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Sample records for aedes albopictus diptera

  1. Nepenthes ampullaria (Nepenthaceae) Pitchers Are Unattractive to Gravid Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae).

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    Chou, Lee Yiung; Dykes, Gary A; Wilson, Robyn F; Clarke, Charles M

    2016-02-01

    Nepenthes pitcher plants are colonized by a variety of specialized arthropods. As Aedes mosquitoes are container breeders, Nepenthes pitchers are a potential candidate oviposition site for vector species, such as Aedes aegypti (L.) and Aedes albopictus (Skuse). However, Aedes spp. are not commonly encountered in Nepenthes pitchers, and the environment inside the pitchers of some species is lethal to them. One exception is Nepenthes ampullaria Jack, whose pitchers are known to be colonized by Ae. albopictus on very rare occasions. Given that Ae. albopictus larvae can survive in N. ampullaria pitcher fluids, we sought to determine why pitcher colonization is rare, testing the hypothesis that gravid Aedes mosquitoes are deterred from ovipositing into container habitats that have similar characteristics to N. ampullaria pitchers. Using plastic ovitraps of different sizes, colors, and with different types of fluids (based on the characteristics of N. ampullaria pitchers), we compared oviposition rates by Aedes mosquitoes in urban and rural areas within the geographical range of N. ampullaria near Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Ovitraps that were black and large (>250-ml capacity) accumulated significantly more eggs than ovitraps that were smaller, or green in color. In terms of size and color, small, green ovitraps are analogous to N. ampullaria pitchers, indicating that these pitchers are not particularly attractive to gravid Ae. albopictus. Although Aedes spp. are capable of colonizing N. ampullaria pitchers, the pitchers are relatively unattractive to gravid females and do not represent a significant habitat for larvae of dengue vectors at present. PMID:26518035

  2. Larvicidal efficacy of different plant parts of railway creeper, Ipomoea cairica Extract Against Dengue Vector Mosquitoes, Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) and Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae).

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    AhbiRami, Rattanam; Zuharah, Wan Fatma; Thiagaletchumi, Maniam; Subramaniam, Sreeramanan; Sundarasekar, Jeevandran

    2014-01-01

    Natural insecticides from plant origin against mosquito vectors have been the main concern for research due to their high level of eco-safety. Control of mosquitoes in their larval stages are an ideal method since Aedes larvae are aquatic, thus it is easier to deal with them in this habitat. The present study was specifically conducted to explore the larvicidal efficacy of different plant parts of Ipomoea cairica (L.) or railway creeper crude extract obtained using two different solvents; methanol and acetone against late third-stage larvae of Aedes albopictus (Skuse) and Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae). Plant materials of I. cairica leaf, flower, and stem were segregated, airdried, powdered, and extracted using Soxhlet apparatus. Larvicidal bioassays were performed by using World Health Organization standard larval susceptibility test method for each species which were conducted separately for different concentration ranging from 10 to 450 ppm. Both acetone and methanol extracts showed 100% mortality at highest concentration tested (450 ppm) after 24 h of exposure. Results from factorial ANOVA indicated that there were significant differences in larvicidal effects between mosquito species, solvent used and plant parts (F=5.71, df=2, Paegypti with LC50 of 101.94 ppm followed by Ae. albopictus with LC50 of 105.59 ppm compared with other fractions of I. cairica extract obtained from flower, stem, and when methanol are used as solvent. The larvae of Ae. aegypti appeared to be more susceptible to I. cairica extract with lower LC50 value compared with Ae. albopictus (F=8.83, df=1, Pinsecticide for the control of Aedes mosquitoes. This study quantified the larvicidal property of I. cairica extract, providing information on lethal concentration that may have potential for a more eco-friendly Aedes mosquito control program.

  3. Behavioral responses of two dengue virus vectors, Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae), to DUET TM and its components

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    Ultralow volume (ULV) droplets of DUET TM, prallethrin and sumithrin at a sublethal dose were applied to unfed (non bloodfed) and bloodfed female Aedes aegypti Linn. and Aedes albopictus (Skuse) in a wind tunnel. Control spray droplets only contained inactive ingredients. Individual mosquitoes wer...

  4. The Efficacy of Some Commercially Available Insect Repellents for Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) and Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae).

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    Rodriguez, Stacy D; Drake, Lisa L; Price, David P; Hammond, John I; Hansen, Immo A

    2015-01-01

    Reducing the number of host-vector interactions is an effective way to reduce the spread of vector-borne diseases. Repellents are widely used to protect humans from a variety of protozoans, viruses, and nematodes. DEET (N,N-Diethyl-meta-toluamide), a safe and effective repellent, was developed during World War II. Fear of possible side effects of DEET has created a large market for "natural" DEET-free repellents with a variety of active ingredients. We present a comparative study on the efficacy of eight commercially available products, two fragrances, and a vitamin B patch. The products were tested using a human hand as attractant in a Y-tube olfactometer setup with Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus) and Aedes albopictus (Skuse), both major human disease vectors. We found that Ae. albopictus were generally less attracted to the test subject's hand compared with Ae, aegypti. Repellents with DEET as active ingredient had a prominent repellency effect over longer times and on both species. Repellents containing p-menthane-3,8-diol produced comparable results but for shorter time periods. Some of the DEET-free products containing citronella or geraniol did not have any significant repellency effect. Interestingly, the perfume we tested had a modest repellency effect early after application, and the vitamin B patch had no effect on either species. This study shows that the different active ingredients in commercially available mosquito repellent products are not equivalent in terms of duration and strength of repellency. Our results suggest that products containing DEET or p-menthane-3,8-diol have long-lasting repellent effects and therefore provide good protection from mosquito-borne diseases. PMID:26443777

  5. How dengue vector Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae survive during the dry season in Dhaka City, Bangladesh?

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    Rajib Chowdhury

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: In 2000, a dengue outbreak occurred in Bangladesh that included Dhaka City. Both dengue vectors, Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus are present in Bangladesh. Aedes aegypti mosquitoes mainly breed in and around houses and Ae. albopictus is an outside breeder. There are many old trees throughout Dhaka City in different parks, streets and the university campus which may have holes that can contribute as potential breeding habitat for the dengue vector. Therefore, a survey was conducted to investigate the presence of eggs of the dengue vector mosquitoes in treeholes during the dry season in February 2001 to know their contribution on dengue outbreaks. Methods: All treeholes in 10 different localities (parks, streets and university campus of Dhaka City were surveyed. All trees were examined for treeholes up to the height of approximately 3 m and sampled. Debris were collected and packed in poly bags and brought to the laboratory for detailed studies. These were then soaked with tap water to observe egg hatching. The soaked materials were kept up to 20 days covered by a fine mosquito net. After 2-3 days, the eggs started hatching and larvae were separated from the sample for rearing up to IV instar. Results: A total of 245 treeholes were surveyed in 49 identified tree species and 18 unidentified trees. Altogether, 1365 Aedes larvae were found, of which 1096 were Aedes albopictus and 269 were other Aedes species. The largest number of larvae was observed in Delonix regia of Leguminosae family. The number of Aedes albopictus found in the treeholes have perfect positive correlation with the number of other Aedes species. Not a single egg of Aedes aegypti was found in this survey. Interpretation & conclusion: This information will inform public health workers as well as the national control programme to help to solve mosquito borne diseases specially that of dengue. This is critical in planning for vector control operations due to

  6. Comportamento de Aedes albopictus e de Ae. scapularis adultos (Diptera: Culicidae no Sudeste do Brasil Adults Aedes albopictus and Ae. scapularis behavior (Diptera: Culidae in Southeastern Brazil

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    Oswaldo Paulo Forattini

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Observar e comparar o comportamento das espécies de Aedes albopictus e de Ae. scapularis, na localidade de Pedrinhas, litoral sul do Estado de São Paulo, Brasil. MÉTODOS: As observações foram feitas de outubro de 1996 a janeiro de 2000. Foram realizadas coletas sistemáticas de formas adultas mediante a utilização de isca humana, aspirações ambientais e armadilha tipo Shannon. A domiciliação foi estimada pelo índice de Nuorteva e pela razão de sinantropia. RESULTADOS: Foram feitas 87 coletas diurnas, com a obtenção de 872 adultos fêmeas. As médias de Williams', multiplicadas por 100, foram de 118 e 21 para Ae. albopictus nos horários de 7h às 18h e de 18h às 20h, respectivamente. Quanto a Ae. scapularis, foram de 100 e 106 nos mesmos períodos. Esse último revelou pico de atividade crepuscular vespertina. Na aspiração de abrigos, obteve-se o total de 1.124 espécimens, dos quais 226 Ae. albopictus e 898 Ae. scapularis. O período de janeiro a maio correspondeu ao de maior rendimento para ambos os mosquitos. Quanto à armadilha de Shannon, as coletas realizadas na mata revelaram a ausência de Ae. albopictus. No que concerne à domiciliação, esse último mostrou os maiores valores de índices, enquanto Ae. scapularis revelou comportamento de tipo ubiquista. CONCLUSÕES: Os resultados confirmam outras observações, permitindo levantar hipóteses. Em relação a Ae. scapularis, sugere-se que possa existir fenômeno de diapausa das fêmeas no período verão-outono, a qual cessaria no inverno-primavera quando então a atividade seria retomada. Quanto a Ae. albopictus, os dados sugerem que se trata de população em processo adaptativo ao novo ambiente.OBJECTIVE: Aedes albopictus and Ae. scapularis were found living together in the Pedrinhas Village, Southeastern of São Paulo State, Brazil. This finding was a good opportunity to make observations about the mosquitoes' behavior. METHODS: From October 1996 to

  7. High Resolution Spatial Analysis of Habitat Preference of Aedes Albopictus (Diptera Culicidae) in an Urban Environment

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    Cianci, Daniela; Hartemink, Nienke; Zeimes, Caroline B; Vanwambeke, Sophie O; Ienco, Annamaria; Caputo, Beniamino

    2015-01-01

    Over the past decades, the Asian tiger mosquito (Aedes albopictus (Skuse, 1895)) has emerged in many countries, and it has colonized new environments, including urban areas. The species is a nuisance and a potential vector of several human pathogens, and a better understanding of the habitat prefere

  8. High Resolution Spatial Analysis of Habitat Preference of Aedes Albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) in an Urban Environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Cianci; N. Hartemink; C.B. Zeimes; S.O. Vanwambeke; A. Ienco; B. Caputo

    2015-01-01

    Over the past decades, the Asian tiger mosquito (Aedes albopictus (Skuse, 1895)) has emerged in many countries, and it has colonized new environments, including urban areas. The species is a nuisance and a potential vector of several human pathogens, and a better understanding of the habitat prefere

  9. Biogeography of the two major arbovirus mosquito vectors, Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus (Diptera, Culicidae, in Madagascar

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    Raharimalala Fara

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the past ten years, the Indian Ocean region has been the theatre of severe epidemics of chikungunya and dengue. These outbreaks coincided with a high increase in populations of Aedes albopictus that outcompete its sister taxon Aedes aegypti in most islands sampled. The objective of this work was to update the entomological survey of the two Aedes species in the island of Madagascar which has to face these arboviroses. Methods The sampling of Aedes mosquitoes was conducted during two years, from October 2007 to October 2009, in fifteen localities from eight regions of contrasting climates. Captured adults were identified immediately whereas immature stages were bred until adult stage for determination. Phylogenetic analysis was performed using two mtDNA genes, COI and ND5 and trees were constructed by the maximum likelihood (ML method with the gene time reversible (GTR model. Experimental infections with the chikungunya virus strain 06.21 at a titer of 107.5 pfu/mL were performed to evaluate the vector competence of field-collected mosquitoes. Disseminated infection rates were measured fourteen days after infection by immunofluorescence assay performed on head squashes. Results The species Aedes aegypti was detected in only six sites in native forests and natural reserves. In contrast, the species Aedes albopictus was found in 13 out of the 15 sites sampled. Breeding sites were mostly found in man-made environments such as discarded containers, used tires, abandoned buckets, coconuts, and bamboo cuts. Linear regression models showed that the abundance of Ae. albopictus was significantly influenced by the sampling region (F = 62.00, p -16 and period (F = 36.22, p = 2.548 × 10-13, that are associated with ecological and climate variations. Phylogenetic analysis of the invasive Ae. albopictus distinguished haplotypes from South Asia and South America from those of Madagascar, but the markers used were not discriminant enough

  10. Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) and Mosquito-Borne Viruses in the United States.

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    Vanlandingham, Dana L; Higgs, Stephen; Huang, Yan-Jang S

    2016-09-01

    The Asian tiger mosquito Aedes albopictus (Skuse), is a highly invasive species that continues to expand its geographic distribution both in the United States and in countries on other continents. Studies have demonstrated its susceptibility to infection with at least 32 viruses, including 13 that are present in the United States. Despite this susceptibility, its role as a significant competent vector in natural transmission cycles of arboviruses, has been limited. However, with the recent introductions of chikungunya and Zika viruses into the Americas, for which Ae. albopictus is a recognized vector, it is possible that the species may contribute to the transmission of these viruses to humans and perhaps other susceptible vertebrates.

  11. Reproductive strategies of Aedes albopictus (Diptera : Culicidae) and implications for the sterile insect technique

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    Oliva, Clelia F; David Damiens; Vreysen, Marc J. B.; Guy Lemperière; Jérémie Gilles

    2013-01-01

    Male insects are expected to optimize their reproductive strategy according to the availability of sperm or other ejaculatory materials, and to the availability and reproductive status of females. Here, we investigated the reproductive strategy and sperm management of male and virgin female Aedes albopictus, a mosquito vector of chikungunya and dengue viruses. The dynamics of semen transfer to the female bursa inseminalis and spermathecae were observed. Double-mating experiments were conducte...

  12. Temperature Characterization of Different Urban Microhabitats of Aedes albopictus (Diptera Culicidae) in Central-Northern Italy.

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    Vallorani, Roberto; Angelini, Paola; Bellini, Romeo; Carrieri, Marco; Crisci, Alfonso; Mascali Zeo, Silvia; Messeri, Gianni; Venturelli, Claudio

    2015-08-01

    Aedes albopictus (Skuse) is an invasive mosquito species that has spread to many countries in temperate regions bordering the Mediterranean basin, where it is becoming a major public health concern. A good knowledge of the thermal features of the most productive breeding sites for Ae. albopictus is crucial for a better estimation of the mosquitoes' life cycle and developmental rates. In this article, we address the problem of predicting air temperature in three microhabitats common in urban and suburban areas and the air and water temperature inside an ordinary catch basin, which is considered the most productive breeding site for Ae. albopictus in Italy. Temperature differences were statistically proven between the three microhabitats and between the catch basin external and internal temperature. The impacts on the developmental rates for each life stage of Ae. albopictus were tested through a parametric function of the temperature, and the aquatic stages resulted as being the most affected using the specific temperature inside a typical catch basin instead of a generic air temperature. The impact of snow cover on the catch basin internal temperature, and consequently on the mortality of diapausing eggs, was also evaluated. These data can be useful to improve epidemiological models for a better prediction of Ae. albopictus seasonal and population dynamics in central-northern Italian urban areas. PMID:26314064

  13. Notes on the blood-feeding behavior of Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae in Cameroon

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    Kamgang Basile

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The invasive mosquito Aedes albopictus is often considered a poor vector of human pathogens, owing to its catholic feeding behavior. However, it was recently incriminated as a major vector in several Chikungunya epidemics, outside of its native range. Here we assessed two key elements of feeding behavior by Ae. albopictus females in Yaoundé, Cameroon, Central Africa. Host preference was explored and the human-biting activity of females was monitored over 24 h to determine periods of maximum bite exposure. Findings Analysis of ingested blood in outdoor-resting females showed that Ae. albopictus preferentially fed on humans rather than on available domestic animals (95% of the blood meals contained human blood. Our results further showed that Ae. albopictus is a day-biting species in Yaoundé, with a main peak of activity in the late afternoon. Conclusion This is the first report on the feeding behavior of Ae. albopictus in Central Africa. The species is highly aggressive to humans and might therefore be involved in human-human virus transmission in this setting.

  14. Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) Oviposition Preference as Influenced by Container Size and Buddleja davidii Plants.

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    Davis, Timothy J; Kline, Daniel L; Kaufman, Phillip E

    2016-03-01

    Aedes albopictus (Skuse) is a container-breeding mosquito commonly found in residential areas of its range in the United States. Mosquitoes are known to utilize flowering plants for sugar acquisition. Limited information is known about the influences on oviposition site selection, outside of container size. Residential areas are often landscaped with a variety of flowering plants and are known to provide numerous sizes of potential larval developmental sites for container-breeding mosqutioes. Through screened enclosure and field studies, the oviposition preference of Ae. albopictus for containers of three selected sizes (473, 946 and 1,892 ml) and the influence of flowering butterfly bush (Buddleja davidii Franchett cultivar 'Guinevere') plants were examined. Our results document that significantly more eggs were oviposited in the largest containers. Additionally, significantly more eggs were oviposited in containers adjacent to flowering butterfly bushes than in those without a flowering butterfly bush. Finally, our results document that flowering butterfly bushes exerted greater influence over Ae. albopictus oviposition decisions than did container size. Our findings can be applied to several aspects of Ae. albopictus surveillance and control.

  15. Modeling the habitat suitability for the arbovirus vector Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) in Germany.

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    Koch, Lisa K; Cunze, Sarah; Werblow, Antje; Kochmann, Judith; Dörge, Dorian D; Mehlhorn, Heinz; Klimpel, Sven

    2016-03-01

    Climatic changes raise the risk of re-emergence of arthropod-borne virus outbreaks globally. These viruses are transmitted by arthropod vectors, often mosquitoes. Due to increasing worldwide trade and tourism, these vector species are often accidentally introduced into many countries beyond their former distribution range. Aedes albopictus, a well-known disease vector, was detected for the first time in Germany in 2007, but seems to have failed establishment until today. However, the species is known to occur in other temperate regions and a risk for establishment in Germany remains, especially in the face of predicted climate change. Thus, the goal of the study was to estimate the potential distribution of Ae. albopictus in Germany. We used ecological niche modeling in order to estimate the potential habitat suitability for this species under current and projected future climatic conditions. According to our model, there are already two areas in western and southern Germany that appear suitable for Ae. albopictus under current climatic conditions. One of these areas lies in Baden-Wuerttemberg, the other in North-Rhine Westphalia in the Ruhr region. Furthermore, projections under future climatic conditions show an increase of the modeled habitat suitability throughout Germany. Ae. albopictus is supposed to be better acclimated to colder temperatures than other tropical vectors and thus, might become, triggered by climate change, a serious threat to public health in Germany. Our modeling results can help optimizing the design of monitoring programs currently in place in Germany. PMID:26634351

  16. Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) as a potential vector of endemic and exotic arboviruses in Australia.

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    Nicholson, J; Ritchie, S A; van den Hurk, A F

    2014-05-01

    In 2005, established populations of Aedes albopictus (Skuse) were discovered in the Torres Strait, the region that separates Papua New Guinea from northern Australia. This increased the potential for this species to be introduced to mainland Australia. Because it is an arbovirus vector elsewhere, we undertook laboratory-based infection and transmission experiments to determine the potential for Ae. albopictus from the Torres Strait to become infected with and transmit the four major Australian endemic arboviruses--Murray Valley encephalitis virus, West Nile virus Kunjin strain (WNV(KUN)), Ross River virus (RRV), and Barmah Forest virus--as well as the exotic Japanese encephalitis virus. Ae. albopictus is susceptible to infection with all viruses, with infection rates ranging between 8% for WNV(KUN) and 71% for RRV. Transmission rates of approximately 25% were observed for RRV and Barmah Forest virus, but these were < 17% for Murray Valley encephalitis virus, WNV(KUN), and Japanese encephalitis virus. Given its relative vector competence for alphaviruses, we also examined the replication kinetics and extrinsic incubation periods required for transmission of RRV and chikungunya virus. Despite lower body titers, more mosquitoes reared and maintained at 28 degrees C became infected with and transmitted the virus than those reared and maintained at 22 degrees C. The minimum time between Ae. albopictus consuming an infected bloodmeal and transmitting chikungunya virus was 2 d at 28 degrees C and 4 d at 22 degrees C, and for RRV, it was 4 d, irrespective of the temperature. Given its opportunistic feeding habits and aggressive biting behavior, the establishment of Ae. albopictus on the Australian mainland could have a considerable impact on alphavirus transmission.

  17. Cloning and sequence analysis of β-actin gene from Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae)

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    Weijie Wang; Xiaobang Hu; Donghui Zhang; Jianhua Jiao; Yan Sun; Lei Ma; Changliang Zhu

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To obtain the complete β-actin gene from Aedes albopictus. Methods: Total RNA was extracted from C6/36 cells. Degenerate primers were designed based on the β-actin sequences of An. gambiae, Ae. aegypti, Cx. pipiens pallens and D.melanogaster. By RT-PCR, the product was amplified, purified, cloned into the pGT vector and sequenced. The β-actin sequence was aligned and phylogenetically analyzed by the BLAST program and the CLUSTAL W program. Results: A sequence of 1132 bp including an open reading frame of 1131 bp was obtained (GenBank DQ657949). The deduced protein had 376 amino acids.Aligned to SWISS-PROT, it exhibited a high level of identity with β-actins from Anopheles, Drosophila and Culex at the amino acid sequence level. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that Ae. albopictus β-actin was much more homologous with invertebrate β-actin than with vertebrate β-actin. Conclusion: The gene may be used as the internal control in the experiments of Ae. albopictus.

  18. Detection of novel insect flavivirus sequences integrated in Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae in Northern Italy

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    Tenorio Antonio

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The presence of DNA sequences integrated from a new flavivirus related to Cell Fusing Agent and Kamiti River Virus was identified in wild Aedes albopictus mosquito populations from the provinces of Trentino and Padova, Northern Italy. Field work was developed during August–October 2007 with BG-traps, and mosquitoes were screened for flavivirus and alphavirus. No alphavirus was detected, indicating that Chikungunya virus is not present in these mosquitoes in Trentino and Padova area. However, 21% of the pools were positive for flavivirus, further recognised with BLAST as similar to Kamiti River Virus. Phylogenetical analysis with 708 nucleotides from the NS5 gene identified this virus as a new member of the insect flavivirus clade, together with others like Kamiti River Virus, Cell Fusing Agent or Culex flavivirus, and in the group of those transmitted by Aedes. Furthermore, the treatment with RNAse, indicated that this flavivirus should be integrated in the genome of Ae. albopictus. These results propose that these sequences are transmitted by both sexes, and with different prevalence in the studied populations, and support the idea of a widespread distribution of integrated genomes in several mosquitoes from different areas, as first demonstrated with Cell Silent Agent. Evolutionary implications of this discovery and application in flavivirus phylogeny are discussed.

  19. Evaluation of different formulations of IGRs against Aedes albopictus and Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera:Culicidae)

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    Gul Zamin Khan; Inamullah Khan; Imtiaz Ali Khan; Alamzeb; Muhammad Salman; Kalim Ullah

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To test the relative efficacy of pyriproxyfen and methoprene on mortality, deformity, inhibition and emergence to adult stages of Culex quinquefasciatus and Aedes albopictus. Methods: Serial dilutions (0.01–0.05 mg/L) of methoprene, pyriproxyfen 0.5 water dispersible granules (WDG) and pyriproxyfen 1.0 WDG were used to assess mortality and inhibition of 3rd instar larvae of Aedes albopictus and Culex quinquefasciatus. Each concentration and control was replicated four times in completely randomized design. Data on larval mortality, growth inhibition, deformities and adult's emergence was recorded weekly. On the basis of best comparative performance, the efficacy of pyr-iproxyfen 1.0 WDG at 0.1 g/m3 was also tested in the field by collecting treated water samples monthly for 1–6 months after field application. Twenty five 3rd instar larvae of Aedes and Culex spp. of the same cohorts were used for bioassays and compared with larvae in control cups containing 1 L of untreated tap water. Results: Results revealed variations in fatality of different insect growth regulators (IGRs) to the 3rd instar larvae of Culex and Aedes mosquitoes. Among the IGRs, pyr-iproxyfen 1.0 WDG was found best that exhibited significantly high emergence inhibition against Culex and Aedes spp. Based on the results, the IGRs were classified in terms of the tested parameters in order of pyriproxyfen 1.0 WDG > pyriproxyfen 0.5 WDG > methoprene. In case of field studies, pyriproxyfen 1.0 WDG, pool data of the entire target treated sites showed minimum adult emergence from water sampled of habitats treated with 0.1 g/m3 of pyriproxyfen 1.0 WDG. Conclusions: It is thus concluded that IGRs can be utilized as environment friendly control measures for Culex and Aedes spp. of mosquitoes on small and large scale. This will reduce the use of conventional insecticides by the public health authorities and help in reducing selection pressure of insecticides.

  20. Larvicidal efficacy and chemical constituents of O. gratissimum L. (Lamiaceae) essential oil against Aedes albopictus Skuse (Diptera: Culicidae).

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    Sumitha, K V; Thoppil, John E

    2016-02-01

    The current study accentuates the use of botanicals as an alternative to the chemical compounds in vector control by estimating the mosquito larvicidal potential of Ocimum gratissimum L. leaf essential oil against the fourth instar larvae of Aedes albopictus Skuse (Diptera: Culicidae). The chemical composition of essential oil from leaves was evaluated using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis. GC/MS revealed that the essential oil of O. gratissimum contained 51 compounds. The major chemical constituents identified were 3-allyl-6-methoxyphenol (19.30%), 4-(5-ethenyl-1-azabicyclo (2, 2, 2) octan-2) (16.82%), 1-(2, 5-dimethoxyphenyl)-propanol (12.23%) and 1-(1-hydroxybutyl)-2, 5-dimethoxybenzene (5.53%). The essential oil showed pertinent larvicidal effect, and the LC50 value in 24 h was 26.10 ppm (LC90 = 82.83 ppm). Aromatic plants and their essential oils are very important sources of many compounds that are used for different applications, and they are more promising pesticides or insecticides for control of mosquito populations than synthetic ones. The results of the present investigation justify the larvicidal potential of leaf essential oil of O. gratissimum as a safer and more effective larvicide against A. albopictus. PMID:26462801

  1. Comportamento de Aedes albopictus e de Ae. scapularis adultos (Diptera: Culicidae no Sudeste do Brasil

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    Oswaldo Paulo Forattini

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Observar e comparar o comportamento das espécies de Aedes albopictus e de Ae. scapularis, na localidade de Pedrinhas, litoral sul do Estado de São Paulo, Brasil. MÉTODOS: As observações foram feitas de outubro de 1996 a janeiro de 2000. Foram realizadas coletas sistemáticas de formas adultas mediante a utilização de isca humana, aspirações ambientais e armadilha tipo Shannon. A domiciliação foi estimada pelo índice de Nuorteva e pela razão de sinantropia. RESULTADOS: Foram feitas 87 coletas diurnas, com a obtenção de 872 adultos fêmeas. As médias de Williams', multiplicadas por 100, foram de 118 e 21 para Ae. albopictus nos horários de 7h às 18h e de 18h às 20h, respectivamente. Quanto a Ae. scapularis, foram de 100 e 106 nos mesmos períodos. Esse último revelou pico de atividade crepuscular vespertina. Na aspiração de abrigos, obteve-se o total de 1.124 espécimens, dos quais 226 Ae. albopictus e 898 Ae. scapularis. O período de janeiro a maio correspondeu ao de maior rendimento para ambos os mosquitos. Quanto à armadilha de Shannon, as coletas realizadas na mata revelaram a ausência de Ae. albopictus. No que concerne à domiciliação, esse último mostrou os maiores valores de índices, enquanto Ae. scapularis revelou comportamento de tipo ubiquista. CONCLUSÕES: Os resultados confirmam outras observações, permitindo levantar hipóteses. Em relação a Ae. scapularis, sugere-se que possa existir fenômeno de diapausa das fêmeas no período verão-outono, a qual cessaria no inverno-primavera quando então a atividade seria retomada. Quanto a Ae. albopictus, os dados sugerem que se trata de população em processo adaptativo ao novo ambiente.

  2. Eclosion rate, development and survivorship of Aedes albopictus (Skuse)(Diptera: Culicidae) under different water temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monteiro, Laura C.C. [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Biologia Animal (PPGBA). Curso de Ciencias Biologicas; Souza, Jose R.B. de; Albuquerque, Cleide M.R. de [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Biologia Animal (PPGBA). Dept. de Zoologia

    2007-11-15

    In tropical areas, where vector insects populations are particularly numerous, temperature usually range between 25 de C and 35 deg C. Considering the importance of such temperature variation in determining mosquitoes population dynamics, in this work the developmental, eclosion and survival rates of the immature stages of Aedes albopictus (Skuse) were compared under constant 25, 30 and 35 deg C (using acclimatized chambers) and environmental (25 deg C to 29 deg C) temperatures. The hatching rate was considered as total number of larvae recovered after 24h. The development period as well as larval and pupal survival rate were evaluated daily. Eclosion rate was significantly higher under environmental temperature than under the studied constant temperatures, suggesting that temperature variation may be an eclosion-stimulating factor. The mean eclosion time increased with the temperature, ranging from 2.8 h (25 deg C) to 5.2 h (35 deg C). The larval period was greatly variable inside each group, although it did not differ significantly amongst groups (11.0 +- 4.19 days), with individuals showing longer larval stages in water at 35 deg C (12.0 +- 4.95 days) and environmental temperature (13.6 +- 5.98 days). Oppositely, survival was strongly affected by the higher temperature, where only one individual lived through to adult phase. The results suggest that population of Ae. albopictus from Recife may be adapting to increasing of environmental temperatures and that the limiting temperature to larval development is around 35 deg C. (author)

  3. Sublethal effects of atrazine and glyphosate on life history traits of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bara, Jeffrey J; Montgomery, Allison; Muturi, Ephantus J

    2014-08-01

    Although exposure of mosquito larvae to agricultural chemicals such as herbicides is common and widespread, our understanding of how these chemicals affect mosquito ecology and behavior is limited. This study investigated how an environmentally relevant concentration of two herbicides, atrazine and glyphosate, affects mosquito life history traits. One hundred and fifty (150) first instar Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti (L.) or Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus (Skuse) larvae were reared in 1.6 L of live oak leaf (Quercus virginiana) infusion in the presence (5 mg/L) or absence (0 mg/L) of atrazine or glyphosate. The containers were monitored daily to determine the emergence rates, sex ratio, male and female emergence times, and female body size. Emergence rates of A. aegypti from atrazine treatment were significantly higher relative to either glyphosate or control treatments (A. aegypti: atrazine = 93 ± 6% (±95% CI), glyphosate = 82 ± 5%, control = 78 ± 5%), while emergence rates of A. albopictus in atrazine treatments were significantly higher than in glyphosate treatments but not in controls (A. albopictus: atrazine = 84 ± 5 %, glyphosate = 76 ± 4%, control = 78 ± 4%). For both mosquito species, a sex ratio distortion with male bias was observed in control and glyphosate treatments, but not in atrazine treatments (A. aegypti: atrazine = 0.90 ± 0.17 (±SE), glyphosate = 1.63 ± 0.21, control = 1.69 ± 0.26; A. albopictus: atrazine = 1.09 ± 0.08, glyphosate = 1.88 ± 0.12, control = 1.37 ± 0.11). Emergence times for both sexes of the two mosquito species were significantly longer in atrazine treatments compared to glyphosate or control treatments (A. aegypti: females: atrazine = 11.20 ± 0.50 (days ± 95 % CI), glyphosate = 9.71 ± 0.23, control = 9.87 ± 0.21; males: atrazine = 9.46 ± 0.27, glyphosate = 8.80 ± 0.25, control

  4. Reproductive strategies of Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae and implications for the sterile insect technique.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clelia F Oliva

    Full Text Available Male insects are expected to optimize their reproductive strategy according to the availability of sperm or other ejaculatory materials, and to the availability and reproductive status of females. Here, we investigated the reproductive strategy and sperm management of male and virgin female Aedes albopictus, a mosquito vector of chikungunya and dengue viruses. The dynamics of semen transfer to the female bursa inseminalis and spermathecae were observed. Double-mating experiments were conducted to study the effect of time lapsed or an oviposition event between two copulations on the likelihood of a female double-insemination and the use of sperm for egg fertilization; untreated fertile males and radio-sterilised males were used for this purpose. Multiple inseminations and therefore the possibility of sperm competition were limited to matings closely spaced in time. When two males consecutively mated the same female within a 40 min interval, in ca. 15% of the cases did both males sire progeny. When the intervals between the copulations were longer, all progeny over several gonotrophic cycles were offspring of the first male. The mating behavior of males was examined during a rapid sequence of copulations. Male Ae. albopictus were parceling sperm allocation over several matings; however they would also attempt to copulate with females irrespective of the available sperm supply or accessory gland secretion material. During each mating, they transferred large quantities of sperm that was not stored for egg fertilization, and they attempted to copulate with mated females with a low probability of transferring their genes to the next generation. The outcomes of this study provided in addition some essential insights with respect to the sterile insect technique (SIT as a vector control method.

  5. Reproductive strategies of Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) and implications for the sterile insect technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliva, Clelia F; Damiens, David; Vreysen, Marc J B; Lemperière, Guy; Gilles, Jérémie

    2013-01-01

    Male insects are expected to optimize their reproductive strategy according to the availability of sperm or other ejaculatory materials, and to the availability and reproductive status of females. Here, we investigated the reproductive strategy and sperm management of male and virgin female Aedes albopictus, a mosquito vector of chikungunya and dengue viruses. The dynamics of semen transfer to the female bursa inseminalis and spermathecae were observed. Double-mating experiments were conducted to study the effect of time lapsed or an oviposition event between two copulations on the likelihood of a female double-insemination and the use of sperm for egg fertilization; untreated fertile males and radio-sterilised males were used for this purpose. Multiple inseminations and therefore the possibility of sperm competition were limited to matings closely spaced in time. When two males consecutively mated the same female within a 40 min interval, in ca. 15% of the cases did both males sire progeny. When the intervals between the copulations were longer, all progeny over several gonotrophic cycles were offspring of the first male. The mating behavior of males was examined during a rapid sequence of copulations. Male Ae. albopictus were parceling sperm allocation over several matings; however they would also attempt to copulate with females irrespective of the available sperm supply or accessory gland secretion material. During each mating, they transferred large quantities of sperm that was not stored for egg fertilization, and they attempted to copulate with mated females with a low probability of transferring their genes to the next generation. The outcomes of this study provided in addition some essential insights with respect to the sterile insect technique (SIT) as a vector control method.

  6. Laboratory evaluation of mosquito repellents against Aedes albopictus, Culex nigripalpus, and Ochierotatus triseriatus (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnard, Donald R; Xue, Rui-De

    2004-07-01

    Four synthetic mosquito repellents (Autan [10% KBR3023], IR3535 [7.5%], Off! [15% deet], Skinsations [7% deet]) and eight natural (primarily plant extracts and/or essential oils) product-based repellents (Bite Blocker [2% soybean oil], ByGone, GonE!, Natrapel [10% citronella], Neem Aura, Sunswat, MosquitoSafe [25% geraniol], and Repel [26% p-menthane-3,8-diol]) were tested in the laboratory against Aedes albopictus Skuse, Culex nigripalpus Theobald, and Ochlerotatus triseriatus (Say). When estimated mean protection time (eMPT) responses for each repellent were averaged for all three mosquito species, Autan, Bite Blocker, Off!, and Repel prevented biting for > or =7.2 h; IR3535, MosquitoSafe, and Skinsations for 3.2-4.8 h; and ByGone, Natrapel, GonE, NeemAura, and SunSwat for 0.9-2.3 h. Against Ae. albopictus, the eMPT for Off! and Repel exceeded 7.0 h and ranged from 5.0 to 5.7 h for Autan, Bite Blocker, and Skinsations. Bygone, GonE, NeemAura, and SunSwat provided 0.2 h protection against Ae. albopictus and Oc. triseriatus, whereas Autan, Bite Blocker, Off., and Repel prevented bites by Oc. triseriatus for > or =7.3 h. All 12 repellents provided an eMPT > or =2.8 h against Cx. nigripalpus (maximum: 8.5 h for Bite Blocker). When the average eMPT for each repellent (for all species) was divided by the eMPT for 7% deet (Skinsations), the order of repellent effectiveness and the corresponding repellency index (R,) was Repel (1.7) > Bite Blocker (1.5) = Autan (1.5) = Off! (1.5) > Skinsations (1.0) > IR3535 (0.8) > MosquitoSafe (0.6) > Natrapel (0.5) > Neem Aura (0.3) = SunSwat (0.3) = Bygone (0.3) > GonE (0.2). PMID:15311467

  7. Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae: coexistence and susceptibility to temephos, in municipalities with occurrence of dengue and differentiated characteristics of urbanization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josiane Somariva Prophiro

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The aim of the present study was to verify the coexistence between Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus populations in municipalities of the States of Paraná and Santa Catarina with different urbanization profiles where dengue occurs and evaluate their susceptibility to the organophosphate temephos. METHODS: The number of eggs per ovitrap were counted and incubated for hatching to identify the species. Data analysis of the populations was conducted to determine randomness and aggregation, using the variance-to-mean ratio (index of dispersion. Susceptibility to temephos was evaluated by estimation of the resistance ratios RR50 and RR95. Aedes aegypti samples were compared with the population Rockefeller and Aedes albopictus samples were compared with a population from the State of Santa Catarina and with the Rockefeller population. RESULTS: Coexistence between Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus and the aggregation of their eggs were observed at all the sites analyzed in the State of Paraná. CONCLUSIONS: All the Aedes aegypti populations from the State of Parana showed alteration in susceptibility status to the organophosphate temephos, revealing incipient resistance. Similarly, all the Aedes albopictus populations (States of Paraná and Santa Catarina presented survival when exposed to the organophosphate temephos.

  8. Validation of a new larval rearing unit for Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae mass rearing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrizio Balestrino

    Full Text Available The mosquito larval rearing unit developed at the Insect Pest Control Laboratory (IPCL of the FAO/IAEA Joint Division was evaluated for its potential use for Aedes albopictus (Skuse, 1895 mass rearing in support of the development of a sterile insect technique (SIT package for this species. The use of the mass rearing trays and rack did not adversely affect larval development, pupation and survival rates and allowed the management of large larval rearing colonies with reduced space requirements in comparison with classical individual trays. The effects of larval density, water temperature and diet composition on pupal production and size differentiation for sex separation efficacy were analyzed for individual mass rearing trays as well as multiple trays stacked within the dedicated rack unit. Best results were obtained using eighteen thousand larvae per tray at a density of 3 larvae per ml of deionized water at a temperature of 28°C on a diet consisting of 50% tuna meal, 36% bovine liver powder, 14% brewer's yeast and, as an additive, 0.2 gr of Vitamin Mix per 100 ml of diet solution. Pupae were harvested on the sixth day from larval introduction at L1 stage and males were separated out by the use of a 1400 µm sieve with 99.0% accuracy with a recovery rate of ca. 25% of the total available males. With the use of this larval rearing unit, an average production of 100,000 male pupae per week can be achieved in just 2 square meter of laboratory space. Compared to previous laboratory rearing method, the same pupal production and sex separation efficacy could only be achieved by use of ca. 200 plastic trays which required the space of two 5 square meter climatic-controlled rooms.

  9. Variations in the male genitalia of Aedes (Stegomyia Albopictus (Skuse from Chandigarh and its surrounding areas (Diptera: Culicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sagandeep Kaur

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The Asian tiger mosquito Aedes albopictus is the most dominant species of subgenus Stegomyia and is medically important from the standpoint of transmitting wide range of human pathogens of deadly diseases like dengue, yellow fever and chikungunya. During present investigations, it has been observed that IX tergum in the male genitalia of Aedes albopictus varies greatly. It shows variations with respect to the presence or absence of lateral projections on the IX tergum, as well as in the shape and size of median and lateral projections. The shape of IX tergum in the male genitalia of Aedes species is of great taxonomic importance as it is a diagnostic character of the species. These variations have been observed both in natural populations collected from various breeding sites as well as in the adults reared in laboratory. The observed differences have not been noticed by any of the previous workers.

  10. Effects of Cohabitation on the Population Performance and Survivorship of the Invasive Mosquito Aedes albopictus and the Resident Mosquito Aedes notoscriptus (Diptera: Culicidae) in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, J; Ritchie, S A; Russell, R C; Webb, C E; Cook, A; Zalucki, M P; Williams, C R; Ward, P; van den Hurk, A F

    2015-05-01

    The presence of Aedes albopictus (Skuse) in the Torres Strait of northern Australia increases the potential for colonization and establishment on the mainland. However, there is a possibility that native species that occupy the same habitats may influence the population performance of Ae. albopictus, potentially affecting the establishment of this species in Australia. Cohabitation experiments were performed with the endemic Aedes notoscriptus (Skuse), which has been found occupying the same larval habitats as Ae. albopictus in the Torres Strait and is the most widespread container-inhabiting Aedes species in Australia. The influence of environmental factors and cohabitation between the two species was examined using different climates, food resource levels, food resource types, and species densities. Survivorship proportions and a population performance index (λ') were calculated and compared. The consequences of increased Ae. notoscriptus densities were reduced survivorship and λ' for Ae. albopictus. Despite this, the mean λ' of Ae. albopictus and Ae. notoscriptus was consistently ≥ 1.06, indicating both species could increase under all conditions, potentially due to increasing conspecific densities negatively affecting Ae. notoscriptus. The outcomes from this study suggest that the preexisting presence of Ae. notoscriptus may not prevent the establishment of Ae. albopictus in Australia.

  11. Effects of Cohabitation on the Population Performance and Survivorship of the Invasive Mosquito Aedes albopictus and the Resident Mosquito Aedes notoscriptus (Diptera: Culicidae) in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, J; Ritchie, S A; Russell, R C; Webb, C E; Cook, A; Zalucki, M P; Williams, C R; Ward, P; van den Hurk, A F

    2015-05-01

    The presence of Aedes albopictus (Skuse) in the Torres Strait of northern Australia increases the potential for colonization and establishment on the mainland. However, there is a possibility that native species that occupy the same habitats may influence the population performance of Ae. albopictus, potentially affecting the establishment of this species in Australia. Cohabitation experiments were performed with the endemic Aedes notoscriptus (Skuse), which has been found occupying the same larval habitats as Ae. albopictus in the Torres Strait and is the most widespread container-inhabiting Aedes species in Australia. The influence of environmental factors and cohabitation between the two species was examined using different climates, food resource levels, food resource types, and species densities. Survivorship proportions and a population performance index (λ') were calculated and compared. The consequences of increased Ae. notoscriptus densities were reduced survivorship and λ' for Ae. albopictus. Despite this, the mean λ' of Ae. albopictus and Ae. notoscriptus was consistently ≥ 1.06, indicating both species could increase under all conditions, potentially due to increasing conspecific densities negatively affecting Ae. notoscriptus. The outcomes from this study suggest that the preexisting presence of Ae. notoscriptus may not prevent the establishment of Ae. albopictus in Australia. PMID:26334811

  12. Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae): coexistence and susceptibility to temephos, in municipalities with occurrence of dengue and differentiated characteristics of urbanization

    OpenAIRE

    Josiane Somariva Prophiro; Onilda Santos Silva; Jonny Edward Duque Luna; Carla Fernanda Piccoli; Luiz Alberto Kanis; Mario Antonio Navarro da Silva

    2011-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The aim of the present study was to verify the coexistence between Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus populations in municipalities of the States of Paraná and Santa Catarina with different urbanization profiles where dengue occurs and evaluate their susceptibility to the organophosphate temephos. METHODS: The number of eggs per ovitrap were counted and incubated for hatching to identify the species. Data analysis of the populations was conducted to determine randomness and aggr...

  13. Larvicidal and repellent activity of essential oils from wild and cultivated Ruta chalepensis L. (Rutaceae) against Aedes albopictus Skuse (Diptera: Culicidae), an arbovirus vector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conti, Barbara; Leonardi, Michele; Pistelli, Luisa; Profeti, Raffaele; Ouerghemmi, Ines; Benelli, Giovanni

    2013-03-01

    Rutaceae are widely recognized for their toxic and repellent activity exerted against mosquitoes. In our research, the essential oils extracted from fresh leaves of wild and cultivated plants of Ruta chalepensis L. (Rutaceae) were evaluated for larvicidal and repellent activity against the Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus Skuse (Diptera: Culicidae), currently the most invasive mosquito worldwide. In this research, gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses of the essential oils from wild and cultivated plants showed only quantitative differences, in particular relatively to the amounts of ketone derivatives, while the qualitative profile evidenced a similar chemical composition. Both essential oils from wild and cultivated R. chalepensis plants were able to exert a very good toxic activity against A. albopictus larvae (wild plants, LC(50) = 35.66 ppm; cultivated plants, LC(50) = 33.18 ppm), and mortality was dosage dependent. These data are the first evidence of the toxicity of R. chalepensis against mosquitoes. Furthermore, the R. chalepensis essential oil from wild plants was an effective repellent against A. albopictus, also at lower dosages: RD(50) was 0.000215 μL/cm(2) of skin, while RD(90) was 0.007613 μL/cm(2). Our results clearly evidenced that the larvicidal and repellent activity of R. chalepensis essential oil could be used for the development of new and safer products against the Asian tiger mosquito.

  14. Updated distribution of Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae in Spain: new findings in the mainland Spanish Levante, 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro María Alarcón-Elbal

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In 2004, Aedes (Stegomyia albopictus (Skuse, 1894 was observed for the first time in Catalonia, northeastern Spain. A decade later, it has spread throughout the eastern Mediterranean region of the country and the Balearic Islands. Framed within a national surveillance project, we present the results of monitoring in 2013 in the autonomous communities of the mainland Levante. The current study reveals a remarkable increase in the spread of the invasive mosquito in relation to results from 2012; the species was present and well-established in 48 municipalities, most of which were along the Mediterranean coastline from the Valencian Community to the Region of Murcia.

  15. Spatial and Temporal Variation in Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) Numbers in the Yogyakarta Area of Java, Indonesia, With Implications for Wolbachia Releases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tantowijoyo, W; Arguni, E; Johnson, P; Budiwati, N; Nurhayati, P I; Fitriana, I; Wardana, S; Ardiansyah, H; Turley, A P; Ryan, P; O'Neill, S L; Hoffmann, A A

    2016-01-01

    of mosquito vector populations, particularly through Wolbachia endosymbionts. The success of these strategies depends on understanding the dynamics of vector populations. In preparation for Wolbachia releases around Yogyakarta, we have studied Aedes populations in five hamlets. Adult monitoring with BioGent- Sentinel (BG-S) traps indicated that hamlet populations had different dynamics across the year; while there was an increase in Aedes aegypti (L.) and Aedes albopictus (Skuse) numbers in the wet season, species abundance remained relatively stable in some hamlets but changed markedly (>2 fold) in others. Local rainfall a month prior to monitoring partly predicted numbers of Ae. aegypti but not Ae. albopictus. Site differences in population size indicated by BG-S traps were also evident in ovitrap data. Egg or larval collections with ovitraps repeated at the same location suggested spatial autocorrelation (<250 m) in the areas of the hamlets where Ae. aegypti numbers were high. Overall, there was a weak negative association (r<0.43) between Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus numbers in ovitraps when averaged across collections. Ae. albopictus numbers in ovitraps and BG-S traps were positively correlated with vegetation around areas where traps were placed, while Ae. aegypti were negatively correlated with this feature. These data inform intervention strategies by defining periods when mosquito densities are high, highlighting the importance of local site characteristics on populations, and suggesting relatively weak interactions between Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus. They also indicate local areas within hamlets where consistently high mosquito densities may influence Wolbachia invasions and other interventions.

  16. Laboratory evaluation of aqueous leaf extract of Tephrosia vogelii against larvae of Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) and non-target aquatic organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Weisheng; Huang, Congling; Wang, Kun; Fu, Jiantao; Cheng, Dongmei; Zhang, Zhixiang

    2015-06-01

    Mosquito control using insecticides has been the most successful intervention known to reduce malaria prevalence or incidence. However, vector control is facing a threat due to the emergence of resistance to synthetic insecticides. Insecticides of botanical origin may serve as suitable alternative biocontrol techniques in the future. In this research, the leaf aqueous leachate of Tephrosia vogelii was evaluated for its toxicity against larvae of the most invasive mosquito worldwide, Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae), and toward adults of the water flea, Daphnia magna (Cladocera: Crustacea) and Oreochromis niloticus, two non-target aquatic organisms that share the same ecological niche of A. albopictus. The leaf aqueous leachate of T. vogelii was evaluated against fourth-instar larvae, non-blood fed 3-5 days old laboratory strains of A. albopictus under laboratory condition. In addition, the objective of the present work was to study the environmental safety evaluation for aquatic ecosystem. Mortality was then recorded after 7d exposure. The leaf aqueous leachate of T. vogelii showed high mosquitocidal activity against larvae of A. albopictus, with a LC50=1.18μg/mL. However, it had a remarkable acute toxicity also toward adults of the non-target arthropod D. magna, with a LC50=0.47μg/L and O. niloticus with a LC50=5.31μg/L. The present findings have important implications in the practical control of mosquito larvae in the aquatic ecosystem, as the medicinal plants studied are commonly available in large quantities. The extract could be used in stagnant water bodies for the control of mosquitoes acting as vector for many communicable diseases.

  17. Host-feeding pattern of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) in heterogeneous landscapes of South Andaman, Andaman and Nicobar Islands, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivan, Arun; Shriram, A N; Sunish, I P; Vidhya, P T

    2015-09-01

    Mosquito foraging behavior is a determinant of host-vector contact and has an impact on the risk of arboviral epidemics. Therefore, blood-feeding patterns is a useful tool for assessing the role in pathogen transmission by vector mosquitoes. Competent vectors of dengue and chikungunya viz. Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus are widely prevalent in the Andaman and Nicobar archipelago. Considering the vector potential, medical importance of both these mosquito species and lack of information on host-feeding patterns, blood meal analysis of both these vector mosquitoes was undertaken. Biogents Sentinel traps were used for sampling blooded mosquitoes, for identifying the source of blood meal by agar gel-precipitin test. We identified vertebrate source of 147 and 104 blood meals in Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus from heterogeneous landscapes in South Andaman district. Results revealed that Ae. aegypti (88 %) and Ae. albopictus (49 %) fed on human and a small proportion on mammals and fowls, indicative of predominance of anthropophilism. Ae. aegypti predominantly fed on human blood (94.2 %-densely built urban, 89.8 %-low vegetation coverage, and 78.3 %-medium vegetation coverage). Anthropophilism in Ae. albopictus was maximal in densely built urban (90.5 %) and progressively decreased from low vegetation-vegetation/forested continuum (66.7, 36.4, and 8.7 %), indicating plasticity in feeding across these landscapes. Epidemiological significance of the findings is discussed. PMID:26220560

  18. Bioassay and biochemical studies of the status of pirimiphos-methyl and cypermethrin resistance in Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti and Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) in Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, R M L; Choong, C T H; Goh, B P L; Ng, L C; Lam-Phua, S G

    2014-12-01

    Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti (Linnaeus) and Ae. (Stegomyia) albopictus (Skuse) were sampled from five regions of Singapore (Central, North East, North West, South East and South West) and tested with diagnostic concentrations of the technical grade insecticides, pirimiphos-methyl and cypermethrin. Biochemical assays were performed on the same populations of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus to determine activities of detoxifying enzymes, including non-specific esterase (EST), monooxygenase (MFO) and acetylcholinesterase (AChE). The diagnostic test showed that all Ae. aegypti populations were susceptible to pirimiphos-methyl (mortality = 99 to 100%), but resistant to cypermethrin (mortality = 11 to 76%). Resistance to pirimiphos-methyl was observed in all Ae. albopictus populations (mortality = 49 to 74%) while cypermethrin resistance was detected in most Ae. albopictus populations (mortality = 40 to 75%), except those from Central (mortality = 86%) and South East (mortality = 94%) showing incipient resistance. The biochemical assays showed that there was significant enhancement (P aegypti populations. The biochemical assay results suggested that AChE could play a role in pirimiphos-methyl resistance of Ae. albopictus in South West, South East and North East regions. The small but significant increase in EST activities in Ae. aegypti from all regions suggest that it may play a role in the observed cypermethrin resistance.

  19. Impact of climate change on the distribution of Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) in northern Japan: retrospective analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogi, Motoyoshi; Tuno, Nobuko

    2014-05-01

    The impact of climate change on the distribution of Aedes albopictus (Skuse) was analyzed in northern Japan, where chronological distribution records are incomplete. We analyzed local climate data using linear regression of the thermal suitability index (TSI) for the mosquito and mean annual temperature as functions of time. In northern Japan, thermal conditions since the early 20th century have become increasingly suitable for Ae. albopictus, more as a result of decreasing coldness in the overwintering season than increasing warmth in the reproductive season. Based on recent discovery records of Ae. albopictus in the northern border range, we determined thermal criteria for estimating when its persistent establishment became thermally possible. Retrospective analyses indicated that those criteria were reached in most coastal lowlands of northern Honshu before the accelerated temperature increase after the mid-1980s and the first records of this species after 1990; at some sites, temperature criteria were reached during or before the early 20th century. Expansion of the thermally suitable range after 1990 was supported only for inland areas and the northernmost Pacific coast. The estimated expansion rate was approximately 26 km per decade. Our analyses also demonstrated the importance of local climate heterogeneity (apart from north-south or altitudinal temperature gradients) in determining the expansion pattern. PMID:24897849

  20. Impact of climate change on the distribution of Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) in northern Japan: retrospective analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogi, Motoyoshi; Tuno, Nobuko

    2014-05-01

    The impact of climate change on the distribution of Aedes albopictus (Skuse) was analyzed in northern Japan, where chronological distribution records are incomplete. We analyzed local climate data using linear regression of the thermal suitability index (TSI) for the mosquito and mean annual temperature as functions of time. In northern Japan, thermal conditions since the early 20th century have become increasingly suitable for Ae. albopictus, more as a result of decreasing coldness in the overwintering season than increasing warmth in the reproductive season. Based on recent discovery records of Ae. albopictus in the northern border range, we determined thermal criteria for estimating when its persistent establishment became thermally possible. Retrospective analyses indicated that those criteria were reached in most coastal lowlands of northern Honshu before the accelerated temperature increase after the mid-1980s and the first records of this species after 1990; at some sites, temperature criteria were reached during or before the early 20th century. Expansion of the thermally suitable range after 1990 was supported only for inland areas and the northernmost Pacific coast. The estimated expansion rate was approximately 26 km per decade. Our analyses also demonstrated the importance of local climate heterogeneity (apart from north-south or altitudinal temperature gradients) in determining the expansion pattern.

  1. First report of field evolved resistance to agrochemicals in dengue mosquito, Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae, from Pakistan

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    Shehzad Khurram

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Agrochemicals have been widely used in Pakistan for several years. This exposes mosquito populations, particularly those present around agricultural settings, to an intense selection pressure for insecticide resistance. The aim of the present study was to investigate the toxicity of representative agrochemicals against various populations of Aedes albopictus (Skuse collected from three different regions from 2008-2010. Results For organophosphates and pyrethroids, the resistance ratios compared with susceptible Lab-PK were in the range of 157-266 fold for chlorpyrifos, 24-52 fold for profenofos, 41-71 fold for triazofos, and 15-26 fold for cypermethrin, 15-53 fold for deltamethrin and 21-58 fold for lambdacyhalothrin. The resistance ratios for carbamates and new insecticides were in the range of 13-22 fold for methomyl, 24-30 fold for thiodicarb, and 41-101 fold for indoxacarb, 14-27 fold for emamectin benzoate and 23-50 fold for spinosad. Pair wise comparisons of the log LC50s of insecticides revealed correlation among several insecticides, suggesting a possible cross resistance mechanism. Moreover, resistance remained stable across 3 years, suggesting field selection for general fitness had also taken place for various populations of Ae. albopictus. Conclusion Moderate to high level of resistance to agrochemicals in Pakistani field populations of Ae. albopictus is reported here first time. The geographic extent of resistance is unknown but, if widespread, may lead to problems in future vector control.

  2. Potential Risk of Dengue and Chikungunya Outbreaks in Northern Italy Based on a Population Model of Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montarsi, Fabrizio; Baldacchino, Frédéric Alexandre; Metz, Markus; Capelli, Gioia; Rizzoli, Annapaola; Pugliese, Andrea; Rosà, Roberto; Poletti, Piero; Merler, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    The rapid invasion and spread of Aedes albopictus (Skuse, 1894) within new continents and climatic ranges has created favorable conditions for the emergence of tropical arboviral diseases in the invaded areas. We used mosquito abundance data from 2014 collected across ten sites in northern Italy to calibrate a population model for Aedes albopictus and estimate the potential of imported human cases of chikungunya or dengue to generate the condition for their autochthonous transmission in the absence of control interventions. The model captured intra-year seasonality and heterogeneity across sites in mosquito abundance, based on local temperature patterns and the estimated site-specific mosquito habitat suitability. A robust negative correlation was found between the latter and local late spring precipitations, indicating a possible washout effect on larval breeding sites. The model predicts a significant risk of chikungunya outbreaks in most sites if a case is imported between the beginning of summer and up to mid-November, with an average outbreak probability between 4.9% and 25%, depending on the site. A lower risk is predicted for dengue, with an average probability between 4.2% and 10.8% for cases imported between mid-July and mid-September. This study shows the importance of an integrated entomological and medical surveillance for the evaluation of arboviral disease risk, which is a precondition for designing cost-effective vector control programs. PMID:27304211

  3. Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae: coexistence and susceptibility to temephos, in municipalities with occurrence of dengue and differentiated characteristics of urbanization Aedes aegypti e Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae: coexistência e susceptibilidade ao temephos, em municípios com ocorrência de casos de dengue e diferentes características de urbanização

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    Josiane Somariva Prophiro

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The aim of the present study was to verify the coexistence between Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus populations in municipalities of the States of Paraná and Santa Catarina with different urbanization profiles where dengue occurs and evaluate their susceptibility to the organophosphate temephos. METHODS: The number of eggs per ovitrap were counted and incubated for hatching to identify the species. Data analysis of the populations was conducted to determine randomness and aggregation, using the variance-to-mean ratio (index of dispersion. Susceptibility to temephos was evaluated by estimation of the resistance ratios RR50 and RR95. Aedes aegypti samples were compared with the population Rockefeller and Aedes albopictus samples were compared with a population from the State of Santa Catarina and with the Rockefeller population. RESULTS: Coexistence between Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus and the aggregation of their eggs were observed at all the sites analyzed in the State of Paraná. CONCLUSIONS: All the Aedes aegypti populations from the State of Parana showed alteration in susceptibility status to the organophosphate temephos, revealing incipient resistance. Similarly, all the Aedes albopictus populations (States of Paraná and Santa Catarina presented survival when exposed to the organophosphate temephos.INTRODUÇÃO: O presente estudo teve como objetivo verificar a coexistência de populações de Aedes aegypti e de Aedes albopictus em municípios do Estado do Paraná e Santa Catarina com diferentes formas de urbanização, onde ocorrem casos de dengue, e avaliar a susceptibilidade ao organofosforado temephos. MÉTODOS: O número de ovos por ovitrampa foram contados (sem distinguir a espécie e colocados para eclosão e posterior identificação das espécies. A análise das populacões foi conduzida para determinar aleatoriedade e agregação usando a razão variância/média (índice de dispersão. A susceptibilidade ao

  4. Dispersal of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae in an urban endemic dengue area in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

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    Nildimar Alves Honório

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Experimental releases of female Aedes (Stegomyia aegypti and Aedes (Stegomyia albopictus were performed in August and September 1999, in an urban area of Nova Iguaçu, State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, to estimate their flight range in a circular area of 1,600 m where 1,472 ovitraps were set. Releases of 3,055 Ae. aegypti and 2,225 Ae. albopictus females, fed with rubidium (Rb-marked blood and surgically prevented from subsequent blood-feeding, were separated by 11 days. Rb was detected in ovitrap-collected eggs by atomic emission spectrophotometry. Rb-marked eggs of both species were detected up to 800 m from the release point. Eggs of Ae. albopictus were more numerous and more heterogeneously distributed in the area than those of Ae. aegypti. Eggs positively marked for Rb were found at all borders of the study area, suggesting that egg laying also occurred beyond these limits. Results from this study suggest that females can fly at least 800 m in 6 days and, if infected, potentially spread virus rapidly.

  5. Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae): coexistence and susceptibility to temephos, in municipalities with occurrence of dengue and differentiated characteristics of urbanization Aedes aegypti e Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae): coexistência e susceptibilidade ao temephos, em municípios com ocorrência de casos de dengue e diferentes características de urbanização

    OpenAIRE

    Josiane Somariva Prophiro; Onilda Santos Silva; Jonny Edward Duque Luna; Carla Fernanda Piccoli; Luiz Alberto Kanis; Mario Antonio Navarro da Silva

    2011-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The aim of the present study was to verify the coexistence between Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus populations in municipalities of the States of Paraná and Santa Catarina with different urbanization profiles where dengue occurs and evaluate their susceptibility to the organophosphate temephos. METHODS: The number of eggs per ovitrap were counted and incubated for hatching to identify the species. Data analysis of the populations was conducted to determine randomness and aggr...

  6. Avaliação preliminar de óleos essenciais de plantas como repelentes para Aedes albopictus (Skuse, 1894 (Diptera: Culicidae Preliminary evaluation of plant essential oils as repellents against Aedes albopictus (Skuse, 1894 (Diptera: Culicidae

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    V.S Bueno

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Óleos essenciais de plantas têm sido formulados de forma caseira ou colocados no mercado de forma artesanal para repelir mosquitos hematófagos. O presente trabalho avaliou o possível efeito repelente de alguns excipientes normalmente usados em formulações comerciais e de óleos essenciais de nove plantas, sobre fêmeas de Aedes albopictus. Os testes foram realizados em caixas contendo mosquitos, oferecendo-se uma área definida de dedos da mão tratados ou não. Exceto pelo creme Lanatte e os géis de carbopol, as substâncias excipientes avaliadas mostraram ação repelente. Apenas os óleos provenientes de citronela (5 e 10% resultaram em repelência expressiva, com índices médiosde proteção acimade 98%. Os resultados indicam que a metodologia empregada é adequada para a avaliação preliminar de produtos com potencial para a repelência de mosquitos.Plant essential oils have been domestically formulated or marketed as handcraft products to repel hematophagous mosquitoes. This work evaluated the possible repellent effect of both excipients normally used in commercial formulations and essential oils from nine plants against Aedes albopictus females. The assays were carried out in boxes containing mosquitoes, where a defined area of treated or non-treated fingers was offered. Except for Lanatte cream and carbopol gels, the evaluated excipients had repellent action. Only the oils from citronella (5 and 10% presented expressive repellent action, with mean protection indexes above 98%. The results indicate that the used methodology is appropriate for the preliminary evaluation of products with potential to repel mosquitoes.

  7. Spatial and Temporal Variation in Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) Numbers in the Yogyakarta Area of Java, Indonesia, With Implications for Wolbachia Releases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tantowijoyo, W; Arguni, E; Johnson, P; Budiwati, N; Nurhayati, P I; Fitriana, I; Wardana, S; Ardiansyah, H; Turley, A P; Ryan, P; O'Neill, S L; Hoffmann, A A

    2016-01-01

    of mosquito vector populations, particularly through Wolbachia endosymbionts. The success of these strategies depends on understanding the dynamics of vector populations. In preparation for Wolbachia releases around Yogyakarta, we have studied Aedes populations in five hamlets. Adult monitoring with BioGent- Sentinel (BG-S) traps indicated that hamlet populations had different dynamics across the year; while there was an increase in Aedes aegypti (L.) and Aedes albopictus (Skuse) numbers in the wet season, species abundance remained relatively stable in some hamlets but changed markedly (>2 fold) in others. Local rainfall a month prior to monitoring partly predicted numbers of Ae. aegypti but not Ae. albopictus. Site differences in population size indicated by BG-S traps were also evident in ovitrap data. Egg or larval collections with ovitraps repeated at the same location suggested spatial autocorrelation (hamlets where Ae. aegypti numbers were high. Overall, there was a weak negative association (rhamlets where consistently high mosquito densities may influence Wolbachia invasions and other interventions. PMID:26576934

  8. The sterile insect technique for controlling populations of Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae on Reunion Island: mating vigour of sterilized males.

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    Clelia F Oliva

    Full Text Available Reunion Island suffers from high densities of the chikungunya and dengue vector Aedes albopictus. The sterile insect technique (SIT offers a promising strategy for mosquito-borne diseases prevention and control. For such a strategy to be effective, sterile males need to be competitive enough to fulfil their intended function by reducing wild mosquito populations in natura. We studied the effect of irradiation on sexual maturation and mating success of males, and compared the sexual competitiveness of sterile versus wild males in the presence of wild females in semi-field conditions. For all untreated or sterile males, sexual maturation was completed within 13 to 20 h post-emergence and some males were able to inseminate females when 15 h old. In the absence of competition, untreated and sterile males were able to inseminate the same number of virgin females during 48 h, in small laboratory cages: an average of 93% of females was inseminated no matter the treatment, the age of males, and the sex ratio. Daily mating success of single sterile males followed the same pattern as for untreated ones, although they inseminated significantly fewer females after the ninth day. The competitiveness index of sterile males in semi-field conditions was only 0.14 when they were released at 1-day old, but improved to 0.53 when the release occurred after a 5-day period in laboratory conditions. In SIT simulation experiments, a 5:1 sterile to wild male ratio allowed a two-fold reduction of the wild population's fertility. This suggests that sterile males could be sufficiently competitive to mate with wild females within the framework of an SIT component as part of an AW-IPM programme for suppressing a wild population of Ae. albopictus in Reunion Island. It will be of interest to minimise the pre-release period in controlled conditions to ensure a good competitiveness without increasing mass rearing costs.

  9. The sterile insect technique for controlling populations of Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) on Reunion Island: mating vigour of sterilized males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliva, Clelia F; Jacquet, Maxime; Gilles, Jeremie; Lemperiere, Guy; Maquart, Pierre-Olivier; Quilici, Serge; Schooneman, François; Vreysen, Marc J B; Boyer, Sebastien

    2012-01-01

    Reunion Island suffers from high densities of the chikungunya and dengue vector Aedes albopictus. The sterile insect technique (SIT) offers a promising strategy for mosquito-borne diseases prevention and control. For such a strategy to be effective, sterile males need to be competitive enough to fulfil their intended function by reducing wild mosquito populations in natura. We studied the effect of irradiation on sexual maturation and mating success of males, and compared the sexual competitiveness of sterile versus wild males in the presence of wild females in semi-field conditions. For all untreated or sterile males, sexual maturation was completed within 13 to 20 h post-emergence and some males were able to inseminate females when 15 h old. In the absence of competition, untreated and sterile males were able to inseminate the same number of virgin females during 48 h, in small laboratory cages: an average of 93% of females was inseminated no matter the treatment, the age of males, and the sex ratio. Daily mating success of single sterile males followed the same pattern as for untreated ones, although they inseminated significantly fewer females after the ninth day. The competitiveness index of sterile males in semi-field conditions was only 0.14 when they were released at 1-day old, but improved to 0.53 when the release occurred after a 5-day period in laboratory conditions. In SIT simulation experiments, a 5:1 sterile to wild male ratio allowed a two-fold reduction of the wild population's fertility. This suggests that sterile males could be sufficiently competitive to mate with wild females within the framework of an SIT component as part of an AW-IPM programme for suppressing a wild population of Ae. albopictus in Reunion Island. It will be of interest to minimise the pre-release period in controlled conditions to ensure a good competitiveness without increasing mass rearing costs. PMID:23185329

  10. First isolation of Aedes flavivirus in the Western Hemisphere and evidence of vertical transmission in the mosquito Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haddow, Andrew D., E-mail: adhaddow@gmail.com [Institute for Human Infections and Immunity, Center for Emerging Infectious Diseases and Biodefense, Department of Pathology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 77555-0609 (United States); Guzman, Hilda; Popov, Vsevolod L. [Institute for Human Infections and Immunity, Center for Emerging Infectious Diseases and Biodefense, Department of Pathology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 77555-0609 (United States); Wood, Thomas G.; Widen, Steven G. [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 77555-0609 (United States); Haddow, Alastair D. [Mercy Clinic, 2115 S. Fremont, Springfield, MO 65804 (United States); Tesh, Robert B.; Weaver, Scott C. [Institute for Human Infections and Immunity, Center for Emerging Infectious Diseases and Biodefense, Department of Pathology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 77555-0609 (United States)

    2013-06-05

    We report here the first evidence of vertical transmission of Aedes flavivirus (AEFV) and its first isolation in the Western Hemisphere. AEFV strain SPFLD-MO-2011-MP6 was isolated in C6/36 cells from a pool of male Aedes albopictus mosquitoes that were reared to adults from larvae collected in southwest Missouri, USA, in 2011. Electron micrographs of the virus showed virions of approximately 45 nm in diameter with morphological characteristics associated with flaviviruses. The genomic sequence demonstrated that AEFV-SPFLD-MO-2011-MP6 shares a high degree of nucleotide and amino acid sequence identity with the AEFV Narita-21 strain, isolated in Japan in 2003. Intracerebral inoculation of newborn mice with the virus failed to produce observable illness or death and the virus did not replicate in vertebrate cells, consistent with a lack of vertebrate host range. - Highlights: ► The first report of Aedes flavivirus (AEFV) in the Western Hemisphere. ► The first evidence of vertical transmission of AEFV in mosquitoes. ► The first electron micrograph of AEFV. ► The first attempt to infect animals with AEFV.

  11. Development and Evaluation of an Attractive Self-Marking Ovitrap to Measure Dispersal and Determine Skip Oviposition in Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) Field Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Timothy J; Kaufman, Phillip E; Tatem, Andrew J; Hogsette, Jerome A; Kline, Daniel L

    2016-01-01

    Aedes albopictus (Skuse) is a container-breeding species with considerable public health importance. To date, Ae. albopictus oviposition behavior has been assessed in outdoor conditions, but only with laboratory-reared specimens. In outdoor large-cage and field studies, we used an attractive self-marking ovipositional device to assess Ae. albopictus skip oviposition behavior. In field studies, 37 wild Ae. albopictus that visited an attractive self-marking ovisite were subsequently captured at a sticky ovitrap within a 4-d period. Because the average Ae. albopictus gonotrophic period is 4.5-6 d, the wild-caught Ae. albopictus visited at least two oviposition sites within a single gonotrophic period. This provided field-based indirect evidence of skip oviposition. The mean distance traveled (MDT) during the 20-d evaluations ranged from 58 to 78 m. The maximum observed distance traveled was 149 m, which was the outer edge of our trapping ability. As populations of Ae. albopictus increased, the MDT during the 4- and 20-d post-marking period increased significantly. Additional observations of wild-marked and captured Aedes triseriatus (Say) are discussed. PMID:26534725

  12. Globally invasive, withdrawing at home: Aedes albopictus and Aedes japonicus facing the rise of Aedes flavopictus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaves, Luis Fernando

    2016-04-01

    It has been suggested that climate change may have facilitated the global expansion of invasive disease vectors, since several species have expanded their range as temperatures have warmed. Here, we present results from observations on two major global invasive mosquito vectors (Diptera: Culicidae), Aedes albopictus (Skuse) and Aedes japonicus (Theobald), across the altitudinal range of Mt. Konpira, Nagasaki, Japan, a location within their native range, where Aedes flavopictus Yamada, formerly a rare species, has now become dominant. Spatial abundance patterns of the three species suggest that temperature is an important factor influencing their adult distribution across the altitudinal range of Mt. Konpira. Temporal abundance patterns, by contrast, were associated with rainfall and showed signals of density-dependent regulation in the three species. The spatial and temporal analysis of abundance patterns showed that Ae. flavopictus and Ae. albopictus were negatively associated, even when accounting for differential impacts of weather and other environmental factors in their co-occurrence patterns. Our results highlight a contingency in the expansion of invasive vectors, the potential emergence of changes in their interactions with species in their native communities, and raise the question of whether these changes might be useful to predict the emergence of future invasive vectors.

  13. Diet and density dependent competition affect larval performance and oviposition site selection in the mosquito species Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae

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    Yoshioka Miho

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Oviposition-site choice is an essential component of the life history of all mosquito species. According to the oviposition-preference offspring-performance (P-P hypothesis, if optimizing offspring performance and fitness ensures high overall reproductive fitness for a given species, the female should accurately assess details of the heterogeneous environment and lay her eggs preferentially in sites with conditions more suitable to offspring. Methods We empirically tested the P-P hypothesis using the mosquito species Aedes albopictus by artificially manipulating two habitat conditions: diet (measured as mg of food added to a container and conspecific density (CD; number of pre-existing larvae of the same species. Immature development (larval mortality, development time to pupation and time to emergence and fitness (measured as wing length were monitored from first instar through adult emergence using a factorial experimental design over two ascending gradients of diet (2.0, 3.6, 7.2 and 20 mg food/300 ml water and CD (0, 20, 40 and 80 larvae/300 ml water. Treatments that exerted the most contrasting values of larval performance were recreated in a second experiment consisting of single-female oviposition site selection assay. Results Development time decreased as food concentration increased, except from 7.2 mg to 20.0 mg (Two-Way CR ANOVA Post-Hoc test, P > 0.1. Development time decreased also as conspecific density increased from zero to 80 larvae (Two-Way CR ANOVA Post-Hoc test, P . Combined, these results support the role of density-dependent competition for resources as a limiting factor for mosquito larval performance. Oviposition assays indicated that female mosquitoes select for larval habitats with conspecifics and that larval density was more important than diet in driving selection for oviposition sites. Conclusions This study supports predictions of the P-P hypothesis and provides a mechanistic understanding

  14. The Importance of Interspecific Interactions on the Present Range of the Invasive Mosquito Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) and Persistence of Resident Container Species in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fader, Joseph E

    2016-09-01

    Aedes albopictus (Skuse) established in the United States over 30 yr ago and quickly spread throughout the entire eastern half of the country. It has recently spread into western regions and projected climate change scenarios suggest continued expansion to the west and north. Aedes albopictus has had major impacts on, and been impacted by, a diverse array of resident mosquito species. Laying eggs at the edges of small, water-holding containers, hatched larvae develop within these containers feeding on detritus-based resources. Under limited resource conditions, Ae. albopictus has been shown to be a superior competitor to essentially all native and resident species in the United States. Adult males also mate interspecifically with at least one resident species with significant negative impacts on reproductive output for susceptible females. Despite these strong interference effects on sympatric species, competitor outcomes have been highly variable, ranging from outright local exclusion by Ae. albopictus, to apparent exclusion of Ae. albopictus in the presence of the same species. Context-dependent mechanisms that alter the relative strengths of inter- and intraspecific competition, as well as rapid evolution of satyrization-resistant females, may help explain these patterns of variable coexistence. Although there is a large body of research on interspecific interactions of Ae. albopictus in the United States, there remain substantial gaps in our understanding of the most important species interactions. Addressing these gaps is important in predicting the future distribution of this species and understanding consequences for resident species, including humans, that interact with this highly invasive mosquito.

  15. The Importance of Interspecific Interactions on the Present Range of the Invasive Mosquito Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) and Persistence of Resident Container Species in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fader, Joseph E

    2016-09-01

    Aedes albopictus (Skuse) established in the United States over 30 yr ago and quickly spread throughout the entire eastern half of the country. It has recently spread into western regions and projected climate change scenarios suggest continued expansion to the west and north. Aedes albopictus has had major impacts on, and been impacted by, a diverse array of resident mosquito species. Laying eggs at the edges of small, water-holding containers, hatched larvae develop within these containers feeding on detritus-based resources. Under limited resource conditions, Ae. albopictus has been shown to be a superior competitor to essentially all native and resident species in the United States. Adult males also mate interspecifically with at least one resident species with significant negative impacts on reproductive output for susceptible females. Despite these strong interference effects on sympatric species, competitor outcomes have been highly variable, ranging from outright local exclusion by Ae. albopictus, to apparent exclusion of Ae. albopictus in the presence of the same species. Context-dependent mechanisms that alter the relative strengths of inter- and intraspecific competition, as well as rapid evolution of satyrization-resistant females, may help explain these patterns of variable coexistence. Although there is a large body of research on interspecific interactions of Ae. albopictus in the United States, there remain substantial gaps in our understanding of the most important species interactions. Addressing these gaps is important in predicting the future distribution of this species and understanding consequences for resident species, including humans, that interact with this highly invasive mosquito. PMID:27354436

  16. Life tables study of immature Aedes albopictus (Skuse) (Diptera : Culicidae) during the wet and dry seasons in Penang, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashim, Nur Aida; Ahmad, Abu Hassan; Rawi, Che Salmah Md; Tahir, Nurita Abu; Basari, Norsamah

    2008-01-01

    Life tables were constructed for twelve cohorts of immature stages of the dengue vector Ae. albopictus in a wooded area of Penang, Malaysia. The development time of Ae. albopictus ranged from 6 to 10 days depending on the mean environmental temperature (r = - 0.639, p 0.05). Rainfall was correlated with neither development time (r = 0.554, p > 0.05) nor mortality (r = 0.322, p > 0.05). There was a significant difference among the total mortality that occurred in the twelve cohorts (H = 119.783, df = 11, p < 0.05). There was also a significant difference in mortality among the different stages (H = 274.00, df = 4, p < 0.05).

  17. Culicídeos associados a entrenós de bambu e bromélias, com ênfase em Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus (Diptera, Culicidae) na Mata Atlântica, Paraná, Brasil Culicids associated with bamboo internodes and bromeliads, with emphasis on Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus (Diptera, Culicidae) in the Atlantic Forest, Paraná, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Allan Martins da Silva; Valdecir Nunes; José Lopes

    2004-01-01

    Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus (Skuse, 1894) larvae were recorded for the first time in the internodes of bamboo cuts found in the Atlantic Forest in the State of Paraná, Brazil. The bamboo, Bambusa sp., was introduced in the area of Imbucuí-Mirim town, across the municipal district of Paranaguá and towards the interior of the Atlantic Forest. A total of 251 larvae of Aedes albopictus (37.9%), Culex (Microculex) spp. (13.9%), Limatus durhami Theobald, 1901 (39.8%), Toxorhynchites sp. (0.4%) and...

  18. Vector competence of Aedes albopictus and Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) for the DEN2-FJ10 and DEN2-FJ11 strains of the dengue 2 virus in Fujian, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xiao-Xia; Li, Chun-Xiao; Zhang, Ying-Mei; Xing, Dan; Dong, Yan-De; Zhang, Heng-Duan; Qin, Cheng-Feng; Zhao, Tong-Yan

    2016-09-01

    Dengue is an acute, emerging, infectious disease transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes that has become a serious global public health problem. The DEN2-FJ10 and DEN2-FJ11 strains of the dengue 2 virus were originally isolated from the serum of a patient with dengue fever in Fujian Province, China, in 1999. Our data provide the first assessment of the vector competence of Aedes mosquitoes with respect to the DEN2-FJ10 and DEN2-FJ11 strains of the dengue virus. There were significant differences in the replication rates of these two viral strains in Aedes albopictus and Aedes aegypti (P0.05). In summary, our results indicate that Ae. albopictus and Ae. aegypti mosquitoes are moderately competent vectors of the DEN2-FJ10 and DEN2-FJ11 strains of the dengue virus and provide the first evidence of the effect of these two viral strains on the vector competence of mosquitoes in China. PMID:27260668

  19. The best time to have sex: mating behaviour and effect of daylight time on male sexual competitiveness in the Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benelli, Giovanni

    2015-03-01

    Aedes albopictus is the most invasive mosquito worldwide and works as a vector for many important pathogens. Control tools rely to chemical treatments against larvae, indoor residual spraying and insecticide-treated bed nets. Recently, huge efforts have been carried out to propose new eco-friendly alternatives, such as evaluation of plant-borne compounds and sterile insect technique (SIT) programs. Success of SIT is dependent to the ability of sterile males to compete for mates with wild ones. Little is still known about mating behaviour of Aedes males. Most of the studies focus on comparisons of insemination ability in sterilised and wild males, while behavioural analyses of mating behaviour are lacking. Here, I quantified the courtship and mating behaviour of A. albopictus and evaluated how daylight hours affect male mating behaviour and success. A. albopictus males chased females facing them frontally, from behind, or from a lateral side. If the female allowed genital contact, copulation followed. Otherwise, females performed rejection kicks and/or flew away. Thirty-seven percent of males obtained a successful copulation (i.e. sperm transfer occurs), lasting 63 ± 4 s. Unsuccessful copulation (20 % of males) had shorter duration (18 ± 1 s). Successful copulations followed longer male courtships (39 ± 3 s), over courtships preceding unsuccessful copulation (20 ± 2 s) or male's rejection (22 ± 2 s). After copulation, the male rested 7 ± 0.4 s close to the female, then move off. In a semi-natural environment, male mating success was lower in early afternoon, over morning and late afternoon. However, little differences in courtship duration over daylight periods were found. This study adds knowledge to the reproductive behaviour of A. albopictus, which can be used to perform comparisons among courtship and mating ethograms from different mosquito species and strains, allowing monitoring and optimisation of mass rearing quality over time in SIT programs. PMID

  20. Low-temperature threshold for egg survival of a post-diapause and non-diapause European aedine strain, Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Stephanie

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The interplay between global warming and invasive arthropods in temperate zones is of utmost interest in terms of the potential expansions of vector-borne diseases. Up to now, investigations on the recent establishment of mosquito vectors have focused on temperatures during their phases of activity. However, cold temperatures may also act as a strong ecological constraint. Projected changes in winter climate indicate an increase of mean minimum temperatures of the coldest quarter, less frequent days with frost and a shorter frost-season in Europe at the end of the century. Nevertheless, single cold extremes are also expected to persist under warming scenarios, which have a strong impact on reproduction success. Methods Here, the temperature constraints of European Aedes albopictus eggs, which had passed through a diapause, compared to non-diapausing eggs were examined systematically under controlled laboratory conditions. Additionally, one tropical strain of Ae. albopictus and of Ae. aegypti was used in the comparison. Results The lower temperature threshold tolerated by the European eggs of Ae. albopictus which have undergone a diapause, was -10°C for long term exposures (12 and 24h and -12°C for 1h exposure. Non-diapausing eggs of European Ae. albopictus were found to hatch after a -7°C cold treatment (8, 12 and 24h exposure. Both tropical aedine species only tolerated the long term treatment at -2°C. Neither Ae. albopictus nor Ae. aegypti eggs hatched after being exposed to -15°C. Survival was mainly influenced by temperature (F = 329.2, df = 1, p  Conclusions Here, low temperature thresholds for aedine mosquito egg survival were detected. The compilation of risk maps for temperate regions can substantially be improved by considering areas where an establishment of a vector population is unlikely due to winter conditions.

  1. Insecticide susceptible/resistance status in Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti and Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus (Diptera : Culicidae) in Thailand during 2003-2005

    OpenAIRE

    Jirakanjanakit, N.; Rongnoparut, P.; Saengtharatip, S.; T Chareonviriyaphap; Duchn, S.; Bellec, Christian; Yoksan, S

    2007-01-01

    Susceptibility baselines and diagnostic doses of the technical grade insecticides deltamethrin, permethrin, fenitrothion, and propoxur were established based on Aedes aegypti (L.), Bora (French Polynesia), a reference susceptible strain. Field-collected Aedes mosquitoes from each part of Thailand were subjected to bioassay for their susceptibility to the diagnostic doses of each insecticide. Almost all Ae. aegypti collected were incipient resistant or resistant to deltamethrin and permethrin,...

  2. Evidence of multiple inseminations in the field in Aedes albopictus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastien Boyer

    Full Text Available Studies on the biology and mating behaviour of male mosquitoes are of major importance in a frame of a Sterile Insect Technique which could be used against mosquito vector species. Most particularly, the assumption of possible multiple inseminations in mosquito species must be investigated in order to optimize alternative mosquito control methods (Sterile Insect Techniques with genetically modified mosquitoes, cytoplasmic incompatibility, radiation…. The occurrence of multiple insemination events was investigated after 2 field samplings of Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae in La Reunion Island using microsatellite markers. Respectively, 14 and 13 females after the first and the second sampling laid eggs. Seven wild females out of the 27 laying females were found with a progeny involving more than one father. This result is important for the new alternative mosquito control methods and raises the importance of pre- and post-copulatory competition.

  3. Larvicidal and ovideterrent properties of neem oil and fractions against the filariasis vector Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae): a bioactivity survey across production sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benelli, Giovanni; Bedini, Stefano; Cosci, Francesca; Toniolo, Chiara; Conti, Barbara; Nicoletti, Marcello

    2015-01-01

    Neem seed oil (NSO) of Azadirachta indica (Meliaceae) contains more than 100 determined biologically active compounds, and many formulations deriving from them showed toxicity, antifeedancy and repellence against a number of arthropod pests. However, it is widely known that botanical products can differ in their chemical composition and bioactivity, as function of the production site and production process. We used high-performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) to investigate differences in chemical constituents of NSOs from three production sites. HPTLC analyses showed several differences in chemical abundance and diversity among NSOs, with special reference to limonoids. Furthermore, the three NSOs and their fractions of increasing polarities [i.e. ethyl acetate (EA) fraction and butanol (BU) fraction] were evaluated for larvicidal toxicity and field oviposition deterrence against the Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus, currently the most invasive mosquito worldwide. Results from bioactivity experiments showed good toxicity of NSOs and EA fractions against A. albopictus fourth instar larvae (with LC50 values ranging from 142.28 to 209.73 ppm), while little toxicity was exerted by BU fractions. A significant effect of the production site and dosage was also found and is probably linked to differences in abundance of constituents among samples, as highlighted by HPTLC analyses. NSOs and EAs were also able to deter A. albopictus oviposition in the field (effective repellence values ranging from 98.55 to 70.10%), while little effectiveness of BU fractions was found. Concerning ovideterrent activity, no difference due to the production site was found. This is the first report concerning larvicidal toxicity of NSO against A. albopictus and ovideterrence against Culicidae in the field. The chance to use chemicals from the NSO EA fraction seems promising, since they are effective at lower doses, if compared to synthetic products currently marketed, and could be

  4. Larvicidal and ovideterrent properties of neem oil and fractions against the filariasis vector Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae): a bioactivity survey across production sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benelli, Giovanni; Bedini, Stefano; Cosci, Francesca; Toniolo, Chiara; Conti, Barbara; Nicoletti, Marcello

    2015-01-01

    Neem seed oil (NSO) of Azadirachta indica (Meliaceae) contains more than 100 determined biologically active compounds, and many formulations deriving from them showed toxicity, antifeedancy and repellence against a number of arthropod pests. However, it is widely known that botanical products can differ in their chemical composition and bioactivity, as function of the production site and production process. We used high-performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) to investigate differences in chemical constituents of NSOs from three production sites. HPTLC analyses showed several differences in chemical abundance and diversity among NSOs, with special reference to limonoids. Furthermore, the three NSOs and their fractions of increasing polarities [i.e. ethyl acetate (EA) fraction and butanol (BU) fraction] were evaluated for larvicidal toxicity and field oviposition deterrence against the Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus, currently the most invasive mosquito worldwide. Results from bioactivity experiments showed good toxicity of NSOs and EA fractions against A. albopictus fourth instar larvae (with LC50 values ranging from 142.28 to 209.73 ppm), while little toxicity was exerted by BU fractions. A significant effect of the production site and dosage was also found and is probably linked to differences in abundance of constituents among samples, as highlighted by HPTLC analyses. NSOs and EAs were also able to deter A. albopictus oviposition in the field (effective repellence values ranging from 98.55 to 70.10%), while little effectiveness of BU fractions was found. Concerning ovideterrent activity, no difference due to the production site was found. This is the first report concerning larvicidal toxicity of NSO against A. albopictus and ovideterrence against Culicidae in the field. The chance to use chemicals from the NSO EA fraction seems promising, since they are effective at lower doses, if compared to synthetic products currently marketed, and could be

  5. Adaptation of the BG-Sentinel trap to capture male and female Aedes albopictus mosquitoes

    OpenAIRE

    Lacroix, R.; Delatte, Hélène; Hue, T.; Dehecq, J. S.; Reiter, P.

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, the remarkable spread of Aedes albopictus (Skuse) (Diptera: Culicidae) throughout the world has drawn attention to this hitherto poorly studied species, particularly after its role in outbreaks of chikungunya fever in the western Indian Ocean and in Italy. Variants of sterile insect technique (SIT), including the release of transgenic males with a dominant lethal gene (RIDL), have been proposed in the search for new and innovative methods of control. Knowledge of male dispers...

  6. Shedding light on bioactivity of botanical by-products: neem cake compounds deter oviposition of the arbovirus vector Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) in the field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benelli, Giovanni; Conti, Barbara; Garreffa, Rita; Nicoletti, Marcello

    2014-03-01

    Industrial plant-borne by-products can be sources of low-cost chemicals, potentially useful to build eco-friendly control strategies against mosquitoes. Neem cake is a cheap by-product of neem oil extraction obtained by pressing the seeds of Azadirachta indica. Neem products are widely used as insecticides since rarely induce resistance because their multiple mode of action against insect pests and low-toxicity rates have been detected against vertebrates. In this research, we used field bioassays to assess the effective oviposition repellence of neem cake fractions of increasing polarity [n-hexane (A), methanol (B), ethyl acetate (C), n-butanol (D), and aqueous (E) fraction] against Aedes albopictus, currently the most invasive mosquito worldwide. These fractions, already characterized for low nortriterpenoids contents by HPLC analyses, were analyzed for their total content by HPTLC, highlighting striking differences in their chemical composition. Field results showed that B, A, and C tested at 100 ppm exerted higher effective repellence over the control (71.33, 88.59, and 73.49% of ER, respectively), while E and D did not significantly deter A. albopictus oviposition (17.06 and 22.72% of ER, respectively). The highest oviposition activity index was achieved by A (-0.82), followed by C (-0.63), and B (-0.62). Lower OAIs were achieved by D (-0.14) and E (-0.09). On the basis of our results, we believe that A, B, and C are very promising as oviposition deterrents against the arbovirus vector A. albopictus since they are proved as rich in active metabolites, cheap, and really effective at low doses. PMID:24337544

  7. Shedding light on bioactivity of botanical by-products: neem cake compounds deter oviposition of the arbovirus vector Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) in the field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benelli, Giovanni; Conti, Barbara; Garreffa, Rita; Nicoletti, Marcello

    2014-03-01

    Industrial plant-borne by-products can be sources of low-cost chemicals, potentially useful to build eco-friendly control strategies against mosquitoes. Neem cake is a cheap by-product of neem oil extraction obtained by pressing the seeds of Azadirachta indica. Neem products are widely used as insecticides since rarely induce resistance because their multiple mode of action against insect pests and low-toxicity rates have been detected against vertebrates. In this research, we used field bioassays to assess the effective oviposition repellence of neem cake fractions of increasing polarity [n-hexane (A), methanol (B), ethyl acetate (C), n-butanol (D), and aqueous (E) fraction] against Aedes albopictus, currently the most invasive mosquito worldwide. These fractions, already characterized for low nortriterpenoids contents by HPLC analyses, were analyzed for their total content by HPTLC, highlighting striking differences in their chemical composition. Field results showed that B, A, and C tested at 100 ppm exerted higher effective repellence over the control (71.33, 88.59, and 73.49% of ER, respectively), while E and D did not significantly deter A. albopictus oviposition (17.06 and 22.72% of ER, respectively). The highest oviposition activity index was achieved by A (-0.82), followed by C (-0.63), and B (-0.62). Lower OAIs were achieved by D (-0.14) and E (-0.09). On the basis of our results, we believe that A, B, and C are very promising as oviposition deterrents against the arbovirus vector A. albopictus since they are proved as rich in active metabolites, cheap, and really effective at low doses.

  8. The Eye of the Tiger, the Thrill of the Fight: Effective Larval and Adult Control Measures Against the Asian Tiger Mosquito, Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae), in North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faraji, Ary; Unlu, Isik

    2016-09-01

    The Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus (Skuse), is a highly invasive container-inhabiting species with a global distribution. This mosquito, similar to other Stegomyia species such as Aedes aegypti (L.), is highly adapted to urban and suburban areas, and commonly oviposits in artificial containers, which are ubiquitous in these peridomestic environments. The increase in speed and amount of international travel and commerce, coupled with global climate change, have aided in the resurgence and expansion of Stegomyia species into new areas of North America. In many parts of their range, both species are implicated as significant vectors of emerging and re-emerging arboviruses such as dengue, chikungunya, and now Zika. Although rapid and major advances have been made in the field of biology, ecology, genetics, taxonomy, and virology, relatively little has changed in the field of mosquito control in recent decades. This is particularly discouraging in regards to container-inhabiting mosquitoes, because traditional integrated mosquito management (IMM) approaches have not been effective against these species. Many mosquito control programs simply do not possess the man-power or necessary financial resources needed to suppress Ae. albopictus effectively. Therefore, control of mosquito larvae, which is the foundation of IMM approaches, is exceptionally difficult over large areas. This review paper addresses larval habitats, use of geographic information systems for habitat preference detection, door-to-door control efforts, source reduction, direct application of larvicides, biological control agents, area-wide low-volume application of larvicides, hot spot treatments, autodissemination stations, public education, adult traps, attractive-toxic sugar bait methods, lethal ovitraps, barrier-residual adulticides, hand-held ultra-low-volume adulticides, area-wide adulticides applied by ground or air, and genetic control methods. The review concludes with future

  9. The Eye of the Tiger, the Thrill of the Fight: Effective Larval and Adult Control Measures Against the Asian Tiger Mosquito, Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae), in North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faraji, Ary; Unlu, Isik

    2016-09-01

    The Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus (Skuse), is a highly invasive container-inhabiting species with a global distribution. This mosquito, similar to other Stegomyia species such as Aedes aegypti (L.), is highly adapted to urban and suburban areas, and commonly oviposits in artificial containers, which are ubiquitous in these peridomestic environments. The increase in speed and amount of international travel and commerce, coupled with global climate change, have aided in the resurgence and expansion of Stegomyia species into new areas of North America. In many parts of their range, both species are implicated as significant vectors of emerging and re-emerging arboviruses such as dengue, chikungunya, and now Zika. Although rapid and major advances have been made in the field of biology, ecology, genetics, taxonomy, and virology, relatively little has changed in the field of mosquito control in recent decades. This is particularly discouraging in regards to container-inhabiting mosquitoes, because traditional integrated mosquito management (IMM) approaches have not been effective against these species. Many mosquito control programs simply do not possess the man-power or necessary financial resources needed to suppress Ae. albopictus effectively. Therefore, control of mosquito larvae, which is the foundation of IMM approaches, is exceptionally difficult over large areas. This review paper addresses larval habitats, use of geographic information systems for habitat preference detection, door-to-door control efforts, source reduction, direct application of larvicides, biological control agents, area-wide low-volume application of larvicides, hot spot treatments, autodissemination stations, public education, adult traps, attractive-toxic sugar bait methods, lethal ovitraps, barrier-residual adulticides, hand-held ultra-low-volume adulticides, area-wide adulticides applied by ground or air, and genetic control methods. The review concludes with future

  10. Successful overwintering of Aedes albopictus in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pluskota, Björn; Jöst, Artur; Augsten, Xenia; Stelzner, Lilith; Ferstl, Ina; Becker, Norbert

    2016-08-01

    The Asian tiger mosquito (Aedes albopictus) is of great concern to public health authorities due to its vector competence and rapid spread across the globe. In 2015, two large local breeding populations of Ae. albopictus were discovered in southwest Germany. In spring 2016, we were able to demonstrate the first evidence of a successful overwintering in Germany of this originally tropical mosquito species in different research projects. Particularly noteworthy is the successful hatching of diapause eggs of an Italian strain (Calabria), which overwintered successfully in the field in St. Georgen im Schwarzwald (Baden-Wuerttemberg) at 820 m above sea level. Furthermore, within the scope of a larvae monitoring, the first larvae that hatched in the field were detected on the April 09, 2016 in a rain barrel within the Heidelberg population. Our first results show that self-extinction due to an unsuccessful overwintering cannot be assumed for populations of the Asian tiger mosquito which settled in Germany in previous years. The evidence of a successful overwintering of a large number of diapause eggs and the hatching of the first larvae in field conditions opens the control year against Ae. albopictus in southwest Germany. PMID:27112761

  11. Detection of Aedes aegypti, Aedes albopictus, and Aedes koreicus in the Area of Sochi, Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganushkina, Ludmila A; Patraman, Ivan V; Rezza, Giovanni; Migliorini, Luigi; Litvinov, Serguei K; Sergiev, Vladimir P

    2016-01-01

    Following the identification of Aedes (Ae.) aegypti in the Sochi area in Russia at the beginning of 2000, entomological surveys were conducted during the summers of 2007, 2011, and 2012, leading to the identification of Ae. albopictus and Ae. koreicus. These findings highlight Russia as being the only country in the World Health Organization European Region with a documented presence of both Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus mosquitoes. Both mosquito species are found on the coasts of the Black Sea. Control measures are needed to reduce the possible risks of importing exotic vector-borne infections, such as dengue and chikungunya.

  12. Comparison of the insecticide susceptibilities of laboratory strains of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus

    OpenAIRE

    Andrea Gómez; Emilia Seccacini; Eduardo Zerba; Susana Licastro

    2011-01-01

    A susceptible strain of Aedes albopictus derived from the Gainesville strain (Florida, USA) was established in our laboratory. The larvicidal efficacies of the neurotoxic insecticides temephos, permethrin and the pure cis and trans-permethrin isomers and the microbial insecticide Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis (Bti) against Ae. albopictus were estimated and compared to a susceptible strain of Aedes aegypti. The larvicidal effect of insect growth regulator pyriproxyfen was also evaluated i...

  13. Distribution and dynamics of Wolbachia infection in Malaysian Aedes albopictus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joanne, Sylvia; Vythilingam, Indra; Yugavathy, Nava; Leong, Cherng-Shii; Wong, Meng-Li; AbuBakar, Sazaly

    2015-08-01

    Wolbachia are maternally transmitted bacteria found in most arthropods and nematodes, but little is known about their distribution and reproductive dynamics in the Malaysian dengue vector Aedes albopictus. In this study, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to determine the presence of Wolbachia from field collected Ae. albopictus from various parts of the country using wsp specific primers. Ae. albopictus had Wolbachia infection ranging from 60 to 100%. No sequence diversity of wsp gene was found within all wAlbA and wAlbB sequences. Our findings suggest that Wolbachia infection amongst the Malaysian Ae. albopictus were not homogenously distributed in all districts in Malaysia. The presence of Wolbachia in different organs of Ae. albopictus was also determined. Wolbachia were only found in the ovaries and midguts of the mosquitoes, while absent in the salivary glands. The effects of Wolbachia on Ae. albopictus fecundity, longevity and egg viability were studied using infected and uninfected colonies. The removal of Wolbachia from Ae. albopictus resulted in reduced fecundity, longevity and egg viability, thus. Wolbachia seem to play a vital role in Ae. albopictus reproductive system. PMID:25899523

  14. Asymmetric Mating Interference between Two Related Mosquito Species: Aedes (Stegomyia albopictus and Aedes (Stegomyia cretinus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athanassios Giatropoulos

    Full Text Available Aedes (Stegomyia albopictus (Skuse and Aedes (Stegomyia cretinus Edwards are closely related mosquito species with common morphological features and bio-ecological similarities. Recent mosquito surveillance in Athens, Greece, showed that they are sympatric mosquito species, with Ae. albopictus [corrected] developing quite higher population densities than Ae. cretinus [corrected] . The potential of mating interference between these species was investigated by reciprocal and homologous mating experiments in cages under laboratory conditions. In non-choice interspecific crosses (groups of males and females females of both species produced sterile eggs. Insemination rate was 58% for Ae. cretinus females and only 1% for Ae. albopictus [corrected] females. Aedes albopictus males were sexually aggressive and inseminated Ae. cretinus females (31% in choice experiments, where males of one species had access to mate with females of both species. Whereas, interspecific mating of Ae. albopictus [corrected] females with Ae. cretinus males in the co-occurrence of Ae. cretinus females was weaker (4%. Aedes cretinus females from non-choice crossing with Ae. albopictus [corrected] or Ae. cretinus males were paired individually with conspecific males. The percentage of fertile Ae. cretinus females was 17.5% when had encaged before with Ae. albopictus [corrected] males, compared to 100% when Ae. cretinus [corrected] females were encaged with conspecific males only. Probable ecological consequences of asymmetric mating between these ecologically homologous species in nature are discussed.

  15. Role of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus during the 2011 dengue fever epidemics in Hanoi, Vietnam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pham; Thi; Kim; Lien; Vu; Trong; Duoc; Laurent; Gavotte; Emmanuel; Cornillot; Phan; Thi; Nga; Laurence; Briant; Roger; Frutos; Tran; Nhu; Duong

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To record the human cases of dengue fever(DF) and investigate the Aedes mosquito species circulating during the Hanoi 2011 DF epidemics. Methods: 24 different outbreak points were recorded in 8 districts between August and December 2011. Results: 140 patients were hospitalized following dengue diagnostic with a predominance of males(59.3%) and the 15-34 age class. Only DENV-1(11.27%) and DENV-2(88.73%) serotypes were detected in human samples. Mosquito sampling performed in and around patients households revealed the predominance of Aedes aegypti(95.15%) versus Aedes albopictus(4.85%). There is a positive correlation between the population density of Aedes aegypti and the number of human cases and duration of outbreaks. Conclusions: This was not observed for Aedes albopictus. 3 pools of Aedes aegypti were positive with dengue virus, two with DENV-1 and one with DENV-2.

  16. Preferência por local de oviposição de Aedes albopictus (Skuse (Diptera, Culicidae, em relação à presença de imaturos da própria espécie, sob condições de laboratório Aedes (Stegomyia albopictus (Skuse (Diptera, Culicidae, preference for oviposition site related with homospecific immatures presence, under laboratory conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreia Aparecida Barbosa

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Aedes (Stegomyia albopictus (Skuse, 1894 is an exotic Culicidae species in Brazil. Since its first report in this country, the mosquito has been increasing its geographic distribution. This mosquito is a natural dengue and Japanese Encephalitis virus vector in Asia. The females preference for oviposition sites related with homospecific immature presence was assessed. The experiment was performed with Aedes albopictus from laboratory colony since March ]999, in the Laboratório de Entomologia Médica e Veterinária, Departamento de Zoologia, Universidade Federal do Paraná. The preferred container was the one that kept pupae for 24 hours, with 643 eggs, 30,6% at total. The eggs recipients received 11,45% from total set by the females, and the following numbers to the others: larva 1 (15,79%, larva 2 (14,69%, pupa 1 (20,74%, pupa 2 (30,58%, control (6,75%. Although the ANOVA did not detect significant difference among the treatments, the data possibly indicate that Aedes albopictus prefer laying eggs in containers previously colonized by immature.

  17. Population genetic structure of Aedes albopictus in Penang, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawani, M K N; Abu, H A; Sazaly, A B; Zary, S Y; Darlina, M N

    2014-10-07

    The mosquito Aedes albopictus is indigenous to Southeast Asian and is a vector for arbovirus diseases. Studies examining the population genetics structure of A. albopictus have been conducted worldwide; however, there are no documented reports on the population genetic structure of A. albopictus in Malaysia, particularly in Penang. We examined the population genetics of A. albopictus based on a 445-base pair segment of the mitochondrial DNA cytochrome oxidase 1 gene among 77 individuals from 9 localities representing 4 regions (Seberang Perai Utara, Seberang Perai Tengah, Northeast, and Southwest) of Penang. A total of 37 haplotypes were detected, including 28 unique haplotypes. The other 9 haplotypes were shared among various populations. These shared haplotypes reflect the weak population genetic structure of A. albopictus. The phylogenetic tree showed a low bootstrap value with no genetic structure, which was supported by minimum spanning network analysis. Analysis of mismatch distribution showed poor fit of equilibrium distribution. The genetic distance showed low genetic variation, while pairwise FST values showed no significant difference between all regions in Penang except for some localities. High haplotype diversity and low nucleotide diversity was observed for cytochrome oxidase 1 mtDNA. We conclude that there is no population genetic structure of A. albopictus mosquitoes in the Penang area.

  18. Descrição da colonização de Aedes albopictus (Diptera: culicidae na região de São José do Rio Preto, SP, 1991-1994

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    Francisco Chiaravalloti Neto

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho é descrever e analisar colonização do Aedes albopictus, cuja presença foi detectada na região de São José do Rio Preto em 1991, jã colonizada pelo Aedes aegypti. A partir de informações obtidas em medidas de densidade larvária pela Superintendência de Controle de Endemias (SUCEN, analisou-se: ano e mês de oconência, município, composição e localização das amostras lanúrias, tipo de recipiente, número médio de laivas e índice de Breteau. Até dezembro de 1994 a presença do As. albopictus fora constatada em 34 municípios. A colonização da região pelo mosquito ainda é reduzida, apresentando algumas diferenças em relação ao Ae. aegypti: maior proporção no peridomicílio, ocupando recipientes em proporções diferentes. O número médio de larvas de As. albopictus sofreu influência da presença de larvas da outra espécie. Apresentou comportamento sazonal semelhante ao do Ae. aegypti e avançou no sentido leste para oeste.

  19. On the analysis of parasite effect for Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallista, Meta; Aldila, Dipo; Nuraini, Nuning; Soewono, Edy

    2014-03-01

    It has been reported in some countries that the population of Aedes aegypti has been significantly reduced by the invasion of Aedes albopictus. There has been a hypothesis explaining this phenomenon of which investigated the influence of parasites pathogenesis to the competition between these two mosquito species in the fields. Ascogregarina taiwanensis and Ascogregarina culicis are known as parasites that infect Aedes albopictus and Aedes aegypti, respectively. Several studies have concluded that Ascogregarina taiwanensis caused high fatality for Aedes aegypti larvae, but Ascogregarina culicis was not pathogenic to Aedes albopictus larvae. Therefore, Ascogregarina taiwanensis may contribute to reduce the number of populations Aedes aegypti in the fields. Inspired by these facts, a mathematical model depicting interaction between parasites and mosquitoes is constructed in this paper. In this model are included six dynamic mosquito compartments, i.e. egg, larvae, infected larvae, adult, infected adult and one dynamic compartment for parasite. Derivation of the existence criteria and the stability analysis of parasite-free equilibrium as well as the basic offspring for the model are presented. Numerical simulations for sensitivity analysis indicating the invasive species for variation parameters are shown.

  20. Bdelloid rotifer, Philodina species in the breeding containers of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muniaraj, M; Arunachalam, N; Paramasivan, R; Mariappan, T; Philip Samuel, P; Rajamannar, V

    2012-12-01

    The vector mosquitoes of dengue and chikungunya fever, Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus have adapted to feed on humans and undergo larval and pupal development in natural and artificial freshwater collections. Although several studies reported, still, much information is required to understand the successful survival of Aedes mosquitoes in small temporary containers. In an investigation conducted in the chikungunya affected areas of Kerala state, India, the presence of Bdelloid rotifer, Philodina in 95% of breeding habitats of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus was recorded. The role of Philodina in the breeding containers was investigated. It was found that while in control the number of Philodina was found increasing in the water sample during the study period of seven days, the number found decreased in the containers with larvae of Aedes. The gut content analysis also confirmed the presence of the rotating wheel, corona of Philodina in some of the specimen suggests its role as major larval food. PMID:23202612

  1. Emergência de Aedes albopictus em recipientes artificiais Emergence of Aedes albopictus in artificial containers

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    Oswaldo Paulo Forattini

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Estimar o potencial de emergência média diária de adultos fêmeas de Aedes albopictus, espécie que, embora não tenha sido incriminada, até o momento, como vetora de dengue no Brasil, é muito próxima de Aedes aegypti. MÉTODOS: As observações foram realizadas quinzenalmente e de maneira ininterrupta na localidade de Pedrinhas, Estado de São Paulo, no período de 1996 a 2000. Para estimar a produtividade dos criadouros, mediu-se o índice de emergência (E. Foram utilizados dois reservatórios grandes e permanentes com mais de 10 litros de água, para que o líquido faltante fosse reposto a cada coleta. Os demais reservatórios (seis foram representados por cubas com capacidade de 1 litro, sendo que, a cada cuba, foi adicionado 1 litro de água destilada. Posteriormente, a cada coleta, o volume de água foi reposto independentemente da pluviosidade. As associações foram estudadas pelo índice de correlação de Pearson. RESULTADOS: A emergência (E do reservatório mantido descoberto foi de 66,5, maior do que a emergência da caixa d'água coberta, que foi de 12,2. Ambos os criadouros tiveram o caráter de "permanente" assegurado pela reposição do líquido, caso o volume diminuísse ao longo do tempo de observação. Não houve associação importante com as condições de pluviosidade e de temperatura. Os recipientes menores foram representados por cubas, em número de seis. Algumas delas mostraram associação com as condições meteorológicas e os índices de emergência (E, indicando os meses de menor pluviosidade como menos produtivos. Esses meses, de junho a novembro, seriam o lapso de tempo mais propício para realizar a operação de remoção mecânica de recipientes. CONCLUSÃO: As diferenças encontradas na produtividade dos dois reservatórios permanentes poderão, ao menos parcialmente, ser explicadas pela presença de matéria orgânica que serviria para a alimentação larval. Quanto aos recipientes transit

  2. Insecticide susceptibility of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus in Central Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Nwane Philippe; Nchoutpouen Elysée; Chandre Fabrice; Marcombe Sébastien; Kamgang Basile; Etang Josiane; Corbel Vincent; Paupy Christophe

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762) and Aedes albopictus (Skuse, 1894) are the main vectors of dengue (DENV) and chikungunya (CHIKV) viruses worldwide. As there is still no vaccine or specific treatment for DENV and CHIKV, vector control remains the cornerstone of prevention and outbreak control. Unfortunately, vector control programs are facing operational challenges with mosquitoes becoming resistant to commonly used insecticides in several areas through the world. Throughout...

  3. A RE-SURVEY OF AEDES AEGYPTI AND AEDES ALBOPICTUS IN SABAH, MALAYSIA

    OpenAIRE

    Feffrey Hii Lu King

    2012-01-01

    Di Sabah, Malaysia telah diadakan survey nyamuk Aedes aegypti dan Aedes albopictus dari bulan Agustus s/d September 1974 dan Maret-April 1975. Survey dilakukan pada 5 daerah di Kudat. Pantai Barat, Pedalaman Sandahan danTawan dengan tujuan untuk melihat distribusi dan density dari kedua jenis nyamuk tsb. Hasil survey menunjukkan bahwa nyamuk A. aegypti telah menyebar pada hampir seluruh daerah pantai Sabah, dan ditemukan hampir pada sebagian besar kotal dan daerah pedesaan di banyak desa. Di ...

  4. Genetic structure of the tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus, in Cameroon (Central Africa.

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    Basile Kamgang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Aedes albopictus (Skuse, 1884 (Diptera: Culicidae, a mosquito native to Asia, has recently invaded all five continents. In Central Africa it was first reported in the early 2000s, and has since been implicated in the emergence of arboviruses such as dengue and chikungunya in this region. Recent genetic studies of invasive species have shown that multiple introductions are a key factor for successful expansion in new areas. As a result, phenotypic characters such as vector competence and insecticide susceptibility may vary within invasive pest species, potentially affecting vector efficiency and pest management. Here we assessed the genetic variability and population genetics of Ae. albopictus isolates in Cameroon (Central Africa, thereby deducing their likely geographic origin. METHODS AND RESULTS: Mosquitoes were sampled in 2007 in 12 localities in southern Cameroon and analyzed for polymorphism at six microsatellite loci and in two mitochondrial DNA regions (ND5 and COI. All the microsatellite markers were successfully amplified and were polymorphic, showing moderate genetic structureamong geographic populations (F(ST  = 0.068, P < 0.0001. Analysis of mtDNA sequences revealed four haplotypes each for the COI and ND5 genes, with a dominant haplotype shared by all Cameroonian samples. The weak genetic variation estimated from the mtDNA genes is consistent with the recent arrival of Ae. albopictus in Cameroon. Phylogeographic analysis based on COI polymorphism indicated that Ae. albopictus populations from Cameroon are related to tropical rather than temperate or subtropical outgroups. CONCLUSION: The moderate genetic diversity observed among Cameroonian Ae. albopictus isolates is in keeping with recent introduction and spread in this country. The genetic structure of natural populations points to multiple introductions from tropical regions.

  5. Genetic Structure of the Tiger Mosquito, Aedes albopictus, in Cameroon (Central Africa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamgang, Basile; Brengues, Cécile; Fontenille, Didier; Njiokou, Flobert; Simard, Frédéric; Paupy, Christophe

    2011-01-01

    Background Aedes albopictus (Skuse, 1884) (Diptera: Culicidae), a mosquito native to Asia, has recently invaded all five continents. In Central Africa it was first reported in the early 2000s, and has since been implicated in the emergence of arboviruses such as dengue and chikungunya in this region. Recent genetic studies of invasive species have shown that multiple introductions are a key factor for successful expansion in new areas. As a result, phenotypic characters such as vector competence and insecticide susceptibility may vary within invasive pest species, potentially affecting vector efficiency and pest management. Here we assessed the genetic variability and population genetics of Ae. albopictus isolates in Cameroon (Central Africa), thereby deducing their likely geographic origin. Methods and Results Mosquitoes were sampled in 2007 in 12 localities in southern Cameroon and analyzed for polymorphism at six microsatellite loci and in two mitochondrial DNA regions (ND5 and COI). All the microsatellite markers were successfully amplified and were polymorphic, showing moderate genetic structureamong geographic populations (FST = 0.068, P<0.0001). Analysis of mtDNA sequences revealed four haplotypes each for the COI and ND5 genes, with a dominant haplotype shared by all Cameroonian samples. The weak genetic variation estimated from the mtDNA genes is consistent with the recent arrival of Ae. albopictus in Cameroon. Phylogeographic analysis based on COI polymorphism indicated that Ae. albopictus populations from Cameroon are related to tropical rather than temperate or subtropical outgroups. Conclusion The moderate genetic diversity observed among Cameroonian Ae. albopictus isolates is in keeping with recent introduction and spread in this country. The genetic structure of natural populations points to multiple introductions from tropical regions. PMID:21629655

  6. Is Switzerland suitable for the invasion of Aedes albopictus [corrected]?

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    Markus Neteler

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Over the last 30 years, the Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus, has rapidly spread around the world. The European distribution comprises the Mediterranean basin with a first appearance in Switzerland in 2003. Early identification of the most suitable areas in Switzerland allowing progressive invasion by this species is considered crucial to suggest adequate surveillance and control plans. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We identified the most suitable areas for invasion and establishment of Ae. albopictus in Switzerland. The potential distribution areas linked to the current climatic suitability were assessed using remotely sensed land surface temperature data recorded by the MODIS satellite sensors. Suitable areas for adult survival and overwintering of diapausing eggs were also identified for future climatic conditions, considering two different climate change scenarios (A1B, A2 for the periods 2020-2049 and 2045-2074. At present, the areas around Lake Geneva in western Switzerland provide suitable climatic conditions for Ae. albopictus. In northern Switzerland, parts of the Rhine valley, around Lake Constance, as well as the surroundings of Lake Neuchâtel, appear to be suitable for the survival at least of adult Ae. albopictus. However, these areas are characterized by winters currently being too cold for survival and development of diapausing eggs. In southern Switzerland, Ae. albopictus is already well-established, especially in the Canton of Ticino. For the years 2020-2049, the predicted possible spread of the tiger mosquito does not differ significantly from its potential current distribution. However, important expansions are obtained if the period is extended to the years 2045-2074, when Ae. albopictus may invade large new areas. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Several parts of Switzerland provide suitable climatic conditions for invasion and establishment of Ae. albopictus. The current distribution and rapid spread in other

  7. Aedes albopictus and Its Environmental Limits in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunze, Sarah; Kochmann, Judith; Koch, Lisa K; Klimpel, Sven

    2016-01-01

    The Asian tiger mosquito Aedes albopictus, native to South East Asia, is listed as one of the worst invasive vector species worldwide. In Europe the species is currently restricted to Southern Europe, but due to the ongoing climate change, Ae. albopictus is expected to expand its potential range further northwards. In addition to modelling the habitat suitability for Ae. albopictus under current and future climatic conditions in Europe by means of the maximum entropy approach, we here focused on the drivers of the habitat suitability prediction. We explored the most limiting factors for Aedes albopictus in Europe under current and future climatic conditions, a method which has been neglected in species distribution modelling so far. Ae. albopictus is one of the best-studied mosquito species, which allowed us to evaluate the applied Maxent approach for most limiting factor mapping. We identified three key limiting factors for Ae. albopictus in Europe under current climatic conditions: winter temperature in Eastern Europe, summer temperature in Southern Europe. Model findings were in good accordance with commonly known establishment thresholds in Europe based on climate chamber experiments and derived from the geographical distribution of the species. Under future climatic conditions low winter temperature were modelled to remain the most limiting factor in Eastern Europe, whereas in Central Europe annual mean temperature and summer temperatures were modelled to be replaced by summer precipitation, respectively, as most limiting factors. Changes in the climatic conditions in terms of the identified key limiting factors will be of great relevance regarding the invasive potential of the Ae. albopictus. Thus, our results may help to understand the key drivers of the suggested range expansion under climate change and may help to improve monitoring programmes. The applied approach of investigating limiting factors has proven to yield valuable results and may also provide

  8. Evaluation of Bifenthrin and Acorus calamus Linn. Extract against Aedes aegypti L. and Aedes albopictus (Skuse

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    S Sulaiman

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: Bifenthrin and Acorus calamus Linn extract were evaluated against dengue vectors in the laboratory."nMethods: Both Bifenthrin and Acorus calamus Linn crude hexane extract were bioassayed against the adults and larval stages of dengue vectors Aedes aegypti L. and Aedes albopictus(Skuse in the laboratory."nResults: The A. calamus crude hexane extract exhibited a larvicidal activity against 4th-instar Ae. aegypti larvae with LC50 and LC90 values of 0.4418 and 11.3935 ppm respectively. The plant crude extract exhibited against Ae. albopictus larvae with a higher LC50 and LC90 values of 21.2555 ppm and 36.1061 ppm, respectively. There was a significant difference on the effect of A. calamus extract on both Aedes spp. Larvae (P< 0.05. However, bifenthrin showed a significant difference on larvicidal effect to that of A. calamus hexane extract on both Aedes spp (P< 0.05. In testing the adulticidal activity, this plant extract exhibited the LC50 and LC90 values of 17.4075 and 252.9458 ppm against Ae .aegypti and a higher LC50 and LC90 values of 43.9952 and 446.1365 ppm respectively on Ae. albopictus. There was no significant difference on the effect of A. calamus extract on both Aedes spp adults (P> 0.05."nConclusion: Bifenthrin however showed a significant difference on both Aedes spp adults (P< 0.05. With the wide availability of A. calamus in Malaysia, it could be utilized for controlling dengue vectors. "n 

  9. Efficacy of a mermithid nematode Romanomermis iyengari (Welch) (Nematoda: Mermithidae) in controlling tree hole-breeding mosquito Aedes albopictus (Skuse) (Diptera: Culicidae) in a rubber plantation area of Kerala, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paily, K P; Chandhiran, K; Vanamail, P; Kumar, N Pradeep; Jambulingam, P

    2013-03-01

    In rubber plantations, tree holes are one of the major types of breeding habitats of Aedes mosquitoes which transmit dengue and chikungunya. A mermithid nematode, Romanomermis iyengari, was evaluated in tree holes for its efficacy in controlling Aedes albopictus. Infection of mosquito larvae by the nematode was determined through microscopic examination on the next day of application, and evaluation of immature density of mosquito was done on the seventh day. After application of the infective stage of the nematode in a host-parasite ratio of 1:3 or 1:4, the infection rates on the different larval instars of mosquito were similar, 85.7-95.8 % in first to third instars and 79.3 % in fourth instar larvae or 100 and 92.9 %, respectively. Parasite burden varied from 1.1 to 2.4, respectively, among first and third instar larvae applied at 1:3. At 1:4, the parasite burden was between 1.6 (fourth instar) and 4 (second instar). The increase in parasite burden due to parasite density was significant in all the larval instars (P < 0.05). High parasite burden is detrimental to parasite recycling as it can cause premature mortality of the host. Hence, the dosage of 1:3 could be considered as suitable for rubber tree hole habitats. In the nematode-applied tree holes, there was a significant level (P < 0.05) of reduction in the immature density of A. albopictus, especially late instars and pupae, confirming the efficacy of R. iyengari in infecting the mosquito and controlling pupal emergence. PMID:23306387

  10. Evaluation of Bifenthrin and Acorus calamus Linn. Extract against Aedes aegypti L. and Aedes albopictus (Skuse)

    OpenAIRE

    Sulaiman, S.; DSF Abang Kamarudin; Othman, H

    2008-01-01

    Background: Bifenthrin and Acorus calamus Linn extract were evaluated against dengue vectors in the laboratory.Methods: Both Bifenthrin and Acorus calamus Linn crude hexane extract were bioassayed against the adults and larval stages of dengue vectors Aedes aegypti L. and Aedes albopictus(Skuse) in the laboratory.Results: The A. calamus crude hexane extract exhibited a larvicidal activity against 4th-instar Ae. aegypti larvae with LC50 and LC90 values of 0.4418 and 11.3935 ppm respectively. T...

  11. Modified technique of Wolbachia removal from Malaysian Aedes albopictus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sylvia Joanne; Indra Vythilingam; Nava Yugavathy; Jonathan Inbaraj Doss

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To develop an artificial and modified Wolbachia removal technique using tetracycline from naturally Wolbachia infected Aedes albopictus (Ae. albopictus) so as to be able to produce generations of Wolbachia free offsprings.Methods:In this study, seven different tetracycline treatment methods were conducted to obtain the best removal method. Four methods focused on larvae tetracycline treatment, one method on both larvae and adult tetracycline treatment and the last two methods on adult mosquito sucrose treatment.Results:All larval tetracycline treatments resulted in either high larvae mortality, sterile F0 adult mosquitoes or unsuccessful Wolbachia removal. Treatment of both larvae and adults resulted in reduced larvae mortality, successful Wolbachia removal but slow mosquito fecundity. As for the adult treatment, 1.0 mg/mL as previously published was not able to completely remove Wolbachia in F1 generation whereas 1.25 mg/mL successfully removed Wolbachia from F1 and F2 mosquitoes in 2 weeks. Conclusions: This method is different from the previously published methods as it provides an improved Wolbachia removal technique from Ae. albopictus with high egg hatchability, low larvae mortality, increased fecundity and better Wolbachia removal rate.

  12. Modified technique of Wolbachia removal from Malaysian Aedes albopictus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sylvia; Joanne; Indra; Vythilingam; Nava; Yugavathy; Jonathan; Inbaraj; Doss

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To develop an artificial and modified Wolbaehia removal technique using tetracycline from naturally Wolbachia infected Aedes albopictus(Ae.albopictus)so as to be able to produce generations of Wolbaehia free offsprings.Methods:In this study,seven different tetracycline treatment methods were conducted to obtain the best removal method.Four methods focused on larvae tetracycline treatment,one method on both larvae and adult tetracycline treatment and the last two methods on adult mosquito sucrose treatment.Results:All larval tetracycline treatments resulted in either high larvae mortality,sterile F_o adult mosquitoes or unsuccessful Wolbaehia removal.Treatment of both larvae and adults resulted in reduced larvae mortality,successful Wolbachia removal but slow mosquito fecundity.As for the adult treatment,1.0 mg/mL as previously published was not aisle to completely remove Wolbaehia in F,generation whereas 1.25 mg/mL successfully removed Wolbachia from F,and F,mosquitoes in 2 weeks.Conclusions:This method is different from the previously published methods as it provides an improved Watbachia removal technique from Ae.albopictus with high egg hatchability.low larvae mortality,increased fecundity and better Wolbaehia removal rate.

  13. Modulation of La Crosse virus infection in Aedes albopictus mosquitoes following larval exposure to coffee extracts

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    Nicole E. Eastep

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The mosquito-borne La Crosse virus (LACV; Family Bunyaviridae may cause encephalitis, primarily in children, and is distributed throughout much of the eastern United States. No antivirals or vaccines are available for LACV, or most other mosquito-borne viruses, and prevention generally relies on mosquito control. We sought to determine whether coffee extracts could interfere with LACV replication and vector mosquito development. Both regular and decaffeinated coffee demonstrated significant reductions in LACV replication in direct antiviral assays. This activity was not due to the presence of caffeine, which did not inhibit the virus life cycle. Aedes albopictus (Skuse (Diptera: Culicidae mosquito larvae suffered near total mortality when reared in high concentrations of regular and decaffeinated coffee and in caffeine. Following larval exposure to sublethal coffee concentrations, adult Ae. albopictus mosquitoes had signficantly reduced whole-body LACV titers five days post-infection, compared to larvae reared in distilled water. These results suggest that it may be possible to both control mosquito populations and alter the vector competence of mosquitoes for arthropod-borne viruses by introducing antiviral compounds into the larval habitat.

  14. Effects on male fitness of removing Wolbachia infections from the mosquito Aedes albopictus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvitti, M; Moretti, R; Porretta, D; Bellini, R; Urbanelli, S

    2009-06-01

    Cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI) induced by maternally inherited Wolbachia bacteria is a potential tool for the suppression of insect pest species with appropriate patterns of infection. The Asian tiger mosquito Aedes albopictus (Skuse) (Diptera: Culicidae) is known to be infected by two strains of Wolbachia pipientis Hertig (Rickettsiales: Rickettsiaceae), wAlb A and wAlb B, throughout its geographical distribution. This infection pattern theoretically restricts the application of CI-based control strategies. However, Wolbachia can be horizontally transferred using embryonic microinjection to generate incompatible transfected lines harbouring a single new strain of Wolbachia. In order to assess the feasibility of this approach, the effects of Wolbachia removal on mosquito fitness need to be clearly evaluated as the removal of natural superinfection is an inescapable step of this approach. Previous research has shown that uninfected females, produced by antibiotic treatment, showed a decrease in fitness compared with those infected with Wolbachia. In this study, the effect of Wolbachia removal on male fitness was investigated. Longevity and reproductive potential (mating competitiveness and sperm capacity) were assessed in both laboratory cages and greenhouses. No differences were observed between uninfected and infected males with respect to longevity, mating rate, sperm capacity and mating competitiveness in either laboratory conditions or greenhouses. The preservation of fitness in males of Ae. albopictus deprived of natural Wolbachia infection is discussed in relation to the development of incompatible insect technique suppression strategies. Finally, the potential application of aposymbiotic males in mark-release-recapture studies is suggested. PMID:19292821

  15. Preliminary analysis of several attractants and spatial repellents for the mosquito, Aedes albopictus using an olfactometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Huiling; Sun, Jingcheng; Dai, Jianqing

    2012-01-01

    Mosquito attractants and spatial repellents hold great promise in controlling mosquito pests. In assessing the effectiveness of mosquito attractants and repellents, a good olfactometer system, and optimized testing conditions, are essential. In this research, we demonstrated the usefulness of an olfactometer system, and optimized testing conditions for Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae). We found no significant difference in the biting activity of the insect between 8:00 and 22:00. Furthermore, 5-10 day old mosquitoes were relatively strongly attracted, with bloodsucking rate 75.8%. The random capture rate (entered trap in absence of odor) was less than 20% for the 20-40 tested insects. Capture rates and systematic errors increased as the number of testing insects increased. Wind speed affected the capture rate significantly, whereas variations in temperature between 25-28°C did not result in significant difference. The wind speed of 0.2 m/s exhibited a higher capture rate, which was significantly different from those at either 0.1 m/s or 0.4 m/s (P mosquitoes to successfully trace human odor or 1% of L-lactic acid in dichloromethane. The results of these two tests indicate that the L-lactic acid/dichloromethane mixture may be used as an effective attractant to evaluate the effect of possible spatial repellents on Ae. albopictus. PMID:23418948

  16. Dose-dependent behavioral response of the mosquito Aedes albopictus to floral odorous compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Huiling; Sun, Jingcheng; Dai, Jianqing

    2013-01-01

    The value of using plant volatiles as attractants for trapping and spatial repellents to protect hosts against mosquitoes has been widely recognized. The current study characterized behavioral responses of Aedes albopictus (Skuse) (Diptera: Culicidae) to different concentrations, ranging from 6 to 96%, of several common floral odorous compounds, including linalool, geraniol, citronellal, eugenol, anisaldehyde, and citral, using a wind tunnel olfactometer system. The results indicated that female mosquitoes reacted differently to different concentrations of the tested compounds, and the reactions also were different when those chemicals were tested alone or in the presence of human host odor. When tested alone, anisaldehyde was attractive at all tested concentrations, eugenol was attractive only at concentrations of 48-96%, while citronellal, linalool, citral, and geraniol were attractive at lower concentrations and repellent at higher concentrations. When tested in the presence of a human host, all compounds except for anisaldehyde at all tested concentrations showed host-seeking inhibition to certain degrees. Based on the results, it was concluded that anisaldehyde was effective in attracting Ae. albopictus when used alone but could also remarkably inhibit the host-seeking ability at a concentration of 96%, while citral, geraniol, linalool, citronellal, and eugenol are suitable as spatial repellents. PMID:24779928

  17. Larvicidal Activity of Citrus Limonoids against Aedes albopictus Larvae

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    Hazrat Bilal

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Development of insecticide resistance occurred due to the continuous and misuse of synthetic insecticidestherefore, the recent study was conducted to explore eco-friendly plant extracts that have some potential to suppressmosquito larval population.Methods: WHO recommended mosquito larval bioassay method for insecticide was used while for the analysis of citrus oils for limonin and nomilin content HPLC was used.Results: Among the two citrus cultivars tested as larvicide against Aedes albopictus, valencia late (Citrus sinensis wasthe best in terms of LC50 (297 ppm, % mortality (97% and LT50 (18.49 hours then freutrall early (Citrus reticulatewith LC50 (377.4 ppm, % mortality (88% and LT50 (31 hours, While nomilin gave lowest LC50 (121.04 ppm than limonin (382.22 ppm after 72 hours of exposure. Valencia late also had more limonin and nomilin (377 μg/ml and 21.19 μg/ml than freutrall early (5.29 μg/ml and 3.89 μg/ml respectively.Conclusion: Valencia late showed best results in term of LC50, LT50 and percentage mortality against Aedes albopictus as it has more amount of nomilin then freutrall early, however further evaluation in the field conditions is required.

  18. Larvicidal Activity of Citrus Limonoids against Aedes Albopictus Larvae

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    Hazrat Bilal

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Development of insecticide resistance occurred due to the continuous and misuse of synthetic insecti­cides therefore, the recent study was conducted to explore eco-friendly plant extracts that have some potential to sup­press mosquito larval population.Methods: World Health Organization recommended mosquito larval bioassay method for insecticide was used while for the analysis of citrus oils for limonin and nomilin content HPLC was used.Results: Among the two citrus cultivars tested as larvicide against Aedes albopictus, valencia late (Citrus sinensis was the best in terms of LC50 (297 ppm, % mortality (97% and LT50 (18.49 hours then freutrall early (Citrus reticulate with LC50 (377.4 ppm, % mortality (88% and LT50 (31 hours, While nomilin gave lowest LC­­50 (121.04 ppm than limonin (382.22 ppm after 72 hours of exposure. Valencia late also had more limonin and nomilin (377 µg/ml and 21.19 µg/ml than freutrall early (5.29 µg/ml and 3.89 µg/ml respectively.Conclusion: Valencia late showed best results in term of LC50, LT50 and percentage mortality against Aedes albopictus as it has more amount of nomilin then freutrall early, however further evaluation in the field conditions is required

  19. Primeiro registro de Aedes (Stegomyia albopictus no Estado do Ceará, Brasil First report of Aedes (Stegomyia albopictus in the state of Ceará, Brazil

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    Víctor Emanuel Pessoa Martins

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Pela primeira vez é registrada a ocorrência de Aedes (Stegomyia albopictus em área urbana da cidade de Fortaleza, no Estado do Ceará, Brasil. De janeiro a julho de 2005 foram utilizadas ovitrampas para a coleta de ovos de Aedes spp., os quais foram mantidos em laboratório para desenvolvimento até a fase adulta. Os mosquitos resultantes foram identificados e submetidos a testes para o isolamento dos vírus da dengue. Foram identificados 13 espécimes de Aedes albopictus, todos fêmeas. Não foi isolado vírus da dengue em nenhum dos pools de mosquitos. Apesar de o Aedes albopictus não ter sido incriminado por surtos de dengue no Brasil, não se pode descartar a possibilidade da transmissão dos vírus da dengue por tais mosquitos.For the first time, the occurrence of Aedes (Stegomyia albopictus in an urban area of the city of Fortaleza, Northeastern, Brazil, is reported. From January to July 2005, ovitraps were used to collect eggs from Aedes spp., which were kept under laboratory conditions to develop into the adult phase. The resultant mosquitoes were identified and subjected to dengue virus isolation tests. Thirteen specimens of Aedes albopictus, all females, were identified. No dengue virus was isolated in any of the mosquito pools. Even though Aedes albopictus has not been incriminated in Brazilian dengue outbreaks, the possibility of dengue virus transmission by these mosquitoes cannot be dismissed.

  20. Diversidade de criadouros e tipos de imóveis freqüentados por Aedes albopictus e Aedes aegypti Diversity of oviposition containers and buildings where Aedes albopictus and Aedes aegypti can be found

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanderlei C da Silva

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Verificar a diversidade de criadouros e tipos de imóveis freqüentados por fêmeas de Aedes albopictus e Aedes aegypti. MÉTODOS: O estudo foi realizado nos anos de 2002 e 2003 no bairro de Campo Grande, Rio de Janeiro, RJ. Realizou-se pesquisa larvária em diferentes tipos de imóveis. As larvas encontradas foram identificadas em laboratório. A freqüência de larvas dessas duas espécies foi computada nos diversos criadouros disponíveis. Foram calculados os índices de infestação predial e de Breteau, as diferenças foram testadas pelo qui-quadrado. RESULTADOS: Os tipos de imóveis positivos para os aedinos foram: residências (83,9% do total; igrejas, escolas, clubes (6,8%; terrenos baldios (6,4%; e comércios (2,8%. Das 9.153 larvas, 12,0% eram de Aedes albopictus e 88,0% de Aedes aegypti. Para aquela espécie, os recipientes onde foram mais encontradas foram ralos (25,4%, latas, garrafas, vasilhames (23,9% e vasos com plantas (16,2%. Aedes aegypti mostrou-se mais freqüente nos criadouros que Aedes albopictus (chi2=145,067, pOBJECTIVE: To assess the diversity of oviposition containers and buildings where females of Aedes albopictus and Aedes aegypti can be found. METHODS: A study was carried out in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Southern Brazil, between 2002 and 2003. Larvae in different types of buildings were investigated, and immature forms found were then sent to the laboratory for identification. The larval frequency for both mosquitoes was estimated in the oviposition containers available. The Breteau index and the building infestation index were calculated and differences were tested using the Chi-square test. RESULTS: The types of buildings that were positive for Aedes albopictus and Aedes aegypti were: dwellings (83.9%; churches, schools, clubs (6.8%; vacant land (6.4%; and businesses (2.8%. Of 9,153 larvae collected, 12.0% were Aedes albopictus and 88.0% were Aedes aegypti. Aedes albopictus were mostly found in drains

  1. α-Humulene and β-elemene from Syzygium zeylanicum (Myrtaceae) essential oil: highly effective and eco-friendly larvicides against Anopheles subpictus, Aedes albopictus, and Culex tritaeniorhynchus (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindarajan, Marimuthu; Benelli, Giovanni

    2016-07-01

    Mosquitoes transmit serious pathogens and parasites to humans and animals, including malaria, dengue, Japanese encephalitis and filariasis. The extensive use of chemical pesticides leads to the development of resistance in mosquito vector populations and serious non-target effects on human health and the environment. Myrtaceae plants can be a useful reservoir of natural products effective against Culicidae young instars. In this research, we evaluated the mosquitocidal potential of the essential oil (EO) from Syzygium zeylanicum leaves against larvae of three mosquitoes of medical and veterinary importance, the malaria vector Anopheles subpictus, the dengue vector Aedes albopictus, and the Japanese encephalitis vector Culex tritaeniorhynchus. The chemical composition of the EO was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy. GC-MS revealed that the S. zeylanicum EO contained at least 18 compounds. The major chemical components were α-humulene (37.8.5 %) and β-elemene (10.7 %). The EO had a significant toxic effect against early third-stage larvae of An. subpictus, Ae. albopictus, and Cx. tritaeniorhynchus, with LC50 values of 83.11, 90.45, and 97.96 μg/ml, respectively. The two major constituents extracted from the S. zeylanicum EO were tested individually for acute toxicity against larvae of the three mosquito vectors. α-Humulene and β-elemene appeared highly effective against An. subpictus (LC50 = 6.19 and 10.26 μg/ml, respectively), followed by Ae. albopictus (LC50 = 6.86 and 11.15 μg/ml) and Cx. tritaeniorhynchus (LC50 = 7.39 and 12.05 μg/ml). Furthermore, the EO and its major components was safe towards the non-target fish Gambusia affinis; LC50 values were 20374.26, 1024.95, and 2073.18 μg/ml, respectively for EO, α-humulene and β-elemene. Overall, this study highlighted that the acute toxicity of S. zeylanicum EO towards mosquito larvae was mainly due to the presence of α-humulene and β-elemene. Furthermore, we pointed

  2. Evaluation of vector competence for West Nile virus in Italian Stegomyia albopicta (=Aedes albopictus) mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortuna, C; Remoli, M E; Severini, F; Di Luca, M; Toma, L; Fois, F; Bucci, P; Boccolini, D; Romi, R; Ciufolini, M G

    2015-12-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) is a zoonotic arboviral pathogen transmitted by mosquitoes in a cycle that involves wild birds as reservoir hosts. The virus is responsible for outbreaks of viral encephalitis in humans and horses. In Europe, Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae) is considered to be the main vector of WNV, but other species such as Stegomyia albopicta (=Aedes albopictus) (Diptera: Culicidae) may also act as competent vectors of this virus. Since 2008 human cases of WNV disease have been reported in northeast Italy. In 2011, new areas of southern Italy became involved and a first outbreak of WNV lineage 1 occurred on the island of Sardinia. On the assumption that a potential involvement of St. albopicta in WNV transmission cannot be excluded, and in order to evaluate the competence of this species for the virus, an experimental infection of an St. albopicta laboratory colony, established from mosquitoes collected in Sardinia, was carried out. The results were compared with those obtained in a colony of the main vector Cx. pipiens. The study showed St. albopicta collected on Sardinia to be susceptible to WNV infection, which suggests this Italian mosquito species is able to act as a possible secondary vector, particularly in urban areas where the species reaches high levels of seasonal abundance.

  3. Insecticide susceptibility of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus in Central Africa

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    Nwane Philippe

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762 and Aedes albopictus (Skuse, 1894 are the main vectors of dengue (DENV and chikungunya (CHIKV viruses worldwide. As there is still no vaccine or specific treatment for DENV and CHIKV, vector control remains the cornerstone of prevention and outbreak control. Unfortunately, vector control programs are facing operational challenges with mosquitoes becoming resistant to commonly used insecticides in several areas through the world. Throughout Central Africa no recent data are available susceptible/resistant status of either vector species since the introduction/arrival of Ae. albopictus in this area. We therefore studied the level of resistance of these two major vectors to insecticides commonly used in Africa for mosquito control. Results Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus were sampled in six urban localities of Cameroon (Garoua, Bertoua, Yaoundé, Bafia, Buea and Gabon (Libreville. Larval bioassays, carried out to determine the lethal concentrations (LC50 and LC95 and resistance ratios (RR50 and RR95 suggested that both vector species were susceptible to Bti (Bacillus thuringiensis var israeliensis and temephos. Bioassays were also performed on adults using WHO diagnostic test kits to assess phenotypic resistance to deltamethrin, DDT, fenitrothion and propoxur. These experiments showed that one population of Ae. aegypti (Libreville and two populations of Ae. albopictus (Buea and Yaoundé were resistant to DDT (mortality 36% to 71%. Resistance to deltamethrin was also suspected in Ae. albopictus from Yaoundé (83% mortality. All other field mosquito populations were susceptible to deltamethrin, DDT, fenitrothion and propoxur. No increase in the knockdown times (Kdt50 and Kdt95 was noted in the Yaoundé resistant population compared to other Ae. albopictus populations, suggesting the possible involvement of metabolic resistance to deltamethrin and DDT. Conclusion In view of the recent increase in

  4. Laboratory evaluation of the response of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus uninfected and infected with dengue virus to deet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laboratory studies were conducted to compare the response of Aedes aegypti (L.) and Aedes albopictus (Skuse) adults, uninfected and infected with four serotypes of dengue virus, to a repellent containing 5% deet. The results showed that mosquitoes infected with the four serotypes of dengue respond i...

  5. Updated Distribution of Aedes albopictus in Oklahoma, and Implications in Arbovirus Transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noden, Bruce H; Coburn, Lisa; Wright, Russell; Bradley, Kristy

    2015-03-01

    A series of statewide surveys were conducted in Oklahoma in the summers between 1991 and 2004 to identify the distribution of Aedes albopictus. Adult mosquitoes were identified in 63 counties, bringing the currently known distribution of Ae. albopictus in the state to 69 of 77 counties. The widespread presence of Ae. albopictus in Oklahoma has important current and future public and veterinary health implications for surveillance and control efforts.

  6. Prevalence of Aedes aegypti Linnaeus and Aedes albopictus Skuse in Koderma, Jharkhand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, R K; Dhiman, R C; Dua, V K

    2011-09-01

    Entomological survey was carried out in different localities of Koderma district of Jharkhand with a view to study the prevalence, distribution and stratification of areas for Aedes mosquito species. A total of 233 houses were covered during house to house larval and adult survey. Aedes breeding could be detected in 157 houses. In all, a total of 942 domestic water containers were searched, out of which 461 were found positive. The overall house index(HI) container index(CI) breteau index(B1) and pupal index(PI) were 67.38%, 48.94%, 197.85% and 79.4%, respectively. The survey revealed that Aedes aegypti Linnaeus and Aedes albopictus Skuse are well established in Koderma with most of the areas showing high adult and larval indices. The preventive strategy needs to be directed towards minimizing the breeding potential of Aedes and water management practice by individuals along with implementation of urban bye-laws as well as IEC activities to contain Aedes breeding in future. PMID:23781636

  7. Characterising the spatial dynamics of sympatric Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus populations in the Philippines

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    Jennifer Duncombe

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Entomological surveillance and control are essential to the management of dengue fever (DF. Hence, understanding the spatial and temporal patterns of DF vectors, Aedes (Stegomyia aegypti (L. and Ae. (Stegomyia albopictus (Skuse, is paramount. In the Philippines, resources are limited and entomological surveillance and control are generally commenced during epidemics, when transmission is difficult to control. Recent improvements in spatial epidemiological tools and methods offer opportunities to explore more efficient DF surveillance and control solutions: however, there are few examples in the literature from resource-poor settings. The objectives of this study were to: (i explore spatial patterns of Aedes populations and (ii predict areas of high and low vector density to inform DF control in San Jose village, Muntinlupa city, Philippines. Fortnightly, adult female Aedes mosquitoes were collected from 50 double-sticky ovitraps (SOs located in San Jose village for the period June-November 2011. Spatial clustering analysis was performed to identify high and low density clusters of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus mosquitoes. Spatial autocorrelation was assessed by examination of semivariograms, and ordinary kriging was undertaken to create a smoothed surface of predicted vector density in the study area. Our results show that both Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus were present in San Jose village during the study period. However, one Aedes species was dominant in a given geographic area at a time, suggesting differing habitat preferences and interspecies competition between vectors. Density maps provide information to direct entomological control activities and advocate the development of geographically enhanced surveillance and control systems to improve DF management in the Philippines.

  8. Contrasting patterns of insecticide resistance and knockdown resistance (kdr) in the dengue vectors Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus from Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Ishak, Intan H; Jaal, Zairi; Ranson, Hilary; Charles S Wondji

    2015-01-01

    Background Knowledge on the extent, distribution and mechanisms of insecticide resistance is essential for successful insecticide-based dengue control interventions. Here, we report an extensive resistance profiling of the dengue vectors Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus across Malaysia and establish the contribution of knockdown resistance mechanism revealing significant contrast between both species. Methods Aedes mosquitoes were collected from four states in Malaysia in 2010 using ovitrap...

  9. Modelling the Dynamics of an Aedes albopictus Population

    CERN Document Server

    Basuki, Thomas Anung; Barbuti, Roberto; Maggiolo-Schettini, Andrea; Milazzo, Paolo; Rossi, Elisabetta; 10.4204/EPTCS.33.2

    2010-01-01

    We present a methodology for modelling population dynamics with formal means of computer science. This allows unambiguous description of systems and application of analysis tools such as simulators and model checkers. In particular, the dynamics of a population of Aedes albopictus (a species of mosquito) and its modelling with the Stochastic Calculus of Looping Sequences (Stochastic CLS) are considered. The use of Stochastic CLS to model population dynamics requires an extension which allows environmental events (such as changes in the temperature and rainfalls) to be taken into account. A simulator for the constructed model is developed via translation into the specification language Maude, and used to compare the dynamics obtained from the model with real data.

  10. Discriminable roles of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus in establishment of dengue outbreaks in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chao-Fu; Hou, Jion-Nun; Chen, Tien-Huang; Chen, Wei-June

    2014-02-01

    Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus were reported to be significant as vectors of dengue fever. In Taiwan, the latter is distributed throughout the island while the former appears only south of the Tropic of Cancer; i.e., 23.5°N. In the past decade, there were five outbreaks with over 1000 cases of dengue fever in Taiwan. Without exception, these outbreaks all occurred in the south where the two Aedes mosquitoes are sympartic. According to the Center for Disease Control of Taiwan, imported cases are thought to provide the seeds of dengue outbreaks every year. Mostly, the number of imported cases is greater in northern island, probably due to a larger population of travelers and imported workers from endemic countries. Looking at the example in 2002, northern, central, and southern parts of Taiwan reported 28, 11, and 13 imported cases, respectively. However, 54, 21, and 5309 total cases were confirmed in the corresponding regions over the entire year, indicating a significant skew of case distributions. A hypothesis is thus inspired that the existence of Ae. aegypti is a prerequisite to initiate a dengue outbreak, while participation of Ae. albopictus expands or maintains the scale until the de novo herd immunity reaches high level.

  11. Breeding patterns of Aedes stegomyia albopictus in periurban areas of Calicut, Kerala, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, B Bhaskar; George, Biju

    2010-05-01

    Aedes albopictus has been shown to be a vector for diseases which have been on the increase, such as dengue fever and chikungunya infection. We conducted a study of 100 homes from 2006-2009 to determine the breeding sites for Ae. albopictus mosquitoes in Calicut, Kerala, India. We found the larvae of Ae. albopictus mosquitoes most often in coconut shells and plastic waste, followed by tires, flower pots, glass products, egg shells and dumped grinding stones. Ae. albopictus control programs in Calicut, Kerala, India should target these objects as part of a control program. PMID:20578539

  12. Evaluation of Sumithion L-40 against Aedes aegypti (L.) and Aedes albopictus Skuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loke, S R; Sing, K W; Teoh, G N; Lee, H L

    2015-03-01

    Space spraying of chemical insecticides is still an important mean of controlling Aedes mosquitoes and dengue transmission. For this purpose, the bioefficacy of space-sprayed chemical insecticide should be evaluated from time to time. A simulation field trial was conducted outdoor in an open field and indoor in unoccupied flat units in Kuala Lumpur, to evaluate the adulticidal and larvicidal effects of Sumithion L-40, a ULV formulation of fenitrothion. A thermal fogger with a discharge rate of 240 ml/min was used to disperse Sumithion L-40 at 3 different dosages (350 ml/ha, 500 ml/ha, 750 ml/ha) against lab-bred larvae and adult female Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus. An average of more than 80% adult mortality was achieved for outdoor space spray, and 100% adult mortality for indoor space spray, in all tested dosages. Outdoor larvicidal effect was noted up to 14 days and 7 days at a dosage of 500 and 750 ml/ha for Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus, respectively. Indoor larvicidal effect was up to 21 days (500 ml/ha) and 14 days (750 ml/ha), respectively, after spraying with larval mortality > 50% against Ae. aegypti. This study concluded that the effective dosage of Sumithion L-40 thermally applied against adult Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus indoor and outdoor is 500 and 750 ml/ha. Based on these dosages, effective indoor spray volume is 0.4 - 0.6 ml/m³. Additional indoor and outdoor larvicidal effect will be observed at these application dosages, in addition to adult mortality.

  13. Freqüência de larvas e pupas de Aedes aegypti e Aedes albopictus em armadilhas, Brasil Frequency of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus larvae and pupae in traps, Brazil

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    Nildimar Alves Honório

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a freqüência mensal de larvas e pupas de Ae. albopictus, Ae. aegypti e de outras espécies de mosquitos e verificar a influência de fatores ambientais dessas espécies em pneus. MÉTODOS: A pesquisa foi desenvolvida no município de Nova Iguaçu, Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. Efetuaram-se coletas mensais de formas imaturas, em quatro pneus, no período de novembro de 1997 a outubro de 1998. Os pneus foram numerados e dispostos em forma de pirâmide, um na base (pneu 1 e os três restantes (2, 3 e 4 inclinados sobre o primeiro. Os pneus 1 e 4 eram mais sombreados, e 2 e 3 eram expostos ao sol, já que não eram alcançados, como os demais, pela sombra de árvores e de um galinheiro próximos a esses pneus. Foram estudadas as variáveis: pluviosidade; temperatura ambiente; volume; pH da água; e condições de isolamento de água em pneus. RESULTADOS: Coletaram-se 10.310 larvas e 612 pupas. Ae. albopictus foi a espécie predominante tanto na fase larvar quanto na de pupa; Ae. aegypti e Ae. albopictus foram coletados em todos os meses, sendo mais freqüentes naqueles de maior pluviosidade. A temperatura, a pluviosidade e o volume de água apresentaram diferenças significativas, quando correlacionados ao número de larvas de Ae. aegypti. Não houve diferença significativa na freqüência de larvas quanto ao pH da água. Registrou-se maior número de larvas de Ae. albopictus em pneus mais sombreados. CONCLUSÕES: Ae. albopictus instala-se muito mais freqüentemente em pneus do que Ae. aegypti. Pneus descartados parecem representar importantes focos de manutenção de ambos os Aedes, durante todo o ano. Mesmo próximo uns ao outros, os pneus podem oferecer diferentes condições para a colonização desses mosquitos, de acordo com o volume d'água e a exposição ao sol.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the monthly frequency of larvae and pupae of Aedes albopictus, Aedes aegypti and other mosquitoe species in tires, and the influence

  14. Seasonal abundance of Aedes albopictus in selected urban and suburban areas in Penang, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozilawati, H; Zairi, J; Adanan, C R

    2007-06-01

    Ovitrap surveillance was conducted in a selected urban area and suburban area, ie. Taman Permai Indah(TPI) and Kampung Pasir Gebu (KPG) in Penang for 14 months. It was found that Aedes albopictus was the most abundant Aedes species in both study areas, even though a small percentage of Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus were found to breed simultaneously in the same ovitrap. This study indicated that the main dengue vector was Ae. albopictus. A strong correlation was found between rainfall and egg population in both of the study sites (r = 0.982 and r = 0.918).

  15. A RE-SURVEY OF AEDES AEGYPTI AND AEDES ALBOPICTUS IN SABAH, MALAYSIA

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    Feffrey Hii Lu King

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Di Sabah, Malaysia telah diadakan survey nyamuk Aedes aegypti dan Aedes albopictus dari bulan Agustus s/d September 1974 dan Maret-April 1975. Survey dilakukan pada 5 daerah di Kudat. Pantai Barat, Pedalaman Sandahan danTawan dengan tujuan untuk melihat distribusi dan density dari kedua jenis nyamuk tsb. Hasil survey menunjukkan bahwa nyamuk A. aegypti telah menyebar pada hampir seluruh daerah pantai Sabah, dan ditemukan hampir pada sebagian besar kotal dan daerah pedesaan di banyak desa. Di bandingkan dengan hasil survey yang pernah dilakukan pada tahun 1970 oleh Ramalingam ternyata terdapat pertambahan 24 persen daerah A. aegypti, dari 58.7 persen daerah A. albopictus selama 4 tahun. A. aegypti sangat biasa terdapat di desa2 pantai sebelah timur, dan ditempat-tempat lainnya menunjukkan Breteau index yang tinggi. Diduga adanya perahu2 dan tempat2 penampungan air merupakan faktor yang penting dalam penyebaran nyamuk. Walaupun tidak terdapat epidemi dengue dan demam berdarah di Sabah, tetapi ada indikasi risiko trahsmissi yang besar di daerah2 dimana Breteau index lebih dari 50. Dari hasil survey ini strategi pemberantasan A. aegypti dapat dikembangkan untuk mencegah terjadinya epidemi dengue dan demam berdarah.

  16. Breeding sites of Aedes albopictus in Jesús Menéndez municipality

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    Marco Antonio Cruz Cruz

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: aedes albopictus is a vector mosquito of dengue, yellow fever, chikungunya virus, and other arboviruses that has been increasing its spread in Jesús Menéndez municipality, Las Tunas, during the last years.Objectives: to identify the breeding sites of the Aedes albopictus in Jesús Menéndez municipality.Methods: the houses were entirely inspected between January and December, 2014, in work cycles of 44 days according to planning. During the inspections all the available probable tanks for Aedes albopictus were checked and treated by the personnel in charge of the integrated management of vectors. In each visit all the water containers were checked, looking for larvae of this species. Samples were taken from each kind of container where there were larvae.Results: presence of Aedes albopictus was identified in 11 of the Popular Councils mainly in the three urban areas during the whole year. It was observed that the breeding places are diverse; the artificial tanks were the ones that prevailed.Conclusions: the variety of breeding places used by the Aedes albopictus was demonstrated in Jesús Menéndez municipality during every month of the year.

  17. Differential Susceptibilities of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus from the Americas to Zika Virus.

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    Thais Chouin-Carneiro

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Since the major outbreak in 2007 in the Yap Island, Zika virus (ZIKV causing dengue-like syndromes has affected multiple islands of the South Pacific region. In May 2015, the virus was detected in Brazil and then spread through South and Central America. In December 2015, ZIKV was detected in French Guiana and Martinique. The aim of the study was to evaluate the vector competence of the mosquito spp. Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus from the Caribbean (Martinique, Guadeloupe, North America (southern United States, South America (Brazil, French Guiana for the currently circulating Asian genotype of ZIKV isolated from a patient in April 2014 in New Caledonia.Mosquitoes were orally exposed to an Asian genotype of ZIKV (NC-2014-5132. Upon exposure, engorged mosquitoes were maintained at 28° ± 1 °C, a 16h:8h light:dark cycle and 80% humidity. 25-30 mosquitoes were processed at 4, 7 and 14 days post-infection (dpi. Mosquito bodies (thorax and abdomen, heads and saliva were analyzed to measure infection, dissemination and transmission, respectively. High infection but lower disseminated infection and transmission rates were observed for both Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus. Ae. aegypti populations from Guadeloupe and French Guiana exhibited a higher dissemination of ZIKV than the other Ae. aegypti populations examined. Transmission of ZIKV was observed in both mosquito species at 14 dpi but at a low level.This study suggests that although susceptible to infection, Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus were unexpectedly low competent vectors for ZIKV. This may suggest that other factors such as the large naïve population for ZIKV and the high densities of human-biting mosquitoes contribute to the rapid spread of ZIKV during the current outbreak.

  18. Bioefficacy of crude extract of Cyperus aromaticus (Family:Cyperaceae) cultured cells, against Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus mosquitoes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fatemeh Kamiabi; Zairi Jaal; Chan Lai Keng

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the growth inhibition activity of the crude extract of Cyperus aromaticus (C. aromaticus) cultured cells against the 3rd instar larvae of Aedes aegypti (Linn.) and Aedes albopictus Skuse (Ae. albopictus) under laboratory conditions, and determine the sublethal effects (EI50) of the crude extract of C. aromaticus cultured cells on some biological and morphological parameters of both Aedes mosquito species during two generations as well. Methods:The cell suspension cultures of C. aromaticus were activated from five callus lines (P4, Pa, Z1, Z6 and Ml) derived from the root explants of in vitro plantlets. The cultured cells were extracted in chloroform and used as plant material for the present study. For detection of juvenile hormone III, the crude extracts were analyzed by HPLC. Then the crude extracts of the three C. aromaticus cultured cell lines which contained varied amounts of juvenile hormone III [high level (P4 cell line), medium level (Z1 cell line) and low level (Ml cell line)] were tested against Aedes mosquito species. Laboratory evaluation was performed against late third instar larvae of the Vector Control Research Unit strains of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus using the standard WHO method. The effects of EI50 of the C. aromaticus cultured P4 cells on fecundity, fertility, growth period, sex ratio, adult size and longevity of Aedes mosquitoes were assessed. Results:Bioassay tests presented the remarkable growth inhibition activity of the crude extracts of C. aromaticus cultured cells against the two Aedes mosquitoes. Between the two mosquito species, Ae. albopictus was more susceptible to the crude extracts with lower EI50 values. EI50 of the crude extract of C. aromaticus cultured cells (P4) increased the sterility indices in the parental generation females in both Aedes mosquito species. A significant delay in the pupal formation and adult emergence were observed in the parental generation of the both mosquito species. The sex

  19. Mosquitocidal and Oviposition Repellent Activities of the Extracts of Seaweed Bryopsis pennata on Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus

    OpenAIRE

    Ke-Xin Yu; Ching-Lee Wong; Rohani Ahmad; Ibrahim Jantan

    2015-01-01

    The ever-increasing threat from infectious diseases and the development of insecticide resistance in mosquito populations drive the global search for new natural insecticides. The aims of this study were to evaluate the mosquitocidal activity of the extracts of seaweed Bryopsis pennata against dengue vectors Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus, and determine the seaweed’s toxic effect on brine shrimp nauplii (as a non-target organism). In addition, the chemical compositions of the active larvi...

  20. Wolbachia Modulates Lipid Metabolism in Aedes albopictus Mosquito Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molloy, Jennifer C.; Sommer, Ulf; Viant, Mark R.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Certain strains of the intracellular endosymbiont Wolbachia can strongly inhibit or block the transmission of viruses such as dengue virus (DENV) by Aedes mosquitoes, and the mechanisms responsible are still not well understood. Direct infusion and liquid chromatography-Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FT-ICR) mass spectrometry-based lipidomics analyses were conducted using Aedes albopictus Aa23 cells that were infected with the wMel and wMelPop strains of Wolbachia in comparison to uninfected Aa23-T cells. Substantial shifts in the cellular lipid profile were apparent in the presence of Wolbachia. Most significantly, almost all sphingolipid classes were depleted, and some reductions in diacylglycerols and phosphatidylcholines were also observed. These lipid classes have previously been shown to be selectively enriched in DENV-infected mosquito cells, suggesting that Wolbachia may produce a cellular lipid environment that is antagonistic to viral replication. The data improve our understanding of the intracellular interactions between Wolbachia and mosquitoes. IMPORTANCE Mosquitoes transmit a variety of important viruses to humans, such as dengue virus and Zika virus. Certain strains of the intracellular bacterial genus called Wolbachia found in or introduced into mosquitoes can block the transmission of viruses, including dengue virus, but the mechanisms responsible are not well understood. We found substantial shifts in the cellular lipid profiles in the presence of these bacteria. Some lipid classes previously shown to be enriched in dengue virus-infected mosquito cells were depleted in the presence of Wolbachia, suggesting that Wolbachia may produce a cellular lipid environment that inhibits mosquito-borne viruses. PMID:26994075

  1. Interspecific Competition between Aedes albopictus and A. sierrensis: potential for Competitive Displacement in the Western United States.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banugopan Kesavaraju

    Full Text Available The Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus, was first detected in North America twenty five years ago. It utilizes water-holding container habitats as immature development sites, and has rapidly spread throughout the eastern United States. Aedes albopictus has occasionally been detected in the western United States, but until recently no established populations of A. albopictus were reported. The western tree-hole mosquito, Aedes sierrensis, is the most common tree-hole mosquito throughout the western United States, and is expected to more frequently encounter A. albopictus. In this study, competition between A. albopictus from the eastern United States and A. sierrensis from the western United States was tested in order to better understand the potential for either competitive displacement of A. sierrensis by A. albopictus or competitive resistance of A. sierrensis to A. albopictus. Varying densities of each species were reared with limited resources in a response surface design. Consistent with a prior study, we found that A. albopictus was clearly a superior larval competitor than A. sierrensis. Aedes sierrensis λ' (finite rate of increase decreased with increasing A. albopictus density, but in contrast, A. albopictus λ' actually increased with increasing A. sierrensis density; a result that was not reflected by individual fitness parameters. These results indicate that A. sierrensis will not be an effective barrier to A. albopictus invasion into tree-holes in the western United States.

  2. Structure comparisons of Aedes albopictus densovirus with other parvoviruses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG LingPeng; CHEN SenXiong; Z. H. ZHOU; ZHANG JingQiang

    2007-01-01

    Parvoviridae is a family of the smallest viruses known with a wide variety of hosts. The capsid structure of the Aedes albopictus C6/36 cell densovirus (C6/36 DNV) at 1.2-nm resolution was obtained by electron cryomicroscopy (cryoEM) and three-dimensional (3D) image reconstruction. Structure comparisons between the C6/36 DNV and other parvoviruses reveal that the degree of structural similarity between C6/36 DNV and the human parvovirus B19 is higher than that between C6/36 DNV and other insect parvoviruses. The amino acid sequence comparisons of structural and non-structural proteins also reveal higher levels of similarity between C6/36 DNV and parvovirus B19 than those between C6/36 DNV and other parvoviruses. These findings indicate that C6/36 DNV is closely related to the human virus B19, and the former might evolve from the human species other than from other insect viruses.

  3. Structure comparisons of Aedes albopictus densovirus with other parvoviruses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Parvoviridae is a family of the smallest viruses known with a wide variety of hosts. The capsid structure of the Aedes albopictus C6/36 cell densovirus (C6/36 DNV) at 1.2-nm resolution was obtained by elec-tron cryomicroscopy (cryoEM) and three-dimensional (3D) image reconstruction. Structure compari-sons between the C6/36 DNV and other parvoviruses reveal that the degree of structural similarity be-tween C6/36 DNV and the human parvovirus B19 is higher than that between C6/36 DNV and other in-sect parvoviruses. The amino acid sequence comparisons of structural and non-structural proteins also reveal higher levels of similarity between C6/36 DNV and parvovirus B19 than those between C6/36 DNV and other parvoviruses. These findings indicate that C6/36 DNV is closely related to the human virus B19, and the former might evolve from the human species other than from other insect viruses.

  4. Sodium channel gene expression in mosquitoes, Aedes albopictus (S.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NANNAN LIU; QIANG XU; LEE ZHANG

    2006-01-01

    A mosquito strain of Aerdes albopictus,HAmAalG0,from Huntsville,Alabama,USA,showed a normal susceptibility and low tolerance to permethrin and resmethrin (pyrethroid insecticides) compared to a susceptible Ikaken strain,even though these pyrethroid insecticides have been used in the field for a long period of time in Alabama.Recently,we treated HAmAalG0 in the laboratory with permethrin for five generations and detected no significant change in the level of resistance to permethrin in the selected mosquitoes,HAmAalG5,compared with the parental strain HAmAalG0. We then examined the allelic expression at the L-to-F kdr site of the sodium channel gene in the Aedes mosquitoes to address our hypothesis that the L-to-F kdr mutation was not present in HAmAalG0 and HAmAalG5 mosquitoes. We found that every tested individual in Ikaken,HAmAalG0,and HAmAalG5 populations expressed a codon of CTA at the L-to-F kdr site encoding Leu,strongly corresponding to their susceptibility to insecticides.

  5. Vertical infestation of the dengue vectors Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus in apartments in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roslan, Muhammad Aidil; Shafie, Aziz; Ngui, Romano; Lim, Yvonne Ai Lian; Sulaiman, Wan Yusoff Wan

    2013-12-01

    Dengue is a serious public health problem in Malaysia. The aim of this study was to compare the vertical infestation of Aedes population in 2 apartments in Kuala Lumpur with different status of dengue incidence (i.e., high-dengue-incidence area and area with no reported dengue cases). The study was also conducted to assess the relationship between environmental factors such as rainfall, temperature, and humidity and Aedes population that may influence Aedes infestation. Surveillance with a mosquito larvae trapping device was conducted for 28 continuous weeks (January to July 2012) in Vista Angkasa (VA) and Inderaloka (IL) apartments located in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. The results indicated that both Aedes spp. could be found from ground to higher floor levels of the apartments, with Aedes aegypti being more predominant than Ae. albopictus. Data based on mixed and single breeding of Aedes spp. on different floors did not show any significant difference. Both rainfall (R3; i.e., the amount of rainfall collected during the previous 3 wk before the surveillance period began) and RH data showed significant relationship with the number of Aedes larvae collected in VA and IL. No significant difference was found between the numbers of Aedes larvae in both study areas as well as maximum and minimum temperatures. Results also indicated adaptations of Ae. aegypti to the ecosystem at each elevation of high-rise buildings, with Ae. albopictus staying inside of apartment units.

  6. Chikungunya Virus Replication in Salivary Glands of the Mosquito Aedes albopictus

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    Anubis Vega-Rúa

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Chikungunya virus (CHIKV is an emerging arbovirus transmitted to humans by mosquitoes such as Aedes albopictus. To be transmitted, CHIKV must replicate in the mosquito midgut, then disseminate in the hemocele and infect the salivary glands before being released in saliva. We have developed a standardized protocol to visualize viral particles in the mosquito salivary glands using transmission electron microscopy. Here we provide direct evidence for CHIKV replication and storage in Ae. albopictus salivary glands.

  7. Chikungunya Virus Replication in Salivary Glands of the Mosquito Aedes albopictus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega-Rúa, Anubis; Schmitt, Christine; Bonne, Isabelle; Krijnse Locker, Jacomine; Failloux, Anna-Bella

    2015-11-17

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is an emerging arbovirus transmitted to humans by mosquitoes such as Aedes albopictus. To be transmitted, CHIKV must replicate in the mosquito midgut, then disseminate in the hemocele and infect the salivary glands before being released in saliva. We have developed a standardized protocol to visualize viral particles in the mosquito salivary glands using transmission electron microscopy. Here we provide direct evidence for CHIKV replication and storage in Ae. albopictus salivary glands.

  8. The role of environmental variables on Aedes albopictus biology and chikungunya epidemiology

    OpenAIRE

    Waldock, Joanna; Chandra, Nastassya L.; Lelieveld, Jos; Proestos, Yiannis; Michael, Edwin; Christophides, George; Parham, Paul E

    2013-01-01

    Aedes albopictus is a vector of dengue and chikungunya viruses in the field, along with around 24 additional arboviruses under laboratory conditions. As an invasive mosquito species, Ae. albopictus has been expanding in geographical range over the past 20 years, although the poleward extent of mosquito populations is limited by winter temperatures. Nonetheless, population densities depend on environmental conditions and since global climate change projections indicate increasing temperatures ...

  9. Potency of Pandanus amaryllifolius and Notophanax scutellarium as Aedes albopictus Mosquito Repellent

    OpenAIRE

    Rina Marina; Endang Puji Astuti

    2012-01-01

    Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus mosquitoes being the vector of Dengue Haemorrhagic Fever (DHF). Various effort have been done to control the mosquitoes, including using plant extract as repellent. Pandanus amaryllifolius and Notophanax scutellarium leaf were known to posses repellent activity for mosquito species. The study aimed to examine efJectiveness of P. amaryllifolius and N. scutellarium leaves as repellent for Ae. albopictus. The result study on 1 hr treatment showed that power prote...

  10. Detection of Wolbachia from field collected Aedes albopictus Skuse in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    A Noor Afizah; Roziah, A.; Nazni, W.A.; Lee, H L

    2015-01-01

    Background & objectives: Wolbachia-based vector control strategies have been proposed as a mean to augment the existing measures for controlling dengue vector. Prior to utilizing Wolbachia in novel vector control strategies, it is crucial to understand the Wolbachia-mosquito interactions. Many studies have only focused on the prevalence of Wolbachia in female Aedes albopictus with lack of attention on Wolbachia infection on the male Ae. albopictus which also affects the effective expression o...

  11. An invasive mosquito species Aedes albopictus found in the Czech Republic, 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šebesta, O; Rudolf, I; Betášová, L; Peško, J; Hubálek, Z

    2012-01-01

    Between July and September 2012, seventeen larvae of the invasive mosquito species Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus (Skuse) were discovered using 60 ovitraps at four study sites alongside two main road exits in South Moravia, Czech Republic. This is the first report of imported Ae. albopictus in the Czech Republic. The findings highlight the need for a regular surveillance programme to monitor this invasive species throughout western and central Europe. PMID:23137465

  12. Age-Stage, Two-Sex Life Table Characteristics of Aedes albopictus and Aedes Aegypti in Penang Island, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maimusa, Hamisu A; Ahmad, Abu Hassan; Kassim, Nur Faeza A; Rahim, Junaid

    2016-03-01

    The life table developmental attributes of laboratory colonies of wild strains of Aedes albopictus and Aedes aegypti were analyzed and compared based on the age-stage, two-sex life table. Findings inclusive in this study are: adult preoviposition periods, total preoviposition period, mean intrinsic rate of increase (r), mean finite rate of increase (λ), net reproductive rates (R0), and mean generation time (T). The total preadult development time was 9.47 days for Ae. albopictus and 8.76 days for Ae. aegypti. The life expectancy was 19.01 days for Ae. albopictus and 19.94 days for Ae. aegypti. Mortality occurred mostly during the adult stage. The mean development time for each stage insignificantly correlated with temperature for Ae. albopictus (r  =  -0.208, P > 0.05) and (r  =  -0.312, P > 0.05) for Ae. aegypti. The population parameters suggest that Ae. albopictus and Ae. aegypti populations are r-strategists characterized by a high r, a large R0, and short T. This present study provides the first report to compare the life parameters of Ae. albopictus and Ae. aegypti strains from Penang island, Malaysia.

  13. [Occurrence of Aedes albopictus in the state of Pará, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segura, Maria de Nazaré de Oliveira; Monteiro, Hamilton Antonio de Oliveira; Lopes, Ernani da Silva; da Silva, Orlando Vaz; Castro, Francisco Corrêa; Vasconcelos, Pedro Fernando da Costa

    2003-06-01

    It is first reported the detection of Aedes (Stg) albopictus mosquitoes in state of Par , Brazil, in the urban area of Medicil ndia, a municipality far 90 km from Altamira, where 42 adult mosquitoes were baited using human attraction. All mosquitoes were pooled and inoculated into C6/36 and suckling mice in attempts for virus isolation. No virus was isolated. The occurrence of Aedes albopictus in urban areas of the Amazon region is of concern since dengue and yellow fever viruses are endemic in the Amazon and thus there is a potential risk for this mosquito species to become infected with both viruses. PMID:12792693

  14. Produtividade de criadouro de Aedes albopictus em ambiente urbano Productivity of container-breeding Aedes albopictus in an urban environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oswaldo Paulo Forattini

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: O encontro de Aedes albopictus na cidade de Cananéia, região Sudeste do Estado de São Paulo, Brasil, ensejou a ocasião de realizar observações que visassem avaliar a produtividade de criadouro grande e permanente. Como objetivo, após selecionar o habitat a ser estudado, tentou-se avaliar-lhe a contribuição para a densidade local do mosquito. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: Em área predeterminada procedeu-se a levantamento de criadouros potenciais. Constatada a presença da espécie, foi selecionado um dos recipientes que preenchia os requisitos desejados. O acompanhamento foi feito de maneira ininterrupta, no período de novembro de 1996 a maio de 1997. As observações obdeceram a ritmo quinzenal retirando, cada vez, amostra da água correspondente a 0,14, ou seja, um sétimo do volume total de 70 litros. Procurou-se coletar, identificar e numerar, por sexo, as pupas existentes. Concomitantemente, procedeu-se à captura de formas adultas. Foi utilizada a isca humana das 15:00 às 18:00h, instalada a cerca de 6 metros do mencionado criadouro. Finda essa coleta, foi feita aspiração com 30 min. de duração em locais de abrigo representados pela abundante vegetação circunjacente. RESULTADOS: Nas coletas de formas imaturas do criadouro, o Ae. albopictus compareceu com 44,9%. Ao longo de 15 amostras regularmente realizadas obteve-se a média de 31,13 pupas pertencentes a essa espécie. O índice de emergência(E foi de 2,1. A multiplicação desse valor por sete forneceu a média diária de 14,7 fêmeas. Nas coletas de adultos desse sexo, a média de Williams para a isca humana foi de 30,7, enquanto a densidade média horária da aspiração dos locais de abrigo foi de 9,2. O cálculo do acúmulo diário concluiu pela presença de 22,8 fêmeas, por dia, capazes de freqüentar a isca humana, nessa situação e condições. DISCUSSÃO: A contagem de pupas possibilitou estimar a produtividade de criadouro de Ae. albopictus, tipo grande

  15. Risk factors for the presence of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus in domestic water-holding containers in areas impacted by the Nam Theun 2 hydroelectric project, Laos

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hiscox, A.F.; Kaye, A.; Vongphayloth, K.; Banks, I.; Piffer, M.; Khammanithong, P.; Sananikhom, P.; Kaul, S.; Hill, N.; Lindsay, S.W.; Brey, P.T.

    2013-01-01

    We assessed risk factors for vectors of dengue and chikungunya viruses near a new hydroelectric project, Nam Theun 2, in Laos. Immature stages of Aedes aegypti were found only in sites within 40 km of the urban provincial capital, but Aedes albopictus was found throughout. Aedes aegypti pupae were m

  16. The native Wolbachia symbionts limit transmission of dengue virus in Aedes albopictus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurence Mousson

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The chikungunya (CHIK outbreak that struck La Reunion Island in 2005 was preceded by few human cases of Dengue (DEN, but which surprisingly did not lead to an epidemic as might have been expected in a non-immune population. Both arboviral diseases are transmitted to humans by two main mosquito species, Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus. In the absence of the former, Ae. albopictus was the only species responsible for viral transmission on La Reunion Island. This mosquito is naturally super-infected with two Wolbachia strains, wAlbA and wAlbB. While Wolbachia does not affect replication of CHIK virus (CHIKV in Ae. albopictus, a similar effect was not observed with DEN virus (DENV. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To understand the weak vectorial status of Ae. albopictus towards DENV, we used experimental oral infections of mosquitoes from La Reunion Island to characterize the impact of Wolbachia on DENV infection. Viral loads and Wolbachia densities were measured by quantitative PCR in different organs of Ae. albopictus where DENV replication takes place after ingestion. We found that: (i Wolbachia does not affect viral replication, (ii Wolbachia restricts viral density in salivary glands, and (iii Wolbachia limits transmission of DENV, as infectious viral particles were only detected in the saliva of Wolbachia-uninfected Ae. albopictus, 14 days after the infectious blood-meal. CONCLUSIONS: We show that Wolbachia does not affect the replication of DENV in Ae. albopictus. However, Wolbachia is able to reduce viral infection of salivary glands and limit transmission, suggesting a role of Wolbachia in naturally restricting the transmission of DENV in Ae. albopictus from La Reunion Island. The extension of this conclusion to other Ae. albopictus populations should be investigated.

  17. Autophagy and viral diseases transmitted by Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carneiro, Leticia A M; Travassos, Leonardo H

    2016-03-01

    Despite a long battle that was started by Oswaldo Cruz more than a century ago, in 1903, Brazil still struggles to fight Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus, the mosquito vectors of dengue virus (DENV), Chikungynya virus (CHIKV) and Zika virus (ZIKV). Dengue fever has been a serious public health problem in Brazil for decades, with recurrent epidemic outbreaks occurring during summers. In 2015, until November, 1,534,932 possible cases were reported to the Ministry of Healthv. More recently, the less studied CHIKV and ZIKV have gained attention because of a dramatic increase in their incidence (around 400% for CHIKV) and the association of ZIKV infection with a 11-fold increase in the number of cases of microcephaly from 2014 to 2015 in northeast Brazil (1761 cases until December 2015). The symptoms of these three infections are very similar, which complicates the diagnosis. These include fever, headache, nausea, fatigue, and joint pain. In some cases, DENV infection develops into dengue hemorrhagic fever, a life threatening condition characterized by bleeding and decreases in platelet numbers in the blood. As for CHIKV, the most important complication is joint pain, which can last for months. PMID:26774331

  18. REPELLENCY OF ESSENTIAL OIL OF PIPER ADUNCUM AGAINST AEDES ALBOPICTUS IN THE LABORATORY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Misni, Norashiqin; Sulaiman, Sallehudin; Othman, Hidayatulfathi; Omar, Baharudin

    2009-01-01

    The repellent activity of Piper aduncum essential oil against Aedes albopictus was investigated under laboratory conditions with human volunteers. The lowest median effective dose (ED(50)) value was 1.5 mu g/cm(2) at 60 sec of exposure when compared to 90 see (2.1 mu g/cm(2)) and 120 see (1.8 mu g/c

  19. The tale of two buckets and associated containers: impact on aedes albopictus oviposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aedes albopictus is an invasive species. Its oviposition behavior is the subject of several projects in our research unit. The main emphasis of this presentation is a study which utilizes two five gallon buckets, one heated and one with ambient temperature. The heat is provided by an aquarium hea...

  20. Infection of adult Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus mosquitoes with the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholte, E.J.; Takken, W.; Knols, B.G.J.

    2007-01-01

    This study describes a laboratory investigation on the use of the insect-pathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae against adult Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus mosquitoes. At a dosage of 1.6 × 1010 conidia/m2, applied on material that served as a mosquito resting site, an average of 87.1 ± 2.65% of

  1. Potency of Pandanus amaryllifolius and Notophanax scutellarium as Aedes albopictus Mosquito Repellent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rina Marina

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus mosquitoes being the vector of Dengue Haemorrhagic Fever (DHF. Various effort have been done to control the mosquitoes, including using plant extract as repellent. Pandanus amaryllifolius and Notophanax scutellarium leaf were known to posses repellent activity for mosquito species. The study aimed to examine efJectiveness of P. amaryllifolius and N. scutellarium leaves as repellent for Ae. albopictus. The result study on 1 hr treatment showed that power protection of pandan leaves (N. scutellarium was 93.55%, while mangkokan leaves (P. amaryllifolius was 87.5%. Based on ANOVA analysis, there was not significantly different of power protection between N. scutellarium leaves and P. amaryllifolius leaves extracts against Ae. albopictus mosquitoes. Both of these test, plants has showed the potential to be a repellent and eliminate the emergence of Ae. albopictus mosquitoes, so it may effectively reduce contact between host and dengue vector.

  2. Zika virus in Gabon (Central Africa--2007: a new threat from Aedes albopictus?

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    Gilda Grard

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Chikungunya and dengue viruses emerged in Gabon in 2007, with large outbreaks primarily affecting the capital Libreville and several northern towns. Both viruses subsequently spread to the south-east of the country, with new outbreaks occurring in 2010. The mosquito species Aedes albopictus, that was known as a secondary vector for both viruses, recently invaded the country and was the primary vector involved in the Gabonese outbreaks. We conducted a retrospective study of human sera and mosquitoes collected in Gabon from 2007 to 2010, in order to identify other circulating arboviruses.Sample collections, including 4312 sera from patients presenting with painful febrile disease, and 4665 mosquitoes belonging to 9 species, split into 247 pools (including 137 pools of Aedes albopictus, were screened with molecular biology methods. Five human sera and two Aedes albopictus pools, all sampled in an urban setting during the 2007 outbreak, were positive for the flavivirus Zika (ZIKV. The ratio of Aedes albopictus pools positive for ZIKV was similar to that positive for dengue virus during the concomitant dengue outbreak suggesting similar mosquito infection rates and, presumably, underlying a human ZIKV outbreak. ZIKV sequences from the envelope and NS3 genes were amplified from a human serum sample. Phylogenetic analysis placed the Gabonese ZIKV at a basal position in the African lineage, pointing to ancestral genetic diversification and spread.We provide the first direct evidence of human ZIKV infections in Gabon, and its first occurrence in the Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus. These data reveal an unusual natural life cycle for this virus, occurring in an urban environment, and potentially representing a new emerging threat due to this novel association with a highly invasive vector whose geographic range is still expanding across the globe.

  3. Molecular cloning and xenobiotic induction of seven novel cytochrome P450 monooxygenases in Aedes albopictus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Hiang Hao; Wajidi, Mustafa Fadzil Farid; Zairi, Jaal

    2014-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 monooxygenase (P450) is a superfamily of enzymes that is important in metabolism of endogenous and exogenous compounds. In insects, these enzymes confer resistance to insecticides through its metabolic activities. Members of P450 from family 6 in insects are known to play a role in such function. In this study, we have isolated seven novel family 6 P450 from Aedes albopictus (Skuse) (Diptera: Culicidae), a vector of dengue and chikungunya fever. Induction profile of these seven genes was studied using several insecticides and xenobiotics. It was found that deltamethrin and permethrin did not induce expression of any genes. Another insecticide, temephos, inhibited expression of CYP6P15 for fivefold and twofold for CYP6N29, CYP6Y7, and CYP6Z18. In addition, copper II sulfate induced expression of CYP6M17 and CYP6N28 for up to sixfold. Benzothiazole (BZT), a tire leachate induced the expression of CYP6M17 by fourfold, CYP6N28 by sevenfold, but inhibited the expression of CYP6P15 for threefold and CYP6Y7 for twofold. Meanwhile, piperonyl butoxide (PBO) induced the expression CYP6N28 (twofold), while it inhibited the expression of CYP6P15 (fivefold) and CYP6Y7 (twofold). Remarkably, all seven genes were induced two- to eightfold by acetone in larval stage, but not adult stage. Expression of CYP6N28 was twofold higher, while expression of CYP6P15 was 15-fold lower in adult than larva. The other five P450s were not differentially expressed between the larvae and adult. This finding showed that acetone can be a good inducer of P450 in Ae. albopictus. On the other hand, temephos can act as good suppressor of P450, which may affect its own bioefficacy because it needs to be bioactivated by P450. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on acetone-inducible P450 in insects. Further study is needed to characterize the mechanisms involved in acetone induction in P450. PMID:25399430

  4. Field evaluation of the response of Aedes albopictus (Stegomyia albopicta) to three oviposition attractants and different ovitrap placements using black and clear autocidal ovitraps in a rural area of Same, Timor-Leste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, E M; Davis, J A

    2014-12-01

    Known oviposition attractants or stimulants were compared, singly and in combination, using inexpensive autocidal ovitraps designed to trap emerging adults, in a rural area of Timor-Leste during the dry season. In this area, the dengue vector Aedes albopictus (Stegomyia albopicta) Skuse (Diptera: Culicidae) was abundant, but Aedes aegypti (Stegomyia aegypti) L. was not detected. The attractants were: (a) a compound found in Aedes eggs (dodecanoic acid); (b) components of nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium-based (NPK) fertilizer, and (c) infusions of discarded cigarette butts. A solution of ammonium phosphate and potassium nitrate was significantly more attractive to gravid Ae. albopictus than water only. Dodecanoic acid and cigarette butt infusions were not significantly more attractive than the control; however, they attracted various other Diptera and many non-culicid larvae developed in ovitraps in which these substances were used; thus, the presence of eggs or larvae of other species may have deterred Aedes oviposition. Significantly more Aedes eggs were found in ovitraps under vegetation than in ovitraps placed inside houses or against external walls. Clear-sided ovitraps in which black mesh was placed over a black ring floating on the water surface collected significantly fewer eggs than black ovitraps with identically placed mesh and rings.

  5. Primeira Ocorrência de Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus (Skuse) no Estado de Sergipe

    OpenAIRE

    Antônio César Santana; Catarina Dantas de Araujo; José Novaes; Maria da Glória Santos; Waltemir Santana

    2014-01-01

    O mosquito Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus (Skuse), vetor de várias arboviroses, foi registrado pela primeira vez no estado de Sergipe, Brasil, no município de Areia Branca, localizado no centro-leste, nas coordenadas 10°45'29”S e 37°18'45”W e a 36 km da capital Aracaju. A primeira larva de Ae. albopictus foi coletada na 32ª semana epidemiológica de 2011, no Povoado Terra Preta de Cima durante as atividades de Controle de Qualidade do Programa de Controle da Febre Amarela e da Dengue (PCFAD). Ma...

  6. Female-specific flightless (fsRIDL phenotype for control of Aedes albopictus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geneviève M C Labbé

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Aedes albopictus, the Asian tiger mosquito, is a vector of several arboviruses including dengue and chikungunya, and is also a significant nuisance mosquito. It is one of the most invasive of mosquitoes with a relentlessly increasing geographic distribution. Conventional control methods have so far failed to control Ae. albopictus adequately. Novel genetics-based strategies offer a promising alternative or aid towards efficient control of this mosquito. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We describe here the isolation, characterisation and use of the Ae. albopictus Actin-4 gene to drive a dominant lethal gene in the indirect flight muscles of Ae. albopictus, thus inducing a conditional female-specific late-acting flightless phenotype. We also show that in this context, the Actin-4 regulatory regions from both Ae. albopictus and Ae. aegypti can be used to provide conditional female-specific flightlessness in either species. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: With the disease-transmitting females incapacitated, the female flightless phenotype encompasses a genetic sexing mechanism and would be suitable for controlling Ae. albopictus using a male-only release approach as part of an integrated pest management strategy.

  7. Temephos resistance in field Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus (Skuse) from Selangor, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C D; Nazni, W A; Lee, H L; Norma-Rashid, Y; Lardizabal, M L; Sofian-Azirun, M

    2013-06-01

    Larvae of Aedes albopictus obtained from dengue endemic areas in Selangor, Malaysia were evaluated for their susceptibility to operational dosage of temephos (1 mg/L). Larval bioassays were carried out in accordance to modified WHO standard methods. Biochemical microassay of enzymes in Ae. albopictus was conducted to detect the emergence of insecticide resistance and to define the mechanisms involved in temephos resistance. The 50% mortality lethal time (LT50) for Ae. albopictus tested against temephos ranged between 58.65 to 112.50 minutes, with resistance ratio ranging from 0.75 - 1.45. This study addressed the fluctuation of time-related susceptibility status of Ae. albopictus towards insecticide. Significant difference on the weekly enzyme levels of non-specific esterases, mixed function oxidases and glutathione S-transferases was detected (p ≤ 0.05). No significant correlation was found between temephos resistance and enzyme activity (p > 0.05). Only glutathione S-transferases displayed high level of activity, indicating that Ae. albopictus may be resistant to other groups of insecticide. The insensitive acetylcholinesterase was detected in some field collected Ae. albopictus populations, indicating the possibility of emergence of carbamate or other organophosphate resistance in the field populations. Continuous resistance monitoring should be conducted regularly to confirm the efficacy of insecticides for dengue control. PMID:23959487

  8. Screening for larvicidal activity of ethanolic and aqueous extracts of selected plants against Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus larvae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Michael RusselleAlvarez; Francisco Heralde III; Noel Quiming

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To screen for larvicidal activity of aqueous and ethanolic extracts (95% ethanol) from Selaginella elmeri, Christella dentata, Elatostema sinnatum, Curculigo capitulata, Euphorbia hirta, Murraya koenigii (M. koenigii), Alpinia speciosa, Cymbopogon citratus, Eucalyptus globulus (E. globulus), Jatropha curcas (J. curcas), Psidium guajava, Gliricidia sepium, Ixora coccinea and Capsicum frutescens (C. frutescens) against Aedes aegypti (A. aegypti) and Aedes albopictus (A. albopictus) 3rd instar larvae. Methods: Ethanolic and aqueous extracts were screened for larvicidal activity by exposing the A. aegypti and A. albopictus 3rd instar larvae (15 larvae per trial, triplicates) for 48 h, counting the mortalities every 24 h. Additionally, phytochemical screening for flavonoids, tannins, alkaloids, anthraquinones, anthrones, coumarins, indoles and steroids were performed on active extracts using spray tests. Results: Against A. aegypti, the three most active extracts were C. frutescens ethanolic (100%after 24 and 48 h), J. curcas ethanolic (84.44% after 24 h and 88.89% after 48 h) and M. koenigii ethanolic (53.33% after 24 h and 71.11% after 48 h). On the other hand, against A. albopictus, the three most active extracts were C. frutescens ethanolic (93.33% after 24 h and 100% after 48 h), J. curcas ethanolic (77.78% after 24 h and 82.22% after 48 h) and E. globulus ethanolic (64.44% after 24 h and 73.33% after 48 h). Phytochemical screening was also performed on the active extracts, revealing alkaloids, tannins, indoles and steroids. Conclusios: The results demonstrate the larvicidal activities of ethanolic extracts of Cymbopogon citratus, Euphorbia hirta, Ixora coccinea, Gliricidia sepium, M. koenigii, E. globulus, J. curcas and C. frutescens against A. aegypti and A. albopictus 3rd instar larvae. These could be used as potential larvicidal agents for the control of these mosquitoes.

  9. Consequences of the expanding global distribution of Aedes albopictus for dengue virus transmission.

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    Louis Lambrechts

    Full Text Available The dramatic global expansion of Aedes albopictus in the last three decades has increased public health concern because it is a potential vector of numerous arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses, including the most prevalent arboviral pathogen of humans, dengue virus (DENV. Ae. aegypti is considered the primary DENV vector and has repeatedly been incriminated as a driving force in dengue's worldwide emergence. What remains unresolved is the extent to which Ae. albopictus contributes to DENV transmission and whether an improved understanding of its vector status would enhance dengue surveillance and prevention. To assess the relative public health importance of Ae. albopictus for dengue, we carried out two complementary analyses. We reviewed its role in past dengue epidemics and compared its DENV vector competence with that of Ae. aegypti. Observations from "natural experiments" indicate that, despite seemingly favorable conditions, places where Ae. albopictus predominates over Ae. aegypti have never experienced a typical explosive dengue epidemic with severe cases of the disease. Results from a meta-analysis of experimental laboratory studies reveal that although Ae. albopictus is overall more susceptible to DENV midgut infection, rates of virus dissemination from the midgut to other tissues are significantly lower in Ae. albopictus than in Ae. aegypti. For both indices of vector competence, a few generations of mosquito colonization appear to result in a relative increase of Ae. albopictus susceptibility, which may have been a confounding factor in the literature. Our results lead to the conclusion that Ae. albopictus plays a relatively minor role compared to Ae. aegypti in DENV transmission, at least in part due to differences in host preferences and reduced vector competence. Recent examples of rapid arboviral adaptation to alternative mosquito vectors, however, call for cautious extrapolation of our conclusion. Vector status is a dynamic

  10. [Aedes albopictus in Italy: an underestimated health problem].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romi, R

    2001-01-01

    Since 1990, Ae. albopictus has spread in 9 regions and 30 provinces of the country. This species was introduced in Italy in shipments of scrap tires form the USA. In Italy, Ae. albopictus is the major biting pest throughout much of its range and, although there is no evidence that this mosquito is the vector of human disease in the country, the species might be involved in the transmission of some arboviruses which have been reported in the Mediterranean Basin. Aim of this paper is to provide an update on the distribution of Ae. albopictus in Italy and to renew the interest in a problem frequently underestimated. Public health implications after a ten-year presence of the species are also discussed. PMID:11758282

  11. Vector competence of three North American strains of Aedes albopictus for West Nile virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sardelis, Michael R; Turell, Michael J; O'Guinn, Monica L; Andre, Richard G; Roberts, Donald R

    2002-12-01

    To evaluate the potential for North American (NA) Aedes albopictus to transmit West Nile virus (WN), mosquito strains derived from 3 NA sources (Frederick County, Maryland, FRED strain; Cheverly, MD, CHEV strain; Chambers and Liberty counties, Texas, TAMU strain) were tested. These strains were tested along with a previously tested strain from a Hawaiian source (OAHU strain). Mosquitoes were fed on 2- to 3-day-old chickens previously inoculated with a New York strain (Crow 397-99) of WN. All of the NA strains were competent laboratory vectors of WN, with transmission rates of 36, 50, 83, and 92% for the FRED, CHEV, OAHU, and TAMU strains, respectively. The extrinsic incubation period for WN in Ae. albopictus held at 26 degrees C was estimated to be 10 days. Based on efficiency of viral transmission, evidence of natural infection, bionomics, and distribution, Ae. albopictus could be an important bridge vector of WN in the southeastern USA.

  12. A chikungunya outbreak associated with the vector Aedes albopictus in remote villages of Gabon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paupy, Christophe; Kassa Kassa, Fabrice; Caron, Mélanie; Nkoghé, Dieudonné; Leroy, Eric M

    2012-02-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) recently caused major urban outbreaks in central African countries such as the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), Cameroon, and Gabon. In Gabon, the tiger mosquito Aedes albopictus was shown to be the main CHIKV vector during the 2007 outbreak. This invasive Asian species was first identified in Gabon in early 2007, and was thought to be restricted mainly to coastal provinces where urban epidemic CHIKV foci were recorded. Here we report a CHIKV outbreak in a small cluster of villages isolated in the deep forest of southern Gabon, in which A. albopictus was the main vector. This observation indicates concomitant geographic and ecological spread of CHIKV activity and A. albopictus in remote environments in central Africa, as well as an enhanced risk of propagation of epidemic arboviruses.

  13. Encontro de Aedes albopictus no Estado do Pará, Brasil

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    Segura Maria de Nazaré de Oliveira

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Pela primeira vez é registrada a presença do Aedes (Stg albopictus no Estado do Pará, Brasil, em área urbana no município de Medicilândia distante cerca de 90 km de Altamira, onde foram capturados por meio de isca humana 42 exemplares de mosquitos adultos. Estes foram inoculados em C6/36 e em camundongos recém-nascidos na tentativa de isolamento viral, não tendo sido isolado nenhum vírus. A presença de Aedes albopictus em áreas da Amazônia onde circulam os vírus de dengue e de febre amarela é preocupante e representa um risco potencial desta espécie de mosquito se tornar infectada com tais vírus.

  14. A study on container breeding mosquitoes with special reference to Aedes (Stegomyia aegypti and Aedes albopictus in Thiruvananthapuram district, India

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    K. Vijayakumar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: The district of Thiruvananthapuram reports the maximum number of cases of dengue in the state of Kerala. To determine the larval diversity, density and breeding site preferences of Aedes mosquitoes, during pre-monsoon and monsoon periods in urban and rural areas of Thiruvananthapuram district. Methods: Based on the daily reports of dengue cases, 70 clusters were identified in Thiruvananthapuram district. A cross-sectional larval survey was done in the domestic and peri-domestic areas of 1750 houses, using the WHO standard techniques. The larval indices were calculated, and the larvae were identified by using taxonomic keys. Urban and rural differences and the variations during pre-monsoon and monsoon seasons were also studied. Results: In the surveyed houses, 15% had mosquito breeding, with 88% having Aedes larvae. The house index, container index and the breteau index were 13.08, 13.28 and 16.57%, respectively. About 86% of the clusters were found positive for Aedes albopictus and 11% for Ae. aegypti. Aedes albopictus was distributed almost equally in rural and urban clusters, whereas the distribution of Ae. aegypti was significantly higher in urban areas (p = 0.03. The most common water holding containers found (outdoor were of plastic, followed by coconut shells. The breeding preference ratio was highest for tyres. Significantly lesser positivity was found for containers during monsoon period when compared to pre-monsoon period. Conclusion: The geographical distribution of Ae. albopictus is significantly high in peri-domestic areas and, therefore, its epidemiological role in the widespread disease occurrence needs to be studied. The discarded tyres being the most preferred breeding sites, where IEC activities will help in source reduction.

  15. Identification and characterization of seminal fluid proteins in the Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus.

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    Kathryn E Boes

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The Asian tiger mosquito (Aedes albopictus is an important vector for pathogens that affect human health, including the viruses that cause dengue and Chikungunya fevers. It is also one of the world's fastest-spreading invasive species. For these reasons, it is crucial to identify strategies for controlling the reproduction and spread of this mosquito. During mating, seminal fluid proteins (Sfps are transferred from male mosquitoes to females, and these Sfps modulate female behavior and physiology in ways that influence reproduction. Despite the importance of Sfps on female reproductive behavior in mosquitoes and other insects, the identity of Sfps in Ae. albopictus has not previously been reported. We used transcriptomics and proteomics to identify 198 Sfps in Ae. albopictus. We discuss possible functions of these Sfps in relation to Ae. albopictus reproduction-related biology. We additionally compare the sequences of these Sfps with proteins (including reported Sfps in several other species, including Ae. aegypti. While only 72 (36.4% of Ae. albopictus Sfps have putative orthologs in Ae. aegypti, suggesting low conservation of the complement of Sfps in these species, we find no evidence for an elevated rate of evolution or positive selection in the Sfps that are shared between the two Aedes species, suggesting high sequence conservation of those shared Sfps. Our results provide a foundation for future studies to investigate the roles of individual Sfps on feeding and reproduction in this mosquito. Functional analysis of these Sfps could inform strategies for managing the rate of pathogen transmission by Ae. albopictus.

  16. Resting and Energy Reserves of Aedes albopictus Collected in Common Landscaping Vegetation in St. Augustine, Florida

    OpenAIRE

    Samson, Dayana M.; Qualls, Whitney A.; Roque, Deborah; Naranjo, Diana P.; Alimi, Temitope; Arheart, Kristopher L.; Müller, Günter C; Beier, John C.; Xue, Rui-De

    2013-01-01

    The resting behavior of Aedes albopictus was evaluated by aspirating diurnal resting mosquitoes from common landscape vegetation in residential communities in St. Augustine, FL. Energy reserves of the resting mosquitoes were analyzed to determine if there was a correlation between mosquito resting habitat and energy accumulation. Six species of plants were selected and 9 collections of resting mosquitoes were aspirated from each plant using a modified John W. Hock backpack aspirator during Ju...

  17. The molecular physiology of increased egg desiccation resistance during diapause in the invasive mosquito, Aedes albopictus

    OpenAIRE

    Urbanski, Jennifer M.; BENOIT, JOSHUA B.; Michaud, M. Robert; Denlinger, David L.; Armbruster, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Photoperiodic diapause is a crucial adaptation to seasonal environmental variation in a wide range of arthropods, but relatively little is known regarding the molecular basis of this important trait. In temperate populations of the mosquito Aedes albopictus, exposure to short-day (SD) lengths causes the female to produce diapause eggs. Tropical populations do not undergo a photoperiodic diapause. We identified a fatty acyl coA elongase transcript that is more abundant under SD versus long-day...

  18. Susceptibility of Aedes albopictus from dengue outbreak areas to temephos and Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad Mohiddin; Asmalia Md Lasim; Wan Fatma Zuharah

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To monitor the current duration of the application rates in vector programme and the level of Aedes albopictus larvae susceptibility from three selected areas in northeast district of Penang on two selected larvicides, temephos and Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis (Bti) which are commonly used by Penang Health Department for vector control. Methods: The mosquito larvae were tested against two types of larvicides: (1) temephos (Abate®) with diagnostic dosage (0.012 mg/L)...

  19. Comparison of Irradiation and Wolbachia Based Approaches for Sterile-Male Strategies Targeting Aedes albopictus

    OpenAIRE

    Atyame, Célestine M.; Pierrick Labbé; Cyrille Lebon; Mylène Weill; Riccardo Moretti; Francesca Marini; Louis Clément Gouagna; Maurizio Calvitti; Pablo Tortosa

    2016-01-01

    The global expansion of Aedes albopictus together with the absence of vaccines for most of the arboviruses transmitted by this mosquito has stimulated the development of sterile-male strategies aiming at controlling disease transmission through the suppression of natural vector populations. In this context, two environmentally friendly control strategies, namely the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) and the Wolbachia-based Incompatible Insect Technique (IIT) are currently being developed in seve...

  20. Zika virus in Gabon (Central Africa) - 2007 : a new threat from Aedes albopictus ?

    OpenAIRE

    Gilda Grard; Mélanie Caron; Illich Manfred Mombo; Dieudonné Nkoghe; Statiana Mboui Ondo; Davy Jiolle; Didier Fontenille; Christophe Paupy; Eric Maurice Leroy

    2014-01-01

    Background Chikungunya and dengue viruses emerged in Gabon in 2007, with large outbreaks primarily affecting the capital Libreville and several northern towns. Both viruses subsequently spread to the south-east of the country, with new outbreaks occurring in 2010. The mosquito species Aedes albopictus, that was known as a secondary vector for both viruses, recently invaded the country and was the primary vector involved in the Gabonese outbreaks. We conducted a retrospective study of human se...

  1. Proteomic profiling of a robust Wolbachia infection in an Aedes albopictus mosquito cell line

    OpenAIRE

    Baldridge, Gerald D; Baldridge, Abigail S.; Witthuhn, Bruce A.; Higgins, LeeAnn; Markowski, Todd W.; FALLON, ANN M.

    2014-01-01

    Wolbachia pipientis a widespread vertically transmitted intracellular bacterium, provides a tool for insect control through manipulation of host-microbe interactions. We report proteomic characterization of wStr, a Wolbachia strain associated with a strong cytoplasmic incompatibility phenotype in its native host, Laodelphax striatellus. In the Aedes albopictus C/wStr1 mosquito cell line, wStr maintains a robust, persistent infection. MS/MS analyses of gel bands revealed a protein “footprint” ...

  2. Aedes albopictus in the United States: ten-year presence and public health implications.

    OpenAIRE

    Moore, C. G.; Mitchell, C J

    1997-01-01

    Since its discovery in Houston, Texas, in 1987, the Asian "tiger mosquito" Aedes albopictus has spread to 678 counties in 25 states. This species, which readily colonizes container habitats in the peridomestic environment, was probably introduced into the continental United States in shipments of scrap tires from northern Asia. The early pattern of dispersal followed the interstate highway system, which suggests further dispersal by human activities. The Public Health Service Act of 1988 requ...

  3. Primer hallazgo de Aedes albopictus Skuse en el Gran Área Metropolitana de Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Marín Rodríguez

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Informar sobre el primer hallazgo de Aedes albopictus en el Gran Área Metropolitana de Costa Rica. Métodos: Formas inmaduras de mosquitos colectadas en la Ciudadela La Carpio, Distrito Uruca, San José, como parte de una barrida epidemiológica fueron diagnosticadas preliminarmente como Ae. albopictus. Dicho material se fijó en alcohol al 70 %, se aclaró en lactofenol y se evaluó taxonómicamente mediante claves dicotómicas especializadas. Resultados: Las formas inmaduras evaluadas procedieron de dos criaderos, un tarro y un balde. Las características de las larvas y pupas permitieron identificarlas taxonómicamente como Ae. albopictus. Este es el primer reporte sobre la presencia de dicho vector en Costa Rica. Discusión: La presencia de Ae. albopictus en la Gran Área Metropolitana ocurre como parte del proceso de expansión que está teniendo dicho vector por el territorio nacional. Su presencia debe ser motivo de estudio para determinar su eventual papel en la transmisión del dengue. Por otro lado la presencia de este vector complica la gestión de la vigilancia entomológica de dengue que ha estado dirigida fundamentalmente a la identificación y control del Aedes aegypti.

  4. Mosquitocidal and Oviposition Repellent Activities of the Extracts of Seaweed Bryopsis pennata on Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ke-Xin; Wong, Ching-Lee; Ahmad, Rohani; Jantan, Ibrahim

    2015-01-01

    The ever-increasing threat from infectious diseases and the development of insecticide resistance in mosquito populations drive the global search for new natural insecticides. The aims of this study were to evaluate the mosquitocidal activity of the extracts of seaweed Bryopsis pennata against dengue vectors Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus, and determine the seaweed's toxic effect on brine shrimp nauplii (as a non-target organism). In addition, the chemical compositions of the active larvicidal extract and fraction were analyzed by using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Chloroform extract exhibited strong ovicidal activity (with LC50 values of 229.3 and 250.5 µg/mL) and larvicidal activity against Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus. The larvicidal potential of chloroform extract was further ascertained when its A7 fraction exhibited strong toxic effect against Ae. aegypti (LC50 = 4.7 µg/mL) and Ae. albopictus (LC50 = 5.3 µg/mL). LC-MS analysis of the chloroform extract gave a tentative identification of 13 compounds; Bis-(3-oxoundecyl) tetrasulfide was identified as the major compound in A7 fraction. Methanol extract showed strong repellent effect against female oviposition, along with weak adulticidal activity against mosquito and weak toxicity against brine shrimp nauplii. The mosquitocidal results of B. pennata suggest further investigation for the development of effective insecticide.

  5. Mosquitocidal and Oviposition Repellent Activities of the Extracts of Seaweed Bryopsis pennata on Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke-Xin Yu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The ever-increasing threat from infectious diseases and the development of insecticide resistance in mosquito populations drive the global search for new natural insecticides. The aims of this study were to evaluate the mosquitocidal activity of the extracts of seaweed Bryopsis pennata against dengue vectors Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus, and determine the seaweed’s toxic effect on brine shrimp nauplii (as a non-target organism. In addition, the chemical compositions of the active larvicidal extract and fraction were analyzed by using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS. Chloroform extract exhibited strong ovicidal activity (with LC50 values of 229.3 and 250.5 µg/mL and larvicidal activity against Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus. The larvicidal potential of chloroform extract was further ascertained when its A7 fraction exhibited strong toxic effect against Ae. aegypti (LC50 = 4.7 µg/mL and Ae. albopictus (LC50 = 5.3 µg/mL. LC-MS analysis of the chloroform extract gave a tentative identification of 13 compounds; Bis-(3-oxoundecyl tetrasulfide was identified as the major compound in A7 fraction. Methanol extract showed strong repellent effect against female oviposition, along with weak adulticidal activity against mosquito and weak toxicity against brine shrimp nauplii. The mosquitocidal results of B. pennata suggest further investigation for the development of effective insecticide.

  6. Fipronil as a larvicide against the container-inhabiting mosquito, Aedes albopictus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Rui-De; Pridgeon, Julia W; Becnel, James J; Ali, Arshad

    2009-06-01

    In the laboratory, fipronil was tested against laboratory-reared and field-collected early 4th-instars of Aedes albopictus. The insecticide was also bioassayed for activity against natural field populations of Ae. albopictus inhabiting 1-liter-capacity stone-made containers in a cemetery in St. Augustine, FL. The cemetery containers also were utilized to study initial efficacy and activity persistence of fipronil against natural populations of Ae. albopictus. The laboratory-reared larvae were 2-fold more susceptible than field-collected larvae as indicated by the 50% lethal concentration (LC50) values of 2.6 and 6 parts per billion (ppb) for laboratory-reared and field-collected larvae, respectively. In the field bioassay, in stone-made containers, the LC50 value of Ae. albopictus larvae amounted to 57.5 ppb. In the cemetery containers, fipronil applied at 3.2 and 32 ppb gave 100% control of Ae. albopictus larvae with either rate of application for at least up to 8 wk posttreatment.

  7. Population genetics and ecological niche of invasive Aedes albopictus in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pech-May, Angélica; Moo-Llanes, David A; Puerto-Avila, María Belem; Casas, Mauricio; Danis-Lozano, Rogelio; Ponce, Gustavo; Tun-Ku, Ezequiel; Pinto-Castillo, José Francisco; Villegas, Alejandro; Ibáñez-Piñon, Clemente R; González, Cassandra; Ramsey, Janine M

    2016-05-01

    The Asian tiger mosquito Aedes albopictus (Skuse), is one of the most invasive mosquito species worldwide. In Mexico it is now recorded in 12 states and represents a serious public health problem, given the recent introduction of Chikungunya on the southern border. The aim of this study was to analyze the population genetics of A. albopictus from all major recorded foci, and model its ecological niche. Niche similarity with that from its autochthonous distribution in Asia and other invaded countries were analyzed and its potential future expansion and potential human exposure in climate change scenarios measured. We analyzed 125 sequences of a 317 bp fragment of the cyt b gene from seven A. albopictus populations across Mexico. The samples belong to 25 haplotypes with moderate population structuring (Fst=0.081, pMexico. Both Neotropical and Nearctic regions are included in the Mexican niche model. Currently in Mexico, 38.6 million inhabitants are exposed to A. albopictus, which is expected to increase to 45.6 million by 2070. Genetic evidence supports collection information that A. albopictus was introduced to Mexico principally by land from the USA and Central and South America. Prevalent haplotypes from Mexico are shared with most invasive regions across the world, just as there was high niche similarity with both natural and invaded regions. The important overlap with the Asian niche model suggests a high potential for the species to disperse to sylvatic regions in Mexico.

  8. miRNA genes of an invasive vector mosquito, Aedes albopictus.

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    Jinbao Gu

    Full Text Available Aedes albopictus, a vector of Dengue and Chikungunya viruses, is a robust invasive species in both tropical and temperate environments. MicroRNAs (miRNAs regulate gene expression and biological processes including embryonic development, innate immunity and infection. While a number of miRNAs have been discovered in some mosquitoes, no comprehensive effort has been made to characterize them from different developmental stages from a single species. Systematic analysis of miRNAs in Ae. albopictus will improve our understanding of its basic biology and inform novel strategies to prevent virus transmission. Between 10-14 million Illumina sequencing reads per sample were obtained from embryos, larvae, pupae, adult males, sugar-fed and blood-fed adult females. A total of 119 miRNA genes represented by 215 miRNA or miRNA star (miRNA* sequences were identified, 15 of which are novel. Eleven, two, and two of the newly-discovered miRNA genes appear specific to Aedes, Culicinae, and Culicidae, respectively. A number of miRNAs accumulate predominantly in one or two developmental stages and the large number that showed differences in abundance following a blood meal likely are important in blood-induced mosquito biology. Gene Ontology (GO analysis of the targets of all Ae. albopictus miRNAs provides a useful starting point for the study of their functions in mosquitoes. This study is the first systematic analysis of miRNAs based on deep-sequencing of small RNA samples of all developmental stages of a mosquito species. A number of miRNAs are related to specific physiological states, most notably, pre- and post-blood feeding. The distribution of lineage-specific miRNAs is consistent with mosquito phylogeny and the presence of a number of Aedes-specific miRNAs likely reflects the divergence between the Aedes and Culex genera.

  9. Toxicity and sub-lethal effect of endemic plants from family Anacardiaceae on oviposition behavior of Aedes albopictus

    OpenAIRE

    Wan Fatma Zuharah; Chan Jia Ling; Nurfazlina Zulkifly; Nik Fadzly

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the lethal concentration, oviposition deterrence and ovicidal activity of acetone extracts of Melanochyla fasciculiflora (M. fasciculiflora) leaf and Gluta renghas (G. renghas) leaf against Aedes albopictus (Ae. albopictus). Methods: To determine the lethal concentration of Anacardiaceae, ten test concentrations of the extracts ranging from 200 to 650 mg/L were selected for larvicidal bioassays and 25 early fourth instar larvae were exposed to the extracts for 24 h. ...

  10. The biology and demographic parameters of Aedes albopictus in northern peninsular Malaysia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    H Nur Aida; Hamady Dieng; AT Nurita; MR Che Salmah; Fumio Miake; B Norasmah

    2011-01-01

    To generate life table characteristics for the dengue vector Aedes albopictus (A.albopictus ) under uncontrolled conditions, incorporating both the aquatic and the adult stages. Methods: Ten females derived from wild pupae were allowed to fully blood-feed on restrained mice. 774 eggs were hatched in seasoned water. F1 larvae were followed for development until their F2 counterparts emerged as adults. Some population parameters were monitored (F1) or estimated (F2). Results: A. albopictus exhibited increased fecundity and egg hatch success. Immature development was quick. Immature survival was high, with lowest rate in the pupal stage. Adult emergence was about 81% and sex ratio was close to 1:1. Generational mortality (K) was about 28%. A high proportion of females completed a reproductive cycle and the obtained parity rate was predicted to lead to higher fecundity in the next generation. Conclusions: It can be concluded that natural A. albopictus populations in Penang seem largely determined by quick development in combination with low immature loss and increased oviposition.

  11. [Aedes albopictus in Italy and possible diffusion of the species into the Mediterranean area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabatini, A; Raineri, V; Trovato, G; Coluzzi, M

    1990-12-01

    Aedes albopictus (Skuse), the important Asian vector mosquito recently introduced in United States and Brazil, is reported from Genoa, North Italy. The infestation was discovered in a kindergarten pre-school center in September 1990 just after the summer holidays. Many discarded tires, well known to provide excellent breeding places for Ae albopictus, had been left in the school playground to be used as toys by the children. After sampling a few biting mosquito specimens for identification, the local health service carried out on September 18 an extensive indoor/outdoor treatment with pyrethroid insecticide. The extent of the infestation in the city of Genoa and in other areas of the Ligurian region has not been evaluated since the identification of the species was available in October, at the end of Ae albopictus reproductive period. A general survey in various Italian regions is being planned for the 1991 spring-summer period. The present record, together with the previous report of Ae albopictus in Albania, clearly supports the hypothesis of a spreading of the species in the Mediterranean area. PMID:2132441

  12. An experimental field study of delayed density dependence in natural populations of Aedes albopictus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachael K Walsh

    Full Text Available Aedes albopictus, a species known to transmit dengue and chikungunya viruses, is primarily a container-inhabiting mosquito. The potential for pathogen transmission by Ae. albopictus has increased our need to understand its ecology and population dynamics. Two parameters that we know little about are the impact of direct density-dependence and delayed density-dependence in the larval stage. The present study uses a manipulative experimental design, under field conditions, to understand the impact of delayed density dependence in a natural population of Ae. albopictus in Raleigh, North Carolina. Twenty liter buckets, divided in half prior to experimentation, placed in the field accumulated rainwater and detritus, providing oviposition and larval production sites for natural populations of Ae. albopictus. Two treatments, a larvae present and larvae absent treatment, were produced in each bucket. After five weeks all larvae were removed from both treatments and the buckets were covered with fine mesh cloth. Equal numbers of first instars were added to both treatments in every bucket. Pupae were collected daily and adults were frozen as they emerged. We found a significant impact of delayed density-dependence on larval survival, development time and adult body size in containers with high larval densities. Our results indicate that delayed density-dependence will have negative impacts on the mosquito population when larval densities are high enough to deplete accessible nutrients faster than the rate of natural food accumulation.

  13. Primeira Ocorrência de Aedes (Stegomyia albopictus (Skuse no Estado de Sergipe

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    Antônio César Santana

    2014-12-01

    Abstract. The mosquito Aedes (Stegomyia albopictus (Skuse, a vector for several arboviral diseases, was recorded for the first time in the state of Sergipe, Brazil, in the municipality of Areia Branca, located in the central-eastern part of the state at the coordinates 10°45'29"S and 37°18'45"W and 36 km from the state capital, Aracaju. The first larva of Ae. albopictus was collected in the 32nd epidemiological week of 2011, in the settlement of Terra Preta de Cima and was identified systematically in the Central Public Health Laboratory (LACEN-SE during quality control activities within the yellow fever and dengue control program (PCFAD. In the 50th epidemiological week of 2012, another larva of Ae. albopictus was found, this time in the settlement of Manilha de Baixo. In the neighboring municipality of Campo do Brito, three larvae and two pupae of Ae. Albopictus were found in the settlement of Garangau (10º44'55"S and 37º29'40"W, 28 km from the main center of the municipality. As in the abovementioned records, systematic identification was only made at a late stage, given that the samples from the 47th epidemiological week of 2012 arrived at LACEN/SE in January, 2013. This technical note serves alert public health managers to the importance of quality control for endemic disease control programs, with the aim of effecting rapid and efficient control and prevention measures for mosquito-borne diseases.

  14. Aedes albopictus in the United States: ten-year presence and public health implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, C G; Mitchell, C J

    1997-01-01

    Since its discovery in Houston, Texas, in 1987, the Asian "tiger mosquito" Aedes albopictus has spread to 678 counties in 25 states. This species, which readily colonizes container habitats in the peridomestic environment, was probably introduced into the continental United States in shipments of scrap tires from northern Asia. The early pattern of dispersal followed the interstate highway system, which suggests further dispersal by human activities. The Public Health Service Act of 1988 requires shipments of used tires from countries with Ae. albopictus to be treated to prevent further importations. Given the extensive spread of the mosquito in the United States, it is questionable whether such a requirement is still justified. Ae. albopictus, a major biting pest throughout much of its range, is a competent laboratory vector of at least 22 arboviruses, including many viruses of public health importance. Cache Valley and eastern equine encephalomyelitis viruses are the only human pathogens isolated from U.S. populations of Ae. albopictus. There is no evidence that this mosquito is the vector of human disease in the United States. PMID:9284377

  15. Population genetics of the Asian tiger mosquito Aedes albopictus, an invasive vector of human diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goubert, C; Minard, G; Vieira, C; Boulesteix, M

    2016-09-01

    The Asian tiger mosquito Aedes albopictus is currently one of the most threatening invasive species in the world. Native to Southeast Asia, the species has spread throughout the world in the past 30 years and is now present in every continent but Antarctica. Because it was the main vector of recent Dengue and Chikungunya outbreaks, and because of its competency for numerous other viruses and pathogens such as the Zika virus, A. albopictus stands out as a model species for invasive diseases vector studies. A synthesis of the current knowledge about the genetic diversity of A. albopictus is needed, knowing the interplays between the vector, the pathogens, the environment and their epidemiological consequences. Such resources are also valuable for assessing the role of genetic diversity in the invasive success. We review here the large but sometimes dispersed literature about the population genetics of A. albopictus. We first debate about the experimental design of these studies and present an up-to-date assessment of the available molecular markers. We then summarize the main genetic characteristics of natural populations and synthesize the available data regarding the worldwide structuring of the vector. Finally, we pinpoint the gaps that remain to be addressed and suggest possible research directions. PMID:27273325

  16. Evaluation of the human IgG antibody response to Aedes albopictus saliva as a new specific biomarker of exposure to vector bites.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souleymane Doucoure

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The spread of Aedes albopictus, a vector for re-emergent arbovirus diseases like chikungunya and dengue, points up the need for better control strategies and new tools to evaluate transmission risk. Human antibody (Ab responses to mosquito salivary proteins could represent a reliable biomarker for evaluating human-vector contact and the efficacy of control programs. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used ELISA tests to evaluate specific immunoglobulin G (IgG responses to salivary gland extracts (SGE in adults exposed to Aedes albopictus in Reunion Island. The percentage of immune responders (88% and levels of anti-SGE IgG Abs were high in exposed individuals. At an individual level, our results indicate heterogeneity of the exposure to Aedes albopictus bites. In addition, low-level immune cross-reactivity between Aedes albopictus and Aedes aegypti SGEs was observed, mainly in the highest responders. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Ab responses to saliva could be used as an immuno-epidemiological tool for evaluating exposure to Aedes albopictus bites. Combined with entomological and epidemiological methods, a "salivary" biomarker of exposure to Aedes albopictus could enhance surveillance of its spread and the risk of arbovirus transmission, and could be used as a direct tool for the evaluation of Aedes albopictus control strategies.

  17. Evaluation of the Human IgG Antibody Response to Aedes albopictus Saliva as a New Specific Biomarker of Exposure to Vector Bites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doucoure, Souleymane; Mouchet, François; Cornelie, Sylvie; DeHecq, Jean Sébastien; Rutee, Abdul Hamid; Roca, Yelin; Walter, Annie; Hervé, Jean Pierre; Misse, Dorothée; Favier, François; Gasque, Philippe; Remoue, Franck

    2012-01-01

    Background The spread of Aedes albopictus, a vector for re-emergent arbovirus diseases like chikungunya and dengue, points up the need for better control strategies and new tools to evaluate transmission risk. Human antibody (Ab) responses to mosquito salivary proteins could represent a reliable biomarker for evaluating human-vector contact and the efficacy of control programs. Methodology/Principal Findings We used ELISA tests to evaluate specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) responses to salivary gland extracts (SGE) in adults exposed to Aedes albopictus in Reunion Island. The percentage of immune responders (88%) and levels of anti-SGE IgG Abs were high in exposed individuals. At an individual level, our results indicate heterogeneity of the exposure to Aedes albopictus bites. In addition, low-level immune cross-reactivity between Aedes albopictus and Aedes aegypti SGEs was observed, mainly in the highest responders. Conclusion/Significance Ab responses to saliva could be used as an immuno-epidemiological tool for evaluating exposure to Aedes albopictus bites. Combined with entomological and epidemiological methods, a “salivary” biomarker of exposure to Aedes albopictus could enhance surveillance of its spread and the risk of arbovirus transmission, and could be used as a direct tool for the evaluation of Aedes albopictus control strategies. PMID:22363823

  18. Effect of Novaluron (Rimon 10 EC) on the mosquitoes Anopheles albimanus, Anopheles pseudopunctipennis, Aedes aegypti, Aedes albopictus and Culex quinquefasciatus from Chiapas, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arredondo-Jiménez, J I; Valdez-Delgado, K M

    2006-12-01

    Dengue fever is a serious problem in Mexico and vector control has not been effective enough at preventing outbreaks. Malaria is largely under control, but it is important that new control measures continue to be developed. Novaluron, a novel host-specific insect growth regulator and chitin synthesis inhibitor, has proved to be effective against agricultural pests, but its efficacy against larval mosquito vectors under field conditions remains unknown. In accordance with the World Health Organization Pesticide Evaluation Scheme, phase I, II and III studies were conducted to evaluate the efficacy and residual effect of Novaluron (Rimon 10 EC, Makhteshim, Beer-Sheva, Israel) on the malaria vectors Anopheles albimanus Wiedemann (Diptera: Culicidae) and Anopheles pseudopunctipennis Theobald, the dengue vectors Aedes aegypti (L) and Aedes albopictus Skuse and the nuisance mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus Say. Laboratory susceptibility tests yielded diagnostic concentrations for all five target species. Field trials to identify the optimum field dosage of Novaluron against Anopheles mosquitoes were carried out under semi-natural conditions in artificial plots and in vessels with wild mosquitoes. Efficacy was measured by monitoring mortality of larvae and pupae and the percentage of inhibition of emergence from floating cages. Dosages of Novaluron for field tests were based on pupal LC(99) (lethal concentration 99%) of An. pseudopunctipennis (0.166 mg/L) in plots and average pupal LC(99) of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus (0.55 mg/L). At all dosages tested, Novaluron significantly reduced larval populations of An. albimanus, Culex coronator Dyar & Knab, Ae. albopictus and Cx. quinquefasciatus by approximately 90%, inhibited adult emergence of An. albimanus and An. pseudopunctipennis by approximately 97% for almost 4 months in experimental plots, and inhibited adult emergence of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus by approximately 97% for up to 14 weeks. Recommended dosages of

  19. Wolbachia age-sex-specific density in Aedes albopictus: a host evolutionary response to cytoplasmic incompatibility?

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    Pablo Tortosa

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Wolbachia bacteria have invaded many arthropod species by inducing Cytoplasmic Incompatibility (CI. These symbionts represent fascinating objects of study for evolutionary biologists, but also powerful potential biocontrol agents. Here, we assess the density dynamics of Wolbachia infections in males and females of the mosquito Aedes albopitcus, an important vector of human pathogens, and interpret the results within an evolutionary framework. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Wolbachia densities were measured in natural populations and in age controlled mosquitoes using quantitative PCR. We show that the density dynamics of the wAlbA Wolbachia strain infecting Aedes albopictus drastically differ between males and females, with a very rapid decay of infection in males only. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Theory predicts that Wolbachia and its hosts should cooperate to improve the transmission of infection to offspring, because only infected eggs are protected from the effects of CI. However, incompatible matings effectively lower the fertility of infected males, so that selection acting on the host genome should tend to reduce the expression of CI in males, for example, by reducing infection density in males before sexual maturation. The rapid decay of one Wolbachia infection in Aedes albopictus males, but not in females, is consistent with this prediction. We suggest that the commonly observed reduction in CI intensity with male age reflects a similar evolutionary process. Our results also highlight the importance of monitoring infection density dynamics in both males and females to assess the efficiency of Wolbachia-based control strategies.

  20. Detection of Chikungunya virus in wild populations of Aedes albopictus in Kerala State, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Narendran Pradeep; Sabesan, Shanmugavelu; Krishnamoorthy, Kaliannagounder; Jambulingam, Purushothaman

    2012-10-01

    We detected Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infection among wild populations of Aedes albopictus female specimens during the CHIKV outbreaks of 2009 and 2006 collected in different localities in Kerala State, India. The envelope 1 gene (E1) sequences of the virus isolate 2009 from the mosquito species showed close genetic relatedness (Kimura 2 Parameter genetic distance=0.0013) to CHIKV-positive isolates from human serum samples from the same area. E1 gene sequences from Ae. albopictus, as well as from human isolates, had the crucial non-synonymous C/T mutation at position 10670, leading to the A226V amino acid change. This natural inclination indicated the role of this mosquito species in the transmission of CHIKV during its recent outbreaks in Kerala State. PMID:22925018

  1. Retrospective search for dengue vector mosquito Aedes albopictus in areas visited by a German traveler who contracted dengue in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mutsuo Kobayashi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A German traveler developed dengue fever in late August 2013, following a direct flight from Germany. Autochthonous dengue virus (DENV infection has not been reported in Japan. To evaluate the risk of autochthonous DENV transmission in Japan, the authors performed a retrospective search of the five areas visited by the German patient to determine the population density of dengue vector mosquito, Aedes albopictus. The annual mean temperature of each area was higher than 12 °C, which is considered suitable for the establishment of A. albopictus populations. Our retrospective search revealed the population density of A. albopictus to be high in the urban areas of Japan.

  2. Repellent and insecticidal efficacy of a new combination of fipronil and permethrin against three mosquito species (Aedes albopictus, Aedes aegypti and Culex pipiens) on dogs

    OpenAIRE

    Fankhauser, Becky; Dumont, Pascal; Hunter, James S; McCall, John W.; Kaufmann, Christian; Mathis, Alexander; Young, David R.; Carroll, Scott P; McCall, Scott; Chester, S. Theodore; Soll, Mark D

    2015-01-01

    Background Three laboratory studies were conducted to assess the repellent and insecticidal efficacy of a combination of fipronil and permethrin (Frontline Tri- Act®/Frontect®) against three mosquito species (Aedes albopictus, Aedes aegypti and Culex pipiens) on dogs. Methods In each study, 16 healthy adult dogs were allocated to two groups. Eight dogs were treated with the new topical spot-on combination of fipronil and permethrin on Day 0 and the other eight dogs served as untreated control...

  3. Repellent and insecticidal efficacy of a new combination of fipronil and permethrin against three mosquito species (Aedes albopictus, Aedes aegypti and Culex pipiens) on dogs

    OpenAIRE

    Fankhauser, Becky; Dumont, Pascal; Hunter, James S; McCall, John W.; Kaufmann, Christian; Mathis, Alexander; Young, David R.; Carroll, Scott P; McCall, Scott; Chester, S. Theodore; Soll, Mark D

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Three laboratory studies were conducted to assess the repellent and insecticidal efficacy of a combination of fipronil and permethrin (Frontline Tri- Act®/Frontect®) against three mosquito species (Aedes albopictus, Aedes aegypti and Culex pipiens) on dogs. METHODS: In each study, 16 healthy adult dogs were allocated to two groups. Eight dogs were treated with the new topical spot-on combination of fipronil and permethrin on Day 0 and the other eight dogs served as untreated co...

  4. Biology and Role of Aedes albopictus (Skuse) 1894 as Vector of Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Hasan Boesri

    2011-01-01

    Behavior of the mosquito Aedes albopictus is generally res ting outside the home with the brood in a natural or artificial containers protected from sunlight. Human biting activity between the hours of9:00 to 11:00 and between the hours of 17:00 to 18:00 inside and outside the home. The period of rest after sucking the blood 4-5 days and is ready to lie. Habitat or the environment that most coveted of th is mosquito is a forest or gar­den with temperatures of 24-30 0 C. eggs hatch after 4-5 d...

  5. Aedes (Stegomyia albopictus (Skuse: a potential vector of Zika virus in Singapore.

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    Pei-Sze Jeslyn Wong

    Full Text Available Zika virus (ZIKV is a little known arbovirus until it caused a major outbreak in the Pacific Island of Yap in 2007. Although the virus has a wide geographic distribution, most of the known vectors are sylvatic Aedes mosquitoes from Africa where the virus was first isolated. Presently, Ae. aegypti is the only known vector to transmit the virus outside the African continent, though Ae. albopictus has long been a suspected vector. Currently, Ae. albopictus has been shown capable of transmitting more than 20 arboviruses and its notoriety as an important vector came to light during the recent chikungunya pandemic. The vulnerability of Singapore to emerging infectious arboviruses has stimulated our interest to determine the competence of local Ae. albopictus to transmit ZIKV.To determine the competence of Ae. albopictus to ZIKV, we orally infected local mosquito strains to a Ugandan strain virus. Fully engorged mosquitoes were maintained in an environmental chamber set at 29°C and 80-85%RH. Twelve mosquitoes were then sampled daily from day one to seven and on day 10 and 14 post infection (pi. Zika virus titre in the midgut and salivary glands of each mosquito were determined using tissue culture infectious dose50 assay, while transmissibility of the virus was determined by detecting viral antigen in the mosquito saliva by qRT-PCR. High dissemination and transmission rate of ZIKV were observed. By day 7-pi, all mosquitoes have disseminated infection and 73% of these mosquitoes have ZIKV in their saliva. By day 10-pi, all mosquitoes were potentially infectious.The study highlighted the potential of Ae. albopictus to transmit ZIKV and the possibility that the virus could be established locally. Nonetheless, the threat of ZIKV can be mitigated by existing dengue and chikungunya control program being implemented in Singapore.

  6. Native Wolbachia from Aedes albopictus Blocks Chikungunya Virus Infection In Cellulo.

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    Vincent Raquin

    Full Text Available Wolbachia, a widespread endosymbiont of terrestrial arthropods, can protect its host against viral and parasitic infections, a phenotype called "pathogen blocking". However, in some cases Wolbachia may have no effect or even enhance pathogen infection, depending on the host-Wolbachia-pathogen combination. The tiger mosquito Aedes albopictus is naturally infected by two strains of Wolbachia, wAlbA and wAlbB, and is a competent vector for different arboviruses such as dengue virus (DENV and chikungunya virus (CHIKV. Interestingly, it was shown in some cases that Ae. albopictus native Wolbachia strains are able to inhibit DENV transmission by limiting viral replication in salivary glands, but no such impact was measured on CHIKV replication in vivo. To better understand the Wolbachia/CHIKV/Ae. albopictus interaction, we generated a cellular model using Ae. albopictus derived C6/36 cells that we infected with the wAlbB strain. Our results indicate that CHIKV infection is negatively impacted at both RNA replication and virus assembly/secretion steps in presence of wAlbB. Using FISH, we observed CHIKV and wAlbB in the same mosquito cells, indicating that the virus is still able to enter the cell in the presence of the bacterium. Further work is needed to decipher molecular pathways involved in Wolbachia-CHIKV interaction at the cellular level, but this cellular model can be a useful tool to study the mechanism behind virus blocking phenotype induced by Wolbachia. More broadly, this put into question the ecological role of Wolbachia symbiont in Ae. albopictus, but also the ability of the CHIKV to counteract Wolbachia's antiviral potential in vivo.

  7. The molecular physiology of increased egg desiccation resistance during diapause in the invasive mosquito, Aedes albopictus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbanski, Jennifer M.; Benoit, Joshua B.; Michaud, M. Robert; Denlinger, David L.; Armbruster, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Photoperiodic diapause is a crucial adaptation to seasonal environmental variation in a wide range of arthropods, but relatively little is known regarding the molecular basis of this important trait. In temperate populations of the mosquito Aedes albopictus, exposure to short-day (SD) lengths causes the female to produce diapause eggs. Tropical populations do not undergo a photoperiodic diapause. We identified a fatty acyl coA elongase transcript that is more abundant under SD versus long-day (LD) photoperiods in mature oocyte tissue of replicate temperate, but not tropical, A. albopictus populations. Fatty acyl CoA elongases are involved in the synthesis of long chain fatty acids (hydrocarbon precursors). Diapause eggs from a temperate population had one-third more surface hydrocarbons and one-half the water loss rates of non-diapause eggs. Eggs from a tropical population reared under SD and LD photoperiods did not differ in surface hydrocarbon abundance or water loss rates. In both a temperate and tropical population, composition of hydrocarbon chain lengths did not differ between eggs from SD versus LD conditions. These results implicate the expression of fatty acyl coA elongase and changes in quantity, but not composition, of egg surface hydrocarbons as important components of increased desiccation resistance during diapause in A. albopictus. PMID:20410035

  8. Preliminary evidences on SIT application against Aedes albopictus Skuse in Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aedes albopictus (Skuse), the Asian Tiger Mosquito, has invaded several countries, during the last years, mainly due to the passive transportation in used tires. In Europe the species firstly arrived in Albany in 1979, then in Italy in 1990, in France in 1999 (Schaffner and Karch 1999), in Belgium in 2000, in Montenegro in 2001. Other countries have already been colonised or are under colonisation in Africa and the Americas. In Italy the colonisation process appears to be very quick mainly due to the passive transportation of adults inside vehicles, to be currently found in seven regions. In its original distribution, Ae. albopictus is known to be a very important vector of many arboviruses including yellow fever and dengue. Moreover it is also capable of transmitting indigenous arboviruses in newly colonised areas, as well as filariasis (Dirofilaria immitis Leidy and D. repens Railleiet and Henry) and other arboviruses like Sindbis, Chikungunya, West Nile and Rift Valley. Finally this species can also cause severe annoyance because of its anthropophily and painful bite. The species is mainly exploiting man-made containers showing an urban and periurban distribution. This 'island' distribution and the low active dispersal capability make it possible considering as convenient the application of SIT as a component of the IPM programmes already implemented. In 1999 we therefore started a project financed with local funds in order to investigate the feasibility of SIT application against Ae. albopictus in Italy

  9. Female Adult Aedes albopictus Suppression by Wolbachia-Infected Male Mosquitoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mains, James W.; Brelsfoard, Corey L.; Rose, Robert I.; Dobson, Stephen L.

    2016-01-01

    Dengue, chikungunya and zika viruses are pathogens with an increasing global impact. In the absence of an approved vaccine or therapy, their management relies on controlling the mosquito vectors. But traditional controls are inadequate, and the range of invasive species such as Aedes albopictus (Asian Tiger Mosquito) is expanding. Genetically modified mosquitoes are being tested, but their use has encountered regulatory barriers and public opposition in some countries. Wolbachia bacteria can cause a form of conditional sterility, which can provide an alternative to genetic modification or irradiation. It is unknown however, whether openly released, artificially infected male Ae. albopictus can competitively mate and sterilize females at a level adequate to suppress a field population. Also, the unintended establishment of Wolbachia at the introduction site could result from horizontal transmission or inadvertent female release. In 2014, an Experimental Use Permit from the United States Environmental Protection Agency approved a pilot field trial in Lexington, Kentucky, USA. Here, we present data showing localized reduction of both egg hatch and adult female numbers. The artificial Wolbachia type was not observed to establish in the field. The results are discussed in relation to the applied use of Wolbachia-infected males as a biopesticide to suppress field populations of Ae. albopictus. PMID:27659038

  10. Mitochondrial Cytochrome Oxidase I Gene Sequence Analysis of Aedes Albopictus in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Nurul-Ain; Dom, Nazri Che; Ismail, Rodziah; Ahmad, Abu Hassan; Zaki, Afiq; Camalxaman, Siti Nazrina

    2015-12-01

    A study was conducted to establish polymorphic variation of the mitochondrial DNA encoding the cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (CO1) gene in Aedes albopictus isolated from 2 hot spot dengue-infested areas in the Subang Jaya District, Malaysia. A phylogenetic analysis was performed with the use of sequences obtained from USJ6 and Taman Subang Mas (TSM). Comparison of the local CO1 sequences with a laboratory strain (USM), alongside reference strains derived from the GenBank database revealed low genetic variation in terms of nucleotide differences and haplotype diversity. Four methods were used to construct a phylogenetic tree and illustrate the genetic relationship of the 37 Ae. albopictus populations based on the CO1 sequences, namely neighbor-joining (NJ), maximum parsimony (MP), maximum likelihood (ML), and Bayesian method, which revealed a distinct relationship between isolates from USJ6 and TSM. Our findings provide new information regarding the genetic diversity among morphologically similar Ae. albopictus, which has not been reported to date. PMID:26675451

  11. Encontro de Aedes (Stegomyia albopictus (Skuse em Bromeliaceae na periferia de São Paulo, SP, Brasil

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    Natal Delsio

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Foram coletadas larvas de Aedes albopictus em uma planta da família Bromeliaceae, na periferia da cidade de São Paulo, SP, Brasil. Esse encontro abre perspectivas de estudo para avaliação do potencial desse vegetal como criadouro desse mosquito no País.

  12. Prevalence of Ascogregarina spp. in the container breeding Aedes albopictus from Chikungunya fever affected areas of Kerala State, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muniaraj, M; Rajendran, R; Arunachalam, N; Paramasivan, R; Samuel, P Philip

    2010-06-01

    The prevalence of protozoan, Ascogregarina sp. had been determined in the container breeding mosquitoes, Aedes albopictus. Since, the cyst of Ascogregarina might play role in the maintenance of the Chik virus during silent period, the presence of Ascogregarina has gained importance in recent days. The prevalence was found to be 71.62. PMID:22471176

  13. The hidden passenger of Lucky bamboo: Do imported Aedes albopictus mosquitoes cause Dengue virus transmission in the Netherlands?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofhuis, A.; Reimerink, J.; Reusken, C.; Scholte, E.J.; Boer, de A.; Takken, W.; Koopmans, M.P.G.

    2009-01-01

    Since 2005, Aedes albopictus mosquitoes have been detected in companies in the Netherlands that import ornamental plants from China. To assess the risks of dengue transmission, a study was carried out in 48 persons who are professionally exposed to these mosquitoes. No evidence for non-travel-relate

  14. Predatory potential of Platynectes sp. (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae) on Aedes albopictus, the vector of dengue/chikungunya in Kerala, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, N P; Bashir, A; Abidha, S; Sabesan, S; Jambulingam, P

    2014-12-01

    Unused and discarded latex collection containers (LCCs) are the major breeding habitats of Aedes albopictus in the rubber plantations of Kerala, India. Platynectes sp. (Family: Dytiscidae) was observed to invade these habitats during the monsoon season and voraciously devour the larval instars of this major vector species of arbo-viral diseases. Field observations showed a reduction of 70.91% (p = 0.0017) and 100% in Aedes larval density, on the first and four days post release of eight beetles per LCC respectively. In laboratory, a beetle was found to devour 17.75 + 5.0 late larval instars of Ae. albopictus per day. Our findings indicate Platynectes sp. could be a potential bio-control agent against Ae. albopictus, the vector of chikungunya/dengue fevers, in rubber plantations. PMID:25776599

  15. Oviposition by Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus: influence of congeners and of oviposition site characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, Jorge R; O'Connell, Sheila M

    2014-06-01

    We investigated the oviposition behavior of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus. In particular we examined whether small-scale site characteristics and the presence of conspecifics or congeners altered oviposition by these mosquitoes. Various combinations of females of the two species were allowed to oviposit inside cages among either vegetation (potted plants) or structural components (wood and concrete blocks). Numbers of eggs deposited per female were compared between species, sides, and treatments. Most significant differences between treatments and species involved differences between single species and mixed species treatments. Ae. aegypti deposited more eggs/female in the vegetation side than in the structure side whereas the opposite pattern was evident for Ae. albopictus. Ae. aegypti females had higher frequency of skip oviposition than Ae. albopictus. An average of 63% of the containers in the two-species treatments contained eggs of both species, with more frequent joint occurrences observed in the treatment with three females of each species than in the treatments with one of each. Our results point to the existence of various interactions between gravid Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus females at or near the oviposition sites but further experimental work is necessary to fully characterize the interactions and their specific mechanisms. PMID:24820572

  16. Surveillance and control of Aedes albopictus in the Swiss-Italian border region: differences in egg densities between intervention and non-intervention areas

    OpenAIRE

    Tobias T Suter; Eleonora Flacio; Begoña Feijoó Fariña; Lukas Engeler; Mauro Tonolla; Lêda N Regis; de Melo Santos, Maria A. V.; Pie Müller

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Aedes albopictus, the Asian tiger mosquito, originates from the tropical and subtropical regions of Southeast Asia. Over the recent decades it has been passively spread across the globe, primarily through the used tyre trade and passive transportation along major traffic routes. A. albopictus is a proven vector for many arboviruses, most notably chikungunya and dengue, with recent outbreaks also in continental Europe. In southern Switzerland, in the Canton of Ticino A. albopictus ...

  17. Protein expression in the midgut of sugar-fed Aedes albopictus females

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saboia-Vahia Leonardo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aedes albopictus is a vector for several fatal arboviruses in tropical and sub-tropical regions of the world. The midgut of the mosquito is the first barrier that pathogens must overcome to establish infection and represents one of the main immunologically active sites of the insect. Nevertheless, little is known about the proteins involved in the defense against pathogens, and even in the processing of food, and the detoxification of metabolites. The identification of proteins exclusively expressed in the midgut is the first step in understanding the complex physiology of this tissue and can provide insight into the mechanisms of pathogen-vector interaction. However, identification of the locally expressed proteins presents a challenge because the Ae. albopictus genome has not been sequenced. Methods In this study, two-dimensional electrophoresis (2DE was combined with liquid chromatography in line with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS and data mining to identify the major proteins in the midgut of sugar-fed Ae. albopictus females. Results Fifty-six proteins were identified by sequence similarity to entries from the Ae. aegypti genome. In addition, two hypothetical proteins were experimentally confirmed. According to the gene ontology analysis, the identified proteins were classified into 16 clusters of biological processes. Use of the STRING database to investigate protein functional associations revealed five functional networks among the identified proteins, including a network for carbohydrate and amino acid metabolism, a group associated with ATP production and a network of proteins that interact during detoxification of toxic free radicals, among others. This analysis allowed the assignment of a potential role for proteins with unknown function based on their functional association with other characterized proteins. Conclusion Our findings represent the first proteome map of the Ae. albopictus midgut and denotes the

  18. Seasonal Differences in Density But Similar Competitive Impact of Aedes albopictus (Skuse) on Aedes aegypti (L.) in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camara, Daniel Cardoso Portela; Codeço, Claudia Torres; Juliano, Steven A.; Lounibos, L. Philip; Riback, Thais Irene Souza; Pereira, Glaucio Rocha; Honorio, Nildimar Alves

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that the negative effects of density of Ae. albopictus on Ae. aegypti exceed those of Ae. aegypti on Ae. albopictus for population growth, adult size, survivorship, and developmental rate. This competitive superiority has been invoked to explain the displacement of Ae. aegypti by Ae. albopictus in the southeastern USA. In Brazil, these species coexist in many vegetated suburban and rural areas. We investigated a related, but less-well-studied question: do effects of Ae. albopictus on Ae. aegypti larval development and survival occur under field conditions at realistic densities across multiple seasons in Brazil? We conducted additive competition experiments in a vegetated area of Rio de Janeiro where these species coexist. We tested the hypothesis that Ae. aegypti (the focal species, at a fixed density) suffers negative effects on development and survivorship across a gradient of increasing densities of Ae. albopictus (the associate species) in three seasons. The results showed statistically significant effects of both season and larval density on Ae. aegypti survivorship, and significant effects of season on development rate, with no significant season-density interactions. Densities of Aedes larvae in these habitats differed among seasons by a factor of up to 7x. Overall, Spring was the most favorable season for Ae. aegypti survivorship and development. Results showed that under natural conditions the negative competitive effects of Ae. albopictus on Ae. aegypti were expressed primarily as lower survivorship. Coexistence between Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus in vegetated areas is likely affected by seasonal environmental differences, such as detrital resource levels or egg desiccation, which can influence competition between these species. Interactions between these Aedes are important in Brazil, where both species are well established and widely distributed and vector dengue, Zika and chikungunya viruses. PMID:27322537

  19. Seasonal Differences in Density But Similar Competitive Impact of Aedes albopictus (Skuse on Aedes aegypti (L. in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

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    Daniel Cardoso Portela Camara

    Full Text Available Previous studies have shown that the negative effects of density of Ae. albopictus on Ae. aegypti exceed those of Ae. aegypti on Ae. albopictus for population growth, adult size, survivorship, and developmental rate. This competitive superiority has been invoked to explain the displacement of Ae. aegypti by Ae. albopictus in the southeastern USA. In Brazil, these species coexist in many vegetated suburban and rural areas. We investigated a related, but less-well-studied question: do effects of Ae. albopictus on Ae. aegypti larval development and survival occur under field conditions at realistic densities across multiple seasons in Brazil? We conducted additive competition experiments in a vegetated area of Rio de Janeiro where these species coexist. We tested the hypothesis that Ae. aegypti (the focal species, at a fixed density suffers negative effects on development and survivorship across a gradient of increasing densities of Ae. albopictus (the associate species in three seasons. The results showed statistically significant effects of both season and larval density on Ae. aegypti survivorship, and significant effects of season on development rate, with no significant season-density interactions. Densities of Aedes larvae in these habitats differed among seasons by a factor of up to 7x. Overall, Spring was the most favorable season for Ae. aegypti survivorship and development. Results showed that under natural conditions the negative competitive effects of Ae. albopictus on Ae. aegypti were expressed primarily as lower survivorship. Coexistence between Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus in vegetated areas is likely affected by seasonal environmental differences, such as detrital resource levels or egg desiccation, which can influence competition between these species. Interactions between these Aedes are important in Brazil, where both species are well established and widely distributed and vector dengue, Zika and chikungunya viruses.

  20. Control of Aedes albopictus with attractive toxic sugar baits (ATSB) and potential impact on non-target organisms in St. Augustine, Florida

    OpenAIRE

    Revay, Edita E.; Müller, Gunter C.; Qualls, Whitney A; Kline, Daniel; Naranjo, Diana P.; Arheart, Kristopher L; Kravchenko, Vasiliy D; Yfremova, Zoya; Hausmann, Axel; Beier, John C.; Schlein, Yosef; Xue, Rui-De

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the efficacy of bait stations and foliar applications containing attractive toxic sugar baits (ATSB) and eugenol to control Aedes albopictus. At the same time the potential impact of these control methods was evaluated on non-target organisms. The study was conducted at five tire sites in St. Augustine, Florida. Aedes albopictus populations were significantly reduced with ATSB-eugenol applications applied directly to non-flowering vegetation and as bait s...

  1. Efficacy of attractive toxic sugar baits (ATSB) against Aedes albopictus with garlic oil encapsulated in beta-Cyclodextrin as the active ingredient

    Science.gov (United States)

    We tested the efficacy of attractive toxic sugar bait (ATSB) with garlic oil microencapsulated in beta-cyclodextrin as active ingredient against Aedes albopictus in suburban Haifa, Israel. Two three-acre gardens with high numbers of Ae. albopictus were chosen for perimeter spray treatment with ATSB ...

  2. Spatial and temporal heterogeneities of Aedes albopictus density in La Reunion Island: rise and weakness of entomological indices.

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    Sebastien Boyer

    Full Text Available Following the 2006 Chikungunya disease in La Reunion, questions were raised concerning the monitoring survey of Aedes albopictus populations and the entomological indexes used to evaluate population abundance. The objectives of the present study were to determine reliable productivity indexes using a quantitative method to improve entomological surveys and mosquito control measures on Aedes albopictus. Between 2007 and 2011, 4 intervention districts, 24 cities, 990 areas and over 850,000 houses were used to fulfil those objectives. Four indexes including the classical Stegomyia index (House Index, Container Index, Breteau Index plus an Infested Receptacle Index were studied in order to determine whether temporal (year, month, week and/or spatial (districts, cities, areas heterogeneities existed. Temporal variations have been observed with an increase of Ae. albopictus population density over the years, and a seasonality effect with a highest population during the hot and wet season. Spatial clustering was observed at several scales with an important autocorrelation at the area scale. Moreover, the combination among these results and the breeding site productivity obtained during these 5 years allowed us to propose recommendations to monitor Aedes albopictus by eliminating not the most finding sites but the most productive ones. As the other strategies failed in La Reunion, this new approach should should work better.

  3. Genetic structure and Wolbachia genotyping in naturally occurring populations of Aedes albopictus across contiguous landscapes of Orissa, India.

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    Biswadeep Das

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Aedes albopictus has recently been implicated as a major vector in the emergence of dengue and chikungunya in several parts of India, like Orissa, which is gradually gaining endemicity for arboviral diseases. Ae. albopictus is further known to be naturally infected with Wolbachia (maternally inherited bacterium, which causes cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI in mosquitoes leading to sperm-egg incompatibility inducing the death of embryo. Knowledge of genetic diversity of Ae. albopictus, along with revealing the type of Wolbachia infection in Ae. albopictus is important to explore the genetic and biological characteristics of Ae. albopictus, prior to exploring the uses of CI-based vector control strategies. In this study, we assessed the population genetic structure and the pattern of Wolbachia infection in Ae. albopictus mosquitoes of Orissa. METHODS AND RESULTS: Ae. albopictus mosquitoes were collected from 15 districts representing the four physiographical regions of Orissa from 2010-2012, analyzed for genetic variability at seven microsatellite loci and genotyped for Wolbachia strain detection using wsp gene primers. Most microsatellite markers were successfully amplified and were polymorphic, showing moderate genetic structure among all geographic populations (FST = 0.088. Genetic diversity was high (FST = 0.168 in Coastal Plains populations when compared with other populations, which was also evident from cluster analyses that showed most Coastal Plains populations consisted of a separate genetic cluster. Genotyping analyses revealed that Wolbachia-infected Ae. albopictus field populations of Orissa were mostly superinfected with wAlbA and wAlbB strains. Wolbachia superinfection was more pronounced in the Coastal Plain populations. CONCLUSION: High genetic structure and Wolbachia superinfection, observed in the Coastal Plain populations of Orissa suggested it to be genetically and biologically more unique than other

  4. Projection of climatic suitability for Aedes albopictus Skuse (Culicidae) in Europe under climate change conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Dominik; Thomas, Stephanie Margarete; Niemitz, Franziska; Reineking, Björn; Beierkuhnlein, Carl

    2011-07-01

    During the last decades the disease vector Aedes albopictus ( Ae. albopictus) has rapidly spread around the globe. The spread of this species raises serious public health concerns. Here, we model the present distribution and the future climatic suitability of Europe for this vector in the face of climate change. In order to achieve the most realistic current prediction and future projection, we compare the performance of four different modelling approaches, differentiated by the selection of climate variables (based on expert knowledge vs. statistical criteria) and by the geographical range of presence records (native range vs. global range). First, models of the native and global range were built with MaxEnt and were either based on (1) statistically selected climatic input variables or (2) input variables selected with expert knowledge from the literature. Native models show high model performance (AUC: 0.91-0.94) for the native range, but do not predict the European distribution well (AUC: 0.70-0.72). Models based on the global distribution of the species, however, were able to identify all regions where Ae. albopictus is currently established, including Europe (AUC: 0.89-0.91). In a second step, the modelled bioclimatic envelope of the global range was projected to future climatic conditions in Europe using two emission scenarios implemented in the regional climate model COSMO-CLM for three time periods 2011-2040, 2041-2070, and 2071-2100. For both global-driven models, the results indicate that climatically suitable areas for the establishment of Ae. albopictus will increase in western and central Europe already in 2011-2040 and with a temporal delay in eastern Europe. On the other hand, a decline in climatically suitable areas in southern Europe is pronounced in the Expert knowledge based model. Our projections appear unaffected by non-analogue climate, as this is not detected by Multivariate Environmental Similarity Surface analysis. The generated risk maps

  5. Aedes albopictus in northeast Mexico: An update on adult distribution and first report of parasitism by Ascogregarina taiwanensis

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    Filiberto Reyes-Villanueva

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Aedes albopictus has been known as efficient vector of dengue in Asian countries and its wide displacement of Ae. aegypti has been documented in many parts of the world. The present survey was carried out to update the distribution of Ae. albopictus in northeast Mexico and to report the first record of parasitism of mosquitoes by Ascogregarina taiwanensis in Mexico. Methods: Human landing collections were conducted in the month of May every year between 2007 and 2009 across the three states, Nuevo Leon (NL, Tamaulipas and Coahuila in northeast Mexico. Six human bait collections were also organized at the cemetery of Gomez Farias (GF, a village in southern Tamaulipas during the rainy and dry seasons in 2010. Aedes albopictus caught in 2010 were dissected for parasitic protozoan gregarines. Results: The results of human landing collections carried out during 2007-10 across the three states of northeast zone of Mexico revealed that Ae. albopictus is invading along the route between Monterrey City in NL and Tampico, Tamaulipas, but not into the arid state of Coahuila. Aedes albopictus was recorded in nine new municipalities in addition to the 15 municipalities reported before 2005. Furthermore, six human-bait collections performed during the dry and rainy seasons in 2010 at the cemetery of GF suggest the exclusion of Ae. aegypti on that site. Dominance was shared by Ae. quadrivittatus, another container-inhabitant but indigenous species, and Ae. albopictus during the dry and rainy seasons, respectively. The results of dissection of the mosquitoes for gregarines revealed the parasitism of Ae. albopictus by A. taiwanensis. Interpretation & conclusion: The results of this study showed that Ae. albopictus has spread to all the municipalities in the northeastern Mexico except the arid area and reported the first record of parasitic protozoan A. taiwanensis in Mexico. We recommend further studies on larval and adult populations of

  6. Duration of larval and pupal development stages of Aedes albopictus in natural and artificial containers

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    Almério de Castro Gomes

    1995-02-01

    Full Text Available Aedes albopictus were reared in different containers: a tree hole, a bamboo stump and an auto tire. The total times from egg hatching to adult emergence were of 19.6,27.3 and 37.5 days, respectively, according to the container. The first, second and third-instar larvae presented growth periods with highly similar durations. The fourth-instar larvae was longer than the others stages. The pupation time was longer than the fourth-instar larvae growth period. The temperature of the breeding sites studied, which was of 18° C to 22° C on average, was also taken into consideration. The mortality of the immature stages was analysed and compared as between the experimental groups; it was lower in the natural containers than in the discarded tire. The average wing length of adult females emerging from tree hole was significantly larger (p < 0.05 than that of those emerging from the tire.

  7. Wolbachia Do Not Induce Reactive Oxygen Species-Dependent Immune Pathway Activation in Aedes albopictus

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    Jennifer C. Molloy

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Aedes albopictus is a major vector of dengue (DENV and chikungunya (CHIKV viruses, causing millions of infections annually. It naturally carries, at high frequency, the intracellular inherited bacterial endosymbiont Wolbachia strains wAlbA and wAlbB; transinfection with the higher-density Wolbachia strain wMel from Drosophila melanogaster led to transmission blocking of both arboviruses. The hypothesis that reactive oxygen species (ROS-induced immune activation plays a role in arbovirus inhibition in this species was examined. In contrast to previous observations in Ae. aegypti, elevation of ROS levels was not observed in either cell lines or mosquito lines carrying the wild-type Wolbachia or higher-density Drosophila Wolbachia strains. There was also no upregulation of genes controlling innate immune pathways or with antioxidant/ROS-producing functions. These data suggest that ROS-mediated immune activation is not an important component of the viral transmission-blocking phenotype in this species.

  8. Proteomic analysis of an Aedes albopictus cell line infected with Dengue serotypes 1 and 3 viruses

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    Thomas Frédéric

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Proteomic analysis was performed to identify proteins regulated during infection by Dengue serotypes 1 and 3 in an Aedes albopictus cell line. The potential of these viruses to cause severe disease at primary infection is of interest although few studies have been performed with these two Dengue serotypes. Results The most relevant observation of our study is the significant overexpression of proteins involved in the cellular stress response and the glycolysis pathway after 48 hours of infection. Viral infection activates the translation of some host genes, which may result in stress due to responses involving unfolded proteins. Conclusions Therefore, the oxidation reduction and glycolytic mechanisms could participate in the antiviral response against Dengue virus. The results of our study should help to improve our knowledge of the virus-mosquito interaction at a cellular level with the aim of designing efficient strategies for the control of Dengue virus.

  9. Discarded cigarette butts attract females and kill the progeny of Aedes albopictus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieng, Hamady; Saifur, Rahman G M; Ahmad, Abu Hassan; Rawi, Che Salmah Md; Boots, Michael; Satho, Tomomitsu; Zuharah, Wan Fatma; Fadzly, Nik; Althbyani, Abdulaziz; Miake, Fumio; Jaal, Zairi; Abubakar, Sazaly

    2011-09-01

    Discarded cigarette butts (DCB) waste occurs worldwide, pollutes landscapes, is unsightly, and results in added debris removal costs. There is, therefore, a great deal of current interest in making use of DCBs in beneficial ways. Despite evidence that DCBs are harmful to water fleas (Daphnia magna), which breed in aquatic environments as do mosquito larvae, their impact on dengue vectors is unknown. We examined whether Aedes albopictus alters its ovipositional responses, larval eclosion, and development in response to presence of DCBs in its habitats. We found oviposition activity in DCB-treated water similar to that of control water and that ovipositional activity in DCB solutions steadily increased over time as those solutions aged to 10 days. Larval eclosion was initially suppressed on day 1 in DCB solution, but increased thereafter to levels similar to control larval eclosion rates. The DCB-water solutions produced significantly higher mortality in both 1st and 2nd instars over control larvae for several days after initial exposure. Mortality rates decreased sharply 3 to 5 days postexposure as DCBs continued to decompose. We found increased survival rates during late development, but daily input of fresh DCBs prevented most young larvae from completing development. Taken together, these observations suggest that decomposing did not deter gravid Ae. albopictus females from ovipositing in treated containers and that DCB solutions had larvicidal effects on early instars. Our results are discussed in the context of DCB use to control container-breeding Ae. albopictus, a competent dengue vector in Asia and other parts of the world.

  10. The Insect Growth Regulator Pyriproxyfen Terminates Egg Diapause in the Asian Tiger Mosquito, Aedes albopictus.

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    Devi S Suman

    Full Text Available The Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus, is a highly invasive mosquito species that transmits chikungunya and dengue. This species overwinters as diapausing eggs in temperate climates. Early diapause termination may be a beneficial strategy for winter mosquito control; however, a mechanism to terminate the diapause process using chemicals is not known. We tested the hypothesis that a hormonal imbalance caused by the administration of juvenile hormone analog would terminate egg diapause in A. albopictus. We tested the insect growth regulator pyriproxyfen on all developmental stages to identify a susceptible stage for diapause termination. We found that pyriproxyfen treatment of mosquito eggs terminated embryonic diapause. The highest rates of diapause termination were recorded in newly deposited (78.9% and fully embryonated (74.7% eggs at 0.1 and 1 ppm, respectively. Hatching was completed earlier in newly deposited eggs (25-30 days compared to fully embryonated eggs (71-80 days. The combined mortality from premature diapause termination and ovicidal activity was 98.2% in newly deposited and >98.9% in fully embryonated eggs at 1 ppm. The control diapause eggs did not hatch under diapausing conditions. Pyriproxyfen exposure to larvae, pupae and adults did not prevent the females from ovipositing diapausing eggs. There was no effect of pyriproxyfen on diapausing egg embryonic developmental time. We also observed mortality in diapausing eggs laid by females exposed to pyriproxyfen immediately after blood feeding. There was no mortality in eggs laid by females that survived larval and pupal exposures. In conclusion, diapausing eggs were the more susceptible to pyriproxyfen diapause termination compared to other life stages. This is the first report of diapause termination in A. albopictus with a juvenile hormone analog. We believe our findings will be useful in developing a new control strategy against overwintering mosquito populations.

  11. The Insect Growth Regulator Pyriproxyfen Terminates Egg Diapause in the Asian Tiger Mosquito, Aedes albopictus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suman, Devi S; Wang, Yi; Gaugler, Randy

    2015-01-01

    The Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus, is a highly invasive mosquito species that transmits chikungunya and dengue. This species overwinters as diapausing eggs in temperate climates. Early diapause termination may be a beneficial strategy for winter mosquito control; however, a mechanism to terminate the diapause process using chemicals is not known. We tested the hypothesis that a hormonal imbalance caused by the administration of juvenile hormone analog would terminate egg diapause in A. albopictus. We tested the insect growth regulator pyriproxyfen on all developmental stages to identify a susceptible stage for diapause termination. We found that pyriproxyfen treatment of mosquito eggs terminated embryonic diapause. The highest rates of diapause termination were recorded in newly deposited (78.9%) and fully embryonated (74.7%) eggs at 0.1 and 1 ppm, respectively. Hatching was completed earlier in newly deposited eggs (25-30 days) compared to fully embryonated eggs (71-80 days). The combined mortality from premature diapause termination and ovicidal activity was 98.2% in newly deposited and >98.9% in fully embryonated eggs at 1 ppm. The control diapause eggs did not hatch under diapausing conditions. Pyriproxyfen exposure to larvae, pupae and adults did not prevent the females from ovipositing diapausing eggs. There was no effect of pyriproxyfen on diapausing egg embryonic developmental time. We also observed mortality in diapausing eggs laid by females exposed to pyriproxyfen immediately after blood feeding. There was no mortality in eggs laid by females that survived larval and pupal exposures. In conclusion, diapausing eggs were the more susceptible to pyriproxyfen diapause termination compared to other life stages. This is the first report of diapause termination in A. albopictus with a juvenile hormone analog. We believe our findings will be useful in developing a new control strategy against overwintering mosquito populations. PMID:26090954

  12. IMPLICACIONES SANITARIAS DEL ESTABLECIMIENTOY EXPANSION EN ESPAÑA DEL MOSQUITO AEDES ALBOPICTUS

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    Rubén Bueno Marí

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available La expansión de Aedes albopictus por el Levante español no ha cesado desde su primigenia detección en nuestro país en el año 2004, habiéndose constatado ya su presencia en las provincias de Girona, Barcelona, Tarragona, Castellón, Alicante y Murcia. La elevada sinantropía de la especie, unida al alto grado de antropofília y extensa capacidad vectorial para transmitir diversas arbovirosis, han propiciado el retorno al sur de Europa de ciclos de transmisión activa de enfermedades frecuentes en el pasado como el Dengue o la aparición de virosis tropicales inéditas hasta entonces como Chikungunya. El presente manuscrito analiza de forma pormenorizada las implicaciones para la salud pública de la previsible expansión de Ae. albopictus por gran parte del territorio peninsular, en el contexto climático y sociodemográfico actual. Adicionalmente, también se discuten diversas cuestiones relativas al control poblacional de la especie en ambientes urbanos y periurbanos, así como los datos preliminares existentes acerca de otros aedinos invasores de reciente hallazgo en el continente europeo.

  13. Biology and Role of Aedes albopictus (Skuse 1894 as Vector of Diseases

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    Hasan Boesri

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Behavior of the mosquito Aedes albopictus is generally res ting outside the home with the brood in a natural or artificial containers protected from sunlight. Human biting activity between the hours of9:00 to 11:00 and between the hours of 17:00 to 18:00 inside and outside the home. The period of rest after sucking the blood 4-5 days and is ready to lie. Habitat or the environment that most coveted of th is mosquito is a forest or gar­den with temperatures of 24-30 0 C. eggs hatch after 4-5 days with a temperature of 24-30 0 C, the eggs usually form elus ters of 49-60 eggs Larvae and pupae usually found in contain­ers, pieces of bambo containing water. The period of the larvae to adults between 20-25 days. The spread of Ae albopictus mosquitoes from Africa, India, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Thai­land, Malaysia, Vietnam, Papua New Guinea, northern Australia, and Indonesia. Role in disease transmission is a secondary vector or as the primary vector of dengue hemorrhagic fever. On viral diseases that attack the nerves like encephalistis Japanese, Western or East­ern encephalistis, and Chikuguya has been demonstrated by laboratories, as well as on ani­mal diseases caused by Dirofilaria immitis agent, Plasmodium lophurae, P. gallinaceum, and P. fallax.

  14. Primeiras observações sobre o Aedes Albopictus no estado do Espírito Santo, Brasil First observations on Aedes albopictus in the State of Espirito Santo, Brasil

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    Joaquim A. Ferreira Neto

    1987-03-01

    Full Text Available Observações realizadas no Estado do Espírito Santo mostraram que o Aedes albopictus, ao ser introduzido no Brasil, não modificou, significativamente, o seu comportamento. Os criadouros são os mesmos utilizados na Ásia e situados, de preferência, em áreas abertas. Os mosquitos adultos se abrigam em vegetação baixa e freqüentam pouco o domicílio.Observations performed at the State of Espirito Santo showed that Aedes albopictus did not change its behaviour to a significant extent after being introduced in Brazil. The breeding places are the same as those described in Asia and can be found more frequently in open areas. The adult mosquitoes rest in short vegetation and only sporadically penetrate into the human habitations.

  15. The effect of Piper aduncum Linn. (Family: Piperaceae) essential oil as aerosol spray against Aedes aegypti (L.) and Aedes albopictus Skuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misni, Norashiqin; Othman, Hidayatulfathi; Sulaiman, Sallehudin

    2011-08-01

    The bioefficacy of Piper aduncum L. essential oil formulated in aerosol cans was evaluated against Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus in a simulated room. The aerosol spray test was based on the Malaysian test standard for aerosol (MS 1221:1991UDC 632.982.2 modified from WHO 2009 methodology) and examined the knockdown effect within 20 minutes of exposure. Mortality rate after 24 hour of holding period was also determined. A commercial aerosol spray (0.09% prallethrin 0.05% d-phenothrin) was also tested as a comparison. Our results showed that the knockdown effect of the commercial aerosol spray and P. aduncum essential oil spray (8% and 10% concentrations) was significantly higher in Ae. albopictus adult females, when compared with that of Ae. aegypti adult females (Pspp. (Pspp. PMID:22041743

  16. The complete mitochondrial DNA genome of Aedes vigilax (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, C M; Court, L N; Morgan, M J

    2016-07-01

    The complete mitochondrial genomes of two main clades of the medically significant saltmarsh mosquito Aedes vigilax Skuse (Diptera: Culicidae) were obtained using combined Illumina and Sanger sequencing. The two 15,877 bp circular genomes share 99.0% nucleotide identity and encode 37 genes with identical gene arrangement similar to previously published Culicidae species with a non-coding A + T rich region between rns and tRNA-Ile. Protein initiation codon is ATN apart from ND5 (GTG) and COX1 (TCG). Eight protein-coding genes encode full TAA stop codon, while five are completed by mRNA polyadenylation. Typical cloverleaf structures containing DHU and TΨC stem and loops can be inferred for all 22 tRNAs. PMID:26099979

  17. piggybac- and PhiC31-mediated genetic transformation of the Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus (Skuse.

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    Geneviève M C Labbé

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus (Skuse, is a vector of several arboviruses including dengue and chikungunya. This highly invasive species originating from Southeast Asia has travelled the world in the last 30 years and is now established in Europe, North and South America, Africa, the Middle East and the Caribbean. In the absence of vaccine or antiviral drugs, efficient mosquito control strategies are crucial. Conventional control methods have so far failed to control Ae. albopictus adequately. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Germline transformation of Aedes albopictus was achieved by micro-injection of embryos with a piggyBac-based transgene carrying a 3xP3-ECFP marker and an attP site, combined with piggyBac transposase mRNA and piggyBac helper plasmid. Five independent transgenic lines were established, corresponding to an estimated transformation efficiency of 2-3%. Three lines were re-injected with a second-phase plasmid carrying an attB site and a 3xP3-DsRed2 marker, combined with PhiC31 integrase mRNA. Successful site-specific integration was observed in all three lines with an estimated transformation efficiency of 2-6%. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Both piggybac- and site-specific PhiC31-mediated germline transformation of Aedes albopictus were successfully achieved. This is the first report of Ae. albopictus germline transformation and engineering, a key step towards studying and controlling this species using novel molecular techniques and genetic control strategies.

  18. Aedes albopictus (Skuse en la Región Huetar Atlántica de Costa Rica

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    Olger Calderón Arguedas

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Determinar las características de los hábitats larvales de Ae. albopictus y su culicidofauna asociada en la comunidad “La Primavera”. Métodos: Se realizó una encuesta larval en 20 de 28 casas ubicadas en un área de 10 000 m², en la cual se evaluaron los entornos intra y peridomiciliares para la ubicación de posibles criaderos de mosquitos. El material entomológico se fijó en etanol al 70 % y se procesó para su análisis por microscopía de luz. Resultados: En 15 viviendas los criaderos de mosquitos resultaron positivos. En dichas viviendas se encontraron 48 criaderos, de los cuales 31,2 % estuvieron positivos por larvas o pupas de mosquitos. Se encontró Aedes albopictus en cinco criaderos en coexistencia con otras especies como Culex coronator, Haemagogus regalis y Limatus durhamii. También fueron observados Culex quinquefasciatus, Culex corniger, Culex interrogator, Trichoprosopon compressum y Aedes motoecopus. No se observó Aedes aegypti en la muestra. Discusión: Los resultados preliminares muestran que Ae. albopictus tiene gran afinidad por compartir el hábitat con otros culícidos en entornos rurales y semi-rurales, donde los criaderos se encuentran preferencialmente en el peridomicilio. La ausencia de Ae. aegypti podría reflejar algún grado de exclusión competitiva que genera Ae. albopictus sobre esta última. Queda pendiente determinar el papel que podría jugar Ae. albopictus en la transmisión local del dengue en la región.

  19. Ricerche di campo per lo sviluppo della tecnologia del maschio sterile nella lotta ad Aedes albopictus (Skuse)

    OpenAIRE

    Medici, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Aedes albopictus (Skuse), comunemente detta Zanzara Tigre, ha invaso, negli ultimi anni, molti paesi, soprattutto in modo passivo attraverso il commercio di pneumatici usati. Questa specie è particolarmente adatta all'applicazione della tecnica dell'insetto sterile (SIT), basata su allevamento massale, sterilizzazione e rilascio in campo di un gran numero di maschi della specie vettrice. I maschi sterili rilasciati devono essere in grado di volare, di disperdersi sul territorio, di sopravvive...

  20. Allevamento massale di Aedes albopictus (Skuse) nell’ambito della tecnica SIT (Tecnica dell’Insetto Sterile)

    OpenAIRE

    Puggioli, Arianna

    2013-01-01

    Dal 1999 presso il laboratorio del Centro Agricoltura Ambiente “G. Nicoli” a Crevalcore (BO) è in corso una sperimentazione finalizzata a verificare la possibilità di attuare la tecnica del maschio sterile (SIT) in Italia contro Aedes albopictus. Alcuni aspetti per migliorare l’efficienza di questa struttura pilota, oggetto della presente ricerca, sono stati: 1) studio degli effetti di determinati costituenti della dieta larvale a) sullo sviluppo larvale stesso, per individuare intervalli lim...

  1. Transcriptome Profiling and Genetic Study Reveal Amplified Carboxylesterase Genes Implicated in Temephos Resistance, in the Asian Tiger Mosquito Aedes albopictus.

    OpenAIRE

    Linda Grigoraki; Jacques Lagnel; Ilias Kioulos; Anastasia Kampouraki; Evangelia Morou; Pierrick Labbé; Mylene Weill; John Vontas

    2015-01-01

    Background The control of Aedes albopictus, a major vector for viral diseases, such as dengue fever and chikungunya, has been largely reliant on the use of the larvicide temephos for many decades. This insecticide remains a primary control tool for several countries and it is a potential reliable reserve, for emergency epidemics or new invasion cases, in regions such as Europe which have banned its use. Resistance to temephos has been detected in some regions, but the mechanism responsible fo...

  2. Retrospective search for dengue vector mosquito Aedes albopictus in areas visited by a German traveler who contracted dengue in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Mutsuo Kobayashi; Osamu Komagata; Mayuko Yonejima; Yoshihide Maekawa; Kimio Hirabayashi; Toshihiko Hayashi; Naoko Nihei; Masahiro Yoshida; Yoshio Tsuda; Kyoko Sawabe

    2014-01-01

    A German traveler developed dengue fever in late August 2013, following a direct flight from Germany. Autochthonous dengue virus (DENV) infection has not been reported in Japan. To evaluate the risk of autochthonous DENV transmission in Japan, the authors performed a retrospective search of the five areas visited by the German patient to determine the population density of dengue vector mosquito, Aedes albopictus. The annual mean temperature of each area was higher than 12 °C, which is consid...

  3. Differential Larval Toxicity and Oviposition Altering Activity of Some Indigenous Plant Extracts against Dengue and Chikungunya Vector Aedes albopictus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruchi Yadav

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Mosquitoes are well known as vectors of several disease causing pathogens. The extensive use of synthetic insecticides in the mosquito control strategies resulted to the development of pesticide resistance and fostered environmental deterioration. Hence in recent years plants become alternative source of mosquito control agents. The present study assessed the larvicidal and oviposition altering activity of six different plants species-Alstonia scholaris, Callistemon viminalis, Hyptis suaveolens, Malvastrum coromandelianum, Prosopis juliflora, Vernonia cinerea against Aedes albopictus mosquito in laboratory.Leaf extracts of all the six plants species in five different solvents of various polarities were used in the range of 20-400ppm for larval bioassay and 50,100 and 200ppm for cage bioassay (for the study of oviposition behavior against Ae. albopictus. The larval mortality data were recorded after 24 h and subjected to Probit analysis to determine the lethal concentrations (LC50, while OAI (Oviposition activity index was calculated for oviposition altering activity of the plant extracts.Vernonia cinerea extract in acetone and C. viminalis extract in isopropanol were highly effective against Aedes albopictus larvae with LC50 value 64.57, 71.34ppm respectively. Acetone extract of P. juliflora found to be strong oviposition-deterrent which inhibited >2 fold egg laying (OAI-0.466 at 100ppm.Vernonia cinerea and C. viminallis leaf extracts have the potential to be used as larvicide and P. juliflora as an oviposition-deterrent for the control of Ae. albopictus mosquito.

  4. Evaluation of DeltaGard® Ground Application Against Aedes albopictus in a Residential Area in St. Augustine, Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Lisa L; Gibson, Jennifer; Smith, Michael L; Farooq, Muhammad; Sallam, Mohamed F; Xue, Rui-De

    2016-06-01

    Aedes albopictus is an invasive species that poses a health threat in many residential neighborhoods throughout Florida. Aedes albopictus is a high priority for mosquito control efforts in the state. The efficacy of DeltaGard(®) (AI 2% deltamethrin) application against Ae. albopictus was evaluated in a residential area in St. Augustine, FL. DeltaGard was applied using a truck-mounted ultra-low-volume aerosol generator along 3 streets in a residential neighborhood. Caged mosquito mortality and droplet density data were recorded. Leaf clippings from houses on treated streets were bioassayed against laboratory-reared Ae. albopictus. Overall, the DeltaGard application was found to be more effective in the front yard of the houses, resulting in 78.3% mortality in caged mosquitoes, 42 % mortality in leaf bioassays, and 50.5 nl/cc in spray density. Based on the amount of vegetation and residential barriers around the houses, the application caused only 46.3% mortality in caged mosquitoes, 7.5% mortality in leaf bioassays, and 5.4 nl/cc in spray density in the back yard sites. PMID:27280356

  5. Updating the geographical distribution and frequency of Aedes albopictus in Brazil with remarks regarding its range in the Americas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Gomes Carvalho/

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The geographical distribution of Aedes albopictus in Brazil was updated according to the data recorded across the country over the last eight years. Countrywide house indexes (HI for Ae. albopictus in urban and suburban areas were described for the first time using a sample of Brazilian municipalities. This mosquito is currently present in at least 59% of the Brazilian municipalities and in 24 of the 27 federal units (i.e., 26 states and the Federal District. In 34 Brazilian municipalities, the HI values for Ae. albopictus were higher than those recorded for Ae. aegypti, reaching figures as high as HI = 7.72 in the Southeast Region. Remarks regarding the current range of this mosquito species in the Americas are also presented. Nineteen American countries are currently infested and few mainland American countries have not confirmed the occurrence of Ae. albopictus. The large distribution and high frequency of Ae. albopictus in the Americas may become a critical factor in the spread of arboviruses like chikungunya in the new world.

  6. Comparison of Irradiation and Wolbachia Based Approaches for Sterile-Male Strategies Targeting Aedes albopictus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atyame, Célestine M; Labbé, Pierrick; Lebon, Cyrille; Weill, Mylène; Moretti, Riccardo; Marini, Francesca; Gouagna, Louis Clément; Calvitti, Maurizio; Tortosa, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    The global expansion of Aedes albopictus together with the absence of vaccines for most of the arboviruses transmitted by this mosquito has stimulated the development of sterile-male strategies aiming at controlling disease transmission through the suppression of natural vector populations. In this context, two environmentally friendly control strategies, namely the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) and the Wolbachia-based Incompatible Insect Technique (IIT) are currently being developed in several laboratories worldwide. So far however, there is a lack of comparative assessment of these strategies under the same controlled conditions. Here, we compared the mating capacities, i.e. insemination capacity, sterilization capacity and mating competitiveness of irradiated (35 Gy) and incompatible Ae. albopictus males at different ages and ratios under laboratory controlled conditions. Our data show that there was no significant difference in insemination capacity of irradiated and incompatible males, both male types showing lower capacities than untreated males at 1 day but recovering full capacity within 5 days following emergence. Regarding mating competitiveness trials, a global observed trend is that incompatible males tend to induce a lower hatching rate than irradiated males in cage controlled confrontations. More specifically, incompatible males were found more competitive than irradiated males in 5:1 ratio regardless of age, while irradiated males were only found more competitive than incompatible males in the 1:1 ratio at 10 days old. Overall, under the tested conditions, IIT seemed to be slightly more effective than SIT. However, considering that a single strategy will likely not be adapted to all environments, our data stimulates the need for comparative assessments of distinct strategies in up-scaled conditions in order to identify the most suitable and safe sterilizing technology to be implemented in a specific environmental setting and to identify the

  7. Differential attraction of Aedes albopictus in the field to flowers, fruits and honeydew.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Günter C; Xue, Rui-De; Schlein, Yosef

    2011-04-01

    Sugar is the main source of energy for the activities of mosquitoes; however, information on the vital sugar feeding of Aedes albopictus in the field is scanty and often anecdotal. Using glue traps and baits, we evaluated the attraction of Ae. albopictus to 28 different, potential sugar sources. Control traps were baited with either sugar-water solution or water alone, and since there was no significant difference between these controls, the water control was used as the standard for comparison. The total catch amounted to 1347 females and 1127 males. An attraction index (mean number of mosquitoes attracted to the baits/mean number of mosquitoes attracted to the control) was used to compare the relative attraction of the baits. The attraction index of significantly attractive baits ranged from 2.5 to 50.0 and the index of others ranged from 0.50 to 2.75. None of the baits were repellent. Significantly high attraction was observed for four of six ornamental flowers (Tamarix chinensis, Vitex agnus-castus, Polygonum baldchuanicum, Buddleja davidii), four of eleven wild flowers (Prosopis farcta, Ziziphus spina-christi, Polygonum equisetiforme, Ceratonia siliqua), the only tested seed pod when damaged and fermenting (C. siliqua), and all five of the tested fruits: Opuntia ficus indica (sabra), Ficus carica (fig), Punica granatum (pomegranate, damaged), Eriobotyra japonica (loquat), and Rubus sanctus (raspberry). Unlike damaged, fermenting carob seed pods and pomegranates, the fresh fruits were not attractive. Attraction to foliage soiled with honeydew excretion of three different aphid species was also not significant. The potential to use attractive sugar sources for mosquito control is discussed.

  8. Comparison of Irradiation and Wolbachia Based Approaches for Sterile-Male Strategies Targeting Aedes albopictus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Célestine M Atyame

    Full Text Available The global expansion of Aedes albopictus together with the absence of vaccines for most of the arboviruses transmitted by this mosquito has stimulated the development of sterile-male strategies aiming at controlling disease transmission through the suppression of natural vector populations. In this context, two environmentally friendly control strategies, namely the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT and the Wolbachia-based Incompatible Insect Technique (IIT are currently being developed in several laboratories worldwide. So far however, there is a lack of comparative assessment of these strategies under the same controlled conditions. Here, we compared the mating capacities, i.e. insemination capacity, sterilization capacity and mating competitiveness of irradiated (35 Gy and incompatible Ae. albopictus males at different ages and ratios under laboratory controlled conditions. Our data show that there was no significant difference in insemination capacity of irradiated and incompatible males, both male types showing lower capacities than untreated males at 1 day but recovering full capacity within 5 days following emergence. Regarding mating competitiveness trials, a global observed trend is that incompatible males tend to induce a lower hatching rate than irradiated males in cage controlled confrontations. More specifically, incompatible males were found more competitive than irradiated males in 5:1 ratio regardless of age, while irradiated males were only found more competitive than incompatible males in the 1:1 ratio at 10 days old. Overall, under the tested conditions, IIT seemed to be slightly more effective than SIT. However, considering that a single strategy will likely not be adapted to all environments, our data stimulates the need for comparative assessments of distinct strategies in up-scaled conditions in order to identify the most suitable and safe sterilizing technology to be implemented in a specific environmental setting and to

  9. Comparison of Irradiation and Wolbachia Based Approaches for Sterile-Male Strategies Targeting Aedes albopictus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atyame, Célestine M; Labbé, Pierrick; Lebon, Cyrille; Weill, Mylène; Moretti, Riccardo; Marini, Francesca; Gouagna, Louis Clément; Calvitti, Maurizio; Tortosa, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    The global expansion of Aedes albopictus together with the absence of vaccines for most of the arboviruses transmitted by this mosquito has stimulated the development of sterile-male strategies aiming at controlling disease transmission through the suppression of natural vector populations. In this context, two environmentally friendly control strategies, namely the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) and the Wolbachia-based Incompatible Insect Technique (IIT) are currently being developed in several laboratories worldwide. So far however, there is a lack of comparative assessment of these strategies under the same controlled conditions. Here, we compared the mating capacities, i.e. insemination capacity, sterilization capacity and mating competitiveness of irradiated (35 Gy) and incompatible Ae. albopictus males at different ages and ratios under laboratory controlled conditions. Our data show that there was no significant difference in insemination capacity of irradiated and incompatible males, both male types showing lower capacities than untreated males at 1 day but recovering full capacity within 5 days following emergence. Regarding mating competitiveness trials, a global observed trend is that incompatible males tend to induce a lower hatching rate than irradiated males in cage controlled confrontations. More specifically, incompatible males were found more competitive than irradiated males in 5:1 ratio regardless of age, while irradiated males were only found more competitive than incompatible males in the 1:1 ratio at 10 days old. Overall, under the tested conditions, IIT seemed to be slightly more effective than SIT. However, considering that a single strategy will likely not be adapted to all environments, our data stimulates the need for comparative assessments of distinct strategies in up-scaled conditions in order to identify the most suitable and safe sterilizing technology to be implemented in a specific environmental setting and to identify the

  10. Comparison of Irradiation and Wolbachia Based Approaches for Sterile-Male Strategies Targeting Aedes albopictus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atyame, Célestine M.; Labbé, Pierrick; Lebon, Cyrille; Weill, Mylène; Moretti, Riccardo; Marini, Francesca; Gouagna, Louis Clément; Calvitti, Maurizio; Tortosa, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    The global expansion of Aedes albopictus together with the absence of vaccines for most of the arboviruses transmitted by this mosquito has stimulated the development of sterile-male strategies aiming at controlling disease transmission through the suppression of natural vector populations. In this context, two environmentally friendly control strategies, namely the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) and the Wolbachia-based Incompatible Insect Technique (IIT) are currently being developed in several laboratories worldwide. So far however, there is a lack of comparative assessment of these strategies under the same controlled conditions. Here, we compared the mating capacities, i.e. insemination capacity, sterilization capacity and mating competitiveness of irradiated (35 Gy) and incompatible Ae. albopictus males at different ages and ratios under laboratory controlled conditions. Our data show that there was no significant difference in insemination capacity of irradiated and incompatible males, both male types showing lower capacities than untreated males at 1 day but recovering full capacity within 5 days following emergence. Regarding mating competitiveness trials, a global observed trend is that incompatible males tend to induce a lower hatching rate than irradiated males in cage controlled confrontations. More specifically, incompatible males were found more competitive than irradiated males in 5:1 ratio regardless of age, while irradiated males were only found more competitive than incompatible males in the 1:1 ratio at 10 days old. Overall, under the tested conditions, IIT seemed to be slightly more effective than SIT. However, considering that a single strategy will likely not be adapted to all environments, our data stimulates the need for comparative assessments of distinct strategies in up-scaled conditions in order to identify the most suitable and safe sterilizing technology to be implemented in a specific environmental setting and to identify the

  11. 白纹伊蚊对登革热病毒易感性研究%Research progress on Dengue virus susceptibility in Aedes albopictus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱碧青; 郑学礼

    2012-01-01

    白纹伊蚊(Aedes albopictus)是登革热的主要传播媒介之一,分布于世界各地.白纹伊蚊的易感性主要涉及白纹伊蚊和登革病毒之间的相互作用.该文主要从遗传效应和环境因子方面对白纹伊蚊种群遗传、生理遗传、环境因素对虫媒病毒传播的影响及控制易感性的基因等研究进行综述.%Aedes albopictus is one of primary vectors of dengue fever worldwide.Current research is discussing how genetic and environmental factors jointly affect susceptibility ofAedes albopictus to dengue virus.In this paper it is reviewed as follows:population genetics and physiological genetics of Aedes albopictus,environmental factors affecting transmission of arboviruses,gene for dengue virus vector competence in Aedes albopictus.

  12. High efficiency of temperate Aedes albopictus to transmit chikungunya and dengue viruses in the Southeast of France.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anubis Vega-Rua

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Since 2005, cases of chikungunya (CHIK were caused by an unusual vector, Aedes albopictus. This mosquito, present in Europe since 1979, has gained importance since its involvement in the first CHIK outbreak in Italy in 2007. The species is capable of transmitting experimentally 26 arboviruses. However, the vectorial status of its temperate populations has remained little investigated. In 2010, autochthonous cases of CHIK and dengue (DEN were reported in southeastern France. We evaluated the potential of a French population of Ae. albopictus in the transmission of both viruses. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used two strains of each virus, CHIK AND DEN: one strain was isolated from an imported case, and one from an autochthonous case. We used as controls Aedes aegypti from India and Martinique, the source of the imported cases of CHIK and DEN, respectively. We showed that Ae. albopictus from Cagnes-sur-Mer (AL-CSM was as efficient as the typical tropical vector Ae. aegypti from India to experimentally transmit both CHIK strains isolated from patients in Fréjus, with around 35-67% of mosquitoes delivering up to 14 viral particles at day 3 post-infection (pi. The unexpected finding came from the high efficiency of AL-CSM to transmit both strains of DENV-1 isolated from patients in Nice. Almost 67% of Ae. albopictus AL-CSM which have ensured viral dissemination were able to transmit at day 9 pi when less than 21% of the typical DEN vector Ae. aegypti from Martinique could achieve transmission. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Temperate Ae. albopictus behaves differently compared to its counterpart from tropical regions, where recurrent epidemic outbreaks occur. Its potential responsibility for outbreaks in Europe should not be minimized.

  13. Culex pipiens and Stegomyia albopicta (= Aedes albopictus) populations as vectors for lineage 1 and 2 West Nile virus in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brustolin, M; Talavera, S; Santamaría, C; Rivas, R; Pujol, N; Aranda, C; Marquès, E; Valle, M; Verdún, M; Pagès, N; Busquets, N

    2016-06-01

    The emerging disease West Nile fever is caused by West Nile virus (WNV), one of the most widespread arboviruses. This study represents the first test of the vectorial competence of European Culex pipiens Linnaeus 1758 and Stegomyia albopicta (= Aedes albopictus) (both: Diptera: Culicidae) populations for lineage 1 and 2 WNV isolated in Europe. Culex pipiens and S. albopicta populations were susceptible to WNV infection, had disseminated infection, and were capable of transmitting both WNV lineages. This is the first WNV competence assay to maintain mosquito specimens under environmental conditions mimicking the field (day/night) conditions associated with the period of maximum expected WNV activity. The importance of environmental conditions is discussed and the issue of how previous experiments conducted in fixed high temperatures may have overestimated WNV vector competence results with respect to natural environmental conditions is analysed. The information presented should be useful to policymakers and public health authorities for establishing effective WNV surveillance and vector control programmes. This would improve preparedness to prevent future outbreaks. PMID:26890285

  14. Bromeliad-inhabiting mosquitoes in an urban botanical garden of dengue endemic Rio de Janeiro - Are bromeliads productive habitats for the invasive vectors Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio Goulart Mocellin

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Immatures of both Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus have been found in water-holding bromeliad axils in Brazil. Removal of these plants or their treatment with insecticides in public and private gardens have been undertaken during dengue outbreaks in Brazil despite uncertainty as to their importance as productive habitats for dengue vectors. From March 2005-February 2006, we sampled 120 randomly selected bromeliads belonging to 10 species in a public garden less than 200 m from houses in a dengue-endemic neighborhood in Rio de Janeiro. A total of 2,816 mosquito larvae and pupae was collected, with an average of 5.87 immatures per plant per collection. Culex (Microculex pleuristriatus and Culex spp of the Ocellatus Group were the most abundant culicid species, found in all species of bromeliads; next in relative abundance were species of the genus Wyeomyia. Only two individuals of Ae. aegypti (0.07% and five of Ae. albopictus(0.18% were collected from bromeliads. By contrast, immatures of Ae. aegypti were found in manmade containers in nearly 5% of nearby houses. These results demonstrate that bromeliads are not important producers of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus and, hence, should not be a focus for dengue control. However, the results of this study of only one year in a single area may not represent outcomes in other urban localities where bromeliads, Ae. aegypti and dengue coincide in more disturbed habitats.

  15. Preliminary investigation on geographic distribution of Aedes albopictus in northwest China%西北地区白纹伊蚊地理分布初步调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    施耀勇; 张军民

    2012-01-01

    目的 调查了解白纹伊蚊在西北地区的分布.方法 帐诱、人诱法、畜诱法、网捕法和文献资料收集.结果 白纹伊蚊在陕西省除陕北黄土高原外遍布大部分地区;甘肃省仅在文县、康县、徽县、成县和两当县发现有白纹伊蚊;在宁夏和青海采集的大量标本中没有发现白纹伊蚊.结论 白纹伊蚊在西北地区分布的界限有向西扩大.%Objective To clarify the geographical distribution oi Aedes albopictus in northwest China. Methods Using bedent snars, person soars, animal snars and insert net to collect Aedes alhopictus from northwest China. Results Aedes albopictus distributed in most parts oi Shanxi Province, except the Shanbei plateau; but Aedes albopic-lus was only found in Wen County, Kang County,Cheng County and Liangdang County in Gansu Province;Aedes albopictus was not found in the large number of specimens collected in Ningxia Province and Qinghai Province. Conclusion Distribution boundaries of Aedes albopictus in the northwest China is expanding westward.

  16. Assessing the susceptibility status of Aedes albopictus on Penang Island using two different assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, H H; Mustafa, F F W; Zairi, J

    2011-08-01

    Routine surveillance on resistant status of field mosquito populations is important to implement suitable strategies in order to prevent pest outbreaks. WHO test kit bioassay is the most frequent bioassay used to investigate the susceptibility status of field-collected mosquitoes, as it is relatively convenient to be carried out in the field. In contrast, the topical application of active ingredient is less popular in investigating the susceptibility status of mosquitoes. In this study, we accessed the susceptibility status of Aedes albopictus Skuse collected from two dengue hotspots on Penang Island: Sungai Dua and Persiaran Mayang Pasir. Two active ingredients: permethrin and deltamethrin, were used. WHO test kit bioassay showed that both wild strains collected were susceptible to the two active ingredients; while topical application assay showed that they were resistant. This indicated that WHO test kit bioassay less sensitive to low level of resistance compared to topical application assay. Hence, topical application is expected to be more indicative when used in a resistance surveillance programme.

  17. Requirement of cell nucleus for Sindbis virus replication in cultured Aedes albopictus cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erwin, C; Brown, D T

    1983-02-01

    The ability of Sindbis virus to grow in enucleated BHK-21 (vertebrate) and Aedes albopictus (invertebrate) cells was tested to determine the dependence of this virus upon nuclear function in these two phylogenetically unrelated hosts. Although both cell types could be demonstrated to produce viable cytoplasts (enucleated cells) which produced virus-specific antigen subsequent to infection. BHK cytoplasts produced a significant number of progeny virions, whereas mosquito cytoplasts did not. The production of vesicular stomatitis virus in mosquito cells was not significantly reduced by enucleation. That such a host function was not essential for vesicular stomatitis virus growth in insect cells is supported by the observation that the production of this virus by mosquito cells is not actinomycin D sensitive. This result agrees with a previously published report in which it was shown that Sindbis virus maturation in invertebrate cells is inhibited by actinomycin D, indicating a possible requirement for host cell nuclear function (Scheefers-Borchel et al., Virology, 110:292-301, 1981).

  18. The use of andiroba Carapa guianensis as larvicide against Aedes albopictus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Onilda S; Romão, Pedro R T; Blazius, Rene D; Prohiro, Josiane S

    2004-12-01

    Andiroba Carapa guianensis Aubl. Meliacea is known to possess repellent activity against many mosquito species. We evaluated the larvicidal effect of dry-scratched seed kernels of andiroba against a sylvatic F1 progeny and a laboratory-colonized population of Aedes albopictus (Skuse). The 3rd instar of F1 treated with 0.5 to 2% of C. guianensis for 24 and 48 hours, had mortality with LC50 of 0.74 (0.56-0.90%) and 0.68 (0.53-0.84%), respectively, and the 4th instar 0.66 (0.52-0.80%) and 0.55 (0.20-0.91%), respectively. For the 3rd instars of laboratory-colonized larvae, the treatment with 0.5 to 4% of C. guianensis induced mortality after 24 hours with LC50 of 1.81 (1.39-2.22%), and an LC50 of 1.82 (1.57-2.07%) to the 4th instar. This is the 1st report of the larvicidal effect of C. guianensis on mosquitoes.

  19. Toxic effects of neem cake extracts on Aedes albopictus (Skuse) larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicoletti, Marcello; Serafini, Mauro; Aliboni, Andrea; D'Andrea, Armando; Mariani, Susanna

    2010-06-01

    In order to investigate its insecticide potential, the neem cake methanol extract was first analyzed and then separated by different solvents. The high-performance liquid chromatography analysis showed that the neem cake methanol extract still contained relevant quantities of nortriterpenes. Fractions of increasing polarity were obtained from the separation process: hexane fraction (Hp), EtOAc fraction (Ep), n-BuOH fraction (Bp), and aqueous fraction (Wp). The activity of the fractions on Aedes albopictus (Skuse) eggs and larvae was tested, and the Ep fraction exhibits the most relevant larvicide effect. The nuclear magnetic resonance fingerprint analysis of this phytocomplex isolated on EtOAc fraction was performed. The larvicidal effectiveness of the phytocomplex isolated on EtOAc, compared to that of pure and commercial azadirachtin solutions of different concentrations, was checked. The results showed that the activity of the phytocomplex, as a whole, was significantly higher than those of isolated compound solutions. As a consequence, the neem cake is a promising low-cost, easily available on the market, and natural resource to develop a new bioinsecticide, mainly in developing countries.

  20. The use of andiroba Carapa guianensis as larvicide against Aedes albopictus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Onilda S; Romão, Pedro R T; Blazius, Rene D; Prohiro, Josiane S

    2004-12-01

    Andiroba Carapa guianensis Aubl. Meliacea is known to possess repellent activity against many mosquito species. We evaluated the larvicidal effect of dry-scratched seed kernels of andiroba against a sylvatic F1 progeny and a laboratory-colonized population of Aedes albopictus (Skuse). The 3rd instar of F1 treated with 0.5 to 2% of C. guianensis for 24 and 48 hours, had mortality with LC50 of 0.74 (0.56-0.90%) and 0.68 (0.53-0.84%), respectively, and the 4th instar 0.66 (0.52-0.80%) and 0.55 (0.20-0.91%), respectively. For the 3rd instars of laboratory-colonized larvae, the treatment with 0.5 to 4% of C. guianensis induced mortality after 24 hours with LC50 of 1.81 (1.39-2.22%), and an LC50 of 1.82 (1.57-2.07%) to the 4th instar. This is the 1st report of the larvicidal effect of C. guianensis on mosquitoes. PMID:15669392

  1. Seasonal variation in size estimates of Aedes albopictus population based on standard mark-release-recapture experiments in an urban area on Reunion Island

    OpenAIRE

    Gouagna, Louis-Clément; Dehecq, J. S.; Fontenille, Didier; Dumont, Y.; Boyer, Sébastien

    2015-01-01

    The implementation of the sterile insect technique for area-wide vector control requires that natural population density be accurately estimated to determine both the appropriate time to treat and the adequate number of sterile males for release. Herein, we used mark-release-recapture (MRR) to derive seasonal abundance estimates of Aedes albopictus population sizes within a delimited geographical area in Reunion Island. Population size of Ae. albopictus was estimated through four mark-release...

  2. Evaluation of a New Thermal Fog Machine for Control of Adult Aedes albopictus in a Large Enclosed Space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Jennifer; Smith, Michael L; Xue, Rui-De; Ren, Dong-Sheng

    2016-06-01

    Testing of the PSO BASDKA-AC1200 multifunction ultrafine particle atomization machine, a thermal fog machine, with Aqualuer 20-20(®) (permethrin 20.6%, piperonyl butoxide 20.6%) was conducted against Aedes albopictus. The machine was set at a 40 sec maximum burst interval dispersing 36 ml of chemical with an average droplet volume of 50%. Female adult Ae. albopictus were placed into cylindrical paper cages and adhered to poles at 5, 8, 10, 15, and 25 m from the center point of the machine. Control cages consisted of 1 cage placed at 5, 10, and 25 m. Control and treatment groups were left in the experiment area for 15 min. Initial knockdown after 15 min and 24 h mortality were documented. At 15 min post-treatment, Ae. albopictus displayed less than 50% knockdown. After 24 h, all treatment cages displayed greater than 90% mortality. Further bottle bioassays were conducted to determine the lowest chemical dose possible to achieve a lethal dose of 90%. A 1% dilution (10 ml Aqualuer 20-20 to 1,000 ml of polyether) of Aqualuer showed high mortality in the laboratory. However, after running 3 repetitions of a 1% dilution, there was no significant difference between the mortality of the mosquitoes at any of the distances 24 h post-treatment. This study indicates that the test machine would be an applicable and suitable machine for control of Ae. albopictus in enclosed spaces. PMID:27280358

  3. Modelling the breeding of Aedes Albopictus species in an urban area in Pulau Pinang using polynomial regression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salleh, Nur Hanim Mohd; Ali, Zalila; Noor, Norlida Mohd.; Baharum, Adam; Saad, Ahmad Ramli; Sulaiman, Husna Mahirah; Ahmad, Wan Muhamad Amir W.

    2014-07-01

    Polynomial regression is used to model a curvilinear relationship between a response variable and one or more predictor variables. It is a form of a least squares linear regression model that predicts a single response variable by decomposing the predictor variables into an nth order polynomial. In a curvilinear relationship, each curve has a number of extreme points equal to the highest order term in the polynomial. A quadratic model will have either a single maximum or minimum, whereas a cubic model has both a relative maximum and a minimum. This study used quadratic modeling techniques to analyze the effects of environmental factors: temperature, relative humidity, and rainfall distribution on the breeding of Aedes albopictus, a type of Aedes mosquito. Data were collected at an urban area in south-west Penang from September 2010 until January 2011. The results indicated that the breeding of Aedes albopictus in the urban area is influenced by all three environmental characteristics. The number of mosquito eggs is estimated to reach a maximum value at a medium temperature, a medium relative humidity and a high rainfall distribution.

  4. The Strica Homolog AaCASPS16 Is Involved in Apoptosis in the Yellow Fever Vector, Aedes albopictus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Kun; Li, Xiaomei; Wang, Shengya; Zhong, Chunyan; Yang, Zhouning; Feng, Lingyan; Liu, Qingzhen

    2016-01-01

    Caspases are a family of cysteine proteases playing essential roles during apoptosis. Seven caspases identified in Drosophila were Dronc, Dredd, Strica, Dcp-1, Decay, Drice and Damm. Among them, Strica is an insect-specific caspase containing a long serine- and threonine- rich prodomain, of which function is not yet well studied. Here we identified a homolog of strica from Aedes albopictus, named as Aacasps16. Aacasps16 encoded a protein containing a putative serine- and threonine-rich prodomain and a well conserved caspase catalytic domain. AaCASPS16 shared high identity with dipteran insects Strica homologs. Alignment showed that the closest relative of AaCASPS16 was Aedes aegypti AeCASPS16. The expression profiles of Aacasps16 during developmental and adult stages were analyzed. Purified recombinant AaCASPS16 exhibited the highest caspase activity to WEHD, which is the substrate preferred by human caspase-9. AaCASPS16 induced apoptosis when over-expressed in C6/36 cells. AaCASPS16 was processed during apoptosis induced by actinomycin D and ultraviolet irradiation treatment, whereas partial silencing of Aacasps16 reduced actinomycin D- and ultraviolet irradiation-triggered apoptosis in C6/36 cells. Taken together, our study identified AaCASPS16 as a novel apoptotic caspase in Aedes albopictus. PMID:27351972

  5. The Strica Homolog AaCASPS16 Is Involved in Apoptosis in the Yellow Fever Vector, Aedes albopictus.

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    Kun Meng

    Full Text Available Caspases are a family of cysteine proteases playing essential roles during apoptosis. Seven caspases identified in Drosophila were Dronc, Dredd, Strica, Dcp-1, Decay, Drice and Damm. Among them, Strica is an insect-specific caspase containing a long serine- and threonine- rich prodomain, of which function is not yet well studied. Here we identified a homolog of strica from Aedes albopictus, named as Aacasps16. Aacasps16 encoded a protein containing a putative serine- and threonine-rich prodomain and a well conserved caspase catalytic domain. AaCASPS16 shared high identity with dipteran insects Strica homologs. Alignment showed that the closest relative of AaCASPS16 was Aedes aegypti AeCASPS16. The expression profiles of Aacasps16 during developmental and adult stages were analyzed. Purified recombinant AaCASPS16 exhibited the highest caspase activity to WEHD, which is the substrate preferred by human caspase-9. AaCASPS16 induced apoptosis when over-expressed in C6/36 cells. AaCASPS16 was processed during apoptosis induced by actinomycin D and ultraviolet irradiation treatment, whereas partial silencing of Aacasps16 reduced actinomycin D- and ultraviolet irradiation-triggered apoptosis in C6/36 cells. Taken together, our study identified AaCASPS16 as a novel apoptotic caspase in Aedes albopictus.

  6. Llegada de Aedes albopictus a España: un nuevo reto para la salud pública Introduction of Aedes albopictus in Spain: a new challenge for public health

    OpenAIRE

    Nuria Giménez; Marta Barahona; Albert Casasa; Albert Domingo; Montserrat Gavagnach; Carles Martí

    2007-01-01

    Introducción: En el Centro de Atención Primaria de Sant Cugat del Vallès (Barcelona) se detectó un espectacular aumento de consultas por picaduras de insectos. El posterior estudio de las especies del área permitió identificar a Aedes albopictus. Objetivo: Analizar las consultas por picaduras de insecto (1998-2004). Métodos: Estudio descriptivo transversal retrospectivo. Consultaron 2.760 pacientes durante el período 1998-2004. Resultados: Se detectó un continuo aumento de consultas por picad...

  7. Successional mosquito dynamics in surrogate treehole and ground-container habitats in the northeastern United States: where does Aedes albopictus fit in?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, B J; Sukhdeo, M V K

    2013-06-01

    This study assessed the risk of larval displacement of the eastern treehole mosquito, Aedes triseriatus, and the northern house mosquito, Culex pipiens, by Aedes albopictus, the Asian tiger mosquito, during the establishment and successional stages of novel larval mosquito treehole and ground-container habitats in the state of New Jersey, U.S.A. Culex pipiens and Culex restuans were the first mosquito species to colonize ground-container habitats and were the dominant larval species throughout the study period, whereas Ae. albopictus was late to colonize ground habitats and accounted for less than 15% of weekly larval collections once established. Ae. albopictus had a much stronger community presence within treehole ovitraps; however, Ae. albopictus never reached the average larval densities of the expected primary colonizer, Ae. triseriatus. Throughout the study period, the weekly abundances of Ae. triseriatus and Ae. albopictus were positively correlated and there were no significant differences between the abundances of each species. The larval dominance of Ae. triseriatus appears to be enhanced by the presence of Toxorhynchites rutilus septentrionalis, a large predatory mosquito species. When Tx. rut. septentrionalis was present, mature larvae (3(rd) -4(th) instar) of Ae. albopictus were also present in only 16.7% of collections, whereas mature larvae of Ae. triseriatus were collected concurrently with Tx. rut. septentrionalis in 53.8% of collections. These data suggest that Ae. triseriatus is at a greater risk of displacement by Ae. albopictus than are Cx. pipiens and Cx. restuans. PMID:23701622

  8. Surface morphology and morphometric analysis of sensilla of Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus (Skuse: an SEM investigation

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    Kavita R. Sharma

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: The sensilla and sensory mechanism play a significant role in hostseeking and oviposition behaviour of mosquitoes, which enable them to transmit various diseases to humans. Aedes albopictus (Skuse has emerged as a major vector of Chikungunya virus in the recent epidemics in most parts of southern India. Studies on the sensory structures of dengue vector, Aedes aegypti (Linn are comprehensive; whereas information on the sensillary systems of Asian tiger mosquito, Ae. albopictus is inadequate. Therefore, the present study has been carried out to observe various types of sensilla located on the antenna, maxillary palp, labial palp, tarsi and ovipositor of Ae. albopictus using scanning electron microscopy. Methods: The antennae, maxillary palpi, labellum, tarsi and ovipositor of 10 different female mosquito of Ae. albopictus were fixed individually in 2.5% glutaraldehyde solution, washed twice and dehydrated with ascending grades of ethanol. Samples were cleared with xylene, air-dried, mounted on stubs, gold coated in an ion-sputtering unit and the sensilla were viewed between 5 and 10 KV using FEI Quanta 400 EDAX scanning electron microscope. ANOVA revealed significant differences in the morphometric features of various sensilla. Results: In the antenna Sensilla trichoidea are numerously distributed in all flagellar segments revealed four distinct subtypes. Two types of grooved peg sensilla were observed. Sensilla coeloconica was observed in the terminal flagellum of antenna and tarsomeres with large variation in diameter. Sensilla chaetica are distributed throughout the body and revealed greater variation in morphology and morphometric parameters. Interpretation & conclusion: The significant difference among various types of sensilla would possibly reveal their functions. The porous sensilla are olfactory and contact chemoreceptors while the aporous sensilla would play the role of mechanoreception. Sensilla coeloconica on

  9. Transcriptome Profiling and Genetic Study Reveal Amplified Carboxylesterase Genes Implicated in Temephos Resistance, in the Asian Tiger Mosquito Aedes albopictus.

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    Linda Grigoraki

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The control of Aedes albopictus, a major vector for viral diseases, such as dengue fever and chikungunya, has been largely reliant on the use of the larvicide temephos for many decades. This insecticide remains a primary control tool for several countries and it is a potential reliable reserve, for emergency epidemics or new invasion cases, in regions such as Europe which have banned its use. Resistance to temephos has been detected in some regions, but the mechanism responsible for the trait has not been investigated.Temephos resistance was identified in an Aedes albopictus population isolated from Greece, and subsequently selected in the laboratory for a few generations. Biochemical assays suggested the association of elevated carboxylesterases (CCE, but not target site resistance (altered AChE, with this phenotype. Illumina transcriptomic analysis revealed the up-regulation of three transcripts encoding CCE genes in the temephos resistant strain. CCEae3a and CCEae6a showed the most striking up-regulation (27- and 12-folds respectively, compared to the reference susceptible strain; these genes have been previously shown to be involved in temephos resistance also in Ae. aegypti. Gene amplification was associated with elevated transcription levels of both CCEae6a and CCEae3a genes. Genetic crosses confirmed the genetic link between CCEae6a and CCEae3a amplification and temephos resistance, by demonstrating a strong association between survival to temephos exposure and gene copy numbers in the F2 generation. Other transcripts, encoding cytochrome P450s, UDP-glycosyltransferases (UGTs, cuticle and lipid biosynthesis proteins, were upregulated in resistant mosquitoes, indicating that the co-evolution of multiple mechanisms might contribute to resistance.The identification of specific genes associated with insecticide resistance in Ae. albopictus for the first time is an important pre-requirement for insecticide resistance management. The genomic

  10. Larvicidal activities of Knema attenuata (Hook. f. & Thomson) Warb. (Myristicaceae) extracts against Aedes albopictus Skuse and Anopheles stephensi Liston.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinayachandra; Shwetha, R; Chandrashekar, K R

    2011-12-01

    In recent years, uses of environment friendly and biodegradable natural insecticides of plant origin have received renewed attention as agents for vector control. The present study was undertaken to investigate the effect of aril and kernel extracts of Knema attenuata (Hook. f. & Thomson) Warb. (Myristicaceae) on larvae of Aedes albopictus Skuse and Anopheles stephensi Liston under laboratory conditions. The aril was extracted with chloroform and ethanol; the kernel was extracted with ethanol and hexane. The extracts were tested against the 3rd-4th instar larvae collected from Bunder area, Mangalore, India, which is a well-known fishing harbour, where several mosquito-borne diseases were reported. All the graded concentrations (100, 200, 300, 400 and 500 ppm) showed significant larval mortality after 24 h of observation. Chloroform extracts of aril showed 100% mortality against both larval forms of A. albopictus and A. stephensi at the concentration of 500 ppm. Among the extracts tested, chloroform extracts of aril and ethanol extracts of kernel exhibited higher toxicity against both A. albopictus (LC(50), 141 ppm and 159 ppm; LC(90), 290 ppm and 342 ppm) and A. stephensi (LC(50), 160 ppm and 162 ppm; LC90, 445 ppm and 458 ppm). Hexane extracts of kernel exhibited least toxicity against A. albopictus (LC50, 239 ppm; LC(90), 484 ppm), whereas ethanol extracts of aril showed the least toxicity against A. stephensi (LC(50), 290; LC(90), 498). A preliminary phytochemical assay revealed the presence of phenolics, tannins, steroids, terpenes, resins, and glycolipids in all the extracts. Alkaloids, flavonoids and saponins were absent. The lower LC(50) value of the chloroform extracts of K. attenuata aril indicates its potentiality as a larvicide against A. albopictus and A. stephensi mosquito larvae. PMID:21559763

  11. Aedes albopictus em bromélias de solo em Ilhabela, litoral do Estado de São Paulo Aedes albopictus in soil bromeliads in Ilhabela, coastal area of Southeastern Brazil

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    Gisela R A M Marques

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar a presença de Aedes albopictus em bromélias de solo localizadas em ambientes ecologicamente distintos, em termos de positividade, densidade e volume de água. MÉTODOS: O estudo foi realizado no município de Ilhabela, litoral norte do Estado de São Paulo. Realizaram-se coletas quinzenais, de março de 1998 a julho de 1999, em tanques de bromélias localizadas nos ambientes urbano, periurbano e mata; o conteúdo aquático das plantas foi medido e registrado. O tratamento dos dados baseou-se na análise da freqüência de bromélias com presença de Ae. albopictus (ANOVA, abundância (Kruskal-Wallis e volume de água das bromélias positivas (Teste t de Student. RESULTADOS: A presença e a densidade de Ae. albopictus em bromélias de solo variou com o tipo de ambiente. Os maiores percentuais de positividade (85% e abundância (81% foram observados nas plantas localizadas em ambiente urbano. Constatou-se ainda preferência dos mosquitos pelas bromélias com maiores volumes de água (média de 300 ml. CONCLUSÕES: As diferentes freqüências com que Ae. albopictus foi registrado nos ambientes e suas respectivas densidades mostraram sua capacidade de invasão a novos habitats. Recomenda-se intensificar a vigilância entomológica nessas plantas, dada a sua capacidade em traduzir-se em criadouros permanentes. A presença desse mosquito de importância médica em bromélias em área preservada da Mata Atlântica poderá resultar em agravo à saúde.OBJECTIVE: To analyze the presence of Aedes albopictus in soil bromeliads in ecologically distinct environments in terms of positivity, density and volume of water. METHODS: The study was carried out in the municipality of Ilhabela, North coast of the state of São Paulo, Brazil. Collections were fortnightly performed between March 1998 and July 1999, in containers of bromeliads located in urban, peri-urban and forest environments. The water content in plants was measured and recorded

  12. A Wolbachia wMel transinfection in Aedes albopictus is not detrimental to host fitness and inhibits Chikungunya virus.

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    Marcus S C Blagrove

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Wolbachia inherited intracellular bacteria can manipulate the reproduction of their insect hosts through cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI, and certain strains have also been shown to inhibit the replication or dissemination of viruses. Wolbachia strains also vary in their relative fitness effects on their hosts and this is a particularly important consideration with respect to the potential of newly created transinfections for use in disease control. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In Aedes albopictus mosquitoes transinfected with the wMel strain from Drosophila melanogaster, which we previously reported to be unable to transmit dengue in lab challenges, no significant detrimental effects were observed on egg hatch rate, fecundity, adult longevity or male mating competitiveness. All these parameters influence the population dynamics of Wolbachia, and the data presented are favourable with respect to the aim of taking wMel to high population frequency. Challenge with the chikungunya (CHIKV virus, for which Ae. albopictus is an important vector, was conducted and the presence of wMel abolished CHIKV dissemination to the saliva. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Taken together, these data suggest that introducing wMel into natural Ae. albopictus populations using bidirectional CI could be an efficient strategy for preventing or reducing the transmission of arboviruses by this species.

  13. Wolbachia density and cytoplasmic incompatibility in Aedes albopictus: concerns with using artificial Wolbachia infection as a vector suppression tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvitti, Maurizio; Marini, Francesca; Desiderio, Angiola; Puggioli, Arianna; Moretti, Riccardo

    2015-01-01

    The mosquito Aedes albopictusi is a competent vector of harmful human pathogens, including viruses causing dengue and chikungunya. Cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI) induced by endosymbiotic Wolbachia can be used to produce functionally sterile males that can be released in the field as a suppression tool against this mosquito. Because the available sexing methods are not efficient enough to avoid unintentional release of a few transinfected females, we assessed the CI pattern in crosses between wPip Wolbachia-transinfected (ARwP) females and wild-type males of Ae. albopictus in this study. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction was used to monitor the titer of the Wolbachia strains that naturally infect Ae. albopictus, that is, wAlbA and wAlbB, in age-controlled males and females. Data were coupled with incompatibility level detected when the above-mentioned males were crossed with ARwP females. Wolbachia infection titer was also monitored in samples of wild caught males. Incompatibility level was positively correlated only with wAlbA density. Crosses between wild-type males having very low wAlbA density (incompatible insect technique. Various alternative strategies have been discussed to prevent this risk and to exploit Wolbachia as a tool to control Ae. albopictus. PMID:25812130

  14. Increased detection of Aedes albopictus in Belgium: no overwintering yet, but an intervention strategy is still lacking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deblauwe, Isra; Demeulemeester, Julie; De Witte, Jacobus; Hendy, Adam; Sohier, Charlotte; Madder, Maxime

    2015-09-01

    In 2013 and 2014, routine surveillance for invasive mosquito species was implemented in Belgium at 13 potential points of entry. Following the introduction of Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus (Skuse 1895) to Belgium via a used tyre import company (Vrasene, Province of East Flanders) in July 2013, one female and 17 larvae were collected outdoors during a period of intensive surveillance in summer and autumn 2013, but no control measures were implemented. Although climatic conditions were suitable during the winter of 2013-2014, this reproducing population did not overwinter. Lack of genetic variation, incomplete diapause adaptation and egg desiccation due to long dry periods during diapause or competition with endemic species are possible reasons. More studies on the diapause/longevity of Ae. albopictus eggs in northern temperate climatic conditions and on the competition with endemic species in western and central Europe are warranted to assess the potential for this invasive mosquito to overwinter. Furthermore, following the detection of four Ae. albopictus larvae in a shipment of lucky bamboo at the port of Antwerp in August 2014, one female, one male, 11 pupae and six larvae were collected at the destined lucky bamboo company (Lochristi, Province of East Flanders) in autumn 2014. In this case, immediate control measures were successfully implemented at the nursery. Because of increasing threats and the absence of an invasive mosquito species control policy in Belgium, the need for a permanent vector surveillance and control plan has never been so high. PMID:26113506

  15. Effect of Larval Competition on Extrinsic Incubation Period and Vectorial Capacity of Aedes albopictus for Dengue Virus.

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    Jeffrey Bara

    Full Text Available Despite the growing awareness that larval competition can influence adult mosquito life history traits including susceptibility to pathogens, the net effect of larval competition on human risk of exposure to mosquito-borne pathogens remains poorly understood. We examined how intraspecific larval competition affects dengue-2 virus (DENV-2 extrinsic incubation period and vectorial capacity of its natural vector Aedes albopictus. Adult Ae. albopictus from low and high-larval density conditions were orally challenged with DENV-2 and then assayed for virus infection and dissemination rates following a 6, 9, or 12-day incubation period using real-time quantitative reverse transcription PCR. We then modeled the effect of larval competition on vectorial capacity using parameter estimates obtained from peer-reviewed field and laboratory studies. Larval competition resulted in significantly longer development times, lower emergence rates, and smaller adults, but did not significantly affect the extrinsic incubation period of DENV-2 in Ae. albopictus. Our vectorial capacity models suggest that the effect of larval competition on adult mosquito longevity likely has a greater influence on vectorial capacity relative to any competition-induced changes in vector competence. Furthermore, we found that large increases in the viral dissemination rate may be necessary to compensate for small competition-induced reductions in daily survivorship. Our results indicate that mosquito populations that experience stress from larval competition are likely to have a reduced vectorial capacity, even when susceptibility to pathogens is enhanced.

  16. Effect of Larval Competition on Extrinsic Incubation Period and Vectorial Capacity of Aedes albopictus for Dengue Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bara, Jeffrey; Rapti, Zoi; Cáceres, Carla E; Muturi, Ephantus J

    2015-01-01

    Despite the growing awareness that larval competition can influence adult mosquito life history traits including susceptibility to pathogens, the net effect of larval competition on human risk of exposure to mosquito-borne pathogens remains poorly understood. We examined how intraspecific larval competition affects dengue-2 virus (DENV-2) extrinsic incubation period and vectorial capacity of its natural vector Aedes albopictus. Adult Ae. albopictus from low and high-larval density conditions were orally challenged with DENV-2 and then assayed for virus infection and dissemination rates following a 6, 9, or 12-day incubation period using real-time quantitative reverse transcription PCR. We then modeled the effect of larval competition on vectorial capacity using parameter estimates obtained from peer-reviewed field and laboratory studies. Larval competition resulted in significantly longer development times, lower emergence rates, and smaller adults, but did not significantly affect the extrinsic incubation period of DENV-2 in Ae. albopictus. Our vectorial capacity models suggest that the effect of larval competition on adult mosquito longevity likely has a greater influence on vectorial capacity relative to any competition-induced changes in vector competence. Furthermore, we found that large increases in the viral dissemination rate may be necessary to compensate for small competition-induced reductions in daily survivorship. Our results indicate that mosquito populations that experience stress from larval competition are likely to have a reduced vectorial capacity, even when susceptibility to pathogens is enhanced. PMID:25951173

  17. Detection of Wolbachia from field collected Aedes albopictus Skuse in Malaysia

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    A Noor Afizah

    2015-01-01

    Interpretation & conclusions: The results indicated that Wolbachia infection was widespread in Ae. albopictus population both in female and male Ae. albopictus. All the infected females were superinfected with both A and B strains while the infected males showed a combination of superinfection of A and B strains and single infection of B strain.

  18. Tracing the tiger: population genetics provides valuable insights into the Aedes (Stegomyia albopictus invasion of the Australasian Region.

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    Nigel W Beebe

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The range of the Asian tiger mosquito Aedes albopictus is expanding globally, raising the threat of emerging and re-emerging arbovirus transmission risks including dengue and chikungunya. Its detection in Papua New Guinea's (PNG southern Fly River coastal region in 1988 and 1992 placed it 150 km from mainland Australia. However, it was not until 12 years later that it appeared on the Torres Strait Islands. We hypothesized that the extant PNG population expanded into the Torres Straits as an indirect effect of drought-proofing the southern Fly River coastal villages in response to El Nino-driven climate variability in the region (via the rollout of rainwater tanks and water storage containers. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Examination of the mosquito's mitochondrial DNA cytochrome oxidase I (COI sequences and 13 novel nuclear microsatellites revealed evidence of substantial intermixing between PNG's southern Fly region and Torres Strait Island populations essentially compromising any island eradication attempts due to potential of reintroduction. However, two genetically distinct populations were identified in this region comprising the historically extant PNG populations and the exotic introduced population. Both COI sequence data and microsatellites showed the introduced population to have genetic affinities to populations from Timor Leste and Jakarta in the Indonesian region. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The Ae. albopictus invasion into the Australian region was not a range expansion out of PNG as suspected, but founded by other, genetically distinct population(s, with strong genetic affinities to populations sampled from the Indonesian region. We now suspect that the introduction of Ae. albopictus into the Australian region was driven by widespread illegal fishing activity originating from the Indonesian region during this period. Human sea traffic is apparently shuttling this mosquito between islands in the Torres Strait and the

  19. A de novo transcriptome of the Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus, to identify candidate transcripts for diapause preparation

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    Poelchau Monica F

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many temperate insects survive the harsh conditions of winter by undergoing photoperiodic diapause, a pre-programmed developmental arrest initiated by short day lengths. Despite the well-established ecological significance of photoperiodic diapause, the molecular basis of this crucial adaptation remains largely unresolved. The Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus (Skuse, represents an outstanding emerging model to investigate the molecular basis of photoperiodic diapause in a well-defined ecological and evolutionary context. Ae. albopictus is a medically significant vector and is currently considered the most invasive mosquito in the world. Traits related to diapause appear to be important factors contributing to the rapid spread of this mosquito. To generate novel sequence information for this species, as well as to discover transcripts involved in diapause preparation, we sequenced the transcriptome of Ae. albopictus oocytes destined to become diapausing or non-diapausing pharate larvae. Results 454 GS-FLX transcriptome sequencing yielded >1.1 million quality-filtered reads, which we assembled into 69,474 contigs (N50 = 1,009 bp. Our contig filtering approach, where we took advantage of strong sequence similarity to the fully sequenced genome of Aedes aegypti, as well as other reference organisms, resulted in 11,561 high-quality, conservative ESTs. Differential expression estimates based on normalized read counts revealed 57 genes with higher expression, and 257 with lower expression under diapause-inducing conditions. Analysis of expression by qPCR for 47 of these genes indicated a high correlation of expression levels between 454 sequence data and qPCR, but congruence of statistically significant differential expression was low. Seven genes identified as differentially expressed based on qPCR have putative functions that are consistent with the insect diapause syndrome; three genes have unknown function and represent

  20. Indoor-Breeding of Aedes albopictus in Northern Peninsular Malaysia and Its Potential Epidemiological Implications

    OpenAIRE

    Hamady Dieng; Saifur, Rahman G. M.; Ahmad Abu Hassan; Che Salmah, M. R.; Michael Boots; Tomomitsu Satho; Zairi Jaal; Sazaly AbuBakar

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The mosquito Ae. albopictus is usually adapted to the peri-domestic environment and typically breeds outdoors. However, we observed its larvae in most containers within homes in northern peninsular Malaysia. To anticipate the epidemiological implications of this indoor-breeding, we assessed some fitness traits affecting vectorial capacity during colonization process. Specifically, we examined whether Ae. albopictus exhibits increased survival, gonotrophic activity and fecundity du...

  1. Indoor-Breeding of Aedes albopictus in Northern Peninsular Malaysia and Its Potential Epidemiological Implications

    OpenAIRE

    Dieng, Hamady; Saifur, Rahman G. M.; Hassan, Ahmad Abu; Salmah, M. R. Che; Boots, Michael; Satho, Tomomitsu; Jaal, Zairi; Abubakar, Sazaly

    2010-01-01

    Background The mosquito Ae. albopictus is usually adapted to the peri-domestic environment and typically breeds outdoors. However, we observed its larvae in most containers within homes in northern peninsular Malaysia. To anticipate the epidemiological implications of this indoor-breeding, we assessed some fitness traits affecting vectorial capacity during colonization process. Specifically, we examined whether Ae. albopictus exhibits increased survival, gonotrophic activity and fecundity due...

  2. Toxicity and sub-lethal effect of endemic plants from family Anacardiaceae on oviposition behavior of Aedes albopictus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wan; Fatma; Zuharah; Chan; Jia; Ling; Nurfazlina; Zulkifly; Nik; Fadzly

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the lethal concentration, oviposition deterrence and ovicidal activity of acetone extracts of Melanochyla fasciculiflora(M. fasciculiflora) leaf and Gluta renghas(G. renghas) leaf against Aedes albopictus(Ae. albopictus). Methods: To determine the lethal concentration of Anacardiaceae, ten test concentrations of the extracts ranging from 200 to 650 mg/L were selected for larvicidal bioassays and 25 early fourth instar larvae were exposed to the extracts for 24 h. The sub-lethal concentrations used for oviposition deterrence was the value of LC25, LC50 and LC75 from above study which is 235 mg/L, 470 mg/L and 705 mg/L for M. fasciculiflora extract and 187.5 mg/L, 375 mg/L and 562.5 mg/L for G. renghas extract, respectively. Twenty gravid Ae. albopictus were allowed to oviposit in different treated concentrations. For oviciding procedure, a total of 300 eggs of Ae. albopictus were soaked in solution with each treated concentration as mentioned above for 24 h. After 24 h, eggs were sieved and soaked in seasoned water, and hatching rates were calculated. For comparison, only seasoned water was used in control experiment.Results: G. renghas demonstrated lower LC50 value of 372.80 mg/L compared to M. fasciculiflora(467.90 mg/L). The activity index of negative oviposition revealed the deterrent effect and thus, caused a remarkable negative response resulting in oviposition of fewer eggs compared with control(without plant extract). The acetone extract of M. fasciculiflora was more effective than G. renghas extract in displaying oviposition deterrence potential since the latter did not possess the deterring effect within the concentration range tested. However, both plant extracts exhibited excellent oviciding effect as 92.33% of eggs failed to be hatched when treated with 705.0 mg/L of M. fasciculiflora and 86.67% with 562.5 mg/L of G. renghas. The oviposition deterrence and percentage of egg mortality were directly proportional to the

  3. Studies on insecticide susceptibility of Aedes aegypti (Linn) and Aedes albopictus (Skuse) vectors of dengue and chikungunya in Andaman and Nicobar Islands, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivan, Arun; Shriram, A N; Sunish, I P; Vidhya, P T

    2015-12-01

    Dengue and chikungunya are important arboviral infections in the Andaman Islands. Competent vectors viz. Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus are widely prevalent. The most effective proven method for interrupting the transmission of these arboviruses is vector control, mediated through insecticides. Currently, DDT and temephos are the insecticides used for vector control in these islands. Lack of information on susceptibility necessitated assessing the susceptibility profile of A. aegypti and A. albopictus. F1 generation of adult and larvae were assayed, and LT50 and LT90 values were interpreted following the World Health Organization (WHO) protocol. Adults were found resistant to DDT-4 % while susceptible to dieldrin-0.4 %. Against organophosphates, both showed resistance to fenitrothion but susceptible to malathion-5 %. Both species showed resistance to carbamate and bendiocarb-0.1 % while susceptible to propoxur-0.1 %. Of the four synthetic pyrethroids, both were susceptible to deltamethrin-0.05 %, while resistant to permethrin-0.75 %, lambdacyhalothrin-0.05 % and cyfluthrin-0.15 %. Larvae of both species showed resistance to temephos at 0.02 mg/L but susceptible to malathion at 1 mg/L and fenthion at 0.05 mg/L. Currently, there is no prescribed WHO dose for adult-insecticide susceptibility testing. The emergence of resistance to DDT and temephos in the vector population poses a challenge to the on-going vector control measures. The results highlight the need for monitoring resistance to insecticides in the vector population. Impetus for source reduction and alternative choices of control measures are discussed for tackling future threat of arboviral infections in these islands. PMID:26344869

  4. Studies on insecticide susceptibility of Aedes aegypti (Linn) and Aedes albopictus (Skuse) vectors of dengue and chikungunya in Andaman and Nicobar Islands, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivan, Arun; Shriram, A N; Sunish, I P; Vidhya, P T

    2015-12-01

    Dengue and chikungunya are important arboviral infections in the Andaman Islands. Competent vectors viz. Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus are widely prevalent. The most effective proven method for interrupting the transmission of these arboviruses is vector control, mediated through insecticides. Currently, DDT and temephos are the insecticides used for vector control in these islands. Lack of information on susceptibility necessitated assessing the susceptibility profile of A. aegypti and A. albopictus. F1 generation of adult and larvae were assayed, and LT50 and LT90 values were interpreted following the World Health Organization (WHO) protocol. Adults were found resistant to DDT-4 % while susceptible to dieldrin-0.4 %. Against organophosphates, both showed resistance to fenitrothion but susceptible to malathion-5 %. Both species showed resistance to carbamate and bendiocarb-0.1 % while susceptible to propoxur-0.1 %. Of the four synthetic pyrethroids, both were susceptible to deltamethrin-0.05 %, while resistant to permethrin-0.75 %, lambdacyhalothrin-0.05 % and cyfluthrin-0.15 %. Larvae of both species showed resistance to temephos at 0.02 mg/L but susceptible to malathion at 1 mg/L and fenthion at 0.05 mg/L. Currently, there is no prescribed WHO dose for adult-insecticide susceptibility testing. The emergence of resistance to DDT and temephos in the vector population poses a challenge to the on-going vector control measures. The results highlight the need for monitoring resistance to insecticides in the vector population. Impetus for source reduction and alternative choices of control measures are discussed for tackling future threat of arboviral infections in these islands.

  5. Genome sequence of the Asian Tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus, reveals insights into its biology, genetics, and evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiao-Guang; Jiang, Xuanting; Gu, Jinbao; Xu, Meng; Wu, Yang; Deng, Yuhua; Zhang, Chi; Bonizzoni, Mariangela; Dermauw, Wannes; Vontas, John; Armbruster, Peter; Huang, Xin; Yang, Yulan; Zhang, Hao; He, Weiming; Peng, Hongjuan; Liu, Yongfeng; Wu, Kun; Chen, Jiahua; Lirakis, Manolis; Topalis, Pantelis; Van Leeuwen, Thomas; Hall, Andrew Brantley; Jiang, Xiaofang; Thorpe, Chevon; Mueller, Rachel Lockridge; Sun, Cheng; Waterhouse, Robert Michael; Yan, Guiyun; Tu, Zhijian Jake; Fang, Xiaodong; James, Anthony A

    2015-11-01

    The Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus, is a highly successful invasive species that transmits a number of human viral diseases, including dengue and Chikungunya fevers. This species has a large genome with significant population-based size variation. The complete genome sequence was determined for the Foshan strain, an established laboratory colony derived from wild mosquitoes from southeastern China, a region within the historical range of the origin of the species. The genome comprises 1,967 Mb, the largest mosquito genome sequenced to date, and its size results principally from an abundance of repetitive DNA classes. In addition, expansions of the numbers of members in gene families involved in insecticide-resistance mechanisms, diapause, sex determination, immunity, and olfaction also contribute to the larger size. Portions of integrated flavivirus-like genomes support a shared evolutionary history of association of these viruses with their vector. The large genome repertory may contribute to the adaptability and success of Ae. albopictus as an invasive species. PMID:26483478

  6. Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) in Mauritania: First Report on the Presence of the Arbovirus Mosquito Vector in Nouakchott.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mint Lekweiry, Khadijetou; Ould Ahmedou Salem, Mohamed Salem; Ould Brahim, Khyarhoum; Ould Lemrabott, Mohamed Aly; Brengues, Cécile; Faye, Ousmane; Simard, Frédéric; Ould Mohamed Salem Boukhary, Ali

    2015-07-01

    Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae) is a major vector of yellow fever, dengue, and chikungunya viruses throughout tropical and subtropical areas of the world. Although the southernmost part of Mauritania along the Senegal river has long been recognized at risk of yellow fever transmission, Aedes spp. mosquitoes had never been reported northwards in Mauritania. Here, we report the first observation of Aedes aegypti aegypti (L.) and Aedes (Ochlerotatus) caspius (Pallas, 1771) in the capital city, Nouakchott. We describe the development sites in which larvae of the two species were found, drawing attention to the risk for emergence of arbovirus transmission in the city.

  7. Spatial distribution and insecticide susceptibility status of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus in dengue affected urban areas of Rawalpindi, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Arslan

    2016-01-01

    Interpretation & conclusion: The results suggested that all the field populations of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus existed together and showed qualitative changes in their susceptibility status. Resistance against deltamethrin and lambdacyhalothrin was not confirmed and further investigation was recommended to confirm the change in their susceptibility status. This study could help public health authorities to apply simultaneous control activities on both species due to their coexistence and also resistance management strategies should be formulated to slow down the process of development of resistance.

  8. Indoor-breeding of Aedes albopictus in northern peninsular Malaysia and its potential epidemiological implications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamady Dieng

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The mosquito Ae. albopictus is usually adapted to the peri-domestic environment and typically breeds outdoors. However, we observed its larvae in most containers within homes in northern peninsular Malaysia. To anticipate the epidemiological implications of this indoor-breeding, we assessed some fitness traits affecting vectorial capacity during colonization process. Specifically, we examined whether Ae. albopictus exhibits increased survival, gonotrophic activity and fecundity due to the potential increase in blood feeding opportunities. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In a series of experiments involving outdoors and indoors breeding populations, we found that Ae. albopictus lives longer in the indoor environment. We also observed increased nighttime biting activity and lifetime fecundity in indoor/domestic adapted females, although they were similar to recently colonized females in body size. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Taken together these data suggest that accommodation of Ae. albopictus to indoor/domestic environment may increase its lifespan, blood feeding success, nuisance and thus vectorial capacity (both in terms of increased vector-host contacts and vector population density. These changes in the breeding behavior of Ae. albopictus, a potential vector of several human pathogens including dengue viruses, require special attention.

  9. Synthesis of some novel phosphorylated and thiophosphorylated benzimidazoles and benzothiazoles and their evaluation for larvicidal potential to Aedes albopictus and Culex quinquefasciatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandyopadhyay, Prabal; Sathe, Manisha; Tikar, Sachin N; Yadav, Ruchi; Sharma, Pratibha; Kumar, Ashok; Kaushik, M P

    2014-07-01

    Series of benzimidazole and benzothiazole linked phosphoramidates and phosphoramidothioates (5a-j) and benzimidazole linked phenylphosphoramidates and phenylphosphoramidothioates (10a-e) were synthesized. The title compounds were preliminary screened for mosquito larvicidal properties against Aedes albopictus and Culex quinquefasciatus at different concentration from 40 to 5 mg/L. Among the screened compounds three compounds revealed potential larvicidal effects with 100% mortality in the order of 10e>5j>5e. Compound 10e was found to be the most toxic compound to Ae. albopictus and Cx. quinquefasciatus. The LC50 of 10e against Ae. albopictus was found to be 6.42 and 5.25 mg/L at 24 and 48 h, respectively, whereas it was 7.01 and 3.88 mg/L, respectively in Cx. quinquefasciatus. Temephos was used as positive control. PMID:24857290

  10. Isolation, identification, and phylogenetic analysis of a dengue virus strain from Aedes albopictus collected in Mawei town in Guizhou Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    左丽; 舒莉萍

    2004-01-01

    @@ Dengue virus (DEN), a single-stranded RNA virus of the family Flaviviridae, is transmitted from one infected person or animal to another by the mosquitos Aedes albopictus and Aedes aegypti. There are four serotypes of the dengue virus (serotypes 1-4). The virus is responsible for dengue fever (DF), dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) and dengue shock syndrome (DSS). In the recent years, the incidence rate of DF/DHF has been increasing around the world, particularly in tropical and subtropical zones. Dengue is the most significant arthropod-borne viral disease affecting public health.1

  11. Wolbachia density and cytoplasmic incompatibility in Aedes albopictus: concerns with using artificial Wolbachia infection as a vector suppression tool.

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    Maurizio Calvitti

    Full Text Available The mosquito Aedes albopictusi is a competent vector of harmful human pathogens, including viruses causing dengue and chikungunya. Cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI induced by endosymbiotic Wolbachia can be used to produce functionally sterile males that can be released in the field as a suppression tool against this mosquito. Because the available sexing methods are not efficient enough to avoid unintentional release of a few transinfected females, we assessed the CI pattern in crosses between wPip Wolbachia-transinfected (ARwP females and wild-type males of Ae. albopictus in this study. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction was used to monitor the titer of the Wolbachia strains that naturally infect Ae. albopictus, that is, wAlbA and wAlbB, in age-controlled males and females. Data were coupled with incompatibility level detected when the above-mentioned males were crossed with ARwP females. Wolbachia infection titer was also monitored in samples of wild caught males. Incompatibility level was positively correlated only with wAlbA density. Crosses between wild-type males having very low wAlbA density (<0.001 wAlbA/actin copy numbers and ARwP females were partially fertile (CIcorr = 68.06 ± 6.20. Individuals with low wAlbA titer were frequently found among sampled wild males (30%-50% depending on the site and period. ARwP males can be as considered as a very promising tool for suppressing Ae. albopictus. However, crosses between wild males having low wAlbA density and ARwP females may be partially fertile. In the case of local establishment of the transinfected mosquito line, this occurrence may favor the replacement of the wild-type mosquitoes with the ARwP line, thus reducing the long-term efficacy of incompatible insect technique. Various alternative strategies have been discussed to prevent this risk and to exploit Wolbachia as a tool to control Ae. albopictus.

  12. Effects of irradiation, presence of females, and sugar supply on the longevity of sterile males Aedes albopictus (Skuse) under semi-field conditions on Reunion Island

    OpenAIRE

    Oliva, C. F.; Maier, M. J.; Gilles, J.; Jacquet, Maxime; Lempérière, Guy; Quilici, S.; Vreysen, M. J. B.; Schooneman, F.; Chadee, D.D.; Boyer, Sébastien

    2013-01-01

    Background: The development of the sterile insect technique (SIT) for reducing populations of Aedes albopictus (Skuse), (the vector of Chikungunya and Dengue fever), was studied in Reunion Island. For some mosquito species the sterilization process and mating activity may alter male survival. Most previous studies were carried out in the laboratory and may inadequately reflect the field situation. We conducted a semi-field experiment to evaluate the impact of sugar supply and mating activity ...

  13. Area-Wide Ground Applications of Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis for the Control of Aedes albopictus in Residential Neighborhoods: From Optimization to Operation

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Gregory M.; Ary Faraji; Isik Unlu; Sean P Healy; Muhammad Farooq; Randy Gaugler; George Hamilton; Fonseca, Dina M.

    2014-01-01

    The increasing range of Aedes albopictus, the Asian tiger mosquito, in the USA and the threat of chikungunya and dengue outbreaks vectored by this species have necessitated novel approaches to control this peridomestic mosquito. Conventional methods such as adulticiding provide temporary relief, but fail to manage this pest on a sustained basis. We explored the use of cold aerosol foggers and misting machines for area-wide applications of Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis (VectoBac WDG)...

  14. The Efficacy of Some Commercially Available Insect Repellents for Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) and Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Rodriguez, Stacy D.; Drake, Lisa L.; Price, David P.; Hammond, John I; Hansen, Immo A.

    2015-01-01

    Reducing the number of host-vector interactions is an effective way to reduce the spread of vector-borne diseases. Repellents are widely used to protect humans from a variety of protozoans, viruses, and nematodes. DEET (N,N-Diethyl-meta-toluamide), a safe and effective repellent, was developed during World War II. Fear of possible side effects of DEET has created a large market for “natural” DEET-free repellents with a variety of active ingredients. We present a comparative study on the effic...

  15. Effect of triflumuron, a chitin synthesis inhibitor, on Aedes aegypti, Aedes albopictus and Culex quinquefasciatus under laboratory conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Belinato, Thiago Affonso; Martins, Ademir Jesus; Lima, José Bento Pereira; Valle, Denise

    2013-01-01

    Background Resistance to traditional insecticides represents a threat to the control of disease vectors. The insect growth regulators (IGR) are a potential alternative to control mosquitoes, including resistant populations. The chitin synthesis inhibitors (CSI) are IGRs, which interfere with the insect molting process and represent one major class of compounds against Aedes aegypti populations resistant to the larvicide organophosphate temephos. In the present study, we evaluated the efficacy...

  16. Llegada de Aedes albopictus a España: un nuevo reto para la salud pública Introduction of Aedes albopictus in Spain: a new challenge for public health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuria Giménez

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: En el Centro de Atención Primaria de Sant Cugat del Vallès (Barcelona se detectó un espectacular aumento de consultas por picaduras de insectos. El posterior estudio de las especies del área permitió identificar a Aedes albopictus. Objetivo: Analizar las consultas por picaduras de insecto (1998-2004. Métodos: Estudio descriptivo transversal retrospectivo. Consultaron 2.760 pacientes durante el período 1998-2004. Resultados: Se detectó un continuo aumento de consultas por picaduras, hasta alcanzar las 16 consultas por 1.000 habitantes. Los pacientes tenían una media de edad de 32 años, y un 62% eran mujeres. El 71% de las lesiones se localizaron en las extremidades y se infectaron el 19% de ellas. El 67% de los pacientes recibió tratamiento sistémico. Conclusiones: La atención primaria alertó sobre el llamativo aumento de consultas por picaduras de insecto. El colectivo de pacientes que consultó por este motivo fue mayoritariamente femenino, joven, recibió con frecuencia tratamiento sistémico y presentó un elevado porcentaje de complicaciones locales.Introduction: A spectacular increase was noticed in the number of consultations for insect stings at the Sant Cugat Primary Care Center (Barcelona, Spain. Subsequent study of the species in the area identified Aedes albopictus. Objective: To analyze consultations for insect stings in this center (1998-2004. Methods: A descriptive, cross sectional study with a 7-year retrospective review was performed. A total of 2,760 patients consulted. Results: A continual increase in the number of consultations for insect stings was detected, reaching 16 consultations per 1,000 inhabitants. The mean age of the patients was 32 years and 62% were women. Seventy-one percent of the stings were located on the extremities and 19% were infected. Sixty-seven percent of the patients received systemic treatment. Conclusions: Primary care alerted the town council of the significant increase

  17. Climatic factors driving invasion of the tiger mosquito (Aedes albopictus into new areas of Trentino, northern Italy.

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    David Roiz

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The tiger mosquito (Aedes albopictus, vector of several emerging diseases, is expanding into more northerly latitudes as well as into higher altitudes in northern Italy. Changes in the pattern of distribution of the tiger mosquito may affect the potential spread of infectious diseases transmitted by this species in Europe. Therefore, predicting suitable areas of future establishment and spread is essential for planning early prevention and control strategies. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To identify the areas currently most suitable for the occurrence of the tiger mosquito in the Province of Trento, we combined field entomological observations with analyses of satellite temperature data (MODIS Land Surface Temperature: LST and human population data. We determine threshold conditions for the survival of overwintering eggs and for adult survival using both January mean temperatures and annual mean temperatures. We show that the 0°C LST threshold for January mean temperatures and the 11°C threshold for annual mean temperatures provide the best predictors for identifying the areas that could potentially support populations of this mosquito. In fact, human population density and distance to human settlements appear to be less important variables affecting mosquito distribution in this area. Finally, we evaluated the future establishment and spread of this species in relation to predicted climate warming by considering the A2 scenario for 2050 statistically downscaled at regional level in which winter and annual temperatures increase by 1.5 and 1°C, respectively. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: MODIS satellite LST data are useful for accurately predicting potential areas of tiger mosquito distribution and for revealing the range limits of this species in mountainous areas, predictions which could be extended to an European scale. We show that the observed trend of increasing temperatures due to climate change could facilitate further

  18. Larvicidal and acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activities of apiaceae plant essential oils and their constituents against aedes albopictus and formulation development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Seon-Mi; Jung, Chan-Sik; Kang, Jaesoon; Lee, Hyo-Rim; Kim, Sung-Woong; Hyun, Jinho; Park, Il-Kwon

    2015-11-18

    This study evaluated the larvicidal activity of 12 Apiaceae plant essential oils and their components against the Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus, and the inhibition of acetylcholine esterase with their components. Of the 12 plant essential oils tested, ajowan (Trachyspermum ammi), caraway seed (Carum carvi), carrot seed (Daucus carota), celery (Apium graveolens), cumin (Cuminum cyminum), dill (Anethum graveolens), and parsley (Petroselinum sativum) resulted in >90% larval mortality when used at 0.1 mg/mL. Of the compounds identified, α-phellandrene, α-terpinene, p-cymene, (-)-limonene, (+)-limonene, γ-terpinene, cuminaldehyde, neral, (S)-+-carvone, trans-anethole, thymol, carvacrol, myristicin, apiol, and carotol resulted in >80% larval mortality when used at 0.1 mg/mL. Two days after treatment, 24.69, 3.64, and 12.43% of the original amounts of the celery, cumin, and parsley oils, respectively, remained in the water. Less than 50% of the original amounts of α-phellandrene, 1,8-cineole, terpinen-4-ol, cuminaldehyde, and trans-antheole were detected in the water at 2 days after treatment. Carvacrol, α-pinene, and β-pinene inhibited the activity of Ae. albopictus acetylcholinesterase with IC50 values of 0.057, 0.062, and 0.190 mg/mL, respectively. A spherical microemulsion of parsley essential oil-loaded poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) was prepared, and the larvicidal activity of this formulation was shown to be similar to that of parsley oil. PMID:26500081

  19. Comparison of Mosquito Magnet and Biogents Sentinel Traps for Operational Surveillance of Container-Inhabiting Aedes (Diptera: Culicidae) Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochlin, Ilia; Kawalkowski, Margaret; Ninivaggi, Dominick V

    2016-03-01

    Container-inhabiting Aedes are among the most medically important mosquito vectors of diseases. They also impact health and quality of life by their persistent and severe biting. Monitoring of container-inhabiting Aedes species is challenging due to the need for specialized traps and lures. Biogents Sentinel (BGS) trap has become a standard for Aedes albopictus (Skuse) surveillance; however, it has substantial problems with durability, quality of construction, and sample exposure to the elements. The goal of this study was to develop a methodology for collecting medically important container-inhabiting Aedes species in numbers sufficient for population trend analysis, control efficacy studies, and pathogen testing. Mosquito Magnets (MM) baited with BG lure and R-octenol were selected as the most practical alternative to BGS, collecting significantly more Ae. albopictus (32.1 ± 0.7 vs. 5.6 ± 0.1), Aedes japonicus (Theobald) (10.1 ± 0.4 vs. 1.2 ± 0.02), and Aedes triseriatus (Say) (0.9 ± 0.04 vs. 0.04 ± 0.004) females on average per trapping under a variety of weather conditions. MM can be particularly useful for long-term surveillance or when large numbers of specimens are required for pathogen isolation, such as at the sites with suspected dengue or chikungunya transmission.

  20. Comparison of Mosquito Magnet and Biogents Sentinel Traps for Operational Surveillance of Container-Inhabiting Aedes (Diptera: Culicidae) Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochlin, Ilia; Kawalkowski, Margaret; Ninivaggi, Dominick V

    2016-03-01

    Container-inhabiting Aedes are among the most medically important mosquito vectors of diseases. They also impact health and quality of life by their persistent and severe biting. Monitoring of container-inhabiting Aedes species is challenging due to the need for specialized traps and lures. Biogents Sentinel (BGS) trap has become a standard for Aedes albopictus (Skuse) surveillance; however, it has substantial problems with durability, quality of construction, and sample exposure to the elements. The goal of this study was to develop a methodology for collecting medically important container-inhabiting Aedes species in numbers sufficient for population trend analysis, control efficacy studies, and pathogen testing. Mosquito Magnets (MM) baited with BG lure and R-octenol were selected as the most practical alternative to BGS, collecting significantly more Ae. albopictus (32.1 ± 0.7 vs. 5.6 ± 0.1), Aedes japonicus (Theobald) (10.1 ± 0.4 vs. 1.2 ± 0.02), and Aedes triseriatus (Say) (0.9 ± 0.04 vs. 0.04 ± 0.004) females on average per trapping under a variety of weather conditions. MM can be particularly useful for long-term surveillance or when large numbers of specimens are required for pathogen isolation, such as at the sites with suspected dengue or chikungunya transmission. PMID:26520482

  1. Dissemination and transmission of the E1-226V variant of chikungunya virus in Aedes albopictus are controlled at the midgut barrier level.

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    Camilo Arias-Goeta

    Full Text Available Emergence of arboviruses could result from their ability to exploit new environments, for example a new host. This ability is facilitated by the high mutation rate occurring during viral genome replication. The last emergence of chikungunya in the Indian Ocean region corroborates this statement since a single viral mutation at the position 226 on the E1 glycoprotein (E1-A226V was associated with enhanced transmission by the mosquito Aedes albopictus in regions where the major mosquito vector, Aedes aegypti, is absent.We used direct competition assays in vivo to dissect out the mechanisms underlying the selection of E1-226V by Ae. albopictus. When the original variant E1-226A and the newly emerged E1-226V were provided in the same blood-meal at equal titers to both species of mosquitoes, we found that the proportion of both variants was drastically different in the two mosquito species. Following ingestion of the infectious blood-meal, the E1-226V variant was preferentially selected in Ae. albopictus, whereas the E1-226A variant was sometimes favored in Ae. aegypti. Interestingly, when the two variants were introduced into the mosquitoes by intrathoracic inoculations, E1-226V was no longer favored for dissemination and transmission in Ae. albopictus, showing that the midgut barrier plays a key role in E1-226V selection.This study sheds light on the role of the midgut barrier in the selection of novel arbovirus emerging variants. We also bring new insight into how the pre-existing variant E1-226V was selected among other viral variants including E1-226A. Indeed the E1-226V variant present at low levels in natural viral populations could rapidly emerge after being selected in Ae. albopictus at the midgut barrier level.

  2. Spatial and Temporal Hot Spots of Aedes albopictus Abundance inside and outside a South European Metropolitan Area.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mattia Manica

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Aedes albopictus is a tropical invasive species which in the last decades spread worldwide, also colonizing temperate regions of Europe and US, where it has become a public health concern due to its ability to transmit exotic arboviruses, as well as severe nuisance problems due to its aggressive daytime outdoor biting behaviour. While several studies have been carried out in order to predict the potential limits of the species expansions based on eco-climatic parameters, few studies have so far focused on the specific effects of these variables in shaping its micro-geographic abundance and dynamics. The present study investigated eco-climatic factors affecting Ae. albopictus abundance and dynamics in metropolitan and sub-urban/rural sites in Rome (Italy, which was colonized in 1997 and is nowadays one of the most infested metropolitan areas in Southern Europe. To this aim, longitudinal adult monitoring was carried out along a 70 km-transect across and beyond the most urbanized and densely populated metropolitan area. Two fine scale spatiotemporal datasets (one with reference to a 20m circular buffer around sticky traps used to collect mosquitoes and the second to a 300m circular buffer within each sampling site were exploited to analyze the effect of climatic and socio-environmental variables on Ae. albopictus abundance and dynamics along the transect. Results showed an association between highly anthropized habitats and high adult abundance both in metropolitan and sub-urban/rural areas, with "small green islands" corresponding to hot spots of abundance in the metropolitan areas only, and a bimodal seasonal dynamics with a second peak of abundance in autumn, due to heavy rains occurring in the preceding weeks in association with permissive temperatures. The results provide useful indications to prioritize public mosquito control measures in temperate urban areas where nuisance, human-mosquito contact and risk of local arbovirus transmission are

  3. Spatial and Temporal Hot Spots of Aedes albopictus Abundance inside and outside a South European Metropolitan Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manica, Mattia; Filipponi, Federico; D'Alessandro, Antonello; Screti, Alessia; Neteler, Markus; Rosà, Roberto; Solimini, Angelo; Della Torre, Alessandra; Caputo, Beniamino

    2016-06-01

    Aedes albopictus is a tropical invasive species which in the last decades spread worldwide, also colonizing temperate regions of Europe and US, where it has become a public health concern due to its ability to transmit exotic arboviruses, as well as severe nuisance problems due to its aggressive daytime outdoor biting behaviour. While several studies have been carried out in order to predict the potential limits of the species expansions based on eco-climatic parameters, few studies have so far focused on the specific effects of these variables in shaping its micro-geographic abundance and dynamics. The present study investigated eco-climatic factors affecting Ae. albopictus abundance and dynamics in metropolitan and sub-urban/rural sites in Rome (Italy), which was colonized in 1997 and is nowadays one of the most infested metropolitan areas in Southern Europe. To this aim, longitudinal adult monitoring was carried out along a 70 km-transect across and beyond the most urbanized and densely populated metropolitan area. Two fine scale spatiotemporal datasets (one with reference to a 20m circular buffer around sticky traps used to collect mosquitoes and the second to a 300m circular buffer within each sampling site) were exploited to analyze the effect of climatic and socio-environmental variables on Ae. albopictus abundance and dynamics along the transect. Results showed an association between highly anthropized habitats and high adult abundance both in metropolitan and sub-urban/rural areas, with "small green islands" corresponding to hot spots of abundance in the metropolitan areas only, and a bimodal seasonal dynamics with a second peak of abundance in autumn, due to heavy rains occurring in the preceding weeks in association with permissive temperatures. The results provide useful indications to prioritize public mosquito control measures in temperate urban areas where nuisance, human-mosquito contact and risk of local arbovirus transmission are likely higher

  4. Avaliação da influência da temperatura sobre o desenvolvimento de Aedes albopictus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniéla Cristina Calado

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Verificar a influência da temperatura sobre os estágios de desenvolvimento de Aedes albopictus sob condições de laboratório. MÉTODOS: Foi avaliado o período de desenvolvimento dos estágios de ovo, larva e pupa em quatro temperaturas constantes de 15ºC, 20ºC, 25ºC e 30ºC em câmaras climatizadas com umidade relativa do ar oscilando entre 70% e 85% e fotoperíodo de CE 12:12 horas. Pela análise de variância, foram testados os efeitos das quatro temperaturas constantes. RESULTADOS: O período de incubação dos ovos compreendeu 38,38; 19,09; 13,10; e 10,44 dias; o período larval dos indivíduos machos atingiu 30,13; 13,83; 7,36; e 5,57 dias; o período larval para fêmeas apresentou duração de 33,22; 15,00; 8,06; e 6,16 dias; o período pupal em machos compreendeu 8,01; 4,92; 2,40; e 1,76 dias, enquanto nas fêmeas foi de 8,15; 5,11; 2,60; e 1,88 dias sob as temperaturas de 15ºC, 20ºC, 25ºC e 30ºC, respectivamente. Em todos os estágios de desenvolvimento, foram encontradas diferenças significativas, entre as temperaturas avaliadas, em torno de 5% no tempo de desenvolvimento. O período de desenvolvimento foi inversamente relacionado à temperatura, com o período larval mais breve em machos que em fêmeas. Nas temperaturas de 20ºC a 30ºC, o desenvolvimento foi mais breve e com maior viabilidade que a 15ºC. CONCLUSÕES: Nas condições em que foram realizados os experimentos, a temperatura afetou de forma significativa e inversamente proporcional os estágios imaturos de Aedes albopictus. Esses resultados mostram que os estágios imaturos são mais suscetíveis durante os períodos de baixas temperaturas devido ao maior tempo necessário para completar o desenvolvimento, informação que pode ser utilizada em estratégias de controle.

  5. Plano amostral para cálculo de densidade larvária de Aedes aegypti e Aedes albopictus no Estado de São Paulo, Brasil Sampling desing for larval density computation of Aedes Aegypti and Aedes albopictus in the State of S. Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cecília G.P. Alves

    1991-08-01

    Full Text Available O Programa de Controle de Vetores de Febre Amarela e Dengue, desenvolvido pela Superintendência de Controle de Endemias do Estado de São Paulo, Brasil, prevê a realização de pesquisa para avaliação da densidade larvária de Aedes aegypti e Aedes albopictus em edificações de municípios com infestação domiciliar. Descreve-se o plano amostral que vem sendo aplicado, desde outubro de 1987, nos municípios da Região de Presidente Prudente. Para acompanhamento da densidade está sendo utilizado o índice de Breteau. São sorteados, nos municípios infestados, mensalmente e de forma independente, amostras de edificações para a obtenção das estimativas do índice. O plano amostral prevê a seleção de conglomerados em 2 estágios: quadras e edificações. O tamanho da amostra foi definido estimando-se o coeficiente da correlação intraconglomerado e variância relativa por elemento através de pesquisas realizadas anteriormente em municípios do Serviço Regional de São José do Rio Preto. O plano propõe que os valores relativos ao tamanho da amostra sejam atualizados periodicamente em função dos valores obtidos para o estimador do Índice de Breteau e sua variância, em meses anteriores.The Yellow Fever and Dengue Vector Control Program developed by the Superintendency for the Control of Endemic Diseases in the State of S. Paulo recommends Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus larval density monitoring in cities with domiciliar infestation. The sampling plan which has been applied in the countries of the Presidente Prudente region (SP- Brazil since 1987 is described. The infestation is measured by using the Breteau Index. A sample of buildings is drawn, monthly and independently, in the infested cities, in which measurements are to be made. The sample is stratified and the elementary unit selection is made by using two-stage cluster sampling: of blocks and buildings. The sample sizes were defined using the coefficient of variation

  6. Climatic suitability of Aedes albopictus in Europe referring to climate change projections: comparison of mechanistic and correlative niche modelling approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, D; Thomas, S M; Neteler, M; Tjaden, N B; Beierkuhnlein, C

    2014-02-13

    The Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus, is capable of transmitting a broad range of viruses to humans. Since its introduction at the end of the 20th century, it has become well established in large parts of southern Europe. As future expansion as a result of climate change can be expected, determining the current and projected future climatic suitability of this invasive mosquito in Europe is of interest. Several studies have tried to detect the potential habitats for this species, but differing data sources and modelling approaches must be considered when interpreting the findings. Here, various modelling methodologies are compared with special emphasis on model set-up and study design. Basic approaches and model algorithms for the projection of spatio-temporal trends within the 21st century differ substantially. Applied methods range from mechanistic models (e.g. overlay of climatic constraints based on geographic information systems or rather process-based approaches) to correlative niche models. We conclude that spatial characteristics such as introduction gateways and dispersal pathways need to be considered. Laboratory experiments addressing the climatic constraints of the mosquito are required for improved modelling results. However, the main source of uncertainty remains the insufficient knowledge about the species' ability to adapt to novel environments.

  7. Olfaction in Asian tiger mosquito Aedes albopictus: flight orientation response to certain saturated carboxylic acids in human skin emanations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seenivasagan, T; Guha, Lopamudra; Parashar, B D; Agrawal, O P; Sukumaran, D

    2014-05-01

    The flight orientation response of nonblood-fed and hungry Aedes albopictus females was studied in a Y-tube olfactometer at 10(-6) to 10(-2) g odor plumes of saturated carboxylic acids (C1-C20), in which C2-C18 were the main constituents of human skin emanations. Thirteen acids viz C1, C2, C3, C5, C6, C8 C9, C10, C12, C14, C16, C18, and C20 showed attractance at odor plumes ranging from 10(-5) to 10(-3) g doses, while five acids viz C4, C7, C11, C15, and C19 showed repellence at 10(-4) to 10(-2) g to test mosquitoes. Tridecanoic acid (C13) showed attractance only at 10(-4) g dose while higher doses caused repellence. Dose-dependent reversal of orientation behavior from attractance to repellence was observed at 10(-2) g plumes of C5, C9, C10, C13, C17, C19, and C20 acids. The outcome of the study will help in the identification of odoriferous acids as potential attractants, repellents, or attraction inhibitors, which may find their application in the repellent formulations and odor-baited traps for surveillance and control of mosquitoes.

  8. Climatic suitability of Aedes albopictus in Europe referring to climate change projections: comparison of mechanistic and correlative niche modelling approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, D; Thomas, S M; Neteler, M; Tjaden, N B; Beierkuhnlein, C

    2014-01-01

    The Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus, is capable of transmitting a broad range of viruses to humans. Since its introduction at the end of the 20th century, it has become well established in large parts of southern Europe. As future expansion as a result of climate change can be expected, determining the current and projected future climatic suitability of this invasive mosquito in Europe is of interest. Several studies have tried to detect the potential habitats for this species, but differing data sources and modelling approaches must be considered when interpreting the findings. Here, various modelling methodologies are compared with special emphasis on model set-up and study design. Basic approaches and model algorithms for the projection of spatio-temporal trends within the 21st century differ substantially. Applied methods range from mechanistic models (e.g. overlay of climatic constraints based on geographic information systems or rather process-based approaches) to correlative niche models. We conclude that spatial characteristics such as introduction gateways and dispersal pathways need to be considered. Laboratory experiments addressing the climatic constraints of the mosquito are required for improved modelling results. However, the main source of uncertainty remains the insufficient knowledge about the species' ability to adapt to novel environments. PMID:24556349

  9. Seasonal variation and bioactivity of the essential oils of two Juniperus species against Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus (Skuse, 1894).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evergetis, E; Michaelakis, A; Papachristos, D P; Badieritakis, E; Kapsaski-Kanelli, V N; Haroutounian, S A

    2016-06-01

    The seasonal variation in respect to the yield and chemical composition of 24 essential oils (EOs) isolated from various parts (leaves and fruits) of two indigenous Greece Juniperus species (family Cupressaceae), namely Juniperus drupacea and Juniperus phoenica, were determined by GC and GC/MS analysis. The larvicidal properties of these EOs were evaluated against 3rd and early 4th instar larvae of Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus (Skuse, 1894) at one screening dose (29 mg L(-1)). Moreover, the repellent activity against adult mosquitoes was also evaluated at one screening dose. The analytical data indicated that the EOs mainly consisted of monoterpenes, mostly cyclic and only occasionally aliphatic and to a lesser percent diterpenes. The EOs yield was sharply increased when the plant material was subjected to pre-treatment before steam distillation. Finally, the influence of plant material collection period on their yield and chemical content was also determined. Bioactivity assessments indicated that three EOs possess very potent larvicidal properties and 12 EOs display significant repellent activities since they were proved to be "DEET-like." Therefore, they represent an inexpensive source of natural mixtures of larvicidal and repellent mixture of natural compounds, with potentials for application for utilization in mosquito control schemes in order to prevent the expansion of viral infections. PMID:26911148

  10. Combining the Sterile Insect Technique with Wolbachia-Based Approaches: II- A Safer Approach to Aedes albopictus Population Suppression Programmes, Designed to Minimize the Consequences of Inadvertent Female Release

    OpenAIRE

    Dongjing Zhang; Rosemary Susan Lees; Zhiyong Xi; Gilles, Jeremie R. L.; Kostas Bourtzis

    2015-01-01

    Due to the absence of a perfect method for mosquito sex separation, the combination of the sterile insect technique and the incompatible insect technique is now being considered as a potentially effective method to control Aedes albopictus. In this present study first we examine the minimum pupal irradiation dose required to induce complete sterility in Wolbachia triple-infected (HC), double-infected (GUA) and uninfected (GT) female Ae. albopictus. The HC line is a candidate for Ae. albopictu...

  11. Combining the Sterile Insect Technique with the Incompatible Insect Technique: I-Impact of Wolbachia Infection on the Fitness of Triple- and Double-Infected Strains of Aedes albopictus

    OpenAIRE

    Dongjing Zhang; Xiaoying Zheng; Zhiyong Xi; Kostas Bourtzis; Gilles, Jeremie R. L.

    2015-01-01

    The mosquito species Aedes albopictus is a major vector of the human diseases dengue and chikungunya. Due to the lack of efficient and sustainable methods to control this mosquito species, there is an increasing interest in developing and applying the sterile insect technique (SIT) and the incompatible insect technique (IIT), separately or in combination, as population suppression approaches. Ae. albopictus is naturally double-infected with two Wolbachia strains, wAlbA and wAlbB. A new triple...

  12. Leaf extracts of Melia azedarach Linnaeus (Sapindales: Meliaceae act as larvicide against Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762 (Diptera: Culicidae Extratos de folhas de Melia azedarach Linnaeus (Sapindales: Meliaceae atuam como larvicida de Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762 (Diptera: Culicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josiane Somariva Prophiro

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to compare the larvicidal effect of hydroethanolic extracts of fresh and dry leaves of Melia azedarach Linnaeus (Sapindales: Meliaceae on Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762 (Diptera: Culicidae. All the extracts evaluated induced mortality among the third and fourth instar larvae of Aedes aegypti after 24 and 48 hours of exposure to the products. Although previous studies had demonstrated the action of seeds and fruits of Melia azedarach against the larvae of different Aedes aegypti populations, the present report is the first to show the larvicidal effect of the fresh and dry leaves of this plant.O objetivo deste trabalho foi comparar o efeito larvicida de extratos hidro-etanólicos de folhas verdes e secas de Melia azedarach Linnaeus (Sapindales: Meliaceae em Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762 (Diptera: Culicidae. Todos os extratos avaliados induziram mortalidade em larvas de 3º e 4º estágios de Aedes aegypti, após 24 e 48 horas de exposição aos produtos. Embora estudos prévios tenham demonstrado a ação de sementes e frutos de Melia azedarach em larvas de diferentes populações de Aedes aegypti, o presente estudo é o primeiro a reportar o efeito larvicida de folhas verdes e secas desta planta.

  13. The Cytochrome P450 gene CYP6P12 confers pyrethroid resistance in kdr-free Malaysian populations of the dengue vector Aedes albopictus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishak, Intan H; Riveron, Jacob M; Ibrahim, Sulaiman S; Stott, Rob; Longbottom, Joshua; Irving, Helen; Wondji, Charles S

    2016-01-01

    Control of Aedes albopictus, major dengue and chikungunya vector, is threatened by growing cases of insecticide resistance. The mechanisms driving this resistance remain poorly characterised. This study investigated the molecular basis of insecticide resistance in Malaysian populations of Ae. albopictus. Microarray-based transcription profiling revealed that metabolic resistance (cytochrome P450 up-regulation) and possibly a reduced penetration mechanism (consistent over-expression of cuticular protein genes) were associated with pyrethroid resistance. CYP6P12 over-expression was strongly associated with pyrethroid resistance whereas CYP6N3 was rather consistently over-expressed across carbamate and DDT resistant populations. Other detoxification genes also up-regulated in permethrin resistant mosquitoes included a glucuronosyltransferase (AAEL014279-RA) and the glutathione-S transferases GSTS1 and GSTT3. Functional analyses further supported that CYP6P12 contributes to pyrethroid resistance in Ae. albopictus as transgenic expression of CYP6P12 in Drosophila was sufficient to confer pyrethroid resistance in these flies. Furthermore, molecular docking simulations predicted CYP6P12 possessing enzymatic activity towards pyrethroids. Patterns of polymorphism suggested early sign of selection acting on CYP6P12 but not on CYP6N3. The major role played by P450 in the absence of kdr mutations suggests that addition of the synergist PBO to pyrethroids could improve the efficacy of this insecticide class and overcome resistance in field populations of Ae. albopictus. PMID:27094778

  14. Distribuição espacial de Aedes albopictus na região sul do Estado de Mato Grosso do Sul Spatial distribution of Aedes albopictus in the southern area of Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Silva de Almeida

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Estudar a distribuição espacial da população de Aedes albopictus, visando fornecer subsídios para construção de planos de amostragem e decisão sobre o controle deste vetor em levantamentos em campo. MÉTODOS: O estudo foi realizado em área urbana próxima de resquícios de vegetação primária, no distrito Picadinha, distante 20 km do município de Dourados, MS. Dez amostragens foram realizadas entre 28/1/2003 e 9/4/2003, utilizando-se armadilhas do tipo ovitrampas e monitoradas semanalmente, distribuídas em uma área amostral fixa com 10 pontos de coleta por amostragem, espaçadas em 300 m. Foram calculados os índices de agregação e ajuste às seguintes distribuições teóricas de freqüência: binomial negativa, binomial positiva e de Poisson. RESULTADOS: A variância amostral foi superior à média nas amostragens, resultando nos índices de razão variância-média sempre acima da unidade (32,066, 29,410, 14,444, 58,840, 56,042, 111,262, 70,140, 50,701, 93,221 e 8,481. O índice de Morisita apresentou valores significativamente acima da unidade em todas as amostragens (6,275, 3,947, 1,484, 3,725, 3,014, 5,450, 3,214, 3,886, 3,954 e 5,810. O parâmetro K resultou em valores entre 0 e 8 (0,174, 0,309, 1,867, 0,332, 0,449, 0,203, 0,408, 0,314, 0,306 e 0,200. Os testes do qui-quadrado de ajuste às distribuições binominal negativa, binomial positiva e de Poisson não foram significativos. CONCLUSÕES: A população de Aedes albopictus da localidade estudada apresentou distribuição espacial padrão agregada. Isso implica que ao encontrar alguns indivíduos do vetor em um determinado local, é provável que outros sejam encontrados nas áreas circunvizinhas, preconizando a aplicação de inseticidas sem a necessidade de amostrar outros pontos dessa localidade.OBJECTIVE: To investigate the spatial distribution of Aedes albopictus population to provide input for developing sampling plans and supporting decision making on

  15. Laboratory and Simulated Field Bioassays to Evaluate Larvicidal Activity of Pinus densiflora Hydrodistillate, Its Constituents and Structurally Related Compounds against Aedes albopictus, Aedes aegypti and Culex pipiens pallens in Relation to Their Inhibitory Effects on Acetylcholinesterase Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dong Chan; Ahn, Young-Joon

    2013-01-01

    The toxicity of Pinus densiflora (red pine) hydrodistillate, its 19 constituents and 28 structurally related compounds against early third-instar larvae of Aedes albopictus (Ae. albopictus), Aedes aegypti (Ae. aegypti) and Culex pipiens palles (Cx. p. pallens) was examined using direct-contact bioassays. The efficacy of active compounds was further evaluated in semi-field bioassays using field-collected larval Cx. p. pallens. Results were compared with those of two synthetic larvicides, temephos and fenthion. In laboratory bioassays, Pinus densiflora hydrodistillate was found to have 24 h LC50 values of 20.33, 21.01 and 22.36 mg/L against larval Ae. albopictus, Ae. aegypti and Cx. p. pallens respectively. Among the identified compounds, thymol, δ-3-carene and (+)-limonene exhibited the highest toxicity against all three mosquito species. These active compounds were found to be nearly equally effective in field trials as well. In vitro bioassays were conducted to examine the acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitory activity of 10 selected compounds. Results showed that there is a noticeable correlation between larvicidal activity and AChE inhibitory activity. In light of global efforts to find alternatives for currently used insecticides against disease vector mosquitoes, Pinus densiflora hydrodistillate and its constituents merit further research as potential mosquito larvicides.

  16. Laboratory and Simulated Field Bioassays to Evaluate Larvicidal Activity of Pinus densiflora Hydrodistillate, Its Constituents and Structurally Related Compounds against Aedes albopictus, Aedes aegypti and Culex pipiens pallens in Relation to Their Inhibitory Effects on Acetylcholinesterase Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Joon Ahn

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The toxicity of Pinus densiflora (red pine hydrodistillate, its 19 constituents and 28 structurally related compounds against early third-instar larvae of Aedes albopictus (Ae. albopictus, Aedes aegypti (Ae. aegypti and Culex pipiens palles (Cx. p. pallens was examined using direct-contact bioassays. The efficacy of active compounds was further evaluated in semi-field bioassays using field-collected larval Cx. p. pallens. Results were compared with those of two synthetic larvicides, temephos and fenthion. In laboratory bioassays, Pinus densiflora hydrodistillate was found to have 24 h LC50 values of 20.33, 21.01 and 22.36 mg/L against larval Ae. albopictus, Ae. aegypti and Cx. p. pallens respectively. Among the identified compounds, thymol, δ-3-carene and (+-limonene exhibited the highest toxicity against all three mosquito species. These active compounds were found to be nearly equally effective in field trials as well. In vitro bioassays were conducted to examine the acetylcholinesterase (AChE inhibitory activity of 10 selected compounds. Results showed that there is a noticeable correlation between larvicidal activity and AChE inhibitory activity. In light of global efforts to find alternatives for currently used insecticides against disease vector mosquitoes, Pinus densiflora hydrodistillate and its constituents merit further research as potential mosquito larvicides.

  17. Laboratory and Simulated Field Bioassays to Evaluate Larvicidal Activity of Pinus densiflora Hydrodistillate, Its Constituents and Structurally Related Compounds against Aedes albopictus, Aedes aegypti and Culex pipiens pallens in Relation to Their Inhibitory Effects on Acetylcholinesterase Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dong Chan; Ahn, Young-Joon

    2013-01-01

    The toxicity of Pinus densiflora (red pine) hydrodistillate, its 19 constituents and 28 structurally related compounds against early third-instar larvae of Aedes albopictus (Ae. albopictus), Aedes aegypti (Ae. aegypti) and Culex pipiens palles (Cx. p. pallens) was examined using direct-contact bioassays. The efficacy of active compounds was further evaluated in semi-field bioassays using field-collected larval Cx. p. pallens. Results were compared with those of two synthetic larvicides, temephos and fenthion. In laboratory bioassays, Pinus densiflora hydrodistillate was found to have 24 h LC50 values of 20.33, 21.01 and 22.36 mg/L against larval Ae. albopictus, Ae. aegypti and Cx. p. pallens respectively. Among the identified compounds, thymol, δ-3-carene and (+)-limonene exhibited the highest toxicity against all three mosquito species. These active compounds were found to be nearly equally effective in field trials as well. In vitro bioassays were conducted to examine the acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitory activity of 10 selected compounds. Results showed that there is a noticeable correlation between larvicidal activity and AChE inhibitory activity. In light of global efforts to find alternatives for currently used insecticides against disease vector mosquitoes, Pinus densiflora hydrodistillate and its constituents merit further research as potential mosquito larvicides. PMID:26464387

  18. Avaliação da produtividade dos criadouros do Aedes aegypti (L. e Aedes albopictus (Skuse através dos dados da vigilância em Parati – RJ.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Wermelinger

    2012-12-01

    Abstract. This study evaluated the pupa-productivity of the entomologic surveillance according methodology used by the official Program for Dengue Control in Brazil (PDCB for Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus and Aedes albopictus (Skuse in Parati, RJ, Brazil. The highest number of A. aegypti pupae were found in drains (31%, bottles and cans (23%; and the highest number of A. albopictus pupae were found in bottles and cans (24%, and plant vases (21%. Of the total pupae identified 84.3% and 79.3% of A. aegypti and A. albopictus respectively were collected in small receptacles: bottles, plants vase, tires, bromeliads and tree holes. These productivities are not supported by literature and can be explained by the restrictions of access for the bigger receptacles and lack of training of the agents. The study points out the importance which the small receptacles can have on vector densities in urban environment despite of their productivity and conclude that the entomology surveillance methodology for dengue used in PDCB has no efficacy to identify the bigger and more productive receptacles. This conclusion suggests that this inefficacy can be an important factor for the failures on dengue vector control in Brazil.

  19. 香茅醛对白纹伊蚊空间驱避作用的研究%The space repellency of citronellal on Aedes albopictus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝蕙玲; 孙锦程

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨香茅醛作为一种可能的空间驱避剂的应用价值.方法 在风洞系统内测试香茅醛不同剂量浓度诱导的白纹伊蚊(Aedes albopictus)行为反应及对宿主定向行为的影响.在密闭窄间中,分别以0.013~0.250μg/cm3浓度的香茅醛处理白纹伊蚊24~96 h后测定其感受、定向寄主的能力.结果 香茅醛高浓度(96%)对白纹伊蚊有一定的驱避作用,低浓度(3.0%~6.0%)则有一定的引诱作用.12.0%~96.0%浓度的香茅醛溶液对白纹伊蚊正常感受宿主气味均有一定的抑制作用,低于此浓度,抑制效果明显下降.白纹伊蚊在0.013~0.250μg/cm3浓度的香茅醛气味空间处理24~96 h后未影响其正常感受宿主气味的能力.结论 香茅醛只有达到一定浓度时,才对白纹伊蚊定向宿主有一定的抑制效果,而且这种抑制具瞬时性.%Objective In order to study citronellal' s repellency action and judge its prospects. Citronellal could be a spatial repellent against Aedes albopictus and play a major role in new repellent technology. Methods Olfactory behavior and host seeking ability of Aedes albopictus were tested with a olfactometer, and the inhibation of their host seeking ability following treatments at dosages of 0.013 - 0. 250 μg/cm3 for 24 - 96 h were observed too. Results Citronellal at dosage of 96% could be an effective spatial repellent to Aedes albopictus,and at dosages of 3.0% -6.0%could be an effective attractant. It was observed that mosquitoes at dosages of 12.0% -96.0% all showed different degrees of reduction in host seeking ability,and the reduction were lost under the dosage of 12.0%. But citronellal was ineffective on reducing the host seeking ability of Aedes albopictus following treatments with dosages of 0.013 -0. 250 μg/cm3 for 24 - 96 h. Conclusion Citronellal can be a spatial repellent against Aedes albopictus at a higher dosages ,and the inhibation is momentary.

  20. "MOSQUITO FAUNA OF IRAN I- AEDES (DIPTERA: CULICIDAE "

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    M.Zaim

    1984-06-01

    Full Text Available Biological research of all kinds on mosquitoes must be built upon a foundation of correct identification and sound classification. Except for the anopheline vectors of malaria, relatively little is known about other mosquitoes in Iran and other countries in Southwest Asia. In view of this a comprehensive study on the mosquito fauna of Iran has started since 1981. In this report the list of the Aedes species of Iran is updated. Previous studies by Iranian and foreign investigators have revealed the occurrence of 6 Aedes species in Iran. Ae. vexans, Ae. geniculatus, Ae. caballus, Ae. Caspius, Ae pulchritarsis and Ae. aegypti. In the present study not only all named species, except one, were recollected but 5 additional species were also captured which formerly have not been know to occur in Iran. These species are Ae. Vittatus, Ae. echinus, Ae. detritus, Ae. flavescens, and Ae. leucomelas. Ae. aegypti has not been collected in Iran since the previous report in 1946. The present list of 10 species should not be regarded as final since other species, which occur in neighboring countries, may eventually be found in Iran.

  1. Surveillance and Control of Aedes albopictus in the Swiss-Italian Border Region: Differences in Egg Densities between Intervention and Non-intervention Areas.

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    Tobias T Suter

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aedes albopictus, the Asian tiger mosquito, originates from the tropical and subtropical regions of Southeast Asia. Over the recent decades it has been passively spread across the globe, primarily through the used tyre trade and passive transportation along major traffic routes. A. albopictus is a proven vector for many arboviruses, most notably chikungunya and dengue, with recent outbreaks also in continental Europe. In southern Switzerland, in the Canton of Ticino A. albopictus was spotted for the first time in 2003. Since then the local authorities have implemented a control programme based on larval source reduction. Despite these efforts, mosquito densities have increased over the last decade, casting doubts on the effectiveness of such larval control programmes.The Italian communities just across the Swiss-Italian border lack a control programme. This motivated us to compare the intervention and the non-intervention areas side by side in an attempt to find evidence for, or against, the effectiveness of larval A. albopictus control. Using ovitraps and a randomised sampling scheme, we examined the seasonal and spatial abundance of A. albopictus in sylvatic and urban environments across the Swiss-Italian border in 2012 and 2013. In the urban environments of the non-intervention area, egg densities were 2.26 times higher as compared to the intervention area. In the sylvatic environments, as compared to the urban environments, egg densities were 36% in the intervention area and 18% in the non-intervention area.Though alternative explanations are also valid, the results support the hypothesis that the Ticino intervention programme does have an impact. At the same time the data also suggest that current larval interventions fall short in gaining full control over the mosquito, calling for the evaluation of additional, or alternative, approaches. Ideally, these should also consider inclusion of the neighbouring Italian communities in the

  2. Detecção de Aedes aegypti e Aedes albopictus, na zona urbana do município de Catanduva-SP, após controle de epidemia de dengue

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    Rubens Pinto Cardoso Junior

    1997-02-01

    Full Text Available Após a realização dos trabalhos de controle visando à interrupção da transmissão do vírus do dengue, iniciou-se um trabalho de monitorização de Aedes aegypti e Aedes albopictus com dois métodos de vigilância entomológica: Índice de Breteau (IB e ovitrampas. Pretendeu-se avaliar o tempo necessário para que as espécies envolvidas fossem novamente detectadas na área urbana do município de Catanduva, SP. As ovitrampas apresentaram positividade para Aedes aegypti dois meses após os trabalhos de controle, enquanto o Índice de Breteau veio a positivar-se somente no quarto mês após o término dos referidos trabalhos.After the realization of control research that had in view the transmition of dengue virus, we started to monitor two kinds of entomological vigilance, Breteau Index and ovitrap. We intended to evaluate the necessary time elapsed before Aedes sp mosquitoes were again detected at the urban area of Catanduva s town (SP. The ovitraps showed positiviness for the Aedes aegypti two months after the control research, while the Breteau Index became positive only at the fourth month after the end of the refered research.

  3. The Wolbachia WO bacteriophage proteome in the Aedes albopictus C/wStr1 cell line: evidence for lytic activity?

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    Baldridge, Gerald D; Markowski, Todd W; Witthuhn, Bruce A; Higgins, LeeAnn; Baldridge, Abigail S; Fallon, Ann M

    2016-01-01

    Wolbachia pipientis (Rickettsiales), an obligate intracellular alphaproteobacterium in insects, manipulates host reproduction to maximize invasion of uninfected insect populations. Modification of host population structure has potential applications for control of pest species, particularly if Wolbachia can be maintained, manipulated, and genetically engineered in vitro. Although Wolbachia maintains an obligate mutualism with genome stability in nematodes, arthropods can be co-infected with distinct Wolbachia strains, and horizontal gene transfer between strains is potentially mediated by WO phages encoded within Wolbachia genomes. Proteomic analysis of a robust, persistent infection of a mosquito cell line with wStr from the planthopper, Laodelphax striatellus, revealed expression of a full array of WO phage genes, as well as nine of ten non-phage genes that occur between two distinct clusters of WOMelB genes in the genome of wMel, which infects Drosophila melanogaster. These non-phage genes encode potential host-adaptive proteins and are expressed in wStr at higher levels than phage structural proteins. A subset of seven of the non-phage genes is flanked by highly conserved non-coding sequences, including a putative promoter element, that are not present in a syntenically arranged array of homologs in plasmids from three tick-associated Rickettsia spp. These studies expand our understanding of wStr in a host cell line derived from the mosquito, Aedes albopictus, and provide a basis for investigating conditions that favor the lytic phase of the WO phage life cycle and recovery of infectious phage particles. PMID:26427709

  4. Functional and immunohistochemical characterization of CCEae3a, a carboxylesterase associated with temephos resistance in the major arbovirus vectors Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus.

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    Grigoraki, Linda; Balabanidou, Vassileia; Meristoudis, Christos; Miridakis, Antonis; Ranson, Hilary; Swevers, Luc; Vontas, John

    2016-07-01

    Temephos is a major organophosphate (OP) larvicide that has been used extensively for the control of Aedes albopictus and Aedes aegypti, the major vectors for viral diseases, such as dengue fever, zika and chikungunya. Resistance to temephos has been recently detected and associated with the upregulation of carboxylesterases (CCEs) through gene amplification, in both species. Here, we expressed the CCEae3a genes which showed the most striking up-regulation in resistant Aedes strains, using the baculovirus system. All CCEae3a variants encoded functional enzymes, with high activity and preference for p-nitrophenyl butyrate, a substrate that was shown capable to differentiate temephos resistant from susceptible Aedes larvae. Enzyme kinetic studies showed that CCEae3as from both Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus (CCEae3a_aeg and CCEae3a_alb, respectively) strongly interact with temephos oxon and slowly released the OP molecule, indicating a sequestration resistance mechanism. No difference was detected between resistant and susceptible CCEae3a_aeg variants (CCEae3a_aegR and CCEae3a_aegS, respectively), indicating that previously reported polymorphism is unlikely to play a role in temephos resistance. HPLC/MS showed that CCEae3as were able to metabolize temephos oxon to the temephos monoester [(4-hydroxyphenyl) sulfanyl] phenyl O,O-dimethylphosphorothioate. Western blot and immunolocalization studies, based on a specific antibody raised against the CCEae3a_alb showed that the enzyme is expressed at higher levels in resistant insects, primarily in malpighian tubules (MT) and nerve tissues.

  5. Functional and immunohistochemical characterization of CCEae3a, a carboxylesterase associated with temephos resistance in the major arbovirus vectors Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigoraki, Linda; Balabanidou, Vassileia; Meristoudis, Christos; Miridakis, Antonis; Ranson, Hilary; Swevers, Luc; Vontas, John

    2016-07-01

    Temephos is a major organophosphate (OP) larvicide that has been used extensively for the control of Aedes albopictus and Aedes aegypti, the major vectors for viral diseases, such as dengue fever, zika and chikungunya. Resistance to temephos has been recently detected and associated with the upregulation of carboxylesterases (CCEs) through gene amplification, in both species. Here, we expressed the CCEae3a genes which showed the most striking up-regulation in resistant Aedes strains, using the baculovirus system. All CCEae3a variants encoded functional enzymes, with high activity and preference for p-nitrophenyl butyrate, a substrate that was shown capable to differentiate temephos resistant from susceptible Aedes larvae. Enzyme kinetic studies showed that CCEae3as from both Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus (CCEae3a_aeg and CCEae3a_alb, respectively) strongly interact with temephos oxon and slowly released the OP molecule, indicating a sequestration resistance mechanism. No difference was detected between resistant and susceptible CCEae3a_aeg variants (CCEae3a_aegR and CCEae3a_aegS, respectively), indicating that previously reported polymorphism is unlikely to play a role in temephos resistance. HPLC/MS showed that CCEae3as were able to metabolize temephos oxon to the temephos monoester [(4-hydroxyphenyl) sulfanyl] phenyl O,O-dimethylphosphorothioate. Western blot and immunolocalization studies, based on a specific antibody raised against the CCEae3a_alb showed that the enzyme is expressed at higher levels in resistant insects, primarily in malpighian tubules (MT) and nerve tissues. PMID:27180726

  6. Population Genetic Structure of Aedes fluviatilis (Diptera: Culicidae)

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    Multini, Laura Cristina; Suesdek, Lincoln; Marrelli, Mauro Toledo

    2016-01-01

    Although Aedes fluviatilis is an anthropophilic mosquito found abundantly in urban environments, its biology, epidemiological potential and genetic characteristics are poorly understood. Climate change and urbanization processes that result in environmental modifications benefit certain anthropophilic mosquito species such as Ae. fluviatilis, greatly increasing their abundance in urban areas. To gain a better understanding of whether urbanization processes modulate the genetic structure of this species in the city of São Paulo, we used eight microsatellite loci to genetically characterize Ae. fluviatilis populations collected in nine urban parks in the city of São Paulo. Our results show that there is high gene flow among the populations of this species, heterozygosity deficiency and low genetic structure and that the species may have undergone a recent population expansion. There are two main hypotheses to explain these findings: (i) Ae. fluviatilis populations have undergone a population expansion as a result of urbanization; and (ii) as urbanization of the city of São Paulo occurred recently and was quite intense, the structuring of these populations cannot be observed yet, apart from in the populations of Ibirapuera and Piqueri parks, where the first signs of structuring have appeared. We believe that the expansion found in Ae. fluviatilis populations is probably correlated with the unplanned urbanization of the city of São Paulo, which transformed green areas into urbanized areas, as well as the increasing population density in the city. PMID:27598889

  7. Population Genetic Structure of Aedes fluviatilis (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Multini, Laura Cristina; Wilke, André Barretto Bruno; Suesdek, Lincoln; Marrelli, Mauro Toledo

    2016-01-01

    Although Aedes fluviatilis is an anthropophilic mosquito found abundantly in urban environments, its biology, epidemiological potential and genetic characteristics are poorly understood. Climate change and urbanization processes that result in environmental modifications benefit certain anthropophilic mosquito species such as Ae. fluviatilis, greatly increasing their abundance in urban areas. To gain a better understanding of whether urbanization processes modulate the genetic structure of this species in the city of São Paulo, we used eight microsatellite loci to genetically characterize Ae. fluviatilis populations collected in nine urban parks in the city of São Paulo. Our results show that there is high gene flow among the populations of this species, heterozygosity deficiency and low genetic structure and that the species may have undergone a recent population expansion. There are two main hypotheses to explain these findings: (i) Ae. fluviatilis populations have undergone a population expansion as a result of urbanization; and (ii) as urbanization of the city of São Paulo occurred recently and was quite intense, the structuring of these populations cannot be observed yet, apart from in the populations of Ibirapuera and Piqueri parks, where the first signs of structuring have appeared. We believe that the expansion found in Ae. fluviatilis populations is probably correlated with the unplanned urbanization of the city of São Paulo, which transformed green areas into urbanized areas, as well as the increasing population density in the city. PMID:27598889

  8. Pyrethroid resistance in Aedes aegypti larvae (Diptera: Culicidae) from Singapore.

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    Koou, Sin-Ying; Chong, Chee-Seng; Vythilingam, Indra; Ng, Lee-Ching; Lee, Chow-Yang

    2014-01-01

    We report the first comprehensive insecticide susceptibility status ofAedes aegypti (L.) larvae from Singapore. The study indicated that Ae. aegypti is susceptible to temephos, although resistance (RR50 = 1.29-4.43-fold) couldbe developing. Of high concern is the detection of moderate to high resistance to permethrin (RR50 = 29-47-fold) and etofenprox (RR50 = 14-34-fold). Biolarvicide Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis (Bti) remains effective. The insecticide susceptibility profile of Ae. aegypti larvae was found to be homogenous among the different sites studied across the island city. The addition of synergists piperonyl butoxide, S,S,S,-tributyl phosphorotrithioate, and triphenyl phosphate generally failed to enhance the toxicity of the insecticides investigated, suggesting an insignificant role of metabolic-based resistance, and a possible involvement of target site resistance. Further biochemical investigation of specific metabolic enzyme activities suggested that detoxifying enzymes, mono-oxygenases, esterases, glutathione S-transferases, and altered acetylcholinesterases, generally did not contribute to the resistance observed. This study clearly demonstrated that pyrethroid resistance is widespread among Ae. aegypti population and lowered susceptibility to organophosphates is developing. PMID:24605467

  9. Innate Cellular Immune Responses in Aedes caspius (Diptera: Culicidae) Mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soliman, D E; Farid, H A; Hammad, R E; Gad, A M; Bartholomay, L C

    2016-03-01

    Mosquitoes transmit a variety of pathogens that have devastating consequences for global public and veterinary health. Despite their capacity to serve as vectors, these insects have a robust capacity to respond to invading organisms with strong cellular and humoral immune responses. In Egypt, Aedes caspius (Pallas, 1771) has been suspected to act as a bridge vector of Rift Valley Fever virus between animals and humans. Microscopic analysis of Ae. caspius hemolymph revealed the presence of phagocytic cells called granulocytes. We further evaluated cellular immune responses produced by Ae. caspius as a result of exposure to a Gram-negative, and Gram-positive bacterium, and to latex beads. After challenge, a rapid and strong phagocytic response against either a natural or synthetic invader was evident. Hemocyte integrity in bacteria-inoculated mosquitoes was not morphologically affected. The number of circulating granulocytes decreased with age, reducing the overall phagocytic capacity of mosquitoes over time. The magnitude and speed of the phagocytic response suggested that granulocytes act as an important force in the battle against foreign invaders, as has been characterized in other important mosquito vector species.

  10. Molecular characterization of Chikungunya virus isolates from clinical samples and adult Aedes albopictus mosquitoes emerged from larvae from Kerala, South India.

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    Niyas, Kudukkil P; Abraham, Rachy; Unnikrishnan, Ramakrishnan Nair; Mathew, Thomas; Nair, Sajith; Manakkadan, Anoop; Issac, Aneesh; Sreekumar, Easwaran

    2010-01-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV), an arthritogenic alphavirus, is transmitted to humans by infected Aedes (Ae.) aegypti and Ae.albopictus mosquitoes. In the study, reverse-transcription PCR (RT PCR) and virus isolation detected CHIKV in patient samples and also in adult Ae.albopictus mosquitoes that was derived from larvae collected during a chikungunya (CHIK) outbreak in Kerala in 2009. The CHIKV strains involved in the outbreak were the East, Central and South African (ECSA) genotype that had the E1 A226V mutation. The viral strains from the mosquitoes and CHIK patients from the same area showed a close relationship based on phylogenetic analysis. Genetic characterization by partial sequencing of non-structural protein 2 (nsP2; 378 bp), envelope E1 (505 bp) and E2 (428 bp) identified one critical mutation in the E2 protein coding region of these CHIKV strains. This novel, non-conservative mutation, L210Q, consistently present in both human and mosquito-derived samples studied, was within the region of the E2 protein (amino acids E2 200-220) that determines mosquito cell infectivity in many alpha viruses. Our results show the involvement of Ae. albopictus in this outbreak in Kerala and appearance of CHIKV with novel genetic changes. Detection of virus in adult mosquitoes, emerged in the laboratory from larvae, also points to the possibility of transovarial transmission (TOT) of mutant CHIKV strains in mosquitoes. PMID:20704755

  11. Failure to demonstrate experimental vertical transmission of the epidemic strain of Chikungunya virus in Aedes albopictus from La Réunion Island, Indian Ocean

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    Marie Vazeille

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Aedes albopictus was responsible for transmission in the first outbreak of chikungunya (CHIK on La Réunion Island, Indian Ocean, in 2005-2006. The magnitude of the outbreak on this island, which had been free of arboviral diseases for over 30 years, as well as the efficiency of Ae. albopictus as the main vector, raises questions about the maintenance of the CHIK virus (CHIKV through vertical transmission mechanisms. Few specimens collected from the field as larvae were found to be infected. In this study, Ae. albopictus originating from La Réunion were orally infected with a blood-meal containing 10(8 pfu/mL of the CHIKV epidemic strain (CHIKV 06.21. Eggs from the first and second gonotrophic cycles were collected and raised to the adult stage. The infectious status of the progeny was checked (i by immunofluorescence on head squashes of individual mosquitoes to detect the presence of viral particles or (ii by quantitative RT-PCR on mosquito pools to detect viral RNA. We analysed a total of 1,675 specimens from the first gonotrophic cycle and 1,709 from the second gonotrophic cycle without detecting any viral particles or viral RNA. These laboratory results are compared to field records.

  12. Molecular characterization of Chikungunya virus isolates from clinical samples and adult Aedes albopictus mosquitoes emerged from larvae from Kerala, South India

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    Niyas Kudukkil P

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Chikungunya virus (CHIKV, an arthritogenic alphavirus, is transmitted to humans by infected Aedes (Ae. aegypti and Ae.albopictus mosquitoes. In the study, reverse-transcription PCR (RT PCR and virus isolation detected CHIKV in patient samples and also in adult Ae.albopictus mosquitoes that was derived from larvae collected during a chikungunya (CHIK outbreak in Kerala in 2009. The CHIKV strains involved in the outbreak were the East, Central and South African (ECSA genotype that had the E1 A226V mutation. The viral strains from the mosquitoes and CHIK patients from the same area showed a close relationship based on phylogenetic analysis. Genetic characterization by partial sequencing of non-structural protein 2 (nsP2; 378 bp, envelope E1 (505 bp and E2 (428 bp identified one critical mutation in the E2 protein coding region of these CHIKV strains. This novel, non-conservative mutation, L210Q, consistently present in both human and mosquito-derived samples studied, was within the region of the E2 protein (amino acids E2 200-220 that determines mosquito cell infectivity in many alpha viruses. Our results show the involvement of Ae. albopictus in this outbreak in Kerala and appearance of CHIKV with novel genetic changes. Detection of virus in adult mosquitoes, emerged in the laboratory from larvae, also points to the possibility of transovarial transmission (TOT of mutant CHIKV strains in mosquitoes.

  13. Effectiveness of ultra-low volume nighttime applications of an adulticide against diurnal Aedes albopictus, a critical vector of dengue and chikungunya viruses.

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    Ary Farajollahi

    Full Text Available Aedes albopictus, the Asian tiger mosquito, continues expanding its geographic range and involvement in mosquito-borne diseases such as chikungunya and dengue. Vector control programs rarely attempt to suppress this diurnal species with an ultra-low volume (ULV adulticide because for maximum efficacy applications are conducted at night. During 2009-2011 we performed experimental nighttime applications of a novel adulticide (DUET® against field populations of Ae. albopictus within an urban site composed of approximately 1,000 parcels (home and yard in northeastern USA. Dual applications at mid label rate of the adulticide spaced one or two days apart accomplished significantly higher control (85.0 ± 5.4% average reduction than single full rate applications (73.0 ± 5.4%. Our results demonstrate that nighttime ULV adulticiding is effective in reducing Ae. albopictus abundance and highlight its potential for use as part of integrated pest management programs and during disease epidemics when reducing human illness is of paramount importance.

  14. Human Antibody Response to Aedes albopictus Salivary Proteins: A Potential Biomarker to Evaluate the Efficacy of Vector Control in an Area of Chikungunya and Dengue Virus Transmission

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    Souleymane Doucoure

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aedes borne viruses represent public health problems in southern countries and threat to emerge in the developed world. Their control is currently based on vector population control. Much effort is being devoted to develop new tools to control such arbovirus. Recent findings suggest that the evaluation of human antibody (Ab response to arthropod salivary proteins is relevant to measuring the level of human exposure to mosquito bites. Using an immunoepidemiological approach, the present study aimed to assess the usefulness of the salivary biomarker for measuring the efficacy of Ae. albopictus control strategies in La Reunion urban area. The antisaliva Ab response of adult humans exposed to Ae. albopictus was evaluatedbefore and after vector control measures. Our results showed a significant correlation between antisaliva Ab response and the level of exposure to vectors bites. The decrease of Ae. albopictus density has been detected by this biomarker two weeks after the implementation of control measures, suggesting its potential usefulness for evaluating control strategies in a short time period. The identification of species specific salivary proteins/peptides should improve the use of this biomarker.

  15. Human antibody response to Aedes albopictus salivary proteins: a potential biomarker to evaluate the efficacy of vector control in an area of Chikungunya and Dengue Virus transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doucoure, Souleymane; Mouchet, François; Cornelie, Sylvie; Drame, Papa Makhtar; D'Ortenzio, Eric; DeHecq, Jean Sébastien; Remoue, Franck

    2014-01-01

    Aedes borne viruses represent public health problems in southern countries and threat to emerge in the developed world. Their control is currently based on vector population control. Much effort is being devoted to develop new tools to control such arbovirus. Recent findings suggest that the evaluation of human antibody (Ab) response to arthropod salivary proteins is relevant to measuring the level of human exposure to mosquito bites. Using an immunoepidemiological approach, the present study aimed to assess the usefulness of the salivary biomarker for measuring the efficacy of Ae. albopictus control strategies in La Reunion urban area. The antisaliva Ab response of adult humans exposed to Ae. albopictus was evaluated before and after vector control measures. Our results showed a significant correlation between antisaliva Ab response and the level of exposure to vectors bites. The decrease of Ae. albopictus density has been detected by this biomarker two weeks after the implementation of control measures, suggesting its potential usefulness for evaluating control strategies in a short time period. The identification of species specific salivary proteins/peptides should improve the use of this biomarker. PMID:24822216

  16. The complete mitochondrial DNA genomes for two lineages of Aedes notoscriptus (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, C M; Court, L N; Morgan, M J; Webb, C E

    2016-05-01

    The complete mitochondrial genomes for two deeply divergent lineages of the urban adapted mosquito Aedes notoscriptus Skuse (Diptera: Culicidae) in Australia were sequenced using a combination of next generation Illumina and traditional Sanger sequencing. The 15,846 and 15,851 bp circular genomes share 95.0% nucleotide identity. They both have the full complement of 37 metazoan genes and identical gene arrangements to previously published Culicidae species with the one non-coding A + T rich control region present between rns and tRNA-Ile. All protein initiation codons are ATN apart from COX1 (TCG). Eight protein coding genes encode full TAA stop codons, one uses an incomplete TA and four use T. Typical cloverleaf structures containing DHU and TΨC stem and loops can be inferred for all 22 tRNAs. PMID:25350735

  17. Efficacy of seed extracts of Annona squamosa and Annona muricata (Annonaceae) for the control of Aedes albopictus and Culex quinquefasciatus (Culicidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fara Nantenaina Raharimalala; Beby Rasoahantaveloniaina; Pierre Herv Ravelonandro; Patrick Mavingui

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the potential efficacy of seed extracts of Annona squamosa and Annona muricata used as natural insecticides to control adult and larvae of the vectors Aedes albopictus and Culex quinquefasciatus under laboratory conditions. Methods:Aqueous and oil extracts of the two plants were prepared from dried seeds. Preliminary identifications of the chemical components of each seed extracts were performed using micro-reactional and GCP techniques. Larvae and adults of Aedes albopictus and Culex quinquefasciatus were collected from the breeding sites in coastal and highlands regions of Madagascar. WHO standardized tests of susceptibility for larvae and imaginal stage of mosquitoes were realized to determine mortality and LC50 of mosquitoes. Results: Chemical identifications showed that these extracts contain alkaloids and flavonoids compounds that probably confer their biological insecticidal proprieties. CPG analysis showed also the presence of various fatty acids. On adult mosquitoes, significant insecticidal effects were observed with both aqueous and oil extracts of the two plant seeds compared to mortality induced by deltamethrin, an insecticide used as reference. Extracts of Annona muricata induced high mortality rate to both species of mosquito compared to extracts of Annona squamosa at all concentrations tested. The LC50 of seed extracts ranged from 1% to 5% for adults and 0.5% to 1% for larvae. Conclusions: The seed extracts of these two plants may be used as mosquito controlling agents and offer a new approach to a less costly, practical and environmentally friendly control of vector borne diseases.

  18. Area-Wide Ground Applications of Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis for the Control of Aedes albopictus in Residential Neighborhoods: From Optimization to Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Gregory M.; Faraji, Ary; Unlu, Isik; Healy, Sean P.; Farooq, Muhammad; Gaugler, Randy; Hamilton, George; Fonseca, Dina M.

    2014-01-01

    The increasing range of Aedes albopictus, the Asian tiger mosquito, in the USA and the threat of chikungunya and dengue outbreaks vectored by this species have necessitated novel approaches to control this peridomestic mosquito. Conventional methods such as adulticiding provide temporary relief, but fail to manage this pest on a sustained basis. We explored the use of cold aerosol foggers and misting machines for area-wide applications of Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis (VectoBac WDG) as a larvicide targeting Aedes albopictus. During 2010–2013 we performed initially open field trials and then 19 operational area-wide applications in urban and suburban residential areas in northeastern USA to test three truck-mounted sprayers at two application rates. Area-wide applications of WDG in open field conditions at 400 and 800 g/ha killed on average 87% of tested larvae. Once techniques were optimized in residential areas, applications with a Buffalo Turbine Mist Sprayer at a rate of 800 g/ha, the best combination, consistently provided over 90% mortality. Importantly, there was no significant decrease in efficacy with distance from the spray line even in blocks of row homes with trees and bushes in the backyards. Under laboratory conditions Bti deposition in bioassay cups during the operational trials resulted in over 6 weeks of residual control. Our results demonstrate that area-wide truck mounted applications of WDG can effectively suppress Ae. albopictus larvae and should be used in integrated mosquito management approaches to control this nuisance pest and disease vector. PMID:25329314

  19. Area-wide ground applications of Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis for the control of Aedes albopictus in residential neighborhoods: from optimization to operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Gregory M; Faraji, Ary; Unlu, Isik; Healy, Sean P; Farooq, Muhammad; Gaugler, Randy; Hamilton, George; Fonseca, Dina M

    2014-01-01

    The increasing range of Aedes albopictus, the Asian tiger mosquito, in the USA and the threat of chikungunya and dengue outbreaks vectored by this species have necessitated novel approaches to control this peridomestic mosquito. Conventional methods such as adulticiding provide temporary relief, but fail to manage this pest on a sustained basis. We explored the use of cold aerosol foggers and misting machines for area-wide applications of Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis (VectoBac WDG) as a larvicide targeting Aedes albopictus. During 2010-2013 we performed initially open field trials and then 19 operational area-wide applications in urban and suburban residential areas in northeastern USA to test three truck-mounted sprayers at two application rates. Area-wide applications of WDG in open field conditions at 400 and 800 g/ha killed on average 87% of tested larvae. Once techniques were optimized in residential areas, applications with a Buffalo Turbine Mist Sprayer at a rate of 800 g/ha, the best combination, consistently provided over 90% mortality. Importantly, there was no significant decrease in efficacy with distance from the spray line even in blocks of row homes with trees and bushes in the backyards. Under laboratory conditions Bti deposition in bioassay cups during the operational trials resulted in over 6 weeks of residual control. Our results demonstrate that area-wide truck mounted applications of WDG can effectively suppress Ae. albopictus larvae and should be used in integrated mosquito management approaches to control this nuisance pest and disease vector. PMID:25329314

  20. Area-wide ground applications of Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis for the control of Aedes albopictus in residential neighborhoods: from optimization to operation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory M Williams

    Full Text Available The increasing range of Aedes albopictus, the Asian tiger mosquito, in the USA and the threat of chikungunya and dengue outbreaks vectored by this species have necessitated novel approaches to control this peridomestic mosquito. Conventional methods such as adulticiding provide temporary relief, but fail to manage this pest on a sustained basis. We explored the use of cold aerosol foggers and misting machines for area-wide applications of Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis (VectoBac WDG as a larvicide targeting Aedes albopictus. During 2010-2013 we performed initially open field trials and then 19 operational area-wide applications in urban and suburban residential areas in northeastern USA to test three truck-mounted sprayers at two application rates. Area-wide applications of WDG in open field conditions at 400 and 800 g/ha killed on average 87% of tested larvae. Once techniques were optimized in residential areas, applications with a Buffalo Turbine Mist Sprayer at a rate of 800 g/ha, the best combination, consistently provided over 90% mortality. Importantly, there was no significant decrease in efficacy with distance from the spray line even in blocks of row homes with trees and bushes in the backyards. Under laboratory conditions Bti deposition in bioassay cups during the operational trials resulted in over 6 weeks of residual control. Our results demonstrate that area-wide truck mounted applications of WDG can effectively suppress Ae. albopictus larvae and should be used in integrated mosquito management approaches to control this nuisance pest and disease vector.

  1. Proteomic profiling of a robust Wolbachia infection in an Aedes albopictus mosquito cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldridge, Gerald D; Baldridge, Abigail S; Witthuhn, Bruce A; Higgins, LeeAnn; Markowski, Todd W; Fallon, Ann M

    2014-11-01

    Wolbachia pipientis, a widespread vertically transmitted intracellular bacterium, provides a tool for insect control through manipulation of host-microbe interactions. We report proteomic characterization of wStr, a Wolbachia strain associated with a strong cytoplasmic incompatibility phenotype in its native host, Laodelphax striatellus. In the Aedes albopictus C/wStr1 mosquito cell line, wStr maintains a robust, persistent infection. MS/MS analyses of gel bands revealed a protein 'footprint' dominated by Wolbachia-encoded chaperones, stress response and cell membrane proteins, including the surface antigen WspA, a peptidoglycan-associated lipoprotein and a 73 kDa outer membrane protein. Functional classifications and estimated abundance levels of 790 identified proteins suggested that expression, stabilization and secretion of proteins predominate over bacterial genome replication and cell division. High relative abundances of cysteine desulphurase, serine/glycine hydroxymethyl transferase, and components of the α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex in conjunction with above average abundances of glutamate dehydrogenase and proline utilization protein A support Wolbachia genome-based predictions for amino acid metabolism as a primary energy source. wStr expresses 15 Vir proteins of a Type IV secretion system and its transcriptional regulator. Proteomic characterization of a robust insect-associated Wolbachia strain provides baseline information that will inform further development of in vitro protocols for Wolbachia manipulation. PMID:25155417

  2. Seasonal variation in size estimates of Aedes albopictus population based on standard mark-release-recapture experiments in an urban area on Reunion Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouagna, Louis Clément; Dehecq, Jean-Sébastien; Fontenille, Didier; Dumont, Yves; Boyer, Sébastien

    2015-03-01

    The implementation of the sterile insect technique for area-wide vector control requires that natural population density be accurately estimated to determine both the appropriate time to treat and the adequate number of sterile males for release. Herein, we used mark-release-recapture (MRR) to derive seasonal abundance estimates of Aedes albopictus population sizes within a delimited geographical area in Reunion Island. Population size of Ae. albopictus was estimated through four mark-release-recapture experiments carried out separately in different seasons. Marked males and females were released each time, and recaptured using BG sentinel traps for six consecutive days. Data were used to estimate the population size using a conceptual model that incorporates the variation in daily mortality rates. The likely influence of environmental factors on the magnitude of catches and on population fluctuation was analyzed. A total of 2827 mosquitoes (1914 males and 913 females) were marked and released on four occasions during dry and wet seasons. After release, 138 males (7.21%) and 86 females (9.41%) of the marked specimens were recaptured in subsequent samplings. The effectiveness of the daily captures of wild and released mosquitoes was significantly influenced by meteorological conditions such as temperature, rainfall, wind speed and light intensity. The estimates of Ae. albopictus population size obtained with our model estimator ranged from 298 to 1238 males and 604 to 2208 females per ha, with seasonal variability - higher population size in the humid season. The presented results will be essential in designing more effective sterile male release strategies for long-term suppression of wild Ae. albopictus populations. PMID:25592432

  3. Efficacy of attractive toxic sugar baits (ATSB) against Aedes albopictus with garlic oil encapsulated in beta-cyclodextrin as the active ingredient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junnila, Amy; Revay, Edita E; Müller, Gunter C; Kravchenko, Vasiliy; Qualls, Whitney A; Xue, Rui-de; Allen, Sandra A; Beier, John C; Schlein, Yosef

    2015-12-01

    We tested the efficacy of attractive toxic sugar bait (ATSB) with garlic oil microencapsulated in beta-cyclodextrin as active ingredient against Aedes albopictus in suburban Haifa, Israel. Two three-acre gardens with high numbers of Ae. albopictus were selected for perimeter spray treatment with ATSB and ASB (bait containing no active ingredient). Baits were colored with food dye to verify feeding of the mosquitoes. The mosquito population was monitored by human landing catches and sweep net catches in the surrounding vegetation. Experiments lasted for 44 days. Treatment occurred on day 13. The mosquito population collapsed about 4 days after treatment and continued to drop steadily for 27 days until the end of the study. At the experimental site the average pre-treatment landing rate was 17.2 per 5mins. Two days post-treatment, the landing rate dropped to 11.4, and continued to drop to an average of 2.6 during the following 26 days. During the same period, the control population was stable. Few sugar fed females (8-10%) approached a human bait and anthrone tests showed relatively small amounts of sugar within their crop/gut. Around 60-70 % of males caught near our human bait were sugar positive which may indicate that the males were feeding on sugar for mating related behavior. From the vegetation treated with the toxic bait, we recovered significantly fewer (about 10-14%) males and females stained by ATSB than at the ASB-treated control. This may indicate that the toxic baits alter the resting behavior of the poisoned mosquitoes within the vegetation. Almost no Ae. albopictus females (5.2±1.4) approached human bait after treatment with ATSB. It therefore appears that microencapsulated garlic oil is an effective pesticide against Ae. albopictus when used in an ATSB system.

  4. 白纹伊蚊的全球分布及扩散趋势%Trend in global distribution and spread of Aedes albopictus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨舒然; 刘起勇

    2013-01-01

    白纹伊蚊,亦称“亚洲虎蚊”,是我国常见蚊种之一;它是一种重要的病毒媒介,可以传播多种病原体.近年来,白纹伊蚊已从起源地亚洲扩散至全球70多个国家,成为过去20年间全球扩散速度最快的100种物种之一.白纹伊蚊的迁移和扩散已引起全世界的关注,现从时间和空间的角度对白纹伊蚊的全球分布和扩散趋势进行综述,并探讨白纹伊蚊扩散的影响及控制措施.%Aedes albopictus, also named "Asian Tiger mosquito, is a common mosquito species in China. Ae. Albopictus is an important vector for a large number of pathogens. In recent years, it has spread from Asia to at least 70 countries worldwide, among the world s top 100 animals that spread most rapidly over the past 20 years. The migration and spread of Ae. Albopictus have drawn global attention. This paper aims to review the trend in global distribution and spread of Ae. Albopictus from the perspectives of time and space and investigate the influence of its spread and the related control measures.

  5. Insecticide resistance and, efficacy of space spraying and larviciding in the control of dengue vectors Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus in Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karunaratne, S H P P; Weeraratne, T C; Perera, M D B; Surendran, S N

    2013-09-01

    Unprecedented incidence of dengue has been recorded in Sri Lanka in recent times. Source reduction and use of insecticides in space spraying/fogging and larviciding, are the primary means of controlling the vector mosquitoes Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus in the island nation. A study was carried out to understand insecticide cross-resistance spectra and mechanisms of insecticide resistance of both these vectors from six administrative districts, i.e. Kandy, Kurunegala, Puttalam, Gampaha, Ratnapura and Jaffna, of Sri Lanka. Efficacy of the recommended dosages of frequently used insecticides in space spraying and larviciding in dengue vector control programmes was also tested. Insecticide bioassay results revealed that, in general, both mosquito species were highly resistant to DDT but susceptible to propoxur and malathion except Jaffna Ae. aegypti population. Moderate resistance to malathion shown by Jaffna Ae. aegypti population correlated with esterase and malathion carboxylesterase activities of the population. High levels of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) insensitivity in the absence of malathion and propoxur resistance may be due to non-synaptic forms of AChE proteins. Moderate pyrethroid resistance in the absence of high monooxygenase levels indicated the possible involvement of 'kdr' type resistance mechanism in Sri Lankan dengue vectors. Results of the space spraying experiments revealed that 100% mortality at a 10 m distance and >50% mortality at a 50 m distance can be achieved with malathion, pesguard and deltacide even in a ground with dense vegetation. Pesguard and deltacide spraying gave 100% mortality up to 50 m distance in open area and areas with little vegetation. Both species gave >50% mortalities for deltacide at a distance of 75 m in a dense vegetation area. Larval bioassays conducted in the laboratory showed that a 1 ppm temephos solution can maintain a larval mortality rate of 100% for ten months, and the mortality rate declined to 0% in the

  6. Insecticide resistance and, efficacy of space spraying and larviciding in the control of dengue vectors Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus in Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karunaratne, S H P P; Weeraratne, T C; Perera, M D B; Surendran, S N

    2013-09-01

    Unprecedented incidence of dengue has been recorded in Sri Lanka in recent times. Source reduction and use of insecticides in space spraying/fogging and larviciding, are the primary means of controlling the vector mosquitoes Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus in the island nation. A study was carried out to understand insecticide cross-resistance spectra and mechanisms of insecticide resistance of both these vectors from six administrative districts, i.e. Kandy, Kurunegala, Puttalam, Gampaha, Ratnapura and Jaffna, of Sri Lanka. Efficacy of the recommended dosages of frequently used insecticides in space spraying and larviciding in dengue vector control programmes was also tested. Insecticide bioassay results revealed that, in general, both mosquito species were highly resistant to DDT but susceptible to propoxur and malathion except Jaffna Ae. aegypti population. Moderate resistance to malathion shown by Jaffna Ae. aegypti population correlated with esterase and malathion carboxylesterase activities of the population. High levels of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) insensitivity in the absence of malathion and propoxur resistance may be due to non-synaptic forms of AChE proteins. Moderate pyrethroid resistance in the absence of high monooxygenase levels indicated the possible involvement of 'kdr' type resistance mechanism in Sri Lankan dengue vectors. Results of the space spraying experiments revealed that 100% mortality at a 10 m distance and >50% mortality at a 50 m distance can be achieved with malathion, pesguard and deltacide even in a ground with dense vegetation. Pesguard and deltacide spraying gave 100% mortality up to 50 m distance in open area and areas with little vegetation. Both species gave >50% mortalities for deltacide at a distance of 75 m in a dense vegetation area. Larval bioassays conducted in the laboratory showed that a 1 ppm temephos solution can maintain a larval mortality rate of 100% for ten months, and the mortality rate declined to 0% in the

  7. Two Chikungunya isolates from the outbreak of La Reunion (Indian Ocean exhibit different patterns of infection in the mosquito, Aedes albopictus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Vazeille

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A Chikungunya (CHIK outbreak hit La Réunion Island in 2005-2006. The implicated vector was Aedes albopictus. Here, we present the first study on the susceptibility of Ae. albopictus populations to sympatric CHIKV isolates from La Réunion Island and compare it to other virus/vector combinations. METHODOLOGY AND FINDINGS: We orally infected 8 Ae. albopictus collections from La Réunion and 3 from Mayotte collected in March 2006 with two Chikungunya virus (CHIKV from La Réunion: (i strain 05.115 collected in June 2005 with an Alanine at the position 226 of the glycoprotein E1 and (ii strain 06.21 collected in November 2005 with a substitution A226V. Two other CHIKV isolates and four additional mosquito strains/species were also tested. The viral titer of the infectious blood-meal was 10(7 plaque forming units (pfu/mL. Dissemination rates were assessed by immunofluorescent staining on head squashes of surviving females 14 days after infection. Rates were at least two times higher with CHIKV 06.21 compared to CHIKV 05.115. In addition, 10 individuals were analyzed every day by quantitative RT-PCR. Viral RNA was quantified on (i whole females and (ii midguts and salivary glands of infected females. When comparing profiles, CHIKV 06.21 produced nearly 2 log more viral RNA copies than CHIKV 05.115. Furthermore, females infected with CHIKV 05.115 could be divided in two categories: weakly susceptible or strongly susceptible, comparable to those infected by CHIKV 06.21. Histological analysis detected the presence of CHIKV in salivary glands two days after infection. In addition, Ae. albopictus from La Réunion was as efficient vector as Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus from Vietnam when infected with the CHIKV 06.21. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings support the hypothesis that the CHIK outbreak in La Réunion Island was due to a highly competent vector Ae. albopictus which allowed an efficient replication and dissemination of CHIKV 06.21.

  8. Multi-country Survey Revealed Prevalent and Novel F1534S Mutation in Voltage-Gated Sodium Channel (VGSC Gene in Aedes albopictus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiabao Xu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Aedes albopictus is an important dengue vector because of its aggressive biting behavior and rapid spread out of its native home range in Southeast Asia. Pyrethroids are widely used for adult mosquito control, and resistance to pyrethroids should be carefully monitored because vector control is the only effective method currently available to prevent dengue transmission. The voltage-gated sodium channel gene is the target site of pyrethroids, and mutations in this gene cause knockdown resistance (kdr. Previous studies reported various mutations in the voltage-gated sodium channel (VGSC gene, but the spatial distribution of kdr mutations in Ae. albopictus has not been systematically examined, and the association between kdr mutation and phenotypic resistance has not been established.A total of 597 Ae. albopictus individuals from 12 populations across Asia, Africa, America and Europe were examined for mutations in the voltage-gated sodium channel gene. Three domains for a total of 1,107 bp were sequenced for every individual. Two populations from southern China were examined for pyrethroid resistance using the World Health Organization standard tube bioassay, and the association between kdr mutations and phenotypic resistance was tested.A total of 29 synonymous mutations were found across domain II, III and IV of the VGSC gene. Non-synonymous mutations in two codons of the VGSC gene were detected in 5 populations from 4 countries. A novel mutation at 1532 codon (I1532T was found in Rome, Italy with a frequency of 19.7%. The second novel mutation at codon 1534 (F1534S was detected in southern China and Florida, USA with a frequency ranging from 9.5-22.6%. The WHO insecticide susceptibility bioassay found 90.1% and 96.1% mortality in the two populations from southern China, suggesting resistance and probable resistance. Positive association between kdr mutations with deltamethrin resistance was established in these two populations.Two novel kdr

  9. Wolbachia strain wPip yields a pattern of cytoplasmic incompatibility enhancing a Wolbachia-based suppression strategy against the disease vector Aedes albopictus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calvitti Maurizio

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI is induced in nature by Wolbachia bacteria, resulting in conditional male sterility. Previous research demonstrated that the two Wolbachia strains (wAlbA and wAlbB that naturally co-infect the disease vector mosquito Aedes albopictus (Asian tiger mosquito can be replaced with the wPip Wolbachia strain from Culex pipiens. Since Wolbachia-based vector control strategies depend upon the strength and consistency of CI, a greater understanding is needed on the CI relationships between wPip, wAlbA and wAlbB Wolbachia in Ae. albopictus. Methods This work consisted of a collaborative series of crosses carried out in Italy and in US to study the CI relationships between the “wPip” infected Ae. albopictus strain (ARwP and the superinfected SR strain. The Ae. albopictus strains used in Italian tests are the wPip infected ARwP strain (ARwPIT, the superinfected SR strain and the aposymbiotic AR strain. To understand the observed pattern of CI, crossing experiments carried out in USA focused on the study of the CI relationships between ARwP (ARwPUS and artificially-generated single infected lines, in specific HTA and HTB, harbouring only wAlbA and wAlbB Wolbachia respectively. Results The paper reports an unusual pattern of CI observed in crossing experiments between ARwP and SR lines. Specifically, ARwP males are able to induce full sterility in wild type females throughout most of their lifetime, while crosses between SR males and ARwP females become partially fertile with male aging. We demonstrated that the observed decrease in CI penetrance with SR male age, is related to the previously described decrease in Wolbachia density, in particular of the wAlbA strain, occurring in aged superinfected males. Conclusions The results here reported support the use of the ARwP Ae. albopictus line as source of “ready-made sterile males”, as an alternative to gamma radiation sterilized males, for autocidal

  10. Landmark-based geometric morphometric analysis of wing shape among certain species of Aedes mosquitoes in District Dehradun (Uttarakhand), India

    OpenAIRE

    Ritwik Mondal; Pemola Devi, N.; R.K. Jauhari

    2015-01-01

    Background & objectives: Insect wing morphology has been used in many studies to describe variations among species and populations using traditional morphometrics, and more recently geometric morphometrics. A landmark-based geometric morphometric analysis of the wings of three species of Aedes (Diptera: Culicidae), viz. Ae. aegypti, Ae. albopictus and Ae. pseudotaeniatus, at District Dehradun was conducted belling on the fact that it can provide insight into the population structure, ecology ...

  11. Isolation and efficacy of entomopathogenic fungus (Metarhizium anisopliae) for the control of Aedes albopictus Skuse larvae:suspected dengue vector in Pakistan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hazrat Bilal; Soaib Ali Hassan; Imtinan Akram Khan

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To isolate the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae (M. anisopliae) in the local environment, and evaluate its efficacy against the suspected dengue vector Aedes albopictus in Pakistan. Methods: According to the standard procedure, M. anisopliae was isolated from the dead mosquitoes which were collected from the field or dead after the collection. Bioassay was performed to determine its efficacy. Results: The results indicated that M. anisopliae had larvicidal effect with LC50 value 1.09×105 and LC90 value 1.90×1013 while it took 45.41 h to kill 50%of tested population. Conclusions: Taking long time to kill 50% population when compare with the synthetic insecticides, is the only drawback for the use of entomopathogenic fungus but these bio-pesticides are safe for the use.

  12. First report of behavioural lateralisation in mosquitoes: right-biased kicking behaviour against males in females of the Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benelli, Giovanni; Romano, Donato; Messing, Russell H; Canale, Angelo

    2015-04-01

    Lateralisation (i.e. functional and/or structural specialisations of left and right sides of the brain) of aggressive traits has been studied in a number of vertebrates, while evidence for invertebrates is scarce. Mosquito females display aggressive responses against undesired males, performing rejection kicks with the hind legs. In this research, we examined lateralisation of kicking behaviour in females of the Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus. We found a right-biased population-level lateralisation of kicking behaviour. Four repeated testing phases on mosquito females confirmed the preferential use of right legs. However, when left legs were used, the mean number of kicks per rejection event was not different to that performed with right legs. Both left and right kicking behaviour lead to successful displacement of undesired partners. This is the first report about behavioural lateralisation in mosquitoes.

  13. Aedes albopictus rearing and ovarian dissection methods%白纹伊蚊的饲养技巧及其卵巢的解剖方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王佳璐; 谭梁飞

    2011-01-01

    白纹伊蚊(Aedes albopictus)是我国大陆地区登革热病毒最主要的传播媒介,分布纬度广,从我国南方向北至沈阳市,西北至陇县、宝鸡市,西南至西藏自治区都有分布[1].为了防止登革热的发生,各地疾病控制机构对白纹伊蚊开展了大量的饲养观察、生态习性、吸血行为、生殖生理学等方面的研究,旨在深入了解白纹伊蚊的生活习性、传病途径,从而达到切断传播途径、控制疾病发生的目的.

  14. Control of Aedes albopictus with attractive toxic sugar baits (ATSB) and potential impact on non-target organisms in St. Augustine, Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revay, Edita E; Müller, Gunter C; Qualls, Whitney A; Kline, Daniel L; Naranjo, Diana P; Arheart, Kristopher L; Kravchenko, Vasiliy D; Yefremova, Zoya; Hausmann, Axel; Beier, John C; Schlein, Yosef; Xue, Rui-De

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the efficacy of bait stations and foliar applications containing attractive toxic sugar baits (ATSB) and eugenol to control Aedes albopictus. At the same time, the potential impact of these control methods was evaluated on non-target organisms. The study was conducted at five tire sites in St. Augustine, Florida. A. albopictus populations were significantly reduced with ATSB-eugenol applications applied directly to non-flowering vegetation and as bait stations compared with non-attractive sugar baits and control. The application of ATSB made to non-flowering vegetation resulted in more significant reductions of mosquito populations compared to the application of ATSB presented in a bait station. Over 5.5% of the non-targets were stained in the flowering vegetation application site. However, when the attractive sugar bait application was made to non-flowering vegetation or presented in bait stations, the impact on non-target insects was very low for all non-target orders as only 0.6% of the individual insects were stained with the dye from the sugar solutions, respectively. There were no significant differences between the staining of mosquitoes collected in flowering vegetation (206/1000) or non-flowering vegetation (242/1000) sites during the non-target evaluation. Our field studies support the use of eugenol as an active ingredient for controlling the dengue vector A. albopictus when used as an ATSB toxin and demonstrates potential use in sub-tropical and tropical environments for dengue control.

  15. Efficacy of seed extracts of Annona squamosa and Annona muricata(Annonaceae) for the control of Aedes albopictus and Culex quinquefasciatus(Culicidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lala; Harivelo; Raveloson; Ravaomanarivo; Herisolo; Andrianiaina; Razafindraleva; Fara; Nantenaina; Raharimalala; Beby; Rasoahantaveloniaina; Pierre; Herv; Ravelonandro; Patrick; Mavingui

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the potential efficacy of seed extracts of Annona squamosa and Annona muricata used as natural insecticides to control adult and larvae of the vectors Aedes albopictus and Culex quinquefasciatus under laboratory conditions.Methods:Aqueous and oil extracts of the two plants were prepared from dried seeds.Preliminary identifications of the chemical components of each seed extracts were performed using microreactional and GCP techniques.Larvae and adults of Aedes albopictus and Culex quinquefasciatus were collected from the breeding sites in coastal and highlands regions of Madagascar.WHO standardized tests of susceptibility for larvae and imaginal stage of mosquitoes were realized to determine mortality and LC50 of mosquitoes.Results:Chemical identifications showed that these extracts contain alkaloids and flavonoids compounds that probably confer their biological insecticidal proprieties.CPG analysis showed also the presence of various fatty acids.On adult mosquitoes,significant insecticidal effects were observed with both aqueous and oil extracts of the two plant seeds compared to mortality induced by deltamethrin,an insecticide used as reference.Extracts of Annona muricata induced high mortality rate to both species of mosquito compared to extracts of Annona squamosa at all concentrations tested.The LC50 of seed extracts ranged from 1%to 5%for adults and 0.5%to 1%for larvae.Conclusions:The seed extracts of these two plants may be used as mosquito controlling agents and offer a new approach to a less costly,practical and environmentally friendly control of vector borne diseases.

  16. Evaluation of Three Commercial Handheld Ultra-Low-Volume Foggers with Aqualure® 20-20 Against Adult Aedes albopictus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camelio, Kinsey; Gibson, Jennifer; Smith, Michael L; Drake, Lisa L; Xue, Rui-De

    2016-06-01

    The Anastasia Mosquito Control District (AMCD) tests all equipment before field use to determine if machines are suitable for the needs of the district. Three handheld ultra-low-volume (ULV) foggers--the American LongRay (ULV) Fogger Model 3600B with rechargeable lithium battery (DC model), American LongRay ULV Fogger Model 3600E with 110V or 220V AC power (AC model), and Boston Fog Battery Motorized Fogger (Boston Fogger)--were compared to determine which fogger would be most suitable for use by AMCD. Mortality of caged Aedes albopictus was analyzed after 24 h to determine the success of a single application. All 3 foggers resulted in 100% mortality after 24 h using the insecticide Aqualuer 20-20 (active ingredients permethrin 20.6% and piperonyl butoxide 20.6%) 1:5 dilution with reverse osmosis water. Based on operator safety, robustness, and operational performance, the American LongRay DC model was found to be the most suitable at administering Aqualuer 20-20 against caged adult Ae. albopictus. PMID:27280357

  17. Efficacy of Two Common Methods of Application of Residual Insecticide for Controlling the Asian Tiger Mosquito, Aedes albopictus (Skuse, in Urban Areas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Marini

    Full Text Available After its first introduction in the 1980's the Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus (Skuse, has spread throughout Southern Europe. Ae. albopictus is considered an epidemiologically important vector for the transmission of many viral pathogens such as the yellow fever virus, dengue fever and Chikungunya fever, as well as several filarial nematodes such as Dirofilaria immitis or D. repens. It is therefore crucial to develop measures to reduce the risks of disease transmission by controlling the vector populations. The aim of the study was to compare the efficacy of two application techniques (mist vs. stretcher sprayer and two insecticides (Etox based on the nonester pyrethroid Etofenprox vs. Microsin based on the pyrethroid type II Cypermetrin in controlling adult tiger mosquito populations in highly populated areas. To test the effect of the two treatments pre- and post-treatment human landing rate counts were conducted for two years. After one day from the treatment we observed a 100% population decrease in mosquito abundance with both application methods and both insecticides. However, seven and 14 days after the application the stretcher sprayer showed larger population reductions than the mist sprayer. No effect of insecticide type after one day and 14 days was found, while Etox caused slightly higher population reduction than Microsin after seven days. Emergency measures to locally reduce the vector populations should adopt adulticide treatments using stretcher sprayers. However, more research is still needed to evaluate the potential negative effects of adulticide applications on non-target organisms.

  18. Influência de diversos derivados de vegetais na sobrevida das larvas de Aedes fluviatilis(Lutz) (Diptera: Culicidade) em laboratorio Larvicidal properties of plant extracts against Aedes fluviatilis (Lutz) (Diptera: Culicidae) in the laboratory

    OpenAIRE

    Rotraut A. G. B. Consoli; Nelymar M. Mendes; José P. Pereira; Bernadete S. Santos; Marlúcia A. Lamounier

    1988-01-01

    As propriedades larvicidas de 34 extratos, provenientes de 29 vegetais, foram testados em larvas de Aedes fluviatilis (Lutz) (Diptera: Culicidae) nas concentrações de 100, 10 e 1 ppm. 26,5% dos exames utilizados, reduziram significamente a sobrevida larvária (alfa = 0,05), quando empregados na concentração de 100 ppm (Anacardium occidentale, Agave americana, Allium sativum, Coriandrum sativum, Nerium oleander, Spatodea campanulata, Tibouchina scrobiculata e Vernonia salzmanni). O ácido anacár...

  19. Epistatic roles of E2 glycoprotein mutations in adaption of chikungunya virus to Aedes albopictus and Ae. aegypti mosquitoes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantin A Tsetsarkin

    Full Text Available Between 2005 and 2007 Chikungunya virus (CHIKV caused its largest outbreak/epidemic in documented history. An unusual feature of this epidemic is the involvement of Ae. albopictus as a principal vector. Previously we have demonstrated that a single mutation E1-A226V significantly changed the ability of the virus to infect and be transmitted by this vector when expressed in the background of well characterized CHIKV strains LR2006 OPY1 and 37997. However, in the current study we demonstrate that introduction of the E1-A226V mutation into the background of an infectious clone derived from the Ag41855 strain (isolated in Uganda in 1982 does not significantly increase infectivity for Ae. albopictus. In order to elucidate the genetic determinants that affect CHIKV sensitivity to the E1-A226V mutation in Ae. albopictus, the genomes of the LR2006 OPY1 and Ag41855 strains were used for construction of chimeric viruses and viruses with a specific combination of point mutations at selected positions. Based upon the midgut infection rates of the derived viruses in Ae. albopictus and Ae. aegypti mosquitoes, a critical role of the mutations at positions E2-60 and E2-211 on vector infection was revealed. The E2-G60D mutation was an important determinant of CHIKV infectivity for both Ae. albopictus and Ae. aegypti, but only moderately modulated the effect of the E1-A226V mutation in Ae. albopictus. However, the effect of the E2-I211T mutation with respect to mosquito infections was much more specific, strongly modifying the effect of the E1-A226V mutation in Ae. albopictus. In contrast, CHIKV infectivity for Ae. aegypti was not influenced by the E2-1211T mutation. The occurrence of the E2-60G and E2-211I residues among CHIKV isolates was analyzed, revealing a high prevalence of E2-211I among strains belonging to the Eastern/Central/South African (ECSA clade. This suggests that the E2-211I might be important for adaptation of CHIKV to some particular conditions

  20. Derris (Lonchocarpus urucu (Leguminosae Extract Modifies the Peritrophic Matrix Structure of Aedes aegypti (Diptera:Culicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gusmão Desiely Silva

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Aqueous suspension of ethanol extracts of Derris (Lonchocarpus urucu (Leguminosae, collected in the state of Amazonas, Brazil, were tested for larvicidal activity against the mosquito Aedes aegypti (Diptera:Culicidae. The aim of this study was to observe the alterations of peritrophic matrix in Ae. aegypti larvae treated with an aqueous suspension of D. urucu extract. Different concentrations of D. urucu root extract were tested against fourth instar larvae. One hundred percent mortality was observed at 150 µg/ml (LC50 17.6 µg/ml 24 h following treatment. In response to D. urucu feeding, larvae excreted a large amount of amorphous feces, while control larvae did not produce feces during the assay period. Ultrastructural studies showed that larvae fed with 150 µg/ml of D. urucu extract for 4 h have an imperfect peritrophic matrix and extensive damage of the midgut epithelium. Data indicate a protective role for the peritrophic matrix. The structural modification of the peritrophic matrix is intrinsically associated with larval mortality.

  1. Essential oils and their compounds as Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae) larvicides: review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Clarice Noleto; Moraes, Denise Fernandes Coutinho

    2014-02-01

    This review aims to describe essential oils and their constituent compounds that exhibit bioactivity against Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae) larvae, the immature stage of the primary vector of dengue. This review is based on original articles obtained by searching on major databases. Our literature review revealed that 361 essential oils from 269 plant species have been tested for their larvicidal activity. More than 60 % of these essential oils were considered active (LC50temephos in container breeding. Approximately 27 % of the plants studied for their larvicidal activity against A. aegypti were collected in Brazil. Essential oils rich in phenylpropanoids, oxygenated sesquiterpenes, and monoterpene hydrocarbons were found to be the most active. When the isolates were tested, phenylpropanoids and monoterpene hydrocarbons were the most active compound classes. We describe the plant parts used and the major constituents of the essential oils. In addition, we discuss factors affecting the activity (such as plant parts, age of the plant, chemotypes, larval source, and methods used), structure-activity relationships, and mechanisms of action of the essential oils and their compounds. Essential oils have been widely investigated and show high larvicidal activity against A. aegypti. This review reveals that the essential oils are effective alternatives for the production of larvicides, which can be used in vector-borne disease control programmes. PMID:24265058

  2. 实验室内白纹伊蚊和致倦库蚊养殖方法%Rearing technique of Aedes albopictus and Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus in the laboratory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘仰青; 李卫民; 陈海婴; 柳小青; 郭学俭

    2013-01-01

    By designing the rearing equipments and optimizing the feeding condition and methods, we had successfully reared some generations of Culex pipiens quinquefasdatus and Aedes albopictus in the laboratory. Thus a set of efficient, economical and practical breeding technique to feed Aedes albopictus and Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus was formed based on the method reported in the literature and the usual feeding experience summaries,%通过对实验室内蚊虫饲养器具的设计和饲养条件、方法的优化组合,在室内成功饲养白纹伊蚊和致倦库蚊,根据文献报道方法和平时饲养心得总结形成了一套较为高效、经济和实用的白纹伊蚊和致倦库蚊养殖方法.

  3. Tackling the growing threat of dengue: Phyllanthus niruri-mediated synthesis of silver nanoparticles and their mosquitocidal properties against the dengue vector Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosquitoes transmit pathogens that cause millions of human deaths each year. Dengue virus is transmitted to humans in tropical and subtropical areas by Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae). The use of synthetic insecticides to control this mosquito is accompanied by high operational costs and adverse...

  4. Toxicity and sub-lethal effect of endemic plants from family Anacardiaceae on oviposition behavior of Aedes albopictus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan Fatma Zuharah

    2015-08-01

    Conclusions: These results clearly indicate that the acetone extract of G. renghas could be served as potential larvicide, whereas M. fasciculiflora has better sub-lethal effect for oviposition deterrence and against Ae. albopictus as an oviciding agent.

  5. A Native Wolbachia Endosymbiont Does Not Limit Dengue Virus Infection in the Mosquito Aedes notoscriptus (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skelton, Ellie; Rancès, Edwige; Frentiu, Francesca D; Kusmintarsih, Endang Srimurni; Iturbe-Ormaetxe, Iñaki; Caragata, Eric P; Woolfit, Megan; O'Neill, Scott L

    2016-03-01

    The endosymbiotic bacterium Wolbachia pipientis infects many species of insects and has been transinfected into the mosquito Aedes aegypti (L.), the primary vector of dengue virus (DENV). Recently, it has been shown that Wolbachia blocks the replication and transmission of RNA viruses, such as DENV, in a number of mosquito species including Ae. aegypti and Aedes albopictus (Skuse), which is naturally infected with Wolbachia and considered a secondary vector for DENV. The mosquito species Aedes notoscriptus (Skuse) is highly prevalent in Australia, including in areas where DENV outbreaks have been recorded. The mosquito has been implicated in the transmission of Ross River and Barmah Forest viruses, but not DENV. We investigated whether Wolbachia naturally infects this mosquito species and whether it has an impact on the ability of Ae. notoscriptus to transmit DENV. We show, for the first time, that Ae. notoscriptus is naturally infected with a strain of Wolbachia that belongs to supergroup B and is localized only in the ovaries. However, Wolbachia infection in Ae. notoscriptus did not induce resistance to DENV and had no effect on overall DENV infection rate or titer. The presence of a native Wolbachia in Ae. notoscriptus cannot explain why this mosquito is an ineffective vector of DENV.

  6. Repellent Activity of Bitter Almond Oil Against Aedes albopictus%苦杏仁精油对白纹伊蚊的驱避活性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马玉花; 赵忠; 江志利; 魏丽萍; 郭婵娟; 张兴

    2012-01-01

    采用个体涂肤有效保护时间试验研究了苦杏仁精油对白纹伊蚊的驱避活性.结果表明,含HCN和去除HCN的苦杏仁精油对白纹伊蚊都具有很强的驱避活性,涂药8h后,2种苦杏仁精油对白纹伊蚊的驱避率均在96.76%以上,作为对照的隆力奇花露水的驱避率为58.28%.另外,2种精油对人体的有效保护时间分别为6h和7h,高于隆力奇花露水4h.可见苦杏仁精油对白纹伊蚊具有很强的驱避效果,且其有效保护时间高于隆力奇花露水,因而有望开发成为新型的蚊虫驱避剂.%The repellent activity of bitter almond oil with and without HCN and toilet water (with the main component of DEET) against Aedes albopictus were studied with human body. The results showed that both of bitter almond oils had strong repellent activity against A. Albopictus, after 8 h the repellent rate of bitter almond oil with and without HCN was 96. 76% while the repellent rate of toilet water was 58. 28%. The available protective time of two types of bitter almond oil was 6 h and 7 h, respectively, higher than that of toilet water, indicating the potential of bitter almond oil to be developed as a new mosquito repellent agent.

  7. [Detection of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus, in an urban zone of the municipality of Catanduva, SP, after control of a Dengue epidemic].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso Júnior, R P; Scandar, S A; de Mello, N V; Ernandes, S; Botti, M V; Nascimento, E M

    1997-01-01

    After the realization of control research that had in view the transmission of dengue virus, we started to monitor two kinds of entomological vigilance, Breteau Index and ovitrap. We intended to evaluate the necessary time elapsed before Aedes sp mosquitoes were again detected at the urban area of Catanduva s town (SP). The ovitraps showed positiveness for the Aedes aegypti two months after the control research, while the Breteau Index became positive only at the fourth month after the end of the referred research.

  8. Inheritance of Resistance to Deltamethrin in Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) From Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, María Magdalena; Hurtado, Daymi; Severson, David W; Bisset, Juan A

    2014-11-01

    The development of pyrethroid resistance in Aedes aegypti (L) (Diptera: Culicidae) is a serious concern because major A. aegypti control programs are predominantly based on pyrethroid use during epidemic disease outbreaks. Research about the genetic basis for pyrethroid resistance and how it is transmitted among mosquito populations is needed. The objective of this study was to determine how deltamethrin resistance is inherited in the Cuban A. aegypti-resistant reference strain. Here, a field population of A. aegypti from Santiago de Cuba (SAN-F14), subjected to 14 generations of selection for high deltamethrin resistance level (91.25×), was used to prepare reciprocal F1 and backcross progeny with the insecticide-susceptible Rockefeller strain. Bioassays with larvae were performed according to World Health Organization guidelines. The activities of metabolic enzymes were assayed through synergist and biochemical tests. The null hypothesis of the parallelism test between the two probit regression lines of the reciprocal F1 (susceptible females × resistant males and vice versa) was not rejected at the 5% significance level (P = 0.42), indicating autosomal inheritance. The LC50 response of both F1 progenies to deltamethrin was elevated but less than the highly resistant SAN-F14 strain. DLC values for the F1 progenies were 0.91 and 0.87, respectively, suggesting that deltamethrin resistance in the SAN-F14 strain is inherited as an autosomal incompletely dominant trait, involving at least two factors, which implies a faster development of deltamethrin resistance in larvae and lost product effectiveness. Metabolic enzymes including esterases and cytochrome P-450 monooxygenases but not glutathione-S-transferases were involved in deltamethrin resistance in larvae. PMID:26309309

  9. Insecticide resistance in two Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) strains from Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisset, J A; Marín, R; Rodríguez, M M; Severson, D W; Ricardo, Y; French, L; Díaz, M; Pérez, O

    2013-03-01

    Dengue (family Flaviridae, genus Flavivirus, DENV) and dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) are presently important public health problems in Costa Rica. The primary strategy for disease control is based on reducing population densities of the main mosquito vector Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae). This is heavily dependent on use of chemical insecticides, thus the development of resistance is a frequent threat to control program effectiveness. The objective of this study was to determine the levels of insecticide resistance and the metabolic resistance mechanisms involved in two Ae. aegypti strains collected from two provinces (Puntarenas and Limon) in Costa Rica. Bioassays with larvae were performed according to World Health Organization guidelines and resistance in adults was measured through standard bottle assays. The activities of beta-esterases, cytochrome P450 monooxygenases, and glutathione S-transferases (GST), were assayed through synergists and biochemical tests, wherein the threshold criteria for each enzyme was established using the susceptible Rockefeller strain. The results showed higher resistance levels to the organophosphate (OP) temephos and the pyrethroid deltamethrin in larvae. The efficacy of commercial formulations of temephos in controlling Ae. aegypti populations was 100% mortality up to 11 and 12 d posttreatment with daily water replacements in test containers. Temephos and deltamethrin resistance in larvae were associated with high esterase activity, but not to cytochrome P450 monooxygenase or GST activities. Adult mosquitoes were resistant to deltamethrin, and susceptible to bendiocarb, chlorpyrifos, and cypermethrin. Because temephos and deltamethrin resistance are emerging at the studied sites, alternative insecticides should be considered. The insecticides chlorpyrifos and cypermethrin could be good candidates to use as alternatives for Ae. aegypti control. PMID:23540124

  10. Persistent Wolbachia and cultivable bacteria infection in the reproductive and somatic tissues of the mosquito vector Aedes albopictus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karima Zouache

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Commensal and symbiotic microbes have a considerable impact on the behavior of many arthropod hosts, including hematophagous species that transmit pathogens causing infectious diseases to human and animals. Little is known about the bacteria associated with mosquitoes other than the vectorized pathogens. This study investigated Wolbachia and cultivable bacteria that persist through generations in Ae. albopictus organs known to host transmitted arboviruses, such as dengue and chikungunya. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used culturing, diagnostic and quantitative PCR, as well as in situ hybridization, to detect and locate bacteria in whole individual mosquitoes and in dissected tissues. Wolbachia, cultivable bacteria of the genera Acinetobacter, Comamonas, Delftia and Pseudomonas co-occurred and persisted in the bodies of both males and females of Ae. albopictus initially collected in La Réunion during the chikungunya outbreak, and maintained as colonies in insectaries. In dissected tissues, Wolbachia and the cultivable Acinetobacter can be detected in the salivary glands. The other bacteria are commonly found in the gut. Quantitative PCR estimates suggest that Wolbachia densities are highest in ovaries, lower than those of Acinetobacter in the gut, and approximately equal to those of Acinetobacter in the salivary glands. Hybridization using specific fluorescent probes successfully localized Wolbachia in all germ cells, including the oocytes, and in the salivary glands, whereas the Acinetobacter hybridizing signal was mostly located in the foregut and in the anterior midgut. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results show that Proteobacteria are distributed in the somatic and reproductive tissues of mosquito where transmissible pathogens reside and replicate. This location may portend the coexistence of symbionts and pathogens, and thus the possibility that competition or cooperation phenomena may occur in the mosquito vector Ae

  11. Mosquito Rasputin interacts with chikungunya virus nsP3 and determines the infection rate in Aedes albopictus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fros, Jelke J; Geertsema, Corinne; Zouache, Karima; Baggen, Jim; Domeradzka, Natalia; van Leeuwen, Daniël M; Flipse, Jacky; Vlak, Just M; Failloux, Anna-Bella; Pijlman, Gorben P

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is an arthritogenic alphavirus (family Togaviridae), transmitted by Aedes species mosquitoes. CHIKV re-emerged in 2004 with multiple outbreaks worldwide and recently reached the Americas where it has infected over a million individuals in a rapidly expanding epi

  12. Mosquito Rasputin interacts with chikungunya virus nsP3 and determines the infection rate in Aedes albopictus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fros, J.J.; Geertsema, Corinne; Zouache, Karima; Baggen, Jim; Domeradzka, Natalia; Leeuwen, Van D.M.; Flipse, Jacky; Vlak, J.M.; Failloux, Anna Bella; Pijlman, G.P.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is an arthritogenic alphavirus (family Togaviridae), transmitted by Aedes species mosquitoes. CHIKV re-emerged in 2004 with multiple outbreaks worldwide and recently reached the Americas where it has infected over a million individuals in a rapidly expanding

  13. Especificidade da armadilha Adultrap para capturar fêmeas de Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae Specificity of the Adultrap for capturing females of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almério de Castro Gomes

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available A Adultrap é uma nova armadilha feita para capturar fêmeas de Aedes aegypti. Foram realizados testes para avaliar sua especificidade tendo como referência a técnica da aspiração da espécie em abrigos artificiais. A Adultrap ficou exposta por 24 horas no intradomicílio e peridomicílio de 120 casas sorteadas em dois bairros da Cidade de Foz do Iguaçu, Estado do Paraná. O teste estatístico foi o modelo log-linear de Poisson. O resultado foi a captura de 726 mosquitos Culicidae, dos quais 80 eram Aedes aegypti. A Adultrap capturou apenas fêmeas desta espécie, enquanto o aspirador os dois sexos de Aedes aegypti e mais cinco outras espécies. A Adultrap capturou Aedes aegypti dentro e fora das casas, mas a análise indicou que no peridomicílio a armadilha capturou significantemente mais fêmeas do que a aspiração. Também, ficou evidenciada a sensibilidade da Adultrap para detectar Aedes aegypti em situação de baixa freqüência.The Adultrap is a new trap built for capturing females of Aedes aegypti. Tests were carried out to evaluate the specificity of this trap in comparison with the technique of aspiration of specimens in artificial shelters. Adultraps were kept for 24 hours inside and outside 120 randomly selected homes in two districts of the city of Foz do Iguaçú, State of Paraná. The statistical test was Poisson’s log-linear model. The result was 726 mosquitoes captured, of which 80 were Aedes aegypti. The Adultrap captured only females of this species, while the aspiration method captured both sexes of Aedes aegypti and another five species. The Adultrap captured Aedes aegypti inside and outside the homes, but the analysis indicated that, outside the homes, this trap captured significantly more females than aspiration did. The sensitivity of the Adultrap for detecting females of Aedes aegypti in low-frequency situations was also demonstrated.

  14. Establishment of a satellite rearing facility to support the release of sterile Aedes albopictus males. I. Optimization of mass rearing parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogan, Mert; Gunay, Filiz; Puggioli, Arianna; Balestrino, Fabrizio; Oncu, Ceren; Alten, Bulent; Bellini, Romeo

    2016-07-01

    The vector species Aedes albopictus (Skuse, 1894) was recorded in Turkey for the first time, near the Greek border, in 2011 and a high risk of expansion towards Aegean and Mediterranean coasts of Turkey was estimated. A preliminary study was planned to evaluate the possibility of creating a satellite mass rearing facility for this species and manage a larval rearing procedure by using the new mass-rearing technology proposed by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). For this purpose, the effects of different larval densities (1, 2, 3 and 4 larvae per ml) on the preimaginal development were evaluated by observing pupal, adult and male productivity using life cycle trials. Geometric morphometric analyses were also performed to define all phenotypic differences that occurred on the wing size and shape morphology of adult stage at the four different rearing conditions tested. A high pupation productivity was obtained with a larval density of 2 larvae/ml while adult emergence ratio was not affected by the densities tested. No significant difference was observed in shape of the wings among different densities in males and females. Nevertheless, a significant difference in female's centroid sizes was observed between the treatment groups 1-2 and 3-4 larvae/ml and in males centroid size reared at 1 larvae/ml versus the other densities. PMID:27021270

  15. Seed pods of the carob tree Ceratonia siliqua are a favored sugar source for the mosquito Aedes albopictus in coastal Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Günter C; Xue, Rui-De; Schlein, Yosef

    2010-12-01

    The sugar feeding of Aedes albopictus was studied. In outdoor cages they fed avidly on carob (Ceratonia siliqua L., Caesalpiniaceae) seed pods soiled with sugary exudates. Feeding was either from the surface or by piercing the tissue which is indicated by the presence of plant tissue residues in the gut. More than 90% were sugar positive and about a third had plant tissue residues in the gut after overnight exposure. Similar exposure to clean undamaged seed pods resulted in about two thirds sugar positive mosquitoes and all of these had plant-tissue residues in the gut. In an irrigated, field site, with abundance of sugar sources in the summer 68% of the females and 75% of the males were sugar positive whereas, 1.2% of the females and no males had plant tissue in the gut. The proportion of sugar positive mosquitoes was similar in the autumn and plant tissue was not found in 150 females and 13 males. In the dry site in the summer 42% females and 33% males were sugar positive while 22% females and 33% males contained plant tissue. In the autumn 73% females and 80% males were sugar positive while 2% females and none of the males contained plant tissue.

  16. A study on container breeding mosquitoes with special reference to Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti and Aedes albopictus in Thiruvananthapuram district, India

    OpenAIRE

    K. Vijayakumar; T. K. Sudheesh Kumar; Zinia T Nujum; Farook Umarul; Anu Kuriakose

    2014-01-01

    Background & objectives: The district of Thiruvananthapuram reports the maximum number of cases of dengue in the state of Kerala. To determine the larval diversity, density and breeding site preferences of Aedes mosquitoes, during pre-monsoon and monsoon periods in urban and rural areas of Thiruvananthapuram district. Methods: Based on the daily reports of dengue cases, 70 clusters were identified in Thiruvananthapuram district. A cross-sectional larval survey was done in the domestic and ...

  17. Combining the sterile insect technique with the incompatible insect technique: I-impact of wolbachia infection on the fitness of triple- and double-infected strains of Aedes albopictus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongjing Zhang

    Full Text Available The mosquito species Aedes albopictus is a major vector of the human diseases dengue and chikungunya. Due to the lack of efficient and sustainable methods to control this mosquito species, there is an increasing interest in developing and applying the sterile insect technique (SIT and the incompatible insect technique (IIT, separately or in combination, as population suppression approaches. Ae. albopictus is naturally double-infected with two Wolbachia strains, wAlbA and wAlbB. A new triple Wolbachia-infected strain (i.e., a strain infected with wAlbA, wAlbB, and wPip, known as HC and expressing strong cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI in appropriate matings, was recently developed. In the present study, we compared several fitness traits of three Ae. albopictus strains (triple-infected, double-infected and uninfected, all of which were of the same genetic background ("Guangzhou City, China" and were reared under the same conditions. Investigation of egg-hatching rate, survival of pupae and adults, sex ratio, duration of larval stages (development time from L1 to pupation, time to emergence (development time from L1 to adult emergence, wing length, female fecundity and adult longevity indicated that the presence of Wolbachia had only a minimal effect on host fitness. Based on this evidence, the HC strain is currently under consideration for mass rearing and application in a combined SIT-IIT strategy to control natural populations of Ae. albopictus in mainland China.

  18. Combining the sterile insect technique with the incompatible insect technique: I-impact of wolbachia infection on the fitness of triple- and double-infected strains of Aedes albopictus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dongjing; Zheng, Xiaoying; Xi, Zhiyong; Bourtzis, Kostas; Gilles, Jeremie R L

    2015-01-01

    The mosquito species Aedes albopictus is a major vector of the human diseases dengue and chikungunya. Due to the lack of efficient and sustainable methods to control this mosquito species, there is an increasing interest in developing and applying the sterile insect technique (SIT) and the incompatible insect technique (IIT), separately or in combination, as population suppression approaches. Ae. albopictus is naturally double-infected with two Wolbachia strains, wAlbA and wAlbB. A new triple Wolbachia-infected strain (i.e., a strain infected with wAlbA, wAlbB, and wPip), known as HC and expressing strong cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI) in appropriate matings, was recently developed. In the present study, we compared several fitness traits of three Ae. albopictus strains (triple-infected, double-infected and uninfected), all of which were of the same genetic background ("Guangzhou City, China") and were reared under the same conditions. Investigation of egg-hatching rate, survival of pupae and adults, sex ratio, duration of larval stages (development time from L1 to pupation), time to emergence (development time from L1 to adult emergence), wing length, female fecundity and adult longevity indicated that the presence of Wolbachia had only a minimal effect on host fitness. Based on this evidence, the HC strain is currently under consideration for mass rearing and application in a combined SIT-IIT strategy to control natural populations of Ae. albopictus in mainland China. PMID:25849812

  19. The four serotypes of dengue recognize the same putative receptors in Aedes aegypti midgut and Ae. albopictus cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camacho-Nuez Minerva

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dengue viruses (DENV attach to the host cell surface and subsequently enter the cell by receptor-mediated endocytosis. Several primary and low affinity co-receptors for this flavivirus have been identified. However, the presence of these binding molecules on the cell surface does not necessarily render the cell susceptible to infection. Determination of which of them serve as bona fide receptors for this virus in the vector may be relevant to treating DENV infection and in designing control strategies. Results (1 Overlay protein binding assay showed two proteins with molecular masses of 80 and 67 kDa (R80 and R67. (2 Specific antibodies against these two proteins inhibited cell binding and infection. (3 Both proteins were bound by all four serotypes of dengue virus. (4 R80 and R67 were purified by affinity chromatography from Ae. aegypti mosquito midguts and from Ae albopictus C6/36 cells. (5 In addition, a protein with molecular mass of 57 kDa was purified by affinity chromatography from the midgut extracts. (6 R80 and R67 from radiolabeled surface membrane proteins of C6/36 cells were immunoprecipitated by antibodies against Ae. aegypti midgut. Conclusion Our results strongly suggest that R67 and R80 are receptors for the four serotypes of dengue virus in the midgut cells of Ae. aegypti and in C6/36 Ae. albopictus cells.

  20. 白纹伊蚊实验种群感染沃尔巴体Wolbachia的研究%STUDY ON WOLBACHIA INFECTION IN EXPERIMENTAL POPULATION OF AEDES ALBOPICTUS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张东京; 杨潇; 吴贤生; 陈婧; 李卓雅; 吴瑜; 詹希美; 郑小英

    2012-01-01

    为了了解白纹伊蚊实验种群沃尔巴体Wolbachia感染率、感染品系、组织分布及系统发育,运用引物PCR方法检测实验种群白纹伊蚊Wolbachia 的感染情况.解剖白纹伊蚊,提取头部、卵巢/睾丸、脂肪体、唾液腺/胸部、马氏管、中肠组织的基因组DNA,PCR法扩增Wolbachia表面膜蛋白(wsp),扩增产物进行克隆及测序,并用BLAST软件对其进行系统发育分析.将随机抽取的白纹伊蚊雌雄各50只分别检测,均为阳性.卵巢/睾丸、脂肪体和唾液腺/胸部均存在着Wolbachia A、B组超感染;雌蚊头部、雄蚊马氏管和中肠为B组单感染;雄蚊头部则未检测到Wolbachia.将wsp基因克隆测序后进行系统发育分析显示白纹伊蚊体内Wolbachia与尖音库蚊、菜蛾、宽边黄粉蝶四者同源性较高达99%,这表明四者体内所感染的Wolbachia可能来源于同一个分支.%In order to investigate the infection profiles of Wolbachia in Aedes albopictus rearing in laboratory, we carried out a survey in Ae. Albopictus using polymerase chain reaction ( PCR ) assay to detect Wolbachia to analysis the infection rates, strains, tissue distribution and the phylogeny relationships. Briefly, template DNA was extracted from the head, ovary/ testis, fat body, salivary glands/ thorax, malpighian tubules and midgut respectively to amplify Wolbachia Surface Protein ( wsp ) gene. The amplification product was cloned and sequenced to analyze the phylogenesis with BLAST tools. Of fifty male and female mosquitoes randomly selected, all of them were positively infected with Wolbachia. The ovary/tesis, fat body and salivary glands/thorax of both sexes were superinfected by Wolbachia A and B strains. The malpighian tubules and midgut of male were only infected by B strain. As for the head, the female were found only infected by B strain, the male were not found infection. The identity of Wolbachia in Ae. Albopictus, is 99% as high as Culex pipents, Cotesia

  1. Wolbachia Density and Cytoplasmic Incompatibility in Aedes albopictus: Concerns with Using Artificial Wolbachia Infection as a Vector Suppression Tool

    OpenAIRE

    Maurizio Calvitti; Francesca Marini; Angiola Desiderio; Arianna Puggioli; Riccardo Moretti

    2015-01-01

    The mosquito Aedes albopictusi is a competent vector of harmful human pathogens, including viruses causing dengue and chikungunya. Cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI) induced by endosymbiotic Wolbachia can be used to produce functionally sterile males that can be released in the field as a suppression tool against this mosquito. Because the available sexing methods are not efficient enough to avoid unintentional release of a few transinfected females, we assessed the CI pattern in crosses betwee...

  2. Larvicide and oviposition deterrent effects of fruit and leaf extracts from Melia azedarach L. on Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coria, C; Almiron, W; Valladares, G; Carpinella, C; Ludueña, F; Defago, M; Palacios, S

    2008-05-01

    Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae), the main urban vector of dengue, has developed resistance to various insecticides, making its control increasingly difficult. We explored the effects of Argentine Melia azedarach L. (Meliaceae) fruit and senescent leaf extracts on Ae. aegypti larval development and survival, by rearing cohorts of first instar mosquitoes in water with different extract concentrations. We also analysed oviposition deterrent activity in choice tests with extract-treated ovitraps. The leaf extract showed a strong larvicide activity, with all larvae dying before pupation, and significantly delayed development time. It strongly inhibited oviposition by Ae. aegypti females. The fruit extract showed much weaker effects. This first report of highly effective larvicidal, growth regulating and oviposition deterrent activity of a senescent leaf extract of M. azedarach against Ae. aegypti, suggests that such extract could represent a promising tool in the management of this mosquito pest.

  3. 2008-2010年广州市自然界白纹伊蚊携带登革病毒监测%Monitoring of-dengue virus from Aedes albopictus in Guangzhou,2008-2010

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江毅民; 王玉林; 严子锵; 胡志刚; 李成玲; 杨智聪

    2012-01-01

    目的 通过对广州地区登革热媒介蚊虫白纹伊蚊携带登革病毒情况的监测,探讨传播媒介对该地区登革热流行特征的影响.方法 采集广州市各区新旧疫点附近的白纹伊蚊幼虫及成蚊,提取蚊虫总RNA,用登革病毒特异引物经实时荧光逆转录聚合酶链反应(RT-PCR)进行病毒核酸检测.结果 2008年以来共检测白纹伊蚊标本658批,合计12 348只,平均每批检测18.8只蚊虫,未检测出登革病毒核酸.结论 广州地区白纹伊蚊自然种群携带登革病毒水平较低.%Objective To study the epidemic features of dengue fever in Guangzhou area by means of monitoring of dengue virus from the vectors. Methods Both larvae and the adult Aedes albopictus were collected from dengue fever epidemic foci and previous epidemic foci of Guangzhou. Total RNA of mosquitoes was extracted and dengue viral gene fragments were amplified by real-time fluorescence reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Result No dengue virus RNA was detected in Aedes albopictus since 2008. Conclusion Dengue virus infection rate in Aedes albopictus field was very low in the Guangzhou area.

  4. Analyses of essential and edible oils, and constituents therein, as candidate repellents for the yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Campbell, Cory James

    2009-01-01

    Some plant essential and edible oils repel mosquitoes but often quantitatively minor repellent constituents therein remain unknown. In gas chromatographic-electroantennographic detection (GC-EAD) analyses of catnip, cinnamon, citronella, cumin, eucalyptus, geranium, ginger, melissa, peppermint, rosemary, and thyme essential oils, 43 constituents elicited responses from antennae of female yellow fever mosquitoes, Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae). GC-EAD analyses of soybean oil (active ing...

  5. Comparison study on human-bait and CO2 trap in Aedes albopictus surveillance%人诱法和CO2诱捕法在白纹伊蚊监测中的比较研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周毅彬; 冷培恩; 朱江; 范明秋

    2011-01-01

    目的 比较人诱法和CO2诱捕法在白纹伊蚊密度监测中的效果.方法 在上海市共青森林公园游乐区和内燃机研究所采用人诱法和CO2诱捕法,每2周监测1次白纹伊蚊密度.结果 人诱法和CO2诱捕法监测的白纹伊蚊密度Spearman相关性分析,相关系数分别为0.683 0,P<0.05(内燃机研究所)和0.924 3,P<0.05(共青森林公园游乐区).结论 作为白纹伊蚊监测方法,人诱法和CO2诱捕法具有统计学相关性.人诱法比CO2诱捕法敏感,当白纹伊蚊成蚊密度较高时,CO2诱捕法是更好的选择.%Objective To study the difference between the human - bait and CO2 trap in Aedes albopictus surveillance.Methods Using human - bait and CO2 trap monitor Aedes albopictus in two areas each for two weeks.Results With the spearman correlation analysis of human - bait and CO2 trap in monitoring the density of Aedes albopictus, correlation were 0.683 0, P < 0.05 ( Combustion Engine Research Institute) , and 0.924 3, P < 0.05 ( Forest Park).Conclusion As Aedes albopictus monitoring methods, human - bait is better than CO2 traps into a low density of mosquitoes environment, and CO2 traps is a better choice when the mosquito density is more than 40 adults per trap.

  6. Combining the Sterile Insect Technique with Wolbachia-Based Approaches: II--A Safer Approach to Aedes albopictus Population Suppression Programmes, Designed to Minimize the Consequences of Inadvertent Female Release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dongjing; Lees, Rosemary Susan; Xi, Zhiyong; Gilles, Jeremie R L; Bourtzis, Kostas

    2015-01-01

    Due to the absence of a perfect method for mosquito sex separation, the combination of the sterile insect technique and the incompatible insect technique is now being considered as a potentially effective method to control Aedes albopictus. In this present study first we examine the minimum pupal irradiation dose required to induce complete sterility in Wolbachia triple-infected (HC), double-infected (GUA) and uninfected (GT) female Ae. albopictus. The HC line is a candidate for Ae. albopictus population suppression programmes, but due to the risk of population replacement which characterizes this triple infected line, the individuals to be released need to be additionally irradiated. After determining the minimum irradiation dose required for complete female sterility, we test whether sterilization is sufficient to prevent invasion of the triple infection from the HC females into double-infected (GUA) populations. Our results indicate that irradiated Ae. albopictus HC, GUA and GT strain females have decreased fecundity and egg hatch rate when irradiated, inversely proportional to the dose, and the complete sterilization of females can be acquired by pupal irradiation with doses above 28 Gy. PCR-based analysis of F1 and F2 progeny indicate that the irradiated HC females, cannot spread the new Wolbachia wPip strain into a small cage GUA population, released at a 1:5 ratio. Considering the above results, we conclude that irradiation can be used to reduce the risk of population replacement caused by an unintentional release of Wolbachia triple-infected Ae. albopictus HC strain females during male release for population suppression. PMID:26252474

  7. Combining the Sterile Insect Technique with Wolbachia-Based Approaches: II--A Safer Approach to Aedes albopictus Population Suppression Programmes, Designed to Minimize the Consequences of Inadvertent Female Release.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongjing Zhang

    Full Text Available Due to the absence of a perfect method for mosquito sex separation, the combination of the sterile insect technique and the incompatible insect technique is now being considered as a potentially effective method to control Aedes albopictus. In this present study first we examine the minimum pupal irradiation dose required to induce complete sterility in Wolbachia triple-infected (HC, double-infected (GUA and uninfected (GT female Ae. albopictus. The HC line is a candidate for Ae. albopictus population suppression programmes, but due to the risk of population replacement which characterizes this triple infected line, the individuals to be released need to be additionally irradiated. After determining the minimum irradiation dose required for complete female sterility, we test whether sterilization is sufficient to prevent invasion of the triple infection from the HC females into double-infected (GUA populations. Our results indicate that irradiated Ae. albopictus HC, GUA and GT strain females have decreased fecundity and egg hatch rate when irradiated, inversely proportional to the dose, and the complete sterilization of females can be acquired by pupal irradiation with doses above 28 Gy. PCR-based analysis of F1 and F2 progeny indicate that the irradiated HC females, cannot spread the new Wolbachia wPip strain into a small cage GUA population, released at a 1:5 ratio. Considering the above results, we conclude that irradiation can be used to reduce the risk of population replacement caused by an unintentional release of Wolbachia triple-infected Ae. albopictus HC strain females during male release for population suppression.

  8. Odonate Nymphs: Generalist Predators and their Potential in the Management of Dengue Mosquito, Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waseem Akram

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dengue is amongst the most serious mosquito-borne infectious disease with hot spots in tropical and subtropical parts of the world. Unfortunately, no licensed vaccine for the disease is currently available in medicine markets. The only option available is the management of dengue vector mosquito, Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae.Method: Predatory potential of five odonate nymphs namely Anax parthenope, Bradinopyga geminate, Ischnura forcipata, Rhinocypha quadrimaculata, and Orthetrum sabina were evaluated against the 4th instar larvae of the den­gue vector mosquito, Aedes aegypti, under laboratory conditions. The consumption of the mosquito larvae was eval­uated at three water volume levels viz., 1 liter, 2 liter and 3 liter.Results: The number of Ae. aegypti larvae consumed varied significantly among the five species, and at different levels of water volume (P< 0.01. However, the interaction between odonate nymphs and the water volumes was statistically non-significant (P> 0.05. Ischnura forcipata consumed the highest number of Ae. aegypti larvae (n=56 followed by A. parthenope (n=47 and B. geminate (n=46. The number of larvae consumed was decreased with in­creasing search area or water volume, and the highest predation was observed at 1-liter water volume.Conclusion: The odonate nymphs could be a good source of biological agents for the management of the mosquitoes at larval stages. 

  9. Proteomics profiling of chikungunya-infected Aedes albopictus C6/36 cells reveal important mosquito cell factors in virus replication.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Ching Hua Lee

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Chikungunya virus (CHIKV is the only causative agent of CHIKV fever with persistent arthralgia, and in some cases may lead to neurological complications which can be highly fatal, therefore it poses severe health issues in many parts of the world. CHIKV transmission can be mediated via the Aedes albopictus mosquito; however, very little is currently known about the involvement of mosquito cellular factors during CHIKV-infection within the mosquito cells. Unravelling the neglected aspects of mosquito proteome changes in CHIKV-infected mosquito cells may increase our understanding on the differences in the host factors between arthropod and mammalian cells for successful replication of CHIKV. In this study, the CHIKV-infected C6/36 cells with differential cellular proteins expression were profiled using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DE coupled with the use of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS. 2DE analysis on CHIKV-infected C6/36 cells has shown 23 mosquito cellular proteins that are differentially regulated, and which are involved diverse biological pathways, such as protein folding and metabolic processes. Among those identified mosquito proteins, spermatogenesis-associated factor, enolase phosphatase e-1 and chaperonin-60kD have been found to regulate CHIKV infection. Furthermore, siRNA-mediated gene knockdown of these proteins has demonstrated the biological importance of these host proteins that mediate CHIKV infection. These findings have provided an insight to the importance of mosquito host factors in the replication of CHIKV, thus providing a potential channel for developing novel antiviral strategies against CHIKV transmission.

  10. 室外废旧轮胎白纹伊蚊的孳生习性与防制%The Breeding Habit of Aedes Albopictus in the Discarded Tires Outdoor and Its Control Measures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐友祥; 蔡恩茂; 徐仁权; 方伟; 王韶华

    2011-01-01

    habit of Aedes albopictus in the outdoor discarded tires, and studied the measures for irradication. The result provides guidance for control Dengue fever. [ Methods ] Adopt sludge spoon method to check Aedes larva breeding habits, growth trend and wintering situation; measure the quantity and chemical index of the larvae breeding water in outdoor tyres monthly; and soaking liquid method to determine the resistance and pesticidal kill effect to Aedes mosquito. [ Results ](1) Aedes albopictus larva emerged during April-November in the circumstancial discarded tires outdoor, the larva density increased in June-September with peak in July. The time distribution has no difference from other containers in which Aedes albopictus breed. But the breeding rate in discarded tires was 2.2 times higher (x2=53.97, P < 0.01). The breeding rate of Aedes albopictus in outdoor tire is 100%, while in other containers is 51.6%. The eggs of Aedes albopictus hibernate in stagnant water or mud in outdoor discarded tires from December to March of the following year. The water in which breed Aedes albopictus possess the same chemical character as the water breed other species of mosquito or the water no mosquito breeds. The chemical character consists the pH, dissolved oxygen, Chloride, nitrite nitrogen and ammonia nitrogen. (2) The resistance of Aedes albopictus to four common insecticides was much more increased. The resistance to DDVP and Permethrin has twiced as comparing with the situation 2003 year before. Moreover, the resistance to Deltamethrin and Cypermethrin has increased 10-20 times. Diazinon 1.0-5.0mg/L, pirimiphos-methyl 0.5-5.0 mg/L, Abate granules 0.4-1.4 mg/L is able to irradicate the larva, the effect lasts 2-4 weeks. (3) To bore hole for drain out the stagnant water in waste tires, or to adopt certain water proof measures to keep dry inside the discarded tires are effective: the density of adult Aedes albopictus would decrease about 81%-95%, RPI would decline 50

  11. Effect of different temperatures on development of Aedes albopictus%不同温度下白纹伊蚊发育情况的观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李菊林; 朱国鼎; 周华云; 唐建霞; 曹俊

    2015-01-01

    目的:观察不同温度下白纹伊蚊各虫期的发育情况。方法在温度为10、15、20、25、30、35℃和40℃的条件下,观察实验室饲养的白纹伊蚊卵期、幼虫、蛹期和生殖营养周期变化情况,比较不同温度下全发育时期之间的区别。结果白纹伊蚊在10℃时各虫期均不能发育;在15、20、25、30、35℃和40℃下其孵化率分别为0、32%、82%、83%、82%和59%;蛹化率分别为38%、53%、84%、88%、72%和42%;羽化率分别为92%、95%、97%、97%、83%和17%;在20、25、30℃和35℃下全代发育时间分别为37.73、18.50、16.92 d和13.66 d。结论白纹伊蚊的发育周期随着温度升高而缩短,最适宜发育温度为25~30℃,温度过高和过低均对蚊虫发育起到抑制作用。%Objective To explore the effect of different temperatures on the different development stages of Aedes albopic⁃tus. Methods The changes at different development stages of mosquitoes(egg,larva,pupae)and gonotrophic cycle were ob⁃served at different temperature conditions of 10,15,20,25,30,35℃and 40℃. The full developmental cycles were com⁃pared during different temperatures. Results All the stages of the mosquitoes could not develop at 10℃. Under the different temperatures of 15,20,25,30,35℃and 40℃,the hatchabilities of the mosquitoes were 0,32%,82%,83%,82%and 59%respectively;the pupation rates of the mosquitoes were 38%,53%,84%,88%,72%and 42%respectively;and the emer⁃gence rates of the mosquitoes were 92% 95% 97% 97% 83%and 17%respectively. The mosquitoes could well develop at 20 25 30℃and 35℃ the development time was 37.73 18.50 16.92 and 13.66 days respectively. Conclusion The devel⁃opment time of Aedes albopictus is shorter at the higher temperature. The optimum temperature for the mosquitoes to develop is between 25-30℃ and higher or lower the temperatures will suppress the development of the mosquitoes.

  12. Estudio de la resistencia a insecticidas en Aedes aegypti (Diptera:Culicidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez Coto, María Magdalena

    2008-01-01

    Aedes aegypti, Linnaeus, es el principal vector en la transmisión de la fiebre amarilla y dengue en las Américas. El control del vector es hasta la fecha la única opción para prevenir o reducir la transmisión de esta enfermedad, pero la resistencia a los insecticidas ha dificultado el control de esta especie. En este trabajo se evaluó la resistencia a insecticidas en ocho cepas de Aedes aegypti, colectados en Cuba (Ciudad Habana y Santiago de Cuba), y en otros países de la región de las Ameri...

  13. Observation on the repeated blood?feeding habit of Aedes albopictus in Shenzhen%深圳市白纹伊蚊重复吸血习性观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张韶华; 刘强; 刘阳; 梁焯南; 唐秀娟

    2015-01-01

    目的 研究深圳市白纹伊蚊吸血、产卵习性,探讨其传播登革热的风险.方法 在实验室饲养白纹伊蚊,定时人工饲血,记录吸血及产卵时间、频次、产卵量等.结果 白纹伊蚊一生吸血次数中位数为9,最多吸血16次;一生产卵次数中位数为4,最多产卵7次;一生平均产卵数204枚,最多372枚;一个产次内吸血次数中位数为2,最多为10次;一个产次内产卵数为13~142枚,中位数为56;一个产次内第一次吸血到产卵天数为2~17 d,中位数为4.结论 深圳市白纹伊蚊普遍存在多次吸血、多次产卵的现象,对登革热的传播有较重要意义.%Objective To study the blood?feeding and oviposition habits of Aedes albopictus, and discuss the risk of dengue fever transmission in Shenzhen. Methods Aedes albopictus were raised in laboratory by feeding blood regularly, the time and frequency of blood?feeding and oviposition were recorded, as well as the egg production and other indicators. Results The median of blood feeding times was 9 in the lifetime of Ae. albopictus, while the maximum was 16, the median oviposition times was 4 in the lifetime, while the maximum was 7, the average of egg production is 204, while the maximum was 372. The median of blood feedings was 2 in one parity,while the maximum was 10,The median of egg production was 56 in one parity(range:13-142). The median days from first blood feeding to oviposition was 4 in one parity(range:2-17). Conclusion The habits of blood feeding and oviposition repeatedly was widespread among the Ae. albopictus populations in Shenzhen,this habits could be important significance for the spread of dengue fever.

  14. Susceptibility of larvae of Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus (Diptera: Culicidae to entomopathogenic nematode Heterorhabditis bacteriophora (Poinar (Rhabditida: Heterorhabditidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María L. PESCHIUTTA

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus (Diptera: Culicidae es vector de los agentes etiológicos de la fiebre amarilla y del dengue. Una alternativa al control químico de este vector es el uso de agentes biológicos. Los nematodos entomopatógenos son efectivos en el control de plagas. La infectividad y el ciclo de vida de un aislado argentino de Heterorhabditis bacteriophora Poinar (Rhabditida: Heterorhabditidae en larvas de A. aegypti se registró por primera vez bajo condiciones de laborato - rio. Para cada unidad experimental, 30 larvas de mosquito de segundo estadio fueron expuestas a 8 dosis del nematodo (0:1, 1:1, 5:1, 15:1, 100:1, 500:1, 750:1, 1500:1. Los juveniles infectivos (JIs utilizados fueron multiplicados sobre Galleria mellonella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae. La continuidad infectiva de los JIs obtenidos de A. aegypti fue probada aplicándolos en una dosis de 100:1 sobre larvas del mosquito . Las tasas de mortalidad fueron de 0% a 84%. El número de nematodos desarrollados dentro de la larva de mosquito, la mortalidad larval y los nuevos JIs se incrementaron con el aumento de la dosis de nematodos. Los resultados indican que H. bacteriophora es capaz de infectar larvas de A. aegypti , se desarrolla y produce nuevos JIs, permitiendo la continuidad de su ciclo de vida.

  15. Larvicidal Activity of Essential Oils from the Leaves and Fruits of Nutmeg (Myristica fragrans Houtt Against Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Carolina

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to examine the larvicidal activity of essential oil (EO extracted from nutmeg (Myristica fragrans Houtt leaves and fruits by steam distillation, and to analyze its chemical compounds. The EO yield of nutmeg leaves and fruits collected from the same tree was 0.66% and 0.30%, respectively. Larvicidal tests with the EO were carried out against Aedes aegypti (L. (Diptera: Culicidae. The concentrations of nutmeg EO used for the larvicidal assay were 50, 100, 150, 200, and 250 μg/mL. The results showed that fruit oil was more toxic than the leaf oil. LC50 values of leaf and fruit EOs were 133.8 and 110.1 µg/mL, respectively. The chromatogram of GC-MS showed that the chemical components in nutmeg leaf and fruit EOs were dominated by α-pinene, sabinene, β-pinene, delta-3-carene, limonene, β-phellandrene, α-terpinolene, linalool, safrole, croweacin, and myristicin.

  16. Chemical Composition and Larvicidal Activity of Essential Oils Extracted from Brazilian Legal Amazon Plants against Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Clarice Noleto; Alves, Luciana Patrícia Lima; Rodrigues, Klinger Antonio da Franca; Brito, Maria Cristiane Aranha; Rosa, Carliane dos Santos; do Amaral, Flavia Maria Mendonça; Monteiro, Odair dos Santos; Andrade, Eloisa Helena de Aguiar; Maia, José Guilherme Soares; Moraes, Denise Fernandes Coutinho

    2015-01-01

    The mosquito Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae) is the major vector of dengue and chikungunya fever. The lack of effective therapies and vaccines for these diseases highlights the need for alternative strategies to control the spread of virus. Therefore, this study investigated the larvicidal potential of essential oils from common plant species obtained from the Chapada das Mesas National Park, Brazil, against third instar A. aegypti larvae. The chemical composition of these oils was determined by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. The essential oils of Eugenia piauhiensis Vellaff., Myrcia erythroxylon O. Berg, Psidium myrsinites DC., and Siparuna camporum (Tul.) A. DC. were observed to be mainly composed of sesquiterpene hydrocarbons. The essential oil of Lippia gracilis Schauer was composed of oxygenated monoterpenes. Four of the five tested oils were effective against the A. aegypti larvae, with the lethal concentration (LC50) ranging from 230 to 292 mg/L after 24 h of exposure. Overall, this work demonstrated the possibility of developing larvicidal products against A. aegypti by using essential oils from the flora of the Brazilian Legal Amazon. This in turn demonstrates the potential of using natural resources for the control of disease vectors. PMID:25949264

  17. Chemical Composition and Larvicidal Activity of Essential Oils Extracted from Brazilian Legal Amazon Plants against Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Clarice Noleto; Alves, Luciana Patrícia Lima; Rodrigues, Klinger Antonio da Franca; Brito, Maria Cristiane Aranha; Rosa, Carliane Dos Santos; do Amaral, Flavia Maria Mendonça; Monteiro, Odair Dos Santos; Andrade, Eloisa Helena de Aguiar; Maia, José Guilherme Soares; Moraes, Denise Fernandes Coutinho

    2015-01-01

    The mosquito Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae) is the major vector of dengue and chikungunya fever. The lack of effective therapies and vaccines for these diseases highlights the need for alternative strategies to control the spread of virus. Therefore, this study investigated the larvicidal potential of essential oils from common plant species obtained from the Chapada das Mesas National Park, Brazil, against third instar A. aegypti larvae. The chemical composition of these oils was determined by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. The essential oils of Eugenia piauhiensis Vellaff., Myrcia erythroxylon O. Berg, Psidium myrsinites DC., and Siparuna camporum (Tul.) A. DC. were observed to be mainly composed of sesquiterpene hydrocarbons. The essential oil of Lippia gracilis Schauer was composed of oxygenated monoterpenes. Four of the five tested oils were effective against the A. aegypti larvae, with the lethal concentration (LC50) ranging from 230 to 292 mg/L after 24 h of exposure. Overall, this work demonstrated the possibility of developing larvicidal products against A. aegypti by using essential oils from the flora of the Brazilian Legal Amazon. This in turn demonstrates the potential of using natural resources for the control of disease vectors. PMID:25949264

  18. Chemical Composition and Larvicidal Activity of Essential Oils Extracted from Brazilian Legal Amazon Plants against Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clarice Noleto Dias

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The mosquito Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae is the major vector of dengue and chikungunya fever. The lack of effective therapies and vaccines for these diseases highlights the need for alternative strategies to control the spread of virus. Therefore, this study investigated the larvicidal potential of essential oils from common plant species obtained from the Chapada das Mesas National Park, Brazil, against third instar A. aegypti larvae. The chemical composition of these oils was determined by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. The essential oils of Eugenia piauhiensis Vellaff., Myrcia erythroxylon O. Berg, Psidium myrsinites DC., and Siparuna camporum (Tul. A. DC. were observed to be mainly composed of sesquiterpene hydrocarbons. The essential oil of Lippia gracilis Schauer was composed of oxygenated monoterpenes. Four of the five tested oils were effective against the A. aegypti larvae, with the lethal concentration (LC50 ranging from 230 to 292 mg/L after 24 h of exposure. Overall, this work demonstrated the possibility of developing larvicidal products against A. aegypti by using essential oils from the flora of the Brazilian Legal Amazon. This in turn demonstrates the potential of using natural resources for the control of disease vectors.

  19. Larvicidal and repellent activity of tetradecanoic acid againstAedes aegypti (Linn.) andCulex quinquefasciatus (Say.) (Diptera:Culicidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sivakumar R; Jebanesan A; Govindarajan M; Rajasekar P

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the larvicidal and repellent efficacy of tetradecanoic acid against Aedes aegypti (Ae. aegypti) L. andCulex quinquefasciatus (Cx. quinquefasciatus) Say (Diptera: Culicidae).Methods: Larvicidal efficacy of tetradecanoic acid was tested at various concentrations against the early third instar larvae of Ae. aegypti andCx. quinquefasciatus. The repellent activity was determined against two mosquito species at three concentrations viz.,1.0,2.5 and5.0 ppm under the laboratory conditions.Results: The tetradecanoic acid was found to be more effective againstCx. quinquefasciatus thanAe. aegypti larvae. TheLC50values were14.08 ppm and25.10 ppm, respectively. Tetradecanoic acid showed lesser repellency againstAe. aegypti andCx. quinquefasciatus. The highest repellency was observed in higher concentration of5.0 mg/cm2provided100% protection up to60 and 90 min againstAe. aegypti andCx. quinquefasciatusrespectively.Conclusions: From the results it can be concluded the tetradecanoic acid is a potential for controlling Cx. quinquefasciatus andAe. aegypti mosquitoes.

  20. Ovicidal activity of Ageratina adenophora (Family: Asteraceae) against dengue vector, Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    To determine the ovicidal efficacy of different solvent leaf extracts of Ageratina adenophora against dengue vector Aedes aegypti . Methods: The ovicidal efficacy of the crude leaf extracts of A. adenophora with five different solvents (hexane, benzene, chloroform, ethyl acetate, methanol) and was ...

  1. Analysis of surveillance results for Aedes albopictus as dengue vector in Ningbo city,China 2011%宁波市2011年登革热媒介白纹伊蚊监测结果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马晓; 范飞能; 吕辉; 徐荣

    2012-01-01

    目的 掌握宁波市白纹伊蚊种群密度指数变动规律及其影响因素,为登革热媒介防控提供依据.方法 对宁波市不同生境的白纹伊蚊幼虫密度进行监测,对幼虫密度变动规律及其与气候、环境的关系进行分析.结果 2011年宁波市白纹伊蚊容器指数、房屋指数和布雷图指数分别为9.26%、8.88%和10.57,于8月达到密度高峰;永久性容器密度明显高于暂时性容器,且以水池、水缸最高;居民区密度明显高于公园、建筑工地、废品收购站,学校、医院等特殊单位最低.结论 登革热媒介白纹伊蚊种群密度与季节消长规律由多方面影响因素综合作用所致.%Objective To investigate the changes in the population density indices of Aedes albopictus and their influential factors in Ningbo city, China, and to provide a basis for the control of dengue vector. Methods The densities of Ae. Albopictus larvae in different environments in Ningbo were monitored and investigated, and the relationship between the changes in densities and climate and environment were analyzed. Results The container index (CI), house index (HI), and Breteau index (BI) for Ae. Albopictus in Ningbo were 9.26%, 8.88%, and 10.57, respectively, in 2011, and the total density of Ae. Albopictus larvae reached the peak value in August. The density in the permanent container was significantly higher than that in the temporary container, with the maximum value in the pool and tank; the density in resident community was significantly higher than that in the park, construction site, and salvage station, with the minimum value in the school and hospital. Conclusion The population density of Ae. Albopictus and its seasonal fluctuation were influenced by multiple factors.

  2. Larvicidal activity of Annona senegalensis and Boswellia dalzielii leaf fractions against Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Younoussa Lame; Elias Nchiwan Nukenine; Danga Yinyang Simon Pierre; Charles Okechukwu Esimone

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the larvicidal activity of leaf fractions of Annona senegalensis and Boswellia dalzielii against fourth instar larvae of Aedes aegypti. Fourth instar larvae of Ae. aegypti were exposed for 24 hours to various concentrations (312.5-2500 mg/L) of methanolic crude extract and its fractions obtained with n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl-acetate and methanol solvents, following WHO method. The mortalities recorded were subjected to ANOVA test for mean co...

  3. Potential of selected Senegalese Aedes spp. mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) to transmit Zika virus

    OpenAIRE

    Diagne, Cheikh Tidiane; Diallo, Diawo; Faye, Oumar; Ba, Yamar; Gaye, Alioune; Dia, Ibrahima; Faye, Ousmane; Weaver, Scott C.; Sall, Amadou Alpha; Diallo, Mawlouth

    2015-01-01

    Background Zika virus (ZIKV; genus Flavivirus, family Flaviviridae) is an emerging virus of medical importance maintained in a zoonotic cycle between arboreal Aedes spp. mosquitoes and nonhuman primates in African and Asian forests. Serological evidence and virus isolations have demonstrated widespread distribution of the virus in Senegal. Several mosquito species have been found naturally infected by ZIKV but little is known about their vector competence. Methods We assessed the vector compe...

  4. [Larvicidal activity of Anacardium humile Saint Hill oil on Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762) (Diptera, Culicidae)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porto, Karla Rejane de Andrade; Roel, Antonia Railda; Silva, Márcia Marlene da; Coelho, Rosemary Matias; Scheleder, Eloty Justina Dias; Jeller, Alex Haroldo

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential of Anacardium humile (monkey nuts) against Aedes aegypti larvae. Hexane, ethanol and aqueous extracts and oil from leaves were obtained from plant material collected from the Brazilian savanna. These were tested at concentrations of 1%, 0.5%, 0.25%, 0.125%, 0.05% and 0.0125%, diluted in 1% dimethyl sulfoxide. The dead larvae were counted 24 hours later. The Probit analysis method was used to obtain the LC(50) and the respective confidence intervals. The conclusion was that only the oil extracted from Anacardium humile leaves caused 100% mortality among fourth-instar Aedes aegypti larvae, using concentrations of up to 0.125%. This seems to indicate that the active ingredients are present in the most apolar phase. This indicates that this plant has potential use as a larvicide against Aedes aegypti. However, new tests should be carried out using other plant organs, as well as using other methods and solvents for the extraction.

  5. The further spread of Aedes japonicus japonicus (Diptera, Culicidae) towards northern Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Doreen; Kampen, Helge

    2013-10-01

    After its first detection in 2008 in the south German federal state of Baden-Wuerttemberg, another distinct population of the invasive Asian bush mosquito Aedes japonicus japonicus was unexpectedly found in western Germany in 2012. Range expansion had already been observed for the southern German population and was anticipated for the western German one. Here, we report on a third, apparently independent and even more northerly German colonization area of Aedes j. japonicus in southern Lower Saxony and northeastern North Rhine-Westphalia, which was discovered in spring 2013. In a snapshot study, intended to determine the presence or absence of Aedes j. japonicus in an area close to Hanover, the capital of the northern German federal state of Lower Saxony, where a specimen had been collected in late 2012, central water basins of cemeteries were checked for pre-imaginal mosquito stages at the beginning of the mosquito season 2013. Almost 20% of the inspected cemeteries were found positive (25 out of 129), with many of them being located in towns and villages close to the motorways A2 and A7. Being of Far Eastern origin, the Asian bush mosquito is well adapted to moderate climates and appears to be further expanding its distribution area in Central Europe. As it is a proven laboratory vector of several mosquito-borne disease agents, its present and future distribution areas should be carefully monitored. PMID:23974325

  6. DNA barcoding and wing morphometrics to distinguish three Aedes vectors in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumruayphol, Suchada; Apiwathnasorn, Chamnarn; Ruangsittichai, Jiraporn; Sriwichai, Patchara; Attrapadung, Siriluck; Samung, Yudthana; Dujardin, Jean-Pierre

    2016-07-01

    Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) (L.), Ae. albopictus (Skuse), and Ae. scutellaris (Walker) are important mosquito vectors of dengue and chikungunya viruses. They are morphologically similar and sympatric in some parts of their distribution; therefore, there is a risk of incorrect morphological identification. Any confusion could have a negative impact on epidemiological studies or control strategies. Therefore, we explored two modern tools to supplement current morphological identification: DNA barcoding and geometric morphometric analyses. Field larvae were reared to adults and carefully classified based on morphological traits. The genetic analysis was based on the 658bp each of 30COI sequences. Some Culex spp., Mansonia bonneae, were included as outgroups, and inclusion of a few other Aedes spp. facilitated phylogenetic inference of the relationship between Ae. albopictus and Ae. scutellaris. The two species were separated by an average interspecific divergence of 0.123 (0.119-0.127). Morphometric examination included landmark- (392 specimens) and outline-based (317 specimens) techniques. The shape of the wing showed different discriminating power based on sex and digitizing technique. This is the first time that Ae. scutellaris and Ae. albopictus have been compared using these two techniques. We confirm that these morphologically close species are valid, and that geometric morphometrics can considerably increase the reliability of morphological identification. PMID:26987285

  7. 广东省韶关市白纹伊蚊抗药性现状调查%Investigation on the current status of Aedes albopictus resistance to commonly used insecticides in Shaoguan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓惠; 刘旭振; 蓝志忠; 胡应辉; 邹钦

    2015-01-01

    Objective In order to provide a basis for scientific and reasonable use of pesticides, we investigated the resistance of Aedes albopictus to commonly used insecticides in urban area of Shaoguan city. Methods WHO standard bioassay method was applied to calculate LC50 and to obtain resistance index by comparing with susceptible strains. Results The median lethal concentration of Ae. albopictus to beta⁃cypermethrin, decamethrin, dichlorvos, propoxur are 0.0036, 0.0060, 0.2606, 2.1266 mg/L respectively. The resistance index are 3.60, 2.73, 1.53, 1.24 respectively. Conclusion Aedes albopictus in urban area of Shaoguan had low level resistance to beta⁃cypermethrin and decamethrin. It is important to alternate pesticides and choose appropriate doses in mosquito prevention and control.%目的:调查韶关市白纹伊蚊对常用杀虫剂的抗药性,为科学合理使用杀虫剂提供依据。方法按照WHO生物测试法,计算半数致死浓度(LC50)并与敏感品系进行比较得出抗性指数。结果韶关市白纹伊蚊对溴氰菊酯、高效氯氰菊酯、敌敌畏、残杀威的LC50分别为0.0036、0.0060、0.2606和2.1266 mg/L,抗性指数分别为3.60、2.73、1.53和1.24倍。结论韶关市白纹伊蚊对溴氰菊酯、高效氯氰菊酯杀虫剂已产生低度抗性,在实际防治中应注意轮换、合理用药。

  8. The Influence of Ambient Temperature on the Susceptibility of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) to the Pyrethroid Insecticide Permethrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiten, Shavonn R; Peterson, Robert K D

    2016-01-01

    Insecticides are the most common strategy used for the management of mosquitoes. Changes in ambient temperature can alter the toxicity of insecticides to ectothermic organisms. Studies show organophosphate insecticides exhibit a positive correlation between ambient temperature and mortality for many insect species, and carbamate insecticides exhibit a slightly negative correlation between ambient temperature and mortality. Pyrethroid insecticides exhibit a distinctly negative correlation between increasing ambient temperature and mortality for insects. However, this relationship has not been systematically studied for adult mosquitoes. Therefore, we examined the influence of temperature on the susceptibility of adult Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae) when exposed to permethrin. The median lethal concentration, LC50, was estimated for adult Ae. aegypti when exposed to eight concentrations of permethrin (ranging from 0.06–0.58 ng/cm2) at each of the following temperatures—16, 23, 26, 30, 32, and 34C—for 24 h in bottle assays. The estimated LC50 for each temperature was 0.26, 0.36, 0.36, 0.45, 0.27, and 0.31 ng/cm2, respectively. Results indicated a negative correlation between temperature and mortality from 16 to 30C, a positive correlation between temperature and mortality from 30 to 32C, and a negative correlation between temperature and mortality from 32 to 34C. If mosquito populations are expanding in space and time because of increased ambient temperatures and cannot be managed as effectively with pyrethroids, the spread of mosquito-borne diseases may pose considerable additional risk to public health.

  9. A technique for preparing polytene chromosomes from Aedes aegypti (Diptera, Culicinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jairo Campos

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Polytene chromosome preparations were obtained from larval, pupal and adult female Malpighian tubules of Aedes aegypti. The Malpighian tubules of the pupae (0-4 h old from larvae reared at 20ºC provided the best cytogenetic analysis. The interaction of nucleic acids and proteins that influence the spreading of the chromosomes could be reduced with the preparation technique of the sheets submitted to a stronger treatment starting with the hypotony of tissue and successive bathings with acetic acid. A simple technique should facilitate molecular cytogenetics used in the location of resistance and vector competence genes.

  10. Germline transformation of Aedes fluviatilis (Diptera:Culicidae) with the piggyBac transposable element.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Flávia Guimarães; Oliveira, Sabrina Barbosa; Rocha, Bruno Coelho; Moreira, Luciano Andrade

    2006-11-01

    The technique to generate transgenic mosquitoes requires adaptation for each target species because of aspects related to species biology, sensitivity to manipulation and rearing conditions. Here we tested different parameters on the microinjection procedure in order to obtain a transgenic Neotropical mosquito species. By using a transposon-based strategy we were able to successfully transform Aedes fluviatilis (Lutz), which can be used as an avian malaria model. These results demonstrate the usefulness of the piggyBac transposable element as a transformation vector for Neotropical mosquito species and opens up new research frontiers for South American mosquito vectors. PMID:17160283

  11. Germline transformation of Aedes fluviatilis (Diptera:Culicidae with the piggyBac transposable element

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Guimarães Rodrigues

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available The technique to generate transgenic mosquitoes requires adaptation for each target species because of aspects related to species biology, sensitivity to manipulation and rearing conditions. Here we tested different parameters on the microinjection procedure in order to obtain a transgenic Neotropical mosquito species. By using a transposon-based strategy we were able to successfully transform Aedes fluviatilis (Lutz, which can be used as an avian malaria model. These results demonstrate the usefulness of the piggyBac transposable element as a transformation vector for Neotropical mosquito species and opens up new research frontiers for South American mosquito vectors.

  12. Standard operating procedures for standardized mass rearing of the dengue and chikungunya vectors Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) - II - Egg storage and hatching

    OpenAIRE

    Zheng, Min-Lin; Zhang, Dong-Jing; Damiens, David D; Lees, Rosemary Susan; Gilles, Jeremie R. L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Management of large quantities of eggs will be a crucial aspect of the efficient and sustainable mass production of mosquitoes for programmes with a Sterile Insect Technique component. The efficiency of different hatching media and effectiveness of long term storage methods are presented here. Methods The effect on hatch rate of storage duration and three hatching media was analysed: deionized water, boiled deionized water and a bacterial broth, using Two-way ANOVA and Post hoc Tuk...

  13. Oviposition activity of Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae) in response to different organic infusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Eloína; Correia, Juliana; Muniz, Luciana; Meiado, Marcos; Albuquerque, Cleide

    2010-01-01

    The present study investigates new sources of infusion as an oviposition attractant for Aedes aegypti L. Infusions with fetid and non-fetid odors were compared as an oviposition stimulant. Traps baited with infusions of dehydrated cashew leaves (Anacardium occidentale), potato peels (Solanum tuberosum) and graminea (Panicum maximum) were compared as attractants, and the effect of odor (fetid and unfetid) on attractiveness was tested. Oviposition activity changed significantly according to the concentration and type of infusion (F = 4.1279; gl = 2; P = 0.0231). A larger number of eggs were observed in cups containing 50% A. occidentale (non-fetid odor) and 30% P. maximum (fetid odor). When compared in the same cage, comparable oviposition was found between A. occidentale and P. maximum. Moreover, approximately 20% more eggs were recorded in the infusion without odor when compared to the grass infusion and water. These findings suggest A. occidentale as a new stimulant for use in ovitraps for Aedes surveillance and control, with the benefit of having an agreeable odor. PMID:20498970

  14. Occurrence of Toxorhynchites guadeloupensis (Dyar and Knab) in oviposition trap of Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honorio, Nildimar A. [Instituto Oswaldo Cruz (FIOCRUZ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Entomologia. Lab. de Transmissores de Hematozoarios; Barros, Fabio S.M. de [Universidade Federal de Roraima (UFRR), Boa Vista, RR (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Biologicas e da Saude. Nucleo Avancado de Vetores; Tsouris, Pantelis; Rosa-Freitas, Maria G. [Freitas and Tsouris Consultants, Spata-Attikis (Greece)]. E-mail: maria@freitas-tsouris.com

    2007-09-15

    Toxorhynchites guadeloupensis (Dyar and Knab), a poorly known mosquito species, was observed preying upon Aedes aegypti (L.) larvae, in an oviposition trap placed for routine dengue entomological surveillance, during 2003-2004 in the urban area of Boa Vista, Roraima, Brazil. This is the first report for Tx. guadeloupensis using Ae. aegypti oviposition traps as breeding places. This finding may have important consequences in the epidemiology and local dengue control since Ae. aegypti density is a basic variable in dengue prediction. Whether predation of Ae aegypti by Tx. guadeloupensis in the Amazon is of significance, is a question to be examined. Also, larval predation may be a cause for underestimation of the actual Ae aegypti numbers. Together these hypotheses need to be better investigated as they are directly related to dengue epidemiology, to the success of any outbreak prediction and surveillance program. (author)

  15. Occurrence of Toxorhynchites guadeloupensis (Dyar and Knab) in oviposition trap of Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toxorhynchites guadeloupensis (Dyar and Knab), a poorly known mosquito species, was observed preying upon Aedes aegypti (L.) larvae, in an oviposition trap placed for routine dengue entomological surveillance, during 2003-2004 in the urban area of Boa Vista, Roraima, Brazil. This is the first report for Tx. guadeloupensis using Ae. aegypti oviposition traps as breeding places. This finding may have important consequences in the epidemiology and local dengue control since Ae. aegypti density is a basic variable in dengue prediction. Whether predation of Ae aegypti by Tx. guadeloupensis in the Amazon is of significance, is a question to be examined. Also, larval predation may be a cause for underestimation of the actual Ae aegypti numbers. Together these hypotheses need to be better investigated as they are directly related to dengue epidemiology, to the success of any outbreak prediction and surveillance program. (author)

  16. Repellence of essential oils of aromatic plants growing in Argentina against Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleiser, Raquel M; Bonino, Maria A; Zygadlo, Julio A

    2011-01-01

    Mosquitoes are vectors of pathogens to humans and domestic animals and may also have economical impacts. One approach to prevent mosquito-borne diseases is bite deterrence through the application of repellents. Currently, there is an interest to search for alternative bioactive products to the synthetic active ingredients most widely used in insect repellents. Repellence against Aedes aegypti of essential oils extracted from Acantholippia salsoloides, Aloysia catamarcensis, Aloysia polystachya, Lippia integrifolia, Lippia junelliana (Verbenaceae), Baccharis salicifolia, Euphatorium buniifolium, and Tagetes filifolia (Asteraceae) were assessed. Tests were conducted by alternatively exposing untreated and treated forehand to the mosquitoes and counting probing attempts. All essential oils tested were significantly repellent against A. aegypti when compared to untreated controls; L. junelliana was the most repellent and T. filifolia was the least based on the response of the mosquitoes to different concentrations of the essential oils (EO). Repellence may be attributed to the respective main components of each EO. PMID:20838809

  17. The Siren's Song: Exploitation of Female Flight Tones to Passively Capture Male Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Brian J; Ritchie, Scott A

    2016-01-01

    The need to capture male mosquitoes has intensified recently as a result of a number of male-based sterile insect technique (SIT) and population-modification programs focused on Aedes aegypti (L.) having initiated field releases. Here, we report the results of the successful exploitation of the attraction of male Ae. aegypti to female flight tones to enhance male collections in nonmechanical passive (nonbattery powered) Gravid Aedes Traps (GAT). Prior to field studies, male attraction to female flight tones of 484 and 560 Hz, as well as to a male flight tone of 715 Hz, were assessed in a series of controlled release-recapture and semifield trials. These trials determined that a pure tone of 484 Hz was significantly more attractive to free-flying males than the other flight tones and enabled their collection in sound-baited GATs (ca. 95% capture rate after 2 h; 484 Hz at 65 dB). In contrast, gravid females were unresponsive to male or female flight tones and were evenly distributed among sound-baited and control GATs. Importantly, under normal field conditions sound-baited GATs (484 Hz at 70 dB) captured significantly more male Ae. aegypti per 24-h trap interval (1.3 ± 0.37) than controls (0.2 ± 0.13). Overall, sound-bated GATs captured approximately twice as many Ae. aegypti (male and female; 3.0 ± 0.68 per interval, 30 total) than controls (1.5 ± 0.56 per interval, 15 total). These results reveal that sound-baited GATs are a simple and effective surveillance tool for Ae. aegypti that would allow current male-based SIT and population-modification programs to effectively monitor males in their target populations. PMID:26502754

  18. Effect of phenobarbital on inducing insecticide tolerance and esterase changes in Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita de Cássia Sousa-Polezzi

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of phenobarbital (PB on the induction of tolerance to the organophosphorous insecticide temephos (TE was investigated in Aedes aegypti L4 larvae submitted to two different PB-treatments:(1 continuous treatment from the egg to the larval L4 stage and (2 discontinuous treatment in which L4 larvae were exposed for 30 h. Mosquitoes from two Brazilian cities were studied: São José do Rio Preto (SJ in São Paulo State and Goiânia (GO in Goiás State. According to criterions established by World Health Organization (WHO mosquitoes from SJ are organophosphate-susceptible while mosquitoes from GO are organophosphate-resistant. For both SJ and GO larvae the two different PB-treatments resulted in significantly increased tolerance (measured by reduced mortality to 0.01mg/L TE while for larvae exposed to 0.02 mg/L TE only continuous PB-treatment resulted in significantly increased TE-tolerance. The reduction of mortality rate was greater in SJ larvae than in GO larvae, confirming data from other organisms indicating that the effect of PB is more pronounced in susceptible strains. To test if oxidase enzymes were involved in PB-induced tolerance we treated PB-pretreated SJ and GO larvae with the oxidase inhibitor piperonyl butoxide (PBO before exposure to TE and observed increased (rather than decreased tolerance, suggesting that oxidases are not involved in the tolerance process and that PB and PBO can act in concert or synergistically. Esterase patterns of PB-pretreated larvae indicated that the cholinesterases EST-13 and EST-14 are involved in the PB-induced TE- tolerance, reinforcing a previous study carried out in our laboratory which suggested that increased esterase synthesis is the mechanism responsible for the development of insecticide resistance in Aedes aegypti.

  19. The Siren's Song: Exploitation of Female Flight Tones to Passively Capture Male Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Brian J; Ritchie, Scott A

    2016-01-01

    The need to capture male mosquitoes has intensified recently as a result of a number of male-based sterile insect technique (SIT) and population-modification programs focused on Aedes aegypti (L.) having initiated field releases. Here, we report the results of the successful exploitation of the attraction of male Ae. aegypti to female flight tones to enhance male collections in nonmechanical passive (nonbattery powered) Gravid Aedes Traps (GAT). Prior to field studies, male attraction to female flight tones of 484 and 560 Hz, as well as to a male flight tone of 715 Hz, were assessed in a series of controlled release-recapture and semifield trials. These trials determined that a pure tone of 484 Hz was significantly more attractive to free-flying males than the other flight tones and enabled their collection in sound-baited GATs (ca. 95% capture rate after 2 h; 484 Hz at 65 dB). In contrast, gravid females were unresponsive to male or female flight tones and were evenly distributed among sound-baited and control GATs. Importantly, under normal field conditions sound-baited GATs (484 Hz at 70 dB) captured significantly more male Ae. aegypti per 24-h trap interval (1.3 ± 0.37) than controls (0.2 ± 0.13). Overall, sound-bated GATs captured approximately twice as many Ae. aegypti (male and female; 3.0 ± 0.68 per interval, 30 total) than controls (1.5 ± 0.56 per interval, 15 total). These results reveal that sound-baited GATs are a simple and effective surveillance tool for Ae. aegypti that would allow current male-based SIT and population-modification programs to effectively monitor males in their target populations.

  20. Performance of the plant-based repellent TT-4302 against mosquitoes in the laboratory and field and comparative efficacy to 16 mosquito repellents against Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bissinger, B W; Schmidt, J P; Owens, J J; Mitchell, S M; Kennedy, M K

    2014-03-01

    Repellent efficacy of the plant-based repellent, TT-4302 (5% geraniol), was compared with 16 other products in laboratory arm-in-cage trials against Aedes aegypti (L). Eight repellents (Badger, BioUD, Burt's bees, California Baby, Cutter Natural, EcoSMART, Herbal Armor, and SkinSmart) exhibited a mean repellency below 90% to Ae. aegypti at 0.5 h after application. Three repellents (Buzz Away Extreme, Cutter Advanced, and OFF! Botanicals lotion) fell below 90% repellency 1.5 h after application. TT-4302 exhibited 94.7% repellency 5 h posttreatment, which was a longer duration than any of the other repellents tested. The positive control, 15% DEET (OFF! Active), was repellent for 3 h before activity dropped below 90%. Additional arm-in-cage trials comparing TT-4302 with 15% DEET were carried out against Anopheles quadrimaculatus Say. At 6 h after treatment, TT-4302 provided 95.2% repellency while DEET exhibited 72.2%. In North Carolina field trials, TT-4302 provided 100% repellency 5 h after application against Aedes albopictus Skuse while DEET provided 77.6% repellency. These results demonstrate that TT-4302 is an efficacious plant-based repellent that provides an extended duration of protection compared with many other commercially available products. PMID:24724289

  1. Chemical Components and Bioactivity of Essential Oil Derived from Litsea cubeba against Aedes albopictus%山苍子精油对白纹伊蚊的生物活性及其成分分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈飞飞; 彭映辉; 晏许超; 林海; 曾冬琴; 张云

    2012-01-01

    The repellent and larvicidal activities of the essential oil extracted from Litsea cubeba fruit against Aedes albopictus were investigated. The main volatile chemical components of L. cubeba oil were qualitatively studied and 9 volatile components were quantitatively analyzed by GC-MS. At the concentration of 1.5mg·mL^-2, 100% protection period provided by essential oil ofL. cubeba against Aedes albopictus was 3.70 h in the laboratory. LCs0 of the essential oil for the fourth instars ofA. albopictus was 82.49 μmg·mL^-1 at 24 h. Seventeen chemical components were identified in the essential oil, E-citral being the largest fraction (44.65%), followed by Z-citral (34.60%), limonene (11.70%), 6-Methyl-5-hepten-2-one (2.28%) and Linalool (1.28%). Nine volatile components with a total contents of 238.70 mg·mL^-1 were quantitatively analyzed. The main active ingredients in the oil are E-citral (106.20 mg·mL^-1), Z-citral (68.79 mg·mL^-1) and 1,8-cineole (40.90mg·mL^-1). These results demonstrate that the essential oils extracted from L. cubeba fruit have a high larvicidal activity and remarkable repellent activity against mosquitoes, which are closely connected with the chemical components of the essential oil.%研究了山苍子Litsea cubeba果实精油对白纹伊蚊Aedes albopictus成蚊的驱避活性和对其幼虫的毒杀活性;采用GC-MS定性分析了精油的化学成分,并定量分析了其中9种活性成分。结果如下:在1.5mg·cm^-2的涂抹剂量下,山苍子精油对白纹伊蚊的100%保护时间为3.70h,对白纹伊蚊4龄期幼虫的24h毒杀Lc50值为82.48μg·mL^-1。定性分析共鉴定出17种化合物,其中E-柠檬醛的相对含量最高,其峰面积百分比为44.65%,其它相对含量较高的成分分别是Z-柠檬醛(34.60%)、柠檬烯(11.70%)、甲基庚烯酮(2.28%)、芳樟醇(1.28%)等。定量分析9种活性成分在精油中的总含量为238.70mg·mL^-1

  2. 10%胺·氯菊微乳剂现场控制白纹伊蚊的效果观察%Efficacy of 10%tetramethrin-permethrin micro-emulsion for the control of Aedes albopictus in field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张富强; 唐杏琴; 张正宇; 颜传钧; 王飞

    2011-01-01

    目的 评价10%胺·氯菊微乳剂现场控制白纹伊蚊的效果,为登革热应急处理提供物资储备.方法 在现场采用超低容量喷洒技术,以蚊虫死亡率、叮人率、擎生地阳性率考核控制白纹伊蚊的效果.结果 10%胺·氯菊微乳剂在鲁迅公园喷洒6d后,蚊幼阳性下降率达85%,相关密度指数(RPI)100.在曲阳公园喷洒后6d,蚊幼阳性下降率100%;到13d,蚊幼阳性率上升率达27%,RPI>100.对白纹伊蚊成虫控制效果为:在鲁迅公园,喷洒后成蚊死亡率达98.84%,24h后死亡率达100%;喷洒后2h,叮人率指标RPI<100,24h、6d、13d后的RPI均小于50:在曲阳公园,喷洒后成蚊死亡率达100%,24h后死亡率达100%;喷洒后2h,24h,6d,13d后的叮人率指标RPI均小于500结论在大型绿地,10%胺·氯菊微乳剂对白纹伊蚊成虫和幼虫应急控制效果显著,并有一定的持效期,可以作为本区白纹伊蚊超低容量喷洒的储备药物.%Objective To evaluate the effect of 10% tetramethrin-permethrin for the control of Aedes albopictus in field,and provide repertory of medication for dengue fever.Methods The index of killing rate,adult density captured by man-bait and breeding positive rate was observed.Results The positive rate of larva decreased 85% and the relative population index (RPI) of larve from breeding sites was under 50 after 10% tetramethrin-permethrin micro-emulsion spraying for 6 d on Lnxun garden.The positive rate of larva decreased 25% and RPI of larve from breeding sites was above 100 after spraying for 13 d.The positive rate of larva decreased 100% after spraying for 6 d on Quyang garden.The positive rate of larva increased 27% and the RPI larve from breeding sites was above 100 after spraying for 13 d on Quyang garden.After spraying in Luxun garden,the killing rate was 98.84% immediately and 100% for 24 h,the RPI of adult density captured by man-bait was under 100 for 2 h and under 50 for 24 h,6 d and 13 d.After spraying in

  3. Indirect effects of cigarette butt waste on the dengue vector Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieng, Hamady; Rajasaygar, Sudha; Ahmad, Abu Hassan; Rawi, Che Salmah Md; Ahmad, Hamdan; Satho, Tomomitsu; Miake, Fumio; Zuharah, Wan Fatma; Fukumitsu, Yuki; Saad, Ahmad Ramli; Abdul Hamid, Suhaila; Vargas, Ronald Enrique Morales; Ab Majid, Abdul Hafiz; Fadzly, Nik; Abu Kassim, Nur Faeza; Hashim, Nur Aida; Abd Ghani, Idris; Abang, Fatimah Bt; AbuBakar, Sazaly

    2014-02-01

    Despite major insecticide-based vector control programs, dengue continues to be a major threat to public health in urban areas. The reasons for this failure include the emergence of insecticide resistance and the narrowing of the spectrum of efficient products. Cigarette butts (CBs), the most commonly discarded piece of waste, also represent a major health hazard to human and animal life. CBs are impregnated with thousands of chemical compounds, many of which are highly toxic and none of which has history of resistance in mosquitoes. This study was performed to examine whether exposure to CB alters various biological parameters of parents and their progeny. We examined whether the mosquito changes its ovipositional behaviors, egg hatching, reproductive capacity, longevity and fecundity in response to CB exposure at three different concentrations. Females tended to prefer microcosms containing CBs for egg deposition than those with water only. There were equivalent rates of eclosion success among larvae from eggs that matured in CB and water environments. We also observed decreased life span among adults that survived CB exposure. Extracts of CB waste have detrimental effects on the fecundity and longevity of its offspring, while being attractive to its gravid females. These results altogether indicate that CB waste indirectly affect key adult life traits of Aedes aegypti and could conceivably be developed as a novel dengue vector control strategy, referring to previously documented direct toxicity on the larval stage. But this will require further research on CB waste effects on non-target organisms including humans.

  4. Larvicidal effects of endophytic and basidiomycete fungus extracts on Aedes and Anopheles larvae (Diptera, Culicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augusto Bucker

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction In vitro bioassays were performed to access the larvicidal activity of crude extracts from the endophytic fungus Pestalotiopsis virgulata (Melanconiales, Amphisphaeriaceae and the saprophytic fungus Pycnoporus sanguineus (Basidiomycetes, Polyporaceae against the mosquitoes Aedes aegypti and Anopheles nuneztovari. Methods The extracts were tested at concentrations of 100, 200, 300, 400 and 500ppm. Ethyl acetate mycelia (EAM extracts and liquid culture media (LCM from Pe. virgulata and Py. sanguineus were tested against third instar larvae of Ae. aegypti and An. nuneztovari. Results The larvicidal activity of the EAM extracts from Pe. virgulata against Ae. aegypti had an LC50=101.8ppm, and the extract from the basidiomycete fungus Py. sanguineus had an LC50=156.8ppm against the Ae. aegypti larvae. The Pe. virgulata extract had an LC50=16.3ppm against the An. nuneztovari larvae, and the Py. sanguineus extract had an LC50=87.2ppm against these larvae. Conclusions These results highlight the larvicidal effect of EAM extracts from the endophyte Pe. virgulata against the two larval mosquitoes tested. Thus, Pe. virgulata and Py. sanguineus have the potential for the production of bioactive substances against larvae of these two tropical disease vectors, with An. nuneztovari being more susceptible to these extracts.

  5. Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using Bacillus thuringiensis against dengue vector, Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banu, A Najitha; Balasubramanian, C; Moorthi, P Vinayaga

    2014-01-01

    The present study reveals the larvicidal activity of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) synthesized by Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) against Aedes aegypti responsible for the diseases of public health importance. The Bt-AgNPs were characterized by using UV-visible spectrophotometer followed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy. A surface plasmon resonance spectrum of AgNps was obtained at 420 nm. The particle sizes were measured through SEM imaging ranging from 43.52 to 142.97 nm. The Bt-AgNPs has also given a characteristic peak at 3 keV in EDX image. Interestingly, the mortality rendered by Bt-AgNPs was comparatively high than that of the control against third-instar larvae of A. aegypti (LC50 0.10 ppm and LC90 0.39 ppm) in all the tested concentrations, viz. 0.03, 0.06, 0.09, 0.12, and 0.15 ppm. Hence, Bt-AgNPs would be significantly used as a potent mosquito larvicide against A. aegypti.

  6. Larvicidal activity of some Euphorbiaceae plant extracts against Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahuman, A Abdul; Gopalakrishnan, Geetha; Venkatesan, P; Geetha, Kannappan

    2008-04-01

    Larvicidal activity of ethyl acetate, butanol, and petroleum ether extracts of five species of Euphorbiaceae plants, Jatropha curcas, Pedilanthus tithymaloides, Phyllanthus amarus, Euphorbia hirta, and Euphorbia tirucalli, were tested against the early fourth instar larvae of Aedes aegypti L. and Culex quinquefasciatus (Say). The larval mortality was observed after 24 h of exposure. All extracts showed low larvicidal effects; however, the highest larval mortality was found in petroleum ether extract. The LC50 value of petroleum ether extracts of J. curcas, P. tithymaloides, P. amarus, E. hirta, and E. tirucalli were 8.79, 55.26, 90.92, 272.36, and 4.25 ppm, respectively, against A. aegypti and 11.34, 76.61, 113.40, 424.94, and 5.52 ppm, respectively, against C quinquefasciatus. Of the various ratios tested, the petroleum ether extracts of J. curcas and E. tirucalli were observed to be more efficient than the other plant extracts. It is, therefore, suggested that E. tirucalli can be applied as an ideal potential larvicide against A. aegypti and C. quinquefasciatus. This is an ideal ecofriendly approach for the control of the dengue vector, A. aegypti, and the lymphatic filariasis vector, C. quinquefasciatus.

  7. Chikungunya virus susceptibility & variation in populations of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae mosquito from India

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    Mangesh D Gokhale

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Although having immense clinical relevance, yet only a few studies have been targeted to understand the chikungunya virus (CHIKV susceptibility and growth in Aedes aegypti populations from India. This study was undertaken to investigate CHIKV susceptibility and growth kinetics in Ae. aegypti along with genetic heterogeneity of Ae. aegypti populations. Methods: Dose dependent CHIKV susceptibility and growth kinetic studies for three CHIKV strains reported from India were carried out in Ae. aegypti mosquito populations. The phenotypic variation and genetic heterogeneity in five Ae. aegypti populations were investigated using multivariate morphometrics and allozyme variation studies. Results: The dissemination and growth kinetics studies of the three CHIKV strains showed no selective advantage for a particular strain of CHIKV in Ae. aegypti. At 100 per cent infection rate, five geographic Ae. aegypti populations showed differences in dissemination to three CHIKV strains. Morphometric studies revealed phenotypic variation in all the studied populations. The allelic frequencies, F statistics, and Nei′s genetic identity values showed that genetic differences between the populations were small, but significant. Interpretation & conclusions: The results obtained in this study suggest that genetic background of the vector strongly influences the CHIKV susceptibility in Ae. aegypti.

  8. Evaluation of methoprene effect on Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae development in laboratory conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ima Aparecida Braga

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Several Brazilian Aedes aegypti populations are resistant to the larvicidae temephos. Methoprene, that inhibits adult emergence, is one of the alternatives envisaged by the Brazilian Dengue Control Program (PNCD. However, at Brazil vector infestation rates are measured through larvae indexes and it has been claimed that methoprene use in the field could face operational problems. In order to define a standardized protocol, methoprene effect was evaluated in laboratory conditions after continuous exposure of larvae (Rockefeller strain to a methoprene formulation available to the PNCD. Methoprene-derived mortality occurs mainly at the pupa stage and pupa development is inversely proportional to methoprene concentration. Number and viability of eggs laid by treated and control females are equivalent. A methoprene dose-dependent delay in the development was noted; however, b correlations were found for total mortality or adult emergence inhibition if data obtained when all control mosquitoes have emerged are compared to data obtained when methoprene-treated groups finish development. The cumulative record of total methoprene-induced mortality at the time control adults emerge is proposed for routine evaluation of field populations. Mortality of all specimens, but not of larva, could account for adult emergence inhibition, confirming the inadequacy of larvae indexes to evaluate methoprene effect.

  9. Oviposition and Embryotoxicity of Indigofera suffruticosa on Early Development of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae

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    Jeymesson Raphael Cardoso Vieira

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aqueous extract of Indigofera suffruticosa leaves obtained by infusion was used to evaluate the oviposition, its effect on development of eggs and larvae, and morphological changes in larvae of Aedes aegypti. The bioassays were carried out with aqueous extract in different concentrations on eggs, larvae, and female mosquitoes, and the morphological changes were observed in midgut of larvae. The extract showed repellent activity on A. aegypti mosquitoes, reducing significantly the egg laying by females with control substrate (343 (185–406 compared with the treated substrate (88 (13–210. No eclosion of A. aegypti eggs at different concentrations studied was observed. The controleclodedin 35%. At concentration of 250 μg/mL, 93.3% of larvae remained in the second instar of development and at concentrations of 500, 750, and 1000 μg/mL the inhibitory effect was lower with percentages of 20%, 53.3%, and 46.6%, respectively. Morphological changes like disruption on the peritrophic envelope (PE, discontinued underlying epithelium, increased gut lumen, and segments with hypertrophic aspects were observed in anterior region of medium midgut of larvae of A. aegypti. The results showed repellent activity, specific embryotoxicity, and general growth retardation in A. aegypti by medium containing aqueous extract of I. suffruticosa leaves.

  10. Bionomics of Aedes aegypti subpopulations (Diptera: Culicidae) from Misiones Province, northeastern Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tejerina, Edmundo Fabricio; Almeida, Francisco Felipe Ludueña; Almirón, Walter Ricardo

    2009-01-01

    Life statistics of four Aedes aegypti subpopulations from the subtropical province of Misiones were studied during autumn and winter, under semi-natural conditions, coming from the localities of Posadas (SW), San Javier (SE), Bernardo de Irigoyen (NE) and Puerto Libertad (NW). The eastern subpopulations are geographically separated by the central mountain system of the province from the western subpopulations. High percentages of larval and pupal survival (97-100%) were recorded, and no significant differences were detected among the four subpopulations. Larvae and pupae lasted approximately 8 days to complete their development, no significant differences being detected among the four subpopulations studied. Sex ratio recorded did not differ significantly from 1:1. Male longevity did not show difference among the different subpopulations, but female longevity was remarkably different among the four subpopulations (F=16.27; d.f.=(3;8); P=0.0009), ranging among 11.45 days for San Javier and 57.87 days for Posadas. Fecundity also varied considerably among subpopulations, the greatest number (307.44 eggs/female) being recorded for Posadas (F=4.13; d.f.=(3;8); P=0.04). Ae. aegypti females of the western subpopulations lived longer than the eastern subpopulations studied, therefore, the risk of dengue outbreak would be greater on the Misiones Province border with Paraguay.

  11. Isolation and Characterization of Midgut Lectin From Aedes aegypti (L. (Diptera: Culicidae

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    Tahany Hassan Ayaad

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The present investigation deals with the isolation and characterization of a lectin from Aedes aegypti (Ae aegypti female mid gut extract that agglutinates various mammalian red blood cells (RBCs such as human three groups A, B, and O (RH+, mouse, rat, guinea-pig, sheep and goat erythrocytes. The highest activity of both crude and isolated mid gut lectins were detected against sheep RBCs. Using (NH42 SO4 fractionation, ion-exchange and mannose-CNBr-Sepharose 6B affinity chromatography techniques, Ae. aegypti midgut lectin (Aelec was purified to homogeneity.Isoelectric focusing (IEF and reducing SDS/PAGE revealed that the isolated mid gut lectin had isoelectric point (PI of 5.90, and subunits approximate molecular weights of 35.50 and 27.35 KDa. The hemagglutination (HA of lectins were Ca2+ - independent and heat-resistant. The sugar specificity of the purified Aelec was strongly inhibited by D (+-mannose and raffinose, followed by D (+ glucose. N-acetyl-D-manosamine and N-acetyl-D-glucosamine were moderate inhibitors. None of the lectins were inhibited by the disaccharides such as galactose, lactose, trehalose (IC50 up to 200 mM or fetuin up to 1% but the glycosubstances mucin and laminarin were strong inhibitors up to very low concentrations (0.030 - 0.003%.

  12. Large diurnal temperature fluctuations negatively influence Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) life-history traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrington, Lauren B; Seifert, Stephanie N; Willits, Neil H; Lambrechts, Louis; Scott, Thomas W

    2013-01-01

    Seasonal variation in dengue virus transmission in northwestern Thailand is inversely related to the magnitude of diurnal temperature fluctuations, although mean temperature does not vary significantly across seasons. We tested the hypothesis that diurnal temperature fluctuations negatively influence epidemiologically important life-history traits of the primary dengue vector, Aedes aegypti (L.), compared with a constant 26 degrees C temperature. A large diurnal temperature range (DTR) (approximately equals 18 degrees C daily swing) extended immature development time (>1 d), lowered larval survival (approximately equals 6%), and reduced adult female reproductive output by 25% 14 d after blood feeding, relative to the constant 26 degreesC temperature. A small DTR (approximately equal 8 degrees C daily swing) led to a negligible or slightly positive effect on the life history traits tested. Our results indicate that there is a negative impact of large DTR on mosquito biology and are consistent with the hypothesis that, in at least some locations, large temperature fluctuations contribute to seasonal reduction in dengue virus transmission. PMID:23427651

  13. Indirect effects of cigarette butt waste on the dengue vector Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieng, Hamady; Rajasaygar, Sudha; Ahmad, Abu Hassan; Rawi, Che Salmah Md; Ahmad, Hamdan; Satho, Tomomitsu; Miake, Fumio; Zuharah, Wan Fatma; Fukumitsu, Yuki; Saad, Ahmad Ramli; Abdul Hamid, Suhaila; Vargas, Ronald Enrique Morales; Ab Majid, Abdul Hafiz; Fadzly, Nik; Abu Kassim, Nur Faeza; Hashim, Nur Aida; Abd Ghani, Idris; Abang, Fatimah Bt; AbuBakar, Sazaly

    2014-02-01

    Despite major insecticide-based vector control programs, dengue continues to be a major threat to public health in urban areas. The reasons for this failure include the emergence of insecticide resistance and the narrowing of the spectrum of efficient products. Cigarette butts (CBs), the most commonly discarded piece of waste, also represent a major health hazard to human and animal life. CBs are impregnated with thousands of chemical compounds, many of which are highly toxic and none of which has history of resistance in mosquitoes. This study was performed to examine whether exposure to CB alters various biological parameters of parents and their progeny. We examined whether the mosquito changes its ovipositional behaviors, egg hatching, reproductive capacity, longevity and fecundity in response to CB exposure at three different concentrations. Females tended to prefer microcosms containing CBs for egg deposition than those with water only. There were equivalent rates of eclosion success among larvae from eggs that matured in CB and water environments. We also observed decreased life span among adults that survived CB exposure. Extracts of CB waste have detrimental effects on the fecundity and longevity of its offspring, while being attractive to its gravid females. These results altogether indicate that CB waste indirectly affect key adult life traits of Aedes aegypti and could conceivably be developed as a novel dengue vector control strategy, referring to previously documented direct toxicity on the larval stage. But this will require further research on CB waste effects on non-target organisms including humans. PMID:24239749

  14. Bioactivity of plant extracts on the larval and pupal stages of Aedes aegypti (Diptera, Culicidea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lafayette Pereira Candido

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Aedes aegypti is responsible for the transmission of the dengue and yellow fever viruses. This study evaluated the effects of extracts from Cnidosculos phyllacanthus, Ricinus communis, and Coutarea hexandra on the developmental periods of A.aegypti larvae and pupae. Crude extracts of C. phyllacanthus and C. hexandra and oil from R. communis and C. phyllacanthus were used. Methods Bioassays of the larvicidal and pupicidal effects of these products at different concentrations and times of exposure were evaluated. The lethal and sublethal effects were determined using different concentrations in larvicidal tests. Mortality data were evaluated by Probit analysis to determine the LC50 and LC90 values. Results The vegetable oils from C. phyllacanthus and R. communis demonstrated greater efficiency for larval control with an LC50=0.28µl/mL and an LC90=1.48µl/mL and LC50=0.029µl/mL and a LC90=0.26µl/mL, respectively. In pupal tests toxic effects for all insects were verified after exposure to the products at significant LC50 and LC90 values for 24 and 48h. The effects of sublethal concentrations of C. phyllacanthus (oil were more effective on the insects. Conclusions The vegetables oils from C. phyllacanthus and R. communis demonstrated greater potential from the control of different developmental periods in the life cycle of this insect.

  15. Using Wolbachia Releases to Estimate Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) Population Size and Survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Gabriela de Azambuja; Dos Santos, Lilha Maria Barbosa; Villela, Daniel Antunes Maciel; Maciel-de-Freitas, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    Mosquitoes carrying the endosymbiont bacterium Wolbachia have been deployed in field trials as a biological control intervention due to Wolbachia effects on reducing transmission of arboviruses. We performed mark, release and recapture (MRR) experiments using Wolbachia as an internal marker with daily collections with BG-Traps during the first two weeks of releases in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The MRR design allowed us to investigate two critical parameters that determine whether Wolbachia would successful invade a field population: the probability of daily survival (PDS) of Wolbachia-infected Aedes aegypti females, and the wild population density during releases. Released females had a PDS of 0.82 and 0.89 in the first and second weeks, respectively, immediately after releases, which is well within the range of previous estimates of survivorship of wild mosquitoes in Rio de Janeiro. Abundance estimation of wild population varied up to 10-fold higher depending on the estimation method used (634-3565 females on the average-difference model to 6365-16188 females according to Lincoln-Petersen). Wolbachia-released mosquitoes were lower than the density estimation of their wild counterparts, irrespectively of the model used. Individually screening mosquitoes for the presence of Wolbachia reduced uncertainty on abundance estimations due to fluctuation in capturing per week. A successful invasion into local population requires Ae. aegypti fitness is unaffected by Wolbachia presence, but also reliable estimates on the population size of wild mosquitoes. PMID:27479050

  16. Toxicity of Mexican native plant extracts against larvae of Aedes aegypti(Diptera: Culicidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rosario; Ruiz-Guerrero; Mario; Alberto; Rodríguez-Pérez; Mariano; Norzagaray-Campos

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate five indigenous Mexican plants [Hippocratea excelsa, Hippocratea celastroides, Argemone mexicana(A. mexicana), Tagetes lucida, and Pseudosmodingium perniciosum(P. perniciosum)] toxicity against the fourth instar larvae of the dengue primary vector, Aedes aegypti(A. aegypti).Methods: Each plant part was treated successively with hexane, ethyl acetate, acetone, and methanol to extract potential active components of the plants against the dengue vector.Results: There was a range of toxicity at 24 or 48 h post-exposure for the different plant parts and organic solvent used(LC50 values ranged between 20 and 890 μg/mL). Extracts from seeds of A. mexicana(hexane washing with methanol and acetone) and stem-bark of P. perniciosum(hexane) showed highest toxicity to Ae. aegypti larvae at 48 h post-exposure(LC50 values were80, 50, and 20 μg/mL, respectively), thus making them potential candidates as biolarvicides.Efforts are on-going to characterize the bioactive components of the extracts, through chromatography, for their use as biological tools for the control of the primary dengue vector.Conclusions: A. mexicana and P. perniciosum are good candidates to combat the dengue vector, Ae. aegypti, as they were highly toxic to the larvae.

  17. Genetics and morphology of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) in septic tanks in Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somers, Gerard; Brown, Julia E; Barrera, Roberto; Powell, Jeffrey R

    2011-11-01

    Dengue viruses, primarily transmitted by the mosquito Aedes aegypti (L.), affect an estimated 50-100 million people yearly. Traditional approaches to control mosquito population numbers, such as the use of pesticides, have had only limited success. Atypical mosquito behavior may be one reason why current vector control efforts have been less efficacious than expected. In Puerto Rico, for example, adult Ae. aegypti have been observed emerging from septic tanks. Interestingly, adults emerging from septic tanks are larger on average than adults collected from surface containers. To determine whether adults colonizing septic tanks constitute a separate Ae. aegypti population, we used 12 previously validated microsatellite loci to examine adult mosquitoes collected from both septic tanks and surface containers, but found no evidence to suggest genetic differentiation. Size differences between septic tank and surface mosquitoes were reduced when nutrient levels were held constant across experimental groups. Despite the absence of evidence suggesting a genetic difference between experimental groups in this study, Ae. aegypti emerging from septic tanks may still represent a more dangerous phenotype and should be given special consideration when developing vector control programs and designing public health interventions in the future.

  18. [Morphology and cytochemistry of Aedes aegypti's cell cultures (Diptera: Culicidae) and susceptibility to Leishmania panamensis (Kinetoplastida: Trypanosomatidae)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Alfonso Arturo; Sarmiento, Ladys; Caldas, María Leonor; Zapata, Cristina; Bello, Felio Jesús

    2008-06-01

    Morphology and cytochemistry of Aedes aegypti's cell cultures (Diptera: Culicidae) and susceptibility to Leishmania panamensis (Kinetoplastida: Trypanosomatidae). The first cellular line of Aedes aegypti was developed by Grace in 1966; afterwards, other cellular lines of this species have been generated. These have been used for the study of pathogenic organisms like viruses, bacteria and parasites, which demonstrates their importance in biomedical applications. This research describes, for the first time, some cytochemical characteristics of A. aegypti cell cultures, that were infected with (MHOM/CO/87CL412) strain of Leishmania panamensis. A morphological study of the cell culture was also carried out. Maintenance of the cell culture, parasites and infection in vitro were carried out in the Laboratory of Entomology, Cell Biology and Genetics of the Universidad de La Salle. The cell cultures infected with the parasite were maintained in a mixture of mediums Grace/L15, supplemented with 10 % fetal bovine serum (FBS) at pH 6.8 and a temperature of 26 degrees C, during 3, 6 and 9 post-infection days. After this, these cell cultures were processed through High Resolution Light Microscopy (HRLM) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) based on standard protocols defined by the Group of Microscopy and Image Analyses of the Instituto Nacional de Salud. Semi-fine slices of 1 microm colored with toluidine blue were used for the morphological analysis of the culture, and ultra fine cuts of 60 to 90 nm stained with uranyl acetate and lead citrate where used for the ultrastructural study. In addition, PAS and peroxidase staining was carried out in cells fixed with methanol. The morphometric study was analyzed with software ImageJ (NIH). In the semi-fine slices, small cells were observed showing fibroblastic appearance 10.84 +/- 2.54 microm in length and 5.31 +/- 1.26 microm wide; other cells had epithelial appearance with a great peripheral nucleus, voluminous and

  19. MT-1二氧化碳诱蚊器诱捕白纹伊蚊效果观察%Evaluation of the trapping effect of MT-1 carbon dioxide light-trap on adult Aedes albopictus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    葛军旗; 张洪江; 王晨; 李书明

    2011-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the trapping effect of MT-1 carbon dioxide light-traps on adult Aedes albopictus. Methods A factorial design was conducted to compare six CO2 flow groups and one blank control at 7 sampled sites during 10 surveillance periods. The traps were placed at each sample site to collect mosquitoes, and were replaced with new devices with the flow rate adjusted every two hours between 02:00-22:00. Results (1) A total of 1122 adult mosquitoes were collected and identified as two species, including 939 Ae. Albopictus; (2) Mosquitoes were collected more efficiently in the CO2 flow groups (F=3.05, P=0.01), and the highest number of collected mosquitoes was observed at a flow rate of 6 L/min; (3) The numbers of captured Ae. Albopictus were statistically different in distinct surveillance periods (F=2.98, P=0.03), and most of them were captured during 18:00-20:00 and 04:00-06:00; (4) No difference was found in the captured Ae. Albopictus at the sample sites (F=0.47, P=0.80). Conclusion The MT-1 carbon dioxide light-traps could be used to collect adult Ae. Albopictus at a recommended CO2 flow rate of 6 L/min at dusk.%目的 评估MT-1二氧化碳(CO2)诱蚊器诱捕白纹伊蚊的效果.方法 采用析因设计方案,设6个CO2流量组和1个CO2空白对照组、10个监测时段和7个取样点,在每个取样点布放诱蚊灯,每2h调整诱蚊器的CO2流量并更换捕蚊笼,将采集到的蚊虫分类并计数,监测时间为02:00-22:00,探讨CO2流量、监测时段和取样点对MT-1 CO2诱蚊器诱捕白纹伊蚊效果的影响.结果 (1)共捕获蚊类1122只,其中白纹伊蚊占83.69%;(2)CO2流量组对白纹伊蚊的诱捕效果高于对照组(F=3.05,P=0.01),流量为6 L/min时捕获的白纹伊蚊最多;(3)不同监测时段对白纹伊蚊捕获数量的影响差异有统计学意义(F=2.98,P=0.03),18:00-20:00和04:00-06:00两个时段捕获的白纹伊蚊数量较多;(4)各取样点捕获的白纹伊蚊差异无统计学意义(F=0.47,P

  20. The effects of climate change and globalization on mosquito vectors: evidence from Jeju Island, South Korea on the potential for Asian tiger mosquito (Aedes albopictus influxes and survival from Vietnam rather than Japan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su Hyun Lee

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Climate change affects the survival and transmission of arthropod vectors as well as the development rates of vector-borne pathogens. Increased international travel is also an important factor in the spread of vector-borne diseases (VBDs such as dengue, West Nile, yellow fever, chikungunya, and malaria. Dengue is the most important vector-borne viral disease. An estimated 2.5 billion people are at risk of infection in the world and there are approximately 50 million dengue infections and an estimated 500,000 individuals are hospitalized with dengue haemorrhagic fever annually. The Asian tiger mosquito (Aedes albopictus is one of the vectors of dengue virus, and populations already exist on Jeju Island, South Korea. Currently, colder winter temperatures kill off Asian tiger mosquito populations and there is no evidence of the mosquitos being vectors for the dengue virus in this location. However, dengue virus-bearing mosquito vectors can inflow to Jeju Island from endemic area such as Vietnam by increased international travel, and this mosquito vector's survival during colder winter months will likely occur due to the effects of climate change. METHODS AND RESULTS: In this section, we show the geographical distribution of medically important mosquito vectors such as Ae. albopictus, a vector of both dengue and chikungunya viruses; Culex pipiens, a vector of West Nile virus; and Anopheles sinensis, a vector of Plasmodium vivax, within Jeju Island, South Korea. We found a significant association between the mean temperature, amount of precipitation, and density of mosquitoes. The phylogenetic analyses show that an Ae. albopictus, collected in southern area of Jeju Island, was identical to specimens found in Ho Chi Minh, Vietnam, and not Nagasaki, Japan. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that mosquito vectors or virus-bearing vectors can transmit from epidemic regions of Southeast Asia to Jeju Island and can survive during colder winter

  1. mtDNA-ND4 gene analysis of dengue vector Aedes albopictus%登革热媒介白纹伊蚊mtDNA-ND4基因特征分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方义亮; 张山鹰; 谢汉国; 林岩; 林耀莹; 杨发柱

    2011-01-01

    目的 研究不同地理种群白纹伊蚊(Aedes albopictus)线粒体蛋白NADH脱氢酶亚基IV(mtDNA-ND4)基因多态性,探讨其遗传特征.方法 采集不同海拔高度、登革热历史流行区与非流行区的白纹的幼虫,实验室饲养至成蚊,PCR扩增mtDNA-ND4基因并遗传分析.结果 获mtDNA-ND4长度为324b,碱基A+T含量分别为73.2%,17个碱基置换位点,颠换率为62.5%;19个个体存在5个单倍型,单倍型多态性(h)为0.442.结论 福建省不同地理株白纹伊蚊出现小程度的遗传分化,可能由遗传漂变引起的.%In order to study the characteristics of mitochondrial DNA NADH dehydrogenase subunit 4 (mtDNA-ND4) gene and to understand and propose genetic polymorphism of vectors, mosquito larvae were collected from dengue epidemical and non-endemic areas at different altitude levels,and to rear to adult mosquitoes. Together with Aedes albopictus from other regions (Yunnan, Shanghai and Guizhou) in China, their mtDNA-ND4 genes were amplified and the gene sequences were obtained and analyzed. Results revealed that the ND4 fragment contained 324 nucleotides with 17 polymorphic sites. The A+Tcontent of ND4 gene was 73.2%. The frequency of transversion was 62.5% and 5 haplotypes were obtained from 19 specimens among 4 geographic populations from Fujian Province. The haplotype diversity was 0. 442. All results showed that genetic difference existed among population of strains, while the degree was lower. This difference might be caused by genetic drift.

  2. Morphological changes in the midgut of Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae) larvae following exposure to an Annona coriacea (Magnoliales: Annonaceae) extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, M S; Pinheiro, D O; Serrão, J E; Pereira, M J B

    2012-08-01

    Bioinsecticides are important in the control of disease vectors, but data regarding their physiological effects on target insects are incomplete. This study describes morphological changes that occur in the midgut of third instar Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae) following treatment with a methanolic extract of Annona coriacea (Magnoliales: Annonaceae). Dissected midguts were subdivided into anterior and posterior regions and analyzed by light and scanning electron microscopy. Insects exposed to the extract displayed intense, destructive cytoplasmic vacuolization in columnar and regenerative midgut cells. The apical surfaces of columnar cells exhibited cytoplasmic protrusions oriented toward the lumen, suggesting that these cells could be involved in apocrine secretory processes and/or apoptosis. We report that A. coriacea extracts induced morphological alterations in the midgut of A. aegypti midgut larvae, supporting the use of plant extracts for control of the dengue vector.

  3. Essential oils with insecticidal activity against larvae of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vera, Sharon Smith; Zambrano, Diego Fernando; Méndez-Sanchez, Stelia Carolina; Rodríguez-Sanabria, Fernando; Stashenko, Elena E; Duque Luna, Jonny E

    2014-07-01

    Insecticidal activity of the essential oils (EOs) isolated from Tagetes lucida, Lippia alba, Lippia origanoides, Eucalyptus citriodora, Cymbopogon citratus, Cymbopogon flexuosus, Citrus sinensis, Swinglea glutinosa, and Cananga odorata aromatic plants, grown in Colombia (Bucaramanga, Santander), and of a mixture of L. alba and L. origanoides EOs were evaluated on Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti Rockefeller larvae. The EOs were extracted by microwave-assisted hydrodistillation and characterized by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The main components of the EOs were identified using their linear retention indices and mass spectra. The lethal concentrations (LCs) of the EOs were determined between the third and fourth instar of A. aegypti. LC50 was determined by probit analysis using mortality rates of bioassays. All essential oils tested showed insecticidal activity. The following values were obtained for C. flexuosus (LC50 = 17.1 ppm); C. sinensis (LC50 = 20.6 ppm); the mixture of L. alba and L. origanoides (LC50 = 40.1 ppm); L. alba (LC50 = 42.2 ppm); C. odorata (LC50 = 52.9 ppm); L. origanoides (LC50 = 53.3 ppm); S. glutinosa (LC50 = 65.7 ppm); T. lucida (LC50 = 66.2 ppm); E. citriodora (LC50 = 71.2 ppm); and C. citratus (LC50 = 123.3 ppm). The EO from C. flexuosus, with citral (geranial + neral) as main component, showed the highest larvicidal activity. PMID:24781026

  4. Larvicidal activity of Annona senegalensis and Boswellia dalzielii leaf fractions against Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Younoussa Lame

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the larvicidal activity of leaf fractions of Annona senegalensis and Boswellia dalzielii against fourth instar larvae of Aedes aegypti. Fourth instar larvae of Ae. aegypti were exposed for 24 hours to various concentrations (312.5-2500 mg/L of methanolic crude extract and its fractions obtained with n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl-acetate and methanol solvents, following WHO method. The mortalities recorded were subjected to ANOVA test for mean comparison and Probit analysis to determine LC50. Preliminary phytochemical screening test for some components of the plants assessed were also evaluated. The phytochemical screening of the two plants revealed the presence of alkaloids, steroids, phenolic compounds, terpenoids, fats and oils in the crude extracts which, after splitting were most distributed in n-hexane and chloroform fractions. Apart from methanol fraction, all products used showed a significant (P<0.001 concentration-dependent toxicity against Ae. aegypti larvae. The LC50 recorded with crude extract were 759.6 and 830.4 mg/L for A. senegalensis and B. dalzielli respectively. After fractionation, n-hexane and chloroform fractions of A. senegalensis revealed more effective activity than others with CL50 values of 379.3 and 595.2 mg/L respectively. As for B. dalzielli, n-hexane (LC50=537.1 mg/L and chloroform (LC50=585.5 mg/L fractions were also the most effective. These results suggest that the n-hexane and chloroform fractions of these plants as a promising larvicide against Ae. aegypti and can constitute the best basic and vital step in the development of a botanical insecticide source.

  5. Comparative field efficacy of newly developed formulations of larvicides against Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thavara, Usavadee; Tawatsin, Apiwat; Chompoosri, Jakkrawarn; Bhakdeenuan, Payu; Khamsawads, Chayada; Sangkitporn, Somchai; Siriyasatien, Padet; Asavadachanukorn, Preecha; Boonmuen, Saibua; Mulla, Mir S

    2013-09-01

    Aedes aegypti (L.) is known as vector of dengue and chikungunya fever. Larvicides are used to control this vector. We evaluated the efficacy of newly developed formulations of larvicides to control Ae. aegypti under field conditions for 24 weeks post single application. Mosdop P and Mosdop TB containing diflubenzuron (2% and 40 mg/tablet, respectively) as the active ingredient, were applied at a dosage of 0.1 mg a.i./1 and Mosquit TB10, Mosquit TB100 and Temecal containing temephos (1%, 10% and 1%, respectively) as the active ingredient were applied at a dosage of 1 mg active ingredent (a.i.) to 200 liter water storage jars. Two water regimens were used in the jars: in one regimen the jar was kept full of water all the time and in the other regimen a full jar had half the volume removed and refilled weekly. The larvicidal efficacy was reported as the level of inhibition of emergence (IE%) calculated based on the pupal skins in the jars versus the original number of larvae added. Mosdop P, Mosdop TB, Mosquit TB10, Mosquit TB100 and Temecal showed complete larvicidal efficacy (100% IE) in the constantly full jars for 16, 17, 14, 20 and 13 weeks posttreatment, respectively; in the jars where half the volum of water was replaced weekly, the larvicides had complete larvicidal efficacy (100% IE) for 19, 20, 17, 24 and 15 weeks post-treatment, respectively. The five larvicide regimens evaluated in this study are effective for controlling Ae. aegypti larvae. PMID:24437310

  6. Insecticide resistance and genetic variability in natural populations of Aedes (Stegomyia aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae from Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar A. Aguirre-Obando

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Mosquito control prevails as the most efficient method to protect humans from the dengue virus, despite recent efforts to find a vaccine for this disease. We evaluated insecticide resistance and genetic variability in natural populations of Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762 from Colombia. This is the first Colombian study examining kdr mutations and population structure. Bioassays with larvae of three mosquito populations (Armenia, Calarcá and Montenegro were performed according to the World Health Organization (WHO guidelines, using Temephos. For the analysis of the Val1016Ile mutation and genetic diversity, we sampled recently-emerged adults from four mosquito populations (Armenia, Calarcá, Montenegro and Barcelona. Following the WHO protocol, bioassays implemented with larvae showed resistance to Temephos in mosquito populations from Armenia (77% ± 2 and Calarcá (62% ± 14, and an incipient altered susceptibility at Montenegro (88% ± 8. The RR95 of mosquito populations ranged from 3.7 (Montenegro to 6.0 (Calarca. The Val1016Ile mutation analysis of 107 genotyped samples indicates that 94% of the specimens were homozygous for the wild allele (1016Val and 6% were heterozygous (Val1016Ile. The 1016Ile allele was not found in Barcelona. Genetic variability analysis found three mitochondrial lineages with low genetic diversity and gene flow. In comparison with haplotypes from the American continent, those from this study suggest connections with Mexican and North American populations. These results confirm that a continuous monitoring and managing program of A. aegypti resistance in the state of Quindío is required.

  7. Distribution and genetic structure of Aedes japonicus japonicus populations (Diptera: Culicidae) in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Katrin; Schuldt, Kathrin; Rudolf, Martin; Marklewitz, Marco; Fonseca, Dina M; Kaufmann, Christian; Tsuda, Yoshio; Junglen, Sandra; Krüger, Andreas; Becker, Norbert; Tannich, Egbert; Becker, Stefanie C

    2014-09-01

    In recent years, the number of imported cases of arthropod-borne diseases in Europe, such as dengue fever, has increased steadily, as did the emergence and distribution of invasive insect vectors. Consequently, the risk of disease spreading into previously unaffected regions through invasive mosquitoes is also increasing. One example of an invasive mosquito is Aedes japonicus japonicus (A. j. japonicus), which spread from its original habitat in Japan to North America and Europe. This species has been shown to act as a vector for Japanese encephalitis and West Nile viruses. In Europe, A. j. japonicus has been detected in Switzerland, Belgium, Slovenia, and Germany, where it has become a resident species. Here, we describe the recent spread and genetic structure of A. j. japonicus populations in Germany. By monitoring the species in Baden-Württemberg in 2011 and 2012, we observed a considerable enlargement of the infested area from 54 municipalities in 2011 to 124 municipalities in 2012. To elucidate the colonization of Europe by A. j. japonicus, seven microsatellite loci were studied in 106 individuals sampled in Germany and Switzerland in 2012. The same markers were genotyped in 31 North American and 26 Japanese specimens. Population genetic analyses indicated that A. j. japonicus in Baden-Württemberg and North Rhine-Westphalia represented two genetically distinct populations with FST-values of 0.073-0.152, suggesting that they originated from two independent introduction events in the past. These results are of particular interest in light of vectorial variability for the transmission of viruses and other pathogens in Europe. PMID:25056941

  8. Surveillance, insecticide resistance and control of an invasive Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) population in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornel, Anthony J.; Holeman, Jodi; Nieman, Catelyn C.; Lee, Yoosook; Smith, Charles; Amorino, Mark; Brisco, Katherine K.; Barrera, Roberto; Lanzaro, Gregory C.; Mulligan III, F. Stephen

    2016-01-01

    The invasion and subsequent establishment in California of Aedes aegypti in 2013 has created new challenges for local mosquito abatement and vector control districts. Studies were undertaken to identify effective and economical strategies to monitor the abundance and spread of this mosquito species as well as for its control. Overall, BG Sentinel (BGS) traps were found to be the most sensitive trap type to measure abundance and spread into new locations. Autocidal-Gravid-Ovitraps (AGO-B), when placed at a site for a week, performed equally to BGS in detecting the presence of female Ae. aegypti. Considering operational cost and our findings, we recommend use of BGS traps for surveillance in response to service requests especially in locations outside the known infestation area. We recommend AGO-Bs be placed at fixed sites, cleared and processed once a week to monitor mosquito abundance within a known infestation area. Long-term high density placements of AGO-Bs were found to show promise as an environmentally friendly trap-kill control strategy. California Ae. aegypti were found to be homozygous for the V1016I mutation in the voltage gated sodium channel gene, which is implicated to be involved in insecticide resistance. This strain originating from Clovis, California was resistant to some pyrethroids but not to deltamethrin in bottle bio-assays. Sentinel cage ultra-low-volume (ULV) trials using a new formulation of deltamethrin (DeltaGard®) demonstrated that it provided some control (average of 56% death in sentinel cages in a 91.4 m spray swath) after a single truck mounted aerial ULV application in residential areas. PMID:27158450

  9. Surveillance, insecticide resistance and control of an invasive Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) population in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornel, Anthony J; Holeman, Jodi; Nieman, Catelyn C; Lee, Yoosook; Smith, Charles; Amorino, Mark; Brisco, Katherine K; Barrera, Roberto; Lanzaro, Gregory C; Mulligan Iii, F Stephen

    2016-01-01

    The invasion and subsequent establishment in California of Aedes aegypti in 2013 has created new challenges for local mosquito abatement and vector control districts. Studies were undertaken to identify effective and economical strategies to monitor the abundance and spread of this mosquito species as well as for its control. Overall, BG Sentinel (BGS) traps were found to be the most sensitive trap type to measure abundance and spread into new locations. Autocidal-Gravid-Ovitraps (AGO-B), when placed at a site for a week, performed equally to BGS in detecting the presence of female Ae. aegypti. Considering operational cost and our findings, we recommend use of BGS traps for surveillance in response to service requests especially in locations outside the known infestation area. We recommend AGO-Bs be placed at fixed sites, cleared and processed once a week to monitor mosquito abundance within a known infestation area. Long-term high density placements of AGO-Bs were found to show promise as an environmentally friendly trap-kill control strategy. California Ae. aegypti were found to be homozygous for the V1016I mutation in the voltage gated sodium channel gene, which is implicated to be involved in insecticide resistance. This strain originating from Clovis, California was resistant to some pyrethroids but not to deltamethrin in bottle bio-assays. Sentinel cage ultra-low-volume (ULV) trials using a new formulation of deltamethrin (DeltaGard®) demonstrated that it provided some control (average of 56% death in sentinel cages in a 91.4 m spray swath) after a single truck mounted aerial ULV application in residential areas.

  10. 陕西省白纹伊蚊抗药性研究和防制策略%Insecticide resistance of Aedes albopictus in Shaanxi province,China and its control strategy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙养信; 吕文; 霍丽霞; 周以军; 王博

    2013-01-01

    目的 了解陕西省伊蚊分布地区铜川及安康市白纹伊蚊抗药性情况.方法 采用区分剂量法测定白纹伊蚊幼虫对3种杀虫剂的24 h死亡率;采用半数致死剂量(LC50)法测定白纹伊蚊幼虫对9种杀虫剂的LC50.结果 区分剂量法测定结果显示,铜川和安康地区白纹伊蚊对敌敌畏、氯菊酯、溴氰菊酯均为抗性群体;半数致死量法测定结果显示,安康、铜川市白纹伊蚊对高效氯氰菊酯的LC50分别为0.003 71和0.001 45 mg/L;对氯菊酯的LC50分别为0.006 25和0.017 67 mg/L;对溴氰菊酯的LC50分别为0.002 69和0.000 76 mg/L;对氯氰菊酯的LC50分别为0.017 46和0.009 37 mg/L;对DDT的LC50分别为0.809 54和0.217 06 mg/L;对敌敌畏的LC50分别为0.040 15和0.026 77 mg/L;对双硫磷的LC50分别为0.002 22和0.003 10 mg/L;对残杀威的LC50分别为0.348 14和0.651 91 mg/L;对仲丁威的LC50分别为0.157 19和0.543 77 mg/L;抗性倍数以敌敌畏、双硫磷、残杀威等较高.结论 在应用杀虫剂防治媒介伊蚊时,应结合地理区域及生态环境特点对蚊虫进行综合治理,科学合理地使用杀虫剂,以减缓抗药性的产生.%Objective To evaluate the insecticide resistance of Aedes albopictus in Tongchuan city and Ankang city of Shaanxi province, China. Methods Distinguishing dosage method was used to measure the mortality rates of Ae. Albopictus larvae within 24 h of exposure to three insecticides; median lethal dose (LC50) method was used to measure the LC50 of nine insecticides for Ae. Albopictus larvae. Results The distinguishing dosage method showed that Ae. Albopictus in Ankang and Tongchuan had resistances to dichlorvos, permethrin, and deltamethrin. The LC50 method showed that for Ae. Albopictus in Ankang and Tongchuan, the LC50 of (5-cypermethrin was 0.003 71 mg/L and 0.001 45 mg/L, the LC50 of permethrin was 0.006 25 mg/L and 0.017 67 mg/L, the LC50 of deltamethrin was 0.002 69 mg/L and 0.000 76 mg/L, the LC50 of

  11. Laboratory and field evaluation of the effects of the neonicotinoid imidacloprid on the oviposition response of Aedes (Stegomyia aegypti Linnaeus (Diptera: Culicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria Elsa Antonio-Arreola

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we assessed the suitability of using the neonicotinoid imidacloprid with standard ovitraps by evaluating the ovicidal properties of imidacloprid and its influence on the oviposition response of gravid females of Aedes (Stegomyia aegypti Linnaeus (Diptera: Culicidae. First, we calculated the imidacloprid lethal dose 99 (LD99 by exposing third instar larvae of the target species to different concentrations of the insecticide. Next, Ae. aegypti eggs were exposed to the imidacloprid LD99 for 24 h and hatching inhibition was recorded. Finally, we investigated any potential repellent effect of the imidacloprid solution on the oviposition response of gravid Aedes females in field and laboratory conditions. The LD99 obtained from larvae tests proved to be sufficient to keep any exposed eggs from hatching. No repellent effect was observed; females laid as many eggs in imidacloprid-treated ovitraps as in traps containing either clean water or temephos-treated water in both field and laboratory conditions. Our results indicate that imidacloprid is a suitable insecticide for treating ovitraps against Ae. aegypti.

  12. Repellent activities of essential oil from Rosmarinus officinalis on Aedes albopictus and its chemical constituents%迷迭香植物精油对白纹伊蚊的驱避作用及其化学成分

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李黎; 范泉水; 邱薇; 张富强; 冯子良; 王杰; 余静; 刘祥义

    2010-01-01

    应用水蒸气蒸溜法和超临界二氧化碳萃取法提取生长于云南的迷迭香茎叶植物精油,测试2种精油对白纹伊蚊Aedes albopictus Skuse的驱避作用,并利用GC/MS联用仪分析2种精油的化学成分.结果表明:超临界二氧化碳提取的迷迭香精油对白纹伊蚊的驱避时间是(5.82±1.13)h,达到国标驱避剂评价的B级标准.2种精油化学成分中都含有驱纹活性物质:柠檬烯、樟脑、Euealyptol、(+)-4-Carene、1-methyl-4-(1-methylethylidene)-cyclohexene、Beta-pinene等,且驱蚊活性成分在挥发油中占有较高比例,显示该植物精油在驱蚊方面有一定开发价值.

  13. Efficacy observation of Cypermethrin dispensing killing Aedes albopictus%氯氰菊酯复配剂现场杀灭白纹伊蚊的效果观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史锋庆; 沈兆媛; 李莉莉; 韩雪玲; 胡淑芳

    2015-01-01

    目的 研究观察氯氰菊酯复配剂现场杀灭白纹伊蚊Aedes albopictus(Skus,l894)的效果.方法 采用实验组在施药前后白纹伊蚊密度变化和与对照组白纹伊蚊密度变化评价氯氰菊酯复配剂的效果;采用网捕法监测施药前后白纹伊蚊密度.结果 实验组2组在施药后0.5~6h白纹伊蚊的杀灭率均为100%,而对照组在施水前后白纹伊蚊密度基本无变化;实验组2组到第8h均出现白纹伊蚊,其密度与对照组差异无统计学意义(x2=2.55,P>0.05).结论 2组氯氰菊酯复配剂在6h内对室外白纹伊蚊均有非常显著的杀灭效果.

  14. 白纹伊蚊感染登革病毒后病毒特异性piRNAs分析%Dengue virus-derived piRNAs in Aedes albopictus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赖植发; 王衍海; 顾金保; 陈晓光

    2014-01-01

    Objective To screen and analyze Dengue virus-derived vsRNAs and piRNAs in Aedes albopictus.Methods Female adults Aedes albopictus were collected 2-4 days post-emergence and were injected with Dengue type 2 virus NGC strain,while control group were injected with equal volume of physiological saline.Total RNA was isolated,and small RNAs ranging up to 30 nt in length were excised and analyzed using Illumina HiSeq 2000.After removing adaptor sequences and contaminated reads,Clean reads were aligned to Dengue virus genome and its complementary sequence by SOAP2.The length,strand ratio nucleotide bias and genome distribution of Dengue virus-derived vsRNAs and vpiRNAs were further analyzed.Results Total,3835 vsRNAs and 395 vpiRNAs unique tags were obtained,among them 94.99% vpiRNAs were derived from virus genome strand,and distributed across the viral genome,but with an enrichment at several "hot-spots".Except weak bias for adenine at position 10 (10A)in the sense molecules as the feature of secondary piRNA,other signature piRNA characteristics were not observed,including a preference for a uridine at their 5'-end,which were main characteristics of primary piRNAs,and a significant 10 nt overlap (Ping-Pong)between sense and antisense piRNA.Conclusion Dengue virusderived piRNAs were indentified in Dengue virus infected Ae.albopictus.%目的 筛选并分析白纹伊蚊感染登革病毒后病毒特异性vsRNAs与vpiRNAs.方法 白纹伊蚊羽化后2~4d雌性成蚊显微注射DENV-2病毒NGC株,对照组注射生理盐水.8d后提取样品总RNA,分离小RNA,通过illumina Hiseq 2000测序仪进行测序分析.以SOAP2软件与DENV-2基因组和互补序列进行比对.对病毒特异性的vsRNAs与vpiRNAs的长度、碱基与链偏好性、基因组分布进行分析.结果 对于感染蚊虫,我们共计获得3835个特异的DENV-2来源的vsRNAs,其中395个特异性的vpiRNAs.94.99% vpiRNAs主要来源于病毒的正链基因组.vpiRNAs在DENV-2基因组上的分

  15. Vector competence of Aedes aegypti and Aedes vittatus (Diptera: Culicidae) from Senegal and Cape Verde archipelago for West African lineages of chikungunya virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diagne, Cheikh T; Faye, Oumar; Guerbois, Mathilde; Knight, Rachel; Diallo, Diawo; Faye, Ousmane; Ba, Yamar; Dia, Ibrahima; Faye, Ousmane; Weaver, Scott C; Sall, Amadou A; Diallo, Mawlouth

    2014-09-01

    To assess the risk of emergence of chikungunya virus (CHIKV) in West Africa, vector competence of wild-type, urban, and non-urban Aedes aegypti and Ae. vittatus from Senegal and Cape Verde for CHIKV was investigated. Mosquitoes were fed orally with CHIKV isolates from mosquitoes (ArD30237), bats (CS13-288), and humans (HD180738). After 5, 10, and 15 days of incubation following an infectious blood meal, presence of CHIKV RNA was determined in bodies, legs/wings, and saliva using real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Aedes vittatus showed high susceptibility (50-100%) and early dissemination and transmission of all CHIKV strains tested. Aedes aegypti exhibited infection rates ranging from 0% to 50%. Aedes aegypti from Cape Verde and Kedougou, but not those from Dakar, showed the potential to transmit CHIKV in saliva. Analysis of biology and competence showed relatively high infective survival rates for Ae. vittatus and Ae. aegypti from Cape Verde, suggesting their efficient vector capacity in West Africa. PMID:25002293

  16. 白纹伊蚊及致倦库蚊对蝙蝠乙型脑炎病毒分离株的易感性分析%Susceptibility of Aedes albopictus and Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus to infection with bat Japanese encephalitis virus isolates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘姗; 张琼花; 周军华; 俞守义; 郑学礼; 陈清

    2012-01-01

    目的 了解蝙蝠乙脑病毒分离株GD1和HN2株对白纹伊蚊和致倦库蚊的易感性.方法 通过病毒液饲喂法使白纹伊蚊和致倦库蚊经口感染蝙蝠乙脑病毒GD1株和HN2株,采用TaqMan real-time RT-PCR方法,检测GD1株和HN2株感染白纹伊蚊及致倦库蚊后第4、6、8、10、12、14、16、18、20天病毒存在情况与病毒载量的动态变化.结果两株蝙蝠乙脑病毒在感染白纹伊蚊、致倦库蚊后4~20 d内均能被检测到.Ct值的动态变化规律显示白纹伊蚊和致倦库蚊均能感染乙脑病毒GD1株和HN2株,但致倦库蚊的易感性高于白纹伊蚊;两株毒株的毒力可能不同,HN2株毒力大于GD1株.结论 白纹伊蚊和致倦库蚊均能感染蝙蝠乙脑病毒分离株.%Objective To evaluate the susceptibility of Aedes albopictus and Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus to oral infection with bat Japanese encephalitis virus isolates (GDI and HN2 strains).Methods Aedes albopictus and Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus were infected orally by GD1 and HN2 strains of bat Japanese encephalitis virus.TaqMan real-time PCR was used to detect the virus and monitor the changes in the viral loads in Aedes albopictus and Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus at a 2-day interval,starting from 4 days till 20 days after the infection.Results The infected Aedes albopictus and Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus were found positive for the Japanese encephalitis virus from day 4 to day 20.Both Aedes albopictus and Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus were susceptible to infection by GD1 and HN2 strains,but the latter showed a greater susceptibility.The HN2 strain virus appeared to have a greater virulence than the GD1 strain.Conclusion Aedes albopictus and Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus can carry GD1 and HN2 strains of bat Japanese encephalitis virus isolates.

  17. Infestation status Aedes albopictus and related mosquito-borne infectious disease risk in central urban area in Shanghai%上海中心城区白纹伊蚊侵害状况及蚊媒传染病危险性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高强; 熊成龙; 周毅彬; 曹晖; 姜庆五

    2016-01-01

    目的 了解白纹伊蚊在上海中心城区的侵害状况,分析蚊媒传染病在上海城市环境的流行与传播风险.方法 采用CO2法在上海城区绿地与居民区环境进行连续性成蚊观察,分析白纹伊蚊种群密度及季节消长趋势特点及新变化;对城区采集的白纹伊蚊样本进行核酸提取并测序,通过与疫区伊蚊进行序列比对,分析上海城区白纹伊蚊对相关蚊媒病毒的易感性及流行风险.结果 白纹伊蚊是上海中心城区的优势蚊种,住区白纹伊蚊构成比(78.53%)高于绿地(19.99%),差异有统计学意义(x2=15 525.168,P<0.001).白纹伊蚊在住区环境的密度[分别为11.91、42.02只/(天·观察点)]均高于绿地环境[分别为3.65、2.18、2.73只/(天·观察点)],差异有统计学意义(F=7.704,均P<0.001);2014年住区环境白纹伊蚊呈明显上升的趋势[构成比94.69%,平均密度42.02只/(天·观察点)],其中旧式里弄环境白纹伊蚊密度最高.上海市的白纹伊蚊与2005-2011年非洲开展白纹伊蚊基因分型在进化树上的遗传距离甚大.结论 上海及相邻地区不存在埃及伊蚊,但市中心白纹伊蚊侵害明显,大幅降低白纹伊蚊的侵害是控制寨卡病毒传播的关键.%Objective To evaluate Aedes albopictus infestation status in the central urban area of Shanghai,and analyze the related epidemic risk of mosquito-borne infectious disease.Methods Consecutive mosquito surveillance was conducted in the green lands and residential areas in the central urban area of Shanghai during 2012-2014,the Aedes albopictas density and its seasonal fluctuation were observed;the sequence ofAedes albopictus in Shanghai was aligned with that in other epidemic area abroad,and the susceptibility ofAedes albopictus to mosquito-borne virus and endemic risk were analyzed.Results No Aedes aegypti was found in the central urban area of Shanghai.As predominant species in both the residential area and the green lands

  18. Ovicidal, larvicidal and adulticidal properties of Asparagus racemosus (Willd.) (Family: Asparagaceae) root extracts against filariasis (Culex quinquefasciatus), dengue (Aedes aegypti) and malaria (Anopheles stephensi) vector mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindarajan, Marimuthu; Sivakumar, Rajamohan

    2014-04-01

    Several diseases are associated to the mosquito-human interaction. Mosquitoes are the carriers of severe and well-known illnesses such as malaria, arboviral encephalitis, dengue fever, chikungunya fever, West Nile virus and yellow fever. These diseases produce significant morbidity and mortality in humans and livestock around the world. The present investigation was undertaken to study the ovicidal, larvicidal and adulticidal activities of crude hexane, ethyl acetate, benzene, chloroform and methanol extracts of root of Asparagus racemosus were assayed for their toxicity against three important vector mosquitoes, viz., Culex quinquefasciatus, Aedes aegypti and Anopheles stephensi (Diptera: Culicidae). The mean percent hatchability of the eggs was observed after 48 h post-treatment. The percent hatchability was inversely proportional to the concentration of extract and directly proportional to the eggs. All the five solvent extracts showed moderate ovicidal activity; however, the methanol extract showed the highest ovicidal activity. The methanol extract of Asparagus racemosus against Culex quinquefasciatus, Aedes aegypti and Anopheles stephensi exerted 100% mortality (zero hatchability) at 375, 300 and 225 ppm, respectively. Control eggs showed 99-100% hatchability. The larval mortality was observed after 24 h of exposure. All extracts showed moderate larvicidal effects; however, the highest larval mortality was found in methanol extract of root of Asparagus racemosus against the larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus, Aedes aegypti and Anopheles stephensi with the LC50 and LC90 values were 115.13, 97.71 and 90.97 ppm and 210.96, 179.92, and 168.82 ppm, respectively. The adult mortality was observed after 24 h recovery period. The plant crude extracts showed dose-dependent mortality. At higher concentrations, the adult showed restless movement for some times with abnormal wagging and then died. Among the extracts tested, the highest adulticidal activity was observed in

  19. Spatial distribution and esterase activity in populations of Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti (Linnaeus) (Diptera: Culicidae) resistant to temephos

    OpenAIRE

    Wanessa Porto Tito Gambarra; Walter Fabrício Silva Martins; Maurício Lilioso de Lucena Filho; Ingredy Meneses Cavalcanti de Albuquerque; Otávia Karla dos Santos Apolinário; Eduardo Barbosa Beserra

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The need for studies that describe the resistance patterns in populations of Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus) in function of their region of origin justified this research, which aimed to characterize the resistance to temephos and to obtain information on esterase activity in populations of Aedes aegypti collected in municipalities of the State of Paraíba. METHODS: Resistance to temephos was evaluated and characterized from the diagnostic dose of 0.352mg i.a...

  20. Combining the Sterile Insect Technique with the Incompatible Insect Technique: III-Robust Mating Competitiveness of Irradiated Triple Wolbachia-Infected Aedes albopictus Males under Semi-Field Conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongjing Zhang

    Full Text Available Combination of the sterile insect technique with the incompatible insect technique is considered to be a safe approach to control Aedes albopictus populations in the absence of an accurate and scalable sex separation system or genetic sexing strain. Our previous study has shown that the triple Wolbachia-infected Ae. albopictus strain (wAlbA, wAlbB and wPip was suitable for mass rearing and females could be completely sterilized as pupae with a radiation dose of at least 28 Gy. However, whether this radiation dose can influence the mating competitiveness of the triple infected males was still unknown. In this study we aimed to evaluate the effects of irradiation on the male mating competitiveness of the triple infected strain under laboratory and semi-field conditions. The results herein indicate that irradiation with a lower, female-sterilizing dose has no negative impact on the longevity of triple infected males while a reduced lifespan was observed in the wild type males (wAlbA and wAlbB irradiated with a higher male-sterilizing dose, in small cages. At different sterile: fertile release ratios in small cages, triple-infected males induced 39.8, 81.6 and 87.8% sterility in a wild type female population at 1:1, 5:1 and 10:1 release ratios, respectively, relative to a fertile control population. Similarly, irradiated triple infected males induced 31.3, 70.5 and 89.3% sterility at 1:1, 5:1 and 10:1 release ratios, respectively, again relative to the fertile control. Under semi-field conditions at a 5:1 release ratio, relative to wild type males, the mean male mating competitiveness index of 28 Gy irradiated triple-infected males was significantly higher than 35 Gy irradiated wild type males, while triple infected males showed no difference in mean mating competitiveness to either irradiated triple-infected or irradiated wild type males. An unexpected difference was also observed in the relative male mating competitiveness of the triple infected

  1. Combining the Sterile Insect Technique with the Incompatible Insect Technique: III-Robust Mating Competitiveness of Irradiated Triple Wolbachia-Infected Aedes albopictus Males under Semi-Field Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dongjing; Lees, Rosemary Susan; Xi, Zhiyong; Bourtzis, Kostas; Gilles, Jeremie R L

    2016-01-01

    Combination of the sterile insect technique with the incompatible insect technique is considered to be a safe approach to control Aedes albopictus populations in the absence of an accurate and scalable sex separation system or genetic sexing strain. Our previous study has shown that the triple Wolbachia-infected Ae. albopictus strain (wAlbA, wAlbB and wPip) was suitable for mass rearing and females could be completely sterilized as pupae with a radiation dose of at least 28 Gy. However, whether this radiation dose can influence the mating competitiveness of the triple infected males was still unknown. In this study we aimed to evaluate the effects of irradiation on the male mating competitiveness of the triple infected strain under laboratory and semi-field conditions. The results herein indicate that irradiation with a lower, female-sterilizing dose has no negative impact on the longevity of triple infected males while a reduced lifespan was observed in the wild type males (wAlbA and wAlbB) irradiated with a higher male-sterilizing dose, in small cages. At different sterile: fertile release ratios in small cages, triple-infected males induced 39.8, 81.6 and 87.8% sterility in a wild type female population at 1:1, 5:1 and 10:1 release ratios, respectively, relative to a fertile control population. Similarly, irradiated triple infected males induced 31.3, 70.5 and 89.3% sterility at 1:1, 5:1 and 10:1 release ratios, respectively, again relative to the fertile control. Under semi-field conditions at a 5:1 release ratio, relative to wild type males, the mean male mating competitiveness index of 28 Gy irradiated triple-infected males was significantly higher than 35 Gy irradiated wild type males, while triple infected males showed no difference in mean mating competitiveness to either irradiated triple-infected or irradiated wild type males. An unexpected difference was also observed in the relative male mating competitiveness of the triple infected strain after

  2. 羽裂蟹甲草对家蝇和白纹伊蚊的杀虫活性和活性成分%Insecticidal activities and active ingredients of Cacalia tangutica against Musca domestica and Aedes albopictus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄继光; 赵欢欢; 苗辉; 徐汉虹

    2012-01-01

    To study the insecticidal activities and active ingredients of Cacalia tangutica,the methanol extracts of C.tangutica against Musca domestica and Aedes albopictus were bioassayed with feeding method and dipping method.The active ingredients of C.tangutica were isolated and identified.Results indicated that the methanol extracts from different parts of C.tangutica showed highly insecticidal activities against adult M.domestica and the 4th instar larvae of A.albopictus.Nine compounds (stigmasterol,friedelin,7-hydroxy-8-methoxycoumarin,umbelliferone,daphnetin,daphnetin-8-O-β-D-glucopyranoside,quercetin,kaempferol and β-daucosterol) were isolated and identified from extracts of leaves and flowers of C.tangutica.Among them,friedelin,quercetin and kaempferol were firstly isolated from this plant.At 48 h after treatment,the corrected mortalities of adult M.domestica caused by friedelin,quercetin and kaempferol at the dosage of 500 μg/g were 88.33%,69.90% and 77.04%,respectively.At 72 h after treatment,the corrected mortalities of the 4th instar larvae of A.albopictus caused by friedelin,quercetin and kaempferol at the concentration of 50 μg/g were 88.49%,72.22%and 71.06%,respectively.The studies suggest that C.tangutica would be a promising control agent on medical insects and deserves a further study.%为探明羽裂蟹甲草Cacalia tangutica的杀虫活性及其活性成分,通过拌糖饲喂法和浸渍法测定了羽裂蟹甲草甲醇提取物对家蝇Musca domestica成虫和白纹伊蚊Aedes albopictus 4龄幼虫的毒杀活性,并采用色谱分离技术和现代波谱技术对羽裂蟹甲草中的化学成分进行了分离鉴定.结果表明:该植物不同部位甲醇提取物对家蝇成虫和白纹伊蚊4龄幼虫均具有较高的生物活性.从该植物叶和花甲醇提取物中分离鉴定了豆甾醇、无羁萜、7-羟基-8-甲氧基香豆素、7-羟基香豆素、7,8-二羟基香豆素、瑞香素-8-O-β-D-葡萄糖苷、槲皮素

  3. Vector Competence of Aedes aegypti and Aedes vittatus (Diptera: Culicidae) from Senegal and Cape Verde Archipelago for West African Lineages of Chikungunya Virus

    OpenAIRE

    Diagne, Cheikh T.; Faye, Oumar; Guerbois, Mathilde; Knight, Rachel; Diallo, Diawo; Ba, Yamar; Dia, Ibrahima; Faye, Ousmane; Weaver, Scott C.; Sall, Amadou A; Diallo, Mawlouth

    2014-01-01

    To assess the risk of emergence of chikungunya virus (CHIKV) in West Africa, vector competence of wild-type, urban, and non-urban Aedes aegypti and Ae. vittatus from Senegal and Cape Verde for CHIKV was investigated. Mosquitoes were fed orally with CHIKV isolates from mosquitoes (ArD30237), bats (CS13-288), and humans (HD180738). After 5, 10, and 15 days of incubation following an infectious blood meal, presence of CHIKV RNA was determined in bodies, legs/wings, and saliva using real-time rev...

  4. Population studies of the filarial vector Aedes polynesiensis (Diptera: Culicidae) in two island settings of French Polynesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hapairai, Limb K; Sang, Michel A Cheong; Sinkins, Steven P; Bossin, Hervé C

    2013-09-01

    A mark-release-recapture study was conducted to estimate the adult population size, migration, and dispersal patterns of male and female Aedes (Stegomyia) polynesiensis (Marks) in a valley of Moorea, a volcanic island, and a motu (islet) on the atoll of Tetiaroa, two settings typical of the Society Islands. Aedes polynesiensis recapture rate was high for females and low for males. The distribution of Aedes species in the valley was heterogeneous. Marked individuals dispersed to most parts of the motu and over great distances in the valley for some females. The study provides insights into the field dynamics of Ae. polynesiensis populations and confirms that more efficient sampling methods are warranted. There was no evidence of active migration between motus on the atoll, suggesting that Tetiaroa is a suitable site for small-scale initial open releases of Wolbachia incompatible insect technique and other sterile insect technique-like suppression or replacement strategies. PMID:24180100

  5. Synthesis and biological activity of acetates of copper (II and iron (III for the control of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jéssica V. Nardeli

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed to the synthesis of basic acetates of Cu (II and Fe(III against larvae of Aedes aegypti and Gram negative and Gram positive. The transition metal ions Cu (II and Fe (III have bactericidal activity and are toxic to Aedes aegypti larvae in the eggs and larval stages of initial, precludes the eggs hatch and slow reproductive cycle of the insect. The theme investigates the importance of carboxyl groups in complex formation, transport and cellular internalization of the toxic ions. It is known that the bactericide or insecticide activity is due to metal ions and Cu (IIor Fe (III.

  6. In vitro Mosquito Larvicidal Activity of Marine Algae Against the Human Vectors, Culex quinquefasciatus (Say and Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus (Diptera: Culicidae

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    Akbar Idhayadhulla

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of twenty marine algae were collected from the rocky intertidal and subtidal regions of the southwest coast of India and extracted in methanol. The extracts were evaluated for larvicidal activity against the second and third instar larvae of the human vector mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus and Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae. Analysis on the activity profile of the above marine algae indicated that the early stage larvae were very sensitive to seven seaweed extracts that had been tested. Among the seven marine algae, Lobophora variegata was highly potential, showing LD50 value of 70.38 and 79.43 g mL-1 on the 2nd instar larvae of A. aegypti and C. quinquefasciatus respectively. The rank of larvicidal potency in highly active algae in the descending order is as follows: Lobophora variegata (Dictyotaceae>Spatoglossum asperum (Dictyotaceae>Stoechospermum marginatum (Dictyotaceae>Sargassum wightii (Sargassaceae >Acrosiphonia orientalis (Acrosiphoniaceae>Centroceras clavulatum (Ceramiacea>Padina tetrastromatica (Dictyotaceae. This is the first report that envisaged the mosquito larvicidal efficacy of L. variegata from the Indian coast. Therefore, this marine alga could be recognized as a potential resource of natural insecticide and can be developed to replace synthetic insecticides in future.

  7. Evaluation of Andrographis paniculata Burm.f. (Family:Acanthaceae) extracts against Culex quinquefasciatus (Say.) and Aedes aegypti (Linn.) (Diptera:Culicidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Marimuthu Govindarajan

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the larvicidal and ovicidal efficacy of different extracts of Andrographis paniculata (A. paniculata) against Culex quinquefasciatus (Cx. quinquefasciatus) Say and Aedes aegypti (Ae. aegypti ) L. (Diptera:Culicidae). Methods:Larvicidal efficacy of the crude leaf extracts of A. paniculata with five different solvents like benzene, hexane, ethyl acetate, methanol and chloroform was tested against the early third instar larvae of Cx. quinquefasciatus and Ae. aegypti. The ovicidal activity was determined against two mosquito species to various concentrations ranging from 50-300 ppm under the laboratory conditions. Results:The benzene, hexane, ethyl acetate, methanol and chloroform leaf extract of A. paniculata was found to be more effective against Cx. quinquefasciatus than Ae. aegypti. The LC50 values were 112.19, 137.48, 118.67, 102.05, 91.20 ppm and 119.58, 146.34, 124.24, 110.12, 99.54 ppm respectively. Among five tested solvent, methanol and ethyl acetate crude extract was found to be most effective for ovicidal activity against two mosquito species. The extract of methanol and ethyl acetate exerted 100%mortality at 200 ppm against Cx. quinquefasciatus and at 250 ppm against Ae. aegypti. Conclusions:From the results it can be concluded the crude extract of A. paniculata was a potential for controlling Cx. quinquefasciatus and Ae. aegypti mosquitoes.

  8. Identification of dengue Ⅱ virus-binding proteins from Aedes albopictus and Culex. Quinguefasciatus%从白纹伊蚊与致倦库蚊分离和鉴定可结合登革Ⅱ病毒的蛋白分子

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付宇姣; 郑学礼; 潘京

    2013-01-01

    目的 筛选登革Ⅱ病毒(DENV-2)识别白纹伊蚊、致倦库蚊的连接分子.方法 提取不同发育时期白纹伊蚊、致倦库蚊的总蛋白,用SDS-12% PAGE进行分析,用病毒覆盖蛋白结合试验(VOPBA)筛选不同发育时期白纹伊蚊、致倦库蚊表达连接DENV-2分子.结果 VOPBA检测不同发育时期白纹伊蚊显示:幼虫样品的泳道可见到25 000、35 000、50 000的DEN-2结合分子,蛹样品的泳道可见到35 000、50 000分子,雄蚊样品可见到50 000分子,雌蚊样品中可见到35 000、50 000分子.DEN-2结合蚊35 000分子在白纹伊蚊幼虫、蛹及成蚊的雌蚊的三个阶段均存在,而雄蚊的成蚊则缺少这一分子.VOPBA检测不同发育时期致倦库蚊:幼虫样品可见100 000分子,蛹样品可见40、100 000分子,另外在50 000位置上下亦可见48 000、60 000左右的多个条带,雄蚊与雌蚊样品均见40 000、100 000分子.结论 35 000大小的蛋白分子分布与白纹伊蚊感染组织向性相关.%Objective To screen DENV-2 binding proteins from Aedes albopictus and Culex. quinquefasciatus. Methods The total proteins of Aedes albopictus and Culex. quinquefasciatus in different developmental stages were prepared and analyzed with SDS-12% polyacrylamide gel. After electophoresis the proteins were transferred using Mini Trans-Blot Electrophoretic Transfer Cell (Bio-Rad ) to a nitrocellulose membrane. Virus overlay protein-binding assay (VOPBA) was carried out using anti-dengue virus 1-4 monoclonal antibody. Results In Aedes albopictus, VOPBA detected DEN-2 binding molecules of 25 000, 35 000, and 50 000 in larvae samples, molecules of 35 000 and 50 000 in pupae samples, a 50 000 molecule in male mosquito samples, and molecules of 35 000 and 50 000 in female mosquito samples. DENV-2 binding protein of 35 000 was found in the larvae, pupae, and female mosquitoes, but not in male mosquitoes. In Culex. Quinquefasciatus, VOPBA detected a molecule of 100 000 in larvae samples

  9. Spatial distribution and esterase activity in populations of Aedes (Stegomyia aegypti (Linnaeus (Diptera: Culicidae resistant to temephos

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    Wanessa Porto Tito Gambarra

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The need for studies that describe the resistance patterns in populations of Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus in function of their region of origin justified this research, which aimed to characterize the resistance to temephos and to obtain information on esterase activity in populations of Aedes aegypti collected in municipalities of the State of Paraíba. METHODS: Resistance to temephos was evaluated and characterized from the diagnostic dose of 0.352mg i.a./L and multiple concentrations that caused mortalities between 5% and 99%. Electrophoresis of isoenzymes was used to verify the patterns of esterase activity among populations of the vector. RESULTS: All populations of Aedes aegypti were resistant to temephos, presenting a resistance rate (RR greater than 20. The greatest lethal dose 50% of the sample (CL50 was found for the municipality of Lagoa Seca, approximately forty-one times the value of CL50 for the Rockefeller population. The populations characterized as resistant showed two to six regions of α and β-esterase, called EST-1 to EST-6, while the susceptible population was only seen in one region of activity. CONCLUSIONS: Aedes aegypti is widely distributed and shows a high degree of resistance to temephos in all municipalities studied. In all cases, esterases are involved in the metabolism and, consequently, in the resistance to temephos.

  10. Spatial distribution and esterase activity in populations of Aedes (Stegomyia aegypti (Linnaeus (Diptera: Culicidae resistant to temephos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanessa Porto Tito Gambarra

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The need for studies that describe the resistance patterns in populations of Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus in function of their region of origin justified this research, which aimed to characterize the resistance to temephos and to obtain information on esterase activity in populations of Aedes aegypti collected in municipalities of the State of Paraíba. METHODS: Resistance to temephos was evaluated and characterized from the diagnostic dose of 0.352mg i.a./L and multiple concentrations that caused mortalities between 5% and 99%. Electrophoresis of isoenzymes was used to verify the patterns of esterase activity among populations of the vector. RESULTS: All populations of Aedes aegypti were resistant to temephos, presenting a resistance rate (RR greater than 20. The greatest lethal dose 50% of the sample (CL50 was found for the municipality of Lagoa Seca, approximately forty-one times the value of CL50 for the Rockefeller population. The populations characterized as resistant showed two to six regions of α and β-esterase, called EST-1 to EST-6, while the susceptible population was only seen in one region of activity. CONCLUSIONS: Aedes aegypti is widely distributed and shows a high degree of resistance to temephos in all municipalities studied. In all cases, esterases are involved in the metabolism and, consequently, in the resistance to temephos.

  11. Chapter 3. Integration of botanicals and microbial pesticides for the control of dengue vector, Aedes aegypti (Insecta: Diptera: Culicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosquitoes are the single most important group of insects in terms of public health significance and causing diseases such as malaria, filariasis, dengue fever, Japanese encephalitis and other fevers. There has been an outbreak of Chikungunya and dengue all over the India from 2006 – 2009. Aedes ae...

  12. Papyracillic acid and its derivatives as biting deterrents against Aedes aegypti(Diptera: Culicidae): structure–activity relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aedes aegypti L. is the major vector of the arboviruses responsible for dengue fever, one of the most devastating human diseases. Papyracillic acid, the main phytotoxin produced by Ascochyta agropyrina var. nana, was evaluated in a preliminary screening together with other fungal phytotoxins, cyclo...

  13. Atividade larvicida do óleo de Anacardium humile Saint Hill sobre Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762 (Diptera, Culicidae Larvicidal activity of Anacardium humile Saint Hill oil on Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762 (Diptera, Culicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karla Rejane de Andrade Porto

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o potencial do cajuzinho do cerrado (Anacardium humile sobre larvas de Aedes aegypti. Os extratos hexânico, etanólico, aquoso e o óleo das folhas foram obtidos do material vegetal coletado em fragmento de cerrado. Estes foram testados nas concentrações 1%; 0,5%, 0,25%, 0,125%, 0,05% e 0,0125% diluídas em dimetil sulfóxido 1%. A contagem das larvas mortas foi realizada após 24 horas. Utilizou-se o método Probit de análise para obtenção das CL50 e respectivos intervalos de confiança. Conclui-se que apenas o óleo extraído de folhas de Anacardium humile causa 100% de mortalidade em larvas de 4º estádio de Aedes aegypti nas concentrações até 0,125%, o que parece indicar que os ingredientes ativos estão na fase mais apolar. O que indica a potencialidade de uso da planta como larvicida de Aedes aegypti, entretanto, novos testes deverão ser conduzidos utilizando outros órgãos vegetais, assim como outros métodos e solventes utilizados na extração.The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential of Anacardium humile (monkey nuts against Aedes aegypti larvae. Hexane, ethanol and aqueous extracts and oil from leaves were obtained from plant material collected from the Brazilian savanna. These were tested at concentrations of 1%, 0.5%, 0.25%, 0.125%, 0.05% and 0.0125%, diluted in 1% dimethyl sulfoxide. The dead larvae were counted 24 hours later. The Probit analysis method was used to obtain the LC50 and the respective confidence intervals. The conclusion was that only the oil extracted from Anacardium humile leaves caused 100% mortality among fourth-instar Aedes aegypti larvae, using concentrations of up to 0.125%. This seems to indicate that the active ingredients are present in the most apolar phase. This indicates that this plant has potential use as a larvicide against Aedes aegypti. However, new tests should be carried out using other plant organs, as well as using other methods

  14. Mosquitocidal activity of Polygala arvensis Willd against Aedes aegypti (Linn., Anopheles stephensi (Liston. and Culex quinquefasciatus (Say. (Diptera: Culicidae

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    M. Deepa

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available To determine the larvicidal, ovicidal and repellent activities of benzene and methanol extract of Polygala arvensis against Aedes aegypti, Anopheles stephensi and Culex quinquefasciatus Twenty five 3rd instar larvae of selected mosquitoes species were exposed to various concentrations (60-300 ppm and were assayed in the laboratory by using the protocol of WHO 2005; the 24 h LC50 values of the P. Arvensis leaf extract was determined following Probit analysis. The ovicidal activity was determined against Aedes aegypti, Anopheles stephensi and Culex quinquefasciatus exposed to variousconcentrations were tested under laboratory conditions and the hatch rates were assessed 120hrs post treatment. The repellent efficacy was determined against selected mosquitoes at three concentrations viz., 1.0, 2.0 and 3.0 mg/cm2 under the laboratory conditions. The LC50 and LC90 values of benzene and methanol extract of P. arvensis against Aedes aegypti, Anopheles stephensi and Culex quinquefasciatus larvae in 24 h were 75.32, 88.26, 82.46, 58.21, 46.37, 42.68 and 260.48, 275.26, 251.39, 208.45, 189.82 and 130.44 ppm, respectively. It has been noticed that the higher concentrations of P. arvensis extractspossesses strong ovicidal activity at 200 ppm concentration against Ae. aegypti, An. stephensi and C. quinquefasciatus, no egg hatchability was recorded. In the same way, methanol extracts showed maximum ovicidal activity followed by benzene extract against selected vector mosquitoes. In repellent activity, among two extracts tested P. arvensis methanol extract had strong repellent action against selected mosquitoes as it provided 100% protection against Aedes aegypti, Anopheles stephensi and Culex quinquefasciatus for 280min. From the results it can be concluded the P. arvensis extract was an excellent potential for controlling Aedes aegypti, Anopheles stephensi and Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes.

  15. Compound insecticide's efficacy study on Aedes Albopictus%复合杀虫剂对白纹伊蚊的药效试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张亚萍; 胡淑芳; 韩雪玲; 李莉莉; 冯丹; 史锋庆

    2015-01-01

    目的 观察复合杀虫剂快速杀灭室内白纹伊蚊Aedes albopictus的药物效果.方法 采用实验组施药前后蚊虫密度变化和实验组与对照组蚊虫密度变化评价杀灭药效.结果 实验组在施药后30 min白纹伊蚊全部被杀灭,连续观察到第6天没有发现白纹伊蚊,而对照组白纹伊蚊密度基本无变化;到第7~8天实验组开始出现白纹伊蚊,其密度与对照组无明显差别.结论 复合杀虫剂对室内白纹伊蚊具有好的快速杀灭效果,药效可持续6d.

  16. Effect of stalk and leaf extracts from Euphorbiaceae species on Aedes aegypti (Diptera, Culicidae) larvae Efeito dos extratos de caule e folha de espécies de Euphorbiaceae sobre larvas de Aedes aegypti (Diptera, Culicidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Goretti Araújo Lima; Ismália Cassandra Costa Maia; Bruna Dantas de Sousa; Selene Maia de Morais; Sílvia Maria de Freitas

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the larvicidal activity of essential oil aqueous solutions (hydrolates) obtained by steam distillation of stalks and leaves of Croton argyrophylloides, Croton nepetaefolius, Croton sonderianus and Croton zehntneri against Aedes aegypti larvae. Twenty-five larvae of third instar were placed in plastic beckers, containing the hydrolates (50 mL), in a four repetitions scheme. Water was used as control and the number of dead larvae was counted after 24 ...

  17. 温度对DEN-2型病毒在白纹伊蚊体内外潜伏期的影响%Effect of temperatures on extrinsic incubation period of dengue virus type 2 in Aedes albopictus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖方震; 张仪; 谢汉国; 施文琦; 何似; 邓艳琴; 周晓农; 严延生

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the effect of incubation temperature on extrinsic incubation period, Aedes albopictus were oral ly infected with dengue virus type 2 suspension, then fully blood engorged mosquitoes were separated and transferred to new cartons and retained at 18 °C , 21 °C , 26 °C , 31 °C and 36 °C with 10% sucrose. Mosquitoes were sacrificed on 3 d, 4 d, 5 d, 7 d, 10 d, 14, 20 d and 25 d post infection. Immunofluorescence assays were used to detect antigen of dengue virus type 2 in the head, salivary gland and thorax abdomen. Virus in thorax abdomen was detected on 25 d,7 d,5 d,4 d and 3 d post infection. The extrinsic incubation period was 10 d,7 d,4 d and d4 separately, when mosquitoes were maintained at 21 °C ,26°C ,31°C and 36°C. But virus in salivary was not detected during a 25 day incubation period when mosquitoes were retained at 18°C. It was suggested that the extrinsic incubation period of A. Albopictus shortened gradually with the increase of extrinsic incubation tem perature.%目的 研究温度对登革2型病毒在蚊体内的外潜伏期的影响.方法 登革2型病毒人工经口感染白纹伊蚊,冻麻挑出吸饱血的雌蚊放入新的蚊笼,分别置于18℃、21℃、26℃、31℃和36℃中饲养,第3 d、4 d、5 d,7 d、10 d、14 d、20 d、25 d分别收集并解剖白纹伊蚊,以间接免疫荧光法分别检测蚊虫头部、唾液腺和胸腹部的登革2型病毒抗原.结果 置于18℃、21℃、26℃、31℃和36℃饲养的白纹伊蚊分别在第25 d、7 d、5 d、4 d、3 d时胸腹部中开始检出阳性.21℃、26℃、31℃和36℃饲养的蚊虫唾液腺阳性检出的时间分别为10 d、7 d、4 d、4 d,18℃在感染后的25 d内,唾液腺均未检出阳性.结论随着温度的升高,登革2型病毒在白纹伊蚊体内外潜伏期逐渐缩短.

  18. Evaluation of two sweeping methods for estimating the number of immature Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae in large containers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margareth Regina Dibo

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Here, we evaluated sweeping methods used to estimate the number of immature Aedes aegypti in large containers. Methods III/IV instars and pupae at a 9:1 ratio were placed in three types of containers with, each one with three different water levels. Two sweeping methods were tested: water-surface sweeping and five-sweep netting. The data were analyzed using linear regression. Results The five-sweep netting technique was more suitable for drums and water-tanks, while the water-surface sweeping method provided the best results for swimming pools. Conclusions Both sweeping methods are useful tools in epidemiological surveillance programs for the control of Aedes aegypti.

  19. Ovicidal and Oviposition Deterrent Activities of Medicinal Plant Extracts Against Aedes aegypti L. and Culex quinquefasciatus Say Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Reegan, Appadurai Daniel; Gandhi, Munusamy Rajiv; Paulraj, Micheal Gabriel; Ignacimuthu, Savarimuthu

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the ovicidal and oviposition deterrent activities of five medicinal plant extracts namely Aegle marmelos (Linn.), Limonia acidissima (Linn.), Sphaeranthus indicus (Linn.), Sphaeranthus amaranthoides (burm.f), and Chromolaena odorata (Linn.) against Culex quinquefasciatus and Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. Three solvents, namely hexane, ethyl acetate, and methanol, were used for the preparation of extracts from each plant. Methods Four different concentrations—62.5 parts per ...

  20. Neem oil increases the efficiency of the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae for the control of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) larvae

    OpenAIRE

    Gomes, Simone A.; Paula, Adriano R; Ribeiro, Anderson; Moraes, Catia O. P.; Santos, Jonathan W. A. B.; Silva, Carlos P; Samuels, Richard I

    2015-01-01

    Background Entomopathogenic fungi are potential candidates for use in integrated vector management and many isolates are compatible with synthetic and natural insecticides. Neem oil was tested separately and in combination with the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae against larvae of the dengue vector Aedes aegypti. Our aim was to increase the effectiveness of the fungus for the control of larval mosquito populations. Methods Commercially available neem oil was used at concentrati...

  1. Larvicidal and repellent effect of some Tribulus terrestris L., (Zygophyllaceae) extracts against the dengue fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Tarek M.Y. El-Sheikh; Zarrag I.A. Al-Fifi; Mohamed A. Alabboud

    2016-01-01

    Aedes aegypti transmits etiologic agents of yellow fever and dengue. Vaccine for dengue virus is not available and vector control is essential to minimize dengue incidence. The larvicidal and repellent effect of the crude ethanol, acetone and petroleum ether extract leaves of Tribulus terrestris, against 3rd instar larvae and adults of mosquito, Ae. aegypti the vector of dengue fever was evaluated. The efficacy of petroleum ether extract seemed to be more effective with LC50 64.6 ppm followed...

  2. Investigation of mosquito oviposition pheromone as lethal lure for the control of Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Ong, Song-Quan; Jaal, Zairi

    2015-01-01

    Background The trend in chemical insecticide development has focused on improving the efficacy against mosquitoes while reducing the environmental impact. Lethal lures apply an “attract-and-kill” strategy that draws the insect to the killing agent rather than bringing the killing agent to the insect. Methods In this study, the mosquito oviposition pheromone was extracted from the eggs of Aedes aegypti (L.) and further investigated with a combination of pheromone and granular temephos as a let...

  3. The Effectiveness of Organotin (IV Benzylisopropyldithiocarbamate Compounds as Insecticide Against Aedes Aegypti Linn (Diptera: Culicidae in Laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Normah Awang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The widespread use of insecticides had resulted in insecticide resistance of vectors of dengue as well as polluting the environment. Organotin (IV compounds had the potential to be developed as the insecticides to overcome the existing problem. Approach: The aim of this study was to examine the insecticidal effects which were larvicidal and adulticidal effects of organotin (IV benzylisopropyldithiocarbamate compounds against Aedes Aegypti Linn. In laboratory larvicidal bioassay test of a series of three organotin (IV benzylisopropyldithiocarbamate compounds on third instar larvae of Aedes Aegypti had been carried out. Results: The study was found that compound B showed the best larvicidal effect with the LC50 and LC90 values of 0.004 ppm and 0.007 ppm, respectively. Compound C was also displayed good larvicidal effect with the LC50 and LC90 values of 0.029 ppm and 0.108 ppm, respectively. While, compound A was shown the least larvicidal effect with the LC50 and LC90 values of 0.404 ppm and 0.749 ppm, respectively. Further testing was conducted on compound B on adults of Aedes ageypti female to investigate its adulticidal property. The result showed that compound B displayed good adulticidal activity with LC50 dan LC90 of 4.277 ppm and 27.653 ppm, respectively. Conclusion: Compound B is the most effective compound among three organotin (IV benzylisopropyldithiocarbamate compounds tested against the dengue vector Aedes Aegypti and has potential to be explored as an insecticide to control the spread of dengue fever.

  4. Molecular characterization of Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae) of Easter Island based on analysis of the mitochondrial ND4 gene

    OpenAIRE

    Claudia Andrea Núñez; Christian Raúl González; Víctor Obreque; Brenda Riquelme; Carolina Reyes; Mabel Rojas

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Aedes aegypti mosquitoes are the main vector of viruses Dengue, Zika and Chikungunya. Shortly after the first report of the dengue vector Ae. aegypti in Easter Island (Rapa Nui) in late 2000, the first disease outbreak dengue occurred. Viral serotyping during the 2002 outbreak revealed a close relationship with Pacific DENV-1 genotype IV viruses, supporting the idea that the virus most likely originated in Tahiti. Mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase subunit 4 (ND4) DNA sequences generat...

  5. Unexpected patterns of admixture in German populations of Aedes Japonicus Japonicus (Diptera: Culicidae) underscore the importance of human intervention

    OpenAIRE

    Zielke, Dorothee E; Werner, Doreen; Schaffner, Francis; Kampen, Helge; Dina M Fonseca

    2014-01-01

    The mosquito Aedes japonicus japonicus, originally restricted to temperate East Asia, is now widespread in North America and more recently has become established in Europe. To ascertain the putative number of separate introductions to Europe and examine patterns of expansion we analyzed the genetic makeup of Ae. j. japonicus populations from five cemeteries in North Rhine-Westphalia and Rhineland-Palatinate, two western German federal states, as well as of specimens from populations in Belgiu...

  6. Unexpected Patterns of Admixture in German Populations of Aedes japonicus japonicus (Diptera: Culicidae) Underscore the Importance of Human Intervention

    OpenAIRE

    Zielke, Dorothee E; Doreen Werner; Francis Schaffner; Helge Kampen; Dina M Fonseca

    2014-01-01

    The mosquito Aedes japonicus japonicus, originally restricted to temperate East Asia, is now widespread in North America and more recently has become established in Europe. To ascertain the putative number of separate introductions to Europe and examine patterns of expansion we analyzed the genetic makeup of Ae. j. japonicus populations from five cemeteries in North Rhine-Westphalia and Rhineland-Palatinate, two western German federal states, as well as of specimens from populations in Belgiu...

  7. Insecticide resistance and its underlying mechanisms in field populations of Aedes aegypti adults (Diptera: Culicidae) in Singapore

    OpenAIRE

    Koou, Sin-Ying; Chong, Chee-Seng; Vythilingam, Indra; Lee, Chow-Yang; Ng, Lee-Ching

    2014-01-01

    Background In Singapore, dose–response bioassays of Aedes aegypti (L.) adults have been conducted, but the mechanisms underlying resistance to insecticides remain unclear. In this study, we evaluated insecticide resistance and its underlying mechanism in field populations of Ae. aegypti adults. Methods Seven populations of Ae. aegypti were collected from public residential areas and assays were conducted according to WHO guidelines to determine their susceptibility to several commonly used in...

  8. Susceptibility status of Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae) to temephos from three districts of Tamil Nadu, India

    OpenAIRE

    MUTHUSAMY, R; M S Shivakumar

    2015-01-01

    Background & objectives: Dengue is the most rapidly expanding arboviral disease in India. Aedes aegypti is the primary vector of dengue fever. Chemical insecticides have long been used in the vector control programmes along with other control measures. However, continuous use of insecticides targeting Ae. aegypti may lead to development of insecticide resistance. Though resistance in Ae. aegypti has been reported, the mutation in ace-1 gene associated with temephos resistance is not reported ...

  9. 大黄素衍生物的合成及灭蚊活性研究%Synthesis and mosquito activity against the fourth-instar larvae of Aedes albopictus of Emodin derivatives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黎奕斌; 郑宇珊; 范继鸿; 梁倩倩; 宋高鹏

    2015-01-01

    To design and synthesize Emodin derivatives with mosquito larvicidal activity,Emodin as the lead compound was modi-fied with esterification or etherification to ameliorate the solubility and improve the mosquito larvicidal activity.Thirteen Emodin derivatives were prepared and their structures were identified by 1 HNMR and ESIMS.The mosquito larvicidal activity against the fourth-instar larvae of Aedes albopictus was evaluated.The results indicate that the mosquito larvicidal activity decreases when anthraquinone Emodin is reduced to anthrone.Whereas,the etherification or esterification of all the hydroxyl groups in Emodin is helpful to improve the mosquito larvicidal activity.The introduction of Br group at C-6-Me of Emodin is able to enhance the mos-quito larvicidal activity,while the introduction of hydroxy or amino group can increase the activity.%为改善大黄素的生物利用度,提高其灭蚊效果,本文以大黄素为先导化合物,通过酯化或醚化等化学修饰设计合成了系列大黄素衍生物。以大黄素为起始原料合成了13个大黄素衍生物,其化学结构经1 HNMR、ESIMS 等确证,并测定了其对4龄白纹伊蚊幼虫的杀虫活性。构效关系研究表明:将蒽醌大黄素还原成蒽酮后灭蚊活性降低;大黄素被醚化或酯化后,灭蚊活性显著提高;大黄素的 C-6位甲基被溴代后,灭蚊活性下降,而引入羟基或氨基基团后灭蚊活性提高。

  10. 石香薷精油对白纹伊蚊的生物活性研究及其成分分析%Composition and bioactivity of the essential oils from Mosla chinensis against Aedes albopictus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈飞飞; 彭映辉; 曾冬琴; 张云; 秦巧慧; 黄谊

    2010-01-01

    目的 测定石香薷(Moslem chinensis Maxim)精油对白纹伊蚊(Aedes albopictus)的生物活性,分析石香薷精油的化学成分,为开发植物源蚊虫控制剂提供研究基础.方法 水蒸汽蒸馏法提取石香薷精油;采用浸液法测定精油对白纹伊蚊4龄期幼虫及蛹的毒杀活性;采用人体局部涂肤法测试其对成蚊的驱避活性;通过气相色谱-质谱联用法分析石香薷精油的化学成分.结果 (1)石香薷精油对4龄期幼虫及蛹的24 h LC50值分别为78.820和122.656μg/ml;(2)涂抹1.5 mg/cm2的纯精油,对成蚊有(2.330±0.167)h的完全保护时间,6h后仍然有56%的保护率;(3)从精油中共检出44种化合物,鉴定出39种,占总量的98.67%.主要成分有:对-聚伞花素(23.17%)、香荆芥酚(16.83%)、百里香酚(14.92%)、2-异丙基-4-甲基茴香醚(12.89%)、桉树脑(8.48%)、石竹烯(3.96%)、α-石竹烯(3.16%)和乙酸瑞香酯(2.71%).结论 石香薷精油对白纹伊蚊幼虫及成蚊均有较强的生物活性,具有从中发现新的灭蚊天然活性化合物和研发成环保型蚊虫控制剂的潜力.

  11. Tackling the growing threat of dengue: Phyllanthus niruri-mediated synthesis of silver nanoparticles and their mosquitocidal properties against the dengue vector Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suresh, Udaiyan; Murugan, Kadarkarai; Benelli, Giovanni; Nicoletti, Marcello; Barnard, Donald R; Panneerselvam, Chellasamy; Kumar, Palanisamy Mahesh; Subramaniam, Jayapal; Dinesh, Devakumar; Chandramohan, Balamurugan

    2015-04-01

    Mosquitoes are vectors of devastating pathogens and parasites, causing millions of deaths every year. Dengue is a mosquito-borne viral infection found in tropical and subtropical regions around the world. Recently, transmission has strongly increased in urban and semiurban areas, becoming a major international public health concern. Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) is the primary vector of dengue. The use of synthetic insecticides to control Aedes mosquitoes lead to high operational costs and adverse nontarget effects. In this scenario, eco-friendly control tools are a priority. We proposed a novel method to synthesize silver nanoparticles using the aqueous leaf extract of Phyllanthus niruri, a cheap and nontoxic material. The UV-vis spectrum of the aqueous medium containing silver nanostructures showed a peak at 420 nm corresponding to the surface plasmon resonance band of nanoparticles. SEM analyses of the synthesized nanoparticles showed a mean size of 30-60 nm. EDX spectrum showed the chemical composition of the synthesized nanoparticles. XRD highlighted that the nanoparticles are crystalline in nature with face-centered cubic geometry. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) of nanoparticles exhibited prominent peaks 3,327.63, 2,125.87, 1,637.89, 644.35, 597.41, and 554.63 cm(-1). In laboratory assays, the aqueous extract of P. niruri was toxic against larval instars (I-IV) and pupae of A. aegypti. LC50 was 158.24 ppm (I), 183.20 ppm (II), 210.53 ppm (III), 210.53 ppm (IV), and 358.08 ppm (pupae). P. niruri-synthesized nanoparticles were highly effective against A. aegypti, with LC50 of 3.90 ppm (I), 5.01 ppm (II), 6.2 ppm (III), 8.9 ppm (IV), and 13.04 ppm (pupae). In the field, the application of silver nanoparticles (10 × LC50) lead to A. aegypti larval reduction of 47.6%, 76.7% and 100%, after 24, 48, and 72 h, while the P. niruri extract lead to 39.9%, 69.2 % and 100 % of reduction, respectively. In adulticidal experiments, P. niruri extract

  12. Larvicidal effect of dried leaf extracts from Pinus caribaea against Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762 (Diptera: Culicidae Efeito larvicida dos extratos de folhas secas de Pinus caribaea contra Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762 (Diptera: Culicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Alberto Kanis

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the larvicidal activity of dried leaf extracts from Pinus caribaea Morelet against Aedes aegypti was evaluated for the first time. Pinus caribaea extracts were obtained by macerating dried leaves in alkaline hydroethanol, ethanol and acetone solutions followed by evaporation under reduced pressure. The lignin content was quantified using the thioglycolic acid complexation method. Lethality bioassays (LC50 and LC90 were carried out in accordance with the recommendations of the World Health Organization. The results showed that the acetone extract from Pinus caribaea was more active, and that larvicidal activity was associated with lignin concentration.Neste trabalho foi avaliada pela primeira vez a atividade larvicida contra Aedes aegypti de extratos obtido a partir de folhas secas de Pinus caribae. Os extratos de Pinus caribaea foram obtidos a partir da maceração de folhas secas em solução hidroetanólica alcalina, etanol e acetona, seguido de evaporação sob pressão reduzida. O teor de lignina foi quantificado usando o método de complexação com ácido tioglicóliclo. Os ensaios de letalidade foram conduzidos de acordo com a recomendação da Organização Mundial da Saúde. Os resultados demonstraram que o extrato obtido com acetona foi mais ativo, e a atividade larvicida esta associada com a concentração de ligninas.

  13. Larvicidal and Pupicidal Activities of Alizarin Isolated from Roots of Rubia cordifolia Against Culex quinquefasciatus Say and Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandhi, M R; Reegan, A D; Ganesan, P; Sivasankaran, K; Paulraj, M G; Balakrishna, K; Ignacimuthu, S; Al-Dhabi, N A

    2016-08-01

    The mosquitocidal activities of different fractions and a compound alizarin from the methanol extract of Rubia cordifolia roots were evaluated on larvae and pupae of Culex quinquefasciatus Say and Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae). Larvae and pupae were exposed to concentrations of 2.5, 5.0, 7.5 and 10 ppm for fractions and 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 ppm for compound. After 24 h, the mortality was assessed and the LC50 and LC90 values were estimated for larvae and pupae. Among the 23 fractions screened, fraction 2 from the methanol extract of R. cordifolia showed good mosquitocidal activity against C. quinquefasciatus and A. aegypti. LC50 and LC90 values of fraction 2 were 3.53 and 7.26 ppm for C. quinquefasciatus and 3.86 and 8.28 ppm for A. aegypti larvae, and 3.76 and 7.50 ppm for C. quinquefasciatus and 3.92 and 8.05 ppm for A. aegypti pupae, respectively. Further, the isolated compound alizarin presented good larvicidal and pupicidal activities. LC50 and LC90 values of alizarin for larvae were 0.81 and 3.86 ppm against C. quinquefasciatus and 1.31 and 6.04 ppm for A. aegypti larvae, respectively. Similarly, the LC50 and LC90 values of alizarin for pupae were 1.97 and 4.79 ppm for C. quinquefasciatus and 2.05 and 5.59 ppm for A. aegypti pupae, respectively. The structure of the isolated compound was identified on the basis of spectroscopic analysis and compared with reported spectral data. The results indicated that alizarin could be used as a potential larvicide and pupicide.

  14. Genetic deviation in geographically close populations of the dengue vector Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae): influence of environmental barriers in South India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadivalagan, Chithravel; Karthika, Pushparaj; Murugan, Kadarkarai; Panneerselvam, Chellasamy; Paulpandi, Manickam; Madhiyazhagan, Pari; Wei, Hui; Aziz, Al Thabiani; Alsalhi, Mohamad Saleh; Devanesan, Sandhanasamy; Nicoletti, Marcello; Paramasivan, Rajaiah; Dinesh, Devakumar; Benelli, Giovanni

    2016-03-01

    Mosquitoes are vectors of devastating pathogens and parasites, causing millions of deaths every year. Dengue is a mosquito-borne viral infection found in tropical and subtropical regions around the world. Recently, dengue transmission has strongly increased in urban and semiurban areas, becoming a major international public health concern. Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) is a primary vector of dengue. Shedding light on genetic deviation in A. aegypti populations is of crucial importance to fully understand their molecular ecology and evolution. In this research, haplotype and genetic analyses were conducted using individuals of A. aegypti from 31 localities in the north, southeast, northeast and central regions of Tamil Nadu (South India). The mitochondrial DNA region of cytochrome c oxidase 1 (CO1) gene was used as marker for the analyses. Thirty-one haplotypes sequences were submitted to GenBank and authenticated. The complete haplotype set included 64 haplotypes from various geographical regions clustered into three groups (lineages) separated by three fixed mutational steps, suggesting that the South Indian Ae. aegypti populations were pooled and are linked with West Africa, Columbian and Southeast Asian lineages. The genetic and haplotype diversity was low, indicating reduced gene flow among close populations of the vector, due to geographical barriers such as water bodies. Lastly, the negative values for neutrality tests indicated a bottle-neck effect and supported for low frequency of polymorphism among the haplotypes. Overall, our results add basic knowledge to molecular ecology of the dengue vector A. aegypti, providing the first evidence for multiple introductions of Ae. aegypti populations from Columbia and West Africa in South India. PMID:26627691

  15. Out of the bush: the Asian bush mosquito Aedes japonicus japonicus (Theobald, 1901) (Diptera, Culicidae) becomes invasive

    OpenAIRE

    Kampen, Helge; Werner, Doreen

    2014-01-01

    The Asian bush or rock pool mosquito Aedes japonicus japonicus is one of the most expansive culicid species of the world. Being native to East Asia, this species was detected out of its original distribution range for the first time in the early 1990s in New Zealand where it could not establish, though. In 1998, established populations were reported from the eastern US, most likely as a result of introductions several years earlier. After a massive spread the mosquito is now widely distribute...

  16. Molecular characterization of Aedes aegypti (L. (Diptera: Culicidae of Easter Island based on analysis of the mitochondrial ND4 gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Andrea Núñez

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Aedes aegypti mosquitoes are the main vector of viruses Dengue, Zika and Chikungunya. Shortly after the first report of the dengue vector Ae. aegypti in Easter Island (Rapa Nui in late 2000, the first disease outbreak dengue occurred. Viral serotyping during the 2002 outbreak revealed a close relationship with Pacific DENV-1 genotype IV viruses, supporting the idea that the virus most likely originated in Tahiti. Mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase subunit 4 (ND4 DNA sequences generated from 68 specimens of Ae. aegypti from Easter Island reporting a unique finding of a single maternal lineage of Ae. aegypti on Easter Island.

  17. Host-Feeding Patterns of Native Culex pipiens and Invasive Aedes albopictus Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in Urban Zones From Barcelona, Spain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muñoz, Joaquin; Eritja, Roger; Alcaide, Miguel;

    2011-01-01

    The feeding patterns of haematophagous arthropods are of major importance in the ampliÞcation and transmission of infectious disease agents to vertebrate hosts, including humans. The establishment of new vector populations in nonnative range might alter transmission networks. The Asian tiger mosq...