernard delta complex.

  17. Costs of Low-Scale Distance Learning Programs: A Case of Distance Learning Courses in the Aegean Islands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costas Tsolakidis


    Full Text Available The advance of Information and Communication Technology (ICT and the reduction of cost in digital applications motivate course designers to develop new application of distance learning programs so as to meet the increasing educational needs in the knowledge-based society. As a consequence, distance learning courses are increasing in number, credibility and acceptability all over the world. The question is whether these programs are efficient in terms of costs. The main theme of this work is to investigate cost behaviour and estimate cost efficiency of distance learning courses applied in low-inhabited, remote islands. The target group consists of high school students of Grade I. The distance learning course that is designed uses several scenarios of the “what-if form” and reaches the conclusion that cost of such solutions is far lower than that of any traditional course, even at the absence of scale economies.

  18. Bivergent thrust wedges surrounding oceanic island arcs: Insight from observations and sandbox models of the northeastern caribbean plate (United States)

    ten Brink, U.S.; Marshak, S.; Granja, Bruna J. L.


    At several localities around the world, thrust belts have developed on both sides of oceanic island arcs (e.g., Java-Timor, Panama, Vanuatu, and the northeastern Caribbean). In these localities, the overall vergence of the backarc thrust belt is opposite to that of the forearc thrust belt. For example, in the northeastern Caribbean, a north-verging accretionary prism lies to the north of the Eastern Greater Antilles arc (Hispaniola and Puerto Rico), whereas a south-verging thrust belt called the Muertos thrust belt lies to the south. Researchers have attributed such bivergent geometry to several processes, including: reversal of subduction polarity; subduction-driven mantle flow; stress transmission across the arc; gravitational spreading of the arc; and magmatic inflation within the arc. New observations of deformational features in the Muertos thrust belt and of fault geometries produced in sandbox kinematic models, along with examination of published studies of island arcs, lead to the conclusion that the bivergence of thrusting in island arcs can develop without reversal of subduction polarity, without subarc mantle flow, and without magmatic inflation. We suggest that the Eastern Greater Antilles arc and comparable arcs are simply crustalscale bivergent (or "doubly vergent") thrust wedges formed during unidirectional subduction. Sandbox kinematic modeling suggests, in addition, that a broad retrowedge containing an imbricate fan of thrusts develops only where the arc behaves relatively rigidly. In such cases, the arc acts as a backstop that transmits compressive stress into the backarc region. Further, modeling shows that when arcs behave as rigid blocks, the strike-slip component of oblique convergence is accommodated entirely within the prowedge and the arc-the retrowedge hosts only dip-slip faulting ("frontal thrusting"). The existence of large retrowedges and the distribution of faulting in an island arc may, therefore, be evidence that the arc is

  19. The petrogenesis of sodic island arc magmas at Savo volcano, Solomon Islands (United States)

    Smith, D. J.; Petterson, M. G.; Saunders, A. D.; Millar, I. L.; Jenkin, G. R. T.; Toba, T.; Naden, J.; Cook, J. M.


    Savo, Solomon Islands, is a historically active volcano dominated by sodic, alkaline lavas, and pyroclastic rocks with up to 7.5 wt% Na2O, and high Sr, arc-like trace element chemistry. The suite is dominated by mugearites (plagioclase-clinopyroxene-magnetite ± amphibole ± olivine) and trachytes (plagioclase-amphibole-magnetite ± biotite). The presence of hydrous minerals (amphibole, biotite) indicates relatively wet magmas. In such melts, plagioclase is relatively unstable relative to iron oxides and ferromagnesian silicates; it is the latter minerals (particularly hornblende) that dominate cumulate nodules at Savo and drive the chemical differentiation of the suite, with a limited role for plagioclase. This is potentially occurring in a crustal “hot zone”, with major chemical differentiation occurring at depth. Batches of magma ascend periodically, where they are subject to decompression, water saturation and further cooling, resulting in closed-system crystallisation of plagioclase, and ultimately the production of sodic, crystal and feldspar-rich, high-Sr rocks. The sodic and hydrous nature of the parental magmas is interpreted to be the result of partial melting of metasomatised mantle, but radiogenic isotope data (Pb, Sr, Nd) cannot uniquely identify the source of the metasomatic agent.

  20. Eocene volcanism during the incipient stage of Izu–Ogasawara Arc: Geology and petrology of the Mukojima Island Group, the Ogasawara Islands.


    Kanayama, Kyoko; Umino, Susumu; Ishizuka, Osamu


    The Ogasawara Islands mainly comprise Eocene volcanic strata formed when the Izu-Ogasawara-Mariana Arc began. We present the first detailed volcanic geology, petrography and geochemistry of the Mukojima Island Group, northernmost of the Ogasawara Islands, and show that the volcanic stratigraphy consists of arc tholeiitic rocks, ultra-depleted boninite-series rocks, and less-depleted boninitic andesites, which are correlatable to the Maruberiwan, Asahiyama and Mikazukiyama Formations on the Ch...

  1. An updated checklist of poisonous fishes of Turkish Aegean Sea


    Bahar Bayhan; Murat Kaya


    The current status of marine poisonous fish species ranging in the Aegean Sea coastline in Turkey were introduced. Turkey is a peninsula surrounded by seas with different ecological features on three sides. The total length of shoreline is 8 333 km including the islands. The total number of fish species in Turkish seas is 512, of which 449 live in the Aegean Sea followed by the Mediterranean Sea (441 species), the Marmara Sea (257 species) and the Black Sea (154species). O...

  2. Seismological, Geological and Geomorphic Aspects of Arc Segmentation and Their Relation to Subducting Bathymetric Features in the Solomon Island Arc, SW Pacific Ocean (United States)

    Chen, M.; Frohlich, C.; Taylor, F. W.


    Arc segmentation partitions forearcs into multiple blocks so that the forearc behaves like a "keyboard on a piano" as each segment potentially interacts with the downgoing plate in a different tectonic style. For example, parts of the forearc of the Solomon Islands arc has undergone hundreds of meters of rapid subsidence and uplift during late Quaternary time. Other parts have undergone only minor late Quaternary movements. We use seismology, geology, and geomorphology to identify arc segments in order to evaluate how bathymetric features on the subducting plate influence seismicity and active tectonics and cause overriding plate segmentation. Seismic rupture areas for large earthquakes, seismicity patterns, seismicity cross sections, focal mechanisms, and seismic moment calculations all reveal that the central arc being underthrust by the Woodlark Basin system of active sea-floor spreading is very different from the northwest and southeast parts of the arc. Woodlark subduction is characterized by sparse seismicity, gentle subduction angle, and thrust faulting with some normal and strike-slip components. Observations from geologic maps, coastal geomorphology, and emerged coral reefs show that the arc segments are undergoing varying amounts and rates of uplift and submergence. Larger islands such as Guadalcanal and San Cristobal have both drowning and emerging coastlines. This information indicates the individual segments have dramatically different histories of vertical tectonics. We identify three supersegments: Bougainville, New Georgia, and Guadalcanal-San Cristobal. Smaller segments subdivide each supersegment. Thus we identify nine major boundaries, seven minor boundaries, and six possible boundaries. The classification of each boundary depends on the strength of evidence supporting its existence and the amount of change in tectonic behavior across the boundary. We speculate that subduction of the young Woodlark Spreading Center with seamounts and ridges on

  3. Volcano-Hydrothermal Systems of the Central and Northern Kuril Island Arc - a Review (United States)

    Kalacheva, E.; Taran, Y.; Voloshina, E.; Ptashinsky, L.


    More than 20 active volcanoes with historical eruptions are known on 17 islands composing the Central and Northern part of the Kurilian Arc. Six islands - Paramushir, Shiashkotan, Rasshua, Ushishir, Ketoy and Simushir - are characterized by hydrothermal activity, complementary to the fumarolic activity in their craters. There are several types of volcano-hydrothermal systems on the islands. At Paramushir, Shiashkotan and Ketoy the thermal manifestations are acidic to ultra-acidic water discharges associated with hydrothermal aquifers inside volcano edifices and formed as the result of the absorption of magmatic gases by ground waters. A closest known analogue of such activity is Satsuma-Iwojima volcano-island at the Ryukyu Arc. Another type of hydrothermal activity are wide spread coastal hot springs (Shiashkotan, Rasshua), situated as a rule within tide zones and formed by mixing of the heated seawater with cold groundwater or, in opposite, by mixing of the steam- or conductively heated groundwater with seawater. This type of thermal manifestation is similar to that reported for other volcanic islands of the world (Satsuma Iwojima, Monserrat, Ischia, Socorro). Ushishir volcano-hydrothermal system is formed by the absorption of magmatic gases by seawater. Only Ketoy Island hosts a permanent acidic crater lake. At Ebeko volcano (Paramushir) rapidly disappearing small acidic lakes (formed after phreatic eruptions) have been reported. The main hydrothermal manifestation of Simushir is the Zavaritsky caldera lake with numerous coastal thermal springs and weak steam vents. The last time measured temperatures of fumaroles at the islands are: >500ºC at Pallas Peak (Ketoy), 480ºC at Kuntamintar volcano (Shiashkotan), variable and fast changing temperatures from 120º C to 500ºC at Ebeko volcano (Paramushir), 150ºC in the Rasshua crater, and > 300ºC in the Chirpoy crater (Black Brothers islands). The magmatic and rock-forming solute output by the Kurilian volcano

  4. Gas venting rates from submarine hydrothermal areas around the island of Milos, Hellenic Volcanic Arc (United States)

    Dando, P. R.; Hughes, J. A.; Leahy, Y.; Niven, S. J.; Taylor, L. J.; Smith, C.


    Gas seeps were located, by echo sounding, SCUBA divers and ROV observations, at hydrothermal sites around the island of Milos, in the Hellenic Volcanic Arc. Samples were collected by SCUBA divers and by a ROV from water depths between 3 and 110 m. Fifty-six flow rates from 39 individual seeps were measured and these ranged from 0.2 to 18.51 h -1 at the depth of collection. The major component, 54.9-91.9% of the gas, was carbon dioxide. Hydrogen (≤3%), methane (≤9.7%) and hydrogen sulphide (≤8.1%) were also measured. Hydrothermal free gas fluxes from the submarine hydrothermal areas around Milos were estimated to be greater than 10 10 moles y -1. It was concluded that submarine gas seeps along volcanic island arcs may be an important carbon dioxide source.

  5. The oldest island arc and ophiolite complexes of the Russian Arctic (Taimyr Peninsula) (United States)

    Vernikovskaya, Antonina E.; Vernikovsky, Valery A.; Metelkin, Dmitriy V.; Matushkin, Nikolay Y.; Romanova, Irina V.


    Knowing the age of indicator complexes such as island arc, ophiolite, collisional, subductional etc. is extremely important for paleogeodynamic reconstructions. The age along with other geological and geophysical data enables the reestablishing of the positions of terranes of various origins in relation to continental margins and to each other. When studying the issues concerning the ancient Arctida paleocontinent, the nature of terranes and continental plates that compose the present day arctic shelf and submerged ridges it is important to determine the main stages of tectonic events. At the same time it is particularly important to establish the earliest stages of tectonic transformations. The Taimyr-Severnaya Zemlya orogenic belt is one of the large accretionary-collisional key structures in the Arctic. The Central Taimyr accretionary belt includes two granite-metamorphic terranes: Faddey and Mamont-Shrenk that include the oldest igneous formations of Taimyr. Those are granitoids with U/Pb zircons age of 850-830 Ma (Faddey) and 940-885 Ma (Mamont-Shrenk). Presently we have determined fragments of paleo-island arcs and ophiolites in the framing of these terranes. Moreover, in addition to already identified Neoproterozoic (755-730 Ma) ophiolites and island arc rocks (plagiogranites, gabbro, volcanics) we found more ancient rock complexes in the framings of both terranes closer in age to the Meso-Neoproterozoic boundary. In the region of the Tree Sisters Lake a paleo-island arc complex was found including plagiogranites and plagiorhyodacites with U-Pb isotopic zircon age of 969-961 Ma. Sm-Nd isotopic data for these rocks showed a Mesoproterozoic model age: TNd(DM) varies from 1170 to 1219 Ma. These data as well as Rb-Sr isotopic investigations indicate a predominance of a mantle component in the magmatic sources of these rocks: ɛNd (967-961) = 5.1-5.2 and (87Sr/86Sr)0 =0.70258-0.70391. In the framing of the Mamont-Shrenk terrane we determined ophiolite fragments

  6. The Aegean: A natural laboratory for tectonics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Aegean, a young and active tectonic region, is a natural laboratory for analyzing many tectonic processes that occur in backarc extensional regimes, and the correlation of these processes from landscape development to deeper mantle dynamics. Cenozoic development of the Aegean region was dominated by subduction beneath Europe and coeval upper plate extension modified by westward extrusion of Anatolia. Intraorogenic and backarc extension began during early Cenozoic time within the Balkans and NW Turkey during closure of the Vardar ocean. Extension was manifested by core complex formation and a change in volcanism caused by the evolution of the lithosphere and mantle wedge. Following a short period of local (?) shortening in ∼ early Miocene time, regional extension began and continued to the present. Within the Hellenides, E-W extension and the subduction zone migrated westward as thick and thin crustal units were progressively accreted and were complexly rotated up to 400 CW. Within the eastern Balkans and NW Turkey, N-S extension migrated westward and southward, and in the Aegean the volcanic arc and subduction zone migrated southward. Turkish crustal elements rotated complexly CCW, which in concert with the CW rotation in the Hellenides increased the curvature of the subduction zone and lengthened the orogen causing greater subsidence and extension in the Aegean Sea. Westward extrusion of Anatolia from the Arabian collision zone was enhanced by slab roll back in west moving Aegean crust more rapidly westward. Abundant evidence supports slab rollback at different velocities along the subduction zone. In Pliocene time, the North Anatolian fault crossed the Hellenides in a complex transtensional zone and a diffuse zone of left-lateral shear crossed western Turkey at present isolating a relatively undeforming Aegean plate. Major tectonic questions include: What is the geometry and fate of subducted slabs?, How much crust is accreted during subduction of thick and

  7. Subduction Controls of Hf and Nd Isotopes in Lavas of the Aleutian Island Arc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yogodzinski, Gene; Vervoort, Jeffery; Brown, Shaun Tyler; Gerseny, Megan


    The Hf and Nd isotopic compositions of 71 Quaternary lavas collected from locations along the full length of the Aleutian island arc are used to constrain the sources of Aleutian magmas and to provide insight into the geochemical behavior of Nd and Hf and related elements in the Aleutian subduction-magmatic system. Isotopic compositions of Aleutian lavas fall approximately at the center of, and form a trend parallel to, the terrestrial Hf-Nd isotopic array with {var_epsilon}{sub Hf} of +12.0 to +15.5 and {var_epsilon}{sub Nd} of +6.5 to +10.5. Basalts, andesites, and dacites within volcanic centers or in nearby volcanoes generally all have similar isotopic compositions, indicating that there is little measurable effect of crustal or other lithospheric assimilation within the volcanic plumbing systems of Aleutian volcanoes. Hafnium isotopic compositions have a clear pattern of along-arc increase that is continuous from the eastern-most locations near Cold Bay to Piip Seamount in the western-most part of the arc. This pattern is interpreted to reflect a westward decrease in the subducted sediment component present in Aleutian lavas, reflecting progressively lower rates of subduction westward as well as decreasing availability of trench sediment. Binary bulk mixing models (sediment + peridotite) demonstrate that 1-2% of the Hf in Aleutian lavas is derived from subducted sediment, indicating that Hf is mobilized out of the subducted sediment with an efficiency that is similar to that of Sr, Pb and Nd. Low published solubility for Hf and Nd in aqueous subduction fluids lead us to conclude that these elements are mobilized out of the subducted component and transferred to the mantle wedge as bulk sediment or as a silicate melt. Neodymium isotopes also generally increase from east to west, but the pattern is absent in the eastern third of the arc, where the sediment flux is high and increases from east to west, due to the presence of abundant terrigenous sediment in the

  8. Heterogeneous stress state of island arc crust in northeastern Japan affected by hot mantle fingers (United States)

    Shibazaki, Bunichiro; Okada, Tomomi; Muto, Jun; Matsumoto, Takumi; Yoshida, Takeyoshi; Yoshida, Keisuke


    By considering a thermal structure based on dense geothermal observations, we model the stress state of the crust beneath the northeastern Japan island arc under a compressional tectonic regime using a finite element method with viscoelasticity and elastoplasticity. We consider a three-layer structure (upper crust, lower crust, and uppermost mantle) to define flow properties. Numerical results show that the brittle-viscous transition becomes shallower beneath the Ou Backbone Range compared with areas near the margins of the Pacific Ocean and the Japan Sea. Moreover, several elongate regions with a shallow brittle-viscous transition are oriented transverse to the arc, and these regions correspond to hot fingers (i.e., high-temperature regions in the mantle wedge). The stress level is low in these regions due to viscous deformation. Areas of seismicity roughly correspond to zones of stress accumulation where many intraplate earthquakes occur. Our model produces regions with high uplift rates that largely coincide with regions of high elevation (e.g., the Ou Backbone Range). The stress state, fault development, and uplift around the Ou Backbone Range can all be explained by our model. The results also suggest the existence of low-viscosity regions corresponding to hot fingers in the island arc crust. These low-viscosity regions have possibly affected viscous relaxation processes following the 2011 Tohoku-oki earthquake.

  9. Crustal structure of Guadeloupe Islands and the Lesser Antilles Arc from a new gravity and magnetic synthesis


    Gailler, Lydie; Bouchot, Vincent; Martelet, Guillaume; Thinon, Isabelle; Lebrun, Jean-Frédéric; Münch, Philippe


    Guadeloupe Island (West French Indies) is one of the twenty islands that compose the Lesser Antilles Arc, which results from the subduction of the Atlantic Ocean plate beneath the Caribbean one. The island lies in a complex volcano-tectonic system and the need to understand its geological context has led to numerous on- and offshore geophysical investigations. This work presents the compilation and processing of available, on-land, airborne and marine, gravity and magnetic data acquired durin...

  10. Esmeralda Bank: Geochemistry of an active submarine volcano in the Mariana Island Arc (United States)

    Stern, Robert J.; Bibee, L. D.


    Esmeralda Bank is the southernmost active volcano in the Izu-Volcano-Mariana Arc. This submarine volcano is one of the most active vents in the western Pacific. It has a total volume of about 27 km3, rising to within 30 m of sea level. Two dredge hauls from Esmeralda recovered fresh, nearly aphyric, vesicular basalts and basaltic andesites and minor basaltic vitrophyre. These samples reflect uniform yet unusual major and trace element chemistries. Mean abundances of TiO2 (1.3%) and FeO* (12.6%) are higher and CaO (9.2%) and Al2O3 (15.1%) are lower than rocks of similar silica content from other active Mariana Arc volcanoes. Mean incompatible element ratios K/Rb (488) and K/Ba (29) of Esmeralda rocks are indistinguishable from those of other Mariana Arc volcanoes. On a Ti-Zr plot, Esmeralda samples plot in the field of oceanic basalts while other Mariana Arc volcanic rocks plot in the field for island arcs. Incompatible element ratios K/Rb and K/Ba and isotopic compositions of Sr (87Sr/86Sr=0.70342 0.70348), Nd (ɛND=+7.6 to +8.1), and O(δ18O=+5.8 to +5.9) are incompatible with models calling for the Esmeralda source to include appreciable contributions from pelagic sediments or fresh or altered abyssal tholeiite from subduction zone melting. Instead, incompatible element and isotopic ratios of Esmeralda rocks are similar to those of intra-plate oceanic islands or “hot-spot” volcanoes in general and Kilauean tholeiites in particular. The conclusion that the source for Esmeralda lavas is an ocean-island type mantle reservoir is preferred. Esmeralda Bank rare earth element patterns are inconsistent with models calling for residual garnet in the source region, but are adequately modelled by 7 10% equilibrium partial melting of spinel lherzolite. This is supported by consideration of the results of melting experiments at 20 kbars, 1,150° C with CO2 and H2O as important volatile components. These experiments further indicate that low MgO (4.1%), MgO/FeO*(0.25) and

  11. Tectonic implications of spatial variation of b-values and heat flow in the Aegean region (United States)

    Kalyoncuoglu, U. Yalcin; Elitok, Ömer; Dolmaz, M. Nuri


    The Aegean region is tectonically a complex area characterized mainly by the subduction of African oceanic lithosphere beneath the Aegean continental lithosphere including extensional subbasins and mantle driven block rotations. In this study, spatial distribution of earthquakes, b-value distribution, and heat flow data have been analyzed to reveal the deep structural features of the Aegean region. b-value distributions show two low NE-SW and NW-SE trending b-anomaly zones in the western and eastern side of the Crete, implying slab tear within the Aegean slab. Earthquake foci distribution indicates that the Aegean slab steepens in the eastern side of the Crete, compared to its western side. Earthquake foci reach maximum depth of 180 km along the Cycladic arc axis, suggesting northward subducted slab geometry. The low seismic activities and high b-value anomalies within Aegean basin, except North Aegean Trough, can be compared to higher heat flow. We concluded that collision-induced westward mantle flow beneath Turkey followed by hard collision between Arabian-Eurasian continental plates played a major role in the evolution of clockwise rotational retreat of the Aegean slab and slab steepening to the east of the Crete.

  12. Arc lavas on both sides of a trench: Slab window effects at the Solomon Islands triple junction, SW Pacific (United States)

    Chadwick, John; Perfit, Michael; McInnes, Brent; Kamenov, George; Plank, Terry; Jonasson, Ian; Chadwick, Claire


    The Woodlark Spreading Center (WSC) is subducted at the San Cristobal trench, forming a triple junction at the New Georgia Group (NGG) arc in the Solomon Islands. WSC lavas are N-MORB at > 100 km from the trench, but with decreasing distance they have increasingly arc-like Sr-Nd-Pb isotopic ratios, enrichments in Rb > K > Pb > Sr, and depletions in HFSE and Y. Within 50 km of the trench on the Simbo and Ghizo Ridges, many recovered samples are island arc tholeiites to medium-K calc-alkaline andesites and dacites, and many have the same or similar major and trace element and isotopic characteristics as true arc lavas in the NGG on the other side of the trench. Previous investigations have concluded that these WSC lavas are the result of relic back arc mantle enrichments resulting from subduction of the Pacific plate prior to the late Miocene at the North Solomon trench, > 200 km to the north. However, the high-silica WSC lavas are more arc-like than those recovered from other distal back arcs, and are more voluminous, forming large submarine ridges and stratovolcanoes. We suggest that true arc mantle migrates across the plate boundary from the adjacent NGG arc through slab windows created by the subduction of the WSC. This leads to variable mixing between NGG arc and WSC N-MORB end-members, forming the transitional lavas recovered from the WSC. Lavas with similar arc-like characteristics have previously been recovered on the Chile Rise near where it is subducted at the Chile Trench, raising the possibility that such mantle transfer is a common phenomenon where active spreading centers are subducted. The presence of slab windows may also be responsible for the unusual forearc volcanism in the NGG, and melting of slab window margins may account for the presence of high-silica adakite-like lavas on the WSC.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Vanin


    Full Text Available Metamorphosed volcanic rocks of the Ushmukan suite were studied in the Mukodek gold-ore field located in the Baikal-Muya belt in the Northern Baikal area, Russia. The Ushmukan suite shows interleaving of ortoschists which compositions are widely variable. Basalt-andesite-dacite series of normal alkalinity are the substrate of the studied metavolcanic rocks. Based on the set of geochemical characteristics, it is concluded that the rocks were formed in suprasubduction geodynamic conditions corresponding to a mature island arc. The proximity of the geological locations and the similarity of the geochemical characteristics of the volcanic rocks of the Ushmukan suite and rocks of the Kelyan suite (Neoproterozoic, 823 Ma, which have similar compositions, give grounds to consider these two rock suites as age peers. Specific features of gold distribution through the Mukodek gold-ore field are analyzed. Industrial gold contents are recorded only in berezite-listvenite metasomatic rocks of the gold-quartz-sulfide formation which were formed on metavolcanic rocks of the Ushmukan suite. It is concluded that the volcanic rocks, which are specific of the island-arc setting, could be a source of gold for deposits in the Mukodek gold-ore field. 

  14. Island-Arc Collision Dominates Japan's Sediment Flux to the Pacific Ocean (United States)

    Codilean, A. T.; Korup, O.; Hayakawa, Y. S.; Matsushi, Y.; Saito, H.; Matsuzaki, H.


    Quantifying volumes and rates of delivery of terrestrial sediment to subduction zones is indispensable for refining estimates of the thickness of trench fills that may eventually control the location and timing of submarine landslides and tsunami-generating mega-earthquakes. Despite these motivating insights, knowledge about the rates of erosion and sediment export from the Japanese islands to their Pacific subduction zones has somewhat stagnated despite the increasing availability of highly resolved data on surface deformation, climate, geology, and topography. Traditionally, natural erosion rates across the island arc have been estimated from catchment topographic predictors of reservoir sedimentation rates that were recorded over several years to decades. We correct for a systematic bias in these predictions, and present new estimates of decadal to millennial-scale erosion rates of the Japanese terrestrial inner forearc, drawing on several unprecedented inventories of mass wasting, reservoir sedimentation, and concentrations of cosmogenic 10Be in river sands. Our data reveal that catchments draining Japan's eastern seaboard have distinctly different tectonic, lithological, topographic, and climatic characteristics, underscored by a marked asymmetric pattern of erosion rates along and across the island arc. Erosion rates are highest in the Japanese Alps that mark the collision of two subduction zones, where high topographic relief, hillslope and bedrock-channel steepness foster rapid denudation by mass wasting. Comparable, if slightly lower, rates characterize southwest Japan, most likely due to higher typhoon-driven rainfall totals and variability rather than the similarly high relief and contemporary uplift rates that are linked to subduction earthquake cycles, and outpace long-term Quaternary uplift. In contrast, our estimated erosion and flux rates are lowest in the inner forearc catchments that feed sediment into the Japan Trench. We conclude that

  15. A structural outline of the Yenkahe volcanic resurgent dome (Tanna Island, Vanuatu Arc, South Pacific) (United States)

    Merle, O.; Brothelande, E.; Lénat, J.-F.; Bachèlery, P.; Garaébiti, E.


    A structural study has been conducted on the resurgent Yenkahe dome (5 km long by 3 km wide) located in the heart of the Siwi caldera of Tanna Island (Vanuatu arc, south Pacific). This spectacular resurgent dome hosts a small caldera and a very active strombolian cinder cone - the Yasur volcano - in the west and exhibits an intriguing graben in its central part. Detailed mapping and structural observations make it possible to unravel the volcano-tectonic history of the dome. It is shown that, following the early formation of a resurgent dome in the west, a complex collapse (caldera plus graben) occurred and this was associated with the recent uplift of the eastern part of the present dome. Eastward migration of the underlying magma related to regional tectonics is proposed to explain this evolution.

  16. On the time-scales of magmatism at island-arc volcanoes. (United States)

    Turner, S P


    Precise information on time-scales and rates of change is fundamental to an understanding of natural processes and the development of quantitative physical models in the Earth sciences. U-series isotope studies are revolutionizing this field by providing time information in the range 10(2)-10(4) years, which is similar to that of many modern Earth processes. I review how the application of U-series isotopes has been used to constrain the time-scales of magma formation, ascent and storage beneath island-arc volcanoes. Different elements are distilled-off the subducting plate at different times and in different places. Contributions from subducted sediments to island-arc lava sources appear to occur some 350 kyr to 4 Myr prior to eruption. Fluid release from the subducting oceanic crust into the mantle wedge may be a multi-stage process and occurs over a period ranging from a few hundred kyr to less than one kyr prior to eruption. This implies that dehydration commences prior to the initiation of partial melting within the mantle wedge, which is consistent with recent evidence that the onset of melting is controlled by an isotherm and thus the thermal structure within the wedge. U-Pa disequilibria appear to require a component of decompression melting, possibly due to the development of gravitational instabilities. The preservation of large (226)Ra disequilibria permits only a short period of time between fluid addition and eruption. This requires rapid melt segregation, magma ascent by channelled flow and minimal residence time within the lithosphere. The evolution from basalt to basaltic andesite probably occurs rapidly during ascent or in magma reservoirs inferred from some geophysical data to lie within the lithospheric mantle. The flux across the Moho is broadly andesitic, and some magmas subsequently stall in more shallow crustal-level magma chambers, where they evolve to more differentiated compositions on time-scales of a few thousand years or less.

  17. Geology and Genesis of Peraluminous Granites in East Tianshan Upper Paleozoic Island Arc Belt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾连兴; 严正富; 等


    A peraluminous granite belt occurs along the connecting zone between the Turpan Hami Precambrian block and the Upper Paleozoic island arc belt.Muscovite granite and twomica granite are the essential lithological components of that belt.All the potassium feldspars in these granites are microcline.Heavy minerals are dominated by magnetite,SiO2 contents of these granites are greater than 73% with most of the A/NKC values greater than 1,1,norma tive corundum values greater than 1 Plots of CIPW norms in the (Al-K-Na) Ca(Fe2++Mg) diagran are mostly situated in the plagioclase cordierite-muscovite region.The rocks are characterized by very low contents of minor elements and ∑REE with strong Eu depletion δ18 O values between 6.6‰and 7.0‰,Rb-Sr isochron age of 260.2±6.2Ma and an initial 87Sr/86 Sr ration of 0.7052,These granites might have been produced by partial melting of moderately acidic volcanites and low-maturity sediments in the basement sequences and could be genetically connected with the southware A-type subduction of the Turpan-Hami block following the closure of the Middle Carboniferous back-arc basin.

  18. Do fluid inclusions preserve δ18O values of hydrothermal fluids in epithermal systems over geological time? : evidence from paleo- and modern geothermal systems, Milos island, Aegean Sea


    Naden, Jonathan; Kilias, S.P.; M. J. Leng; Cheliotis, I.; Shepherd, T.J.


    Stable isotope compositions of quartz (δ18Oquartz) and fluid inclusion waters (δ18OFI and δDFI) were analysed from Profitis Ilias, a low-sulphidation epithermal gold mineralisation deposit on Milos island Greece, to establish if δ18OFI preserve a record of paleo-geothermal processes. Previous studies show that mineralisation at Profitis Ilias resulted from extreme boiling and vaporisation and a zone located at approximately 430 m asl represents the transition between a liquid- and vapour-dom...

  19. An updated checklist of poisonous ifshes of Turkish Aegean Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bahar Bayhan; Murat Kaya


    The current status of marine poisonous fish species ranging in the Aegean Sea coastline in Turkey were introduced. Turkey is a peninsula surrounded by seas with different ecological features on three sides. The total length of shoreline is 8 333 km including the islands. The total number of fish species in Turkish seas is 512, of which 449 live in the Aegean Sea followed by the Mediterranean Sea (441 species), the Marmara Sea (257 species) and the Black Sea (154species). On the Aegean Sea coasts, the richest sea regarding fish diversity, the number of poisonous fish species is also high. This mini-review revealed 51 poisonous fish species belonging to 14 families in the Turkish Aegean Sea. On the Aegean Sea coasts poisonous fish species can be categorized into three groups: (i) Fish that contain venomous spines on the tail or on the operculum (ii) Fish that carry poisonous bite and (iii) Fish having poisonous flesh or liver. Poisoning fish that contain venomous spines on the tail or on the operculum mostly are dangerous because of their poisonous thorns whereas the passive poisonous fish species poison when they are eaten. These toxins can cause morbidity and rarely, mortality in humans. Apart from these, swallowing the blood of species such as European eelAnguilla anguillaand European congerConger congermight also cause poisoning. Besides, as there has been an invasion of puffer fish especially on the Turkish Mediterranean and Aegean coasts in recent years, there is a danger in question. Thus, it is very important to particularly draw attention to these fish on the Turkish coasts.

  20. Geochemical characteristics of island-arc volcanic rocks in the Nan-Nam Pat-Phetchabun zone, northern Thailand

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN Shangyue; FENG Qinglai; YANG Wenqiang; ZHANG Zhibin; Chongpom Chonglakmani


    Late Permian-Early Triassic (P2-T1) volcanic rocks distributed on the eastern side of ocean-ridge and oceanic-island basalts in the Nan-Uttaradit zone were analyzed from aspects of petrographic characteristics, rock assemblage, REE, trace elements, geotectonic setting, etc., indicating that those volcanic rocks possess the characteristic features of island-arc volcanic rocks. The volcanic rock assemblage is basalt-basaltic andesite-andesite. The volcanic rocks are sub-alkaline, dominated by calc-alkaline series, with tholeiite series coming next. The chemical composition of the volcanic rocks is characterized by low TiO2 and K2O and high Al2O3 and Na2O. Their REE patterns are of the flat, weak LREE-enrichment right-inclined type. The trace elements are characterized by the enrichment of large cation elements such as K, Rb and Ba, common enrichment of U and Th, and depletion of Nb, Ta, Zr and Hf. The petrochemical plot falls within the field of volcanic rocks, in consistency with the plot of island-arc volcanic rocks in the Jinsha River zone of China. This island-arc volcanic zone, together with the ocean-ridge/oceanic island type volcanic rocks in the Nan-Uttaradit zone, constitutes the ocean-ridge volcanic rock-island-arc magmatic rock zones which are distributed in pairs, indicating that the oceanic crust of the Nan-Uttaradit zone once was of eastward subduction. This work is of great significance in exploring the evolution of paleo-Tethys in the Nan-Uttaradit zone.

  1. Seasonal and vertical variations of phytoplankton composition in Marine Park of Gökçeada Island in the North Aegean Sea


    Güreşen, Aysu; Turan, Yelda Aktan


    Abstract This study was conducted to understand the seasonal and vertical variations in the composition and abundance of phytoplankton assemblages in the Marine Park of Gökçeada Island and to evaluate the relations of phytoplankton community structure with the environmental parameters. Water samples were taken from the water column at surface water, 10 m, 20 m and 28 m depths in Yıldız Bay seasonally between May 2009 and January 2010. A total of 28 species belonging to Bacillariophyceae (61%)...

  2. Geochemistry of quaternary volcanism in the Sunda-Banda arc, Indonesia, and three-component genesis of island-arc basaltic magmas (United States)

    Wheller, G. E.; Varne, R.; Foden, J. D.; Abbott, M. J.


    Volcanic rocks of the Sunda and Banda arcs range from tholeiitic through calcalkaline and shoshonitic to leucititic, the widest compositional span of mafic magmatism known from an active arc setting. Mafic rocks in our data set, which includes 315 new analyses of volcanic rocks from twelve Quaternary volcanoes, including Batu Tara in the previously geochemically unknown Flores-Lembata arc sector, are generally similar to those from other island arcs: most contain Flores arc sectors each comprise volcanoes which become progressively more K-rich eastwards, culminating in the leucitite volcanoes Muriah, Soromundi and Sangenges, and Batu Tara, respectively. In the most easterly Banda sector, the volcanics vary from high- to low-K eastwards around the arc. Correlations between geochemistry and 87Sr/ 86Sr values show separate trends for each of the four arc sectors, believed to be the result of involvement of at least three geochemically and isotopically distinct components in the source regions of the arc magmatism. A dominant source component with a low K content and a low 87Sr/ 86Sr value, and common to all sectors, is probably peridotitic mantle. A second component, with low K content but high 87Sr/ 86Sr value, appears to be crustal material. This component is most apparent in the Banda sector, in keeping with that sector's tectonic setting close to Precambrian Australian continental crust, but it is also present to lesser extents in the West Java and Flores sectors. However, the most marked geochemical and isotopic variations shown by the arc volcanics are primarily due to the involvement of a third component, which is rich in K-group elements but has relatively low 87Sr/ 86Sr values. This component appears to be mantle-derived and is least overprinted by crustal material in the Bali sector volcanics where the Pb, Be, U-Th and O isotope characteristics of the rocks support the suggestion that their genesis has not involved incorporation of recently subducted

  3. Using helium and carbon(CO2)isotopes to distinguish between source and crustal contribution in arc magmas. A case study from the Lesser Antilles island arc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A quantitative assessment of the fate of sediments at subduction zones is a vital component in understanding then cycling history between the mantle and the exosphere. Coupling helium isotope (3He/4He) investigations with a tracer of sediment type - such as carbon isotopes (13C)- offers the additional possibility of identifying the nature of the subducted sedimentary component (marine versus terrigenous sediments for example). A regional survey of the helium and carbon isotope geochemistry of the Lesser Antilles volcanic arc was undertaken. Both geothermal fluids (fumaroles and hot springs) and young phenocryst-bearing lavas were analysed to establish helium and carbon relations along the arc. The northern group of islands appears to be characterised by a mixture of MORB with subducted slab component while the southern group has a clear signature of crustal contamination: however in this case the CO2/3He ratios indicate a possible third component

  4. The Permian Dongfanghong island-arc gabbro of the Wandashan Orogen, NE China: Implications for Paleo-Pacific subduction (United States)

    Sun, Ming-Dao; Xu, Yi-Gang; Wilde, Simon A.; Chen, Han-Lin; Yang, Shu-Feng


    The Dongfanghong hornblende gabbro is located in the western part of the Wandashan Orogen and to the east of the Jiamusi Block in NE China. It was emplaced into Early Paleozoic oceanic crust (i.e. Dongfanghong ophiolite) at ~ 275 Ma and both later collided with the eastern margin of the Jiamusi Block. The Dongfanghong gabbro is sub-alkaline with high Na2O contents and is characterized by enrichment in light rare earth elements (LREE), large ion lithosphile elements (LILE), Sr, Eu, and Ba, and depletion in high field strength elements (HFSE). The enriched isotopic signatures (87Sr/86Sri = ~ 0.7065, εNd(t) = ~- 0.5, 208Pb/204Pbi = ~ 38.05, 207Pb/204Pbi = ~ 15.56, 206Pb/204Pbi = ~ 18.20 and zircon εHf(t) = ~+ 5.8) indicate an enriched mantle (EM2) source, with some addition of continental material. It has arc geochemical affinities similar to Permian arc igneous rocks in the eastern margin of the Jiamusi Block, the Yakuno Ophiolite in SW Japan, arc rocks along the western margin of the North America Craton, and also the Gympie Group in eastern Australia. All these features, together with information from tectonic discrimination diagrams, suggest that the Dongfanghong gabbro formed in an immature island arc. The spatial configuration of ~ 290 Ma immature continental arc rocks in the eastern part of the Jiamusi Block and the ~ 275 Ma immature island arc Dongfanghong gabbro in the Wandashan Orogen to the east is best explained by eastward arc retreat and slab roll-back of the Paleo-Pacific Plate. This model is also supported by the Carboniferous-Permian stratigraphic transition in the Jiamusi Block from oceanic carbonate rocks to coal-bearing terrestrial clastic rocks and andesites. We thus suggest that both Paleo-Pacific subduction and roll-back occurred in the Early Permian along the eastern margin of Asia.

  5. 40Ar/39Ar geochronology of subaerial lava flows of Barren Island volcano and the deep crust beneath the Andaman Island Arc, Burma Microplate (United States)

    Ray, Jyotiranjan S.; Pande, Kanchan; Bhutani, Rajneesh


    Little was known about the nature and origin of the deep crust beneath the Andaman Island Arc in spite of the fact that it formed part of the highly active Indonesian volcanic arc system, one of the important continental crust forming regions in Southeast Asia. This arc, formed as a result of subduction of the Indian Plate beneath the Burma Microplate (a sliver of the Eurasian Plate), contains only one active subaerial magmatic center, Barren Island volcano, whose evolutional timeline had remained uncertain. In this work, we present results of the first successful attempt to date crustal xenoliths and their host lava flows from the island, by incremental heating 40Ar/39Ar method, in an attempt to understand the evolutionary histories of the volcano and its basement. Based on concordant plateau and isochron ages, we establish that the oldest subaerial lava flows of the volcano are 1.58 ± 0.04 (2σ) Ma, and some of the plagioclase xenocrysts have been derived from crustal rocks of 106 ± 3 (2σ) Ma. Mineralogy (anorthite + Cr-rich diopside + minor olivine) and isotopic compositions (87Sr/86Sr 7.0) of xenoliths not only indicate their derivation from a lower (oceanic) crustal olivine gabbro but also suggest a genetic relationship between the arc crust and the ophiolitic basement of the Andaman accretionary prism. We speculate that the basements of the forearc and volcanic arc of the Andaman subduction zone belong to a single continuous unit that was once attached to the western margin of the Eurasian Plate.

  6. Interplay between active and past tectonics in the Hellenic Arc (Greece): Geological and geomorphic evidences from Kythira Island (United States)

    Fernández-Blanco, David; de Gelder, Gino; Delorme, Arthur; Lacassin, Robin; Armijo, Rolando


    The Hellenic Arc undergoes the largest convergence velocity and highest seismic activity among Mediterranean subduction systems. The outer-arc high islands of the Hellenic Arc are thus key to understand the mode of deformation of the crust during subduction and the mechanisms behind vertical motions at the front of overriding plates, here and elsewhere. Kythira Island, located between SW Peloponnese and NE Crete, provides an exceptional opportunity to understand the interaction between past and active tectonics in the Hellenic Arc. The recent uplift of the Kythira Island is marked in its landscape as paleosurfaces, marine terraces, abandon valleys and gorges. Together with the sedimentary record of the island and its geologic structures, we attempt to reconstruct its tectonic evolution since the latest Miocene. Here, we present exceptionally detailed geological and geomorphological maps of the Kythira Island based on fieldwork, Pleiades satellite imagery and 2-m resolution DEM, as well as the analyses of marine terraces and river network morphometrics. Pliocene or younger infill sequences rest atop of Palaeocene or older rocks in several marine basins in the island. In the largest marine basin, we found a stratigraphic sequence with a (tilted) continental conglomerate at the base, passing upwards to a disconformal subhorizontal conglomerate, calcarenites and fine sands, and terminating with a marine conglomerate. This marine conglomerate acts as a "cap rock" that marks the topography and shapes the highermost, and most extensive, low-relief surface. Overall, the infill sequence onlaps basement with the exception of the western margin where normal faults partly controlled the deposition of its lower sector. These faults reactivated older Hellenic fold-and-thrust structures, parallel to the subduction trench, and were not active during the maximum marine transgression that led to the deposition of the subhorizontal part of the infill sequence, including the topmost

  7. Focal mechanisms in the southern Aegean from temporary seismic networks – implications for the regional stress field and ongoing deformation processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Friederich


    Full Text Available The lateral variation of the stress field in the southern Aegean plate and the subducting Hellenic slab is determined from recordings of seismicity obtained with the CYCNET and EGELADOS networks in the years from 2002 to 2007. First motions from 7000 well-located microearthquakes were analysed to produce 540 well-constrained focal mechanisms. They were complemented by another 140 derived by waveform matching of records from larger events. Most of these earthquakes fall into 16 distinct spatial clusters distributed over the southern Aegean region. For each cluster, a stress inversion could be carried out yielding consistent estimates of the stress field and its spatial variation. At crustal levels, the stress field is generally dominated by a steeply dipping compressional principal stress direction except in places where coupling of the subducting slab and overlying plate come into play. Tensional principal stresses are generally subhorizontal. Just behind the forearc, the crust is under arc-parallel tension whereas in the volcanic areas around Kos, Columbo and Astypalea tensional and intermediate stresses are nearly degenerate. Further west and north, in the Santorini–Amorgos graben and in the area of the islands of Mykonos, Andros and Tinos, tensional stresses are significant and point around the NW–SE direction. Very similar stress fields are observed in western Turkey with the tensional axis rotated to NNE–SSW. Intermediate-depth earthquakes below 100 km in the Nisyros region indicate that the Hellenic slab experiences slab-parallel tension at these depths. The direction of tension is close to east–west and thus deviates from the local NW-oriented slab dip presumably owing to the segmentation of the slab. Beneath the Cretan sea, at shallower levels, the slab is under NW–SE compression. Tensional principal stresses in the crust exhibit very good alignment with extensional strain rate principal axes derived from GPS velocities except

  8. Evolution and geochemistry of the Tertiary calc-alkaline plutons in the Adak Island region of the central Aleutian oceanic island arc (United States)

    Kay, Suzanne; Citron, Gary P.; Kay, Robert W.; Jicha, Brian; Tibbetts, Ashley


    Calc-alkaline plutons are major crustal building blocks of continental margin mountain belts like the Mesozoic to Tertiary Andes and the Sierra Nevada, but are rare in oceanic island arcs. Some of the most calc-alkaline I-type island arc plutons are in the Central Aleutians with the most extreme signatures, as indicated by FeO/MgO ratios of stages of volcanism as the magmatic arc front was displaced to the north, possibly in response to accelerated periods of forearc subduction erosion. The gabbroic to leucogranodioritic units evolved in the lower to mid-crust with more silicic magmas rising buoyantly to higher levels where final crystallization and segregation of aplites occurred. Most gabbro and all mafic diorite units are largely crystal cumulates; one gabbro approaches the melt composition of a high Al basalt. The volumetrically dominant silicic diorites and granodiorites (58-63% SiO2) show the most zoning in their mineral phases and approach melt compositions. The leucogranodiorite (67-70% SiO2)unit was the last to crystallize. The silicic units are considered to be deep-crustal differentiates of high-Al basalt magmas, although partial melting of older magmatic rocks may play a role. Mafic dikes in the pluton represent the basic magmas under the dying arc front as the front moved northward.

  9. ArcInfo GRID format of the 2004 Multibeam Backscatter Data in the Northeastern Channel Islands Region, Southern California [ (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — ArcInfo GRID format data generated from the 2004 multibeam sonar survey of the Northeastern Channel Islands, CA Region. The data include high-resolution, acoustic,...

  10. ArcInfo GRID format of the 2004 Multibeam Bathymetry Data in the Northeastern Channel Islands Region, Southern California [ (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — ArcInfo GRID format data generated from the 2004 multibeam sonar survey of the Northeastern Channel Islands, CA Region. The data include high- resolution bathymetry.

  11. CRED 5 m Gridded bathymetry of Jarvis Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific (Arc ASCII Format) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gridded (5 m cell size) bathymetry of the shelf and slope environments of Jarvis Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific. Almost complete bottom...

  12. CRED 40 m Gridded bathymetry of Howland Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific (Arc ASCII Format) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gridded (40 m cell size) bathymetry of the shelf and slope environments of Howland Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific. Almost complete bottom...

  13. CRED 20 m Gridded bathymetry of Jarvis Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific (Arc ASCII Format) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gridded (20 m cell size) bathymetry of the shelf and slope environments of Jarvis Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific. Almost complete bottom...

  14. CRED 40 m Gridded bathymetry of Baker Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific (Arc ASCII Format) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gridded (40 m cell size) bathymetry of the shelf and slope environments of Baker Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific. Almost complete bottom...

  15. CRED 5 m Gridded bathymetry of Howland Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific (Arc ASCII Format) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gridded (5 m cell size) bathymetry of the shelf and slope environments of Howland Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific. Almost complete bottom...

  16. The shape of the Aegean MCC's, Insights from 3D numerical modelling (United States)

    Le Pourhiet, L.; Denèle, Y.; Huet, B.; Jolivet, L.


    The Aegean sea is a back arc basin in which the continental lithosphere has been stretched through the tertiary leaving several diachronous belts of Metamorphic Core Complexes (MCCs). The Aegean MCCs present two classes of shapes. Some are elongated in the direction of the lineation (A-type e.g. Naxos, Paros..) while the others are elongated in a direction normal to the lineation (B-type e.g. Tinos, Evvia ...). While it is well established from 1 and 2D modeling that MCC's forms when the lower crust is weak, the reason for the diversity of shape remains an open question. The A-type domes are not only elongated in shape; their P-T-t paths indicate a clear phase of warming during the exhumation and they also present migmatites (which are not observed in the other islands). Several hypothesis may be drawn. The elongated domes could result from 1) the competition of boudinage versus normal constriction folding, 2) lateral variation of the thickness or the temperature of the crust resulting in local buoyant instability (R-T instability) or 3) lateral gradient of deformation. This contribution presents the preliminary results obtained with thermo-mechanical models in which we test the influence of a local plutonic intrusions, along strike variation of extensional rate, and lateral boundary condition (normal shortening or extension) on the shape of the domes. As this problem is inherently three dimensional, the models were computed on our computer cluster using Gale/Underworld an ALE method with visco-plastic temperature dependent rheologies.

  17. Geochemistry of oceanic igneous rocks - Ridges, islands, and arcs - With emphasis on manganese, scandium, and vanadium (United States)

    Doe, B.R.


    increasing Mn is an indication of titanomagnetite removal. Dual compatible and incompatible trends with differentiation are found chiefly for Cu, Sc, and Sr. Distinguishing mid-ocean ridge basalts (MORB), oceanic-island volcanic rocks (OIV), and island-arc volcanic rocks (IAV) may be accomplished by plots of Ce/Yb versus Ba/Ce, where OIV plot to higher values of Ce/Yb than do MORB, and IAV data plot to higher values of Ba/Ce than do those of MORB. These ratios do not seem to be significantly affected by submarine weathering.

  18. Magnetization strucrure of thermal vent on island arc from vector magnetic anomlies using AUV (United States)

    Isezaki, N.; Matsuo, J.; Sayanagi, K.


    The geomagnetic anomaly measured by a scalar magnetometer,such as a proton precession magnetometer cannot be defined its direction, then it does not satisfy the Laplace's equation. Therefore physical formula describing the relation between magnetic field and magnetization cannot be established.Because the difference between results obtained from scalar data and from vector data is very significant, we must use vector magnetic field data for magnetization analyses to get the more reliable and exact solutions. The development program of fundamental tools for exploration of deep seabed resources started with the financial support of the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science & Technology (MEXT) in 2008 and will end in 2012. In this project, we are developing magnetic exploration tools for seabed resources using AUV (Autonomous Underwater Vehicle) and other deep-towed vehicles to measure not the scalar magnetic field but the vector magnetic field in order to estimate magnetization structure below the sea-floor exactly and precisely. We conducted AUV magnetic survey in 2010 at the thermal area called Hakurei deposit in the Bayonnaise submarine caldera at the southern end of Izu island arc, about 400km south of Tokyo. We analyzed the observed vector magnetic fields to get the vector magnetic anomaly Fields using the method of Isezaki(1984). We inverted these vector magnetic anomaly fields to magnetization structure. CONCLUSIONS 1.The scalar magnetic field TIA (Total Intensity Anomaly) has no physical formula describing the relation between M (Magnetization) and TIA because TIA does not satisfy the Laplace's equation. Then it is impossible to estimate M from TIA. 2.Anlyses of M using TIA have been done so far under assumption TIA=PTA (Projected Total Anomay on MF (Main Geomagnetic Field)), however, which caused the analysis error due to ɛT= TIA - PTA . 3.We succeeded to measure the vector magnetic anomaly fields using AUV despite the severe magnetic noises

  19. Extreme spatial and temporal variability of hydrothermal microbial mat communities along the Mariana Island Arc and southern Mariana back-arc system (United States)

    Davis, Richard E.; Moyer, Craig L.


    Twenty-five microbial communities were sampled from 18 different hydrothermal systems located at seven different sites along the Mariana Island Arc and at a single site from the southern Mariana Spreading Center over a 3-year period. Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis of the small subunit rRNA gene revealed that the microbial community diversity is much greater along the Mariana Arc/back-arc than at either hot spot volcanoes or mid-ocean ridges along the same spatial scale. Cluster analysis of T-RFLP fingerprints reveals the microbial communities formed three distinct clusters designated Mariana clusters I, II, and III. Microbial communities in Mariana Cluster I are all associated with iron-rich microbial mats and are dominated by members of the ζ-Proteobacteria and by unique phylotypes clustering deeply in the δ-Proteobacteria and within the Nitrospira division. Mariana Cluster II communities are all from shallow hydrothermal systems and mostly from colder sediments or microbial mats that are dominated by putative heterotrophic phylotypes usually associated with seawater and sediments not generally associated with hydrothermal fluid inputs. Mariana Cluster III is generally from much hotter vent sites and is dominated by sulfur-oxidizing ɛ-Proteobacteria. Quantitative-polymerase chain reaction (Q-PCR) of Archaeal abundance reveal that all of the microbial communities are dominated by members of the Bacterial domain. Sampling of microbial mats from Iceberg Vent at NW Rota-1 in 2004 and again in 2006 reveal the community has shown a transition from Caminibacter group ɛ-Proteobacteria phylotypes to a mixed population of Caminibacter, Sulfurovum, and Sulfurimonas group ɛ-Proteobacteria.

  20. CRED 5 m Gridded bathymetry of Baker Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific (Arc ASCII Format) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gridded (5 m cell size) bathymetry of the shelf and slope environments of Baker Island, Pacific Remote Isand Areas, Central Pacific. Almost complete bottom coverage...

  1. Evolution of Ataúro Island: Temporal constraints on subduction processes beneath the Wetar zone, Banda Arc (United States)

    Ely, Kim S.; Sandiford, Mike; Hawke, Margaret L.; Phillips, David; Quigley, Mark; Reis, Joao Edmundo dos


    Ataúro is a key to understanding the late stage volcanic and subduction history of the Banda Arc to the north of Timor. A volcanic history of bi-modal subaqueous volcanism has been established and new whole rock and trace element geochemical data show two compositional groups, basaltic andesite and dacite-rhyolite. 40Ar/ 39Ar geochronology of hornblende from rhyo-dacitic lavas confirms that volcanism continued until 3.3 Ma. Following the cessation of volcanism, coral reef marine terraces have been uplifted to elevations of 700 m above sea level. Continuity of the terraces at constant elevations around the island reflects regional-scale uplift most likely linked to sublithospheric processes such as slab detachment. Local scale landscape features of the eastern parts of Ataúro are strongly controlled by normal faults. The continuation of arc-related volcanism on Ataúro until at least 3.3 Ma suggests that subduction of Australian lithosphere continued until near this time. This data is consistent with findings from the earthquake record where the extent of the Wetar seismic gap to a depth of 350 km suggests slab breakoff, as a result of collision, commenced at ˜4 Ma, leading to subsequent regional uplift recorded in elevated terraces on Ataúro and neighbouring islands.

  2. Differential timing of vertical-axis block rotations in the northern Ryukyu Arc: Paleomagnetic evidence from the Koshikijima Islands, Japan (United States)

    Tonai, Satoshi; Suganuma, Yusuke; Ashi, Juichiro; Itaya, Tetsumaru; Oiwane, Hisashi; Kiyokawa, Shoichi


    Over 300 samples for paleomagnetic analysis and K-Ar dating were collected from 27 sites at NW-SE and NE-SW trending dike swarms (herein, NW dikes and NE dikes, respectively) in the Koshikijima Islands, northern Ryukyu Arc. The NW dikes are Middle Miocene in age and have directions (D = - 37.7 ∘, I = 51.8 ∘, α95 = 9.6 ∘, and κ = 40.8) that are deflected westward relative to the stable eastern Asian continent. Conversely, the NE dikes, of Late Miocene age, have directions (D = 16.1 ∘, I = 57.7 ∘, α95 = 7.1 ∘, and κ = 41.9) that show no such deflection. These differences are interpreted as indicating that the Koshikijima Islands underwent approximately 40 ∘ of counter-clockwise rotation during the Middle to Late Miocene. A synthesis of the paleomagnetic and structural data suggests a three-stage history of extensional deformation: (1) displacement upon normal faults (F 1 faults) without vertical-axis block rotation, (2) strike-slip reactivation of F 1 faults and oblique-normal displacement on NE-SW-trending faults (F 2 faults) with vertical-axis block rotation, and (3) oblique-normal displacement on F 2 faults without vertical-axis block rotation. Regional differences in the timing and amount of counter-clockwise vertical-axis block rotations indicate that the northern Ryukyu Arc rotated as several distinct rigid blocks.

  3. Evolution of an intra-oceanic island arc during the late Silurian to late Devonian, New England fold belt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geochemical studies of volcanic rocks in the Gamilaroi terrane and Calliope Volcanic Assemblage, New England Fold Belt, eastern Australia, indicate that the setting in which these rocks formed changed in both space and time. The Upper Silurian to Middle Devonian basalts of the Gamilaroi terrane show flat to slightly light rare-earth element (LREE) depleted chondrite normalised patterns, depletion of high field strength elements (HFSE) relative to N-MORB, low Ti/V and high Ti/Zr ratios, high Ni, Cr and large-ion lithophile element (LILE) contents, features characteristic of intra-oceanic island arc basaltic magmas. They are associated with low-K, less mafic volcanics, showing moderate LREE enrichment, low Nb and Y contents and Rb/Zr ratios. The depletion of HFSE in the basalts indicates that the magmas were derived from a refractory source in a supra-subduction zone setting. The presence of such a zone implies that the arc was associated with a backarc basin, the location of which was to the west where a wide backarc region existed from the Middle Silurian. This polarity of arc and backarc basin suggests that the subduction zone dipped to the west. In contrast to their older counterparts, Middle to Upper Devonian basalts of the Gamilaroi terrane have MORB-like chondrite normalised patterns and higher Ti and lower LILE contents. Moreover, they have low Ti/Zr ratios and MORB-like Ti/V ratios and HFSE contents, features typical of backarc basins. Dolerites of the Gamilaroi terrane also have predominantly backarc basin signatures. These features suggest that both the basalts and dolerites have been emplaced in an extensional environment produced during the rifting of the intra-oceanic island arc lithosphere. A progressive increase in Ti/V ratios, and TiO2 and Fe2O3 contents at constant MgO, of stratigraphically equivalent basalts, towards the north-northwest part of the belt, is consistent with either greater extension to the north or melting of a more fertile magma

  4. 40 m Gridded bathymetry of Swains Island, American Samoa (Arc ASCII format) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gridded bathymetry (40 m cell size) of the slope environment of Swains Island, American Samoa. Almost complete bottom coverage was achieved in depths between 7 and...

  5. Large seismic faults in the Hellenic arc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. S. Papazachos


    Full Text Available Using information concerning reliable fault plane solutions, spatial distribution of strong earthquakes (Ms³ 6.0 as well as sea bottom and coastal topography, properties of the seismic faults (orientation, dimension, type of faulting were determined in seven shallow (h < 40 km seismogenic regions along the convex part of thc Hellenic arc (Hellenic trench and in four seismogenic regions of intermediate depth earthquakes (h = 40-100 km along the concave part of this arc. Except for the northwesternmost part of the Hellenic trench, where the strike-slip Cephalonia transform fault dominates, all other faults along this trench are low angle thrust faults. III thc western part of the trench (Zante-west Crete faults strike NW-SE and dip NE, while in its eastern part (east Crete-Rhodos faults strike WNW-ESE and dip NNE. Such system of faulting can be attributed to an overthrust of the Aegean lithosphere on the eastern Mediterranean lithosphere. The longest of these faults (L = 300 km is that which produced the largest known shallow earthquake in the Mediterranean area (21 July 365, Ms = 8.3 which is located near the southwestern coast of Crete. The second longest such fault (L = l 70 km is that which produced a large earthquake (December 1303, Ms = 8.0 in the easternmost part of the trench (east of Rhodos island. Both earthquakes were associated with gigantic tsunamis which caused extensive damage in the coast of many Eastern Mediterranean countries. Seismic faults of the intermediate depth earthquakes in the shallow part of the Benioff zone (h = 40- 100 km are of strike-slip type, with a thrust component. The orientations of these faults vary along the concave part of the arc in accordance with a subduction of remnants of all old lithospheric slab from the convex side (Mediterranean to the concave side (Aegean of thc Hellenic arc. The longest of these faults (L = 220 km is that which produced the largest known intermediate depth earthquake in the

  6. Incorporation of island-arc rocks into a Caribbean subduction channel: Geochemical constraints from eclogite boulders and greenschist rocks, Guajira region, Colombia (United States)

    Weber, M.; Cardona, A.; Altenberger, U.; Garcia-Casco, A.; Valencia, V.; Tobón, M.; Zapata, S.


    Characterization of the protoliths of a subduction-accretion complex can provide major insights into the dynamics of the subduction channel. Geochemistry of eclogites found as boulders in a Tertiary conglomerate from the Guajira Peninsula, Colombia, indicate that these rocks are mainly metamorphosed basalts. A negative Nb-anomaly and flat to enriched REE patterns suggest that the eclogite protoliths evolved in a subduction related tectonic setting, with island arc affinities. The geochemical characteristics are similar to low-grade greenschists from the nearby Etpana Formation, which is interpreted as part of a Cretaceous intra-oceanic arc. This further supports evidence that the deposition and metamorphism of these units record the ongoing Late Cretaceous continental subduction of the South American margin beneath the advancing Caribbean arc. This gave way to an arc-continent collision between the Caribbean and the South American plates. Arc-rocks were incorporated into the subduction channel and the accretionary wedge, either though influx of tectonically eroded arc material (subduction erosion) or incorporation into the accretionary wedge during arc-continent collision.

  7. Multi-Hazards Geophysical Monitoring Through the Eastern Caribbean Islands arc: Strategy, Challenges and Future Development (United States)

    Fournier, N.; Lynch, L.; Robertson, R.; Latchman, J.; Mohais, R.; Ramsingh, C.


    The Seismic Research Unit (SRU), at the University of the West Indies, St Augustine, Trinidad, W.I., is responsible for monitoring and studying geological hazards in the English and Dutch speaking islands nestled along the ocean-ocean plate convergence zone in the Eastern Caribbean. The Unit operates a multi-hazards monitoring network that spans over 15 islands. Geophysical monitoring techniques include 11 broadband and 44 short period seismic stations, 4 accelerometers, 4 continuous GPS stations (cGPS) and over 50 ground-deformation benchmarks. This seismic network caters for general earthquake surveillance and study as well as for volcano early-warning. As part of the recent trust to improve tsunami surveillance capabilities in the Caribbean the unit has embarked on a program to upgrade a subset of the seismograph network. Near real-time satellite communications will be installed to improve the present network that is built around terrestrial Internet and telephone media. Additional strong motion accelerometers will also be operated alongside the broadband sensors at the upgraded stations to provide the necessary specifications for tsunami detection. Through real- time data exchanged with adjacent and global networks that are involved in the effort to establish a Tsunami Warning System for the Caribbean and adjacent regions, the Unit's capacity to monitor multiple hazard via the seismological method will be significantly improved. The geodetic monitoring program is a hybrid of near real-time data acquisition and static field surveys. It is principally geared towards volcano ground deformation monitoring. The main challenge while monitoring volcano ground deformation in small islands is the limited control on the reference station which are often located within the potential deformation field (versus been ideally outside any volcano related deformation field). As a result, SRU's strategy is to control reference stations in every island by long-baselines processing

  8. Severe accidents due to windsurfing in the Aegean Sea. (United States)

    Kalogeromitros, A; Tsangaris, H; Bilalis, D; Karabinis, A


    Windsurfing is a popular sport and has recently become an Olympic event. As an open-air water activity that requires the participant to be in perfect physical condition, windsurfers may be prone to accidents when certain basic rules or procedures are violated. The current study monitored severe injuries due to windsurfing over a period of 12 months in the Aegean Sea in Greece. Our study revealed 22 cases of severe accidents due to windsurfing, with a wide range of injuries including head injuries, spinal cord injuries, and severe fractures of the extremities. Prolonged hospitalization, severe disability and two deaths occurred as consequences of these accidents. The study examined the characteristics of these patients and the possible risk factors and conditions associated with the accidents. We also focused on the most common types of injuries and reviewed the mechanisms that may provoke them. Water sports and particularly windsurfing represent a major challenge for the emergency medical system, especially in the Aegean Sea. Hundreds of islands, kilometres of isolated coasts, millions of tourists, an extended summer period and rapidly changing weather create conditions that constantly test the efficacy of the emergency services. The development of an appropriate infrastructure and maximum control of the risk factors causing these accidents could reduce the morbidity and mortality that, unfortunately but rather predictably, accompany this popular summer activity. PMID:12131638

  9. A tomography image of the Aegean region (Greece derived from inversion of macroseismic intensity data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Papanastassiou


    Full Text Available The three-dimensional attenuation structure beneath the Aegean sea and the surrounding regions was determined by inversion of seismic intensity data. A large number of seismic intensity data have been accumulated in a uniform scale in the Aegean region, where the seismic activity is much higher than that of the other Mediterranean regions. Nearly 11000 seismic intensity data from 47 earthquakes that have occurred in these regions were used to determine the seismic attenuation structure. The resulting structure reveals a remarkable contrast of attenuation. In the top layer (depth 0-20 km, low Q is dominant in the central Aegean sea, while high Q is dominant in the surrounding land areas, except for Southwestern Turkey. The low-Q regions correspond to areas of Neogene-Quaternary grabens where the high seismicity of shallow earthquakes appears. In the lower layer (20-40 km low-Q areas are located in the southeastern part of the Hellenic arc. Some low-Q spots corresponding to the distribution of volcanoes exist along the volcanic arc. The low-Q spots might correspond to diapirs causing subduction volcanism.

  10. Geochemical characteristics and zircon U-Pb isotopic ages of island-arc basic igneous complexes from the Tianshui area in West Qinling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PEI Xianzhi; LI Zuochen; LIU Huibin; LI Gaoyang; DING Saping; LI Yong; HU Bo; GUO Junfeng


    The Liushuigou intermediate-basic meta-igneous complex at Guanzizhen, Tianshui area, is mainly composed of metagabbro, metagabbro diorite and metadiorite, while the Baihua basic meta-igneous complex consists mainly of pyroxenite, gabbro (gabbro diorite), diorite and quartz diorite.They form a relatively complete comagmatic evolutionary series. The geochemical characteristics of intermediate-basic igneous rocks indicate that they belong to a tholeiite suite.Their chondrite-normalized REE patterns are nearly flat and are LREE-slightly enriched type, and their primitive mantle-normalized and MORB-normalized trace element spider-grams are generally similar; the LILEs Cs, Ba, Sr, Th and U are enriched, while Rb and K and the HFSEs Nb, P, Zr,Sm, Ti and Y are depleted. All these show comagmatic evolu-tionary and genetic characteristics. The tectonic environment discrimination by trace element reveals that these igneous complexes formed in an island-arc setting. The Thermal Ionization Mass Spectrometry (TIMS) single-grain zircon U-Pb age for the Liushuigou intermediate-basic meta-igneous rocks in the Guanzizhen area is (507.5 ± 3.0) Ma, represent-ing the age of these igneous complexes, which indicates that island-arc-type magmatite rocks in the northern zone of West Qinling are Late Cambrian and also reveals that the timing of subduction of the paleo-ocean basin represented by the Guanzizhen ophiolite and resulting island-arc-type magrnaticactivity are probably Late Cambrian to Early Ordovician.

  11. Towards configuring the neolithisation of Aegean Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Çiler Çilingiroğlu


    Full Text Available Increasing field work in the  ̇Izmir region has produced much sought tangible evidence about the ways in which food-producing communities emerged in the Aegean. Focusing on the archaeological and zooarchaeological data from Ulucak and neighboring sites, the authors discuss the possible mechanisms of initial farmer-herder dispersals into the region. The authors stress that the lack of pre-Neolithic strata in the eastern Aegean impedes a full understanding of forager-farmer interactions in the early Holocene.

  12. Fluid-present disequilibrium melting in Neoarchean arc-related migmatites of Daeijak Island, western Gyeonggi Massif, Korea (United States)

    Lee, Yuyoung; Cho, Moonsup


    The melting process of meta-igneous rocks was investigated via field, petrographic and geochemical analyses of the Neoarchean (~ 2.51 Ga) migmatite complex in Daeijak Island, western Gyeonggi Massif. This complex consists primarily of garnet-free amphibolites and tonalitic migmatites, both of which contain hornblende, plagioclase and quartz as major constituents. Neosomes and leucosomes in the migmatite have dioritic-tonalitic and tonalitic-trondhjemitic compositions, respectively. Compositions of hornblende (XFe = 0.39-0.42) and plagioclase (An24-27) vary little between the neosomes and leucosomes. The amphibolites show distinct depletions in Nb, Ta, Zr, and Ti relative to large ion lithophile elements, suggesting an arc-related origin for their basaltic protolith. Leucosomes have lower contents of K2O, MgO, FeO*, TiO2, Zr, Rb, and rare earth elements (REE) than amphibolites and neosomes, but are higher in SiO2, Na2O, and Sr contents. Leucosomes and neosomes have positive [(Eu/Eu*)N = 1.32-7.26] and negative (0.71-0.97) Eu anomalies, respectively, which are attributed to the variable degree of plagioclase fractionation during the partial melting. The P-T condition for the migmatite formation was estimated to be ~ 700-730 °C and 4.7-5.5 kbar, primarily based on the hornblende-plagioclase thermobarometry and phase equilibria. Various lines of textural evidence, such as the channel flow of melt along migmatitic layers and the segregation of melt into shear bands or boudin necks suggest a syn-deformation crystallization of melt. Chemical disequilibrium in migmatites is documented not only by petrographic and geochemical data but also by the REE modeling between melt product and source rock. Disequilibrium process is most likely attributed to the rapidity of melt extraction or migration, compared to chemical diffusion rate. In summary, the fluid-present disequilibrium melting of dioritic-tonalitic protoliths has produced tonalitic-trondhjemitic leucosomes in a dynamic

  13. Low-temperature thermochronometric data from the Japanese Islands and preliminary report on (U-Th)/He ages across NE Japan Arc (United States)

    Tagami, T.; Sueoka, S.; Kohn, B. P.; Fukuda, S.


    A paradox of the deformation pattern in the NE Japan Arc is that the short-term (104 years) deformation estimated from geomorphic and geologic evidence are different in both rate and/or direction. It has been proposed that elastic deformation released by a megathrust earthquake along the Japanese Trench, could resolve this paradox. However, co-seismic and post-seismic deformation associated with the 2011 Tohoku-oki earthquake (Mw9.0) has not compensated for the misfit. To understand the physical properties of the crust and mechanism of strain accumulation and release in the NE Japan Arc, more careful and detailed comparisons of deformation using various timescales and methods may provide a fundamental clue. For estimating long-term vertical deformation rates of NE Japan Arc, we performed 1) a compilation of previous low-temperature thermochronometric data in the Japanese Islands and 2) apatite and zircon (U-Th)/He (AHe and ZHe) thermochronometric analyses on the late Cretaceous and Paleogene granitoids across the NE Japan Arc. Both the previous fission-track (FT) and newly obtained AHe ages indicate an obvious contrast in cooling/denudation histories between the fore-arc and back-arc sides of the NE Japan Arc. FT ages of 100-46 Ma and AHe ages of 59-50 Ma in the Abukuma Mountains in the fore-arc side indicate relatively slow cooling/denudation and a stable tectonic setting during the Cenozoic. On the other hand, younger apatite FT ages of 6.1 and 4.6 Ma and AHe ages of 11-1.5 Ma in the Ou Backbone range, Iide-Asahi Mountains, and Echigo Mountains in the back-arc side may reflect rapid cooling/denudation since the latest Miocene or late Pliocene. ZHe ages in the back-arc side range between 54-11 Ma, which is generally consistent with their coexisting AHe ages considering the difference in their closure temperatures.

  14. Black Sea and Mediterranean Sea interaction: influence of the North Aegean dynamics (United States)

    Androulidakis, Yannis; Krestenitis, Yannis; Kourafalou, Vassiliki


    The brackish Black Sea Waters outflow to the Aegean Sea, through the Dardanelles Straits, affects and determines significantly the hydrodynamic and physical characteristics of the Aegean Sea. At the same time, it affects several biological parameters, like chl-a concentrations, and, therefore, the general quality of the marine environment. The investigation and mathematical simulation of the North Aegean's physical oceanography contributes to the knowledge and understanding of the buoyant waters' circulation initial conditions in the wider East Mediterranean region. The implementation and adaptation of the 3-d hydrodynamic mathematical model HYCOM (Hybrid Coordinate Ocean Model) in the North Aegean Sea (1/50οx1/50o), significantly contributes to the investigation of the area's hydrodynamic circulation. HYCOM, due to its hybrid coordinate operation, can describe at a satisfactory level, all the different topography and mixing cases of the complicated N. Aegean region. In addition, the high resolution atmospheric forcing and the nesting with a data assimilated broader Mediterranean HYCOM model along the southern open boundary of the North Aegean model, benefit the quality of the results and constitutes an important tool on the description and understanding of the Black Sea influence to the region's dynamics. A fundamental objective is the application and comparison of different Dardanelles outflow parameterizations based a) on the Black Sea water budget, b) on current measurements from a telemetric station in Limnos Island, and c) on historical time series. The Black Sea Waters plume evolution and the circulation patterns are dependant on the outflow rate magnitude, the flow distribution inside the straits and the prevailing winds. The long-term simulation covers the period of the last 20 years (1990-2010), investigating several physical characteristics of the North Aegean Sea, such as the deep water masses evolution, the major Black Sea waters circulation patterns

  15. Segmented Coastal Uplift Along an Erosional Subduction Margin, Northern Hikurangi Fore Arc, North Island, New Zealand (United States)

    Marshall, J. S.; Litchfield, N. J.; Berryman, K. R.; Clark, K.; Cochran, U. A.


    The Hikurangi subduction margin along North Island, New Zealand accommodates oblique convergence of the Pacific plate westward beneath the Australian plate at 45 mm/yr. Along the southern margin, frontal accretion and pronounced forearc uplift occur inboard of the subducting Hikurangi plateau. In the north, subduction erosion and segmented uplift occur inboard of subducting seamounts along the plateau flank. Prior workers have established a robust foundation for coastal terrace studies along the northern Hikurangi margin (e.g., Berryman et al., 1989; Ota et al., 1992; Berryman, 1993; Wilson et al., 2006, 2007; Clark et al., 2010; Litchfield et al, 2007, 2010). New field observations presented here provide additional constraints on terrace uplift along this erosional subduction margin. Along Raukumara Peninsula (north of Poverty Bay), multiple Holocene to late Pleistocene marine and fluvial terraces occur at varying elevations, recording differential uplift across six coastal segments from Gisborne to East Cape (Ota et al., 1992; Wilson et al., 2007). In this study, two to three late Pleistocene terraces were observed on rocky headlands within the first segment (Gisborne to Whangara) at elevations of 80-185 m above msl. Preliminary correlation with OIS 5a-e sea level high stands (80-125 ka) indicates net uplift at 1.2-1.5 m/ky. Uplifted Holocene wavecut platforms occur in steps along the seaward edge of these terraces, consistent with coseismic uplift. At Makorori Point, an uplifted bench occurs along the modern seacliff at 2.3 m above the cliff base. A fossil gastropod shell from paleo-beach gravels on the platform inner edge yielded a calibrated radiocarbon age of 1680 ×110 ybp. At Turihaua Point, a ≥1 m thick deposit of Holocene beach sands overlies an uplifted wavecut platform at ≥1.5 m above mean sea level. Carbonate-cemented beachrock at the base of the sand deposit yields a calibrated radiocarbon age of 2990 ×70 ybp. At Mahia Peninsula (between Poverty

  16. Scenario based tsunami wave height estimation towards hazard evaluation for the Hellenic coastline and examples of extreme inundation zones in South Aegean (United States)

    Melis, Nikolaos S.; Barberopoulou, Aggeliki; Frentzos, Elias; Krassanakis, Vassilios


    A scenario based methodology for tsunami hazard assessment is used, by incorporating earthquake sources with the potential to produce extreme tsunamis (measured through their capacity to cause maximum wave height and inundation extent). In the present study we follow a two phase approach. In the first phase, existing earthquake hazard zoning in the greater Aegean region is used to derive representative maximum expected earthquake magnitude events, with realistic seismotectonic source characteristics, and of greatest tsunamigenic potential within each zone. By stacking the scenario produced maximum wave heights a global maximum map is constructed for the entire Hellenic coastline, corresponding to all expected extreme offshore earthquake sources. Further evaluation of the produced coastline categories based on the maximum expected wave heights emphasizes the tsunami hazard in selected coastal zones with important functions (i.e. touristic crowded zones, industrial zones, airports, power plants etc). Owing to its proximity to the Hellenic Arc, many urban centres and being a popular tourist destination, Crete Island and the South Aegean region are given a top priority to define extreme inundation zoning. In the second phase, a set of four large coastal cities (Kalamata, Chania, Heraklion and Rethymno), important for tsunami hazard, due i.e. to the crowded beaches during the summer season or industrial facilities, are explored towards preparedness and resilience for tsunami hazard in Greece. To simulate tsunamis in the Aegean region (generation, propagation and runup) the MOST - ComMIT NOAA code was used. High resolution DEMs for bathymetry and topography were joined via an interface, specifically developed for the inundation maps in this study and with similar products in mind. For the examples explored in the present study, we used 5m resolution for the topography and 30m resolution for the bathymetry, respectively. Although this study can be considered as

  17. The fine scale seismic structure of an exposed island arc section based on field and petrological constrains (United States)

    Jagoutz, O. E.


    Geological mapping of exposed arc sections is essential to understand and quantify important continental crust forming processes. There is strong evidence that a wide range of crust formation mechanism occurs in arcs but to identify the most important one(s) detailed field observation and geological mapping at various crustal levels and in different exposed arc section that cover a wide range of earth history is essential. Here I present an up dated map of the Kohistan-Ladakh arc (KLA) that is based on field mapping and remote sensing over the last 10 years. Together with petrological constrained intrusions depth and geochemical data the map lets us constrain the 3 D architecture of an intraoceanic arc. This provides the basis to address a wide range of essential questions related to crust formation in oceanic arcs. Here I will focus on the 3D architecture of the KLA and how it compares to seismically imaged active arcs. I used bulk rock compositions to calculate constrained phase diagrams of the main rock types exposed in Kohistan. From the high temperature mineralogical composition seismic properties are calculated and a schematic 3-D seismic image of the Kohistan arc is compared to those from active arcs.

  18. CRED 20 m Gridded bathymetry and IKONOS estimated depths of Lisianski Island, Hawaii, USA (Arc ASCII format) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gridded bathymetry and IKONOS estimated depths of the shelf and slope environments of Lisianski Island, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands, Hawaii, USA. Bottom coverage...

  19. Detrital chrome spinel evidence for a Neotethyan intra-oceanic island arc collision with India in the Paleocene (United States)

    Baxter, Alan T.; Aitchison, Jonathan C.; Ali, Jason R.; Chan, Jacky Sik-Lap; Chan, Gavin Heung Ngai


    Models that support a single collision scenario for India and Eurasia are incompatible with the evidence that an intra-oceanic island arc (IOIA) existed within the Neotethyan Ocean. Understanding the spatial and temporal extent of any IOIA is crucial for India-Eurasia collision studies as the entire ocean, including any intra-oceanic features, must have been consumed or emplaced prior to continental collision. Here, we review what is known about the Neotethyan IOIA and report evidence from sedimentary successions in NW India and southern Tibet to constrain when and where it was emplaced. We use detrital mineral geochemistry and supporting provenance and age data to identify the source of the sediments and compare the timing of erosion of IOIA-derived material in both regions. Detrital chrome spinels, extracted from distinct sedimentary horizons in southern Tibet (Sangdanlin) and NW India (Ladakh), exhibit similar average geochemical values (TiO2 = 0.09 and 0.24%, Cr# = 0.66 and 0.68 and Mg# = 0.45 and 0.53, respectively) and supra-subduction zone (SSZ), forearc peridotite signatures. Furthermore, they overlap with in-situ chrome spinels reported from the Spongtang Ophiolite in NW India and the Sangsang Ophiolite in southern Tibet. As with many of the ophiolitic remnants that crop out in and adjacent to the Yarlung-Tsangpo and Indus suture zones (YTSZ and ISZ respectively), the Spongtang and Sangsang ophiolites formed in an IOIA setting. Linking the source of the detrital chrome spinels to those analysed from remnant IOIA massifs in the YTSZ and ISZ is strong evidence for the emplacement of the IOIA onto the Indian margin. The timing of the IOIA collision with India is constrained by the depositional ages of the chrome spinel-bearing sediments to the end of the Paleocene (Thanetian) in southern Tibet and the Early Eocene in NW India. This indirectly provides a maximum age constraint of Late Paleocene-Early Eocene for intercontinental collision between India and

  20. Neogene volcanism and extension in Western Anatolian-Aegean area: A new geodynamic model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The widespread Western Anatolian-Aegean Neogene volcanism presents a complex geochemical evolution reflecting the uncommon space-time variability of the geodynamic setting of the region. In the Western Anatolian and Central Aegean, a widespread supra-subduction magmatism, with calc-alkaline to shoshonitic affinity, took place from Early to Middle Miocene; this phase of activity ends with spots of ultra-K lavas and dykes. From Late Miocene onwards scattered alkali basaltic lavas with intraplate affinity were emitted, while calc-alkaline activity occurred in the South Aegean arc. Since Late Oligocene-Early Miocene, the region was, and still is, affected by extensional tectonics generally ascribed to a backarc rift. However the Aegean region should rather be considered as an unconventional backarc since its characteristics rather differ from 'typical' backarcs. In fact, in spite of a long lasting(>40Ma) active NE-directed subduction of Africa, the backarc area still maintains a relatively thick continental crust (>20-25 km). Moreover, the upper Eurasian plate is overriding the lower Africa plate with separate segments, with Greece moving faster, and Turkey moving slower. The differential velocity between Greece and Turkey determines extension in the upper plate, unrelated to the loss of subducted retreating lithosphere, which is the usual setting for the origin of 'classic' backarc settings. The geodynamic framework is supported by the geochemical and isotopic features of the supra-subduction magmas revealing the occurrence of a trapped, drying slab, with progressive decreasing of Fluid Mobile Elements/Fluid Immobile Elements ratios, δ11B and δ7Li, coupled with scarce variations of Sr and Nd isotopes. Moreover, the differential motion between the Greek and Anatolian micro-plates creates tear zones with the formation of slab ruptures or vertical slab windows. The occurrence of such windows is, in fact, outlined by the presence of alkali basalts with intraplate

  1. Insights on the Quaternary Tectonic Evolution of the SE Indonesia Arc-Continent Collision from the Study of Uplifted Coral Terraces on Sumba Island. (United States)

    Leclerc, F.; Rigaud, S.; Chiang, H. W.; Djamil, Y. S.; Herdiyanti, T.; Johnny, J.; Ildefonso, S.; Meilano, I.; Bijaksana, S.; Abidin, H. Z.; Tapponnier, P.; Wang, X.


    Sumba Island is uniquely positioned within the Sunda-Banda forearc, at the transition between oceanic subduction and arc-continent collision. There, the convergence between the Sunda and Australian plates is accommodated along at least three major structures: the megathrust, the Savu backthrust located south of Sumba and the Flores backthrust located north of the volcanic arc. The incipient collision in the vicinity of Sumba is responsible for coastal vertical movements. Quaternary reefal deposits form spectacular uplifted flights of terraces, which directly overlie Mid Miocene - Early Pliocene deep carbonate and volcaniclastic rocks at elevations exceeding 500m. Although aerial fossil reefs extensively rim the northern and eastern coasts of Sumba, studies have been limited to Cape Laundi where an uplift rate of 0.2-0.5 m/kyr is estimated for the last 400 kyr, partly on the basis of alpha-spectrometric U/Th dating. At the island scale, the relief morphology and the hydrographic network point to a N-S asymmetry, indicating a general tilt toward the north. A subducting seafloor asperity and south-dipping normal faults have been postulated to generate this asymmetry. However as the pattern and kinematics of the deformation remain partially determined, structures and processes capable of driving such deformation and accommodating the nascent collision may be undisclosed. New topographic data coupled with field observations and coral mass-spectrometric U/Th dating allow investigating the morphology, stratigraphy and age of the fossil reef terraces at the island scale. Tectonic structures disrupting the topography are identified and their activities are relatively dated with respect to fossil reef terraces. The deformation pattern of Sumba is characterized, especially in Cape Laundi where the uplift rate is re-evaluated. Through a multi-disciplinary study, we intend to reconstruct the tectonic evolution of Sumba island and, at a larger scale, of the collision in SE

  2. Evolution of freshwater crab diversity in the Aegean region (Crustacea: Brachyura: Potamidae). (United States)

    Jesse, Ruth; Grudinski, Melanie; Klaus, Sebastian; Streit, Bruno; Pfenninger, Markus


    The aim of this study was to estimate the influence of the palaeogeographic and climatic history of the Aegean region on the diversity of freshwater crabs of the genus Potamon and to test whether this area served as source or reservoir in species diversity. Necessary species delimitation was accomplished by phylogenetic analyses of the mitochondrial markers COX1 and ND1, partial 16S rRNA gene and the tRNALeu gene. We found 14 genetic lineages of which nine could be assigned to previously recognised species. Temporal estimates of the splitting pattern in the phylogeny of Potamon indicated that a combination of geological and climatic events influenced their diversification. Within Potamon, the lineages separated into a western group and an eastern group. This first split in the genus occurred approximately 8.3-5.5 Mya, thus possibly correlated with the Messinian salinity crisis. A likelihood approach to geographic range evolution suggested for most species, occurring in the Aegean area, an origin in the Middle East. Moreover, there were no insular endemics in the central Aegean archipelago, therefore low sea-levels during the Pleistocene glacial periods possibly enabled dispersal to these islands, but subsequent rise in sea-level did not cause speciation. Nevertheless, the diversification of most lineages occurred during the Pleistocene epoch thus coinciding with Quaternary fluctuations of the climate. PMID:21216297

  3. Newly developed evidence for the original Tethysan island-arc volcanic rocks in the southern segment of the South Lancangjiang Belt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    This paper re-describes the characteristics of pre-Ordovician (Pt3) metamorphic volcanic rocks in the Huimin-Manlai region of Yunnan Province from the aspects of petrographic characteristics, rock assemblage, petrochemistry, REE, trace elements, lead isotopes and geotectonic setting. The metamorphic volcanic rocks maintain blasto-intergranular and blasto-andesitic textures; the volcanic rocks are characterized by a basalt-andesite-dacite assemblage; the volcanic rocks are basic-intermediate-intermediate-acid in chemical composition, belonging to semi-alkaline rocks, with calc-alkaline series and tholeiite series coexisting, and they are characterized by low TiO2 contents; their REE distribution patterns are of the LREE-enrichment right-inclined type; the volcanic rocks are enriched in large cation elements and commonly enriched in Th and partly depleted in Ti, Cr and P, belonging to the Gondwana type as viewed from their Pb isotopic composition; petrochemically the data points fall mostly within the field of island-arc volcanic rocks. All these characteristics provided new evidence for the existence of original Tethysan island-arc volcanic rocks in the region studied.

  4. Illegal immigration in the eastern Aegean Sea: a new source of marine litter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The maritime area dominates the current increasing wave of illegal immigration to Europe. The Greek islands of the eastern Aegean Sea are the main entrance points of immigrants arriving from the coasts of Turkey. Immigration to the Greek islands is mainly conducted with inflatable boats, which are abandoned upon arrival along the coasts together with other items such as life-jackets, inflatable tubes, and clothing. This novel type of marine litter dominates many beaches and becomes increasingly abundant. Two beaches in Lesvos Island were surveyed for marine litter, and immigration-related items were found to account for more than 97% of marine litter by weight. Immigration-related littering adds pressure on marine biodiversity and the local economy, impacting the recreational value of beaches.

  5. Alaska Open-file Report 144 Assessment of Thermal Springs Sites Aleutian Arc, Atka Island to Becherof Lake -- Preliminary Results and Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Motyka, R.J.; Moorman, M.A.; Liss, S.A.


    Twenty of more than 30 thermal spring areas reported to exist in the Aleutian arc extending from Atka Island to Becherof Lake were investigated during July and August, 1980. Thermal activity of three of these sites had diminished substantially or no longer existed. At least seven more sites where thermal-spring activity is probable or certain were not visited because of their remoteness or because of time constraints. The existence of several other reported thermal spring sites could not be verified; these sites are considered questionable. On the basis of geothermometry, subsurface reservoir temperatures in excess of 150 C are estimated for 10 of the thermal spring sites investigated. These sites all occur in or near regions of Recent volcanism. Five of the sites are characterized by fumaroles and steaming ground, indicating the presence of at least a shallow vapor-dominated zone. Two, the Makushin Valley and Glacier Valley thermal areas, occur on the flanks of active Mukushin Volcano located on Unalaska Island, and may be connected to a common source of heat. Gas geothermometry suggests that the reservoir feeding the Kliuchef thermal field, located on the flanks of Kliuchef volcano of northeast Atka Island, may be as high as 239 C.

  6. Focal Mechanisms at the convergent plate boundary in Southern Aegean, Greece. (United States)

    Moshou, Alexandra; Papadimitriou, Eleftheria; Drakatos, George; Evangelidis, Christos; Karakostas, Vasilios; Vallianatos, Filippos; Makropoulos, Konstantinos


    Greece is characterized by high seismicity, mainly due to the collision between the European and the African lithospheric plates and the dextral strike slip motion along the North Anatolia Fault zone and North Aegean Trough. The subduction of the Eastern Mediterranean oceanic plate along the Hellenic Arc under the Aegean microplate along with the accompanied roll back of the descending slab is considered the main tectonic feature of the region (Papazachos and Comninakis 1971; Makropoulos and Burton 1984; Papazachos et al. 2000a, b). The divergent motion between the Aegean block and mainland Europe is indicated by an extension zone in the northern Aegean, with Crete and Aegean diverging from mainland Europe at a rate of about 3.5 cm yr-1 with Africa moving northward relative to Europe at a rate of about 1 cm yr-1 (Dewey et al., 1989; Papazachos et al., 1998; Mc-Clusky et al., 2000; Reilinger et al., 2006). In this tectonically complicated area diverge types of deformation are manifested, in addition to the dominant subduction processes. Aiming to shed more light in the seismotectonic properties and faulting seismological data from the Hellenic Unified Seismological Network (HUSN) were selected and analyzed for determining focal mechanisms using the method of moment tensor inversion, additional to the ones being available from the routine moment tensor solutions and several publications. Thus, 31 new fault plane solutions for events with magnitude M>4.0, are presented in this study, by using the software of Ammon (Randall et al., 1995). For this scope the data from at least 4 stations were used with an adequate azimuthal coverage and with an epicentral distance not more than 350 km. The preparation of the data includes the deconvolution of instruments response, then the velocity was integrated to displacement and finally the horizontal components were rotated to radial and transverse. Following, the signal was inverted using the reflectivity method of Kennett (1983

  7. The Role of Philippine Sea Plate to the Genesis of Quaternary Magmas of Northern Kyushu Island, Japan, Inferred from Along-Arc Geochemical Variations (United States)

    Shibata, T.; Yoshikawa, M.; Itoh, J.; Ujike, O.; Miyoshi, M.; Takemura, K.


    Quaternary volcanoes on Kyushu Island comprise volcanoes Himeshima, Futagoyama, Yufu-Tsurumi, Kuju, Aso, Kirishima and Sakurajima from north to south alongstrike the volcanic front. Adakitic lavas are observed from Yufu-Tsurumi and Kuju volcanoes in northern Kyushu (Kita et al., 2001; Sugimoto et al., 2007), whereas no Quaternary adakites were observed at Aso (e.g., Hunter, 1998) and the volcanoes south of Aso along the entire Ryukyu arc. Sugimoto et al. (2007) suggested that the trace element and Sr, Nd, and Pb isotopic compositions of adakitic magmas from Yufu-Tsurumi volcano indicate derivation of the magmas by partial melting of the subducting PSP. In contrast, Zellmer et al. (2012) suggested that these adakites may have formed by fractional crystallization of mantle-derived mafic magmas within the garnet stability field in the crust. The Honshu-Kyushu arc transition is a particular favorable setting to address these controversial models for the origin of the adakitic lavas, because of the potential relationship between the PSP materials and the alongstrike variation of the lava chemistry. The Palau-Kyushu ridge divides the oceanic crust of the PSP into northeastern and southwestern segments with ages of 26-15 (Shikoku Basin) and 60-40 Ma (West Philippine Basin), respectively (Mahony et al., 2011). Although there are no clear plate images beneath northern Kyushu, the northern extension of the Palau-Kyushu ridge potentially corresponds to the boundary between the SW Japan and Ryukyu arcs. If adakite genesis was related to the subducted slab rather than the overlying crust, then the spatial distribution of Quaternary adakites should correlate with the age of the subducted PSP. In order to test such correlation and elucidate the petrogenesis of the northern Kyushu adakites, we compiled major and trace elements and Sr-Nd-Pb isotope ratios from volcanoes along the arc front that includes the transition from adakitic to non-adakitic arc volcanism. Comprehensive

  8. 基于ArcGIS的南麂列岛潮间带大型底栖藻类研究%Study on the Macroalgae Based on the ArcGIS in Nanji Islands Marine Nature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚启学; 宋伟华; 蔡厚才; 王飞


    According to November 2013 (autumn) and February 2014 (winter), May (spring) and August (summer) among Nanji Islands Ma-rine Reserve, macroalgae data was investigated, the species, quantity distribution, dominant species and diversity was studied.The survey data was reorganized and entered into Nanji Islands biodiversity GIS , ArcGIS software was used to draw survey section distribution maps , maps of algal biomass, algae diversity index sectional survey map.Using ArcGIS software for distance analysis and terrain analysis and the results were com-bined with the algae research survey data.The results showed that there was a weak correlation between distance of section and Nanji Islands , and biomass in spring, and there was no correlation among the biodiversity index.Except in the range of 10°-20°slope section of the survey biomass abnormalities, biomass decreased with increasing slope, algal community structure changed with slope;on the whole year of macroalgae biomass, the shady slope of algal biomass>sunny slope of algal biomass>semi-sunny slope of algal biomass>semi-shady slope of algal biomass , and there was significant difference in variation degree of different aspects macroalgae biomass with season .%根据2013年11月(秋)和2014年2月(冬)、5月(春)、8月(夏)在南麂列岛海洋自然保护区潮间带调查所获大型底栖藻类数据,对南麂列岛海洋自然保护区潮间带大型底栖藻类的种类组成、数量分布、优势种以及多样性进行研究。将调查数据整理并录入到南麂列岛生物多样性地理信息系统,使用ArcGIS软件绘制南麂列岛潮间带调查断面分布图、藻类生物量分布图和调查断面藻类多样性指数专题图。使用ArcGIS软件进行距离分析和地形分析,并分别结合藻类调查数据进行研究。结果表明,调查断面与南麂岛之间的距离和调查断面春季生物量之间存在弱相关关系,而与生物多样性指数

  9. CRED 20 m Gridded bathymetry of Johnston Atoll, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific (Arc ASCII Format) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gridded bathymetry (20 m cell size) of the shelf and slope environments of Johnston Atoll, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific. Almost complete bottom...

  10. CRED 40 m Gridded bathymetry of Palmyra Atoll, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific (Arc ASCII Format) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gridded (40 m cell size) bathymetry of the lagoon, shelf and slope environments of Palmyra Atoll, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific. Almost complete...

  11. CRED 5 m Gridded bathymetry of Johnston Atoll, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific (Arc ASCII Format) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gridded bathymetry (5 m cell size) of the shelf and slope environments of Johnston Atoll, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific. Almost complete bottom...

  12. CRED 60 m Gridded bathymetry and IKONOS estimated depths of UTM Zone 1, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands, USA (Arc ASCII format) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gridded bathymetry and IKONOS estimated depths of the shelf and slope environments of the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands, USA within UTM Zone 1. Bottom coverage was...

  13. CRED 20 m Gridded bathymetry of Kingman Reef, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific (Arc ASCII Format) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gridded (20 m cell size) bathymetry of the lagoon, shelf and slope environments of Kingman Reef, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific. Almost complete...

  14. CRED 5 m Gridded bathymetry of Palmyra Atoll, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific (Arc ASCII Format) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gridded (5 m cell size) bathymetry of the lagoon, shelf and slope environments of Palmyra Atoll, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific. Almost complete...

  15. CRED 5 m Gridded bathymetry of Kingman Reef, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific (Arc ASCII Format) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gridded (5 m cell size) bathymetry of the lagoon, shelf and slope environments of Kingman Reef, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific. Almost complete bottom...

  16. CRED 60 m Gridded bathymetry and IKONOS estimated depths of UTM Zone 2, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands, USA (Arc ASCII format) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gridded bathymetry and IKONOS estimated depths of the shelf and slope environments of the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands, USA within UTM Zone 2. Bottom coverage was...

  17. Mechanisms for tectonic erosion of an accretionary complex in the d'Entrecasteaux Zone-New Hebrides Island arc collision zone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collot, J.Y. (Orstom, Villefranche-sur-mer (France)); Fisher, M.A. (Geological Survey, Menlo Park, CA (USA))


    In the southwest Pacific Ocean the d'Entrecasteaux Zone (DEZ) is an arcuate submarine mountain chain that collides with the central part of the New Hebrides island arc. The collision zone moves slowly (2.5 cm/yr) northward along the trench, owing to the small oblique angle between the DEZ and the azimuth of convergence. Extensive Seabeam bathymetry as well as single- and multichannel seismic reflection data were collected over both the collision zone and the accretionary wedge that lies south of this zone. These data indicate that the accretionary complex underwent considerable tectonic erosion in response to oblique subduction of the DEZ during the past 8 Ma. Simplified calculation indicates that the mean erosional rate of this complex is 800-900 km{sup 3}/Ma. The main mechanisms for tectonic erosion of the accretionary complex involve mass wasting and extensional tectonics. First, mobilization and mass wasting of accreted rocks result in overlapping slump masses that blanket the arc slope. Second, block sliding along an extensional detachment within accreted rocks strips off the upper (about 1 km) part of the accretionary complex. Third, as the DEZ moves northward, the accreted rocks in the wake of the DEZ lose support and collapse along large normal faults that trend oblique to the arc slope. An additional errosive mechanism involves the formation of a deep subcircular reentrant into the accretionary complex; the reentrant is believed to be a scar caused by the collision and subduction of a seamount. The reentrant cuts downward through the accreted rocks almost to the depth of the abyssal oceanic plain.

  18. Progressive Emergence and Warping of Islands in the Active Banda Arc-Continent Collision As Recorded By Uplifted Coral Terraces: Tectonic and Geohazards Implications (United States)

    Harris, R. A.; Cox, N.; Major, J. R.; Merritts, D. J.; Prasetyadi, C.


    Uplifted coral terraces throughout the Banda-Sunda Arc transition reveal how strain is distributed over the past thousand to million years in the active arc-continent collision, and are key to identifying hazardous active faults. U-series age analysis of the lowest coral terraces yields surface uplift rates that vary in a non-systematic way along strike from 0.2 to 1.5 mm/a over short wavelengths of a few kms. For example, coral terraces are tilted varying degrees northward in Sumba, SSE in Savu, NNW in Rote and generally south along the north coast of Timor. In all of these cases the tilt is away from zones of active thrusting and folding. In Sumba the forearc is ramping up and over the northern edge of the Scott Plateau along what is likely a north dipping thrust. In Savu the coral terraces rise where the back of the accretionary wedge is ramping up over the forearc basin on the south dipping Savu Thrust. In Rote coral terraces form on the front of the accretionary wedge where it is ramping up over the subducting Australian continental margin. The north coast of East Timor is likely uplifting due to internal thrusting and closure of the Wetar Strait. Localized uplift of circular islands is associated with diapirism. The diapiric island of Kisar is cored by syn-collisional metamorphic rocks. The association of uplift and warping with short wavelength deformational processes argues against the commonly held interpretation that coral terraces in the Banda arc-continent collision manifest the effects of slab tear or some other lithospheric scale process. The pattern of uplift correlates best with proximity to active faults, folds and diapirs. In terms of geohazards, flights of uplifted coral terraces are the smoking gun for sources of large earthquakes and tsunami. Many of the terraces show signs of co-seismic uplift. Tsunami deposits with young corals are found on some of these terraces as high as 20 m above sea level.

  19. Offshore wind power in the Aegean Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasager, Charlotte Bay; Badger, Merete; Hahmann, Andrea N.

    The wind climate of the Mediterranean Sea has been estimated from atmospheric modelling (Cavaleri 2005, Lavignini et al. 2006) and QuikSCAT (Furevik et al. 2011). The latter shows the Aegean Sea as a promising area for offshore wind power development. According to the Hellenic Wind Energy......, where the spatial variations in wind speed are very high, accurate resource mapping is of great importance as the produced wind power is proportional to the cubed wind speed. It is challenging to model the wind resource and it is costly to measure from the ground at every place of interest. Maps based...... wind resource software. A service-based on satellite SAR-derived winds for wind resource estimation is available at DTU Wind Energy. The project was supported by ESA ResGrow and satellite data from ESA Envisat and Copernicus Sentinel-1....

  20. Cephalopods distribution in the southern Aegean Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The present study concerns faunal composition and distribution of cephalopods in the southern Aegean Sea (35Ζ 13’ 19’’- 37Ζ 55’ 25’’ N, 23Ζ 00’ 15’’ - 28Ζ 15’ 37’’ E. Samples were collected from 708 hauls, obtained by an experimental bottom trawl net during eight surveys carried out in the summers of the years 1994-2001, as well as by commercial trawl net during four surveys carried out in September 1995, December 1995, May and September 1996. The hauls were performed at depths ranging from 16 to 778 m. A total of 34 species of cephalopod in 12 families were identified, including 11 oegopsid squid, 3 myopsid squid, 7 octopod, 3 cuttlefish and 10 sepiolid. Trawling with the experimental net resulted in the capturing of some uncommon pelagic species, such as Ctenopteryx siculaand Octopoteuthis sicula, which were recorded for the first time in the Aegean Sea. Most of the species showed a wide depth and geographical range. The species: Sepia officinalis, Sepietta neglecta, Sepietta obscuraand Sepiola rondeletiwere caught only on the continental shelf, whereas the Ancistroteuthis lichtensteini, Bathypolypous sponsalis, Brachioteuthis riisei, Chiroteuthis veranyi, Ctenopteryx sicula, Heteroteuthis dispar, Histioteuthis reversa, Neorossia caroli and Pyroteuthis margaritiferawere found only on the slope. The rest of the species extended in both continental shelf and slope. The spatial distribution of different species groups is discussed in relation to the hydrology and topography of the study area and the species ecology.

  1. Early Cretaceous arc volcanic suite in Cebu Island, Central Philippines and its implications on paleo-Pacific plate subduction: Constraints from geochemistry, zircon U-Pb geochronology and Lu-Hf isotopes (United States)

    Deng, Jianghong; Yang, Xiaoyong; Zhang, Zhao-Feng; Santosh, M.


    The Philippine island arc system is a collage of amalgamated terranes of oceanic, continental and island arc affinities. Here we investigate a volcanic suite in Cebu Island of central Philippines, including basalt, diabase dike, basaltic pyroclastic rock and porphyritic andesite. LA-ICP-MS U-Pb geochronology of zircon grains from the porphyritic andesite and pyroclastic rock yielded ages of 126 ± 3 Ma and 119 ± 2 Ma, respectively, indicating an Early Cretaceous age. The age distribution of the detrital zircons from river sand in the area displays a peak at ca. 118 Ma, close to the age of the pyroclastic rock. The early Cretaceous volcanic rocks in the central Philippines were previously regarded as parts of ophiolite complexes by most investigators, whereas the Cebu volcanics are distinct from these, and display calc-alkaline affinity and island arc setting, characterized by high LREE/HREE ratios and low HFSE contents. These features are similar to the Early Cretaceous arc basalts in the Amami Plateau and east Halmahera in the northernmost and southernmost West Philippine Basin respectively. Zircon Hf isotopes of the pyroclastic rocks show depleted nature similar to those of the Amami Plateau basalts, implying the subducted Pacific-type MORB as probable source. Zircon Hf isotopes of the porphyritic andesite show slight enrichment relative to that of the pyroclastic rocks and MORB, indicating subducted sediments as a minor end-member in the source. The Hf isotopic compositions of the volcanic rocks are also reflected in the detrital zircons from the river sands. We propose that the volcanic rocks of Cebu Island were derived from partial melting of sub-arc mantle wedge which was metasomatized by dehydration of subducted oceanic crust together with minor pelagic sediments. Within the tectonic environment of Southeast Asia during Early Cretaceous, the volcanic rocks in Cebu Island can be correlated to the subduction of paleo-Pacific plate. The Early Cretaceous

  2. A new contribution to the Late Quaternary tephrostratigraphy of the Mediterranean: Aegean Sea core LC21 (United States)

    Satow, C.; Tomlinson, E. L.; Grant, K. M.; Albert, P. G.; Smith, V. C.; Manning, C. J.; Ottolini, L.; Wulf, S.; Rohling, E. J.; Lowe, J. J.; Blockley, S. P. E.; Menzies, M. A.


    Tephra layers preserved in marine sediments can contribute to the reconstruction of volcanic histories and potentially act as stratigraphic isochrons to link together environmental records. Recent developments in the detection of volcanic ash (tephra) at levels where none is macroscopically visible (so-called 'crypto-tephra') have greatly enhanced the potential of tephrostratigraphy for synchronising environmental and archaeological records by expanding the areas over which tephras are found. In this paper, crypto-tephra extraction techniques allow the recovery of 8 non-visible tephra layers to add to the 9 visible layers in a marine sediment core (LC21) from the SE Aegean Sea to form the longest, single core record of volcanic activity in the Aegean Sea. Using a novel, shard-specific methodology, sources of the tephra shards are identified on the basis of their major and trace element single-shard geochemistry, by comparison with geochemical data from proximal Mediterranean volcanic stratigraphies. The results indicate that the tephra layers are derived from 14 or 15 separate eruptions in the last ca 161 ka BP: 9 from Santorini; 2 or 3 from Kos, Yali, or Nisyros; 2 from the Campanian province; and one from Pantelleria. The attributions of these tephra layers indicate that 1) inter-Plinian eruptions from Santorini may have produced regionally significant tephra deposits, 2) marine tephrostratigraphies can provide unique and invaluable data to eruptive histories for island volcanoes, and 3) tephra from both Pantelleria and Campania may be used to correlate marine records from the Aegean Sea to those from the Tyrrhenian, Adriatic and Ionian Seas.

  3. Observations of Seafloor Outcrops in the Oblique Subduction Setting of Adak Canyon: Implications for Understanding the Early History of the Aleutian Island Arc (United States)

    Yogodzinski, G.; Scholl, D.; Jicha, B.; Wyatt, C.; Singer, B.; Kelemen, P.


    Submarine canyons in the western Aleutians (west of 177°W) are formed by oblique subduction, which has broken crustal blocks away from the arc massif and rotated them in clockwise sense, resulting in the formation of triangular-shaped summit basins and deep, structurally controlled submarine canyons (Geist et al., Tectonics v7, p327, 1988). A series of dives with the ROV Jason II on July 28-30, 2004 on Adak Canyon has provided the first-ever view of seafloor outcrops in an Aleutian canyon formed by this process. Two dives on the canyon's steep eastern wall revealed extensive exposures of blocky outcrops of volcanic rock at depths of 2900-1500 m. Samples of these units collected by the Jason II are a mixture of dark, pyroxene and plagioclase-phyric lavas and volcaniclastics. Degree of weathering/alteration is highly variable but some samples appear fresh. We anticipate that these rocks are offshore-equivalents of the Finger Bay Volcanics, which represent the earliest phase of Aleutian volcanism exposed on nearby Adak Island (e.g., Coats, 1956, USGS Bull. 1028-C). Exposures of granitic rock in Adak Canyon form low ledges of exfoliating outcrop interspersed with spheroidally weathered, bouldery sub-crop, in the depth range of 1800-1600 meters. Obtaining in-situ samples from these massive and subrounded exposures was not possible with the Jason II, but recovery of large, sub-angular slabs that litter the surface included samples of fresh diorite, fine-grained felsic intrusives and hydrothermally altered volcanic country rock. The stratigraphically highest exposures observed in Adak Canyon are gently dipping, poorly lithified `Middle Series' sedimentary rocks of probable Miocene-Oligocene age. All outcrop surfaces in Adak Canyon are covered with a uniformly dark brown, opaque coating of Mn oxide less than 1mm thick. Well-rounded cobbles and boulders interpreted to be glacial drift are largely free of Mn oxide coatings. Thick pavements of Mn-oxide were not observed

  4. Chemical composition and hygroscopic properties of aerosol particles over the Aegean Sea

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    S. Bezantakos


    Full Text Available The chemical composition and water uptake characteristics of sub-micrometer atmospheric particles in the region of the Aegean Sea were measured between 25 August and 11 September 2011 in the framework of the Aegean-Game campaign. High time-resolution measurements of the chemical composition of the particles were conducted using an airborne compact Time-Of-Flight Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (cTOF-AMS. These measurements involved two flights from the island of Crete to the island of Lemnos and back. A Hygroscopic Tandem Differential Mobility Analyzer (HTDMA located on the island of Lemnos was used to measure the ability of the particles to take up water. The HTDMA measurements showed that the particles were internally mixed, having hygroscopic growth factors that ranged from 1.00 to 1.59 when exposed to 85% relative humidity. When the aircraft flew near the ground station on Lemnos, the cTOF-AMS measurements showed that the organic volume fraction of the particles ranged from 43 to 56%. These measurements corroborate the range of hygroscopic growth factors measured by the HTDMA during that time. Good closure between HTDMA and cTOF-AMS measurements was achieved when assuming that the organic species were hydrophobic and had an average density that corresponds to aged organic species. Using the results from the closure study, the cTOF-AMS measurements were employed to determine a representative aerosol hygroscopic parameter κmix for the whole path of the two flights. Calculated κmix values ranged from 0.17 to 1.03 during the first flight and from 0.15 to 0.93 during the second flight. Air masses of different origin as determined by back trajectory calculations can explain the spatial variation in the chemical composition and κmix values of the particles observed in the region.

  5. Monitoring seismic velocity changes caused by the 2014 Northern Aegean earthquake using continuous ambient noise records (United States)

    Evangelidis, Christos; Daskalakis, Emmanouil; Tsogka, Chrysoula


    The 24 May 2014 Northern Aegean earthquake (6.9 Mw), an event on the Northern Aegean Trough (NAT), ruptured on two different fault segments with a total ruptured length of ~100 km. For the second delayed segment, rupture propagated eastward from the hypocenter for ˜65 km with a supershear velocity (5.5 km/s). Low-aftershock seismicity on the supershear segment implies a simple and linear fault geometry there. An effort to monitor temporal seismic velocity changes across the ruptured area of the Northern Aegean earthquake is underway. In recent years, neighboring seismic broadband stations near active faults have been successfully used to detect such changes. The crosscorrelation functions (CCF) of ambient noise records between stations yields the corresponding traveltimes for those inter-station paths. Moreover, the auto-correlation functions (ACF) at each station produce the seismic responce for a coincident source and receiver position. Possible temporal changes of the measured traveltimes from CCFs and ACFs correspond to seismic velocity changes. Initially, we investigate the characteristics and sources of the ambient seismic noise as recorded at permanent seismic stations installed around NAT at the surrounding islands and in mainland Greece and Turkey. The microseismic noise levels show a clear seasonal variation at all stations. The noise levels across the double frequency band (DF; period range 4-8 s) reflect the local sea-weather conditions within a range of a few hundred kilometers. Three years of continuous seismic records framing the main shock have been analysed from ~15 stations within a radius of 100 km from the epicentre. We observe a clear decrease of seismic velocities most likely corresponding to the co-seismic shaking. The spatial variation of this velocity drop is imaged from all inter-station paths that correspond to CCF measurements and for station sites that correspond to ACF measurements. Thus, we explore a possible correlation between co

  6. Geochemistry of the Ophiolite and Island-Arc Volcanic Rocks in the Mianxian-Lueyang Suture Zone,Southern Qinling and Their Tectonic Significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Ultrabasic rocks in the Mianxian-Lueyang ophiolitic melange zone include harzburgite and dunite which exhibit LREE depletion with remarkable positive Eu anomaly.The diabase dike swarm shows LREE enrichment but slightly negative Eu anomaly.Metamorphosed volcanic rocks can be divided into two groups in terms of their REE geochemistry and trace element ratios of Ti/V,Th/Ta,Th/Yb and Ta/Yb.One is ths MORB-type basalt with LREE depletion,representing the fragments of oceanic crust and implying an association of the MORB-type ophiolite and an ancient ocean basin between the Qinling and Yangtze plates during the Middle Paleozoic-Early Mesozoic era.The oter comprises the island-arc volcanic rocks including tholeiitic basalt and a large amount of calc-alkaline intermediate-acic volcanic rock,which could not be the component of the ancient oceanic crust but the result of magmatism at the continental margin.This indicates that the Mianxian-Lueyang limited ocean basin had undergone a whole process of development,evolution and vanishing from Devonian-Cretaceous to Permian.And the Qinling area had becone an independent lithospheric microplate,on the southern side of which there were exhibited the tectonic characteristics of active continental margins during the Late Paleozoic-Early Mesozoic.That is to say.the Qinling cannot be simply considered as a result of collision between the Yangtze and North China plates.

  7. Time span of plutonism, fabric development, and cooling in a Neoproterozoic magmatic arc segment: U Pb age constraints from syn-tectonic plutons, Sark, Channel Islands, UK (United States)

    Miller, Brent V.; Samson, Scott D.; D'Lemos, Richard S.


    New U-Pb zircon and titanite dates from syn-tectonic plutons on the British Channel Island of Sark constrain the time span of plutonism, fabric development, and cooling in this part of the Neoproterozoic Cadomian magmatic arc. The Tintageu leucogneiss is a mylonitic unit that was dated previously at 615.6 +4.2-2.3 Ma. The Port du Moulin quartz diorite, which intruded the Tintageu unit, contains a high-strain solid-state deformation fabric that is less intense than, but parallel to, fabrics in the leucogneiss and yields a U-Pb zircon date of 613.5 +2.3-1.5 Ma. The Little Sark quartz diorite also displays solid-state deformation fabrics in addition to relict magmatic textures, and yields a U-Pb zircon date of 611.4 +2.1-1.3 Ma. The North Sark granodiorite is largely penetratively undeformed, exhibits mainly magmatic fabrics and textures and has a U-Pb zircon date of 608.7 +1.1-1.0 Ma. Two fractions of titanite from each intrusion are essentially concordant and are identical within error, with mean dates of 606.5±0.4 Ma (Port du Moulin quartz diorite), 606.2±0.6 Ma (Little Sark quartz diorite), 606.4±0.6 Ma (North Sark granodiorite). The new U-Pb data, in combination with previous U-Pb and 40Ar/ 39Ar data and previous field studies, confirm the syn-tectonic nature of the Sark plutons and quantify the time span (ca. 7 m.y.) required for intrusion and sufficient crystallization of each body to record incremental strain during waning deformation. Titanite U-Pb and hornblende 40Ar/ 39Ar dates mark final cooling about 2 m.y. after intrusion of the last pluton.

  8. Deep Magnetotelluric survey on Crete Island across the Hellenic Subduction Zone (United States)

    Kalisperi, D.; Smirnov, M.; Kokologiannakis, A.; Pentes, G.; Makris, J. P.


    Crete Island is located in a prominent position at the fore-arc of the Hellenic Subduction Zone (HSZ), thus enabling onshore study of the Earth's deep structure. The area is characterized by a complicated geological and geotectonic setting as well as by intense geodynamics that manifests itself in high seismicity. The aim of the ongoing research project 'MagnetoTellurics in studying Geodynamics of the hEllenic ARc (MT-GEAR)' is to contribute to the investigation of the geoelectric structure of Southern Aegean, and particularly to try to image the Hellenic Subduction Zone. In this context, onshore magnetotelluric (MT) measurements were carried out in July 2013 on Crete Island, comprising three parallel profiles aligned to the North-South (NS) direction, yielding a site spacing of about 5 to 10 km. In total, 21 broad-band MT soundings were conducted in the period range of 0.003-1000 s organized in the three 36Km, 30Km and 42Km long NS trending profiles. Data were collected using two different types of MT instruments (an EMI MT24LF and two Uppsala type MTU2000 systems) which were running simultaneously. We present the resulting model of the conductivity structure of the HSZ in the area of Crete.

  9. Fate of an Oceanic Island-arc at the Collision Zone: Insight From a Modern Case at the Izu Collision Zone, Central Japan (United States)

    Aoike, K.


    Arc-arc or arc-continent collision zone, which separates an arc crust into materials to be left on the earth_fs surface and to be returned to the mantle, is regarded as the final disposal place of the subduction factory product. Mass balance across the collision boundary, therefore, should have great significance in the processes of continental growth and mantle evolution. The Izu Collision Zone (ICZ) located at the conjunction of the Honshu arc and the Izu-Bonin arc (IBA), is a place of ongoing orthogonal arc-arc collision, where the middle to upper crust of the northern IBA is exposed on land as accretionary terranes. The IBA-ICZ system is much advantageous for elucidating the mass balance, because that the product is simple and fresh and the flow from manufacture to disposal is quite clear. Across arc variation of buoyancy and rheological state of the lithosphere controlled principally by geothermal gradient would regulate the regime of collision tectonics. Crust-scale accretion is taking place associated with conspicuous crustal shortening and thickening in the central ICZ where the active arc that is about 100 km wide and 20 km thick is colliding. By contrast, almost the whole arc crust is subducting, leaving the off-scraped sediments as accretionary prisms in the eastern and western areas where the inactive forearc and backarc, totally 200 km wide and averagely 14 km thick, are colliding. Based on the land geology and existing seismic structure, crustal volume of the accreted IBA is estimated for the line along the axis of the ICZ and another line passing through the Tanzawa Terrane situated eastward 30 km apart from the axis. The estimation indicates that the volume of the Tanzawa line is significantly smaller (16 %) than that of the axis, in spite of being very close. This difference is explainable, if the Philippine Sea Plate slab including expected aseismic part is accompanied with 7 km thick subducted arc crust. This result of calculation implies that

  10. High resolution seismic data coupled to Multibeam bathymetry of Stromboli island collected in the frame of the Stromboli geophysical experiment: implications with the marine geophysics and volcanology of the Aeolian Arc volcanic complex (Sicily, Southern Tyrrhenian sea, Italy). (United States)

    Aiello, Gemma; Di Fiore, Vincenzo; Marsella, Ennio; Passaro, Salvatore


    New high resolution seismic data (Subbottom Chirp) coupled to high resolution Multibeam bathymetry collected in the frame of the Stromboli geophysical experiment aimed at recording active seismic data and tomography of the Stromboli Island are here presented. The Stromboli geophysical experiment has been already carried out based on onshore and offshore data acquisition in order to investigate the deep structure and the location of the magma chambers of the Stromboli volcano. A new detailed swath bathymetry of Stromboli Island is here shown and discussed to reconstruct an up-to-date morpho-bathymetry and marine geology of the area compared to the volcanologic setting of the Aeolian Arc volcanic complex. Due to its high resolution the new Digital Terrain Model of the Stromboli Island gives interesting information about the submerged structure of the volcano, particularly about the volcano-tectonic and gravitational processes involving the submarine flanks of the edifice. Several seismic units have been identified based on the geologic interpretation of Subbottom Chirp profiles recorded around the volcanic edifice and interpreted as volcanic acoustic basement pertaining to the volcano and overlying slide chaotic bodies emplaced during its complex volcano-tectonic evolution. They are related to the eruptive activity of Stromboli, mainly poliphasic and to regional geological processes involving the intriguing geology of the Aeolian Arc, a volcanic area still in activity and needing improved research interest. PMID:24860717

  11. Modeling the buoyancy-driven Black Sea Water outflow into the North Aegean Sea

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    Nikolaos Kokkos


    Full Text Available A three-dimensional numerical model was applied to simulate the Black Sea Water (BSW outflux and spreading over the North Aegean Sea, and its impact on circulation and stratification–mixing dynamics. Model results were validated against satellite-derived sea surface temperature and in-situ temperature and salinity profiles. Further, the model results were post-processed in terms of the potential energy anomaly, ϕ, analyzing the factors contributing to its change. It occurs that BSW contributes significantly on the Thracian Sea water column stratification, but its signal reduces in the rest of the North Aegean Sea. The BSW buoyancy flux contributed to the change of ϕ in the Thracian Sea by 1.23 × 10−3 W m−3 in the winter and 7.9 × 10−4 W m−3 in the summer, significantly higher than the corresponding solar heat flux contribution (1.41 × 10−5 W m−3 and 7.4 × 10−5 W m−3, respectively. Quantification of the ϕ-advective term crossing the north-western BSW branch (to the north of Lemnos Island, depicted a strong non-linear relation to the relative vorticity of Samothraki Anticyclone. Similar analysis for the south-western branch illustrated a relationship between the ϕ-advective term sign and the relative vorticity in the Sporades system. The ϕ-mixing term increases its significance under strong winds (>15 m s−1, tending to destroy surface meso-scale eddies.

  12. Major outputs of the recent multidisciplinary biogeochemical researches undertaken in the Aegean Sea (United States)

    Lykousis, V.; Chronis, G.; Tselepides, A.; Price, N. B.; Theocharis, A.; Siokou-Frangou, I.; Van Wambeke, F.; Danovaro, R.; Stavrakakis, S.; Duineveld, G.; Georgopoulos, D.; Ignatiades, L.; Souvermezoglou, A.; Voutsinou-Taliadouri, F.


    The main outputs of a multidisciplinary and integrated studies are summarised. The results incorporate the latest biogeochemical researches, at basin scale, in the Aegean Sea (including thermohaline circulation studies, SPM dynamics, mass and energy fluxes, acknowledge biochemical processes in the euphotic and the benthic layer and benthic response to downward fluxes). The data were acquired within five (seasonal) research cruises, during 1997-1998. Data analysis and evaluation hence provided important new information on the functional processes of the Aegean ecosystem. In terms of water circulation, no new deep water formation in the Aegean Sea was observed, during 1997-1998, but rather intermediate water, due mainly to the mild winter conditions. All the biochemical parameters of the euphotic zone (nutrients, Particulate Organic Carbon (POC), chlorophyll- a, phytoplankton, primary and bacterial production), although high in the N. Aegean Sea reflect clearly the highly oligotrophic character of the Aegean Sea. In the N. Aegean, microbial food web was the main pathway of carbon, whereas in the S. Aegean, the food web could be classified as multivorous. An important Black Sea Water (BSW) signal was observed in the dissolved phase; this was especially pronounced in the Dissolved Organic Carbon (DOC), Mn and to a lesser degree to Cd, Cu and Ni concentrations. The downward material fluxes are higher in the N. Aegean, relative to the S. Aegean. Substantially higher values of near-bottom mass fluxes were measured in the deep basins of the N. Aegean, implying significant deep lateral fluxes of POM. The N. Aegean could be classified as a "continental margin" ecosystem, whilst the S. Aegean is a typical "oceanic margin" environment. There is a close relationship and, consequently, coupling between the near-bottom mass fluxes and the accumulation rates of organic matter (OM), with the near-bottom mineralisation, bioturbation, redox potential, oxygen consumption rates, the

  13. Wind Atlas of Aegean Sea with SAR data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bingöl, Ferhat; Hasager, Charlotte Bay; Badger, Merete;


    The Global Wind Atlas project is established to create a “free-to-use” wind atlas of the whole globe. The modelling chain of the project includes micro-scale models and new reanalysis datasets. Local measurements are planed to be use for test and validation. Unfortunately, it is not always possible...... satellite radar technologies made it possible to use Synthetic Aperture Radars (SAR) for wind speed and direction measurements at offshore locations. In this study, a new technique of making wind atlases is applied to the region of Aegean Sea is presented. The method has been tested and validated in the...... to find long term offshore measurement to make wind statistics. The main reason is the cost of setup and maintenance of an offshore mast. One of the regions which has high potential in wind resources but so far is without any long term offshore measurement is the Aegean sea. Recent developments in...

  14. The Aegean Sea marine security decision support system

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    L. Perivoliotis


    Full Text Available As part of the integrated ECOOP (European Coastal Sea Operational observing and Forecasting System project, HCMR upgraded the already existing standalone Oil Spill Forecasting System for the Aegean Sea, initially developed for the Greek Operational Oceanography System (POSEIDON, into an active element of the European Decision Support System (EuroDeSS. The system is accessible through a user friendly web interface where the case scenarios can be fed into the oil spill drift model component, while the synthetic output contains detailed information about the distribution of oil spill particles and the oil spill budget and it is provided both in text based ECOOP common output format and as a series of sequential graphics. The main development steps that were necessary for this transition were the modification of the forcing input data module in order to allow the import of other system products which are usually provided in standard formats such as NetCDF and the transformation of the model's calculation routines to allow use of current, density and diffusivities data in z instead of sigma coordinates. During the implementation of the Aegean DeSS, the system was used in operational mode in order support the Greek marine authorities in handling a real accident that took place in North Aegean area. Furthermore, the introduction of common input and output files by all the partners of EuroDeSS extended the system's interoperability thus facilitating data exchanges and comparison experiments.

  15. The Aegean sea marine security decision support system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Perivoliotis


    Full Text Available As part of the integrated ECOOP (European Coastal Sea Operational observing and Forecasting System project, HCMR upgraded the already existing standalone Oil Spill Forecasting System for the Aegean Sea, initially developed for the Greek Operational Oceanography System (POSEIDON, into an active element of the European Decision Support System (EuroDeSS. The system is accessible through a user friendly web interface where the case scenarios can be fed into the oil spill drift model component, while the synthetic output contains detailed information about the distribution of oil spill particles and the oil spill budget and it is provided both in text based ECOOP common output format and as a series of sequential graphics. The main development steps that were necessary for this transition were the modification of the forcing input data module in order to allow the import of other system products which are usually provided in standard formats such as NetCDF and the transformation of the model's calculation routines to allow use of current, density and diffusivities data in z instead of sigma coordinates. During the implementation of the Aegean DeSS, the system was used in operational mode in order to support the Greek marine authorities in handling a real accident that took place in North Aegean area. Furthermore, the introduction of common input and output files by all the partners of EuroDeSS extended the system's interoperability thus facilitating data exchanges and comparison experiments.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nick Kardulias


    Full Text Available Aegean societies in the third and second millennia B.C. developed complex economics based on the accumulation of substantial agricultural surpluses, craft specialization, and intricate distribution systems. The trade items included both utilitarian and luxury goods. To place these activities in a proper context, this paper initially evaluates the world systems literature as it relates to antiquity. The paper then presents some specific evidence to support the contention that the Aegean BA economy was an adjunct to an Eastern Mediterranean world system. While Wallerstein's model offers valuable insights into the operation of trade networks, his approach has certain limitations. The paper explores some of these limitations, in particular the absence of periphery dependence on core areas that is a hallmark of modern capitalist systems, discusses revisions suggested by other scholars, and demonstrates the validity of the altered model with data from the Aegean. The evidence suggests the existence of a system with local, intraregional, and extraregional components. Finally, the paper also suggests that the world systemsapproach needs to place greater emphasis on production, not just exchange, as the crucial nexus of economic activity.

  17. Stochastic strong ground motion simulations for the intermediate-depth earthquakes of the south Aegean subduction zone (United States)

    Kkallas, Harris; Papazachos, Konstantinos; Boore, David; Margaris, Vasilis


    We have employed the stochastic finite-fault modelling approach of Motazedian and Atkinson (2005), as described by Boore (2009), for the simulation of Fourier spectra of the Intermediate-depth earthquakes of the south Aegean subduction zone. The stochastic finite-fault method is a practical tool for simulating ground motions of future earthquakes which requires region-specific source, path and site characterizations as input model parameters. For this reason we have used data from both acceleration-sensor and broadband velocity-sensor instruments from intermediate-depth earthquakes with magnitude of M 4.5-6.7 that occurred in the south Aegean subduction zone. Source mechanisms for intermediate-depth events of north Aegean subduction zone are either collected from published information or are constrained using the main faulting types from Kkallas et al. (2013). The attenuation parameters for simulations were adopted from Skarladoudis et al. (2013) and are based on regression analysis of a response spectra database. The site amplification functions for each soil class were adopted from Klimis et al., (1999), while the kappa values were constrained from the analysis of the EGELADOS network data from Ventouzi et al., (2013). The investigation of stress-drop values was based on simulations performed with the EXSIM code for several ranges of stress drop values and by comparing the results with the available Fourier spectra of intermediate-depth earthquakes. Significant differences regarding the strong-motion duration, which is determined from Husid plots (Husid, 1969), have been identified between the for-arc and along-arc stations due to the effect of the low-velocity/low-Q mantle wedge on the seismic wave propagation. In order to estimate appropriate values for the duration of P-waves, we have automatically picked P-S durations on the available seismograms. For the S-wave durations we have used the part of the seismograms starting from the S-arrivals and ending at the

  18. Oil pollution in the surface water of the Aegean Sea


    Öztürk, Bayram; Güven, Kasim C.; Nesimigil, Filiz; Cumali, Selin; Dede, Ayhan


    Abstract Oil pollution in the surface water of the Aegean Sea was investigated from the Çanakkale Strait (Dardanelles) to the Marmaris Harbour, during 17-25 April in 2005. The oil pollution of samples was determined by UVF, through various crude oils and also chrysene as references materials. The oil pollution in water was ranged from 6.17 μg/L at Datca to 59.58 μg/L at Kusadasi through Russian crude oil equivalent. The highest polluted areas were Babakale-Kusadasi Bay, West of Giadoros Islan...

  19. Long-Term Marine Traffic Monitoring for Environmental Safety in the Aegean Sea (United States)

    Giannakopoulos, T.; Gyftakis, S.; Charou, E.; Perantonis, S.; Nivolianitou, Z.; Koromila, I.; Makrygiorgos, A.


    The Aegean Sea is characterized by an extremely high marine safety risk, mainly due to the significant increase of the traffic of tankers from and to the Black Sea that pass through narrow straits formed by the 1600 Greek islands. Reducing the risk of a ship accident is therefore vital to all socio-economic and environmental sectors. This paper presents an online long-term marine traffic monitoring work-flow that focuses on extracting aggregated vessel risks using spatiotemporal analysis of multilayer information: vessel trajectories, vessel data, meteorological data, bathymetric / hydrographic data as well as information regarding environmentally important areas (e.g. protected high-risk areas, etc.). A web interface that enables user-friendly spatiotemporal queries is implemented at the frontend, while a series of data mining functionalities extracts aggregated statistics regarding: (a) marine risks and accident probabilities for particular areas (b) trajectories clustering information (c) general marine statistics (cargo types, etc.) and (d) correlation between spatial environmental importance and marine traffic risk. Towards this end, a set of data clustering and probabilistic graphical modelling techniques has been adopted.

  20. Macrobenthic community structure over the continental margin of Crete (South Aegean Sea, NE Mediterranean) (United States)

    Tselepides, Anastasios; Papadopoulou, Konstantia-N.; Podaras, Dimitris; Plaiti, Wanda; Koutsoubas, Drosos


    Macrobenthic faunal composition, abundance, biomass and diversity together with a suite of sedimentary environmental parameters were investigated on a seasonal basis in order to determine factors regulating faunal distribution over the oligotrophic continental margin of the island of Crete (South Aegean Sea, North Eastern Mediterranean). Macrofaunal species composition was similar to that of the western Mediterranean and the neighboring Atlantic having several common dominant species. Mean benthic biomass, abundance and diversity decreased with depth, with a major transition zone occurring at 540 m, beyond which values declined sharply. At comparable depths biomass and abundance values were considerably lower to those found in the Atlantic, high-lighting the extreme oligotrophy of the area. The continental margin of Crete was characterised by a high diversity upper continental shelf environment (dominated by surface deposit feeding polychaetes) and a very low diversity slope and deep-basin environment (dominated by carnivorous and filter feeding polychaetes). Classification and ordination analyses revealed the existence of four principle clusters divided by a faunal boundary between 200 and 540 m, as well as beyond 940 m depth. Significant correlations between macrofauna and sediment parameters led to the conclusion that besides depth, food availability (as manifested by the concentration of chloroplastic pigments) is the principle regulating factor in the system. Such being the case, the prevailing hydrographic features that structure the pelagic food web and are directly responsible for the propagation of organic matter to the benthos also affect its community structure.

  1. Flux measurements in the surface Marine Atmospheric Boundary Layer over the Aegean Sea, Greece. (United States)

    Kostopoulos, V E; Helmis, C G


    Micro-meteorological measurements within the surface Marine Atmospheric Boundary Layer took place at the shoreline of two islands at northern and south-eastern Aegean Sea of Greece. The primary goal of these experimental campaigns was to study the momentum, heat and humidity fluxes over this part of the north-eastern Mediterranean Sea, characterized by limited spatial and temporal scales which could affect these exchanges at the air-sea interface. The great majority of the obtained records from both sites gave higher values up to factor of two, compared with the estimations from the most widely used parametric formulas that came mostly from measurements over open seas and oceans. Friction velocity values from both campaigns varied within the same range and presented strong correlation with the wind speed at 10 m height while the calculated drag coefficient values at the same height for both sites were found to be constant in relation with the wind speed. Using eddy correlation analysis, the heat flux values were calculated (virtual heat fluxes varied from -60 to 40 W/m(2)) and it was found that they are affected by the limited spatial and temporal scales of the responding air-sea interaction mechanism. Similarly, the humidity fluxes appeared to be strongly influenced by the observed intense spatial heterogeneity of the sea surface temperature.

  2. Spectroscopic studies of humic acids from subsurface sediment samples collected across the Aegean Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Natural humic acids are biogenic, structurally complex and heterogeneous, refractory, acidic, yellow-to black-coloured organic polyelectrolytes of relatively high molecular weight. They occur in all soils, sediments, fresh waters, and seawaters. Humic acids represent the largest portion of nonliving soil organic matter. In the present paper, humic substances were isolated from marine subsurface sediment samples collected across the Aegean sea (in Greece and especially from a marine area extending northwards of the Samothraki plateau towards the north-eastern part of the island of Crete. In a following step, humic preparations were studied using infrared and fluorescence spectroscopy (emission, excitation and synchronous-scan excitation spectra were obtained. The infrared spectra suggested functional chemical groups such as as OH-, C-H aliphatic, C=C, C=O/COO-, salts of carboxylic acids, and also, in some cases, silicate anions or C-O from alcohols, esters and ethers. Fluorescence emission, excitation and synchronous scan excitation provided some valuable information concerning a probable origin (marine and/or terrestrial for the isolated humics.

  3. Microhabitat choice in island lizards enhances camouflage against avian predators


    Marshall, Kate L A; Philpot, Kate E.; Martin Stevens


    Camouflage can often be enhanced by genetic adaptation to different local environments. However, it is less clear how individual behaviour improves camouflage effectiveness. We investigated whether individual Aegean wall lizards (Podarcis erhardii) inhabiting different islands rest on backgrounds that improve camouflage against avian predators. In free-ranging lizards, we found that dorsal regions were better matched against chosen backgrounds than against other backgrounds on the same island...

  4. Origin of primitive ultra-calcic arc melts at crustal conditions - Experimental evidence on the La Sommata basalt, Vulcano, Aeolian Islands (United States)

    Lanzo, Giovanni; Di Carlo, Ida; Pichavant, Michel; Rotolo, Silvio G.; Scaillet, Bruno


    To interpret primitive magma compositions in the Aeolian arc and contribute to a better experimental characterization of ultra-calcic arc melts, equilibrium phase relations have been determined experimentally for the La Sommata basalt (Som-1, Vulcano, Aeolian arc). Som-1 (Na2O + K2O = 4.46 wt.%, CaO = 12.97 wt.%, MgO = 8.78 wt.%, CaO/Al2O3 = 1.03) is a reference primitive ne-normative arc basalt with a strong ultra-calcic affinity. The experiments have been performed between 44 and 154 MPa, 1050 and 1150 °C and from NNO + 0.2 to NNO + 1.9. Fluid-present conditions were imposed with H2O-CO2 mixtures yielding melt H2O concentrations from 0.7 to 3.5 wt.%. Phases encountered include clinopyroxene, olivine, plagioclase and Fe-oxide. Clinopyroxene is slightly earlier than olivine in the crystallization sequence. It is the liquidus phase at 150 MPa, being joined by olivine on the liquidus between 44 and 88 MPa. Plagioclase is the third phase to appear in the crystallization sequence and orthopyroxene was not found. Experimental clinopyroxenes (Fs7-16) and olivines (Fo78-92) partially reproduce the natural phenocryst compositions (respectively Fs5-7 and Fo87-91). Upon progressive crystallization, experimental liquids shift towards higher SiO2 (up to ~ 55 wt.%), Al2O3 (up to ~ 18 wt.%) and K2O (up to ~ 5.5 wt.%) and lower CaO, MgO and CaO/Al2O3. Experimental glasses and natural whole-rock compositions overlap, indicating that progressive crystallization of Som-1 type melts can generate differentiated compositions such as those encountered at Vulcano. The low pressure cotectic experimental glasses reproduce glass inclusions in La Sommata clinopyroxene but contrast with glass inclusions in olivine which preserve basaltic melts more primitive than Som-1. Phase relations for the La Sommata basalt are identical in all critical aspects to those obtained previously on a synthetic ultra-calcic arc composition. In particular, clinopyroxene + olivine co-saturation occurs at very low

  5. Hydrology and circulation in the North Aegean (eastern Mediterranean throughout 1997 and 1998

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The combination of two research projects offered us the opportunity to perform a comprehensive study of the seasonal evolution of the hydrological structure and the circulation of the North Aegean Sea, at the northern extremes of the eastern Mediterranean. The combination of brackish water inflow from the Dardanelles and the sea-bottom relief dictate the significant differences between the North and South Aegean water columns. The relatively warm and highly saline South Aegean waters enter the North Aegean through the dominant cyclonic circulation of the basin. In the North Aegean, three layers of distinct water masses of very different properties are observed: The 20-50 m thick surface layer is occupied mainly by Black Sea Water, modified on its way through the Bosphorus, the Sea of Marmara and the Dardanelles. Below the surface layer there is warm and highly saline water originating in the South Aegean and the Levantine, extending down to 350-400 m depth. Below this layer, the deeper-than-400 m basins of the North Aegean contain locally formed, very dense water with different θ /S characteristics at each subbasin. The circulation is characterised by a series of permanent, semi-permanent and transient mesoscale features, overlaid on the general slow cyclonic circulation of the Aegean. The mesoscale activity, while not necessarily important in enhancing isopycnal mixing in the region, in combination with the very high stratification of the upper layers, however, increases the residence time of the water of the upper layers in the general area of the North Aegean. As a result, water having out-flowed from the Black Sea in the winter, forms a separate distinct layer in the region in spring (lying between “younger” BSW and the Levantine origin water, and is still traceable in the water column in late summer.

  6. Analysis of volcanic threat from Nisyros Island, Greece, with implications for aviation and population exposure (United States)

    Kinvig, H. S.; Winson, A.; Gottsmann, J.


    Nisyros island in the South Aegean volcanic arc, Greece, is a Quaternary composite volcano with a 3.8 km wide caldera that in 1996 entered a volcano-seismic crisis, which heralded the islands' return to a state of unrest. The caldera has been the locus of at least thirteen phreatic eruptions in historical times, the most recent in 1888, and the system is still presently affected by considerable hydrothermal activity. Although the recent unrest waned off without eruption, there are still open questions relating to the current threat of volcanic activity from the island. Here, we perform a detailed and systematic assessment of the volcanic threat of Nisyros using a threat analysis protocol established as part of the USGS National Volcano Early Warning System (NVEWS). The evaluation involves a methodical assessment of fifteen hazard and exposure factors, and is based on a score system, whereby the higher the score, the higher the threat is. Uncertainty in assessment criteria are expressed by allowing for a conservative and an extreme score for each factor. We draw our analysis from published data as well as from results of our research on Nisyros over the past years. Our analysis yields a conservative threat score of 163 and an extreme score of 262. The most adverse exposure factors include significant scores relating to aviation and population exposure to volcanic hazards from Nisyros. When looked at in comparison to US volcanoes both scores place Nisyros in the "Very High Threat (VHT)" category, grouping it with volcanoes such as Redoubt, Mount Ranier and Crater Lake. We identify a short-fall in recommended surveillance efforts for VHT volcanoes given existing monitoring capabilities on the island. We discuss potential pitfalls of applying the NVEWS scheme to Nisyros and suggest potential adaptation of analysis scheme to match industrial and societal conditions in Europe. At the same time, our findings indicate that that volcanic threat posed by Nisyros volcano may

  7. Anatomy of the Cycladic Blueschist Unit on Sifnos Island (Cyclades, Greece) (United States)

    Roche, Vincent; Laurent, Valentin; Cardello, Giovanni Luca; Jolivet, Laurent; Scaillet, Stéphane


    Since 35 Ma, the kinematics of the Aegean domain has been mainly controlled by the southward retreat of the African slab, inducing back-arc extension. The main structures and associated kinematics are well constrained, but the kinematics of deformation before 35 Ma, coeval with the exhumation of blueschists and eclogites of the Cycladic Blueschist Unit, is still poorly understood. The earlier Eocene syn-orogenic evolution is strongly debated and very different geometrical interpretations and kinematic histories have been proposed in the literature. This study focuses on the high-pressure and low-temperature (HP-LT) parageneses spectacularly exposed and well preserved on Sifnos Island. The new field work provides new structural constraints on the tectonic history of HP-LT units generated in the subduction zone during the Eocene. It further shows how lithological heterogeneities localize strain within an accretionary wedge and how the localisation of strain evolves through time during exhumation. We show, through new geological and metamorphic maps, cross-sections and analyses of kinematic indicators, that Sifnos is characterized by shallow-dipping shear zones reactivating weak zones due to competence contrasts or earlier tectonic contacts. Structures and kinematics associated with these shear zones, show a top-to-the-N to -NE ductile deformation. The lower part of the tectonic pile shows a downward gradient of shearing deformation and is actually a thick top-to-the-NE shear zone, which we name the Apollonia Shear Zone. Through time shearing deformation tends to localize downward, leaving the upper part of the subduction complex preserved from late deformation. The present-day shape and topography of the island is largely controlled by late brittle faults reworking the earlier ductile shear zones. Comparing with the nearby island of Syros, we propose a new tectono-metamorphic evolution of the Cycladic Blueschist Unit, which partly explains the different degrees of

  8. Source mechanism of the 2014 Aegean Sea earthquake (United States)

    Nakano, Masaru


    Rapid determination of centroid moment tensor (CMT) of earthquakes, namely the source centroid location, focal mechanism, and magnitude is important for early disaster responses and issuing Tsunami warnings. In order to evaluate capability of Turkey seismic network for rapid determinations of CMT, I investigate the source mechanism of the 2014 Aegean Sea earthquake (Mw 6.9). Although this event occur out of Turkey seismic network, I obtained stable CMT solution. The CMT solution of this earthquake represents a strike-slip fault, consistent with the geometry of the North Anatolian Fault (NAF), and the source-time function indicates that this event comprised several distinct subevents. Each subevent is considered to have ruptured a different fault segment. This observation indicates the existence of a mechanical barrier, namely a NAF segment boundary, at the hypocenter. I also determined CMT solutions of background seismicity. CMT solutions of background seismicity beneath the Aegean Sea represent strike-slip or normal faulting along the NAF or its branch faults. The tensional axes of these events are oriented northeast-southwest, indicating a transtensional tectonic regime. Beneath the Sea of Marmara, the CMT solutions represent mostly strike-slip faulting, consistent with the motion of the NAF, but we identified a normal fault event with a tensional axis parallel to the strike of the NAF. This mechanism indicates that a pull-apart basin, marking a segment boundary of the NAF, is developing there. Because ruptures of a fault system and large earthquake magnitudes are strongly controlled by the fault system geometry and fault length, mapping fault segments along NAF can help to improve the accuracy of scenarios developed for future disastrous earthquakes in the Marmara region.

  9. Arc Statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Meneghetti, M; Dahle, H; Limousin, M


    The existence of an arc statistics problem was at the center of a strong debate in the last fifteen years. With the aim to clarify if the optical depth for giant gravitational arcs by galaxy clusters in the so called concordance model is compatible with observations, several studies were carried out which helped to significantly improve our knowledge of strong lensing clusters, unveiling their extremely complex internal structure. In particular, the abundance and the frequency of strong lensing events like gravitational arcs turned out to be a potentially very powerful tool to trace the structure formation. However, given the limited size of observational and theoretical data-sets, the power of arc statistics as a cosmological tool has been only minimally exploited so far. On the other hand, the last years were characterized by significant advancements in the field, and several cluster surveys that are ongoing or planned for the near future seem to have the potential to make arc statistics a competitive cosmo...

  10. Living benthic foraminifera as an environmental proxy in coastal ecosystems: A case study from the Aegean Sea (Greece, NE Mediterranean) (United States)

    Koukousioura, Olga; Dimiza, Margarita D.; Triantaphyllou, Maria V.; Hallock, Pamela


    The species composition of the epiphytic benthic foraminiferal fauna was compared at two coastal locations in the Aegean Sea. Samples were collected during August 2001 and July 2003 along the southeastern coast of Andros Island at Korthi Gulf, where there are minimal anthropogenic activities, and at Kastro Gulf, with substantial anthropogenic influence. This study represents the first application of the FORAM Index (FI), which is a single-metric index for water quality originally developed for western Atlantic reef foraminiferal assemblages, to Mediterranean assemblages. Multivariate analyses distinguished three clusters of sample sites representing three foraminiferal assemblages. Samples dominated by the mixotrophic species, A. lobifera, were collected primarily from sites along the northern coasts of both gulfs. Characteristics of this assemblage, including relatively high dominance (D = 0.27-0.51), lower Shannon-Wiener diversity (H' = 1.3-2.1) and high FI (6.6-8.2), all reflect oligotrophic environmental conditions typical of pristine waters of the Aegean Sea. A. lobifera was typically the most common species in the second assemblage, though relative abundances of heterotrophic taxa were higher, resulting in somewhat higher diversity (H' = 1.6-2.4) and lower dominance (D = 0.14-0.36). These indices, as well as the FI range of 3.5-7.0 indicated somewhat more prevalent organic carbon resources but still relatively high water quality. This assemblage was found along the southern coast of Korthi Gulf and at more interior sites in northern Kastro Gulf. The third assemblage was dominated by smaller heterotrophic species, including notable proportions of the stress-tolerant taxa Ammonia spp. and Elphidium spp., and had few or no A. lobifera. Diversity (H' = 1.4-2.0) and dominance (D = 0.22-0.47) indices were similar to those for the first assemblage, but FI values were much lower (2.0-3.4). Samples characterized by this assemblage were collected only from the southern

  11. Modeling Arcs

    CERN Document Server

    Insepov, Zeke; Veitzer, Seth; Mahalingam, Sudhakar


    Although vacuum arcs were first identified over 110 years ago, they are not yet well understood. We have since developed a model of breakdown and gradient limits that tries to explain, in a self-consistent way: arc triggering, plasma initiation, plasma evolution, surface damage and gra- dient limits. We use simple PIC codes for modeling plasmas, molecular dynamics for modeling surface breakdown, and surface damage, and mesoscale surface thermodynamics and finite element electrostatic codes for to evaluate surface properties. Since any given experiment seems to have more variables than data points, we have tried to consider a wide variety of arcing (rf structures, e beam welding, laser ablation, etc.) to help constrain the problem, and concentrate on common mechanisms. While the mechanisms can be comparatively simple, modeling can be challenging.

  12. Segmentation of Aegean Fishing Fleet and Spatial Distribution of Fishing Capacity


    Ilke Kosar Danisman


    The data on fishing fleet play an important role in fisheries management. It is an effective method that collection of reliable and regular data on fleet, and these data into information that is needed in terms of fleet management. In this study, it is demonstrated that the segmentation of the Aegean fishing fleet and fishing port based spatial distribution of fishing capacities concerning each fleet segment at the Aegean coast to improve fisheries management.

  13. A review of tectonics and sedimentation in a forearc setting: Hellenic Thrace Basin, North Aegean Sea and Northern Greece (United States)

    Maravelis, A. G.; Boutelier, D.; Catuneanu, O.; Seymour, K. St.; Zelilidis, A.


    Exposure of the forearc region of the North Aegean Sea, Greece, offers insight into evolving convergent margins. The sedimentary fill of the Thrace Basin during the Late Eocene to Oligocene time provides a record of subduction-driven processes, such as growth of magmatic arcs and construction of accretionary complexes. This large sediment repository received sediment from two sources. The southern (outboard) basin margin reflects the active influence of the exhumed accretionary prism (e.g. Pindic Cordillera or Biga peninsula), while the northern (inboard) margin records the effect of the magmatic arc in the Rhodope region. The forearc basin sedimentary fills shoal upward into shallow-marine strata but are dominated mainly by deep-marine facies. The depositional trend and stacking pattern are dominated by progradational patterns. This trend, which is observed in both basin margins, is related to tectonic deformation rather than sea-level fluctuations. Additional evidence for this tectonic uplift comes from the backstripping analysis. The accretionary complex provided material into the forearc basin. This material was transported northeast and formed a sand-rich turbidity system that evolved upslope into shallow-marine deposits. Stratigraphic data indicate that this turbidity system exhibits a successive landward (inboard) migration of the depocenter. Provenance data utilizing sandstone petrography, conglomerate clast composition, and bulk-rock geochemistry suggest that this system reflects an increased influx of mafic material into the basin. Volcanic arc-derived material was transported south and east and accumulated in deep-marine settings. Both stratigraphic and provenance data indicate a seaward (outboard) migration of the basin depocenter and a significant increase in felsic detritus into the forearc.

  14. Microgranular enclaves in island-arc andesites: A possible link between known epithermal Au and potential porphyry Cu-Au deposits in the Tulasu ore cluster, western Tianshan, Xinjiang, China (United States)

    Zhao, Xiaobo; Xue, Chunji; Symons, David T. A.; Zhang, Zhaochong; Wang, Honggang


    The successful exploration for porphyry copper deposit in western Tianshan, Xinjiang, faces great challenge. Tulasu basin is an important epithermal gold ore cluster in western Tianshan, which was formed in a southwest-Pacific-type island-arc setting during the late Paleozoic by the southward subduction of the North Tianshan ocean beneath the Yili plate. Porphyry Cu-Au deposits are possibly to be found at depth or adjacent to these epithermal gold deposits. Some sulfide-mineralized microgranular enclaves of monzonite porphyry and microdiorite were found in andesites of the Tawuerbieke gold district, Tulasu basin. The enclaves are randomly distributed, with generally round or subangular shape and commonly clearly defined within their host andesite, and have a chilled surrounding margin of andesite. The monzonite porphyry enclaves (MPE) exhibit porphyritic texture with the phenocrysts of plagioclase and K-feldspar. The microdiorite enclaves (MDE) are mainly composed of plagioclase and hornblende with an aplitic texture and massive structure. The host andesites show porphyritic texture, with the phenocrysts major of plagioclase, minor of hornblende and clinopyroxene. The groundmass consists of short-column plagioclase and minor clinopyroxene with a hyalopilitic texture. Zircon grains from a MPE sample yield a weighted 206Pb/238U age of 356.2 ± 4.3 Ma (n = 13, MSWD = 1.11), which is effectively coincident with the 360.5 ± 3.4 Ma (n = 20, MSWD = 0.61) of an andesite sample within analytical error, indicating that they were coeval. In addition, the MPE, MDE and the andesite samples share similar normalized incompatible element and rare earth element patterns that are characterized by a pronounced enrichment of large ion lithophile elements and a deficit of high field strength elements. Moreover, the samples show similar Nd isotope compositions to the contemporary andesites and basaltic andesites. Detailed petrology, geochronology and geochemistry studies suggest that

  15. Arc of opportunity. (United States)

    Delaney, Adam Vai


    Born in Port Moresby, Papua New Guinea, the author had a 20 year career in diplomacy, political affairs, and development policy analysis at the Pacific Islands Forum, the United Nations in New York; the Prime Minister's Department in Papua New Guinea (PNG) and in the Foreign Ministry of PNG. He has also been involved in theatre for over a decade in PNG, and participated in a three-month program at the Eugene O'Neill Theatre Center in Connecticut, USA. He is currently the Business Development Manager at the Torres Strait Regional Authority (Commonwealth) on Thursday Island. Since 1975 the Australian government's overseas development policy has supported various sectoral programs in its neighbouring countries, in particular Papua New Guinea and the Solomon Islands. The "creative" field has not been prominent in this strategy. While natural resources and the sports sectors have gained much greater attention, in terms of being viable international commercial enterprises, the arts, have remained stagnant. In this paper the need for joint programs genuinely supporting "wellbeing" and promoting social enterprise throughout the "arc of opportunity" is described to harness Melanesian creativity to compete successfully in world-markets, starting with penetration of the largest economy at its door-step: Australia.

  16. Linear volcanic segments in the Sunda Arc, Indonesia: Implications for arc lithosphere control upon volcano distribution (United States)

    Macpherson, C. G.; Pacey, A.; McCaffrey, K. J.


    The overall curvature of many subduction zones is immediately apparent and the term island arc betrays the common assumption that subduction zone magmatism occurs in curved zones. This assumption can be expressed by approximating island arcs as segments of small circles on the surface of a sphere. Such treatments predict that the location of arc volcanoes is related to their vertical separation from the slab (in fact, the depth to seismicity in the slab) and require that the primary control on the locus of magmatism lies either within the subducted slab or the mantle wedge that separates the subducted and overriding lithospheric plates. The concept of curved arcs ignores longstanding observations that magmatism in many subduction systems occurs as segments of linearly arranged volcanic centres. Further evidence for this distribution comes from the close relationship between magmatism and large scale, arc-parallel fabrics in some arcs. Similarly, exposures of deep arc crust or mantle often reveal elongation of magmatic intrusions sub-parallel to the inferred trend of the arc. The Sunda Arc forms the Indonesian islands from Sumatra to Alor and provides an important test for models of volcano distribution for several reasons. First, Sunda has hosted abundant historic volcanic activity. Second, with the notable exception of Krakatau, every volcano in the arc is subaerial from base to cone and, therefore, can be readily identified where there is a suitable extent of local mapping that can be used to ground-truth satellite imagery. Third, there are significant changes in the stress regime along the length of the arc, allowing the influence of the upper plate to be evaluated by comparison of different arc segments. Finally, much of the Sunda Arc has proved difficult to accommodate in models that try to relate volcano distribution to the depth to the subducted slab. We apply an objective line-fitting protocol; the Hough Transform, to explore the distribution of volcanoes

  17. Geochronology and geochemistry of rhyolites from Hormuz Island, southern Iran: A new record of Cadomian arc magmatism in the Hormuz Formation (United States)

    Faramarzi, Narges Sadat; Amini, Sadraddin; Schmitt, Axel Karl; Hassanzadeh, Jamshid; Borg, Gregor; McKeegan, Kevin; Razavi, Seyed Mohammad Hosein; Mortazavi, Seyed Mohsen


    Hormuz Island, a salt-gypsum dome in the Persian Gulf in southern Iran, is a complex halotectonic melange comprising evaporites, carbonates, volcanic and volcaniclastic rocks, as well as low-grade metamorphic and sedimentary rocks. Based on trace element (including rare earth elements REE) compositions of whole rocks and zircon, Hormuz rhyolites are inferred to have formed from subduction-related magmas generated in an active continental margin setting. Ion microprobe analyses of zircon crystals yielded concordant U-Pb ages with weighted mean 206Pb/238U age of 558 ± 7 Ma (juvenile zircons in contrast to those from previous magmatic episodes or xenocrysts) along with younger and older discordant ages which likely represent Pb loss and the presence of xenocrystic domains, respectively. Trace element ratios and in particular REE patterns of juvenile zircon from Hormuz rhyolites indicate crystallization from continental crustal source rocks typical for subduction environments. The concordant 206Pb/238U zircon age agrees with ages obtained from most other structural zones of Iran which indicate regional consolidation of igneous basement during the Neoproterozoic to Early Cambrian. Furthermore, Hormuz rhyolite ages and compositions correlate with counterparts that co-evolved along the northern margin of Gondwana, and are now preserved along the southern coast of the Persian Gulf. Hormuz rhyolites erupted synchronously with the deposition of carbonates and evaporites, suggesting that volcanism occupied an extensional backarc or retroarc setting. Such depositional environments predominated in the northern Gondwana continental margin where convergent (Proto-Tethyan) and extensional (Najd) tectonic regimes coexisted.

  18. Statistical study of epicentre alignment in the broader Aegean area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Papadirnitriou


    Full Text Available Accurate data concerning shallow (h = 60 km earthquakes (Ms =4.5 that occurred in the broader Aegean area are used to point out the presence of linear seismogenic structures (seismolineaments. The earthquake data were analyzed by the use of a specific algorithm, and the directions of the best alignment of epicentres were found. The algorithm is based on statistical criteria applied within a circular area with the aim of searching for the best direction of alignment; this is then tested, to discriminate whether or not the pattern could stem from a random distribution of epicentres, or whether it is effectively the result of a linear seismic structure; the procedure is repeated to cover the whole area examined. The resulting lineaments can be regarded as individual tectonic units, as they usually coincide with known active faults or fault systems. An interpretation is given of the spatio-temporal evolution of the seismicity along the lineaments in terms of the asperity model.

  19. Structural Analysis for Gold Mineralization Using Remote Sensing and Geochemical Techniques in a GIS Environment: Island of Lesvos, Hellas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Exploration for epithermal Au has been active lately in the Aegean Sea of the eastern Mediterranean Basin, both in the islands of the Quaternary arc and in those of the back-arc region. The purpose of this study was the structural mapping and analysis for a preliminary investigation of possible epithermal gold mineralization, using remotely sensed data and techniques, structural and field data, and geochemical information, for a specific area on the Island of Lesvos. Therefore, Landsat-TM and SPOT-Pan satellite images and the Digital Elevation Model (DEM) of the study area were processed digitally using spatial filtering techniques for the enhancement and recognition of the geologically significant lineaments, as well as algebraic operations with band ratios and Principal Component Analysis (PCA), for the identification of alteration zones. Statistical rose diagrams and a SCHMIDT projection Stereo Net were generated from the lineament maps and the collected field data (dip and strike measurements of faults, joints, and veins), respectively. The derived lineament map and the band ratio images were manipulated in a GIS environment, in order to study the relation of the tectonic pattern to both the alteration zoning and the geomorphology of the volcanic field of the study area. Target areas of high interest for possible mineralization also were specified using geochemical techniques, such as X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) analysis, trace-element, and fluid-inclusion analysis. Finally, preliminary conclusions were derived about possible mineralization, the type (high or low sulfidation), and the extent of mineralization, by combining the structural information with geochemical information

  20. The Banda Arc subduction enigma (United States)

    Spakman, Wim; Hall, Robert


    The spectacularly curved Banda arc comprises young oceanic crust enclosed by a volcanic inner arc, outer arc islands, and a trough parallel to the Australian continental margin. Seismicity defines a spoon-shaped lithospheric fold in the upper mantle for which there are two contrasting explanations: deformation of a single subducted slab, or two different slabs subducted from north and south. We show that the Banda arc resulted from subduction of a single slab. Based on geology and seismic tomography, we argue that the arc formed since 15 Ma by subduction of a Jurassic oceanic embayment within the Australian plate. Viewed in an Atlantic-Indian hotspot reference frame, the stationary E-W striking Java trench propagated ESE into the Banda embayment by hinge rollback. Extension of the upper plate formed oceanic crust in the present Banda Sea between stretched continental crust of Australian origin. Slab morphology depends primarily on the geometry of the continental margin enclosing the embayment. Our model explains the first order tectonic development of the Banda region and links slab deformation to absolute plate motion.

  1. Bermuda 3 arc-second Coastal Digital Elevation Model (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 3 arc-second Bermuda DEM will be used to support NOAA's tsunami forecast system and for tsunami inundation modeling. This DEM encompasses the islands of Bermuda...

  2. Bermuda 1 arc-second Coastal Digital Elevation Model (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 1 arc-second Bermuda DEM will be used to support NOAA's tsunami forecast system and for tsunami inundation modeling. This DEM encompasses the islands of Bermuda...

  3. Chronology for the Aegean Late Bronze Age 1700-1400 B.C. (United States)

    Manning, Sturt W; Ramsey, Christopher Bronk; Kutschera, Walter; Higham, Thomas; Kromer, Bernd; Steier, Peter; Wild, Eva M


    Radiocarbon (carbon-14) data from the Aegean Bronze Age 1700-1400 B.C. show that the Santorini (Thera) eruption must have occurred in the late 17th century B.C. By using carbon-14 dates from the surrounding region, cultural phases, and Bayesian statistical analysis, we established a chronology for the initial Aegean Late Bronze Age cultural phases (Late Minoan IA, IB, and II). This chronology contrasts with conventional archaeological dates and cultural synthesis: stretching out the Late Minoan IA, IB, and II phases by approximately 100 years and requiring reassessment of standard interpretations of associations between the Egyptian and Near Eastern historical dates and phases and those in the Aegean and Cyprus in the mid-second millennium B.C. PMID:16645092


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高翔; 张健; 吴时国


    岛弧火山活动的数值热模拟研究是俯冲带构造热演化研究的重要方面,也是验证地表观测结果的重要方法.选取台湾-吕宋岛弧巴士段内东火山链(EVC)的甘米银活火山和西火山链(WVC)的加拉鄢死火山,根据地质和地球物理条件,进行了有限元热模拟计算.在计算模拟甘米银活火山和加拉鄢死火山现今的热流分布的基础上,分析了二者的差异.模拟结果表明,甘米银活火山顶部至周边30 km热流值有明显升高,越靠近火山热流值越高且增加速率越快,岩浆房正上方的热流高达310 mW·m-2.加拉鄢死火山顶部及周边热流略有升高,热流增量从周边40 km处的小于3mW·m-2缓慢增加到火山顶部的15 mW·m-2.%The thermal numerical simulation for island arc volcanic activities is not only an important aspect of the study on tectono-thermal evolution of a subduction zone, but also a critical method to verify the results of field observation. In this study, based on geological and geophysical conditions, we selected the Camiguin active volcano in the east volcano chain (EVC) and the Calayan extinct volcano in the west volcano chain (WVC) along the Bashi Segment of the Taiwan-Luzon island arc as our models. Thermal simulations using finite-element numerical method were conducted. During the simulations, we first calculated the present heat flow distribution above the Camiguin active volcano and Calayan extinct volcano, and then analyzed the divergence of the two volcanoes. The simulation results show, from the top of the Camiguin active volcano to 30 km away, the heat flow obviously rises and becomes higher with acceleration when it comes closer to the top of the volcano where the heat flow can reach 310 mW · m-2. However, the heat flow on the top of the Calayan extinct volcano and surroundings only rises a little. The heat flow increment increases slowly from below 3 mW · m-2 40 km away from the volcano to 15 mW · m-2 on the top

  5. Old stories and lost pieces of the Eastern Mediterranean puzzle: a new approach to the tectonic evolution of the Western Anatolia and the Aegean Sea (United States)

    Yaltırak, Cenk; Engin Aksu, Ali; Hall, Jeremy; Elitez, İrem


    During the last 20 or so years, the tectonic evolution of Aegean Sea and Western Anatolia has been dominantly explained by back-arc extension and escape tectonics along the North Anatolian Fault. Various datasets have been considered in the construction of general tectonic models, including the geometry of fault patterns, paleomagnetic data, extensional directions of the core complexes, characteristic changes in magmatism and volcanism, the different sense of Miocene rotation between the opposite sides of the Aegean Sea, and the stratigraphy and position of the Miocene and Pliocene-Quaternary basins. In these models, the roles of the Burdur-Fethiye Shear Zone, the Trakya-Eskişehir Fault Zone, the Anaximander Mountains and Isparta Angle have almost never been taken into consideration. The holistic evaluation of numerous land and marine researches in the Aegean Sea and western Anatolia suggest the following evolutionary stages: 1. during the early Miocene, Greece and western Anatolia were deformed under the NE-SW extensional tectonics associated with the back-arc extension, when core complexes and supra-detachment basins developed, 2. following the collision of the Anaximander Mountains and western Anatolia in early Miocene , the Isparta Angle locked this side of the western arc by generating a triangle-shaped compressional structure, 3. while the Isparta Angle penetrated into the Anatolia, the NE-striking Burdur-Fethiye Shear Zone in the west and NW-striking Trakya-Eskişehir Fault Zone in the north developed along the paleo-tectonic zones , 4. the formation of these two tectonic structures allowed the counterclockwise rotation of the western Anatolia in the middle Miocene and this rotation removed the effect of the back-arc extension on the western Anatolian Block, 5. the counterclockwise rotation developed with the early westward escape of the Western Anatolian reached up to 35-40o and Trakya-Eskişehir Fault Zone created a total dextral displacement of about 200

  6. HF Radar observations of the Dardanelles outflow current in North Eastern Aegean using validated WERA HF radar data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available A two-site WERA HF radar station was installed in November 2009 at the eastern coast of Lemnos Island in North Aegean Sea, aiming to monitor the surface inflow of Black Sea waters exiting from the Dardanelles Strait, as well as to constitute a coastal management tool for incidents of oil-pollution or save-and-rescue operations. Strong interference by foreign transmissions is a source of noise deteriorating the quality of the backscattered signal, thus significantly reducing the HF radar’s effective data return rate. In order to ameliorate this problem, further quality-control and data gap interpolating procedures have been developed and applied, to be used in addition to the procedures incorporated and used by the manufacturer’s signal processing software. The second-level processing involves traditional despiking in the temporal domain, preceding Empirical Orthogonal Function analysis. The latter is used not only to filter high-frequency noise but also to fill data gaps in time and space. The data reconstruction procedure has been assessed via comparison of (a HF radial with CODE-type drifter radial velocities as well as (b HF-derived virtual drifter tracks with actual drifter tracks. The main circulation features and their variability, as revealed by the reconstructed fields, are presented.

  7. Arc saw development report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The arc saw is one of the key components of the Contaminated Equipment Volume Reduction (CEVR) Program. This report describes the progress of the arc saw from its inception to its current developmental status. History of the arc saw and early contributors are discussed. Particular features of the arc saw and their advantages for CEVR are detailed. Development of the arc saw including theory of operation, pertinent experimental results, plans for the large arc saw and advanced control systems are covered. Associated topics such as potential applications for the arc saw and other arc saw installations in the world is also touched upon

  8. Islands in the Midst of the World (United States)


    The Greek islands of the Aegean Sea, scattered across 800 kilometers from north to south and between Greece and western Turkey, are uniquely situated at the intersection of Europe, Asia and Africa. This image from the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer includes many of the islands of the East Aegean, Sporades, Cyclades, Dodecanese and Crete, as well as part of mainland Turkey. Many sites important to ancient and modern history can be found here. The largest modern city in the Aegean coast is Izmir, situated about one quarter of the image length from the top, southeast of the large three-pronged island of Lesvos. Izmir can be located as a bright coastal area near the greenish waters of the Izmir Bay, about one quarter of the image length from the top, southeast of Lesvos. The coastal areas around this cosmopolitan Turkish city were a center of Ionian culture from the 11th century BC, and at the top of the image (north of Lesvos), once stood the ancient city of Troy.The image was acquired before the onset of the winter rains, on September 30, 2001, but dense vegetation is never very abundant in the arid Mediterranean climate. The sharpness and clarity of the view also indicate dry, clear air. Some vegetative changes can be detected between the western or southern islands such as Crete (the large island along the bottom of the image) and those closer to the Turkish coast which appear comparatively green. Volcanic activities are evident by the form of the islands of Santorini. This small group of islands shaped like a broken ring are situated to the right and below image center. Santorini's Thera volcano erupted around 1640 BC, and the rim of the caldera collapsed, forming the shape of the islands as they exist today.The Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer observes the daylit Earth continuously from pole to pole, and views almost the entire globe every 9 days. This natural-color image was acquired by MISR's nadir (vertical-viewing) camera, and is a portion of the

  9. Cluster analysis of indermediate deep events in the southeastern Aegean (United States)

    Ruscic, Marija; Becker, Dirk; Brüstle, Andrea; Meier, Thomas


    The Hellenic subduction zone (HSZ) is the seismically most active region in Europe where the oceanic African litosphere is subducting beneath the continental Aegean plate. Although there are numerous studies of seismicity in the HSZ, very few focus on the eastern HSZ and the Wadati-Benioff-Zone of the subducting slab in that part of the HSZ. In order to gain a better understanding of the geodynamic processes in the region a dense local seismic network is required. From September 2005 to March 2007, the temporary seismic network EGELADOS has been deployed covering the entire HSZ. It consisted of 56 onshore and 23 offshore broadband stations with addition of 19 stations from GEOFON, NOA and MedNet to complete the network. Here, we focus on a cluster of intermediate deep seismicity recorded by the EGELADOS network within the subducting African slab in the region of the Nysiros volcano. The cluster consists of 159 events at 80 to 190 km depth with magnitudes between 0.2 and 4.1 that were located using nonlinear location tool NonLinLoc. A double-difference earthquake relocation using the HypoDD software is performed with both manual readings of onset times and differential traveltimes obtained by separate cross correlation of P- and S-waveforms. Single event locations are compared to relative relocations. The event hypocenters fall into a thin zone close to the top of the slab defining its geometry with an accuracy of a few kilometers. At intermediate depth the slab is dipping towards the NW at an angle of about 30°. That means it is dipping steeper than in the western part of the HSZ. The edge of the slab is clearly defined by an abrupt disappearance of intermediate depths seismicity towards the NE. It is found approximately beneath the Turkish coastline. Furthermore, results of a cluster analysis based on the cross correlation of three-component waveforms are shown as a function of frequency and the spatio-temporal migration of the seismic activity is analysed.

  10. Tectonomagmatism in continental arcs: evidence from the Sark arc complex (United States)

    Gibbons, Wes; Moreno, Teresa


    The island of Sark (Channel Islands, UK) exposes syntectonic plutons and country rock gneisses within a Precambrian (Cadomian) continental arc. This Sark arc complex records sequential pulses of magmatism over a period of 7 Ma (ca. 616-609 Ma). The earliest intrusion (ca. 616 Ma) was a composite sill that shows an ultramafic base overlain by a magma-mingled net vein complex subsequently deformed at near-solidus temperatures into the amphibolitic and tonalitic Tintageu banded gneisses. The deformation was synchronous with D 2 deformation of the paragneissic envelope, with both intrusion and country rock showing flat, top-to-the-south LS fabrics. Later plutonism injected three homogeneous quartz diorite-granodiorite sheets: the Creux-Moulin pluton (150-250 m; ca. 614 Ma), the Little Sark pluton (>700 m; 611 Ma), and the Northern pluton (>500 m; 609 Ma). Similar but thinner sheets in the south (Derrible-Hogsback-Dixcart) and west (Port es Saies-Brecqhou) are interpreted as offshoots from the Creux-Moulin pluton and Little Sark pluton, respectively. All these plutons show the same LS fabric seen in the older gneisses, with rare magmatic fabrics and common solid state fabrics recording syntectonic crystallisation and cooling. The cooling rate increased rapidly with decreasing crystallisation age: >9 Ma for the oldest intrusion to cool to lower amphibolite conditions, 7-8 Ma for the Creux Moulin pluton, 5-6 Ma for the Little Sark pluton, and 10 -14 s -1) that focussed extensional deformation into the Sark area. The increased rates of extension allowed ingress of the subsequent quartz diorite-granodiorite sheets, although strain rate slowly declined as the whole complex cooled during exhumation. The regional architecture of syntectonic Cadomian arc complexes includes flat-lying "Sark-type" and steep "Guernsey-type" domains produced synchronously in shear zone networks induced by oblique subduction: a pattern seen in other continental arcs such as that running from Alaska

  11. The ‘Mycenaeans’ in the south-eastern Aegean revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Eerbeek


    The main subject of this dissertation is the Mycenaean archaeological evidence from the south-eastern Aegean. The term "Mycenaean" is typically used to refer to the dominant archaeological culture of the central and southern Greek mainland during the Late Bronze Age, which is dated between about 170

  12. Lifelong Learning and Vocational Training Programmes in Northern Aegean (Greece): Weaknesses, Possibilities and Prospects (United States)

    Giavrimis, Panagiotis; Papanis, Efstratios; Mitrellou, Sotiria; Nikolarea, Ekaterini


    This study presents, discusses and assesses the findings of a research into lifelong learning through Vocational Training Centres (VTCs) in the region of Northern Aegean, Greece. In the first part, the paper introduces its readers to the theoretical framework of lifelong education, whereas in the second part it makes a brief historical overview of…

  13. The Alpine evolution of Thessaly (NW Greece) and Late Tertiary Aegean kinematics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walcott, C.R.


    The Aegean region is one ofthe most studied regions currently undergoing post-orogenic extension. Numerous kinematic and dynamic models have been proposed to account for its active tectonics. Most recent studies have demonstrated that, since the onset ofextension in the early Miocene, there has been

  14. Structure and seismic stratigraphy of deep Tertiary basins in the northern Aegean Sea (United States)

    Beniest, Anouk; Brun, Jean-Pierre; Smit, Jeroen; Deschamps, Rémy; Hamon, Youri; Crombez, Vincent; Gorini, Christian


    Whereas active basin formation in the Aegean Sea is illustrated by seafloor bathymetry, the sedimentary and tectonic history of Tertiary basins is poorly known as existing offshore industrial seismic and well-log data are not easily accessible. We studied the evolution of the northern Aegean Sea with a focus on the North Aegean Trough and the Northern Skyros Basin, which are amongst the deepest basins of the northern Aegean domain. Structural and seismic stratigraphic interpretation of a 2D seismic dataset retrieved in the 1970's is combined with the well-investigated records of the onshore deep basins of northern Greece and Western Turkey. A general seismic signature chart was established using onshore basin stratigraphy and poorly-constrained well data. The studied domain shows two sharp unconformities that correspond to the Eocene-Oligocene transition and the Miocene-Pliocene shift, respectively. These transitions were then used as pillars for a more detailed structural and seismic stratigraphic interpretation. A NW-SE trending seismic line that cross-cuts the southern part of the NE-SW-trending North Aegean Through displays the main features that are observed in the area: 1) an overall basin geometry that is rather symmetrical; 2) pre-Pliocene units affected by steep normal faults; 3) a rather constant thickness of Oligocene sediments that define a depocenter with an apparent NW-SE orientation; 4) an ablation of Miocene sediments by erosion, likely related to the Messinian Salinity Crises (MSC); (5) thick deltaic/turbiditic deposits in the NE-SW oriented central through of Neogene age; 6) trans-tensional growth patterns in Pliocene and Quaternary sediments that combine NE-SW steeply dipping fault zones, more likely corresponding to strike-slip corridors, and E-W-trending normal faults. The evidence listed above suggest that, in the northern Aegean Sea, (1) extension started at the latest during the Late Eocene/Early Oligocene (data quality does not allow for a

  15. Os and S isotope studies of ultramafic rocks in the Duke Island Complex, Alaska: variable degrees of crustal contamination of magmas in an arc setting and implications for Ni-Cu-PGE sulfide mineralization (United States)

    Stifter, Eric C.; Ripley, Edward M.; Li, Chusi


    The Duke Island Complex is one of the several "Ural-Alaskan" intrusions of Cretaceous age that occur along the coast of SE Alaska. Significant quantities of magmatic Ni-Cu-PGE sulfide mineralization are locally found in the complex, primarily within olivine clinopyroxenites. Sulfide mineralization is Ni-poor, consistent with petrologic evidence which indicates that sulfide saturation was reached after extensive olivine crystallization. Olivine clinopyroxenites were intruded by magmas that produced sulfide-poor, adcumulate dunites. As part of a study to investigate the potential for Ni-rich sulfide mineralization in association with the dunites, a Re-Os and S isotope study of the dunites, as well as sulfide mineralization in the olivine clinopyroxenites, was initiated. Importantly, recent drilling in the complex identified the presence of sulfidic and carbonaceous country rocks that may have been involved in the contamination of magmas and generation of sulfide mineralization. γOs (110 Ma) values of two sulfidic country rocks are 1022 and 2011. δ34S values of the country rocks range from -2.6 to -16.1 ‰. 187Os/188Os ratios of sulfide minerals in the mineralization hosted by olivine clinopyroxenites are variable and high, with γOs (110 Ma) values between 151 and 2059. Extensive interaction with Re-rich sedimentary country rocks is indicated. In contrast, γOs (110 Ma) values of the dunites are significantly lower, ranging between 2 and 16. 187Os/188Os ratios increase with decreasing Os concentration. This inverse relation is similar to that shown by ultramafic rocks from several arc settings, as well as altered abyssal dunites and peridotites. The relation may be indicative of magma derivation from a sub-arc mantle that had experienced metasomatism via slab-derived fluids. Alternatively, the relation may be indicative of minor contamination of magma by crustal rocks with low Os concentrations but high 187Os/188Os ratios. A third alternative is that the low Os

  16. Assessment of SMOS Salinity and SST in the Aegean Sea (Greece) and correlations with MODIS SST measurements. Exploring the SSS and SST correlation to 137Cs inventory (United States)

    Sykioti, Olga; Florou, Heleni


    A program concept has been developed to utilize sea surface salinity (SSS) and sea surface temperature (SST) information for the inventory of artificial radionuclides, which are conservative and part of the sea salinity. As a pilot study, activity concentrations of 137Cs in the Aegean Sea (Greece) are combined to SMOS and other satellite data so as to develop an innovative tool for the remote radioactivity detection either for routine observations and emergency recordings. The presented first results are a part of an effort to attempt for the integration in space and time of field measurements to the respective satellite observations of salinity variations by model simulations, which might be also applicable for the prediction of the radiological impact of potential accidental events. The presented results involve the first assessment of SMOS SSS and SST measurements over the Aegean Sea. SMOS measurements are averaged over a surface of 40x40 sq km at an average distance of 100 km from the coastline. For this reason, totally thirty nine pixels from SMOS Level 2 data cover part of the Aegean Sea. Two time series are created that include all available measurements spanning December 2011 to current date, from descending and ascending passes, each one representing an acquisition frequency of about three days. The average SSS values in the Aegean Sea are 37-38psu following no distinct seasonal pattern. A general trend of increasing values is observed from north to south. Noise and uncertainty in the measurements are most probably due to land and RFI contamination. High island density is combined with radiofrequency interferences generated by illegal man-made emissions. The latter is a detected common issue in specific areas worldwide, such as the Mediterranean Sea. On the other hand, SST follows a clear typical seasonal variation pattern with maximum values observed in August and minimum ones around March and a general trend of increasing values from north to south

  17. Gas arc constriction for plasma arc welding (United States)

    McGee, William F. (Inventor); Rybicki, Daniel J. (Inventor)


    A welding torch for plasma arc welding apparatus has an inert gas applied circumferentially about the arc column externally of the constricting nozzle so as to apply a constricting force on the arc after it has exited the nozzle orifice and downstream of the auxiliary shielding gas. The constricting inert gas is supplied to a plenum chamber about the body of the torch and exits through a series of circumferentially disposed orifices in an annular wall forming a closure at the forward end of the constricting gas plenum chamber. The constricting force of the circumferential gas flow about the arc concentrates and focuses the arc column into a more narrow and dense column of energy after exiting the nozzle orifice so that the arc better retains its energy density prior to contacting the workpiece.

  18. Clinical Characteristics of the Premature Ejaculation Sufferers in Aegean Region of the Turkey: A Multicentre, Observational Study


    Ahmet Cihan; Ömer Demir; Ali Şahin; Fatih Zeren; Deniz Bolat; Burak Özçift; Abdulkadir Pektaş; Ertan Can; Bilal Gümüş; Tahir Turan; Ahmet Bölükbaşı; Haluk Erol; Ahmet Adil Esen


    Demonstration of the intra-vaginal ejaculation latency time (IELT) distribution in male subjects and its clinical expressions among couples in the Aegean region of the Turkey. Materials and Methods Subjects were recruited to the study from six different urologic centers in the Aegean region. During the enrollment period subjects were recruited in to two group according to presence of premature ejaculation (PE). PE diagnosis was made according to DSM-4 definition. Subjects...

  19. First recording of the non-native species Beroe ovata Mayer 1912 in the Aegean Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available A new alien species Beroe ovata Mayer 1912 was recorded in the Aegean Sea. It is most likely that this species spread on the currents from the Black Sea. Beroe ovata is also alien to the Black Sea, where it was introduced in ballast waters from the Atlantic coastal area of the northern America. The species is established in the Black Sea and has decreased the population of another invaderMnemiopsis leidyi, which has favoured the recovery of the Black Sea ecosystem.We compare a new 1 species with the native species fam. Beroidae from the Mediterranean and predict its role in the ecosystem of the Aegean Sea using the Black Sea experience.

  20. Babylonian confusion of gudgeons in the west Aegean drainages inferred by the mitochondrial DNA analyses


    Radek Sanda; Jasna Vukic; Michal Nowak; Jan Mendel; Tihomir Stefanov; Stamatis Zogaris


    Gudgeons (Gobio and Romanogobio, Cypriniformes) are taxonomically very complicated group of primary freshwater fishes. The region of the west Aegean Sea rivers is inhabited by three species according to Kottelat and Freyhof (2007): Gobio feraensis endemic to the Pinios River basin; Gobio balcanicus inhabiting all remaining drainages, from the Aliakmon up to the Marica drainage; and Romanogobio elimeus occurring from the Pinios to the Vardar basin. Recent analysis of barcoding gene cytochrome ...

  1. Rotating arc spark plug (United States)

    Whealton, John H.; Tsai, Chin-Chi


    A spark plug device includes a structure for modification of an arc, the modification including arc rotation. The spark plug can be used in a combustion engine to reduce emissions and/or improve fuel economy. A method for operating a spark plug and a combustion engine having the spark plug device includes the step of modifying an arc, the modifying including rotating the arc.

  2. Zircon U-Pb, O, and Hf isotopic constraints on Mesozoic magmatism in the Cyclades, Aegean Sea, Greece (United States)

    Fu, Bin; Bröcker, Michael; Ireland, Trevor; Holden, Peter; Kinsley, Leslie P. J.


    Compared to the well-documented Cenozoic magmatic and metamorphic rocks of the Cyclades, Aegean Sea, Greece, the geodynamic context of older meta-igneous rocks occurring in the marble-schist sequences and mélanges of the Cycladic Blueschist Unit is as yet not fully understood. Here, we report O-Hf isotopic compositions of zircons ranging in age from ca. 320 Ma to ca. 80 Ma from metamorphic rocks exposed on the islands of Andros, Ios, Sifnos, and Syros with special emphasis on Triassic source rocks. Ion microprobe (SHRIMP II) single spot oxygen isotope analysis of pre-Cretaceous zircons from various felsic gneisses and meta-gabbros representing both the marble-schist sequences and the mélanges of the study area yielded a large range in δ18O values, varying from 2.7 ‰ to 10.1 ‰ VSMOW, with one outlier at -0.4 %. Initial ɛHf values (-12.5 to +15.7) suggest diverse sources for melts formed between Late Carboniferous to Late Cretaceous time that record derivation from mantle and reworked older continental crust. In particular, variable δ18O and ɛHf( t) values for Triassic igneous zircons suggest that magmatism of this age is more likely rift- than subduction-related. The significant crustal component in 160 Ma meta-gabbros from Andros implies that some Jurassic gabbroic rocks of the Hellenides are not part of SSZ-type (supra-subduction zone) ophiolites that are common elsewhere along the margin of the Pelagonian zone.

  3. Source of the tsunami generated by the 1650 AD eruption of Kolumbo submarine volcano (Aegean Sea, Greece) (United States)

    Ulvrova, Martina; Paris, R.; Nomikou, P.; Kelfoun, K.; Leibrandt, S.; Tappin, D. R.; McCoy, F. W.


    The 1650 AD explosive eruption of Kolumbo submarine volcano (Aegean Sea, Greece) generated a destructive tsunami. In this paper we propose a source mechanism of this poorly documented tsunami using both geological investigations and numerical simulations. Sedimentary evidence of the 1650 AD tsunami was found along the coast of Santorini Island at maximum altitudes ranging between 3.5 m a.s.l. (Perissa, southern coast) and 20 m a.s.l. (Monolithos, eastern coast), corresponding to a minimum inundation of 360 and 630 m respectively. Tsunami deposits consist of an irregular 5 to 30 cm thick layer of dark grey sand that overlies pumiceous deposits erupted during the Minoan eruption and are found at depths of 30-50 cm below the surface. Composition of the tsunami sand is similar to the composition of the present-day beach sand but differs from the pumiceous gravelly deposits on which it rests. The spatial distribution of the tsunami deposits was compared to available historical records and to the results of numerical simulations of tsunami inundation. Different source mechanisms were tested: earthquakes, underwater explosions, caldera collapse, and pyroclastic flows. The most probable source of the 1650 AD Kolumbo tsunami is a 250 m high water surface displacement generated by underwater explosion with an energy of ~ 2 × 1016 J at water depths between 20 and 150 m. The tsunamigenic explosion(s) occurred on September 29, 1650 during the transition between submarine and subaerial phases of the eruption. Caldera subsidence is not an efficient tsunami source mechanism as short (and probably unrealistic) collapse durations (< 5 min) are needed. Pyroclastic flows cannot be discarded, but the required flux (106 to 107 m3 · s- 1) is exceptionally high compared to the magnitude of the eruption.

  4. Babylonian confusion of gudgeons in the west Aegean drainages inferred by the mitochondrial DNA analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radek Sanda


    We have analysed control region (mitochondrial non coding DNA of gudgeon populations from all larger river drainages from the west Aegean region (Pinios to Marica basins. Included were also several populations from surrounding areas of the Danube River drainage and from the Black Sea rivers. The results are not at all congruent with the proposed taxonomy. MtDNA haplotypes of Romonagobio banarescui were found not only in the Vardar, but also in the lower Aliakmon River. Haplotypes of Romanogibo elimeus were found in the Pinios, upper Aliakmon and Loudias rivers. Situation of genus Gobio is completely confusing; there is no geographic structure in the distribution of haplotypes. Many different haplogroups are shared in some basins, especially in the drainages of the Struma, Mesta and Marica rivers. This indicates complicated evolutionary history of gudgeons in the region, probably having several historical refugia, and with multiple recent contacts of lineages. Our data indicate a contact between the Danubian, Black Sea and Aegean rivers. The taxonomic status of most of the populations of Gobio from the west Aegean area remains unclear.

  5. Sensitivity of the N. AEGEAN SEA ecosystem to Black Sea Water inputs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The effect of Black Sea Water (BSW inputs on the North Aegean Sea productivity and food web dynamics was investigated, by means of sensitivity simulations, investigating the effect of the inflowing BSW, in terms of inorganic nutrients and dissolved organic matter. The model used has been successfully applied in the area in the past and extensively presented. Considering the importance of the microbial loop in the ecosystem functioning, the role of the dissolved organics and in order to achieve a more realistic representation of the Dissolved Organic Matter pool, the bacteria sub-model was appropriately revised. The importance of the microbial loop is highlighted by the carbon fluxes where almost 50% of carbon is channelled within it. The impact of dissolved organic matter (DOM (in the inflowing to the Aegean Sea, BSW appears to be stronger than the impact of dissolved inorganic nutrients, showing a more extended effect over the N Aegean. Bacterial production and biomass is more strongly affected in the simulations by modified DOM, unlike phytoplankton biomass and production, which are more dependent on the inflowing nutrients and particularly phosphorus (inorganic and dissolved organic. In the phytoplankton composition, the dinoflagellates appear to be mostly affected, being favoured by higher nutrient availability at the expense of all other groups, particularly picoplankton, indicating a shift to a more classical food chain.

  6. New structural and U-Pb zircon data from Anafi crystalline basement (Cyclades, Greece): constraints on the evolution of a Late Cretaceous magmatic arc in the Internal Hellenides (United States)

    Martha, Silviu O.; Dörr, Wolfgang; Gerdes, Axel; Petschick, Rainer; Schastok, Janina; Xypolias, Paraskevas; Zulauf, Gernold


    The Asterousia Crystalline Complex consists of Late Cretaceous amphibolite facies metamorphic rocks and associated granitoids, which can be found in exposures on Crete and the Cyclades (Greece). It is attributed to the Uppermost Unit and therefore to the Pelagonian domain of the Internal Hellenides. The tectonometamorphic evolution of this unit is still a matter of debate. We present new structural and petrological data of Asterousia-type rocks and greenschist facies metamorphic rocks from the island of Anafi in the southern Aegean Sea as well as U-Pb zircon ages of granitoids from Anafi. The crystalline sequence of Anafi rests on top of Eocene flysch and comprises from bottom to top: (a) Anafi Greenschist; (b) Anafi Amphibolite Group (orthoamphibolite with intercalations of metasedimentary rocks at the base); and (c) Chalepa Group (amphibolite facies metasediments with slices of serpentinite and granitoids). LA-ICP-MS and ID-TIMS 206Pb/238U zircon ages of granodiorite from the Chalepa Group reveal several similar zircon populations suggesting continuous emplacement of granitoids inside a magmatic arc from ca. 72.5 to 79 Ma. The minimum emplacement age of granodioritic magma, deduced from the 206Pb/238U median age of the youngest zircon population, is 72.6 +0.1/-0.2 Ma. Deformation (micro)fabrics of granodiorite result from low strain obtained at T > 600 °C. This along with the U-Pb ages and published K-Ar ages indicates intrusion of the plutonic rocks at deep structural levels followed by very slow cooling. Monzogranitic dykes cutting through granodiorite in north-eastern Anafi are undeformed and yielded a 206Pb/238U median age of 69.9 +0.7/-0.7 Ma. Based on the new and published data, the following implications for the tectonometamorphic evolution on Anafi can be made: (1) obduction and accretion of mantle slices (serpentinite) to the Asterousia-type rocks were prior to amphibolite facies metamorphism; (2) intrusion of granitoids during the middle to late

  7. Magnesium isotope geochemistry in arc volcanism. (United States)

    Teng, Fang-Zhen; Hu, Yan; Chauvel, Catherine


    Incorporation of subducted slab in arc volcanism plays an important role in producing the geochemical and isotopic variations in arc lavas. The mechanism and process by which the slab materials are incorporated, however, are still uncertain. Here, we report, to our knowledge, the first set of Mg isotopic data for a suite of arc lava samples from Martinique Island in the Lesser Antilles arc, which displays one of the most extreme geochemical and isotopic ranges, although the origin of this variability is still highly debated. We find the δ(26)Mg of the Martinique Island lavas varies from -0.25 to -0.10, in contrast to the narrow range that characterizes the mantle (-0.25 ± 0.04, 2 SD). These high δ(26)Mg values suggest the incorporation of isotopically heavy Mg from the subducted slab. The large contrast in MgO content between peridotite, basalt, and sediment makes direct mixing between sediment and peridotite, or assimilation by arc crust sediment, unlikely to be the main mechanism to modify Mg isotopes. Instead, the heavy Mg isotopic signature of the Martinique arc lavas requires that the overall composition of the mantle wedge is buffered and modified by the preferential addition of heavy Mg isotopes from fluids released from the altered subducted slab during fluid-mantle interaction. This, in turn, suggests transfer of a large amount of fluid-mobile elements from the subducting slab to the mantle wedge and makes Mg isotopes an excellent tracer of deep fluid migration. PMID:27303032

  8. Magnesium isotope geochemistry in arc volcanism (United States)

    Teng, Fang-Zhen; Hu, Yan


    Incorporation of subducted slab in arc volcanism plays an important role in producing the geochemical and isotopic variations in arc lavas. The mechanism and process by which the slab materials are incorporated, however, are still uncertain. Here, we report, to our knowledge, the first set of Mg isotopic data for a suite of arc lava samples from Martinique Island in the Lesser Antilles arc, which displays one of the most extreme geochemical and isotopic ranges, although the origin of this variability is still highly debated. We find the δ26Mg of the Martinique Island lavas varies from −0.25 to −0.10, in contrast to the narrow range that characterizes the mantle (−0.25 ± 0.04, 2 SD). These high δ26Mg values suggest the incorporation of isotopically heavy Mg from the subducted slab. The large contrast in MgO content between peridotite, basalt, and sediment makes direct mixing between sediment and peridotite, or assimilation by arc crust sediment, unlikely to be the main mechanism to modify Mg isotopes. Instead, the heavy Mg isotopic signature of the Martinique arc lavas requires that the overall composition of the mantle wedge is buffered and modified by the preferential addition of heavy Mg isotopes from fluids released from the altered subducted slab during fluid−mantle interaction. This, in turn, suggests transfer of a large amount of fluid-mobile elements from the subducting slab to the mantle wedge and makes Mg isotopes an excellent tracer of deep fluid migration. PMID:27303032

  9. Kolumbo submarine volcano (Greece): An active window into the Aegean subduction system. (United States)

    Rizzo, Andrea Luca; Caracausi, Antonio; Chavagnac, Valèrie; Nomikou, Paraskevi; Polymenakou, Paraskevi N; Mandalakis, Manolis; Kotoulas, Georgios; Magoulas, Antonios; Castillo, Alain; Lampridou, Danai


    Submarine volcanism represents ~80% of the volcanic activity on Earth and is an important source of mantle-derived gases. These gases are of basic importance for the comprehension of mantle characteristics in areas where subaerial volcanism is missing or strongly modified by the presence of crustal/atmospheric components. Though, the study of submarine volcanism remains a challenge due to their hazardousness and sea-depth. Here, we report (3)He/(4)He measurements in CO2-dominated gases discharged at 500 m below sea level from the high-temperature (~220 °C) hydrothermal system of the Kolumbo submarine volcano (Greece), located 7 km northeast off Santorini Island in the central part of the Hellenic Volcanic Arc (HVA). We highlight that the mantle below Kolumbo and Santorini has a (3)He/(4)He signature of at least 7.0 Ra (being Ra the (3)He/(4)He ratio of atmospheric He equal to 1.39×10(-6)), 3 Ra units higher than actually known for gases-rocks from Santorini. This ratio is also the highest measured across the HVA and is indicative of the direct degassing of a Mid-Ocean-Ridge-Basalts (MORB)-like mantle through lithospheric faults. We finally highlight that the degassing of high-temperature fluids with a MORB-like (3)He/(4)He ratio corroborates a vigorous outgassing of mantle-derived volatiles with potential hazard at the Kolumbo submarine volcano. PMID:27311383

  10. Kolumbo submarine volcano (Greece): An active window into the Aegean subduction system (United States)

    Rizzo, Andrea Luca; Caracausi, Antonio; Chavagnac, Valèrie; Nomikou, Paraskevi; Polymenakou, Paraskevi N.; Mandalakis, Manolis; Kotoulas, Georgios; Magoulas, Antonios; Castillo, Alain; Lampridou, Danai


    Submarine volcanism represents ~80% of the volcanic activity on Earth and is an important source of mantle-derived gases. These gases are of basic importance for the comprehension of mantle characteristics in areas where subaerial volcanism is missing or strongly modified by the presence of crustal/atmospheric components. Though, the study of submarine volcanism remains a challenge due to their hazardousness and sea-depth. Here, we report 3He/4He measurements in CO2–dominated gases discharged at 500 m below sea level from the high-temperature (~220 °C) hydrothermal system of the Kolumbo submarine volcano (Greece), located 7 km northeast off Santorini Island in the central part of the Hellenic Volcanic Arc (HVA). We highlight that the mantle below Kolumbo and Santorini has a 3He/4He signature of at least 7.0 Ra (being Ra the 3He/4He ratio of atmospheric He equal to 1.39×10‑6), 3 Ra units higher than actually known for gases-rocks from Santorini. This ratio is also the highest measured across the HVA and is indicative of the direct degassing of a Mid-Ocean-Ridge-Basalts (MORB)-like mantle through lithospheric faults. We finally highlight that the degassing of high-temperature fluids with a MORB-like 3He/4He ratio corroborates a vigorous outgassing of mantle-derived volatiles with potential hazard at the Kolumbo submarine volcano.

  11. Kolumbo submarine volcano (Greece): An active window into the Aegean subduction system (United States)

    Rizzo, Andrea Luca; Caracausi, Antonio; Chavagnac, Valèrie; Nomikou, Paraskevi; Polymenakou, Paraskevi N.; Mandalakis, Manolis; Kotoulas, Georgios; Magoulas, Antonios; Castillo, Alain; Lampridou, Danai


    Submarine volcanism represents ~80% of the volcanic activity on Earth and is an important source of mantle-derived gases. These gases are of basic importance for the comprehension of mantle characteristics in areas where subaerial volcanism is missing or strongly modified by the presence of crustal/atmospheric components. Though, the study of submarine volcanism remains a challenge due to their hazardousness and sea-depth. Here, we report 3He/4He measurements in CO2–dominated gases discharged at 500 m below sea level from the high-temperature (~220 °C) hydrothermal system of the Kolumbo submarine volcano (Greece), located 7 km northeast off Santorini Island in the central part of the Hellenic Volcanic Arc (HVA). We highlight that the mantle below Kolumbo and Santorini has a 3He/4He signature of at least 7.0 Ra (being Ra the 3He/4He ratio of atmospheric He equal to 1.39×10−6), 3 Ra units higher than actually known for gases-rocks from Santorini. This ratio is also the highest measured across the HVA and is indicative of the direct degassing of a Mid-Ocean-Ridge-Basalts (MORB)-like mantle through lithospheric faults. We finally highlight that the degassing of high-temperature fluids with a MORB-like 3He/4He ratio corroborates a vigorous outgassing of mantle-derived volatiles with potential hazard at the Kolumbo submarine volcano. PMID:27311383

  12. Peek Arc Consistency

    CERN Document Server

    Bodirsky, Manuel


    This paper studies peek arc consistency, a reasoning technique that extends the well-known arc consistency technique for constraint satisfaction. In contrast to other more costly extensions of arc consistency that have been studied in the literature, peek arc consistency requires only linear space and quadratic time and can be parallelized in a straightforward way such that it runs in linear time with a linear number of processors. We demonstrate that for various constraint languages, peek arc consistency gives a polynomial-time decision procedure for the constraint satisfaction problem. We also present an algebraic characterization of those constraint languages that can be solved by peek arc consistency, and study the robustness of the algorithm.

  13. Towards Understanding the Sunda and Banda Arcs (United States)

    Hall, R.


    The present change from oceanic subduction beneath the Sunda Arc to arc-continent collision east of Sumba is merely the latest stage in a complex collision history that began more than 20 million years ago. Understanding present-day tectonics requires restoring the pre-collisional margins and unravelling the history of the entire Sunda-Banda Arc, not just a segment centred on Sumba. Seismic tomography displays a single folded slab beneath the Banda Arc around which mantle has flowed. Above this is a wide actively deforming zone of complex geology. Australian crust was first added to the Sunda margin in the Cretaceous. Early Miocene closure of the oceanic gap north of Australia led to further additions of continental crust during collision of the Sula Spur. Few microcontinental fragments were sliced from New Guinea as commonly interpreted. Most are parts of the Sula Spur fragmented by extension and strike-slip faulting during development of subduction zones and rollback into the Banda embayment. Many metamorphic 'basement' rocks are significantly younger than expected. They were metamorphosed during multiple episodes of extension which also exhumed the sub-lithospheric mantle, melted the deep continental crust, created new ocean basins, and dispersed continental crust throughout the inner and outer arc, and forearc, so that in places Australian crust is colliding with Australian crust. Thus, many of the arc volcanoes are built on continental not oceanic crust, and sediment eroded from recently emergent islands is compositionally different to subducted sediment that contributed to arc magmas. The published literature is inadequate. New fieldwork and data are required, particularly in remote areas, with integration of information from a variety of sources (e.g. industry seismic and multibeam bathymetry, remotely acquired imagery) and sub-disciplines (e.g. geochronology, geochemistry, seismology, modelling). No single methodology can provide a complete solution.

  14. Wire + Arc Additive Manufacturing


    Williams, Stewart W.; Martina, Filomeno; Addison, Adrian C.; Ding, Jialuo; Pardal, Goncalo; Colegrove, Paul A.


    Depositing large components (>10 kg) in titanium, aluminium, steel and other metals is possible using Wire + Arc Additive Manufacturing. This technology adopts arc welding tools and wire as feedstock for additive manufacturing purposes. High deposition rates, low material and equipment costs, and good structural integrity make Wire+Arc Additive Manufacturing a suitable candidate for replacing the current method of manufacturing from solid billets or large forgings, especially with regards to ...

  15. Particulate and dissolved primary production along a pronounced hydrographic and trophic gradient (Turkish Straits System-NE Aegean Sea) (United States)

    Lagaria, A.; Psarra, S.; Gogou, A.; Tuğrul, S.; Christaki, U.


    The rates of particulate (PPp) and dissolved primary production (PPd) were estimated along a trajectory of variable environmental regimes formed in a narrow shelf area, following the course of Black Sea water masses (BSW) passing through the Turkish Straits System (TSS) into the NE Aegean Sea (BS-AS outflow). Seven stations in total were sampled, covering a transect from the eastern edge of the Marmara Sea basin to the NE Aegean Sea, during two consecutive cruises performed in October 2008 within the framework of the EU SESAME project. Along the BS-AS outflow, depth-integrated over the surface BSW layer PPp decreased considerably from 91 to cells (> 5 μm). This study showed that PER increased along a gradient from mesotrophy to oligotrophy, probably due to nutrient deficiency constraining phytoplankton growth and was closely related to phytoplankton size-structure. In the oligotrophic NE Aegean Sea, phytoplankton exudation was a significant source of dissolved organic carbon for heterotrophic prokaryotes.

  16. Circulation and hydrological characteristics of the North Aegean Sea: a contribution from real-time buoy measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available In the framework of the POSEIDON Project, a network of open sea oceanographic buoys equipped with meteorological and oceanographic sensors has been operational in the Aegean Sea since 1998. The analysis of upper-ocean physical data (currents at 3m, temperature and salinity at 3-40m depths collected during the last 2 years from the stations of the North Aegean basin indicates a strong temporal variability of flow field and hydrological characteristics in both synoptic and seasonal time scales. The northern part of the basin is mainly influenced by the Black Sea Water outflow and the mesoscale variability of the corresponding thermohaline fronts, while the southern stations are influenced by the general circulation of the Aegean Sea with strong modulations caused by the seasonally varying atmospheric forcing.

  17. Welding arc plasma physics (United States)

    Cain, Bruce L.


    The problems of weld quality control and weld process dependability continue to be relevant issues in modern metal welding technology. These become especially important for NASA missions which may require the assembly or repair of larger orbiting platforms using automatic welding techniques. To extend present welding technologies for such applications, NASA/MSFC's Materials and Processes Lab is developing physical models of the arc welding process with the goal of providing both a basis for improved design of weld control systems, and a better understanding of how arc welding variables influence final weld properties. The physics of the plasma arc discharge is reasonably well established in terms of transport processes occurring in the arc column itself, although recourse to sophisticated numerical treatments is normally required to obtain quantitative results. Unfortunately the rigor of these numerical computations often obscures the physics of the underlying model due to its inherent complexity. In contrast, this work has focused on a relatively simple physical model of the arc discharge to describe the gross features observed in welding arcs. Emphasis was placed of deriving analytic expressions for the voltage along the arc axis as a function of known or measurable arc parameters. The model retains the essential physics for a straight polarity, diffusion dominated free burning arc in argon, with major simplifications of collisionless sheaths and simple energy balances at the electrodes.

  18. Volcano collapse along the Aleutian Ridge (western Aleutian Arc)


    Montanaro, C.; J. Beget


    The Aleutian Ridge, in the western part of the Aleutian Arc, consists of a chain of volcanic islands perched atop the crest of a submarine ridge with most of the active Quaternary stratocones or caldera-like volcanoes being located on the northern margins of the Aleutian Islands. Integrated analysis of marine and terrestrial data resulted in the identification and characterization of 17 extensive submarine debris avalanche deposits from 11 volcanoes. Two morphological types of deposits are re...

  19. First recording of the non-native species Beroe ovata Mayer 1912 in the Aegean Sea


    Shiganova, T.A.; Christou, E. D.; Siokou, I.


    A new alien species Beroe ovata Mayer 1912 was recorded in the Aegean Sea. It is most likely that this species spread on the currents from the Black Sea. Beroe ovata is also alien to the Black Sea, where it was introduced in ballast waters from the Atlantic coastal area of the northern America. The species is established in the Black Sea and has decreased the population of another invaderMnemiopsis leidyi, which has favoured the recovery of the Black Sea ecosystem.We compare a new 1 species w...

  20. Preliminary biological data on Pomadasys incisus (Osteichthyes: Haemulidae in the Aegean Sea, Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The present paper gives, for the first time, some biological data concerning Pomadasys incisus in theArgolikos Gulf (C. Aegean Sea. The bastard grunt (Pomadasys incisus is a thermophilic species welladapted in the above area, but the status of fishery suggests an overexploitation. The sex ratio was infavour of males. The length frequency distribution did not differ between the sexes. Growth in weight wasestimated by means of the length-weight relationship. Reproduction seemed to take place in summer. Certainmorphometric characters appeared to be useful while comparing populations among the differentpopulations in the Mediterranean.

  1. Early hominin biogeography in Island Southeast Asia. (United States)

    Larick, Roy; Ciochon, Russell L


    Island Southeast Asia covers Eurasia's tropical expanse of continental shelf and active subduction zones. Cutting between island landmasses, Wallace's Line separates Sunda and the Eastern Island Arc (the Arc) into distinct tectonic and faunal provinces. West of the line, on Sunda, Java Island yields many fossils of Homo erectus. East of the line, on the Arc, Flores Island provides one skeleton and isolated remains of Homo floresiensis. Luzon Island in the Philippines has another fossil hominin. Sulawesi preserves early hominin archeology. This insular divergence sets up a unique regional context for early hominin dispersal, isolation, and extinction. The evidence is reviewed across three Pleistocene climate periods. Patterns are discussed in relation to the pulse of global sea-level shifts, as well as regional geo-tectonics, catastrophes, stegodon dispersal, and paleogenomics. Several patterns imply evolutionary processes typical of oceanic islands. Early hominins apparently responded to changing island conditions for a million-and-a-half years, likely becoming extinct during the period in which Homo sapiens colonized the region. PMID:26478140

  2. U.S. Virgin Islands Coastal Digital Elevation Model (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 1 arc-second Virgin Islands DEM will be used to support NOAA's tsunami forecast system and for tsunami inundation modeling. This DEM encompasses the Virgin...

  3. Land Use on the Island of Oahu, Hawaii, 1998 (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This is a vector GIS coverage (ESRI ArcInfo format) of the land use of the island of Oahu, 1998, derived from multiple sources of digital orthophotos.

  4. Spatial distribution of vector borne disease agents in dogs in Aegean region, Turkey

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    Kerem Ural


    Full Text Available Objective. Assess the spatial distribution of seroprevalence of infection with or exposure to 4 vector-borne pathogens Ehrlichia canis, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Borrelia burgdorferi and Dirofilaria immitis, across the coastal states of the Aegean region with special reference to clinical signs and haematological variances related to disease condition. Materials and methods. A convenience sample, targeting blood from at least 10 pet dogs from İzmir, Aydin, Denizli, Mugla and Manisa cities involved was evaluated using a canine point-of-care ELISA kit. Results. Out of 307 dogs tested the overall seroprevalence was highest for E. canis (24.42%, followed by E. canis + A. phagocytophilum co-infection (10.42%, A. phagocytophilum (7.49% and D. immitis (2.28%. Only 2 cases were seropositive to B. burgdorferi albeit 10 dogs were co-infected with more than 2 agents. For both dogs infected with E. canis and co-infected with E. canis and A. phagocytophilum, anemia, thrombocytopenia and leukocytosis, were more commonly detected, whereas thrombocytopenia and leukocytosis were significant finding in dogs infected with A. phagocytophilum or D. immitis, respectively. Variance analysis showed significant differences for mean RBC, Hb, PCV and PLT values (p<0.01 among control group and other groups. Conclusions. Seropositivity for vector-borne pathogens other than B. burgdorferi, is moderately to widely distributed in dogs residing in the Aegean region in Turkey.

  5. Geochemical characteristics of late Quaternary sediments from the southern Aegean Sea (Eastern Mediterranean

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    Full Text Available Ten cores from the southern Aegean Sea have been logged for their lithological composition and seventy-three sub-samples were analysed for the determination of major and trace elements concentrations. Four lithological units were identified, namely, mud, volcanic, turbidite and sapropel. On the basis of the “Z-2” Minoan ash layer radiocarbon age sedimentation rates for the southern Aegean Sea were estimated at 3.26 to 4.15 cm kyr -1. Simple correlation analysis revealed three groups of elements associated with: (1 biogenic carbonates; (2 terrigenous alumino-silicates and (3 sapropelic layers. R-mode factor analysis applied on the carbonate-free corrected data-set defined four significant factors: (1 the “detrital alumino-silicate factor” represented by Si, Al, Na, K, Rb, Zr, Pb and inversely related to Ca, Mg, and Sr; (2 a “hydrothermal factor” loaded with Cr, Ni, Co, Cu, Fe; (3 the “volcanic ash factor” with high loadings for Ti, Al, Fe, Na and (4 a “sapropel factor” represented by Ba, Mo, and Zn. High factor scores for the “hydrothermal factor” were observed in sediment samples proximal to Nisyros Isl., suggesting a potential hydrothermal influence. Red-brown oxides and crusts dredged from this area support further this possibility. The use of factor analysis enabled for a better understanding of the chemical elements associations that remained obscured by correlation analysis.

  6. On the fecundity of the bogue Boops boops (Linnaeus, 1758) in the Turkish Aegean Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Burcu Taylan; Bahar Bayhan


    Objective: To determine the fecundity of Boops boops (B. boops) from Aegean Sea coast of Turkey. Methods: A total of 470 specimens of B. boops were collected monthly from November in 2008 to October of 2009 in Izmir Bay (central Aegean Sea). Total length and total weight of each fish were measured and the maturity stages of gonads were determined. About 30 mature ovariums were taken to determine fecundity and oocysts were counted by using gravimetric method. Results: About 210 were females (44.7%) and 226 males (48.1%) while 34 (7.2%) were hermafrodite in terms of sexuality with sex ratio (female: male) of 0.93:1.00. The fecundity of the bogue was assessed by the gravimetric method with 30 ovaries from females between the total length of 19.6 and 27.6 cm [(mean: 23.5 ± 2.1) cm]. Estimates of total fecundity varied between 33072 and 66123 oocytes (mean: 49008 ± 8826) and fecundity–total length, fecundity–weight relationships were expressed as :F = 8207.6e0.075TL, F = 30297e0.003TW respectively. Conclusions: The results of the study will contribute to the reproductive biology of B. boops and will be useful for management of fisheries.

  7. Vertical distribution of marine cyanobacteria Synechococcus spp. in the Black, Marmara, Aegean, and eastern Mediterranean seas (United States)

    Uysal, Zahit


    The vertical distributions of the unicellular cyanobacteria Synechococcus were studied in several highly contrasting seas: the Black Sea, Sea of Marmara, Aegean Sea, and Mediterranean Sea. Cell abundances varied significantly on both vertical and horizontal scales in all physically and spatially discrete water masses. Epifluorescence microscope cell counts from all seas clearly showed that majority of the population remains suspended in the surface-mixed layer and decreases gradually towards the base of the euphotic zone. Surface spatial distributions in the Black Sea were heterogeneous. Salinity, rather than temperature, seemed to have the greatest impact on the surface distribution of cells in this highly eutrophic sea. Changes in abundance in the mixed layer were small compared to the abrupt changes below the halocline, especially in the Black Sea and the Sea of Marmara. In contrast to the Black Sea, the major population remains suspended above the depth of fluorescence maximum in the Aegean and eastern Mediterranean seas. Significant correlations ( r>P0.01) were observed between cell counts and physical and chemical parameters with depth in the Black Sea. In all seas, cells at subsurface chlorophyll- a maximum layer (SCML) reflected brighter and longer fluorescence than those present at the surface and below. Cell size derived from flow cytometry indicated the presence of larger cells at the surface mixed layer compared to those at depth.

  8. Habitat Selection and Temporal Abundance Fluctuations of Demersal Cartilaginous Species in the Aegean Sea (Eastern Mediterranean) (United States)

    Maravelias, Christos D.; Tserpes, George; Pantazi, Maria; Peristeraki, Panagiota


    Predicting the occurrence of keystone top predators in a multispecies marine environment, such as the Mediterranean Sea, can be of considerable value to the long-term sustainable development of the fishing industry and to the protection of biodiversity. We analysed fisheries independent scientific bottom trawl survey data of two of the most abundant cartilaginous fish species (Scyliorhinus canicula, Raja clavata) in the Aegean Sea covering an 11-year sampling period. The current findings revealed a declining trend in R. clavata and S. canicula abundance from the late ′90 s until 2004. Habitats with the higher probability of finding cartilaginous fish present were those located in intermediate waters (depth: 200–400 m). The present results also indicated a preferential species' clustering in specific geographic and bathymetric regions of the Aegean Sea. Depth appeared to be one of the key determining factors for the selection of habitats for all species examined. With cartilaginous fish species being among the more biologically sensitive fish species taken in European marine fisheries, our findings, which are based on a standardized scientific survey, can contribute to the rational exploitation and management of their stocks by providing important information on temporal abundance trends and habitat preferences. PMID:22536389

  9. Preceramic, Aceramic or Early Ceramic? The radiocarbon dated beginning of the Neolithic in the Aegean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agathe Reingruber


    Full Text Available The Pre-Pottery-Neolithic refers to a period in the Eastern Mediterranean when ceramic containers were not yet in use (although small objects made of clay were already being created. This concept, which reflects a specific and quite unique stage in the development of human history, was introduced to Aegean prehistory under the term of Preceramic during the 1950’s (e.g., in Argissa Magoula and Sesklo. Shortly thereafter, a different term, the Aceramic, was applied in the Aegean (e.g., in Knossos for levels devoid of pottery, although ceramic products were supposedly used in the wider region. In some cases, the thin levels interpreted as Preceramic or as Aceramic contained sherds that were regarded as being intrusive from above (e.g., Argissa-Magoula, Franchthi Cave. The new sequences of radiocarbon dates allow a more precise description of this early period and thereby contribute, not least, also to the clarification of terminological issues.

  10. Arc deflection model and arc direction control for DC arc furnace

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liping Wei; Huang Zhou; Huade Li; Yuanhang Zhou


    Based on the analysis of three-dimensional power conductor for DC arc furnace, the electric arc deflection model was set up and the control system of the arc direction was configured. According to the bus bar distribution at the bottom electrodes cooled by water, the arc direction control principle and its configuration were described. The simulation results show that the control system can restrain the electric arc deflection and control the arc direction.

  11. Hemiasterella aristoteliana n. sp. (Porifera, Hadromerida) from the Aegean Sea with a discussion on the family Hemiasterellidae


    Voultsiadou-Koukoura, Eleni; Van, Soest


    A representative of the genus Hemiasterella Carter, 1879 was found for the first time in the Mediterranean Sea during sampling in the shallow waters of the northern Aegean Sea. The new species, H. aristoteliana, is compared with Atlantic Hemiasterella elongata Topsent, 1928. The status of the family Hemiasterellidae is discussed.

  12. Wild fire effects on floristic diversity in three thermo-Mediterranean vegetation types in a small islet of eastern Aegean sea (United States)

    Abraham, Eleni; Kyriazopoulos, Apostolos; Korakis, George; Parissi, Zoi; Chouvardas, Dimitrios


    Sclerophyllus scrub formations, the main vegetation type in many islands of the Aegean area, are characterized by their high biodiversity. Dominant shrub species of sclerophyllus formations are well adapted to dry season conditions by various anatomical and physiological mechanisms. As a result, their biomass acts as very flammable fine fuel, and consequently wild fires are very common in these ecosystems. Wildfire effects on vegetation and biodiversity in the Mediterranean basin have been studied and the results are diverse depending mainly on vegetation type and frequency of fire. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of wildfire on floristic diversity and species composition in three thermo-Mediterranean vegetation types 1) Sacropoterium spinosum phrygana, 2) low formations of Cistus creticus and 3) low formations of Cistus creticus in abandoned terraces. The research was conducted in Enoussa islet, which is located northeastern of Chios Island, in May 2013 (one year after the fire). Vegetation sampling was performed along five transects placed in recently burned and in adjacent unburned sites of each vegetation type. The plant cover and the floristic composition were measured, while diversity, evenness and dominance indices were determined for the vegetation data. Vegetation cover and the floristic diversity were significant lower and higher respectively in burned areas in comparison to the unburned. The woody species followed by the annual grasses and the annual forbs dominated in both burned and unburned areas. However, the woody species were significantly decreased in the burned areas in all vegetation types, while the annual grasses only in the burned areas of Sacropoterium spinosum phrygana and Cistus creticus in abandoned terraces. Inversely, the annual forbs significantly increased in the burned sites of Cistus creticus formations. The highest value of Morisita-Horn Index of similarity between burned and unburned sites (beta diversity) was

  13. Tectono-stratigraphic evolution through successive extensional events of the Anydros Basin, hosting Kolumbo volcanic field at the Aegean Sea, Greece (United States)

    Nomikou, P.; Hübscher, C.; Ruhnau, M.; Bejelou, K.


    The structural evolution of the South Aegean Sea is little explored due to the lack of marine seismic data. Our present day understanding is mainly based on some island outcrops and GPS measurements. In this study we discuss the rather incremental opening of the Anydros Basin in the Pliocene during six major tectonic pulses and the subsequent basin fill processes by interpreting seismic data and derived time isochore maps. Between the active pulses basin floor tilting persisted on a much lower rate. Seismic data illustrate the depositional processes in the emerging Anydros Basin. The observation of onlap fill strata, divergent reflection pattern, moat channels and contourite drifts imply that deposition was controlled by turbidity and contour currents as well as the tilting basin floor. The metamorphic Attico-Cycladic basement shows a rise that aligns along an NW-SE directed axis crossing Anydros island. This axis marks a structural change of the Santorini-Amorgos Ridge and thus represents a major structural boundary. Dip angles of NE-SW trending major faults, like the Santorini-Amorgos Fault, indicate normal faulting to be the superior mechanism forming the present horst and graben environment. Hence, the area is likely to be in a state of NW-SE directed extensional stresses forming the asymmetric graben structure of Anydros. Secondary fault clusters strike the same direction but show much steeper dip angles, possibly indicating strike-slip movement or resulting from deformational stresses along the hinge zones of the normal faults. The majority of the faults we discovered are located in the area of earthquake clusters, which is another indication of recent faulting. Ring faults around Kolumbo submarine volcano, result from caldera collapse and mark the diameter of the magma chamber approximately to 20 km.

  14. Tokamak ARC damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokamak fusion reactors will have large plasma currents of approximately 10 MA with hundreds of megajoules stored in the magnetic fields. When a major plasma instability occurs, the disruption of the plasma current induces voltage in the adjacent conducting structures, giving rise to large transient currents. The induced voltages may be sufficiently high to cause arcing across sector gaps or from one protruding component to another. This report reviews a tokamak arcing scenario and provides guidelines for designing tokamaks to minimize the possibility of arc damage

  15. Cinnabar, arsenian pyrite and thallium-enrichment in active shallow submarine hydrothermal vents at Paleochori Bay, Milos Island, Greece (United States)

    Kati, Marianna; Voudouris, Panagiotis; Valsami-Jones, Eugenia; Magganas, Andreas; Baltatzis, Emmanouil; Kanellopoulos, Christos; Mavrogonatos, Constantinos


    We herein report the discovery of active cinnabar-depositing hydrothermal vents in a submarine setting at Paleochori Bay, within the offshore southeastern extension of the Milos Island Geothermal Field, South Aegean Active Volcanic Arc. Active, low temperature (up to 115 °C) hydrothermal venting through volcaniclastic material has led to a varied assemblage of sulfide and alteration mineral phases in an area of approximately 1 km2. Our samples recovered from Paleochori Bay are hydrothermal edifices composed of volcaniclastic detrital material cemented by pyrite, or pure sulfide (mainly massive pyrite) mounts. Besides pyrite and minor marcasite, the hydrothermal minerals include cinnabar, amorphous silica, hydrous ferric oxides, carbonates (aragonite and calcite), alunite-jarosite solid solution and Sr-rich barite. Among others, growth textures, sieve-textured pyrite associated with barite, alunite-jarosite solid solution and hydrous ferric oxides rims colloform-banded pyrite layers. Overgrowths of arsenian pyrite layers (up to 3.2 wt. % As and/or up to 1.1 wt. % Mn) onto As-free pyrite indicate fluctuation in As content of the hydrothermal fluid. Mercury, in the form of cinnabar, occurs in up to 5 μm grains within arsenian pyrite layers, usually forming distinct cinnabar-enriched micro-layers. Hydrothermal Sr-rich barite (barite-celestine solid solution), pseudocubic alunite-jarosite solid solution and Mn- and Sr-enriched carbonates occur in various amounts and closely associated with pyrite and/or hydrous ferric oxides. Thallium-bearing sulfides and/or sulfosalts were not detected during our study; however, hydrous ferric oxides show thallium content of up to 0.5 wt. % Tl. The following scenarios may have played a role in pyrite precipitation at Paleochori: (a) H2S originally dissolved in the deep fluid but separated upon boiling could have reacted with oxygenated seawater under production of sulphuric acid, thus causing leaching and dissolution of primary iron

  16. ALICE - ARC integration


    Anderlik, Csaba; Gregersen, Anders Rhod; Kleist, Josva; Peters, Andreas; Siaz, Pablo


    AliEn or Alice Environment is the Gridware developed and used within the ALICE collaboration for storing and processing data in a distributed manner. ARC (Advanced Resource Connector) is the Grid middleware deployed across the Nordic countries and gluing together the resources within the Nordic Data Grid Facility (NDGF). In this paper we will present our approach to integrate AliEn and ARC, in the sense that ALICE data management and job processing can be carried out on the NDGF infrastructur...

  17. Seasonal Nutrient Enrichment Experiment in Homa Lagoon (İzmir Bay, Aegean Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banu Kutlu


    Full Text Available In order to determine the effects of nutrient (P, Si, NH4, NO3 enrichment on the growth of phytoplankton in Homa Lagoon (İzmir Bay, Aegean Sea, experiments of enrichment with discontinuous cultures have been executed seasonally in 2007. In our study, the elements limiting the growth of phytoplankton were NO3, P and Si in spring season, N and P in summer season, and NH4 in autumn and winter seasons. So, it has been determined that the addition of nitrogen (N and phosphor (P has led significant change in biomass and growth of phytoplankton. It has also been observed that diatom and dinoflagellate species have grown under various concentrations of, especially, Silicate (Si and nitrogen (N.

  18. Performance of Statistical Temporal Downscaling Techniques of Wind Speed Data Over Aegean Sea (United States)

    Gokhan Guler, Hasan; Baykal, Cuneyt; Ozyurt, Gulizar; Kisacik, Dogan


    Wind speed data is a key input for many meteorological and engineering applications. Many institutions provide wind speed data with temporal resolutions ranging from one hour to twenty four hours. Higher temporal resolution is generally required for some applications such as reliable wave hindcasting studies. One solution to generate wind data at high sampling frequencies is to use statistical downscaling techniques to interpolate values of the finer sampling intervals from the available data. In this study, the major aim is to assess temporal downscaling performance of nine statistical interpolation techniques by quantifying the inherent uncertainty due to selection of different techniques. For this purpose, hourly 10-m wind speed data taken from 227 data points over Aegean Sea between 1979 and 2010 having a spatial resolution of approximately 0.3 degrees are analyzed from the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) The Climate Forecast System Reanalysis database. Additionally, hourly 10-m wind speed data of two in-situ measurement stations between June, 2014 and June, 2015 are considered to understand effect of dataset properties on the uncertainty generated by interpolation technique. In this study, nine statistical interpolation techniques are selected as w0 (left constant) interpolation, w6 (right constant) interpolation, averaging step function interpolation, linear interpolation, 1D Fast Fourier Transform interpolation, 2nd and 3rd degree Lagrange polynomial interpolation, cubic spline interpolation, piecewise cubic Hermite interpolating polynomials. Original data is down sampled to 6 hours (i.e. wind speeds at 0th, 6th, 12th and 18th hours of each day are selected), then 6 hourly data is temporally downscaled to hourly data (i.e. the wind speeds at each hour between the intervals are computed) using nine interpolation technique, and finally original data is compared with the temporally downscaled data. A penalty point system based on

  19. Macrofauna biodiversity of mussel bed assemblages in Thermaikos Gulf (northern Aegean Sea) (United States)

    Chintiroglou, Chariton-Charles; Damianidis, Panagiotis; Antoniadou, Chryssanthi; Lantzouni, Marina; Vafidis, Dimitris


    Biomonitoring of mussel bed assemblages can provide valuable information about the impact of pollution on hard substrate assemblages. This study of Mytilus galloprovincialis mussel beds in Thermaikos Gulf (northern Aegean Sea) deals with the spatial and temporal structure of the associated fauna. Samples were collected and abiotic factors were measured in two successive years. Common biocoenotic methods were employed to analyze the data. The samples could be separated into three groups, with summer and winter samples being clearly different. A total of 100 species were found: polychaetes and crustaceans were the most dominant taxa. The assemblage shows high diversity with respect to species abundance. Biotic interactions within the assemblage appear to influence its composition, although the total evenness remains unaffected in space and time. The M. galloprovincialis assemblages can be found in clean as well as in polluted waters and, therefore, are of great interest in biomonitoring studies.

  20. Earthquakes Versus Surface Deformation: Qualitative and Quantitative Relationships From The Aegean (United States)

    Pavlides, S.; Caputo, R.

    Historical seismicity of the Aegean Region has been revised in order to associate major earthquakes to specific seismogenic structures. Only earthquakes associated to normal faulting have been considered. All available historical and seismotectonic data relative to co-seismic surface faulting have been collected in order to evaluate the surface rup- ture length (SRL) and the maximum displacement (MD). In order to perform Seismic Hazard analyses, empirical relationships between these parameters and the magnitude have been inferred and the best fitting regression functions have been calculated. Both co-seismic fault rupture lengths and maximum displacements show a logarithmic re- lationships, but our data from the Aegean Region have systematically lower values than the same parameters world-wide though they are similar to those of the East- ern Mediterranean-Middle East region. The upper envelopes of our diagrams (SRL vs Mw and MD vs Mw) have been also estimated and discussed, because they give useful information of the wort-case scenarios; these curces will be also discussed. Further- more, geological and morphological criteria have been used to recognise the tectonic structures along which historical earthquakes occurred in order to define the geolog- ical fault length (GFL). Accordingly, the SRL/GFL ratio seems to have a bimodal distribution with a major peak about 0.8-1.0, indicating that several earthquakes break through almost the entire geological fault length, and a second peak around 0.5, re- lated to the possible segmentation of these major neotectonic faults. In contrast, no relationships can be depicted between the SRL/GFL ratio and the magnitude of the corresponding events.

  1. Progress of KOERI Tsunami Warning System for the Eastern Mediterranean, Aegean and Black Seas (United States)

    Necmioglu, Ocal; Meral Ozel, Nurcan; Ozer Sozdinler, Ceren; Yilmazer, Mehmet; Cokacar, Tulay; Comoglu, Mustafa; Pinar, Ali; Kekovali, Kivanc


    This presentation provides a progress report on the activities of the Bogazici University / Kandilli Observatory and Earthquake Research Institute - Regional Earthquake and Tsunami Monitoring Center (KOERI-RETMC) which provides services as a Candidate Tsunami Service Provider (CTSP) of ICG/NEAMTWS in the Eastern Mediterranean, Aegean and Black Seas since 1 July 2012. KOERI continues to operate 178 BB and 97 strong motion and 6 short period sensors and the regional coverage includes 77 stations from GFZ and additional 16 stations through bilateral agreements. One radar-type tide-gauge has been installed in Fethiye within the framework of "Inexpensive Device for Sea-Level Measurement" (IDSL) initiative offered as donation by the EC/JRC and planning is in progress for the possible installation of three more IDSLs in selected locations in the Aegean Sea coast of Turkey. The capabilities and the limitations of HF Radar technology for the purpose of tsunami detection in the Eastern Mediterranean has been identified and the maturity and the applicability of these systems for the possible use under the Tsunami Warning System has been determined. The development of the TsuComp as a user-friendly interface to be used in the assessment of tsunamigenic potential and as a single-point entry for message dissemination has been finalized. The work towards the creation of Tsunami Inundation Maps at the Tsunami Forecast Points in Turkey is near finalization. This work is partially funded by project ASTARTE - Assessment, Strategy And Risk Reduction for Tsunamis in Europe - FP7-ENV2013 6.4-3, Grant 603839. The authors would like to thank EC/JRC and Mr. Alessandro Annunziato for their continuous support in the operational activities of RETMC and IDSL initiative.

  2. Po 210 in the Turkish coast of the Aegean sea ecosystem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Po 210 is a natural radionuclide which constitutes the major source of natural radiation received by humans through the consumption of food and contributes more to the total radiation dose than environmental levels of anthropogenic radionuclides, such as Cs 137 and Pu 239, 240. For Turkish Coast of Aegean Sea Ecosystem, although there some investigations presently available on some natural radionuclides and gross radioactivity concentrations, data on Po 210 in the sea water, bottom sediment and marine biota are very scarce. The aim of the present study is to improve our knowledge about the levels of radioactive polonium along Aegean Turkish Coastal zone and also assess its enhancement from the fosil fuel industry like coal-fired power plants (CPPs), oil industry and from phosphate industry, all located along the coast and also from the discharge of a number streams and rivers in the region. This paper introduces an extensive set of data and related results on Po 210 in surface sea water, bottom sediments, fishes and mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) obtained from 6 stations (Canakkale, Dikili, Foca, Ceshme, Didim and Bodrum) along the coast in the period of 2004-2005. In the bottom sediments, Po 210 concentration varies between 21±1 and 214±24 Bq kg-1 dry wt with an average value of 70±7 Bq kg-1. The concentrations in surface water of the sea during the sampling period are around 0.016±0.001 Bq l-1. Amongst the fishes, small pelagic plankton feding fish like anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus) and sardine (Sardine plichardus) tend to accumulate more Po 210. The concentration of Po 210 in mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) varies between 55±5 and 2288±124 Bq kg-1 which is in general higher than those given in literature for other countries. The highest Po 210 concentration belongs to Didim mussels for winter time with a shell length of 4-6 cm

  3. Climate variability and socio-environmental changes in the northern Aegean (NE Mediterranean) during the last 1500 years (United States)

    Gogou, Alexandra; Triantaphyllou, Maria; Xoplaki, Elena; Izdebski, Adam; Parinos, Constantine; Dimiza, Margarita; Bouloubassi, Ioanna; Luterbacher, Juerg; Kouli, Katerina; Martrat, Belen; Toreti, Andrea; Fleitmann, Dominik; Rousakis, Gregory; Kaberi, Helen; Athanasiou, Maria; Lykousis, Vasilios


    We provide new evidence on sea surface temperature (SST) variations and paleoceanographic/paleoenvironmental changes over the past 1500 years for the north Aegean Sea (NE Mediterranean). The reconstructions are based on multiproxy analyses, obtained from the high resolution (decadal to multi-decadal) marine record M2 retrieved from the Athos basin. Reconstructed SSTs show an increase from ca. 850 to 950 AD and from ca. 1100 to 1300 AD. A cooling phase of almost 1.5 °C is observed from ca. 1600 AD to 1700 AD. This seems to have been the starting point of a continuous SST warming trend until the end of the reconstructed period, interrupted by two prominent cooling events at 1832 ± 15 AD and 1995 ± 2 AD. Application of an adaptive Kernel smoothing suggests that the current warming in the reconstructed SSTs of the north Aegean might be unprecedented in the context of the past 1500 years. Internal variability in atmospheric/oceanic circulations systems as well as external forcing as solar radiation and volcanic activity could have affected temperature variations in the north Aegean Sea over the past 1500 years. The marked temperature drop of approximately ~2°C at 1832 ± 15 yr AD could be related to the 1809 ΑD 'unknown' and the 1815 AD Tambora volcanic eruptions. Paleoenvironmental proxy-indices of the M2 record show enhanced riverine/continental inputs in the northern Aegean after ca. 1450 AD. The palaeoclimatic evidence derived from M2 record is combined with a socio-environmental study of the history of the north Aegean region. We show that the cultivation of temperature-sensitive crops, i.e. walnut, vine and olive, co-occurred with stable and warmer temperatures, while its end coincided with a significant episode of cooler temperatures. Periods of agricultural growth in Macedonia coincide with periods of warmer and more stable SSTs, but further exploration is required in order to identify the causal links behind the observed phenomena. The Black Death likely

  4. Food-web traits of the North Aegean Sea ecosystem (Eastern Mediterranean) and comparison with other Mediterranean ecosystems (United States)

    Tsagarakis, K.; Coll, M.; Giannoulaki, M.; Somarakis, S.; Papaconstantinou, C.; Machias, A.


    A mass-balance trophic model was built to describe the food-web traits of the North Aegean Sea (Strymonikos Gulf and Thracian Sea, Greece, Eastern Mediterranean) during the mid-2000s and to explore the impacts of fishing. This is the first food-web model representing the Aegean Sea, and results were presented and discussed in comparison to other previous ecosystems modelled from the western and the central areas of the basin (South Catalan and North-Central Adriatic Seas). Forty functional groups were defined, covering the entire trophic spectrum from lower to higher trophic levels. Emphasis was placed on commercial invertebrates and fish. The potential ecological role of the invasive ctenophore, Mnemiopsis leidyi, and several vulnerable groups (e.g., dolphins) was also explored. Results confirmed the spatial productivity patterns known for the Mediterranean Sea showing, for example, that the total biomass is highest in N.C. Adriatic and lowest in N. Aegean Sea. Accordingly, food-web flows and several ecosystem indicators like the mean transfer efficiency were influenced by these patterns. Nevertheless, all three systems shared some common features evidencing similarities of Mediterranean Sea ecosystems such as dominance of the pelagic fraction in terms of flows and strong benthic-pelagic coupling of zooplankton and benthic invertebrates through detritus. The importance of detritus highlighted the role of the microbial food-web, which was indirectly considered through detritus dynamics. Ciliates, mesozooplankton and several benthic invertebrate groups were shown as important elements of the ecosystem linking primary producers and detritus with higher trophic levels in the N. Aegean Sea. Adult anchovy was shown as the most important fish group in terms of production, consumption and overall effect on the rest of the ecological groups in the model, in line with results from the Western Mediterranean Sea. The five fishing fleets considered (both artisanal and

  5. Modeling of Arc Force in Plasma Arc Welding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Zhonglin; HU Shengsun; YIN Fengliang; WANG Rui


    A three. dimensional mathematical model for the transferred-type argon arc was developed to describe arc force on the anode surface. The software ANSYS was employed to solve the model. The model includes a part of torch and tungsten electrode to achieve m ore reasonable results. The arc temperature and flow fields were derived. And the influences of welding parameters on arc force were also studied. The simulated results show that arc pressure at the anode are dependent on the welding current, plasma gas flow rate and electrode neck-in, while not sensitive to arc length.

  6. ALICE-ARC integration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AliEn or Alice Environment is the Grid middleware developed and used within the ALICE collaboration for storing and processing data in a distributed manner. ARC (Advanced Resource Connector) is the Grid middleware deployed across the Nordic countries and gluing together the resources within the Nordic Data Grid Facility (NDGF). In this paper we will present our approach to integrate AliEn and ARC, in the sense that ALICE data management and job processing can be carried out on the NDGF infrastructure, using the client tools available in AliEn. The inter-operation has two aspects, one is the data management part and the second the job management aspect. The first aspect was solved by using dCache across NDGF to handle data. Therefore, we will concentrate on the second part. Solving it, was somewhat cumbersome, mainly due to the different computing models employed by AliEn and ARC. AliEN uses an Agent based pull model while ARC handles jobs through the more 'traditional' push model. The solution comes as a module implementing the functionalities necessary to achieve AliEn job submission and management to ARC enabled sites


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.N. Khrestin


    Full Text Available Purpose. The aim is to build a mathematical model of the electric arc of arc furnace (EAF. The model should clearly show the relationship between the main parameters of the arc. These parameters determine the properties of the arc and the possibility of optimization of melting mode. Methodology. We have built a fairly simple model of the arc, which satisfies the above requirements. The model is designed for the analysis of electromagnetic processes arc of varying length. We have compared the results obtained when testing the model with the results obtained on actual furnaces. Results. During melting in real chipboard under the influence of changes in temperature changes its properties arc plasma. The proposed model takes into account these changes. Adjusting the length of the arc is the main way to regulate the mode of smelting chipboard. The arc length is controlled by the movement of the drive electrode. The model reflects the dynamic changes in the parameters of the arc when changing her length. We got the dynamic current-voltage characteristics (CVC of the arc for the different stages of melting. We got the arc voltage waveform and identified criteria by which possible identified stage of smelting. Originality. In contrast to the previously known models, this model clearly shows the relationship between the main parameters of the arc EAF: arc voltage Ud, amperage arc id and length arc d. Comparison of the simulation results and experimental data obtained from real particleboard showed the adequacy of the constructed model. It was found that character of change of magnitude Md, helps determine the stage of melting. Practical value. It turned out that the model can be used to simulate smelting in EAF any capacity. Thus, when designing the system of control mechanism for moving the electrode, the model takes into account changes in the parameters of the arc and it can significantly reduce electrode material consumption and energy consumption

  8. Arc Plasma Torch Modeling

    CERN Document Server

    Trelles, J P; Vardelle, A; Heberlein, J V R


    Arc plasma torches are the primary components of various industrial thermal plasma processes involving plasma spraying, metal cutting and welding, thermal plasma CVD, metal melting and remelting, waste treatment and gas production. They are relatively simple devices whose operation implies intricate thermal, chemical, electrical, and fluid dynamics phenomena. Modeling may be used as a means to better understand the physical processes involved in their operation. This paper presents an overview of the main aspects involved in the modeling of DC arc plasma torches: the mathematical models including thermodynamic and chemical non-equilibrium models, turbulent and radiative transport, thermodynamic and transport property calculation, boundary conditions and arc reattachment models. It focuses on the conventional plasma torches used for plasma spraying that include a hot-cathode and a nozzle anode.

  9. Crustal structure variations along the Lesser Antilles Arc (United States)

    Schlaphorst, D.; Kendall, J. M.; Melekhova, E.; Blundy, J.; Baptie, B.; Latchman, J. L.


    Continental crust is predominantly formed along subduction zones. Therefore, an investigation of the crustal and mantle structure variation of these areas is crucial for understanding the growth of continental crust. This work deals with the seismological characteristics along the Lesser Antilles Arc, an island arc system built by the relatively slow subduction (~2cm/yr) of the North and South American plates beneath the Caribbean plate. The amount of subducted sediments changes significantly from sediment-rich subduction in the South to sediment-poor subduction in the North. The abundance of broadband seismic stations on the Lesser Antilles islands enables a range of seismic methods to be used to study arc processes. Furthermore, the abundance of cumulate samples allows for a detailed petrological analysis, which can be related to the seismological patterns. We use data from three component broadband stations located on the individual islands along the arc. From the island of Grenada in the South to the Virgin Islands in the North significant variations in sediment load, petrology and volcanism are observed along the arc. In this work, we investigate crustal structure using receiver functions to determine Moho depth and Vp/Vs ratio. The ratio gives an idea about the material of the subsurface as well as its water and its melt contents. The receiver functions are computed using the extended-time multitaper frequency domain cross-correlation receiver-function (ETMTRF) by Helffrich (2006). This method has the advantage of resistance to noise, which is helpful since most of the data around the arc will have been collected by stations close to the ocean, thus containing a large amount of noise. Our results show clear variations in these measurements. There are also regions where the Moho is not very sharp due to a low velocity contrast. The real data results were then compared to synthetic receiver functions from subsurface models. We compute a range of synthetic

  10. Paleogene geology and chronology of southwestern Umnak Island, Aleutian Islands, Alaska ( USA). (United States)

    McLean, H.; Hein, J.R.


    A slightly deformed marine sedimentary sequence reflecting volcanic arc sedimentation from late Eocene to early Oligocene is intruded by hypabyssal quartz diorite sills and small plutons with apparent ages of about 30 Ma, ie, middle Oligocene. Chemical data from igneous rocks exhibit calc-alkaline and tholeiitic volcanic arc differentiation trends. The fossil ages and radiometric dates from SW Umnak Island are similar to those reported from other central and E Aleutian islands, and indicate uniformity in the chronology and tectonic development of the archipelago during the Paleogene. Paleomagnetic data suggest possible northward movement but remain equivocal and more work is indicated. -after Authors

  11. Cost-benefit analysis of remote hybrid wind-diesel power stations: Case study Aegean Sea islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    More than one third of world population has no direct access to interconnected electrical networks. Hence, the electrification solution usually considered is based on expensive, though often unreliable, stand-alone systems, mainly small diesel-electric generators. Hybrid wind-diesel power systems are among the most interesting and environmental friendly technological alternatives for the electrification of remote consumers, presenting also increased reliability. More precisely, a hybrid wind-diesel installation, based on an appropriate combination of a small diesel-electric generator and a micro-wind converter, offsets the significant capital cost of the wind turbine and the high operational cost of the diesel-electric generator. In this context, the present study concentrates on a detailed energy production cost analysis in order to estimate the optimum configuration of a wind-diesel-battery stand-alone system used to guarantee the energy autonomy of a typical remote consumer. Accordingly, the influence of the governing parameters-such as wind potential, capital cost, oil price, battery price and first installation cost-on the corresponding electricity production cost is investigated using the developed model. Taking into account the results obtained, hybrid wind-diesel systems may be the most cost-effective electrification solution for numerous isolated consumers located in suitable (average wind speed higher than 6.0 m/s) wind potential regions

  12. Radioactivity and metal concentrations in marine sediments associated with mining activities in Ierissos Gulf, North Aegean Sea, Greece. (United States)

    Pappa, F K; Tsabaris, C; Ioannidou, A; Patiris, D L; Kaberi, H; Pashalidis, I; Eleftheriou, G; Androulakaki, E G; Vlastou, R


    Marine sediment samples were collected from Ierissos Gulf, N Aegean Sea, close to the coastal mining facilities. Measurements of radionuclide and metal concentrations, mineral composition and grain size distribution were performed. The concentrations of (226)Ra, (235)U and trace metals showed enhanced values in the port of Stratoni compared with those obtained near to Ierissos port. The dose rates received by marine biota were also calculated by the ERICA Assessment Tool and the results indicated no significant radiological risk. PMID:27474903

  13. Diet composition of the round sardinella Sardinella aurita Valenciennes, 1847 (Osteichthyes: Clupeidae) in the Turkish Aegean Sea


    Bahar Bayhan


    Sardinella aurita, a round sardinella from Clupeidae family, is a pelagic fish found in tropical and temperate seas, just like other members of its family. The species has a wide distribution and its contribution to Mediterranean and international fisheries production potential is high. In Turkey, this species has a wide distribution in the Mediterranean Sea and the Aegean Sea, on the other hand, it is rarely seen in the Black Sea and Marmara Sea. Apart from its economic contribution to the w...

  14. Galapagos Islands (United States)


    This true-color image of the Galapagos Islands was acquired on March 12, 2002, by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASA's Terra satellite. The Galapagos Islands, which are part of Ecuador, sit in the Pacific Ocean about 1000 km (620 miles) west of South America. As the three craters on the largest island (Isabela Island) suggest, the archipelago was created by volcanic eruptions, which took place millions of years ago. Unlike most remote islands in the Pacific, the Galapagos have gone relatively untouched by humans over the past few millennia. As a result, many unique species have continued to thrive on the islands. Over 95 percent of the islands' reptile species and nearly three quarters of its land bird species cannot be found anywhere else in the world. Two of the more well known are the Galapagos giant tortoise and marine iguanas. The unhindered evolutionary development of the islands' species inspired Charles Darwin to begin The Origin of Species eight years after his visit there. To preserve the unique wildlife on the islands, the Ecuadorian government made the entire archipelago a national park in 1959. Each year roughly 60,000 tourists visit these islands to experience what Darwin did over a century and a half ago. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  15. Towards an absolute chronology for the Aegean iron age: new radiocarbon dates from Lefkandi, Kalapodi and Corinth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael B Toffolo

    Full Text Available The relative chronology of the Aegean Iron Age is robust. It is based on minute stylistic changes in the Submycenaean, Protogeometric and Geometric styles and their sub-phases. Yet, the absolute chronology of the time-span between the final stages of Late Helladic IIIC in the late second millennium BCE and the archaic colonization of Italy and Sicily toward the end of the 8(th century BCE lacks archaeological contexts that can be directly related to events carrying absolute dates mentioned in Egyptian/Near Eastern historical sources, or to well-dated Egyptian/Near Eastern rulers. The small number of radiocarbon dates available for this time span is not sufficient to establish an absolute chronological sequence. Here we present a new set of short-lived radiocarbon dates from the sites of Lefkandi, Kalapodi and Corinth in Greece. We focus on the crucial transition from the Submycenaean to the Protogeometric periods. This transition is placed in the late 11(th century BCE according to the Conventional Aegean Chronology and in the late 12(th century BCE according to the High Aegean Chronology. Our results place it in the second half of the 11(th century BCE.

  16. Towards an absolute chronology for the Aegean iron age: new radiocarbon dates from Lefkandi, Kalapodi and Corinth. (United States)

    Toffolo, Michael B; Fantalkin, Alexander; Lemos, Irene S; Felsch, Rainer C S; Niemeier, Wolf-Dietrich; Sanders, Guy D R; Finkelstein, Israel; Boaretto, Elisabetta


    The relative chronology of the Aegean Iron Age is robust. It is based on minute stylistic changes in the Submycenaean, Protogeometric and Geometric styles and their sub-phases. Yet, the absolute chronology of the time-span between the final stages of Late Helladic IIIC in the late second millennium BCE and the archaic colonization of Italy and Sicily toward the end of the 8(th) century BCE lacks archaeological contexts that can be directly related to events carrying absolute dates mentioned in Egyptian/Near Eastern historical sources, or to well-dated Egyptian/Near Eastern rulers. The small number of radiocarbon dates available for this time span is not sufficient to establish an absolute chronological sequence. Here we present a new set of short-lived radiocarbon dates from the sites of Lefkandi, Kalapodi and Corinth in Greece. We focus on the crucial transition from the Submycenaean to the Protogeometric periods. This transition is placed in the late 11(th) century BCE according to the Conventional Aegean Chronology and in the late 12(th) century BCE according to the High Aegean Chronology. Our results place it in the second half of the 11(th) century BCE. PMID:24386150

  17. Aliphatic hydrocarbon levels in turbot and salmon farmed close to the site of the Aegean Sea oil spill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez Pineiro, M.E. [Institute of Investigation and Food Analysis, La Coruna (Spain); Gonzalez-Barros, S.T.C.; Lozano, J.S. [Area Nutrition and Bromatology, La Coruna (Spain)] [and others


    After the Andros Patria oil spill, the most serious oil tanker accident to occur off the coast of Galicia (N.W. Spain) was the running aground and subsequent conflagration of the Aegean Sea supertanker outside the northern Spanish port of La Coruna (December 3rd 1992). Approximately 60,000 tonnes of Brent oil were spilled into the Atlantic Ocean in the cited coastal region. Subsequently, an impropitious combination of a high tide and a change in wind direction caused the resulting slick to rapidly spread into the port. Measures aimed at cleaning up affected areas and evacuating the ca. 11,215 tonnes of oil remaining in the supertanker were immediately implemented. However, within just a few days the resulting contamination had killed some 15000 turbot juveniles and larvae, which are cultivated in fish farms close to the accident site. The environmental impact of major oil spillages has been widely studied. Several scientists have suggested that, in terms of the negative effects on the seawater quality and productive capacity of the affected maritime regions, the magnitudes of the Aegean Sea and Amoco Cadiz accidents are comparable. This paper reports variations over time of aliphatic hydrocarbon levels in turbot and Atlantic salmon sampled from fish farms close to the site of the Aegean Sea oil spill. 6 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Assessment of the sardine (Sardina pilchardus Walbaum, 1792 fishery in the eastern Mediterranean basin (North Aegean Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to describe the biometric characteristics of the European sardine (Sardina pilchardus catches and assess the current status of sardine stock in North Aegean Sea based on population characteristics and abundance trends. The stock was dominated by age groups 1 and 2, not exceeding age group 4. The sardine stock in this area was assessed through an Integrated Catch-at-Age model which implements a separable Virtual Population Analysis on catch at age data with weighted tuning indices. Sardine landings data derived from the commercial purse seine fishery over the period 2000-2008 were combined with the age structure of the stock as resulted from fisheries independent acoustic surveys. Sensitivity analysis of the impact of natural mortality values on stock assessment results was applied. Additionally forecast of the sardine population parameters and catches under different exploitation scenarios was implemented in a medium term basis. Results indicated that the North Aegean Sea sardine stock is considered fully exploited with the fishery operating close but over the empirical exploitation level for sustainability. Finally, the status of the sardine stock in N. Aegean Sea is discussed in relation to the sardine stocks from the western and the central Mediterranean basin.

  19. Thermal Arc Spray Overview (United States)

    Hafiz Abd Malek, Muhamad; Hayati Saad, Nor; Kiyai Abas, Sunhaji; Mohd Shah, Noriyati


    Usage of protective coating for corrosion protection was on highly demand during the past decade; and thermal spray coating played a major part during that time. In recent years, the thermal arc spray coating becomes a popular coating. Many big players in oil and gas such as PETRONAS, EXXON MOBIL and SHELL in Malaysia tend to use the coating on steel structure as a corrosion protection. Further developments in coating processes, the devices, and raw materials have led to expansion of functional coatings and applications scope from conventional coating to specialized industries. It is widely used because of its ability to withstand high process temperature, offer advantages in efficiency, lower cost and acts as a corrosion protection. Previous research also indicated that the thermal arc spray offers better coating properties compared to other methods of spray. This paper reviews some critical area of thermal spray coating by discussing the process/parameter of thermal arc spray technology and quality control of coating. Coating performance against corrosion, wear and special characteristic of coating are also described. The field application of arc spray technology are demonstrated and reviewed.

  20. ALICE: ARC integration

    CERN Document Server

    Anderlik, C; Kleist, J; Peters, A; Saiz, P


    AliEn or Alice Environment is the Grid middleware developed and used within the ALICE collaboration for storing and processing data in a distributed manner. ARC (Advanced Resource Connector) is the Grid middleware deployed across the Nordic countries and gluing together the resources within the Nordic Data Grid Facility (NDGF). In this paper we will present our approach to integrate AliEn and ARC, in the sense that ALICE data management and job processing can be carried out on the NDGF infrastructure, using the client tools available in AliEn. The inter-operation has two aspects, one is the data management part and the second the job management aspect. The first aspect was solved by using dCache across NDGF to handle data. Therefore, we will concentrate on the second part. Solving it, was somewhat cumbersome, mainly due to the different computing models employed by AliEn and ARC. AliEN uses an Agent based pull model while ARC handles jobs through the more 'traditional' push model. The solution comes as a modu...

  1. Review of variations in Mw Mw = 6.5 aegean sea earthquake sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Yildirim


    Full Text Available Turkey is a country located in Middle Latitude zone and in which tectonic activity is intensive. Lastly, an earthquake of magnitude 6.5Mw occurred at Aegean Sea offshore on date 24 May 2014 at 12:25 UTC and it lasted approximately 40 s. The said earthquake was felt also in Greece, Romania and Bulgaria in addition to Turkey. In recent years seismic origin ionospheric anomaly detection studies have been done with TEC (Total Electron Contents generated from GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite System signals and the findings obtained have been revealed. In this study, TEC and positional variations have been examined seperately regarding the earthquake which occurred in the Aegean Sea. Then The correlation of the said ionospheric variation with the positional variation has been investigated. For this purpose, total fifteen stations have been used among which the data of four numbers of CORS-TR stations in the seismic zone (AYVL, CANA, IPSA, YENC and IGS and EUREF stations are used. The ionospheric and positional variations of AYVL, CANA, IPSA and YENC stations have been examined by Bernese 5.0v software. When the (PPP-TEC values produced as result of the analysis are examined, it has been understood that in the four stations located in Turkey, three days before the earthquake at 08:00 and 10:00 UTC, the TEC values were approximately 4 TECU above the upper limit TEC value. Still in the same stations, one day before the earthquake at 06:00, 08:00 and 10:00 UTC, it is being shown that the TEC values were approximately 5 TECU below the lower limit TEC value. On the other hand, the GIM-TEC values published by the CODE center have been examined. Still in all stations, it has been observed that three days before the earthquake the TEC values in the time portions of 08:00 and 10:00 UTC were approximately 2 TECU above, one day before the earthquake at 06:00, 08:00 and 10:00 UTC, the TEC values were approximately 4 TECU below the lower limit TEC value. Again, by

  2. Eltrombopag for the Treatment of Immune Thrombocytopenia: The Aegean Region of Turkey Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Füsun Özdemirkıran


    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: OBJECTIVE: Immune thrombocytopenia (ITP is an immune mediated disease characterized by transient or persistent decrease of the platelet count to less than 100 × 109/l. Although it is included in a benign disease group, bleeding complications may be mortal. With a better understanding of the pathophysiology of the disease, thrombopoietin receptor agonists which came into use in recent years, seem to be an effective option in the treatment of resistant patients. METHODS: In this study, retrospective data of 40 patients who were treated with Eltrombopag due to the diagnosis of refractory ITP in the Aegean region were examined and evaluated. RESULTS: In the study total rate of response was 87%, and in the cases with response the median period that number of platelets reached over 50. × 109/l was determined as 19.5 (5-60 days. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: CONCLUSION: In one patient venous sinus thrombosis was observed and showed no other additional risk factor due to/ related to thrombosis. The other patient with complete response and irregular follow-up for 12 months was lost due to sudden death as the result of propable acute myocardial infarction.

  3. Best fitting distributions for the standard duration annual maximum precipitations in the Aegean Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halil Karahan


    Full Text Available Knowing the properties like amount, duration, intensity, spatial and temporal variation etc… of precipitation which is the primary input of water resources is required for planning, design, construction and operation studies of various sectors like water resources, agriculture, urbanization, drainage, flood control and transportation. For executing the mentioned practices, reliable and realistic estimations based on existing observations should be made. The first step of making a reliable estimation is to test the reliability of existing observations. In this study, Kolmogorov-Smirnov, Anderson-Darling and Chi-Square goodness of distribution fit tests were applied for determining to which distribution the measured standard duration maximum precipitation values (in the years 1929-2005 fit in the meteorological stations operated by the Turkish State Meteorological Service (DMİ which are located in the city and town centers of Aegean Region. While all the observations fit to GEV distribution according to Anderson-Darling test, it was seen that short, mid-term and long duration precipitation observations generally fit to GEV, Gamma and Log-normal distribution according to Kolmogorov-Smirnov and Chi-square tests. To determine the parameters of the chosen probability distribution, maximum likelihood (LN2, LN3, EXP2, Gamma3, probability-weighted distribution (LP3,Gamma2, L-moments (GEV and least squares (Weibull2 methods were used according to different distributions.

  4. Sea cliff erosion in the eastern part of the North Aegean coastline, Northern Greece. (United States)

    Xeidakis, George S; Delimani, P K; Skias, S G


    The coastal zone is an area where many human activities are taking place. Erosion of the coast obstructs, in various ways, these activities creating occasionally serious socioeconomic and environmental problems. In this paper the coastal erosion problems encountered in the eastern Greek part of the North Aegean Sea Coast, a stretch of about 51 km long adjacent to the city of Alexandroupolis, are discussed. Given the observed type and location of erosion and other sea-action phenomena, the coast under study is divided in two parts/stretches. The western stretch, where the city of Alexandroupolis is presently extending, presents, mainly, cliff erosion problems and retreat of the coastline, very serious in some sections; whereas, the eastern stretch (to the east of the city) exhibits deposition and progression seawards due to the abundance of sediments supplied by Evros river delta. A classification of the coastline according to its relief, geologic material, erosion characteristics and rate, slope failure phenomena as well as the wave energy potential, is presented together with suggestions for case-appropriate mitigation and protection measures regarding the coastal erosion problems. The paper is focusing on the cliff erosion phenomena, since varying in height coastal cliffs made of soft rocks, cover the major part of the investigated coastline (western stretch).

  5. Offshore wind speed and wind power characteristics for ten locations in Aegean and Ionian Seas

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Haralambos S Bagiorgas; Giouli Mihalakakou; Shafiqur Rehman; Luai M Al-Hadhrami


    This paper utilizes wind speed data measured at 3 and 10 m above water surface level using buoys at 10 stations in Ionian and Aegean Seas to understand the behaviour of wind and thereafter energy yield at these stations using 5 MW rated power offshore wind turbine. With wind power densities of 971 and 693 W/m2 at 50 m above water surface level, Mykonos and Lesvos were found to be superb and outstanding windy sites with wind class of 7 and 6, respectively. Other locations like Athos, Santorini and Skyros with wind power density of more than 530 W/m2 and wind class of 5 were found to be the excellent sites. Around 15–16% higher winds were observed at 10 m compared to that at 3 m. Lower values of wind speed were found during summer months and higher during winter time in most of the cases reported in the present work. Slightly decreasing (∼2% per year) linear trends were observed in annual mean wind speed at Lesvos and Santorini. These trends need to be verified with more data from buoys or from nearby onshore meteorological stations. At Athos and Mykonos, increasing linear trends were estimated. At all the stations the chosen wind turbine could produce energy for more than 70% of the time. The wind speed distribution was found to be well represented by Weibull parameters obtained using Maximum likelihood method compared to WAsP and Method of Moments.

  6. 137Cs vertical distribution at the deep basins of the North and Central Aegean Sea, Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Large volume seawater samples were collected for the determination of 137Cs concentration along with depth in the deep basins of North and Central Aegean Sea. The vertical 137Cs distribution showed maximum concentration at the bottom of the basins, while the minimum values corresponded to the intermediate layer, where Levantine water exists. The surface 137Cs activity is found to lie between the two limits and is originated from the Black Sea waters. The typical oceanographic advection–diffusion balance model is modified to a diffusion-settling-decay balance model to better understand the vertical distribution and variation of the 137Cs concentration in the deep basins. In addition, the diffusivity of each basin, as well as the settling speed of particulate 137Cs is also estimated. The results are compared with theoretical approach as well as with previous data. - Highlights: • Three deep basins were studied using 137Cs as a tracer. • Deep waters constitute 137Cs repositories due to deep water formation followed Chernobyl accident. • Diffusivities, as well as particulate 137Cs settling speeds are estimated

  7. Pesticide residues in fruits and vegetables from the Aegean region, Turkey. (United States)

    Bakırcı, Gözde Türköz; Yaman Acay, Dilek Bengü; Bakırcı, Fatih; Ötleş, Semih


    The purpose of this study was to investigate pesticide residues in fruits and vegetables from the Aegean region of Turkey. A total of 1423 samples of fresh fruit and vegetables were collected from 2010 to 2012. The samples were analysed to determine the concentrations of 186 pesticide residues. The analyses utilized ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC/MS/MS) and gas chromatography with an electron capture detector (GC-ECD) confirmed by gas chromatography with mass spectrometry (GC-MS) after a multi-residue extraction procedure (the QuEChERS method). The results were evaluated according to maximum residue limits (MRLs) for each commodity and pesticide by Turkish Regulation. All pomegranate, cauliflower and cabbage samples were pesticides-free. A total of 754 samples contained detectable residues at or below MRLs, and 48 (8.4%) of the fruit samples and 83 (9.8%) of the vegetable samples contained pesticide residues above MRLs. MRL values were most often exceeded in arugula, cucumber, lemon, and grape commodities. All detected pesticides in apricot, carrot, kiwifruit and leek were below the MRLs. Acetamiprid, chlorpyriphos and carbendazim were the most detected pesticide residues.

  8. The Aegean Dispute in the Context of Contemporary Judicial Decisions on Maritime Delimitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petros Siousiouras


    Full Text Available The 1982 United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS is the principal international law document, which regulates the establishment of the maritime economic zones, namely the Continental Shelf (CS and the Exclusive Economic Zone (ΕΕΖ as well as any issues that may come up during their delimitation. Maritime delimitation issues are settled either through state agreements or through legal redress before the respective international tribunals. In this context, the aim of this paper is to elaborate on the delimitation prospect concerning a Greek CS/EEZ based on contemporary conventional and customary international law of the sea, in addition to contemporary judicial decisions. More specifically, the analysis focuses on dispute issues in the region of the Aegean Sea and the Eastern Mediterranean, between Greece and its neighboring country Turkey, concerning the CS/EEZ delimitation. An attempt is made to critically compare this case to the outcome of recent relevant international judicial decisions by highlighting not only the common points but also any differences and complexities. The main purpose is to render the reader aware of the special treatment needed for the case in question, with the expectation for a fair future delimitation of the Greek maritime economic zones.

  9. Zooplankton community dynamics in the N. Aegean front (E. Mediterranean in the winter spring period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Zooplankton community composition was studied in the North Aegean frontal area in the winter-spring period along a trophic gradient going from the less saline and cold modified Black Sea water to the high salinity and temperature waters of Levantine origin. Samples were collected at the upper 100 m of three stations positioned along this gradient by using three nets with different mesh sizes (45 μm, 200 μm and 500 μm. Τhe community composition (all sizes was differentiated along the gradient with smoother seasonal succession and higher diversity with increasing oligotrophy and salinity. The temporal variability of the community composition revealed significant changes in the January-April period as well as gradual decrease of diversity index values at the station positioned within the front.  The major characteristic at this station was the abrupt increment and dominance of Centropages typicus in April, especially within the layer occupied by the modified Black Sea water. Significant difference in the community composition between March and April was a common feature in the whole study area and for all zooplankton fractions, though not of the same strength. The inflow of the Black Sea water and the trophic gradient were found to be important factors for the observed temporal variability and its spatial differentiation, while changes in the phytoplankton and protozoa abundance and community composition could account for the seasonal succession in species dominance.

  10. Semicircular Rashba arc spin polarizer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bin Siu, Zhuo, E-mail: [NUS Graduate School for Integrative Sciences and Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117456 (Singapore); Advanced Concepts and Nanotechnology, Data Storage Institute, DSI Building, 5 Engineering Drive 1 (Off Kent Ridge Crescent, NUS), Singapore 117608 (Singapore); Jalil, Mansoor B. A. [NUS Graduate School for Integrative Sciences and Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117456 (Singapore); Ghee Tan, Seng [Advanced Concepts and Nanotechnology, Data Storage Institute, DSI Building, 5 Engineering Drive 1 (Off Kent Ridge Crescent, NUS), Singapore 117608 (Singapore)


    In this work, we study the generation of spin polarized currents using curved arcs of finite widths, in which the Rashba spin orbit interaction (RSOI) is present. Compared to the 1-dimensional RSOI arcs with zero widths studied previously, the finite width presents charge carriers with another degree of freedom along the transverse width of the arc, in addition to the longitudinal degree of freedom along the circumference of the arc. The asymmetry in the transverse direction due to the difference in the inner and outer radii of the arc breaks the antisymmetry of the longitudinal spin z current in a straight RSOI segment. This property can be exploited to generate spin z polarized current output from the RSOI arc by a spin unpolarized current input. The sign of the spin current can be manipulated by varying the arc dimensions.

  11. ALICE-ARC integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anderlik, Csaba; Gregersen, Anders Rhod; Kleist, Josva;


    Data Grid Facility (NDGF). In this paper we will present our approach to integrate AliEn and ARC, in the sense that ALICE data management and job processing can be carried out on the NDGF infrastructure, using the client tools available in AliEn. The interoperation has two aspects, one is the data......AliEn or Alice Environment is the Gridware developed and used within the ALICE collaboration for storing and processing data in a distributed manner. ARC (Advanced Resource Connector) is the Grid middleware deployed across the Nordic countries and gluing together the resources within the Nordic...... management part and the second the job management aspect. The first aspect was solved by using dCache across NDGF to handle data. dCache provides support for several data management tools (among them for xrootd the tools used by AliEn) using the so called "doors". Therefore, we will concentrate on the second...

  12. ALICE - ARC integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anderlik, Csaba; Gregersen, Anders Rhod; Kleist, Josva;

    Data Grid Facility (NDGF). In this paper we will present our approach to integrate AliEn and ARC, in the sense that ALICE data management and job processing can be carried out on the NDGF infrastructure, using the client tools available in AliEn. The interoperation has two aspects, one is the data......AliEn or Alice Environment is the Gridware developed and used within the ALICE collaboration for storing and processing data in a distributed manner. ARC (Advanced Resource Connector) is the Grid middleware deployed across the Nordic countries and gluing together the resources within the Nordic...... management part and the second the job management aspect. The first aspect was solved by using dCache across NDGF to handle data. dCache provides support for several data management tools (among them for xrootd the tools used by AliEn) using the so called "doors". Therefore, we will concentrate on the second...

  13. Vacuum Arc Ion Sources


    Brown, I.


    The vacuum arc ion source has evolved into a more or less standard laboratory tool for the production of high-current beams of metal ions, and is now used in a number of different embodiments at many laboratories around the world. Applications include primarily ion implantation for material surface modification research, and good performance has been obtained for the injection of high-current beams of heavy-metal ions, in particular uranium, into particle accelerators. As the use of the sourc...

  14. Circular arc structures

    KAUST Repository

    Bo, Pengbo


    The most important guiding principle in computational methods for freeform architecture is the balance between cost efficiency on the one hand, and adherence to the design intent on the other. Key issues are the simplicity of supporting and connecting elements as well as repetition of costly parts. This paper proposes so-called circular arc structures as a means to faithfully realize freeform designs without giving up smooth appearance. In contrast to non-smooth meshes with straight edges where geometric complexity is concentrated in the nodes, we stay with smooth surfaces and rather distribute complexity in a uniform way by allowing edges in the shape of circular arcs. We are able to achieve the simplest possible shape of nodes without interfering with known panel optimization algorithms. We study remarkable special cases of circular arc structures which possess simple supporting elements or repetitive edges, we present the first global approximation method for principal patches, and we show an extension to volumetric structures for truly threedimensional designs. © 2011 ACM.

  15. Contrasting sedimentary processes along a convergent margin: the Lesser Antilles arc system (United States)

    Picard, Michel; Schneider, Jean-Luc; Boudon, Georges


    Sedimentation processes occurring in an active convergent setting are well illustrated in the Lesser Antilles island arc. The margin is related to westward subduction of the North and/or the South America plates beneath the Caribbean plate. From east to west, the arc can be subdivided into several tectono-sedimentary depositional domains: the accretionary prism, the fore-arc basin, the arc platform and inter-arc basin, and the Grenada back-arc basin. The Grenada back-arc basin, the fore-arc basin (Tobago Trough) and the accretionary prism on the east side of the volcanic arc constitute traps for particles derived from the arc platform and the South American continent. The arc is volcanically active, and provides large volumes of volcaniclastic sediments which accumulate mainly in the Grenada basin by volcaniclastic gravity flows (volcanic debris avalanches, debris flows, turbiditic flows) and minor amounts by fallout. By contrast, the eastern side of the margin is fed by ash fallout and minor volcaniclastic turbidites. In this area, the dominant component of the sediments is pelagic in origin, or derived from South America (siliciclastic turbidites). Insular shelves are the locations of carbonate sedimentation, such as large platforms which develop in the Limestone Caribbees in the northern part of the margin. Reworking of carbonate material by turbidity currents also delivers lesser amounts to eastern basins of the margin. This contrasting sedimentation on both sides of the arc platform along the margin is controlled by several interacting factors including basin morphology, volcanic productivity, wind and deep-sea current patterns, and sea-level changes. Basin morphology appears to be the most dominant factor. The western slopes of the arc platform are steeper than the eastern ones, thus favouring gravity flow processes.

  16. Reconstructing Holocene sea surface salinity changes in the Northern Aegean Sea: evidence from morphological variations of Emiliania huxleyi-coccoliths (United States)

    Herrle, Jens O.; Gebühr, Christina; Bollmann, Jörg; Giesenberg, Annika; Kranzdorf, Philip


    The Aegean Sea is a key area for our understanding of the impact of changes in the hydrological cycle on ocean circulation in the Mediterranean Sea. The Aegean Sea appears to be very sensitive to climate changes in Europe because of its small volume and the position between high- and low-latitude climate regimes. Therefore, it is assumed to record environmental change, especially changes in sea surface water salinity (SSS) without a significant time lag with respect to the forcing process (Rohling et al., 2002). However, up to date, SSS cannot be easily reconstructed from geological archives because several assumptions need to be made that lead to a significant error of the salinity estimates (e.g. Rohling, 2000). Here, we present the first high resolution SSS reconstruction from a Holocene sediment core based on a recently developed transfer function using the morphological variation of Emiliania huxleyi coccoliths (Bollmann & Herrle 2007, Bollmann et al., 2009). The core is located in the northern Aegean Sea (eastern Mediterranean Basin) and covers the time period 3 -11ka ago. Sea surface water salinity in the Aegean Sea has varied in concert with temperature oscillations as recorded in Greenland ice cores (iGISP2 ice core δ18O record) with a periodicity of about 900 years (Schulz & Paull, 2002). Four major SSS events can be identified at about 3.9, 4.7, 6.4, 7.4, and 8.2 ka in the northern Aegean Sea that correlate with increases in GISP2 δ18O (Schulz & Paull, 2002) as well as decreasing percentages of tree pollen studied at the same core expect for 3.9 ka (Kotthoff et al., 2008). The most prominent salinity increase occurred during the short-lived 8.2 kyr cold event (e.g., Rohling & Pälike, 2005), which was most likely triggered by a melt-water related perturbation of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning and associated decrease of ocean heat transport to the North Atlantic. We suggest that the salinity fluctuations in the northern Aegean Sea are related to

  17. Arc-preserving subsequences of arc-annotated sequences

    CERN Document Server

    Popov, Vladimir Yu


    Arc-annotated sequences are useful in representing the structural information of RNA and protein sequences. The longest arc-preserving common subsequence problem has been introduced as a framework for studying the similarity of arc-annotated sequences. In this paper, we consider arc-annotated sequences with various arc structures. We consider the longest arc preserving common subsequence problem. In particular, we show that the decision version of the 1-{\\sc fragment LAPCS(crossing,chain)} and the decision version of the 0-{\\sc diagonal LAPCS(crossing,chain)} are {\\bf NP}-complete for some fixed alphabet $\\Sigma$ such that $|\\Sigma| = 2$. Also we show that if $|\\Sigma| = 1$, then the decision version of the 1-{\\sc fragment LAPCS(unlimited, plain)} and the decision version of the 0-{\\sc diagonal LAPCS(unlimited, plain)} are {\\bf NP}-complete.

  18. St. Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands Coastal Digital Elevation Model (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 1/3 arc-second St. Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands Coastal Digital Elevation Model will be used to support NOAA's tsunami forecast system and for tsunami inundation...

  19. Rhode Island, Connecticut, New York, and New Jersey ESI: FISHL (Fish Lines) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for anadromous fish species in coastal Rhode Island, Connecticut, New York, and New Jersey. Vector arcs in...

  20. Petrogenetic evolution of the Early Miocene Alaçamdağ volcano-plutonic complex, northwestern Turkey: implications for the geodynamic framework of the Aegean region (United States)

    Erkül, Sibel Tatar


    Extensional-tectonic processes have generated extensive magmatic activity that produced volcanic/plutonic rocks along an E-W-trending belt across north-western Turkey; this belt includes granites and coeval volcanic rocks of the Alaçamdağ volcano-plutonic complex. The petrogenesis of the Early Miocene Alaçamdağ granitic and volcanic rocks are here investigated by means of whole-rock Sr-Nd isotopic data along with field, petrographic and whole-rock geochemical studies. Geological and geochemical data indicate two distinct granite facies having similar mineral assemblages, their major distinguishing characteristic being the presence or absence of porphyritic texture as defined by K-feldspar megacrysts. I-type Alaçamdağ granitic stocks have monzogranitic-granodioritic compositions and contain a number of mafic microgranular enclaves of monzonitic, monzodioritic/monzogabbroic composition. Volcanic rocks occur as intrusions, domes, lava flows, dykes and volcanogenic sedimentary rocks having (first episode) andesitic and dacitic-trachyandesitic, and (second episode) dacitic, rhyolitic and trachytic-trachydacitic compositions. These granitic and volcanic rocks are metaluminous, high-K, and calc-alkaline in character. Chondrite-normalised rare earth element patterns vary only slightly such that all of the igneous rocks of the Alaçamdağ have similar REE patterns. Primitive-mantle-normalised multi-element diagrams show that these granitic and volcanic rocks are strongly enriched in LILE and LREE pattern, high (87Sr/86Sr)i and low ɛ Nd( t) ratios suggesting Alaçamdağ volcano-plutonic rocks to have been derived from hybrid magma that originated mixing of co-eval lower crustal-derived more felsic magma and enriched subcontinental lithospheric mantle-derived more mafic magmas during extensional processes, and the crustal material was more dominant than the mantle contribution. The Alaçamdağ volcano-plutonic complex rocks may form by retreat of the Hellenic/Aegean

  1. Hybrid laser-arc welding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hybrid laser-arc welding (HLAW) is a combination of laser welding with arc welding that overcomes many of the shortfalls of both processes. This important book gives a comprehensive account of hybrid laser-arc welding technology and applications. The first part of the book reviews...... the characteristics of the process, including the properties of joints produced by hybrid laser-arc welding and ways of assessing weld quality. Part II discusses applications of the process to such metals as magnesium alloys, aluminium and steel as well as the use of hybrid laser-arc welding in such sectors as ship...... building and the automotive industry. With its distinguished editor and international team of contributors, Hybrid laser-arc welding, will be a valuable source of reference for all those using this important welding technology. Professor Flemming Ove Olsen works in the Department of Manufacturing...

  2. Benthic foraminiferal response to heavy metal pollution in Izmir Bay (Eastern Aegean Sea)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    were stained with Rose Bengal to help recognize the living individuals. After drying and sieving the residues through a 250 mm mesh, the foraminifers were picked up and examined under a binocular microscope. 1) We identified 67 foraminifer and 22 ostracod species 2) The most polluted area is the Inner Bay where the number of species decreases 3) The most abundant species at the study area are Ammonia tepida, Elphidium crispum, Ampicoryna scalaris, Noniella turgida and Nonion depressulum. The last two species have been already identified in the Northern Aegean and these species were found in the Gulf of Izmir in this study due to northern Aegean waters flowing into the Gulf of Izmir 4) Test deformities are observed in Ammonia tepid and Adelosina mediterranensis 5) Living specimens are limited in number 6) Elphidium crispum is correlated with Hg (R= 0.844), while negative correlation was found between Elphidium crispum and Cr (R= -0.637). Positive correlations were observed between Ni- Amphycoryna scalaris (R= 0.484), and Ni-Noniella turgida (R= 0.455), Mn-Noniella turgida (R0.558) 7) The factors determining the distribution of Foraminiferal assemblages are organic pollutants. The high species number at Gulbahce Bay and Gediz River effluents verify this conclusion

  3. Traditionally used wild edible greens in the Aegean Region of Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunus Dogan


    Full Text Available Turkey has the largest coastal area in the Mediterranean, possesses an extraordinarily rich flora, and a great traditional knowledge. This diversity of plants naturally affects the traditional use of plants and is reflected in the rich Turkish cuisine. Consequently, the Mediterranean Diet (whose typical components are wild greens constitutes one of the important elements of Turkish cuisine. For this reason, the aim of this study was to determine the consumption of wild edible green plants for the Aegean Region of Turkey and to establish the similarities to or differences from consumption in other regions and other cuisine in the Mediterranean Basin. This study compiles and evaluates the ethnobotanical data currently available. There were 111 taxa that were identified as wild edible greens in the study area belonging to 26 different families. Asteraceae (21 taxa were the most commonly consumed as food. It was followed by Boraginaceae with 19 taxa, Apiaceae with 15 taxa and Lamiaceae with 7 taxa, respectively. Rumex and Erodium were the most represented genera with 4 species. Tamus communis and Asparagus acutifolius, Mediterranean elements and distributed in all of the Mediterranean Basin, are among the most widely consumed wild plants in the area. Wild edible plants are consumed in a variety of ways. The most common type of consumption (79 taxa was in salads. The fact that the majority of the plants used in the area are consumed in salads shows the close relationship between the local diet and the concept of the Mediterranean Diet. As a result, very promisingly, there is a renewed or increasing interest in consuming wild food plants as part of this diet.

  4. Occurrence of the Alien Species Aspidosiphon (Aspidosiphon) elegans (Sipuncula) on the Levantine and Aegean Coasts of Turkey


    AÇIK, Şermin


    A total of 37 specimens of Aspidosiphon (Aspidosiphon) elegans were collected at 5 stations located along the Levantine coast of Turkey and at 1 station located near Foça (Aegean Sea). This species inhabited calcareous rocks, the mussel Branchidontes pharaonis, and the alga Corallina mediterranea between 0 and 3 m depths. The population density of this species in the area was found to be 25 ind. M-2. As Aspidosiphon (A.) elegans is a bio-eroder species, its high population density may cause s...

  5. Continent-arc collision in the Banda Arc imaged by ambient noise tomography (United States)

    Porritt, Robert W.; Miller, Meghan S.; O'Driscoll, Leland J.; Harris, Cooper W.; Roosmawati, Nova; Teofilo da Costa, Luis


    The tectonic configuration of the Banda region in southeast Asia captures the spatial transition from subduction of Indian Ocean lithosphere to subduction and collision of the Australian continental lithosphere beneath the Banda Arc. An ongoing broadband seismic deployment funded by NSF is aimed at better understanding the mantle and lithospheric structure in the region and the relationship of the arc-continent collision to orogenesis. Here, we present results from ambient noise tomography in the region utilizing this temporary deployment of 30 broadband instruments and 39 permanent stations in Indonesia, Timor Leste, and Australia. We measure dispersion curves for over 21,000 inter-station paths resulting in good recovery of the velocity structure of the crust and upper mantle beneath the Savu Sea, Timor Leste, and the Nusa Tenggara Timur (NTT) region of Indonesia. The resulting three dimensional model indicates up to ∼25% variation in shear velocity throughout the plate boundary region; first-order velocity anomalies are associated with the subducting oceanic lithosphere, subducted Australian continental lithosphere, obducted oceanic sediments forming the core of the island of Timor, and high velocity anomalies in the Savu Sea and Sumba. The structure in Sumba and the Savu Sea is consistent with an uplifting forearc sliver. Beneath the island of Timor, we confirm earlier inferences of pervasive crustal duplexing from surface mapping, and establish a link to underlying structural features in the lowermost crust and uppermost mantle that drive upper crustal shortening. Finally, our images of the volcanic arc under Flores, Wetar, and Alor show high velocity structures of the Banda Terrane, but also a clear low velocity anomaly at the transition between subduction of oceanic and continental lithosphere. Given that the footprint of the Banda Terrane has previously been poorly defined, this model provides important constraints on tectonic reconstructions that

  6. Magmatic control along a strike-slip volcanic arc: The central Aeolian arc (Italy)

    KAUST Repository

    Ruch, Joel


    The regional stress field in volcanic areas may be overprinted by that produced by magmatic activity, promoting volcanism and faulting. In particular, in strike-slip settings, the definition of the relationships between the regional stress field and magmatic activity remains elusive. To better understand these relationships, we collected stratigraphic, volcanic and structural field data along the strike-slip Central Aeolian arc (Italy): here the islands of Lipari and Vulcano separate the extensional portion of the arc (to the east) from the contractional one (to the west). We collected >500 measurements of faults, extension fractures and dikes at 40 sites. Most structures are NNE-SSW to NNW-SSE oriented, eastward dipping, and show almost pure dip-slip motion; consistent with an E-W extension direction, with minor dextral and sinistral shear. Our data highlight six eruptive periods during the last 55 ka, which allow considering both islands as a single magmatic system, in which tectonic and magmatic activity steadily migrated eastward and currently focus on a 10 km long x 2 km wide active segment. Faulting appears to mostly occur in temporal and spatial relation with magmatic events, supporting that most of the observable deformation derives from transient magmatic activity (shorter-term, days to months), rather than from steady longer-term regional tectonics (102-104 years). More in general, the Central Aeolian case shows how magmatic activity may affect the structure and evolution of volcanic arcs, overprinting any strike-slip motion with magma-induced extension at the surface.

  7. Magmatic control along a strike-slip volcanic arc: The central Aeolian arc (Italy) (United States)

    Ruch, J.; Vezzoli, L.; De Rosa, R.; Di Lorenzo, R.; Acocella, V.


    The regional stress field in volcanic areas may be overprinted by that produced by magmatic activity, promoting volcanism and faulting. In particular, in strike-slip settings, the definition of the relationships between the regional stress field and magmatic activity remains elusive. To better understand these relationships, we collected stratigraphic, volcanic, and structural field data along the strike-slip central Aeolian arc (Italy): here the islands of Lipari and Vulcano separate the extensional portion of the arc (to the east) from the contractional one (to the west). We collected >500 measurements of faults, extension fractures, and dikes at 40 sites. Most structures are NNE-SSW to NNW-SSE oriented, eastward dipping, and show almost pure dip-slip motion, consistent with an E-W extension direction, with minor dextral and sinistral shear. Our data highlight six eruptive periods during the last 55 ka, which allow considering both islands as a single magmatic system, in which tectonic and magmatic activities steadily migrated eastward and currently focus on a 10 km long × 2 km wide active segment. Faulting appears to mostly occur in temporal and spatial relation with magmatic events, supporting that most of the observable deformation derives from transient magmatic activity (shorter term, days to months), rather than from steady longer-term regional tectonics (102-104 years). More in general, the central Aeolian case shows how magmatic activity may affect the structure and evolution of volcanic arcs, overprinting any strike-slip motion with magma-induced extension at the surface.

  8. On the link between orogenic shortening and back-arc extensional collapse in low topography orogens (United States)

    Matenco, L. C.


    Classical models of orogenic evolution assume that back arc basins form in the hinterland of orogens, collapsing the upper plate above oceanic subduction zones. This is a common characteristic commonly thought to apply to all low-topography orogens of Mediterranean type driven by the fast roll-back of subducted slabs, or other analogues such as the Miocene to recent evolution of the SE Asia subduction zones. This extension may take place far at the interior of the upper plate, as is the case in various segments of the Carpathians or in the core of the SE Asian domain, but in most cases of the Dinarides, Apennines or Hellenides it take place superposed or far into the foreland of oceanic suture zones. Therefore, the term back-arc extension in many cases is misleading, as exhumation along major detachment zones takes place in the core of the orogen (Rif, Betics), in the accreted crustal material of the lower plate (Apennines, Dinarides) or even in a presumed former fore-arc (Aegean, Sunda-Banda arc). In all these subduction zones, collision has largely duplicated crustal blocks from the lower plate and has gradually shifted subduction zone far towards the lower plate. As a result, crustal thickening takes place in the foreland of the orogen, in contrast with the typical crustal roots of the high convergence orogens, such as the Alps or Himalaya. This demonstrate an active shift of the main subduction zone, the position of slabs detected by teleseismic mantle tomography is displaced to the foreland and cannot be connected with the position of the lower plate crust beneath the orogen. This shift is associated with large scale magmatism with unusual large crustal signatures, atypical for subduction related magmas. These observations demonstrate the need for an active reconsideration of existing orogenic models which should include displacements of subduction zones during orogenic shortening and an active investigation of the role of continental subduction and associated

  9. Tectonic block rotation, arc curvature, and back-arc rifting: Insights into these processes in the Mediterranean and the western Pacific

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The fastest modern-day tectonic block rotations on Earth (up to 9 degrees/Myr) occur in the forearcs of convergent plate margins where a transition from collision of a bathymetric high to subduction of normal oceanic crust occurs. GPS techniques have enabled accurate documentation of the kinematics of these rotations, leading us to develop a conceptual model where the change from collision to subduction exerts a torque on microplates within the plate boundary zone, causing them to spin rapidly about an axis at the collision point. We have investigated geophysical and geological data from several active plate boundaries (from the western Pacific and Mediterranean regions) to document a compelling spatial and temporal relationship between the transition from collision to subduction, plate boundary curvature, and rapid tectonic block rotations. In some cases, these microplate rotations can initiate back-arc rifting. We also present numerical modelling results supporting our conceptual model for block rotations at collision/subduction transition. Our results suggest that the rate of microplate rotation depends on the incoming indentor velocity, and can be greatly enhanced by: (1) extensional stresses acting at the subduction interface (possibly due to slab roll back), and (2) a low-viscosity back-arc. Where viscosity of the back-arc is low, forearc microplate rotation dominates. In contrast, tectonic escape of strike-slip fault-bounded microplates is predicted in areas where the back-arc viscosity is high. Previous workers have suggested that the kinematics of the Anatolian block and back-arc rifting in the Aegean are influenced by some combination of forces associated with Arabia/Eurasia collision, and/or subduction (including slab rollback) at the Hellenic trench. Based on previous work from active western Pacific arcs, we propose that the collision of two separate indentors (Arabian promontory in the east, Apulian platform in the west), is a fundamental tectonic

  10. Recovery of the commercial sponges in the central and southeastern Aegean Sea (NE Mediterranean after an outbreak of sponge disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The distribution and biometry of commercial sponges (Porifera in coastal areas of the central and southeastern Aegean Sea was investigated to estimate the recovery progress of the populations eight years after the first appearance of sponge disease. Signs of the disease were detected only in 1.6% of the harvested sponges. Multivariate analysis on the percentage abundance of sponges showed two distinct groups among the sixteen fishing grounds studied: the eight deep (50-110 m and the eight shallow ones (<40 m. The group from the deep depths consisted of Spongia officinalis adriatica, S. agaricina and S. zimocca. The infralittoral zone was characterized by the presence of Hippospongia communis, S. officinalis adriatica and S. officinalis mollissima. These bath sponges showed an enhanced abundance in the eastern Cretan Sea (S. Aegean Sea. In addition, their dimensions, particularly height, increased with increasing depth. It is indicated that the hydrographic conditions prevailing in the eastern Cretan Sea affected the repopulating processes of sponge banks. In each species, the biometric characteristics of the experimental specimens were similar to those of the sponges found in the market and harvested at respective depths prior to the appearance of sponge disease.

  11. Modelling the water mass circulation in the Aegean Sea. Part I: wind stresses, thermal and haline fluxes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Valioulis

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to develop a computer model capable of simulating the water mass circulation in the Aegean Sea. There is historical, phenomenological and recent experimental evidence of important hydrographical features whose causes have been variably identified as the highly complex bathymetry, the extreme seasonal variations in temperature, the considerable fresh water fluxes, and the large gradients in salinity or temperature across neighbouring water masses (Black Sea and Eastern Mediterranean. In the approach taken here, physical processes are introduced into the model one by one. This method reveals the parameters responsible for permanent and seasonal features of the Aegean Sea circulation. In the first part of the work reported herein, wind-induced circulation appears to be seasonally invariant. This yearly pattern is overcome by the inclusion of baroclinicity in the model in the form of surface thermohaline fluxes. The model shows an intricate pattern of sub-basin gyres and locally strong currents, permanent or seasonal, in accord with the experimental evidence.

  12. Impact of recent Global Digital Bathymetry and Topography Models on geoid modelling: Results from two case studies in Balearic and Aegean Seas (United States)

    Delikaraoglou, D.; Mintourakis, I.; Kallianou, F.


    geoid modelling of archipelagic (island) areas. We have concentrated in two test regions: (a) the Catalano-Balearic Sea (South of Spain in the NW Meditteranean), where adequate marine and land gravity data allow a detailed evaluation of our processing methodologies and their results and, (b) the Aegean Sea where the presence of many islands in varying distances from the mainland Greece and located on the continental shelf and/or divided by steep sea floor topography present some unique challenges for any high resolution geoid modelling efforts. For both test regions, we generated a combined DEM (C-DEM) using the IFREMER and SRTM 30 arcsec bathymetric data for the sea areas and SRTM 3 arcsec data for the surrounding land areas. In this contribution, we discuss various computational aspects relating to the so-called "Direct Topographical Effect" (DTE) and the "Indirect Topographical Effect" (ITE), the two most significant topographical effects that have to be evaluated when a precise geoid is being compiled. In addition, we outline the evaluation and the impact of the results obtained, especially with regard to the differences in the geoid models when different elevation data are used, and point out the main limitations and possibilities for further improvements in the use of the aforementioned satellite and terrestrial data for regional and local geoid mapping in coastal and island regions. Keywords: IFREMER, SRTM, terrain effects, free-air gravity anomalies, geoid modelling,Digital Bathymetry Models.

  13. Of Eggs and Arcs (United States)

    Burns, Joseph A.; Thomas, P. C.; Helfenstein, P.; Tiscareno, M. S.; Hedman, M. M.; Agarwal, M.


    New scenarios for the origins of Saturn’s rings/interior moons have directed scientific attention to the region just exterior to Saturn’s main rings. Four satellites (Aegaeon = Ae; Anthe = An; Methone = Me; Pallene = Pa) discovered by the Cassini mission on either side of Mimas’s orbit perhaps comprise a distinct class of ring-moon. They are tiny (R = 0.3-2.5 km); three (AeAnMe) are trapped in co-rotation resonances with Mimas and reside within ring-arcs; and at least two (MePa) have remarkably regular shapes. Images with pixel scales as fine as 27 m taken in May 2012 reveal Methone to be ovoid within 10 m (from sub-pixel limb detection) and devoid of any craters (>130 m) across its 9 km2 of surface; Pallene and even tiny Aegaeon have similar appearances in lesser-quality images. Numerical simulations demonstrate that particles comprising the surrounding ring-arcs populate the same resonances as their embedded moons; escape speeds from the moons are bodies. In this environment, the moons’ shapes are smooth equipotentials; electrostatic effects may also determine how grains settle to surfaces. Considering these shapes to represent equipotential surfaces for rotating, tidally distorted, homogeneous bodies, we infer mean satellite densities of 250+/-60 (Pa), 310+/-30 (Me), and 540+/-120 (Ae) kg m-3. About half of Methone’s leading hemisphere is covered by a sharply bounded, lemon-shaped, relatively dark region, having a form reminiscent of Mimas’s thermal anomaly (Howett et al. 2011). Its (601 nm) albedo is 13% lower than the bounding brighter material. An irregularly shaped, even-darker (by 4%) blotch straddles the apex of the moon’s motion. Impacts with circum-planetary meteoroids and plasma are likely responsible for these features.

  14. Geophysical imaging of buried volcanic structures within a continental back-arc basin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stratford, Wanda Rose; Stern, T.A.


    Hidden beneath the ~2 km thick low-velocity volcaniclastics on the western margin of the Central Volcanic Region, North Island, New Zealand, are two structures that represent the early history of volcanic activity in a continental back-arc. These ~20×20 km structures, at Tokoroa and Mangakino, fo...

  15. Australia going down under : Quantifying continental subduction during arc-continent accretion in Timor-Leste

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tate, Garrett W.; McQuarrie, Nadine; van Hinsbergen, Douwe J.J.; Bakker, Richard R.; Harris, Ron; Jiang, Haishui


    Models of arc-continent accretion often assume that the period of subduction of continental lithosphere before plate boundary reorganization is fairly short lived, yet the timescale of this period is poorly constrained by observations in the geologic record. The island of Timor is the uplifted accre

  16. SRTM DTM vs. one created from 1/50.000 topographic maps: the case of Kos Island (United States)

    Nikolakopoulos, Konstantinos; Vaiopoulos, Dimitris; Skianis, Georgios


    The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), used an Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (IFSAR) instrument to produce a near-global digital elevation map of the earth's land surface with 16 m absolute vertical height accuracy at 30 meter postings. SRTM achieved the required interferometric baseline by extending a receive-only radar antenna on a 60 meter deployable mast from the shuttle payload bay. Continuous measurement of the interferometric baseline length, attitude, and position was required at the 2 mm, 9 arcsec, and 1 m (1.6 sigma) levels, respectively, in order to obtain the desired height accuracy. The collected data were used to generate a digital topographic map of 80 percent of Earth's land surface (everything between 60 degrees north and 56 degrees south latitude), with data points spaced every 1 arcsecond of latitude and longitude (approximately 30 meters). An SRTM 3-arc-second product (90m resolution) is available for the entire world. In this paper we compare a DTM created from SRTM data to a DTM created from 1/50.000 topographic maps. The area of study is Kos Island in the Aegean Sea. Since the SRTM elevation data are unedited, they contain occasional voids, or gaps, where the terrain lay in the radar beam's shadow or in areas of extremely low radar backscatter, such as sea, dams, lakes and virtually any water covered surface that are flat but they don't look so flat on SRTM tiles. We used different filters and masks in order to ameliorate the quality of the DEM. The first filter detected and removed the voids; a second one interpolated the missing values and then a mask was used in order to separate sea from land. We also created a DTM from digitized contours of 1/50.000 scale topographic maps and we used more than 1800 extra points in order to ameliorate the quality of this DTM around the coastline. We compared the two DTMs. All the results demonstrated that the SRTM DTM presents a very good accuracy.

  17. Magnetic anomalies over the Andaman Islands and their geological significance

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P B V Subba Rao; M Radhakrishna; K Haripriya; B Someswara Rao; D Chandrasekharam


    The Andaman Islands form part of the outer-arc accretionary sedimentary complex belonging to the Andaman–Sumatra active subduction zone. The islands are characterized by thick cover of Neogene sediments along with exposed ophiolite rocks at few places. A regional magnetic survey was carriedout for the first time over the Andaman Islands with a view to understand the correlation of anomaly signatures with surface geology of the islands. The residual total field magnetic anomaly maps have revealed distinct magnetic anomalies having intermediate to high amplitude magnetic signatures andcorrelate with the areas over/close to the exposed ophiolite rocks along the east coast of north, middle and the south Andaman Islands. The 2D modelling of magnetic anomalies along selected E–W profiles across the islands indicate that the ophiolite bodies extend to a depth of about 5–8 km and spatiallycorrelate with the mapped fault/thrust zones.

  18. Spatio-temporal characteristics of the geomagnetic field over the Lombok Island, the Lesser Sunda Islands region


    Zubaidah, Teti (Dr.rer.nat.)


    The Lombok Island is part of the Lesser Sunda Islands (LSI) region – Indonesia, situated along the Sunda-Banda Arcs transition. It lies between zones characterized by the highest intensity geomagnetic anomalies of this region, remarkable as one of the eight most important features provided on the 1st edition of World Digital Magnetic Anomaly Map. The seismicity of this region during the last years is high, while the geological and tectonic structures of this region are still not known in deta...

  19. Amchitka Island, Alaska, special sampling project 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office


    This 1997 special sampling project represents a special radiobiological sampling effort to augment the 1996 Long-Term Hydrological Monitoring Program (LTHMP) for Amchitka Island in Alaska. Lying in the western portion of the Aleutian Islands arc, near the International Date Line, Amchitka Island is one of the southernmost islands of the Rat Island Chain. Between 1965 and 1971, the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission conducted three underground nuclear tests on Amchitka Island. In 1996, Greenpeace collected biota samples and speculated that several long-lived, man-made radionuclides detected (i.e., americium-241, plutonium-239 and -240, beryllium-7, and cesium-137) leaked into the surface environment from underground cavities created during the testing. The nuclides of interest are detected at extremely low concentrations throughout the environment. The objectives of this special sampling project were to scientifically refute the Greenpeace conclusions that the underground cavities were leaking contaminants to the surface. This was achieved by first confirming the presence of these radionuclides in the Amchitka Island surface environment and, second, if the radionuclides were present, determining if the source is the underground cavity or worldwide fallout. This special sampling and analysis determined that the only nonfallout-related radionuclide detected was a low level of tritium from the Long Shot test, which had been previously documented. The tritium contamination is monitored and continues a decreasing trend due to radioactive decay and dilution.

  20. Assessment of ENSEMBLES regional climate models for the representation of monthly wind characteristics in the Aegean Sea (Greece): Mean and extremes analysis (United States)

    Anagnostopoulou, Christina; Tolika, Konstantia; Tegoulias, Ioannis; Velikou, Kondylia; Vagenas, Christos


    The main scope of the present study is the assessment of the ability of three of the most updated regional climate models, developed under the frame of the European research project ENSEMBLES (, to simulate the wind characteristics in the Aegean Sea in Greece. The examined models are KNMI-RACMO2, MPI-MREMO, and ICTP - RegCM3. They all have the same spatial resolution (25x25km) and for their future projections they are using the A1B SRES emission scenarios. Their simulated wind data (speed and direction) were compared with observational data from several stations over the domain of study for a time period of 25 years, from 1980 to 2004 on a monthly basis. The primer data were available every three or six hours from which we computed the mean daily wind speed and the prevailing daily wind direction. It should be mentioned, that the comparison was made for the grid point that was the closest to each station over land. Moreover, the extreme speed values were also calculated both for the observational and the simulated data, in order to assess the ability of the models in capturing the most intense wind conditions. The first results of the study showed that the prevailing winds during the winter and spring months have a north - northeastern or a south - south western direction in most parts of the Aegean sea. The models under examination seem to capture quite satisfactorily this pattern as well as the general characteristics of the winds in this area. During summer, winds in the Aegean Sea have mainly north direction and the models have quite good agreement both in simulating this direction and the wind speed. Concerning the extreme wind speed (percentiles) it was found that for the stations in the northern Aegean all the models overestimate the extreme wind indices. For the eastern parts of the Aegean the KNMI and the MPI model underestimate the extreme wind speeds while on the other hand the ICTP model overestimates them. Finally for the

  1. Arc Interference Behavior during Twin Wire Gas Metal Arc Welding Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dingjian Ye


    Full Text Available In order to study arc interference behavior during twin wire gas metal arc welding process, the synchronous acquisition system has been established to acquire instantaneous information of arc profile including dynamic arc length variation as well as relative voltage and current signals. The results show that after trailing arc (T-arc is added to the middle arc (M-arc in a stable welding process, the current of M arc remains unchanged while the agitation increases; the voltage of M arc has an obvious increase; the shape of M arc changes, with increasing width, length, and area; the transfer frequency of M arc droplet increases and the droplet itself becomes smaller. The wire extension length of twin arc turns out to be shorter than that of single arc welding.

  2. Solomon Islands


    World Bank


    This report aims to build understanding of the existing disaster risk financing and insurance (DRFI) tools in use in the Solomon Islands and to identify gaps where engagement could further develop financial resilience. It also aims to encourage peer exchange of regional knowledge, specifically by encouraging dialogue on past experiences, lessons learned, optimal use of these financial tool...

  3. Volcano collapse along the Aleutian Ridge (western Aleutian Arc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Montanaro


    Full Text Available The Aleutian Ridge, in the western part of the Aleutian Arc, consists of a chain of volcanic islands perched atop the crest of a submarine ridge with most of the active Quaternary stratocones or caldera-like volcanoes being located on the northern margins of the Aleutian Islands. Integrated analysis of marine and terrestrial data resulted in the identification and characterization of 17 extensive submarine debris avalanche deposits from 11 volcanoes. Two morphological types of deposits are recognizable, elongate and lobate, with primary controls on the size and distribution of the volcanic debris being the volume and nature of material involved, proportion of fine grained material, depth of emplacement and the paleo-bathymetry. Volume calculations show the amount of material deposited in debris avalanches is as much as three times larger than the amount of material initially involved in the collapse, suggesting the incorporation of large amounts of submarine material during transport. The orientation of the collapse events is influenced by regional fault systems underling the volcanoes. The western Aleutian Arc has a significant tsunamigenic potential and communities within the Aleutian Islands and surrounding areas of the North Pacific as well as shipping and fishing fleets that cross the North Pacific may be at risk during future eruptions in this area.

  4. Volcanic evolution of the South Sandwich volcanic arc, South Atlantic, from multibeam bathymetry (United States)

    Leat, Philip T.; Day, Simon J.; Tate, Alex J.; Martin, Tara J.; Owen, Matthew J.; Tappin, David R.


    New multibeam bathymetry data are presented for the South Sandwich intra-oceanic arc which occupies the small Sandwich plate in the South Atlantic, and is widely considered to be a simple end-member in the range of intra-oceanic arc types. The images show for the first time the distribution of submarine volcanic, tectonic and erosional-depositional features along the whole length of the 540 km long volcanic arc, allowing systematic investigation of along-arc variations. The data confirm that the volcanic arc has a simple structure composed of large volcanoes which form a well-defined volcanic front, but with three parallel cross-cutting seamount chains extending 38-60 km from near the volcanic front into the rear-arc. There is no evidence for intra-arc rifting or extinct volcanic lines. Topographic evidence for faulting is generally absent, except near the northern and southern plate boundaries. Most of the volcanic arc appears to be built on ocean crust formed at the associated back-arc spreading centre, as previously proposed from magnetic data, but the southern part of the arc appears to be underlain by older arc or continental crust whose west-facing rifted margin facing the back-arc basin is defined by the new bathymetry. The new survey shows nine main volcanic edifices along the volcanic front and ca. 20 main seamounts. The main volcanoes form largely glaciated islands with summits 3.0-3.5 km above base levels which are 2500-3000 m deep in the north and shallower at 2000-2500 m deep in the south. Some of the component seamounts are interpreted to have been active since the last glacial maximum, and so are approximately contemporaneous with the volcanic front volcanism. Seven calderas, all either submarine or ice-filled, have been identified: Adventure volcano, a newly discovered submarine volcanic front caldera volcano is described for the first time. All but one of the calderas are situated on summits of large volcanoes in the southern part of the arc, and

  5. Microhabitat choice in island lizards enhances camouflage against avian predators. (United States)

    Marshall, Kate L A; Philpot, Kate E; Stevens, Martin


    Camouflage can often be enhanced by genetic adaptation to different local environments. However, it is less clear how individual behaviour improves camouflage effectiveness. We investigated whether individual Aegean wall lizards (Podarcis erhardii) inhabiting different islands rest on backgrounds that improve camouflage against avian predators. In free-ranging lizards, we found that dorsal regions were better matched against chosen backgrounds than against other backgrounds on the same island. This suggests that P. erhardii make background choices that heighten individual-specific concealment. In achromatic camouflage, this effect was more evident in females and was less distinct in an island population with lower predation risk. This suggests that behavioural enhancement of camouflage may be more important in females than in sexually competing males and related to predation risk. However, in an arena experiment, lizards did not choose the background that improved camouflage, most likely due to the artificial conditions. Overall, our results provide evidence that behavioural preferences for substrates can enhance individual camouflage of lizards in natural microhabitats, and that such adaptations may be sexually dimorphic and dependent on local environments. This research emphasizes the importance of considering links between ecology, behaviour, and appearance in studies of intraspecific colour variation and local adaptation. PMID:26804463

  6. On arc efficiency in gas tungsten arc welding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nils Stenbacka


    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to review the literature on published arc efficiency values for GTAW and, if possible, propose a narrower band. Articles between the years 1955 - 2011 have been found. Published arc efficiency values for GTAW DCEN show to lie on a wide range, between 0.36 to 0.90. Only a few studies covered DCEP - direct current electrode positive and AC current. Specific information about the reproducibility in calorimetric studies as well as in modeling and simulation studies (considering that both random and systematic errors are small was scarce. An estimate of the average arc efficiency value for GTAW DCEN indicates that it should be about 0.77. It indicates anyway that the GTAW process with DCEN is an efficient welding method. The arc efficiency is reduced when the arc length is increased. On the other hand, there are conflicting results in the literature as to the influence of arc current and travel speed.

  7. A survey of metal pollution in mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis (L.1758) from northern coast of Turkish Aegean Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marine organisms generally, mussels and benthic fish are selected as suitable indicator species of coastal pollution, as they give complementary information on chemicals bioavailable in the water column and sediments, respectively. Bioaccumulation patterns of the different pollutants vary substantially among species. Habitat, season and food web play a key role on the bioaccumulation process. Filter feeder organisms accumulate most of the pollutants at more higher levels than those found in water column so that they permit to reflect the quality of coastal environments. Mediterranean mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis (L.1758) have criteria of ideal bio-monitors as sedentary and easy to sample over Mediterranean coastal zones. The aim of this study was to investigate the present status of the distribution of heavy metal levels in economically important bivalve from Northern coast of Turkish Aegean Sea. The mussels were collected by hand on rocks along the coastal zones at 5 sampling locations during the period of November 2002-April 2003. The 5 sampling stations are shown. All samples transported daily to the laboratory. Edible soft tissues of mussels were removed from the shells on the day of sampling and were kept at frozen at -30 deg. C until the analysis. The collected mussels were divided in two groups according to their size (small size 3-4 cm. and big size 7-8 cm.).The composite samples of soft mussel tissues were wet-ashed by nitric and percloric acid. Solutions of tissues were analysed by 2380 Perkin-Elmer AAS. Intercalibration homogenate sample (IAEA -142/ TM) was used as a quality control for the analytical methodology. The concentrations of some heavy metals (Pb, Cu, Zn) in the soft tissues of M. galloprovincialis were determined separately from different regions of Northern Turkish Aegean Sea. The Average levels of heavy metals in mussels are given. It can be seen from the table that there are significant differences in metal concentrations according to

  8. Digital Geologic Map of San Juan Island National Historical Park and vicinity, Washington (NPS, GRD, GRE, SAJH, SAJH digital map) (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — The Digital Geologic Map of San Juan Island National Historical Park and vicinity, Washington is composed of GIS data layers complete with ArcMap 9.2 layer (.LYR)...

  9. Progressive enrichment of arc magmas caused by the subduction of seamounts under Nishinoshima volcano, Izu-Bonin Arc, Japan (United States)

    Sano, Takashi; Shirao, Motomaro; Tani, Kenichiro; Tsutsumi, Yukiyasu; Kiyokawa, Shoichi; Fujii, Toshitsugu


    The chemical composition of intraplate seamounts is distinct from normal seafloor material, meaning that the subduction of seamounts at a convergent margin can cause a change in the chemistry of the mantle wedge and associated arc magmas. Nishinoshima, a volcanic island in the Izu-Bonin Arc of Japan, has been erupting continuously over the past 2 years, providing an ideal opportunity to examine the effect of seamount subduction on the chemistry of arc magmas. Our research is based on the whole-rock geochemistry and the chemistry of minerals within lavas and air-fall scoria from Nishinoshima that were erupted before 1702, in 1973-1974, and in 2014. The mineral phases within the analyzed samples crystallized under hydrous conditions (H2O = 3-4 wt.%) at temperatures of 970 °C-990 °C in a shallow (3-6 km depth) magma chamber. Trace element data indicate that the recently erupted Nishinoshima volcanics are much less depleted in the high field strength elements (Nb, Ta, Zr, Hf) than other volcanics within the Izu-Bonin Arc. In addition, the level of enrichment in the Nishinoshima magmas has increased in recent years, probably due to the addition of material from HIMU-enriched (i.e., high Nb/Zr and Ta/Hf) seamounts on the Pacific Plate, which is being subducted westwards beneath the Philippine Sea Plate. This suggests that the chemistry of scoria from Nishinoshima volcano records the progressive addition of components derived from subducted seamounts.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The axial pressure in plasma arc is measured under different conditions. The effects of the parameters, such as welding current, plasma gas flow rate, electrode setback and arc length, on the pressure in plasma arc are investigated and quantitative analyzed to explain the relationship between the quality of weld and the matching of parameters in plasma arc welding process.

  11. Low-K Tholeiitic Signatures in Calayan Island (Northern Luzon, Philippines)


    Pendón, R. R.; Corretgé, Luis Guillermo; Ordaz, J.


    The Calayan island is a Tertiary (7-4 Ma) volcanic island situated in the northern portion of the Philippine archipelago, a part of Babuyan segment of the Luzon arc. It is a product of subduction of South China Sea oceanic crust underneath the Philippine terrane. Rock spectrum in the island ranges from basalt to rhyolite with andesite as the most predominating lava. Geochemical signatures are characterized by low concentrations of large-ion lithophile and flat behavior of rare-earth elements,...

  12. Energy Transition Initiative: Island Energy Snapshot - St. Lucia (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    This profile provides a snapshot of the electricity generation or reduction technologies, including solar hot water heating, available to Saint Lucia, one of six Caribbean countries that make up the Windward Islands - the southern arc of the Lesser Antilles chain - at the eastern end of the Caribbean Sea. Heating and transportation fuels are not addressed.

  13. Numerical simulations of tsunami generated by underwater volcanic explosions at Karymskoye lake (Kamchatka, Russia and Kolumbo volcano (Aegean Sea, Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ulvrová


    Full Text Available Increasing human activities along the coasts of the world arise the necessity to assess tsunami hazard from different sources (earthquakes, landslides, volcanic activity. In this paper, we simulate tsunamis generated by underwater volcanic explosions from (1 a submerged vent in a shallow water lake (Karymskoye Lake, Kamchatka, and (2 from Kolumbo submarine volcano (7 km NE of Santorini, Aegean Sea, Greece. The 1996 tsunami in Karymskoye lake is a well-documented example and thus serves as a case-study for validating the calculations. The numerical model reproduces realistically the tsunami runups measured onshore. Systematic numerical study of tsunamis generated by explosions of Kolumbo volcano is then conducted for a wide range of energies. Results show that in case of reawakening, Kolumbo volcano might represent a significant tsunami hazard for the northern, eastern and southern coasts of Santorini, even for small-power explosions.

  14. The examination of climate comfortable conditions in terms of coastal tourism on the Aegean Region coastal belt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yüksel Güçlü


    Full Text Available It is important that climate comfortable conditions are within presumed threshold values with respect to tourism activities in the form that people rest in a healthy environment. The climatical elements bearing importance for climate comfortable conditions in general sunshine duration, temperature, relative humidity, wind and precipitation have been taken into consideration for this purpose. The purpose of this study is to examine of the climate comfortable conditions in respect to tourism on the Aegean Region coastal belt of Turkey. In this study, TCI, THI and SSI indices have been used for determining climate comfort conditions. The best climate comfortable conditions in terms of coastal tourism are seen May-June and September-October periods in the study area. Climate comfortable decreases due to high temperature and relative humidity in July-August period. November-April period is not appropriate for the coastal tourism. The favourable period for sea bathing is seen between 9 June-26 September.

  15. Concentration factors of radionuclides and trace metals in Mytilus galloprovincialis in an estuarine ecosystem - North Aegean Sea - Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mussels are worldwide recognized as pollution bio-indicator organisms (Mussel watch program of CIESM) because they accumulate pollutants in their tissues at elevated levels in terms of biological availability in the marine environment. In the present study, the levels of 137Cs, Cr, Cu, Mn and Zn were measured in Mytilus galloprovincialis caught from Thermaikos gulf in North Aegean Sea Greece. The samples were collected seasonally from two aqua-cultures during the period 2000 2003. Measured and published concentrations of the above elements in seawater were used for the evaluation of concentration factors by applying a linear and a non-linear regression analysis. The variation in between the two stations and the seasonal evolution of bioaccumulation of the examined elements was also investigated. Some data on the concentrations of the measured elements in sediments from the area considered were evaluated as for determining the pollution conditions of the organism habitat. (author)

  16. Radiation dose assessment for 137Cs from fish in the Aegean Sea before and after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effective doses in fish from the Aegean Sea were calculated for the nuclide 137Cs covering the period 1975-1982. The effective dose varies between 3x10-5 and 10x10-5 mSv y-1 for adults and 14x10-5 to 56x10-5 y-1 for children, while the cumulative effective dose for the period 1975-1982 equals to 40.86x10-5 and 229.57x10-5 for adults and children of 10 y old, resp. When compared to doses derived from the Chernobyl accident (May 1986) it was found that the additional dose incurred by Greek individuals in May 1986 was approximately equal to the cumulative dose of 8 y contribution period (1975-1982) for adults and to a year's contribution for children of 10 y old. (author) 9 refs.; 3 figs

  17. Concentration factors of radionuclides and trace metals in Mytilus galloprovincialis in an estuarine ecosystem - North Aegean Sea - Greece

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Florou, H.; Catsiki, A.B.; Papaefthymiou, H.; Chaloulou, Ch. [NCSR Demokritos, INT-RP, Environmental Radioactivity Lab., Athens (Greece)


    Mussels are worldwide recognized as pollution bio-indicator organisms (Mussel watch program of CIESM) because they accumulate pollutants in their tissues at elevated levels in terms of biological availability in the marine environment. In the present study, the levels of {sup 137}Cs, Cr, Cu, Mn and Zn were measured in Mytilus galloprovincialis caught from Thermaikos gulf in North Aegean Sea Greece. The samples were collected seasonally from two aqua-cultures during the period 2000 2003. Measured and published concentrations of the above elements in seawater were used for the evaluation of concentration factors by applying a linear and a non-linear regression analysis. The variation in between the two stations and the seasonal evolution of bioaccumulation of the examined elements was also investigated. Some data on the concentrations of the measured elements in sediments from the area considered were evaluated as for determining the pollution conditions of the organism habitat. (author)

  18. Observations on a population of the sea anemone Anemonia viridis (Forskal, 1775) in the North Aegean Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chariton Chintiroglou, C. [Thessaloniki, Aristotle Univ. (Greece). Dept. of Zoology


    The present paper is concerned with the structural aspects of Anemonia viridis populations found in the North Aegean Sea. It was found that mean wet weight and density of anemone populations increases with depth and distance from shore. Differences in the structure of the Anemonia viridis populations were attributed both to the specific hydrodynamic characteristics of the biotopes and to a number biotic interactions. From our results and t previous investigations the adoption of three different lifestyles by the anemones was assumed.: (1) a colonial form, with population densities around 650 individuals per m{sup 2}, found in substrates exposed to increased hydrodynamism; (2) a colonial form, with lower densities (90 indiv. per m{sup 2}), found in less exposed sites; (3) finally, large individuals in deeper waters chose a solitary lifestyle, as mechanical stresses were much lower.

  19. Inferences on the Mesozoic evolution of the North Aegean from the isotopic record of the Chalkidiki block (United States)

    Kydonakis, Konstantinos; Brun, Jean-Pierre; Poujol, Marc; Monié, Patrick; Chatzitheodoridis, Elias


    The Chalkidiki block is a major domain in the North Aegean that, contrary to other domains in the region, largely escaped thermal perturbations during Tertiary extension. As a result, the Chalkidiki block is an ideal candidate to glean information related to the timing of Mesozoic thermal events using appropriate geochronological techniques. We have undertaken a laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) study (U-Th-Pb on monazites and U-Pb on zircons) coupled with 40Ar/39Ar dating on nine samples from various structural levels within the thrust system of the Chalkidiki block. The eastern, and structurally lower part of the system revealed a complete isotopic reset of Carboniferous - Early Triassic monazites coeval with partial monazite destruction, REE-mobilisation and formation of apatite-allanite-epidote coronas at ~ 132 Ma, a reaction that is commonly observed in amphibolite-facies rocks. These coronas formed after crystallisation of garnet (i.e., at T > 580 °C) and, in all probability, either close to the peak-temperature conditions (~ 620 °C) on a prograde path or during retrogression between the peak-temperature and the low-temperature boundary of the amphibolite facies. Cooling of these rocks and arrival at mid-crustal levels occurred at 95-100 Ma. By contrast, the western, and structurally uppermost part of the system went through the same event by 120-125 Ma. Further structural considerations with respect to medium-temperature geochronology data imply that syn-metamorphic thrusting must have ceased by early Late Cretaceous. We emphasize that, with the sole exception of the Chalkidiki block, no pre-45 Ma medium-temperature geochronology data are preserved in other North Aegean domains, a feature that is clearly related to the extension-induced thermal perturbation of the region during the Tertiary.

  20. Clinical Characteristics of the Premature Ejaculation Sufferers in Aegean Region of the Turkey: A Multicentre, Observational Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Cihan


    Full Text Available Demonstration of the intra-vaginal ejaculation latency time (IELT distribution in male subjects and its clinical expressions among couples in the Aegean region of the Turkey. Materials and Methods Subjects were recruited to the study from six different urologic centers in the Aegean region. During the enrollment period subjects were recruited in to two group according to presence of premature ejaculation (PE. PE diagnosis was made according to DSM-4 definition. Subjects and their partners were evaluated with patient reported outcome measures (PRO related to the ejaculation-based questionnaire (Premature ejaculation patient profile questionnaire -PEPQ. Stopwatch measurements were also asked from each couple to record intravaginal ejaculation latency time (IELT. Couples who completed two clinical visits with 4 wk interval were recruited to the data analysis. Results Among 141 eligible subjects, mean age was 36.5±9.7 years and mean partner age was 32.9±9.8 years. Following the initial evaluation 80 subjects recruited to group 1(PE and 41 subjects recruited to the group 2 (non-PE. Geometric mean IELT of the subjects was significantly differed between PE and non- PE group (64.7±66.8 vs. 521.5±414.7 seconds, p<0.001. All of the PEPQ domain scores were also differed between groups. Subjects in the PE group gave poor ratings than non-PE subjects. Partner responses were similar pattern. Correlation analyses of the PEPQ scores demonstrated significant positive correlations between “perceived control over ejaculation” and “satisfaction with sexual intercourse” domains of the PEPQ and with IELT. Conclusion Geographic distribution of IELT and its impacts among couples by the several subjective aspects of PRO measures should be assessed during PE investigation

  1. Forecasting skill assessment of an oil spill simulation system in the NE Aegean and atmospheric forcing perturbation experiments (United States)

    Kailas, Marios; Chrysagi, Eyrydice; Sofianos, Sarantis


    In the present study, the predictive skill of an oil spill simulation system implemented in the Northern Aegean Sea was evaluated using field observations from surface drifters, provided in the framework of the TOSCA project. The system produces satisfactory results as in most cases the forecasting error is quite small, allowing the operational use of the forecast. In order to examine the sensitivity of the forecast to atmospheric forcing, additional simulations with perturbed atmospheric conditions were performed, using a time-shifting technique. In most experiments the differences between the simulations are relatively small, most likely due to slow oceanic response to variations in the wind fields. From the individual simulations an ensemble forecast was created, the results of which were also compared with the observations. The results suggest that by applying this method a safer forecast can be provided, especially regarding cases for which the wind-driven circulation is predominant. However, in cases where the circulation is characterized by intense velocity gradients (in the NE Aegean this is associated with the thermohaline front created by the Black Sea Water inflow), larger differences are present. They are related to imprecise representation of the location of the front. In these cases, the ensemble method produced no significant improvement since the relatively small differences between the trajectories of the ensemble members indicate that the position of the front in not significantly affected by the wind perturbations, based on the spatio-temporal scales examined. It is concluded that in regions with large spatio-temporal variability, an ensemble forecast produced by simulations generated from perturbed initial conditions could possibly lead to more robust results.

  2. Diet composition of the round sardinella Sardinella aurita Valenciennes, 1847 (Osteichthyes: Clupeidae in the Turkish Aegean Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahar Bayhan


    Full Text Available Sardinella aurita, a round sardinella from Clupeidae family, is a pelagic fish found in tropical and temperate seas, just like other members of its family. The species has a wide distribution and its contribution to Mediterranean and international fisheries production potential is high. In Turkey, this species has a wide distribution in the Mediterranean Sea and the Aegean Sea, on the other hand, it is rarely seen in the Black Sea and Marmara Sea. Apart from its economic contribution to the world fisheries industry, the species has an important role in the food chain in regions it is found as it takes part in diet composition of its predators such as greater amberjack, and common dolphinfish. Nowadays, trophic levels are used in order to develop ecosystem based fisheries management strategies. For this purpose, diet composition of the round sardinella was investigated. Samples were obtained from commercial fishermen, who generally use purse seine and gill nets in Izmir Bay concerned during October 2010 - September 2011. A total of 434 S. aurita were collected all year round, with total lengths ranging 12.1 to 27.1 cm. Fish were dissected immediately after capture, stomachs removed and stored in formalin (10% until the contents were analysed. Stomach contents examined using a SZX7 Olympus stereo microscope. Prey items were identified to the lowest possible taxon. Forty eight species were identified, belonging to six major groups: Polychaeta, Crustacea, Mollusca, Chaetognatha, Tunicate and Teleostei. Finally crustaceans were the most important food item in terms of index of relative importance. At least 31 copepod species were identified, where Calanoida, Oithona nana, Oncaea media and Oithona plumifera appeared all year round with %IRI ≥ 10. With this study, the feeding regime of round sardinella, was identified in detail for the Aegean Sea of Turkey for the first time.

  3. Distribution and relationship of mercury, lead and cadmium in selected tissues of Pagellus erythrinus from the Aegean Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Among the more dangerous pollutants are the so-called heavy metals introduced into marine environment by waste and sewage. Fish are widely used as sentinels of contamination in aquatic environmental. The study area extends from Edremit Bay in the north to Fethiye in the southeastern Aegean. The present environmental problems are due to unmanaged shipping activity, river run-off and untreated sewage discharge by coastal settlements, dumping of toxic and industrial wastes from the western part of Turkey. Red Pandora (Pagellus erythrinus) is very important commercial species and is most consumed ones, so it is selected in this study. Fish tissues (muscle, liver) are commonly used as indicators of degree of contamination of marine environment with metals. metal concentrations were studied in selected marine fishes in the Aegean Sea. Biota samples were collected by trawling from sampling stations in May 1996, September 1997, January and July 1998. Biota tissue is digested in microwave digestion system. All the analyses are performed by atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Hg is measured by cold vapour technique, Cd, Pb are determined by graphite furnace. Intercalibration fish homogenate samples (from IAEA, Monaco) were used as a control for the analytical methods. Statistical analysis was performed using Statistica software. The mean concentrations and standards errors of metals are summarized. The concentrations found in muscle and liver tissues varied, with Hg ranging from 16-716 and 125-5451, Cd ranging from nd-9.6 and 1.4-2245, Pb ranging from nd-1397 and nd-8311 μg kg-1, respectively. There are no significant correlations between fork lengths and metal showed that levels in July differed significantly from January. Mercury is showed that levels at Goecek (9) differed significantly from Izmir Bay (3) and Kusadasi (5). The One-way ANOVA test showed the statistically significant seasonal differences for Cd (p-1 in the western Mediterranean

  4. Carbon dioxide, temperature, salinity, wind speed, air temperature, and atmospheric pressure collected via surface underway survey from R/V Aegaeo in Aegean Sea from February 8, 2006 to February 13, 2006 (NODC Accession 0084543) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0084543 includes chemical, meteorological, and physical underway data collected aboard the AEGAEO in Aegean Sea, and Mediterranean Sea from 8...

  5. Physical and underway data collected aboard the OCEANUS during cruise OC454-02 in the Aegean Sea and Mediterranean Sea - Eastern Basin from 2009-07-28 to 2009-08-05 (NODC Accession 0104319) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC accession 0104319 includes physical and underway data collected aboard the OCEANUS during cruise OC454-02 in the Aegean Sea and Mediterranean Sea - Eastern...

  6. Variscan tectonics in Dodecanese, Kalymnos island, Greece (United States)

    Chatziioannou, Eleftheria; Grasemann, Bernhard; Schneider, David; Hubmann, Bernhard; Soukis, Konstantinos


    Kalymnos island is located in the Dodecanese, southeastern Aegean Sea, and geologically appears to be part of the external Hellenides. Pre-Alpidic basement rocks on the Dodecanese islands have been suggested to record compelling similarities with the basement rocks in Eastern Crete with respect to their lithologies and pre-Alpidic metamorphic evolution. The lithotectonic units experienced greenschist to amphibolite facies conditions during the Variscan orogeny. Whereas the rocks in Eastern Crete reveal Alpine high-pressure overprint, the Variscan basement units in the Dodecanese record no or low-grade Alpine metamorphism. A field study of basement rocks below Mesozoic limestones and dolomites in the NW part of Kalymnos near Emporios uncovered a complex history of metamorphism, folding and faulting. Three different tectonic units can be discriminated from top to bottom: a) a quartz-mica schist, b) a white-grey, fossiliferous coarse grained marble and c) a fine-grained fossiliferous blue-grey marble. In the marbles macrofossils such as brachiopods, ammonoid cephalopods (Goniatids?) and crinoids suggest a Middle-Upper Devonian deposition age (Givetian- Frasnian). Structural mapping the area resolved a dominant W-E shortening event, resulting in an overall inverted metamorphic gradient. The lowermost blue-grey marble unit is folded into large-scale upright folds, which are truncated by top-to-east overthrusting of the white-grey marble unit. Whereas deformation mechanisms in the blue-grey marble unit are dominated by dissolution-precipitation creep, the white-grey marble suffered intense crystal plastic deformation with localized high-strain mylonitic shear zones. The uppermost quartz-mica schist unit is separated from the lower units by a cataclastic phyllonitic shear zone. 40Ar/39Ar geochronological dating on white micas from the quartz-mica schists yielded cooling ages between 240 and 334 Ma indicative of Variscan cooling. Our data suggest that this part of the

  7. Composition of hydrothermal fluids and mineralogy of associated chimney material on the East Scotia Ridge back-arc spreading centre


    James, Rachael H.; Green, Darryl R. H.; Stock, Michael J.; Alker, Belinda J.; Banerjee, Neil R.; Cole, Catherine; German, Christopher R.; Huvenne, Veerle A. I.; Powell, Alexandra M.; Connelly, Douglas P.


    The East Scotia Ridge is an active back-arc spreading centre located to the west of the South Sandwich island arc in the Southern Ocean. Initial exploration of the ridge by deep-tow surveys provided the first evidence for hydrothermal activity in a back-arc setting outside of the western Pacific, and we returned in 2010 with a remotely operated vehicle to precisely locate and sample hydrothermal sites along ridge segments E2 and E9. Here we report the chemical and isotopic composition of high...

  8. Along-arc geochemical and isotopic variations in Javanese volcanic rocks: 'crustal' versus 'source' contamination at the Sunda arc, Indonesia (United States)

    Handley, H.; Blichert-Toft, J.; Turner, S.; Macpherson, C. G.


    lavas. This information presented will help elucidate the nature of the transition between the continental and oceanic basement to the arc, which is expected to lie between Sumatra and East Java. Whitford, D.J. (1975) Strontium isotopic studies of the volcanic rocks of the Sunda arc, Indonesia, and their petrogenesis. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 39: 12871302. Handley, H.K., Macpherson, C. G., Davidson, J. P., Berlo, K. & Lowry, D. (2007). Constraining Fluid and Sediment Contributions to Subduction-Related Magmatism in Indonesia: Ijen Volcanic Complex. J. Petrol. 48, 1155-1183. Handley, H.K., Davidson, J.P., Macpherson, C.G. & Stimac .J.A. (2008). Untangling differentiation in arc lavas: constraints from unusual minor and trace element variations at Salak Volcano, Indonesia. Chem. Geol. 255, 360-376. Handley, H.K., Macpherson, C.G., Davidson, J.P. (2010). Geochemical and Sr-O isotopic constraints on magmatic differentiation at Gede Volcanic Complex, Java, Indonesia. Contrib. Mineral. Pet. 159, 885-908. Handley, H.K., Turner, S., Macpherson, C.G., Gertisser, R., Davidson, J.P. (2011) Hf-Nd isotope and trace element constraints on subduction inputs at island arcs: limitations of Hf anomalies and Sm/Hf ratios as input indicators. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 304, 212-223.

  9. High pressure neon arc lamp (United States)

    Sze, Robert C.; Bigio, Irving J.


    A high pressure neon arc lamp and method of using the same for photodynamic therapies is provided. The high pressure neon arc lamp includes a housing that encloses a quantity of neon gas pressurized to about 500 Torr to about 22,000 Torr. At each end of the housing the lamp is connected by electrodes and wires to a pulse generator. The pulse generator generates an initial pulse voltage to breakdown the impedance of the neon gas. Then the pulse generator delivers a current through the neon gas to create an electrical arc that emits light having wavelengths from about 620 nanometers to about 645 nanometers. A method for activating a photosensitizer is provided. Initially, a photosensitizer is administered to a patient and allowed time to be absorbed into target cells. Then the high pressure neon arc lamp is used to illuminate the target cells with red light having wavelengths from about 620 nanometers to about 645 nanometers. The red light activates the photosensitizers to start a chain reaction that may involve oxygen free radicals to destroy the target cells. In this manner, a high pressure neon arc lamp that is inexpensive and efficiently generates red light useful in photodynamic therapy is provided.

  10. Islands for SAT


    H Fang; Kilani, Y.; Lee, J.H.M.; Stuckey, P. J.


    In this note we introduce the notion of islands for restricting local search. We show how we can construct islands for CNF SAT problems, and how much search space can be eliminated by restricting search to the island.

  11. Beautiful hainan island

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Hainan Island is the second largest island in China. It is situated on the Nanhai Sea(South China Sea) and faces Guangdong Province across Qiongzhou Strait (海峡).Hainan Province was established (建立)in 1988. It consists of Hainan Island, Xisha Islands, Zhongsha Islands, Nansha Islands and the vast sea areas around them.Its total area is 340,000 km2.

  12. Magnetic Signatures and Curie Surface Trend Across an Arc-Continent Collision Zone: An Example from Central Philippines (United States)

    Manalo, Pearlyn C.; Dimalanta, Carla B.; Ramos, Noelynna T.; Faustino-Eslava, Decibel V.; Queaño, Karlo L.; Yumul, Graciano P.


    Ground and aeromagnetic data are combined to characterize the onshore and offshore magnetic properties of the central Philippines, whose tectonic setting is complicated by opposing subduction zones, large-scale strike-slip faulting and arc-continent collision. The striking difference between the magnetic signatures of the islands with established continental affinity and those of the islands belonging to the island arc terrane is observed. Negative magnetic anomalies are registered over the continental terrane, while positive magnetic anomalies are observed over the Philippine Mobile Belt. Several linear features in the magnetic anomaly map coincide with the trace of the Philippine Fault and its splays. Power spectral analysis of the magnetic data reveals that the Curie depth across the central Philippines varies. The deepest point of the magnetic crust is beneath Mindoro Island at 32 km. The Curie surface shallows toward the east: the Curie surface is 21 km deep between the islands of Sibuyan and Masbate, and 18 km deep at the junction of Buruanga Peninsula and Panay Island. The shallowest Curie surface (18 km) coincides with the boundary of the arc-continent collision, signifying the obduction of mantle rocks over the continental basement. Comparison of the calculated Curie depth with recent crustal thickness models reveals the same eastwards thinning trend and range of depths. The coincidence of the magnetic boundary and the density boundary may support the existence of a compositional boundary that reflects the crust-mantle interface.

  13. Lateral variation of H2O contents in Quaternary Magma of central Northeastern Japan arc (United States)

    Miyagi, I.; Matsu'ura, T.; Itoh, J.; Morishita, Y.


    Water plays a key role in the genesis and eruptive mechanisms of subduction zone volcanoes. We estimated bulk rock water content of both frontal and back arc volcanoes from Northeastern Japan arc in order to understand the lateral variation of magmatic H2O contents in the island arc magma. Our analytical targets are the Adachi volcano located near the volcanic front and the Hijiori volcano located on back arc side. In this study, the bulk magmatic H2O content is estimated by a simple mass balance calculation of the chemistry of bulk rock and melt inclusions in phenocrysts; the melt H2O contents of melt inclusions analyzed by SIMS or EPMA are corrected according to the difference in K2O content between melt inclusions and bulk rock. The bulk magmatic H2O we obtained is 8 wt. % or even more for Adachi and is 2-3 wt. % for Hijiori. Thus, the frontal volcano has higher H2O than the back arc volcano. Although our data are opposed to the previous estimation on the lateral variation of H2O contents in Quaternary volcanoes of Northeastern Japan arc (e.g., Sakuyama, 1979), thermodynamic computations using MELTS (Ghiorso and Sack, 1995) suggest that the amount of bulk magmatic H2O we estimated is consistent with petrographical observations. Our data imply a regional characteristics in the type of eruption that the H2O rich frontal volcanoes will erupt explosively and those H2O poor back arc ones will be effusive, which implication is consistent with actual geological observations that volcanoes located on back arc side of the Northeastern Japan arc generally comprise lava flow (e.g., Iwaki, Kanpu, Chokai, Gassan), in contrast to the frontal ones that produced voluminous tephra (e.g., Osorezan, Towada, Narugo, Adachi). This research project has been conducted under the research contract with Nuclear and Industrial Safety Agency (NISA).

  14. Strain and flow in the metamorphic core complex of Ios Island (Cyclades, Greece) (United States)

    Mizera, Marcel; Behrmann, Jan H.


    We have analysed strain and flow kinematics in the footwall of the South Cyclades Shear Zone (SCSZ), an important tectonic boundary within the Attic-Cycladic Crystalline Complex exposed on Ios Island, Cyclades, Aegean Sea. Coarse-grained augen gneisses in the basement unit flooring the SCSZ and forming a metamorphic core complex are excellently suited to measure finite strain using the Fry method and estimate the vorticity number (W k) of flow with the "blocked-object" method. The results show that Oligo-Miocene exhumation of the basement unit during extension brought approximately 70 % N-S crustal stretching and up to 40 % subvertical shortening in a plane strain environment (k = 0.99). Linear down-section strain decrease constrains a zone of contact deformation of the SCSZ of about 1.5 km thick. Kinematic vorticity number estimates suggest little deviation from pure shear (W k = 0.26). Finite strain and W k are not correlated, indicating that the Ios basement and the overlying cover units were stretched compatibly. While the SCSZ is a localized zone of high strain, net displacement, however, may be restricted to about ten kilometres. This has important repercussions on large-scale tectonic models for extension in the Aegean.

  15. Peeking through the trapdoor: Historical biogeography of the Aegean endemic spider Cyrtocarenum Ausserer, 1871 with an estimation of mtDNA substitution rates for Mygalomorphae. (United States)

    Kornilios, P; Thanou, E; Kapli, P; Parmakelis, A; Chatzaki, M


    The Aegean region, located in the Eastern Mediterranean, is an area of rich biodiversity and endemism. Its position, geographical configuration and complex geological history have shaped the diversification history of many animal taxa. Mygalomorph spiders have drawn the attention of researchers, as excellent model systems for phylogeographical investigations. However, phylogeographic studies of spiders in the Aegean region are scarce. In this study, we focused on the phylogeography of the endemic ctenizid trap-door spider Cyrtocarenum Ausserer, 1871. The genus includes two morphologically described species: C. grajum (C.L. Koch, 1836) and C. cunicularium (Olivier, 1811). We sampled 60 specimens from the distributions of both species and analyzed four mitochondrial and two nuclear markers. Cyrtocarenum served as an example to demonstrate the importance of natural history traits in the inference of phylogeographic scenarios. The mtDNA substitution rates inferred for the genus are profoundly higher compared to araneomorph spiders and other arthropods, which seems tightly associated with their biology. We evaluate published mtDNA substitution rates followed in the literature for mygalomorph spiders and discuss potential pitfalls. Following gene tree (maximum likelihood, Bayesian inference) and species tree approaches ((*)BEAST), we reconstructed a time-calibrated phylogeny of the genus. These results, combined with a biogeographical ancestral-area analysis, helped build a biogeographic scenario that describes how the major palaeogeographic and palaeoclimatic events of the Aegean may have affected the distribution of Cyrtocarenum lineages. The diversification of the genus seems to have begun in the Middle Miocene in the present west Aegean area, while major phylogenetic events occurred at the Miocene-Pliocene boundary for C. cunicularium, probably related to the Messinian Salinity Crisis. Our results also demonstrate the clear molecular distinction of the two

  16. Field‐based validation of a diagenetic effect on G. ruber Mg/Ca paleothermometry: Core top results from the Aegean Sea (eastern Mediterranean)


    Kontakiotis, George; Mortyn, Peter Graham; Antonarakou, Assimina; Martínez Botí, M. A.; Triantaphyllou, Maria V.


    Recent work across the Mediterranean Sea has illustrated the salinity and overgrowth effects on planktonic foraminiferal Mg/Ca, which potentially confound the use of this as a temperature proxy for paleoceanographic reconstructions. To test and verify these effects, we present new Aegean Sea results which reveal Mg/Ca values that were unreasonably high to be explained by temperature or salinity variations alone, confirming that foraminiferal Mg/Ca is affected by diagenesis. We have specifical...

  17. Minor arcs for Goldbach's problem


    Helfgott, H. A.


    The ternary Goldbach conjecture states that every odd number n>=7 is the sum of three primes. The estimation of sums of the form \\sum_{p\\leq x} e(\\alpha p), \\alpha = a/q + O(1/q^2), has been a central part of the main approach to the conjecture since (Vinogradov, 1937). Previous work required q or x to be too large to make a proof of the conjecture for all n feasible. The present paper gives new bounds on minor arcs and the tails of major arcs. This is part of the author's proof of the ternar...

  18. Unzipping of the volcano arc, Japan (United States)

    Stern, R.J.; Smoot, N.C.; Rubin, M.


    A working hypothesis for the recent evolution of the southern Volcano Arc, Japan, is presented which calls upon a northward-progressing sundering of the arc in response to a northward-propagating back-arc basin extensional regime. This model appears to explain several localized and recent changes in the tectonic and magrnatic evolution of the Volcano Arc. Most important among these changes is the unusual composition of Iwo Jima volcanic rocks. This contrasts with normal arc tholeiites typical of the rest of the Izu-Volcano-Mariana and other primitive arcs in having alkaline tendencies, high concentrations of light REE and other incompatible elements, and relatively high silica contents. In spite of such fractionated characteristics, these lavas appear to be very early manifestations of a new volcanic and tectonic cycle in the southern Volcano Arc. These alkaline characteristics and indications of strong regional uplift are consistent with the recent development of an early stage of inter-arc basin rifting in the southern Volcano Arc. New bathymetric data are presented in support of this model which indicate: 1. (1) structural elements of the Mariana Trough extend north to the southern Volcano Arc. 2. (2) both the Mariana Trough and frontal arc shoal rapidly northwards as the Volcano Arc is approached. 3. (3) rugged bathymetry associated with the rifted Mariana Trough is replaced just south of Iwo Jima by the development of a huge dome (50-75 km diameter) centered around Iwo Jima. Such uplifted domes are the immediate precursors of rifts in other environments, and it appears that a similar situation may now exist in the southern Volcano Arc. The present distribution of unrifted Volcano Arc to the north and rifted Mariana Arc to the south is interpreted not as a stable tectonic configuration but as representing a tectonic "snapshot" of an arc in the process of being rifted to form a back-arc basin. ?? 1984.

  19. 3d Velocity Tomography of The Kos - Nisyros Volcanic Area - East Aegean Sea (United States)

    Nikolova, S.; Ilinski, D.; Makris, J.; Chonia, T.; Stavrakakis, J.

    Since June 2000, active and passive seismic observations have been carried out by IfG, GeoPro GmbH, Hamburg and Institute of Geodynamics, Athens within the frame of the project GEOWARN (Geo-Spacial Warning Systems Nisyros Volcano, Greece: An Emergency Case Study of the Volcanic Area of Nisyros) supported by the European Community. In the active experiment 48 recording seismic units were deployed and recorded more than 7000 shots in 3D array. The Nisyros volcano has been identified as an apophytic intrusion of much larger volcanic structure with a caldera of 35 km diameter, extending between the southern coasts of the islands of Kos and Nisyros. To obtain 3-D velocity structure of the area a tomographic inversion was made using 6800 rays which probed the area with a very high ray density. The method applied and the high accuracy of active tomographic data allowed to resolve the high velocity bodies in the caldera. The complex volcanic structure is identified by high velocity rocks in- truding through the upper crust and penetrating the volcanic cone to depth of approx. 1.0 km to 1.8 km below the surface. Particularly high velocity bodies were identified below the islands of Yali and the central caldera of Nisyros. The high velocity bodies at shallow depth were interpreted as high-density cumulates of solidified magma intru- sion in the caldera. These intrusions explain very high temperature of 300C observed in the lower aquifer in the caldera at 1.5 km depth as confirmed by drilling. The vol- canic edifices of Kos, Yali, Nisyros and Strongily are part of a major volcanic caldera nearly 35 km in diameter. This size of the volcanic caldera explains the large volume of ignimbrites erupted 160 000 years ago. By combining geodetic, geophysical, geo- chemical and geological observations it is intended to correlate magma movements and associated changes of physical and chemical parameters of the recent volcanism.

  20. Review of variations in Mw < 7 earthquake motions on position and TEC (Mw = 6.5 Aegean Sea earthquake sample) (United States)

    Yildirim, Omer; Inyurt, Samed; Mekik, Cetin


    Turkey is a country located in the middle latitude zone, where tectonic activity is intensive. Recently, an earthquake of magnitude 6.5 Mw occurred offshore in the Aegean Sea on 24 May 2014 at 09:25 UTC, which lasted about 40 s. The earthquake was also felt in Greece, Romania, and Bulgaria in addition to Turkey. In recent years, ionospheric anomaly detection studies have been carried out because of seismicity with total electron content (TEC) computed from the global navigation satellite system's (GNSS) signal delays and several interesting findings have been published. In this study, both TEC and positional variations have been examined separately following a moderate size earthquake in the Aegean Sea. The correlation of the aforementioned ionospheric variation with the positional variation has also been investigated. For this purpose, a total of 15 stations was used, including four continuously operating reference stations in Turkey (CORS-TR) and stations in the seismic zone (AYVL, CANA, IPSA, and YENC), as well as international GNSS service (IGS) and European reference frame permanent network (EPN) stations. The ionospheric and positional variations of the AYVL, CANA, IPSA, and YENC stations were examined using Bernese v5.0 software. When the precise point positioning TEC (PPP-TEC) values were examined, it was observed that the TEC values were approximately 4 TECU (total electron content unit) above the upper-limit TEC value at four stations located in Turkey, 3 days before the earthquake at 08:00 and 10:00 UTC. At the same stations, on the day before the earthquake at 06:00, 08:00, and 10:00 UTC, the TEC values were approximately 5 TECU below the lower-limit TEC value. The global ionosphere model TEC (GIM-TEC) values published by the Centre for Orbit Determination in Europe (CODE) were also examined. Three days before the earthquake, at all stations, it was observed that the TEC values in the time period between 08:00 and 10:00 UTC were approximately 2 TECU

  1. Foraminifera eco-biostratigraphy of the southern Evoikos outer shelf, central Aegean Sea, during MIS 5 to present (United States)

    Drinia, Hara; Antonarakou, Assimina; Tsourou, Theodora; Kontakiotis, George; Psychogiou, Maria; Anastasakis, George


    The South Evoikos Basin is a marginal basin in the Aegean Sea which receives little terrigenous supply and its sedimentation is dominated by hemipelagic processes. Late Quaternary benthic and planktonic foraminifera from core PAG-155 are investigated in order to understand their response to the glacial-interglacial cycles in this region. The quantitative analysis of planktonic foraminifera, coupled with accelerator mass spectrometry (14C-AMS) radiocarbon date measurements, provide an integrated chrono-stratigraphic time framework over the last 90 ka (time interval between late Marine Isotopic Stages 5 and 1; MIS5-MIS1). The temporary appearance and disappearance as well as several abundance peaks in the quantitative distribution of selected climate-sensitive planktonic species allowed the identification of several eco-bioevents, useful to accurately mark the boundaries of the eco-biozones widely recognized in the Mediterranean records and used for large-scale correlations. The established bio-ecozonation scheme allows a detailed palaecological reconstruction for the late Pleistocene archive in the central Aegean, and furthermore provides a notable contribution for palaeoclimatic studies, facilitating intercorrelations between various oceanographic basins. The quantitative analyses of benthic foraminifera identify four distinct assemblages, namely Biofacies: Elphidium spp., Haynesina spp. Biofacies, characterized by neritic species, dominated during the transition from MIS 5 to MIS 4; Cassidulina laevigata/carinata Biofacies dominated till 42 ka (transgressive trend from MIS 4 to MIS 3); Bulimina gibba Biofacies dominated from 42 ka to 9.5 ka (extensive regression MIS 3,2 through lowstand and early transgression; beginning of MIS 1); Bulimina marginata, Uvigerina spp. Biofacies dominated from 9.5 ka to the present (late transgression through early highstand; MIS 1)., This study showed that the South Evoikos Basin which is characterized by its critical depths and

  2. Sea level changes along the Turkish coasts of the Black Sea, the Aegean Sea and the Eastern Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. ALPAR


    Full Text Available Short, tidal, subtidal, seasonal, secular sea-level variations, sea-level differences and interactions between the basins have been studied, based on the data collected at some permanent and temporary tide gauges located along the Turkish coasts, mostly along the Straits connecting the Marmara Sea to outer seas. Even though the deficiency of sufficient information prevented us to reach the desired results, many pre-existed studies have been improved. Short-period oscillations were clearly identified along the Turkish Strait System and related to their natu-ral periods. The tidal amplitudes are low along the Turkish coasts, except northern Aegean and eastern Mediterranean. The stability of harmonic constants of Samsun and Antalya were examined and most of the long period constituents were found to be unstable. Even the Marmara Sea is not affected from the tidal oscillations of Black and Aegean Seas, some interactions in low frequency band have been detected. Subtidal sea level fluctuations (3-14 day have relations with the large-scale cyclic atmospheric patterns passing over the Turkish Straits System. Short-term effects of wind on sea level are evident.Seasonal sea-level fluctuations along the Turkish Straits System are in accord with Black Sea's hydrological cycle. The differential range of the monthly mean sea levels between the Black Sea and the Marmara Sea is highly variable; high during spring and early summer and low during fall and winter.On the average, there is a pronounced sea-level difference (55 cm along the Turkish Straits System. However, the slope is nonlinear, being much steeper in the Strait of Istanbul. This barotrophic pressure difference is one of the most important factors causing the two-layer flow through the system. The topography and hydrodynamics of the straits, the dominant wind systems and their seasonal variations make this flow more complicated. For secular sea level changes, a rise of 3.2 mm/a was computed for

  3. Hooded arc ion-source

    CERN Multimedia


    The positioning system for the hooded arc ion-source, shown prior to mounting, consists of four excentric shafts to locate the ion-source and central electrodes. It will be placed on the axis of the SC and introduced into the vacuum tank via the air locks visible in the foreground.

  4. Craniospinal irradiation using Rapid Arc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fandino, J. M.; Silva, M. C.; Marino, A.; Candal, A.; Diaz, I.; Fernandez, C.; Gesto, C.; Izquierdo, P.; Losada, C.; Poncet, M.; Soto, M.; Triana, G.


    Cranio-Spinal Irradiation is technically very challenging, historically field edge matching is needed because of the mechanical limitations of standard linear accelerators. The purpose of this study is to assess the Volumetric Arc Therapy as a competitive technique for Cranio-Spinal Irradiation compared to the conventional 3D Conformal Radiotherapy technique. (Author)

  5. Subduction of fore-arc crust beneath an intra-oceanic arc: The high-P Cuaba mafic gneisess and amphibolites of the Rio San Juan Complex, Dominican Republic (United States)

    Escuder-Viruete, Javier; Castillo-Carrión, Mercedes


    The Rio San Juan metamorphic complex (RSJC) exposes a segment of a high-P accretionary prism, built during Late Cretaceous subduction below the intra-oceanic Caribbean island-arc. In this paper we present new detailed maps, tectonostratigraphy, large-scale structure, mineral chemistry, in situ trace element composition of clinopyroxene (Cpx), and bulk rock geochemical data for representative garnet-free peridotites and mafic metaigneous rocks of the Cuaba and Helechal tectonometamorphic units of the southern RSJC. The Cuaba subcomplex is composed of upper foliated amphibolites and lower garnet amphibolites, retrograded (coronitic) eclogites, and heterogeneous metagabbros metamorphosed to upper amphibolite and eclogite-facies conditions. The lenticular bodies of associated peridotites are Cpx-poor harzburgites. The underlying Helechal subcomplex is composed of Cpx-poor harzburgites, Cpx-rich harzbugites, lherzolites and rare dunites. The presented data allow us to argue that the Cuaba subcomplex: (a) represents tectonically deformed and metamorphosed crust of the Caribbean island-arc, (b) contains fragments of its supra-subduction zone mantle, and (c) includes different geochemical groups of mafic protoliths generated by varying melting degrees of diverse mantle sources. These geochemical groups include mid-Ti tholeiites (N-MORB), normal IAT and calc-alkaline rocks, low-Ti IAT, metacumulates of boninitic affinity, and HREE-depleted IAT, that collectively record a multi-stage magmatic evolution for the Caribbean island-arc, prior to the Late Cretaceous high-P metamorphism. Further, these mafic protoliths present comparable geochemical features to mafic igneous rocks of the Puerca Gorda Schists, Cacheal and Puerto Plata complexes, all of them related to the Caribbean island-arc. These relations suggest that the southern RSJC complex represents part of the subducted fore-arc of the Caribbean island-arc, which experienced initial subduction, underplating below the arc

  6. STRUVE arc and EUPOS® stations (United States)

    Lasmane, Ieva; Kaminskis, Janis; Balodis, Janis; Haritonova, Diana


    The Struve Geodetic Arc was developed in Years 1816 to 1855, 200 years ago. Historic information on the points of the Struve Geodetic Arc are included in the UNESCO World Heritage list in 2005. Nevertheless, the sites of many points are still not identified nor included in the data bases nowadays. Originally STRUVE arc consisted of 258 main triangles with 265 triangulation points. Currently 34 of the original station points are identified and included in the in the UNESCO World Heritage list. identified original measurement points of the Meridian Arc are located in Sweden (7 points), Norway (15), Finland (83), Russia (1), Estonia (22), Latvia (16), Lithuania (18), Belorussia (28), Ukraine (59) and Moldova (27). In Year 2002 was initiated another large coverage project - European Position Determination System "EUPOS®". Currently there are about 400 continuously operating GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite Systems) stations covering EU countries Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Czech Republic, Slovakia, Hungary, Bulgaria, Romania and East European countries Ukraine and Moldavia. EUPOS® network is a ground based GNSS augmentation system widely used for geodesy, land surveying, geophysics and navigation. It gives the opportunity for fast and accurate position determination never available before. It is an honorable task to use the EUPOS® system for research of the Struve triangulation former sites. Projects with Struve arc can popularize geodesy, geo-information and its meaning in nowadays GIS and GNSS systems. Struve Arc and its points is unique cooperation cross-border object which deserve special attention because of their natural beauty and historical value for mankind. GNSS in geodesy discovers a powerful tool for the verification and validation of the height values of geodetic leveling benchmarks established historically almost 200 years ago. The differential GNSS and RTK methods appear very useful to identify vertical displacement of landscape by means of

  7. Making Conductive Polymers By Arc Tracking (United States)

    Daech, Alfred F.


    Experimental technique for fabrication of electrically conductive polymeric filaments based on arc tracking, in which electrical arc creates conductive carbon track in material that initially was insulator. Electrically conductive polymeric structures made by arc tracking aligned along wire on which formed. Alignment particularly suited to high conductivity and desirable in materials intended for testing as candidate superconductors.

  8. Seismological constraints and speculations on Banda arc tectonics (United States)

    McCaffrey, Robert

    Fault plane solutions of shallow earthquakes show that the collision of the Australian continent with the Banda Arc shortens the overriding Indonesian plate in the north-south direction and elongates it in the east-west direction by a combination of strike-slip and thrust faulting. The shallow tectonics and the distribution of deep earthquakes beneath the Banda Basin both indicate that two plates subduct beneath the Banda Arc; the Australia-Indian Ocean plate northward beneath the Java Trench, Timor Trough, and Aru Troughs, and the Bird's Head southwestward beneath the Seram Trough. The slab of the Indian Ocean plate forms a westward plunging synform beneath the Banda Basin. Its unusual shape in interpreted to have been caused by subduction beneath the westward moving Pacific plate which transported slivers of New Guinea into the back arc. The lithosphere of the Bird's Head was subducted beneath the Seram Trough and now reaches 300 km depth. At the surface decoupling between Australian and the Bird's Head probably occurs by left-lateral strike slip at the Tarera-Aiduna fault zone in western Irian Jaya and by convergence in the New Guinea fold-and-thrust belt. Seismic quiescence occurs at depths of 50 to 380 km beneath both Timor and the inactive volcanic arc to its north but the efficient propagation of S-waves through the same volume suggests that the lithospheric slab is continuous there. The lack of seismic and volcanic activity may result from removal of part of the Australian continental crust prior to subduction of the lower part of the lithosphere. This crust was stacked up to form the island of Timor.

  9. Occurrence and partitioning of endocrine-disrupting compounds in the marine environment of Thermaikos Gulf, Northern Aegean Sea, Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Add knowledge regarding the fate of EDCs in marine environment. ► Nonylphenols and its ethoxylates are the dominant pollutants. ► EDCs originated from mainly from river and urban effluents. ► The partition coefficients negatively correlated to suspended particulate matter. ► Mussels exhibited low bioconcentartion factors for nonylphenol and octylphenol. - Abstract: An integrated study was conducted to determine the presence of phenolic and steroid endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs), in the marine environment of Thermaikos Gulf, Northern Aegean Sea, Greece. Seawater, suspended particulate matter, sediments and biota were examined for nonylphenol, octylphenol, their mono- and diethoxylate oligomers, bisphenol A, estrone, 17α-estradiol, 17β-estradiol, estriol, mestranol and 17 α-ethynylestradiol. Phenolic compounds were detected in all of the compartments, with nonylphenol and its ethoxylates being the dominant pollutants. The occurrence of nonylphenol in sediments presents a significant risk to the biota. Mussels exhibited relatively low concentrations and low bioconcentration factors for NP and OP. The effect of terrestrial sources of the EDCs on the marine environment is discussed. The influence of suspended particulate matter and organic carbon in the partition of the EDCs between the dissolved and the particulate phase was investigated.

  10. Delimitation of the warm and cold period of the year based on the variation of the Aegean sea surface temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Knowledge of the warm and cold season onset is important for the living conditions and the occupational activities of the inhabitants of a given area, and especially for agriculture and tourism. This paper presents a way to estimate the onset/end of the cold and warm period of the year, based on the sinusoidal annual variation of the Sea Surface Temperature. The method was applied on data from 8 stations of the Hellenic Navy Hydrographic Service, covering the period from 1965-1995. The results showed that the warm period starts sometime between April 28th and May 21st while it ends between October 27th and November 19th in accordance with the findings of other studies. Characteristic of the nature of the parameter used is the very low variance per station – 15 days at maximum. The average date of warm period onset is statistically the same for the largest part of the Aegean, with only one differentiation, that between Kavala and the southern stations ( Thira and Heraklion.

  11. Simulation of Magnetically Dispersed Arc Plasma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白冰; 查俊; 张晓宁; 王城; 夏维东


    Magnetically dispersed arc plasma exhibits typically dispersed uniform arc column as well as diffusive cathode root and diffusive anode root. In this paper magnetically dispersed arc plasma coupled with solid cathode is numerically simulated by the simplified cathode sheath model of LOWKE . The numerical simulation results in argon show that the maximum value of arc root current density on the cathode surface is 3.5×10^7 A/m^2), and the maximum value of energy flux on the cathode surface is 3× 10^7 J/m^2, both values are less than the average values of a contracted arc, respectively.

  12. A mechanism that triggers double arcing during plasma arc cutting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nemchinsky, Valerian, E-mail: [Keiser University, Fort Lauderdale, FL 33309 (United States)


    Double arcing (DA) is a phenomenon when a transferred arc, flowing inside an electrically insulated nozzle, breaks into two separate arcs: one that connects the cathode and the nozzle and another that connects the nozzle and a work-piece. It is a commonly accepted opinion that the reason for DA is high voltage drop in the plasma inside the nozzle. However, the specific mechanism that triggers the DA development is not clear. In this paper, we propose such a mechanism. Dielectric films deposited inside the nozzle's orifice play the key role in this mechanism. These films are charged by ion current from plasma. A strong electric field is created inside the film and at the boundary of the film and clean metal of the nozzle. This gives rise to a thermo-field electron emission from the clean metal that borders the film. Emitted electrons are accelerated at the voltage drop between the nozzle and plasma. These electrons produce extra ions, which in turn move back to the film and additionally charge it. This sequence of events leads to explosive instability if the voltage drop inside the nozzle is high enough. Experiments to check the proposed mechanism are suggested.

  13. Intraspecific Colour Variation among Lizards in Distinct Island Environments Enhances Local Camouflage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate L A Marshall

    Full Text Available Within-species colour variation is widespread among animals. Understanding how this arises can elucidate evolutionary mechanisms, such as those underlying reproductive isolation and speciation. Here, we investigated whether five island populations of Aegean wall lizards (Podarcis erhardii have more effective camouflage against their own (local island substrates than against other (non-local island substrates to avian predators, and whether this was linked to island differences in substrate appearance. We also investigated whether degree of local substrate matching varied among island populations and between sexes. In most populations, both sexes were better matched against local backgrounds than against non-local backgrounds, particularly in terms of luminance (perceived lightness, which usually occurred when local and non-local backgrounds were different in appearance. This was found even between island populations that historically had a land connection and in populations that have been isolated relatively recently, suggesting that isolation in these distinct island environments has been sufficient to cause enhanced local background matching, sometimes on a rapid evolutionary time-scale. However, heightened local matching was poorer in populations inhabiting more variable and unstable environments with a prolonged history of volcanic activity. Overall, these results show that lizard coloration is tuned to provide camouflage in local environments, either due to genetic adaptation or changes during development. Yet, the occurrence and extent of selection for local matching may depend on specific conditions associated with local ecology and biogeographic history. These results emphasize how anti-predator adaptations to different environments can drive divergence within a species, which may contribute to reproductive isolation among populations and lead to ecological speciation.

  14. Zircon Recycling in Arc Intrusions (United States)

    Miller, J.; Barth, A.; Matzel, J.; Wooden, J.; Burgess, S.


    Recycling of zircon has been well established in arc intrusions and arc volcanoes, but a better understanding of where and how zircons are recycled can help illuminate how arc magma systems are constructed. To that end, we are conducting age, trace element (including Ti-in-zircon temperatures; TzrnTi) and isotopic studies of zircons from the Late Cretaceous (95-85 Ma) Tuolumne Intrusive Suite (TIS) in the Sierra Nevada Batholith (CA). Within the TIS zircons inherited from ancient basement sources and/or distinctly older host rocks are uncommon, but recycled zircon antecrysts from earlier periods of TIS-related magmatism are common and conspicuous in the inner and two most voluminous units of the TIS, the Half Dome and Cathedral Peak Granodiorites. All TIS units have low bulk Zr ([Zr]825°C), [Zr] in the TIS is a factor of 2 to 3 lower than saturation values. Low [Zr] in TIS rocks might be attributed to a very limited supply of zircon in the source, by disequilibrium melting and rapid melt extraction [1], by melting reactions involving formation of other phases that can incorporate appreciable Zr [2], or by removal of zircon at an earlier stage of magma evolution. Based on a preliminary compilation of literature data, low [Zr] is common to Late Cretaceous N.A. Cordilleran granodioritic/tonalitic intrusions (typically Tzrnsat [3]. A corollary is that slightly older zircon antecrysts that are common in the inner units of the TIS could be considered inherited if they are derived from remelting of slightly older intrusions. Remelting at such low temperatures in the arc would require a source of external water. Refs: [1] Sawyer, J.Pet 32:701-738; [2] Fraser et al, Geology 25:607-610; [3] Harrison et al, Geology 35:635- 638

  15. Geodetic Constraints From The Volcanic Arc Of The Andaman - Nicobar Subduction Zone (United States)

    Earnest, A.; Krishnan, R.; Mayandi, S.; Sringeri, S. T.; Jade, S.


    We report first ever GPS derived surface deformation rates in the Barren and Narcondum volcanic islands east of Andaman-Nicobar archipelago which lies in the Bay of Bengal, a zone that generates frequent earthquakes, and coincides with the eastern plate boundary of India. The tectonics of this region is predominantly driven by the subduction of the Indian plate under the Burma plate. Andaman sea region hosts few volcanoes which lies on the inner arc extending between Sumatra and Myanmar with the sub-aerial expressions at Barren and Narcondum Islands. Barren Island, about 135 km ENE of Port Blair, is presently active with frequent eruptive histories whereas Narcondum is believed to be dormant. We initiated precise geodetic campaign mode measurements at Barren Island between 2007 to 2012 and one year (2011-2012) continuous measurements at Narcondum island. Preliminary results from this study forms a unique data set, being the first geodetic estimate from the volcanic arc of this subducting margin. Our analysis indicates horizontal convergence of the Barren benchmark to south-westward (SW) direction towards the Andaman accretionary fore-arc wedge where as the Narcondum benchmark recorded northeast (NE) motion. West of the Andaman fore-arc there is NE oriented subduction of the Indian plate which is moving at the rate of ~5 cm/yr. Convergence rates for the Indian plate from the Nuvel 1A model also show oblique convergence towards N23°E at 5.4 cm/yr. GPS derived inter seismic motion of Andaman islands prior to 2004 Sumatra earthquake is ~4.5 cm/yr NE. The marginal sea basin east of Barren Island at the Andaman spreading ridge has a NNW orienting opening of the sea-floor at 3.6 cm/yr. However the recent post seismic measurements of Andaman islands indicate rotation of displacement vectors from SW to NNE during 2005 to 2012. In this tectonic backdrop, the estimated rate of displacement of the volcanic islands probably represents a composite signal of tectonic as well as

  16. Minor arcs for Goldbach's problem

    CERN Document Server

    Helfgott, H A


    The ternary Goldbach conjecture states that every odd number $n\\geq 7$ is the sum of three primes. The estimation of sums of the form $\\sum_{p\\leq x} e(\\alpha p)$, $\\alpha = a/q + O(1/q^2)$, has been a central part of the main approach to the conjecture since (Vinogradov, 1937). Previous work required $q$ or $x$ to be too large to make a proof of the conjecture for all $n$ feasible. The present paper gives new bounds on minor arcs and the tails of major arcs. For $q\\geq 4\\cdot 10^6$, these bounds are of the strength needed to solve the ternary Goldbach conjecture. Only the range $q\\in \\lbrack 10^5, 4\\cdot 10^6\\rbrack$ remains to be checked, possibly by brute force, before the conjecture is proven for all $n$. The new bounds are due to several qualitative improvements. In particular, this paper presents a general method for reducing the cost of Vaughan's identity, as well as a way to exploit the tails of minor arcs in the context of the large sieve.

  17. Researching Pacific island livelihoods:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egelund Christensen, Andreas; Mertz, Ole


    on contemporary theories of nissology and conceptual analytical frameworks for island research. Through a review of selected case-study-based island literature on changing livelihoods coming out of the South Pacific, we wish to illustrate and discuss advantages of finding common grounds for small island studies......Small island literature is vast in focus and aim, and is rooted in many different disciplines. The challenge is to find common grounds for researching small islands conceptually and theoretically. The aim of this article is to comment on how to research small islands, including a discussion....... The focus is on two dimensions of island livelihood, migration and natural resource management, both of which are significant contributors in making island livelihoods and shaping Pacific seascapes. We argue that there is still a substantial lack of studies targeting small island dynamics that are empirical...

  18. Arc Root Attachment on the Anode Surface of Arc Plasma Torch Observed with a Novel Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PAN Wen-Xia; LI Teng; MENG Xian; CHEN Xi; WU Cheng-Kang


    @@ The arc-root attachment on the anode surface of a dc non-transferred arc plasma torch has been successfullyobserved using a novel approach. A specially designed copper mirror with a boron nitride film coated on itssurface central-region is employed to avoid the effect of intensive light emitted from the arc column upon theobservation of weakly luminous arc root. It is found that the arc-root attachment is diffusive on the anode surfaceof the argon plasma torch, while constricted arc roots often occur when hydrogen or nitrogen is added into argonas the plasma-forming gas.

  19. Detrital U-Pb zircon dating of lower Ordovician syn-arc-continent collision conglomerates in the Irish Caledonides (United States)

    Clift, P.D.; Carter, A.; Draut, A.E.; Long, H.V.; Chew, D.M.; Schouten, H.A.


    The Early Ordovician Grampian Orogeny in the British Isles represents a classic example of collision between an oceanic island arc and a passive continental margin, starting around 480??Ma. The South Mayo Trough in western Ireland preserves a complete and well-dated sedimentary record of arc collision. We sampled sandstones and conglomerates from the Rosroe, Maumtrasna and Derryveeny Formations in order to assess erosion rates and patterns during and after arc collision. U-Pb dating of zircons reveals a provenance dominated by erosion from the upper levels of the Dalradian Supergroup (Southern Highland and Argyll Groups), with up to 20% influx from the colliding arc into the Rosroe Formation, but only 6% in the Maumtrasna Formation (~ 465??Ma). The dominant source regions lay to the northeast (e.g. in the vicinity of the Ox Mountains, 50??km distant, along strike). The older portions of the North Mayo Dalradian and its depositional basement (the Annagh Gneiss Complex) do not appear to have been important sources, while the Connemara Dalradian only plays a part after 460??Ma, when it supplies the Derryveeny Formation. By this time all erosion from the arc had effectively ceased and exhumation rates had slowed greatly. The Irish Grampian Orogeny parallels the modern Taiwan collision in showing little role for the colliding arc in the production of sediment. Negligible volumes of arc crust are lost because of erosion during accretion to the continental margin. ?? 2008 Elsevier B.V.

  20. Ege İhracatçılar Birliklerinde Servqual Ölçeği ile Hizmet Kalitesinin Ölçülmesi(Measurement of Service Quality in Aegean Exporter’s Union by Servqual Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esin FİRUZAN


    Full Text Available This study is based on the firm chosen from Aegean Exporter’s Union which is one of the 12 exporter’s union united under general secretariat in Turkey. Aim of the paper is to evaluate the survey designed by the service quality criteria. This survey is supposed to measure the needs and expectations of firms is satisfied by general secretariat. The service quality (fifth blank and blanks within fifth blank have been measured by servqual scale in Aegean Exporter’s Union. Questions have been combined under different criteria’s through factor analysis.After evaluating the data statistically, the results reported to the Aegean Exporter's union and the firms with in this to make them to serve with higher quality.

  1. Reappraisal of the Arc-Arc Collision in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetsuzo Seno and Yoshiaki Kawanishi


    Full Text Available Al though it is evident that Taiwan has been formed by the collision of the west-facing Luzon arc with the Eurasian continental mar gin, _ main a lot of enigmas in this collision. The major ones are: (1 a trans form fault presently connecting the Manila and Ryukyu Trenches in the Philippine Sea _ Eurasia relative motion direction is missing, and in stead, the Ryukyu Trench ex tends near off shore E. Tai wan, (2 the western edge of the intermediate-depth seismicity associated with We pro pose a new model of the collision in Tai wan to re solve these enigmas, assuming that the southern Ryukyu forearc was mi grating to the south west with respect to Eurasia for the past several m.y. and the Luzon arc has been colliding with this actively migrating Ryukyu forearc. The northern most Luzon arc is divided into two parts by the NNW line directing along the Philippine Sea - Ryukyu forearc motion from its initial intersection point with the Ryukyu Trench; the part west of this line has been obducted on the Ryukyu forearc-Eurasian mar gin, producing the collision orogen in Taiwan, and the part east of it has been subducted beneath the Ryukyu forearc. This evolutionary scenario resolves enigmas (1 and (2 kinematically. This model also predicts that the South China Sea slab has to be torn by the west ward component of the motion of the subducting Philippine Sea slab to Eurasia. This would have brought large lateral compression in the shallow portion of the Philippine Sea slab at its western border, which might lead to buck ling of the slab causing the ob served undulated gravity anomaly.

  2. Ancient DNA Analysis of 8000 B.C. Near Eastern Farmers Supports an Early Neolithic Pioneer Maritime Colonization of Mainland Europe through Cyprus and the Aegean Islands (United States)

    Fernández, Eva; Pérez-Pérez, Alejandro; Gamba, Cristina; Prats, Eva; Cuesta, Pedro; Anfruns, Josep; Molist, Miquel; Arroyo-Pardo, Eduardo; Turbón, Daniel


    The genetic impact associated to the Neolithic spread in Europe has been widely debated over the last 20 years. Within this context, ancient DNA studies have provided a more reliable picture by directly analyzing the protagonist populations at different regions in Europe. However, the lack of available data from the original Near Eastern farmers has limited the achieved conclusions, preventing the formulation of continental models of Neolithic expansion. Here we address this issue by presenting mitochondrial DNA data of the original Near-Eastern Neolithic communities with the aim of providing the adequate background for the interpretation of Neolithic genetic data from European samples. Sixty-three skeletons from the Pre Pottery Neolithic B (PPNB) sites of Tell Halula, Tell Ramad and Dja'de El Mughara dating between 8,700–6,600 cal. B.C. were analyzed, and 15 validated mitochondrial DNA profiles were recovered. In order to estimate the demographic contribution of the first farmers to both Central European and Western Mediterranean Neolithic cultures, haplotype and haplogroup diversities in the PPNB sample were compared using phylogeographic and population genetic analyses to available ancient DNA data from human remains belonging to the Linearbandkeramik-Alföldi Vonaldiszes Kerámia and Cardial/Epicardial cultures. We also searched for possible signatures of the original Neolithic expansion over the modern Near Eastern and South European genetic pools, and tried to infer possible routes of expansion by comparing the obtained results to a database of 60 modern populations from both regions. Comparisons performed among the 3 ancient datasets allowed us to identify K and N-derived mitochondrial DNA haplogroups as potential markers of the Neolithic expansion, whose genetic signature would have reached both the Iberian coasts and the Central European plain. Moreover, the observed genetic affinities between the PPNB samples and the modern populations of Cyprus and Crete seem to suggest that the Neolithic was first introduced into Europe through pioneer seafaring colonization. PMID:24901650

  3. Hydrodynamic features of the South Aegean Sea as derived from Argo T/ S and dissolved oxygen profiles in the area (United States)

    Kassis, Dimitris; Krasakopoulou, Evangelia; Korres, Gerasimos; Petihakis, George; Triantafyllou, George S.


    In this work, the hydrodynamic picture of the South Aegean Sea is examined through an analysis of recent measurements in its sub-basins, the Myrtoan and Cretan Sea. Both sub-basins play an important role in the water circulation, exchange, and formation processes that affect the dynamics of the whole Eastern Mediterranean. For the first time, Bio-Argo floats were deployed in the area under the Greek Argo Research Infrastructure coordination. The acquired profiles cover an almost 2-year period (November 2013-July 2015) and are compared with previous Argo profiles and the re-processed time-series data recorded from the E1-M3A POSEIDON observatory operating in the area since 2007. The spatio-temporal distribution of the physical and chemical properties in each sub-basin is examined. Dense water formation events are revealed in the northern part (Myrtoan), while the wider area can be characterized as pre-conditioned. In the Cretan basin, a strong inter-annual variability of the salinity field at intermediate and deep layers is observed that is associated with water exchange from its open boundaries. Furthermore, comparison of the dissolved oxygen (DO) distribution with physical water properties within both the mixed layer, and at greater depths, indicated that relatively high but still under-saturated DO values are more likely to be associated with convection events. Finally, an updated picture of the physical properties and the DO distribution is presented based on the last 5 years of measurements and the recent introduction of Bio-Argo floats with DO sensors in the area.

  4. Hydrology and pollution assessment in a coastal estuarine system. The case of the Strymonikos Gulf (North Aegean Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Three hydrographic cruises were undertaken to study the hydrology and to estimate the ecological status of the coastal ecosystem of the Strymonikos Gulf (North Aegean Sea impacted by the riverine waters of the Strymon River. Surface sediments were also collected in order to determine the levels of organic contaminants in the gulf. Three main water masses were identified in the Strymonikos Gulf throughout the year: a the surface river plume water, b the surface and subsurface Black Sea Water and c the near bottom (>50 m water of Levantine origin. High nutrient concentrations were recorded close to the mouth of the river, indicating a rather eutrophic environment, which was restricted near the river discharge. The salinity-nutrient correlations of the surface waters of the study area were linear, indicating that the riverine waters are the major source of nutrient in the gulf. DIN:P ratios varied seasonally from relatively higher values during winter and early spring to lower values in late spring-early summer. This led to a shift from likelihood P-limitation during winter and early spring to N-limitation in late spring – early summer. Total hydrocarbon concentrations measured in the sediments ranged from 19.2 to 95.9 μ g/g, whereas total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH values varied between 107.2 and 1019 ng/g. The application of different diagnostic criteria suggests a natural terrestrial origin for aliphatic hydrocarbons and pyrolytic origin for the PAHs. DDTs displayed the highest concentrations of all the organochlorines determined, whereas polychlorinated biphenyl (PCBs concentrations were very low. Riverine input seems to be the major source for all the compounds identified.

  5. Simulating anchovy's full life cycle in the northern Aegean Sea (eastern Mediterranean): A coupled hydro-biogeochemical-IBM model (United States)

    Politikos, D.; Somarakis, S.; Tsiaras, K. P.; Giannoulaki, M.; Petihakis, G.; Machias, A.; Triantafyllou, G.


    A 3-D full life cycle population model for the North Aegean Sea (NAS) anchovy stock is presented. The model is two-way coupled with a hydrodynamic-biogeochemical model (POM-ERSEM). The anchovy life span is divided into seven life stages/age classes. Embryos and early larvae are passive particles, but subsequent stages exhibit active horizontal movements based on specific rules. A bioenergetics model simulates the growth in both the larval and juvenile/adult stages, while the microzooplankton and mesozooplankton fields of the biogeochemical model provide the food for fish consumption. The super-individual approach is adopted for the representation of the anchovy population. A dynamic egg production module, with an energy allocation algorithm, is embedded in the bioenergetics equation and produces eggs based on a new conceptual model for anchovy vitellogenesis. A model simulation for the period 2003-2006 with realistic initial conditions reproduced well the magnitude of population biomass and daily egg production estimated from acoustic and daily egg production method (DEPM) surveys, carried out in the NAS during June 2003-2006. Model simulated adult and egg habitats were also in good agreement with observed spatial distributions of acoustic biomass and egg abundance in June. Sensitivity simulations were performed to investigate the effect of different formulations adopted for key processes, such as reproduction and movement. The effect of the anchovy population on plankton dynamics was also investigated, by comparing simulations adopting a two-way or a one-way coupling of the fish with the biogeochemical model.

  6. Tracing metal pollution sources of plants and soils in Güzelhisar Basin of Aegean Region, Turkey (United States)

    Czarnecki, Sezin; Görsch, Carolin; Colak Esetlili, Bihter; Esetlili, Tolga; Tepecik, Mahmut; Kurucu, Yusuf; Anac, Dilek; Düring, Rolf-Alexander


    The study area Güzelhisar Basin is 6 km far from the city Aliaga, Aegean Region in the west part of Turkey which represents a rather industrialized area having five large iron and steel mills, but also areas of agriculture. A grid system of 2.5 km to the east and 2.5 km to the west of the Güzelhisar Stream was studied. The area was grouped into three main areas as West, Middle, and East region. Every 500 meters soil samples were taken after the rainfall (April-May) in 2014 from the GPS determined points at 0-30 and 30-60 cm depth. Soil reaction of the study area was determined within the range from 5.87 to 6.61. Even though, the West and the Middle regions had weak carbonate concentrations, the East region was poor in carbonates and relatively high electrical conductivity was measured. Topsoil contamination was examined by all investigated elements with the exception of Cd. An increase in pseudo total metal contents of Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, and Zn was observed with the increasing distance from the coast with a simultaneous decrease in pH. Moreover, high plant metal concentrations [mg kg‑¹, ± sd] were detected for B [20.7 ± 23.9], Cu [7.99 ± 5.17], Mn (79.3 ± 89.2), Ni (3.50 ± 3.48), and Zn (25.5 ± 20.1). Transfer of the elements from soil to plants increased in the following order: Co < As < Cr < Pb < Mn < Ni < Cu < Zn < Cd << B.

  7. Surface deformation and slab-mantle interaction during Banda arc subduction rollback (United States)

    Spakman, Wim; Hall, Robert


    The spectacularly curved Banda arc comprises young oceanic crust enclosed by a volcanic inner arc, outer arc islands and a trough parallel to the Australian continental margin. Strong seismic activity in the upper mantle defines a folded surface, for which there are two contrasting explanations: deformation of a single slab or two separate slabs subducting from the north and south. Here we combine seismic tomography with the plate tectonic evolution of the region to infer that the Banda arc results from subduction of a single slab. Our palaeogeographic reconstruction shows that a Jurassic embayment, which consisted of dense oceanic lithosphere enclosed by continental crust, once existed within the Australian plate. Banda subduction began about 15million years ago when active Java subduction tore eastwards into the embayment. The present morphology of the subducting slab is only partially controlled by the shape of the embayment. As the Australian plate moved northward at a high speed of about 7cmyr-1, the Banda oceanic slab rolled back towards the south-southeast accompanied by active delamination separating the crust from the denser mantle. Increasing resistance of the mantle to plate motion progressively folded the slab and caused strong deformation of the crust. The Banda arc represents an outstanding example of large-scale deformation of the Earth's crust in response to coupling between the crust, slab and surrounding mantle.

  8. Determination of 40K in Beach Sand and Seawater Samples at Sarımsaklı Beach of Aegean Sea (Turkey)


    Hacıyakupoğlu, Sevilay; Tezsezer, Seyda; Orucoglu, Esra


    This study dealt with analyzing of naturally occurring 40K radioisotope in beach sand and seawater samples of Sarımsaklı beach at Aegean coastal region of Turkey and its contribution to natural radioactivity. By using gamma spectroscopy the mean radioactivity concentration was found as 1093.00 ± 115.07 Bq kg-1 for the beach sand and as 14.08 ± 3.50 Bq kg-1 for the seawater. The average external effective dose rate of beach sand was determined in air at 1 m above the ground as 45...

  9. Shemya Island prehistory (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The 752 artifacts described in this paper are from 5 sites on Shemya Island. Artifactual evidence suggests the island had a small resident population and was...

  10. Magnification Bias in Gravitational Arc Statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Caminha, G B; Makler, M; Mollerach, S; Roulet, E


    The statistics of arcs in galaxy clusters is a powerful probe of the inner parts of cluster structure and may provide complementary cosmological constraints. Although progresses involving simulations at the image level have improved the agreement among modelling and observations of arc abundance, there are still discrepancies regarding the redshift distribution of strong lensing clusters. Besides, fast "semi-analytic" methods still have to incorporate the success obtained with simulations. In this paper we discuss the contribution of magnification in gravitational arc statistics. Although lensing conserves surface brightness, the magnification (\\mu) increases the signal-to-noise ratio of the arcs in the images, enhancing their detectability. We present an approach to include this and other observational effects in semi-analytic calculations for arc statistics. The cross section for arc formation (\\sigma) is computed through a semi-analytic method based on the eigenvalue ratio of the magnification tensor. Usin...

  11. Island political economy


    Bertram, Geoffrey; Poirine, Bernard


    International audience In this chapter we build on the observation that island economies, and especially small ones (population below one million), exhibit a remarkably wide range of economic structures built on a correspondingly wide range of development strategies. Common elements of "islandness" may serve to define island economies as a general class, but there clearly exist several distinct "species" within that class, and a corresponding menu of strategic options open to islander comm...



    Harper, Mary P.; White, Christopher M.; Helzerman, Randall A.; Hockema, Stephen A.


    MUSE CSP (Multiply SEgmented Constraint Satisfaction Problem) [5, 61 is an extension to the constraint satisfaction problem (CSP) which is especially useful for problems that segment into riultiple instances of CSP that share variables. In Belzerman and Harper [6], the concepts of MUSE node, arc, and path consistency were defined and algorithms for MUSE arc consistency, MUSE AC-1, and MUSE path consistency were developed. MUSE AC-1 is similar to the CSP arc consistency algorithm AC-4 [ l j ] ...

  13. Programming ArcGIS with Python cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Pimpler, Eric


    Programming ArcGIS with Python Cookbook, Second Edition, is written for GIS professionals who wish to revolutionize their ArcGIS workflow with Python. Whether you are new to ArcGIS or a seasoned professional, you almost certainly spend time each day performing various geoprocessing tasks. This book will teach you how to use the Python programming language to automate these geoprocessing tasks and make you a more efficient and effective GIS professional.

  14. Effect of Gravity on Arc Shape in GTA Welding-for Low Electric Arc Current

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hidetoshi FUJII; Yosuke SUMI; Manabu TANAKA; Kiyoshi NOGI


    Gas tungsten arc (GTA) welding was performed both in a microgravity environment and in a terrestrial environment,and the arc shapes in both environments were compared. A microgravity condition was obtained using the free fallsystem at the Japan Microgravi

  15. Diffuse and spot mode of cathode arc attachments in an atmospheric magnetically rotating argon arc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A model including the cathode, near-cathode region, and arc column was constructed. Specifically, a thermal perturbation layer at the arc fringe was calculated in order to couple sheath/presheath modelling with typical arc column modelling. Comparative investigation of two modes of attachment of a dc (100, 150, 200 A) atmospheric-pressure arc in argon to a thermionic cathode made of pure tungsten was conducted. Computational data revealed that there exists two modes of arc discharge: the spot mode, which has an obvious cathode surface temperature peak in the arc attachment centre; and the diffuse mode, which has a flat cathode surface temperature distribution and a larger arc attachment area. The modelling results of the arc attachment agree with previous experimental observations for the diffuse mode. A further 3D simulation is obviously needed to investigate the non-axisymmetrical features, especially for the spot mode. (paper)

  16. Major arcs for Goldbach's problem


    Helfgott, H. A.


    The ternary Goldbach conjecture states that every odd number $n\\geq 7$ is the sum of three primes. The estimation of the Fourier series $\\sum_{p\\leq x} e(\\alpha p)$ and related sums has been central to the study of the problem since Hardy and Littlewood (1923). Here we show how to estimate such Fourier series for $\\alpha$ in the so-called major arcs, i.e., for $\\alpha$ close to a rational of small denominator. This is part of the author's proof of the ternary Goldbach conjecture. In contrast ...

  17. Rhode Island unemployment


    Leonard Lardaro


    How can a state like Rhode Island have such a high unemployment rate? This question has been asked often over the past year, especially since at one point, Rhode Island found itself with the dubious distinction of having the highest unemployment rate in the United States. Following that extreme, Rhode Island seemed to settle into a niche where its rank was third nationally.

  18. The Islands, Barbados

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drieman, R.; Hinborch, M.; Monden, M.; Vendrik, E.A.J.


    Master project report. In Barbados the problem arose of lack of space for development on the existing shoreline. Therefore the project "The Islands" has been conceptualized. In front of the west coast of Barbados, a group of artificial islands will be created. On the islands there will be space for

  19. Generalized hyperfocused arcs in $PG(2,p)$


    Blokhuis, A Aart; Marino, G.; Mazzocca, F.


    A {\\em generalized hyperfocused arc} $\\mathcal H $ in $PG(2,q)$ is an arc of size $k$ with the property that the $k(k-1)/2$ secants can be blocked by a set of $k-1$ points not belonging to the arc. We show that if $q$ is a prime and $\\mathcal H$ is a generalized hyperfocused arc of size $k$, then $k=1,2$ or 4. Interestingly, this problem is also related to the (strong) cylinder conjecture [Ball S.: The polynomial method in Galois geometries, in Current research topics in Galois geometry, Chap...

  20. Electrode Evaporation Effects on Air Arc Behavior

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xingwen; CHEN Degui; LI Rui; WU Yi; NIU Chunping


    A numerical study of the effects of copper and silver vapours on the air arc behavior is performed. The commercial software FLUENT is adapted and modified to develop a two-dimensional magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) models of arc with the thermodynamic properties and transport coefficients, net emission coefficient for the radiation model of 99% ai-1% Cu, 99% air-1% Ag, and pure air, respectively. The simulation result demonstrates that vaporization of the electrode material may cool the arc center region and reduce the arc velocity. The effects of Ag vapour are stronger compared to those of Cu vapour.

  1. Stability of alternating current gliding arcs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kusano, Yukihiro; Salewski, Mirko; Leipold, Frank;


    A gliding arc is a quenched plasma that can be operated as a non-thermal plasma at atmospheric pressure and that is thus suitable for large-scale plasma surface treatment. For its practical industrial use the discharge should be extended stably in ambient air. A simple analytical calculation based...... on Ohm’s law indicates that the critical length of alternating current (AC) gliding arc discharge columns can be larger than that of a corresponding direct current (DC) gliding arc. This finding is supported by previously published images of AC and DC gliding arcs. Furthermore, the analysis shows...

  2. The Abundance of Large Arcs From CLASH (United States)

    Xu, Bingxiao; Postman, Marc; Meneghetti, Massimo; Coe, Dan A.; Clash Team


    We have developed an automated arc-finding algorithm to perform a rigorous comparison of the observed and simulated abundance of large lensed background galaxies (a.k.a arcs). We use images from the CLASH program to derive our observed arc abundance. Simulated CLASH images are created by performing ray tracing through mock clusters generated by the N-body simulation calibrated tool -- MOKA, and N-body/hydrodynamic simulations -- MUSIC, over the same mass and redshift range as the CLASH X-ray selected sample. We derive a lensing efficiency of 15 ± 3 arcs per cluster for the X-ray selected CLASH sample and 4 ± 2 arcs per cluster for the simulated sample. The marginally significant difference (3.0 σ) between the results for the observations and the simulations can be explained by the systematically smaller area with magnification larger than 3 (by a factor of ˜4) in both MOKA and MUSIC mass models relative to those derived from the CLASH data. Accounting for this difference brings the observed and simulated arc statistics into full agreement. We find that the source redshift distribution does not have big impact on the arc abundance but the arc abundance is very sensitive to the concentration of the dark matter halos. Our results suggest that the solution to the "arc statistics problem" lies primarily in matching the cluster dark matter distribution.

  3. Metals purification by improved vacuum arc remelting (United States)

    Zanner, Frank J.; Williamson, Rodney L.; Smith, Mark F.


    The invention relates to improved apparatuses and methods for remelting metal alloys in furnaces, particularly consumable electrode vacuum arc furnaces. Excited reactive gas is injected into a stationary furnace arc zone, thus accelerating the reduction reactions which purify the metal being melted. Additionally, a cooled condensation surface is disposed within the furnace to reduce the partial pressure of water in the furnace, which also fosters the reduction reactions which result in a purer produced ingot. Methods and means are provided for maintaining the stationary arc zone, thereby reducing the opportunity for contaminants evaporated from the arc zone to be reintroduced into the produced ingot.

  4. Unstable behavior of anodic arc discharge for synthesis of nanomaterials (United States)

    Gershman, Sophia; Raitses, Yevgeny


    A short carbon arc operating with a high ablation rate of the graphite anode exhibits a combined motion of the arc and the arc attachment to the anode. A characteristic time scale of this motion is in a 10‑3 s range. The arc exhibits a negative differential resistance before the arc motion occurs. Thermal processes in the arc plasma region interacting with the ablating anode are considered as possible causes of this unstable arc behavior. It is also hypothesized that the arc motion could potentially cause mixing of the various nanoparticles synthesized in the arc in the high ablation regime.

  5. Geodetic implications on block formation and geodynamic domains in the South Shetland Islands, Antarctic Peninsula (United States)

    Berrocoso, M.; Fernández-Ros, A.; Prates, G.; García, A.; Kraus, S.


    The South Shetland Islands archipelago is dynamically complex due to its tectonic surroundings. Most islands are part of a formerly active volcanic arc, although Deception, Penguin and Bridgeman Islands, as well as several submarine volcanoes, are characterized by active back-arc volcanism. Geodetic benchmarks were deployed and the movement of the lithosphere to which they were fixed measured to provide geodynamic insight for the South Shetland Islands, Bransfield Basin and Antarctic Peninsula area based on surface deformation. These benchmarks' data add spatial and temporal coverage to previous results. The results reveal two different geodynamic patterns, each confined to a distinct part of the South Shetland Islands archipelago. The inferred absolute horizontal velocity vectors for the benchmarks in the northeastern part of the archipelago are consistent with the opening of the Bransfield Basin, while benchmark vectors in the southwestern part of the archipelago are similar to those of the benchmarks on the Antarctic Peninsula. In between, Snow, Deception and Livingston Islands represent a transition zone. In this area, the horizontal velocity vectors relative to the Antarctic plate shift northeastwards from N to NW. Furthermore, the South Shetland Islands benchmarks, except for that at Gibbs (Elephant) Islands, indicate subsidence, which might be a consequence of the slab roll-back at the South Shetland Trench. In contrast, the uplift revealed by the Antarctic Peninsula benchmarks suggests glacial isostatic adjustment after the Larson B ice-shelf breakup.

  6. Micro-arcing and arc erosion minimization using a DC hybrid switching device


    Swingler, J.; McBride, J. W.


    Hybrid switching devices utilize the advantages of both conventional electrical contacts and solid state electronics to minimize arcing during opening and closing operations. This can result in higher reliability and reduces the need for high cost specialist contact materials. The hybrid switch does not eliminate arcing completely, due to the inductive nature of circuits; micro-arcing is known to occur. An experimental dc hybrid switching device is introduced which minimizes arcing for 42 ...

  7. Transient crustal movement in the northern Izu-Bonin arc starting in 2004: A large slow slip event or a slow back-arc rifting event? (United States)

    Arisa, Deasy; Heki, Kosuke


    The Izu-Bonin arc lies along the convergent boundary where the Pacific Plate subducts beneath the Philippine Sea Plate. Horizontal velocities of continuous Global Navigation Satellite System stations on the Izu Islands move eastward by up to ~ 1 cm/year relative to the stable part of the Philippine Sea Plate suggesting active back-arc rifting behind the northern part of the arc. Here, we report that such eastward movements transiently accelerated in the middle of 2004 resulting in ~ 3 cm extra movements in 3 years. We compare three different mechanisms possibly responsible for this transient movement, i.e. (1) postseismic movement of the 2004 September earthquake sequence off the Kii Peninsula far to the west, (2) a temporary activation of the back-arc rifting to the west dynamically triggered by seismic waves from a nearby earthquake, and (3) a large slow slip event in the Izu-Bonin Trench to the east. By comparing crustal movements in different regions, the first possibility can be shown unlikely. It is difficult to rule out the second possibility, but current evidence support the third possibility, i.e. a large slow slip event with moment magnitude of ~ 7.5 may have occurred there.

  8. Depth to Curie temperature or magnetic sources bottom in the Lesser Antilles Arc volcanic area (United States)

    Gailler, Lydie-Sarah; Martelet, Guillaume; Thinon, Isabelle; Münch, Philippe; Arcay, Diane


    In the continuation of the innovative study carried out at the scale of La Réunion Island to generalize Curie Point Depth (CPD) determinations at the scale of oceanic volcanic islands, we present here a similar work at the scale of the Lesser Antilles Arc. Assuming that magnetic anomalies are concentrated within the oceanic crust and using the growing assumption of a magnetized upper mantle, the Curie depth should become deeper as the oceanic lithosphere becomes older (i.e. thicker). We use the magnetic anomaly map computed by Gailler et al. (2013), completed and extended with the global Earth Magnetic Anomaly Grid (EMAG2) (Maus et al., 2007). The calculated magnetic sources bottom lies at depths between 18 and 32 km and exhibits a complex topography, presumably caused by the combination of various magmatic and tectonic crustal structures in this complex subduction context. The correlations between our depth to magnetic sources bottom and the large scale bathymetric and geophysical studies provide an interesting overview of the Lesser Antilles Arc structuring. The Inner Arc is mainly associated with a deepening of the depth to magnetic sources bottom. On the contrary, a huge doming appears along the central Lesser Antilles Arc, consistent with the seismic imaging (Kopp et al., 2011). This uprise of our calculated magnetic surface extents southeastern to the Guadeloupe Island in the direction of the Tiburon Ridge following the abnormal transverse component of the subduction in the N130°E direction defined by Gailler et al. (2013). A strong lateral narrowing of this doming is evidenced southern of Dominique Island where the two arcs converge. In this central area, the averaged depth of the magnetic sources bottom is also larger than expected in the case of classical oceanic crust. This is in agreement with previous interpretation of an original oceanic crust thickened by deep magmatic processes and underplating prior to the evolution of the Lesser Antilles Arc

  9. Feedback Linearization Based Arc Length Control for Gas Metal Arc Welding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Jesper Sandberg


    In this paper a feedback linearization based arc length controller for gas metal arc welding (GMAW) is described. A nonlinear model describing the dynamic arc length is transformed into a system where nonlinearities can be cancelled by a nonlinear state feedback control part, and thus, leaving only...

  10. The Sumba enigma: Is Sumba a diapiric fore-arc nappe in process of formation? (United States)

    Audley-Charles, M. G.


    The anomalous updomed morphological expression of Sumba island, its enigmatic lack of strong Neogene deformation and the northward morphological indentation of southern Sumbawa and Flores require explanation. The stratigraphy of Sumba may be correlated with the Cretaceous to Miocene part of the Timor allochthon. The sedimentary and eruptive rock succession in Sumba shows remarkable similarities with the allochthonous Palelo, Wiluba and Cablac deposits of Timor. In both islands the Cretaceous parts of these sequences are regarded as characteristic of fore-arc deposits built on thin continental crust. The Timor nappe is interpreted as a 5 km thick tectonic flake of the Banda fore-arc thrust onto the Australian continental margin in the mid-Pliocene collision. The postulated Sumba nappe has not yet been thrust onto the Australian margin which, in the Sumba region, has not yet converged as close to the arc as in the Timor area. The postulated Sumba nappe is interpreted as a diapiric elongated dome of the Sunda fore-arc that is being squeezed by the converging margin of Australia against the volcanic islands of Sumbawa and Flores. The absence of indications on the seismic reflection profiles for the presence of the thrust fault of the Sumba nappe may perhaps be explained by the thrusts being nearly horizontal within flat-lying strata. The Savu thrust is correlated with the probably older (pre-Late Pliocene) Wetar Suture as a major southward dipping lithospheric rupture. East of 124°E, this suture does not seem to have moved much since the mid-Pliocene collision that emplaced the nappes on Timor. However, microearthquake data suggest some activity is continuing.

  11. New insights into regional tectonics of the Sunda-Banda Arcs region from integrated magnetic and gravity modelling (United States)

    Zubaidah, Teti; Korte, Monika; Mandea, Mioara; Hamoudi, Mohamed


    The Lombok Island (Indonesia), situated along the Sunda-Banda Arcs transition region, lies between zones characterized by very large intensity magnetic anomalies. These anomalies have been noted as being part of the eight most important ones seen on the 1st edition of the World Digital Magnetic Anomaly Map. Unfortunately, only marine magnetic data of surroundings are available, and no regional high-resolution magnetic surveys of this island had been done. Since 2004, we have carried out several geomagnetic ground surveys in this region. Here, we present modelling results for a new geological and tectonic interpretation of the magnetic anomalies. The new results confirm the general pattern of contiguous negative-positive anomalies, revealing two active Quaternary normal faults and a magmatic arc related to a subduction region. This outcome agrees with earlier results in surrounding areas obtained by satellite, aeromagnetic, and marine platforms, and provides a more detailed picture of strong anomalies on this island. Considering both magnetic anomalies and gravity models, it is possible to suggest an extension of the Flores Thrust zone (reaching the northwest off the Lombok Island). The Flores Thrust zone may be considered as a mature subduction in the back arc region, showing a tendency of progressive subduction during last decades.

  12. Increasing the arc efficiency by the removal of arc electromagnetic blowing in electric arc furnaces: I. Effect of electromagnetic blowing and the slag height on the arc efficiency in an electric arc furnace (United States)

    Makarov, A. N.; Sokolov, A. Yu.; Lugovoi, Yu. A.


    The effect of electromagnetic blowing and the slag layer height on the arc efficiency is analytically studied. An arc is blown from under an electrode toward the furnace walls under an electromagnetic force. The arc efficiency of a 100-t high-power electric arc furnace changes from 0.47 to 0.76 when the slag height increases from 0 to 550 mm.

  13. 210Po and 210Pb variations in fish species from the Aegean Sea and the contribution of 210Po to the radiation dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In recent years, there has been increasing interest in the significance of natural radionuclides, particularly 210Po, in the marine environment. 210Po, a naturally occurring alpha emitter, accumulates in marine organisms and reflects differences in their diets. In the literature, there is no data for 210Po and 210Pb activity concentrations for fish species on the Turkish coast of Aegean Sea. Therefore, in this study, multiple fish species were collected from six stations seasonally on the Turkish coast of Aegean Sea and were analyzed for their 210Po and 210Pb content. The 210Po and 210Pb concentrations in the fish samples were found to vary from undetectable levels to 499 ± 44 Bq kg−1 dry weight (dw) and from 1.0 ± 0.3 Bq kg−1 to 35 ± 4.0 Bq kg−1 (dw), respectively. There were no significant differences in the activity concentrations of 210Po and 210Pb in fish samples between seasons (ANOVA, P > 0.05). The highest dose contribution of 210Po to humans was calculated to be 10,530 μSv year−1.

  14. Levels of 210Po in some commercial fish species consumed in the Aegean Sea coast of Turkey and the related dose assessment to the coastal population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Concentrations of 210Po were determined in the edible muscle tissue of five species of marine fish: Sardine (Sardine plichardus) and Anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus), Red mullet (Mullus barbatus), Horse mackerel (Trachurus trachurus) and Gilt-head sea bream (Sparus aurata) collected from five stations in the Aegean Sea Region of Turkey during the fishery season 2010. The 210Po concentrations in the fish samples were found to vary from not detected levels to 389 ± 45 Bq kg−1 dry wt. These variations in 210Po content in different species are probably due to differences in metabolism and feeding patterns. The highest levels for 210Po were observed in Anchovy (E. encrasicolus) species. -- Highlights: ► This study was determined the 210Po levels in the fish. ► Different fish species were collected in the Turkish coast of Aegean Sea. ► Higher 210Po concentrations were found in Anchovy. ► The annual dose from the consumption of the fish samples was calculated. ► The ingestion dose was found in the range 0.041–14.66 μSv y−1

  15. Risk assessment of metal vapor arcing (United States)

    Hill, Monika C. (Inventor); Leidecker, Henning W. (Inventor)


    A method for assessing metal vapor arcing risk for a component is provided. The method comprises acquiring a current variable value associated with an operation of the component; comparing the current variable value with a threshold value for the variable; evaluating compared variable data to determine the metal vapor arcing risk in the component; and generating a risk assessment status for the component.

  16. Characterization of Micro-arc Oxidized Titanium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The observation of the sparkling discharges during the micro-arc oxidation process in KOH aqueous electrolyte was achieved. The change of surface morphology was progressively observed and a plausible pore formation mechanism is proposed. Cell proliferation and ALP activity of micro-arc oxidized titanium was evaluated by human body derived osteoblasts and slightly better than those of blasted surface.

  17. The next-generation ARC middleware

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Appleton, O.; Cameron, D.; Cernak, J.;


    The Advanced Resource Connector (ARC) is a light-weight, non-intrusive, simple yet powerful Grid middleware capable of connecting highly heterogeneous computing and storage resources. ARC aims at providing general purpose, flexible, collaborative computing environments suitable for a range of use...

  18. Plasma Arc Augmented CO2 laser welding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger, Claus; Andersen, Mikkel; Frederiksen, Niels;


    In order to reduce the hardness of laser beam welded 2.13 mm medium strength steel CMn 250, a plasma arc has been used simultaneously with a 2.6 kW CO2 laser source. In a number of systematic laboratory tests, the plasma arc current, plasma gas flow and distance to the laser source were varied wi...

  19. Implementing RapidArc into clinical routine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Esch, Ann; Huyskens, Dominique P; Behrens, Claus F;


    With the increased commercial availability of intensity modulated arc therapy (IMAT) comes the need for comprehensive QA programs, covering the different aspects of this newly available technology. This manuscript proposes such a program for the RapidArc (RA) (Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto) I...

  20. St. Thomas and St. John, U.S. Virgin Islands Coastal Digital Elevation Model (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 1/3 arc-second St. Thomas and St. John, U.S. Virgin Islands Coastal Digital Elevation Model will be used to support NOAA's tsunami forecast system and for...

  1. Depositional environment, foraminifer content and ESR ages of Quaternary Gediz Delta Sediments (Eastern Aegean Sea, İzmir-Western Turkey) (United States)

    Gökçe Benli, Ekin; Aydın, Hülya; İşintek, İsmail; Engin, Birol; Şengöçmen, Berna


    Sediments and fossil content of Gediz Delta (Eastern Aegean Sea - İzmir) were examined based on the drilling core samples of the YSK-C and SK-246 drilling. W-SW part of the Delta is represented by continental delta sediments up to 6 meters and shallow marine detritic sediments up to 35 meters in the YSK-C drilling. Continental part consists of an soiled, graveled, muddy and sandy sediment in terms of rich organic substance. As for marine part, it consists of bioclast, muddy, fine graveled sand and by repetition of pebble, sand and bioclast bearing mud layers. Bioclasts comprise of bivalvia, echinoid, ostracod, gastropod, foramifer and bryozoa fragments. Benthic foraminiferal fauna determinated in the marine levels are represented by 55 bethic, 2 planktonic species. These foraminifers and bioclasts reflect that the W-SW part of the delta, has been occured in marine conditions between 8-31m deep. E-NE part of the delta is generally represented by continental sediments up to 43.5m in SK-246 drilling. In addition, it includes marine levels in 18-19 m, 23-24 m and 36-37,5 m intervals. Continental sediments of E-NE part is generally represented by calcareous and sandy mud rocks which mostly includes ash, tuff, and pebble derived from Neogene volcanic rocks. As for marine levels, it is composed of calcareous mud stones and calcareous clay stones including very thin gastropod, bivalvia and ostracod in 18- 19 and 36-37.5 meters whereas it is represented by sandy mud stones including a great deal of bentic foraminifer, bivalvia, bryozoa, echinoid, gastropod in 23-24 metres. Thus show that E-NE part of the delta is usually in continental condition but it is occasionally covered by sea. In aging studies of YSK-C core done by ESR method, age of 8-9 m interval is determined to be 11. 376 ± 0,067 Ka; however ages of 10-11m and 24-25 m intervals are revealed to be 16.466 ± 0,016 Ka and 15.344 ± 0,021 Ka respectively; finally age of 25-26 m interval is found to be 19.995 ± 0

  2. Grain size distribution, clay mineralogy and chemistry of bottom sediments from the outer Thermaikos Gulf, Aegean Sea, Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The Thermaikos Gulf constitutes the NW part of the North Aegean Sea and is limited eastward from the Chalkidiki Peninsula and westward from the Pieria Prefecture. Its plateau covers an area of 3,500 km2. The mechanisms responsible for the grain size distribution into the Gulf, the clay mineralogy and the chemistry of some bottom sediments from the outer Thermaikos Gulf, are examined. Source mixing during transportation, flocculation, differential settling processes and organic matter appear to be the main mechanisms for the distribution of clay minerals in shallow waters. All grain size fractions studied present a wide range of values confirming the extreme variations of the discharged load and the variability in marine processes. Plagioclases predominate over K-feldspars, while quartz is the most abundant mineral present. In addition, micas, chlorites, amphiboles and pyroxenes exist as primary and/or accessory minerals in all samples. Among clay minerals, illite predominates over smectite and smectite over chlorite (+ kaolinite. The ordered interstratified phase of I/S, with 30-35% S layers, is present in the 2-0.25µm fraction. The randomly interstratified phase of I/S, with 50% S layers, is present in the <0.25& micro; m fraction. On average the clay mineral content of the studied samples is: 48% I, 23% S, 17% Ch (+K and 12% others for the 2-0.25µm fraction and 50% I, 30% S and 20% Ch (+K for the <0.25 µm fraction. All these minerals are the weathering products of the rocks from the drainage basins of the rivers flowing into the Gulf, as well as of the Neogene and Quaternary unconsolidated sediments of the surrounding coasts. The terrigenous input, the water mass circulation and, to a lesser extent, the quality of the discharged material and the differential settling of grains, control the grain size distribution within the outer Thermaikos Gulf. The chemical composition of the analysed samples is generally in agreement with their mineral

  3. The East Aegean Sea strong earthquake sequence of October–November 2005: lessons learned for earthquake prediction from foreshocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. A. Papadopoulos


    Full Text Available The seismic sequence of October–November 2005 in the Samos area, East Aegean Sea, was studied with the aim to show how it is possible to establish criteria for (a the rapid recognition of both the ongoing foreshock activity and the mainshock, and (b the rapid discrimination between the foreshock and aftershock phases of activity. It has been shown that before the mainshock of 20 October 2005, foreshock activity is not recognizable in the standard earthquake catalogue. However, a detailed examination of the records in the SMG station, which is the closest to the activated area, revealed that hundreds of small shocks not listed in the standard catalogue were recorded in the time interval from 12 October 2005 up to 21 November 2005. The production of reliable relations between seismic signal duration and duration magnitude for earthquakes included in the standard catalogue, made it possible to use signal durations in SMG records and to determine duration magnitudes for 2054 small shocks not included in the standard catalogue. In this way a new catalogue with magnitude determination for 3027 events was obtained while the standard catalogue contains 1025 events. At least 55 of them occurred from 12 October 2005 up to the occurrence of the two strong foreshocks of 17 October 2005. This implies that foreshock activity developed a few days before the strong shocks of 17 October 2005 but it escaped recognition by the routine procedure of seismic analysis. The onset of the foreshock phase of activity is recognizable by the significant increase of the mean seismicity rate which increased exponentially with time. According to the least-squares approach the b-value of the magnitude-frequency relation dropped significantly during the foreshock activity with respect to the b-value prevailing in the declustered background seismicity. However, the maximum likelihood approach does not indicate such a drop of b. The b-value found for the aftershocks that

  4. Multivariate statistical tools for the radiometric features of volcanic islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Aeolian Islands represents a Quaternary volcanic arc related to the subduction of the Ionian plate beneath the Calabrian Arc. The geochemical variability of the islands has led to a broad spectrum of magma rocks. Volcanic products from calc-alkaline (CA) to calc-alkaline high in potassium (HKCA) are present throughout the Archipelago, but products belonging to shoshonitic (SHO) and potassium (KS) series characterize the southern portion of Lipari, Vulcano and Stromboli. Tectonics also plays an important role in the process of the islands differentiation. In this work, we want to review and cross-analyze the data on Lipari, Stromboli and Vulcano, collected in measurement and sampling campaigns over the last years. Chemical data were obtained by X-ray fluorescence. High resolution gamma-ray spectrometry with germanium detectors was used to measure primordial radionuclide activities. The activity of primordial radionuclides in the volcanic products of these three islands is strongly dependent on their chemism. The highest contents are found in more differentiated products (rhyolites). The CA products have lower concentrations, while the HKCA and Shoshonitic product concentrations are in between. Calculated dose rates have been correlated with the petrochemical features in order to gain further insight in evolution and differentiation of volcanic products. Ratio matching technique and multivariate statistical analyses, such as Principal Component Analysis and Minimum Spanning Tree, have been applied as an additional tool helpful to better describe the lithological affinities of the samples. (Author)

  5. Numerical Study on Arc Plasma Behavior During Arc Commutation Process in Direct Current Circuit Breaker

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨飞; 马瑞光; 吴翊; 孙昊; 纽春萍; 荣命哲


    This paper focuses on the numerical investigation of arc plasma behavior during arc commutation process in a medium-voltage direct current circuit breaker (DCCB) contact system. A three-dimensional magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) model of air arc plasma in the contact system of a DCCB is developed, based on commercial software FLUENT. Coupled electromagnetic and gas dynamic interactions are considered as usual, and a thin layer of nonlinear electrical resistance elements is used to represent the voltage drop of plasma sheath and the formation of new arc root. The distributions of pressure, temperature, gas flow and current density of arc plasma in arc region are calculated. The simulation results indicate that the pressure distribution related to the contact system has a strong effect on the arc commutation process, arising from the change of electrical conductivity in the arc root region. In DCCB contact system, the pressure of arc root region will be concentrated and higher if the space above the moving contact is enclosed, which is not good for arc root commutation. However, when the region is opened, the pressure distribution would be lower and more evenly, which is favorable for the arc root commutation.

  6. Sensor Control of Robot Arc Welding (United States)

    Sias, F. R., Jr.


    The potential for using computer vision as sensory feedback for robot gas-tungsten arc welding is investigated. The basic parameters that must be controlled while directing the movement of an arc welding torch are defined. The actions of a human welder are examined to aid in determining the sensory information that would permit a robot to make reproducible high strength welds. Special constraints imposed by both robot hardware and software are considered. Several sensory modalities that would potentially improve weld quality are examined. Special emphasis is directed to the use of computer vision for controlling gas-tungsten arc welding. Vendors of available automated seam tracking arc welding systems and of computer vision systems are surveyed. An assessment is made of the state of the art and the problems that must be solved in order to apply computer vision to robot controlled arc welding on the Space Shuttle Main Engine.

  7. Arc flash hazard analysis and mitigation

    CERN Document Server

    Das, J C


    "All the aspects of arc flash hazard calculations and their mitigation have been covered. Knowledge of electrical power systems up to undergraduate level is assumed. The calculations of short-circuits, protective relaying and varied electrical system configurations in industrial power systems are addressed. Protection systems address differential relays, arc flash sensing relays, protective relaying coordination, current transformer operation and saturation and applications to major electrical equipments from the arc flash considerations. Current technologies and strategies for arc flash mitigation have been covered. A new algorithm for the calculation of arc flash hazard accounting for the decaying nature of the short-circuit currents is included. There are many practical examples and study cases. Review questions and references follow each chapter"--

  8. Paradise Islands? Island States and Environmental Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sverker C. Jagers


    Full Text Available Island states have been shown to outperform continental states on a number of large-scale coordination-related outcomes, such as levels of democracy and institutional quality. The argument developed and tested in this article contends that the same kind of logic may apply to islands’ environmental performance, too. However, the empirical analysis shows mixed results. Among the 105 environmental outcomes that we analyzed, being an island only has a positive impact on 20 of them. For example, island states tend to outcompete continental states with respect to several indicators related to water quality but not in aspects related to biodiversity, protected areas, or environmental regulations. In addition, the causal factors previously suggested to make islands outperform continental states in terms of coordination have weak explanatory power in predicting islands’ environmental performance. We conclude the paper by discussing how these interesting findings can be further explored.

  9. Birds observed at Shemya Island, Aleutian Islands (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report covers Shemya Island bird surveys. The reports outline migrant bird activity during August 31 to October 3, 1977. The purpose of the study was to survey...

  10. Computer simulation to arc spraying

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁志芳; 李午申; 王迎娜


    The arc spraying process is divided into two stages: the first stage is atomization-spraying stream (ASS) and the second one is spraying deposition (SD). Then study status is described of both stages' physical model and corresponding controlling-equation. Based on the analysis of study status, the conclusion as follows is got. The heat and mass transfer models with two or three dimensions in ASS stage should be established to far deeply analyses the dynamical and thermal behavior of the overheat droplet. The statistics law of overheated droplets should be further studied by connecting simulation with experiments. More proper validation experiments should be designed for flattening simulation to modify the models in SD stage.

  11. ATLAS DDM integration in ARC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Behrmann, Gerd; Cameron, David; Ellert, Mattias;

    The Nordic Data Grid Facility (NDGF) consists of Grid resources running ARC middleware in Scandinavia and other countries. These resources serve many virtual organisations and contribute a large fraction of total worldwide resources for the ATLAS experiment, whose data is distributed and managed...... by the DQ2 software. Managing ATLAS data within NDGF and between NDGF and other Grids used by ATLAS (the LHC Computing Grid and the Open Science Grid) presents a unique challenge for several reasons. Firstly, the entry point for data, the Tier 1 centre, is physically distributed among heterogeneous...... resources in several countries and yet must present a single access point for all data stored within the centre. The middleware framework used in NDGF differs significantly from other Grids, specifically in the way that all data movement and registration is performed by services outside the worker node...

  12. ATLAS DDM integration in ARC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Behrmann, Gerd; Cameron, David; Ellert, Mattias;


    The Nordic Data Grid Facility (NDGF) consists of Grid resources running ARC middleware in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden. These resources serve many virtual organisations and contribute a large fraction of total worldwide resources for the ATLAS experiment, whose data is distributed...... and managed by the DQ2 software. Managing ATLAS data within NDGF and between NDGF and other Grids used by ATLAS (the Enabling Grids for E-sciencE Grid and the Open Science Grid) presents a unique challenge for several reasons. Firstly, the entry point for data, the Tier 1 centre, is physically distributed...... among heterogeneous resources in several countries and yet must present a single access point for all data stored within the centre. The middleware framework used in NDGF differs significantly from other Grids, specifically in the way that all data movement and registration is performed by services...

  13. Plasma arc welding weld imaging (United States)

    Rybicki, Daniel J. (Inventor); Mcgee, William F. (Inventor)


    A welding torch for plasma arc welding apparatus has a transparent shield cup disposed about the constricting nozzle, the cup including a small outwardly extending polished lip. A guide tube extends externally of the torch and has a free end adjacent to the lip. First and second optical fiber bundle assemblies are supported within the guide tube. Light from a strobe light is transmitted along one of the assemblies to the free end and through the lip onto the weld site. A lens is positioned in the guide tube adjacent to the second assembly and focuses images of the weld site onto the end of the fiber bundle of the second assembly and these images are transmitted along the second assembly to a video camera so that the weld site may be viewed continuously for monitoring the welding process.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Petar Petrov


    For given data (ti,yi), I= 0,1,…,n,0 = t0 <t1 <…<tn = 1we study constrained interpolation problem of Favard type inf{‖f"‖∞|f∈W2∞[0,1],f(ti)=yi,i=0,…,n,l(f;[0,1])≤l0}, wherel(f";[0,1])=∫1 0 / 1+f'2(x)dx is the arc length off in [0,1]. We prove the existence of a solution f* of the above problem, that is a quadratic spline with a second derivative f"* , which coincides with one of the constants - ‖f"*‖∞,0,‖f"*‖∞ between every two consecutive knots. Thus, we extend a result ofKarlin concerning Favard problem, to the case of restricted length interpolation.

  15. Quaternary volcanism in Deception Island (Antarctica): South Shetland Trench subduction-related signature in the Bransfield Basin back arc domain; Vulcanismo cuaternario de la Isla Decepcion (Antartida): una signatura relacionada con la subduccion de la Fosa de las Shetland del Sur en el dominio de tras-arco de la Cuenca de Bransfield

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gale, C.; Ubide, T.; Lago, M.; Gil-Imaz, A.; Gil-Pena, I.; Galindo-Zaldivar, J.; Rey, J.; Maestro, A.; Lopez-Martinez, J.


    Deception Island shows a volcanism related to the Phoenix Plate subduction and roll-back under South Shetland Block in the present times. The development of the island is related to the evolution and collapse of a volcanic caldera, and this study is focused on the petrology, mineralogy and geochemistry of the post-caldera rocks. We have made a study of the lava flows, dikes and the youngest historic eruption in 1970. These rocks range from dacite to rhyolite and have a microporphyritic texture with olivine and minor clinopyroxene. A pre-caldera basaltic andesite has also been studied. It has a microporphyritic texture with clinopyroxene. The intermediate and acid compositions alternating in the volcanostratigraphic sequence suggest either mafic recharge events or melt extraction from different levels in the deep magmatic system. All the studied compositions share a subduction-related signature similar to other magmatics from the Bransfield Basin. However, compositional differences between pre-caldera and post-caldera rocks indicate a different magma source and depth of crystallisation. According to the geothermobarometric calculations the pre-caldera magmas started to crystallise at deeper levels (13.5-15 km) than the post-caldera magmas (6.2-7.8 km). Specifically, the postcaldera magmas indicate a smaller influence of the subducting slab in the southwestern part of the Bransfield Basin in respect to the available data from other sectors as well as the involvement of crustal contamination in the genesis of the magmas. (Author)

  16. Isotope and geochemical study of the geothermal fields of Chios Island, Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The study area is located in the west part of Aegean sea, in the Chios Island. Chios is characterised by a strong geothermal activity especially in the area of Aghia Eleni and Agiasmata where the temperature ranges from 26 - 54 deg. C. In the framework of a 1998-2001 bilateral research programme between Italy and Greece, geochemical and isotope investigations were conducted on spring and water wells of Chios in order to improve the knowledge on the geothermal potential of the island. A number of hydrothermal manifestations were found in the northern and southeastern parts of the island, namely in the areas of Nenita-Thimiana, Patrika, Aghia Eleni and Aghiasmata. In the plain of Nenita the outcropping formation is entirely constituted of neogene fluvio-lacustrine deposits which act as the impervious cover of the underlying hydrothermal acquifer. The springs of Aghiasmata issue from the lower-middle Miocene volcanic formations. Groundwater samples from boreholes and springs were collected and analysed for major cations and anions (Cl-, NO3-, SO42-, Na+, K+, Ca2+ and Mg2+), for stable isotopes of water (18O and D), and aqueous sulphate [18O(SO42-) and 34S]. Moreover temperature, conductivity and pH are measured in the field. A study of ionic and isotopic contents shows that thermal springs (Aghia Eleni and Aghiasmata) of Chios Island are fed by seawater. In the case of Aghia Eleni the big marine contribution (89%) disturbs the chemical and isotopic geothermometers. In the case of Aghiasmata the geothermometers suggested equilibrium temperature near 200 deg. C. For the boreholes of the southern part of the island the initial temperature is estimated in the order of 80-90 deg. C. (author)

  17. Analysis of arc emission spectra of stainless steel electric arc furnace slag affected by fluctuating arc voltage. (United States)

    Aula, Matti; Mäkinen, Ari; Fabritius, Timo


    Control of chromium oxidation in the electric arc furnace (EAF) is a significant problem in stainless steel production due to variations of the chemical compositions in the EAF charge. One potential method to control chromium oxidation is to analyze the emission spectrum of the electric arc in order to find indicators of rising chromium content in slag. The purpose of this study was to determine if slag composition can be gained by utilizing electric arc emission spectra in the laboratory environment, despite electric arc voltage fluctuations and varying slag composition. The purpose of inducing voltage fluctuation was to simulate changes in the industrial EAF process. The slag samples were obtained from Outokumpu Stainless Oy Tornio Works, and three different arc currents were used. The correlation analysis showed that the emission spectra offer numerous peak ratios with high correlations to the X-ray fluorescence-measured slag CrO(x)/FeO(x) and MnO/SiO2 ratios. These ratios are useful in determining if the reduction agents have been depleted in the EAF. The results suggest that analysis of laboratory-scale electric arc emission spectra is suitable for indicating the high CrO(x) or MnO content of the slag despite the arc fluctuations. Reliable analysis of other slag components was not successful.

  18. Comparison of Holocene With Coseismic Vertical Deformation Accompanying the Great 1 April 2007 Solomon Islands Megathrust Rupture (United States)

    Taylor, F. W.; Briggs, R.; Frohlich, C.; Papabatu, A. K.; Billy, D.; Brown, A.; Meltzner, A. J.


    The 1 April 2007 Mw 8.1 earthquake in the western Solomons arc is the first major seismic rupture of this segment of plate boundary in historical times. A remarkable property of this region is the existence of coral- fringed islands located in a belt from ~90 km to as close as ~5 km from the trench. This setting provides a unique opportunity in which to measure forearc vertical movements using corals and other data to reveal relationships among coseismic vertical displacement, extremely rapid uplift of the outer forearc, and slower uplift of the main volcanic arc. The location of maximum coseismic uplift along a trench-parallel belt adjacent to the trench is consistent with the trench-parallel belt of maximum Holocene uplift rates. However, islands along the main volcanic arc lie in the swath of coseismic subsidence located arcward and parallel to the uplift zone. These islands typically have mean Holocene uplift rates up to ~1mm/yr. Thus, coseismic uplift correlates with rapid outer forearc Holocene uplift, but coseismic subsidence occurred throughout the more slowly uplifting volcanic arc. Using these observations, we can deconvolve and isolate the components of co- seismic, interseismic, and net vertical deformation and seek to address the underlying mechanisms. Interpretation is complicated by the late Quaternary history that includes subsidence of both the inner and outer arc islands prior to initiation of the ongoing net uplift since ~50 ka.

  19. Seismotectonics of the central segment of the Indonesian Arc (United States)

    Eva, C.; Cattaneo, M.; Merlanti, F.


    In this paper, a revision of seismicity affecting the central segment of the Indonesian island arc ranging between 110° and 126° E is presented. Using the areal and in-depth distribution of seismic activity, strain release maps and focal mechanisms, lateral changes in the Wadati-Benioff zone have been analyzed to determine possible boundaries between portions of lithosphere with different subduction geometries. The seismicity pattern indicates that the Sumbawa-Flores-Wetar sector shows different forms of behaviour with respect to the adjacent sectors. These include driving mechanism, inclination and continuity of the subducting slab and subduction features. This area therefore seems to be isolated from the Sunda and Banda arcs by two principal boundaries, these having a nearly N-S trend in the Bali region and with a nearly E-W trend in the region ranging between Wetar-Northern Timor and Tanibar. The first boundary, characterized by an absolute minimum of seismic activity at all ranges of depth, has been interpreted in terms of subduction of the Roo Rise aseismic bathymetric ridge. For the second boundary, dividing a northwardly steeply-dipping slab from an E-W subducting slab dipping with an angle of 30 ° -40 °, a tear in the upper part (depth less than 300 km) and a hinge fault system in the deepest part of the lithosphere, have been proposed. From the analysis of focal mechanisms of shallow earthquakes, it was inferred that the central part of the Indonesian Arc is subject to a vortex-shaped stress field centred on the Savu Basin. In this model, the compressive axes appear to rotate counterclockwise (from SW to NNE) in the Sumba-Sumbawa-Western Flores region and clockwise (from W to NNW) in the Timor-Eastern Flores zone. To interpret these features, on the basis of seismological evidence, a lateral discontinuity in the arc-trench system close to Sumba, a collision between Sumba and Sumbawa and a rotation towards the north-northeast of Sumba have been

  20. Postseismic Deformation in the Central Andaman Islands (United States)

    Puchakayala, J. P.; Smalley, R.; Bilham, R.; Lowry, A.; Batacharjee, A.


    The December 26, 2004 Sumatra-Andaman earthquake generated horizontal displacements at Port Blair totaling 3.08 m and vertical subsidence of 0.6-0.9m, indicating 1.6 m arc normal and 6.2±0.6 m dextral coseismic slip on the plate interface. Displacements occurred steadily beginning 10 minutes after the mainshock and were largely complete within 30 minutes after the mainshock. Although continuous GPS measurements were not initiated until 24 days after the mainshock by us and other groups, it is possible from these records to inferthat postseismic deformation in this interval did not exceed 10% of the coseismic displacements. Postseismic deformation continues at present at an exponentially decaying rate. Between January and June 2005, Port Blair has moved 4.5 cm south, 15 cm west and 10 cm up, suggesting postseismic slip downdip of the coseismic rupture and/or viscoelastic relaxation of the mantle. Elastic models of the region based on GPS coseismic slip observations provided by Center for Earth Science Studies (CESS) are consistent with reports of uplift from the islands: North Sentinel (50 km west of Port Blair) rose by 1.0±0.2 m, Port Blair and Middle Andaman subsided by about 1 m and Havelock Island (32 km east) showed no significant vertical deformation. We report data from five campaign sites in the Andaman Islands measured thrice since the earthquake that permit viscoelastic and afterslip models of postseismic deformation to be developed and assessed.

  1. Darwin and the island


    Fox, Justin Daniel.


    This thesis examines the fictional island and assesses the impact of Darwinism on the genre. I show how islands have been a recurring feature in European literature, fictional spaces where authors create a microcosm in which they satirise, criticise or hold up a mirror to their own society. I argue that traditonal Utopian islands are static realms and that through the introduction of evolution (Darwin and Wallace made their most important discoveries regarding the mechanism of...

  2. Acoustic characteristics of electric arc furnaces (United States)

    Cherednichenko, V. S.; Bikeev, R. A.; Cherednichenko, A. V.; Ognev, A. M.


    A mathematical model is constructed to describe the appearance and development of the noise characteristics of superpower electric arc furnaces. The noise formation is shown to be related to the pulsation of the axial plasma flows in arc discharges because of the electrodynamic pressure oscillations caused by the interaction of the self-magnetic field with the current passing in an arc. The pressure in the arc axis changes at a frequency of 100 Hz at the maximum operating pressure of 66 kPa for an arc current of 80 kA. The main ac arc sound frequencies are multiples of 100 Hz, which is supported in the practice of operation of electric arc furnaces. The sound intensity in the furnace laboratory reaches 160 dB and is decreased to 115-120 dB in the working furnace area due to shielding by the furnace jacket, the molten metal, and the molten slag. The appropriateness of increasing the hermetic sealing of electric furnaces and creating furnaces operating at low currents and high transformer voltages is corroborated.

  3. Reconstruction of Late Cretaceous Magmatic Arcs in the Northern Andes: Single Versus Multiple Arc Systems (United States)

    Cardona, A.; Jaramillo, J. S.; Leon, S.; Hincapie, S.; Mejia, D.; Patino, A. M.; Vanegas, J.; Zapata, S.; Valencia, V.; Jimenez, G.; Monsalve, G.


    Although magmatic rocks are major tracers of the geological evolution of convergent margins, pre-collisional events such as subduction erosion, collisional thrusting or late collisional strike slip segmentation may difficult the recognizing of multiple arc systems and therefore the existence of paleogeographic scenarios with multiple subduction systems. New field, U-Pb geochronology and whole rock geochemistry constraints from the northwestern segment of the Central Cordillera in the states of Antioquia and Caldas (Colombia) are used to understand the nature of the Late Cretaceous arc magmatism and evaluate the existence of single or multiple Pacific and Caribbean arc systems in the growth of the Northwestern Andes. The new results integrated with additional field and published information is used to suggest the existence of at least three different magmatic arcs. (1) An Eastern Continental arc built within a well defined Permian to Triassic continental crust that record a protracted 90-70 Ma magmatic evolution, (2) a 90-80 arc formed within attenuated continental crust and associated oceanic crust, (3) 90-88 Ma arc formed over a Late Cretaceous plateau crust. The eastern arcs were formed as part of double eastern vergent subduction system, where the most outboard arc represent a fringing arc formed over detached fragments of continental crust, whereas the easternmost continental arc growth by the closure an subduction of and older and broad Triassic to Early Jurassic back-arc ocean. Its closure also end up in ophiolite emplacement. The third allochtonous oceanic arc was formed over the Caribbean plateau crust and was accreted to the continental margin in the Late Cretaceous. Ongoing paleomagnetic, deformational, gravimetric and basin analysis will be integrate to test this model and understand the complex Late Cretaceous tectonic evolution of the Northern Andes.

  4. Tanzania - Mafia Island Airport (United States)

    Millenium Challenge Corporation — The evaluation design and subsequent data gathering activities will address the following key research questions: a) Has the Mafia Island Airport Upgrade Project...

  5. Modeling Multi-Arc Spraying Systems (United States)

    Bobzin, K.; Öte, M.


    The use of plasma as energy source in thermal spraying enables among others the processing of feed stock materials with very high melting temperatures as coating materials. New generation multi-arc plasma spraying systems are widely spread and promise several advantages in comparison to the conventional single-arc systems. Numerical modeling of multi-arc plasma spraying offers the possibility to increase the understanding about this process. This study focuses on the numerical modeling of three-cathode spraying systems, introducing the recent activities in this field and discussing the numerical aspects which influence the prediction power of the models.

  6. Formation of the G-ring arc (United States)

    Araujo, N. C. S.; Vieira Neto, E.; Foryta, D. W.


    Since 2004, the images obtained by the Cassini spacecraft's on-board cameras have revealed the existence of several small satellites in the Saturn system. Some of these small satellites are embedded in arcs of particles. While these satellites and their arcs are known to be in corotation resonances with Mimas, their origin remains unknown. This work investigates one possible process for capturing bodies into a corotation resonance, which involves increasing the eccentricity of a perturbing body. Therefore, through numerical simulations and analytical studies, we show a scenario in which the excitation of Mimas's eccentricity could capture particles in a corotation resonance. This is a possible explanation for the origin of the arcs.

  7. Formation of the G-ring arc

    CERN Document Server

    Araujo, N C S; Foryta, D W


    Since 2004, the images obtained by Cassini spacecraft's on-board cameras have revealed the existence of several small satellites in the Saturn system. Some of these small satellites are embedded in arcs of particles. While these satellites and their arcs are known to be in corotation resonances with Mimas, their origin remains unknown. This work investigates one possible process for capturing bodies into a corotation resonance, which involves raising the eccentricity of a perturbing body. Therefore, through numerical simulations and analytical studies, we show a scenario that the excitation of Mimas' eccentricity could capture particles in a corotation resonance and given a possible explanation for the origin for the arcs.

  8. Arc saw and its application to decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The arc saw is a toothless, circular saw that cuts by arc erosion. A model was built to study the arc saw's usefulness in cutting up radioactively contaminated metal scrap. It was chosen because it cuts with very little contact to the work piece and because cutting is not affected by material hardness. After installation of several improvements it was found it could cut almost any combination of metals and that clamping or fixturing requirements were minimum. Cutting proceeds rapidly and efficiently. 10 figures

  9. Melt Inclusion Evidence for Subduction-modified Mantle Beneath the Woodlark Spreading Center, Solomon Islands (United States)

    Chadwick, J.; Turner, A.; Collins, E.


    The Woodlark Spreading Center (WSC) to the east of Papua New Guinea separates the Indo-Australian plate and Solomon Sea microplate. At its eastern terminus, the WSC is being subducted at the New Britain trench, forming a triple junction near the New Georgia Group arc in the Solomon Islands. Previous studies have shown that lavas recovered from greater than 100 km from the trench on the WSC are N-MORB, but closer to the trench they have arc-like Sr-Nd-Pb isotopic ratios, enrichments in LILE, and depletions in HFSE. In the complex triple junction area of the WSC on the Simbo and Ghizo Ridges, island arc tholeiites to medium-K calc-alkaline andesites and dacites have been recovered, many with trace element and isotopic characteristics that are similar to the true arc lavas in the New Georgia Group on the other side of the trench. We suggest that subduction-modified arc mantle migrates through slab windows created by the subduction of the WSC as the plates continue to diverge after subduction. This transfer of mantle across the plate boundary leads to variable mixing between arc and N-MORB end-members, forming the hybrid to arc-like lavas recovered on the WSC. To test this hypothesis and to characterize the end-member compositions, we have analyzed melt inclusions in olivine, pyroxene, and plagioclase phenocrysts in Simbo and Ghizo Ridge lava samples. Major elements were analyzed using the electron microprobe facility at Fayetteville State University and volatiles were analyzed on the ion probe facility at Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution. The melt inclusions show a wide diversity of magmas from basalts to dacites, and mixing modeling shows that most Woodlark Spreading Center lava compositions are explained by mixing between the most extreme mafic (MORB) and felsic (arc) inclusion compositions.

  10. Numerical investigations of arc behaviour in gas metal arc welding using ANSYS CFX (United States)

    Schnick, M.; Fuessel, U.; Hertel, M.; Spille-Kohoff, A.; Murphy, A. B.


    Current numerical models of gas metal arc welding (GMAW) are trying to combine magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) models of the arc and volume of fluid (VoF) models of metal transfer. They neglect vaporization and assume an argon atmosphere for the arc region, as it is common practice for models of gas tungsten arc welding. These models predict temperatures above 20 000 K and a temperature distribution similar to tungsten inert gas (TIG) arcs. However, current spectroscopic temperature measurements in GMAW arcs demonstrate much lower arc temperatures. In contrast to TIG arcs they found a central local minimum of the radial temperature distribution. The paper presents a GMAW arc model that considers metal vapour and which is in a very good agreement with experimentally observed temperatures. Furthermore, the model is able to predict the local central minimum in the radial temperature and the radial electric current density distributions for the first time. The axially symmetric model of the welding torch, the work piece, the wire and the arc (fluid domain) implements MHD as well as turbulent mixing and thermal demixing of metal vapour in argon. The mass fraction of iron vapour obtained from the simulation shows an accumulation in the arc core and another accumulation on the fringes of the arc at 2000 to 5000 K. The demixing effects lead to very low concentrations of iron between these two regions. Sensitive analyses demonstrate the influence of the transport and radiation properties of metal vapour, and the evaporation rate relative to the wire feed. Finally the model predictions are compared with the measuring results of Zielińska et al.

  11. Prostate treatments, 1MRT o RapidArc; Tratamiento de prostata, IMART o RapidArc?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro novais, J.; Ruiz Maqueda, S.; Pardo Perez, E.; Molina Lopez, M. Y.; Cerro Penalver, E.


    Techniques that modulate the dose (as IMRT or RapidArcTM) improve dose homogeneity within the target volume decreasing the dose in healthy organs. The aim of this work is to study the dosimetric differences in prostate radiotherapy treatments with IMRT and RapidArcTM. The results of the 109 patients studied show that plans to RapidArcTM have better coverage, compliance and dose gradient outside the target volume. (Author)

  12. Eastern-Mediterranean ventilation variability during sapropel S1 formation, evaluated at two sites influenced by deep-water formation from Adriatic and Aegean Seas (United States)

    Filippidi, A.; Triantaphyllou, M. V.; De Lange, G. J.


    Present-day bottom-water ventilation in the Eastern Mediterranean basin occurs through deep-water convection originating from the two marginal basins, i.e. Adriatic and Aegean Seas. In the paleo record, long periods of enhanced deep-water formation have been alternating with shorter periods of reduced deep-water formation. The latter is related mainly to low-latitude humid climate conditions and the enhanced deposition and preservation of organic-rich sediment units (sapropels). This study focuses on sedimentary archives of the most-recent sapropel S1, retrieved from two sites under the direct influence of the two deep-water formation areas. Restricted oxygen conditions have developed rapidly at the beginning of S1 deposition in the Adriatic site, but bottom-water conditions have not persistently remained anoxic during the full interval of sapropel deposition. In fact, the variability in intensity and persistence of sedimentary redox conditions at the two deep-water formation sites is shown to be related to brief episodes of climate cooling. In the Adriatic site, sapropel deposition appears to have been interrupted twice. The 8.2 ka event, only recovered at the Adria site, is characterized by gradually increasing suboxic to possibly intermittently oxic conditions and decreasing Corg fluxes, followed by an abrupt re-establishment of anoxic conditions. Another important event that disrupted sapropel S1 formation, has taken place at ca. 7.4 cal ka BP. The latter event has been recovered at both sites. In the Adriatic site it is followed by a period of sedimentary conditions that gradually change from suboxic to more permanently oxic, as deduced from the Mn/Al pattern. Using the same proxy for suboxic/oxic sedimentary redox conditions, we observe that conditions in the Aegean Sea site shift to more permanently oxic from the 7.4 ka event onwards. However, at both sites the accumulation and preservation of enhanced amounts of organic matter have continued under these

  13. Recurrent intrusions of transitional waters of Eastern Mediterranean origin in the Cretan Sea as a tracer of Aegean Sea dense water formation events (United States)

    Velaoras, Dimitris; Krokos, George; Theocharis, Alexander


    Available temperature and salinity data in the Cretan Sea from 1955 up to 2014 as well as literature sources were revisited in order to trace the appearance of low salinity, temperature, oxygen and nutrient-rich waters inside the basin at depths below the intermediate layer. First appearing as far back as 1961 in literature, these waters were found originating in the layers that separate intermediate and deep waters of the Eastern Mediterranean Sea (EMed) and were named Transitional Mediterranean Water (TMW) in the 1990s. Data analysis showed that the appearance of TMW in the Cretan Sea is a recurrent phenomenon connected to water mass exchanges between the Aegean Sea and the EMed. In particular, the inflow of TMW in the Cretan basin acts as compensation for the outflow of equally dense or denser masses from the Aegean. This export is a result of dense water formation (DWF) events taking place inside the Aegean Sea triggering TMW compensatory inflow into the Cretan Sea through the Cretan Straits. In this context, TMW intrusions in the Cretan basin can be used as a tracer of DWF in the Aegean Sea while the depth of the intrusion can provide valuable information about the intensity of the DWF event. The importance of TMW intrusions is not solely restricted to the tracing and evaluation of DWF events but could additionally expand to the impact on local ecological processes as TMW is a nutrient carrier for the oligotrophic Cretan Sea. It is obvious that this low salinity, temperature and oxygen layer is what was later named TMW. The core temperature, salinity and oxygen values reported by Miller (1974) fall within the range of values observed during the PELAGOS project in 1994, as noted in Section 'Presence of low salinity water masses below the intermediate layer in the Cretan Sea during the EMT event'. Using the same dataset provided by MEDATLAS 2002 database, a salinity transect along the Cretan Sea is reconstructed in Fig. 5. The bottle data originate from the

  14. Stretched arc discharge in produced water. (United States)

    Cho, Y I; Wright, K C; Kim, H S; Cho, D J; Rabinovich, A; Fridman, A


    The objective of the present study was to investigate the feasibility of stretching an arc discharge in produced water to increase the volume of produced water treated by plasma. Produced water is the wastewater generated by hydraulic fracturing of shale during the production phase in shale-oil or shale-gas exploration. The electric conductivity of produced water is in the range of 50-200 mS/cm, which provides both a challenge and opportunity for the application of plasmas. Stretching of an arc discharge in produced water was accomplished using a ground electrode and two high-voltage electrodes: one positioned close to the ground electrode and the other positioned farther away from the ground. The benefit of stretching the arc is that the contact between the arc and water is significantly increased, resulting in more efficient plasma treatment in both performance and energy cost. PMID:25638080

  15. Observation of gliding arc surface treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kusano, Yukihiro; Zhu, Jiajian; Ehn, A.;


    . Water contact angle measurements indicate that the treatment uniformity improves significantly when the AC gliding arc is tilted to the polymer surface. Thickness reduction of the gas boundary layer, explaining the improvement of surface treatment, by the ultrasonic irradiation was directly observed for......An alternating current (AC) gliding arc can be conveniently operated at atmospheric pressure and efficiently elongated into the ambient air by an air flow and thus is useful for surface modification. A high speed camera was used to capture dynamics of the AC gliding arc in the presence of polymer...... surfaces. A gap was observed between the polymer surface and the luminous region of the plasma column, indicating the existence of a gas boundary layer. The thickness of the gas boundary layer is smaller at higher gas flow-rates or with ultrasonic irradiation to the AC gliding arc and the polymer surface...

  16. Sitka, Alaska 1 arc-second DEM (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Sitka, Alaska Elevation Grid provides bathymetric data in ASCII raster format of 1 arc-second resolution in geographic coordinates. This grid is strictly for...

  17. Seward, Alaska 1 arc-second DEM (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 1 arc-second Seward Alaska Elevation Grid provides bathymetric data in ASCII raster format of .89-second resolution in geographic coordinates. This grid is...

  18. Marine and Island Ecology. (United States)

    Stephens, Lawrence J.; And Others


    Describes an ecology course which provides students with an opportunity to observe aquatic and terrestrial life in the Bahamas. States that students learn scientific methodology by measuring physical and chemical aspects of the island habitats. Provides information on the island, course description and objectives, transportation, facilities, and…

  19. St. Vincent Island Tour (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This letter, written by Charles Marks who lived on St. Vincent Island as a child, notes the changes he saw in the island when he visited in 1981. He notes that the...

  20. The Cook Islands


    World Bank


    This country note is produced is part of The Pacific Catastrophe Risk Assessment andFinancing Initiative (PCRAFI). The geographic spread of the Cook Islands poses logistical problems for any necessary post-disaster relief and response efforts. The events of 2005 demonstrated that the Cook Islands is extremely vulnerable to the threat of tropical cyclones (TCs): in the two months of Februar...

  1. Effect of arc on radiation thermometry in welding process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李亮玉; 王燕; 武宝林


    The effect of arc on radiation thermometry is analyzed in a field close to the arc during the welding process, and the ratio of signal to noise and other factors are obtained for a small current arc .The method of the temperature measurement is feasible when the arc current is decreased to a smaller value in the welding process.

  2. 49 CFR 195.226 - Welding: Arc burns. (United States)


    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Welding: Arc burns. 195.226 Section 195.226 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... PIPELINE Construction § 195.226 Welding: Arc burns. (a) Each arc burn must be repaired. (b) An arc burn...

  3. Arc distribution during the vacuum arc remelting of Ti-6Al-4V

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodside, Charles Rigel [U.S. DOE; King, Paul E. [U.S. DOE; Nordlund, Chris [ATI Albany Operations


    Currently, the temporal distribution of electric arcs across the ingot during vacuum arc remelting (VAR) is not a known or monitored process parameter. Previous studies indicate that the distribution of arcs can be neither diffuse nor axisymmetric about the center of the furnace. Correct accounting for the heat flux, electric current flux, and mass flux into the ingot is critical to achieving realistic solidification models of the VAR process. The National Energy Technology Laboratory has developed an arc position measurement system capable of locating arcs and determining the arc distribution within an industrial VAR furnace. The system is based on noninvasive magnetic field measurements and a VAR specific form of the Biot–Savart law. The system was installed on a coaxial industrial VAR furnace at ATI Albany Operations in Albany, OR. This article reports on the different arc distributions observed during production of Ti-6Al-4V. It is shown that several characteristic arc distribution modes can develop. This behavior is not apparent in the existing signals used to control the furnace, indicating the measurement system is providing new information. It is also shown that the different arc distribution modes observed may impact local solidification times, particularly at the side wall.

  4. Influence of metal vapour on arc temperatures in gas-metal arc welding: convection versus radiation (United States)

    Murphy, Anthony B.


    The presence of metal vapour in gas-metal arc welding has been shown to have two strong effects on the arc plasma: a decrease in temperature throughout the arc, and the formation of a local temperature minimum near the arc axis. These effects have been attributed, on the basis of different computational models, to either the increased radiative emission associated with the presence of metal vapour in the arc plasma, or the influence of the metal vapour influx on convective flow in the arc. This question is investigated using a three-dimensional computational model in which the production and the transport of metal vapour are taken into account self-consistently. Parameters relevant to welding of thin sheets of aluminum are examined. For these conditions, it is found that the first effect (the decrease in temperature throughout the arc) is due to both the increased radiative emission and the influence of the metal vapour influx on flow. The second effect (the local temperature minimum, which in this case occurs just below the wire electrode) is a consequence of the influence of aluminum vapour produced from the wire electrode on flow in the arc. By examining published results and the energy balance in the plasma, it is shown that for welding of steel with higher arc currents, the increased radiative emission can lead to a local temperature minimum at a greater distance from the wire electrode.

  5. Spectral characteristics of arc plasma during laser-arc double-sided welding for aluminum alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kezhao Zhang; Zhenglong Lei; Xianglong Wang; Yanbin Chen; Yaobang Zhao


    In laser-arc double-sided welding,the spectral characteristics of the arc plasma are calculated and analyzed by spectroscopic diagnosis.The results show that,compared with conventional tungsten inert gas (TIG) welding,the introduction of a laser changes the physical characteristics of the arc plasma regardless of whether laser plasma penetration takes place,and that the influence of the laser mainly affects the near-anode region of the arc.When the laser power is relatively low,the arc column tends to compress,and the arc spectral characteristics show no significant difference.When the arc root constricts,compared with pure TIG arc,the electron density increases by ~2.7 times and the electron temperature decreases by ~3000 K.When the arc column expands,the intensities of spectral lines of both the metal and Ar atoms are the strongest.But it is also observed that the electron density reduces,whereas there is no obvious decrease of electron temperature.

  6. Overtwisted open books from sobering arcs


    Goodman, Noah


    We study open books on three manifolds which are compatible with an overtwisted contact structure. We show that the existence of certain arcs, called sobering arcs, is a sufficient condition for an open book to be overtwisted, and is necessary up to stabilization by positive Hopf-bands. Using these techniques we prove that some open books arising as the boundary of symplectic configurations are overtwisted, answering a question of Gay in Algebr. Geom. Topol. 3 (2003) 569--586.

  7. Hybrid Laser-Arc Welding Tanks Steels (United States)

    Turichin, G.; Tsibulskiy, I.; Kuznetsov, M.; Akhmetov, A.; Klimova-Korsmik, O.


    The results investigate hybrid laser-arc welding of high strength steels using design responsible metallic construction and the highest strength body of vehicles. Welds from modern high strength steels grade Hardox 400, Hardox 450, Armox 600T and AB were created. High power fiber laser LS-15 with output 15 kW and arc rectifier VDU - 1500 DC were used in the experiment. Results of the metallographic research and mechanical tests are presented.

  8. Multi-color detection of gravitational arcs


    Maturi, Matteo; Mizera, Sebastian; Seidel, Gregor


    Strong gravitational lensing provides fundamental insights into the understanding of the dark matter distribution in massive galaxies, galaxy clusters and the background cosmology. Despite their importance, the number of gravitational arcs discovered so far is small. The urge for more complete, large samples and unbiased methods of selecting candidates is rising. A number of methods for the automatic detection of arcs have been proposed in the literature, but large amounts of spurious detecti...

  9. Recent seismicity detection increase in the Santorini volcanic island complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Chouliaras


    Full Text Available Santorini is the most active volcanic complex in the South Aegean Volcanic Arc. To improve the seismological network detectability of the seismicity in this region, the Institute of Geodynamics of the National Observatory of Athens (NOA recently installed 4 portable seismological stations supplementary to the 3 permanent stations operating in the region. The addition of these stations has significantly improved the detectability and reporting of the local seismic activity in the NOA instrumental seismicity catalogue.

    In this study we analyze quantitatively the seismicity of the Santorini volcanic complex. The results indicate a recent significant reporting increase mainly for events of small magnitude and an increase in the seismicity rate by more than 100%. The mapping of the statistical significance of the rate change with the z-value method reveals that the rate increase exists primarily in the active fault zone perpendicular to the extensional tectonic stress regime that characterizes this region.

    The spatial distribution of the b-value around the volcanic complex indicates a low b-value distribution parallel to the extensional stress field, while the b-value cross section of the volcanic complex indicates relatively high b-values under the caldera and a significant b-value decrease with depth.

    These results are found to be in general agreement with the results from other volcanic regions and they encourage further investigations concerning the seismic and volcanic hazard and risk estimates for the Santorini volcanic complex using the NOA earthquake catalogue.

  10. Dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from METEOR in the Aegean Sea, Mediterranean Sea and others from 2001-10-18 to 2001-11-11 (NODC Accession 0084620) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0084620 includes discrete sample and profile data collected from METEOR in the Aegean Sea, Mediterranean Sea, Mediterranean Sea - Eastern Basin,...

  11. Dissolved inorganic carbon, pH, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using Alkalinity titrator, CTD and other instruments from METEOR in the Adriatic Sea, Aegean Sea and others from 2011-04-05 to 2011-04-28 (NODC Accession 0108079) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0108079 includes discrete sample and profile data collected from METEOR in the Adriatic Sea, Aegean Sea, Alboran Sea, Ionian Sea, Mediterranean Sea,...

  12. Dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and OXYGEN - APPARENT UTILIZATION (AOU) collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from UNKNOWN PLATFORMS in the Adriatic Sea, Aegean Sea and others from 1874-10-11 to 2000-04-26 (NODC Accession 0117350) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0117350 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from UNKNOWN PLATFORMS in the Adriatic Sea, Aegean Sea, Alboran Sea,...

  13. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from Marcus G. Langseth in the Aegean Sea, Alboran Sea and others from 2015-04-13 to 2015-11-12 (NCEI Accession 0144534) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0144534 includes Surface underway data collected from Marcus G. Langseth in the Aegean Sea, Alboran Sea, Mediterranean Sea, Mediterranean Sea -...

  14. PH, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using Alkalinity titrator, CTD and other instruments from PROFESSOR SIEDLECKI in the Adriatic Sea, Aegean Sea and others from 1988-11-17 to 1988-11-26 (NCEI Accession 0144306) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0144306 includes discrete sample and profile data collected from PROFESSOR SIEDLECKI in the Adriatic Sea, Aegean Sea, Mediterranean Sea,...

  15. Electric arc furnace models for flicker study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalina González Castaño


    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this paper is to evaluate voltage fluctuations or flicker of two electric arc furnace models through comparison with real data.Method: The first proposed model is founded on the energy conservation principle, which generates a non-linear differential equation modelling the electric arc voltage – current characteristics. Voltage fluctuations are generated using a chaotic circuit that modulates the amplitude of arc voltage. The second model is based on the empirical relationship between the arc diameter or length as well as voltage and electrical current on the arc. Voltage fluctuations are considered adding a random signal in the arc length. Both models are implemented in PSCADTM.Results: The results of both models are compared with real data taken at the most critical stage of the operation of the furnace, and they show that the model based on energy conservation has a lower average mean square error in the voltages and currents 5.6 V and 1.7 kA against 27,2 V y 3.38 kA obtained with the second model.Conclusions: Both models consider the nonlinearity and random behavior present in this type of load, validating their inclusion in computer models of electric power systems.

  16. Recent ARC developments: Through modularity to interoperability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smirnova, O; Cameron, D; Ellert, M; Groenager, M; Johansson, D; Kleist, J [NDGF, Kastruplundsgade 22, DK-2770 Kastrup (Denmark); Dobe, P; Joenemo, J; Konya, B [Lund University, Experimental High Energy Physics, Institute of Physics, Box 118, SE-22100 Lund (Sweden); Fraagaat, T; Konstantinov, A; Nilsen, J K; Saada, F Ould; Qiang, W; Read, A [University of Oslo, Department of Physics, P. O. Box 1048, Blindern, N-0316 Oslo (Norway); Kocan, M [Pavol Jozef Safarik University, Faculty of Science, Jesenna 5, SK-04000 Kosice (Slovakia); Marton, I; Nagy, Zs [NIIF/HUNGARNET, Victor Hugo 18-22, H-1132 Budapest (Hungary); Moeller, S [University of Luebeck, Inst. Of Neuro- and Bioinformatics, Ratzeburger Allee 160, D-23538 Luebeck (Germany); Mohn, B, E-mail: [Uppsala University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Div. of Nuclear and Particle Physics, Box 535, SE-75121 Uppsala (Sweden)


    The Advanced Resource Connector (ARC) middleware introduced by NorduGrid is one of the basic Grid solutions used by scientists worldwide. While being well-proven in daily use by a wide variety of scientific applications at large-scale infrastructures like the Nordic DataGrid Facility (NDGF) and smaller scale projects, production ARC of today is still largely based on conventional Grid technologies and custom interfaces introduced a decade ago. In order to guarantee sustainability, true cross-system portability and standards-compliance based interoperability, the ARC community undertakes a massive effort of implementing modular Web Service (WS) approach into the middleware. With support from the EU KnowARC project, new components were introduced and the existing key ARC services got extended with WS technology based standard-compliant interfaces following a service-oriented architecture. Such components include the hosting environment framework, the resource-coupled execution service, the re-engineered client library, the self-healing storage solution and the peer-to-peer information system, to name a few. Gradual introduction of these new services and client tools into the production middleware releases is carried out together with NDGF and thus ensures a smooth transition to the next generation Grid middleware. Standard interfaces and modularity of the new component design are essential for ARC contributions to the planned Universal Middleware Distribution of the European Grid Initiative.

  17. Recent ARC developments: Through modularity to interoperability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Advanced Resource Connector (ARC) middleware introduced by NorduGrid is one of the basic Grid solutions used by scientists worldwide. While being well-proven in daily use by a wide variety of scientific applications at large-scale infrastructures like the Nordic DataGrid Facility (NDGF) and smaller scale projects, production ARC of today is still largely based on conventional Grid technologies and custom interfaces introduced a decade ago. In order to guarantee sustainability, true cross-system portability and standards-compliance based interoperability, the ARC community undertakes a massive effort of implementing modular Web Service (WS) approach into the middleware. With support from the EU KnowARC project, new components were introduced and the existing key ARC services got extended with WS technology based standard-compliant interfaces following a service-oriented architecture. Such components include the hosting environment framework, the resource-coupled execution service, the re-engineered client library, the self-healing storage solution and the peer-to-peer information system, to name a few. Gradual introduction of these new services and client tools into the production middleware releases is carried out together with NDGF and thus ensures a smooth transition to the next generation Grid middleware. Standard interfaces and modularity of the new component design are essential for ARC contributions to the planned Universal Middleware Distribution of the European Grid Initiative.

  18. New method for capturing arc of moving on switching apparatus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Jiao-min; WANG Jing-hong


    The switching arc that occurs in contact gap when contact of low voltage apparatus closes or breaks in electric circuit is harmful to the contacts, insulation, and reliability of electrical gear because of its very high temperature. As arcing time is very short in switching gear, it is very difficult to observe arc phenomena directly for researchers. Therefore, visualization of switching arc is important for understanding arc phenomena, to analyze the arc features, and to improve the design and reliability of switching gear. Based on analyzing the visualization methods proposed by researchers, a new switching arc capturing approach is introduced in this paper. Arc image acquisition, and image processing techniques were studied. A switching arc image acquisition and visual simulation software based on high speed CCD camera hard ware system was designed and implemented to yield enhanced arc image with good visual effect.

  19. Macroscopic Segregation and Stress Corrosion Cracking in 7xxx Series Aluminum Alloy Arc Welds (United States)

    Borchers, Tyler E.; McAllister, Donald P.; Zhang, Wei


    Arc welds of Al-Zn-Mg alloy with Al-Mg filler wire have shown a preferential macroscopic segregation of Mg and Zn to the weld toes. Islands of large precipitates, which are observed in those solute-enriched weld toes, are identified as T phase (Mg32(Al,Zn)49) using diffraction pattern analysis. The location of T precipitates consistently coincides with the initiation site for stress corrosion cracking. Therefore, it is hypothesized that they induce the crack initiation due to preferential dissolution.

  20. Vacuum arc under axial magnetic fields: experimental and simulation research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Axial magnetic field (AMF) technology is a most important control method of vacuum arc, particularly for high-current vacuum arcs in vacuum interrupters. In this paper, a review of the state of current research on vacuum arcs under AMF is presented. The major aspects of vacuum arc in an AMF such as arc voltage, the motion of cathode spots, and anode activities are discussed, and the most recent progress both of experimental and simulation research is presented. (topical review)

  1. Direct probing of anode arc root dynamics and voltage instability in a dc non-transferred arc plasma jet (United States)

    Ghorui, S.; Tiwari, N.; Meher, K. C.; Jan, A.; Bhat, A.; Sahasrabudhe, S. N.


    The transient dynamics of the anode arc root in a dc non-transferred arc plasma torch is captured through fast photography and directly correlated with the associated voltage instability for the first time. The coexistence of multiple arc roots, the transition to a single arc root, root formation and extinction are investigated for the steady, takeover and re-strike modes of the arc. Contrary to the usual concept, the emerging plasma jet of a dc non-transferred arc plasma torch is found to carry current. An unusually long self-propelled arc plasma jet, a consequence of the phenomenon, is demonstrated.

  2. Timing and geochemical characters of the Sanchazi magmatic arc in Mianlüe tectonic zone, South Qinling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The Sanchazi mafic-ultramafic complex in Mianlue tectonic zone, South Qinling can be subdivided into two blocks, i.e. Sanchazi paleo-magmatic arc and Zhuangkegou paleo-oceanic crust fragment (ophiolite). The Sanchazi paleo-magmatic arc is mainly composed of andesite, basaltic and basalt-andesitic gabbro (or diorite), andesitic dyke, plagiogranite and minor ultramafic rocks, which have typical geochemical features of island arc volcanic rocks, such as high field strength element (e.g. Nb, Ti) depletions and lower Cr, Ni contents. The Light rare earth element (LREE) and K enrichments of these rocks and zircon xenocrystals of 900 Ma from plagiogranite suggest that this magmatic arc was developed on the South active continental margin of the South Qinling micro-continent. The U-Pb age of (300 ± 61)Ma for zircons from plagiogranite indicates that the Mianlue paleo-oceanic crust was probably subducted underneath the South Qinling micro-continent in Carboniferous. This is consistent with the formation time (309Ma) of the Huwan eclogite originating from oceanic subduction in Dabie Mountains, suggesting that the Mianlue paleo-ocean probably extended eastward to the Dabie Mountains in Carboniferous. The high-Mg adakitic rocks in Sanchazi paleo-magmatic arc suggest that the subducted oceanic crust was relatively young (<25Ma) and hot.

  3. Tectonic erosion, subduction accretion and arc collision as controls on the growth of the continental crust (United States)

    Clift, P.; Vannucchi, P.; Draut, A.


    Subduction plate boundaries, at which tectonic erosion removes material from the overriding plate, account for 57% of the total length of the global subduction system and are favored where convergence rates exceed 7 cm/yr and where the sedimentary cover is less than 1 km. Accretion conversely preferentially occurs in regions of slow convergence (1 km. The slope gradients and taper angle of accretionary plate margins correlates with plate convergence rates, while erosive margin slopes appear to be independent of this. Rates of trench retreat do not appear to correlate with any simple characteristic of the plate interaction, but are largely a function of the history of seamount or ridge collisions. Mass balances of the global subduction system indicate that the entire volume of the continental crust can be recycled through the subduction system every 2.6 Ga. Even in accretionary margins a median of only 32% of the incoming sedimentary mass is accreted over time scales of 10 my or greater, resulting in long-term net loss of continental crust along continental active margins. Average magmatic productivity in the active margins must exceed 75 km3/my if the volume of the continental crust is to reach the slow growth rate indicated by isotopic and continental freeboard arguments. Geological arguments indicate that magmatic accretion rates must be faster in oceanic arcs (87-95 km3/my) and less in the continental arcs (65-83 km3/my). Mass balance arguments in oceanic arcs require that their crustal thicknesses must be Continental growth is principally achieved through the collision of oceanic island arcs to continental margins. Although oceanic arcs are chemically distinct from continental crust, the collision process involves the loss of mafic and ultramafic lower crust and the emplacement of voluminous, high silica, light rare earth element enriched melts, transforming the net composition into something more continental in character.

  4. Episodicity in back-arc tectonic regimes (United States)

    Clark, Stuart R.; Stegman, Dave; Müller, R. Dietmar


    The evolution of back-arc basins is tied to the development of the dynamics of the subduction system they are a part of. We present a study of back-arc basins and model their development by implementing 3D time-dependant computer models of subduction including an overriding plate. We define three types of episodicity: pseudo-, quasi- and hyper-episodicity, and find evidence of these in nature. Observations of back-arc basin ages, histories of spreading, quiescence and compression in the overriding plate give us an understanding of the time-development of these subduction zones and back-arc basins. Across the globe today, a number of trenches are advancing—the Izu-Bonin Trench, the Mariana Trench, the Japan Trench, the Java-Sunda Trench and the central portion of the Peru-Chile Trench (the Andes subduction zone). The Izu-Bonin, Mariana and Japan all have established back-arc basins, while the others have documented episodes of spreading, quiescence, compression or a combination of these. The combination of advancing and retreating trench motion places these subduction zones in the category of hyper-episodicity. Quasi-episodicity, in which the back-arc shifts between phases of rifting, spreading and quiescence, is the dominant form of episodic back-arc development in the present. We find this type of episodicity in models for which the system is dynamically consistent—that we have allowed the subducting plate's velocity to be determined by the sinking slabs' buoyancy. Quasi- and hyper-episodicity are only found in subduction zones with relatively high subducting plate velocities, between 6 and 9 cm/year. Finally, those subduction zones for which the subducting plate is moving slowly, such as in the Mediterranean or the Scotia Sea, experience only pseudo-episodicity, where the spreading moves linearly towards the trench but often does so in discrete ridge-jump events.

  5. Pacific Basin tsunami hazards associated with mass flows in the Aleutian arc of Alaska (United States)

    Waythomas, Christopher F.; Watts, Philip; Shi, Fengyan; Kirby, James T.


    We analyze mass-flow tsunami generation for selected areas within the Aleutian arc of Alaska using results from numerical simulation of hypothetical but plausible mass-flow sources such as submarine landslides and volcanic debris avalanches. The Aleutian arc consists of a chain of volcanic mountains, volcanic islands, and submarine canyons, surrounded by a low-relief continental shelf above about 1000–2000 m water depth. Parts of the arc are fragmented into a series of fault-bounded blocks, tens to hundreds of kilometers in length, and separated from one another by distinctive fault-controlled canyons that are roughly normal to the arc axis. The canyons are natural regions for the accumulation and conveyance of sediment derived from glacial and volcanic processes. The volcanic islands in the region include a number of historically active volcanoes and some possess geological evidence for large-scale sector collapse into the sea. Large scale mass-flow deposits have not been mapped on the seafloor south of the Aleutian Islands, in part because most of the area has never been examined at the resolution required to identify such features, and in part because of the complex nature of erosional and depositional processes. Extensive submarine landslide deposits and debris flows are known on the north side of the arc and are common in similar settings elsewhere and thus they likely exist on the trench slope south of the Aleutian Islands. Because the Aleutian arc is surrounded by deep, open ocean, mass flows of unconsolidated debris that originate either as submarine landslides or as volcanic debris avalanches entering the sea may be potential tsunami sources. To test this hypothesis we present a series of numerical simulations of submarine mass-flow initiated tsunamis from eight different source areas. We consider four submarine mass flows originating in submarine canyons and four flows that evolve from submarine landslides on the trench slope. The flows have lengths

  6. arcControlTower: the System for Atlas Production and Analysis on ARC (United States)

    Filipčič, Andrej; ATLAS Collaboration


    PanDA, the Atlas management and distribution system for production and analysis jobs on EGEE and OSG clusters, is based on pilot jobs to increase the throughput and stability of the job execution on grid. The ARC middleware uses a specific approach which tightly connects the job requirements with cluster capabilities like resource usage, software availability and caching of input files. The pilot concept renders the ARC features useless. The arcControlTower is the job submission system which merges the pilot benefits and ARC advantages. It takes the pilot payload from the panda server and submits the jobs to the Nordugrid ARC clusters as regular jobs, with all the job resources known in advance. All the pilot communication with the PanDA server is done by the arcControlTower, so it plays the role of a pilot factory and the pilot itself. There are several advantages to this approach: no grid middleware is needed on the worker nodes, the fair-share between the production and user jobs is tuned with the arcControlTower load parameters, the jobs can be controlled by ARC client tools. The system could be extended to other submission systems using central distribution.

  7. arcControlTower: the System for Atlas Production and Analysis on ARC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PanDA, the Atlas management and distribution system for production and analysis jobs on EGEE and OSG clusters, is based on pilot jobs to increase the throughput and stability of the job execution on grid. The ARC middleware uses a specific approach which tightly connects the job requirements with cluster capabilities like resource usage, software availability and caching of input files. The pilot concept renders the ARC features useless. The arcControlTower is the job submission system which merges the pilot benefits and ARC advantages. It takes the pilot payload from the panda server and submits the jobs to the Nordugrid ARC clusters as regular jobs, with all the job resources known in advance. All the pilot communication with the PanDA server is done by the arcControlTower, so it plays the role of a pilot factory and the pilot itself. There are several advantages to this approach: no grid middleware is needed on the worker nodes, the fair-share between the production and user jobs is tuned with the arcControlTower load parameters, the jobs can be controlled by ARC client tools. The system could be extended to other submission systems using central distribution.

  8. Effect of acoustic field parameters on arc acoustic binding during ultrasonic wave-assisted arc welding. (United States)

    Xie, Weifeng; Fan, Chenglei; Yang, Chunli; Lin, Sanbao


    As a newly developed arc welding method, power ultrasound has been successfully introduced into arc and weld pool during ultrasonic wave-assisted arc welding process. The advanced process for molten metals can be realized by utilizing additional ultrasonic field. Under the action of the acoustic wave, the plasma arc as weld heat source is regulated and its characteristics make an obvious change. Compared with the conventional arc, the ultrasonic wave-assisted arc plasma is bound significantly and becomes brighter. To reveal the dependence of the acoustic binding force on acoustic field parameters, a two-dimensional acoustic field model for ultrasonic wave-assisted arc welding device is established. The influences of the radiator height, the central pore radius, the radiator radius, and curvature radius or depth of concave radiator surface are discussed using the boundary element method. Then the authors analyze the resonant mode by this relationship curve between acoustic radiation power and radiator height. Furthermore, the best acoustic binding ability is obtained by optimizing the geometric parameters of acoustic radiator. In addition, three concave radiator surfaces including spherical cap surface, paraboloid of revolution, and rotating single curved surface are investigated systematically. Finally, both the calculation and experiment suggest that, to obtain the best acoustic binding ability, the ultrasonic wave-assisted arc welding setup should be operated under the first resonant mode using a radiator with a spherical cap surface, a small central pore, a large section radius and an appropriate curvature radius. PMID:26558995

  9. Effect of arc distance on temperature field and weld shape during double-sided arc welding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Guangjun; ZHANG Huajun; GAO Hongming; WU Lin


    A new high efficiency welding method, double-sided double arc welding with double powers (DSAW-D), is developed for thick plate of low alloy high strength steel in this study. It is well known that the thermal cycles have an important influence on the microstructure, shape, stress, distortion and mechanical property. The DSA W-D method can control the tempernture field on a wide range by regulating the distance between two arcs, improve the rnicrostructure and prevent hot and cold cracking of high strength steel. But at present, the effect of arc distance on the temperature field and shape is not clear. Therefore, the paper researches the effect of arc distance on the temperature field and weld pool during DSA W-D using finite element method. The transient temperature field of different arc distance in DSAW-D is calculated.To verify the numerical results, the temperature is measured by the thermo-couple and the calculated results agree approximately with experimental data. Farther, the thermal property and mutual effect of double-sided arcs are investigated. The temperature distributions and weld pool profile at different arc distances are obtained. The results show that arc distance is a very important factor to affect the heat process.

  10. Effect of acoustic field parameters on arc acoustic binding during ultrasonic wave-assisted arc welding. (United States)

    Xie, Weifeng; Fan, Chenglei; Yang, Chunli; Lin, Sanbao


    As a newly developed arc welding method, power ultrasound has been successfully introduced into arc and weld pool during ultrasonic wave-assisted arc welding process. The advanced process for molten metals can be realized by utilizing additional ultrasonic field. Under the action of the acoustic wave, the plasma arc as weld heat source is regulated and its characteristics make an obvious change. Compared with the conventional arc, the ultrasonic wave-assisted arc plasma is bound significantly and becomes brighter. To reveal the dependence of the acoustic binding force on acoustic field parameters, a two-dimensional acoustic field model for ultrasonic wave-assisted arc welding device is established. The influences of the radiator height, the central pore radius, the radiator radius, and curvature radius or depth of concave radiator surface are discussed using the boundary element method. Then the authors analyze the resonant mode by this relationship curve between acoustic radiation power and radiator height. Furthermore, the best acoustic binding ability is obtained by optimizing the geometric parameters of acoustic radiator. In addition, three concave radiator surfaces including spherical cap surface, paraboloid of revolution, and rotating single curved surface are investigated systematically. Finally, both the calculation and experiment suggest that, to obtain the best acoustic binding ability, the ultrasonic wave-assisted arc welding setup should be operated under the first resonant mode using a radiator with a spherical cap surface, a small central pore, a large section radius and an appropriate curvature radius.

  11. Effects of process parameters on arc shape and penetration in twin-wire indirect arc welding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shun-shan ZHANG; Mei-qing CAO; Dong-ting WU; Zeng-da ZOU


    In this study, the effects of variable parameters on arc shape and depth of penetration in twin-wire indirect arc gas shielded welding were investigated. The variation of arc shape caused by changes of the parameters was recorded by a high-speed camera,and the depths of penetration of specimen were measured after bead welding by an optical microscope. Experiments indicated that proper parameters give birth to a concentrated and compressed welcimg arc, which Would increase the depth of penetration as the incensement of the arc foice Several pnncipal parameters including toe distance ot twin wires intersecting point to base metal,the included angle,and the content of shielding gas were determined. The arc turned more concentrated and the depth of penetration increased obviously as the welding current increased,the arc turned brighter while unobvlous change of penetration occurred as the arc voltage increased,and the deepest penetration was obtained when the welding speed was 10.5 mm/s..

  12. Philippine Sea Slab and South-Ryukyu Arc Sliver Accommodation of Arc-Continent Collision East of Taiwan (United States)

    Lallemand, S.; Theunissen, T.; Font, Y.; Schnurle, P.; Lee, C.; Liu, C.


    The southern termination of the Ryukyu arc-trench system underwent a complex polyphased and extremely rapid tectonic evolution during the last 5 to 8 My. At first, the relative motion of the Philippine Sea plate (PSP) has changed about 5 My ago from a northward to a northwestward motion relative to Eurasia. Secondly, the Ryukyu trench has propagated from east to west during the same time period resulting in a tectonic inversion along the former passive margin of the South China Sea into the active margin of the S-Ryukyu trench. Thirdly, the convergence rate along the neo-formed S-Ryukyu trench dramatically increased from 8 to 13 cm/yr since at least 2 My when the Southern Okinawa Trough (SOT) started to rift. At the same time, the oceanic subduction of the South China Sea beneath the northern Manila arc progressively evolved into a continental subduction of the Chinese platform at the origin of the Taiwan orogen. The timing of these various kinematic and tectonic events should have been recorded in the deformed sedimentary basins and fold-and-thrust belts in the region. Unfortunately, a large part is now below the sea-level and no or a few age constraints are available. The recent joint project between Taiwan-USA & France (TAIGER & ACTS) gave us the opportunity to considerably increase the resolution of the seismic imagery around the island and especially in the most highly deformed area east of Taiwan along the S-Ryukyu forearc. We already knew that the seismic activity focussed in this region but we ignored how the converging plates deformed. We can now argue that the PSP strongly deforms in the vicinity of its deep interaction with the root of the Taiwan orogen. The north-dipping PSP slab buckles and tears along two diverging directions with a down-faulted part subducting beneath the SOT.

  13. Monitoring the evolution of Deception Island volcano from magnetic anomaly data (South Shetland Islands, Antarctica) (United States)

    Catalán, Manuel; Martos, Yasmina M.; Galindo-Zaldívar, Jesús; Funaki, Minoru


    Deception Island is a young and active volcano located in the south-western part of Bransfield back-arc basin. During the last twenty years the Royal Observatory of the Spanish Navy has carried out geophysical surveys in the area. In addition, an unmanned aerial vehicle flight was conducted in 2011 at 800 m height on the northern half of Deception Island. Analysing and comparing magnetic grids obtained in different periods and tie point readings allow us to detect temporal changes and isolate signals of volcanic origin. Magnetic survey cruises performed in Deception Island's inner bay (1988, 1999 and 2008), and the study of its outer area's magnetic anomaly changes, point to a period of high variations concentrated between December 1989 and December 1999 that may be related to the two main recent periods of seismic activity (1992 and January 1999). From December 1999 to December 2008, there were no significant changes in seismic activity; nevertheless, our data show some magnetic alterations, which might signal the slow progress of a volcanic environment towards equilibrium. Interpreting these magnetic changes called for the construction of several forward models. Additionally, we put forth this kind of study as a suitable, economical and easy method for monitoring an active volcanic system whenever it is possible to measure the magnetic field with accurate positioning, and if the external field components are removed correctly.

  14. Geology and tectonics of Japanese islands: A review - The key to understanding the geology of Asia (United States)

    Wakita, Koji


    The age of the major geological units in Japan ranges from Cambrian to Quaternary. Precambrian basement is, however, expected, as the provenance of by detrital clasts of conglomerate, detrital zircons of metamorphic and sedimentary rocks, and as metamorphic rocks intruded by 500 Ma granites. Although rocks of Paleozoic age are not widely distributed, rocks and formations of late Mesozoic to Cenozoic can be found easily throughout Japan. Rocks of Jurassic age occur mainly in the Jurassic accretionary complexes, which comprise the backbone of the Japanese archipelago. The western part of Japan is composed mainly of Cretaceous to Paleogene felsic volcanic and plutonic rocks and accretionary complexes. The eastern part of the country is covered extensively by Neogene sedimentary and volcanic rocks. During the Quaternary, volcanoes erupted in various parts of Japan, and alluvial plains were formed along the coastlines of the Japanese Islands. These geological units are divided by age and origin: i.e. Paleozoic continental margin; Paleozoic island arc; Paleozoic accretionary complexes; Mesozoic to Paleogene accretionary complexes and Cenozoic island arcs. These are further subdivided into the following tectonic units, e.g. Hida; Oki; Unazuki; Hida Gaien; Higo; Hitachi; Kurosegawa; South Kitakami; Nagato-Renge; Nedamo; Akiyoshi; Ultra-Tamba; Suo; Maizuru; Mino-Tamba; Chichibu; Chizu; Ryoke; Sanbagawa and Shimanto belts. The geological history of Japan commenced with the breakup of the Rodinia super continent, at about 750 Ma. At about 500 Ma, the Paleo-Pacific oceanic plate began to be subducted beneath the continental margin of the South China Block. Since then, Proto-Japan has been located on the convergent margin of East Asia for about 500 Ma. In this tectonic setting, the most significant tectonic events recorded in the geology of Japan are subduction-accretion, paired metamorphism, arc volcanism, back-arc spreading and arc-arc collision. The major accretionary

  15. Overview of ArcGIS Engine Controls%ArcGIS Engine控件综述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    ArcGIS Engine是ESRI公司发布的嵌入式地理信息系统软件开发包.基于ArcGIS Engine开发的应用程序一般有3类:独立非可视化应用程序、独立可视化应用程序和嵌入式应用程序,由于ArcGIS Engine提供了一套可复用、跨平台、设计良好的ArcGIS控件,因此利用控件开发可视化的GIS应用程序是一种常用的开发方式.重点探讨了ArcGIS Engine自带控件的功能、使用方法以及与伙伴控件之间的联系机制.

  16. Method to reduce arc blow during DC arc welding of pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Espina-Hernandez, J. H.; Rueda-Morales, G.L.; Caleyo, F.; Hallen, J. M. [Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Mexico, (Mexico); Lopez-Montenegro, A.; Perz-Baruch, E. [Pemex Exploracion y Produccion, Tabasco, (Mexico)


    Steel pipelines are huge ferromagnetic structures and can be easily subjected to arc blow during the DC arc welding process. The development of methods to avoid arc blow during pipeline DC arc welding is a major objective in the pipeline industry. This study developed a simple procedure to compensate the residual magnetic field in the groove during DC arc welding. A Gaussmeter was used to perform magnetic flux density measurements in pipelines in southern Mexico. These data were used to perform magnetic finite element simulations using FEMM. Different variables were studied such as the residual magnetic field in the groove or the position of the coil with respect to the groove. An empirical predictive equation was developed from these trials to compensate for the residual magnetic field. A new method of compensating for the residual magnetic field in the groove by selecting the number of coil turns and the position of the coil with respect to the groove was established.

  17. Preliminary analysis of the earthquake (MW 8.1) and tsunami of April 1, 2007, in the Solomon Islands, southwestern Pacific Ocean (United States)

    Fisher, Michael A.; Geist, Eric L.; Sliter, Ray; Wong, Florence L.; Reiss, Carol; Mann, Dennis M.


    On April 1, 2007, a destructive earthquake (Mw 8.1) and tsunami struck the central Solomon Islands arc in the southwestern Pacific Ocean. The earthquake had a thrust-fault focal mechanism and occurred at shallow depth (between 15 km and 25 km) beneath the island arc. The combined effects of the earthquake and tsunami caused dozens of fatalities and thousands remain without shelter. We present a preliminary analysis of the Mw-8.1 earthquake and resulting tsunami. Multichannel seismic-reflection data collected during 1984 show the geologic structure of the arc's frontal prism within the earthquake's rupture zone. Modeling tsunami-wave propagation indicates that some of the islands are so close to the earthquake epicenter that they were hard hit by tsunami waves as soon as 5 min. after shaking began, allowing people scant time to react.

  18. Critical Length Criterion and the Arc Chain Model for Calculating the Arcing Time of the Secondary Arc Related to AC Transmission Lines (United States)

    Cong, Haoxi; Li, Qingmin; Xing, Jinyuan; Li, Jinsong; Chen, Qiang


    The prompt extinction of the secondary arc is critical to the single-phase reclosing of AC transmission lines, including half-wavelength power transmission lines. In this paper, a low-voltage physical experimental platform was established and the motion process of the secondary arc was recorded by a high-speed camera. It was found that the arcing time of the secondary arc rendered a close relationship with its arc length. Through the input and output power energy analysis of the secondary arc, a new critical length criterion for the arcing time was proposed. The arc chain model was then adopted to calculate the arcing time with both the traditional and the proposed critical length criteria, and the simulation results were compared with the experimental data. The study showed that the arcing time calculated from the new critical length criterion gave more accurate results, which can provide a reliable criterion in term of arcing time for modeling and simulation of the secondary arc related with power transmission lines. supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 51277061 and 51420105011)

  19. The geochemistry and petrogenesis of the Paleoproterozoic Green Mountain arc: A composite(?), bimodal, oceanic, fringing arc (United States)

    Jones, D.S.; Barnes, C.G.; Premo, W.R.; Snoke, A.W.


    The inferred subduction affinity of the ~1780-Ma Green Mountain arc, a dominantly bimodal igneous terrane (together with immature marine and volcaniclastic sedimentary rocks) accreted to the southern margin of the Wyoming province, is integral to arc-accretion models of the Paleoproterozoic growth of southern Laurentia. Conversely, the dominantly bimodal nature of many putative arc-related igneous suites throughout southern Laurentia, including the Green Mountain arc, has also been used to support models of growth by extension of pre-existing crust. We report new geochemical and isotopic data from ~1780-Ma gabbroic and granodioritic to tonalitic rocks of the Big Creek Gneiss, interpreted as consanguineous with previously studied metavolcanic rocks of the Green Mountain Formation.The ~1780-Ma Big Creek Gneiss mafic rocks show clear geochemical signatures of a subduction origin and provide no supporting evidence for extensional tectonism. The ~1780-Ma Big Creek Gneiss felsic rocks are attributed to partial melting of mafic and/or mixed lower-crustal material. The bimodal nature of the suite results from the combination of arc basalts and felsic crustal melts. The lack of andesite is consistent with the observed tholeiitic differentiation trend of the mafic magmas. The lower e{open}Nd(1780Ma) values for the felsic rocks vs. the mafic rocks suggest that the unexposed lower crust of the arc may be older than the arc and that Trans-Hudson- or Penokean-aged rocks possibly form the substratum of the arc. Our results reinforce previous interpretations that arc-related magmatism played a key role in the Paleoproterozoic crustal growth of southern Laurentia, but also support the possibility of unexposed older crust as basement to the arcs. ?? 2011 Elsevier B.V.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Junyue; Li Zhiyong; Li Huan; Xue Haitao


    Arc spectral information is a rising information source which can solve many problems that can not be done with arc electric information and other arc information.It is of important significance to develop automatic control technique of welding process.The basic theory and methods on it play an important role in expounding and applying arc spectral information.Using concerned equation in plasma physics and spectrum theory,a system of equations including 12 equations which serve as basic theory of arc spectral information is set up.Through analyzing of the 12 equations,a basic view that arc spectral information is the reflection of arc state and state variation,and is the most abundant information resource reflecting welding arc process is drawn.Furthermore,based on the basic theory,the basic methods of test and control of arc spectral information and points out some applications of it are discussesed.

  1. A new artificial reef design for octopus (Octopus vulgaris cuvier, 1797 in the Aegean sea and preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Ula


    Full Text Available This study was carried out in the Gulf of 0zmir in the Aegean Sea between June 2006 and November 2008. The purpose was the creation of a new concept of the artificial reef for Octopus vulgaris, with a view to establishing new artificial reef sites to be used in the fisheries management of this species (MPA, NTZ or fishing areas. First, the main characteristics of natural octopus nests were recorded (entrance width, length, etc. by divers. These characteristics were used in the construction of new octahedral artificial reef blocks. The blocks were made of reinforced concrete, in a shape like that of an inverted pyramid, with an upper surface of 100x100x25 cm³ and a lower one of 60x60 cm². Four cylindrical holes each with two ellipsoidal openings were placed in one face and in the lateral edge of the octo-block, to serve as the entrances to the artificial nest. Each nest has a volume of 5000 cm³. Eighty octo-blocks were deployed as artificial reefs at 10 m from each other at 15 different depths at two sites by divers with the help of the winch of the R/V EGESUF. These artificial octo-reefs were censused by direct observation. Twenty-eight octopuses were sampled at the end of 25 dives. Minimum mantle length of the octopuses was 75 mm and the maximum 249 mm, with an average of 152.71 mm. The average total length was calculated to be 918.57 mm. The weight of the specimens was between 244 g and 7140 g with an average of 2335.43 g. The results showed that both sites were inhabited by octopuses coming from the artificial reefs, which used them as nests. These nests seem to have constituted special places for fisheries management and will permit the assessment of reserve areas or marine protection areas (MPA, thus opening up a new perspective for Turkish fisheries.Este estudo foi realizado no golfo de 0zmir, no Mar Egeu, entre junho de 2006 e novembro de 2008. O objetivo foi uma nova concepção de recife artificial para Octopus vulgaris, visando o

  2. Microearthquake seismicity and fault plane solutions related to arc-continent collision in the Eastern Sunda Arc, Indonesia (United States)

    McCaffrey, Robert; Molnar, Peter; Roecker, Steven W.; Joyodiwiryo, Yoko S.


    The collision of Australia with the eastern Sunda and Banda arcs of Indonesia represents a modern example of the early stages of arc-continent collision. In order to obtain a more detailed view of the tectonics of the collision zone, a microearthquake survey was conducted around the Savu Sea, the region that encompasses the transition from subduction of Indian Ocean lithosphere on the west to collision or subduction of Australian continental lithosphere on the east. Intermediate depth earthquakes were concentrated near Pantar Island, the easternmost active volcano of the Sunda arc, and outline a northwest dipping zone that strikes N65°E from 70 to 150 km depth. The seismic zone probably marks the western edge of the collision zone and its more northerly strike, and the orientations of nodal planes from fault plane solutions indicate a 25° bend in the subducted slab to a depth of at least 150 km. Because the convergence rate and the timing of collision from geologic observations on Timor suggest that the part of the slab now at 150 km depth was at the trench when Australia first collided with Timor, we infer that continental crust (or at least rifted continental margin crust) caused the bend in the convergent margin and has been subducted to 150 km depth. Fault plane solutions of several events show nearly vertical nodal planes that trend parallel to the strike of the seismic zone, along which a northwest-side-down sense of displacement is indicated: these events are concentrated at the southern (top) side of the seismic zone and suggest that the subducted lithosphere is presently detaching in the 50-100 km depth range beneath the eastern Savu Sea. Fault plane solutions for earthquakes within the upper part of the detaching slab (70-100 km depth) have P and T axes whose trends lie parallel to the strike of the seismic zone and horizontal, southeast trending B axes. These earthquakes are interpreted as due to stresses caused by the bend in the subducting plate.

  3. Islands, resettlement and adaptation (United States)

    Barnett, Jon; O'Neill, Saffron J.


    Resettlement of people living on islands in anticipation of climate impacts risks maladaptation, but some forms of population movement carry fewer risks and larger rewards in terms of adapting to climate change.

  4. Nunivak Island muskox studies (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report covers the Nunivak Island muskox, summarizing the carrying capacity and age and sex ratios. Recommendations are attached for muskox management.

  5. Melville Island, Australia (United States)


    Melville Island, just off the coast of Darwin, Northern Territory, Australia (11.5S, 131.0E) is a sparsely inhabited tropical island with heavy woodland concentrations. The widespread and prominant smoke plumes were most likely set to renew pasture under open canopy woodland. Soil erosion is almost non- existant as can be seen by the clear and clean river flow. The offshore sediments are coastal current borne deposits from King Sound to the west.

  6. Solomon Islands; Selected Issues


    International Monetary Fund


    This paper analyzes Solomon Islands’ ongoing reforms concerning of the mineral taxation regime and the fiscal impact of mineral resources. The analysis shows that mineral revenue could be substantial, provided that mineral prices remain strong in the medium term. Enforcing the tax agreement with, a Gold Ridge company, and implementing the new resource taxation regime are critical to ensure that the forthcoming mineral wealth spills over to the rest of the economy. Solomon Islands should ado...

  7. Petrogenesis of eocene lava flows from the chagai arc, Balochistan, Pakistan and its tectonic implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    an upper leval magma chamber before eruption. The primordial mantle normalized trace element patterns exhibit marked negative Nb anomalies with positive spikes generally on K and Sr, which strongly confirm their island arc signatures. The moderate LREE enriched chondrite normalized REE patterns with negative Eu anomalies confirm their calc- alkaline character and suggests fractionation of plagioclase during differentiation. A number of plots in various tectonomagmatic discrimination diagrams together with moderate LILE/HFSE, LREE/HREE) and /sup 87/Sr/, /sup 86/Sr ratios depict transitional character. (author)

  8. Circular arc snakes and kinematic surface generation

    KAUST Repository

    Barton, Michael


    We discuss the theory, discretization, and numerics of curves which are evolving such that part of their shape, or at least their curvature as a function of arc length, remains unchanged. The discretization of a curve as a smooth sequence of circular arcs is well suited for such purposes, and allows us to reduce evolution of curves to the evolution of a control point collection in a certain finite-dimensional shape space. We approach this evolution by a 2-step process: linearized evolution via optimized velocity fields, followed by optimization in order to exactly fulfill all geometric side conditions. We give applications to freeform architecture, including "rationalization" of a surface by congruent arcs, form finding and, most interestingly, non-static architecture. © 2013 The Author(s) Computer Graphics Forum © 2013 The Eurographics Association and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  9. H2O-driven generation of picritic melts in the Middle to Late Triassic Stuhini arc of the Stikine terrane, British Columbia, Canada (United States)

    Milidragovic, Dejan; Chapman, John B.; Bichlmaier, Sebastian; Canil, Dante; Zagorevski, Alex


    Basaltic to andesitic compositions predominate island arc magmatism; ultramafic magmas are rare. Ultramafic (MgO = 21-33 wt.%) tuff breccia, lapilli tuff, and ash tuff of the Middle to Upper Triassic Stuhini Group were erupted in the Stikine arc of the North American Cordillera shortly preceding an episode of prolific porphyry Cu-Mo(-Au) mineralization. The ultramafic tuff shows accumulation (20-65%) of olivine (Fo91) and minor chromite into a subalkaline picritic parental magma with MgO ∼16 wt.%. Despite the inferred high MgO content of the parental liquid, chromite phenocrysts record relatively low liquidus temperatures (mineralization.

  10. On the Trail of Joan of Arc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Joyce Forristal


    Full Text Available The year 2012 marked the 600th anniversary of the birthday of Joan of Arc (Fr., Jeanne d’Arc (1412–1431. Tributes to this national heroine can be found all over France. There are literally countless statues, streets and restaurants named after her and many sites dedicated to her life. However, despite widespread social and mechanical reproduction and cultural naming in relation to the Maid of Orléans, there is no official network or integrated signage in France to promote cultural heritage tourism to the numerous Joan of Arc sites and festivals, even though her life and death, by any measure, were seminal events in the country’s history. Unfortunately, the pilgrim who wants to follow or intersect with Joan of Arc’s trail through France, for cultural, historical or religious reasons, must do so without much help. Using Actor Network Theory and Site Sacralization Theory as framing devices, this paper explores human actors and tangible and intangible non-human factors that may have contributed to the lack of a unified tourism product despite the existence of an adequate Joan of Arc tourismscape. Insights gleaned from this research include Joan’s conflicted status as both/either saint and/or patriot, the existence of no cooperation or linkage between Joan of Arc sites, and cautious French tourism development policies. Several possible scenarios are suggested as suitable means to help implement or foster the creation of an on-the-ground or virtual Joan of Arc trail or tour.

  11. arcControlTower: the System for Atlas Production and Analysis on ARC

    CERN Document Server

    Filipcic, A; The ATLAS collaboration


    PanDA, the Atlas management and distribution system for production and analysis jobs on EGEE and OSG clusters, is based on pilot jobs to increase the throughput and stability of the job execution on grid. The ARC middleware uses specific approach which tightly connects the job requirements with cluster capabilities like resource usage, software availability and caching of input files. The pilot concept renders the ARC features useless. The arcControlTower is the job submission system which merges the pilot benefits and ARC advantages. It takes the pilot payload from the panda server and submits the jobs to the Nordugrid ARC clusters as regular jobs, with all the job resources known in advance. All the pilot communication with the PanDA server is done by the arcControlTower, so it plays the role of a pilot factory and the pilot itself. There are several advantages to this approach: no grid middleware is needed on the worker nodes, the fair-share between the production and user jobs is tuned with the arcControl...

  12. A numerical simulation of ablation controlled arcs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Godin, D.; Trepanier, J.Y. [Ecole Polytechnique, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Montreal, PQ (Canada); Eby, S.D. [Ecole Polytechnique, Centre de Recherche en Calcul Applique, Montreal, PQ (Canada); Robin-Jouan, P. [GEC-Alsthom T and D, Villeurbanne, (France)


    An approach to model the ablation phenomenon of ablation controlled arcs using computational fluid dynamics was presented. Ablation controlled arcs are found in high voltage electrical equipment such as fuses and circuit-breakers. A qualitative prediction of the ablation level is critical from an industrial point of view because deliberate use of ablation is made to increase the pressure in a circuit-breaker chamber to allow for an efficient extinction when the current returns to zero. The numerical model was validated by comparing results of published experimental data. 7 refs., 10 figs.

  13. ArcAid interactive archery assistant


    Jeroen Vervaeke; Jente Ameye; Sievert van Esch; Jelle Saldien; Steven Verstockt


    This paper describes the design process of a bow aiming system, called ArcAid, which is an interactive archery assistant. The main goal of ArcAid is to introduce a way for beginner Robin Hoods to learn the art of archery to its fullest. In order to achieve this goal, our smartphone-based design focuses on a fun and interactive learning process that gives constant feedback to the user on how to hit a certain goal. A SPIKE high- end laser sensor is used for the distance measurement and the smar...

  14. Electric-arc steam plasma generator (United States)

    Anshakov, A. S.; Urbakh, E. K.; Radko, S. I.; Urbakh, A. E.; Faleev, V. A.


    Investigation results on the arc plasmatorch for water-steam heating are presented. The construction arrangement of steam plasma generator with copper electrodes of the stepped geometry was firstly implemented. The energy characteristics of plasmatorch and erosion of electrodes reflect the features of their behavior at arc glow in the plasma-forming environment of steam. The results of numerical study of the thermal state of the composite copper-steel electrodes had a significant influence on optimization of anode water-cooling aimed at improvement of its operation life.

  15. Architectural Surfaces and Structures from Circular Arcs

    KAUST Repository

    Shi, Ling


    In recent decades, the popularity of freeform shapes in contemporary architecture poses new challenges to digital design. One of them is the process of rationalization, i.e. to make freeform skins or structures affordable to manufacture, which draws the most attention from geometry researchers. In this thesis, we aim to realize this process with simple geometric primitives, circular arcs. We investigate architectural surfaces and structures consisting of circular arcs. Our focus is lying on how to employ them nicely and repetitively in architectural design, in order to decrease the cost in manufacturing. Firstly, we study Darboux cyclides, which are algebraic surfaces of order ≤ 4. We provide a computational tool to identify all families of circles on a given cyclide based on the spherical model of M ̈obius geometry. Practical ways to design cyclide patches that pass through certain inputs are presented. In particular, certain triples of circle families on Darboux cyclides may be suitably arranged as 3-webs. We provide a complete classification of all possible 3-webs of circles on Darboux cyclides. We then investigate the circular arc snakes, which are smooth sequences of circu- lar arcs. We evolve the snakes such that their curvature, as a function of arc length, remains unchanged. The evolution of snakes is utilized to approximate given surfaces by circular arcs or to generated freeform shapes, and it is realized by a 2-step pro- cess. More interestingly, certain 6-arc snake with boundary constraints can produce a smooth self motion, which can be employed to build flexible structures. Another challenging topic is approximating smooth freeform skins with simple panels. We contribute to this problem area by approximating a negatively-curved 5 surface with a smooth union of rational bilinear patches. We provide a proof for vertex consistency of hyperbolic nets using the CAGD approach of the rational B ́ezier form. Moreover, we use Darboux transformations for the

  16. Dynamic Arc-Flags in Road Networks


    D 'angelo, Gianlorenzo; Frigioni, Daniele; Vitale, Camillo


    International audience In this work we introduce a new data structure, named Road-Signs, which allows us to efficiently update the Arc-Flags of a graph in a dynamic scenario. Road-Signs can be used to compute Arc-Flags, can be efficiently updated and do not require large space consumption for many real-world graphs like, e.g., graphs arising from road networks. In detail, we define an algorithm to preprocess Road-Signs and an algorithm to update them each time that a weight increase operat...

  17. Plasma distribution of cathodic ARC deposition system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anders, S.; Raoux, S.; Krishnan, K.; MacGill, R.A.; Brown, I.G. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)


    The plasma distribution using a cathodic arc plasma source with and without magnetic macroparticle filter has been determined by depositing on a transparent plastic substrate and measuring the film absorption. It was found that the width of the distribution depends on the arc current, and it also depends on the cathode material which leads to a spatial separation of the elements when an alloy cathode is used. By applying a magnetic multicusp field near the exit of the magnetic filter, it was possible to modify the plasma distribution and obtain a flat plasma profile with a constant and homogeneous elemental distribution.

  18. Small Universal Petri Nets with Inhibitor Arcs


    Ivanov, Sergiu; Pelz, Elisabeth; Verlan, Sergey


    We investigate the problem of construction of small-size universal Petri nets with inhibitor arcs. We consider four descriptional complexity parameters: the number of places, transitions, inhibitor arcs, and the maximal degree of a transition, each of which we try to minimize. We give six constructions having the following values of parameters (listed in the above order): $(30,34,13,3)$, $(14, 31, 51, 8)$, $(11, 31, 79, 11)$, $(21,25,13,5)$, $(67, 64, 8, 3)$, $(58, 55, 8, 5)$ that improve the...

  19. Mantle Response to Collision, Slab Breakoff & Lithospheric Tearing in Anatolian Orogenic Belts, and Cenozoic Geodynamics of the Aegean-Eastern Mediterranean Region (United States)

    Dilek, Yildirim; Altunkaynak, Safak


    The geochemical and temporal evolution of the Cenozoic magmatism in the Aegean, Western Anatolian and peri-Arabian regions shows that plate tectonic events, mantle dynamics, and magmatism were closely linked in space and time. The mantle responded to collision-driven crustal thickening, slab breakoff, delamination, and lithospheric tearing swiftly, within geologically short time scales (few million years). This geodynamic continuum resulted in lateral mantle flow, whole-sale extension and accompanying magmatism that in turn caused the collapse of tectonically and magmatically weakened orogenic crust. Initial stages of post-collisional magmatism (~45 Ma) thermally weakened the orogenic crust in Tethyan continental collision zones, giving way into large-scale extension and lower crustal exhumation via core complex formation starting around 25-23 Ma. Slab breakoff was the most common driving force for the early stages of post-collisional magmatism in the Tethyan mountain belts in the eastern Mediterranean region. Magmatic rocks produced at this stage are represented by calc-alkaline-shoshonitic to transitional (in composition) igneous suites. Subsequent lithospheric delamination or partial convective removal of the sub-continental lithospheric mantle in collision-induced, overthickened orogenic lithosphere caused decompressional melting of the upwelling asthenosphere that in turn resulted in alkaline basaltic magmatism (punctuated by the collisional accretion of several ribbon continents (i.e. Pelagonia, Sakarya, Tauride-South Armenian) to the southern margin of Eurasia, and by related slab breakoff events. Exhumation of middle to lower crustal rocks and the formation of extensional metamorphic domes occurred in the backarc region of this progressively southward-migrated trench and the Tethyan (Afro-Arabian) slab throughout the Cenozoic. Thus, slab retreat played a major role in the Cenozoic geodynamic evolution of the Aegean and Western Anatolian regions. However

  20. Natural gamma-radiation in the Aeolian volcanic arc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiozzi, P.; Pasquale, V. E-mail:; Verdoya, M.; Minato, S


    Pulse-height distributions of {gamma}-rays, obtained with a field NaI(Tl) scintillation spectrometer in numerous sites of the Lipari and Vulcano islands (Aeolian volcanic arc, Italy), were measured to determine the U, Th and K concentrations of the bedrock and the relative values of the air absorbed dose rate. U is spatially related to both Th and K and the Th/U ratio is on average 3.1-3.5. The magmatic evolution is reflected by the concentration of the three radioelements, as they are more abundant within the more felsic units of the volcanic series. The higher values of U (15.7-20.0 ppm) coincide with higher Th (48.3-65.9 ppm) and K (4.9-6.1%) concentrations associated with rhyolitic rocks of the third cycle (<50 ky). The air absorbed dose rate varies from 20 to 470 nGy h{sup -1}. The highest values (>350 nGy h{sup -1}) are observed on outcrops of rhyolitic obsidian lava flows. The cosmic-ray contribution is also evaluated to estimate the total background radiation dose rate.

  1. Natural gamma-radiation in the Aeolian volcanic arc. (United States)

    Chiozzi, P; Pasquale, V; Verdoya, M; Minato, S


    Pulse-height distributions of gamma-rays, obtained with a field NaI(Tl) scintillation spectrometer in numerous sites of the Lipari and Vulcano islands (Aeolian volcanic arc, Italy), were measured to determine the U, Th and K concentrations of the bedrock and the relative values of the air absorbed dose rate. U is spatially related to both Th and K and the Th/U ratio is on average 3.1-3.5. The magmatic evolution is reflected by the concentration of the three radioelements, as they are more abundant within the more felsic units of the volcanic series. The higher values of U (15.7-20.0 ppm) coincide with higher Th (48.3-65.9 ppm) and K (4.9-6.1%) concentrations associated with rhyolitic rocks of the third cycle ( 350 nGy h(-1)) are observed on outcrops of rhyolitic obsidian lava flows. The cosmic-ray contribution is also evaluated to estimate the total background radiation dose rate. PMID:11573810

  2. Arcing Model of a Disconnector and its Effect on VFTO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the computational process of very fast transient over-voltage (VFTO), it is essential to find an accurate model for a gas insulated substation. The arcing model of the disconnector is particularly important. The general arcing model is not able to give a good description of the arc development process. In this paper, based on the physical process of arcing and existing arc models (the exponential time-varying resistance model and the segmental arcing models), a dynamic arcing model is proposed, which is divided into two stages before and after the zero crossing. The dynamic arcing model combines hyperbola time-varying resistance and the Mayr model to describe the dynamic process of arcing. The present paper creates an arc model blockset upon the Matlab/Simulink software platform. Moreover for a specific 1100 kV station, VFTO is simulated in detail based on different arcing models. It is demonstrated that the dynamic arcing model can describe the physical arc process precisely and is useful for improving the accuracy of VFTO simulations

  3. Significance of an Active Volcanic Front in the Far Western Aleutian Arc (United States)

    Yogodzinski, G. M.; Kelemen, P. B.; Hoernle, K.


    Discovery of a volcanic front west of Buldir Volcano, the western-most emergent Aleutian volcano, demonstrates that the surface expression of Aleutian volcanism falls below sea level just west of 175.9° E longitude, but is otherwise continuous from mainland Alaska to Kamchatka. The newly discovered sites of western Aleutian seafloor volcanism are the Ingenstrem Depression, a 60 km-long structural depression just west of Buldir, and an unnamed area 300 km further west, referred to as the Western Cones. These locations fall along a volcanic front that stretches from Buldir to Piip Seamount near the Komandorsky Islands. Western Aleutian seafloor volcanic rocks include large quantities of high-silica andesite and dacite, which define a highly calc-alkaline igneous series and carry trace element signatures that are unmistakably subduction-related. This indicates that subducting oceanic lithosphere is present beneath the westernmost Aleutian arc. The rarity of earthquakes below depths of 200 km indicates that the subducting plate is unusually hot. Some seafloor volcanoes are 6-8 km wide at the base, and so are as large as many emergent Aleutian volcanoes. The seafloor volcanoes are submerged in water depths >3000 m because they sit on oceanic lithosphere of the Bering Sea. The volcanic front is thus displaced to the north of the ridge of arc crust that underlies the western Aleutian Islands. This displacement, which developed since approximately 6 Ma when volcanism was last active on the islands, must be a consequence of oblique convergence in a system where the subducting plate and large blocks of arc crust are both moving primarily in an arc-parallel sense. The result is a hot-slab system where low subduction rates probably limit advection of hot mantle to the subarc, and produce a relatively cool and perhaps stagnant mantle wedge. The oceanic setting and highly oblique subduction geometry also severely limit rates of sediment subduction, so the volcanic rocks, which

  4. Geochemistry of the Bonin Fore-arc Volcanic Sequence: Results from IODP Expedition 352 (United States)

    Godard, M.; Ryan, J. G.; Shervais, J. W.; Whattam, S. A.; Sakuyama, T.; Kirchenbaur, M.; Li, H.; Nelson, W. R.; Prytulak, J.; Pearce, J. A.; Reagan, M. K.


    The Izu-Bonin-Mariana intraoceanic arc system, in the western Pacific, results from ~52 My of subduction of the Pacific plate beneath the eastern margin of the Philippine Sea plate. Four sites were drilled south of the Bonin Islands during IODP Expedition 352 and 1.22 km of igneous basement was cored upslope to the west of the trough. These stratigraphically controlled igneous suites allow study of the earliest stages of arc development from seafloor spreading to convergence. We present the preliminary results of a detailed major and trace element (ICPMS) study on 128 igneous rocks drilled during Expedition 352. Mainly basalts and basaltic andesites were recovered at the two deeper water sites (U1440 and U1441) and boninites at the two westernmost sites (U1439 and U1442). Sites U1440 and U1441 basaltic suites are trace element depleted (e.g. Yb 4-6 x PM); they have fractionated REE patterns (LREE/HREE = 0.2-0.4 x C1-chondrites) compared to mid-ocean ridge basalts. They have compositions overlapping that of previously sampled Fore-Arc Basalts (FAB) series. They are characterized also by an increase in LILE contents relative to neighboring elements up-section (e.g. Rb/La ranging from FAB generation into their mantle source.

  5. Seafloor P- to T-wave Conversion at the Scotia Volcanic-Arc, South Atlantic Ocean (United States)

    Matsumoto, H.; Bohnenstiehl, D. R.; Dziak, R. P.; Park, M.; Lee, W.; Embley, R. W.; Fowler, M. J.; Monigle, P.


    In December '07, a one-year deployment of six autonomous hydrophones (AUH) was conducted off South Georgia Island in the Scotia Sea. The array had an average spacing of 280km, allowing us to monitor hydroacoustic events in a ~80,000 km2 area around the Scotia Volcanic Arc. Of the six, five AUHs were successfully recovered in January '09 and all five logged continuous low frequency acoustic signals throughout the deployment. Long-term spectral analysis shows a bell-shaped, seasonal ambient-noise pattern with high sound levels in Fall and low in mid-Winter, which is likely due to seasonal variations of sea-ice coverage. A total of 200 earthquakes and 232 ice tremors have been located to date with ~50% of the data being processed. In comparison, the NEIC (National Earthquake Information Center) registered 89 seismic events over the same time period, indicative of the high sensitivity of the hydroacoustic methods even at high latitudes. An evidence was found that the submarine portion of the Scotia Arc is acting as an acoustic radiator of hydroacoustic phases for earthquakes with epicenters east of the ridge. There is an early arriving T-wave that appears to radiate from the shallow bathymetry after traveling a considerable distance as a seismic phase through the ocean crust. The earlier arrival tends to be diffuse or emergent which may reflect the arc's parabolic shape as an acoustic radiator. The larger amplitude T-, which typically arrives several minutes after the converted phase. This is the first evidence that seismic energy from out rise and forearc events may travel through island arcs and be converted to acoustic T-waves on the opposite side, likely coupling into the water-column via down-slope conversion processes. We will discuss in detail the spectral content of the T-wave codas, as well as the arrival time patterns of the direct T- and long-range converted phases, which are consistent with the distances between the earthquake epicenters, volcanic-arc and

  6. Modeling Vacuum Arcs On Spacecraft Solar Panel Arrays Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Spacecraft charging and subsequent vacuum arcing poses a significant threat to satellites in LEO and GEO plasma conditions. Localized arc discharges can cause a...

  7. PNW River Reach Files -- 1:100k Watercourses (arcs) (United States)

    Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission — This feature class includes the ARC features from the 2001 version of the PNW River Reach files Arc/INFO coverage. Separate, companion feature classes are also...

  8. Rejuvenating Allen's Arc with the Geometric Mean. (United States)

    Phillips, William A.


    Contends that, despite ongoing criticism, Allen's arc elasticity formula remains entrenched in the microeconomics principles curriculum. Reviews the evolution and continuing scrutiny of the formula. Argues that the use of the geometric mean offers pedagogical advantages over the traditional arithmetic mean approach. (CFR)

  9. Roadmap for the ARC Grid Middleware

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kleist, Josva; Eerola, Paula; Ekelöf, Tord;


    The Advanced Resource Connector (ARC) or the NorduGrid middleware is an open source software solution enabling production quality computational and data Grids, with special emphasis on scalability, stability, reliability and performance. Since its first release in May 2002, the middleware is depl...

  10. Collection of arc welding process data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Luksa


    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of the research was to examine the possibility of detecting welding imperfections by recording the instant values of welding parameters. The microprocessor controlled system for real-time collection and display of welding parameters was designed, implemented and tested.Design/methodology/approach: The system records up to 4 digital or analog signals collected from welding process and displays their run on the LCD display. To disturb the welding process artificial disturbances were introduced.Findings: The occurrence of some welding imperfections is followed by changes of the welding parameters. In this case they can be revealed by the analysis of the instant values of the welding parameters.Research limitations/implications: In the paper results of monitoring manual metal arc welding and gas metal arc welding are presented.Practical implications: Monitoring of gas metal arc welding is a good tool for evaluation of the quality of weld. All introduced, artificial disturbances of the welding process destabilize the welding arc and produce changes in the instant values of the welding parameters.Originality/value: The paper presents a modern microprocessor controlled system for real-time collection and display of welding parameters. Results of tests show that simple statistical approach to welding parameters can help in evaluation of weld quality.

  11. Arc spraying solderable tabs to glass (United States)

    Lindmayer, J.


    Tabs suitable for electrical or mechanical connections in solar cells and integrated circuits are made by spraying technique. Solder wets copper, copper bonds to aluminum, and aluminum adheres to glass. Arc spraying is automated and integrated with encapsulation, eliminating hand tabbing, improving reliability, and reducing cost.

  12. ArcAid Interactive Archery Assistant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeroen Vervaeke


    Full Text Available This paper describes the design process of a bow aiming system, called ArcAid, which is an interactive archery assistant. The main goal of ArcAid is to introduce a way for beginner Robin Hoods to learn the art of archery to its fullest. In order to achieve this goal, our smartphone-based design focuses on a fun and interactive learning process that gives constant feedback to the user on how to hit a certain goal. A SPIKE high- end laser sensor is used for the distance measurement and the smartphone’s accelerometer is used to define the angle of inclination. To measure the force on the arrow and the displacement of the string, a flex sensor is attached upon one of the arcs of the bow. All sensor data is processed in an Arduino Nano microprocessor and feedback to the user is given by a dedicated smartphone app. In this paper, we mainly focus on the construction, mechanics and electronics of the ArcAid bow and on the design of the mobile app, which is the game controller. Furthermore, we briefly discuss some future development ideas.

  13. Secondary arc description on satellite solar generators


    Crispel, Pierre; Degond, Pierre; Vignal, Marie-Helene; Roussel, Jean-Francois; Amorim, Emmanuel; Payan, Denis; Cho, Mengu


    In this paper, we propose a quasi-neutral model with non-vanishing current describing the expansion of a plasma in an inter-cellular gap on a satellite solar array. Moreover, an electric arc cathode spot model is proposed in order to give suitable boundary conditions for the expansion model.

  14. Nonlinear Study of Industrial Arc Spring Dampers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lahriri, Said; Santos, Ilmar; Hartmann, Henning


    The objective of this paper is to present a numerical approach for analyzing parameter excited vibrations on a gas compressor, induced by the nonlinear characteristic of the arc spring feature of certain designs of squeeze film dampers, SFDs. The behavior of the journal is studied in preparation ...

  15. An approach for optimizing arc welding applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The dynamic and transport mechanisms involved in the arc plasma and the weld pool of arc welding operations are numerous and strongly coupled. They produce a medium the magnitudes of which exhibit rapid time variations and very marked gradients which make any experimental analysis complex in this disrupted environment. In this work, we study the TIG and MIG processes. An experimental platform was developed to allow synchronized measurement of various physical quantities associated with welding (process parameters, temperatures, clamping forces, metal transfer, etc.). Numerical libraries dedicated to applied studies in arc welding are developed. They enable the treatment of a large flow of data (signals, images) with a systematic and global method. The advantages of this approach for the enrichment of numerical simulation and arc process control are shown in different situations. Finally, this experimental approach is used in the context of the chosen application to obtain rich measurements to describe the dynamic behavior of the weld pool in P-GMAW. Dimensional analysis of these experimental measurements allows to identify the predominant mechanisms involved and to determine experimentally the characteristic times associated. This type of approach includes better description of the behavior of a macro-drop of molten metal or the phenomena occurring in the humping instabilities. (author)

  16. Seal Island and Franklin Island National Wildlife Refuges Trip Report (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is a summary of visits to both Seal Island National Wildlife Refuge and Franklin Island National Wildlife Refuge on August 14, 15, 16, 1982.

  17. PyroArc novel Waste-to-energy technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is a growing interest in using solid waste as a raw material in the production of gas and materials. A new proprietary technology - called PyroArc - utilizes a wide range of waste fractions combined with a reduction of almost the entire volume. The process employs high temperature plasma technology developed by ScanArc. The Norwegian based enterprise, EnviroArc Technologies AS, has the exclusive rights to use PyroArc technology. (author)

  18. Subaerial records of large-scale explosive volcanism and tsunami along an oceanic arc, Tonga, SW Pacific (United States)

    Cronin, S. J.; Smith, I. E.


    We present a new chronology of major terrestrial eruptions and tsunami events for the central Tongan Arc. The active Tonga-Kermadec oceanic arc extends 2500 km northward of New Zealand and hosts many tens of submarine volcanoes with around a dozen forming islands. Despite its obious volcanic setting, the impacts of explosive volcanism and volcano-tectonic related tsunami are an often overlooked in archaeological and paleo-botanical histories, mainly due the lack of good Holocene subaerial exposures. The inhabited small uplifted coral platform islands east of the volcanic arc in Tonga collectively cover only gods flying overhead with baskets of ash, and an analysis of the high-level wind distribution patterns, lake and wetland sites were investigated along the Tongan chain. In most cases former lagoon basins lifted above sea-level by a combination of tectonic rise and the lowering of mean sea levels by around 2 m since the Mid-Holocene form closed lake or swampy depressions. Coring reveaed between 6 and 20 mineral layers at each site, withn humic sediment or peat. Over thirty new radiocarbon dates were collected to develop a chronology for the sequences and the mineral layers were examined mineralogically and geochemically. These sites reveal mainly tephra fall layers of particles.

  19. Anatomy of Intra-Oceanic Arc Systems (United States)

    Stern, R. J.


    Intra-oceanic arc systems (IOAS) are ultimately embedded in orogenic belts and added to the continental crust. Reconstructing fossil IOASs in collision zones requires understanding the salient features of a typical IOAS. IOASs have the relative dimensions of tagliatelle (flat) pasta: much wider (~250 km) than thick (10-30 km), much longer (1000's of km) than wide. IOASs begin to form when subduction begins, either spontaneously (SNSZ) or by forced convergence (INSZ). For SNSZ, IOASs start as broad zones of seafloor spreading associated with subsidence of the adjacent lithosphere, whereas INSZ IOASs are built on trapped crust. IOAS magmatism manifests the evolution of its subduction zone and indirectly the breadth of the subducted ocean. Two stages in SNSZ IOAS magmato-tectonic evolution exist: infancy and maturity. Infancy lasts 5-10 Ma and results in broad zones of seafloor spreading of tholeiite/boninite; this becomes forearc for the mature IOAS and is emplaced as ophiolite during collision (subduction zone failure). Arc maturity begins with true subduction, as the subducted slab reaches depths ~130 km, focusing magmatism to begin building the magmatic arc ~200km away from the trench and allowing the forearc to cool and hydrate. Mature magmatic arcs mostly yield low-K tholeiitic and medium-K calc-alkaline magmas. Magmatic focusing begins crustal thickening beneath the magmatic arc, at ~500m/Ma for the Izu-Bonin-Mariana IOAS. No systematic compositional evolution to more LIL-enriched primitive magmas occurs once IOAS maturity is reached, except when upper plate stress regime (BAB formation, strike- slip faulting) or the nature of subducted material (more/different sediments, young oceanic crust) changes. Thickening is accompanied by processing of crust beneath the magmatic arc, with progressive differentiation into upper volcanic, middle tonalitic, and lower mafic layers, producing an increasingly effective density filter for magma ascent. Crustal layer formation

  20. Bulk arc strain, crustal thickening, magma emplacement, and mass balances in the Mesozoic Sierra Nevada arc (United States)

    Cao, Wenrong; Paterson, Scott; Saleeby, Jason; Zalunardo, Sean


    Quantifying crustal deformation is important for evaluating mass balance, material transfer, and the interplay between tectonism and magmatism in continental arcs. We present a dataset of >650 finite strain analyses compiled from published works and our own studies with associated structural, geochronologic, and geobarometric information in central and southern Sierra Nevada, California, to quantify the arc crust deformation. Our results show that Mesozoic tectonism results in 65% arc-perpendicular bulk crust shortening under a more or less plane strain condition. Mesozoic arc magmatism replaced ∼80% of this actively deforming arc crust with plutons requiring significantly greater crustal thickening. We suggest that by ∼85 Ma, the arc crust thickness was ∼80 km with a 30-km-thick arc root, resulting in a ∼5 km elevation. Most tectonic shortening and magma emplacement must be accommodated by downward displacements of crustal materials into growing crustal roots at the estimated downward transfer rate of 2-13 km/Myr. The downward transfer of crustal materials must occur in active magma channels, or in "escape channels" in between solidified plutons that decrease in size with time and depth resulting in an increase in the intensity of constrictional strain with depth. We argue that both tectonism and magmatism control the thickness of the crust and surface elevation with slight modification by surface erosion. The downward transported crustal materials initially fertilize the MASH zone thus enhancing to the generation of additional magmas. As the crustal root grows it may potentially pinch out and cool the mantle wedge and thus cause reduction of arc magmatism.