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Sample records for aecb canada

  1. AECB staff response to the environmental impact statement on the concept for disposal of Canada's nuclear fuel waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) on the Concept for Disposal of Canada's Nuclear Fuel Waste was released in October 1994 (AECL,1994) in response to the guidelines issued in 1992 by a Panel formed to evaluate this concept (Federal Environmental Assessment Review Panel, 1992). This response is primarily a statement of deficiencies and thus focuses on the negative aspects of the EIS. The staff review of the EIS was based on the AECB mandate, which is to protect human health and the environment and as such was focused on technical issues in the EIS. These were performance assessment of the multiple barrier system, environmental impacts, concept feasibility, siting, transport and safety as well as general issues of regulatory policy and criteria. The EIS and its supporting documentation have been the sole basis used to judge whether AECB staff expectations of the EIS have been met. The staff response (Part II) considers whether an issue is addressed appropriately and adequately, while taking account of the generic and preliminary nature of the concept. The overall conclusion that AECB staff have drawn from the technical review of the EIS is that the EIS, by itself, does not adequately demonstrate the case for deep geological disposal for nuclear fuel waste. However, AECB staff believe that the EIS information, in combination with a variety of generic national and international assessments, has provided confidence that the deep geological disposal concept is safe and viable. 74 refs

  2. AECB staff response to the environmental impact statement on the concept for disposal of Canada's nuclear fuel waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Environmental Impact Statement on the Concept for Disposal of Canada's Nuclear Fuel Waste was released in October 1994 in response to the guidelines issued in 1992 by a panel formed to evaluate this concept (Federal Environmental Assessment Review Panel, 1992). This response is primarily a statement of deficiencies and thus focuses on the negative aspects of the Environmental Impact Statement (EIS). The staff review of the EIS was based on the AECB mandate, which is to protect human health and the environment and as such was focused on technical issues in the EIS. These were performance assessment of the multiple barrier system, environmental impacts, concept feasibility, siting, transport and safety as well as general issues o f regulatory policy and criteria. 30 refs

  3. AECB introduces simulators for operator exams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AECB has completed its first round of simulator-based examinations for candidate shift supervisors and senior operators at each of the plant-specific simulators associated with the seven CANDU reactor sites in Canada. (author)

  4. AECB emergency response plan - in brief

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The AECB's mission is to ensure that the use of nuclear energy in Canada does not pose undue risk to health, safety, security and the environment. The mission applies before, during and after emergencies

  5. AECB staff annual assessment of the Bruce Heavy Water Plant for the year 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Atomic Energy Control Board is the independent federal agency that controls all nuclear activities in Canada. Heavy water is an essential part of Canada's nuclear industry and the AECB regulates its production. The AECB staff assess every facilities performance against legal requirements, including the conditions in the operating licence issued. All aspects of the facility's operation and management are reviewed and each facility is inspected. This report is the AECB staff assessment of the operation of the Bruce Heavy Water Plant during 1996. The operation was safe in 1996 and Ontario Hydro complied with the regulations. The emergency response capability was found satisfactory

  6. An audit of the AECB - what it revealed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An independent audit by the Office of the Auditor General of Canada concluded that the Canadian AECB needed updated legislation and improvements in its management processes and practices to facilitate its work of ensuring that the Canadian nuclear industry remains safe

  7. AECB staff annual assessment of the Point Lepreau Nuclear Generating Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Atomic Energy Control Board is the independent federal agency that controls all nuclear activities in Canada. A major use of nuclear energy in Canada is electricity production. The AECB assesses every station's performance against legal requirements, including the conditions in the operating licence. Each station is inspected and all aspects of the station's operation and management is reviewed. This report is the AECB staff assessment of reactor safety at the Point Lepreau Generating Station in 1996. Point Lepreau operated safely but the worsening trends in NB Power's safety performance leads to the conclusion that urgent action is required. NB Power is required to report formally to the AECB on progress with measures to improve safety management every six months. Further licensing action will be taken on NB Power if it fails to make the improvements

  8. The development of AECB regulatory documents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document describes the Atomic Energy Control Board's (AECB) approach to the development and preparation of regulatory documents. The principal factors that have shaped the AECB'a regulatory approach are identified as background to the evolution of regulatory documents as are a number of current influences that affect the present and future development of these documents. Also described are the process by which regulatory documents are prepared and published and the points of contact between this process and the Canadian Standards Association program for nuclear standards. (author)

  9. AECB staff annual assessment of the Darlington Nuclear Generating Station for the year 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Atomic Energy Control Board is the independent federal agency that controls all nuclear activities in Canada. A major use of nuclear energy in Canada is electricity production. The AECB assesses every station's performance against legal requirements, including the conditions in the operating licence. Each station is inspected and all aspects of the station's operation and management is reviewed. This report is the AECB staff assessment of safety at the Darlington Nuclear Generating Station for 1996. Ontario Hydro operated the station in a safe manner in 1996. All four special safety systems were fully available 100 percent of the time. There were more problems that affected the safety support systems in 1996 than in the previous year

  10. AECB staff annual assessment of the Bruce B Nuclear Generating Station for the year 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Atomic Energy Control Board is the independent federal agency that controls all nuclear activities in Canada. A major use of nuclear energy in Canada is electricity production. The AECB assesses every station's performance against legal requirements, including the conditions in the operating licence. Each station is inspected and all aspects of the station's operation and management is reviewed. This report is the AECB staff assessment of reactor safety at the Bruce Nuclear Generating Station B for 1996. It was concluded that Ontario Hydro operated Bruce B safely in 1996. Although the Bruce B plant is safe,it was noted that the number of outages and the number of secondary and tertiary equipment failures during reactor unit upsets increased. Ontario Hydro needs to pay special attention to prevent such a decrease in the safety performance at Bruce B

  11. AECB staff annual assessment of the Bruce A Nuclear Generating Station for the year 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Atomic Energy Control Board is the independent federal agency that controls all nuclear activities in Canada. A major use of nuclear energy in Canada is electricity production. The AECB assesses every station's performance against legal requirements, including the conditions in the operating licence. Each station is inspected and all aspects of the station's operation and management is reviewed. This report is the AECB staff assessment of reactor safety at the Bruce Nuclear Generating Station A for 1996. Ontario Hydro operated Bruce A safely in 1996, maintaining the risk to workers and the public at an acceptably low level. Special safety system performance at Bruce A was adequate. Availability targets were all met. Improvement is needed to reduce the number of operating licence non-compliances

  12. AECB Cost Recovery Fees Regulations, amendment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The amendments to the AECB Cost Recovery Fees Regulations have been made with a view to simplifying the registration procedure for obtaining such a certificate or approval under the above Transport Regulations. In effect there will no longer be a need for a separate fee system for registered users of certified package designs. (NEA)

  13. Estimating the costs of AECB regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An attempt is made to answer questions relating to the feasibility of determining costs imposed by regulatory activities of the Atomic Energy Control Board, and to provide a conceptual and methodological framework for an actual cost study of existing AECB requirments. (L.L.)

  14. Methodologies for evaluation of AECB regulatory program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AECB (Atomic Energy Control Board) commissioned this report to obtain information about methods of planning and conducting evaluation of its regulatory program. The report begins with a bibliography consisting of 280 abstracts assembled from an extensive search of international literature. Each cited publication describes or uses methods applicable to the evaluation of regulatory programs. The report continues with a review of the methodologies found in the literature. It identifies the most relevant references for each step in program evaluation: the commissioning of evaluation; the identification of evaluation issues; the defining of questions; the answering of questions; the reporting of reslts, and the implementation of recommendations. Finally, the report examines the applicability, advantages and disadvantages of the different evaluation methods and makes recommendations about the selection of methods and their application to the AECB program

  15. Estimating the costs of AECB regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A comprehensive analysis of the costs to the Canadian nuclear industry of the present Atomic Energy Control Board regulatory activities was carried out to provide a framework for a socio-economic impact analysis of AECB regulations. Regulaory costs in uranium mining and milling, fuel fabrication, power generation, the nuclear fuel cycle as a whole, and radioisotope use are studied. The cost of safety measures which industry would still undertake in the absence of government regulations ('prudent operator' costs) are not included. (L.L.)

  16. Costs and benefits of nuclear reactor regulation in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper summarizes information on costs associated with regulation of nuclear power reactors in Canada. The AECB perspective on the benefits of such regulation, both to the public and to the nuclear industry itself, is presented

  17. Whole-body counters in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A compilation of whole-body counting existing across Canada was prepared by AECB (Atomic Energy Control Board) staff. This work was initiated so that AECB staff and other concerned parties would have this information readily available, especially during urgent situations. This report is to be used for reference purposes only, as it makes no attempt to judge the present state of the art of whole-body counting

  18. Canada's radiation scandal?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In July 1990, Greenpeace distributed a 16-page treatise entitled 'Canada's Radiation Scandal' to a wide audience. The bottom line of the Greenpeace critique was that 'Canada's radiation limits are among the worst in the developed world'. This is a commentary on the Greenpeace pamphlet from the Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB), the body that sets and enforces radiation standards covering the use of nuclear energy in Canadian industry, science and medicine

  19. AECB staff annual report of Pickering NGS for the year 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The operation of Pickering NGS-A Units 1-4 and Pickering NGS-B Units 5-8 is monitored to ensure compliance with licensing and safety requirements by the AECB Pickering project office staff in cooperation with AECB staff in Ottawa. This report presents AECB staff's review of licensing issues and of the operational performance of Pickering NGS during 1990

  20. Socio-economic impact analysis of new AECB regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The federal government's Socio-Economic Impact Analysis (SEIA) policy has been in effect since 1978. Under this policy, all new or amended regulations concerning health, safety, or fairness are subjected to a screening exercise which determines whether the regulations are major or minor. The costs and benefits of major regulations are analyzed in depth. This paper describes the SEIA policy and explains some of the basic concepts. Then the steps the Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB) follows in the analysis of new regulations are summarized. Finally, the AECB's past and forthcoming experience with the SEIA policy is discussed

  1. Socio-economic impact analysis of new AECB regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The federal government's Socio-Economic Impact Analysis (SEIA) policy has been in effect since 1978. Under this policy, all new or amended regulations concerning health, safety, or fairness are subjected to a screening exercise which determines whether the regulations are 'major' or 'minor'. The costs and benefits of major regulations are analyzed in depth. This paper describes the SEIA policy and explains some of the basic concepts. Then the steps the Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB) follows in the analysis of new regulations are summarized. Finally, the AECB's past and forthcoming experience with the SEIA policy is discussed

  2. AECB Cost Recovery Fees Regulations, amendment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The amendment to the Regulations was published on 24 October 1991 (SOR/91-590,Canada Gazette Part II, Vol.125, No 23). It modifies the list of institutions exempted from paying cost recovery fees (licence fees) to the Atomic Energy Control Board. The exemptions now include educational and health care institutions as well as Departments. (NEA)

  3. AECB staff annual assessment of the Pickering A and B Nuclear Generating Stations for the year 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Atomic Energy Control Board is the independent federal agency that controls all nuclear activities in Canada. A major use of nuclear energy in Canada is electricity production. The AECB assesses every station's performance against legal requirements, including the conditions in the operating licence. Each station is inspected and all aspects of the station's operation and management is reviewed. This report is the AECB staff assessment of reactor safety at the Pickering A and B Generating Stations for 1996. PNGS-A and PNGS-B operated safely during 1996. Although the risk to the workers and the public is low, major safety related changes are necessary at the stations and the sustainability of those changes needs to be demonstrated. Improvement is needed by Ontario Hydro in meeting the time limits for reporting reportable events. Ontario Hydro's follow up to events and causal factor analyses continue to need improvements. Improvements are needed to operational safety and reactor maintenance at both A and B. There are signs of improvement through Ontario Hydro's plan for recovery, and in station management changes. There also appears to be commitment to safety expressed at the highest level of the utility

  4. AECB staff annual report of BRUCE NGS 'A' for the year 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents the AECB staff review of major licensing issues and the operational performance during 1990. In addition to the Quarterly Reports, other Ontario Hydro reports, official correspondence and observations of the AECB site staff have been taken into consideration. The report is limited to those aspects of station performance that AECB staff considers to have some safety significance. Where items of significance, associated with issues addressed in the report, occurred early in 1991 these are also mention

  5. Evaluation of AECB-1119, risk of energy production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Inhaber report, 'Risk of Energy Production', is evaluated based on how the conclusions of the report match its objectives, the methodology used to reach the report's conclusions, and the presentation of the report. The authors recommend that a second volume containing the pertinent data used in the report should be published; and that total risks should be calculated ignoring material acquisition, construction and transportation risks, using the actual energy output of the various systems without imposing a backup energy supply, and comparing systems in such a way that death, injury and disease risks may be considered separately. They propose that the Atomic Energy Control Board should show how the report results relate to nuclear safety, and that the AECB should clarify the criteria for evaluating the small probability of a catastrophic nuclear accident. The response of the author of AECB--1119 is given in a separate section

  6. AECB staff annual report of Point Lepreau G.S. for the year 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is a review by AECB staff of the operation of Point Lepreau Nuclear Generating Station during 1990. The review is based on information contained in the various documents submitted by New Brunswick Power under the terms of the Operating Licence and on information gathered by AECB staff during routine site monitoring, inspections and audits

  7. Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canada ranks ninth in the world in anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions. Canada currently releases 1.9 percent of global carbon dioxide emissions from combustion of fossil fuels, production and treatment of oil and natural gas, and cement manufacturing. Canadian carbon dioxide emissions doubled between 1956 and 1986, growing at an average rate of about 2.4 percent per year. They reached a peak in 1979 and have since fluctuated within 10 percent of that amount. Despite the significant increase in emissions, Canada's share of global carbon dioxide emissions has declined slightly since 1956. On a per capita basis, Canada ranks fourth among nations in carbon dioxide emissions, with about 4.1 tons in 1986. This rate compares with the U.S. average of 5 tons per capita emissions have grown by about 25 percent since 1956. Canada, though a relatively small source of greenhouse gases, has been deeply involved in finding ways to reduce the risk of climatic change. The nation fortunately possesses opportunities to reduce this risk by saving energy, developing nonfossil energy resources, and facilitating international cooperation for capturing these opportunities worldwide

  8. AECB staff annual report on Pickering NGS for the year 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents a review of major licensing issues and the operational performance of Pickering NGS-A (Units 1-4) and Pickering NGS-B (Units 5-8) by the staff of the Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB) during 1989. Operations are monitored to ensure compliance with licensing requirements. This report is limited to those aspects that AECB staff consider to have particular safety significance. The number of infractions of the operating licence and the AECB Regulations doubled in 1989 compared to 1988. Three workers were exposed to radiation doses in excess of the regulatory limits. The AECB also found inadequate procedural compliance and an unacceptable level of housekeeping. Performance also requires improvement in response to AECB Health Physics appraisals; surveillance of systems by the Technical Section; chemical control performance; response to outstanding AECB action items; availability of special safety systems; operating memos, jumper records, call-ups and deficiency reports in effect; and fire fighting capability. Ontario Hydro has initiated a number of programs that are expected to result in improvements in these areas: an in-service station quality improvement plan; a program to improve and give assurance of compliance with the AECB Regulations, the operating licenses and the Operating Policies and Principles; a housekeeping and material condition improvement plan; and an action plan undertaken following radiation over-exposures. Given adequate resources and management support these programs should result in a noticeable improvement in station performance in 1990

  9. Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear research and development in Canada started in the 1940s as a responsibility of the federal government. An engineering design team was established at Chalk River, Ontario, to carry out research on heavy water moderated lattices. A zero-energy heavy water moderated research reactor, ZEEP, was built and achieved criticality in September 1945; it was in fact the first human-made operating reactor outside the USA. In 1947, the 20 MW heavy water moderated national research experimental reactor (NRX) started up. It served as one of the most valuable research reactors in the world, and provided the basis for Canada's development of the very successful CANDU series of pressurised heavy water reactors (PHWR) for power generation. Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) was established in 1952 as a federal Crown Corporation. It has both a public and a commercial mandate. AECL has overall responsibility for Canada's nuclear research and development programme (its public mandate) as well as for the Canadian reactor design (CANDU), engineering and marketing programme (its commercial mandate). Nuclear energy in Canada is a $5 billion per-year industry, representing about 150 firms, 21 000 direct jobs and 10 000 indirect jobs, and ∼$1.2 billion in exports - the value to the country's economy is much higher than the research and development funding provided by the federal government. The CANDU nuclear reactor system was developed by AECL in close collaboration with the Canadian nuclear industry, and in particular with Ontario Hydro (now Ontario Power Generation). Currently, Canada operates 17 CANDU reactors, which contribute 16% of the country's current electricity consumption. There are also 12 CANDU reactors operating abroad (in Argentina, China, India, the Republic of Korea, Pakistan and Romania). AECL is now developing the 'third generation plus' Advanced CANDU Reactor (ACR-1000), and also has the leading role internationally in developing the Generation IV

  10. AECB staff review of Pickering NGS operations for the year 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The operation of Pickering NGS-A Units 1-4 and Pickering NGS-B Units 5-8 are monitored to ensure compliance with licensing requirements by the AECB Pickering project office staff. This report presents AECB staff's review of major licensing issues and of the operational performance of Pickering NGS during 1988. The report is limited to those aspects that AECB staff considers to have particular safety significance. More detailed information on routine performance is contained in Ontario Hydro's 1988 Quarterly Technical Reports for Pickering NGS-A and Pickering NGS-B

  11. AECB staff annual report of Darlington NGS 'A' for the year 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents the AECB staff review of major licensing issues and of the operational performance of the station during 1990. In addition to the reports mentioned above, other Ontario Hydro reports, official correspondence, and observations of AECB site staff have been taken into consideration. The report is limited to those aspects of station performance that AECB staff consider to have some safety significance. Developments of significance associated with issues addressed in the report that occurred in the early part of 1991 are also mentioned

  12. AECB staff annual report on Point Lepreau G.S. for the year 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AECB staff considers that the station has been operated and managed in a safe manner during 1988. The staff is satisfied that the NBEPC is proceeding properly towards resolution of any ongoing or outstanding work identified in this report

  13. Annual report of AECB personnel on the Gentilly 2 nuclear power plant for the year 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AECB (Atomic Energy Control Board) personnel have reviewed in detail the main aspects related to the safe operation of the Gentilly-2 nuclear power plant during 1990. This station is operated by Hydro-Quebec under a licence issued by the AECB. This evaluation is based primarily on the contents of various reports submitted by Hydro-Quebec pursuant to the terms of the operating licence, as well as on the results of inspections, audits, and tours made by AECB personnel. In general, the station was operated safely. The submission of significant event reports is unacceptably delayed. An increasing number of contraventions of the operating licence has been noted during the last two years. A significant unavailability of the containment system has been attributed to high-activity detectors that did not meet design specifications. AECB personnel will take required action in 1991 in order to resolve the questions related to a pipe break in the turbine building

  14. SOR/93-163 AECB Cost Recovery Fees Regulations, 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Atomic Energy Control Board (Cost Recovery Fees Regulations 1990 and subsequent amendments have been revoked and replaced by those new Regulations of 30 march 1993 which entered into force on 1 April 1993. The regulations were first made in 1990 in order to carry out the Government's policy of introducing the principle of ''user pay'' for the cost incurred by the AECB in its regulatory activities. The objective of the policy was to shift the cost of Government regulatory efforts for the taxpayer at large to those who most benefited from or whose activities were the reason for such effort. This new version of the Regulations reflects licensees' comments, e.g. extension of the period for review of proposed fees, and sets out increases in the fees. (NEA)

  15. AECB staff review of Bruce NGS'A' operation for the year 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents AECB project staff's review of major licensing issues and of the operational performance of the station during 1987. Ontario Hydro reports and official correspondence and observations on AECB staff at site have been taken into consideration. The report is limited to aspects of the station performance that AECB staff considers to have a safety significance. Where significant developments associated with issues addressed in the report occurred in the early part of 1988 (up to the time of writing), these are mentioned where appropriate. Ontario Hydro's Quarterly Reports for 1987 contain detailed technical information on the performance of the station, individual units and unit systems. It is the opinion of AECB project staff that despite a number of commendable actions and achievements which are identified in this report, the performance of the station in 1987 was only marginally satisfactory and less satisfactory than in 1986. This assessment is supported by key performance indicators such as the number of reportable significant events, the number of events caused by or influenced by human error and the reactor trip frequency, all of which exceeded 1986 levels, and also by the lack of satisfactory progress made during the year on actions to address the findings of the Fall '86 AECB Assessment of Operating Practices. AECB staff considers that the outstanding operations and maintenance problems that were identified in the 1986 Assessment are due, in part, to an ineffective quality assurance program, and in part to a shortage of resources

  16. Evaluation of the AECB's process of consultation with employees of its licensees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study involved a review of public consultation methods used by various Federal Government agencies. These were then compared to the existing AECB programs to evaluate potential improvements. These were also referred to in later surveys of employees at licensed facilities to determine their perceived appropriateness. The majority of employees were both aware of AECB and correctly understood its function. Both of these aspects increased as a function of union membership, age, income, male sex and ARW status. However, the use of AECB consultative documents declined with union membership and increased with membership in professional associations. Satisfaction with the AECB consultative process was fairly low. Workers tended to be more satisfied with other agencies or safety associations. Feelings of job safety were greatest among those who received consultative documents or read AECB press releases. Feelings of safety also increased with age, education, income and professional association membership, but declined with union membership. Unionized employees expressed a desire for more consultation with AECB. Recommendations to improve the process of consultation are included

  17. Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports that the Canadian oil and natural gas sector is in for another grim year in 1992. Further streamlining to enhance operating efficiencies and control costs is the first order of the day. About $4 billion worth of producing properties remains on the market, as corporate focus continues to shift to core properties. New management structures put in place in the last two years will be severely tested to improve the sector's financial performance. Massive write-downs in 1990 and 1991 have put balance sheets in much better shape for improved financial performance in the future. Although new long-term debt exceeded redemptions in 1991, largely because of debt- financing of major capital projects, individually most companies are in better shape through significant debt repayment or restructuring. The substantial reductions in interest rates will also help to enhance discretionary cash flow. At this stage, everything appears to be in place to expect that 1992 will represent the bottom of the down-cycle for Canada

  18. Promoting a learning culture to maintain the nuclear safety competence of AECB staff

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the Canadian regulatory approach, the safe operation of a nuclear installation is primarily the responsibility of the operator. The mission of the Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB) is to ensure that the use of nuclear energy does not pose unnecessary risk to workers, the general public and the environment. The AECB fulfills this responsibility through a comprehensive licensing framework in which compliance with regulatory standards and requirements is assured through systematic safety assessments, inspection and enforcement. These responsibilities require regulatory staff with specialized academic backgrounds and work experience related to the industry. In the past, the AECB readily attracted and retained the qualified personnel needed to ensure nuclear safety competence. However, several factors are now altering this situation. Anticipated retirement in the years ahead among the current generation of staff will result in significant losses of corporate knowledge and experience. In addition, the stagnation of the domestic nuclear power industry has impacted significantly on the recruitment of suitably qualified replacement candidates. Many Canadian universities have had to reduce their nuclear programmes as fewer undergraduate and postgraduate students choose a nuclear career option. In these circumstances, maintaining the AECB's nuclear safety competence requires a more systematic and deliberate approach. This paper describes the measures that the AECB has taken and is planning to take to promote a learning environment, and to assist staff in establishing and maintaining their knowledge and skills. (author)

  19. Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB) staff assessment and views of current maintenance practices of a four unit CANDU plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses the AECB practices in assessing maintenance activities at one four unit CANDU nuclear plant.-it outlines the authority of the AECB in enforcing the licence condition concerned with maintenance, and how this is interpreted by AECB site staff to measure and report maintenance activities. The AECB staff attaches great importance to proper maintenance as it affects safe operation. Programs used by the licensee staff to identify safety important components, or to predict degradations and failures are of particular interest. In our experience, the application of such programs has been generally good. However, their integration into an overall maintenance scheme can be improved, and the possibilities of integration are not well understood. This paper includes examples of such integration to illustrate our views and to highlight the resultant benefits that AECB staff believes are possible. (author)

  20. To assure public safety in a nuclear age we must reform the AECB

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author argues that the Canadian AECB should clearly be seen to be independent of the nuclear industry and of governmental interference. He considers the board to be too small, as well as understaffed, and would expand it to seven members, three of them full-time. A larger staff would enable the board to serve as a reliable source of independent public information on nuclear regulatory issues. It is suggested that the government should publish policy directives for the AECB annually. Another suggestion is that some research should be contracted out to the National Research Council, instead of to the nuclear industry. The author wishes to accelerate changes that the AECB itself has set in motion. (N.D.H.)

  1. AECB staff annual assessment of the Bruce B Nuclear Generating Station for the year 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is the Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB) staff assessment of reactor safety at the Bruce Nuclear Generating Station B for 1995. Our on-site Project Officers and Ottawa-based specialists monitored the station during the year. AECB staff conclude that Ontario Hydro operated Bruce B safely in 1995. Radiation doses to workers and the public were well below the legal limits and remained well within Ontario Hydro's internal targets. Worker radiation doses increased slightly but were comparable to previous years. 7 tabs., 3 figs

  2. Safety review of operating nuclear power plants in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Public utilities own and operate all 22 operating power reactors in Canada. The Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB), a Federal Government agency, regulates the nuclear industry in Canada and, as part of that responsibility, continually reviews the safety of power reactor operation. Canada's regulatory process is not as prescriptive as it is in many other countries. The AECB sets general requirements for reactor design, analysis and operation, and requires the licensee to develop and carry out procedures, processes and practices to meet these requirements. The primary responsibility for safety of nuclear power reactors rests with the licensee. The safety review process of the AECB covers all of its regulatory requirements and accommodates a two-year licence renewal cycle. Project officers located at the plant sites continually monitor operation and inspect the plant. Quality assurance, radiation protection practices, emergency plans, pressure boundary integrity design changes, reported events and safety analyses are also continually reviewed. The review of each station's operation by AECB staff is summarized in annual reports which are available to the public. These reports are an important input into the two-yearly licence renewal process. The safety review process currently focuses on obtaining assurance that the risk to public and worker health and safety and to the environment remains within the bounds of the original licensing basis for the facility. The AECB recognizes that, to obtain the desired level of assurance of continuing safety for an ageing reactor population, its current safety review process needs to be changed. More attention has to be focused on operational safety (i.e. plant operation and maintenance) and on developing the standards and skills to do this effectively. The compliance assessment programme should be expanded to include station management processes and practices, such as maintenance strategy, configuration management and risk

  3. Abridged style manual for use by contractors producing typed reports to AECB format specifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The AECB contractor's style manual sets down basic standards for content and layout of typewritten reports. Points of style are outlined for reference by authors. The elements of a document and their location are described, and instructions to typists are detailed. Example of proper usage are given and the appendices contain layout pro formas for the setting up of any typewritten page. (author)

  4. ADEM - a system for recording and retrieving AECB decision-making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A concept and plan is proposed for a system to record on-going decision-making by the AECB so that the decision-making can be retrieved in the future. The system could also be used to retrieve past decision-making. (author). 4 tabs., 1 fig

  5. AECB staff review of Bruce NGS 'A' operation for the year 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AECB project staff believes that overall performance of the station in 1988 was generally satisfactory and better than in 1987. However, this assessment is not supported by some of the key performance indicators, although the indicators in areas where AECB staff had specific concerns do support it. For example, the percentage of reported significant events attributable to human error, the number of operating memos beyond the review date, scheduled emergency drills completed, the number of completed reactor trips all show a significant improvement over the 1987 value. In addition, AECB staff has been encouraged by the licensee's implementation of effective review processes for operator and maintenance call-ups, routines and deficiencies, and the establishment of supervisor inspection tours and operator rounds programs. Nevertheless, it is the opinion of AECB staff that to achieve standards of operation which would be considered fully satisfactory, the backlog of maintenance work must be reduced, the quality of work performed in the plant improved, and assurance provided that the required quality standards are being consistently achieved and maintained

  6. AECB staff annual assessment of the Bruce A Nuclear Generating Station for the year 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AECB believe that Ontario Hydro operated Bruce A in a safe manner during 1994, and that the risk to workers and the public has been maintained at an acceptably low level. Radiation doses to workers and releases to the environment were well below regulatory limits. All special safety systems met availability targets. We noted improvements in operation and maintenance but some further improvements are still required. This is particularly true of the station's compliance with the Operating Licence. AECB believe that the station continues to be well managed, with a high priority placed on safety. However, there is a need for increased capability in the area of safety analysis and assessment. 4 tabs., 4 figs

  7. AECB staff annual report of Pickering NGS for the year 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The AECB Pickering project staff, in cooperation with AECB staff in Ottawa, monitor the operation of Pickering NGS-A units 1-4 and Pickering NGS-B units 5-8 to ensure that Ontario Hydro operates the station in compliance with the licensing and safety requirements of the Atomic Energy Control Board. This report presents the review of licensing issues and station performance during 1991. Improvement over 1990 station operation occurred in the following areas: availability of special safety systems; reduction of the station external dose; reorganization of station management to improve focus; station chemistry; housekeeping and material condition; fuel handling capability; training of operators and maintenance staff. However, little change occurred and improvement is still needed in the following: compliance with operating licence; system surveillance program; station maintenance; environmental qualification; radiation emergency response; fire and rescue emergency response; limited capability to predict and prevent equipment failures such as the boiler tube failure on unit 5. (L.L.)

  8. Recommendations on AECB draft licensing guides nos. 40,41,42

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains the recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Nuclear Safety (ACNS) to the Atomic Energy Control Board concerning the draft AECB Licensing Guides 40, 41 and 42 which were issued subsequently as Consultative Documents Nos. 7, 8 and 9. Since the report focusses on points of principle or generic concern, most of its recommendations apply generally to all three documents, although some specific recommendations are included

  9. SOR 90-190, 22 March 1990, AECB Cost Recovery Fees Regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    These Regulations entered into force on 1 April 1990. They were made pursuant to the Atomic Energy Control Regulations and prescribe the legal obligations to pay fees imposed on applicants for and holders of licences from the Atomic Energy Control Board - AECB. The purpose of the Regulations is to shift the cost of government service from the general taxpayer to the users and to those who specifically benefit from the services. (NEA)

  10. AECB staff annual assessment of the Point Lepreau Nuclear Generating Station for the year 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is the Atomic Energy Control Board assessment of safety at Point Lepreau Generating Station for 1994. AECB on-site Project Officers, and Ottawa based specialists monitored the station throughout the year. The station operated safely during 1994. Performance of the special safety systems was very good, and NB Power made important progress improving the safety management of these systems. NB Power staff failed to comply with the conditions of our Operating Licence seven times during 1994. This is an improvement from last year, but the number of compliance problems is still too high. NB Power introduced safety culture training for its staff last year. AECB is optimistic that this will help to improve compliance. The station fully met the radiation safety requirements during the year. Releases of radioactive material to the environment are well below the limits set. Radiation exposure to workers are being well controlled, and AECB believe that NB Power is maintaining these exposures 'As Low As Reasonably Achievable' for this reactor type

  11. A survey of research programs in radiation protection in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A survey of research programs in Canada concerned with radiation protection was conducted in 1991-92 by the Joint Subcommittee on Regulatory Research (JSCRR) of the Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB) Advisory Committees on Radiological Protection and on Nuclear Safety. The purpose of this survey was to determine the current state of funding for this type of research in Canada. Funding for health-related radiation research in Canada is critical to establishing and maintaining a supply of trained professionals who can provide competent advice on health-related problems in radiation protection. The present report is an analysis of the information received in this survey. This survey concludes with the recommendation that the organization and definition of subprograms for the AECB Regulatory Research and Support Program should be completed as soon as possible. In this report the JSCRR should assist AECB staff in preparing a report in which priorities for research related to radiation protection are indicated. The sources of information noted at the end of the Discussion section of this report should be considered for this purpose. (author). 15 refs., 3 tabs

  12. AECB staff review of Bruce NGS 'A' operation for the year 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The operation of the Bruce Nuclear Generating Station 'B' is monitored and licensing requirements are enforced by the Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB). This report records the conclusions of the AECB staff assessment of Bruce NGS 'A' during 1989 and the early part of 1990. Overall operation of the station met acceptable safety standards. Despite numerous problems and technical difficulties encountered, station management and supervisory personnel acted with due caution and made decisions in the interests of safety. There was evidence of improvement in a number of key areas, supported by pertinent indicators in the objective measures table. The extensive inspection and maintenance programs carried out during the year revealed the extent of component deterioration due to aging to be larger than expected. Hydrogen embrittlement of pressure tubes, erosion/corrosion of steam and feed water valves, heat exchanger tubes and piping, fouling of boilers and heat exchangers, and environmental damage of electrical equipment are examples. Continued aging of plant equipment and its potential for reducing the margins for safe operation must be taken into account by Ontario Hydro in establishing priorities and target dates for completion of actions to resolve identified problems at Bruce NGS 'A'. (2 tabs.)

  13. The regulation of uranium refineries and conversion facilities in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nuclear regulatory process as it applies to uranium refineries and conversion facilities in Canada is reviewed. In the early 1980s, Eldorado Resources Limited proposed to construct and operate new facilities for refining yellowcake and for the production of uranium hexafluoride (UF6). These projects were subject to regulation by the Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB). A description of the AECB's comprehensive licensing process covering all stages of siting, construction, operation and eventual decommissioning of nuclear facilities is traced as it was applied to the Eldorado projects. The AECB's concern with occupational health and safety, with public health and safety and with the protection of the environment in so far as it affects public health and safety is emphasized. Some regulatory difficulties encountered during the project's development which led to opening up the licensing process to public input and closer coordination of regulatory activities with other provincial and federal regulatory agencies are described. The Board's regulatory operational compliance program for uranium refineries and conversion facilities is summarized

  14. Cost of implementing AECB interim criteria for the closeout of uranium tailings sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main purpose of this study was to arrive at a gross approximation of the costs to the Canadian uranium mining industry of meeting the proposed closeout criteria established by the Atomic Energy Control Board for tailings deposits. Two options have been investigated: on-land disposal and underlake disposal. Given the budget allocated to the study, the estimates must be understood as approximations. Overall cost figures for the Canadian uranium mining industry are linear extensions from a hypothetical base case. The results of a conference held in Ottawa on February 25 and 26 to discuss the proposed AECB interim criteria for the closeout of uranium tailings sites are also included. Representatives from mining firms, provincial regulatory authorities, universities and the Atomic Energy Control board attended the conference

  15. Proceedings of the AECB sponsored workshop on control of the ordering and receiving of radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The workshop was held in Mississauga, Ontario, on February 4, 1997 for the purpose of bringing together radiation safety professionals to exchange information and propose options for action for the improved control of the ordering and receiving of radioactive materials. The focus was on unsealed radioisotopes and Type 'A' shipments. The workshop participants represented five major processors or distributors and five users who manage large radiation safety programs. These participants were invited because of their knowledge, experience and proximity. Workshop objectives were developed from a review of AECB files, from an AECB report which analysed, in a systematic manner, controls on the ordering and receiving of radioactive material, and from the participants' responses to a pre-workshop request for additional information. The objectives were to propose options for action: to prevent unauthorized persons from placing an order with a supplier; to prevent unauthorized persons from receiving radioactive material by establishing tighter control on the transfer of radioactive material and improving the control of radioactive material during and after delivery. This report provides a record of the presentations and discussions as well as the options for action developed during the workshop. The proposed options for action suggest additional regulatory requirements and guidance documents. Also identified was a need for better assessment, stricter enforcement and future discussions. Included in this report are new licence conditions which were developed as a result of this workshop, several 'parking lot' issues which were raised but considered outside the scope of the discussion and a list of participants. This workshop met the needs and expectation of the Materials Regulation Division (MRD) staff and addressed the needs of the participants. It also provided an opportunity to share information and ideas. It is MRDs intention to keep this collaborative workshop approach for

  16. Transport of radioactive material in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this report, the Advisory Committee on Nuclear Safety (ACNS) presents the results of its study on how the system of the transport of radioactive material (TRM) in Canada is regulated, how it operates, and how it performs. The report deals with the transport of packages, including Type B packages which are used to carry large quantities of radioactive material, but not with the transport of spent nuclear fuel or with the transport of low-level historical waste. The ACNS has examined the Canadian experience in the TRM area, the regulatory framework in Canada with respect to the TRM some relevant aspects of training workers and monitoring compliance with regulatory requirements, the state of the emergency preparedness of organizations involved in the TRM and the process of updating present regulations by the Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB). As a result of this study, the ACNS concludes that the current Canadian regulatory system in the TRM is sound and that the TRM is, for the most part, conducted safely. However, improvements can be made in a number of areas, such as: determining the exposures of workers who transport radioactive material; rewording the proposed Transport Regulations in plain language; training all appropriate personnel regarding the AECB and Transport Canada (TC) Regulations; enforcing compliance with the regulations; and increasing the level of cooperation between the federal agencies and provincial authorities involved in the inspection and emergency preparedness aspects of the TRM. It is also noted that Bill C-23, the Nuclear Safety and Control Act, imposes a new requirement, subject to the Regulations, for a licence for a carrier to transport some types of radioactive material

  17. AECB staff annual report of Bruce A NGS for the year 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this report on Bruce A operations during 1991, AECB staff itemizes non-compliances with the operating licence. Non of the violations that occurred at Bruce A resulted in any significant threat to public safety or well-being. There were no exposures of workers to radiation in excess of the regulatory requirements; however, there have been instances of uncontrolled contaminated areas and spread of contamination in the station. Releases of radioactive material to the environment were much below target. The performance of the four special safety systems has been good, with the exception of shutdown system number two on Unit 3. A review of significant event reports and their causes has revealed an apparent lack of a system by which operations and maintenance work is verified as having been carried out correctly. There is a large backlog of maintenance work. Initiatives have been taken to correct this problem. Two important safety issues are discussed in detail. These are the chronic problem of leaking boiler tubes, and the potentially serious problem of fret marks on pressure tubes caused by abnormal fuel support. (Author)

  18. AECB staff annual assessment of the Pickering A and B Nuclear Generating Stations for the year 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is the Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB) staff assessment of safety at the Pickering Nuclear Generating Station (PNGS-A and PNGS-B) for 1995. Our on-site Project Officers and Ottawa-based specialists monitored the stations throughout the year. In 1995, compliance with the Transportation Packaging of Radioactive Materials Regulations and the Cost Recovery Fees Regulations was satisfactory. The performance of the special safety systems was good. Releases of radioactive materials from the station were low and well below the legal limits for public safety. 10 tabs., 7 figs

  19. AECB staff annual report of Darlington NGS for the year 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ontario Hydro operated Darlington in a safe manner in 1991. Ontario Hydro violated the Atomic Energy Control Regulations once and the physical security regulations three times in 1991. They failed to observe the Operating Licence conditions on ten occasions. The AECB did not find that the individual events had a significant impact on safety. There were no violations of the construction licence. None of the station staff received a radiation dose in excess of the regulatory limit. Radioactive emissions from the station were far below the regulatory limit. Special safety system performance was not fully satisfactory. Ontario Hydro failed to meet the unavailability targets for shutdown system one and the negative pressure containment system. Ontario Hydro reported seventeen incidents under conditions of the Operating and Construction licences. Units 1 and 2 remained shut down for most of 1991 because of unexplained fuel bundle damage in the reactor core. Ontario Hydro has decided to replace the main generator rotors because of cracks discovered on the rotor shaft. A fully modified rotor was installed on Unit 1. Ontario Hydro staff have a significant backlog of maintenance work. The Quality Improvement Program seemed to work well, resulting in some noticeable improvements. Three Shift Supervisors and four Control Operators were licensed this year. All planned emergency exercises and drills took place as scheduled. Ontario Hydro identified and are addressing several areas for improvement during the drills. Except for a power supply interruption to some IAEA equipment, Ontario Hydro achieved all its safeguards goals at Darlington in 1991. The Tritium Removal Facility (TRF) operated intermittently during 1991. Ontario Hydro is proceeding with the design and planning of an annex to the TRF to replace the present temporary facilities. (Author)

  20. AECB staff annual assessment of the Pickering A and B Nuclear Generating Stations for the year 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Pickering Nuclear Generating Station (PNGS) is located on the north shore of Lake Ontario, about 32 km east of downtown Toronto. It consists of two stations, PNGS-A and PNGS-B. Each station contains four reactor units. PNGS-A consists of Units 1 to 4, while PNGS-B consists of Units 5 to 8. Each unit can generate about 540 megawatts of electricity. All eight units are located within a single enclosure. Ontario Hydro's Pickering Nuclear Division has assigned one Station Director with authority over both stations, but each station has its own organization. AECB issue a separate operating licence for each station. This report presents the Atomic Energy Control Board staff assessment of the Pickering stations' safety performance in 1994 and other aspects that they consider to have significant impact on nuclear safety. AECB based their conclusions on their observations, audits, inspections and review of information that Ontario Hydro submits to them as required by the station Operating Licences. 11 tabs., 8 figs

  1. Regulatory challenges of historic uranium mines in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radium and uranium mining industry began in Canada in 1930 with the discovery of the Port Radium deposit in the Northwest Territories. During the 1950s more uranium mines opened across Canada. Most of these mines ceased operation by the end of the 1960s. Some were remediated by their owners, while others were abandoned. The Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB), predecessor to the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (CNSC), was created in 1946. However, it was not until the mid-1970s that the AECB took an active role in regulating health, safety and environmental aspects of uranium mining; so many of the older mines have never been licensed. With the coming into force of the Nuclear Safety and Control Act (NSCA) in May 2000, this situation has been reviewed. The NSCA requires a licence for the possession of nuclear substances (including uranium mine tailings), or the decommissioning of nuclear facilities (including uranium mines and mills). Furthermore, governments (federal and provincial) are also subject to the NSCA, a change from the previous legislation. The CNSC has an obligation to assess these sites, regardless of ownership, and to proceed with licensing or other appropriate regulatory action. The CNSC has reviewed the status of the twenty sites in Canada where uranium milling took place historically. Eight are already licensed. Licensing actions are being pursued at the other sites. A review of nearly 100 small uranium mining or exploration sites is also underway to determine the most appropriate regulatory approach. This paper focuses on regulatory issues surrounding the historic mining and milling sites, and the regulatory approach being taken, including licensing provincial and federal government bodies who own some of the sites, and ensuring the safe management of sites that were abandoned. (author)

  2. Fusion Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This first issue of a quarterly newsletter announces the startup of the Tokamak de Varennes, describes Canada's national fusion program, and outlines the Canadian Fusion Fuels Technology Program. A map gives the location of the eleven principal fusion centres in Canada. (L.L.)

  3. The safety of Ontario's nuclear power reactors. A scientific and technical review. A submission to the Ontario Nuclear Safety Review by Atomic Energy Canada Limited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This submission comments on the evolution of the Canadian nuclear program, the management of safety, and the reactor design, analysis, operation and research programs that contribute to the safety of the CANDU reactor and provide assurance of safety to the regulatory agency and to the public. The CANDU reactor system has been designed and developed with close cooperation between Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd. (AECL), utilities, manufacturers, and the Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB). The AECB has the responsibility, on behalf of the public, for establishing acceptable standards with respect to public risk and for establishing through independent review that these standards are satisfied. The plant designer has responsibility for defining how those standards will be met. The plant operator has responsibility for operating within the framework of those standards. The Canadian approach to safety design is based on the philosophy of defence in depth. Defence in depth is achieved through a high level of equipment quality, system redundancy and fail-safe design; regulating and process systems designed to maintain all process systems within acceptable operating parameters; and, independent safety systems to shut down the reactor, provide long-term cooling, and contain potential release of radioactivity in the event of an accident. The resulting design meets regulatory requirements not only in Canada but also in other countries. Probabilistic safety and risk evaluations show that the CANDU design offers a level of safety and least as good as other commercially available reactor designs

  4. A comparison of nuclear power regulation in Canada and the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report provides a comparative evaluation of the respective roles of the US NRC and the Canadian Atomic Energy Control Board in nuclear regulatory matters. The differences between the U.S. and Canadian approaches to nuclear reactor regulation are tied to history and to culture. Historically, in Canada the government developed one type of reactor, uniquely Canadian. There is also essentially only one utility and that is government-owned. In the United States several types of reactor have been developed and bought by many utilities, mostly non-government. Culturally, the United States is an adversarial society, which has led to a legalistic approach to regulation. Canada is a more civil society, which has led to a more trusting approach. The strengths of the Canadian approach are: it is more flexible; it is more rational from an engineering perspective; and a design envelope is more easily transformed to address reactor safety questions. Weaknesses arise from the lack of established methods of resolving disagreements; lack of specific written-down licensing requirements; and the difficulty in passing along oral traditions. The current Canadian system depends on trust, a shared heritage, and knowledge contained in the minds of senior people. It would be wise to write down the oral tradition while these people are still involved. AECB, AECL and Ontario Hydro people are competent and highly motivated. However, Ontario Hydro is becoming more dominant and is close to having no independent reviewer. The AECB is stretched too thin. It needs funds to develop a capability of checking computer code calculations; a clearer role in research and more people trained in research to interface with the research program; and many more staff to perform the independent review Ontario Hydro requires

  5. Consolidated results of the AECB staff's detailed review of Ontario Hydro Nuclear's integrated independent performance assessment and safety system functional inspection findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In January 1997, Ontario Hydro announced that a team of nuclear industry experts from the United States, called the Nuclear Performance Advisory Group (NPAG), had been employed to help manage its nuclear program and to implement needed improvements in Ontario Hydro Nuclear (OHN) operations. In the spring of 1997, NPAG initiated a series of detailed reviews of OHN's operations, at its Pickering, Bruce and Darlington nuclear generating stations and in OHN's Head Office groups. These reviews, called 'Independent Integrated Performance Assessments' (UPA) and 'Safety System Functional Inspections' (SSFI), were carried out in April and May of this year with the objective of developing 'an integrated, accurate, and comprehensive understanding of the performance of OHN'.They were conducted in response to a request from the President of Ontario Hydro for a 'brutally honest' assessment of Ontario Hydro Nuclear. NPAG has since been integrated into Ontario Hydro's line organization. Ontario Hydro's Board of Directors received the results of the IIPAs and SSFIs and an Ontario Hydro report titled Basis for Continued Operation on August 12, 1997. AECB staff has been reviewing the reports containing these results since receiving them at that time. The conclusions of these studies are extremely critical of the management of Ontario Hydro Nuclear. They identify a large number of shortcomings in the operation and maintenance of the nuclear generating stations. Ontario Hydro states in the IIPA and SSFI reports that the reports are, by design, negative in slant and emphasize the weaknesses in performance rather than the strengths. The reports conclude that the stations can continue to operate safety while the near and long term improvements are implemented. This report contains the consolidated results of the AECB staffs detailed review of the IIPA and SSFI findings. (author)

  6. Development of small reactor safety criteria in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A number of new small reactor designs have been proposed in Canada over the last several years and some have reached the stage where licensing discussions have been initiated with the Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB). An inter-organizational Small Reactor Criteria (SRC) working group was formed in 1988 to propose safety and licensing criteria for these small reactors. Two levels of criteria are proposed. The first level forms a safety philosophy and the second is a set of criteria for specific reactor applications. The safety philosophy consists of three basic safety objectives together with evaluation criteria, and fourteen fundamental principles measured by specific criteria, which must be implemented to meet the safety objectives. Two of the fourteen principles are prime: defence in depth, and safety culture; the other twelve principles can be seen as deriving from them. A benefit of this approach is that the concepts of defence in depth and safety culture become well-defined. The objectives and principles are presented in the paper and their criteria are summarized. The second level of criteria, under development, will form a safety application set and will provide small reactor criteria in a number of general areas, such as regulatory process and safety assessment, as well as for specific reactor life-cycle activities, from siting through to decommissioning. The criteria are largely deterministic. However, the frequencies and consequences of postulated accidents are assessed against numerical criteria to assist in judging the acceptability of plant design, operation, and proposed siting. All criteria proposed are designed to be testable in some evidentiary fashion, readily enabling an assessment of compliance for a given proposal

  7. Fusion Canada issue 13

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program. Included in this issue is a report on Canada's plans to participate in the Engineering Design Activities (EDA), bilateral meetings with Canada and the U.S., committee meeting with Canada-Europe, an update at Tokamak de Varennes on Plasma Biasing experiments and boronized graphite tests, fusion materials research at the University of Toronto using a dual beam accelerator and a review of the CFFTP and the CCFM. 2 figs

  8. Canada; Selected Issues

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2000-01-01

    The issue of productivity growth in Canada has received considerable attention reflecting its marked slowdown since the early 1970s and concerns about its implications for Canadian competitiveness. To better understand productivity developments in Canada, it is useful to decompose total factor productivity (TFP) into investment-specific productivity change (ISP) and technologically neutral productivity change (TNP). The gap in manufacturing productivity growth between Canada and the United St...

  9. Fusion Canada issue 14

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program. Included in this issue is a report on a fusion cooperation agreement between Japan and Canada, an update at Tokamak de Varennes on plasma biasing experiments and boronization tests and a collaboration between Canada and the U.S. on a compact toroid fuelling gun. 4 figs

  10. Fusion Canada issue 21

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program highlighting in this issue Europe proposes Canada's participation in ITER, tritium for JET, CCFM/TdeV-Tokamak helium pumping and TdeV update, ITER-related R and D at CFFTP, ITER Deputy Director visits Canada, NFP Director to Chair IFRC, Award for Akira Hirose. 3 figs

  11. Energy in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This discussion paper was prepared by the Department of Energy, Mines and Resources Canada to provide information about Canada's resource potential, the contribution of energy to the Canadian economy, Canada's place in the world energy market, and the outlook for the development of Canadian energy resources. In addition, it provides background information on issues such as: energy and the environment, energy security, Canadian ownership of energy resources, energy R and D, and energy conservation. Finally, it concludes with an indication of some of the key challenges facing the energy sector. The paper is intended to inform the public and to serve as a reference document for those participating in the review of Canada's energy options. The paper was prepared before Canada and the U.S. agreed in principle on a free trade agreement (FTA) and does not include a discussion of the FTA or its potential impacts on the energy sector

  12. Canadian Experience in Decommissioning of Uranium Tailings Facilities -- Elliot Lake, Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Commencing in the 1950s, a total of approximately 12 uranium mining operations were commissioned primarily near Elliot Lake, Ontario. Many of the mines operated for only a few years before being shut down. Beginning in the early 1970s, reactivation of four mines in the Elliot Lake area commenced. The Denison Mine was owned and operated by Denison Mines Limited. The Quirke, Panel and Stanleigh Mines were owned and operated by Rio Algom Limited. With the discovery of high-grade uranium deposits in Northern Saskatchewan and the slump in uranium prices as a result of the end of the Cold War, decommissioning of the Elliot Lake Uranium Mines began in the early 1990s. Studies related to the decommissioning commenced in the late 1980s. The last operating mine, the Stanleigh Mine, was closed in 1996. The permitting, operation and decommissioning of uranium mines in Canada is primarily regulated by the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (CNSC), formerly the Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB). However, the provincial Departments of Environment are also involved in the process. Studies related to the decommissioning of the Denison, Quirke, Panel and Stanleigh mines commenced in the late 1980s. The Environmental Assessment Panel issued its report 'Decommissioning of Uranium Mine Tailings Management Areas in The Elliot Lake Area' in June, 1996. Monitoring, care and maintenance of the sites is ongoing. This paper will review the process of closure planning and the review process for these mines. (author)

  13. Developments in AECB operator examination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the on-going evolution of the system used by the Atomic Energy Control Board to assess the qualifications of shift supervisors and control room operators of CANDU nuclear power plants. The main change was the introduction in 1993 of routine simulator-based testing. The use of a simulator as a partial replacement for written examinations has been successful in ensuring competence; it fits in with training programs, results in spin-off operational safety benefits, and is accepted as fair. 4 refs., 1 ill., 1 tab

  14. Canada's nuclear export policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The factors influencing the evolution of Canada's nuclear export policy are examined. Initially, nuclear technology was exported to establish an industry in Canada and to share the technology with other countries. After 1974 an increasingly broad range of political and social factors were taken into account and safeguards became the dominant factor. The indirect impacts of the new policy fall into two groups. One consists of the effects of Canada's leadership in taking a tough stand on safeguards. The second group of effects involve the concern of other countries about access to secure energy supplies and advanced technology. (O.T.)

  15. Canada's Neutron Beam Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the current and planned activities of Canada's Neutron Beam Laboratory which is managed by the National Research Council of Canada. In 1994, Professor Bertram Brockhouse shared the Nobel Prize in Physics for his pioneering work carried out in this laboratory. He developed neutron scattering as a powerful and versatile tool for investigating materials at the level of molecules and nano structures. The neutron source for this work is Canada's NRU reactor located at the Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories of the Atomic Energy of Canada Limited. This neutron source is also used for the production of medical isotopes, testing of components for the nuclear power stations and neutron scattering experiments on materials

  16. Physics Teaching in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarland, Ernie; Hirsch, Alan

    1992-01-01

    Provides an overview of physics teaching in Canada. Responds to questions involving the curriculum, efforts to promote gender equity, teaching methods, high school physics teachers, physics teaching organizations, and educational trends. (27 references) (MDH)

  17. Fusion Canada issue 20

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fusion Canada's publication of the National Fusion Program. Included in this issue is the CFFTP Industrial Impact Study, CCFM/TdeV Update:helium pumping, research funds, and deuterium in beryllium - high temperature behaviour. 3 figs

  18. Uranium in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1974 the Minister of Energy, Mines and Resources (EMR) established a Uranium Resource Appraisal Group (URAG) within EMR to audit annually Canada's uranium resources for the purpose of implementing the federal government's uranium export policy. A major objective of this policy was to ensure that Canadian uranium supplies would be sufficient to meet the needs of Canada's nuclear power program. As projections of installed nuclear power growth in Canada over the long term have been successively revised downwards (the concern about domestic security of supply is less relevant now than it was 10 years ago) and as Canadian uranium supply capabilities have expanded significantly. Canada has maintained its status as the western world's leading exporter of uranium and has become the world's leading producer. Domestic uranium resource estimates have increased to 551 000 tonnes U recoverable from mineable ore since URAG completed its last formal assessment (1982). In 1984, Canada's five primary uranium producers employed some 5800 people at their mining and milling operations, and produced concentrates containing some 11 170 tU. It is evident from URAG's 1984 assessment that Canada's known uranium resources, recoverable at uranium prices of $150/kg U or less, are more than sufficient to meet the 30-year fuelling requirements of those reactors that are either in opertaion now or committed or expected to be in-service by 1995. A substantial portion of Canada's identified uranium resources, recoverable within the same price range, is thus surplus to Canadian needs and available for export. Sales worth close to $1 billion annually are assured. Uranium exploration expenditures in Canada in 1983 and 1984 were an estimated $41 million and $35 million, respectively, down markedly from the $128 million reported for 1980. Exploration drilling and surface development drilling in 1983 and 1984 were reported to be 153 000 m and 197 000 m, respectively, some 85% of which was in

  19. Canada; Selected Issues

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    1998-01-01

    This Selected Issues paper reviews the factors that may explain high and persistent unemployment in Canada, with particular emphasis on the role that a decline in the relative cost of capital may have had on trend unemployment. The analysis suggests that in Canada a declining trend in the cost of capital, associated with technological changes and innovations, has been an important factor in explaining the rise and persistence of unemployment. The paper also analyzes recent trends in personal ...

  20. Child Poverty in Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas Crossley; Lori Curtis

    2003-01-01

    A 1989 all-party motion of parliament called for the elimination of child poverty in Canada by the year 2000. Despite a series of policy initiatives, recent reports suggest that the child poverty rate may now be comparable to that in 1989. The apparent persistence of child poverty in Canada might reflect socioeconomic developments, or something about the way that child poverty is measured. Using micro data covering the period 1986 to 2000 we find little support for these explanations.

  1. Development of a system model for the postclosure assessment of a concept for geological disposal of Canada's nuclear fuel waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atomic Energy of Canada has recently submitted for regulatory and public review an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) on a concept for disposal of Canada's nuclear fuel waste. The EIS is supported by nine primary references that summarize major aspects of the concept, including a postclosure environmental and safety assessment. The scope of the postclosure assessment is largely determined by the requirements of the Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB) of Canada. These requirements include a quantitative estimate of the annual effective dose equivalent to an individual in the most exposed group of people (the critical group) for 10,000 years following closure of the disposal facility, and a radiological risk criterion with an associated dose rate limit of 0.05 mSv/a. Over this long time frame, a quantitative assessment cannot be based on actual observations, and thus we use scientific arguments and simulations with mathematical models to infer long-term behavior and to estimate potential impacts. Most of the quantitative results described in the postclosure assessment have been produced using SYVAC3 (SYstems Variability Analysis Code, generation 3) and the CC3 model. CC3 designates the system model that represents a hypothetical disposal system. The assessment code, SYVAC3-CC3, is used for both deterministic and probabilistic analyses. For the probabilistic analyses, thousands of simulations are performed in which values for each parameter in the system model are randomly sampled from a probability density function (PDF) that encompasses all possible values of that parameter. PDFs are specified by appropriate experts to account for the effects of uncertainty in the parameters (including temporal and spatial variability) over the long time scale of the assessment

  2. Sylvatic trichinosis in Canada.

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, H J; Snowdon, K E

    1988-01-01

    Pepsin digestion of musculature from 2253 animals revealed that sylvatic trichinosis occurred in various species of mammals from the eastern to the western Arctic and extended down into the Rocky Mountain and Foothills regions of western Canada. Infections were demonstrated in Arctic fox, red fox, wolf, raccoon, coyote, lynx, bobcat and dog.

  3. Update on Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochstadt, John Webster

    1994-01-01

    Gift planning is increasing in Canada's colleges and universities to offset effects of retrenchment. New annuity vehicles and the emergence of university Crown Foundations offer tax breaks that support private giving to institutions. In addition, a simplified process for gifts is anticipated. (MSE)

  4. Nuclear power in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Canadian Nuclear Association believes that the CANDU nuclear power generation system can play a major role in achieving energy self-sufficiency in Canada. The benefits of nuclear power, factors affecting projections of electric power demand, risks and benefits relative to other conventional and non-conventional energy sources, power economics, and uranium supply are discussed from a Canadian perspective. (LL)

  5. Fusion Canada issue 7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program. Included in this issue are CFFTP highlights on the Karlsruhe Isotope Separation System, a report on ITER tritium process systems, an experimental update on Tokamak de Varennes and Canada-U.S. bilateral technical collaboration topics. 2 figs

  6. Nuclear technology in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This pamphlet provides a summary of the research being carried out by Atomic Energy of Canada Limited. The design and development of the CANDU type reactor are highlighted and the contribution of nuclear technology to medicine, agriculture and the Canadian economy is briefly discussed

  7. Fusion Canada issue 22

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program highlighting in this issue a bi-lateral meeting between Canada and Japan, water and hydrogen detritiation, in-situ tokamak surface analysis, an update of CCFM/TdeV and tritium accounting Industry guidance in Fusion, fast probe for plasma-surface interaction. 4 figs

  8. Fusion Canada issue 17

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program. Included in this issue is a report on increased funding for the Canadian Fusion Program, news of the compact Toroid fuelling gun, an update on Tokamak de Varennes, the Canada - U.S. fusion meeting, measurements of plasma flow velocity, and replaceable Tokamak divertors. 4 figs

  9. Electric power in Canada 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electric power in Canada is given a comprehensive review by the Electricity Branch of the Department of Natural Resources Canada. The Electric Power Industry is scrutinized for electricity consumption, generation, trade and pricing across all of Canada. 98 tabs. 26 figs

  10. Uranium in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1988 Canada's five uranium producers reported output of concentrate containing a record 12,470 metric tons of uranium (tU), or about one third of total Western world production. Shipments exceeded 13,200 tU, valued at $Cdn 1.1 billion. Most of Canada's uranium output is available for export for peaceful purposes, as domestic requirements represent about 15 percent of production. The six uranium marketers signed new sales contracts for over 11,000 tU, mostly destined for the United States. Annual exports peaked in 1987 at 12,790 tU, falling back to 10,430 tU in 1988. Forward domestic and export contract commitments were more than 70,000 tU and 60,000 tU, respectively, as of early 1989. The uranium industry in Canada was restructured and consolidated by merger and acquisition, including the formation of Cameco. Three uranium projects were also advanced. The Athabasca Basin is the primary target for the discovery of high-grade low-cost uranium deposits. Discovery of new reserves in 1987 and 1988 did not fully replace the record output over the two-year period. The estimate of overall resources as of January 1989 was down by 4 percent from January 1987 to a total (measured, indicated and inferred) of 544,000 tU. Exploration expenditures reached $Cdn 37 million in 1987 and $59 million in 1988, due largely to the test mining programs at the Cigar Lake and Midwest projects in Saskatchewan. Spot market prices fell to all-time lows from 1987 to mid-1989, and there is little sign of relief. Canadian uranium production capability could fall below 12,000 tU before the late 1990s; however, should market conditions warrant output could be increased beyond 15,000 tU. Canada's known uranium resources are more than sufficient to meet the 30-year fuel requirements of those reactors in Canada that are now or are expected to be in service by the late 1990s. There is significant potential for discovering additional uranium resources. Canada's uranium production is equivalent, in

  11. Canada country report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cottrill, Cheryl [Bruce Power, 3394 County Road 20 - RRH2, N0G 2T0 Tiverton ON (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    1 - Nuclear 2007 highlights: New Build Applications and Environmental Assessments (Ontario Power Generation (OPG), Bruce Power, Bruce Power Alberta), Refurbishments (Bruce Power's Bruce A Units 1 and 2 Restart Project, NB Power's Refurbishment of Point Lepreau, New Brunswick, Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) NRU 50. Anniversary, expansion of the solid radioactive waste storage facilities at Gentilly-2 nuclear generating station, Ontario Power Generation (OPG) Deep Geologic Repository..); 2. Nuclear overview: a. Energy policy (Future of nuclear power, state of the projects, schedule, Refurbishment), b. Public acceptance, Statements from Government Officials in Canada; c. Nuclear equipment (number and type); d. Nuclear waste management, Deep Geologic Repository; e. Nuclear research at AECL; f. Other nuclear activities (Cameco Corporation, MDS Nordion); 3. Nuclear competencies; 4. WIN 2007 Main Achievements: GIRLS Science Club, Skills Canada, WiN-Canada Web site, Book Launch, WINFO, 2007 WiN-Canada conference 4 - Summary: - 14.6% of Canada's electricity is provided by Candu nuclear reactors; Nuclear equipment: 10 Research or isotope producing reactors - Pool-Type; Slowpoke 2; Sub-Critical assembly; NRU; and Maple; 22 Candu reactors providing electricity production - 18 of which are currently operating. Public acceptance: 41% feel nuclear should play more of a role, 67% support refurbishment, 48% support new build, 13% point gender gap in support, with men supporting more than women. Energy policy: Future of nuclear power - recognition that nuclear is part of the solution across Canada; New Build - 3 applications to regulator to prepare a site for new build, in Provinces of Ontario and Alberta, with one feasibility study underway in New Brunswick; Refurbishment - Provinces of Ontario (2010) and New Brunswick (2009). Nuclear waste management policy: Proposal submitted to regulator to prepare, construct and operate a deep geologic disposal facility

  12. Canada country report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1 - Nuclear 2007 highlights: New Build Applications and Environmental Assessments (Ontario Power Generation (OPG), Bruce Power, Bruce Power Alberta), Refurbishments (Bruce Power's Bruce A Units 1 and 2 Restart Project, NB Power's Refurbishment of Point Lepreau, New Brunswick, Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) NRU 50. Anniversary, expansion of the solid radioactive waste storage facilities at Gentilly-2 nuclear generating station, Ontario Power Generation (OPG) Deep Geologic Repository..); 2. Nuclear overview: a. Energy policy (Future of nuclear power, state of the projects, schedule, Refurbishment), b. Public acceptance, Statements from Government Officials in Canada; c. Nuclear equipment (number and type); d. Nuclear waste management, Deep Geologic Repository; e. Nuclear research at AECL; f. Other nuclear activities (Cameco Corporation, MDS Nordion); 3. Nuclear competencies; 4. WIN 2007 Main Achievements: GIRLS Science Club, Skills Canada, WiN-Canada Web site, Book Launch, WINFO, 2007 WiN-Canada conference 4 - Summary: - 14.6% of Canada's electricity is provided by Candu nuclear reactors; Nuclear equipment: 10 Research or isotope producing reactors - Pool-Type; Slowpoke 2; Sub-Critical assembly; NRU; and Maple; 22 Candu reactors providing electricity production - 18 of which are currently operating. Public acceptance: 41% feel nuclear should play more of a role, 67% support refurbishment, 48% support new build, 13% point gender gap in support, with men supporting more than women. Energy policy: Future of nuclear power - recognition that nuclear is part of the solution across Canada; New Build - 3 applications to regulator to prepare a site for new build, in Provinces of Ontario and Alberta, with one feasibility study underway in New Brunswick; Refurbishment - Provinces of Ontario (2010) and New Brunswick (2009). Nuclear waste management policy: Proposal submitted to regulator to prepare, construct and operate a deep geologic disposal facility in Ontario

  13. Nuclear insurance in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many years ago, a group of insurance companies founded an organization offering nuclear insurance, called Nuclear Insurance Association of Canada. The passage of Order-in-Council P.C. 1960-555 gave Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd. the power to indemnify suppliers, contractors, etc. against liability claims. The situation has remained essentially unchanged. In 1970 Parliament passed the Nuclear Liability Act, but it has never been proclaimed. The act sets mandatory levels of nuclear insurance as high as $75 million for firms involved in nuclear activity. It is expected that agreement between the insurers and government will be reached later this year (1976), so that the act can be proclaimed. (N.D.H.)

  14. Canada's medical isotope strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper details Canada's medical isotope strategy and the role of the Canadian Government in the security of the isotope supply chain. The government's role is to promote health and safety of Canadians, establish appropriate regulatory framework, allow the markets to work, facilitate international collaboration, fund high-risk early stage research and development, encourage private sector investment in innovation and support and respect environmental and non-proliferation goals.

  15. Canada's Global Partnership Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curbing the proliferation of biological weapons (BW) is an essential element of the Global Partnership Against the Spread of Weapons and Materials of Mass Destruction. At the Kananaskis Summit in June 2002, G8 Leaders committed to prevent terrorists, or those that harbour them, from acquiring or developing biological weapons and related materials, equipment and technology. To this end, Canada's Global Partnership Program is investing heavily in biological non-proliferation activities in countries of the former Soviet Union. A comprehensive strategy has been developed to help improve biological safety (biosafety) and biological security (biosecurity) with provision for addressing dual-use concerns. Raising awareness and creating a self-sustaining culture of biosecurity is a key driver of the program. Through this strategy, Canada is assisting various FSU countries to: develop and implement effective and practical biosafety/biosecurity standards and guidelines; establish national and/or regional biosafety associations; develop and deliver effective biosafety and biosecurity training; put in place enhanced physical security measures and equipment. In addition to biosafety and biosecurity, the GPP supports a broad range of Biological Non-Proliferation projects and initiatives, including dozens of projects aimed at redirecting former biological weapons scientists. To date, most of these activities have been supported through Canada's contribution to the International Science and Technology Center (ISTC) and the Science and Technology Centre Ukraine (STCU).(author)

  16. Canada's reactor exports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A brief sketch of the development of Canada's nuclear exports is presented and some of the factors which influence the ability to export reactors have been identified. The potential market for CANDUs is small and will develop slowly. The competition will be tough. There are few good prospects for immediate export orders in the next two or three years. Nonetheless there are reasonable opportunities for CANDU exports, especially in the mid-to-late 1980s. Such sales could be of great benefit to Canada and could do much to sustain the domestic nuclear industry. Apart from its excellent economic and technical performance, the main attraction of the CANDU seems to be the autonomy it confers on purchasing countries, the effectiveness with which the associated technology can be transferred, and the diversification it offers to countries which wish to reduce their dependence on the major industrial suppliers. Each sales opportunity is unique, and marketing strategy will have to be tailored to the customer's needs. Over the next decade, the factors susceptible to Canadian government action which are most likely to influence CANDU exports will be the political commitment of the government to those reactor exports, the performance established by the four 600 MWe CANDUs now nearing completion, the continuing successful operation of the nuclear program in Ontario, and the co-ordination of the different components of Canada's nuclear program (AECL, nuclear industry, utilities, and government) in putting forth a coherent marketing effort and following through with effective project management

  17. Environmental performance reviews: Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-09-01

    OECD's comprehensive 2004 report on Canada's environmental policies and programmes systematically examines policy related to air, water, and nature/biodiversity as well as the interface between environmental policy and economic policy, social policy, and specific sectors. It finds that while Canada has made satisfactory progress since 1985, there are still significant challenges, and the report makes specific recommendations for more use of economic instruments and use of the polluter and user pays principles, rationalising water governance, strengthening nature protection, reducing energy intensity, implementing climate change policies, reviewing environmentally related taxes, and implementing marine and aid commitments. Coal provides about 20% of Canada's electric power. Most direct subsidisation of the fossil fuel supply industries (upstream oil, gas and coal) has been reduced. The report recommends subsidies to the mining industry for exploration should also be phased out. Recent measurements indicate emissions of mercury are increasing, mainly due to long-range transboundary air pollution from coal-burning plants. 42 figs., 24 tabs.

  18. Transnational surrogacy: Canada's contradictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozanski, Kristin

    2015-01-01

    Transnational commercial surrogacy represents a form of medical tourism undertaken by intended parents who seek to hire women in other countries, increasingly often in the global South, as surrogates. While much of the scholarly literature focuses on the conditions of surrogacy within host countries, such as India, there has been limited analysis of transnational surrogacy focused upon origin countries. In this article, I build upon the scholarship that explores the impact of host country structures on transnational surrogacy, with special attention to the significance of Canadian citizenship policy through analysis of legislation and policy vis-à-vis transnational commercial surrogacy. The Canadian case demonstrates clear contradictions between the legislation and policy that is enacted domestically to prohibit commercial surrogacy within Canada and legislation and policy that implicitly sanctions commercial surrogacy through the straightforward provision of citizenship for children born of such arrangements abroad. The ethical underpinnings of Canada's domestic prohibition of commercial surrogacy, which is presumed to exploit women and children and to impede gender equality, are violated in Canada's bureaucratic willingness to accept children born of transnational commercial surrogacy as citizens. Thus, the ethical discourses apply only to Canadian citizens within Canadian geography. The failure of the Canadian government to hold Canadian citizens who participate in transnational commercial surrogacy to the normative imperatives that prohibit the practice within the country, or to undertake a more nuanced, and necessarily controversial, discussion of commercial surrogacy reinforces transnational disparities in terms of whose bodies may be commodified as a measure of gendered inequality. PMID:25308235

  19. Declining sex ratios in Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Allan, B. B.; Brant, R; Seidel, J E; Jarrell, J F

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the trends in the proportion of annual live births that were male in Canada and to compare the trends with those in the United States. DESIGN: Analysis of census data. SETTING: Canada as a whole and 4 main regions (West, Ontario, Quebec and Atlantic). SUBJECTS: All live births from 1930 to 1990. OUTCOME MEASURES: Sex ratio (expressed as the proportion of total live births that were male [male proportion]) overall and by region. RESULTS: The male proportion in Canada decr...

  20. Canada's disposal concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A concept for the safe and permanent disposal of nuclear fuel wastes from Canada's CANDU reactors has been developed by Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd. (AECL). The waste would be placed in an engineered disposal vault 500 to 1000 m below the surface in plutonic rock of the Canadian Shield. The multiple barriers to retain the waste and retard the release of radioactivity would be the waste form, the containers, buffer and backfill, and the rock overlying the vault. Numerous research programmes have been carried out to develop the technology for the concept. These include work on materials corrosion and failure mechanisms to assess the performance of the used fuel containers. Predictive modelling has shown that more than 97% of ASTM Grade 2 titanium containers will retain their integrity, even under pessimistic assumptions, for 1200-6000 years after emplacement, and even longer times may be achieved with other grades of titanium or copper. Other research has been aimed at vault sealing, at site characterization for an underground research laboratory and at the development of a methodology for assessing radiological and environmental effects after closure of the facility. A review of the safety and environmental impacts of the concept is now being carried out by an independent panel appointed by the government. (2 figures, 3 references) (UK)

  1. Canada's Clean Air Act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper provided an outline of Canada's Clean Air Act and examined some of the regulatory changes that will occur as a result of its implementation. The Act is being introduced to strengthen the legislative basis for taking action on reducing air pollution and GHGs, and will allow the government to regulate both indoor and outdoor air pollutants and GHGs. The Act will require the Ministers of the Environment and Health to establish national air quality objectives, as well as to monitor and report on their attainment. The Canadian Environmental Protection Act will be amended to enable the government to regulate the blending of fuels and their components. The Motor Vehicle Fuel Consumption Standards Act will also be amended to enhance the government's authority to regulate vehicle fuel efficiency. The Energy Efficiency Act will also be expanded to allow the government to set energy efficiency standards and labelling requirements for a wider range of consumer and commercial products. The Act will commit to short, medium and long-term industrial air pollution targets. Regulations will be proposed for emissions from industry; on-road and off-road vehicles and engines; and consumer and commercial products. It was concluded that the Government of Canada will continue to consult with provinces, territories, industries and Canadians to set and reach targets for the reduction of both indoor and outdoor air pollutants and GHG emissions. 6 figs

  2. Energy in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canada's historical energy consumption, its current consumption and its likely requirements by the turn of the century are reviewed. It is estimated that at least 50% more energy will be required in the year 2000 than is consumed now, assuming a minimum 2% growth rate in primary energy consumption. Both non-renewable and renewable energy resources are examined in the light of these future energy requirements and the need to substitute alternative energy sources for conventional oil in various end uses. The comparative risks involved in energy production are also reviewed. Most of the increase in energy consumption and the substitution of oil over the next 20 years is likely to be met by conventional energy sources, since indigenous reserves are extensive and the relevant technologies well-established. Coal, nuclear and hydro reserves could cover the increase in energy demand until well into the next century, and natural gas reserves are sufficient to bridge the gap during conversion from oil to other energy sources. Nuclear power using advanced fuel cycles and oil from tar sands offer Canada long-term security. The penetration of unconventional energy sources is likely to be relatively small during the next 20 years. However, the most promising may become significant in the next century. (author)

  3. Radioactive waste management in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This bibliography is an up-date to AECL-6186(Rev 3), 1952-1982, 'Radioactive Waste Management in Canada AECL Publications and Other Literature' compiled by Dianne Wallace. Canadian publications from outside contractors concerning the Canadian Nuclear Fuel Waste Management Program are included in addition to Atomic Energy of Canada Limited reports and papers. 252 refs

  4. OECD Economic Surveys: Canada 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    OECD Publishing (NJ3), 2012

    2012-01-01

    Canada weathered the global economic crisis well, mainly reflecting sustained growth in domestic pending, and the economy is continuing to grow despite the persistence of international turbulence, most recently stemming from the euro zone sovereign debt crisis. In Canada's case, several factors are acting in its favour. Federal fiscal plans are…

  5. Farming. Canada at Work Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Ann; Drake, Jane

    This book is part of the Canada At Work series that introduces children to the people, machines, work and environmental concerns involved in bringing to market the products from important Canadian natural resources. This volume features a year-round look at two kinds of agriculture in Canada. On the vegetable farm, children find out about spring…

  6. Western Canada uranium perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The current situation in the exploration for uranium in British Columbia, the Yukon, the Northwest Territories, and Saskatchewan is reviewed. A moratorium on exploration has been in effect in British Columbia since 1980; it is due to expire in 1987. Only the Blizzard deposit appears to have any economic potential. The Lone Gull discovery in the Thelon Basin of the Northwest Territories has proven reserves of more than 35 million pounds U3O8 grading 0.4%. Potentially prospective areas of the northern Thelon Basin lie within a game sanctuary and cannot be explored. Exploration activity in Saskatchewan continues to decline from the peak in 1980. Three major deposits - Cluff Lake, Rabbit Lake and Key Lake - are in production. By 1985 Saskatchewan will produce 58% of Canada's uranium, and over 13% of the western world's output. (L.L.) (3 figs, 2 tabs.)

  7. Gambling households in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Martha; McMullan, John L; Perrier, David C

    2004-01-01

    This paper examines the distribution of gambling dollars in Nova Scotia, Saskatchewan and Canada and studies the impact of this spending on households. We focus first on how gambling expenditures are related to the level and source of household income as well as to other demographic characteristics such as age, education, household composition, geographical area, and sources of income. Next we analyze how gambling expenditures are distributed among those households that gamble. We show how expenditure patterns differ in the intensity of gambling as measured by the proportion of household income or total amount of dollars spent on gambling. Then we study the affects that gambling has on spending on household necessities, changes in net worth, retirement savings and household debt. Finally we determine whether gambling expenditures act as a substitute or a complement to other recreational spending on entertainment products and services. Throughout the paper we offer a comparative analysis of provincial and national data. PMID:15353922

  8. Mackenzie River Delta, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    The Mackenzie River in the Northwest Territories, Canada, with its headstreams the Peace and Finley, is the longest river in North America at 4241 km, and drains an area of 1,805,000 square km. The large marshy delta provides habitat for migrating Snow Geese, Tundra Swans, Brant, and other waterfowl. The estuary is a calving area for Beluga whales. The Mackenzie (previously the Disappointment River) was named after Alexander Mackenzie who travelled the river while trying to reach the Pacific in 1789. The image was acquired on August 4, 2005, covers an area of 55.8 x 55.8 km, and is located at 68.6 degrees north latitude, 134.7 degrees west longitude. The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  9. Canada: Health system review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchildon, Gregory

    2013-01-01

    Canada is a high-income country with a population of 33 million people. Its economic performance has been solid despite the recession that began in 2008. Life expectancy in Canada continues to rise and is high compared with most OECD countries; however, infant and maternal mortality rates tend to be worse than in countries such as Australia, France and Sweden. About 70% of total health expenditure comes from the general tax revenues of the federal, provincial and territorial governments. Most public revenues for health are used to provide universal medicare (medically necessary hospital and physician services that are free at the point of service for residents) and to subsidise the costs of outpatient prescription drugs and long-term care. Health care costs continue to grow at a faster rate than the economy and government revenue, largely driven by spending on prescription drugs. In the last five years, however, growth rates in pharmaceutical spending have been matched by hospital spending and overtaken by physician spending, mainly due to increased provider remuneration. The governance, organization and delivery of health services is highly decentralized, with the provinces and territories responsible for administering medicare and planning health services. In the last ten years there have been no major pan-Canadian health reform initiatives but individual provinces and territories have focused on reorganizing or fine tuning their regional health systems and improving the quality, timeliness and patient experience of primary, acute and chronic care. The medicare system has been effective in providing Canadians with financial protection against hospital and physician costs. However, the narrow scope of services covered under medicare has produced important gaps in coverage and equitable access may be a challenge in these areas. PMID:23628429

  10. Canada No. 1 in business

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canada has for the fifth time in a row been chosen the best industrialized country in the world in which to initiate and run a business. The Norwegian interest in Canada has grown strongly the last years and Norwegian companies have invested over 20 billion NOK there. Canada is the perfect gateway to the large markets in the USA. Norway is currently Canada's 15th largest trading partner. In addition to low costs and strategic location, Canada has the most highly educated workforce in the world. A company on the Canadian side of the US border has the same access to the American market as a US-based company. There is even a Norwegian company in Canada that exports 100 per cent of its products across the border to the USA. The trade between the USA and Canada is more extensive than between the USA and all the EU countries together. Furthermore, Canadian companies concentrating on research and education are given a generous tax credit

  11. Nuclear fuel activities in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear fuel activities in Canada are considered in the presentation on the following directions: Canadian utility fuel performance; CANDU owner's group fuel programs; AECL advanced fuel program (high burnup fuel behaviour and development); Pu dispositioning (MOX) activities. 1 tab

  12. Canada goose behavior: Fall 1969

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Canada geese use four divisions of the Mark Twin NWR: Louisa, Delair, Cannon, and Calhoun. There was a shortage of cultivated crops, corn and soybeans, on all...

  13. Difficulties Assessing Multifactor Productivity for Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Michael J. Harper; Nakamura, Alice O.; Lu Zhang

    2012-01-01

    In 2011, Canada's business sector multifactor productivity (MFP) index, as estimated by Statistics Canada, was below that for 1977, a third of a century earlier. Over these years, public policies were enacted to try to improve Canada's productivity. Yet the nation's MFP continued to fall, relative to both the past and Canada's main trading partners. Policymakers and business decision makers need to know whether Canada's MFP statistics accurately reflect the nation's productivity. We argue tha...

  14. Fusion Canada issue 29

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program highlighting in this issue Canada-Europe Accords: 5 year R and D collaboration for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) AECL is designated to arrange and implement the Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) and the ITER Engineering Design Activities (EDA) while EUROTAM is responsible for operating Europe's Fusion R and D programs plus MOU and EDA. The MOU includes tokamaks, plasma physics, fusion technology, fusion fuels and other approaches to fusion energy (as alternatives to tokamaks). STOR-M Tokamak was restarted at the University of Saskatchewan following upgrades to the plasma chamber to accommodate the Compact Toroid (CT) injector. The CT injector has a flexible attachment thus allowing for injection angle adjustments. Real-time video images of a single plasma discharge on TdeV showing that as the plasma density increases, in a linear ramp divertor, the plasma contact with the horizontal plate decreases while contact increases with the oblique plate. Damage-resistant diffractive optical elements (DOE) have been developed for Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) research by Gentac Inc. and the National Optics Institute, laser beam homogeniser and laser harmonic separator DOE can also be made using the same technology. Studies using TdeV indicate that a divertor will be able to pump helium from the tokamak with a detached-plasma divertor but helium extraction performance must first be improved, presently the deuterium:helium retention radio-indicates that in order to pump enough helium through a fusion reactor, too much deuterium-tritium fuel would be pumped out. 2 fig

  15. Eastern Canada hydrocarbon development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Current petroleum industry activities on Canada's east coast, and future potential were discussed. Offshore drilling activity is proceeding in the Jeanne d'Arc Basin, in addition to the Sable and Terra Nova Offshore Energy Projects. Future potential for Newfoundland and Nova Scotia has been estimated at 30 billion BOE and 13 billion BOE respectively. Natural gas potential off Labrador was estimated at 37 Tcf, offshore Newfoundland at 41 Tcf, and offshore Sable Island at 49 Tcf with varying amounts of oil associated with each field. Cumulative industry spending is expected to reach $ 10 billion by the year 2000, and could reach $20 billion by 2005. Prospects for Mobil Oil, number One in discoveries and industry influence, and number Two in acreage among the partners, were reviewed. Some details of the Sable Offshore Energy Project were outlined. The estimated cost of the project is $2 billion. It is expected to be on stream in late 1999 with a total of 27 wells (11 in phase 1). Reserves are estimated at 3.5 TCF or more. Hibernia was on stream in November 1997. Total recoverable reserves at Hibernia are estimated at 750 MMBls. Peak production of 180,000 b/d is expected by 2000-2001. Life expectancy of 20 years is predicted. The Terra Nova project, located 25 miles southeast of Hibernia, was also reviewed. It will be on stream in late 2000 with total reserves of 350-450 MMBls of oil, peak production at 115,000 to 135,000 b/d with a life expectancy of 15 years. 21 figs

  16. SCWR Concept in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AECL is designing the Canadian SCWR concept, which has evolved from the well-established pressuretube type CANDU® reactor. The Canadian SCWR is designed to produce electrical energy as the main product, plus process heat, hydrogen, industrial isotopes, and drinking water (through the desalination process) as supplementary products, all within a more compact reactor building. Another potential application of the available co-generated process heat is the extraction and refining of oil sands, which is presently achieved using co-generation with natural gas turbines and process heat. The extraction and upgrading process requires: thermal power to lower the viscosity and extract the oil; electric power for separation and refining equipment; and hydrogen gas for upgrading the oil product prior to transport. A National Program has been established in Canada to support R&D studies for the Canadian SCWR design. It covers key areas of interest (such as thermal hydraulics, safety, materials, and chemistry) to participants in the Generation-IV International Forum (GIF) SCWR designs. Results generated from the program are contributed to the GIF SCWR project management boards (PMBs). For example, heat transfer correlations have been derived using experimental data primarily obtained from fossil-plant related studies (which were started as early as 1930s. Materials and chemistry studies have evolved from operating experience of fossil-fired power plants to a) develop, and perform targeted testing of, materials for key components, in particular in-core reactor components that will be exposed to conditions not encountered in a fossil-fired boiler (such as irradiation and water radiolysis), and b) develop a suitable water chemistry to minimize corrosion and corrosion product transport

  17. Calyx trademark EA implementation at AECB

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes a project to examine the applicability of a knowledge-based decision support software for environmental assessment (Calyx) to assist the Atomic Energy Control Board in environmental screenings, assessment, management, and database searches. The report begins with background on the Calyx software and then reviews activities with regard to modification of the Calyx knowledge base for application to the nuclear sector. This is followed by lists of standard activities handled by the software and activities specific to the Board; the hierarchy of environmental components developed for the Board; details of impact rules that describe the conditions under which environmental impacts will occur (the bulk of the report); information on mitigation and monitoring rules and on instance data; and considerations for future work on implementing Calyx at the Board. Appendices include an introduction to expert systems and an overview of the Calyx knowledge base structure

  18. Western Canada Sedimentary Basin competitiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent dramatic expansion of the natural gas industry in the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin provided ample proof of the potential of this area for further development of natural gas supply. However, the inherent competitive advantages provided by the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin were said to have been offset by low netback prices resulting in poor producer economics when competitiveness is measured by availability of opportunities to find and develop gas supply at costs low enough to ensure attractive returns. Technology was identified as one of the key elements in improving basin competitiveness, but the greatest potential lies in reduced transportation costs and increased access to North American market centres. 8 figs

  19. 78 FR 16493 - ExxonMobil Canada Energy, Flint Hills Resources Canada, LP, Imperial Oil, NOVA Chemical (Canada...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-15

    ..., NOVA Chemical (Canada) Ltd., PBF Holding Company LLC, Toledo Refining Company, LLC, Pennzoil-Quaker... Resources Canada, LP, Imperial Oil, NOVA Chemical (Canada) Ltd., PBF Holding Company LLC, Toledo Refining... party must file a notice of intervention or motion to intervene, as appropriate. The Respondent's...

  20. Canada's commitment to nuclear technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper gives a broad update on all facets of the Canadian nuclear industry and demonstrates Canada's continuing commitment to nuclear technology. Canada has developed a global leadership position in nuclear technology for power generation, uranium production and isotope supply. This commitment is being further enhanced by successes in international markets with Candu technology, new uranium mine developments in our province of Saskatchewan, and expanding isotope capabilities including the construction of two new production reactors. Korea's economy is benefiting through collaboration with Canada's leading nuclear companies, both in Korea and Canada. These collaborations have the potential to expand considerably with the implementation of the Kyoto Framework Convention on Climate Change and the anticipated increased demand for new nuclear power generation installations in all major global markets. Much has been publicized about the situation surrounding Ontario Hydro Nuclear and its nuclear recovery program. This paper gives the background and highlights the actions within Ontario and Ontario Hydro designed to ensure the long term recovery of all twenty nuclear units in Ontario. The presentation at the conference will bring the audience completely up-to-date on recent events. (author)

  1. Financing Higher Education in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Association of Universities and Colleges of Canada, Ottawa (Ontario).

    It is the purpose of the committee responsible for this document to study, report, and make recommendations on the financing of universities and colleges of Canada, with particular reference to the decade ending 1975, including: (1) prospective financial requirements of universities and colleges, for operation, research, physical facilities and…

  2. Canada-China power experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    International energy opportunities were reviewed, with emphasis on China, and on Canada-China Power Inc., alternatively known as 'Team Canada'. Canada-Chine Power Inc., is a company founded by three of Canada's leading engineering consulting firms, i.e., Monenco AGRA Inc., SNC Lavalin Inc., and Acres International Limited. An office was established in Beijing in January 1994. Other Canadian manufacturers and engineering companies also have been actively pursuing hydro power opportunities in China for several years in view of China's enormous demand for power. It was estimated that by the year 2000, China will install 137 GW of new capacity, and foreign investment will account for approximately a third of the growth. AGRA is working on a 5400 MW thermal plant on Hainan Island, and is in final negotiations with the Yangtze Three Gorges Development Corporation for a management information system for their 18200 MW multi-purpose project. Criteria used by AGRA to identify international opportunities include: (1) a large capital spending program in fields with capabilities, expertise and past experience, (2) access to international funding, (3) competitive Canadian technology, and (4) an acceptable business and cultural climate. In assessing the opportunities, AGRA decided to concentrate on providing technologies in greatest need, such as project management systems, computer engineering and CAD systems, and clean coal technology

  3. The Inuit (Eskimo) of Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creery, Ian

    This report examines the history of the colonization of Arctic Canada and the efforts of its 25,000 Inuit residents to decolonize themselves. Initial sections outline the origins and early history of the Inuit; characteristics of Inuit culture, family life, and spirituality; the effects of whaling and the fur trade; and the movement of the Inuit…

  4. Canada report on bioenergy 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canada is a nation rich in fossil fuel resources. Canada has a large, well-developed forest sector and is one of the world's largest exporters of wood products. Although national bioenergy policies exist, provincial policies regarding forest resources are necessary because 77 per cent of Canada's forests are under provincial jurisdiction. This report presented an update on Canada's bioenergy policy and resources. The report discussed biomass resources such as woody biomass; agricultural residues; and municipal waste. The use of biomass was presented with particular reference to heat and power; biofuels production; pyrolysis oil; wood pellets; and trends in biomass production and consumption. Current biomass users and biomass prices were also examined. Last, the report addressed imports and exports of ethanol, biodiesel, pyrolysis oil, and wood pellets as well as barriers and opportunities to trade. A list of Canadian bioenergy initiatives and programs was also provided. It was concluded that the greatest opportunities for trade are to succeed in research on super-densified pellets; raise ocean shipping capacity to bring down rates; and to establish and entire biomass industry in Newfoundland Labrador. 20 tabs., 8 figs., 1 appendix

  5. Compute Canada: Advancing Computational Research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High Performance Computing (HPC) is redefining the way that research is done. Compute Canada's HPC infrastructure provides a national platform that enables Canadian researchers to compete on an international scale, attracts top talent to Canadian universities and broadens the scope of research.

  6. Advancing clean energy technology in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses the development of clean energy technology in Canada. Energy is a major source of Canadian prosperity. Energy means more to Canada than any other industrialized country. It is the only OECD country with growing oil production. Canada is a stable and secure energy supplier and a major consumer. Promoting clean energy is a priority to make progress in multiple areas.

  7. Fusion Canada issue 32. Final edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fusion Canada is a bulletin of the National Fusion Program, this is the last edition. Included in this July edition are articles on Funding for Canada's fusion program, Research and Development on TdeV-96 , Divertor Maintenance Robotics and reference listing for Canada's Fusion research and development sites

  8. Radiation protection as part of occupational health and safety in the regulation of uranium mines in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Canadian Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB) is involved in the development of new uranium mines from the early planning stages through the development of the mine-mill facility. As a result, new facilities are designed and developed to a much higher standard of both conventional and radiation health and safety than previously. Radiation is not the most significant cause of injury to the uranium miner, and public attitudes toward radiation may result in overemphasizing these aspects to the detriment of conventional health and safety conditions in the mines. The AECB believes that one dead miner is one too many and bases its regulatory efforts on this belief

  9. Environmental radioactivity in Canada 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiological surveillance program of the Department of National Health and Welfare is conducted for the purpose of determining levels of environmental radioactivity in Canada and assessing the resulting population exposures. During 1986 the program was strongly influenced by radioactive fallout on Canada resulting from the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident on April 26, 1986 in the Soviet Ukraine. The Environmental Radiation Hazards Division (ERHD) increased its frequency of analyses of environmental samples immediately following the accident. Interim screening limits for foodstuffs were developed. A measurement program for radioactivity in domestic and imported foods was implemented. The ERHD measurement program was supplemented by additional measurements conducted by many other private and government laboratories. Radiation doses to Canadian from Chernobyl fallout were extremely low with no group in the population receiving more than 10 microsieverts

  10. Civil emergency planning in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, J F

    1967-01-28

    THE NATIONAL OBJECTIVES OF CIVILIAN EMERGENCY PLANNING ARE: (1) protection and preservation of life and property; (2) maintenance of governmental structure; and (3) conservation of resources. The Canada Emergency Measures Organization (E.M.O.) has been developed to accomplish these objectives. E.M.O. co-ordinates other departments and agencies of federal government and its organization is reflected within provincial and municipal governments.Present E.M.O. accomplishments include: an attack warning system; an emergency broadcasting system; emergency government facilities; 400 emergency measure organizations across Canada; plans to implement general readiness; a medical stockpile; and "shadow agencies" for control of housing, food and manpower.PRESENT UNDERTAKINGS INCLUDE: a national survey of fallout shelters; the equipping of the radiation defence (RADEF); the pre-positioning of the items of the medical stockpile; and the training at the Canadian Emergency Measures College at Arnprior. PMID:6015737

  11. Fusion energy and Canada's role

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fusion is the process of releasing energy from matter which occurs in our sun. Canada is contributing to the development of technology which will permit this process to be harnessed and made available on earth. The international effort has increased from a modest beginning in the 1950s to a level of approximately two billion dollars annually in the 1980s. The purpose of this booklet is to introduce the concept of fusion energy as a technology which should make an important addition to the mix of energy sources for our future. Through a co-ordinated approach, Canada has established several projects which will contribute significantly to the development of technologies in specific areas leading to opportunities now for Canadian industry in the international effort

  12. Women in physics in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Li-Hong; Ghose, Shohini; Milner-Bolotin, Marina; McKenna, Janis; Bhadra, Sampa; Predoi-Cross, Adriana; Dasgupta, Arundhati; Campbell, Melanie; Barkanova, Svetlana; Steinitz, Michael

    2015-12-01

    While the overall climate for women physicists both in academia and industry has improved significantly over the past decade in Canada, it will be some time before women are well represented. Numbers of women in physics at all academic levels have increased, but are less than ideal at the full professor level. Organizations such as the Canadian Association of University Teachers and local initiatives are striving to minimize the socio-economic and professional gaps between women and men. The Canadian Association of Physicists, through its Committee to Encourage Women in Physics, and the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council are supportive and serve as catalysts, bringing together men and women to discuss and address issues concerning women in physics across Canada.

  13. Nuclear criticality safety in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The approach taken to nuclear criticality safety in Canada has been influenced by the historical development of participants. The roles played by governmental agencies and private industry since the Atomic Energy Control Act was passed into Canadian Law in 1946 are outlined to set the scene for the current situation and directions that may be taken in the future. Nuclear criticality safety puts emphasis on the control of materials called special fissionable material in Canada. A brief account is given of the historical development and philosophy underlying the existing regulations governing special fissionable material. Subsequent events have led to a change in emphasis in the regulatory process that has not yet been fully integrated into Canadian legislation and regulations. Current efforts towards further development of regulations governing the practice of nuclear criticality safety are described. (auth)

  14. Electric power in Canada, 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report reviews the structure of the electric power industry in Canada, describes the regulatory structures that are in place, and puts the Canadian electricity industry into an international context. It presents statistics on electricity generation and consumption, imports and exports, transmission, costs and pricing, and financing. It forecasts anticipated energy demands, generating capacity and actual generation, exports, fuel requirements, and expenditures. The impacts of demand-side management and non-utility generation are discussed. (82 tabs., 23 figs.)

  15. Electric power in Canada, 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report reviews the structure of the electric power industry in Canada, describes the regulatory structures that are in place, and puts the Canadian electricity industry into an international context. It presents statistics on electricity generation and consumption, imports and exports, transmission, costs and pricing, and financing. It forecasts anticipated energy demands, generating capacity and actual generation, exports, fuel requirements, and expenditures. The impacts of demand-side management and non-utility generation are discussed. (78 tabs., 27 figs.)

  16. Canada: The largest uranium producer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Despite all the current difficulties, previous erroneous forecasts and other mistakes, the longer term future looks good for uranium mining and for Canada's industry in particular. Saskatchewan continues to offer the most exciting new prospects, the huge and fabulously high grade Cigar Lake deposits being the most spectacular of the recent discoveries. Notwithstanding continuous mining for 30 years from Elliot Lake there still remain there significant uncommitted reserves which can be developed when the market for uranium is in better balance

  17. The nuclear debate in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author argues that the nuclear debate in Canada is concerned less with the safety of nuclear power plants and more with arguments of economics and social decision-making. The nuclear industry cannot afford to neglect the continuing need to inform the public about nuclear risks. But there is also a need to develop specific arguments to increase public acceptance of nuclear energy as an economic, democratic and equitable energy option

  18. Indigenous Educational Attainment in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine E. Gordon

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the educational attainment of Indigenous peoples of working age (25 to 64 years in Canada is examined. This diverse population has typically had lower educational levels than the general population in Canada. Results indicate that, while on the positive side there are a greater number of highly educated Indigenous peoples, there is also a continuing gap between Indigenous and non-Indigenous peoples. Data also indicate that the proportion with less than high school education declined, which corresponds with a rise of those with a PSE; the reverse was true in 1996. Despite these gains, however, the large and increasing absolute numbers of those without a high school education is alarming. There are intra-Indigenous differences: First Nations with Indian Status and the Inuit are not doing as well as non-Status and Métis peoples. Comparisons between the Indigenous and non-Indigenous populations reveal that the documented gap in post-secondary educational attainment is at best stagnant. Out of the data analysis, and based on the history of educational policy, we comment on the current reform proposed by the Government of Canada, announced in February of 2014, and propose several policy recommendations to move educational attainment forward.

  19. Routine outcome measures in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisely, Steve; Adair, Carol E; Lin, Elizabeth; Marriott, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Canada is a federal country of 10 provinces and three territories. High level information on mental health conditions and service use has mostly been generated from administrative data collected by provinces and territories. These include four major types - hospital admissions and discharges, physician billings, ambulatory care services, and drug databases. At the national level, the Canadian Institute for Health Information brings together this information to produce indicators of outcome. Although these data provide information on patient and health system characteristics, they do not capture the full spectrum of formal and informal mental healthcare. These include changes in health status, functioning, community integration and quality of life. As a result, some jurisdictions have begun to implement more standardized measures of outcome such as the clinician-rated Health of the Nation Outcome Scales or the inpatient Resident Assessment Instrument - Mental Health. In this paper we provide an overview of mental-health-related data sources in Canada, highlight some of the more progressive practices beginning to emerge, and conclude with some thoughts about how the routine measurement and reporting of mental health outcomes in Canada might be advanced including efforts at engaging both clinicians and decision-makers. PMID:25738745

  20. Overview of Canada's uranium industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper places Canada's uranium industry in its international context. Most uranium, except that produced in the United States, is traded internationally. A brief history of the industry worldwide is given to show how the principal producing areas have fared to date. The industry is young, highly cyclical, and still far from achieving stability. Uranium is a single end-use commodity, entirely dependent on the generation of electricity in nuclear stations, and is without price elasticity: lowering the price does not increase demand. The typical nuclear fuel processing chain has not encouraged or led to much vertical integration. Uranium is subject to more governmental control than any other commodity. The principal market is located in the industrial countries of western Europe, the United States, Canada, and the far east. The uranium supply-demand situation is reviewed, including the current and near-term oversupply and the longer term outlook to 1995. The major negative impact of reactor cancellations and deferments in the United States is discussed. Because of the difficulty in getting reactors on line, it has become easier to forecast the demand for uranium over the next 10 years. It is more difficult to predict how that demand will be met from the more than ample competing sources. Canada's potential for supplying a significant portion of this demand is considered in relation to producers and potential new producers in other countries

  1. Education of pharmacists in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Zubin; Ensom, Mary H H

    2008-12-15

    In Canada, the education of pharmacists is built upon a foundation of strong, research-intensive publicly funded universities and a universal health-care system that balances government and private financing for prescription medications. The evolution of pharmacy education and practice in Canada has laid the foundation for a variety of emerging trends related to expanded roles for pharmacists, increasing interprofessional collaboration for patient-centered care, and emergence of pharmacy technicians as a soon-to-be regulated professional group in parts of the country. Current challenges include the need to better integrate internationally educated pharmacists within the domestic workforce and tools to ensure continuous professional development and maintenance of competency of practitioners. Academic pharmacy is currently debating how best to manage the need to enhance the pharmacy curriculum to meet current and future skills needs, and whether a doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) degree ought to become the standard entry-to-practice qualification for pharmacists in Canada. PMID:19325948

  2. Women in Physics in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenna, Janis

    2012-10-01

    Here we are in the 21st century in Canada, where most of us would say that young girls and boys have equal access to education, opportunities, and careers of their own choice. In Canada, women currently outnumber men in full-time university enrollment, in Medical Schools and in Law Schools. 48% of the Canadian work force is female, yet women make up only 21% of working professionals in science, engineering and technology. Canada-wide in Physics, the situation is such that only 20% of our BSc graduates are women, and 19% of our PhD graduates are women. It is evident that the ``leaky pipeline'' in Physics leaks most at a young age, before BSc graduation. High school physics statistics in BC indicate that while most of the grade 12 science and math disciplines have roughly equal numbers of young men and women enrolled, this is not the case for high school physics, where province-wide, only 30% of Physics 12 students are women. (Biology is also skewed, but in the other direction: 62% of Biology 12 students are women) This poster will present current statistics and will hopefully be a wake-up call for us all to consider participating in more outreach in science, and especially physics, in our high schools.

  3. Immigration and Crime: Evidence from Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Haimin

    2014-01-01

    There is growing belief in many developed countries, including Canada, that the large influx of the foreign-born population increases crime. Despite the heated public discussion, the immigrant-crime relationship is understudied in the literature. This paper identifies the causal linkages between immigration and crime using panel data constructed from the Uniform Crime Reporting Survey and the master files of the Census of Canada. This paper distinguishes immigrants by their years in Canada an...

  4. Fusion energy. What Canada can do

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As Canada's fusion programs have grown, Canadian capabilities in fusion science and technology have grown and matured with them. The fusion capabilities described in this booklet have come from a coordinated national effort. The Government of Canada is committed to continuing its fusion energy program, and to supporting global fusion efforts. These first pages provide an overview of Canada's fusion work and its underlying basis of science and technology

  5. Chiropractic radiology in Canada: an anthology of the Chiropractic College of Radiologists (Canada) Inc

    OpenAIRE

    Shrubb, Eric F.

    1990-01-01

    Although there are numerous chiropractic institutions, one which receives little acclaim, but contributes significantly to chiropractic life in Canada, is the Chiropractic College of Radiologists (Canada) Inc. The following presentation represents a brief historical perspective of this most prestigious organization.

  6. Canada Education Savings Program: Annual Statistical Review 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human Resources and Skills Development Canada, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The Canada Education Savings Program (CESP) has been an initiative of the Government of Canada since 1998. As part of the Department of Human Resources and Skills Development Canada, the program administers the Canada Education Savings Grant (CESG) and the Canada Learning Bond (CLB). These two initiatives help Canadian families save for a child's…

  7. Abortion health services in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Wendy V.; Guilbert, Edith R.; Okpaleke, Christopher; Hayden, Althea S.; Steven Lichtenberg, E.; Paul, Maureen; White, Katharine O’Connell; Jones, Heidi E.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective To determine the location of Canadian abortion services relative to where reproductive-age women reside, and the characteristics of abortion facilities and providers. Design An international survey was adapted for Canadian relevance. Public sources and professional networks were used to identify facilities. The bilingual survey was distributed by mail and e-mail from July to November 2013. Setting Canada. Participants A total of 94 abortion facilities were identified. Main outcome measures The number and location of services were compared with the distribution of reproductive-age women by location of residence. Results We identified 94 Canadian facilities providing abortion in 2012, with 48.9% in Quebec. The response rate was 83.0% (78 of 94). Facilities in every jurisdiction with services responded. In Quebec and British Columbia abortion services are nearly equally present in large urban centres and rural locations throughout the provinces; in other Canadian provinces services are chiefly located in large urban areas. No abortion services were identified in Prince Edward Island. Respondents reported provision of 75 650 abortions in 2012 (including 4.0% by medical abortion). Canadian facilities reported minimal or no harassment, in stark contrast to American facilities that responded to the same survey. Conclusion Access to abortion services varies by region across Canada. Services are not equitably distributed in relation to the regions where reproductive-age women reside. British Columbia and Quebec have demonstrated effective strategies to address disparities. Health policy and service improvements have the potential to address current abortion access inequity in Canada. These measures include improved access to mifepristone for medical abortion; provincial policies to support abortion services; routine abortion training within family medicine residency programs; and increasing the scope of practice for nurses and midwives to include abortion

  8. Landfill gas management in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landfill gas produced from solid waste landfills is one of the most significant sources of anthropogenic methane in Canada. Methane, a potent greenhouse gas, is 24.5 times more powerful than carbon dioxide by weight in terms of global climate change. Landfill gas recovery plays an important role in Canada's commitment to stabilize greenhouse gas emissions at 1990 levels by the year 2000 under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Landfill gas is a potentially harmful emission that can be converted into a reliable environmentally-sustainable energy source used to generate electricity, fuel industries and heat buildings. The recovery and utilization of landfill gas is a win-win situation which makes good sense from local, regional and global perspectives. It provides the benefits of (1) reducing the release of greenhouse gases that contribute to global warming; (2) limiting odors; (3) controlling damage to vegetation; (4) reducing risks from explosions, fires and asphyxiation; (5) converting a harmful emission into a reliable energy source; and (6) creating a potential source of revenue and profit. Canadian landfills generate about 1 million tons of methane every year; the equivalent energy of 9 million barrels of oil (eight oil super tankers), or enough energy to meet the annual heating needs of more than half a million Canadian homes. Currently, twenty-seven facilities recover and combust roughly 25% of the methane generated by Canadian landfills producing about 3.2 PJ (1015 Joules) of energy including 80 MW of electricity and direct fuel for nearby facilities (e.g., cement plants, gypsum board manufacturers, recycling facilities, greenhouses). This paper reviews landfill gas characteristics; environmental, health and safety impacts; landfill gas management in Canada; the costs of landfill gas recovery and utilization systems; and on-going projects on landfill gas utilization and flaring

  9. Nuclear waste management in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The classification of radioactive wastes in Canada involves two categories - waste of such a nature or in such amounts that it could be hazardous to the public, and waste which can be dealt with safely by methods available to individual institutions having at their disposal only conventional methods for getting rid of unwanted material. It is easy to provide for long-term retention of radioactive wastes if no account need be taken of expense. However, it is unreasonable (and discouraging to progress) to insist upon techniques of waste management that are applicable to multi-curie sources when the amounts to be dealt with are in the millicurie range. (author)

  10. Decommissioning Experience: Chalk River, Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Atomic Energy of Canada Limited has reported that work has continued on the decommissioning of old structures on the Chalk River laboratory site. An environmental assessment was approved in 2006 for the decommissioning of the NRX reactor fuel bays (A and B). The regulator approved two work packages for the removal of water and the wooden structure over the bays. The A bays were cleaned as far as possible and were emptied in 2007. Decontamination work will continue. Sections of the B bays were filled with sand and other parts filled with water. NRX is currently in storage (i.e. a dormant state) with surveillance. (author)

  11. Environmental radioactivity in Canada 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiological surveillance program of the Department of National Health and Welfare is conducted for the purpose of determining levels of environmental radioactivity in Canada and assessing the resulting population exposures. A study was initiated to evaluate the contamination by cesium-137, of caribou, a major source of food in northern communities. Work on development of methods proceeded for the determination of radon, carbon-14, polonium-210, radium-228 and isotopic uranium in samples. Monitoring continued of fallout contamination from Chernobyl of imported foods. All measurements made during 1987 are below the limits recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection

  12. Environmental radioactivity in Canada - 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiological surveillance program of the Department of National Health and Welfare is conducted for the purpose of determining levels of environmental radioactivity in Canada and assessing the resulting population exposures. Special investigations were carried out during 1982 on metabolism of natural radionuclides and on the accumulation of radon in energy-efficient homes. The pre-operational phase of the monitoring program at the Point Lepreau Nuclear Generating Station was completed. Dose commitments have been estimated for the ongoing natural radioactivity, fallout and reactor studies. All measurements made during the year are below the limits recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection

  13. Environmental radioactivity in Canada, 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiological surveillance program of the Department of National Health and Welfare is conducted to determine levels of environmental radioactivity in Canada and asessing the resulting population exposures. In this report, the results for 1980 from the analyses of air, precipitation, water vapour, drinking water, milk, biota and bone for critical radionuclides are presented. The graphical format is used with extensions of the trend-lines to enable identification of changes in the levels and assessment of their potential health significance. All the levels measured during this period are below the permissible limits recommended by the International Commission for Radiological Protection

  14. Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilham, Virginia

    1994-01-01

    Annotates 122 publications from the Canadian federal government and from 9 Canadian provinces. Topics include environmental programs and problems, gambling, crime, young offenders, health and welfare issues, use of electronic information, materials on education, employment, tourism, the North American Free Trade Agreement, and issues relating to…

  15. Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillham, Virginia

    1992-01-01

    This annotated bibliography lists 110 Canadian federal and provincial government documents published in 1991 that address a wide range of topics, including demographics; constitutional law; social issues, including problems of women, children, and minorities; education; the environment; and standard of living. A list of reviewers is included. (MES)

  16. Natural background radiation in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Published airborne gamma ray survey data from 33 areas of Canada were used to compile information on the average ground level exposure from natural radiation. The exposures at ground level were calculated from the surface concentrations of potassium, uranium and thorium. The highest levels of radioactivity were found in northern Canada and were generally related to granitic rocks; the lowest levels with the Athabasca sandstone. Summer outdoor exposure rates have a population-weighted average of 3.7 +- 2.3 μR.h-1, of which 48 percent orginated from potassium, 43 percent from the thorium series and 9 percent from the uranium series. This low level of radioactivity, compared to worldwide data, has resulted from erosion of a geologically old continental crust in which radioactivity decreases with depth. When seasonal variations of soil moisture and snow cover are considered, the annual population-weighted average outdoor exposure rate decreases to 2.8 +- 1.7 μR.h-1 corresponding to an annual outdoor dose-equivalent of 150 +- 90 μSV. Factors increasing the annual outdoor dose-equivalent are cosmic radiation (320 +- 30 μSV) and the internal radioactivity of the body (190 μSV). Using the ratio between indoor and outdoor values for worldwide published data, the average annual Canadian whole-body dose-equivalent from all sources of natural radiation is estimated to be 690 +-130 μSV

  17. 2000 Western Canada activity forecast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    All wells drilled in Western Canada during the first nine months of 1999 are listed and sorted into 12 geographical areas used in the Petroleum Services Association of Canada (PSAC) well cost study. Each area represents wells of common drilling, production and depth characteristics. Area totals for well counts and meters drilled were determined from the sorting process. Previous years' activities are reviewed and various operators and PSAC members contacted to review upcoming programs. In addition, trends and other projections were consulted to develop an estimate of drilling activity for the rest of 1999 as well as a projection of drilling activity for 2000. The historical and projected drilling activities were tabulated and plotted for each area. Average drilling costs for each area were determined, and the total expenditures were calculated for each area by multiplying the the projected meterage by the adjusted drilling costs. All costs were allocated to various services and products utilizing percentages determined in the Well Cost Study. During the sorting process, a list was developed of the major operators in each area, which list is included in the report along with average depths and types of wells drilled by the various operators in each area. The costs included in the report include only drilling and completion operations, starting with the building of the location prior to drilling, and ending with the installation of the wellhead after construction. 5 tabs

  18. 1999 Western Canada activity forecast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The forecasts contained in this report are based on a review of the drilling activity through the first eight months of 1998 in twelve geographic areas of Western Canada. The forecasts incorporate current operator activity and trends into an estimate of well counts and meters drilled for the entire year of 1998. The estimates produced in this manner serve as the basis for the activity forecast for 1999. This projection, and cost data developed for the Association's 1998 Well Cost Study released in September 1998, provide the foundation for calculating the anticipated expenditure for various products and services in each of the specified geographical areas. Major operators in each area, and the type of drilling activities conducted by them, are also included. For Western Canada as a whole, a total of 9,885 wells are predicted to be drilled in 1999, at a total expenditure of $3.939 billion. The predicted average well depth will be 1,171 m, at an average cost of $ 219/m

  19. Nuclear emergency preparedness in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The preparedness of utilities and government agencies at various levels for dealing with nuclear emergencies occurring at nuclear reactors in Canada is reviewed and assessed. The review is centered on power reactors, but selected research reactors are included also. Emergency planning in the U.S.A., Germany and France, and international recommendations on emergency planning are reviewed to provide background and a basis for comparison. The findings are that Canadians are generally well protected by existing nuclear emergency plans at the electric utility and provincial levels but there are improvements that can be made, mainly at the federal level and in federal-provincial coordination. Ten issues of importance are identified: commitment to nuclear emergency planning by the federal government; division of federal and provincial roles and responsibilities; auditing of nuclear emergency preparedness of all levels of government and of electric utilities; the availability of technical guidance appropriate to Canada; protective action levels for public health and safety; communication with the public; planning and response for the later phases of a nuclear emergency; off-site exercises and training; coordination of international assistance; and emergency planning for research reactors. (L.L.) 79 refs., 2 tabs

  20. Eastern Canada natural gas developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This power point presentation addressed the following topics regarding development of natural gas in eastern Canada: (1) the 18 Tcf of proven natural gas reserves at Sable Island, (2) Canadian markets benefiting from the Maritimes and Northeast Pipeline (M and NP), (3) a 20 year franchise agreement between Enbridge Gas and the government of New Brunswick, (4) the 25 year provincial franchise agreement by Sempra Atlantic Gas, and (5) Sable Island's influence on central Canada. The Sable Offshore Energy Project (SOEP) is now producing about 540,000 MMBtu/day from 6 fields. Plans for Tier 2 expansion are underway. Firm contracts for the M and NP are scheduled to transport gas from the SOEP to markets in Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Maine and New Hampshire. Sable gas is also a potential supply for the Quebec market. Gaz Metropolitain and Enbridge have proposed to build the Cartier Pipeline from the Quebec/New Brunswick border to Quebec City. It is unlikely that Sable Island supply will directly serve the Ontario market. Canadian customers for Sable gas and M and NP service include pulp and paper companies, oil refineries, power generators and local distribution companies (LDC), with the majority of demand coming form the electric power industry. tabs., figs

  1. Energy in Canada: An overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent changes in the North American natural gas industry are discussed, with a focus on how these changes will affect the ability of Alberta and Canadian natural gas supply to meet market growth. These changes include a decline in the merchant role of many of the major interstate pipelines, resulting in a larger number of smaller-sized purchasers for natural gas marketers to deal with; a greater extent of direct purchasing by local distribution companies and large industrial users, combined with a preference for spot sales rather than long-term commitments; direct marketing of uncontracted gas by many producers and brokers; a bidding type of sales process rather than a negotiated process; and price deregulation. It is foreseen that long term security of supply will again become an important factor to North American buyers, and Canada can offer substantial supplies under secure long term contracts. Marketers will have to seek new market targets such as cogeneration plants and the transportation sector. Access to pipeline transport will be one of the major factors in obtaining new markets. The Canada-USA free trade agreement is viewed as a positive development which should help Canadian gas marketers to gain and retain U.S. customers

  2. Canada's forest biomass resources: deriving estimates from Canada's forest inventory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A biomass inventory for Canada was undertaken to address the data needs of carbon budget modelers, specifically to provide estimates of above-ground tree components and of non-merchantable trees in Canadian forests. The objective was to produce a national method for converting volume estimates to biomass that was standardized, repeatable across the country, efficient and well documented. Different conversion methods were used for low productivity forests (productivity class 1) and higher productivity forests (productivity class 2). The conversion factors were computed by constructing hypothetical stands for each site, age, species and province combination, and estimating the merchantable volume and all the above-ground biomass components from suitable published equations. This report documents the procedures for deriving the national biomass inventory, and provides illustrative examples of the results. 46 refs., 9 tabs., 5 figs

  3. Professor: Lær af Canada

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greve, Carsten

    2013-01-01

    Transportdebatten: En mulig finansiering af fremtidige infrastrukturprojekter kunne være OPP. Danmark bør tage ved lære af erfaringer fra Canada.......Transportdebatten: En mulig finansiering af fremtidige infrastrukturprojekter kunne være OPP. Danmark bør tage ved lære af erfaringer fra Canada....

  4. Canada Experientially: Every Trail Has a Story.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Bob

    The discovery of Canada means rolling out a new map, giving meaning to the land and its heritage. Experientially discovering Canada is at the heart of teaching and learning. It is necessary to balance experiential exploration with classroom and library exploration. In order to achieve this, the student must be a traveler. Programs that attempt to…

  5. AECL: 60 years of contributing to Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper traces the history of the Atomic Energy of Canada Limited. For 60 years AECL has contributed world class science and technology to Canada, while assisting Government on policy issues, enabling business innovation and technology transfer, and generating highly qualified workforce for Canadian industry.

  6. Open Educational Resources in Canada 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGreal, Rory; Anderson, Terry; Conrad, Dianne

    2015-01-01

    Canada's important areas of expertise in open educational resources (OER) are beginning to be built upon or replicated more broadly in all education and training sectors. This paper provides an overview of the state of the art in OER initiatives and open higher education in general in Canada, providing insights into what is happening nationally…

  7. Oil price uncertainty in Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elder, John [Department of Finance and Real Estate, 1272 Campus Delivery, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523 (United States); Serletis, Apostolos [Department of Economics, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta (Canada)

    2009-11-15

    Bernanke [Bernanke, Ben S. Irreversibility, uncertainty, and cyclical investment. Quarterly Journal of Economics 98 (1983), 85-106.] shows how uncertainty about energy prices may induce optimizing firms to postpone investment decisions, thereby leading to a decline in aggregate output. Elder and Serletis [Elder, John and Serletis, Apostolos. Oil price uncertainty.] find empirical evidence that uncertainty about oil prices has tended to depress investment in the United States. In this paper we assess the robustness of these results by investigating the effects of oil price uncertainty in Canada. Our results are remarkably similar to existing results for the United States, providing additional evidence that uncertainty about oil prices may provide another explanation for why the sharp oil price declines of 1985 failed to produce rapid output growth. Impulse-response analysis suggests that uncertainty about oil prices may tend to reinforce the negative response of output to positive oil shocks. (author)

  8. 1999 Western Canada activity forecast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oil and gas drilling activity for the final quarter of 1998 and the first quarter of 1999 for 12 specific geographical areas in Western Canada is reviewed. Each area represents wells of common drilling, production and depth characteristics. Current operator activity and trends are incorporated into an estimate of well counts for 1999. Average drilling costs for each area are also calculated. Drilling of about 8920 wells is projected for 1999. The anticipated drilling and completion expenditures will be about $3.2 (Cdn) billion. While horizontal drilling activity appears to have decreased slightly in 1998, an increase to over 1200 horizontal and directionally drilled wells is projected for 1999. A list of the major operators in each geographical area is also provided. 8 tabs., 3 figs

  9. Oil price uncertainty in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernanke [Bernanke, Ben S. Irreversibility, uncertainty, and cyclical investment. Quarterly Journal of Economics 98 (1983), 85-106.] shows how uncertainty about energy prices may induce optimizing firms to postpone investment decisions, thereby leading to a decline in aggregate output. Elder and Serletis [Elder, John and Serletis, Apostolos. Oil price uncertainty.] find empirical evidence that uncertainty about oil prices has tended to depress investment in the United States. In this paper we assess the robustness of these results by investigating the effects of oil price uncertainty in Canada. Our results are remarkably similar to existing results for the United States, providing additional evidence that uncertainty about oil prices may provide another explanation for why the sharp oil price declines of 1985 failed to produce rapid output growth. Impulse-response analysis suggests that uncertainty about oil prices may tend to reinforce the negative response of output to positive oil shocks. (author)

  10. Environmental radioactivity in Canada 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiological surveillance program of the Department of National Health and Welfare is conducted for the purpose of determining levels of environmental radioactivity in Canada and assessing the resulting population exposures. Following major changes to the CAMECO Port Hope operations to reduce uranium emissions, a study was initiated to measure uranium levels in air in the community. Studies continued on lung cancer and domestic exposure to radon, and current levels of cesium-137 in caribou, a major source of food in northern communities. The movement of tritium on the Ottawa and St. Lawrence rivers was studied following an accidental release into the Ottawa River. Monitoring continued of fallout contamination from Chernobyl in imported foods. All measurements recorded during 1988 were below the limits recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection. (14 refs., 14 figs., 15 tabs.)

  11. Beyond design basis in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In response to the Fukushima Daiichi accident, the Canadian Government required: — Ongoing environmental monitoring on Canadian territory from coast to coast. — Deployment of experts to the IAEA. —Issuance of a directive pursuant to the regulatory requirements to all major nuclear facilities to review initial lessons learned. — Re-examination of the safety cases with a focus on: ● External hazards and measures to prevent or mitigate severe accidents; ● Emergency preparedness; ● Implementation of immediate short term and long term measures. At the regulatory level, the CNSC carried out reviews of the safety status of the plants in Canada and abroad. The CNSC site staff carried out focused inspection on seismic, fire, flooding, backup power, hydrogen igniters and passive recombiners, in addition to ongoing inspections against external hazards. The CNSC conducted inspections of spent fuel bays, their components and equipment, heat sinks and alarms, as well as the availability of on-site and off-site resources

  12. The regulation of radioactive waste management in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioactive waste management facilities are subject to the Atomic Energy Control Regulations under jurisdiction of the Atomic Energy Control Board. Before such a facility can be constructed and permitted to operate, the applicant must obtain from the AECB in turn, site approval, a construction approval, and an operating licence, different considerations (e.g. geological, security) being given priority at each stage. Operating licences are normally valid for one year only, their renewal being dependent on observance, by the applicant, of the procedures and conditions laid down by the Board. Licensing document No.23 offers guidance on the requirements involved both generally and in relation to specific methods of waste storage and disposal. A copy of this document is attached to the present paper. (NEA)

  13. The Canadian public's awareness and perception of the Atomic Energy Control Board. V. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The primary objective of the research is to measure how the Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB) stands with the Canadian public. The research examines the existing level of awareness and knowledge about the AECB and the image that people have about the Board. Another issue addressed in the research is the level of confusion within the public between the AECB and Atomic Energy of Canada Limited. The data in this report can also be used as a benchmark against which improvements can be measured from the AECB's communications programs and activities undertaken in the future

  14. Canada's nuclear non-proliferation policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canada's non-proliferation and safeguards policy has two objectives: 1) to promote the emergence of a more effective and comprehensive international non-proliferation regime; and 2) to assure the Canadian people and the international community that Canadian nuclear exports will not be used for any nuclear explosive purpose. By emphasizing the key role of the NPT, by promoting reliance upon and improvements in the IAEA safeguards system, by treating nuclear weapon and non-nuclear weapon states alike regarding Canadian nuclear exports, by working for new approaches covering the sensitive phases (e.g. reprocessing) of the nuclear fuel cycle, Canada's policy promotes attainment of the first objective. The latter objective is served through the network of bilateral nuclear agreements that Canada has put into place with its nuclear partners. Those agreements provide assurance that Canada's nuclear exports are used solely for legitimate, peaceful, nuclear energy production purposes. At the same time, Canada, having formulated its non-proliferation and safeguards policy during the period 1945 to 1980, has recognized that it has gone as far as it can on its own in this field and that from this point on any further changes should be made on the basis of international agreement. The Canadian objective in post-INFCE forums such as the Committee on Assurances of Supply is to exert Canada's best efforts to persuade the international community to devise a more effective and comprehensive international non-proliferation regime into which Canada and other suppliers might subsume their national requirements

  15. Uranium in Canada: Billion-dollar industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1988, Canada maintained its position as the world's leading producer and exporter of uranium; five primary uranium producers reported concentrate output containing 12,400 MT of uranium, or about one-third of Western production. Uranium shipments made by these producers in 1988 exceeded 13,200 MT, worth Canadian $1.1 billion. Because domestic requirements represent only 15% of current Canadian output, most of Canada's uranium production is available for export. Despite continued market uncertainty in 1988, Canada's uranium producers signed new sales contracts for some 14,000 MT, twice the 1987 level. About 90% of this new volume is with the US, now Canada's major uranium customer. The recent implementation of the Canada/US Free Trade agreement brings benefits to both countries; the uranium industries in each can now develop in an orderly, free market. Canada's uranium industry was restructured and consolidated in 1988 through merger and acquisition; three new uranium projects advanced significantly. Canada's new policy on nonresident ownership in the uranium mining sector, designed to encourage both Canadian and foreign investment, should greatly improve efforts to finance the development of recent Canadian uranium discoveries

  16. Taxi and limousine industry in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taxi and limousine service plays an important role in the movement of people within a city. In 2004, the total revenue in this industry in Canada was $1.305 billion, and an estimated 35,339 carriers served the industry. In Canada, economic and safety regulations of taxi supply were imposed in most cities during the 1930s and 1940s and continue to this date. Although the industry is regulated, the competition law also applies. The appropriateness of these regulations continues to be challenged and regulatory reforms in the major cities in Canada have concentrated their efforts on increasing the rate of services, improving the quality of vehicles and enhancing the training of taxi drivers. Indicators for the 1999-2004 period reveal that the taxi and limousine industry in Canada did not perform very well. Revenue increased by only 1.7 per cent per year and margins deteriorated by -1.78 per cent together with the operating ratio. The purpose of this paper was to examine the taxi and limousine industry in Canada. First, the structure of the industry in Canada was examined followed by a review of the economic regulation of the industry. Recent regulatory developments in Canada and in other countries were then reviewed with arguments for or against deregulation. 28 refs., 2 tabs

  17. Petro-Canada 1997 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petro-Canada is a dominant player in the petroleum industry in Western Canada as well as on the Grand Banks offshore Newfoundland. This report presents a review of operations, provides detailed statements of the corporation's finances, and a wealth of information of interest to shareholders. The report states that in 1997 Petro-Canada achieved record financial results, following a dramatic turnaround over the past five years. Net earnings for 1997 were $306 million, a $59 million increase over 1996. The company's share price appreciated 34 per cent in 1997 and was one of the most heavily traded stocks in Canada. The company plans to maximize shareholder value by reducing its interests in conventional oil from mature fields in western Canada and by re-investing the proceeds in natural gas development. Petro-Canada is also committed to an expansion that will double production at the Syncrude oil sands plant over the next decade and has tested large in-situ oil sands resources for potential development in northeastern Alberta. On the Atlantic coast too, Petro-Canada is delivering leadership with increasing production from Hibernia, and final approvals in place to proceed with development of the Terra Nova field. International operations are also contributing to the Corporation's profitability by delivering new production from oil fields offshore Norway and from the Sahara Desert in North Africa. tabs., figs

  18. Leveraging Canada's nuclear infrastructure for medical innovation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses the role that Canada plays in nuclear medicine worldwide. Canada supplies over 75% of the world's Cobalt-60 which sterilizes 45% of all single-use medical supplies in the world. Cobalt-60 teletherapy delivers 45000 cancer treatments daily. It is used in non-destructive testing. Canada also supplies over 50% of the world's medical isotopes. NRU reactor-produced isotopes include Molybdenum 99, iodine 131, Iodine 125, Xenon 133 and Cobalt 60. MDS Nordion maintains a strategic supply agreement with AECL

  19. Electricity - a great asset for Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canada has a great national asset in its ability to generate electricity economically from its abundant hydro, coal, and uranium resources. Its nuclear industry has an excellent product. Despite lack of orders for now, the CANDU will be a competitive force when the reactor market recovers. Canada has a proven record of reliability for electricity trade with the United States. There appear to be some opportunities for plants in Canada dedicated to the export of electric power. The federal government is prepared to work closely with the provinces to develop projects which will be attractive to customers in the United States

  20. Operational expert system applications in Canada

    CERN Document Server

    Suen, Ching Y

    1992-01-01

    This book is part of a new series on operational expert systems worldwide. Expert systems are now widely used in different parts of the world for various applications. The past four years have witnessed a steady growth in the development and deployment of expert systems in Canada. Research in this field has also gained considerable momentum during the past few years. However, the field of expert systems is still young in Canada. This book contains 13 chapters contributed by 31 experts from both universities and industries across Canada covering a wide range of applications related to electric

  1. Bailarinas Exoticas, Striptease e Inmigracion en Canada.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria Patricia Diaz Barrero.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is the product of exploratory field research conducted in Toronto, Canada. It consists of in-depth interviews of Latin American women from diverse countries who obtained temporary work visas as exotic dancers. The objective of the study is to determine the ways in which women are recruited in their countries of origin, transported to Canada and what happens to them upon arrival. The author proposes that the conditions inherent to migration, more than women's legal status, determines their emotional, economic and legal well-being. However, upon obtaining legal residency in Canada, abuse committed by employers and state agents is significantly reduced.

  2. Nuclear fuel waste disposal in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) has developed a concept for disposing of Canada's nuclear fuel waste and is submitting it for review under the Federal Environmental Assessment and Review Process. During this review, AECL intends to show that careful, controlled burial 500 to 1000 metres deep in plutonic rock of the Canadian Precambrian Shield is a safe and feasible way to dispose of Canada's nuclear fuel waste. The concept has been assessed without identifying or evaluating any particular site for disposal. AECL is now preparing a comprehensive report based on more than 10 years of research and development

  3. [Colorectal carcinoma in Cronkhite-Canada syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zügel, N P; Hehl, J A; Jechart, G; Tannapfel, A; Wienbeck, M; Witte, J

    2001-05-01

    We report a 63-year-old lady with Cronkhite-Canada syndrome, who developed colorectal cancer. A hemicolectomy was performed, and the tumor specimen was prepared for DNA-analysis and immunohistochemical screening. We found a mutation of p53 gene without APC- and ras-gene alteration and expression of erbB2-protooncogen. The polyps in non-hereditary Cronkhite-Canada-syndrom are neither adenomatous nor hyperplastic, but patients often develop colorectal cancers. The steps of mutation do not follow the adenoma-carcinoma sequence, first described by Vogelstein 1988. This and previous observations suggest that carcinogenesis in Cronkhite-Canada syndrome follows another independent sequence. PMID:11413916

  4. Cost Effectiveness of Infant Vaccination for Rotavirus in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doug Coyle

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Rotavirus is the main cause of gastroenteritis in Canadian children younger than five years of age, resulting in significant morbidity and cost. The present study provides evidence on the cost effectiveness of two alternative rotavirus vaccinations (RotaTeq [Merck Frosst Canada Ltd, Canada] and Rotarix [GlaxoSmithKline, Canada] available in Canada.

  5. Canada Education Savings Program: Annual Statistical Review 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human Resources and Skills Development Canada, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The Canada Education Savings Program has been an initiative of the Government of Canada since 1998. As part of the Department of Human Resources and Skills Development, the program administers the Canada Education Savings Grant and the Canada Learning Bond. These two initiatives help Canadian families save for a child's post-secondary education in…

  6. 9 CFR 93.317 - Horses from Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Horses from Canada. 93.317 Section 93... CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses Canada 16 § 93.317 Horses from Canada. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (c) of this section, horses from Canada shall be inspected as provided in § 93.306; shall...

  7. Canada Education Savings Program: Annual Statistical Review--2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human Resources and Skills Development Canada, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The Canada Education Savings Program is an initiative of the Government of Canada. As part of the Department of Human Resources and Skills Development, the program administers the Canada Education Savings Grant and the Canada Learning Bond. These two initiatives help Canadian families save for a child's post-secondary education in Registered…

  8. 1982 Aleutian Canada goose nesting survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Investigation of the endangered Aleutian Canada goose (Branta canadensis leucopareia) was conducted from 1974 to 1976, again in 1977 and in 1979 on Buldir. During...

  9. Gulf Canada Resources Limited 1998 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review of operations in 1998 and financial information from Gulf Canada Resources Limited is provided to keep shareholders abreast of company performance. Gulf Canada Resources Limited explores for, develops, produces and markets conventional and synthetic crude oil, natural gas and natural gas liquids. In 1998, the company's main operating centres were in western Canada (where it owns a nine per cent interest in the Syncrude Joint Venture), Indonesia, the North Sea and Australia. The report summarizes the company's energy resource activities, presents a detailed review of operations, and provides consolidated financial statements, and common share information. Although Gulf Canada Resources sold $ 1.2 billion worth of non-producing assets during the year, year end proved reserves of 838 million barrels of oil equivalent were less than ten per cent lower than a year earlier, reflecting reserve additions of 100 million barrels of oil equivalent. tabs., figs

  10. Mineral Operations of Latin America and Canada

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set consists of records for over 900 mineral facilities in Latin America and Canada. The mineral facilities include mines, plants, smelters, or refineries...

  11. Canada's nuclear non-proliferation policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canada's non-proliferation safeguards policy has two objectives: 1) to promote a more effective and comprehensive international non-proliferation regime; and 2) to ensure that Canadian nuclear exports will not be used for any nuclear explosive purpose. By emphasizing the key role of the Non-Proliferation Treaty, promoting reliance upon and improvements in the IAEA safeguards system, treating nuclear weapon and non-weapon states alike, and working for new approaches covering reprocessing, Canada promotes attainment of the first objective. The second is served through the network of bilateral nuclear agreements that Canada has put into place with its partners. The Canadian objective in post-INFCE forums is to persuade the international community to devise a more effective and comprehensive non-proliferation regime into which Canada and other suppliers may subsume their national requirements

  12. Emerging Churches in Post-Christian Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Beach

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The traditional mainline and evangelical churches in Canada, as in most western countries, are either in decline or static. Taken as a measure of the future, the prospects for Christianity in Canada, and more broadly the West, are bleak. Post-Christian Canada, however, contains thriving alternative and innovative forms of church, often called ‘emerging’ churches. They take many forms of expression, but share common theological convictions. Based on site research and personal interviews, this article describes the various types and contexts of these churches in Canada. It then highlights three of their central theological characteristics. First, rejecting the ‘culture wars’ social involvement of Christendom churches, they embrace practices and initiatives that transform their local communities. Second, they embrace an incarnational and contextual understanding of Christian life and ministry. Eschewing mega-church franchise models, they endeavor to shape their ministry to the their local communities. Third, they adopt a comprehensive rather than compartmental spirituality.

  13. Cackling Canada goose nesting populations, Yukon Delta

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Number of potential territories, number of cackling Canada Goose nests, and percent occupancy of available territories from CCG plots on the Yukon Delta National...

  14. Canada's constitutional separation of (wind) power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper investigates the impact that a federal government structure has on strategic selection of renewable energy policy instruments. The context for this study centers on wind power development in Canada. Canada is a nation that is blessed by all the attributes necessary to catalyze global leadership in installed wind power capacity. Unfortunately, the constitutional separation of powers that underpins Canada's federal system impedes the creation of a national wind power development strategy because Canada's provinces have constitutional authority over electricity governance. The insights gleaned from the case study are used to develop a conceptual framework for understanding the impact that federal structure has on policy instrument selection and efficacy under areas of federal, regional and concurrent policy jurisdiction. Finally, this framework is re-applied to identify specific approaches the Canadian federal government could take to resolve what currently amounts to be a fragmented, ineffective approach to wind power development planning.

  15. Symbolism and Militarism of Canada's North

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Williams, Mark; Burke, Danita Catherine

    2015-01-01

    Canada is often characterised as a mosaic for world cultures while contending with the difficulty of defining its national identity. Canada’s confederation in 1867 was influenced by the fear that then-British North America was at risk from the United States’ internal conflicting forces. This sense...... component of Canada’s domestic politics. Understanding the relationship dynamics of the Canadian Armed Forces, the Government of Canada and the idea of the North in Canada has broader implications for states wishing to cooperate or negotiate with Canada on matters pertaining to Canada’s Northern region....... of vulnerability bred the desire to strengthen the position of the British North American colonies while avoiding the violent internal conflicts which plagued its southern neighbour. In the decades since its formation, Canadian political parties have learnt that national campaigns, not regional or...

  16. Climate change plan for Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document updates Natsource's previous briefing on the October 24 Climate change draft plan' outlining significant changes and modifications incorporated in the November 21, 2002 version of the Climate change plan for Canada' as tabled in the House of Commons by the Minister of the Environment. The changes in the new version of the Plan are the result of continued consultations with industry and the provinces. The revised Plan addresses nine of the 12 concerns expressed by the provinces. Key changes include: (1) establishment of sectoral emissions reduction targets through negotiated covenants with a regulatory or financial backstop; (2) guaranteeing a limit of 55 Megatonnes reductions for covered sectors under the covenants and trading system; (3) introducing flexibility in timing by signaling willingness on the part of the Government to discuss acceptance of commitments over a longer term; (4) promising to work with industry on options for providing protection against risks associated with sustained carbon prices above certain levels; (5) designing implementation system in such a way as to not disadvantage those companies that have taken early action in emission reductions; (6) building in contingencies, assessing progress and adjusting the Federal approach and level of investment; (7) remaining engaged in joint efforts with the United States to minimize impacts on Canadian competitiveness. The Federal Government also recognizes the need for further research in addressing climate model uncertainties, in providing regional-scale climate change information, in future evolution of the climate in the Arctic, and in determining the record of past climate variability and extremes

  17. Gulf Canada's Russian joint venture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After three years of evaluating prospects and negotiating with government and industry representatives, Gulf Canada established its first joint venture in the Russian Federation with Komineft, a production association from the Komi autonomous republic. Komineft has a 50% share of the venture, and the rest is shared equally between Gulf and British Gas. The operating area is at the Vozey and Upper Vozey fields in the Timan-Pechora Basin, some 1,500 km northeast of Moscow just inside the Arctic Circle. An attractive feature of the Upper Vozey project is low development costs of ca $2/bbl. In the Vozey field, the venture will set up an enhanced oil recovery demonstration project to test techniques perfected in Alberta. About 60 Canadians are involved on the project, and headquarters are in Usinsk, ca 100 km south of the oil fields. In the first half of 1992, oil production in the first phase of the venture averaged around 10,000 bbl/d and continues to increase

  18. Understanding gasoline pricing in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This brochure is designed to help consumers understand how gasoline is priced and explained why prices increase, fluctuate and vary by location, city or region. The price of a litre of gasoline reflects the costs of crude oil, refining, retailing and taxes. Taxes are usually the largest single component of gasoline prices, averaging 40 to 50 per cent of the pump price. The cost of crude oil makes up another 35 to 45 per cent of the price. Refining costs make up 10 to 15 per cent while the remaining 5 to 10 per cent represents retail costs. Gasoline retailers make a profit of about 1 cent per litre. The latest network technology allows national and regional retail chains to constantly monitor price fluctuations to change their prices at gasoline stations at a moments notice to keep up with the competition and to protect their market shares. Several government studies, plus the Conference Board of Canada, have reported that competition is working in favour of Canadian motorists. This brochure also explained the drawbacks of regulating crude and pump prices with the reminder that crude prices were regulated in the 1970s with many negative consequences. 2 tabs., 1 fig

  19. NDT in Canada - the next 20 years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The theme for the Fifth Canadian Conference on Nondestructive Testing was 'NDT in Canada - The Next 20 years'. The three day conference with 42 presentations provided a short overview of NDT in Canada, a look at NDT in pipeline, materials, offshore, nuclear and training applications, and a glimpse into the next 20 years with recent advances in research and development as related to this 'hi-tech' field of work

  20. Estimating the prevalence of infertility in Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Bushnik, Tracey; Cook, Jocelynn L.; Yuzpe, A. Albert; Tough, Suzanne; Collins, John

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Over the past 10 years, there has been a significant increase in the use of assisted reproductive technologies in Canada, however, little is known about the overall prevalence of infertility in the population. The purpose of the present study was to estimate the prevalence of current infertility in Canada according to three definitions of the risk of conception. METHODS Data from the infertility component of the 2009–2010 Canadian Community Health Survey were analyzed for married a...

  1. Occupational radiation exposures in Canada - 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is the seventeenth in a series of annual reports on Occupational Radiation Exposures in Canada. The information is derived from the National Dose Registry of the Radiation Protection Bureau, Health Canada. As in the past, this report presents the following data by occupation: average yearly whole body doses by region, dose distributions, and variations of the average doses with time. (author). 17 refs., 4 tabs., 3 figs

  2. Canada 2030: An Agenda for Sustainable Development

    OpenAIRE

    Shannon Kindornay; Centre for the Study of Living Standards

    2015-01-01

    As the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) reach their end date in 2015, negotiations are ramping up at the United Nations for the establishment of a new set of Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). The SDGs, to be announced in September this year, will replace the MDGs and serve as a universal framework for achieving sustainable development outcomes in all countries by 2030, including Canada. This report takes an in-depth look at what the SDGs could mean for Canada, providing a concise overv...

  3. Visible minorities` educational choices in Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Bolbocean, Corneliu

    2009-01-01

    Paper investigates educational choices of visible minorities in Canada, educational attainment and choices over fields of study. Using 2001 Canada Census data and multinomial logistic regression, research finds that choices over level of education and field of study significantly differ among visible minorities. The choices of visible minorities’ males and females differentiate substantially; insights into visible minorities` culture and role of education might explain those differences. Math...

  4. Canada's upstream petroleum industry - 1996 perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An overview of the activities and business prospects of the Canadian petroleum and natural gas industry for 1996 was provided. Canada's hydrocarbon resource base, reserve potential, crude oil and natural gas markets, pipeline transportation system, business and investment climate, deregulation and environmental health and safety concerns were summarized. A profile of the Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers, the principal industry organization representing upstream producers in Canada, was also provided

  5. Increasing turbine vendor competition in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An overview of the wind turbine market in Canada was presented. Canada is now experiencing increased turbine vendor competition. Trends in wind turbine OEM market shares in Canada have increased from 10 per cent in 2000 to over 70 per cent in 2007. Several major companies in Canada have signed large-scale orders for delivery in 2010. It is expected that future wind turbine demands in all areas of Canada will increase. However, projections for Canadian wind growth demonstrate the difficulties provinces are now facing in trying to attract manufacturing investment away from the United States. Growth in wind turbine investment is in the process of creating a more robust North American wind turbine generator chain. However, the majority of new facilities are located in the United States. It is not known if Quebec's wind turbine generators will be viable outside of fulfilling Hydro-Quebec's tendering process. Canada's wind industry must consider equipment transport costs as well as a shortage of operating and maintenance service infrastructure. It was concluded that growth in the United States is expected to have a positive impact on Canadian wind energy customers. tabs., figs

  6. Federal Support of Universities and Colleges of Canada. Financing Higher Education in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waines, W. J.

    The purpose of this report is to help the people and governments of Canada face the financial problems of university development over the next decade. The report deals with: (1) enrollment projections of Canada's universities and colleges; (2) projection of operating expenditures; (3) projection of capital expenditures; (4) estimated total…

  7. Opportunities in Canada's growing wind energy industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Investment in Canada's wind sector is projected to reach $8 billion by 2012, and growth of the sector is expected to create over 16,000 jobs. Canada's wind energy capacity grew by 54 per cent in 2005 alone, aided in part by supportive national policies and programs such as the Wind Power Production Incentive (WPPI); the Canadian Renewable Conservation Expense (CRCE) and Class 43.1 Capital Cost Allowance; and support for research and development. Major long-term commitments for clean power purchases, standard offer contracts and renewable portfolio standards in several provinces are encouraging further development of the wind energy sector. This paper argued that the development of a robust Canadian wind turbine manufacturing industry will enhance economic development, create opportunities for export; and mitigate the effects of international wind turbine supply shortages. However, it is not known whether Canadian wind turbine firms are positioned to capitalize on the sector's recent growth. While Canada imports nearly all its large wind turbine generators and components, the country has technology and manufacturing strengths in advanced power electronics and small wind systems, as well as in wind resource mapping. Wind-diesel and wind-hydrogen systems are being developed in Canada, and many of the hybrid systems will offer significant opportunities for remote communities and off-grid applications. Company partnerships for technology transfer, licensing and joint ventures will accelerate Canada's progress. A recent survey conducted by Industry Canada and the Canadian Wind Energy Association (CanWEA) indicated that the total impact of wind energy related expenditures on economic output is nearly $1.38 billion for the entire sector. Annual payroll for jobs in Canada was estimated at $50 million, and substantial employment growth in the next 5 years is expected. Canada offers a strong industrial supply base capable of manufacturing wind turbine generators and

  8. Annual report, 1987-88

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is the forty-first annual report of the Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB). The period covered by this report is the year ending March 31, 1988. The AECB controls the development, application and use of nuclear energy in Canada, and participates on behalf of Canada in international measures of control of nuclear energy. The AECB was established in 1946, by the Atomic Energy Control Act. It is a departmental corporation within the meaning and purpose of the Financial Administration Act. The AECB also is responsible for the administration of the Nuclear Liability Act, including the designation of nuclear installations and the prescription of basic insurance to be carried by the operators of such nuclear installations. The AECB reports to Parliament through designated Minister, currently the Minister of Energy, Mines and Resources

  9. Canada vs. the OECD: an environmental comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canada's environmental performance is compared to the 28 other nations in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). Twenty-five environmental indicators in ten categories are examined. These are: air, water, energy, biodiversity, waste, climate change, ozone depletion, agriculture, transportation and miscellaneous. Results show Canada with the poorest environmental record of all OECD countries, except the United States. The statistical information, compiled from data verified and published by the OECD, shows Canada among the worst three countries on nine indicators (per capita GHG emissions, CO and VOCs emissions, water consumption, energy consumption, energy efficiency, volume of timber logged, generation of nuclear waste, and the highest amount of energy consumed per unit of GDP). Tracking Canada's energy performance over the past two decades reveals that the situation is worsening in terms of water and energy consumption, production of nuclear and hazardous waste, greenhouse gas emissions, the number of endangered species, decline of fish populations, commercial fertilizer use, timber logging, number of motor vehicles, kilometres travelled by road, higher population and lower official development assistance (foreign aid). On the positive side, Canada's environmental performance was found to be poor but improving on ten indicators, including reduced air pollution, improved sewage treatment, reduced municipal waste, increased recycling, improved energy efficiency, decreased production of ozone-depleting substances and an increase in parks and protected areas

  10. Hot air : meeting Canada's climate change challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a large northern country, Canada will change significantly as a result of climate change. Global warming is expected to cause diminutions of snow and ice changes in the Arctic, as well as changes to glaciers, and the mountain snowpacks that feed rivers, and provide sources of fresh water. This book argued that the effects of global warming have been apparent in Canada for many years. Water levels in lakes and rivers have been falling, and a thawing permafrost has led to difficulties in building and maintaining winter roads in the far north. Disturbances such as the mountain pine beetle (MPB) infestation in British Columbia have also been attributed to global warming, the beetles are only killed by cold weather. The book also considered Canada's current climate change policies, and discussed attempts to arrive at meaningful and effective strategies. 30 refs

  11. Report on external occupational dosimetry in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In light of the new recommendations of the ICRP in Report 60 on dose quantities and dose limits, this working group was set up to examine the implications for external dosimetry in Canada. The operational quantities proposed by the ICRU are discussed in detail with regard to their applicability in Canada. The current occupational dosimetry services available in Canada are described as well as the several performance intercomparisons that have been carried out within the country as well as internationally. Recommendations are given with respect to standards for dosimetry, including accuracy and precision. More practical advice is given on the choice of dosimeter to use for external dosimetry, frequency of monitoring, and who should be monitored. Specific advice is given on the monitoring of pregnant workers and problem of non-uniform irradiation. Accident and emergency dosimetry are dealt with briefly. Suggestions are given regarding record keeping both for employers and for the national dose registry. 48 refs., 6 tabs., 1 fig

  12. Primary health care nurse practitioners in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiCenso, Alba; Auffrey, Lucille; Bryant-Lukosius, Denise; Donald, Faith; Martin-Misener, Ruth; Matthews, Sue; Opsteen, Joanne

    2007-08-01

    Canada, like many countries, is in the midst of primary health care reform. A key priority is to improve access to primary health care, especially in remote communities and areas with physician shortages. As a result, there is an increased emphasis on the integration of primary health care nurse practitioners. As of March 2006, legislation exists in all provinces and two territories in Canada that allows nurse practitioners (NPs) to implement their expanded nursing role. In this paper, we will briefly review the historical development of the NP role in Canada and situate it in the international context; describe the NP role, supply of NPs in the country, and the settings in which they work; propose an NP practice model framework; summarize facilitators and barriers to NP role implementation in primary health care delivery; and outline strategies to address the barriers. PMID:18041990

  13. Restructuring of Canada's nuclear utilities: recent developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Business decisions relating to the electric power sector are a provincial responsibility in Canada. The federal government looks to the three nuclear utilities to manage their nuclear assets and maintain them in a way that maximizes their reliability, efficiency and overall performance. A significant development in Canada's nuclear sector in the past year was the Ontario Hydro Nuclear Asset Optimization Plan. Structural change in the North American electricity market is a major impetus for decisions regarding nuclear assets by Canada's electric power utilities. The Ontario government is now taking steps to introduce competition in the Ontario Electricity market. The province of New Brunswick, which has one reactor at Point Lepreau which supplies one-third of the province's electricity, is also taking measures to introduce competition in its electricity market. (author)

  14. The Hybridisation of Higher Education in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas Shale

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Canada's postsecondary institutions are becoming increasingly involved with technology enhanced learning, generally under the rubric of distance education. Growth and activity in distance education stems from rapid developments in communication and information technologies such as videoconferencing and the Internet. This case study focuses on the use of new technologies, primarily within the context of higher education institutions operating in Canada's English speaking provinces. Capitalising on the interactive capabilities of "new" learning technologies, some distance education providers are starting to behave more like conventional educational institutions in terms of forming study groups and student cohorts. Conversely, new telecommunications technologies are having a reverse impact on traditional classroom settings, and as a result conventional universities are beginning to establish administrative structures reflective of those used by distance education providers. When viewed in tandem, these trends reflect growing convergence between conventional and distance learning modes, leading to the hybridisation of higher education in Canada.

  15. Action plan for electric mobility in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electric mobility is an important emerging industry in Canada, where there is significant expertise in electric and hybrid vehicles, batteries, hybrid technologies, grid-connected technologies and fuel cell vehicles. This paper presented a case for the formation of Electric Mobility Canada, a proposed network of private companies and public sector agencies that aims to stimulate industry and provide support to government agencies involved with meeting Canada's obligations under the Kyoto Protocol, as well as in new industry sectors. The environmental, health, economic and industrial benefits of electric mobility were outlined. Current programs for electric mobility were reviewed, and details of financial incentives and initiatives were presented. An overview of electric mobility programs in the United States and Europe was provided. Research and development needs were evaluated. The former Electric Vehicle Association of Canada was discussed. An organizational structure for the proposed network was presented, along with a mission statement and outline of future goals. Recommendations for the future of the network included identifying short and long-term market opportunities for electric mobility technologies for all surface transport modes in Canada; determining research and development needs and appropriate funding and investment opportunities; determining other actions necessary to allow the electric mobility industry to play a growing role in meeting Canada's transport needs; and raising public awareness of the importance of electric mobility trends. It was concluded that the federal government should be approached for start-up funds for the network, which will be followed by further investment from provincial and business interests once the network is in place and functioning. 84 refs

  16. The nuclear ingredient in Canada's industrialization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The energy scene in Canada has been confused by a changing industrial and economic pattern, a proliferation of energy options, a conflict of energy priorities, and possibly a media and anti-nuclear inspired perception that electricity is expensive and not a good substitute for oil. In spite of an economic down-turn, in 1982-83 five new CANDU reactors with a combined capacity of 3000 MW were completed in Canada. Opportunities exist for increased use of electricity both in households and in industry. The benefits of nuclear power have extended beyond a reliable and economic energy supply to research advances, job creation, and the overall industrial development of the country

  17. Shell Canada Limited 1996 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shell Canada Resources Limited is one of Canada's largest producers of crude oil, natural gas, natural gas liquids, sulphur and bitumen. This annual report for 1996 presented a summary review of operations and a summary of the Company's audited consolidated financial statements. Overall, the resources business delivered exceptional results in 1996. The oil products and chemicals businesses did not perform as well as expected. This less than satisfactory performance of the oil products and chemicals divisions of the the Company is reflected in the financial returns which, after excluding revenues from asset sales, left operating earnings $ 59 million below those of 1996. tabs., figs

  18. Canada's green plan - The second year. Summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canada's Green Plan is the national strategy and action plan for sustainable development launched by the federal government. The Green Plan's goal is 'to secure for current and future generations a safe and healthy environment and a sound and prosperous economy.' It represents a fundamental shift in the way the federal government views economic development and environmental protection: they are inextricably linked; both are critical to the health and well-being of Canadians. Substantial development has been made in Canada, with advances being made on the Green Plan's short-term objectives and on our longer term priorities

  19. Suicide among immigrant psychiatric patients in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrasena, R; Beddage, V; Fernando, M L

    1991-11-01

    Ninety-four Canadian-born psychiatric patients who committed suicide were compared with 23 foreign-born patients committing suicide in Canada. East Europeans were over-represented, and significant differences were found in the age distribution, stress, level of education, social isolation, and methods of suicide. Most foreign-born patients had come to Canada for family or economic reasons but were unemployed, with poor social integration. Employment, housing, education, social integration and a support network seem to be important in preventing these deaths. Cultural evaluation of the patient and early intervention is recommended. PMID:1756350

  20. Is Canada's sex ratio in decline?

    OpenAIRE

    Dodds, L; Armson, B A

    1997-01-01

    In this issue (see pages 37 to 41) Dr. Bruce B. Allan and associates report a small but statistically significant decrease--of about 0.2%--in the proportion of male live births in Canada over the period 1970-90. In this editorial, factors that have been reported in the literature to influence sex ratio are examined within a Canadian context. The authors suggest that although the reasons for the apparent decline in the sex ratio in Canada are unclear, the increasing use of ovulation induction ...

  1. Characters of age, sex and sexual maturity in Canada geese

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This paper discusses the characters of age, sex, and sexual maturity in Canada geese. Present findings are based on trap and/or bag samples of Canada geese. Methods...

  2. Canada goose kill statistics: Swan Lake Public Hunting Area

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document discusses how the flexible kill formula for Canada goose hunting at Swan Lake Public Hunting Area was reached. Methods used to collect Canada goose...

  3. Canada and global warming: Meeting the challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canada accounts for ca 2% of total world emissions of greenhouse gases. Carbon dioxide emissions are by far the largest greenhouse gas source in Canada, primarily from energy consumption. On a per capita basis, Canada ranks second among industrialized countries in terms of energy related carbon dioxide emissions. Canada's northern geography and climate, its export-oriented economy with energy-intensive resource industries, and its relatively small population dispersed over a wide land mass contribute to this high per-capita value. The effects of global warming induced by greenhouse gases are outlined, including a reduction in water supplies, droughts affecting agriculture and forestry, and large-scale thawing of permafrost. A national strategy to respond to global warming has been developed which includes limiting and reducing greenhouse gas emissions, preparing for potential climatic changes, and improving scientific understanding and predictive capabilities with respect to climate change. Details of this strategy are outlined, including provincial and territorial strategies in partnership with the national strategy. 11 figs., 2 tabs

  4. Artificial Intelligence in Canada: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Mccalla, Gordon; Cercone, Nick

    1984-01-01

    Canadians have made many contributions to artificial intelligence over the years. This article presents a summary of current research in artificial intelligence in Canada and acquaints readers with the Canadian organization for artificial intelligence -- the Canadian Society for the Computational Studies of Intelligence / Societe Canadienne pour l' Etude de l'Intelligence par Ordinateur (CSCSI/ SCEIO).

  5. Canada,China,Closer in Hard Times

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Liqin

    2008-01-01

    @@ Facing the current global financial storm,more posSible economic and trade cooperation and promotion worldwide is being sought by nations to walk out the hard time.The 2nd Canada China Business Forum held in Beijing,on November 3,is an example to a closer tie of both countries.

  6. Climate change effects on regions of Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the major effects of climatic change being experienced in different parts of Canada, and emphasizes those that they are likely to become so severe that they may disrupt social, ecological and economic systems. The report notes that the driving force behind these impacts is change in temperature, precipitation, and in extreme weather events. The report strongly suggests that greenhouse gas emissions, particularly carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide will likely continue to increase due to human activities such as burning of fossil fuels for heating, cooling and transportation. Loss of tropical forests is also listed as a cause for increased greenhouse gases. In order to reduce greenhouse gas emissions into the atmosphere, Canada must use energy much more efficiently, use more alternative renewable energy source and substitute natural gas for coal and oil whenever possible. It was emphasized that the ratification of the Kyoto Protocol would slow down the rate of increase of the world's greenhouse gas emissions, which in turn affect atmospheric concentrations. The author states that Canada's ratification of the Kyoto Protocol is key to global success, particularly since some countries have backed away from it and some are wavering. The report outlined the following major impacts of climate change in various parts of Canada: sea ice, permafrost, forest fires, transportation, toxic contaminants, storminess, precipitation, water supply, water quality, fisheries, hydropower, agriculture and human adaptation. refs., tabs

  7. Closing Canada's ‘universal’ reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asghar, M.; Rogge, R.

    2015-08-01

    In reply to a post on the physicsworld.com blog about the forthcoming closure of the National Research Universal reactor at Chalk River, Ontario, Canada (“Lament for ‘the reactor that can do everything’”, 16 June, http://ow.ly/On9VN).

  8. Clostridium difficile in Retail Ground Meat, Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Rodriguez-Palacios, Alexander; Staempfli, Henry R.; Duffield, Todd; Weese, J. Scott

    2007-01-01

    Clostridium difficile was isolated from 12 (20%) of 60 retail ground meat samples purchased over a 10-month period in 2005 in Canada. Eleven isolates were toxigenic, and 8 (67%) were classified as toxinotype III. The human health implications of this finding are unclear, but with the virulence of toxinotype III strains further studies are required.

  9. The Core Health Science Library in Canada *

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huntley, June Leath

    1974-01-01

    Core lists in Canada are characterized by regional differences. The lists of current importance are: (1) the British Columbia acquisitions guide for hospital libraries, (2) three Saskatchewan lists for hospitals of different sizes, (3) a core list recommended for Ontario hospitals, (4) Quebec core lists, including French language lists. PMID:4826482

  10. The core health science library in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huntley, J L

    1974-04-01

    Core lists in Canada are characterized by regional differences. The lists of current importance are: (1) the British Columbia acquisitions guide for hospital libraries, (2) three Saskatchewan lists for hospitals of different sizes, (3) a core list recommended for Ontario hospitals, (4) Quebec core lists, including French language lists. PMID:4826482

  11. Recent developments in Canada's climate change program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper surveys Canada's official response to the responsibilities it took on with the Kyoto Protocol. In order to meet Kyoto targets for the timeframe 2008-2012, greenhouse gas emissions need to be reduced by 33 percent below what they currently are. Two billion Canadian dollars have been allocated to this effort. The government of Canada's official stance is that carbon dioxide levels have been rising more rapidly than at any other time in the last half million years. Canada's main efforts in the mining and minerals sector have been to find a replacement for sulphur hexafluoride, reduce emissions of perfluorocarbons, and demonstrate the use of hydrogen as a fuel for underground mining vehicles. According to the author, the most important contribution has been the use of supplementary cementing material such as fly ash, ash, and ground blast furnace slag. These materials have partially replaced cement in concrete. Canada expects to reduce carbon dioxide emissions this way by about 1.5 million tonnes per year. EcoSmart, a non-profit organization, is the main vehicle for this effort. 8 refs., 7 figs

  12. Radiation biology in Canada 1962-63

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A survey of the research projects in radiation biology being carried out in Canada during the fiscal year 1962-63. The report includes the names of the investigators, their location, a brief description of the projects and information on the financial support being provided. A classification of the projects into areas of specific interest is also included. (author)

  13. Petro-Canada annual report, 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petro-Canada is Canada's national energy corporation, formed by an Act of Parliament in 1975. Operations began in January 1976. In 1991, Petro-Canada became a public company, issuing 19.5% of its common shares for net proceeds of $523 million. Heavy losses in the first half of the year were driven by price volatility following the Persian Gulf war. Cash flow return on capital employed was 7.2%, and a net loss of $598 million was posted. The Klua gas field was brought on stream only 30 months after discovery, an important gas discovery was made in British Columbia, and production and sales of natural gas increased. This annual report presents a corporate profile, a statement of corporate responsibility, and the year's activities in production and sales of natural gas, synthetic and natural crude oil and gasoline. Details are also provided of Petro-Canada's financial and operational restructuring in view of the declining revenues being obtained. A financial review from 1986 to the present is included, along with a glossary of financial terms, a financial statement, and a 5-year summary. Reserves information comparing the current to the previous year is given. 11 figs., 12 tabs

  14. TransCanada Corporation 2003 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This annual report presents financial information from TransCanada Corp., along with a review of its operations throughout 2003 and a summary of the how the company performed in terms of providing natural gas transmission and power services in North America. In 2003, TransCanada increased earnings from continuing operations by 7 per cent. It maintained a strong cash flow and continued to strengthen its balance sheet. More than 1.2 billion was invested and dividends were increased by 7 per cent in January 2004, for a total return to shareholders of 27 per cent, including dividends. In 2003, TransCanada also increased its ownership interest in Foothills Pipe Lines Ltd. to 100 per cent from 50 per cent. It secured a position in the Mackenzie Gas Pipeline Project and progressed the development of multiple liquefied natural gas projects in the northeast United States and eastern Canada. The company acquired 31.6 per cent interest in Bruce Power, adding nearly 1,500 megawatts base load generation to its portfolio. Plans are underway for cogeneration plants in Quebec, New Brunswick and Alberta. This report summarized the company's energy resource activities and presented an operations review as well as consolidated financial statements and common share information. This included the utility's assets, liabilities, revenues, expenses and cash flows. Revenue and expenditure statements were summarized by source. tabs., figs

  15. The Western Canada Fuel Cell Initiative (WCFCI)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vision: Western Canada will become an international centre for stationary power generation technology using high temperature fuel cells that use a wide variety of fossil and biomass fuels. Current research areas of investigation: 1. Clean efficient use of hydrocarbons 2. Large-scale electricity generation 3. CO2 sequestration 4. Direct alcohol fuel cells 5. Solid oxide fuel cells. (author)

  16. Protectionist Measures in Postsecondary Ontario (Canada) TESL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jambor, Paul Z.

    2012-01-01

    TESL in Ontario, Canada, seems to be on an inauspicious path by having set up non-tariff protectionist measures in an apparent attempt to keep out a multinational TESL workforce, effectively going against the spirit of globalization. This paper highlights some of the differences between South Korean TEFL and TESL in Ontario; for the most part…

  17. The control of radioisotopes in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Regulations applicable to the control of radioisotopes in Canada are reviewed. The administrative procedures are described, the definition of atomic radiation workers clarified and the means for inspections and compliance indicated. An outline is provided of the main revisions currently under consideration. (author)

  18. Addiction Medicine in Canada: Challenges and Prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    el-Guebaly, Nady; Crockford, David; Cirone, Sharon; Kahan, Meldon

    2011-01-01

    In Canada, the qualification of physicians is the jurisdiction of the College of Family Physicians and the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons. The Colleges have promoted the training of "generalists" in family medicine and "sophisticated generalists" among the traditional specialties, and the development of subspecialties has not been…

  19. Canada thistle phenology in broadbean canopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian Wesołowski

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Soine of the developmental stages of Canada thistle - Cirsium arvense (L. Scop. (I. emergence and early growth, II. shooting, II. budding, IV. flowering, V. fructification, VI. shedding of fruits on the background of development stages of broad-bean, weeded by herbicides and without that weed-killing substances, were presented in the paper. Phenological observations were carried out on the plants growing on alluvial soil developed from light loam in Zakrz6w near Tarnobrzeg. It was proved that phenological development of Canada thistle, during broad-bean vegetation, depended on course of weather conditions and method of crop care. Emergence of the weed occurred earlier than broad-bean plants during warm and rather dry seasons. In every vegetation period, emergence and early vegetation stage (to 4 leaves seedling of Canada thistle lasted about 3 months, until broad-bean got full pod setting. During wet and cold season (in 2001 the weed emerged also early under herbicide (Afalon 1,5 kg ha-1 condition. Until to broad-bean harvest, Canada thistle attained the finish developmental stages, that means fruiting and fruit shedding. Herbicide treatment delayed the last two stages and limited fruit shedding by plants of Cirsium arvense.

  20. Enriched Students Program: Nova Scotia, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aylward, Margaret

    1987-01-01

    The Russell C. Gordon Elementary School (Nova Scotia, Canada) offers the Enriched Students Program (ESP) for academically gifted students. ESP goals include: fostering and developing individual interests of students; initiating higher level thinking skills; strengthening task commitment; stimulating creativity; promoting leadership qualities; and…

  1. TransCanada PipeLines Limited 1998 annual report : TransCanada energy solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Financial information from TransCanada PipeLines Limited and a review of the company's 1998 operations was made available for the benefit of shareholders. TransCanada's pipeline system transports natural gas and crude oil from Western Canada Sedimentary Basin to North America's major energy markets. Net earnings from continuing operations for 1998, before unusual charges, were $575 million ($ 355 million after unusual charges) compared to $522 million for 1997. Solid performances from the energy transmission and international business, when compared to 1997, were more than offset by a decreased contribution from energy processing. TransCanada recorded integration costs of $166 million, after tax, related to the merger with NOVA in 1998, which was the major operational accomplishment during the year, creating a seamless economic energy delivery, processing and marketing system from the wellhead to the market. tabs., figs

  2. Canada in the International Economy: A Teaching Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, William T.; Staunton, Ted, Ed.

    One of a series of teaching units designed to introduce secondary school students to the Canadian economy, this handbook contains instructional materials on Canada's role in the world economy. Ten sections contain readings and suggestions for activities related to Canadian trade, tariffs, the Canada-United States automobile pact, Canada-United…

  3. Canada/China Oil and Gas Technology Transfer Programme

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Zhongqiao

    1997-01-01

    @@ The Government of Canada is providing assistance to China National Petroleum Corporation (CNPC) via the Canada/China Oil and Gas Technology Transfer Programme. Canada is represented by the Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA) in this Programme, while China's interests are administered by the Ministry of Foreign Trade and Economic Cooperation (MOFTEC).

  4. 19 CFR 123.41 - Truck shipments transiting Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Truck shipments transiting Canada. 123.41 Section 123.41 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CUSTOMS RELATIONS WITH CANADA AND MEXICO United States and Canada In-Transit Truck Procedures § 123.41 Truck shipments...

  5. An evaluation of Canada's environmental sustainability planning system

    OpenAIRE

    Ellis, Meghan

    2008-01-01

    In 1992, Canada committed to developing a national sustainable development strategy (NSDS). Canada has chosen a decentralized approach to NSDS in which each federal department creates its own sustainable development strategy (SDS). Federal legi slation and environmental initiatives provide additional environmental protection. These three components - SDS, environmental legislation and initiatives - represent Canada's environmental sustainability planning system (CESPS). This report uses an in...

  6. PubMed Central Canada: Beyond an Open Access Repository?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nariani, Rajiv

    2013-01-01

    PubMed Central Canada (PMC Canada) represents a partnership between the Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR), the National Research Council's Canada Institute for Scientific and Technical Information (NRC-CISTI), and the National Library of Medicine of the US. The present study was done to gauge faculty awareness about the CIHR Policy on…

  7. Aging in Canada: State of the Art and Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheets, Debra J.; Gallagher, Elaine M.

    2013-01-01

    Canada shares many similarities with other industrialized countries around the world, including a rapidly aging population. What sets Canada uniquely apart is the collaborative approach that has been enacted in the health care system and the aging research initiatives. Canada has tremendous pride in its publicly funded health care system that…

  8. Introducing small modular reactors into Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In recent years there has been a growing interest in smaller, simpler reactors for generating electricity and process heat. This is evidenced in the growing body of literature and the increasingly frequent meetings and conferences on the subject. The interest in Small Modular Reactors (SMRs) is driven to a large extent by the desire to reduce capital costs, to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, to replace retiring fossil plants that do not meet today's environmental standards, and to provide power in locations away from large electrical grids. These drivers are as important in Canada as they are in the U.S., where the design and licensing of SMRs is being most vigorously pursued. They have led to a growing interest in Canada as a potentially significant market for SMRs, particularly in the Western Provinces of Alberta and Saskatchewan and in the remote First Nations communities of Northern Canada. There is a growing body of literature addressing the regulation and licensing of Small Modular Reactors in the U.S. Issues being identified in there can generally be categorized as licensing framework issues, licensing application issues, and design and manufacturing issues. Many of these issues are embedded in the US regulatory framework and can only be resolved through changes in the regulations. For the most part these issues are equally applicable in Canada and will need to be addressed in introducing SMRs here. A significant difference, however, is that these issues can be addressed within the Canadian regulatory framework without requiring changes in the regulations. The CNSC has taken a very proactive stance regarding the licensing of small reactors in Canada. They have published two new Regulatory Documents stipulating the requirements for licensing small reactors. A key feature is that they allow the application of a 'graded approach' in which the stringency of the design measures and analyses applied are commensurate with the level of risk posed by

  9. Greenhouse gas reduction and Canada's nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Kyoto Protocol of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate change, dated December 10, 1997 committed Canada to reduce greenhouse gases to 6% below 1990 levels by 2008-2012. Subsequently the federal government initiated a broad review of the implications of such a reduction across all sectors of the Canadian economy to identify options for eventual implementation. The Canadian nuclear industry participated in this review. This paper examines the status of this review to date and identifies options, which may significantly influence the use of nuclear energy domestically and internationally. This paper provides a review of options established by the three key Issue Tables in the context of implications to the nuclear industry. Several of the other Issue Tables have also identified options, which have major future implications for the use of nuclear energy. For example the Transportation Table has addressed the possible production and use of hydrogen fuel as an energy carrier. Biological and geological sinks are emerging technologies which will likely lead to increased energy demand. Development of the necessary infrastructure to support these new technologies could lead to a substantial need for increased production of electricity from greenhouse gas free sources in Canada in coming decades. In conclusion, international concern with climate changes re-focuses attention to human application of nature's energy sources. The studies implemented by the climate change secretariat have resulted in a comprehensive evaluation of opportunities for Canada to contribute to reduction of greenhouse gas emissions in Canada and abroad. The ability of Canada's nuclear industry to provide greenhouse gas free energy in the large quantities needed by modern society is recognized. (author)

  10. Canada enters the nuclear age: a technical history of Atomic Energy of Canada limited as seen from its research laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A technical history of Atomic Energy of Canada Limited written by sixteen of Canada's pioneering nuclear scientists, Canada Enters the Nuclear Age focuses on Canada's nuclear program at AECL's laboratories at Chalk River, Ontario and Whiteshell, Manitoba between the years 1943 and 1985. Topics include the organization and operations of AECL's laboratories, nuclear safety and radiation protection, radioisotopes, basic research, development of the CANDU reactor, and management of radioactive wastes. 7 tabs., 132 figs

  11. Alzheimer's disease and other dementias in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Suzy L; Gilmour, Heather; Ramage-Morin, Pamela L

    2016-05-18

    This article provides information on Alzheimer's disease and other dementias, using the 2010/2011 Canadian Community Health Survey, the 2011/2012 Survey of Neurological Conditions in Institutions in Canada, and the 2011 Survey on Living with Neurological Conditions in Canada. Among Canadians aged 45 or older, an estimated 0.8% in private households and 45% in long-term residential care facilities had a diagnosis of dementia. Prevalence rose with age. The vast majority of people with dementia in private households received assistance with medical care (81%), housework and home maintenance (83%), meal preparation (88%), emotional support (90%), transportation (92%), and managing care (92%). Among those receiving assistance, 85% relied, at least in part, on family, friends or neighbours. The primary caregiver tended to be a spouse (46%) or an adult child (44%), most of whom were daughters (71%). The majority of primary caregivers lived in the same household (83%) and provided daily care (86%). PMID:27192206

  12. Canada's climate change policy in context

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Climate change has a wide range of implications for the health, well-being, and economic prospects for Canadians, and for the ecological systems that sustain life on this planet. The overwhelming scientific opinion, world leaders and even a growing number of corporate leaders now agree that the Earth is undergoing a significant and unusual warming period as a result of the build-up of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. There is also wide agreement that much of this build-up is anthropogenic, and that a global effort is required to slow this trend. Because climate change is a global problem, it requires global solutions by way of reduction in global greenhouse gas emissions. In this context, the Kyoto Agreement of 1997 constitutes a major breakthrough, even though it takes only a small step towards towards altering the human impact on global climate. Although some 80 states, plus the European Union signed the Kyoto Protocol, it remains unclear when it will come into force because the majority of states have failed to ratify it, pending the resolution of a variety of technical and operational details. Canada is the second highest emitter of greenhouse gases (16 tonnes per capita, compared to world average of 3.6 tonnes per capita). This, combined with Canada's foreign policy goals of playing a leading role in taking action and preserving its reputation as an honest broker, makes the challenge of meeting Canada's Kyoto commitments especially pressing. The purpose of this paper is to explain Canada's climate change policy in the context of these international and domestic pressures. The paper identifies the main climate change-related policy challenges, international responses to date and the constraints and opportunities open to Canada in the light of its economy, its federalist political structure, and place in the world as a middle power, as well as its geographic situation, natural resources and environmental endowment. There is a detailed discussion of the Kyoto

  13. Occupational radiation exposures in Canada - 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is the second in a series of annual reports on Occupational Radiation Exposures in Canada. The data is derived from the Radiation Protection Bureau's National Dose Registry which includes dose records for radiation workers in Canada. The report presents average yearly doses by region and occupational category, dose distributions, and variation of average doses with time. Statistical data concerning investigations of high exposures are included and individual cases are briefly summarized where the maximum permissible dose is exceeded. The 1979 data indicate that the gradually decreasing trend of the last two decades may be changing. In a number of areas the overall average doses and the averages for some job categories have increased over the corresponding values for 1977 and 1978

  14. Public information and education in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The history of providing public information on nuclear energy in Canada for more than 40 years is described. Information centers are part of all nuclear power plants and they receive many thousands of visitors each year. Until the 1970s public information programs were relatively easy. There was a lot of interest in nuclear energy, and there was little debate about it or opposition to it. But times have changed, and Canadian public information strategies and tactics have evolved to meet challenge of answering increasing public concerns. In the past 20 years Canada has gone through three phases in relationship with the public: information, communication, participation. Activities on implementation of these phases are outlined

  15. Informed consent for videoconsultations in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chouinard, Isabelle; Scott, Richard E

    2009-01-01

    We performed a qualitative study of the practice of informed consent for videoconsultation in Canada. Fourteen cases were examined: the 13 provinces and territories, and the Federal jurisdiction representing aboriginal groups. Twenty-seven interviews were conducted with key informants (14 telehealth experts, 13 legal experts). The telehealth experts were people with direct experience of telehealth practice. The majority of the telehealth experts agreed that videoconsultations had not been integrated into the health-care system. An interesting finding of the study was that the integration status of videoconsultations was not indicative of informed consent practices. Telehealth providers favoured express written consent, or risk management practices, although there was a desire to move towards implied consent models for videoconsultations. The study also showed that the legal ramifications of the electronic transmission of non-recorded, real-time, personal health information had not been explored. This represents an important factor in guiding future consent for videoconsultations in Canada. PMID:19471027

  16. Carbon disclosure project report 2009 : Canada 200

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The carbon disclosure project conducts an annual survey to determine the strategies and actions of major cap companies in relation to climate change. This report discussed initiatives implemented by Canada's largest companies to prepare for a carbon-constrained future. The report documented results from 97 companies. The aim of the report was to help companies make use of the disclosures as reference points for future carbon markets and regulations relating to reporting requirements. Results of the survey demonstrated that Canada's low-carbon and high-carbon impact sectors have implemented several significant initiatives and best practices for operations. However, widespread engagement in a comprehensive manner has yet to be achieved. Many respondents were in the process of developing a more balanced risk-opportunity agenda in relation to climate change, and nearly half of all respondents have implemented governance arrangements or personal incentives in both both the high-carbon and low-carbon impact sectors. 5 tabs., 26 figs.

  17. Occupational radiation exposures in Canada - 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This 1978 report is the first in a series of annual reports on occupational radiation exposures in Canada. The data are derived from the Radiation Protection Bureau's National Dose Registry which includes dose records for radiation workers in Canada. The report presents average yearly doses by region and occupational category, dose distributions, and variation of average doses with time. Statistical data concerning investigations of overexposures are included and individual cases are briefly summarized where the maximum permissible dose is exceeded. The 1978 data indicate that the gradually decreasing trend of the last two decades may have changed. In a number of areas the overall average doses and the averages for some job categories have increasd over the corresponding values for 1977

  18. Northern Star; Canada's Path to Economic Prosperity

    OpenAIRE

    Vladimir Klyuev; Martin Mühleisen; Tamim Bayoumi

    2007-01-01

    Robust GDP growth, declining unemployment, low and stable inflation, and a string of fiscal and current account surpluses -- it's a record to be envied. These outcomes in Canada owe much to sound macroeconomic policies, as well as to a favorable external environment. This book focuses on these policies and the economy's salient features, including its close trade integration with the United States, large commodity sector, and substantial decentralization and regional diversity. It outlines wh...

  19. Nuclear fuel waste policy in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 1996 Policy Framework for Radioactive Waste established the approach in Canada for dealing with all radioactive waste, and defined the respective roles of Government and waste producers and owners. The Policy Framework sets the stage for the development of institutional and financial arrangements to implement long-term waste management solutions in a safe, environmentally sound, comprehensive, cost-effective and integrated manner. For nuclear fuel waste, a 10-year environmental review of the concept to bury nuclear fuel waste bundles at a depth of 500 m to 1000 m in stable rock of the Canadian Shield was completed in March 1998. The Review Panel found that while the concept was technically safe, it did not have the required level of public acceptability to be adopted at this time as Canada's approach for managing its nuclear fuel waste. The Panel recommended that a Waste Management Organization be established at arm's length from the nuclear industry, entirely funded by the waste producers and owners, and that it be subject to oversight by the Government. In its December 1998 Response to the Review Panel, the Government of Canada provided policy direction for the next steps towards developing Canada's approach for the long-term management of nuclear fuel waste. The Government chose to maintain the responsibility for long-term management of nuclear fuel waste close with the producers and owners of the waste. This is consistent with its 1996 Policy Framework for Radioactive Waste. This approach is also consistent with experience in many countries. In addition, the federal government identified the need for credible federal oversight. Cabinet directed the Minister of NRCan to consult with stakeholders, including the public, and return to ministers within 12 months with recommendations on means to implement federal oversight. (author)

  20. Intestinal parasites in man in Labrador, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sole, T D; Croll, N A

    1980-05-01

    Labrador, a previously unsurveyed area of Canada, has been sampled for human intestinal parasites. Four hundred and one asymptomatic volunteers between 1 and 72 years of age, including Inuit, Naskapi and whites, were examined during the summer of 1977. They harboured: Entamoeba coli, E. histolytica, E. hartmanni, Giardia lamblia and Diphyllobothrium sp. The infection rates are considerably lower than those found in other studies of Northern Canadian communities. PMID:6966896

  1. ITER workshops demonstrate details of Canada's bid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On 5 and 6 November a series of five Workshops were held in Canada that provided thirty international ITER participants with significant background on various aspects of the Canadian offer. The public-private sector partnership basis for the Canadian offer is unique, and the Workshops provided an opportunity for participants from the EU, Japan and the Russian Federation to broaden their understanding of the offer and to share and discuss issues that may be relevant in the preparation of other site offers

  2. Environmental radioactivity in Canada 1973-1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiological surveillance program of the Department of National Health and Welfare is conducted for the purpose of determining levels of environmental radioactivity in Canada and assessing the resulting population exposures. This report summarizes the results obtained during 1973-1976 from the analyses of air, precipitation, water vapour, drinking water, milk, biota and bone for critical radionuclides. During this period, all radioactivity levels were below the maximum permissible limits recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection. (Auth)

  3. Sexual orientation, work, and income in Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Christopher S. Carpenter

    2008-01-01

    We provide the first evidence on sexual orientation and economic outcomes in Canada using confidential data that ask adults a direct question about their sexual orientation. Gay men have 12% lower personal incomes and lesbians have 15% higher personal incomes than otherwise similar heterosexual men and women, respectively. Different labour force patterns can account for some of the income differentials. We also document large differences in educational attainment, childrearing, and urbanicity...

  4. Acute copper toxicosis in the Canada goose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, B M; Winterfield, R W

    1975-01-01

    Acute copper toxicosis resulted in Canada geese, Branta canadensis, following ingestion of copper sulfate at about 600mg/kg from a small man-made pond on a game farm. The lesions were those associated with copper toxicosis in other avian species. The primary pathologic change was necrosis and sloughing of the proventriculus and gizzard. A greenish discoloration of the lungs also occurred. PMID:1156262

  5. Cronkhite-Canada syndrome: case description

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Da Porto

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available We present the case of an 80-year old woman affected by the Cronkhite-Canada syndrome. This rare disease was described for the first time in 1955. It is characterized by the growth of multiple polyps in the gastroenteric tract, leading to diarrhea, alopecia, dystrophy of nails and hyper-pigmented skin. In this article, we describe the patient’s clinical picture and report the results of laboratory tests and imaging assessments.

  6. Occupational radiation exposures in Canada-1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is the seventh in a series of annual reports on Occupational Radiation Exposures in Canada. The information is derived from the National Dose Registry of the Radiation Protection Bureau, Department of National Health and Welfare. As in the past this report presents by occupation: average yearly whole body doses by region, dose distributions, and variations of average doses with time. Statistical data concerning investigations of high exposures reported by the National Dosimetry Services are tabulated in summary form

  7. Occupational radiation exposures in Canada - 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is the tenth in a series of annual reports on Occupational Radiation Exposures in Canada. The information is derived from the National Dose Registry of the Bureau of Radiation and Medical Devices, Department of National Health and Welfare. This report presents by occupation average yearly whole body doses by region, dose distributions, and variations of the average doses with time. Statistical data concerning investigations of high exposures reported by the National Dosimetry Services are tabulated in summary form

  8. Evidence of New Immigrant Assimilation in Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Mary L. Grant

    1999-01-01

    Previous studies of the labour market experience of male immigrants to Canada have uncovered two disturbing trends: declining entry earnings for successive new immigrant cohorts and low assimilation rates. These findings suggest that many of these cohorts may never assimilate. The 1991 Census provides a first look at the immigrant cohorts arriving in the 1980s. These immigrants appear to avoid the plight of their predecessors; entry earnings have stopped falling, and those immigrants arriving...

  9. Rural family medicine training in Canada.

    OpenAIRE

    Rourke, J. T.; Rourke, L. L.

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the status of postgraduate family medicine training that occurs in rural family practice settings in Canada and to identify problems and how they are addressed. DESIGN: A retrospective questionnaire sent to all 18 Canadian family medicine training programs followed by a focus group discussion of results. SETTING: Canadian university family medicine training programs. PARTICIPANTS: Chairs or program directors of all 18 Canadian family medicine training programs and people...

  10. Streamflow input to Lake Athabasca, Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Rasouli, K.; M. A. Hernández-Henríquez; S. J. Déry

    2012-01-01

    The 271 000 km2 Lake Athabasca drainage in Northern Canada encompasses ecologically-rich and sensitive ecosystems, intensive agricultural lands, vast forests, glacier-clad mountains, and abundant oil reserves in the form of tar-sands. In this study, streamflow variability and trends in eight rivers feeding the 7800 km2 Lake Athabasca are investigated over the period 1960–2010. Hydrological regimes and trends are established using a robust r...

  11. Small animal dentistry in Canada: 1994 survey.

    OpenAIRE

    Haws, I J; Anthony, J .M.

    1996-01-01

    Small animal dentistry is a rapidly growing area of interest and specialization internationally, offering tremendous benefits to patients, clients, and practitioners. To date, no studies have been done to determine the standard of small animal dental care in Canada. A national mail survey was designed to document the prevalence of dental disease in small animal patients, the types of veterinary dental procedures being provided by practitioners, as well as home care recommendations and complia...

  12. Market Expansion Opportunity Analysis for Adigy Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Salimi, Mitra

    2008-01-01

    This project develops business and marketing strategies for the expansion of Adigy Canada, a medical heart telemetry device developer, into the golfing market. It researches the needs of this market, analyzes industry forces and recommends target market segments, a business model, distribution channels, and marketing strategies. The design and marketing of a training aid product is recommended as this segment of the golf industry seems to have a medium to high level of attractiveness. The rec...

  13. Addressing Household Food Insecurity in Canada - Position Statement and Recommendations - Dietitians of Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    POSITION STATEMENT It is the position of Dietitians of Canada that household food insecurity is a serious public health issue with profound effects on physical and mental health and social well-being. All households in Canada must have sufficient income for secure access to nutritious food after paying for other basic necessities. Given the alarming prevalence, severity and impact of household food insecurity in Canada, Dietitians of Canada calls for a pan-Canadian, government-led strategy to specifically reduce food insecurity at the household level, including policies that address the unique challenges of household food insecurity among Indigenous Peoples. Regular monitoring of the prevalence and severity of household food insecurity across all of Canada is required. Research must continue to address gaps in knowledge about household vulnerability to food insecurity and to evaluate the impact of policies developed to eliminate household food insecurity in Canada. Dietitians of Canada recommends: Development and implementation of a pan-Canadian government-led strategy that includes coordinated policies and programs, to ensure all households have consistent and sufficient income to be able to pay for basic needs, including food. Implementation of a federally-supported strategy to comprehensively address the additional and unique challenges related to household food insecurity among Indigenous Peoples, including assurance of food sovereignty, with access to lands and resources, for acquiring traditional/country foods, as well as improved access to more affordable and healthy store-bought/market foods in First Nation reserves and northern and remote communities. Commitment to mandatory, annual monitoring and reporting of the prevalence of marginal, moderate and severe household food insecurity in each province and territory across Canada, including among vulnerable populations, as well as regular evaluation of the impact of poverty reduction and protocols for

  14. The cost of urban congestion in Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-03-22

    A systematic analysis of urban congestion in Canada was presented. The analysis developed congestion indicators for the 9 largest urban areas in Canada. An engineering approach was used to define and to develop the congestion indicators and to estimate the social costs of congestion associated with extra time wasted due to congestion and the cost associated with greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The approach focused on direct and physical characteristics of congestion which linked vehicle flow and traffic speed to road capacity. An economic approach recognized that there is an economically efficient level of congestion caused by impeding users, and that some congestion is already internalized for some users. The study estimated that the total annual cost of congestion in 2002 ranged from $2.3 billion to $3.7 billion for the major urban areas in Canada. More than 90 per cent of the cost represented the value of the time lost to automobile travellers in congestion. Seven per cent of the cost represented the value of fuels consumed, and 3 per cent represented the amount of GHGs emitted under congestion conditions. The study estimated an increase of 1.2 to 1.4 megatonnes of GHG due to congestion every year. It was concluded that estimates provided in the report did not include data of costs associated with non-recurrent congestion caused by bad weather, accidents and other congestion-related costs such as noise and stress. 14 refs., 8 tabs.

  15. Basic principles of radiation protection in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The major goal of radiation protection in Canada is to ensure that individuals are adequately protected against the harm that might arise from unwarranted exposure to ionizing radiation. This report deals with the basic principles and organizations involved in protection against ionizing radiation. Three basic principles of radiation protection are: 1) that no practice shall be adopted unless its introduction produces a positive net benefit for society, 2) that all exposures shall be kept as low as reasonably achievable, relevant economic and social factors being taken into account, and 3) that doses to individuals should not exceed specified annual limits. The limit for radiation workers is currently 50 mSv per year, and exposures of the general public should not exceed a small fraction of that of radiation workers. Other specific areas in radiation protection which have received considerable attention in Canada include limitations on collective dose (the sum of the individual doses for all exposed individuals), exemption rules for extremely small radiation doses or amounts of radioactive materials, occupational hazards in uranium mining, and special rules for protection of the foetus in pregnant female radiation workers. Implementation of radiation protection principles in Canada devolves upon the Atomic Energy Control Board, the Department of National Health and Welfare, provincial authorities, licensees and radiation workers. A brief description is given of the roles of each of these groups

  16. Petro-Canada annual report, 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petro-Canada is Canada's national energy corporation, formed by an Act of Parliament in 1975. Operations began in January 1976. In 1993 net earnings were improved by $153 million to $162 million, and cash flow from operations was increased by $113 million to $630 million. The consolidation of conventional upstream activities to 150 producing entities in 26 strategic areas was completed, and remaining non-core upstream assets were grouped into a separate unit for sale. The refinery capacity reduction program was completed, and retail rationalization neared completion. Total capital and exploration expenditures of $639 million were less than cash flow of $630 million. Credit ratings and market valuation improved in recognition of the company's increased strength. This annual report presents a corporate profile, a statement of corporate responsibility, and the year's activities in production and sales of natural gas, synthetic and natural crude oil and gasoline. Details are also provided of Petro-Canada's financial and operational restructuring in view of the declining revenues being obtained. A financial review from 1986 to the present is included, along with a glossary of financial terms, a financial statement, and a 5-year summary. Reserves information comparing the current to the previous year are given. 2 figs., 12 tabs

  17. TransCanada Corporation 2004 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    TransCanada is a leading North American energy company dealing with natural gas transmission, power generation and marketing opportunities. Financial information from TransCanada was presented in this annual report along with a review of its operations in 2004 and a summary of how the company performed in terms of providing natural gas transmission and power services in North America. In 2004, TransCanada increased earnings from continuing operations and maintained a strong cash flow and continued to strengthen its balance sheet. Achievements in 2004 included the acquisition of the Gas Transmission Northwest Pipeline System and the North Baja Pipeline System; the purchase of hydroelectric generation assets in New England with a total generating capacity of more than 500 MW; and the completed construction of two new gas-fired cogeneration plants, the 165 MW MacKay River facility in Alberta and the 90 MW Grandview facility in New Brunswick. The challenges in 2004 included the performance of the company's existing asset-based businesses and the new initiatives to produce another year of solid operating and financial results. This report summarized the company's energy resource activities and presented an operations review as well as consolidated financial statements and common share information. This included the utility's assets, liabilities, revenues, expenses and cash flows. Revenue and expenditure statements were summarized by source. tabs., figs

  18. Canada: variations on a common theme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raisa B. Deber

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Canada faces health care challenges common to all industrialized countries – how to ensure timely access to high quality care, close to home, at an affordable cost. Addressing these challenges is complicated by interjurisdictional variation in both how health care is managed and delivered, and in health outcomes. Canada can be described as a non-system of 10 provincial and three territorial health insurance plans which mandate publicly-funded coverage for medically necessary hospital and physician services, based upon common principles and shaped by a federal governance structure that affords substantial power and autonomy to the provinces/territories over matters of health and health care. This article first examines the structural context of the health care system in Canada, including the range of services publicly funded, the public-private mix, and the complexities of current governance arrangements. It then discusses several issues affecting health policy reform: costs versus access; questions of sustainability, quality, and performance; human resources capacity; and the provision of public and population health services.

  19. Nuclear energy's continuing benefits to Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The goal of the Canadian nuclear power program when it began twenty years ago was to reduce Canadian dependence on imported coal. This goal has been met, with 35 percent of Ontario's electricity being produced by CANDU reactors. These reactors have been proven reliable and safe, and provide a considerable cost advantage over coal. The CANDU reactor was developed with the strengths and limitations of Canadian industry in mind, the newest stations have over 85 percent Canadian-manufactured components. A similar benefit should be found in many countries with manufacturing capabilities comparable to Canada's. The use of natural uranium as a fuel has been a wise choice both technically and economically. A new industry was created in Canada in order to gain an assured supply of heavy water. The personnel brought to or trained in Canada to work in all parts of the nuclear industry represent a valuable asset in themselves. Radioisotope exports are making a significant contribution. Nuclear power is likely to make its greatest impact in the next century, when it will be a necessity

  20. Thallium contamination of water in Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheam, V. [National Water Research Institute Branch, Burlington, ON (Canada). Aquatic Ecosystems Protection Research Branch

    2001-07-01

    A highly sensitive instrument, a Laser-Excited Atomic Fluorescence Spectrometer, has been developed to study thallium contamination in some important Canadian ecosystems from the Arctic (containing very low thallium concentration) to coal-related industries across Canada and even to the study of thallium toxicity in an invertebrate, Hyalella azteca. Overall, the data indicate that the coal power plants and mines contain higher thallium concentrations than the other ecosystems studied, and the eastern region has the highest Tl concentrations compared to other regions. The range of thallium concentration in ng/L for the Arctic snow and ice was between not detected and 8.4, for the Great Lakes waters 0.9 to 48, for pore waters 0.1 to 213, for western coal power plants and mines 0.1 to 1326, for central coal power plants 1.2 to 175, for eastern coal power plants and mines 0.2 to 23605, and for miscellaneous sites across Canada not detected to 4390 ng/L. Some of these high concentrations and those high ones reported in industrial wastewaters exceeded the chronic toxicity endpoints for Hyalella azteca mortality, growth and reproduction, and thus can cause serious distress to the environment. All data were integrated into a map of thallium distribution, the first one in Canada. Natural background level of thallium for the Arctic was estimated to be 0.02 to 0.03 pg/g.

  1. An emissions trading regime for Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1998, over twelve papers were published on emissions trading regimes in Canada by the National Round Table on the Environment and the Economy (NRTEE), a federal government agency whose members represent stakeholders as varied as business, environmental groups, academics, aboriginal groups and others. One of the recommendations that emerged was for the computer modelling of the possibilities that had been identified for a domestic trading regime in Canada for greenhouse gases. It is unclear whether the modelling was ever performed as the file was taken over by the Finance Department under the umbrella of a special emission trading table that examined Canada's commitment under the Kyoto Protocol. The author examined questions pertaining to whether a domestic trading regime is essential, and what its characteristics should be in case it was deemed essential or advisable to have one. The upstream versus downstream application was looked at, as well as grand-fathering versus auction. Provincial issues were then addressed, followed by meshing with a credit system. International systems were reviewed. Early action was discussed, whereby an emitter seeks credit for action taken toward reductions since the original reference year of 1990. The case of emitters having bought or sold permits since the original reference years will also want those trades recognized under a trading regime. The author indicated that it seems probable that an emission trading system will eventually be implemented and that a debate on the issue should be initiated early

  2. Petro-Canada's 2001 report in support of Canada's climate change voluntary challenge and registry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the leading oil and gas companies in Canada, Petro-Canada is committed to the Climate Change Voluntary Challenge and Registry (VCR) Program. In this document, the major initiatives undertaken by Petro-Canada with the aim of reducing greenhouse gas emissions were highlighted. The successes in improving energy efficiency in the process of reducing greenhouse gas emissions were reviewed. A major accomplishment in 2000 was the total greenhouse gas emissions resulting from the operations of Petro-Canada that were below the level of 1990, even in the face of a one-third increase in production over the last ten years. As a result, a reduction in excess of 45,000 tonnes of ongoing annual emissions was achieved. The targets that were set are a one per cent reduction every year from 2000 to 2005 through reductions in fuel consumption. The Production Energy Intensity (PEI) of the upstream was improved in 2000 by 11 per cent when compared to 1999 value. Energy efficiency projects have been allocated a total of 4 million dollars in capital funds, and emerging technologies in alternate fuels are being monitored to enable Petro-Canada to reduce the emissions of greenhouse gases. Several education projects are being funded to enhance public awareness of climate change issues. 4 tabs., 7 figs

  3. Immigration in two federations: Canada and Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atchison, J

    1988-03-01

    The need for increasingly widespread application of a policy or program, settlement, and multiculturalism is urgent in both Canada and Australia. For both countries there is a clear pattern of coalescence and divergence and the distinct growth of immigration as a federal function. While Australia has strengthened federal functions in a area of increasingly geo-political need, Canada is moving towards a looser model of federalism. By 1918 both countries were strengthening their federal functions in immigration as discussions within the British Empire on the recommendations of the 1917 Dominions Royal Commission took root. Both countries were interested in agricultural immigration and land settlement. The Great Depression caused a major reduction in population growth rates. From 1933-1948 Canada had a poor record of providing sanctuary for Jews. In Australia, however, Jewish voluntary agencies were aiding the reception of refugees by 1937. The 1st permanent embodiment of commonwealth jurisdiction over immigration was the establishment of an Immigration Branch within the Department of Interior around 1938. Australia needed extra population for defense. The major structural link between government and the immigrant communities was through the Good Neighbor Movement, which began on a nationwide basis in 1950. Both Canada and Australia are major receiving countries for refugees. In 1973 Australia reached the position of effective, practical nondiscrimination achieved by Canada in 1967. Prime Minister Trudeau's policy was multiculturalism within a framework of bilingualism. By 1978 Australia had a new federalism policy, which in all areas concerned with immigrants, refugees and ethnicity, rationalized resources allocation and imposed a political philosophy. The foci of multiculturalism in Australia are 1) community languages; 2) creation of a tolerant, non-discriminatory society; and 3) equity and participation. In 1978 Australia specified population replacement and

  4. Ocean Networks Canada's "Big Data" Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewey, R. K.; Hoeberechts, M.; Moran, K.; Pirenne, B.; Owens, D.

    2013-12-01

    Ocean Networks Canada operates two large undersea observatories that collect, archive, and deliver data in real time over the Internet. These data contribute to our understanding of the complex changes taking place on our ocean planet. Ocean Networks Canada's VENUS was the world's first cabled seafloor observatory to enable researchers anywhere to connect in real time to undersea experiments and observations. Its NEPTUNE observatory is the largest cabled ocean observatory, spanning a wide range of ocean environments. Most recently, we installed a new small observatory in the Arctic. Together, these observatories deliver "Big Data" across many disciplines in a cohesive manner using the Oceans 2.0 data management and archiving system that provides national and international users with open access to real-time and archived data while also supporting a collaborative work environment. Ocean Networks Canada operates these observatories to support science, innovation, and learning in four priority areas: study of the impact of climate change on the ocean; the exploration and understanding the unique life forms in the extreme environments of the deep ocean and below the seafloor; the exchange of heat, fluids, and gases that move throughout the ocean and atmosphere; and the dynamics of earthquakes, tsunamis, and undersea landslides. To date, the Ocean Networks Canada archive contains over 130 TB (collected over 7 years) and the current rate of data acquisition is ~50 TB per year. This data set is complex and diverse. Making these "Big Data" accessible and attractive to users is our priority. In this presentation, we share our experience as a "Big Data" institution where we deliver simple and multi-dimensional calibrated data cubes to a diverse pool of users. Ocean Networks Canada also conducts extensive user testing. Test results guide future tool design and development of "Big Data" products. We strive to bridge the gap between the raw, archived data and the needs and

  5. Very Low Head Turbine Deployment in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Very Low Head (VLH) turbine is a recent turbine technology developed in Europe for low head sites in the 1.4 - 4.2 m range. The VLH turbine is primarily targeted for installation at existing hydraulic structures to provide a low impact, low cost, yet highly efficient solution. Over 35 VLH turbines have been successfully installed in Europe and the first VLH deployment for North America is underway at Wasdell Falls in Ontario, Canada. Deployment opportunities abound in Canada with an estimated 80,000 existing structures within North America for possible low-head hydro development. There are several new considerations and challenges for the deployment of the VLH turbine technology in Canada in adapting to the hydraulic, environmental, electrical and social requirements. Several studies were completed to determine suitable approaches and design modifications to mitigate risk and confirm turbine performance. Diverse types of existing weirs and spillways pose certain hydraulic design challenges. Physical and numerical modelling of the VLH deployment alternatives provided for performance optimization. For this application, studies characterizing the influence of upstream obstacles using water tunnel model testing as well as full-scale prototype flow dynamics testing were completed. A Cold Climate Adaptation Package (CCA) was developed to allow year-round turbine operation in ice covered rivers. The CCA package facilitates turbine extraction and accommodates ice forces, frazil ice, ad-freezing and cold temperatures that are not present at the European sites. The Permanent Magnet Generator (PMG) presents some unique challenges in meeting Canadian utility interconnection requirements. Specific attention to the frequency driver control and protection requirements resulted in a driver design with greater over-voltage capability for the PMG as well as other key attributes. Environmental studies in Europe included fish friendliness testing comprised of multiple in

  6. Annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is the thirty-ninth annual report of the Atomic Energy Control Board. The period covered by this report is the year ending March 31, 1986. The Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB) was established in 1946, by the Atomic Energy Control Act (AEC Act), (Revised Statues of Canada (R.S.C.) 1970 cA19). It is a departmental corporation (Schedule B) within the meaning and purpose of the Financial Administration Act. The AECB controls the development, application and use of atomic energy in Canada, and participates on behalf of Canada in international measures of control. The AECB is also repsonsible for the administration of the Nuclear Liability Act, (R.S.C. 1970 c29 1st Supp) as amended, including the designation of nuclear installations and the prescription of basic insurance to be carried by the operators of such nuclear installations. The AECB reports to Parliament through a designated Minister, currently the Minister of Energy, Mines and Resources

  7. Real wages in Australia and Canada, 1870-1913

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greasley, David; Madsen, Jakob Brøchner; Oxley, Les

    2000-01-01

    Australia's and Canada's real wage experiences between 1870 and 1913 were distinctive. Faster productivity growth underpinned Canada's overtaking of Australia's wage levels. The globalization forces of migration and trade also shaped their comparative wages, principally by reducing wage growth in...... Canada. Immigration increased slightly Australia's real wages, but reduced wage levels in Canada, and tempered there the beneficial effects of rising productivity and improving terms of trade. In contrast, wage earners' share of national income rose after 1890 in Australia, with the productivity slowdown...... hitting chiefly rents and profits. Distributional shifts favouring wage earners in Australia, and the depressing effects of mass immigration on wages in Canada, limited Canada's wage lead before 1914, despite her faster productivity growth...

  8. Climate change and malaria in Canada: a systems approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrang-Ford, L; Maclean, J D; Gyorkos, Theresa W; Ford, J D; Ogden, N H

    2009-01-01

    This article examines the potential for changes in imported and autochthonous malaria incidence in Canada as a consequence of climate change. Drawing on a systems framework, we qualitatively characterize and assess the potential direct and indirect impact of climate change on malaria in Canada within the context of other concurrent ecological and social trends. Competent malaria vectors currently exist in southern Canada, including within this range several major urban centres, and conditions here have historically supported endemic malaria transmission. Climate change will increase the occurrence of temperature conditions suitable for malaria transmission in Canada, which, combined with trends in international travel, immigration, drug resistance, and inexperience in both clinical and laboratory diagnosis, may increase malaria incidence in Canada and permit sporadic autochthonous cases. This conclusion challenges the general assumption of negligible malaria risk in Canada with climate change. PMID:19277107

  9. Climate Change and Malaria in Canada: A Systems Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. H. Ogden

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the potential for changes in imported and autochthonous malaria incidence in Canada as a consequence of climate change. Drawing on a systems framework, we qualitatively characterize and assess the potential direct and indirect impact of climate change on malaria in Canada within the context of other concurrent ecological and social trends. Competent malaria vectors currently exist in southern Canada, including within this range several major urban centres, and conditions here have historically supported endemic malaria transmission. Climate change will increase the occurrence of temperature conditions suitable for malaria transmission in Canada, which, combined with trends in international travel, immigration, drug resistance, and inexperience in both clinical and laboratory diagnosis, may increase malaria incidence in Canada and permit sporadic autochthonous cases. This conclusion challenges the general assumption of negligible malaria risk in Canada with climate change.

  10. The Disturbed Legislation of Same-sex Marriage in Canada

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡妮

    2011-01-01

    In July 2005, Canada became the fourth country in the world, after the Netherlands, Belgium, and Spain, to legalize same-sex marriages nationwide. This new legal status for gays and lesbians has been a controversial issue in Canada, both in the public and in Parliament. This article provides a historical and legal overview of same-sex marriage in Canada. It outlines briefly the legal process of same-sex marriage in this country.

  11. Tackling Compliance: Small Business and Regulation in Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Rock Lefebvre; Philip Gans

    2006-01-01

    There has been increasing concern in Canada with respect to over-regulation; and specifically to what it means to smaller entities. Seeking to advance the understanding of the impacts of regulations on the SME sector, CGA-Canada commissioned a Small and Medium-sized Entities (SME) survey, a Practitioner survey, and held a public consultation on this topic. The results of the research show that individual regulatory requirements applicable to publicly-traded SMEs in Canada are seen as reasonab...

  12. The Evolution of Payroll Taxes in Canada: 1961 - 1993

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Zhengxi; Picot, Garnett; Beach, Charles M.

    1996-01-01

    This paper outlines the structure of payroll taxes and documents evidence on the level, growth and role of each component over the last three decades for Canada and for each province. Levied by both the federal and provincial governments, payroll taxes in Canada include four major components: i) unemployment insurance (UI) premiums; ii) Canada/Quebec Pension Plan (C/QPP) contributions; iii) workers compensation (WC) premiums; and iv) the provincial health/post-secondary education (H/E) tax le...

  13. Measuring the Canada-U.S. Productivity Gap: Industry Dimensions

    OpenAIRE

    Someshwar Rao; Jianmin Tang; Weimin Wang

    2004-01-01

    A key objective of economic policy in Canada is to reduce the productivity gap with the United States. The development of appropriate policies to attain this goal requires a thorough understanding of the nature of the gap, including its industry dimensions. Unfortunately, statistical agencies do not currently produce estimates of Canada-U.S. productivity gaps by industry. To fill this data lacuna, Someshwar Rao, Jianmin Tang, and Weimin Wang of Industry Canada in the first article present ben...

  14. AECB workshop on seismic hazard assessment in southern Ontario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of the workshop was to review available geological and seismological data which could affect earthquake occurrence in southern Ontario and to develop a consensus on approaches that should be adopted for characterization of seismic hazard. The workshop was structured in technical sessions to focus presentations and discussions on four technical issues relevant to seismic hazard in southern Ontario, as follows: (1) The importance of geological and geophysical observations for the determination of seismic sources, (2) Methods and approaches which may be adopted for determining seismic sources based on integrated interpretations of geological and seismological information, (3) Methods and data which should be used for characterizing the seismicity parameters of seismic sources, and (4) Methods for assessment of vibratory ground motion hazard. The format of each session involved invited presentations of relevant data followed by open presentations by participants, a general discussion focusing on the relevance of the presented information for seismic hazard assessment in southern Ontario, then development of conclusions and recommendations. In the final session, the conclusions and recommendations were summarized and an open discussion was held to develop consensus. This report presents perspective summaries of the workshop technical sessions together with conclusions and recommendations prepared by the session chairs and the general chairman. 2 refs

  15. Hunger among Inuit children in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leanne C. Findlay

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives. Inuit populations may be at increased risk for experiencing poor nutrition or hunger due to limited access and availability to food. The prevalence and correlates of parental perceptions of hunger among a nationally representative sample of Inuit children in Canada have not yet been reported. Design. Data are from the 2006 Aboriginal Children's Survey (ACS. Sociodemographic information, dietary behaviours and hunger status were parent-reported via a household interview for Inuit children aged 2–5 years (n=1,234. Prevalence of hunger was calculated among Inuit children by sociodemographic factors and by dietary behaviours. In addition, a multivariate logistic regression model was conducted to determine factors associated with parental perception of ever experiencing hunger. Results. The prevalence of Inuit children in Canada aged 2–5 years ever experiencing hunger was 24.4%. Children who were reported to have experienced hunger consumed milk and milk products (p<0.001; fish, eggs and meat (p<0.05; fruits (p<0.001; and vegetables (p<0.001 significantly less often than never-hungry children. Fast food and processed foods, soft drinks and juice, and salty snacks, sweets and desserts were consumed as often as never-hungry children (all p>0.05. The majority (81% of Inuit parents/guardians of ever-hungry children sought help from family or friends. Factors associated with an increased likelihood of experiencing hunger include sociodemographic characteristics (such as income and household size, living in an Inuit region and living in a community with cultural activities. Conclusion. About 1 in 4 Inuit children were reported by their parents to have experienced hunger, and hunger was associated with region, sociodemographic and community factors. Future research could further examine the impact of ever experiencing hunger on the health status of Inuit children and their families in Canada.

  16. Shell Canada Limited 1998 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A report of operational and financial achievements is reported. Shell Canada's Resources Division is one of Canada's largest producers of crude oil, natural gas, natural gas liquids, sulphur and bitumen. This report presents an operations review, provides consolidated financial statements, and common share information, and summarizes revenue and expenditure statements. The company was one of Canada's most profitable integrated oil and gas companies in 1998. It was the second most profitable year in the company's history for continuing operations. Oil products earnings for 1998 were a record $275 million, mostly because of strong sales volumes and increased retail market share. The company also confronted several environmental issues in 1998, including climate change and the reduction of greenhouse gases. Construction of the Sable Project, offshore Nova Scotia, continued on budget and on schedule to bring natural gas to market by early 2000. Plans for the three elements of the Oil Sands project (the Muskeg River mine in the Athabaska Region, an upgrader at Shell's Scotford site and the Corridor Pipeline) proceeded on schedule. The Caroline complex made its expected contribution to the company's overall performance. Improved seismic technology helped to add new reserves through Shell's interest in wells in southern Alberta. Exploration activity in northeastern British Columbia and northern Alberta produced encouraging results. The work will continue in 1999. The company plans to invest some 4.9 billion dollars over the next five years in capital expenditures. Shell remains committed to the Voluntary Challenge and Registry Program. Annual reduction of CO2 emissions increased by an estimated 800,000 tonnes

  17. Climate Impacts on Northern Canada: Regional Background

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prowse, Terry D.; Peters, Daniel L. (Water and Climate Impacts Research Centre, Environment Canada, Dept. of Geography, Univ. of Victoria, Victoria, BC (Canada)). e-mail: terry.prowse@ec.gc.caa; Furgal, Chris (Indigenous Environmental Studies Program, Trent Univ., Peterborough, ON (Canada)); Bonsal, Barrie R. (National Water Research Inst., National Hydrology Research Centre, Environment Canada, Saskatoon, SK (Canada))

    2009-07-15

    Understanding the implications of climate change on northern Canada requires a background about the size and diversity of its human and biogeophysical systems. Occupying an area of almost 40% of Canada, with one-third of this contained in Arctic islands, Canada's northern territories consist of a diversity of physical environments unrivaled around the circumpolar north. Major ecozones composed of a range of landforms, climate, vegetation, and wildlife include: Arctic, boreal and taiga cordillera; boreal and taiga plains; taiga shield; and northern and southern Arctic. Although generally characterized by a cold climate, there is an enormous range in air temperature with mean annual values being as high as -5 deg C in the south to as low as -20 deg C in the high Arctic islands. A similar contrast characterizes precipitation, which can be >700 mm y-1 in some southern alpine regions to as low as 50 mm y-1 over islands of the high Arctic. Major freshwater resources are found within most northern ecozones, varying from large glaciers or ice caps and lakes to extensive wetlands and peat lands. Most of the North's renewable water, however, is found within its major river networks and originates in more southerly headwaters. Ice covers characterize the freshwater systems for multiple months of the year while permafrost prevails in various forms, dominating the terrestrial landscape. The marine environment, which envelops the Canadian Arctic Archipelago, is dominated by seasonal to multiyear sea ice often several meters thick that plays a key role in the regional climate. Almost two-thirds of northern Canadian communities are located along coastlines with the entire population being just over 100 000. Most recent population growth has been dominated by an expansion of nonaboriginals, primarily the result of resource development and the growth of public administration. The economies of northern communities, however, remain quite mixed with traditional land

  18. Energy and the future : Canada's role

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The rise in global energy consumption is driven by economic growth, particularly in developing countries. It is expected that by 2030, the world population will consume 50 per cent more energy than today. This increase in global energy demand can no longer be met through the business as usual approach. Graphs depicting emerging energy demand in Asia were presented for nuclear energy, coal, natural gas, oil and renewables. The issue of how China can meet it's growing energy demand was discussed with reference to energy consumed by its industrial, agricultural, commercial, residential and transportation sectors. The author emphasized the uneven distribution of resources, where consuming areas do not coincide with producing areas. It is expected that traditional energy sources will still supply most of the world's energy need for the foreseeable future, but they will leave less of an environmental impact. The author suggested that renewable energy sources will also increase but will comprise less than 20 per cent of the world supply in 2050. The author also discussed the issue of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, Kyoto obligations and projections of what will happen with Kyoto post 2012. Canada's GHG record and recent environmental findings were also discussed with reference to Arctic ice coverage and the decline in average winter temperature. It was suggested that technology is the key to the energy shortage the environment and security. With declining conventional oil reserves, old nuclear technology and aging electric power technology, new technology must be used to address supply issues, distribution, interconversion, environmental impacts and risks. It was emphasized that since the energy sector is Canada's greatest economic driver, Canada should focus on energy technologies to build a more competitive energy sector. Huge export opportunities also exist for energy technologies. The role of industry and governments in achieving this goal was also discussed. figs

  19. Canada : oil, gas, and the new Arctic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huebert, R. [Calgary Univ., AB (Canada). Dept. of Political Science; Calgary Univ., AB (Canada). Centre for Military and Strategic Studies

    2010-07-01

    This presentation provided a broad overview of the geopolitical issues affecting the massive transformation of the Arctic resulting from resource development, globalization, and climate change. Two Arctics are emerging, notably one European and one North American. Oil and gas companies are investing heavily in the North, and there is continued debate over pipelines and projects, but the viability of projects can shift abruptly from technological and political change. Recent examples include the emergence of shale gas, the possibility of the United States becoming a gas exporter, and the Deepwater Horizon disaster. In terms of Maritime jurisdictions and boundaries, a comparison was presented regarding the Canadian and Russian claims to the continental shelf. International cooperation and a commitment to peaceful means can be seen in the Ilulissat Declaration, the acceptance of the United Nations Convention of the Law of the Sea as rules, the scientific cooperation of Canada, the United States, and Denmark, and the recent boundary agreement between Russia and Norway. The positions of the main players in the new geopolitics of the North were outlined, particularly with respect to Russia, the United States, Norway, Denmark, and Canada. Their recent policy statements and developing arctic force capabilities were summarized. Canada's more assertive Arctic policy was outlined in more detail along with the country's base locations and recent security actions in the North. The main issues facing nations with interests in the North will be maritime and aerospace; understanding the new players on the scene; and new technological developments. 10 figs., 5 refs.

  20. United States/Canada electricity exchanges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-02-01

    The United States and Canada have been cooperating in all areas of energy exchange for many years. Electrical energy has been chosen to be the focus of this study because substantial means for exchanges offer benefits that have not yet been fully exploited. There may be some bilateral benefits from additional interconnections because of the buffers which they represent against domestic imbalances. After the history of the electricity exchanges between the two countries is reviewed, opportunities and incentives and obstacles and constraints are discussed in the next two chapters. The final chapter examines procedures to resolve obstacles and minimize constraints. (MCW)

  1. Environmental radioactivity in Canada, April - June 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiological surveillance program of the Department of National Health and Welfare determines levels of environmental radioactivity in Canada and assesses the resulting population exposures. In this Report, the results for the second quarter of 1977 from the analyses of air, water vapour, drinking water and milk for critical radionuclides are presented. The graphical format used in the last quarterly report has been retained with extensions of the trend-lines to enable identification of changes in the levels and assessment of their potential health significance. All the levels measured during this quarter are below the permissible limits recommended by the International Commission for Radiological Protection. (auth)

  2. Progress on the NEPTUNE Canada Seismograph Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, G. C.; Meldrum, R. D.; Heesemann, M.; Mulder, T. L.; Brillon, C. D.; Cassidy, J. F.

    2012-12-01

    NEPTUNE Canada is the world's first deep-sea regional multi-disciplinary scientific cabled ocean observatory. In the fall of 2007 an 800 kilometer ring of powered fiber optic cable was laid on the seafloor over the northern part of the Juan de Fuca plate and connected to a shore facility near Port Alberni on Vancouver Island. In September 2009, three broadband OBS packages were deployed in the form of a large triangle with apexes at mid plate near ODP 1027 (water depth of 2654m) and two sites on the continental slope, near ODP 889 (1256m) and Barkley Canyon (396m). The broadband systems comprise a broadband seismometer and strong motion accelerometer in a spherical titanium case surficially buried in a caisson backfilled with glass beads. Noise levels observed are as expected with the spectra being similar to, or quieter than, coastal seismograph stations in approximately the 10 to 20 second period range. The OBS's have higher noise levels at longer periods where ocean swells and the resultant infragravity waves dominate the noise spectra, and in the 1-10 Hz bandwidth typically used for locating local earthquakes. The shallowest site at Barkley Canyon has the highest noise levels. A small array, about 6 km in maximum dimension, is under construction on the Endeavour segment of the Juan de Fuca Ridge to record earthquake activity in the vicinity of the many NEPTUNE Canada multi-disciplinary ridge experiments. Two short period instruments were installed there in 2010. A broadband instrument and two additional short period instruments are planned to complete the initial ridge array. Even though the NEPTUNE Canada seismograph network is not yet complete, measured by the use of its data, it is a success already. The data are routinely used along with data from land seismographs of the Canadian National Seismograph Network for locating earthquakes in the region. However, the smallest seismic arrivals picked on the land stations cannot be routinely picked on the OBS

  3. Occupational radiation exposures in Canada - 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is the third in a series of annual reports on Occupational Radiation Exposures in Canada. The data is derived from the Radiation Protection Bureau's National Dose Registry which includes dose records for radiation workers. The report presents average yearly doses by region and occupational category, dose distributions, and variation of average doses with time. Statistical data concerning investigations of high exposures reported by the National Dosimetry Services are included and individual cases are briefly summarized where the maximum permissible dose is exceeded. The decrease in the overall average doses established over the last 20 years appears to be changing. In some occupational categories a consistent upward trend is observed

  4. Occupational radiation exposures in Canada - 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is the fifth in a series of annual reports in Occupational Radiation Exposures in Canada. The data is derived from the Radiation Protection Bureau's National Dose Registry which contains dose records for radiation workers. The report presents average yearly doses by region and occupational category, dose distributions, and variation of average doses with time. Statistical data concerning investigations of high exposures reported by the National Dosimetry Services are included, and individual cases are briefly summarized where the maximum permissible dose is exceeded

  5. Acid mine drainage research in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acidic drainage resulting from base metal, precious metal, and uranium mining is the largest single environmental problems facing the Canadian mining industry today. Technologies to prevent acidic drainage from occurring in waste rock piles and tailings sites, and on the walls of open pits and underground mines, need to be developed and demonstrated. There are two grounds in Canada which have accepted this challenge: the national Mine Environment Neutral Drainage (MEND) program and the British Columbia Acid Mine Drainage (BC AMD) Task Force. This paper summarizes the activities of these two organizations

  6. Determinants of Mortgage indebtedness in Canada.

    OpenAIRE

    Mario Fortin; Andre Leclerc

    2007-01-01

    Mortgage indebtedness has risen considerably in Canada in recent years, pushing households’ debt-to-income ratio to an all time high. In order to identify what variables explains these changes in the stock of debt, we analyze the inflow and outflow of mortgage financing. We show that the number of new mortgage loans is mostly influenced by nominal interest rates while their average value reacts only to housing price. As to the outflow of debt repayment it is sensitive to more variables. Since...

  7. Occupational radiation exposures in canada-1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is the sixth in a series of annual reports on Occupational Radiation Exposures in Canada. The information is derived from the National Dose Registry of the Radiation Protection Bureau, Department of National Health and Welfare. As in the past this report presents by occupation: average yearly whole body doses by region, dose distributions, and variations of the average doses with time. The format has been changed to provide more detailed information regarding the various occupations. Statistical data concerning investigations of high exposures reported by the National Dosimetry Services are tabulated in summary form

  8. Foodborne Botulism in Canada, 1985–2005

    OpenAIRE

    Leclair, Daniel; Fung, Joe; Isaac-Renton, Judith L.; Proulx, Jean-Francois; May-Hadford, Jennifer; Ellis, Andrea; Ashton, Edie; Bekal, Sadjia; Farber, Jeffrey M.; Blanchfield, Burke; Austin, John W.

    2013-01-01

    During 1985–2005, a total of 91 laboratory-confirmed outbreaks of foodborne botulism occurred in Canada; these outbreaks involved 205 cases and 11 deaths. Of the outbreaks, 75 (86.2%) were caused by Clostridium botulinum type E, followed by types A (7, 8.1%) and B (5, 5.7%). Approximately 85% of the outbreaks occurred in Alaska Native communities, particularly the Inuit of Nunavik in northern Quebec and the First Nations population of the Pacific coast of British Columbia. These populations w...

  9. Canada: National approach to ageing management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Canadian regulatory approach to ensuring the implementation of effective AMPs for nuclear power plants is summarized as follows. Canada currently has 22 CANDU nuclear power reactors under operating licenses issued by the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (CNSC). The reactors began operation between 1971 and 1993. Through operating licenses, the CNSC requires licensees to comply with a number of in-service inspection standards and regulatory documents under CNSC Safety and Control Area ‘Fitness for Service’ of SSCs. These provide extensive requirements related to understanding, controlling and managing ageing

  10. Educational Policy and Planning. Canada VI. Review of Educational Policies in Canada: Western Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France).

    The final volume in a series on educational policy and planning in Canada, this review concentrates on the western provinces--British Columbia, Alberta, Saskatchewan, and Manitoba. Sections of the document discuss the educational foundations of the Canadian west; the educational system as it was in 1974--its purposes and institutions, attendance,…

  11. ACCC's Response to Industry Canada's Consultation on Improving Canada's Digital Advantage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Association of Canadian Community Colleges, 2010

    2010-01-01

    As the national and international voice representing over 150 publicly-funded colleges, institutes, polytechnics, cegeps, university colleges and universities with a college mandate, the Association of Canadian Community Colleges (ACCC) welcomes the opportunity to provide input to Industry Canada's consultation on a Digital Economy Strategy for…

  12. Active Canada 20/20: A physical activity plan for Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spence, John C; Faulkner, Guy; Costas Bradstreet, Christa; Duggan, Mary; Tremblay, Mark S

    2016-01-01

    Physical inactivity is a pressing public health concern. In this commentary we argue that Canada's approach to increasing physical activity (PA) has been fragmented and has lacked coordination, funding and a strategic approach. We then describe a potential solution in Active Canada 20/20 (AC 20/20), which provides both a national plan and a commitment to action from non-government and public sectors with a view to engaging corporate Canada and the general public. It outlines a road map for initiating, coordinating and implementing proactive initiatives to address this prominent health risk factor. The identified actions are based on the best available evidence and have been endorsed by the majority of representatives in the relevant sectors. The next crucial steps are to engage all those involved in public health promotion, service provision and advocacy at the municipal, provincial and national levels in order to incorporate AC 20/20 principles into practice and planning and thus increase the PA level of every person in Canada. Further, governments, as well as the private, not-for-profit and philanthropic sectors, should demonstrate leadership and continue their efforts toward providing the substantial and sustained resources needed to recalibrate Canadians' habitual PA patterns; this will ultimately improve the overall health of our citizens. PMID:26986905

  13. Canada's first residential green power program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A corporate review of ENMAX, Calgary's electric system was presented as one of the business case studies. This distribution utility provides service to more than 300,000 residential and commercial customers. The company also has contracts with Natural Resources Canada and Environment Canada to supply them with 'greenpower' for use in their own facilities. In an effort to meet the customer and global demand for environmental protection, and to sharpen the company's corporate image, ENMAX decided to become fully 'EcoLogo' certified. The company conducted a survey among residential consumers and found that nearly 40 per cent of the respondents were willing to pay a premium of up to $ 15 per month for green energy, if it leads to emissions reduction. Encouraged by these results, ENMAX launched a residential customer program with Vision Quest Wind Electric. Details of the promotion campaign to popularize wind energy among prospective customers is described. Success of the residential program has led to current plans to also develop a commercial program

  14. BC Alaska-Canada gas pipeline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacDonald, K. [BP Canada Energy Company, Calgary, AB (Canada). BP Alaska Canada Gas Pipelines

    2006-07-01

    The Alaska natural gas pipeline project was discussed in relation to the Canadian oil and gas industry and pipeline infrastructure. Total project costs for the pipeline were estimated at approximately $20 billion. Options out of Alberta include increasing existing capacity to the west coast, as well as expanding pipeline capacity to supply midwest and east coast markets. Existing pipeline systems will be expanded, and a new pipeline from Alaska to Chicago has been proposed. The gas pipeline project is expected to be the largest private construction project in the history of North America, and will provide 6500 jobs in both the United States and Canada. Project challenges to date have included the development of relationships with Aboriginals and First Nations groups in Canada and the United States, as well as ensuring access to efficient, competitive market-based regulatory processes. Project risks to date have included capital and operating cost over-runs, regulatory and legal delays, completion risks, and commodity price risks. Stranded gas act processes were discussed, as well as fiscal contracts related to the legislative and public process. Elements of the fiscal contract were provided, as well as details of First Nations relationships and Crown consultation processes. tabs., figs.

  15. Canada as a continental supplier of energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US federal objectives for a national energy grid are presented. The objectives include an effective, large liquid market with a dramatic improvement in transmission capability and economics. Other objectives include market confidence and excellent reliability and safety. This Power Point presentation describes the management of super regional transmission organizations (RTOs), and large international transmission companies (ITCs) with reference to the benefits of fully functioning ITCs. A graph depicting UK congestion costs reveals that since April 1994, customers have saved at least $700 million and shareholders have gained at least $150 million. UK controllable operating costs have halved, with a 37 per cent real reduction in transmission costs to customers. Canada is a major exporter of electricity to the United States with most of the exports going to the Northeast USA. A graph depicting Canadian versus US electricity volumes indicates that net exports have declined since 2000. Total next export in 2001 was C$2.4 bn. In 2000 it was C$3.4 bn. The Canada-Northeast USA interface capability was also presented for New Brunswick, Ontario and Quebec with exports to Main, Vermont and New York. The constraints within US transmission is the fact that transmission networks limit power flows. The author also discusses regulatory developments in the United States, with reference to RTOs, standard market design, procedural standardization, and focus by the Northeast transmission owners on developing an ITC. 2 tabs., 4 figs

  16. Physician-Assisted Death in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browne, Alister; Russell, J S

    2016-07-01

    The Criminal Code of Canada prohibits persons from aiding or abetting suicide and consenting to have death inflicted on them. Together, these provisions have prohibited physicians from assisting patients to die. On February 6, 2015, the Supreme Court of Canada declared void these provisions insofar as they "prohibit physician-assisted death for a competent adult person who (1) clearly consents to the termination of life and (2) has a grievous and irremediable medical condition (including an illness, disease or disability) that causes enduring suffering that is intolerable to the individual in the circumstances of his or her condition." This declaration of invalidity was scheduled to take effect one year (later extended by six months) after the ruling, to give the government time to put legislation in place. We trace the history of this decision, discuss how it has forever changed the debate on physician-assisted dying, and identify the issues that must be resolved to write the legislation. Of special importance here are the topics of access, safeguards, and conscientious objection. PMID:27348822

  17. A fusion engineering program for Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1980 the National Research Council asked DSMA ATCON Ltd., in collaboration with Ontario Hydro, the University of Toronto, and McMaster University, to evaluate concepts for a national fusion engineering program, to define a facility that could be constructed in Canada to meet the program goals, and to suggest a strategy for encouraging industrial participation. The central element of the proposed fusion engineering and development program is tritium technology, with additional emphasis on the broader field of all hydrogen isotopes and their interactions with materials. The Canadian program in the initial phase would concentrate on fusion fuel systems, materials development, equipment development, and safety and the environment. A preliminary concept for the facility required has been developed, and key organizational activities identified. The total program costs should be $1 million in the first year, rising to a steady state of $5 million from the fourth year onward. The capital cost of the research facility is estimated to be $20 million spread over three years, and its operating budget around $7 million. The program as envisioned would make use of Canada's existing tritium resources and handling experience to contribute to worldwide fusion research

  18. Neutron sources in Canada - Present and future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolling, G.; Lidstone, R. F.

    Canada's pre-eminent neutron source since 1957 has been the NRU reactor at Chalk River. It is unlikely to operate beyond the year 2005. In 1994, AECL prepared the case and concept for a new research reactor, the Irradiation Research Facility (IRF), to replace NRU. The IRF was developed with the dual purpose of meeting the needs of both R&D programs to support existing and advanced CANDU® designs and also of condensed matter science and materials research using extracted neutron beams. In November 1995, AECL began a pre-project engineering programme to develop the design of the facility and to begin the safety analysis and “up-front” licensing process. The dual-purpose concept continues to be pursued and the design modified, to achieve maximum performance in the most cost-effective manner. The planned neutron-beam facilities, which include a cold source and a guide hall, will greatly enhance Canada's programs of neutron-beam research and applications. The current status of the IRF design and of efforts to secure funding for the neutron-beam components will be presented.

  19. Canada's gasoline production, sales and marketing : backgrounder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This booklet provides a variety of useful facts as general public information about gasoline, the most widely used transportation fuel in Canada. Issues such as price, quality, availability, safety and the environmental impact of gasoline are discussed. Like any unregulated commodity, gasoline prices are determined by the market forces of supply and demand. Prices can vary from place to place because of taxes, the number of service stations, delivery costs, labour costs and land costs. Taxes play the biggest role in price differences between countries. In Canada, there are 18 gasoline-producing refineries and about 13,500 service station which are owned by 30 major retail gasoline marketing companies. Currently, propane is the most common alternative to gasoline. Alcohol fuels such as ethanol and methanol are also being used more and more frequently. Refiners are working with vehicle manufacturers to find cost-effective ways to reduce emissions from cars and trucks. Blends of gasoline with ethanol or methanol reduce hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide emissions, but may increase nitrogen oxides and other emissions. Refiners are also working to define a new national standard for sulphur levels in gasoline. refs., figs

  20. Disposal of Canada's nuclear fuel waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1978, the governments of Canada and Ontario established the Nuclear Fuel Waste Management program. As of the time of the conference, the research performed by AECL was jointly funded by AECL and Ontario Hydro through the CANDU owners' group. Ontario Hydro have also done some of the research on disposal containers and vault seals. From 1978 to 1992, AECL's research and development on disposal cost about C$413 million, of which C$305 was from funds provided to AECL by the federal government, and C$77 million was from Ontario Hydro. The concept involves the construction of a waste vault 500 to 1000 metres deep in plutonic rock of the Canadian Precambrian Shield. Used fuel (or possibly solidified reprocessing waste) would be sealed into containers (of copper, titanium or special steel) and emplaced (probably in boreholes) in the vault floor, surrounded by sealing material (buffer). Disposal rooms might be excavated on more than one level. Eventually all excavated openings in the rock would be backfilled and sealed. Research is organized under the following headings: disposal container, waste form, vault seals, geosphere, surface environment, total system, assessment of environmental effects. A federal Environmental Assessment Panel is assessing the concept (holding public hearings for the purpose) and will eventually make recommendations to assist the governments of Canada and Ontario in deciding whether to accept the concept, and how to manage nuclear fuel waste. 16 refs., 1 tab., 3 figs

  1. Uranium mining in Canada and Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study compared the impact of taxation on the economic viability and competitive position of uranium mining in Canada and Australia. The evaluation is based on four types of uranium deposit and four hypothetical project models. The deposits are assumed to have been discovered and delineated, and are awaiting a mine development decision. The models, initially appraised on a before-tax basis, are then subjected to taxation in each of six jurisdictions. Several taxation criteria are assessed in each case, including after-tax measures of investment incentive, discounted tax revenues, effective tax rates, intergovernmental tax shares, and comparative tax levels. The impact of taxation is shown to be both high and variable. The taxation systems in Saskatchewan and Australia's Northern Territory generate the most government revenue and provide the lowest incentive for investment. Canada's Northwest Territories and Ontario provide the best investment incentive and collect the least amount of taxes. South Australia and Western Australia tend to be positioned between these extremes. The study demonstrates that only the very best uranium mining projects have a chance of being developed under current market conditions, and even these can be rendered uneconomic by excessive taxation regimes. It follows that exceptionally good quality targets will have to be identified to provide the economic justification for uranium exploration. These realities will likely restrict uranium exploration and development activities for some time, not an unexpected response to a market situation where low prices have been caused largely by excess supply. (L.L.)

  2. Breast cancer screening in Canada: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Organized screening for breast cancer in Canada began in 1988 and has been implemented in all provinces and 2 of the 3 territories. Quality initiatives are promoted through national guidelines which detail best practices in various areas, including achieving quality through a client-service approach, recruitment and capacity, retention, quality of mammography, reporting, communication of results, follow-up and diagnostic workup, and program evaluation; it also offers detailed guidelines for the pathological examination and reporting of breast specimens. The Canadian Breast Cancer Data Base is a national breast cancer screening surveillance system whose objective is to collect information from provincial-screening programs. These data are used to monitor and evaluate the performance of programs and allow comparison with national and international results. A series of standardized performance indicators and targets for the evaluation of performance and quality of organized breast cancer screening programs have been developed from the data base. Although health care is a provincial responsibility in Canada, the collective reporting and comparison of results both nationally and internationally is beneficial in evaluating and refining both screening programs and individual radiologist performance. The results of Canadian performance indicators compare favourably with those of other well-established international screening programs. There are variations in performance indicators across the provinces and territories, but these differences are not extreme. (author)

  3. Proceedings of Synergy 1998 : Canada's energy congress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this conference was to help energy companies understand what deregulation of the electricity industry means and to meet the challenges of the increasingly competitive and volatile market environment that will inevitably follow deregulation. Accordingly, individual speakers and panels addressed the likely impacts of deregulation on energy markets, strategies to capitalize on restructuring, world market developments in the post monopoly era, strategies for gas buyers, and new opportunities for small co-generation companies and independent power producers using natural gas. Other topics dealt with included predictions about the role of the regulator in the new electricity market, the allocation of stranded costs, and the effects of FERC ruling in the USA on competition in Canada. Consumer concerns were also addressed by presentations about the bottom line for consumers, the operation of the Independent Market Operator, the influence of major power consumers on restructuring, the question of reliability in the new regime, and the effects of convergence. Experiences gained with industry restructuring in California, in the United Kingdom, in the New England States, in Scandinavian countries and in New Zealand were also reviewed as background for understanding the restructuring about to go into effect in various provinces of Canada. tabs., figs

  4. Eastern Canada natural gas market development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An overview an update of PanCanadian's exploration operations in Atlantic Canada was presented along with market delivery options. PanCanadian is one of Canada's largest natural gas producers and the most active Canadian driller with 2,479 wells. With its' 94 per cent success rate, the company is emerging as an international exploration success and is marketing energy throughout North America. In terms of marketing natural gas, PanCanadian is ranked twelfth of 68 suppliers in customer satisfaction. The company also markets about 10 per cent of western crude production and is the second largest Canadian marketer for natural gas liquids. Also, with the deregulation of electricity in Alberta, PanCanadian is constructing two 106 megawatt power plants in Alberta to provide electricity to Southern Alberta and to take advantage of the economics of energy conversion. PanCanadian also has a dominant, 20 per cent position in the Scotia Shelf and has plans for offshore processing. Graphs depicting its Deep Panuke operations and pipeline routes to market the natural gas were included. Forecast charts for natural gas demand show a steady increase in demand from 2000 to 2010. tabs., figs

  5. Floods in Canada and Northern Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    During the first half of June, heavy rains inundated northern Minnesota and southern Canada, giving rise to floods that drove hundreds of people from their homes and drenched more than 300,000 acres of prime farmland. This false-color image of the flood (right) was acquired on June 15, 2002, by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASA's Terra spacecraft. The worst of the flooding occurred on the border of Canada and Minnesota along the Roseau River, which now resembles a lake in the center of the image. The town of Roseau, Minnesota, which sits in the eastern end of the newly formed lake, was hit the hardest. Nearly all the buildings in the town took heavy water damage and many residents were forced to leave. Widespread flooding across an eight county region in Minnesota has drenched nearly 300,000 to 500,000 acres of farmland altogether. Many of the farmers hit lost 100 percent of their crops and will be unable to plant again for the season. Last week, President Bush declared northern Minnesota a disaster area. Normally, the Roseau River cannot even be seen on a MODIS image (left, acquired May 21, 2002), and the surrounding area is dry. In the false-color images, sage green, rusty orange, and blue is land, and water is black. Clouds are white and pink. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  6. Syncrude Canada Ltd. 1998 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syncrude Canada Ltd. operates the Syncrude Project which is a joint venture of 10 partners responsible for operating the largest crude oil-producing oil sands facility in the world. The facility provides more than 13 per cent of Canada's annual oil requirements. Syncrude's product is Syncrude Sweet Blend (SSB) which is a high quality, light, sweet crude oil. SSB is produced through an integrated process that begins with the surface mining of the oil sands. Annual SSB shipments for 1998 were 76.7 million barrels, the 17th annual record in 20 years of operation. In 1998, construction also began on the second ore train of the North Mine and its associated hydrotransport facilities. The report presents an overview of financial highlights and operating results for 1998, paying appropriate tribute to innovation that has been responsible for the continuous improvements made by the Consortium. The report also expresses the Joint Venture Partners' long-term commitment to applying the latest technology, improving workforce productivity, environmental performance, an even higher quality product, and more cost-effective ways to do business. 2 tabs

  7. Canada's uranium industry - the next decade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uranium is a unique commodity. It is both a metal and a fuel. It has both commercial and military uses. It yields 'clean energy' but presents environmental concerns. All of these factors have an impact on the commerce of uranium. Being a metal, uranium is extracted from ore like many other metallic minerals. As a fuel, it is subject to the vagaries of energy commodity market forces. The history of uranium in the first nuclear weapons has led to national governments carefully controlling production and sale of uranium. The spectre of radioactive contamination of the environment adds further to the public concern over the disposal of low-level radioactive wastes from uranium processing and use. There have been a number of excellent reviews on the commercial aspects of the uranium industry. In this discussion, these aspects will be briefly summarized to provide a general picture of the strengths of the Canadian uranium industry and the pressures to which it is being subjected currently. The principal thrust of this paper will be to outline Canada's resource strength and to identify some factors which will affect Canada's ability to continue holding a sizeable share of the world uranium market

  8. 9 CFR 93.419 - Sheep and goats from Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... requirements established by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration at 21 CFR 589.2000, and, before the animal's... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sheep and goats from Canada. 93.419... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Ruminants Canada 8 § 93.419 Sheep and goats...

  9. Research Connections Canada: Supporting Children and Families, Number 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Susan, Ed.; Bose, Kathy, Ed.; Levesque, Lise, Ed.

    Serving as a vehicle for raising the profile of and thereby gaining recognition for the important research and development work being conducted in Canada in support of children and families, the "Research Connections Canada" series compiles research and/or development papers as well as background papers, analytical literature reviews, and essays.…

  10. Energy efficiency trends in Canada -- An industrial perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this paper is to explain the contribution of energy efficiency to the evolution of secondary energy use and greenhouse gas emissions in Canada. Promoting greater energy efficiency in all sectors of the economy is an important element of Canada's National Action Program on Climate Change--the federal-provincial strategy to achieve Canada's commitment to work toward stabilizing greenhouse gas emissions at 1990 levels by the year 2000. In this regard, an improved understanding of the relationship between energy efficiency, energy use and greenhouse gas emissions will assist policy makers in assessing the progress being made in addressing the issues of global climate change and sustainable development. Natural Resources Canada has developed indicators of changes in the principal factors which influence secondary energy use and emissions over time. This paper utilizes these indicators to review energy use trends in the four secondary energy use sectors (residential, commercial, industrial and transportation), with particular emphasis on the industrial sector., This review covers the period from 1990 to 1995. The year 1995 was chosen because it is the most recent year for which actual energy use data are available. The year 1990 is the base year of Canada's environmental goal, in accordance with the Framework Convention on Climate Change. A more comprehensive and detailed presentation of these indicators can be found in ''Energy Efficiency Trends in Canada'' 1990 to 1995. This report is an update of ''Energy Efficiency Trends in Canada'' which was published by Natural Resources Canada in April 1996

  11. The Demand for Child Care Services in Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Henriques, I; Vaillancourt, F.

    1986-01-01

    This Paper Examines the Determinants of the Demand for Child Care Services in Canada. Using Survey Data Collected for 1981 by Statistics Canada and Probit Analysis We Find That the Likelihood of Using Child Care Services Increases with Variables Such As the Education of the Mother and the Age of the Child and Decreases with the Number of Children in the Family.

  12. Survey of current electric utility research in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Information on the research programs of eight Canadian electrical utilities and the Canadian Electrical Association has been compiled. Work done by the National Research Council of Canada is included, but the research done by Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd. is excluded. Projects in the area of nuclear power include work on heat transfer and fluid flow, waste management, materials, and corrosion. (L.L.)

  13. Revisiting Academic Capitalism in Canada: No Longer the Exception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metcalfe, Amy Scott

    2010-01-01

    In "Academic Capitalism: Politics, Policies, and the Entrepreneurial University" (1997), Slaughter and Leslie found that Canada showed signs of resisting academic capitalism. Changes in postsecondary education funding policies and the emergence of new commercialization initiatives are evidence that Canada is certainly no longer, and perhaps never…

  14. Productivity through Innovation: Applied Research at Canada's Colleges and Institutes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Association of Canadian Community Colleges, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Applied research at Canada's colleges and institutes has expanded rapidly over the last five years. This report provides an overview of the current context and positions colleges and institutes as key players in Canada's innovation system. The report builds upon findings of previous research and reports on the results of the 2009-2010 "Applied…

  15. The Analysis Of Adult Immigrants’ Learning System In Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukan Nataliya

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In the article the problem of adult immigrants’ learning in Canada has been studied. The main objectives of the article are defined as: analysis of scientific and pedagogical literature which highlights different aspects of the research problem; analysis of the adult immigrants’ learning system in Canada; and the perspectives for creative implementation of Canadian experience in Ukraine.

  16. Canada: Native Land Rights and Northern Development. IWGIA Document 26.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cumming, Peter A.

    Presenting the critical elements for a new and meaningful relationship between the Inuit and the emerging industrial society of Northern Canada, this publication includes: (1) Canada as a Nation State and Northern Development; (2) Northern Development and Institutions in Decision-Making; (3) The Northwest Territories and Yukon Territory as…

  17. Quality of Life and Perceptions of Crime in Saskatoon, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitchen, Peter; Williams, Allison

    2010-01-01

    This article investigates the relationship between crime and quality of life in Saskatoon, Canada. The city has one of the highest crime rates in the country and has been referred to as the "Crime Capital of Canada", a label that comes as a surprise to many residents and causes considerable concern among others. The aim of this research is to…

  18. Understanding Canada's International Trade Policy. "Understanding Economics" Series No. 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornell, Peter M.

    Written for secondary school Canadian students, the document examines Canada's international trade policy. It is arranged in three sections. Part I discusses the affect of Canada's trade policy on the individual citizen. Tariffs and non-tariff barriers to trade such as import licenses, preferential purchasing agreements, health and safety…

  19. Uncertainties in financing nuclear power growth in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The current energy situation in Canada is shortly reviewed with a focus on the history of nuclear power in Ontario. An aoutlook for the Canadian nuclear program is given. Finally, same of the major considerations in financing Canada's nuclear power growth is outlined, particularly with respect to sources of funds and their competing uses. (author)

  20. Atomic Energy of Canada Limited annual report 1985-86

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The annual report of Atomic Energy of Canada Limited for the fiscal year ended March 31, 1986 covers the following subjects: report from the chairman and the president; research company; CANDU operations; radiochemical company; employee performance; nuclear Canada; Financial section; and board of directors and officers

  1. Nuclear energy. Unmasking the mystery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Standing Committee on Energy, Mines and Resources of the House of Commons of Canada undertook a study of the economics of nuclear power in Canada. This is its report on the evidence it heard. It found that maintaining the nuclear power option is vital to Canada's interests. The Committee recommended that: the schedule for establishing a commercial high-level radioactive waste repository be advanced; the basic insurance coverage on nuclear facilities be raised; the federal government increase its financial support of Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd. (AECL); AECL expand its research and development activities, including non-nuclear R and D; AECL be allowed to hold a minority interest in any component of AECL that is privatized; any new entity created by privatization from AECL be required to remain under Canadian control; the Atomic Energy Control Act be altered to allow the Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB) to recover costs through licensing fees and user charges, while the AECB's parliamentary appropriation is increased to offset remaining costs of operations; membership on the AECB be increased from one to five full-time members, retaining the present four part-time members; the AECB hold its hearings in public; the name of the AECB be changed so it is more readily distinguishable from AECL; the AECB establish an office of public information; and that federal and provincial governments cooperate more closely to identify opportunities where more efficient use of electricity could be achieved and to promote those measures that can attain the greatest economic efficiency

  2. Report on the use of programmable digital computers in the shutdown systems of the Darlington G.S

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report by the Advisory Committee on Nuclear Safety (ACNS) considers the use of large, programmable computers in the shutdown system at the planned Darlington Generating Station. After a review of the documents submitted to the Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB) by Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd. Engineering Company in support of gaining AECB's agreement in principle to such a system, the ACNS concludes that no fundamental principle will be challenged by the introduction of computer technology into safety systems. It cautions, however, that the AECB should ensure that existing principles, particularly those of independence and redundancy, will not be compromised in the application

  3. Hiring and keeping qualified personnel in a growing regulatory organisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although no new nuclear stations are currently committed in Canada, the regulatory authority, the Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB), has started, in 1989, an expansion program which, when completed in 1994 will represent a 60 pc increase in its workforce. The new personnel resources are being used to improve the AECB effectiveness in a number of regulatory activities. This paper reviews some of the key factors which relate to the hiring and integration of the new AECB employees: selection process, timing, fees, scholarship program, subsequent training of qualified personnel, woman quotas. 2 figs

  4. The Canada-U.S. trade, energy, and emissions relationship

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A significant level of trade integration exists between Canada and the United States. For this reason, climate and energy policies in one country have economic and environmental impacts in the other. The two nations have embarked on a clean energy dialogue for the development of a clean energy strategy for Canada and this document aims at providing information and context. This paper showed that the trade relationship with the United States is important to maintaining Canada's level of prosperity. Although climate and energy policies in one country have impacts on the other, significant differences exist between their respective energy sources and emissions and a common policy would affect Canada's competitiveness. This paper showed that Canada and the United States need to discuss their clean energy and climate policies with each other but that it is not possible to implement a common policy.

  5. Update on Canada's response to climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The challenge facing Canada regarding climate change was discussed with reference to federal initiatives and the Climate Change Action Fund (CCAF) extension. Phase 1 of Canada's strategy to reduce greenhouse gas emissions was also discussed. The national process from 1998 to 2000 involved 450 experts from government, industry and non-governmental organizations who created 16 working groups to develop analysis and policy options for reducing emissions. Each working group produced foundation papers regarding the state of various sectors of the Canadian economy. They also directed option reports describing a full range of options for reducing greenhouse gas emissions. Graphs depicting greenhouse gas emissions by province and by sector for 1990 and 2010 showed that Alberta and Ontario are the provinces that emit, and will continue to emit, the most greenhouse gases. The transportation sector is responsible for the greatest amount of emissions into the atmosphere, followed by the industrial, power generation and agricultural sectors. The action plan for budget 2000 called for $1.1 billion over 5 years to reduce emissions, increase understanding of climate science, and build a foundation for future action. The federal measures are designed to obtain 65 Mt/year during 2008-2012 commitment period, taking Canada one third of the way towards the Kyoto target. For the transportation sector, this means an objective of increasing fuel efficiency of vehicles and having a supply of lower emitting fuels. New fuels include ethanol produced from biomass. The use of fuel cell vehicles that emit low or no emissions will require the development of a refuelling infrastructure. Energy efficiencies and technologies are also encouraged in aviation, rail, marine and trucking industries. Energy efficiency in urban transportation is encouraged through best urban transportation practices and strategies to reduce greenhouse gases. The CCAF structure is extended to 2004. The hydrogen and fuel

  6. Regulatory requirements for the transport of radioactive materials in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canada is a major producer and shipper of radioactive material. Each year more than a million packages are transported in Canada. The safety record with the transport of RAM in Canada has historically been excellent. There have never been any serious injuries, overexposure or fatality or environmental consequences attributable to the radioactive nature of such material being transported or being involved in a transport accident. In Canada, the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (CNSC) is the prime agency of the federal government entrusted with regulating all activities related to the use of nuclear energy and nuclear substances including the packaging and transport of nuclear substances. The mission of the CNSC is to regulate the use of nuclear energy and materials to protect health, safety, security of the person and the environment and to respect Canada's international commitments on the peaceful use of nuclear energy. The division of responsibility for the regulation of transport of radioactive material has been split between Transport Canada and the CNSC. The governing Transport Canada's regulations are Transport of Dangerous Goods (TDG) Regulations and the CNSC regulations are Packaging and Transport of Nuclear Substances Regulations (PTNSR). Canada has actively participated in the development of the IAEA regulations for the safe transport of radioactive material since 1960. As an IAEA member state, Canada generally follows the requirements of IAEA regulations with few deviations. The Nuclear Safety and Control Act (NSCA) strongly supports Canada's international obligations to ensure safe packaging, transport, storage and disposal of nuclear substances, prescribed equipment and prescribed information. Prescribed equipment and prescribed information are defined in the CNSC General Nuclear Safety and Control Regulations. This paper presents the current CNSC regulatory requirements and initiatives taken by the CNSC to improve its effectiveness and efficiency

  7. Syncrude: Working to secure Canada's energy future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syncrude Canada supplies 11% of total Canadian crude oil production, over 60 million bbl/y, from oil sand deposits in northern Alberta. Syncrude is the world's largest synthetic crude oil producer, and its operating costs are comparable to the costs of finding and producing new conventional oil sources. Some 200 billion bbl of oil are recoverable from the oil sands using present extraction techniques, but more research and development is needed for the northern Alberta deposits to realize their full potential. A key to much of Syncrude's success is its personnel policies, which include involvement in working with local native communities to hire and train aboriginal employees, establishment of partnerships with educational institutions, on-the-job education, and employment equity programs for women and minority groups. 2 figs

  8. Open Source in Canada's Public Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evan Leibovitch

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The story of the growth of open source use in Canada has been far more a matter of evolution than revolution, so quiet in its pace that its progress has been difficult to measure. This has posed many challenges to Canadian open source advocates in their efforts to ensure that their country does not lag behind the rest of the world in understanding the social and business benefits open source provides. Perhaps some of the leading soldiers in the trenches might be our civil servants who protect the public purse. In addition to managing and minimizing the costs of delivering necessary services, public sector projects should also advance the social good through the delicate balance of transparency and efficiency.

  9. Impacts of Canada's uranium mining industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study examines economic and environmental impacts of uranium mining in Canada and compares these impacts with those of other extractive and energy industries. The uranium industry generates taxes and royalties, income, employment, foreign exchange earnings, security of energy supply, and technological spinoffs. The indirect impacts of the industry as measured by employment and income multipliers are lower than those for other types of mining and comparable to oil and gas because of the high proportion of costs withdrawn from the economy in the form of taxes and operator margin. Social costs are primarily occupational hazards. Uranium mining probably has a lower non-health environmental impact than other mining industries due to much smaller throughputs and transportation requirements. Residents of the area surrounding the mine bear a disproportionate share of the social costs, while non-residents receive most of the benefits

  10. Operating experience and lessons learned in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The decision to continue operation in Canada depends ultimately on economic factors. This decision is made for each unit independently, even if the unit is part of a multiunit station. An effective PLiM implementation programme plays a pivotal role in LTO decisions because it is capable of integrating ageing management and economic planning. The use of an economic model allows PLiM to evaluate implementation alternatives, such as optimizing the staffing curve to shorten the LTO outage, helping to decide on capital upgrades if it can be shown they can increase capacity factors or the maximum continuous rating. Plant life management can also help select the optimum conditions and the best time for an extended LTO outage

  11. Energy storage in Canada - Embassy report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After having outlined what is at stake in energy storage in the world (brief presentation of storage methods, overview of world electricity production and its storage challenges), and given an overview of the Canadian energy sector, this report gives an overview of the Canadian key and particularly innovating actors: main organisations, scientific research (in the fields of advanced batteries, of fuel cells, and of thermal storage), industrial sector (leaders in electricity production, in the electric or hybrid automotive sector and in the field of portable electronic devices, in the Li-ion battery sector, and in the hydrogen fuel cell sector, innovating actors in other energy storage methods). The author then discusses the innovation momentum in Canada: examples of energy storage projects by public organisations (CNRC, RNC), industrial projects in energy projects, investment dynamics

  12. Occupational radiation exposures in Canada, 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is the fourth in a series of annual reports on Occupational Radiation Exposures in Canada. The data is derived from the Radiation Protection Bureau's National Dose Registry which includes those records for radiation workers. The report presents average yearly doses by region and occupational category, dose distributions, and variation of average doses with time. Statistical data concerning investigations of high exposures reported by the National Dosimetry Services are included and individual cases are briefly summarized where the maximum permissible dose is exceeded. The decrease in the overall average doses established over the last 20 years appears to have resumed after an interruption during 1979 to 1980. A brief summary of extremity dose data is also included

  13. Teaching Inquiry in Nigeria and Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strubbe, Linda

    2015-08-01

    Inquiry is a teaching strategy in which student work mirrors authentic scientific research: students have ownership over their learning path, and learning scientific concepts (e.g., properties of light, motion in a gravitational field) is intertwined with learning scientific practices (e.g., asking questions, planning an investigation, constructing explanations). I will describe inquiry and education research showing its effectiveness; and I will present inquiry-based astronomy curricula and assessment strategies we have designed for undergraduate and graduate courses in Nigeria and Canada: an activity on the cosmic distance ladder (part of a short course in Abuja); a course on order-of-magnitude astronomy problem solving (Toronto); and new education research from the Carl Wieman Science Education Initiative at the University of British Columbia (where I am a new postdoc).

  14. Control of transformer losses in Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiegand, D.A. [Canadian Standards Association, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    1994-12-31

    A new standard issued by the Canadian Standards Association, CSA C802, imposes maximum losses on transformers 10 MVA and below. Included are Distribution Transformers, small Power Transformers, and Dry Types. Implementation will start though the publishing in mid 1994 of the Gazette by Ontario`s Ministry of Energy. The Gazette will call for conformance to C802 after a lead time of one year to eighteen months, depending on the type of transformer. Other provincial energy ministries have been awaiting this development and are expected to follow suit shortly thereafter. The federal department, Natural Resources Canada, is also attuned to these actions and is expected to issue supportive legislation which will control movement of transformers across provincial and national borders.

  15. 1997 PSAC Western Canada activity forecast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oil-well and gas-well drilling activities to the end of the third quarter of 1996 were reviewed in twelve specific geographical areas in Western Canada. Major operators for each area were determined and the information was tabulated showing the number, the type, and the depth of wells drilled in each area for the top 50 operators. An estimate of well counts for twelve months of 1996 was used to forecast activity for 1997 (12,300 wells). The projections include anticipated expenditure for various products and services in each of the geographical areas. Total expenditures in 1997 were estimated at $5.85 billion ($6.5 billion in 1996).5 tabs., 3 figs

  16. Forestry Canada's perspectives on climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The impacts of climatic change on Canada's forestry sector are discussed, in the context of major research priorities relating to forecasting climate, forecasting forest responses, monitoring changes, mitigating effects, and understanding the forest carbon balance. There are five major concerns that affect policy decisions: effects of climatic change on forests; adaptation to climate change; impacts of changing crops on forestry; changing forestry values in changing sociological settings; and international implications of the changing climate. A scientific program to respond to climate change issues is required, and should include the following concentrations of research effort. Planning requires projections of likely future climates, and efforts should concern relations between pre-historic climates and forest ecosystems and integrating data into predictive models. Forecasting of response of forests should include tree physiology, factors controlling reforestation, variations in forest trees, effects of pollutants, damage to forests, and forest decline

  17. Nuclear fuel waste disposal. Canada's consultative approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over the past two decades, society has increasingly demanded more public participation and public input into decision-making by governments. Development of the Canadian concept for deep geological disposal of used nuclear fuel has proceeded in a manner that has taken account of the requirements for social acceptability as well as technical excellence. As the agency responsible for development of the disposal concept, Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) has devoted considerable effort to consultation with the various publics that have an interest in the concept. This evolutionary interactive and consultative process, which has been underway for some 14 years, has attempted to keep the public informed of the technical development of the concept and to invite feedback. This paper describes the major elements of this evolutionary process, which will continue throughout the concept assessment and review process currently in progress. (author)

  18. [Linguistic minorities in Canada and health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchard, Louise; Desmeules, Martin

    2013-10-01

    Official language minorities (Francophones outside of Quebec and Anglophones in Quebec) make up about 6.4% of the Canadian population. Even though the Canadian constitution gives legal equality status to French and English, there is still room to ask if this equality is maintained in the health sector. In other words, do Francophone and Anglophone communities of Canada have the same health profiles regardless of their minority or majority status? Do they have access to the same health services and in the same conditions? The objective of this paper is to identify the health issues associated with belonging to a linguistic minority. Our research allows us to highlight the social and health disparities that can be attributed to belonging to a minority. In the Canadian context, which has two official languages, an equitable health policy will have to take into consideration language as a determinant of health. PMID:24289938

  19. Petro-Canada's oil sands supply outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A report by the Canadian Energy Research Institute suggests that by 2017, production from the Athabasca Oil Sands could reach as high as 3.5 million barrels per day (mbpd), or it could be as low as 1.1 mbpd. This uncertainty in production is due to several variables such as capital costs, project size, reservoir quality, pipeline capacity and workforce productivity. Other factors that influence production include marginal economics, markets and prices, investor confidence, stakeholder concerns and the Kyoto Protocol. The production level that will be achieved by 2017 will depend on how industry address these emerging issues. The author discussed these issues in detail with particular reference to the approach that Petro-Canada has taken to address the challenges. Suggestions to reduce the potential impacts of these challenges were also presented. tabs., figs

  20. Bank of Canada Workshop on Derivatives Markets in Canada and Beyond

    OpenAIRE

    Toni Gravelle

    2007-01-01

    At this 2006 workshop hosted by the Bank of Canada, an international group of market participants, regulators, and policy-makers gathered to assess recent developments in the derivatives market. Among the topics discussed were the recent prodigious growth in risk-transfer instruments, including credit derivatives and inflation-linked derivatives, as well as the accompanying challenges and benefits. Overall, the development of derivatives markets was seen as providing broad economic benefits, ...

  1. Optimal control of Atlantic population Canada geese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauser, C.E.; Runge, M.C.; Cooch, E.G.; Johnson, F.A.; Harvey, W.F., IV

    2007-01-01

    Management of Canada geese (Branta canadensis) can be a balance between providing sustained harvest opportunity while not allowing populations to become overabundant and cause damage. In this paper, we focus on the Atlantic population of Canada geese and use stochastic dynamic programming to determine the optimal harvest strategy over a range of plausible models for population dynamics. There is evidence to suggest that the population exhibits significant age structure, and it is possible to reconstruct age structure from surveys. Consequently the harvest strategy is a function of the age composition, as well as the abundance, of the population. The objective is to maximize harvest while maintaining the number of breeding adults in the population between specified upper and lower limits. In addition, the total harvest capacity is limited and there is uncertainty about the strength of density-dependence. We find that under a density-independent model, harvest is maximized by maintaining the breeding population at the highest acceptable abundance. However if harvest capacity is limited, then the optimal long-term breeding population size is lower than the highest acceptable level, to reduce the risk of the population growing to an unacceptably large size. Under the proposed density-dependent model, harvest is maximized by maintaining the breeding population at an intermediate level between the bounds on acceptable population size; limits to harvest capacity have little effect on the optimal long-term population size. It is clear that the strength of density-dependence and constraints on harvest significantly affect the optimal harvest strategy for this population. Model discrimination might be achieved in the long term, while continuing to meet management goals, by adopting an adaptive management strategy.

  2. Emergency radiology in Canada: a national survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To document the existing radiology services available to emergency physicians in hospitals across Canada and to preview future trends and needs. Questionnaires (n = 130) regarding the type, availability and satisfaction with radiology services were distributed to radiologists and emergency physicians at 65 hospitals across Canada. Fifty-three (41%) questionnaires were returned, and 45 (35%) completed questionnaires from 35 hospitals were used for analysis (24 from radiologists and 21 from emergency physicians). Plain radiographs were available in all hospitals at all times. Ultrasonography, intravenous pyleograms and computed tomography (CT) were available in all departments during normal working hours; after hours, CT was unavailable in 1 hospital and ultrasonography was unavailable in 2. Focused assessment with sonography for trauma (FAST) was routinely performed for blunt abdominal trauma in 6 centres, and 10 centres had teleradiology services. Regarding the quality of emergency service, 7 of 45 responded 'poor,' 4 'average,' 14 'good,' and 17 of 45 rated service 'excellent.' Interestingly, most radiologists answered 'good' or 'excellent,' and most of the 'poor' responses came from emergency physicians. Regarding staff coverage after 5 pm, 34 hospitals provided CT services, 20 had ultrasonography staff available, and there was radiology nursing coverage in 14 hospitals. Clinical details on requisitions were generally rated 'adequate' or 'poor.' Although most radiograph reports were available within 48 hours, some took longer. Hot-seat reporting was available in 11 centres. During normal working hours, radiologists were the first to read films in 5 of 35 hospitals. After hours, emergency physicians were the first to read films in all hospitals, but only 14 hospitals indicated they were 'formally' trained to do so. This survey documents the strengths and weaknesses of the radiology services available to emergency physicians. The perceptions of emergency physicians

  3. Northern gas : Arctic Canada and Alaska

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses supply challenges in relation to Northern gas availability in Arctic Canada and Alaska. A background of BP Canada Energy Company was provided. It was suggested that gas from traditional North American basins would not meet demand, and that incremental sources of supply would be needed. A map of traditional and non-tradition supply sources was presented along with details of supply and infrastructure investment requirements from 2003-2025. The roles of producers, local distribution companies, pipelines and policy makers in infrastructure development were examined. Potential resources in Alaska and the Mackenzie Delta were discussed, along with details of the Mackenzie Valley Pipeline project and exploration activities. Alaska's North Slope gas resource was reviewed. Several large projects devolving from the Alaska Gas Pipeline represent an anticipated total investment of $20 billion. Various regulatory and economic conditions necessary for the successful completion of the project include the Alaska Fiscal Contract; Alaska gas provisions in the Federal Energy Bill; details of the Canadian regulatory process; and cost reductions and market outlooks. It was concluded that the Alaska Gas Pipeline would provide thousands of jobs and provide stability of long-term gas prices as well as meeting North America's energy needs. In addition, the pipeline would provide $16 billion in Canadian government revenues and $40 billion in US government revenues. The pipeline would provide 4.5 billion cubic feet per day of clean energy, with half the carbon dioxide emissions of coal. It would also provide hundreds of billions of dollars in consumer savings. tabs, figs

  4. Leveraging Canada's nuclear infrastructure for medical innovation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malkoske, G. [MDS Nordion, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)

    2007-07-01

    This paper discusses the role that Canada plays in nuclear medicine worldwide. Canada supplies over 75% of the world's Cobalt-60 which sterilizes 45% of all single-use medical supplies in the world. Cobalt-60 teletherapy delivers 45000 cancer treatments daily. It is used in non-destructive testing. Canada also supplies over 50% of the world's medical isotopes. NRU reactor-produced isotopes include Molybdenum 99, iodine 131, Iodine 125, Xenon 133 and Cobalt 60. MDS Nordion maintains a strategic supply agreement with AECL.

  5. Canada and the Kyoto Protocol: Fact Sheet No. 1 - Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This fact sheet outlines the principles underlying Canada's position at the sixth Conference of Parties (COP6) regarding climate change. Capsule descriptions of the Canadian view on carbon sinks (advocating a broader inclusion of sink activities), application of the flexibility mechanisms (the Clean Development Mechanism, Joint Implementation and International Emissions Trading), the issue of compliance (Canada favoring strong incentives to ensure compliance), and strengthening the capacity of developing countries to enhance their contribution to fighting climate change (Canada acknowledging that capacity building and technology transfer needs to be a central part of the global approach to combating climate change)

  6. Science and technology enabling Canada's tier 1 nuclear sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article gives a review of the Canadian nuclear sector and examines the opportunities that may lie ahead for this sector. Canada is amongst a small number of countries with a comprehensive nuclear sector. With its commitment to nuclear energy it has nuclear utilities operating in three provinces. These utilities are consistently rated amongst the best in the world for safe reliable performance. Canada has internationally respected, independent regulator operating in a coherent legislative and legal framework which meets and exceeds international expectations. Canada has a robust supply chain from mining through manufacturing and services anchored by a domestic reactor original equipment manufacturer (OEM).

  7. A perspective on forage production in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gareau, L

    1980-03-01

    Over the past decade, the cattle industry has experienced practically a full circle. With the promising beef prices in the early 1970s, with the glut of grain and a generous assist from government incentive programs, the forage acreage and cattle population have increased at a record rate. By 1974, the tide began to turn - grain prices went up sharply and beef prices became sluggish - and by 1976 a major crisis faced the producers. The cattle industry which had been developing on a cheap grain economy was now obliged to rely more on forage for its survival. Unfortunately, the forage was not existent and the only salvation of the industry was the gift of Providence - weather patterns that provided ample moisture conditions and above normal forage crops, the utilization of cereals and the intervention of government cow-calf support programs. Over the past year, the cycle was completed and record beef prices again prevail. The barley bins are full again and the cattlemen are gearing up for a few fat years. Demands for forage seed are brisk and the seeding down of forage acreage is bound to increase substantially over the next few years. And with this increase, cattle population expansion is bound to follow: how much expansion can the economy support? The production cost factors will determine the extent, but one can almost be certain that any expansion will either be modest or of short duration. At least, it should be. If the cattle industry is to establish solid foundations, it cannot be dependent upon the instability of a grain surplus-shortage position. With the present resources and the potential for developing it in direct competition with other crops, one can only expect a small and steady expansion over a long time span. One must agree with the range researchers and specialists of the Canada Research Stations at Lethbridge and Swift Current that pasture and range will continue to be the limiting factors of cattle expansion as they have been for the past 50

  8. Canada's energy outlook : the reference case 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This long-term projection of energy supply, demand, consumption, production and greenhouse gas emissions from now until 2020 identified pressure points and emerging issues in Canadian energy markets. It contributed to public discussions on energy and related economic and environmental issues in Canada and provided a reference scenario from which new energy and climate change policies can be evaluated. Energy projections were developed based on the relationships between energy production, consumption and prices, as well as economic, technological and policy factors. The report included government implemented initiatives that promote energy efficiency or increase the use of alternative energy. This Outlook to 2020 is sensitive to key assumptions about economic growth, oil sands development and the electricity generation mix. It is based on a specific set of assumptions regarding oil price and economic growth. This outlook assumes crude oil prices to be nearly twice that of the last outlook in 1999 and natural gas prices are assumed to be three times higher. The outlook also assumes that the Mackenzie Delta gas pipeline will be in service by 2011. Other principal assumptions used to develop this outlook were that population will grow by 0.7 percent annually and that all but two of Canada's nuclear power plants will stay in service for at least eight more years. The outlook revealed that total energy demand is projected to grow by 1.3 percent per year. The fuel mix will not change much over this period because the prices of different energy sources will remain the same. Energy intensity is expected to improve by about 0.25 per cent annually in the residential and commercial sectors due to stock turn over and appliance regulations. Total energy demand will increase by 1 per cent per year for the residential sector, and at 2.4 percent per year for the commercial sector. Transportation demand is expected to grow by 1.6 per cent per year, while industrial energy intensity

  9. 9 CFR 93.316 - Horses from Canada for immediate slaughter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Horses from Canada for immediate...; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses Canada 16 § 93.316 Horses from Canada for immediate slaughter. Horses imported from Canada for immediate slaughter shall be consigned from the port...

  10. 50 CFR 21.61 - Population control of resident Canada geese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Population control of resident Canada... Populations § 21.61 Population control of resident Canada geese. (a) Which Canada geese are covered by this regulation? This regulation addresses the population control of resident Canada geese, as defined in §...

  11. 76 FR 11437 - Application To Export Electric Energy; SESCO Enterprises Canada, LTD

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-02

    ... Application To Export Electric Energy; SESCO Enterprises Canada, LTD AGENCY: Office of Electricity Delivery.... (SESCO Canada) has applied to renew its authority to transmit electric energy from the United States to...-297, which authorized SESCO Canada to transmit electric energy from the United States to Canada as...

  12. British Columbia, Canada Tsunami Forecast Grids for MOST Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The British Columbia, Canada Forecast Model Grids provides bathymetric data strictly for tsunami inundation modeling with the Method of Splitting Tsunami (MOST)...

  13. Les immigrants dans les regions metropolitaines de recensement au Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Schellenberg, Grant

    2004-01-01

    Dans ce rapport, on examine les facteurs des immigrants dans les regions metropolitaines de recensement (RMR) au Canada, les repercussions sur les services publics offerts dans les regions urbaines et les caracteristiques de l'emploi des immigrants.

  14. Biology of nesting Aleutian Canada goose, summer 1975

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — In 1974 and 1975 breeding Aleutian Canada geese, Branta canadensis leucopareia, were studied at Buldir Island, western Aleutian Islands. Buldir is the only known...

  15. The state of genetically modified crop regulation in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyth, Stuart J

    2014-07-01

    Genetically modified (GM) crops were first commercialized in Canada in 1995 and the 2014 crop represents the 20th year of successful production. Prior to the first commercialization of GM crops, Canada reviewed its existing science-based regulatory framework and adapted the existing framework to allow for risk assessments on the new technology to be undertaken in a timely and efficient manner. The result has been the rapid and widespread adoption of GM varieties of canola, corn and soybeans. The first decade of GM crop production precipitated 2 landmark legal cases relating to patent infringement and economic liability, while the second decade witnessed increased political efforts to have GM crops labeled in Canada as well as significant challenges from the low level comingling of GM crops with non-GM commodities. This article reviews the 20 y of GM crop production in Canada from a social science perspective that includes intellectual property, consumer acceptance and low level presence. PMID:25437238

  16. Congestion Relief: Assessing the Case for Road Tolls in Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Robin Lindsey

    2007-01-01

    Experience with road pricing generally — and congestion pricing specifically — is growing around the world. Research and planning in Canada should begin now on road pricing for heavily congested highways and streets.

  17. Ecology of Aleutian Canada geese at Buldir Island, Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The only known breeding population of the endangered Aleutian Canada goose (Branta canadensis leucopareia) was studied from 1974 to 1977 at Buldir Island, Alaska....

  18. Critical habitat recommendations for the Aleutian Canada goose

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The following recommendations concern the designation of critical habitat on Federal lands in Alaska for the Endangered Species, Aleutian Canada goose (Branta...

  19. A report on the Agassiz flock of Canada geese

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the history of Canada goose production by the Agassiz National Wildlife Refuge (NWR) flock from 1955 to 1964. Attached is a nesting structure...

  20. Snowfall and Snow Depth for Canada 1943-1982

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data include monthly snowfall and end-of-month snow depth for 140 stations across Canada. Stations that maintained at least 20 years of data were chosen. The...

  1. Hydropower, an integral part of Canada's climate change strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development and implementation of a climate change policy could be among the most far-reaching environmental initiatives ever embarked upon in Canada and abroad. If Canada is to stabilize or reduce its Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions over the long term, a significant adjustment to Canadian industry will be required as we move away from fossil fuel-intensive and GHG producing activities. Future hydroelectric projects provide Canada with a unique opportunity to significantly reduce the costs associated with stabilizing its GHG emissions. In addition, the energy storage and dispatchability associated with hydropower can support development of other low emitting renewable resources such as wind and solar. This document discusses the potential role of hydropower as a tool to reduce emissions, recommends action to reduce barriers facing hydropower and comments on some of the policy tools available to manage Canada's GHG emissions. (author)

  2. Transatlantic Cooperation in Space: Eu-Canada Free Trade Agreement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luise Weber-Steinhaus

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available National governments are keenly aware of the need for investment in space. Canada, as a formal cooperating state in the European Space Agency (ESA, and Germany, as a leading member state of ESA, are interlinked in Europe’s space endeavours. Beyond ESA, Germany and Canada additionally have a strong history of bilateral cooperation on a range of space projects. This paper discusses the novel interdependencies between clear national and now supranational space policies, using the examples of the Canada-European Union (EU Comprehensive Economic and Trade Agreement (CETA. The agreement covers most aspects of the EU-Canada bilateral economic relationship and includes space. The paper focuses on international space policies, strategic bilateral co-operation, and technical accomplishments. It takes a closer look at German-Canadian collaboration in space programs and offers some reflection on the effect of both the EU and ESA’S transatlantic involvement in space.

  3. Pricing electricity for sustainability : climate change and Canada's electricity sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The electricity sector is Canada's largest single source of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. This paper discussed electricity and carbon pricing approaches to reducing GHG emissions in the electricity sector. An overview of the links between electricity pricing and climate change was presented, and current and emerging trends in electricity pricing related to encouraging energy conservation were reviewed. Market prices and failures were discussed. Approaches to pricing electricity included an increase in block prices; time-of-use prices; demand-side management and energy efficiency; and carbon pricing in Canada and electricity pricing signals. The study showed that several provincial utilities in Canada are experimenting with market-based pricing approaches for electricity and carbon that may help to reduce GHG emissions over time. Concerns over electricity supply and the negative environmental impacts of electricity production may lead to the full social pricing of electricity in some regions of Canada. 46 refs., 3 tabs., 5 figs.

  4. Radioactive waste management of uranium mines in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As an investigation report on environmental protection, the author introduces the management, treatment and disposal of radioactive wastes in Canada, and research and evaluation of their effects on the environment

  5. Pacific Flyway management plan for the dusky Canada goose

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This management plan for the dusky Canada goose (Branta canadensis occidentalis) is a revision of earlier plans adopted by the Pacific Flyway Council (1973, 1985,...

  6. Current research in Canada on biological effects of ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A survey of current research in Canada on the biological effects of ionizing radiation has been compiled. The list of projects has been classified according to structure (organizational state of the test system) as well as according to the type of effects. Using several assumptions, ballpark estimates of expenditures on these activities have been made. Agencies funding these research activities have been tabulated and the break-down of research in government laboratories and in academic institutions has been designated. Wherever possible, comparisons have been made outlining differences or similarities that exist between the United States and Canada concerning biological radiation research. It has been concluded that relevant research in this area in Canada is inadequate. Wherever possible, strengths and weaknesses in radiation biology programs have been indicated. The most promising course for Canada to follow is to support adequately fundamental studies of the biological effects of radiation. (auth)

  7. Atomic Energy of Canada Limited annual report 1987-88

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The annual report of Atomic Energy of Canada Limited for the fiscal year ended March 31, 1988 covers: Research Company; CANDU Operations; Radiochemical Company; Medical Products Division; The Future; Financial Sections; Board of Directors and Officers; and AECL locations

  8. Black-White Health Inequalities in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veenstra, Gerry; Patterson, Andrew C

    2016-02-01

    Little is known about Black-White health inequalities in Canada or the applicability of competing explanations for them. To address this gap, we used nine cycles of the Canadian Community Health Survey to analyze multiple health outcomes in a sample of 3,127 Black women, 309,720 White women, 2,529 Black men and 250,511 White men. Adjusting for age, marital status, urban/rural residence and immigrant status, Black women and men were more likely than their White counterparts to report diabetes and hypertension, Black women were less likely than White women to report cancer and fair/poor mental health and Black men were less likely than White men to report heart disease. These health inequalities persisted after controlling for education, household income, smoking, physical activity and body-mass index. We conclude that high rates of diabetes and hypertension among Black Canadians may stem from experiences of racism in everyday life, low rates of heart disease and cancer among Black Canadians may reflect survival bias and low rates of fair/poor mental health among Black Canadian women represent a mental health paradox similar to the one that exists for African Americans in the United States. PMID:25894533

  9. Streamflow input to Lake Athabasca, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Rasouli

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The Lake Athabasca drainage area in northern Canada encompasses ecologically rich and sensitive ecosystems, vast forests, glacier-clad mountains, and abundant oil reserves in the form of oil sands. The basin includes the Peace–Athabasca Delta, recognized internationally by UNESCO and the Ramsar Convention as a biologically rich inland delta and wetland that are now under increasing pressure from multiple stressors. In this study, streamflow variability and trends for rivers feeding Lake Athabasca are investigated over the last half century. Hydrological regimes and trends are established using a robust regime shift detection method and the Mann–Kendall (MK test, respectively. Results show that the Athabasca River, which is the main contributor to the total lake inflow, experienced marked declines in recent decades impacting lake levels and its ecosystem. From 1960 to 2010 there was a significant reduction in lake inflow and a significant recession in the Lake Athabasca level. Our trend analysis corroborates a previous study using proxy data obtained from nearby sediment cores suggesting that the lake level may drop 2 to 3 m by 2100. The lake recession may threaten the flora and fauna of the Athabasca Lake basin and negatively impact the ecological cycle of an inland freshwater delta and wetland of global importance.

  10. Women in academic psychiatry in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penfold, P S

    1987-11-01

    A comparison of numbers of women psychiatrists with faculty appointments and women residents in Departments of Psychiatry in Canada in 1975 and 1985 showed that the average percentage of women faculty has increased from 11.4% to 14.3% and of women residents from 23.5% to 43.4%. Some departments appeared to be oblivious to the special educational role of women faculty and had not discussed the discrepancy between the numbers of faculty and residents. Only two departments were actively recruiting women faculty. The study also demonstrated a continued concentration of women in the lower ranks. Barriers to recruiting women faculty include lack of academic role models, job advertising not specifically designed to attract women candidates, rigid requirements for appointments, women's lack of access to male corridors of power, pervasive underlying doubts about women's abilities and competence based on cultural stereotypes, female socialization which does not lend itself readily to roles of authority, assertiveness and leadership, and the role strain that ensues when women psychiatrists try to combine career, marriage and motherhood. If women psychiatrists are to fill some of the positions in Departments of Psychiatry, which will fall vacant over the next decade, much more attention must be paid to eliminating or diminishing the multiple obstacles for women who chose a career in academic psychiatry. PMID:3690482

  11. The Candu suppliers: Growing beyond Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canada has demonstrated its ability to successfully manage Candu projects. It has been shown domestically by Ontario Hydro over a period of many years. It has been demonstrated abroad by private sector service companies, under Nuclear Construction Managers, on the 600 MW Wolsung project in South Korea, where NPM companies carried out virtually all project and construction management, the plant was in service only 60 months after the first concrete was poured for the reactor building. In the past, however, the project management team for Candu nuclear plants overseas, and for some at home, was often assembled ad hoc. Though this approach can be successful, it does not guarantee success in project and construction management. Because of the size, diversity and flexibility of the private owners of NPM, they have been able to keep their experienced nuclear power teams on staff even though the nuclear power industry has been going through slow times, assigning these people to large projects in other industries that call for the same high level of project, construction and commissioning management skills. Yet they are in a position to reassemble this team at very short notice, and have them ready to go to work on a major project within weeks of the green light

  12. Writing requirements across nursing programs in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andre, Jo-Anne D; Graves, Roger

    2013-02-01

    The emphasis on scholarship in nursing, demands for evidence-based practice, and attention to writing have raised the profile of academic writing within nursing curricula. This article provides a comprehensive review of English and writing course requirements across 81 English-language baccalaureate nursing programs in Canada. The data were gathered from a review of nursing programs and curriculum information from university and college Web sites. Of the 81 programs, 39 (48.1%) require neither an English literature course nor a writing course, 15 (18.5%) require an English literature course, and 32 (39.5%) require a writing course, including five programs that require a discipline-specific writing course. Discipline-specific writing courses appear to be useful adjuncts to writing-across-the-curriculum initiatives in nursing and will help students to develop the research and writing skills needed to succeed both academically and in a career in which nursing scholarship and evidence-informed practice are increasingly valued and expected. PMID:23316890

  13. Mobil Oil Canada : Kearl Oil Sands Mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The upgrader design at Mobil's Kearl Oil Sands Mine were described. Included were feed characteristics, upgrader products, process schemes and their overall economics and upgrader technologies in use, including coking, deasphalting, hydrocracking, hydrotreating and visbreaking. Advantages and disadvantages of the upgrader technologies were highlighted. As far as the product is concerned, much of it is destined to U.S. refineries that are equipped to process the material. The Kearl Oil Sands Mine upgrading facility will likely use a combination of coker/hydrotreating, which is a well proven process for high value products that has been used in all five of Mobil's refineries in the U.S., and visbreaker/deasphalting, which has shown promise in bench-scale testing, but at present still has some potential commercial difficulties. Foremost among these are the high softening product of asphalt from visbroken products, questionable commercial feasibility of the low yield of pitch, and problems in the disposal of asphalt. Severe visbreaking also yields unstable products. Details of Mobil Canada's oil sands project were also summarized 2 tabs., 9 figs

  14. Canada's energy future : 2008 workshop summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The National Energy Board hosted this Energy Futures Workshop as a follow-up to its report entitled Canada's Energy Future: Reference Case and Scenarios to 2030, which focused on emerging trends in energy supply and demand. Various energy futures that may be available to Canadians up to the year 2030 were examined. This workshop addressed issues regarding the growing demand for energy, the adequacy of future energy supplies, and related issues of greenhouse gas emissions, emerging technologies, energy infrastructure and energy exports. The workshop was attended by 18 experts who presented their diverse views on long-term energy issues. The sessions of the workshop focused on external and key geopolitical issues that will influence Canadian energy markets; the adoption of alternative and emerging sources of energy; outlook for Canadian oil supply, including oil sands development, reservoir quality, and financial, environmental and technological issues; issues in electricity generation and transmission; gas market dynamics; and carbon dioxide capture and storage and the associated benefits and challenges. There was general consensus that global and Canadian energy markets will remain in a state of flux. Crude oil prices are likely to remain high and volatile. The combination of maturing energy resource basins and geopolitical tensions has created uncertainty about future availability and access to global energy resources. 2 figs., 3 appendices

  15. 40 years of nuclear energy in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 23rd Canadian Nuclear Society Annual Conference was held in Toronto, Ontario on June 2-5, 2002. The theme of the conference was '40 Years of Nuclear Power in Canada: Celebrating the Past, Looking to the Future'. This was the third national nuclear meeting organized by the CNS. Over the previous two decades the annual gathering had been a joint effort of the Canadian Nuclear Association (CNA) and the Canadian Nuclear Society (CNS) with the CNA taking on the major role. Prior to the formation of the CNS, the meetings had been solely a CNA affair. The overall format was basically the same as the successful previous two with a combination of plenary sessions, in which senior members of the nuclear community provided overview of various sectors of the nuclear program, and sets of parallel sessions in which many technical papers were presented. Also, the CNS/CNA Student Conference was held on the first day, an arrangement that proved successful as it had the previous year

  16. Canada's green plan and the earth summit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In June 1992 one of the largest international conferences ever held took place in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. It was attended by the heads of state of more than 100 countries. The ambitious aim of the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) -- the Earth Summit -- was to try to reconcile the need for global environmental protection with the need for continuing economic development. The purpose of this document is to provide a brief account of the results of Rio and the way Canadians participated. In addition, this document outlines the immediate priorities of the Government of Canada and the actions under way. It is not meant to be a comprehensive response to the entire Rio agenda. Rather, it is intended to report to Canadians on the steps the government has taken so far and, where possible, the direction in which it is headed. On the number of important issues, the government's plans are well advanced. For example, action is well under way on the Convention on Climate Change, as high-lighted in the Green Plan's National Action Strategy on Global Warming. On a number of other issues, it is clear that there is work to be done. The government is committed to completing the task through continuing action and leadership

  17. Rehabilitation of cutaway peatlands in Eastern Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caisse, G. [Laval University, Dept. of Plant Biology, Sainte-Foy, PQ (Canada)

    2005-03-31

    Rehabilitation of ombrotrophic bogs in Eastern Canada is discussed. Cutaway bogs are characterized by a remaining peat layer, usually less than one metre in thickness, that is humified, extremely nutrient-poor, very acidic and highly unstable due to peat oxidation, erosion and frost heaving. Peatlands are wetlands that accumulate organic matter in the form of peat because of slower organic matter decomposition than production. The anoxic conditions promoted by water logging impair microbial activity, which slows the decomposition processes. Restoration is the favoured rehabilitation option, however, when this is not possible, reclamation, like berry cultivation or tree plantation, is of great importance. Methods for the cultivation of cranberries on cutaway peatlands are well developed. Experiments are now underway on the cultivation of cloudberries with field and greenhouse studies on optimal water level, depth of rhizome plantation, fertilization and selection of best performing cultivars. With respect to tree plantation, much of the research has been done in Europe, although since the beginning of the nineties, several plantations of residual peat have been done in New Brunswick and Quebec, with some afforestation of cutaway peatlands also occurring in Alberta and Saskatchewan. Studies are also being done on the choice of tree species, fertilization and tree nutrition. Black spruce, tamarack, and jack pine appear to have the best survival and initial growth rate. Growth appears to improve by interplanting nitrogen fixing species, like alder. Nitrogen, phosphorus and lime fertilization at planting also help to ensure maximum growth of the trees. 16 refs., 5 figs.

  18. Evaluating the Cost-effectiveness of Pharmaceuticals in Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Katherine Boothe

    2016-01-01

    Canada adopted guidelines for the economic evaluation of pharmaceuticals in 1994, and a central process for drug assessment in 2003. The context and the way the issue reached the agenda in the two time periods differed. The guidelines were adopted amidst growing academic interest in methods for economic evaluation of pharmaceuticals in Canada and internationally, and were first promoted by an entrepreneur from the pharmaceutical industry. The Common Drug Review (CDR) was adopted in a context ...

  19. Portrayal of Canada in the Dutch print media

    OpenAIRE

    d'Haenens, L.S.J.; Bosman, J.A.M.

    2003-01-01

    This article is devoted to the nature of recent news coverage of Canada in the on-line versions of eight Dutch newspapers. The research literature points to five recurrent frames in news reporting: conflict, human interest, economic impact, morality, and responsibility. Our central research question concerned the nature of recent news reporting on Canada in Dutch newspapers in terms of amount of coverage and themes dealt with - and whether this news reflects the news frames. Two periods of st...

  20. La titrisation aux États-Unis et au Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Christian Calmès; Raymond Théoret; François-Éric Racicot

    2014-01-01

    Since the subprime crisis, securitization by financial institutions has been threatened, both in the U.S. and in Canada. In the U.S., private financial institutions have almost completely stopped their securitization activities. In Canada, the asset-backet commercial paper market is moribund and the new accounting rules (IFRS) hamper the future of residential mortgage securitization. Nevertheless, in spite of obvious weaknesses, securitization contributes to decrease the procyclicality of cre...

  1. The Evolution of Integrated Chronic Disease Prevention in Alberta, Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Raine, Kim; Wolbeck Minke, Sharlene; Khalema, Ernest; Smith, Cynthia; Plotnikoff, Ronald C.

    2006-01-01

    Background Recognition of the common risk factors for leading chronic diseases in Canada has contributed to the development of integrated chronic disease prevention and health promotion approaches. The Alberta Heart Health Project studied the capacity of health organizations in Alberta, Canada, to engage in heart health promotion. This article describes how the Alberta Heart Health Project acted on emerging research findings describing the preliminary stages of integrated chronic disease prev...

  2. Economic assimilation of immigrants : a comparison between Norway and Canada

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    The economic assimilation of immigrants in Norway is analyzed in this thesis. Since Norway and Canada have different immigration policies, the economic assimilations of immigrants in these two countries are compared. Unlike Norway, Canada uses a “point system” to target economic and demographic growth which results in a large class of economic immigrants. The entry effect, the years effect, the cohort effect and the period effect, as defined in previous academic literature, are considered....

  3. Racial gradients of ambient air pollution exposure in Hamilton, Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Buzzelli; Michael Jerrett

    2004-01-01

    Environmental justice research in the United States has coalesced around the notion that visible-minority status, along with socioeconomic position (SEP), conditions exposure to environmental health hazards. In the context of long-standing debates over Canada - USA urban differences, we address the question of whether racial gradients exist in air pollution across Hamilton, Canada. Monitored air quality data are spatially interpolated with a kriging algorithm. These interpolated exposures are...

  4. Field of Dreams: Strengthening Health Policy Scholarship in Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Julia Abelson; Mita Giacomini; John Lavis; John Eyles

    2008-01-01

    This background paper was prepared to inform discussion at CHEPA's Health Policy Symposium Field of Dreams: Strengthening Health Policy Scholarship in Canada on November 2, 2007. We reflect on the characteristics of Canada's health policy community in relation to the larger and more mature international health policy community: its contributions, opportunities and constraints for growing into a well institutionalized Canadian academic field. Sources consulted in preparing this document includ...

  5. Transfusion and risk of infection in Canada: Update 2006

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    In Canada and other developed countries, many steps are taken to minimize the risk of infection from transfusion of blood or blood products (1). However, the infection risk can never be zero because these are biological products taken from living donors who are never 'germ free' (2). This is in contrast to drugs that can be manufactured de novo under sterile conditions in a laboratory. The present note provides an update on transfusion infection risks in Canada. It replaces the 2005 note (3) ...

  6. Transfusion and risk of infection in Canada: Update 2012

    OpenAIRE

    MacDonald, Noni E; O’Brien, Sheila F.; Delage, Gilles

    2012-01-01

    Although multiple critical steps are taken to minimize the risk of infection from transfusion of blood or blood products in developed countries, this risk can never be entirely eliminated. In Canada, the risks of noninfectious transfusion reactions, such as transfusion-related acute lung injury and major allergic or anaphylactic reactions, are greater than that of infection. This updated practice point provides an overview of transfusion infection risks in Canada. Infectious agents, systemic ...

  7. Transatlantic Cooperation in Space: Eu-Canada Free Trade Agreement

    OpenAIRE

    Luise Weber-Steinhaus

    2014-01-01

    National governments are keenly aware of the need for investment in space. Canada, as a formal cooperating state in the European Space Agency (ESA), and Germany, as a leading member state of ESA, are interlinked in Europe’s space endeavours. Beyond ESA, Germany and Canada additionally have a strong history of bilateral cooperation on a range of space projects. This paper discusses the novel interdependencies between clear national and now supranational space policies, using the examples of th...

  8. Climate Change, Drought and Human Health in Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Anna Yusa; Peter Berry; Cheng, June J; Nicholas Ogden; Barrie Bonsal; Ronald Stewart; Ruth Waldick

    2015-01-01

    Droughts have been recorded all across Canada and have had significant impacts on individuals and communities. With climate change, projections suggest an increasing risk of drought in Canada, particularly in the south and interior. However, there has been little research on the impacts of drought on human health and the implications of a changing climate. A review of the Canadian, U.S. and international literature relevant to the Canadian context was conducted to better define these impact...

  9. Air Canada Selects Boeing 777s and 787 Dreamliners

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ ACE Aviation Holdings Inc.,the parent company of Air Canada, and Boeing today announced a wide-body fleet renewal plan for the airline that includes up to 36 Boeing 777s and up to 60 Boeing 787Dreamliners. Air Canada will use the airplanes to modernize its existing fleet and improve operating efficiencies, creating one of the world's youngest and most simplified airline fleets.

  10. Air Canada Selects Boeing 777s and 787 Dreamliners

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

      ACE Aviation Holdings Inc.,the parent company of Air Canada, and Boeing today announced a wide-body fleet renewal plan for the airline that includes up to 36 Boeing 777s and up to 60 Boeing 787Dreamliners. Air Canada will use the airplanes to modernize its existing fleet and improve operating efficiencies, creating one of the world's youngest and most simplified airline fleets.……

  11. A preliminary radon map for Canada according to health region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The recent publications of the combined analyses of residential radon studies in Europe and North America have shown that there is a significant risk of lung cancer at residential radon levels. In order to assess the population risk due to radon, the knowledge of the spatial distribution of indoor radon levels is essential. Here a preliminary radon map for Canada is presented, based on historical radon measurements collected in 6016 locations across Canada with the health region as the basic geographic units. (authors)

  12. Medical classification systems in Canada: moving toward the year 2000

    OpenAIRE

    Lalonde, A N; Taylor, E.

    1997-01-01

    The use of different standards for coding diagnoses and procedures has been identified as a major obstacle to the collection and analysis of data across the various jurisdictions in Canada. In this article the authors briefly describe the current and future situation of medical classification systems in Canada and discuss some of the potential benefits and implications of adopting the 10th revision of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems and a r...

  13. Productivity growth and the Phillips curve in Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Joseph W. Gruber

    2003-01-01

    This study examines the impact of productivity growth on the relationship between inflation and unemployment in Canada. Recently it has been suggested that higher productivity growth is responsible for a shift in the U.S. Phillips curve that occurred in the late 1990s. This paper examines whether the Phillips curve in Canada shifted in a manner similar to that of the United States, and the degree to which higher productivity growth explains this shift.

  14. Sexual Assault in Canada : Law, Legal Practice and Women's Activism

    OpenAIRE

    Sheehy, Elizabeth A.

    2012-01-01

    "Sexual Assault in Canada" is the first English-language book in almost two decades to assess the state of sexual assault law and legal practice in Canada. Gathering together feminist scholars, lawyers, activists and policy-makers, it presents a picture of the difficult issues that Canadian women face when reporting and prosecuting sexual violence. The volume addresses many themes including the systematic undermining of women who have been sexually assaulted, the experiences of marginalized w...

  15. Energy Policies of IEA Countries - Canada -- 2009 Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-04-12

    Canada, with its diverse and balanced portfolio of energy resources, is one of the largest producers and exporters of energy among IEA member countries. The energy sector plays an increasingly important role for the Canadian economy and for global energy security, as its abundant resource base has the potential to deliver even greater volumes of energy. The federal, provincial and territorial governments of Canada are all strongly committed to the sustainable development of the country's natural resources and have a long-standing and informed awareness of the need for each to contribute to the development of the energy sector. Furthermore, the government of Canada seeks to achieve a balance between the environmentally responsible production and use of energy, the growth and competitiveness of the economy, and secure and competitively priced energy and infrastructure. Nonetheless, the long-term sustainability of the sector remains a challenge. Due to climatic, geographic and other factors, Canada is one of the highest per-capita CO2 emitters in the OECD and has higher energy intensity than any IEA member country. A comprehensive national energy efficiency strategy, coupled with a coordinated climate change policy targeted at the key emitting sectors, is needed. Carbon capture and storage (CCS) is a priority for the federal government and presents Canada with an opportunity to develop a new technology that can reduce greenhouse gas emissions on a large scale. The IEA recommends that Canada provide international leadership in the development of CCS technology. This review analyses the energy challenges facing Canada and provides sectoral critiques and recommendations for further policy improvements. It is intended to help guide Canada towards a more sustainable energy future.

  16. Nucleus : the history of Atomic Energy of Canada Limited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book is a history of Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, a Canadian federal government crown corporation, from its creation to the present day. It explores the development of nuclear technology in Canada from its original military objectives to the present day. Peaceful applications in electrical power generation and medical radioisotope production. It chronicles a major international scientific development and the domestic industrial and political strategies that accompanied it

  17. Canada as the emerging energy superpower : testing the case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The need for forward-thinking energy sector policies that promote Canada as a leader in the responsible and effective management of energy resources was discussed. This paper proposed a set of strategies and policy options designed to ensure that Canada becomes an energy superpower with the ability to control access to supplies and leverage energy resources in order to extend its sphere of political influence. The historical evolution of energy provision was examined in order to better define the criteria needed to attain energy superpower status. The paper also examined current global energy markets and provided a summary of Canada's current energy industry. The impact of the oil sands industry on the Canadian economy was also discussed. It was concluded that although Canada does not qualify as an energy super-power, the energy sector will play an important role in Canada's future. The implementation of forward-thinking policies may mean that Canada will emerge as a superpower in the future. 42 refs

  18. Radioactive waste management in Canada - Science, strategy, and outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear electric power amounts to >15% of the electric power in Canada with 12,750-MW Canada deuterium uranium (CANDU) pressurized heavy-water reactors installed and 3,500 MW under construction. Three nuclear utilities, Ontario Hydro, Quebec Hydro, and New Brunswick Power, together with Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) and the nuclear industries share the burden of radioactive waste management in Canada. Radioactive wastes in Canada include uranium mine and mill tailings, low- and intermediate-level wastes from the nuclear fuel cycle and the Canadian nuclear industry, and used fuel from the once-through CANDU fuel cycle. In all cases, the objective is to manage these wastes in a way that creates minimal detriment to humans and the environment. In Canada, plans are for a gradual transition from interim facilities to long-term facilities, meeting the requirements of protection of humans and the environment in the long term. As in most nations, the solutions are evolving in a methodological manner, taking into account public sensitivities and concerns

  19. Canada's role in pushing back the frontiers of space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Ian H.

    This paper outlines the history of Canada's involvement in space science. An early interest in upper atmosphere phenomena resulted from the influence of the north magnetic pole on long distance radio communication. With the launch of the ionospheric sounder, Alouette 1, in 1962, Canada became the third nation to have a spacecraft in space. Canada was the first country to provide domestic satellite service for commercial communications with the Anik series of satellites. The latest satellite, the M-SAT will provide two way voice and data services. ( Primarily as a result of the work of the Canada Center for Remote Sensing, Canada has been a leader in airborne remote sensing. This interest has continued in the data acquisition and interpretation of space based remote sensing. Radarsat, a remote sensing satellite which will provide synthetic aperture radar imagery at 10 meter resolution is currently in the design stage. The final role has been in the development of STEM (extendable member) devices for manned space flights. The most notable contribution is the Shuttle Remote Manipulator System first flown on Columbia in 1981. Canada's contribution to Space Station Freedom will be the Mobile Servicing System. The current space science program involves study of the universe and solar system, of the near earth environment, and of physical and biological processes occurring in space.

  20. A review of existing renewable energy facilities in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This first annual report on renewable energy in the Canadian electricity sector includes records from 629 power plants across Canada. Renewable energy sources include wind, hydroelectricity, wood residue biomass, landfill/sewage gas, solar photovoltaic, municipal solid waste, and tidal energy. The data in this report was acquired from Statistics Canada and other public information sources. For each of the 629 renewable energy power plants, this report states its type of renewable energy, the province, the name of the project, its location, its operator, electrical generating capacity, number of generating units, average annual electricity production, and the year it began operation. The majority (64 per cent) of Canada's total installed power capacity comes from renewable energy sources, with the dominant source being hydroelectricity. Manitoba has the highest portion of renewable energy at almost 98 per cent of its installed electrical capacity. Nearly half of Canada's renewable power capacity is in Quebec, followed by 18 per cent in British Columbia. Nova Scotia has Canada's only tidal power plant. Approximately 80 per cent of the total installed renewable energy power capacity in Canada is owned by integrated electric utilities. Eleven per cent is owned by renewable electricity generating companies, 5 per cent is owned by aluminium companies, and 3 per cent is owned by pulp and paper companies. The rest is owned by diversified electricity generators. It is expected that with the ratification of the Kyoto Protocol interest in renewable energy will grow. 6 refs., 3 tabs., 2 figs., 1 appendix

  1. Vegetation response to climate change : implications for Canada's conservation lands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies have shown that Canada's national parks are vulnerable to the impacts of climate change. A wide range of biophysical climate change impacts could affect the integrity of conservation lands in each region of Canada. This report examines the potential impact of climate change on landscape alterations and vegetation distribution in Canada's wide network of conservation lands. It also presents several ways to integrate climate change into existing conservation policy and adaptation strategies. Canada's conservation lands include provincial parks, migratory bird sanctuaries, national wildlife areas and wildlife protected areas. This is the first study to examine biome changes by applying an equilibrium Global Vegetation Model (GVM) to Canada's network of national park systems. Some of the policy and planning challenges posed by changes in landscape level vegetation were also addressed. The report indicates that in terms of potential changes to the biome classification of Canada's national forests, more northern biomes are projected to decrease. These northern biomes include the tundra, taiga and boreal conifer forests. 56 refs., 8 tabs., 6 figs

  2. A strategic analysis of a service company in the film and television industry in Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Nex, Cheryl

    2006-01-01

    EP Canada Limited Partnership, a wholly owned subsidiary of Rainmaker Income Fund, is the leading ‘full service’ provider of payroll and employer-of-record services to the film and television industry in Canada. The size of the payroll volume outsourced in the film and television industry in Canada is directly correlated to the level of production activity in Canada. After several consecutive years of growth, the production of feature films and television programs, in Canada, is in ...

  3. Royal Society of Canada expert panel report : environmental and health impacts of Canada's oil sands industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This expert panel report was commissioned by the Royal Society of Canada to provide a comprehensive evidence-based assessment of the environmental and health impacts of Canada's oil sands industry. The report evaluated the feasibility of land reclamation and the impacts of oil sands contaminants on downstream residents. Health impacts on residents living in the Regional Municipality of Wood Buffalo were assessed, and the impacts on regional water supplies were evaluated. Regional water and ground water quantities were examined, and issues related to tailing pond operations and reclamation were examined. Ambient air quality impacts were assessed, as well as potential impacts of the oil sands industry on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The environmental regulatory performance of operators in the industry was also evaluated. A summary of economic and policy issues related to the industry was also provided. The study identified major gaps in the process of assessment, prevention, and mitigation of the health impacts of oil sands exploitation, as as major indirect health impacts linked to past exploitation activities. 672 refs., 11 tabs., 11 figs. 10 appendices.

  4. Epidemiology of myasthenia gravis in Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breiner, Ari; Widdifield, Jessica; Katzberg, Hans D; Barnett, Carolina; Bril, Vera; Tu, Karen

    2016-01-01

    Incidence and prevalence estimates in myasthenia gravis have varied widely. Recent studies based on administrative health data have large sample sizes but lack rigorous validation of MG cases, and have not examined the North American population. Our aim was to explore trends in MG incidence and prevalence for the years 1996-2013 in the province of Ontario, Canada (population 13.5 million). We employed a previously validated algorithm to identify MG cases. Linking with census data allowed for the calculation of crude- and age/sex-standardized incidence and prevalence rates for the years 1996-2013. The regional distribution of MG cases throughout the province was examined. Mean age at the first myasthenia gravis encounter was 60.2 ± 17.1 years. In 2013, there were 3611 prevalent cases in Ontario, and the crude prevalence rate was 32.0/100,000 population. Age- and sex-standardized prevalence rates rose consistently over time from 16.3/100,000 (15.4-17.1) in 1996 to 26.3/100,000 (25.4-27.3) in 2013. Standardized incidence rates remained stable between 1996 (2.7/100,000; 95% CL 2.3-3.0) and 2013 (2.3/100,000; 2.1-2.6). Incidence was highest in younger women and older men, and geographic variation was evident throughout the province. In conclusion, this large epidemiological study shows rising myasthenia gravis prevalence with stable incidence over time, which is likely reflective of patients living longer, possibly due to improved disease treatment. Our findings provide accurate information on the Canadian epidemiology of myasthenia gravis and burden for health care resources planning for the province, respectively. PMID:26573434

  5. Canada - committed to a nuclear future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There has been a flurry of activity in the Ontario electricity sector over the last 2 years as the government continued to work at averting a major crisis of supply in Canada's most populous province.As stated by the Ministry of Energy in 2004, Ontario needs to refurbish, rebuild, replace or conserve 25,000 megawatts of generating capacity by the year 2020 to meet growing demand while replacing its polluting coal-fired generating plants. That represents 80 per cent of Ontario's current generating capacity and would require an investment of $25 to $40 billion. Action has been taken. The government has completed a restructuring of the electricity market with new legislation and has undertaken a number of major procurement initiatives to enable the system to operate until about 2015. These include contracts for significant wind generation and other renewables supply, new gas generation, conservation and demand management and the refurbishment of idled nuclear units. The Ontario Power Authority as now issued it ''Supply Mix Advice'' to address the needs of the province for the long term (20 years). The recommendations would ''increase the share of renewable sources' in Ontario's supply mix, maintain the share of nuclear generation, and replace coal by increasing the share of gas-fired generation and renewable resources.'' It clearly recognizes the importance of nuclear power as a clean and economic option to meet the ongoing base load requirements and states that the nuclear share can be achieved through refurbishing existing units, rebuilding on existing sites and undertaking ''new build'' plants. This paper will examine government's plan to maintain the share of nuclear power at about 50% of electricity generated, and address the important issues required to make decisions on future refurbishments and new build

  6. Sincor as a template for Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabbag, J.N. [Total Petroleum and Oil Co., State of Anzoategui, (Venezuela)

    2003-07-01

    This presentation outlined the Sincor heavy oil alchemy project, one of four upgrading projects in the Orinoco Basin in the Zuata Region in the State of Anzoategui, Venezuela. The objective is to turn 200,000 barrels per day of extra heavy oil into high quality, very low sulfur synthetic crude. The construction and start-up were outlined along with operating results and marketing issues. Production of the highly viscous oil has been enhanced through 3D seismic, horizontal drilling, multi-phase pumps, and real-time monitoring. Several viewgraphs were included with this presentation, depicting the Sincor well design, project development scheme, the industrial complex, and the upgrader facility. Since its launch in March 2002, approximately 25 million barrels of crude have been produced. The project is within budget and the planning and design concepts are on target. Market value and qualities have met expectations. The remaining challenge is to find ways to transfer the good experience of Sincor to Alberta. Total Petroleum Oil and Co. does not have a refinery in Canada and favours the same choice as the one made for Sincor. The Sincor project meets international specifications for air emissions, water effluent quality and noise level. Carbon dioxide emissions were not a design parameter at the onset of the Sincor project. It was noted that the conditions in Alberta include a higher CAPEX, hot versus cold production, higher gas price and inland location. For these reasons, the size of an upgrader in Alberta will have to be maximized. 7 tabs., 12 figs.

  7. Condom vending machines in Canada's secondary schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, D L

    1990-03-01

    A case study of 1 of the 3 school boards approving in 1989 installation of condom machines is presented: The Lisgar Collegiate Institute, Ottawa, Canada. The school is characterized as having 1000 college preparatory students from middle and upper middle class homes and university educated parents. The project was student initiated and involved 1) meeting with communication consultants to determine feasibility, 2) conducting an informal peer consultation to seek out interest and support, 3) meeting with public health officials to gain support and ideas, and 4) conducting research. Condom machine installation (2) was only 1 component; a pilot sexuality education program was included as well. The student proposal was presented and rejected by the principal and the Superintendent of Student Services. Students then lobbied the school board trustees. 2 students lobbies each school board member. Letters of support were obtained from parents' advisory groups, parents, the student council, and other influential people. The media provided coverage in a popular morning television show. The student proposal was submitted to the Board of Education's Education Committee in June 1989; students were assisted by teachers and the Parents Advisory Committee. The school board approved. In the fall of 1989, sexuality awareness week was designated as October 30-November 3. Parents were asked for comments on the designated program, but only 50 contributed in a supportive way. During this week lunch-hour displays and videos, peer-facilitated discussion groups, informal talks by experts, and student theater presentations were sponsored activities. Following this event, the school board arranged for the installment of machines in the men's and women's washrooms near where social events were held and in toilet cubicles in order to provide privacy, as requested by students. The individual cost is US$1/condom. Evaluation is planned. Students have been amused by the amount of public response

  8. Recent fuel handling experience in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For many years, good operation of the fuel handling system at Ontario Hydro's nuclear stations has been taken for granted with the unavailability of the station arising from fuel handling system-related problems usually contributing less than one percent of the total unavailability of the stations. While the situation at the newer Hydro stations continues generally to be good (with the specific exception of some units at Pickering B) some specific and some general problems have caused significant loss of availability at the older plants (Pickering A and Bruce A). Generally the experience at the 600 MWe units in Canada has also continued to be good with Point Lepreau leading the world in availability. As a result of working to correct identified deficiencies, there were some changes for the better as some items of equipment that were a chronic source of trouble were replaced with improved components. In addition, the fuel handling system has been used three times as a delivery system for large-scale non destructive examination of the pressure tubes, twice at Bruce and once at Pickering and performing these inspections this way has saved many days of reactor downtime. Under COG there are several programs to develop improved versions of some of the main assemblies of the fuelling machine head. This paper will generally cover the events relating to Pickering in more detail but will describe the problems with the Bruce Fuelling Machine Bridges since the 600 MW 1P stations have a bridge drive arrangement that is somewhat similar to Bruce

  9. Uranium in Canada: 1984 assessment of supply and requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The success of uranium exploration efforts in Canada has continued, resulting in an overall increase in domestic uranium resource estimates for the principal resource categories. In 1984, Canada's five primary uranium producers employed some 5,800 people at their mining and milling operations, and produced concentrates containing some 11 170 tU. In 1984 the resource estimates were (in tonnes U recoverable): measured - 54 000; indicated - 233 000; inferred - 264 000. Canada's projected annual primary uranium production capability will stabilize at some 12 000 tU through the remainder of the 1980s. Should market conditions warrant, additional production centres could be developed to raise production capability to a level of 15 000 tU by the latter half of the 1990s. Prognosticated resources exploitable at uranium prices of $300/kg U or less are estimated to amount to 292 000 tU. Speculative resources of interest at prices of $300/kg U or less, in areas assessed during 1984, are thought to total approximately one million tU. Uranium exploration expenditures in Canada in 1983 and 1984 were an estimated $41 and $35 million, respectively. Exploration drilling and surface development drilling in 1983 and 1984 were reported to be 153 000 m and 197 000 m, respectively, some 85 per cent of which was in Saskatchewan. Canada's known uranium resources, recoverable at uranium prices of $150/kg U or less, are more than sufficient to meet the 30-year fuelling requirements of those reactors in Canada that are either in operation now or committed or expected to be in-service by 1995. Over the longer term, there is significant potential for discovering additional uranium resources in Canada

  10. Uranium in Canada: 1982 assessment of supply and requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estimates of Canada's uranium resources for 1982 remained essentially unchanged from those of 1980. However, the economic conditions facing the industry have changed greatly during the past few years as production costs continued to rise without corresponding increases in uranium prices. As a result, a smaller portion of Canada's uranium resources is of current economic interest. Total resources amount to 573 000 tonnes of uranium. Just over 10% of this uranium will be required domestically during the next 30 years to fuel the more than 15 000 megawatts of nuclear power capacity now operating or committed for operation in Canada by 1993. In 1982 seven uranium producers in Canada, directly employing 4800 people, produced concentrates containing 8075 tonnes of uranium. Based on currently committed expansion plans, Canada's projected annual production capability could grow to some 12 000 tonnes of uranium by 1986. Canadian producers shipped 7643 tonnes of uranium valued at some $838 millon in 1982. As of January 1, 1983, outstanding uranium export commitments amounted to 60 000 tonnes or roughly 10% of the total Canadian uranium resources mentioned above. Japan has been Canada's most important single customer in the past decade, receiving about 34% of Canada's total exports since 1972. Most of the remaining exports have gone to the European Economic Community (33%), other countries in Western Europe (18%), and the United States (15%). Substantial efforts in uranium exploration that have been continued, especially in northern Saskatchewan, where two-thirds of the $71 million total exploration expenditures of 1982 were incurred. This continued effort has led to the discovery of a number of important deposits over the past few years which could be developed if market conditions improve. It is estimated that total Canadian production capability could reach 15 000 tonnes of uranium annually by the mid-1990s

  11. Representative landscapes in the forested area of Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardille, Jeffrey A; White, Joanne C; Wulder, Mike A; Holland, Tara

    2012-01-01

    Canada is a large nation with forested ecosystems that occupy over 60% of the national land base, and knowledge of the patterns of Canada's land cover is important to proper environmental management of this vast resource. To this end, a circa 2000 Landsat-derived land cover map of the forested ecosystems of Canada has created a new window into understanding the composition and configuration of land cover patterns in forested Canada. Strategies for summarizing such large expanses of land cover are increasingly important, as land managers work to study and preserve distinctive areas, as well as to identify representative examples of current land-cover and land-use assemblages. Meanwhile, the development of extremely efficient clustering algorithms has become increasingly important in the world of computer science, in which billions of pieces of information on the internet are continually sifted for meaning for a vast variety of applications. One recently developed clustering algorithm quickly groups large numbers of items of any type in a given data set while simultaneously selecting a representative-or "exemplar"-from each cluster. In this context, the availability of both advanced data processing methods and a nationally available set of landscape metrics presents an opportunity to identify sets of representative landscapes to better understand landscape pattern, variation, and distribution across the forested area of Canada. In this research, we first identify and provide context for a small, interpretable set of exemplar landscapes that objectively represent land cover in each of Canada's ten forested ecozones. Then, we demonstrate how this approach can be used to identify flagship and satellite long-term study areas inside and outside protected areas in the province of Ontario. These applications aid our understanding of Canada's forest while augmenting its management toolbox, and may signal a broad range of applications for this versatile approach. PMID

  12. Natural disturbance impacts on Canada's forest carbon budget

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wildfire and insect outbreaks are major determinants of forest dynamics in Canada, transferring carbon within the ecosystem, releasing carbon into the atmosphere and influencing post-disturbance carbon dynamics. This paper discusses the impacts of global climate change on natural disturbances. Higher temperatures and drier conditions are likely to increase burned areas in Canada and will also increase the impacts of insects, allowing for an expanded range and stressing their host species. Long-term changes in disturbance regimes have already affected Canada's forest age-class structure. Statistics of lower disturbance periods and carbon production were compared with periods of higher disturbance. Scenario analyses were conducted for the period of 1996 to 2032, assuming that annual insect and fire disturbance rates in timber-productive forests were 20 per cent higher and carbon production 20 per cent lower than base scenarios using average disturbance rates. It was concluded that these conditions could cause carbon stocks in Canada's forests to decline. The future carbon balance of Canada's forests will be affected by the rate of natural and human-induced disturbances. 4 refs

  13. Environment Canada's Children's UV Index Sun Awareness Programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1992, Canada introduced the UV Index forecast programme to increase public awareness of UV radiation, to support health agencies in educating the public about UV risks, and to assist individuals in making healthy lifestyle decisions. A national sun health survey in 1997 indicated that about half of adults reported taking extra precautions to protect themselves from the sun on days when the UV Index was rated 'high'. In response to this concern in 1998, Environment Canada produced an UN Index poster that was sent to 3000 elementary schools across Canada. The poster targeted children between the ages of 8 and 15 and provided information to minimise the risk to their health from solar UV radiation without spoiling their outdoor fun. Based on this experience Environment Canada produced in 1999, the Daily UV Index and Calendar Poster that was sent to 14,000 elementary schools across Canada. An UV Index website has been created to provide information to students and teachers on the science of UV radiation and the UV Index. (author)

  14. The Future of Postgraduate Medical Education in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busing, Nick; Harris, Ken; MacLellan, Anne-Marie; Moineau, Geneviève; Oandasan, Ivy; Rourke, James; Saxena, Anurag

    2015-09-01

    The Future of Medical Education in Canada Postgraduate (FMEC PG) Project was launched in 2010 by a consortium of four organizations: the Association of Faculties of Medicine of Canada, the Collège des Médecins du Québec, the College of Family Physicians of Canada, and the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada. The FMEC PG study set out to review the state of the Canadian postgraduate medical education (PGME) system and make recommendations for improvements and changes. The extensive process included literature reviews, commissioned papers, stakeholder interviews, international consultations, and dialogue with the public and learners. The resulting key findings and 10 recommendations, published in a report in 2012, represent the collective vision of the consortium partner organizations for PGME in Canada. Implementation of the recommendations began in 2013 and will continue beyond 2016.In this article, the authors describe the complex process of developing the recommendations, highlight several recommendations, consider implementation processes and issues, and share lessons learned to date. They reflect on the ways in which the transformation of a very complex and complicated PGME system has required many stakeholders to work together on multiple interventions simultaneously. Notwithstanding the challenges for the participating organizations, changes have been introduced and sustainability is being forged. Throughout this process, the consortium partners and other stakeholders have continued to address the social accountability role of all physicians with respect to the public they serve. PMID:26177532

  15. Government of Canada Action Plan 2000 on Climate Change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this first National Climate Change Business Plan the Government of Canada affirms its intention to invest up to $500 million over five years on specific actions to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. This sum is in addition to the action plans being put forward by the provincial and territorial governments and in addition to the $625 million investment over five years announced in Budget 2000. Action Plan 2000 targets key sectors, and the measures announced are expected to take Canada one third of the way to achieving the target established in the Kyoto Protocol by reducing Canada's GHG emissions by 65 megatonnes per year during the 2008-2012 commitment period. The key sectors targeted include the areas of transportation, oil, gas and electricity production, industry, buildings, forestry and agriculture, i. e. sectors that together account for over 90 per cent of Canada's GHG emissions.The Action Plan focuses on reducing GHG emissions in a cost effective way; draws extensively on the best ideas put forward by the provinces, territories and other stakeholders; encourages action by industry and consumers; complements measures and actions by the provinces and territories to address regional issues; and sets the stage for long-term behavioural, technological and economic changes. The remainder of Canada's Kyoto commitments will be addressed by actions in future plans which are currently in the process of being developed, together with the development of further details of this first National Climate Change Business Plan

  16. Transport Canada's environmental management system : 2000 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Transport Canada's environmental management strategy (EMS) provides the framework for the department to conform to its environmental policy and to improve its overall environmental performance. This report completes a three-year EMS commitment and is the basis for Transport Canada's sustainable development strategy. Transport Canada's EMS is based on the principles of the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 14000 series of standards as well as the government of Canada's 1995 publication entitled: A guide to Green Government. The objectives and targets of Transport Canada's EMS which were initially tabled in 1997 included: (1) reduction in water consumption, (2) reduction in energy consumption (3) identification and management of contamination, (4) reduction of non-hazardous waste, (5) reduction of hazardous waste, (6) elimination of in-storage PCB waste as appropriate destruction facilities or options become available, (7) registration and upgrade of TC aboveground/underground storage tanks, (8) inventory of ozone-depleting substances, (9) develop monitoring program for all facilities, and (1) emergency plans at all sites. This paper reported that 7 of the objectives and targets were met by 2000. Objective number 3 is still ongoing, while the objectives of reducing water consumption and hazardous waste have been revised to reflect a more practical approach. This report presents new objectives and targets for a renewed three-year commitment to 2003. The new targets address issues regarding air emissions, contaminated land, non-hazardous waste, storage tanks, environmental emergencies and environmental awareness. tabs., figs

  17. Horizontal drilling assessment in Western Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first horizontal well was drilled in Saskatchewan in 1987. Since then, the number of horizontal wells drilled has escalated rapidly, averaging approximately 500 per year since 1993. When combined with horizontal wells drilled in Alberta, the major Canadian oil-producing province, the total number drilled in 1995 was 978. This total exceeds the National Energy Board (NEB) projected maximum of 816 wells per year. The NEB projections were based on a break-even point for the drilling of horizontal wells of a return of CDN $285,000 using a discount rate of 15%. This corresponded to a cumulative production from each individual well of some 11,000 m3. The introduction of a royalty-free production volume of 12,000 m3 per horizontal well in Saskatchewan was instrumental in stimulating the rapid expansion in the use of horizontal wells and helping Canada to exceed the forecasted drilling level. Within Saskatchewan, daily production from 1964 active horizontal wells is in excess of 20,000 m3. Comparative analysis indicates that the average daily production per well has increased from approximately by 40% with the advent of horizontal wells. In total production terms, provincial production has increased from 11.7 million cubic metres in 1989 to 20.9 million m3 in 1996. This represents an increase of almost 79% based primarily on the extensive use of horizontal wells. In 1996, horizontal wells produced 36% of the province's oil from 12% of the active wells. In the southeastern producing areas of Saskatchewan, the Williston Basin, declining oil-production has jumped 100%, with horizontal wells accounting for approximately 50% of total regional production. Pay zones in this areas, as in most of the province, tend to be relatively thin, with net pay frequently less that 5 m. The modest investment of some CDN $5 million in government research funding 10 years ago to stimulate the development of horizontal wells, combined with a favourable royalty structure, has been at least

  18. Canada's National Implementation Strategy on Climate Change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document describes the national implementation strategy which is a part of the coordinated national response to climate change. The approach was developed from the National Climate Change process, established by the federal, provincial and territorial ministers responsible for energy and the environment, based on an examination of the impacts, costs and benefits of implementing the Kyoto Protocol, as well as the options for addressing climate change. The Strategy involves (1) taking action to reduce risks and to improve our understanding of risks associated with climate change, (2) institution of a national framework that includes individual and joint action, while recognizing jurisdictional flexibility in responding to unique circumstances, (3) adopting a phased approach, (4) progressive action in response to changing domestic and international circumstances, (5) clear understanding of the necessary relationship between international and national strategies, (6) developing an understanding of the implications of emission reduction targets and major options, including cross-cutting policy approaches such as emissions trading and allocation of responsibility for reducing emissions. The Strategy uses a risk-management approach that attempts to limit the risks of climate change while maximizing opportunities for Canada to contribute to global and national solutions. This approach incorporates improving scientific and analytical understanding and co-ordinating national and international action and a phased approach to implementation. This policy document focuses on Phase One actions which consist of five connected themes, i. e. enhancing awareness and understanding, promoting technology development and innovation, governments leading by example, investing in knowledge and building the foundation, and encouraging action. Future phases will be linked to greater international certainty based on ratification of the Kyoto Protocol, the actions of our trading partners

  19. The accident at Chernobyl and its implications for the safety of CANDU reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In August 1986, a delegation of Canadians, including two members of the staff of the AECB (Atomic Energy Control Board), attended a post-accident review meeting in Vienna, at which Soviet representatives described the accident and its causes and consequences. On the basis of the information presented at that meeting, AECB staff conducted a study of the accident to ascertain its implications for the safety of CANDU nuclear reactors and for the regulatory process in Canada. The conclusion of this review is that the accident at Chernobyl has not revealed any important new information which would have an effect on the safety requirements for CANDU reactors as presently applied by the AECB. All important aspects of the accident and its causes have been considered by the AECB in the licensing process for currently licensed reactors. However a number of recommendations are made with respect to aspects of reactor safety which should be re-examined in order to reinforce this conclusion

  20. Canada's Update on Siting Practices and Site Licensing Process for New Reactors in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Site evaluation is not federally regulated in Canada but should be done by the applicant prior to submitting an application, to confirm suitability for the full life-cycle of the facility. This includes the impact of external events on the site and of the site on the environment. Site evaluation information is then expected to be kept up-to-date for the life of the facility. Regulatory guidance has not been substantially revised post-Fukushima but clarification is being added regarding the need to consider multiple and simultaneous severe external events or reactor accidents, also that earlier discussions are needed on emergency planning to prepare for extreme events. The CNSC does not specify return frequencies for external events to be considered when characterizing a site but expects the applicant to justify its approach and rationale, following best practices where they exist

  1. The Supreme Court of Canada Ruling on Physician-Assisted Death: Implications for Psychiatry in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Olivia Anne

    2015-12-01

    On February 6, 2015, the Supreme Court of Canada ruled that the prohibition of physician-assisted death (PAD) was unconstitutional for a competent adult person who "clearly consents to the termination of life" and has a "grievous and irremediable (including an illness, disease, or disability) condition that causes enduring suffering that is intolerable to the individual in the circumstances of his or her condition." The radically subjective nature of this ruling raises important questions about who will be involved and how this practice might be regulated. This paper aims to stimulate discussion about psychiatry's role in this heretofore illegal practice and to explore how psychiatry might become involved in end-of-life care in a meaningful, patient-centred way. First, I will review existing international legislation and professional regulatory standards regarding psychiatry and PAD. Second, I will discuss important challenges psychiatry might face regarding capacity assessment, the notion of rational suicide, and the assessment of suffering. PMID:26720829

  2. Managerial Analysis of the Attraction of FDI in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexis Abodohui

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This research is an analytical synthesis of managerial strategies for attracting Foreign Direct Investment (FDI in Canada. It establishes from a literature review different strategies devoted to the issues and benefits of FDI relative to the capitalization of FDI in Canada. In terms of contributions of the study, we propose a theoretical basis that could allow managers, entrepreneurs, and policy makers to make appropriate decisions regarding the choice of investment sites. This review highlights the importance of FDI attraction policy in Canada. Results suggest that there are too many variables (image of country, market Size, infrastructure, cost of inputs, transaction cost, resources, and ethics that need to be considered when selecting a site for investments. Implications of the research and limitation have been provided.

  3. Gamma irradiation as a means of food preservation in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The status of food irradiation has changed significantly in the past three years with the establishment of inter-national standards by the Codex Alimentarious Commission of the United Nations and the setting of wholesomeness guidelines for a wide variety of foods by the Joint FAO/IAEA/WHO Expert Committee on Food Irradiation. This report examines: the technology of food irradiation; the biochemical, nutritional and microbiological effects on food, with special attention paid to radiolytic products and their possible toxicity; the economic feasibility of a food irradiation industry; food irradiation in Canada -experience, outlook and regulatory proposals, and consumer reaction to irradiated foods; and presents conclusions and recommendations to Health and Welfare Canada and to Consumer and Corporate Affairs Canada

  4. Technical and economic models of a DBS system for Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roscoe, O. S.

    A comprehensive, multidisciplinary study program to develop information regarding the possible implementation of a direct broadcasting satellite system for Canada was completed in 1983. The program included market studies and technical and economic modeling of alternative DBS systems. Both 50 dBW and 54 dBW edge-of-coverage EIRP systems were modeled, with both 4 and 6 beam coverage. It is estimated that an eight to ten channel system for Canada would cost between $400 million and $650 million (1982 Canadian dollars). The main requirement for DBS television service is in rural Canada. Market forecasts are that up to 2-1/2 million households would purchase DBS home receivers. Allowing for a real rate of return of 6 percent, the monthly cost per household for delivery of all channels would range from $5 to $7.

  5. Forestry Canada: Strategic plan for bioenergy research, 1992-1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bioenergy research at Forestry Canada includes all aspects of production and growth of forest biomass for energy. Forestry Canada has conducted research in these areas since 1978, primarily through the ENFOR (Energy from the Forest) program funded through the interdepartmental Panel on Energy Research and Development (PERD). A previous strategic plan provided direction for bioenergy research from 1987 to 1992. Between 1992 and 1997, the primary research emphasis will be on environmental impacts of biomass harvesting. Priority will also be given to intensive silviculture to improve biomass productivity. Economics studies will be given a broader, nationwide perspective. Technology transfer will be accomplished through reviews of achievements and via workshops and demonstrations. These activities will be undertaken within the context of the PERD process for funding of proposals. The work will be implemented through Forestry Canada's ENFOR program, which focuses on contract research and development, and through participation in international collaborative research under the Bioenergy Agreement of the International Energy Agency

  6. Petro-Canada's progress 1998 : fourth annual report in support of Canada's climate change Voluntary Challenge and Registry program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petro-Canada is working with industry, environmental groups and with governments to define and implement measures to address the issue of climate change. This report describes the many voluntary measures that the company is taking within its own operations to achieve long-term emissions reductions. Petro-Canada is also an active participant in the Voluntary Challenge and Registry program which it has been supporting since its inception in 1995. This 1998 progress report outlines progress in reducing greenhouse gas emissions, future energy and emissions reduction goals, and the strategy to meet those goals. In 1997 the company reduced total greenhouse gas emissions by 2.8 per cent despite a 1.1 per cent increase in production of oil, natural gas and refined products. Petro-Canada has also set minimum energy efficiency targets of at least a one per cent improvement per year for both the upstream and downstream sectors. Reductions in 1997 were well ahead of these targets. Among major initiatives undertaken in 1997, Petro-Canada entered into a joint venture with Iogen Corp. of Ottawa to develop a promising alternative fuel technology. The process produces ethanol from biomass using bioengineered enzymes, with very low greenhouse gas emissions over the full life cycle of production and use. Petro-Canada provides funding for continuing research and development, and for construction of a plant in Ottawa to demonstrate the commercial potential of the process. 10 tabs., 9 figs., 1 appendix

  7. Firearms injury prevention and gun control in Canada.

    OpenAIRE

    Chapdelaine, A; Maurice, P

    1996-01-01

    Firearms cause more than three deaths daily in Canada. The rate of mortality from gunshot wounds varies among provinces and territories, ranging from 5.7 to 21.2 per 100,000 people. Most deaths from gunshot wounds occur in the home, with more occurring in rural areas than in cities, and are inflicted with legally acquired hunting guns. The cost of the consequences of the improper use of firearms in Canada has been estimated at $6.6 billion per year. There is a correlation between access to gu...

  8. Canada on course to introduce permissive assisted dying regime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuklenk, Udo

    2016-08-01

    Canada's Supreme Court decided in February 2015 that the criminalisation of assisted dying in the country violates the country's citizens and residents constitutional rights. This paper reviews policy recommendations produced by a special expert advisory panel appointed by Canada's provinces and territories, where the responsibility for the provision of health care lies. It also reviews a similar document produced by a special federal parliamentary committee. Based on the review of these two milestone documents it is argued that a Canadian consensus seems to emerge that foreshadows a permissive regulatory regime in that country. PMID:27009981

  9. Development of EIA Issues in Canada and Practices in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dr. Robert C. Lao

    2004-01-01

    @@ 1 Introduction The requirement for conducting environmental impact assessment (EIA) for all economic and construction development projects and activities in Canada is based on the law. The federal government of Canada, and all provincial and territorial governments have developed relevant processes and procedures to meet this legal obligation. As early as in 1973, the federal Environmental Assessment and Review Process (EARP) was established, and in 1984 the Guidelines Order issued was by the federal cabinet which clarified roles and responsibilities of various parties and stakeholders for participating and/or implementing EARP.

  10. Country Report on Building Energy Codes in Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shui, Bin; Evans, Meredydd

    2009-04-06

    This report is part of a series of reports on building energy efficiency codes in countries associated with the Asian Pacific Partnership (APP) - Australia, South Korea, Japan, China, India, and the United States of America . This reports gives an overview of the development of building energy codes in Canada, including national energy policies related to building energy codes, history of building energy codes, recent national projects and activities to promote building energy codes. The report also provides a review of current building energy codes (such as building envelope, HVAC, lighting, and water heating) for commercial and residential buildings in Canada.

  11. Canada's early research on nuclear energy from thorium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently we have heard numerous presentations on the promise of molten-salt and other designs of nuclear reactors that can use thorium as a fuel. This chemical element can generate fission energy after it has been transformed by in-reactor irradiation into a synthetic isotope of uranium. It is well known that experiments. were done in the 1950s and 1960s in the USA and Canada, but interest in thorium as an energy source goes back considerably farther than that. In fact Canada was extracting that synthetic isotope, U-233, as early as 1944, before we even had an operating nuclear reactor! (author)

  12. The Changing Patterns of Romanian Immigration to Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theodor TUDOROIU

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the largely neglected post-1990 Romanianimmigration to Canada. During the 1990s, most Romanians selected by Canadian immigration offices were highly skilled, university-educated professionals. As they ignored important details of the Canadian labor market, about three quarters of them became kindof lumpen-intellectuals. In recent years, however, Internet-based networks have improved the quality of information available to potential migrants. This and structural changes in the home country are preparing a major shift of Romanians' migratory flow to Canada. In the years to come, it will progressively take the form of circulatory migration currently characterizing Romanian immigration to Western Europe.

  13. Explaining Canada-U.S. Differences in Annual Hours Worked

    OpenAIRE

    Alberto Isgut; Lance Bialas; James Milway

    2006-01-01

    Employed Canadians worked an average of 157 hours less per year than employed Americans during 1997-2004. This one month less per year spent on the job is a significant contributor to the difference in GDP per capita between Canada and the United States. This article provides a detailed examination of the factors underlying the Canada-United States gap in annual hours worked. We find that over 40 per cent of the gap can be explained by a higher propensity of Canadians to take full-weeks off, ...

  14. Aboriginal Labour Market Performance in Canada: 2007-2011

    OpenAIRE

    Kar-Fai Gee; Andrew Sharpe

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this report is to examine Aboriginal labour market performance in Canada from 2007 to 2011 using data from the Labour Force Survey, which excludes people living on-reserve or in the territories. This is performed by first providing an overview of how the recession affected the Canadian labour market, followed by a Canada-wide portrait of the Aboriginal labour market in 2011. The Aboriginal labour market performance from 2007 to 2011 is then compared to the rest of the labour ...

  15. What Explains the Canada-US ICT Investment Gap?

    OpenAIRE

    Andrew Sharpe

    2005-01-01

    It is widely recognized that machinery and equipment investment intensity is less in Canada than in the United States. What is less well know is that it is information and communications technology (ICT) investment that largely accounts for this gap. The author documents trends in ICT investment in both Canada and the United States and attempts to explain why ICT investment per worker in the Canadian business sector in 2004 was only 45 per cent of that in the US business sector. While no defi...

  16. What Explains the Canada-US ICT Investment Intensity Gap?

    OpenAIRE

    Centre for the Study of Living Standards

    2005-01-01

    It is widely recognized that machinery and equipment investment intensity is less in Canada than in the United States. What is less well know is that it is information and communications technology (ICT) investment that largely accounts for this gap. The author documents trends in ICT investment in both Canada and the United States and attempts to explain why ICT investment per worker in the Canadian business sector in 2004 was only 45 per cent of that in the US business sector. While no defi...

  17. Uranium mining in Canada: production, practice and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canada is a major producer and supplier of uranium, providing about 30% of the Western world's annual requirement. In this review, Canada's uranium mines and mills are listed with details of output and mining methods. Methods of extraction and purification are described. Prospects for the future of the industry are good when considered in the light of export performance and exploitable deposits and reserves. This confidence is expressed despite the constraints of increasingly stringent regulatory demands with respect to worker and public health and safety and environmental issues. (U.K.)

  18. Impacts of sulphur and nitrogen deposition in western Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick D. SHAW

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The expansion of transportation sectors (road vehicles and marine vessels, industry (e.g., oil and gas and urban centres in western Canada has triggered a growth in research, monitoring and modelling activities investigating the impacts of sulphur and nitrogen deposition on aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. This special issue presents an overview of related research in British Columbia (Georgia Basin, Alberta (Athabasca Oil Sands Region, Saskatchewan and Manitoba. The research provides a valuable benchmark for future studies across the region and points the way forward for 'acid rain' policies in western Canada.

  19. Gulf Canada Resources Limited 1996 annual report - mission 2006: possible

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-11-01

    Gulf Canada Resources Limited, which trades under the symbol GOU, is a publicly traded company that explores, develops, produces and markets conventional and synthetic crude oil, natural gas and natural gas liquids. In 1996, the company`s main operating centres were in western Canada, Indonesia, Algeria, Australia, and the United States. This report presents an operations review for all theatres of operation, a consolidated financial statement, revenues and expenditures by source and common share information. GOU`s acquisition of Clyde Petroleum in early 1997 has added significant producing assets and exploration lands in the United Kingdom, the Netherlands, Indonesia, Australia, Libya, Syria, Yemen, the Falkland Islands and Argentina. tabs., figs.

  20. Gulf Canada Resources Limited 1996 annual report - mission 2006: possible

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulf Canada Resources Limited, which trades under the symbol GOU, is a publicly traded company that explores, develops, produces and markets conventional and synthetic crude oil, natural gas and natural gas liquids. In 1996, the company's main operating centres were in western Canada, Indonesia, Algeria, Australia, and the United States. This report presents an operations review for all theatres of operation, a consolidated financial statement, revenues and expenditures by source and common share information. GOU's acquisition of Clyde Petroleum in early 1997 has added significant producing assets and exploration lands in the United Kingdom, the Netherlands, Indonesia, Australia, Libya, Syria, Yemen, the Falkland Islands and Argentina. tabs., figs

  1. The Carriage of Death: What Kind Does Canada Have?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweatman, Louise R; Sweatman, M Jasmine

    2016-02-01

    Using a carriage of death metaphor, based on Emily Dickinson's poem "Because I Could Not Stop for Death", the authors highlight the development of the last 40 years of the Canadian legal landscape and end-of-life decision making. Beginning with the Canadian Criminal Code, moving through the Rodriguez decision and ending with the recent 2015 Carter decision, they explore how the evolution of time has influenced Canada's highest court. The authors conclude with an exploration of advance care directives and what we may expect as Canada continues its travels down this road. PMID:27169199

  2. Legal abortions among teenagers in Canada, 1974 through 1978.

    OpenAIRE

    Wadhera, A.; Nair, C.(Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL, 60439, USA)

    1980-01-01

    Between August 1969, when the amendment to the Criminal Code went into effect, and December 1978 about 397 000 legal abortions were performed in hospitals with therapeutic abortion committees in Canada. During the 5-year period 1974-78 abortions in females under 20 years of age accounted for 30.9% of all the legal abortions performed in Canada on Canadian residents, and the abortion rate per 1000 women aged 15 to 19 years increased from 13.6 to 16.3. During 1974-77 the proportion of women in ...

  3. Nuclear knowledge management strategies in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The Canadian Nuclear Industry recognizes the importance of nuclear knowledge management and has already implemented a number of initiatives to maintain competency, capture and preserve existing knowledge, advance the nuclear technology, develop future nuclear workers, and maintain a critical R and D capability. Although this paper addresses the Canadian scene in general, it will focus on knowledge management from a technology development point of view. Therefore, special emphasis will be placed on activities underway at present at Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL). Maintaining competency is a high priority issue. With the on-going retirement of nuclear workers, resource management, succession planning and technical training programs are all in place at AECL. For example, a comprehensive assessment was recently completed to identify critical core competencies and the potential and timing of future retirements. Using a risk-based approach, the technology disciplines were prioritized and a plan was developed to address the requirements. The plan is now being implemented to hire, train, mentor and develop a new core of technical experts. Collaboration and knowledge sharing are important success factors in that regard. This is being achieved through cross-functional teamwork, consolidation of expertise, on-going work on nuclear power plant projects (e.g., the just completed units in China and ongoing work on unit 2 at the Romanian Cernavoda site), developing and designing new products (Advanced CANDU Reactor, ACR-700), adopting and improving Quality Management Systems (e.g., ISO 9001:2000 Global Certification and pursuing business excellence through the adoption of the Canadian Framework for Business Excellence). Capturing and preserving existing knowledge as well as advancing nuclear technology have also received significant attention. Fully computerized engineering tools have been developed and used to document the complete design of CANDU plants, and

  4. Space Radar Image of Altona, Manitoba, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    This is an X-band seasonal image of the Altona test site in Manitoba, Canada, about 80 kilometers (50 miles) south of Winnipeg. The image is centered at approximately 49 degrees north latitude and 97.5 degrees west longitude. This image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on April 11, 1994, during the first flight of the radar system, and on October 2, 1994, during the second flight of SIR-C/X-SAR. The image channels have the following color assignments: red represents data acquired on April 11, 1994; green represents data acquired on October 2, 1994; blue represents the ratio of the two data sets. The test site is located in the Red River Basin and is characterized by rich farmland where a variety of crops are grown, including wheat, barley, canola, corn, sunflowers and sugar beets. This SIR-C/X-SAR research site is applying radar remote sensing to study the characteristics of vegetation and soil moisture. The seasonal comparison between the April and October 1994 data show the dramatic differences between surface conditions on the two dates. At the time of the April acquisition, almost all agricultural fields were bare and soil moisture levels were high. In October, however, soils were drier and while most crops had been harvested, some standing vegetation was still present. The areas which are cyan in color are dark in April and bright in October. These represent fields of standing biomass (amount of vegetation in a specified area) and the differences in brightness within these cyan fields represent differences in vegetation type. The very bright fields in October represent standing broadleaf crops such as corn, which had not yet been harvested. Other standing vegetation which has less biomass, such as hay and grain fields, are less bright. The magenta indicates bare soil surfaces which were wetter (brighter) in April than in October. The variations in brightness of

  5. Canada and the Kyoto Protocol: Fact Sheet No. 2 - Removing carbon dioxide: credit for enhancing sinks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canada's position regarding carbon sinks is explained in some detail, explaining the reasons why Canada favours a formal recognition of a comprehensive approach to forest management and the inclusion of agricultural soils in the Kyoto Protocol

  6. Annual report 1993-94

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is the forty-seventh annual report of the Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB). The mission of the AECB is to ensure that the use of nuclear energy in Canada does not pose undue risk to health, safety, security and the environment. This is accomplished by controlling the development, application and use of nuclear energy in Canada, and by participating on behalf of Canada in international measure of control. The AECB achieves regulatory control of nuclear facilities and nuclear materials through a comprehensive licensing system. This control also extends to the import and export of nuclear materials and it involves Canadian participation in the activities of the International Atomic Energy Agency as well as compliance with the requirements of Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons. The control covers both domestic and international security of nuclear materials and technology

  7. Annual report, 1991-1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is the forty-fifth annual report of the Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB). The mission of the AECB is to ensure that the use of nuclear energy in Canada does not pose undue risk to health, safety, security and the environment. This is accomplished by controlling the development, application and use of nuclear energy in Canada, and by participating on behalf of Canada in international measure of control. The AECB achieves regulatory control of nuclear facilities and nuclear materials through a comprehensive licensing system. This control also extends to the import and export of nuclear materials and it involves Canadian participation in the activities of the International Atomic Energy Agency as well as compliance with the requirements of Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons. The control covers both domestic and international security of nuclear materials and technology

  8. Annual report 1992-93

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is the forty-sixth annual report of the Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB). The mission of the AECB is to ensure that the use of nuclear energy in Canada does not pose undue risk to health, safety, security and the environment. This is accomplished by controlling the development, application and use of nuclear energy in Canada, and by participating on behalf of Canada in international measure of control. The AECB achieves regulatory control of nuclear facilities and nuclear materials through a comprehensive licensing system. This control also extends to the import and export of nuclear materials and it involves Canadian participation in the activities of the International Atomic Energy Agency as well as compliance with the requirements of Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons. The control covers both domestic and international security of nuclear materials and technology

  9. 9 CFR 98.36 - Animal semen from Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... There are no importation requirements under this part. (2) Sheep or goat semen The importer or his agent... copies of a declaration; and (iii) A health certificate. (3) Animal semen other than equine, sheep, or... equine, sheep, or goat semen from Canada. If the product is offered for entry at a . . . And . . ....

  10. Aboriginal Early Childhood Education in Canada: Issues of Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, Jane P.; Cottrell, Michael; Pelletier, Terrance R.; Pearce, Joseph V.

    2012-01-01

    Herein we provide a literature synthesis pertaining to the state of Aboriginal early childhood education in Canada. We identify key features of quality Aboriginal early childhood programs. The background and significance of early childhood education for Aboriginal peoples is explicated. Cultural compatibility theory is employed as the…

  11. Comparing population health in the United States and Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huguet Nathalie

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of the paper is to compare population health in the United States (US and Canada. Although the two countries are very similar in many ways, there are potentially important differences in the levels of social and economic inequality and the organization and financing of and access to health care in the two countries. Methods Data are from the Joint Canada/United States Survey of Health 2002/03. The Health Utilities Index Mark 3 (HUI3 was used to measure overall health-related quality of life (HRQL. Mean HUI3 scores were compared, adjusting for major determinants of health, including body mass index, smoking, education, gender, race, and income. In addition, estimates of life expectancy were compared. Finally, mean HUI3 scores by age and gender and Canadian and US life tables were used to estimate health-adjusted life expectancy (HALE. Results Life expectancy in Canada is higher than in the US. For those Conclusions The population of Canada appears to be substantially healthier than the US population with respect to life expectancy, HRQL, and HALE. Factors that account for the difference may include access to health care over the full life span (universal health insurance and lower levels of social and economic inequality, especially among the elderly.

  12. Academic Experiences of War-Zone Students in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stermac, Lana; Elgie, Susan; Clarke, Allyson; Dunlap, Hester

    2012-01-01

    This research examined educational outcomes and experiences of late adolescent immigrant students who entered the Canadian educational system following residence in global war-zone regions or areas of extreme civil unrest. Data from a Statistics Canada data-set of 18- to 20-year-old respondents (N = 658) were used to compare the academic…

  13. Reliability of Genomic Evaluation of Holstein Cattle in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Researchers in Canada and the United States have been collaborating to develop and implement genomic evaluations aiming to fully integrate them into their national genetic evaluations for dairy cattle in 2009. A total of 44 Canadian traits were analyzed for 12,913 Holstein animals. For 43 out of 44...

  14. The Media Construction of an Adult Literacy Agenda in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Judith; Rubenson, Kjell

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the role of media in shaping adult literacy discourse and policy in Canada. The authors show how journalists, newspapers and other media personalities have directly and indirectly influenced (1) government and public perception of adult literacy and (2) the creation of the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and…

  15. Petro-Canada 2002 annual report : profitability and exceptional growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Financial information from Petro-Canada was presented and a review of their 2002 operations was made available for the benefit of shareholders. Petro-Canada is focused on 5 core businesses: Terra Nova east coast oil, oil sands development at MacKay River, North American natural gas exploration in the foothills, operations in North Africa, and the petroleum downstream sector. Highlights of 2002 for each of these core business areas were presented. In general, the report states that 2002 was an exceptional year with an operating performance that combined with favourable commodity prices to produce excellent financial results. The most significant event in 2002 was the acquisition and integration of the upstream businesses of Veba Oil and Gas, creating a new core international business for Petro-Canada. This report summarized the company's energy resource activities and presented an operations review as well as consolidated financial statements, and common share information including the accounts of Petro-Canada and its subsidiaries and the company's proportionate share of assets, liabilities, revenues, expenses and cash flows of joint ventures. Revenue and expenditure statements were summarized by source. tabs., figs

  16. Degree Research in Adult Education in Canada, 1968 - March 1969.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draper, James A.; And Others, Comps.

    This annotated bibliography of adult education degree research in (or concerning) Canada during 1968 and early 1969 embraces 19 completed studies and 30 still in progress. A number of the entries are in French. Data appear, wherever available or applicable, on the degree obtained, institution, date of acceptance of the thesis, statement of the…

  17. Recognition of Langue des Signes Quebecoise in Eastern Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parisot, Anne-Marie; Rinfret, Julie

    2012-01-01

    This article presents a portrait of two community-level and legal efforts in Canada to obtain official recognition of ASL and LSQ (Langue des signes quebecoise), both of which are recognized as official languages by the Canadian Association of the Deaf (CAD). In order to situate this issue in the Canadian linguistic context, the authors first…

  18. Toward a Geography of Rural Education in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbett, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The field of rural education has not been significantly developed in Canada and the marginal status of the rural itself has contributed to this peripheral status. The emergence of geography and spatial thinking generally in social theory and in educational thought represents an opportunity to re-evaluate the importance of space and place in…

  19. Primary Health Care in Canada: Systems in Motion

    OpenAIRE

    Hutchison, Brian; Levesque, Jean-Frederic; Strumpf, Erin; Coyle, Natalie

    2011-01-01

    Context: During the 1980s and 1990s, innovations in the organization, funding, and delivery of primary health care in Canada were at the periphery of the system rather than at its core. In the early 2000s, a new policy environment emerged.

  20. SPECIES DISTRIBUTIONS, SURROGACY, AND IMPORTANT CONSERVATION REGIONS IN CANADA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conservation actions could be more efficient if there is congruence among taxa in the distribution of species. Patterns in the geographic distribution of species of six taxa were used to identify nationally important sites for conservation in Canada. Species richness and a meas...

  1. Factors Related to Union Formation among Single Mothers in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Bourdais, Ciline; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Using data on 1,257 women from a 1984 survey, attempts to identify factors associated with union formation among single mothers in Canada. Found that the age of mothers at the beginning of their first episode of single parenthood appears closely related to their chances of forming a union. Other results are discussed. (RJM)

  2. Western Canada drilling barely keeping pace with production replacement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This presentation provided a unique perspective of gas exploration, production and expectations in the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin (WCSB). For the past several years, approximately 80 per cent of Canada's natural gas production has come from Alberta. In order to sustain this production level, greater activity is needed in the large and mature fields where conventional production is in decline. Rising gas prices resulting from tight supply in North America are providing incentive for additional activity, particularly in small, unconventional gas pools. The trend away from large, conventional gas pools has resulted in a decline in average well productivity. Continuing this trend will become more challenging and costly to sustain in the coming years, particularly since the oil and gas industry in Canada is already encountering manpower limitations, climate change, stringent environmental standards, and resistance from the general public. The author cautioned that the low cost and finite natural gas resource has been squandered in North America since the 1980s. The challenge now is to carefully consider how much gas can be produced in the future, but also at a cost that the consumer will pay in the global market. It was suggested that in addition to ensuring that domestic consumption and exports are targeted on the most efficient and value-added outcomes, Alberta's and Canada's energy plan should recognize the limitations of natural gas production. figs

  3. Content and Style of Advice in Iran and Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavakoli, Mahin

    2013-01-01

    The content and nature of nonprofessional advice in Iran, a hierarchical and collectivist culture, was compared to the same type of advice in Canada, an egalitarian and individualist culture. A researcher developed a questionnaire that consisted of 10 letters, each describing a writer's problem and asking for advice. The responses of…

  4. Into Africa: Telemedicine Links Canada with Nairobi and Kampala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    House, M.; MacLeod, S.

    During the past decade teleconferencing systems have gained a substantial role in continuing medical education in Canada through maintenance of contact between physicians in remote and urban areas, medical education, group consultation, and administration. A group of Canadian physicians at Memorial University of Newfoundland and their Kenyan and…

  5. Major merger gives London Canada's second-largest teaching hospital.

    OpenAIRE

    OReilly, M

    1996-01-01

    Two of London's three major teaching hospitals joined forces recently to form Canada's second-largest teaching hospital. The merger is considered a harbinger as teaching hospitals strive to maintain current teaching, research and clinical activities in the face of decreasing government spending.

  6. Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, annual report, 1995-1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 1996 Annual Report of Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd. (AECL) is published and submitted to the Honourable member of Parliament, Minister of Natural Resources. Included in this report are messages from Marketing and Commercial Operation, Product Development, i e.CANDU and Research Reactors, CANDU research, Waste Management, Environmental Management, Financial Review and also included are copies of the financial statements

  7. Pe tro-Canada 2003 annual report : profitability on track

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Financial information from Petro-Canada was presented and a review of their 2003 operations was made available for the benefit of shareholders. Petro-Canada is focused on 5 core businesses, including: North American gas; east coast oil; oil sands development; international business; and downstream operations. Highlights from 2003 for each of these core business areas were presented. In 2003, earnings from operations were reported at more than $1.4 billion, the highest in the corporate history of Petro-Canada. The company performed well in their North American gas, east coast oil and international businesses. However, there were some struggles with operational reliability in the downstream and oil sands business. Total Canadian greenhouse gas emissions were 9 per cent above 1990 levels, even though the combined upstream and downstream production grew by 51 per cent over the same period. This report summarized the company's energy resource activities and presented an operations review as well as consolidated financial statements, and common share information including the accounts of Petro-Canada and its subsidiaries and the company's proportionate share of assets, liabilities, revenues, expenses and cash flows of joint ventures. Revenue and expenditure statements were summarized by source. tabs., figs

  8. PUBLIC SECTOR OF CANADA: RATING RESEARCH OF LABOUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olesia Leontiivna TOTSKA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available n this article an author conducted the analysis of labour in the public sector of Canada after such nine subgroups of establishments: 1 federal general government; 2 provincial and territorial general government; 3 health and social service institutions (provincial and territorial; 4 universities, colleges, vocational and trade institutes (provincial and territorial; 5 local general government; 6 local school boards; 7 federal government business enterprises; 8 provincial and territorial government business enterprises; 9 local government business enterprises. On the basis of statistical information about these sub-groups for 2007-2011 from a web-site «Statistics Canada» the maximal and minimum values of such three indexes are found: amount of employees, general annual sums of wages and annual sums of wages per employee. Rating for nine sub-groups of establishments of public sector of Canada on these indexes is certain. The got results testify, that during an analysable period most of the employees of public sector was concentrated in health and social service institutions, the least – in local government business enterprises. In 2007– 2011 a most general sum was earned also by the employees of health and social service institutions, the least – by the employees of local government business enterprises. At the same time in an analysable period among the state employees of Canada a most wage in a calculation on one person was got by the employees of federal general government, the least – by the employees of local general government.

  9. Portrayal of Canada in the Dutch print media

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    d'Haenens, L.S.J.; Bosman, J.A.M.

    2003-01-01

    This article is devoted to the nature of recent news coverage of Canada in the on-line versions of eight Dutch newspapers. The research literature points to five recurrent frames in news reporting: conflict, human interest, economic impact, morality, and responsibility. Our central research question

  10. The Audioconference: Delivering Continuing Education for Addictions Workers in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burge, E. J.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Used audio conferencing for continuing education of Francophone and Anglophone addictions workers across Canada. Evaluation revealed that program design enabled cost-effective, real-time linking of local groups of professionals with their peers and with external expert colleagues. Found that such contact promoted social goals of networking and…

  11. Global warming and the forest fire business in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The current forest fire situation in Canada is outlined, and an attempt is made to predict the impact of global warming on the forest fire business in Canada. Despite the development of extremely sophisticated provincial and territorial fire management systems, forest fires continue to exert a tremendous influence on the Canadian forest resource. Research into the relationship between climate warming and forest fires has fallen into two categories: the effect of future global warming on fire weather severity, and the current contribution of forest fires to global atmospheric greenhouse gas budgets. A 46% increase in seasonal fire severity across Canada is suggested under a doubled atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration scenario. Approximately 89% of carbon released to the atmosphere by forest fire burning is in the form of carbon dioxide, 9% is carbon monoxide, and the remaining carbon is released as methane or non-methane hydrocarbons. It is estimated that forest fires in northern circumpolar countries contribute from 1-2% of the carbon released globally through biomass burning. Fire may be the agent by which a northerly shift of forest vegetation in Canada occurs. 13 refs., 2 figs

  12. Supporting Low-Performing Schools in Ontario, Canada. Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klinger, Don; Wade-Woolley, Lesly

    2012-01-01

    This case study describes the school turnaround programs underway as of summer 2009 in Ontario, Canada. In particular, it focuses on the policies and efforts of the Ontario Ministry of Education (MOE) and an MOE department, the Literacy and Numeracy Secretariat (LNS), to support low-performing schools across the province. The report begins with a…

  13. From Zero Tolerance to Student Success in Ontario, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winton, Sue

    2013-01-01

    Since 2003, Ontario, Canada's high school graduation rates have increased 13% while suspensions and expulsion rates have simultaneously decreased. This article examines relationships between the province's safe school policy and Student Success/Learning to 18 (SS/L18), a policy designed to increase graduation rates. Analyses of teachers'…

  14. Going Wi-Fi in Canada: municipal and community initiatives

    OpenAIRE

    Powell, Alison; Shade, Leslie Regan

    2006-01-01

    Urban community Wi-Fi in Canada is at a nascent stage; active non-profit groups through dedicated volunteers, support the development or deployment of Wi-Fi services in community spaces throughout their regions. This article discusses recent initiatives.

  15. Women in Canada's oil and gas sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sherk, S. [AGRA Earth and Environmental Ltd., St. John' s, NF (Canada)

    2005-01-01

    This text presents a summary of the report: Women in Canada's Oil and Gas Sector, gathered for the Oil and Gas Sector Programme Pakistan (OGSP). The OGSP aims to strengthen Pakistan's capacity to manage its oil and gas resources more sustainably through policy advice, privatization assistance, appropriate regulatory mechanisms, technology transfer and specialized petroleum training. The OGSP promotes gender equity and women's participation in its project activities and within the petroleum industry in Pakistan and Canada. The purpose of this report was to identify current levels of female labour force participation in the Canadian petroleum sector, examine barriers to women's entry and promotion within the petroleum sector, and present strategies used by petroleum companies to promote the complete participation of their female employees. The report concluded that although women are not yet equally represented in Canada's petroleum industry, the industry is moving in the right direction. For example, there are more women in petroleum-related university programs, more associations dedicated to promoting women in science and engineering, organizational change within companies in support of the principles of diversity. While monitoring and overcoming barriers to women's participation should continue, these positive steps should be supported, in order to ensure that Canada's oil and gas sector benefits fully from the new approaches, ideas and alternative working styles that women bring to their work. 4 tabs.

  16. Organizing Mathematics Courses for the Gifted in Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velazquez, Robert

    1990-01-01

    This paper discusses methods used to differentiate the presentation of mathematics to gifted students in Ontario, Canada. Activities are described that help students to develop structured inquiry, reinforce categorization skills, develop efficient study habits, and encourage probing and divergent questions. (JDD)

  17. Achieving Equity through Innovation: A Canada-U.S. Dialogue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Ben

    2011-01-01

    Canadians often assume that what is said about education south of the U.S. border applies north of it as well. However Canada's international rankings are consistently higher than those of the U.S., primarily because of different social conditions (less inequality, less child poverty, etc.) and different educational policies (more equitable…

  18. Does Canada still need a national oil company

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports that Petro-Canada was described by the government at the time of its establishment in 1975 as a most important element in the planning to secure Canada's long-term energy requirements. Through it, Canadians were to obtain their supplies at reasonable prices, and were to participate directly in the wealth resulting from their development. Nine years later, a government dedicated to privatizing the company came to power. It lost no time in instructing the company to behave as if it were in the private sector. More recently, it has put legislation before parliament that would cause the company's shares to be made available to the public. A decision to privatize Petro-Canada does not, however, mean that some of the purposes for which it was set up are still not valid or that there are not other public interests that a Canadian national oil company could serve. Indeed, certain of the energy provisions of the Canada-U.S. Free Trade Agreement may have increased its importance as a potential policy arm. These include limitations on export controls and on the taxation of exports, and an undertaking to extend equality of treatment to US companies

  19. Identity, Good Language Learning, and Adult Immigrants in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervatiuc, Andreea

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the process of linguistic-and-cultural-identity formation as experienced by adult immigrants to Canada who consider themselves professionally successful and highly proficient in the target language. It addresses the characteristics of "good language learners" by determining how they negotiated their marginal standing in…

  20. Teacher Supply and Demand: Issues in Northern Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitchenham, Andrew; Chasteauneuf, Colin

    2010-01-01

    This two-year study (2007-2009), which examined teacher supply and demand issues in northern Canada--Fort Nelson School District (BC), the Fort Vermilion School Division (AB), the Yukon Department of Education (YK), and the Yellowknife School District (NWT)--comprised three research objectives: (a) to ascertain in which subject areas acute and…